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1

Hepatic lipase mutation may reduce vascular disease prevalence in hemodialysis patients with high CETP levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatic lipase mutation may reduce vascular disease prevalence in hemodialysis patients with high CETP levels.BackgroundUremic dyslipidemia characterized by reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels is one of the major contributors to the high incidence of cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients. Hepatic lipase (HL), together with cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), may not only promote reverse cholesterol transport but also enhance

Hideki Kimura; Ryoichi Miyazaki; Toshio Imura; Shinya Masunaga; Satoru Suzuki; Fumitake Gejyo; Haruyoshi Yoshida

2003-01-01

2

25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels in patients treated with high-dosage ergo- and cholecalciferol  

Microsoft Academic Search

25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels were measured in 39 patients with metabolic bone disease or hypoparathyroidism who had been treated with a constant high dose of vitamin D2 or D3 for at least 12 weeks. Plasma 25-OHD levels rose with increasing dosage, the relationship between dose and plasma level being approximately linear whether or not the dose was expressed on a

J M Gertner; M Domenech

1977-01-01

3

High preoperative blood levels of HE4 predicts poor prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the clinical value of preoperative blood levels of HE4 as a predictor of overall survival in patients with ovarian cancer and to validate previous data of HE4 and the ROMA algorithm including HE4 and CA125 in discriminating benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Experimental design The preoperative plasma levels of HE4 and CA125 were analyzed with ELISA in 312 patients with adnexal lesions. Tumors were classified as benign (n= 206), borderline (i.e. low malignant potential tumors) (n= 25), and well (n= 14), moderately (n= 15), and poorly (n= 51) differentiated malignant. Results In univariate Cox regression analyses high levels (dichotomized at the median) of HE4, CA125, increased age (continuous variable), advanced-stage of disease 2–4, histological grade 3 and non-optimal tumor debulking at primary surgery were all significantly associated with shorter overall survival. A multivariate Cox regression model including pre-operative available covariates HE4 and CA125 both dichotomized at median in addition to age as continuous variable showed that high levels of HE4 was an independent prognostic marker for worse prognosis HR 2.02 (95% CI 1.1-3.8). In postmenopausal women the ROMA algorithm gave the highest AUC of 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90-0.97) which was higher than the separate markers HE4 AUC 0.91 (95% CI 0.86-0.95) and CA125 AUC 0.91(95% CI 0.87-0.96). Conclusions High concentration of plasma HE4 is an independent preoperative marker of poor prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer. The algorithm ROMA discriminates in postmenopausal women between malignant and benign tumors with an AUC of 0.94. PMID:22909379

2012-01-01

4

Extremely high ferritin level after an acute myocardial infarction in an end stage renal disease patient.  

PubMed

We present here a case of an asymptomatic end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient, who had an unexplained persistent mild leukocytosis in the setting of an extremely high ferritin level (8,997 ng/ml; reference range: 12 - 300 ng/ml) 3 weeks after she suffered from a myocardial infarction (MI). Infection as the cause of these laboratory abnormalities was ruled out. A week later, the patient was noted to have asymptomatic hypotension (100/60 mmHg; her baseline blood pressure was 120/70 mmHg) during a maintenance hemodialysis session. An echocardiography revealed an interval development of moderate pericardial effusion when compared to her previous echocardiography 4 weeks before. In the setting of a recent MI with other laboratory markers suggesting an ongoing inflammatory process, a tentative diagnosis of Dressler's syndrome was made. A pericardial tap yielded exudative (bloody) fluid, thus, confirming our suspicion. Dressler's syndrome results from an inflammation of the pericardium as a consequence of an underlying autoimmune process few weeks to months after a myocardial infarction or post-cardiac surgery. Although it typically presents with pleuritic chest pain, fever, leukocytosis, and a friction rub; our case illustrates that the initial presentation may be asymptomatic in ESRD patients. For the same reason, it is likely an under-recognized entity in such patients. An unexplained elevated ferritin in an ESRD patient with recent history of MI should prompt an investigation for Dressler's syndrome. In those with associated significant pericardial effusion, daily HD should be initiated and anticoagulation should be avoided. Unlike other ESRD associated pericarditis, steroids and NSAIDs should be avoided in Dressler's syndrome as they may hamper cardiac remodeling in the immediate post-MI period. Colchicine may offer some benefit in patients with associated chest pain. For those failing medical management or manifesting overt signs of tamponade, surgical drainage should be preferred. PMID:23211338

Sandhu, Gagangeet; Mankal, Pavan; Gupta, Isha; Tagani, Adrian; Ranade, Aditi; Jones, James; Bansal, Anip

2014-07-01

5

Affective lability in patients with bipolar disorders is associated with high levels of childhood trauma.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate associations between a history of childhood trauma and levels of affective lability in bipolar patients compared to controls. Forty-two patients and 14 controls were assessed using the Affective Lability Scale (ALS) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Affective Lability Score was significantly associated with scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. A multivariate regression model indicated a relationship between childhood trauma scores and differences in affective lability between patients and controls. PMID:24803185

Aas, Monica; Aminoff, Sofie R; Vik Lagerberg, Trine; Etain, Bruno; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid

2014-08-15

6

Caregivers of patients with cancer fatigue: a high level of symptom burden.  

PubMed

Fatigue is the problematic symptom identified by patients with cancer. However, fatigue has not been widely examined in caregivers of patients with cancer. In this study, 131 caregivers of patients diagnosed with advanced stage cancer and actively receiving radiotherapy reported experiencing the most difficulties with fatigue (mean 46.9; on a 0-100 scale, with a 10-point difference having clinical meaning) at baseline and at a 6-month follow-up (mean 48.3). This is in sharp contrast to other domains of quality of life and functioning being rated in the 60s, 70s and 80s by the caregivers of patients with cancer. Given the level of fatigue reported by the caregivers of patients with cancer, if confirmed by other investigators in larger and more diverse samples, interventions targeting caregiver fatigue should be explored. PMID:23434836

Clark, Matthew M; Atherton, Pamela J; Lapid, Maria I; Rausch, Sarah M; Frost, Marlene H; Cheville, Andrea L; Hanson, Jean M; Garces, Yolanda I; Brown, Paul D; Sloan, Jeff A; Richardson, Jarrett W; Piderman, Katherine M; Rummans, Teresa A

2014-03-01

7

Hypercoagulability and high lipoprotein(a) levels in patients with type II diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus is associated with disturbances in hemostasis that could contribute to the development of diabetic vascular disease. We investigated the changes in parameters of blood coagulation and the fibrinolytic system and in plasma levels of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) in 124 patients with type II diabetes mellitus and 44 healthy control subjects matched for age and body mass index (BMI) to

Eriko Morishita; Hidesaku Asakura; Hiroshi Jokaji; Masanori Saito; Chika Uotani; Ichiro Kumabashiri; Masahide Yamazaki; Keiji Aoshima; Takuma Hashimoto; Tamotsu Matsuda

1996-01-01

8

High Levels of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Are Strongly Associated with Low HDL in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Objectives Low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction possibly through impaired endothelial atheroprotection and decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) mediates endothelial function by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase activity. In patients with acute myocardial infarction, we investigated the relationship between serum levels of HDL and ADMA. Approach and Results Blood samples from 612 consecutive patients hospitalized for acute MI <24 hours after symptom onset were taken on admission. Serum levels of ADMA, its stereoisomer, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and L-arginine were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Patients with low HDL (<40 mg/dL for men and <50 mg/dL for women) were compared with patients with higher HDL. Most patients (59%) had low HDL levels. Median ADMA levels were markedly higher in the low HDL group (0.69 vs. 0.50 µmole/L, p<0.001). In contrast, SDMA and L-arginine levels were similar for the two groups (p?=?0.120 and p?=?0.064). Notably, ADMA, but not SDMA or L-arginine, was inversely correlated with HDL (r?=??0.311, p<0.001). In stratified analysis, this relationship was only found for low HDL levels (r?=??0.265, p<0.001), but not when HDL levels were higher (r?=??0.077, p?=?0.225). By multivariate logistic regression analysis, ADMA level was strongly associated with low HDL levels (OR(95%CI):6.06(3.48–10.53), p<0.001), beyond traditional confounding factors. Conclusions Our large population-based study showed for the first time a strong inverse relationship between HDL and ADMA in myocardial infarction patients, suggesting a functional interaction between HDL and endothelium, beyond metabolic conditions associated with low HDL levels. PMID:23755144

Lorin, Julie; Guilland, Jean-Claude; Korandji, Claudia; Touzery, Claude; Bichat, Florence; Chagnon, Aline; Cottin, Yves; Rochette, Luc; Vergely, Catherine; Zeller, Marianne

2013-01-01

9

Levels of C-Reactive Protein Associated with High and Very High Cardiovascular Risk Are Prevalent in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveC-reactive protein (CRP) levels>3 mg\\/L and>10 mg\\/L are associated with high and very high cardiovascular risk, respectively, in the general population. Because rheumatoid arthritis (RA) confers excess cardiovascular mortality, we determined the prevalence of these CRP levels among RA patients stratified on the basis of their RA disease activity.MethodsWe evaluated physician and patient global assessments of disease activity, tender and

Jonathan Graf; Rebecca Scherzer; Carl Grunfeld; John Imboden; Adrian V. Hernandez

2009-01-01

10

Decreased serum lipocalin-2 levels in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: increase during highly active anti-retroviral therapy.  

PubMed

Although neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) may play a pivotal role in the innate immune response, there are currently no data on NGAL levels in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. In this study we aimed to examine the regulation of NGAL in HIV infection. The regulation of NGAL in HIV infection was examined by different experimental approaches, including studies in peripheral blood and mononuclear cells (MNC) from bone marrow aspirates before and during highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). We found that: before initiating HAART, HIV-infected patients (n = 37) had significantly decreased serum NGAL levels compared with healthy controls (n = 26); (ii) during HAART, there was a gradual and significant increase in NGAL concentrations reaching levels comparable to those in healthy controls after 12 months; (iii) this increase was seen primarily in virological responders to HAART (HIV RNA level <200 copies/ml after 24 months); (iv) phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated NGAL release in MNC cells from bone marrow aspirates was decreased in untreated HIV-infected patients compared with healthy controls, but increased after 26 weeks on HAART; and (v) there was a significant positive correlation between neutrophil counts and NGAL levels at all time-points during HAART. We have shown decreased NGAL levels in HIV-infected patients, potentially reflecting decreased number and function of neutrophils as well as impaired bone marrow myelopoiesis. These abnormalities were reversed by successful HAART. Our findings underscore further the involvement of neutrophils and innate immunity in HIV-related immunodeficiency. PMID:18241231

Landrø, L; Damås, J K; Flo, T H; Heggelund, L; Ueland, T; Tjønnfjord, G E; Espevik, T; Aukrust, P; Frøland, S S

2008-04-01

11

Decreased serum lipocalin-2 levels in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: increase during highly active anti-retroviral therapy  

PubMed Central

Although neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) may play a pivotal role in the innate immune response, there are currently no data on NGAL levels in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. In this study we aimed to examine the regulation of NGAL in HIV infection. The regulation of NGAL in HIV infection was examined by different experimental approaches, including studies in peripheral blood and mononuclear cells (MNC) from bone marrow aspirates before and during highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). We found that: before initiating HAART, HIV-infected patients (n = 37) had significantly decreased serum NGAL levels compared with healthy controls (n = 26); (ii) during HAART, there was a gradual and significant increase in NGAL concentrations reaching levels comparable to those in healthy controls after 12 months; (iii) this increase was seen primarily in virological responders to HAART (HIV RNA level <200 copies/ml after 24 months); (iv) phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated NGAL release in MNC cells from bone marrow aspirates was decreased in untreated HIV-infected patients compared with healthy controls, but increased after 26 weeks on HAART; and (v) there was a significant positive correlation between neutrophil counts and NGAL levels at all time-points during HAART. We have shown decreased NGAL levels in HIV-infected patients, potentially reflecting decreased number and function of neutrophils as well as impaired bone marrow myelopoiesis. These abnormalities were reversed by successful HAART. Our findings underscore further the involvement of neutrophils and innate immunity in HIV-related immunodeficiency. PMID:18241231

Landr?, L; Damas, J K; Flo, T H; Heggelund, L; Ueland, T; Tj?nnfjord, G E; Espevik, T; Aukrust, P; Fr?land, S S

2008-01-01

12

In vitro evaluation of high-level, gentamicin-resistant enterococci isolated from bacteremic patients.  

PubMed

We attempted to characterize the susceptibility of high-level, gentamicin-resistant (HLGR, minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] > 2000 micrograms/ml) enterococcal blood isolates and evaluated a small subset of these isolates for bactericidal synergy. Thirteen Enterococcus faecalis and three Enterococcus faecium isolates that were HLGR were prospectively collected. Standard broth macrodilution techniques were used to determine the MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations to a variety of antibiotics. Two isolates were evaluated for synergy by time-kill curve methods using combinations of penicillin and streptomycin, teicoplanin and rifampin, and vancomycin and ciprofloxacin. Teicoplanin was the most active antibiotic tested, with all isolates exhibiting susceptibility to this agent. Four E. faecalis isolates and one E. faecium isolate expressed only low-level resistance to streptomycin (LLSR, MICs 32-64 micrograms/ml). Penicillin and streptomycin produced bactericidal synergy in the LLSR isolate. The other antibiotic combinations did not result in bactericidal synergy in the two isolates tested. For HLGR enterococci that are only LLSR, the combination of penicillin-streptomycin appears to provide adequate bactericidal activity. Teicoplanin may potentially be useful for streptomycin-resistant HLGR isolates. PMID:8159604

Wiland, A M; Plaisance, K I; Schwalbe, R S

1994-01-01

13

Metformin accumulation: lactic acidosis and high plasmatic metformin levels in a retrospective case series of 66 patients on chronic therapy.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. The relationship between metformin accumulation and lactate increase is still debated. This observational case series aims to evaluate the correlation of metformin plasma levels with the pH, lactate and creatinine levels, and with the mortality rate in selected patients with metformin accumulation confirmed through metformin plasma concentration detection at hospital admission. MATERIAL AND METHODS. All cases of lactic acidosis (pH, ? 7.35; arterial lactate, ? 5 mmol/L) related to metformin accumulation (plasma level ? 4 mcg/mL) from 2007 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Erroneous ingestion and voluntary overdoses were excluded. Epidemiological, medical history, clinical and laboratory data were evaluated in all cases. RESULTS. Sixty-six patients were included. Thirty-one patients (47%) had contraindication to therapy with metformin. All patients showed severe lactic acidosis (pH, 6.91 ± 0.18; lactate, 14.36 ± 4.90 mmol/L) and acute renal failure (creatinine, 7.24 ± 3.29 mg/dL). The mean metformin plasma concentration was 40.68 ± 27.70 mcg/mL. Metformin plasma concentrations showed a correlation, statistically significant even if not strong, with creatinine (p = 0.002, R = 0.37), pH (p < 0.0001, R = - 0.43) and plasma lactate levels (p = 0.001, R = 0.41). Sixty-two (94%) underwent dialysis. Early mortality (before discharge from ICU) was 26% (17 cases). Lactate and metformin concentrations had mean levels not statistically different in surviving and deceased patients. CONCLUSIONS. Patients on chronic therapy with metformin may develop a mitochondrial-related toxicity that should be considered when patients present with lactic acidosis, renal failure, and frequently, a medical history of gastrointestinal manifestations during the days preceding the hospital admission. The correlation between metformin plasma concentrations and creatinine, pH, and lactate levels seems to be related to the mechanism of action (inhibition of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) and to the kinetic properties (high distribution volume and low protein binding) of the drug. The relevant early mortality seems not correlated with the levels of metformin or lactates: this could be due to the possible role of concurrent illness even if, such as for the relationships with lactate and creatinine, a more proper toxicological evaluation could be obtained by assessing metformin erythrocyte concentrations instead of the plasmatic ones. PMID:24283301

Vecchio, S; Giampreti, A; Petrolini, V M; Lonati, D; Protti, A; Papa, P; Rognoni, C; Valli, A; Rocchi, L; Rolandi, L; Manzo, L; Locatelli, C A

2014-02-01

14

Patients with crohn's disease report high levels of fatigue during a symptomatic disease flare  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe symptom of fatigue can have a major impact on quality of life and is often overlooked by physicians. Previous research has indicated a significant link between fatigue and a number of chronic inflammatory conditions including primary biliary cirrhosis and multiple sclerosis. Patients with fatigue often experience sleep disturbance and autonomic nervous system dysregulation. This patient survey aimed to investigate

C A Lamb; M Price; D E Jones; J C Mansfield

2011-01-01

15

Elevated Levels of High-Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1) in Patients with Severe or Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria  

PubMed Central

Severe malaria is characterized by a massive release of proinflammatory cytokines in the context of sequestration of parasitized and normal red cells (RBCs). High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a DNA- and heparin-binding protein that also acts as a cytokine when released from cells in the extracellular milieu after a proinflammatory stimulus. In this study, we have measured the circulating levels of HMGB1 in 76 children with severe or uncomplicated malaria. Sera from both severe (P = 0.0022) and uncomplicated (P = 0.0049) patients had significantly higher circulating HMGB1 levels compared with healthy controls. Elevated HMGB1 in patients with ongoing Plasmodium falciparum infections might prolong inflammation and the febrile state of malaria and could offer a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23400574

Angeletti, Davide; Kiwuwa, Mpungu Steven; Byarugaba, Justus; Kironde, Fred; Wahlgren, Mats

2013-01-01

16

High serum osteoprotegerin levels in patients with hyperthyroidism: effect of medical treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at evaluating serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) concentrations in a cohort of patients with hyperthyroidism before and after methimazole (MMI) treatment.One hundred fourteen hyperthyroid patients [93 with Graves disease (GD) and 21 with toxic nodular goitre (TNG)] and 68 matched for sex and age healthy subjects were evaluated for serum free-thyroxine (FT4), free-triiodiothyronine (FT3), thyrotropin (TSH), TSH receptor

G. Amato; G. Mazziotti; F. Sorvillo; M. Piscopo; E. Lalli; B. Biondi; S. Iorio; A. Molinari; A. Giustina; C. Carella

2004-01-01

17

Increased thrombin-induced polymerization of fibrinogen associated with high protein carbonyl levels in plasma from patients post myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Increased levels of protein carbonyls have been measured in plasma of patients following a myocardial infarction (Mocatta et al. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.49:1993-2000; 2007). In this study, we have examined representative plasma samples from this group of patients. We show that carbonyls are formed preferentially on fibrinogen and that there is a strong correlation between fibrinogen and total plasma protein carbonyls. Functional properties of fibrinogen isolated from post myocardial plasmas were investigated by measuring thrombin-catalyzed polymerization. Fibrinogen from plasma with upper quartile protein carbonyls (mean 0.16 nmol/mg protein) polymerized approximately 1.4 times more rapidly and gave 1.4-fold higher maximum turbidity (12 per group, P<0.001) than fibrinogen from lower quartile carbonyl plasma (mean 0.007 nmol/mg), which behaved similarly to control plasma. Significant differences were also apparent when related to the carbonyl content of the fibrinogen itself. These changes in the high carbonyl plasma reflect a faster rate of lateral aggregation of small oligomers to form fibrin polymers that comprise thicker, more loosely woven fibers. In vivo this could be translated into a tendency to clot faster and form more fragile clots. High protein carbonyls in fibrinogen were not associated with an increased content of nitrotyrosine or chlorotyrosine. Nitrotyrosine levels were significantly lower in fibrinogen than total plasma protein, with no difference between patients and controls. Chlorotyrosine levels in fibrinogen (but not total protein) were significantly higher for the post myocardial patients. Our data suggest that high fibrinogen protein carbonyls in heart disease could be a prothrombotic risk factor. PMID:19857568

Paton, Louise N; Mocatta, Tessa J; Richards, A Mark; Winterbourn, Christine C

2010-01-15

18

Histologic Disease in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B, High HBV DNA, and Normal Alanine Aminotransferase Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have presented new options as well as challenges. Serum\\u000a alanine aminotransferase (ALT) continues to be one of the three principal parameters used by all existing treatment guidelines\\u000a to identify candidates for antiviral therapy. Although there is little controversy that inactive carriers and young immune\\u000a tolerant patients can be monitored

Joseph K. Lim; Walid S. Ayoub; Mindie H. Nguyen

2010-01-01

19

Serum resistin and high sensitive CRP levels in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism before and after L-thyroxine therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined by increased thyrotropin (TSH) and normal free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels. Resistin is secreted from adipose tissue and is reported to be associated with insulin resistance and/or inflammation. High sensitive CRP (hs-CRP) is a reliable marker of inflammation. Data related to levels of resistin and hs-CRP in SH and the effect of L-thyroxine treatment on those is limited. We aimed to determine the levels of resistin and hs-CRP in women with SH, and potential effects of L-thyroxine therapy on those levels. Material/Methods Thirty-six patients with SH and 27 age- and BMI-matched healthy control women were included. Waist circumference (Wc), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), resting energy expenditure (REE), fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM), TSH, free T4 (fT4), free T3 (fT3), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and HDL- and LDL-cholesterol were determined in all participants. Patients received L-thyroxine treatment for 6 months, after which all measurements were repeated. Resistin and hs-CRP levels were studied from frozen samples after the completion of the study. Results The 2 groups had similar values for Wc, WHR, FM, LM, TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, resistin, and hs-CRP at the beginning. fT4 were higher, whereas TSH was lower in the control group. Resistin and hs-CRP levels did not change after treatment. hs-CRP correlated with BMI and FM before and after treatment. Conclusions Our results suggest that achievement of euthyroid status by replacement therapy did not change resistin or hs-CRP levels in women with SH. hs-CRP correlated with parameters of obesity, which emphasizes the role of body weight in inflammation. PMID:23518675

Aksoy, Duygu Yazgan; Cinar, Nese; Harmanci, Ayla; Karakaya, Jale; Yildiz, Bulent Okan; Usman, Aydan; Bayraktar, Miyase

2013-01-01

20

Levels of C-Reactive Protein Associated with High and Very High Cardiovascular Risk Are Prevalent in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective C-reactive protein (CRP) levels>3 mg/L and>10 mg/L are associated with high and very high cardiovascular risk, respectively, in the general population. Because rheumatoid arthritis (RA) confers excess cardiovascular mortality, we determined the prevalence of these CRP levels among RA patients stratified on the basis of their RA disease activity. Methods We evaluated physician and patient global assessments of disease activity, tender and swollen 28 joint counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and CRP measured in a single clinic visit for 151 RA patients. Disease activity was calculated using the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) and the Disease Activity Score 28 Joints (DAS28-ESR and DAS28-CRP). Results Median CRP level was 5.3 mg/L. 68% of patients had CRP>3 mg/L, and 25% had CRP>10 mg/L. Of those with 0–1 swollen joints (n?=?56), or 0–1 tender joints (n?=?81), 64% and 67%, respectively, had CRP>3 mg/L, and 23% and 20%, respectively, had CRP>10 mg/L. Of those with remission or mildly active disease by CDAI (n?=?58), DAS28-ESR (n?=?39), or DAS28-CRP (n?=?70), 49–66% had CRP>3 mg/L, and 10–14% had CRP>10 mg/L. Of patients with moderate disease activity by CDAI (n?=?51), DAS28-ESR (n?=?78), or DAS28-CRP (n?=?66), 67–73% had CRP>3 mg/L, and 25–33% had CRP>10 mg/L. Conclusion Even among RA patients whose disease is judged to be controlled by joint counts or standardized disease scores, a substantial proportion have CRP levels that are associated high or very high risk for future cardiovascular events in the general population. PMID:19606218

Graf, Jonathan; Scherzer, Rebecca; Grunfeld, Carl; Imboden, John

2009-01-01

21

Highly Purified Eicosapentaenoic Acid Increases Interleukin-10 Levels of Peripheral Blood Monocytes in Obese Patients With Dyslipidemia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE It has recently been highlighted that proinflammatory (M1) macrophages predominate over anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages in obesity, thereby contributing to obesity-induced adipose inflammation and insulin resistance. A recent clinical trial revealed that highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduces the incidence of major coronary events. In this study, we examined the effect of EPA on M1/M2-like phenotypes of peripheral blood monocytes in obese dyslipidemic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Peripheral blood monocytes were prepared from 26 obese patients without and 90 obese patients with dyslipidemia. Of the latter 90 obese patients with dyslipidemia, 82 patients were treated with or without EPA treatment (1.8 g daily) for 3 months. RESULTS Monocytes in obese patients with dyslipidemia showed a significantly lower expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10), an M2 marker, than those without dyslipidemia. EPA significantly increased serum IL-10 and EPA levels, the EPA/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio, and monocyte IL-10 expression and decreased the pulse wave velocity (PWV), an index of arterial stiffness, compared with the control group. After EPA treatment, the serum EPA/AA ratio was significantly correlated with monocyte IL-10 expression. Only increases in monocyte IL-10 expression and serum adiponectin were independent determinants of a decreased PWV by EPA. Furthermore, EPA significantly increased the expression and secretion of IL-10 in human monocytic THP-1 cells through a peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR)?-dependent pathway. CONCLUSIONS This study is the first to show that EPA increases the monocyte IL-10 expression in parallel with decrease of arterial stiffness, which may contribute to the antiatherogenic effect of EPA in obese dyslipidemic patients. PMID:22912426

Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Shimatsu, Akira; Sasaki, Yousuke; Nakaoka, Hidenori; Himeno, Akihiro; Tochiya, Mayu; Kono, Shigeo; Takaya, Tomohide; Ono, Koh; Wada, Hiromichi; Suganami, Takayoshi; Hasegawa, Koji; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

2012-01-01

22

High Serum Levels of HDV RNA Are Predictors of Cirrhosis and Liver Cancer in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis Delta  

PubMed Central

Chronic infection with the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but little is known whether the outcome of hepatitis is predicted by serum markers of HDV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The aim of the study was to investigate these correlations in 193 patients with chronic HDV infection who had been followed up for a median of 9.5 years (4.8–19.3). HDV-RNA was first measured by qualitative in-house nested RT-PCR and quantified by in-house real-time PCR. HDV RNA levels only appeared significantly associated to HCC (univariate analysis: OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.02–1.71; p?=?0.037; multivariate analysis: OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04–1.95; p?=?0.03). In non-cirrhotics at first presentation (n?=?105), HDV RNA levels were associated with progression to cirrhosis (univariate analysis: OR?=?1.57, 95% CI 1.20–2.05, p<0.001; multivariate analysis: OR?=?1.60, 95% CI 1.20–2.12, p?=?0.007) and development of HCC (univariate analysis: OR?=?1.66, 95% CI 1.04–2.65, p?=?0.033; multivariate analysis: OR?=?1.88, 95% CI 1.11–3.19, p?=?0.019). ROC analysis showed that approximately 600,000 HDV RNA copies/mL was the optimal cut-off value in our cohort of patients for discriminating the development of cirrhosis. High levels of HDV viremia in non-cirrhotic patients are associated with a considerable likelihood of progression to cirrhosis and the development of HCC. Once cirrhosis has developed, the role of HDV replication as a predictor of a negative outcome lessens. PMID:24658127

Romeo, Raffaella; Foglieni, Barbara; Casazza, Giovanni; Spreafico, Marta; Colombo, Massimo; Prati, Daniele

2014-01-01

23

Comparison of patients with enterococcal bacteremia due to strains with and without high-level resistance to gentamicin.  

PubMed

Patients with enterococcal bacteremia due to strains with and without high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR; MIC, > 2,000 mg/L) were compared. Between 1986 and 1991, there were 178 episodes of enterococcal bacteremia: 47 and 131 episodes, respectively, due to enterococcal strains with and without HLGR. Sixty-two, 57, and 59 episodes, respectively, were in patients with transient bacteremia (a single positive blood culture), bacteremia (two or more positive blood cultures), and polymicrobial bacteremia. Nosocomial bacteremia accounted for 61.7% and 51.1% of episodes due to strains with and without HLGR, respectively. All isolates were strains of Enterococcus faecalis except for 13 strains of Enterococcus faecium, 4 of Enterococcus avium, and 3 of Enterococcus durans. Although the mortality was slightly higher among patients infected with strains with HLGR than among those infected with strains without HLGR (38.3% vs. 30.5%, respectively), there was no statistical difference. The mortality rate was adversely affected by old age (P < .01) and rapidly and ultimately fatal underlying conditions (P < .001). The addition of gentamicin to the treatment regimens had no effect on mortality. PMID:8353250

Watanakunakorn, C; Patel, R

1993-07-01

24

Sensitivity of Multispot Among HIV1 Positive Patients with Various Levels of Exposure to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Multispot HIV-1\\/HIV-2 Rapid Test is a recently FDA-approved device that identifies HIV-1 sero-reactive patients solely via detection of antibodies to gp41 which are known to wane in some patients, particularly patients taking early and effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We previously found that OraQuick HIV-1 Rapid Antibody Test (OQ), which also relies solely on anti-gp41 antibody detection, yielded

AIDS Clinical; Robert J. O'Connell; Brian K. Agan; Stephanie A. Anderson; Jennifer A. Malia; Nelson L. Michael; Wilford Hall; Walter Reed

25

Psychiatric Symptoms and Community Violence among High-Risk Patients: A Test of the Relationship at the Weekly Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the availability of violence risk assessment tools, clinicians are now better able to identify high-risk patients. Once these patients have been identified, clinicians must monitor risk state and intervene when necessary to prevent harm. Clinical practice is dominated by the assumption that increases in psychiatric symptoms elevate risk of…

Skeem, Jennifer L.; Schubert, Carol; Odgers, Candice; Mulvey, Edward P.; Gardner, William; Lidz, Charles

2006-01-01

26

Association of Cumulatively Low or High Serum Calcium Levels with Mortality in Long-Term Hemodialysis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The outcome-predictability of baseline and instantaneously changing serum calcium in hemodialysis patients has been examined. We investigated the mortality-predictability of time-averaged calcium values to reflect the ‘cumulative’ effect of calcium burden over time. Methods: We employed a Cox model using up-to-5-year (7\\/2001–6\\/2006) time-averaged values to examine the mortality-predictability of cumulative serum calcium levels in 107,200 hemodialysis patients prior to

Jessica E. Miller; Csaba P. Kovesdy; Keith C. Norris; Rajnish Mehrotra; Allen R. Nissenson; Joel D. Kopple; Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh

2010-01-01

27

Serum Adenosine Deaminase Level is High But Not Related with Disease Activity Parameters in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) has been previously proposed to predict disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to investigate the level of serum ADA, and the relationship between ADA and disease activity markers, in a group of patients with RA. A hundred and 10 patients with a diagnosis of RA were recruited from outpatient clinic of Rheumatology Unit. Demographic properties comprising age, gender, disease duration and drugs were recorded. Disease activity based on disease activity score (DAS)28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and DAS28- C reactive protein (CRP,) ESR, CRP levels, as well as pain by visual analog scale and rheumatoid factor (RF) were recorded. Serum ADA levels (IU/L) were determined in all RA patients and in 55 age and sex similar healthy control subjects. Ninety-six female and 14 male RA patients with a mean age of 54.32±11.51, and with a mean disease duration of 11.5±9.13 years were included to the study. The control group comprised of 48 female and 7 male healthy subjects. 35.5% of the patients were on methotrexate (MTX) and 64.5% of patients were on combined DMARDs or combined MTX and anti-TNF therapies. The mean serum ADA level was statistically higher in RA patients than in control subjects (27.01±10.6 IU/L vs 21.8 ±9.9 IU/L). The mean values of ESR (23.2±14.8 mm/h), CRP (1.71±1.11mg/dL), pain by VAS (37.2±27.1), DAS28-ESR (2.72±0.77), DAS28 CRP (1.37±0.5) were not correlated with ADA levels (p>0.05). Our results have shown that serum ADA levels are higher in RA patients than in controls but were not related with any of the disease activity markers. We conclude that ADA in the serum may not be a reliable biochemical marker to predict disease activity in patients with RA.

Demir, Gulseren; Borman, P?nar; Ayhan, Figen; Ozgun, Tuba; Kayg?s?z, Ferda; Yilmez, Gulsen

2014-01-01

28

The Population Genetics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Different Patient Populations Exhibits High-Level Host Specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine whether highly prevalent P. aeruginosa sequence types (ST) in Dutch cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are specifically linked to CF patients we investigated the population structure of P. aeruginosa from different clinical backgrounds. We first selected the optimal genotyping method by comparing pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multilocus variable number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA).MethodsSelected P. aeruginosa

Rosa van Mansfeld; Irene Jongerden; Martin Bootsma; Anton Buiting; Marc Bonten; R. J. L. Willems; Erika Martins Braga

2010-01-01

29

High GINS2 transcript level predicts poor prognosis and correlates with high histological grade and endocrine therapy resistance through mammary cancer stem cells in breast cancer patients.  

PubMed

GINS2, a subunit of the GINS complex, is overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma and metastatic breast tumor; however, its prognostic power and possible molecular mechanisms in breast cancer (BC) remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the function of GINS2 in BC. The association between GINS2 transcript level and the clinical outcome of BC patients were estimated using Kaplan-Meier plots, multivariate cox regression analysis, forest plots, and receiver operating characteristics curves. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed to explore the mechanisms underlying the effects of the GINS2 transcript. High GINS2 transcript level was correlated with poor relapse free survival (log-rank P ? 0.001 in six cohorts; forest plot: total n = 1,420, total RR = 1.72, 95 % CI 1.45-2.03; multivariate cox regression analysis: n = 906, HR 2.36, 95 % CI 1.88-2.97), and distant metastasis free survival (log-rank P < 0.01 in 3 cohorts; forest plot: total n = 691, total RR 1.91, 95 % CI 1.36-2.67; multivariate cox regression analysis: n = 442, HR 2.43, 95 % CI 1.70-3.47). BC patients with higher GINS2 transcript levels showed poorer tamoxifen efficacy in a dose-dependent manner. GINS2 expression was significantly downregulated under mutated p53-depleted condition in MDA-468 and MDA-MB-231 cells, upregulated in mammary cancer stem cells (MaCSCs) (P = 0.003), and correlated with upregulated genes in mammary stem cells (GSEA: P < 0.01). Our study, for the first time, demonstrates that GINS2 is an independent prognostic marker and is associated with lung metastasis, histological grade, and endocrine therapy resistance in BC patients, which may attribute to mutant p53 and MaCSCs. PMID:25348432

Zheng, Ming; Zhou, Yinghui; Yang, Xiangmin; Tang, Juan; Wei, Ding; Zhang, Yang; Jiang, Jian-Li; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Zhu, Ping

2014-11-01

30

Investigation of the level of safety for out-patients treated with high dose of 131I in Sudan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the patterns of radiation exposure of contacts of Sudanese patients treated with radioactive 131I on an out-patient basis and post discharge after high dose 131I therapy, and also to compare the family members' results with dose constraints proposed by the European Commission (EC). Thermoluminiscent dosimeters (Model TLD-100 H) were used to estimate the effective doses for 40 family members of fifteen patients treated with 131I. The family members wore a TLD in front of the chest for 10 days. The effective dose ranged from 0.23 to 6.74 mSv (mean 1.75 mSv). These findings may be considered when establishing new national guidelines concerning radiation protection and release of patients after a treatment with radioiodine therapy.

Saeed, M. K.

2014-10-01

31

High serum TNF-alpha level in Type 2 diabetic patients with microangiopathy is associated with eNOS down-regulation and apoptosis in endothelial cells.  

PubMed

A high dose of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha induces endothelial dysfunction and enhances apoptosis in vitro. The present study was conducted to examine whether incubating human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with serum from Type 2 diabetic patients complicated with retinopathy and/or microalbuminemia demonstrate endothelial dysfunction. Serum levels of TNF-alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were elevated in diabetic patients. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha, two soluble TNF-alpha receptors (sTNFR), and VEGF were assessed in diabetic patients (CD, n=21) complicated with retinopathy and/or nephropathy, uncomplicated diabetic patients (UD, n=18), and in healthy normal participants (NS, n=16). In HUVECs incubated with patient's serum, endothelial constitutive nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expressions were measured by Western blot analysis. Apoptosis in HUVECs was determined by optical microscopy, DNA fragmentation, and CPP32-like protease activity. Serum TNF-alpha, sTNFR-I, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NOS, in CD were significantly higher than in UD or NS. While, serum sTNFR-I and VEGF levels were significantly increased in the both diabetic patients, compared with those of NS, no difference was observed in the serum TNF-alpha, sTNFR-II, and ADMA levels between UD and NS. eNOS down-regulation and apoptosis were seen in HUVECs incubated with serum from CD for 24 h, but those observations were completely counteracted in the incubation by the addition of the antihuman TNF-alpha antibody. These results imply that eNOS down-regulation in CD is associated with high serum TNF-alpha levels despite of high serum of VEGF levels. Therefore, endothelial dysfunction in diabetic patients complicated with microangiopathy may, in part, be attributed to high serum TNF-alpha levels. PMID:16260352

Makino, Naoki; Maeda, Toyoki; Sugano, Masahiro; Satoh, Shinji; Watanabe, Reiko; Abe, Nobuyuki

2005-01-01

32

in High Level Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces hot potato high level synthesis transformation techniques. These techniques add deflection operations in the behavioral description of a computation in such a way that the requirements for two important components of the final implementation cost, the number of registers and the number of interconnects, are significantly reduced. Moreover, it is shown how hot potato techniques can be

Miodrag Potkonjak; Sujit Dey

33

Changes in Non-high-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels and Triglyceride/High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratios among Patients Randomized to Aripiprazole versus Olanzapine  

PubMed Central

Objective Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG:HDL-C) are predictors of cardiovascular risk. This post-hoc analysis assessed changes in these parameters during treatment with the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine or aripiprazole using pooled data from three randomized, long-term clinical studies in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Data were pooled from one open-label and two double-blind (26- or 52-week) studies in patients randomized to olanzapine (5–20 mg/day) or aripiprazole (15–30 mg/day). Change from baseline in non-HDL-C levels between groups was analyzed in the Observed Case (OC) dataset at each time point and Last Observation Carried Forward (LOCF) dataset at endpoint using analysis of covariance, with treatment as main effect and baseline non-HDL-C as covariate. Differences between groups in median changes from baseline in TG:HDL-C were assessed with Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results This analysis included 546 patients (olanzapine, n=274; aripiprazole, n=272). Mean changes from baseline in non-HDL-C levels were significantly different (p<0.0001) with olanzapine versus aripiprazole at Weeks 26 (+13.0 vs. ?7.5 mg/dL) and 52 (+12.2 vs. ?8.1 mg/dL). Baseline TG:HDL-C was high in the olanzapine (3.73) and aripiprazole (3.79) groups. Differences in median changes from baseline in TG:HDL-C were significant with olanzapine versus aripiprazole at Weeks 26 (+0.22 vs. ?0.54; p<0.0001) and 52 (+0.24 vs. ?0.62; p=0.004). Conclusions Long-term aripiprazole treatment is associated with improvements in lipid profiles of schizophrenia patients versus no improvement or worsening during olanzapine treatment. Consideration of cardiovascular risk is needed when prescribing antipsychotics, as is close monitoring for metabolic changes during treatment. PMID:18973991

Newcomer, John W.; Meyer, Jonathan M.; Baker, Ross A.; Eudicone, James M.; Pikalov, Andrei; Vester-Blokland, Estelle; McQuade, Robert D.; Crandall, David T.; Carson, William H.; Marcus, Ronald N.; L'Italien, Gilbert

2013-01-01

34

Early post-operative measurement of cytokine plasma levels combined with pre-operative bilirubin levels identify high-risk patients after liver resection  

PubMed Central

Identification of patients at risk of a complicated course after liver resection is crucial for adapting post-operative care. In the present study, we investigated the diagnostic value of the plasma levels of various cytokines obtained immediately after surgery. IL-6, IL-10, IL-8, monokine induced by interferon-? (MIG), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and interferon-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) concentrations were measured in 26 patients after liver resection using a cytometric bead assay and were correlated with liver function, resectate weight, surgery duration, ischemia/reperfusion, hospitalization time and occurrence of complications. Patients with post-surgical complications showed distinctive patterns of IL-6 and IL-8 as early as minutes to hours after surgery. In addition, although pre-operative bilirubin in most patients remained within the normal range, a cut-off of 1 mg/dl separated the patients into groups with different profiles of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 secretion and different likelihoods of experiencing post-operative complications (bilirubin levels ?1.0 vs. <1.0 mg/dl; IL-6 (4 h): 701 vs. 265; IL-8 (6 h): 262 vs. 97 pg/ml; p<0.05 for both). Extended hospitalization, related to delayed recovery, was correlated with increased IL-8 and MCP-1 immediately after surgery. In conclusion, on the basis of these observations, we suggest that early measurement of post-operative levels of MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-8 can be used to identify individuals at risk of post-operative complications immediately after liver surgery. PMID:21206966

STREY, CHRISTOPH W.; MARQUEZ-PINILLA, ROSA MARIA; MARKIEWSKI, MACIEJ M.; SIEGMUND, BRITTA; OPPERMANN, ELSIE; LAMBRIS, JOHN D.; BECHSTEIN, WOLF O.

2011-01-01

35

High plasma levels of soluble P-selectin are predictive of venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: results from the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study (CATS).  

PubMed

Cancer patients are at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Laboratory parameters with a predictive value for VTE could help stratify patients into high- or low-risk groups. The cell adhesion molecule P-selectin was recently identified as risk factor for VTE. To investigate soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) in cancer patients as risk predictor for VTE, we performed a prospective cohort study of 687 cancer patients and followed them for a median (IQR) of 415 (221-722) days. Main tumor entities were malignancies of the breast (n = 125), lung (n = 86), gastrointestinal tract (n = 130), pancreas (n = 42), kidney (n = 19), prostate (n = 72), and brain (n = 80); 91 had hematologic malignancies; 42 had other tumors. VTE occurred in 44 (6.4%) patients. In multivariable analysis, elevated sP-selectin (cutoff level, 53.1 ng/mL, 75th percentile of study population) was a statistically significant risk factor for VTE after adjustment for age, sex, surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy (hazard ratio = 2.6, 95% confidence interval, 1.4-4.9, P = .003). The cumulative probability of VTE after 6 months was 11.9% in patients with sP-selectin above and 3.7% in those below the 75th percentile (P = .002). High sP-selectin plasma levels independently predict VTE in cancer patients. Measurement of sP-selectin at diagnosis of cancer could help identify patients at increased risk for VTE. PMID:18539899

Ay, Cihan; Simanek, Ralph; Vormittag, Rainer; Dunkler, Daniela; Alguel, Guelay; Koder, Silvia; Kornek, Gabriela; Marosi, Christine; Wagner, Oswald; Zielinski, Christoph; Pabinger, Ingrid

2008-10-01

36

Effects of low doses of simvastatin and atorvastatin on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Simvastatin 40 to 80 mg\\/d has been found to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels significantly more than atorvastatin at equipotent doses (ie, 20–80 mg\\/d). Data on the effects of lower doses of the 2 drugs on HDL-C levels are conflicting.Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of simvastatin 20 mg\\/d and atorvastatin 10 mg\\/d

Adriana Branchi; Anna M. Fiorenza; Adriana Torri; Fulvio Muzio; Cristina Berra; Emanuela Colombo; Elena Dalla Valle; Angelo Rovellini; Domenico Sommariva

2001-01-01

37

Reducing high phosphate levels in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing dialysis: a 4-week, dose-finding, open-label study with lanthanum carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The majority of patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis are hyperphosphataemic. Lanthanum carbonate has been shown to be a highly effective phosphate binder in pre-clinical studies. A 4- week, open-label, dose-titration trial was conducted to assess the ability of lanthanum carbonate to control phosphate levels in patients with chronic renal failure. Methods. This preliminary study was of 6

Alastair J. Hutchison; Mary Speake; Fouad Al-Baaj

38

High Level of Tregs Is a Positive Prognostic Marker in Patients with HPV-Positive Oral and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Background. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been proved as one of the etiological factors of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Patients with tumors of viral etiology have a lower recurrence rate and better prognosis. OPSCC is linked to an alteration in the immune system. Only a limited number of studies have correlated both the immunological parameters and HPV status with patient prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether HPV infection and the immunological status influence patient prognosis individually or in concurrence. Material and Methods. Sixty patients with oral and oropharyngeal carcinomas were enrolled. They were divided into HPV-positive and HPV-negative groups based on the expression of HPV 16 E6 mRNA. Basic lymphocyte subpopulations were determined in the peripheral blood by means of flow cytometry. Results. Significantly better disease-specific survival (DSS) was observed in patients with HPV-positive tumors. Nodal status, tumor grade, recurrence, and CD8+/Tregs ratio were identified as factors influencing DSS. A higher level of Tregs and a lower ratio of CD8/Tregs influenced overall survival (OS) independently of HPV status and age. Patients with HPV-positive tumors and high levels of Tregs survived significantly better than patients from the other groups. Conclusion. Better survival is associated with HPV positivity and elevated Tregs levels. Our data suggest that HPV infection and Tregs do not influence patient prognosis in concurrence. PMID:24864233

Lukesova, E.; Boucek, J.; Rotnaglova, E.; Salakova, M.; Koslabova, E.; Grega, M.; Eckschlager, T.; Rihova, B.; Prochazka, B.; Klozar, J.; Tachezy, R.

2014-01-01

39

Selected Micronutrient Levels and Response to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Among HIV/AIDS Patients Attending a Teaching Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Poor micronutrient levels are associated with an increased risk of progression to AIDS and are also suggested to influence outcome of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), though existing data are inconclusive to support the latter. Few published data are available on micronutrient levels in Ethiopian HIV/AIDS patients taking HAART. The objective of the study was to determine the association of micronutrient levels and response to HAART (CD4(+) T cell count) among adult HIV/AIDS patients attending a teaching Hospital in Addis Ababa. CD4(+) T cell counts and micronutrient (retinol, zinc, and iron) levels for 171 subjects were determined using standard procedures. Some proportions of the study participants were found deficient for retinol (14.03 %), zinc (47.3 %), and iron (2.8 %). Patients who were deficient in retinol had a significantly lower median CD4(+) T cell counts (P?=?0.002) compared to non-deficient subjects. Association of micronutrient quartiles with CD4+ T cell count was assessed using adjusted multivariate regression by taking quartile 4 as a reference category. Accordingly, patients who had retinol levels in quartile 4 had a significantly lower mean CD4(+) T cell count compared to quartile 3 (P?=?0.02). The significantly higher CD4(+) T cell counts in patients who were non-deficient in retinol imply the role of retinol in improving the production of CD4(+) T cells. However, both lower and higher retinol levels were associated with suppressed immunity (CD4?levels. Thus, retinol may be potentially harmful depending on the dose, emphasizing the need for optimized level of retinol in nutrient supplements in patients taking HAART. PMID:25256923

Eshetu, Amare; Tsegaye, Aster; Petros, Beyene

2014-12-01

40

First HAART in HIV-infected patients with high viral load: value of HIV RNA levels at 12 weeks to predict virologic outcome.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to identify the role of incomplete suppression during the first months of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) to predict virologic failure in patients with high levels of HIV replication. In a retrospective, longitudinal, and multicenter study, response to HAART was assessed in treatment-naive adults with HIV RNA >100 000 copies/mL, and factors predicting failure were analyzed through regression analyses. A total of 118 patients were included. Virologic failure occurred more often in patients with >500 copies/mL at week 12 (Cox regression: Exp (B) 3.22; P = .02). HIV RNA >500 copies/mL at week 12 predicted incomplete virologic response (odds ratio [OR] = 9.33; P = .002] but not viral rebound. Major antiretroviral resistant mutations were present in 11 of 14 patients. HIV RNA >500 copies/mL at week 12 of first HAART predicts incomplete virologic response in patients with high levels of replication at baseline. Most patients carried resistance mutations at the time of failure. PMID:19759257

Townsend, David; Troya, Jesús; Maida, Ivana; Pérez-Saleme, Leticia; Satta, Giovanni; Wilkin, Aimee; Barreiro, Pablo; Pegram, P Samuel; Soriano, Vincent; Mura, Maria Stella; Núñez, Marina

2009-01-01

41

Changes in Plasma Levels of Natural Anticoagulants in Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: High Prognostic Value of Antithrombin and Protein C in Patients with Underlying Sepsis or Severe Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Dysfunctional natural anticoagulant systems enhance intravascular fibrin for mation in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and plasma levels of natural anti coagulants can be used in the diagnosis and prognosis of DIC. Herein, the diagnostic value of 4 natural anticoagulants was assessed, and the prognostic value of antithrombin and protein C were validated in a large population. Methods Part 1 study included 126 patients with clinically suspected DIC and estimated plasma levels of 4 candidate anticoagulant proteins: antithrombin, protein C, protein S, and protein Z. Part 2 comprised 1,846 patients, in whom plasma antithrombin and protein C levels were compared with other well-known DIC markers according to the underlying dis eases. The 28-day mortality rate was used to assess prognostic outcome. Results Antithrombin and protein C showed higher areas under the ROC curve than pro tein S and protein Z. In part 2 of the study, antithrombin and protein C levels significantly correlated with DIC score, suggesting that these factors are good indicators of DIC severity. Antithrombin and protein C showed significant prognostic power in Kaplan-Meier analyses. In patients with sepsis/severe infection, antithrombin and protein C showed higher hazard ratios than D-dimer. Platelet count showed the highest hazard ratio in patients with hemato logic malignancy. In patients with liver disease, the hazard ratio for antithrombin levels was significantly high. Conclusions Decreased plasma anticoagulant levels reflect florid consumption of the phys iologic defense system against DIC-induced hypercoagulation. Plasma antithrombin and protein C levels are powerful prognostic markers of DIC, especially in patients with sepsis/severe infection. PMID:24624342

Choi, Qute; Hong, Ki Ho; Kim, Ji-Eun

2014-01-01

42

High-level gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from bone marrow transplant patients: accumulation of antibiotic resistance genes, large plasmids and clonal strain dissemination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-six high-level gentamicin-resistant (HLGR) Enterococcus faecium strains colonising neutropenic bone marrow transplant patients were studied. Polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that high-level gentamicin resistance was mediated by the aac(6?)-Ia-aph(2?)-Ie gene; the aph(2?)-Id gene responsible for gentamicin resistance was also detected in 16 strains. Multiple antibiotic resistance was related to the presence of aph(3?)-IIIa, ant(6)-Ia, erm(B), erm (A) and tet(M) genes.

Mohamed Salah Abbassi; Wafa Achour; Assia Ben Hassen

2007-01-01

43

The first linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecium in India: High level resistance in a patient with no previous antibiotic exposure  

PubMed Central

Linezolid provides high rates of the clinical cure and microbiological success in complicated infections due to Enterococcus spp., including vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. However, the emergence of resistance during linezolid treatment has been reported for clinical strains of Enterococcus, which is alarming given the fact that, this leaves the clinician with very few treatment options. We report the first case of linezolid resistant Enterococcus faecium from India, which was isolated from the blood culture of a hypoglycemic encephalopathy patient. There have been previous reports of linezolid resistant enterococci from different parts of the world, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 16 to 64 ?g/mL and most of them were associated with vancomycin resistance but the isolate reported over here had an MIC of 1024 ?g/mL and interestingly was sensitive to vancomycin. PMID:24678466

Kumar, Simit; Bandyoapdhyay, Maitreyi; Chatterjee, Mitali; Mukhopadhyay, Prabir; Poddar, Sumon; Banerjee, Parthajit

2014-01-01

44

High Levels of Soluble Ctla-4 Are Present in Anti-Mitochondrial Antibody Positive, but Not in Antibody Negative Patients with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic autoimmune cholestatic liver disease frequently characterized by anti-mitochondrial autoantibodies (AMA). A minority of patients are AMA-negative. Cytotoxic-T-Lymphocyte-Antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a surface molecule expressed on activated T-cells delivering a critical negative immunoregulatory signal. A soluble form of CTLA-4 (sCTLA-4) has been detected at high concentrations in several autoimmune diseases, and its possible functional meaning has been suggested. We aimed to evaluate sCTLA-4 concentration in sera of patients with PBC and to correlate it to immunological abnormalities associated with the disease. Blood samples were collected from 82 PBC-patients diagnosed according to international criteria (44 AMA-positive/MIT3-positive and 38 AMA-negative-MIT3-negative), and 65 controls. sCTLA-4 levels were evaluated by ELISA and Western blot. Increased sCTLA-4 concentrations were found in all AMA-positive PBC-patients, but in none of the AMA-negative ones, nor in normal controls or in controls with unrelated liver diseases. sCTLA-4 presence was associated with autoantibodies against MIT3, but not with nuclear autoantibodies (sp100, gp210). This is the first study to demonstrate that levels of sCTLA-4 are elevated in sera of PBC patients. However, they are clearly restricted to patients with AMA positivity, suggesting an immunological difference with respect to AMA-negative ones. PMID:25383768

Saverino, Daniele; Pesce, Giampaola; Antola, Princey; Porcelli, Brunetta; Brusca, Ignazio; Villalta, Danilo; Tampoia, Marilina; Tozzoli, Renato; Tonutti, Elio; Alessio, Maria Grazia; Bagnasco, Marcello; Bizzaro, Nicola

2014-01-01

45

Pre-Operative, High-IL-6 Blood Level is a Risk Factor of Post-Operative Delirium Onset in Old Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Post-operative delirium (POD) is a common complication in elderly patients undergoing surgery, but the underpinning causes are not clear. We hypothesized that inflammaging, the subclinical low and chronic grade inflammation characteristic of old people, can contribute to POD onset. Accordingly, we investigated the association of pre-operative and circulating cytokines in elderly patients (>65?years), admitted for elective and emergency surgery. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a sub-cohort of patients belonging to a previous large case–control study, where 351 patients were clinically and cognitively thoroughly characterized, together with the assessment of POD (47 patients) by confusion assessment method and delirium rating scale. Seventy-four pre-operative plasma samples were selected from a larger bio-bank and they included 37 subjects with POD and 37 without POD. Inflammaging related cytokines, i.e., IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-?, were assayed by ELISA in pre-operative blood samples; univariate and multivariable analyses have been applied to identify cytokines independently associated to POD. Associations of cytokine levels with functional status, cognitive decline, intra-hospital mortality, and comorbidity were also analyzed independently of POD onset. Results: High IL-6 and low-IL-2 levels were significantly associated with POD. After adjustment for potential confounders in multivariate analysis, high level of pre-operative IL-6 was confirmed to be significantly associated with risk of POD onset. High level of IL-6 was also associated with several baseline features (including poor functional status, cognitive impairment, emergency admission, and higher comorbidity burden) and intra-hospital mortality. Conclusion: Pre-operative, high-plasma level of IL-6 (?9?pg/mL) was significantly associated with POD onset. We propose IL-6 as an additional risk factor of POD onset together with the previously identified factors. Discovery of all risk factors contributing to POD onset will permit to improve hospitalized patient management and the decrease of healthcare cost. PMID:25368603

Capri, Miriam; Yani, Stella Lukas; Chattat, Rabih; Fortuna, Daniela; Bucci, Laura; Lanzarini, Catia; Morsiani, Cristina; Catena, Fausto; Ansaloni, Luca; Adversi, Marco; Melotti, Maria Rita; Di Nino, Gianfranco; Franceschi, Claudio

2014-01-01

46

Serum High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels and Response to 5 mg Tadalafil Once Daily in Patients With Erectile Dysfunction and Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Purpose We studied the relative importance of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and diabetes and determined whether the hs-CRP level predicts the response to treatment with 5 mg tadalafil once daily. Materials and Methods We enrolled 102 men (aged 40-60 years) with diabetes and ED. All patients completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire and were given 5 mg tadalafil daily. The IIEF and serum hs-CRP levels in patients and healthy controls and in patient responders and nonresponders to 5 mg tadalafil once daily were compared. Results Median age was 53.2 years (range, 45 to 62 years) in patients and 55.6 years (range, 47 to 64 years) in healthy controls (p=0.158). The median duration of diabetes was 54.3 months (range, 34 to 70 months). The median IIEF and hs-CRP level were 12.1 (range, 5 to 20) and 0.21 mg/dL (range, 0.05 to 0.6 mg/dL) in patients and 28.2 (range, 13 to 31) and 0.09 mg/dL (range, 0.04 to 0.2 mg/dL) in the controls, respectively (pIIEF=0.000, pCRP=0.031). After tadalafil treatment, 71 patients (69.6%) achieved an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse, whereas 31 (30.4%) did not. The median age of the tadalafil nonresponders was 56.2 years (range, 45 to 64 years) and that of the responders was 51.3 years (range, 42 to 62 years; p=0.065). Median hs-CRP levels were 0.31 mg/dL (range, 0.18 to 0.62 mg/dL) in nonresponders and 0.14 mg/dL (range, 0.09 to 0.4 mg/dL) in responders, respectively (p=0.028). Conclusions Serum hs-CRP was significantly higher in patients with ED and diabetes mellitus than in patients without ED. A significant correlation was observed between serum hs-CRP levels, the degree of ED, and responsiveness to tadalafil. PMID:24363868

Lee, Jung Woo; Park, Nam Cheol

2013-01-01

47

An accurate method for comparing transcript levels of two alleles or highly homologous genes: application to fibrillin transcripts in Marfan patients' fibroblasts.  

PubMed

We introduce here a novel and generally applicable, solid-phase minisequencing-based approach for rapid estimation of relative levels of transcripts with high sequence homology. This study was undertaken to screen for the consequences of different fibrillin-1 mutations on the transcript levels in patients with the Marfan syndrome (MFS). This dominantly inherited, connective tissue disorder is characterized by pleiotrophic symptoms in cardiovascular, skeletal, and ocular systems. A spectrum of disease mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin-1 (FBN1), a glycoprotein component of extracellular matrix microfibrils, has been identified in MFS patients, but the mechanisms by which mutations result in different phenotypic manifestations are still unknown to a large extent. Our data from the quantitation of FBN1 transcripts provide support for the hypothesis that mutations causing premature stop codons result in a milder phenotype than classical MFS by reducing the stability of the mutant transcript and, consequently, decreasing the interference of mutant polypeptide in the formation of fibrillin fibers. We also applied this mRNA quantitation method to determine the relative ratio between transcripts from the genes coding for two highly homologous microfibrillar components, FBN1 and FBN2, in control fibroblast cultures as well as in fibroblasts from MFS patients. Interestingly, these data show large variations between the levels of the two transcripts in fibroblast cultures, but these variations do not correlate either with the nature of the disease mutation or to the clinical MFS phenotype. PMID:8743989

Karttunen, L; Lönnqvist, L; Godfrey, M; Peltonen, L; Syvänen, A C

1996-05-01

48

Subject groups high and low in urinary selenium levels: workers exposed to heavy metals and patients with cancer and epilepsy  

SciTech Connect

Selenium was first recognized for its toxicity; its essential nature in animals was discovered and established later. That Se is essential to human nutrition has yet to be confirmed. Recently the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) was isolated from human erythrocyte and placenta. In order to discover the role Se plays in human health and disease, Thomson and Robinson emphasized a need for continuing studies of special needs of certain groups such as those exposed to heavy metals and those with certain disease and illness for example, cancer and cardiovascular disease. It is amongst these groups that Se deficiency or Se-responsive conditions may be found. Urinary Se excretion has been mainly used to assess the nutritional Se status. Recently estimation of urinary Se level in the form of its content per creatinine (abbreviated as CT) content using 24-h or random urine samples was shown to be more precise in reducing dilution and variation effects than that per urinary volume using 24-h urines (HOJO). The purpose of this study is to search the subject groups high or low in Se status by employing urinary Se content per CT content or per urine volume.

Hojo, Y.

1981-04-01

49

Sustained high levels of serum leptin rather than IL-6 observed in patients with postpartum thyroiditis during their first postpartum year.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study is to explore the roles of leptin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) during the first postpartum year in the occurrence and development of postpartum thyroiditis (PPT). We retrospectively collected serum samples from 57 PPT patients consisting of 34 overt PPT (O-PPT) and 23 subclinical PPT (S-PPT) in addition to 37 healthy postpartum women at four postpartum time points, i.e., 3-day and 3, 6, 12-month postpartum. Serum leptin and IL-6 levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and ELISA assay, respectively. Leptin level and leptin/BMI (LEP/BMI) ratio were higher in PPT patients than in control during the first postpartum year, but were not significantly different between O-PPT and S-PPT. However, a similar trend but did not reach significant difference in IL-6 level was observed during the postpartum period in PPT patients and control women. We conclude that a sustained high level of serum leptin after delivery may be involved in the pathogenesis of PPT. IL-6 does not contribute to the development of PPT. PMID:24573491

Guo, Huiling; Liu, Xiu; Li, Chenyang; Li, Yushu; Sang, Miao; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping; Guan, Haixia

2014-11-01

50

The association of brachial flow-mediated dilation and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels with Duke treadmill score in patients with suspected microvascular angina  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Although earlier studies demonstrated endothelial dysfunction and systemic inflammation in patients with microvascular angina (MVA), the correlations between flow-mediated dilation (FMD), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels and Duke treadmill score (DTS), a comprehensive index representing the severity of ischemia, have not been elucidated in this setting. OBJECTIVE: To explore the possible relationships among brachial FMD, serum hsCRP levels and DTS in MVA patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 89 subjects with chest pain and a normal coronary angiogram were studied. The exercise treadmill test (ETT) was performed using the Bruce protocol for calculating the DTS. Brachial FMD and serum hsCRP levels were measured. The mean (± SD) brachial FMD was 5.45±2.24% in the group with positive ETT and 8.19±2.78% in the group with a negative ETT (P<0.001). Mean serum hsCRP levels were significantly higher in the group with positive ETT than in the group with negative ETT (4.93±1.63 mg/L versus 3.41±1.65 mg/L; P<0.001). Brachial FMD and serum hsCRP levels showed significant differences among the three groups according to DTS risk stratification. The DTS was positively correlated with FMD (r=0.532; P<0.001) and negatively correlated with hsCRP level (r= 0.461; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Brachial FMD and serum hsCRP levels may be associated with DTS in patients with MVA. PMID:23592935

Luo, Chufan; Li, Yi; Liu, Donghong; Hu, Chengheng; Du, Zhimin

2012-01-01

51

Effect of erythromycin on gallbladder emptying in diabetic patients with and without autonomic neuropathy and high levels of motilin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reduction of gallbladder emptying in response to neural or hormonal stimulation has been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus. Decreased gallbladder emptying may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of gallbladder stones. Few drugs, if any, are able to stimulate gallbladder emptying. However, in a previous study we demonstrated that erythromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, stimulates gallbladder emptying and

Stefano Fiorucci; Luciano Scionti; Rachele Bosso; Antonio Desando; Paolo Bottini; Cecilia Marino; Antonio Morelli

1992-01-01

52

The Effects of Panax Ginseng on Lipid Profile, Pro-oxidant: Antioxidant Status and High-sensitivity C Reactive Protein Levels in Hyperlipidemic Patients in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Because of the conflicting results from previous studies regarding the efficacy of ginseng on lipid profile and anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of its components, we aimed to evaluate the effects of Panax ginseng on lipid profile, pro-oxidant – anti-oxidant status and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. Methods: Forty Iranian hyperlipidemic patients were randomly assigned to placebo (n = 20) or control (n = 20) groups in this double-blind randomized controlled trial. The ginseng or placebo was taken two capsules twice a day for 8 weeks. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose, serum creatinine and hs-CRP levels and pro-oxidant – anti-oxidant balance (PAB) were estimated before and after intervention. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to changes in serum TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TC/HDL-C levels. Nor were there significant differences between the two groups with respect to changes in hs-CRP level and PAB from baseline to week 8. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that ginseng does not have significant effects on lipid profile, Hs-CRP level and PAB. Further clinical studies, with a larger sample size, more prolonged period of therapy are needed to investigate the therapeutic effects of ginseng. PMID:24130946

Delui, Mahdy Hassanzadeh; Fatehi, Hedayatollah; Manavifar, Morteza; Amini, Maral; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Zahedi, Mahdi; Ferns, Gordon

2013-01-01

53

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 polymorphism associates with recurrent coronary event risk in patients with high HDL and C-reactive protein levels.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to investigate whether fibrinolysis plays a role in establishing recurrent coronary event risk in a previously identified group of postinfarction patients. This group of patients was defined as having concurrently high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and was previously demonstrated to be at high-risk for recurrent coronary events. Potential risk associations of a genetic polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) were probed as well as potential modulatory effects on such risk of a polymorphism of low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein (LRP-1), a scavenger receptor known to be involved in fibrinolysis in the context of cellular internalization of plasminogen activator/plansminogen activator inhibitor complexes. To this end, Cox multivariable modeling was performed as a function of genetic polymorphisms of PAI-2 (SERPINB, rs6095) and LRP-1 (LRP1, rs1800156) as well as a set of clinical parameters, blood biomarkers, and genetic polymorphisms previously demonstrated to be significantly and independently associated with risk in the study population including cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP, rs708272), p22phox (CYBA, rs4673), and thrombospondin-4 (THBS4, rs1866389). Risk association was demonstrated for the reference allele of the PAI-2 polymorphism (hazard ratio 0.41 per allele, 95% CI 0.20-0.84, p=0.014) along with continued significant risk associations for the p22phox and thrombospondin-4 polymorphisms. Additionally, further analysis revealed interaction of the LRP-1 and PAI-2 polymorphisms in generating differential risk that was illustrated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. We conclude from the study that fibrinolysis likely plays a role in establishing recurrent coronary risk in postinfarction patients with concurrently high levels of HDL-C and CRP as manifested by differential effects on risk by polymorphisms of several genes linked to key actions involved in the fibrinolytic process. PMID:23874812

Corsetti, James P; Salzman, Peter; Ryan, Dan; Moss, Arthur J; Zareba, Wojciech; Sparks, Charles E

2013-01-01

54

Elevated C-Reactive Protein Levels and Enhanced High Frequency Vasomotion in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease during Brachial Flow-Mediated Dilation  

PubMed Central

Purpose The physiological role of vasomotion, rhythmic oscillations in vascular tone or diameter, and its underlying mechanisms are unknown. We investigated the characteristics of brachial artery vasomotion in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). Methods We performed a retrospective study of 37 patients with IHD. Endothelial function was assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and power spectral analysis of brachial artery diameter oscillations during FMD was performed. Frequency-domain components were calculated by integrating the power spectrums in three frequency bands (in ms2) using the MemCalc (GMS, Tokyo, Japan): very-low frequency (VLF), 0.003–0.04 Hz; low frequency (LF), 0.04–0.15 Hz; and high frequency (HF), 0.15–0.4 Hz. Total spectral power (TP) was calculated as the sum of all frequency bands, and each spectral component was normalized against TP. Results Data revealed that HF/TP closely correlated with FMD (r?=??0.33, p?=?0.04), whereas VLF/TP and LF/TP did not. We also explored the relationship between elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and vasomotion. HF/TP was significantly increased in subjects with high CRP levels (CRP;>0.08 mg/dL) compared with subjects with low CRP levels (0.052±0.026 versus 0.035±0.022, p<0.05). The HF/TP value closely correlated with CRP (r?=?0.24, p?=?0.04), whereas the value of FMD did not (r?=?0.023, p?=?0.84). In addition, elevated CRP levels significantly increased the value of HF/TP after adjustment for FMD and blood pressure (??=?0.33, p<0.05). Conclusion The HF component of brachial artery diameter oscillation during FMD measurement correlated well with FMD and increased in the presence of elevated CRP levels in subjects with IHD. PMID:25299643

Watanabe, Shogo; Amiya, Eisuke; Watanabe, Masafumi; Takata, Munenori; Ozeki, Atsuko; Watanabe, Aya; Kawarasaki, Shuichi; Nakao, Tomoko; Hosoya, Yumiko; Nagata, Kohzo; Nagai, Ryozo; Komuro, Issei

2014-01-01

55

Serum level of soluble 70-kD heat shock protein is associated with high mortality in patients with colorectal cancer without distant metastasis  

PubMed Central

Many findings indicate that measuring the serum concentration of soluble 70-kD heat shock protein (soluble HSP70) may provide important information in cardiovascular, inflammatory, and pregnancy-related diseases; however, only scarce data are available in cancer. Therefore, using a commercial ELISA kit, we measured soluble HSP70 concentration in the sera of 179 patients with colorectal cancer. We investigated the relationship between soluble HSP70 concentration and mortality, during 33.0 (24.4–44.0)?months long follow-up. High (>1.65 pg/ml, median concentration) soluble HSP70 level was a significant (hazard ratio: 1.88 (1.20–2.96, p?=?0.005) predictor of mortality during the follow-up period. When we compared the soluble HSP70 levels in patients with non-resected primary tumors as compared to those who were recruited into the study 4–6 weeks after the tumor resection they were found to be significantly (p?=?0.020) higher in the former group. Since the patients with non-resected primary tumors had also distant metastasis and died early, we limited the further analysis to 142 patients with no distant metastasis at the beginning of the follow-up. This association remained significant even after multiple Cox-regression analysis had been performed to adjust the data for age and sex (p?=?0.028); age, sex, and TNM-T stage (p?=?0.041); age, sex, and TNM-N stage (p?=?0.021); age, sex, and histological grade (p?=?0.023); or age, sex, and tumor localization (p?=?0.029). Further analysis showed that the significant association between high HSP70 levels and poor survival is in the strongest in the group of <70-year-old female patients (HR: 5.52 (2.02-15.15), p?=?0.001), as well as in those who were in a less advanced stage of the disease at baseline. These novel findings indicate that the serum level of soluble HSP70 might prove a useful, stage-independent prognostic marker in colorectal cancer without distant metastasis. PMID:19578980

Kocsis, Judit; Madaras, Balazs; Toth, Eva Katalin; Prohaszka, Zoltan

2009-01-01

56

Physical and mathematical aspects of blood-glucose- and insulin-level kinetics in patients with coronary heart disease and high risk of its development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed to estimate the kinetics of blood glucose and insulin levels. Glucose was injected in individual standardized dose (0.5 g. per 1 kg of body weight). Three groups of patients were checked up: 1) patients with coronary heart disease verified by cicatricial alterations in myocardium found by electrocardiographic and echocardiographic methods; 2) children of patients with transmural myocardial infarction practically healthy at the moment of study; 3) persons practically healthy at the moment of study without any indications on cardiovascular diseases and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus among all ancestors and relatives who frequently were long-livers. Last groups didn't differ by age and sex. Peripheral blood glucose level, immunoreactive and free insulin (tested by muscular tissue) were studied just before glucose injection (on an empty stomach) and 4 times after it. The received discrete data were approximated by high degree polynomials, the estimation of blood glucose and insulin time functions symmetric was performed. The deceleration of degradation of insulin circulating in peripheral blood and the time decrease of second phase of insulin secretion were analytically established. This fact proves the complicated mechanism of insulin alterations in atherosclerosis, consisting not only of insulin resistance of peripheral tissues but of decrease of plastic processes in insulin- generating cells.

Denisova, Tatyana P.; Malinova, Lidia I.; Malinov, Igor A.

2001-05-01

57

Evaluation of nonsurgical periodontal therapy in chronic periodontitis patients with anemia by estimating hematological parameters and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels  

PubMed Central

Background: Periodontal tissues mount an immune inflammatory response to bacteria and their products. Certain inflammatory cytokines produced during periodontal inflammation increase the production of acute phase proteins like high?sensitivity C?reactive protein (hs?CRP) and can depress erythropoietin production leading to the development of anemia. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on red blood cell (RBC) parameters and hs-CRP in chronic periodontitis patients with anemia. Materials and Methods: This is a longitudinal, interventional study with 6-month follow-up. A total of 30 subjects with anemia and chronic periodontitis with age group of 33-55 years were selected by screening hemoglobin (Hb) levels and examining periodontal findings. The clinical parameters plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded at baseline. Laboratory blood investigations were performed to evaluate RBC count, Hb, packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and red cell indices, hs-CRP at baseline. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy was performed for all patients. Patients were recalled after 6 months. The clinical and hematological parameters were re-evaluated to analyze the changes after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Results: The results showed that there was a significant increase in Hb levels, RBC count and PCV from baseline to 6 months after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. There is significant decrease in levels of ESR and hs-CRP levels after nonsurgical periodontal therapy indicating resolution of periodontal inflammation. There is a significant decrease in PPD, scores of PI and GI and significant increase in CAL gain. Minimal changes in mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and MCH concentration indicated that the lower values of red cell parameters are not due to any vitamin and mineral deficiencies, but secondary to the chronic inflammatory changes associated with chronic periodontal disease. Conclusion: The present study strengthens the hypothesis that chronic periodontitis may lead to anemia and provides evidence that nonsurgical periodontal therapy can improve the anemic status and reduce levels of hs-CRP in patients with chronic periodontitis. PMID:25210388

Musalaiah, S. V. V. S.; Anupama, M.; Nagasree, M.; Krishna, Ch. Murali; Kumar, Aravind; Kumar, P. Mohan

2014-01-01

58

[Nickel levels in female dermatological patients].  

PubMed

Nickel levels in urine were determined among 163 female dermatological patients aged 18 to 46 years. Data on life-style factors were collected in parallel via a questionnaire. Urinary nickel excretion was in the normal range of the German female population (0.2-46.1 microg Ni/g creatinine). The 95th percentile (3.9 microg Ni/l urine) exceeded the German reference value (3.0 microg Ni/l urine). In the multivariate regression analyses we found a statistically significant increase of ln-transformed nickel levels with increase in age and in women using dietary supplements. The following variables were not associated with Nickel urine levels: suffering from nickel eczema, smoking, drinking stagnated water, eating foods with high nickel contents and using nickel-containing kitchen utensils as, for example, an electric kettle with an open heater coil. We conclude that personal urinary levels should be assessed with simultaneous consideration of habits and life-style factors. A German national survery would be useful. Those patients who experience the exacerbation of their eczema in cases of oral provocation, for example, by a high nickel diet should be aware of potential sources of nickel, such as supplements. PMID:19288424

Schwegler, U; Twardella, D; Fedorov, M; Darsow, U; Schaller, K-H; Habernegg, R; Behrendt, H; Fromme, H

2009-07-01

59

High-level production of alternatively spliced soluble interleukin-6 receptor in serum of patients with adult T-cell leukaemia/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy.  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown, using human T-cell lymphocytotrophic virus-I (HTLV-I)-infected cell lines, that soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R) is generated through an alternative splicing mechanism. In this study, we examined human sera for the presence of alternatively spliced soluble IL-6R (AS-sIL-6R). We produced a monoclonal antibody (mAb) recognizing the unique sequence of AS-sIL-6R peptide, generated by an altered reading frame. We also made recombinant AS-sIL-6R protein in Spodoptera frugiperda-9 (Sf-9) cells carrying baculovirus, which encoded altered sIL-6R or conventional IL-6R cDNA. mAbs specifically recognized AS-sIL-6R, but not conventional IL-6R, as demonstrated by Western blot analyses, fluorescence-activated cell sorter, immunofluorescence analyses and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We adapted an ELISA system and used it for detection of altered sIL-6R in sera from 23 healthy persons, 12 patients with adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) and 13 patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM). Serum levels of AS-sIL-6R were 6.4 or 6.1 times greater in ATL (28.7+/-20.4 ng/ml, P<0.0001) and in HAM patients (27.5+/-12.1 ng/ml, P<0.0001) than in healthy individuals (4.5+/-2.1 ng/ml). High levels of AS-sIL-6R were also observed in plasma from rheumatoid arthritis patients and in persons with elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), antinuclear antibody (ANA), or alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). However, in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals, AS-sIL-6R levels were not elevated. In this study, we confirmed that AS-sIL-6R is indeed present in human sera. These observations suggest that alternative splicing of IL-6R mRNA is of consequence in ATL, HAM and in some autoimmune diseases. The HTLV-I-infected T cells appeared to play an important role in AS-sIL-6R production. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:9824498

Horiuchi, S; Ampofo, W; Koyanagi, Y; Yamashita, A; Waki, M; Matsumoto, A; Yamamoto, M; Yamamoto, N

1998-01-01

60

Interleukin6 Spillover in the Peripheral Circulation Increases With the Severity of Heart Failure, and the High Plasma Level of Interleukin6 Is an Important Prognostic Predictor in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We 1) evaluated whether interleukin-6 (IL-6) is produced in the peripheral circulation in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), 2) estimated the factors for increased IL-6, and 3) clarified the prognostic role of high plasma levels of IL-6 in patients with CHF.Background. Although plasma levels of IL-6 have been reported to increase in patients with CHF, and production of

Takayoshi Tsutamoto; Tomoko Hisanaga; Atsuyuki Wada; Keiko Maeda; Masato Ohnishi; Daisuke Fukai; Naoko Mabuchi; Masahide Sawaki; Masahiko Kinoshita

1998-01-01

61

High-level gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from bone marrow transplant patients: accumulation of antibiotic resistance genes, large plasmids and clonal strain dissemination.  

PubMed

Twenty-six high-level gentamicin-resistant (HLGR) Enterococcus faecium strains colonising neutropenic bone marrow transplant patients were studied. Polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that high-level gentamicin resistance was mediated by the aac(6')-Ia-aph(2'')-Ie gene; the aph(2'')-Id gene responsible for gentamicin resistance was also detected in 16 strains. Multiple antibiotic resistance was related to the presence of aph(3')-IIIa, ant(6)-Ia, erm(B), erm (A) and tet(M) genes. Strains clustered into 18 groups according to their plasmid content as well as 16 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. Although the majority of PFGE patterns were single isolates, three microclones were identified. Hybridisation showed that in the majority of the strains the aac(6')-aph(2'') gene resided on a large plasmid of ca. 96kb detected only on PFGE gels. Based on these findings, colonisation by HLGR E. faecium strains was a result of either possibly related plasmid spread or strain dissemination. PMID:17360161

Abbassi, Mohamed Salah; Achour, Wafa; Hassen, Assia Ben

2007-06-01

62

High pressure liquid level monitor  

DOEpatents

A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

Bean, Vern E. (Frederick, MD); Long, Frederick G. (Ijamsville, MD)

1984-01-01

63

[Level of complexity of patients in a hospitalization unit].  

PubMed

The objective of this descriptive study was to evaluate the level of patient`s care complexity in a hospital unit belonging to a school hospital located in São Paulo, Brazil. Data collection was carried out using the "Patient Classification System: a proposal to complement the instrument", by Fugulin et al., during thirty consecutive days. The use of this instrument resulted in 1.080 observations obtained from 156 patients' records. The majority of the patients required high level of care dependency; there were differences among the patient`s wards regarding gender and age, type of treatment and patients' level of care complexity. We concluded that there was a need to evaluate the health care providers in the institution, as well as to make adjustments regarding demands for technological and materials resources. PMID:22751714

de Brito, Ana Paula; Guirardello, Edinêis de Brito

2012-01-01

64

Low MAD2 expression levels associate with reduced progression-free survival in patients with high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has an innate susceptibility to become chemoresistant. Up to 30% of patients do not respond to conventional chemotherapy [paclitaxel (Taxol®) in combination with carboplatin] and, of those who have an initial response, many patients relapse. Therefore, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate cellular chemotherapeutic responses in EOC cells has the potential to impact significantly on patient outcome. The mitotic arrest deficiency protein 2 (MAD2), is a centrally important mediator of the cellular response to paclitaxel. MAD2 immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 82 high-grade serous EOC samples. A multivariate Cox regression analysis of nuclear MAD2 IHC intensity adjusting for stage, tumour grade and optimum surgical debulking revealed that low MAD2 IHC staining intensity was significantly associated with reduced progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.0003), with a hazard ratio of 4.689. The in vitro analyses of five ovarian cancer cell lines demonstrated that cells with low MAD2 expression were less sensitive to paclitaxel. Furthermore, paclitaxel-induced activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and apoptotic cell death was abrogated in cells transfected with MAD2 siRNA. In silico analysis identified a miR-433 binding domain in the MAD2 3? UTR, which was verified in a series of experiments. Firstly, MAD2 protein expression levels were down-regulated in pre-miR-433 transfected A2780 cells. Secondly, pre-miR-433 suppressed the activity of a reporter construct containing the 3?-UTR of MAD2. Thirdly, blocking miR-433 binding to the MAD2 3? UTR protected MAD2 from miR-433 induced protein down-regulation. Importantly, reduced MAD2 protein expression in pre-miR-433-transfected A2780 cells rendered these cells less sensitive to paclitaxel. In conclusion, loss of MAD2 protein expression results in increased resistance to paclitaxel in EOC cells. Measuring MAD2 IHC staining intensity may predict paclitaxel responses in women presenting with high-grade serous EOC. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22069160

Furlong, Fiona; Fitzpatrick, Patricia; O'Toole, Sharon; Phelan, Sine; McGrogan, Barbara; Maguire, Aoife; O'Grady, Anthony; Gallagher, Michael; Prencipe, Maria; McGoldrick, Aloysius; McGettigan, Paul; Brennan, Donal; Sheils, Orla; Martin, Cara; W Kay, Elaine; O'Leary, John; McCann, Amanda

2012-01-01

65

High-Level Radioactive Waste.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

Hayden, Howard C.

1995-01-01

66

The CMS High Level Trigger  

E-print Network

The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running on the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. Here we will present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simpler single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We will discuss the optimisation of the triggers and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

Valentina Gori

2014-03-06

67

The CMS High Level Trigger  

E-print Network

The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running on the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. Here we will present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simpler single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We will discuss the optimisation of the triggers and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

Gori, Valentina

2014-01-01

68

Genetic relatedness of Enterococcus faecalis isolates with high-level gentamicin resistance from patients with bacteraemia in the south east of Sweden 1994-2001.  

PubMed

High-level gentamicin resistant (HLGR) enterococci (Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium) have become a substantial nosocomial problem in many countries. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of HLGR enterococci and their genetic relatedness in blood culture isolates from patients with bacteraemia admitted to the 3 hospitals in Ostergötland, a county in the south east of Sweden, during 1994-2001. 36 of 250 E. faecalis (14%,) and 4 of 106 E. faecium isolates (4%) were shown by PCR to carry the aac(6')-Ie-aph(2")-Ia aminoglycoside modifying gene and these isolates were also classified as HLGR enterococci by the gentamicin antibiotic disk diffusion method. A majority of HLGR E. faecalis isolates (83%) belonged to the same cluster of genetically related isolates, according to the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, whereas all 4 HLGR E. faecium isolates had unique PFGE patterns. In conclusion, our study showed that in contrast to studies from many other countries, the presence of HLGR enterococci was more common in E. faecalis than in E. faecium and appeared the first time in 1996 and 1999, respectively. Bacteraemia with HLGR enterococci in Ostergötland was mainly due to the spread of a cluster of related E. faecalis strains. PMID:15307558

Saeedi, Baharak; Hällgren, Anita; Isaksson, Barbro; Jonasson, Jon; Nilsson, Lennart E; Hanberger, Håkan

2004-01-01

69

High level HIV-1 DNA concentrations in brain tissues differentiate patients with post-HAART AIDS dementia complex or cardiovascular disease from those with AIDS.  

PubMed

Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) has had a significant impact on survival of individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); however, with the longer life-span of patients with AIDS, there is increasing prevalence of AIDS dementia complex (ADC) and other non-AIDS-defining illness, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are also common. The influence of these varied disease processes on HIV-1 DNA concentration in brain tissues has not been thoroughly assessed in the post-HAART era. The purpose of the current study is to clarify the impacts of ADC and other complications of HIV disease on the viral load in the brains in AIDS patients with post-HARRT. We examined autopsy specimens from the brains of thirteen patients who died from complications of AIDS with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). All but one patient had received HAART prior to death since 1995. Two patients died with severe CVD, multiple cerebrovascular atherosclerosis (CVA) throughout the brain and five patients died with ADC. Six patients had no ADC/CVA. A QPCR was used to measure the presence of HIV-1 DNA in six brain tissues (meninges, frontal grey matter, frontal white matter, temporal subcortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia). In the post-HARRT era, for non-ADC/CVA patients, HIV-1 DNA concentration in brain tissues was statistically higher than that in patients with ADC. In a new finding, two patients who suffered from severe CVD, especially CVA, also had high concentrations of HIV-1 in brain compartments not showing ADC related changes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a relationship between the CVA and HIV-1 viral burden in brain. The current observations suggest that HAART-resistant HIV reservoirs may survive within ADC lesions of the brain as well as the macrophage rich atherosclerosis, which needs to be confirmed by more AIDS cases with CVA. PMID:19641870

Zhao, Li; Galligan, Derek C; Lamers, Susanna L; Yu, Stephanie; Shagrun, Lamia; Salemi, Marco; McGrath, Michael S

2009-07-01

70

High incidence of obesity and elevated serum immunoreactive insulin level in patients with paravertebral ligamentous ossification: A relationship to the development of ectopic ossification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin has been shown to stimulate bone formation, and there is a high incidence of obesity and disturbance in the glucose\\u000a metabolism of patients with paravertebral ligamentous ossification (PVLO). In an effort to clarify whether there is any alteration\\u000a in insulin status in PVLO patients, and whether such changes play any role in the development of PVLO, glucose metabolism\\u000a and

Yasuhiro Takeuchi; Toshio Matsumoto; Yoh Takuwa; Yuichi Hoshino; Takahide Kurokawa; Naohiko Shibuya; Etsuro Ogata

1989-01-01

71

Decreased circulating microRNA-223 level predicts high on-treatment platelet reactivity in patients with troponin-negative non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome.  

PubMed

To investigate the relationship between circulating microRNA 223 (miR-223) levels and clopidogrel responsiveness in patients with coronary heart disease. A total of 62 consecutive patients with troponin-negative non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) scheduled for elective percutaneous coronary intervention were enrolled. The plasma circulating miR-223 levels were quantified by real-time PCR, and platelet reactivity was determined by platelet reactivity index (PRI), measured by vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation flow cytometry after 300 mg (for at least 24 h) or 75 mg clopidogel (for at least 5 days) plus aspirin treatment. All subjects were dichotomized according to PRI median (normal-responders: PRI ? 56.3%, n = 31 and low-responders: PRI > 56.3%, n = 31). Compared with normal-responders, circulating miR-223 level was significantly decreased in low-responders (P = 0.007). In addition, miR-223 level was statistically correlated with PRI (Spearman r = -0.379, P = 0.002). Stepwise binary logistic regression analysis revealed that among factors that potentially influence platelet reactivity (CYP2C19*2/*3 loss-of-function genotypes, use of calcium channel blockers/proton-pump inhibitors, age, diabetes and smoking), decreased circulating miR-223 level was the only independent predictor for the presence of PRI-determined lower responders (OR 0.111, 95% CI 0.018-0.692, P = 0.019). Our data suggest that circulating miR-223 may serve as a novel biomarker for assessment of clopidogrel responsiveness in troponin-negative NSTE-ACS patients. PMID:24202700

Zhang, Ying-Ying; Zhou, Xin; Ji, Wen-Jie; Shi, Rui; Lu, Rui-Yi; Li, Jin-Long; Yang, Guo-Hong; Luo, Tao; Zhang, Jian-Qi; Zhao, Ji-Hong; Jiang, Tie-Min; Li, Yu-Ming

2014-07-01

72

Occupational therapists and patients' rights: their level of Clinical knowledge  

PubMed Central

Addressing patients’ rights issues brings occupational therapists ethical and political responsibilities that involve patients’ privileges and new facilitating factors which influence their needs. The goal of this study was to determine the level of occupational therapists’ knowledge about patients’ rights. The present research was a cross-sectional study which involved 125 occupational therapists chosen by a convenience sampling strategy in Tehran during the year of 2012. A four-part questionnaire was used for data collection, and the degree of the subjects’ self-assessment of their knowledge was measured based on the obtained numbers of correct answers in the third part. The validity and reliability of this questionnaire were assessed prior to its being distributed among participants. The results demonstrated no significant association between the level of occupational therapists’ knowledge about patients’ rights and their existing experiences within their areas of occupational therapy (P>0.05). Based on the result, 53.6% of the respondents had high level of knowledge about patients’ rights. Facilitating factors which influence the attainment of patients’ rights were classified into three groups: organizations, therapists and clients. The results of the present research demonstrated that the level of occupational therapists’ knowledge about patients’ rights were high. Furthermore, this study showed that for optimal result, there is a need to provide milieu for observing the patients’ rights in clinical occupational therapy services. PMID:23908764

Dehghan, Leila; Dalvand, Hamid; Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Karimlou, Masoud

2013-01-01

73

High level HIV1 DNA concentrations in brain tissues differentiate patients with post-HAART AIDS dementia complex or cardiovascular disease from those with AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) has had a significant impact on survival of individuals with acquired immunodeficiency\\u000a syndrome (AIDS); however, with the longer life-span of patients with AIDS, there is increasing prevalence of AIDS dementia\\u000a complex (ADC) and other non-AIDS-defining illness, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are also common. The influence of these\\u000a varied disease processes on HIV-1 DNA concentration in

Li Zhao; Derek C. Galligan; Susanna L. Lamers; Stephanie Yu; Lamia Shagrun; Marco Salemi; Michael S. McGrath

2009-01-01

74

The cost-effectiveness and public health benefit of nalmefene added to psychosocial support for the reduction of alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients with high/very high drinking risk levels: a Markov model  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether nalmefene combined with psychosocial support is cost-effective compared with psychosocial support alone for reducing alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients with high/very high drinking risk levels (DRLs) as defined by the WHO, and to evaluate the public health benefit of reducing harmful alcohol-attributable diseases, injuries and deaths. Design Decision modelling using Markov chains compared costs and effects over 5?years. Setting The analysis was from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. Participants The model considered the licensed population for nalmefene, specifically adults with both alcohol dependence and high/very high DRLs, who do not require immediate detoxification and who continue to have high/very high DRLs after initial assessment. Data sources We modelled treatment effect using data from three clinical trials for nalmefene (ESENSE 1 (NCT00811720), ESENSE 2 (NCT00812461) and SENSE (NCT00811941)). Baseline characteristics of the model population, treatment resource utilisation and utilities were from these trials. We estimated the number of alcohol-attributable events occurring at different levels of alcohol consumption based on published epidemiological risk-relation studies. Health-related costs were from UK sources. Main outcome measures We measured incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained and number of alcohol-attributable harmful events avoided. Results Nalmefene in combination with psychosocial support had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £5204 per QALY gained, and was therefore cost-effective at the £20?000 per QALY gained decision threshold. Sensitivity analyses showed that the conclusion was robust. Nalmefene plus psychosocial support led to the avoidance of 7179 alcohol-attributable diseases/injuries and 309 deaths per 100?000 patients compared to psychosocial support alone over the course of 5?years. Conclusions Nalmefene can be seen as a cost-effective treatment for alcohol dependence, with substantial public health benefits. Trial registration numbers This cost-effectiveness analysis was developed based on data from three randomised clinical trials: ESENSE 1 (NCT00811720), ESENSE 2 (NCT00812461) and SENSE (NCT00811941). PMID:25227627

Laramee, Philippe; Brodtkorb, Thor-Henrik; Rahhali, Nora; Knight, Chris; Barbosa, Carolina; Francois, Clement; Toumi, Mondher; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Rehm, Jurgen

2014-01-01

75

Prevalence of Molecular Mechanisms of Resistance to Azole Antifungal Agents in Candida albicans Strains Displaying High-Level Fluconazole Resistance Isolated from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular mechanisms of azole resistance in Candida albicans, including alterations in the target enzyme and increased efflux of drug, have been described, but the epidemiology of the resistance mechanisms has not been established. We have investigated the molecular mechanisms of resistance to azoles in C. albicans strains displaying high-level fluconazole resistance (MICs, >64 g\\/ml) isolated from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected

SOFIA PEREA; J. L. Lopez-Ribot; W. R. Kirkpatrick; R. K. McAtee; R. A. Santillan; M. Martinez; D. Calabrese; D. Sanglard; T. F. Patterson

2001-01-01

76

High temperature liquid level sensor  

DOEpatents

A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01

77

High temperature, high pressure water level sensor  

SciTech Connect

A sensor was developed to measure water level over a range of 750 mm with an uncertainty of +- 20 mm at a temperature from 20 to 250/sup 0/C and pressure up to 15.2 MPa. The sensor is type 304, flattened stainless steel rod. Its cross section is 1.6 x 3.2 mm, and its measured torsional transit time is a function of water density rho, level L, and temperature T. To minimize the influence of T, the extensional transit time is also measured in the same sensor. To interrogate the sensor with both modes, Joule and Wiedemann transducers are multiplexed in an alternating sequence. Experimental results, problems, and remedies are discussed.

Miller, G.N.; Anderson, R.L.; Lynnworth, L.C.

1980-01-01

78

Possible false-negative results on therapeutic drug monitoring of phenytoin using a particle enhanced turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay in a patient with a high level of IgM.  

PubMed

: In this report, the authors described the unusual case of a patient in whom the plasma phenytoin concentration was unexpectedly not detected on a particle-enhanced turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay (PETINIA) technique, a typical immunoassay for phenytoin. The plasma concentration was measured using PETINIA and high-performance liquid chromatography in a 69-year-old male patient treated with fosphenytoin intravenously at the standard dose for 7 days. Although the plasma concentration of phenytoin was below the limit of detection (<0.5 mcg/mL) on PETINIA after the administration of fosphenytoin, the trough plasma concentration was estimated to be between 5 and 10 mg/L on high-performance liquid chromatography. When the plasma concentrations of IgM and IgG were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the plasma IgG level was within the reference range, whereas the plasma IgM level was 2-3 times higher than the upper limit of the reference range. We concluded that the PETINIA method yielded a possible false-negative result regarding the phenytoin level in this patient, perhaps because of some hindrance to the measurement process by IgM. This case suggests that false-negative results should be considered when therapeutic drug monitoring reveals abnormally low values using PETINIA and that it is necessary to evaluate the plasma IgM level. PMID:24632808

Hirata, Kenshiro; Saruwatari, Junji; Enoki, Yuhuki; Iwata, Kazufumi; Urata, Yukino; Aizawa, Keiji; Ueda, Kentaro; Shirouzono, Takumi; Imamura, Motoki; Moriuchi, Hiroshi; Ishima, Yu; Kadowaki, Daisuke; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Hirata, Sumio; Maruyama, Toru; Fukunaga, Eiko

2014-10-01

79

HIGH-LEVEL SCRIPTING AVATAR ANIMATION  

E-print Network

HIGH-LEVEL SCRIPTING AVATAR ANIMATION #12;ANIMATION SCRIPT Voice synthesizer Face muscle Control ) 3-D ARTICULATED AVATAR Avatar /"Machine" ­ level Instructions Story-level Instructions language for avatar animation · Highest level of abstraction: story-level description ­ constrained English

Petriu, Emil M.

80

Increased serum procalcitonin levels in pregnant patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria  

PubMed Central

Background Among the pregnancy urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is the most common one. Untreated ASB can progress to pyelonephritis in 30-50% of the patients and can also result in prematurity in 27% of the pregnancy so it needs immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we wanted to evaluate procalcitonin levels, compared to other inflammatory in pregnant women with ASB. Methods The study was designed between the period of January 2012 and February 2013 at Sakarya University School of Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The study population included 30 pregnant patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria and 39 healthy pregnant controls. Results Mean age was 28 (SD, 5.5) of the study population; mean maternal weight was 70 (SD, 8) kilogram. There were no statically significant differences between the groups according to the routine biochemical parameters, but gestational age was significantly lower in the ASB group compared to the controls (20.4 vs 28.6, respectively; p?levels were negative in all of the controls. In ASB group, 9 (30%) patients had procalcitonin levels greater than >0.05 ng/ml and 21(70%) patients had negative procalcitonin levels (Chi-squrae, p?patients, 87%), Proteus mirabilis (3 patients, 10%) and Klebsiella (1 patient, 3%) in the ASB group. We experienced four (44%) recurrences among nine positive procalcitonin in ASB patients after completion of treatment of the first ASB diagnosis. Discussion Procalcitonin levels were significantly higher in ASB group than the control group and serum procalcitonin levels were higher in pregnant women with recurrent ASB. This finding is an important result revealed that high procalcitonin level can predict the further urinary tract infection risk. Finally, serum procalcitonin levels were normal in healthy pregnant women while other inflammatory markers such as WBC, ESR and CRP levels were higher. PMID:24006912

2013-01-01

81

Immune Dysfunction in Rett Syndrome Patients Revealed by High Levels of Serum Anti-N(Glc) IgM Antibody Fraction  

PubMed Central

Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting exclusively (99%) female infants, is associated with loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) and, more rarely, cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) and forkhead box protein G1 (FOXG1). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the function of the immune system by measuring serum immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM) in RTT patients (n = 53) and, by comparison, in age-matched children affected by non-RTT pervasive developmental disorders (non-RTT PDD) (n = 82) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 29). To determine immunoglobulins we used both a conventional agglutination assay and a novel ELISA based on antibody recognition by a surrogate antigen probe, CSF114(Glc), a synthetic N-glucosylated peptide. Both assays provided evidence for an increase in IgM titer, but not in IgG, in RTT patients relative to both healthy controls and non-RTT PDD patients. The significant difference in IgM titers between RTT patients and healthy subjects in the CSF114(Glc) assay (P = 0.001) suggests that this procedure specifically detects a fraction of IgM antibodies likely to be relevant for the RTT disease. These findings offer a new insight into the mechanism underlying the Rett disease as they unveil the possible involvement of the immune system in this pathology. PMID:25389532

Papini, Anna Maria; Real-Fernandez, Feliciana; Rossi, Giada; Tiberi, Caterina; Sabatino, Giuseppina; Pandey, Shashank; Lavielle, Solange; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

2014-01-01

82

High Levels of Interleukin 10 Production In Vivo Are Associated with Tolerance in SCID Patients Transplanted with HLA Mismatched Hematopoietic Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sttnary Transplantation of HLA mismatched hematopoietic stem cells in patients with severe combined immunoddiciency (SCID) can result in a selective engraftment of T cells of donor origin with complete immunologic reconstitution and in vivo tolerance. The latter may occur in the absence of clonal deletion of donor T lymphocytes able to recognize the host HLA antigens. The activity of these

Rosa Bacchetta; Mike Bigler; Jean-Louis Touraine; Robertson Parkman; Pier-Angelo Tovo; John Abrams; Jan E. de Vries; Maria-Grazia Roncarolo

83

Efficacy of As-Needed Nalmefene in Alcohol-Dependent Patients with at Least a High Drinking Risk Level: Results from a Subgroup Analysis of Two Randomized Controlled 6-Month Studies  

PubMed Central

Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of as-needed use of nalmefene 18 mg versus placebo in reducing alcohol consumption in patients who did not reduce their alcohol consumption after an initial assessment, i.e. the pooled subgroup of patients with at least a high drinking risk level (men: >60 g/day; women: >40 g/day) at both screening and randomization from the two randomized controlled 6-month studies ESENSE 1 (NCT00811720) and ESENSE 2 (NCT00812461). Methods: Nalmefene 18 mg and placebo were taken on an as-needed basis. All the patients also received a motivational and adherence-enhancing intervention (BRENDA). The co-primary outcomes were number of heavy drinking days (HDDs) and mean total alcohol consumption (g/day) in Month 6 measured using the Timeline Follow-back method. Additionally, data on clinical improvement, liver function and safety were collected throughout the study. Results: The pooled population consisted of 667 patients: placebo n = 332; nalmefene n = 335. There was a superior effect of nalmefene compared with placebo in reducing the number of HDDs [treatment difference: ?3.2 days (95% CI: ?4.8; ?1.6); P < 0.0001] and total alcohol consumption [treatment difference: ?14.3 g/day (?20.8; ?7.8); P < 0.0001] at Month 6. Improvements in clinical status and liver parameters were greater in the nalmefene group compared with the placebo group. Adverse events and adverse events leading to dropout were more common with nalmefene than placebo. Conclusion: As-needed nalmefene was efficacious in reducing alcohol consumption in patients with at least a high drinking risk level at both screening and randomization, and the effect in this subgroup was larger than in the total population. PMID:23873853

van den Brink, Wim; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Bladstrom, Anna; Torup, Lars; Gual, Antoni; Mann, Karl

2013-01-01

84

Neuropsychological divergence of high-level autism and severe dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between cognitive deficits in high-level autism and those in learning disabilities has received little attention. To determine whether high-functioning autistic patients and individuals with severe dyslexia display different cognitive characteristics, 10 nonretarded men (mean age 26 years) with infantile autism, residual state, were compared with 15 severely dyslexic men (mean age 22 years) and 25 matched controls on

Judith M. Rumsey; Susan D. Hamburger

1990-01-01

85

Tutorial on high-level synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-level synthesis takes an abstract behavioral specification of a digital system and finds a register-transfer level structure that realizes the given behavior. In this tutorial we will examine the high-level synthesis task, showing how it can be decomposed into a number of distinct but not independent subtasks. Then we will present the techniques that have been developed for solving those

Michael C. McFarland; Alice C. Parker; Raul Carnposano

1988-01-01

86

Altered Lipid Levels in Untreated Patients with Early Polymyositis  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known so far on the lipid profile in polymyositis (PM) patients. Our aim is to identify lipid profiles in untreated patients with early PM, to assess the association between lipid profiles and C-reactive protein (a sensitive marker of inflammation) in these patients. Methods and Findings This work was conducted as a case-control study. Sixty untreated patients with PM and 60 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included. The duration of PM was less than six months, and none of them had received intermittent or regular corticosteroids or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs or biological agents prior to the study. Triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed using standard techniques. Thirty patients (50%) had a decreased level of HDL-C and 47% had an increased level of TG. The levels of HDL-C, LDL-C, and TC in PM were significantly lower than in controls (P<0.001, P<0.01, P<0.001, respectively). The level of TG was significantly higher in PM than in controls (P<0.001). The level of very low LDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C), and the ratios of VLDL-C/LDL-C, TC/HDL-C, and LDL-C/HDL-C were significantly higher than in controls (all P<0.001). Serum CRP levels correlated negatively with HDL-C (r?=??0.352, P?=?0.006) and TC (r?=??0.262, P?=?0.043). After adjustment for age, gender, smoking, drinking, body mass index, and pulmonary fibrosis/infection, linear regression model demonstrated that CRP is associated with HDL-C among PM patients (P?=?0.028). Conclusions Dyslipidemia is a common feature in patients with PM that is characterized by a decrease in HDL-C and an increase in TG, suggesting a high risk of atherosclerosis. The Inflammatory condition in PM may account for the metabolism of HDL-C. PMID:24587064

Cai, Lin; Hu, Yingchun; Chen, Xianxiang; Deng, Juelin

2014-01-01

87

Abundant expression of HMGB1 in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-infected T-cell lines and high plasma levels of HMGB1 in patients with adult T-cell leukemia  

PubMed Central

High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) functions as a chromatin-associated nuclear protein and an extracellular signaling molecule. The concentration of HMGB1 protein and the expression of HMGB1 mRNA were analyzed by ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. The present study reports high plasma HMGB1 levels in patients with adult T-cell leukemia [ATL; which is caused by infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)] compared with normal controls. In addition, HMGB1 was highly expressed in HTLV-I-infected T-cell lines compared with uninfected T-cell lines. The HTLV-I oncoprotein, Tax, induced extracellular release of HMGB1 in T cells. The results suggest that HMGB1 is a potential biomarker and a therapeutic target for ATL. PMID:24944700

KIMURA, RYUICHIRO; MORI, NAOKI

2014-01-01

88

Demystifying magic: high-level low-level programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power of high-level languages lies in their abstraction over hardware and software complexity, leading to greater security, bet- ter reliability, and lower development costs. However, opaque ab- stractions are often show-stoppers for systems programmers, forc- ing them to either break the abstraction, or more often, simply give up and use a different language. This paper addresses the challenge of

Daniel Frampton; Stephen M. Blackburn; Perry Cheng; Robin J. Garner; David Grove; J. Eliot B. Moss; Sergey I. Salishev

2009-01-01

89

Treatment with high-dose estrogen (diethylstilbestrol) significantly decreases plasma estrogen and androgen levels but does not influence in vivo aromatization in postmenopausal breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

While growth factors and hormones are known to influence aromatase expression in experimental systems, little is know about potential factors influencing peripheral aromatization in postmenopausal women. The fact that peripheral aromatase activity is higher in old compared to young women and the finding of relatively high tissue estradiol (E2) concentrations after the menopause suggests peripheral aromatization could be influenced by

Jürgen Geisler; Ben Haynes; Gun Anker; Hildegunn Helle; Dagfinn Ekse; Mitch Dowsett; Per Eystein Lønning

2005-01-01

90

Elevated Levels of Serum IL-12 and IL-18 are Associated with Lower Frequencies of CD4(+)CD25 (high)FOXP3 (+) Regulatory T cells in Young Patients with Type 1 Diabetes.  

PubMed

Type 1 diabetes is thought to involve chronic inflammation, which is manifested by the activation and expression of different inflammatory mediators. IL-12 and IL-18 are two cytokines that have been shown to exert strong proinflammatory activity and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes in mice and humans. The overproduction of proinflammatory mediators is controlled by specialized T cell subset, namely regulatory T cells that express FOXP3 transcription factor. Since IL-12 and IL-18 mediate inflammatory response and Tregs exhibit anti-inflammatory potential, we aimed to examine their reciprocal relationship in patients with type 1 diabetes. The study group consisted of 47 children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and 28 healthy individuals. Serum levels of IL-12 and IL-18 were measured by ELISA, and the peripheral blood CD4(+)CD25(high) FOXP3(+) regulatory T cell frequencies were analyzed by flow cytometry. Patients with type 1 diabetes had a decreased percentage of circulating CD4(+)CD25(high)FOXP3(+) Tregs in comparison to their healthy counterparts. In addition, they produced more IL-12 and IL-18 than children from the control group. Concentrations of these cytokines positively correlated with one another, as well as with CRP and HbA1c. Moreover, the negative association between IL-12, IL-18, CRP serum levels, and the frequency of regulatory CD4(+)CD25(high)FOXP3(+) Tregs was observed. IL-12 and IL-18 may have direct or indirect impact on regulatory T cell subset, which may contribute to their reduced frequency in peripheral blood of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24677179

Ryba-Stanis?awowska, Monika; Rybarczyk-Kapturska, Karolina; My?liwiec, Ma?gorzata; My?liwska, Jolanta

2014-10-01

91

Parallel Processing at the High School Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the ability of high school students to cognitively understand and implement parallel processing. Data indicates that most parallel processing is being taught at the university level. Instructional modules on C, Linux, and the parallel processing language, P4, were designed to show that high school students are highly

Sheary, Kathryn Anne

92

Plasma homocysteine levels in female patients with eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine plasma homocysteine, vitamin B(12), and folate levels in females with restricting and bingeing\\/purging eating disorders (EDs). METHOD: Adolescent and adult female patients were compared to appropriate control groups with regard to plasma homocysteine levels. RESULTS: The plasma homocysteine level of the adult ED patients was higher than that of controls for all age groups examined. In adolescents,

Joseph Levine; Eitan Gur; Ron Loewenthal; Tali Vishne; Tzvi Dwolatzky; I. M. van Beijnum; Ben-Ami Sela; Iris Vered; Galit Yosef; Daniel Stein

2007-01-01

93

The utility of the Historical Clinical Risk -20 Scale as a predictor of outcomes in decisions to transfer patients from high to lower levels of security-A UK perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Structured Professional Judgment (SPJ) approaches to violence risk assessment are increasingly being adopted into clinical practice in international forensic settings. The aim of this study was to examine the predictive validity of the Historical Clinical Risk -20 (HCR-20) violence risk assessment scale for outcome following transfers from high to medium security in a United Kingdom setting. Methods The sample was predominately male and mentally ill and the majority of cases were detained under the criminal section of the Mental Health Act (1986). The HCR-20 was rated based on detailed case file information on 72 cases transferred from high to medium security. Outcomes were examined, independent of risk score, and cases were classed as "success or failure" based on established criteria. Results The mean length of follow up was 6 years. The total HCR-20 score was a robust predictor of failure at lower levels of security and return to high security. The Clinical and Risk management items contributed most to predictive accuracy. Conclusions Although the HCR-20 was designed as a violence risk prediction tool our findings suggest it has potential utility in decisions to transfer patients from high to lower levels of security. PMID:20920217

2010-01-01

94

Effect of hemoglobin levels in hemodialysis patients with asymptomatic cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of hemoglobin levels in hemodialysis patients with asymptomatic cardiomyopathy.BackgroundHemoglobin levels below 10 g\\/dL lead to left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, LV dilation, a lower quality of life, higher cardiac morbidity, and a higher mortality rate in end-stage renal disease. The benefits and risks of normalizing hemoglobin levels in hemodialysis patients without symptomatic cardiac disease are unknown.MethodsOne hundred forty-six hemodialysis patients

Robert N Foley; Patrick S Parfrey; Janet Morgan; Paul E Barré; Patricia Campbell; Pierre Cartier; Douglas Coyle; Adrian Fine; Paul Handa; Iris Kingma; Cathy Y Lau; Adeera Levin; David Mendelssohn; Norman Muirhead; Brendan Murphy; Richard K Plante; Gerald Posen; George A Wells

2000-01-01

95

High level indole signalling in Escherichia coli  

E-print Network

1 High level indole signalling in Escherichia coli Hannah Dorne Gaimster Girton College Department of Genetics A dissertation submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy: April 2014 2 Title High level... indole signalling in Escherichia coli Abstract Indole is a small signalling molecule, produced by many species of bacteria, including Escherichia coli. It is made by the enzyme tryptophanase, which converts tryptophan into indole, pyruvate and ammonia...

Gaimster, Hannah Dorne

2014-06-10

96

High-Level Application Framework for LCLS  

SciTech Connect

A framework for high level accelerator application software is being developed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The framework is based on plug-in technology developed by an open source project, Eclipse. Many existing functionalities provided by Eclipse are available to high-level applications written within this framework. The framework also contains static data storage configuration and dynamic data connectivity. Because the framework is Eclipse-based, it is highly compatible with any other Eclipse plug-ins. The entire infrastructure of the software framework will be presented. Planned applications and plug-ins based on the framework are also presented.

Chu, P; Chevtsov, S.; Fairley, D.; Larrieu, C.; Rock, J.; Rogind, D.; White, G.; Zalazny, M.; /SLAC

2008-04-22

97

Association between hemoglobin variability, serum ferritin levels, and adverse events/mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

In recent times, therapy for renal anemia has changed dramatically in that iron administration has increased and doses of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have decreased. Here we used a prospective, observational, multicenter design and measured the serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels every 3 months for 2 years in 1086 patients on maintenance hemodialysis therapy. The associations of adverse events with fluctuations in ferritin and hemoglobin levels and ESA and iron doses were measured using a Cox proportional hazards model for time-dependent variables. The risks of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease (CCVD), infection, and hospitalization were higher among patients who failed to maintain a target-range hemoglobin level and who exhibited high-amplitude fluctuations in hemoglobin compared with patients who maintained a target-range hemoglobin level. Patients with a higher compared with a lower ferritin level had an elevated risk of CCVD and infectious disease. Moreover, the risk of death was significantly higher among patients with high-amplitude ferritin fluctuations compared with those with a low ferritin level. The risks of CCVD, infection, and hospitalization were significantly higher among patients who were treated with high weekly doses of intravenous iron compared with no intravenous iron. Thus, there is a high risk of death and/or adverse events in patients with hemoglobin levels outside the target range, in those with high-amplitude hemoglobin fluctuations, in those with consistently high serum ferritin levels, and in those with high-amplitude ferritin fluctuations. PMID:24759150

Kuragano, Takahiro; Matsumura, Osamu; Matsuda, Akihiko; Hara, Taiga; Kiyomoto, Hideyasu; Murata, Toshiaki; Kitamura, Kenichiro; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Hase, Hiroki; Joki, Nobuhiko; Fukatsu, Atushi; Inoue, Toru; Itakura, Ikuhiro; Nakanishi, Takeshi

2014-10-01

98

Serum levels of leptin receptor in patients with systemic sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Microvascular damage is one of the primary pathologic components of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Serological abnormalities of angiogenic and angiostatic factors in SSc have previously been described. Like these factors, the plasma levels of leptin were significantly elevated in patients with SSc in comparison to normal controls. However, leptin receptor has not been examined in patients with SSc. The current study used sandwich ELISA to evaluate the serum levels of leptin receptor in patients with SSc. Serum samples were obtained from 36 patients with SSc. Samples were also obtained from 12 healthy control subjects and 10 patients with scleroderma spectrum disorder (SSD) who did not fulfill the criteria for SSc but who had the potential to develop SSc. Mean serum leptin receptor levels were significantly higher in patients with SSD than in patients with SSc (255.7 ng/mL vs. 184.6 ng/mL, p < 0.05 according to a Mann-Whitney test). There were no statistically significant differences between healthy control subjects and patients with SSc. Clinical parameters were evaluated, and the frequency of esophageal reflux was significantly lower in patients with elevated serum leptin receptor levels than in those with reduced levels (6.3% vs. 35.3%, p < 0.05). In summary, these results suggest that the serum levels of leptin receptor are a clinically useful marker of SSD, and measurement of serum leptin receptor over time in patients with SSD may lead to early detection of SSc. PMID:25343103

Ohyoshi, Yukimi; Makino, Takamitsu; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Nakayama, Wakana; Fukushima, Satoshi; Inoue, Yuji; Ihn, Hironobu

2013-01-01

99

Serum transcortin levels in patients with chronic hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Patients with renal insufficiency who are hemodialyzed 3 times a week either through a cuprophane membrane or through a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membrane have the same transcortin and cortisol levels as patients with renal insufficiency who are not dialyzed. Moreover, hemodialysis did not influence acutely the latter transcortin levels. PMID:3927790

De Moor, P; Faict, D; Verberckmoes, R

1985-01-01

100

Plasma catalase activity and malondialdehyde level in patients with cataract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose Oxidative mechanisms play a major role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of cataract, especially in age-related cataract. Our study aims to investigate systemic oxidant and antioxidant markers in cataract patients.Methods The activity of erythrocyte catalase and the level of malondialdehyde in plasma were measured in 40 patients with cataract and 60 healthy control subjects. The malondialdehyde level, as an

N A Ate?; Ö Yildirim; L Tamer; A Ünlü; B Ercan; N Mu?lu; A Kanik; R Hatungil; U Atik

2004-01-01

101

Association of blood pressure and PCB level in Yusho patients  

SciTech Connect

Correlations of blood polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels or PCB patterns and blood pressures were studied in 59 patients with Yusho (PCB poisoning) above 40 years old. In spite of the passage of 13 years from the onset, 52.5% of these patients still have PCB levels higher than the range found in the general population. The frequency of hypertension in the patients was 16.9%, a value similar to that expected on the basis of the rate for a population of the same age and sex compositions. As an independent variable, the blood pressure of patients was not associated with blood PCB levels and PCB patterns. No PCB blood pressure association was confirmed in 20 patients with PCB levels persistently higher than 5 ppb for 9 years. On the other hand, age, obesity and habitual alcohol intake, known influencing factors for hypertension, tended to be positively associated with elevated blood pressure in these Yusho patients.

Akagi, K.; Okumura, M.

1985-02-01

102

Association of blood pressure and PCB level in yusho patients.  

PubMed

Correlations of blood polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels or PCB patterns and blood pressures were studied in 59 patients with yusho (PCB poisoning) above 40 years old. In spite of the passage of 13 years from the onset, 52.5% of these patients still have PCB levels higher than the range found in the general population. The frequency of hypertension in the patients was 16.9%, a value similar to that expected on the basis of the rate for a population of the same age and sex compositions. As an independent variable, the blood pressure of patients was not associated with blood PCB levels and PCB patterns. No PCB blood pressure association was confirmed in 20 patients with PCB levels persistently higher than 5 ppb for 9 years. On the other hand, age, obesity and habitual alcohol intake, known influencing factors for hypertension, tended to be positively associated with elevated blood pressure in these yusho patients. PMID:3921361

Akagi, K; Okumura, M

1985-02-01

103

Association of blood pressure and PCB level in yusho patients.  

PubMed Central

Correlations of blood polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels or PCB patterns and blood pressures were studied in 59 patients with yusho (PCB poisoning) above 40 years old. In spite of the passage of 13 years from the onset, 52.5% of these patients still have PCB levels higher than the range found in the general population. The frequency of hypertension in the patients was 16.9%, a value similar to that expected on the basis of the rate for a population of the same age and sex compositions. As an independent variable, the blood pressure of patients was not associated with blood PCB levels and PCB patterns. No PCB blood pressure association was confirmed in 20 patients with PCB levels persistently higher than 5 ppb for 9 years. On the other hand, age, obesity and habitual alcohol intake, known influencing factors for hypertension, tended to be positively associated with elevated blood pressure in these yusho patients. PMID:3921361

Akagi, K; Okumura, M

1985-01-01

104

High level performance estimate of relational queries  

SciTech Connect

Performance estimate of queries is a necessary part of any efficient database design methodology. A high-level performance estimator for relational queries is presented which is different from conventional evaluators such as SYSTEM R (Selinger, Proc. SIGMOD 79) in that performance is predicted without the details of the low-level constructs such as links and indices. Rather, abstractions and reasonable assumptions of these low-level constructs are used in a set of formulas to estimate the performance of a set of queries against a schema. The major results of the paper are the realization and motivation of the need of high-level performance estimators of this kind, and a fast way to estimate the cost of N-way joins. The second result is interesting in that the algorithm for N-way joins is found to be similar to matrix multiplication optimization, with straightforward extensions.

Wong, H.K.T.

1980-08-01

105

Case hardenability at high carbon levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loss of hardenability in the case was thought to be responsible for a lower than specified hardness found on a large carburized bushing. Pseudo Jominy testing on several high hardenability carburizing grades confirmed that hardenability fade was present at carbon levels above 0.65% and particularly for those steels containing molybdenum. Analysis of previous work provided a formula for calculating Jominy hardenability at various carbon levels. Again the results confirmed that the loss of hardenability was more severe in steels containing molybdenum.

Walton, H. W.

1995-02-01

106

Increased bone strontium levels in hemodialysis patients with osteomalacia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased bone strontium levels in hemodialysis patients with osteomalacia.BackgroundIn this study, we report on the association between increased bone strontium levels and the presence of osteomalacia in end-stage renal failure patients treated by hemodialysis.MethodsWe performed a histologic examination and determined the strontium content and strontium\\/calcium ratios in bone biopsies of 100 hemodialysis patients recruited from various centers all over the

Patrick C D'Haese; Iris Schrooten; William G Goodman; Walter E Cabrera; Ludwig V Lamberts; Monique M Elseviers; Marie-M Couttenye; Marc E De Broe

2000-01-01

107

A Software Architecture for High Level Applications  

SciTech Connect

A modular software platform for high level applications is under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source II project. This platform is based on client-server architecture, and the components of high level applications on this platform will be modular and distributed, and therefore reusable. An online model server is indispensable for model based control. Different accelerator facilities have different requirements for the online simulation. To supply various accelerator simulators, a set of narrow and general application programming interfaces is developed based on Tracy-3 and Elegant. This paper describes the system architecture for the modular high level applications, the design of narrow and general application programming interface for an online model server, and the prototype of online model server.

Shen,G.

2009-05-04

108

High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

1984-09-01

109

High-Level Waste Melter Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is faced with a massive cleanup task in resolving the legacy of environmental problems from years of manufacturing nuclear weapons. One of the major activities within this task is the treatment and disposal of the extremely large amount of high-level radioactive (HLW) waste stored at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The current planning

J. Ahearne; J. Gentilucci; L. D. Pye; T. Weber; F. Woolley; N. P. Machara; K. Gerdes; C. Cooley

2002-01-01

110

Applying simulated evolution to high level synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general optimization algorithm known as simulated evolution (SE) is applied to the tasks of scheduling and allocation in high level synthesis. Basically, SE-based synthesis explores the design space by repeatedly ripping up parts of a design in a probabilistic manner and reconstructing them using application-specific heuristics that combine rapid design iterations and probabilistic hill climbing to achieve effective design

Tai A. Ly; Jack T. Mowchenko

1993-01-01

111

Network-Based High Level Data Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional supervised data classification considers only physical features (e.g., distance or similarity) of the input data. Here, this type of learning is called low level classification. On the other hand, the human (animal) brain performs both low and high orders of learning and it has facility in identifying patterns according to the semantic meaning of the input data. Data classification

Thiago Christiano Silva; Liang Zhao

2012-01-01

112

Elevated Tribbles homolog 2-specific antibody levels in narcolepsy patients.  

PubMed

Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and attacks of muscle atonia triggered by strong emotions (cataplexy). Narcolepsy is caused by hypocretin (orexin) deficiency, paralleled by a dramatic loss in hypothalamic hypocretin-producing neurons. It is believed that narcolepsy is an autoimmune disorder, although definitive proof of this, such as the presence of autoantibodies, is still lacking. We engineered a transgenic mouse model to identify peptides enriched within hypocretin-producing neurons that could serve as potential autoimmune targets. Initial analysis indicated that the transcript encoding Tribbles homolog 2 (Trib2), previously identified as an autoantigen in autoimmune uveitis, was enriched in hypocretin neurons in these mice. ELISA analysis showed that sera from narcolepsy patients with cataplexy had higher Trib2-specific antibody titers compared with either normal controls or patients with idiopathic hypersomnia, multiple sclerosis, or other inflammatory neurological disorders. Trib2-specific antibody titers were highest early after narcolepsy onset, sharply decreased within 2-3 years, and then stabilized at levels substantially higher than that of controls for up to 30 years. High Trib2-specific antibody titers correlated with the severity of cataplexy. Serum of a patient showed specific immunoreactivity with over 86% of hypocretin neurons in the mouse hypothalamus. Thus, we have identified reactive autoantibodies in human narcolepsy, providing evidence that narcolepsy is an autoimmune disorder. PMID:20160349

Cvetkovic-Lopes, Vesna; Bayer, Laurence; Dorsaz, Stéphane; Maret, Stéphanie; Pradervand, Sylvain; Dauvilliers, Yves; Lecendreux, Michel; Lammers, Gert-Jan; Donjacour, Claire E H M; Du Pasquier, Renaud A; Pfister, Corinne; Petit, Brice; Hor, Hyun; Mühlethaler, Michel; Tafti, Mehdi

2010-03-01

113

Reduced platelet BDNF level in patients with major depression.  

PubMed

Serum and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels as well as brain BDNF have previously been shown to be decreased in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We explored whether platelet BDNF levels, circulating stored BDNF, would be lower in MDD patients than in normal controls. BDNF levels were examined in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) in 20 hospitalized non-suicidal MDD patients, 20 recent-suicidal MDD patients, and 20 normal controls. Platelet BDNF content was calculated by subtracting PPP BDNF level from PRP BDNF level, and dividing the result by the total platelet count, and it was expressed as pg/10(6) platelets. Individuals were evaluated using a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Platelet BDNF contents were significantly lower in non-suicidal patients (3.09+/-2.53 pg/10(6) platelets) and recent-suicidal MDD patients (3.16+/-1.99 pg/10(6) platelets) than in healthy controls (6.17+/-2.64 pg/10(6) platelets) (p<0.01). However, platelet BDNF contents had no significant differences between non-suicidal and recent-suicidal patients. PRP BDNF levels were also significantly lower in non-suicidal and suicidal MDD patients than in healthy controls (p=0.029), while PPP BDNF had no significant difference between 3 groups (p=0.971). Our findings suggest that there is a decrease in the platelet BDNF of patients with major depression. Reduced platelet BDNF contents as circulating stored BDNF could be associated with lower serum BDNF level in patients with major depression. PMID:19371767

Lee, Bun-Hee; Kim, Yong-Ku

2009-08-01

114

The CMS High-Level Trigger  

SciTech Connect

At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the 'High-Level Trigger'(HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, {tau} leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

Covarelli, R. [CERN, Geneva 1211 (Switzerland)

2009-12-17

115

Plants tolerant of high boron levels.  

PubMed

Reduced crop productivity due to soils containing toxic levels of boron (B) is a worldwide problem in food production. It is estimated that up to 17% of the barley yield losses in southern Australia are caused by B toxicity. We found that the expression of AtBOR4, an Arabidopsis paralog of BOR1, the first identified boron transporter gene, generates plants that are tolerant of high B levels. BOR4 is a polarly localized borate exporter that enhances B efflux from roots. The present study is a foundation for the improvement of crop productivity in soils containing excess B, which are distributed in arid areas of the world. PMID:18048682

Miwa, Kyoko; Takano, Junpei; Omori, Hiroyuki; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Fujiwara, Toru

2007-11-30

116

High-Level Integration of Data Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the key capabilities required for data systems of the future is the integration of high-level systems and services into their design. Future systems need to provide users with integrated access to distributed and diverse scientific data holdings, models, services, and tools in order to increase the science and educational return from the data. These new capabilities go well beyond the garden variety "get me data" types of services and should be accomplished as part of a broader structure which ties together existing systems at the same time as introducing new capabilities. Here, we present the high-level integration of systems and services as the necessary pieces to accomplish this as well as some lessons learned. and http://sd-www.jhuapl.edu/SPDML/index.php

Weiss, M.; Morrison, D.; Daley, R.; Immer, E.; Hashemian, M.; Fortner, B.; Jen, J.; Holder, R.

2005-12-01

117

Immobilization of high level waste in Synroc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synroc, a polyphase titanate ceramic, is being developed in Australia as a second generation waste from for the immobilization of high-level waste (HLW) from nuclear plants. The waste form, produced by reactive hot-pressing, has excellent resistance to leaching and there is good evidence that the long-term release rate of elements from Synroc will be of the order of 10\\/sup \\/minus\\/4\\/

A. Jostsons; K. D. Reeve

1988-01-01

118

Increased serum strontium levels in dialysis patients: An epidemiological survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased serum strontium levels in dialysis patients: An epidemiological survey.BackgroundWe previously reported on increased bone strontium levels in dialysis patients with osteomalacia versus those presenting other types of renal osteodystrophy. A causal role of strontium in the development of osteomalacia was established in a chronic renal failure rat model.MethodsTo further elucidate the latter issue and to find out whether dialysis

Iris Schrooten; Monique M. Elseviers; Ludwig V. Lamberts; Marc E. De Broe; Patrick C. D'Haese

1999-01-01

119

Soluble ICAM-1 serum levels in patients with intermediate uveitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo investigate whether serum levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) can serve as a marker of the presence of systemic disease in intermediate uveitis.METHODSIn a multicentre study sICAM-1 serum levels were measured in 61 patients with idiopathic intermediate uveitis, controls included 56 uveitis patients with a systemic disease (26 sarcoid associated uveitis and 30 HLA-B27 positive acute anterior

Anne-Marie Klok; Leny Luyendijk; Michel J W Zaal; Aniki Rothova; Aize Kijlstra

1999-01-01

120

Low Catalase Levels in the Epidermis of Patients with Vitiligo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suction blister roofs taken from the involve and uninvolved epidermis of patients with vitiligo showed a consistent reduction in level of catalase compared to normal healthy controls of matched photo-skin types (Fitzpatrick classification). A decrease in catalase activity is expected to increase the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the epidermis of these patients. Hydrogen peroxide function as a reversible inhibitor

Karin U. Schallreuter; John M. Wood; Jürgen Berger

1991-01-01

121

Arterial Oxygen Content Is Precisely Maintained by Graded Erythrocytotic Responses in Settings of High/Normal Serum Iron Levels, and Predicts Exercise Capacity: An Observational Study of Hypoxaemic Patients with Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations  

PubMed Central

Background Oxygen, haemoglobin and cardiac output are integrated components of oxygen transport: each gram of haemoglobin transports 1.34 mls of oxygen in the blood. Low arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), and haemoglobin saturation (SaO2), are the indices used in clinical assessments, and usually result from low inspired oxygen concentrations, or alveolar/airways disease. Our objective was to examine low blood oxygen/haemoglobin relationships in chronically compensated states without concurrent hypoxic pulmonary vasoreactivity. Methodology 165 consecutive unselected patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations were studied, in 98 cases, pre/post embolisation treatment. 159 (96%) had hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. Arterial oxygen content was calculated by SaO2 x haemoglobin x 1.34/100. Principal Findings There was wide variation in SaO2 on air (78.5–99, median 95)% but due to secondary erythrocytosis and resultant polycythaemia, SaO2 explained only 0.1% of the variance in arterial oxygen content per unit blood volume. Secondary erythrocytosis was achievable with low iron stores, but only if serum iron was high-normal: Low serum iron levels were associated with reduced haemoglobin per erythrocyte, and overall arterial oxygen content was lower in iron deficient patients (median 16.0 [IQR 14.9, 17.4]mls/dL compared to 18.8 [IQR 17.4, 20.1]mls/dL, p<0.0001). Exercise tolerance appeared unrelated to SaO2 but was significantly worse in patients with lower oxygen content (p<0.0001). A pre-defined athletic group had higher Hb:SaO2 and serum iron:ferritin ratios than non-athletes with normal exercise capacity. PAVM embolisation increased SaO2, but arterial oxygen content was precisely restored by a subsequent fall in haemoglobin: 86 (87.8%) patients reported no change in exercise tolerance at post-embolisation follow-up. Significance Haemoglobin and oxygen measurements in isolation do not indicate the more physiologically relevant oxygen content per unit blood volume. This can be maintained for SaO2 ?78.5%, and resets to the same arterial oxygen content after correction of hypoxaemia. Serum iron concentrations, not ferritin, seem to predict more successful polycythaemic responses. PMID:24637882

Santhirapala, Vatshalan; Williams, Louisa C.; Tighe, Hannah C.; Jackson, James E.; Shovlin, Claire L.

2014-01-01

122

Endothelin-1 Levels in Scleroderma Patients: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent endogenous vasoconstrictor, which mediates vascular wall cells proliferation, fibrosis, and inflammation through two types of ET-1 receptors (ET-A and ET-B). In our retrospective study the serum levels of ET-1 in 18 systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients with and without digital ulcers (DUs) were assessed to observe possible correlation between the levels of ET-1, the evolution of SSc, and the therapy with an ET-1 antagonist (bosentan). In all our patients, the levels of ET-1 were found higher than normal range and correlate with the severity of the disease. Furthermore we also observed that in patients without DUs the levels of ET-1 were higher and did not correlate with new DUs development. In conclusion, the levels of ET-1 in our studied patients do not correlate with the possible development of DUs. The reduction of ET-1 levels in DUs patients in therapy with bosentan confirms the efficacy of this molecule both for treatment and prevention of digital ulcers. The inhibition of ET-A receptor by its antagonist may activate the opposite ET-B receptors, with well-known function ET-1 degradation and reducing of ET-1 serum level as confirmed in our pilot study. PMID:23984086

Cozzani, Emanuele; Javor, Sanja; Drosera, Massimo; Parodi, Aurora

2013-01-01

123

Elevated thrombopoietin serum levels in patients with inflammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Elevated platelet count is a well recognized marker of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity. Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a critical cytokine in the physiological regulation of thrombopoiesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels of endogenous TPO in patients with IBD, the relationship between platelet counts and TPO levels, and the correlation of TPO with the clinical

Andreas N Kapsoritakis; Spiros P Potamianos; Aekaterini I Sfiridaki; Michael I Koukourakis; Ioannis E Koutroubakis; Maria I Roussomoustakaki; Orestes N Manousos; Elias A Kouroumalis

2000-01-01

124

Serum Sialic Acid Levels in Lung Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of N-acetyl neuraminic acid (sialic acid) in normal men and pre-and post-menopausal women were determined. Smoking, post-menopausal estrogen therapy, oral contraceptives, and refreezing had no effects on sialic acid levels. Pre-treatment values from patients with lung carcinoma showed markedly elevated levels of sialic acid (0.697 ± 0.149 ?M\\/ml) as compared to those from normal controls (0.432 ± 0.067

F. J. Krolikowski; K. Reuter; T. P. Waalkes; S. M. Sieber; R. H. Adamson

1976-01-01

125

Heparanase Levels Are Elevated in the Urine and Plasma of Type 2 Diabetes Patients and Associate with Blood Glucose Levels  

PubMed Central

Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that specifically cleaves heparan sulfate side chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Utilizing an ELISA method capable of detection and quantification of heparanase, we examined heparanase levels in the plasma and urine of a cohort of 29 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 14 T2DM patients who underwent kidney transplantation, and 47 healthy volunteers. We provide evidence that heparanase levels in the urine of T2DM patients are markedly elevated compared to healthy controls (1162±181 vs. 156±29.6 pg/ml for T2DM and healthy controls, respectively), increase that is statistically highly significant (P<0.0001). Notably, heparanase levels were appreciably decreased in the urine of T2DM patients who underwent kidney transplantation, albeit remained still higher than healthy individuals (P<0.0001). Increased heparanase levels were also found in the plasma of T2DM patients. Importantly, urine heparanase was associated with elevated blood glucose levels, implying that glucose mediates heparanase upregulation and secretion into the urine and blood. Utilizing an in vitro system, we show that insulin stimulates heparanase secretion by kidney 293 cells, and even higher secretion is observed when insulin is added to cells maintained under high glucose conditions. These results provide evidence for a significant involvement of heparanase in diabetic complications. PMID:21364956

Shafat, Itay; Ilan, Neta; Zoabi, Samih; Vlodavsky, Israel; Nakhoul, Farid

2011-01-01

126

Regulation of high density lipoprotein levels  

SciTech Connect

An increasing awareness of the physiologic and pathologic importance of serum high density lipoproteins (HDL) has led to a large number of observations regarding factors which influence their concentrations. HDL consists of a heterogeneous collection of macromolecules with diverse physical properties and chemical constituents. While laboratory techniques have made it possible to measure HDL and their individual components, there are as yet large gaps in our knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms and clinical significance of changes in these laboratory parameters. In this review, current concepts of the structure and metabolism of HDL will be briefly summarized, and the factors influencing their levels in humans will be surveyed. 313 references.

Krauss, R.M.

1982-03-01

127

Single-dose infliximab in hepatitis C genotype 1 treatmentnaive patients with high serum levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha does not influence the efficacy of pegylated interferon alpha-2b/ribavirin therapy  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) levels correlate negatively with hepatitis C virus (HCV) antiviral response. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that a single infliximab induction dose would positively influence on-treatment virological response and sustained virological response (SVR). METHODS: The present study was a phase IIIB, randomized, prospective, open-label pilot trial conducted at eight Canadian sites. Treatment-naive HCV genotype 1-infected patients 18 to 65 years of age with high serum TNF-? values (>300 pg/mL) were randomly assigned to receive a single pretreatment induction infliximab infusion (5 mg/kg) seven days before antiviral therapy (arm A) or no pretreatment (arm B). All patients received pegylated interferon ?2b (1.5 ?g/kg/week) plus weight-based ribavirin (800 mg/day to 1400 mg/day) for up to 48 weeks. RESULTS: Eighty-five patients (arm A [n=41], arm B [n=44]; 70% male) received pegylated interferon ?2b. The mean age (48.1 years), race (81% white) and METAVIR fibrosis stage (F0–2 = 79%, F3–4 = 21%) were similar between groups. Infliximab was well tolerated without attributable severe adverse events; 56.5% completed the study (arm A [n=21], arm B [n=27]). Most discontinuations were due to virological failure at weeks 12 (n=20 [23.5%]) and 24 (n=7 [8.2%]) and did not differ according to group. Numerically lower proportions of infliximab recipients achieved rapid virological response (19.5% versus 36.4%), complete early virological response (43.9% versus 59.1%) and SVR (34.1% versus 52.3%). However, between-group differences did not reach statistical significance. No differences in adverse event profile or laboratory measures were noted. CONCLUSION: A single infliximab dose before pegylated-interferon ?2b and ribavirin therapy did not result in greater viral decline during the first 12 weeks of HCV therapy or improved SVR. PMID:24212915

Cooper, Curtis; Shafran, Stephen; Greenbloom, Susan; Enns, Robert; Farley, John; Hilzenrat, Nir; Williams, Kurt; Elkashab, Magdy; Abadir, Nabil; Neuman, Manuela

2014-01-01

128

Effect of Health Information Technology Expenditure on Patient Level Cost  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study investigate the effect of health information technology (IT) expenditure on individual patient-level cost using California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) data obtained from 2000 to 2007. Methods We used a traditional cost function and applied hospital fixed effect and clustered error within hospitals. Results We found that a quadratic function of IT expenditure best fit the data. The quadratic function in IT expenditure predicts a decrease in cost of up to US$1,550 of IT labor per bed, US$27,909 of IT capital per bed, and US$28,695 of all IT expenditure per bed. Moreover, we found that IT expenditure reduced costs more quickly in medical conditions than surgical diseases. Conclusions Interest in health IT is increasing more than ever before. Many studies examined the effect of health IT on hospital level cost. However, there have been few studies to examine the relationship between health IT expenditure and individual patient-level cost. We found that IT expenditure was associated with patient cost. In particular, we found a quadratic relationship between IT expenditure and patient-level cost. In other word, patient-level cost is non-linearly (or a polynomial of second-order degree) related to IT expenditure. PMID:24175120

Dowd, Bryan

2013-01-01

129

Technetium Chemistry in High-Level Waste  

SciTech Connect

Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry.

Hess, Nancy J.

2006-06-01

130

Significance of serum magnesium levels in critically ill-patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Magnesium is one of the major electrolytes, deficiency of which is frequently overlooked in critical illness, leading to an adverse clinical outcome if not monitored regularly. Settings and Design: Single center prospective observational study of 2 years duration. Materials and Methods: The subjects studied were monitored for serum magnesium levels 2 times: Day 1 and day 4 of intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Patients were divided into normomagnesemic and hypomagnesemic groups and compared for various parameters. Results: Out of 70 critically ill-patients, 50 patients (71.43%) were normomagnesemic, 17 patients (24.29%) were hypomagnesemic and three patients were hypermagnesemic. The stay of the patients in ICU (P > 0.05), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II (APACHE-II) scoring (P = 0.34) and co-morbidity (P = 0.360) showed an insignificant variation between the two groups. Associated electrolyte abnormalities in hypomagnesemic patients were hypokalemia (58.82%), hyponatremia (47.05%), hypocalcemia (70.58%) and hypophosphatemia (29.41%). About 76.47% of hypomagnesemic population was on magnesium lowering drugs while as 46% of normomagnesemic population was on magnesium lowering drugs (P = 0.030). Mortality of hypomagnesemic group was 74.47% while that of normomagnesemic group was 36% (P = 0.004). Conclusion: Hypomagnesemia is a significant electrolyte abnormality in critically ill-patients. Critically ill hypomagnesemic patients have higher mortality than the normomagnesemic patients. PMID:24600576

Zafar, Mir Sadaqat Hassan; Wani, Javaid Iqbal; Karim, Raiesa; Mir, Mohammad Muzaffer; Koul, Parvaiz Ahmad

2014-01-01

131

[Plasma fibronectin level in patients with depression of hematopoiesis].  

PubMed

Plasma fibronectin is regarded to play an important part in a decrease of the resistance to infections. To specify the role of fibronectin in the pathogenesis of infectious complications in patients with depressions of hemopoiesis, the content of this opsonin was measured by ELISA in 113 patients with different patterns of hemoblastoses, lymphoproliferative diseases and with an aplastic syndrome. In 42 patients, the concentration of opsonin was measured in the presence of the superimposed infection of varying gravity. The fibronectin content was examined in 39 patients before, during and after completion of the cytostatic polychemotherapy. It turned out that in patients with paraproteinemic hemoblastoses, lymphogranulomatosis, aplastic anemia, chronic lympholeukemia, acute lympho- and myelo(mono)blastic leukemias, cyclic neutropenia, chronic myelosis and hematosarcomas, the concentration of fibronectin remained normal in the absence of infections. The computation of the linear correlation ratio did not reveal any association between the opsonin level and the concentration of neoplastic elements in the peripheral blood. Repeated measurements of the fibronectin level in patients whose underlying disease ran its course in association with marked neoplastic fever failed to detect any deficiency of the glycoprotein. The lowering of the fibronectin level was recorded in patients with a grave concomitant infection of the type of sepsis, necrotic enteropathy and lobar pneumonia. The degree of opsonin deficiency correlated with the patients' disease gravity. Prolonged reduction in the blood fibronectin level was of unfavourable prognostic importance. Cytostatic polychemotherapy, myelotoxic agranulocytosis as well as infectious complications of low gravity did not influence the concentration of fibronectin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4049264

Vasil'ev, S A; Savchenko, V G; Margulis, E Ia; Ermolin, G A; Kotelianski?, V E

1985-01-01

132

There Is No Elevation of Immunoglobulin E Levels in Albanian Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases  

PubMed Central

Background. Studies in several ethnic groups reported high incidence of elevated levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD), especially in patients with Graves' disease. Objective. To study association between serum levels of IgE and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) in Albanian patients with ATD. Material and Methods. Study was performed in 40 patients with Graves' disease, 15 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 14 subjects in the control group. The IgE levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay, whereas the TRAb levels were measured by radioreceptor assay. Results. In all groups of subjects the IgE levels were within reference values (<200?kIU/L). Significant difference in mean concentration of IgE was found between two groups of Graves' disease patients, and those with normal and elevated TRAb levels (22.57 versus 45.03, P < 0.05). Positive correlation was found between TRAb and IgE only in Graves' disease patients (r = 0.43, P = 0.006). Conclusion. In Albanian patients with ATD there is no elevation of IgE levels. This could be the result of low prevalence of allergic diseases in Albanian population determined by genetic and environmental factors. PMID:24959371

Gacaferri-Lumezi, Besa; Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta

2014-01-01

133

There is no elevation of immunoglobulin e levels in Albanian patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases.  

PubMed

Background. Studies in several ethnic groups reported high incidence of elevated levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD), especially in patients with Graves' disease. Objective. To study association between serum levels of IgE and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) in Albanian patients with ATD. Material and Methods. Study was performed in 40 patients with Graves' disease, 15 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 14 subjects in the control group. The IgE levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay, whereas the TRAb levels were measured by radioreceptor assay. Results. In all groups of subjects the IgE levels were within reference values (<200?kIU/L). Significant difference in mean concentration of IgE was found between two groups of Graves' disease patients, and those with normal and elevated TRAb levels (22.57 versus 45.03, P < 0.05). Positive correlation was found between TRAb and IgE only in Graves' disease patients (r = 0.43, P = 0.006). Conclusion. In Albanian patients with ATD there is no elevation of IgE levels. This could be the result of low prevalence of allergic diseases in Albanian population determined by genetic and environmental factors. PMID:24959371

Latifi-Pupovci, Hatixhe; Gacaferri-Lumezi, Besa; Lokaj-Berisha, Violeta

2014-01-01

134

Beam size measurement at high radiation levels  

SciTech Connect

At the end of the Stanford Linear Accelerator the high energy electron and positron beams are quite small. Beam sizes below 100 {mu}m ({sigma}) as well as the transverse distribution, especially tails, have to be determined. Fluorescent screens observed by TV cameras provide a quick two-dimensional picture, which can be analyzed by digitization. For running the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) with low backgrounds at the interaction point, collimators are installed at the end of the linac. This causes a high radiation level so that the nearby cameras die within two weeks and so-called radiation hard'' cameras within two months. Therefore an optical system has been built, which guides a 5 mm wide picture with a resolution of about 30 {mu}m over a distance of 12 m to an accessible region. The overall resolution is limited by the screen thickness, optical diffraction and the line resolution of the camera. Vibration, chromatic effects or air fluctuations play a much less important role. The pictures are colored to get fast information about the beam current, size and tails. Beside the emittance, more information about the tail size and betatron phase is obtained by using four screens. This will help to develop tail compensation schemes to decrease the emittance growth in the linac at high currents. 4 refs., 2 figs.

Decker, F.J.

1991-05-01

135

Clinical significance of plasma metastin level in pancreatic cancer patients.  

PubMed

Metastin, which is a 54-residue peptide coded by KiSS-1 gene, is an endogenous ligand to a G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54. Metastin suppresses a malignant tumor to metastasize and regulates secretion of gonadotropine releasing hormone. Physiological action of metastin has been focused on in oncology. It is reported that less KiSS-1 gene and more hOT7T175 gene which codes GPR54 are expressed in pancreatic cancers than in normal pancreatic tissues; however, there is no study that investigates the relationship between clinicopathological characteristics and plasma metastin concentration in pancreatic cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma metastin-like immunoreactive substance (LI) levels and clinical characteristics in pancreatic cancer patients. Thirty-three patients with pathologically confirmed pancreatic cancer before or just after treatments and 24 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Patients were grouped according to the International Union Against Cancer TNM classification. Plasma metastin-LI was measured by enzyme immunoassay. The plasma metastin-LI levels of cancer patients were significantly higher when compared with healthy volunteers. Significant relationship was not found between the plasma metastin-LI levels and the clinicopathological factors such as tumor size, invasion, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. The plasma metastin levels may be a significant biomarker to predict the presence of pancreatic cancer and could be used in pancreatic cancer screening. PMID:19212644

Katagiri, Fumihiko; Nagai, Kazuyuki; Kida, Atsushi; Tomita, Kenji; Oishi, Shinya; Takeyama, Masaharu; Doi, Ryuichiro; Fujii, Nobutaka

2009-03-01

136

Compromised CD4+ CD25high regulatory T-cell function in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis is correlated with a reduced frequency of FOXP3-positive cells and reduced FOXP3 expression at the single-cell level  

PubMed Central

CD4+ CD25high regulatory T cells (Tregs) of patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS), in contrast to those of patients with secondary progressive (SP) MS, show a reduced suppressive function. In this study, we analysed forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) at the single-cell level in MS patients and controls (healthy individuals and patients with other neurological diseases) by means of intracellular flow cytometry. Our data revealed a reduced number of peripheral blood CD4+ CD25high FOXP3+ T cells and lower FOXP3 protein expression per cell in RR-MS patients than in SP-MS patients and control individuals, which was correlated with the suppressive capacity of Tregs in these patients. Interestingly, interferon (IFN)-?-treated RR-MS patients showed restored numbers of FOXP3+ Tregs. Furthermore, a higher percentage of CD4+ CD25high FOXP3+ Tregs in RR-MS patients, as compared with controls and SP-MS patients, expressed CD103 and CD49d, adhesion molecules involved in T-cell recruitment towards inflamed tissues. This was consistent with a significantly increased number of CD27+ CD25high CD4+ T cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as compared with peripheral blood, in RR-MS patients. Taken together, these data show aberrant FOXP3 expression at the single-cell level correlated with Treg dysfunction in RR-MS patients. Our results also suggest that Tregs accumulate in the CSF of RR-MS patients, in an attempt to down-regulate local inflammation in the central nervous system. PMID:17897326

Venken, Koen; Hellings, Niels; Thewissen, Marielle; Somers, Veerle; Hensen, Karen; Rummens, Jean-Luc; Medaer, Robert; Hupperts, Raymond; Stinissen, Piet

2008-01-01

137

Lp-PLA2 levels in HIV-infected patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction HIV-infected patients show an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the general population, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) appears to be an independent predictor of CVD. We aimed to study associations between Lp-PLA2 plasma levels and other risk factors for CVD in HIV patients. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional, comparative study of two series of cases (HIV patients, n=116 and age-matched non-HIV healthy controls, n=113) was conducted. Eighty-seven percent HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), 72.4% with HIV-1 viral load <50 cop/mL. Inflammatory biomarkers (CRP, Lp-PLA2) and internal carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were measured and CVD risk (Framingham and SCORE algorithms) was calculated. Univariate and multivariable associations between these variables were performed. Results HIV patients presented higher Lp-PLA2 levels [276.81 ng/mL (209.71–356.58)] than uninfected healthy controls [220.80 ng/mL (172.70–256.90)], p?0.01. In univariate analysis of the global sample, only cigarette smoking was associated with higher Lp-PLA2 levels, p?0.001. In HIV group, female and smoker patients showed higher Lp-PLA2 levels, p?0.05. No significant association was found between Lp-PLA2 levels and another CVD risk factors, carotid IMT, Framingham and SCORE algorithms, ART, HIV-1 viral load neither and CD4+ T lymphocyte count. In multivariate analysis, cigarette smoking remained significantly associated with Lp-PLA2 levels [?=64.8 (95% CI 10.8–118.9) ng/mL, p=0.020]. Conclusions HIV-infected patients present higher Lp-PLA2 levels than healthy controls, and in this population, tobacco smoking is significantly associated with increased Lp-PLA2 levels. Smoking cessation should be a priority in CVD prevention in HIV-infected patients.

Diaz-Pollan, Beatriz; Estrada, Vicente; Fuentes-Ferrer, Manuel; Gomez-Garre, Dulcenombre; San Roman-Montero, Jesus

2014-01-01

138

Serum antioxidative vitamin levels and lipid peroxidation in gastric carcinoma patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum antioxidative vitamin levels and lipid peroxidation in gastric cancer patients were compared with values for age-matched healthy subjects. Blood samples were collected from the stomach of cancer patients scheduled for surgical removal of their tumor. Serum ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and retinol in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and malondialdehyde levels were analyzed spectrophotometrically. General health characteristics

Min-Ah Choi; Byung-Sick Kim; Rina Yu

1999-01-01

139

Changes of PACAP level in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of patients with severe traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

PACAP has well-known neuroprotective potential including traumatic brain injury (TBI). Its level is up-regulated following various insults of the CNS in animal models. A few studies have documented alterations of PACAP levels in human serum. The time course of post-ictal PACAP levels, for example, show correlation with migraine severity. Very little is known about the course of PACAP levels following CNS injury in humans and the presence of PACAP has not yet been detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of subjects with severe TBI (sTBI). The aim of the present study was to determine whether PACAP occurs in the CSF and plasma (Pl) of patients that suffered sTBI and to establish a time course of PACAP levels in the CSF and Pl. Thirty eight subjects with sTBI were enrolled with a Glasgow Coma Scale ?8 on admission. Samples were taken daily, until the time of death or for maximum 10 days. Our results demonstrated that PACAP was detectable in the CSF, with higher concentrations in patients with TBI. PACAP concentrations markedly increased in both Pl and CSF in the majority of patients 24-48h after the injury stayed high thereafter. In cases of surviving patients, Pl and CSF levels displayed parallel patterns, which may imply the damage of the blood-brain barrier. However, in patients, who died within the first week, Pl levels were markedly higher than CSF levels, possibly indicating the prognostic value of high Pl PACAP levels. PMID:25017241

Bukovics, Peter; Czeiter, Endre; Amrein, Krisztina; Kovacs, Noemi; Pal, Jozsef; Tamas, Andrea; Bagoly, Terez; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Buki, Andras; Reglodi, Dora

2014-10-01

140

Increased Levels of Interleukin18 in Patients with Pulmonary Sarcoidosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin-18 (IL-18) has recently been identified as an interferon- g (IFN- g )-inducing factor, and it plays an important role in T helper 1 (Th1) response. We measured the serum levels of IL-18 and IFN- g in 37 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and 25 healthy control subjects. We also measured the levels of IL-18 and IFN- g in 10-fold concentrated

KATSUNORI SHIGEHARA; NORIHARU SHIJUBO; MITSUHIDE OHMICHI; GEN YAMADA; RYUJI TAKAHASHI; HARUKI OKAMURA; MASASHI KURIMOTO; YOUMEI HIRAGA; TACHIO TATSUNO; SHOSAKU ABE; NORIYUKI SATO

2000-01-01

141

Serum Matrix Metalloproteinase Levels in Patients Exposed to Sulfur Mustard  

PubMed Central

Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a group of endopeptidases which comprised of various types. These proteolytic enzymes are zinc-dependent and play role in degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Various types of cells such as macrophages, fibroblasts, neutrophils, synovial cells and some epithelial cells secrete MMPs. According to previous studies on bronchiolitis and respiratory tract lesions in these patients and unknown pathophysiology mechanism up to date, this cross–sectional study was performed. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the serum MMP level in patients with chemical injuries and normal people and also determine the role of these parameters in pulmonary disorders . Materials and Methods: In this cross–sectional study, 25 Iranian patients exposed to the sulfur mustard and 25 unexposed participants as the control group were enrolled. Serum samples were collected from two groups and stored at -70?C until the measurement of MMPs and TIMPs. ELISA kit was used for measurement of MMP and TIMP based on the kit's instruction. For validations in measurement, all samples were analyzed duplicate and in some cases triplicate. Results: The mean level of MMP-9 in serum of chemically-injured group was 1592.42 and this amount in normal group was 679.72 .So there was a significant difference between two groups (P = 0.001) and the mean level of MMP-8 in serum of patients group was 49.10 and in normal group was 35.53. Then there was no significant difference between two groups (P = 0.197). The mean levels of MMP-1 and MMP-2 was not significantly different (P value > 0.05) in the patient and normal groups. And also the mean levels of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 was not significantly different (P > 0.05) in the patients and normal groups. Conclusions: In summary, serum MMPs in chemically-injured has shown no significant difference with normal people except for the MMP-9. PMID:24829780

Shohrati, Majid; Haji Hosseini, Reza; Esfandiari, Malek Ashtar; Najafian, Nastaran; Najafian, Bita; Golbedagh, Abbas

2014-01-01

142

Discontinuation of proton pump inhibitors during assessment of chromogranin A levels in patients with neuroendocrine tumours  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this prospective study was to examine whether discontinuation of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or replacement by H2-receptor antagonists (H2RA) resulted in a decrease of chromogranin A (CgA) levels in 196 patients with well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). Methods: Patients with an unexpectedly high CgA level not connected with NET disease discontinued PPIs, or used H2RA instead; 2 weeks later CgA level was measured again. Results: In all, 19 out of 196 (10%) patients showed unexpected elevated CgA levels, they all used PPI. In 11 out of 19 patients with no evidence of the disease, median CgA decreased from 390??g?l?1 during PPI treatment to 56??g?l?1 after discontinuation (P=0.003). In 8 out of 19 patients with stable disease, median CgA decreased from 618 to 318??g?l–1 (P=0.012). In 12 out of 19 patients who ceased all acid inhibition, CgA levels decreased by 82%, while in the seven patients who replaced PPI by H2RA, CgA decreased by 77% (P=0.967). Conclusion: Proton pump inhibitor use causes falsely elevated CgA levels in patients with NET. We recommend to stop, or replace PPI by H2RA, to obtain a reliable CgA value. PMID:21989216

Korse, C M; Muller, M; Taal, B G

2011-01-01

143

Profiles of Patients Demonstrating Abnormal Masking Level Difference Response.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Profiles of three persons (9-11 years old) with extremely reduced masking level difference results (scores which measure binaural release from masking) are reported. It is suggested that tests of the MLD appear to be a useful adjunct of an evaluation battery for patients with presumed auditory perceptual problems. (CL)

Battin, R. Ray; Waryas, Paul A.

1985-01-01

144

Patient dose levels for seven different radiographic examination types  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out as a part of a comprehensive project to establish a national diagnostic reference level (NDRL), for the first time, in Saudi Arabia. Seven of the most common X-ray examinations (10 projections) were included. This study consisted of 200 patients who were referred for X-ray examinations at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH). The selected X-ray examinations were skull (PA), kub (AP and LAT), ankle (AP and LAT), foot (AP/OBL and LAT/OBL), hib (AP and LAT) and sinuses paranasal (AP). Mean patient information and exposure parameters for these seven radiographic examinations were recorded at KKUH. Some of these radiographic examinations were compared with their corresponding values at other national places [Security Forces Hospital (SFH); King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST)] in Saudi Arabia. We found that the patient mean dose values recorded at KKUH were varied from those recorded at other national places. Wide variations in patient dose arising from a specific type of X-ray examination at different national places suggests that significant reductions in patient dose would be possible without affecting image quality. Furthermore, variations in patient dose may emerge from the examination technique, clinical condition, radiologist skill, tube current, tube potential and focus to film distance. The data of this study will be useful for the formulation of NDRLs, and it is also provides local diagnostic reference levels for some diagnostic X-ray examinations at KKUH and other national places in Saudi Arabia. PMID:23961066

Abdelhalim, Mohamed Anwar K.

2010-01-01

145

Extremely high urine arsenic level after remote seafood ingestion.  

PubMed

Urine testing for heavy metal concentrations is increasingly performed in the outpatient setting as a part of laboratory evaluation for neuropathy. Abnormal urine arsenic levels due to dietary intake of organic arsenic can lead to unnecessary chelation therapy. A 54-year-old man underwent a 24-hour urine collection for heavy metal concentrations in evaluation of paresthesia of the right foot. The total arsenic level was 8880 ?g/d with concentrations of 4749 ?g/L and 3769 ?g/g creatinine. He was urgently referred to the toxicology clinic for consideration of chelation therapy. History revealed consumption of 2 lobster tails 5 days before the testing. Speciation was then performed on the original urine specimen and revealed an organic arsenic concentration of 4332 ?g/L. No inorganic or methylated arsenic was detected. Repeat testing after abstaining from seafood demonstrated a total arsenic level of 50 ?g/d with concentrations of 30 ?g/L and 21 ?g/g creatinine. Our patient demonstrates the highest level of arsenobetaine reported in the literature, and this level is higher than expected for a person who had not consumed seafood for 5 days before testing. The high levels may be due to consumption of food that he did not recognize as containing arsenobetaine or that his clearance of arsenobetaine from the ingested lobster is slower than published ranges. This case demonstrates the importance of speciation when measuring urine arsenic levels to avoid unnecessary chelation therapy. PMID:22407195

Nañagas, Kristine A; Tormoehlen, Laura M

2014-01-01

146

Restoring the DHA levels in the brains of Zellweger patients.  

PubMed

Patients with the Zellweger syndrome and its variants have very low levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the brain, retina, and other tissues. Such a marked DHA deficiency could be related to the pathogenesis of peroxisomal disorders. Therefore, restoring the DHA levels in these patients can probably improve the clinical course of the disease. With this rationale, 20 patients with generalized peroxisomal disorders have been treated to date with DHA ethyl ester, at daily doses of 100-500 mg, for variable periods of time. Treatment has been always accompanied by a nutritious diet, normal for the age, in order to provide all the necessary nutrients and avoid a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) imbalance. The most constant improvement has been normalization of the DHA levels and liver function. Vision has improved in about half the patients and muscle tone has generally increased. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed improvement of myelination in 9 patients. Significantly, the clinical improvement has been most marked in those patients who started the treatment before 6 mo of age. Biochemically, the plasma very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA) 26:0 and 26:1n-9 decreased markedly despite the complete diet provided. In erythrocytes, the plasmalogen ratio 18: ODMA/18:0 increased in most cases, and sometimes even normalized. All these beneficial effects suggest that DHA deficiency plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of peroxisomal disease. Because DHA accretion is maximal during early brain development, it is essential to initiate the treatment as soon as possible. Otherwise, restoration of brain DHA levels and prevention of further damage will not be possible. PMID:11478386

Martinez, M

2001-01-01

147

Glucarpidase to combat toxic levels of methotrexate in patients  

PubMed Central

In January 2012, glucarpidase (Voraxaze®) received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration for intravenous treatment of toxic plasma methotrexate concentrations due to impaired renal clearance. Methotrexate, an antifolate agent, has been used for over 60 years in the treatment of various cancers. High-dose methotrexate has been particularly useful in the treatment of leukemias and lymphomas. However, even with aggressive hydration and urine alkalinization, such regimens can lead to acute renal dysfunction, as indicated by decreases in urine production and concomitant increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Because methotrexate is largely excreted by the kidneys, this can greatly potentiate tissue damage. Toxic levels of blood methotrexate can be rapidly and effectively decreased by intravenous administration of glucarpidase. Glucarpidase is a recombinant form of carboxypeptidase G2, a bacterial enzyme that rapidly cleaves methotrexate to form the amino acid glutamate and 2,4-diamino-N10-methylpteroic acid. Catabolites of methotrexate are much less toxic than the parent compound, and are primarily excreted by hepatic mechanisms. Glucarpidase has been available on a compassionate basis since the 1990s, and a variety of case reports and larger clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of this drug in patients ranging in age from infants to the elderly and in a variety of races and ethnic groups. Glucarpidase should not be administered within 2 hours of leucovorin, because this agent is a reduced folate which competes with methotrexate for the enzyme and glucarpidase inactivates leucovorin. Side effects of glucarpidase are rare and relatively mild, and include paraesthesia, flushing, nausea, vomiting, pruritus, and headache. Glucarpidase has seen limited use in intrathecal treatment of methotrexate toxicity for which it is also effective. Future applications of this enzyme in chemotherapy continue to be an active area of research. PMID:23209370

Green, Jacalyn M

2012-01-01

148

Tumor Load in Patients With Multiple Myeloma: ?2-Microglobulin Levels Versus Whole-Body MRI.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. Beta-2-microglobulin is a serum maker of tumor burden in hematologic malignancies. We aimed to correlate serum ?2-microglobulin levels in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) to tumor mass determined by whole-body MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We retrospectively included patients with newly diagnosed, untreated MM who underwent whole-body MRI at our institution between 2003 and 2011. Patients with a glomerular filtration rate of less than 60 mL/min were excluded from analysis because ?2-microglobulin levels are increased in renal failure. Thirty patients could be included. Whole-body MRI examinations (T1-weighted turbo spin-echo and STIR sequences) were assessed by two musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus for focal lesions and the presence of diffuse myeloma infiltration. The presence of diffuse infiltration was confirmed by histology as the reference standard. MM was staged according to the Durie and Salmon PLUS staging system. RESULTS. According to whole-body MRI findings, MM was classified as Durie and Salmon PLUS stage I (low grade) in 13 patients, stage II (intermediate grade) in six patients, and stage III (high grade) in 11 patients. As we expected, most patients with stage I disease (12/13) had normal ?2-microglobulin levels (? 3 mg/L). Higher ?2-microglobulin values were associated with a higher stage of disease (p < 0.05). However, five of six patients with stage II MM and five of 11 patients with stage III MM showed normal ?2-microglobulin levels. Thus, 10 of 17 patients (58.8%) with substantial infiltration in the bone marrow showed false-negative ?2-microglobulin levels. CONCLUSION. Serum ?2-microglobulin levels correlate with tumor stage in MM. However, it may be misleading as a marker of tumor load in a subset of patients with substantial myeloma infiltration in the bone marrow. Whole-body MRI may display the full tumor load and correctly show the extension of myeloma infiltrates. PMID:25247952

D'Anastasi, Melvin; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Schmidt, Gerwin P; Dürr, Hans-Roland; Reiser, Maximilian Ferdinand; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

2014-10-01

149

ET-1 levels in cardioischemic patients undergoing atrial pacing.  

PubMed

Atrial pacing (AP) procedure was carried out in 11 cardioischemic patients to reproduce tachycardia-induced myocardial ischemia. Six control subjects underwent the same procedure until the maximum pacing rate was reached. During the procedure, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and plasma lactate levels were measured in the coronary sinus and in the aortic root. In all the patients, atrial pacing provoked electrocardiographic signs and metabolic evidence of myocardial ischemia and a significant decrease (p<0.001) in left ventricular ejection fraction. At AP-induced ischemia, coronary sinus (17.31 +/- 4.20 pg/mL) and arterial (9.60 +/- 3.31 pg/mL) ET-1 plasma levels were significantly different (p<0.001) in the patients. On the contrary, at maximum pacing rate, no significant difference (p=0.186) emerged between coronary sinus (9.72 +/- 1.09 pg/mL) and arterial (8.95 +/- 0.75 pg/mL) plasma ET-1 levels in the control group. These results suggest that, in cardioischemic patients, tachycardia can induce the coronary endothelium to release significant amounts of ET-1. PMID:11563817

Parlapiano, C; Borgia, M C; Tonnarini, G; Alessandri, N; Campana, E; Quaglione, R; Ciccaglioni, A; Giancaspro, G; Pantone, P; Giovanniello, T; Califano, F

2001-01-01

150

Pentoxifylline Decreases Serum Level of Adhesion Molecules in Atherosclerosis Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Inflammation is involved in development, progression, and complications of atherosclerotic disease. Clinical studies have indicated that the level of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), IL-18, and adhesion molecules correlates with the severity of atherosclerosis and can predict future cardiovascular events. Experimental studies have shown pentoxifylline (PTX) reduces these factors in animal models. The purpose of the present pilot study was to evaluate effect of PTX on a group of inflammatory biomarkers in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: Forty patients with angiographically documented CAD, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria, were entered in the double-blind, randomized, pilot clinical study. The patients were randomly given PTX (400 mg three times daily) or placebo (3 tab/day) for 2 months. Serum concentrations of MCP-1, IL-18, intercellular adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) were measured before and at the end of intervention by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Results: Our study showed that the serum levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was decreased in the study population after two-month treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: Based on the results of our pilot study, administration of PTX in CAD patients significantly decreases adhesion molecules levels. PMID:24375159

Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Falsoleiman, Homa; Shamsara, Jamal; Abadi, Ghazaleh Allah; Rasooli, Ramin; Ramezani, Mohammad

2014-01-01

151

The effect of an educational patient compliance program on serum phosphate levels in patients receiving hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study sought to determine the effectiveness of a recently developed educational patient compliance program (A Taste for Life [1995]; Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) on improving serum phosphate levels in patients receiving hemodialysis.Design: An ABA time series design was used.Participants\\/setting: Eighty-one patients receiving hemodialysis participated. The experimental group consisted of 50 participants (mean [M] = 57.9 years of

Naomi J Shaw-Stuart; Andrew Stuart

2000-01-01

152

Race, Age, and Obesity Disparities in Adult Physical Activity Levels in Breast Cancer Patients And Controls  

PubMed Central

Physical activity has been shown to be inversely associated with breast cancer recurrence and survival. Although physical activity is known to decline with age, rates of change in physical activity have not been well characterized in breast cancer patients and subgroups with known disparities in breast cancer survival, especially in minorities, the elderly, and the obese. We evaluated moderate and strenuous physical activity from high school through diagnosis in 1,220 breast cancer patients, and from high school to recruitment in 935 controls. We compared the proportion of patients and controls meeting the American Cancer Society (ACS) guidelines for physical activity and differences in declines in level of physical activity by race, age, and obesity. At diagnosis, only 33.2% of breast cancer patients met the ACS physical activity guidelines. Only 13.2, 24.7, and 30.5% of African-American (AA), obese, and older (?65?years) patients met the guidelines, respectively. Controls showed slightly higher rates, with 36.4% overall, 23.7% of AA, 29.0% of obese, and 32.4% of older women meeting the guidelines. AA patients were less likely to meet guidelines compared to White patients (p?patients were less likely to meet guidelines compared to non-obese (p?high school in patients and controls. AA patients reported steeper declines in strenuous (p?=?0.0027), and total (p?=?0.0009) physical activity compared to Whites. Obese patients reported steeper declines in total physical activity compared to non-obese (p?=?0.022). Differences in average slopes of declines in physical activity were not observed by age. Our results suggest that strategies and programs to encourage women to maintain recommended levels of physical activity after high school are needed. Furthermore, breast cancer patients, particularly AA and obese patients, should be targeted to help reduce disparities. PMID:25285306

Thompson, Cheryl L.; Owusu, Cynthia; Nock, Nora L.; Li, Li; Berger, Nathan A.

2014-01-01

153

Increased plasma LIGHT levels in patients with atopic dermatitis  

PubMed Central

LIGHT [the name of which is derived from ‘homologous to lymphotoxins, exhibits inducible expression, competes with herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D for herpes simplex virus entry mediator (HVEM), and expressed by T lymphocytes’], is a member of the tumour necrosis factor superfamily that is involved in various inflammatory diseases. We aimed to estimate the relevance of plasma LIGHT levels as a biomarker for atopic dermatitis (AD). In order to understand the putative role of LIGHT in AD pathogenesis, we also investigate the effects of LIGHT on a monocytic cell line, human acute monocytic leukaemia cell line (THP-1). We examined plasma LIGHT levels, total serum IgE, serum value of CCL17 and peripheral blood eosinophil counts in patients with AD and healthy subjects. The effects of LIGHT on activation and apoptosis in THP-1 cells were also investigated. The plasma concentrations of LIGHT in AD patients were significantly higher than those in healthy individuals and the concentrations decreased as the symptoms were improved by treatment. The LIGHT plasma concentrations correlated with IgE levels and the Severity Scoring of AD (SCORAD) index. In addition, LIGHT stimulation increased expression of CD86 and induced production of interleukin-1? in THP-1 cells. Apoptosis was inhibited, the Bcl-2 level increased and the caspase-3 level decreased in THP-1 cells stimulated with LIGHT, compared to unstimulated control cells. These results suggest that plasma LIGHT levels may be one of the promising biomarkers for AD. PMID:22519595

Kotani, H; Masuda, K; Tamagawa-Mineoka, R; Nomiyama, T; Soga, F; Nin, M; Asai, J; Kishimoto, S; Katoh, N

2012-01-01

154

C-reactive protein levels in patients at cardiovascular risk: EURIKA study  

PubMed Central

Background Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with high cardiovascular risk, and might identify patients who could benefit from more carefully adapted risk factor management. We have assessed the prevalence of elevated CRP levels in patients with one or more traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Methods Data were analysed from the European Study on Cardiovascular Risk Prevention and Management in Usual Daily Practice (EURIKA, ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00882336), which included patients (aged ?50 years) from 12 European countries with at least one traditional cardiovascular risk factor but no history of cardiovascular disease. Analysis was also carried out on the subset of patients without diabetes mellitus who were not receiving statin therapy. Results In the overall population, CRP levels were positively correlated with body mass index and glycated haemoglobin levels, and were negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. CRP levels were also higher in women, those at higher traditionally estimated cardiovascular risk and those with greater numbers of metabolic syndrome markers. Among patients without diabetes mellitus who were not receiving statin therapy, approximately 30% had CRP levels ?3 mg/L, and approximately 50% had CRP levels ?2 mg/L, including those at intermediate levels of traditionally estimated cardiovascular risk. Conclusions CRP levels are elevated in a large proportion of patients with at least one cardiovascular risk factor, without diabetes mellitus who are not receiving statin therapy, suggesting a higher level of cardiovascular risk than predicted according to conventional risk estimation systems. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00882336 PMID:24564178

2014-01-01

155

DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS DEGRADATION  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the analyses that were done to develop models for radionuclide release from high-level waste (HLW) glass dissolution that can be integrated into performance assessment (PA) calculations conducted to support site recommendation and license application for the Yucca Mountain site. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a). It specifically addresses the item, ''Defense High Level Waste Glass Degradation'', of the product technical work plan. The AP-3.15Q Attachment 1 screening criteria determines the importance for its intended use of the HLW glass model derived herein to be in the category ''Other Factors for the Postclosure Safety Case-Waste Form Performance'', and thus indicates that this factor does not contribute significantly to the postclosure safety strategy. Because the release of radionuclides from the glass will depend on the prior dissolution of the glass, the dissolution rate of the glass imposes an upper bound on the radionuclide release rate. The approach taken to provide a bound for the radionuclide release is to develop models that can be used to calculate the dissolution rate of waste glass when contacted by water in the disposal site. The release rate of a particular radionuclide can then be calculated by multiplying the glass dissolution rate by the mass fraction of that radionuclide in the glass and by the surface area of glass contacted by water. The scope includes consideration of the three modes by which water may contact waste glass in the disposal system: contact by humid air, dripping water, and immersion. The models for glass dissolution under these contact modes are all based on the rate expression for aqueous dissolution of borosilicate glasses. The mechanism and rate expression for aqueous dissolution are adequately understood; the analyses in this AMR were conducted to provide models and parameter values that can be used to calculate the dissolution rates for the different modes of water contact. The analyses were conducted to identify key aspects of the mechanistic model for glass dissolution to be included in the abstracted models used for PA calculations, evaluate how the models can be used to calculate bounding values of the glass dissolution rates under anticipated water contact modes in the disposal. system, and determine model parameter values for the range of potential waste glass compositions and anticipated environmental conditions. The analysis of a bounding rate also considered the effects of the buildup of glass corrosion products in the solution contacting the glass and potential effects of alteration phase formation. Note that application of the models and model parameter values is constrained to the anticipated range of HLW glass compositions and environmental conditions. The effects of processes inherent to exposure to humid air and dripping water were not modeled explicitly. Instead, the impacts of these processes on the degradation rate were taken into account by using empirically measured parameter values. These include the rates at which water sorbs onto the glass, drips onto the glass, and drips off of the glass. The dissolution rates of glasses that were exposed to humid air and dripping water measured in laboratory tests are used to estimate model parameter values for contact by humid air and dripping water in the disposal system.

W. Ebert

2001-09-20

156

Comparison of effects of long-term low-fat vs high-fat diets on blood lipid levels in overweight or obese patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Dietary fat plays an important role in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, but long-term (?12 months) effects of different percentages of fat in the diet on blood lipid levels remain to be established. Our systematic review and meta-analysis focused on randomized controlled trials assessing the long-term effects of low-fat diets compared with diets with high amounts of fat on blood lipid levels. Relevant randomized controlled trials were identified searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Trial Register until March 2013. Thirty-two studies were included in the meta-analysis. Decreases in total cholesterol (weighted mean difference -4.55 mg/dL [-0.12 mmol/L], 95% CI -8.03 to -1.07; P=0.01) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (weighted mean difference -3.11 mg/dL [-0.08 mmol/L], 95% CI -4.51 to -1.71; P<0.0001) were significantly more pronounced following low-fat diets, whereas rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (weighted mean difference 2.35 mg/dL [0.06 mmol/L], 95% CI 1.29 to 3.42; P<0.0001) and reduction in triglyceride levels (weighted mean difference -8.38 mg/dL [-0.095 mmol/L], 95% CI -13.50 to -3.25; P=0.001) were more distinct in the high-fat diet groups. Including only hypocaloric diets, the effects of low-fat vs high-fat diets on total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were abolished. Meta-regression revealed that lower total cholesterol level was associated with lower intakes of saturated fat and higher intakes of polyunsaturated fat, and increases in HDL cholesterol levels were related to higher amounts of total fat largely derived from monounsaturated fat (of either plant or animal origin) in high-fat diets (composition of which was ~17% of total energy content in the form of monounsaturated fatty acids, ~8% of total energy content in the form of polyunsaturated fatty acids), whereas increases in triglyceride levels were associated with higher intakes of carbohydrates. In addition, lower LDL cholesterol level was marginally associated with lower saturated fat intake. The results of our meta-analysis do not allow for an unequivocal recommendation of either low-fat or high-fat diets in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:24139973

Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg

2013-12-01

157

Enhanced levels of CCL19 in patients with advanced acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)  

PubMed Central

Based on the ability to recruit lymphocytes and dendritic cells to lymphoid tissue and to promote inflammation, we hypothesized a role for dysregulated CCL19 and CCL21 levels in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with advanced immunodeficiency, and in particular in those with accompanying Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. The hypothesis was explored by studies in HIV-infected patients with and without MAC infection, as well as in vitro, examining the ability of proteins from MAC to promote CCL19 and CCL21 responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) during highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Our main findings were: (i) raised serum levels of CCL19 in HIV-infected patients with CD4+ T cell count <50 cells/µl compared with HIV-infected patients with CD4+ T cell count >500 cells/µl and healthy controls, with particularly high levels in those with MAC infection; (ii) elevated plasma levels of CCL19 predicted a higher mortality in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-patients, independent of ongoing MAC infection; and (iii) marked production of CCL19 in MAC-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and pronounced disturbances in MAC-induced CCL19 production in PBMC from HIV patients that was partly reversed during HAART. Our findings suggest the involvement of CCL19 in AIDS patients with advanced immunodeficiency, potentially mediating both adaptive and maladaptive responses. PMID:22288592

Damas, J K; ?ktedalen, O; Ueland, T; Landr?, L; Barstad, J; Muller, F; Fr?land, S S; Flo, T H; Aukrust, P

2012-01-01

158

Enhanced levels of CCL19 in patients with advanced acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).  

PubMed

Based on the ability to recruit lymphocytes and dendritic cells to lymphoid tissue and to promote inflammation, we hypothesized a role for dysregulated CCL19 and CCL21 levels in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with advanced immunodeficiency, and in particular in those with accompanying Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. The hypothesis was explored by studies in HIV-infected patients with and without MAC infection, as well as in vitro, examining the ability of proteins from MAC to promote CCL19 and CCL21 responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) during highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Our main findings were: (i) raised serum levels of CCL19 in HIV-infected patients with CD4(+) T cell count <50 cells/µl compared with HIV-infected patients with CD4(+) T cell count >500 cells/µl and healthy controls, with particularly high levels in those with MAC infection; (ii) elevated plasma levels of CCL19 predicted a higher mortality in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-patients, independent of ongoing MAC infection; and (iii) marked production of CCL19 in MAC-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and pronounced disturbances in MAC-induced CCL19 production in PBMC from HIV patients that was partly reversed during HAART. Our findings suggest the involvement of CCL19 in AIDS patients with advanced immunodeficiency, potentially mediating both adaptive and maladaptive responses. PMID:22288592

Damås, J K; Øktedalen, O; Ueland, T; Landrø, L; Barstad, J; Müller, F; Frøland, S S; Flo, T H; Aukrust, P

2012-03-01

159

Pretreatment serum C-reactive protein level predicts poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

C-reactive protein (CRP) is known to be associated with poor prognosis in patients with various malignancies. We investigated the relationship between the pretreatment serum CRP level and survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in various stages of the disease. A cohort of 133 patients with newly diagnosed HCC was prospectively evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups: high-CRP group (n=27) with the pretreatment serum CRP level?1.0 mg/dl and low-CRP group (n=106) with the CRP level<1.0 mg/dl. They were followed 22 months in average (1-69 months) and clinicopathological variables, and overall survivals between the two groups were compared at the end of the follow-up period. There was a significant difference between the two groups in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total serum bilirubin, albumin, ?-fetoprotein level, maximal tumor diameter, frequency of vascular invasion and extrahepatic metastases. Patients in the high-CRP group had higher Child-Pugh scores, higher Cancer of the Liver Italian Program scores and higher Japan Integrated Staging scores than patients in the low-CRP group. The overall survival rates in the high-CRP group were significantly lower than those in the low-CRP group. Survival rates were similar in tumor stage and liver function-matched patients. On multivariate analysis, pretreatment serum CRP level was independently associated with overall survival. Our results demonstrate that the pretreatment serum CRP level is associated with tumor progression and reduced liver function and is an independent poor prognostic marker in patients with HCC. PMID:22460836

Kinoshita, Akiyoshi; Onoda, Hiroshi; Takano, Keiko; Imai, Nami; Saeki, Chisato; Fushiya, Nao; Miyakawa, Yoshinari; Nishino, Hirokazu; Tajiri, Hisao

2012-12-01

160

Coordinated Parallelizing Compiler Optimizations and High-Level Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework for high-level synthesis that enables the designer to explore the best choice of source level and low level parallelizing transformations for improved synthesis. Within this framework, we implemented a methodology that applies a set of parallelizing code transfor- mations, both at the source level and during scheduling. A designer can use these transformations to optimize high-level

SUMIT GUPTA; Alex Nicolau; Rajesh Gupta

2002-01-01

161

Cerebrospinal fluid levels of thiamine in patients with Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   Thiamine is an essential cofactor for several important enzymes involved in brain oxidative metabolism, such as the alpha-ketoglutarate\\u000a dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC), pyruvate-dehydrogenase complex (PDHC), and transketolase. Some investigators reported decreased\\u000a thiamine-diphosphate levels and decreased activities of KGDHC, pyruvate-dehydrogenase complex and transketolase in the brain\\u000a tissue of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We measured cerebrospinal (CSF) levels of thiamine-diphosphate, thiamine-monophosphate,\\u000a free

J. A. Molina; F. J. Jiménez-Jiménez; A. Hernánz; E. Fernández-Vivancos; S. Medina; F. de Bustos; C. Gómez-Escalonilla; Y. Sayed

2002-01-01

162

Nitrotyrosine Level Was Associated with Mortality in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury  

PubMed Central

Background To examine the characteristics of oxidative stress in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) and investigate the association between plasma nitrotyrosine levels and 90-day mortality in patients with AKI. Methodology/Principal Findings 158 patients with hospital-acquired AKI were recruited to this prospective cohort study according to RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Lost or End Stage Kidney) criteria. Twelve critically ill patients without AKI and 15 age and gender-matched healthy subjects served as control. Plasma 3-nitrotyrosine was analyzed in relation to 90-day all cause mortality of patients with AKI. The patients with AKI were followed up for 90 days and grouped according to median plasma 3-nitrotyrosine concentrations. Highest 3-NT/Tyr was detected in patients with AKI compared with healthy subjects, and critically ill patients without AKI (ANOVA p<0.001). The 90-day survival curves of patients with high 3-NT/Tyr showed significant differences compared with the curves of individuals with low 3-NT/Tyr (p?=?0.001 by log rank test). Multivariate analysis (Cox regression) revealed that 3-NT/Tyr (p?=?0.025) was independently associated with mortality after adjustment for age, gender, sepsis and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score. Conclusions/Significance There is excess plasma protein oxidation in patients with AKI, as evidenced by increased nitrotyrosine content. 3-NT/Tyr level was associated with mortality of AKI patients independent of the severity of illness. PMID:24278225

Zhu, Qiuyu; Ma, Shuai; Zhou, Ying; Zheng, Ying; Liu, Junfeng; Kuang, Dingwei; Gu, Yong; Hao, Chuanming; Ding, Feng

2013-01-01

163

Measuring patient safety culture: an assessment of the clustering of responses at unit level and hospital level  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To test the claim that the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) measures patient safety culture instead of mere individual attitudes and to determine the most appropriate level (individual, unit or hospital level) for interventions aimed at improving the culture of patient safety. METHODS: National patient safety culture data were used from 1889 hospital staff working at 87

M. Smits; C. Wagner; P. Spreeuwenberg; G. van der Wal; P. P. Groenewegen

2009-01-01

164

Association between plasma levels of hyaluronic acid and functional outcome in acute stroke patients  

PubMed Central

Background Activation of hyaluronic acid (HA) and associated enzyme synthesis has been demonstrated in experimental stroke animal models. Our study aimed to investigate the plasma levels of HA in acute stroke patients and the associations between HA levels and functional outcome. Methods This was a multicenter case–control study. Acute stroke patients and age- and sex-matched non-stroke controls were recruited. Plasma levels of HA in acute stroke patients were determined at <48 hours and at 48 to 72 hours after stroke onset by standard ELISA. Favorable functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin scale ?2 at 3 months after stroke. Results The study included 206 acute stroke patients, including 43 who had intracerebral hemorrhage and 163 who had ischemic stroke, and 159 controls. The plasma levels of HA in the acute stroke patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (219.7?±?203.4 ng/ml for <48 hours and 343.1?±?710.3 ng/ml for 48 to 72 hours versus 170.4?±?127.9 ng/ml in the controls; both P?patients, HA ?500 ng/ml (<48 hours) was an independent favorable outcome predictor (P?=?0.016). For ischemic stroke patients, an inverted U-shaped association between plasma HA (48 to 72 hours) and outcome was noted, indicating that ischemic stroke patients with too high or too low plasma HA levels tended to have an unfavorable outcome. Conclusion HA plasma level was elevated in patients with acute stroke, and can predict 3-month functional outcome, particularly for patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID:24912490

2014-01-01

165

Erythropoietin level and macrocytosis in patients with chronic pulmonary insufficiency.  

PubMed

In 30 patients with respiratory insufficiency due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and with normal red blood cell counts, the effect of hypoxia on erythropoiesis was studied. Pronounced hypoxaemia was ascertained in all the patients by measuring PaO2. The calculated HbO2 saturation was less than 85% in group I and greater than 85% in group II, each consisting of 15 patients. Although the RBC counts and Hb concentration were within the limits of normal values, the packed RBC volume was higher than 45% in all the patients tested. The calculated MCV was increased and the erythropoietin level in plasma, indirectly measured in polycythaemic mouse bioassay, was higher than normal. Macrocytosis was shown to be PaO2-dependent and should be, according to Stohlman's data, the result of erythropoietin excess and the subsequent cessation of nucleic acid synthesis with skipped terminal division of erythroblasts in the bone marrow. The absence of erythrocytosis in these patients could be explained by a shortened survival time of macrocytes and/or other causes. PMID:897371

Pavlovi?-Kentera, V; Bogdanovi?, M; Miladinovi?, D; Slavkovi?, V

1977-01-01

166

Arginase activity and nitric oxide levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repetitive obstruction of the upper airways, and it is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. There have been several studies demonstrating low levels of nitric oxide in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome compared with healthy controls. In this study, we hypothesized that reduced nitric oxide levels would result in high arginase activity. Arginase reacts with L-arginine and produces urea and L-ornithine, whereas L-arginine is a substrate for nitric oxide synthase, which produces nitric oxide. METHODS: The study group consisted of 51 obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients (M/F: 43/8; mean age 49±10 years of age) and 15 healthy control subjects (M/F: 13/3; mean age 46±14 years of age). Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients were divided into two subgroups based on the presence or absence of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide levels and arginase activity were measured via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of serum samples. RESULTS: Serum nitric oxide levels in the control subjects were higher than in the obstructive sleep apnea patients with and without cardiovascular diseases (p<0.05). Arginase activity was significantly higher (p<0.01) in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients without cardiovascular diseases compared with the control group. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients with cardiovascular diseases had higher arginase activity than the controls (p<0.001) and the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients without cardiovascular diseases (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Low nitric oxide levels are associated with high arginase activity. The mechanism of nitric oxide depletion in sleep apnea patients suggests that increased arginase activity might reduce the substrate availability of nitric oxide synthase and thus could reduce nitric oxide levels. PMID:24714832

Yuksel, Meral; Okur, Hacer Kuzu; Pelin, Zerrin; Ogunc, Ayliz Velioglu; Ozturk, Levent

2014-01-01

167

Serotonin levels in aqueous humor of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterized by a high intraocular pressure (IOP), alterations in optic nerve head, and loss of visual field that could lead to bilateral blindness. Serotonin (5-HT) is a biogenic monoamine that is synthesized from hydroxylation of tryptophan and acts by three ways, dissemination, metabolism, and reuptake in synaptic cleft through specific systems of the membrane. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the 5-HT and 5-HIAA (5-hydroxiindolacetic acid) levels in the aqueous humor of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods We performed a case-control study, and the patients recruited were classified into two groups, 1) 30 patients with POAG (GG) and 2) 30 patients with cataracts (CG), who acted as the controls. Aqueous humor samples of each patient were obtained by paracentesis at the beginning of the surgical procedures. 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection. Results There were no statistical differences between age (71.3±7.2 years in GG, 73.5±9.0 years in CG; p=0.2581) or gender (sex ratio 0.765 in GG and 0.667 in CG). 5-HT levels were lower in GG, but this difference was not significant (p=0.820). We observed a statistically significant higher level of 5-HIAA in GG (p=0.001). The 5-HT turnover (5-HIAA/5-HT) were higher in GG than in CG (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p=0.598). Conclusions The level of 5-HT was lower in GG patients, and the level of 5-HIAA was higher in GG patients than in CG patients. PMID:19052654

Melo, P.; Mendes-Pinto, M.M.; Alves, C.J.; Garcia-Medina, J.J.; Vinuesa-Silva, I.; Moreno-Nadal, M.A.; Pinazo-Duran, M.D.

2008-01-01

168

Patient Education Level As a Predictor of Survival In Lung Cancer Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the effect of socioeconomic status, as measured by education, on the survival of 1,577 lung cancer patients treated on 11 studies conducted by the Cancer and Leukemia Group B. Patients and Methods Sociodemographic data, including education, was reported by the patient at the time of clinical trial accrual. Cox proportional hazards model stratified by treatment arm/study was used to examine the effect of education on survival after adjustment for known prognostic factors. Results The patient population included 1,177 patients diagnosed with non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC; stage III or IV) and 400 patients diagnosed with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC; extensive or limited). Patients with less than an eighth grade education (13% of patients) were significantly more likely to be male, nonwhite, and older; have a performance status (PS) of 1 or 2; and have chest pain. Significant predictors of poor survival in the final model included male sex, PS of 1 or 2, dyspnea, weight loss, liver or bone metastases, unmarried, presence of adrenal metastases and high alkaline phosphatase levels among patients with NSCLC, and high WBC levels among patients with advanced disease. Education was not predictive of survival. Conclusion The physical condition of patients with low education who enroll onto clinical trials is worse than patients with higher education. Once enrolled onto a clinical trial, education does not affect the survival of patients with SCLC or stage III or IV NSCLC. The standardization of treatment and follow-up within a clinical trial, regardless of education, is one possible explanation for this lack of effect. PMID:18757325

Herndon, James E.; Kornblith, Alice B.; Holland, Jimmie C.; Paskett, Electra D.

2008-01-01

169

Statistics of high-level scene context  

PubMed Central

Context is critical for recognizing environments and for searching for objects within them: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48, 167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell et al., 2008). From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed “things” in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human scene categorization is discussed. Of the three levels, ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature), and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. However, certain objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help the visual cognition community to design experiments guided by statistics rather than intuition. PMID:24194723

Greene, Michelle R.

2013-01-01

170

Asymmetric dimethylarginine levels in patients with cutaneous anthrax: a laboratory analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), the main endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, is considered to be associated with endothelial dysfunction. High ADMA levels have been shown to be related with disorders causing vascular inflammation such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, chronic heart failure, stroke and sepsis. Cutaneous anthrax (CA) is a serious infectious disease which may cause vasculitis. The aim of the study was to investigate the serum ADMA levels in patients with CA. Methods A total of 35 serum samples of the patients with CA and 18 control sera were tested for ADMA levels using ADMA ELISA kit (Immunodiagnostik AG, Bensheim, Germany). Results ADMA levels were found to be significantly higher in the patients group than the controls (p?levels were found to be positively associated with sedimentation rates (R?=?0.413; p?=?0.026), and inversely associated with international normalized ratio (INR) levels (R?=?-0.46; p?=?0.011). A cut-off value of 0.475 of ADMA had a sensitivity of 74.3%, specificity of 77.8%, and accuracy of 75.5% in the diagnosis of CA. Conclusion Although the exact mechanism still remains unclear, ADMA levels could be related to immune activation in CA. In addition, these data might suggest the higher ADMA levels in patients could be due to the perivascular inflammation and vasculitis in CA. PMID:24669818

2014-01-01

171

40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

2011-07-01

172

40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

2013-07-01

173

40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

2014-07-01

174

40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

2012-07-01

175

HIGH LEVEL AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE IN ENTEROCOCCAL BLOOD CULTURE ISOLATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterococci may display high level resistance to aminoglycosides, in which case synergy with cell-wall active antibiotics will be lost. All enterococcal blood culture isolates at Royal Brisbane Hospital have been screened by agar dilution for high level resistance to gentamicin and strepto- mycin since 1989. Of 110 isolates of Enterococcus faecalis, 16% displayed high level resistance to gentamicin and 10%

David Paterson; Janet Bodman; Mee Len Thong

176

[Polymorphism of the plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene, plasminogen level and thrombosis in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome].  

PubMed

The frequency of venous and arterial thromboses and plasminogen level were investigated in 78 patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), 35 of whom with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE+APS) and 43 - with primary APS (PAPS). The levels and genotype of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) were determined in 45 patients with APS, of whom 21 patients with SLE + APS and 24 patients with PAPS. A control group included 10 healthy individuals without autoimmune disease signs and thromboses on period of investigation and in past history. It was shown for the first time that for one third of 67 patients with APS and thromboses high positive levels of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are associated with low plasminogen levels. The levels of PAI-1 antigen measured by ELIZA method, which detects active, latent and bound with plasminogen activator PAI-1, were opposed with frequency of thromboses in APS patients. Correlation between the high and increased levels of PAI-1 and high positive aPL levels was found for one third of 43 patients with APS and thrombosis. One of the possible mechanisms of this interconnection was considered. It was shown that arterial and, to a more extent, venous thromboses are associated with the 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene and high plasma level of the inhibitor in 79% of APS patients. At the presence of the 4G allele patients with SLE+APS had higher PAI-1 levels than patients with PAPS. The obtained results show that measuring the levels of plasminogen and PAI-1 as well as the 4G/5G polymorphism of PAI-1 gene which is associated with thromboses may have the practical significance for identification of high risk of thrombosis in APS patients. PMID:24749249

A?sina, R B; Mukhametova, L I; Ostriakova, E V; Seredavkina, N V; Patrushev, L I; Patrusheva, N L; Reshetniak, T M; Gulin, D A; Gershkovich, K B; Nasonov, E L; Varfolomeev, S D

2014-01-01

177

Elevated VEGF Levels in Pulmonary Edema Fluid and PBMCs from Patients with Acute Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is characterized by vascular permeability, hypoxia, and acute pulmonary edema. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is induced by hypoxia, potently induces vascular permeability, and is associated with high-altitude-induced pulmonary edema. Hantaviruses alter the normal regulation of ?3 integrins that restrict VEGF-directed permeability and hantavirus infected endothelial cells are hyperresponsive to the permeabilizing effects of VEGF. However, the role of VEGF in acute pulmonary edema observed in HPS patients remains unclear. Here we retrospectively evaluate VEGF levels in pulmonary edema fluid (PEF), plasma, sera, and PBMCs from 31 HPS patients. VEGF was elevated in HPS patients PEF compared to controls with the highest levels observed in PEF samples from a fatal HPS case. VEGF levels were highest in PBMC samples during the first five days of hospitalization and diminished during recovery. Significantly increased PEF and PBMC VEGF levels are consistent with acute pulmonary edema observed in HPS patients and HPS disease severity. We observed substantially lower VEGF levels in a severe HPS disease survivor after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. These findings suggest the importance of patients' VEGF levels during HPS, support the involvement of VEGF responses in HPS pathogenesis, and suggest targeting VEGF responses as a potential therapeutic approach. PMID:22956954

Gavrilovskaya, Irina; Gorbunova, Elena; Koster, Frederick; Mackow, Erich

2012-01-01

178

Hair calcium and magnesium levels in patients with fibromyalgia: A case center study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Fibromyalgia is not an uncom-mon condition. Because its cause has yet to be identified, treatment of the condition has been empirical; frequently, outcomes are unsatisfactory. Some patients with fibromyalgia were observed to have high hair calcium and magnesium levels compared with healthy subjects. Because of this and because supplementing calcium with magnesium to fibromyalgia subjects reduced the number of

Shu Yan Ng

1999-01-01

179

[Niceritrol decreases serum phosphate levels in chronic hemodialysis patients].  

PubMed

Since phosphorus retention in hemodialysis (HD) patients is known to be an important factor in the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy, phosphate binders have been needed for the control of serum phosphate levels (P). However, the calcium-containing phosphate binders that have been used widely can cause a rise in serum calcium levels and cause secondary hypoparathyroidism. We have recently experienced decreases in P after the administration of niceritrol (NT), a prodrug of nicotinic acid, for the treatment of low HDL-cholesteremia (HDL-C) in HD patients. The aim of the present study was to assess the mechanism of the P-lowering effect of NT in comparison with nicomol (NC), another prodrug of nicotinic acid. NT (750 mg/day) or NC (600 mg/day) was given orally to 10 or 14HD patients respectively. Blood samples were collected before the first dialysis of each week for the determination of serum urea nitrogen (UN), Cr, Ca, P, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and HDL-C. Serum nicotinic acid concentration (NAC) by gas chromatograph mass-spectrometry method was determined before, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after the administration of these drugs. After NT administration, P was decreased from 6.2 +/- 0.4 mg/dl to 5.1 +/- 0.4 mg/dl (1st week, p < 0.001, Mean +/- SE) and 4.5 +/- 0.3 mg/dl (2nd weeks, p < 0.001) with no change in UN, Cr or Ca levels; these significant decreases in P lasted for 8 weeks. NAC increased significantly after NT administration from 25.5 +/- 1.3 ng/ml to 549.8 +/- 102.2 ng/ml (4 weeks, p < 0.01) and 431.7 +/- 51.4 ng/ml (8 weeks, p < 0.01). HDL-C also increased (33.6 +/- 4.0 mg/dl vs 42.7 +/- 4.6 mg/dl, p < 0.05), but TC and TG did not change. In contrast, no significant changes were observed in P, NAC and HDL-C after NC administration. These discrepancies could be ascribed to the differences in serum NAC levels. These data suggest that NT could be useful for the control of P in HD patients. However further studies are needed to confirm the mechanism of the P-lowering effect of NT. PMID:9513376

Shimoda, K; Akiba, T; Matsushima, T; Rai, T; Abe, K; Hoshino, M

1998-01-01

180

Postoperative Serum Levels of sCD26 for Surveillance in Colorectal Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

One of the main aims of the follow-up after curative resection of colorectal cancer is the early detection and treatment of tumor recurrence. We previously demonstrated decreased preoperative soluble CD26 (sCD26) levels in serum from colorectal cancer patients. We extended now the study to investigate if sCD26 levels in postoperative serum serve as marker of recurrence of the disease during surveillance. Soluble sCD26 was measured in pre- and postoperative serum samples of 43 patients with primary colorectal cancer. Carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19.9 and 72.4 levels were also measured during surveillance. The average follow-up period was 41.8±20.8 months. sCD26 levels during follow-up showed well-defined patterns in patients without disease (n?=?28), and in patients with tumor persistence (n?=?2), local recurrence (n?=?3) or distant metastasis (n?=?10). Disease-free patients showed stable levels between 460–850 ng/mL during follow-up, while high (over 850 ng/mL) and unstable sCD26 levels were found before recurrence was diagnosed. The mean maximum/minimum sCD26 ratios during surveillance were 1.52, 2.12 and 2.63 for patients with no recurrence, local recurrence and metastasis, respectively (p?=?0.005). From the cut-off obtained from a receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve built with the maximum/minimum sCD26 ratios and the upper and lower cut-offs of sCD26, we were able to discriminate patients with and without recurrent disease. We propose that the measurement of serum sCD26 during the follow-up of patients diagnosed of colorectal cancer could be valuable for the early detection of local and distant recurrence. A large, randomized, prospective trial should be performed to confirm our findings. PMID:25210927

De Chiara, Loretta; Rodriguez-Pineiro, Ana M.; Cordero, Oscar J.; Vazquez-Tunas, Lidia; Ayude, Daniel; Rodriguez-Berrocal, Francisco J.; de la Cadena, Maria Paez

2014-01-01

181

High fluoride exposure in hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

The observation of higher plasma flouride levels in our hemodialysis (HD) patients than our continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients (4.0 +/- 0.5 mumol/L [n = 17] v 2.5 +/- 0.3 mumol/L [n = 17], P less than 0.005) prompted an evaluation of fluoride metabolism during HD. We found that serum fluoride was completely ultrafiltrable across cuprophane membranes (99% +/- 4%) and that HD produced acute changes in plasma fluoride levels that correlated well with the fluoride gradient between plasma and dialysis fluid at the start of dialysis. Our HD fluids contained significantly higher fluoride concentrations than were present in commercially prepared peritoneal dialysis fluid. Our fluids are prepared from fluoridated tap water that is purified by reverse osmosis (RO). We conclude that the different concentrations of fluoride in our dialysis fluids account for the differences in the plasma flouride concentrations between our dialysis groups. Since many HD units rely on RO systems to purify fluoridated tap water, it is likely that many HD patients are being exposed inadvertently to increased concentrations of fluoride. PMID:2321644

Bello, V A; Gitelman, H J

1990-04-01

182

Antifactor Xa Levels in Critically Ill Korean Patients Receiving Enoxaparin for Thromboprophylaxis: A Prospective Observational Study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate antifactor Xa (aFXa) levels after once daily dose of 40 mg of enoxaparin and to evaluate factors influencing aFXa levels among Korean intensive care unit (ICU) patients. This prospective observational study was conducted between August and December 2011 in medical ICUs at Samsung Medical Center. AFXa levels between 0.1 and 0.3 U/mL were considered to be effective for antithrombotic activity. Fifty-five patients were included. The median aFXa levels were 0.22 (IQR 0.17-0.26) at 4 hr, 0.06 (IQR 0.02-0.1) at 12 hr, and 0 U/mL (IQR 0-0.03) at 24 hr. The numbers of patients showing effective antithrombotic aFXa levels were 48 (87.3%), 18 (32.7%), and 0 (0%) at 4, 12 and 24 hr, respectively. At 12 hr, higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores and hyperbilirubinemia were significantly associated with low aFXa levels (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.36-0.93; P = 0.02 and 0.06; 0.003-0.87; 0.04, respectively). Once daily dose of 40 mg of enoxaparin is inadequate for maintaining effective antithrombotic aFXa levels, and the inadequacy is more salient for patients with high SOFA scores and hyperbilirubinemia. PMID:23487580

Lim, So Yeon; Jeon, Kyeongman; Kim, Hee-Jin; Kim, Seon Mi; Song, Junwhi; Ha, Jung Min; Um, Sang-Won; Koh, Won-Jung; Chung, Man Pyo; Kim, Hojoong; Kwon, O Jung

2013-01-01

183

Factors affecting the death anxiety levels of relatives of cancer patients undergoing treatment.  

PubMed

This descriptive study was performed to determine levels of the death anxiety levels of relatives of patients who being treated in a public hospital located in the Asian side of Istanbul and influencing factors. The sample was 106 patient relatives of patients from oncology or chemotherapy units of the hospital. Data were collected between May-June 2011 with the 15-item Death Anxiety Scale developed by Templer (1970) and adapted to Turkish by Senol (1989) and evaluated by number-percentage calculations, the Kruskal Wallis, Anova and t tests. Some 36.8% of the included group were aged 45 years and over, 57.5% were female and 65.1% were married. A statistically significant difference was found between the age groups, genders of the patient relatives, the period of cancer treatment regarding the death anxiety levels (p<0.05). The death anxiety levels of the patient relatives who were in the 17-39 age group, female and had a patient who was under treatment for less than 6 months were found to high as compared to others. PMID:22901229

Beydag, Kerime Derya

2012-01-01

184

Effect of enalapril on plasma homocysteine levels in patients with essential hypertension  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the effect of enalapril on plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels and the association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism with the changes of Hcy levels in response to enalapril among patients with essential hypertension. Methods: A total of 130 patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension were enrolled and enalapril was orally administered at a dose of 10 mg/d for eight weeks. Plasma Hcy levels were measured by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) at baseline and after eight weeks of treatment. Genotyping of MTHFR C677T polymorphism was performed by TaqMan probe technique. Results: Compared with baseline, plasma Hcy levels did not change significantly after eight weeks (P=0.81). Stratified by baseline Hcy levels, a significant increase in plasma Hcy levels (P=0.02) among those with Hcy <10 ?mol/L was observed, in contrast to no significant changes in plasma Hcy levels (P=0.54) among those with Hcy ?10 ?mol/L. No significant association was observed between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and changes in Hcy levels in response to enalapril. Conclusions: Enalapril may cause an increase in plasma Hcy levels among the hypertensives with low baseline Hcy levels. There was no significant association between MTHFR C677T genotypes and changes in Hcy levels in response to enalapril among subjects with essential hypertension. PMID:20669348

Fan, Fang-fang; Huo, Yong; Wang, Xu; Xu, Xin; Wang, Bin-yan; Xu, Xi-ping; Li, Jian-ping

2010-01-01

185

Serum heat shock protein 47 levels in patients with drug-induced lung disease  

PubMed Central

Background Heat shock protein (HSP) 47 is a collagen-specific molecular chaperone that is required for molecular maturation of various types of collagens. We recently reported that HSP47 serum levels were markedly higher in patients with acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) when compared with patients with stable IPF, suggesting that serum HSP47 levels correlate with interstitial pneumonia activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum HSP47 levels in patients with drug-induced lung disease (DILD). Methods Findings from high-resolution computed tomographic chest scans of 47 patients with DILD were classified into one of four predominant patterns: organizing pneumonia (OP) (n?=?4), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) (n?=?24), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) (n?=?11), and diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) (n?=?8). Serum levels of HSP47, Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6), surfactant protein (SP)-A, and SP-D were measured in these patients. Results The PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) (P/F) ratios were significantly lower and the alveolar-arterial difference of oxygen (A-a DO2) was significantly higher in the DAD group than in the other groups. Patients with DAD had the worst outcomes among the different subgroups. Patients in the DAD group had significantly higher serum HSP47 levels than those in other groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that HSP47 was superior to KL-6, SP-A, and SP-D for discriminating between the DAD group and the other groups. The cut-off level for HSP47 that resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy was 1711.5 pg/mL. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 87.5%, 97.4%, and 95.7%, respectively. Serum levels of HSP47 in the group of patients requiring glucocorticoids were significantly higher than those in patients who experienced clinical improvement without glucocorticoid administration. Serum HSP47 levels also significantly correlated with various respiratory parameters. Conclusion This study demonstrated that serum HSP47 levels were elevated in patients with DILD with a DAD pattern who had the worst outcomes among the different subgroups, and that this was correlated with P/F ratio and A-a DO2. PMID:24256690

2013-01-01

186

Progress in high-level exploratory vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been exploring the hypothesis that vision is an explanatory process, in which causal and functional reasoning about potential motion plays an intimate role in mediating the activity of low-level visual processes. In particular, we have explored two of the consequences of this view for the construction of purposeful vision systems: Causal and design knowledge can be used to (1) drive focus of attention, and (2) choose between ambiguous image interpretations. An important result of visual understanding is an explanation of the scene's causal structure: How action is originated, constrained, and prevented, and what will happen in the immediate future. In everyday visual experience, most action takes the form of motion, and most causal analysis takes the form of dynamical analysis. This is even true of static scenes, where much of a scene's interest lies in how possible motions are arrested. This paper describes our progress in developing domain theories and visual processes for the understanding of various kinds of structured scenes, including structures built out of children's constructive toys and simple mechanical devices.

Brand, Matthew

1993-08-01

187

Patient Education Level Affects Functionality and Long Term Mortality After Major Lower Extremity Amputation  

PubMed Central

Background In this study, we examine the relationship between level of education of patients and five year mortality following major lower extremity amputation. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients who underwent above- or below-knee amputation at the Nashville VA by the vascular surgery service between January 2000 and August 2006. Formal level of education of the study patients was recorded. Outcomes were compared between those patients who had completed high school and those who had not. Bivariate analysis using chi-square and student's t-test, and multivariable logistic regression were performed. Results Five year mortality for patients who completed high school was lower than those who had not completed high school (62.6% vs. 84.3%; p = 0.001), even after adjusting for important clinical factors (Odds Ratio of death = 0.377, 95% CI 0.164 – 0.868 p=0.022). Conclusions Patients with less education have increased long term mortality following lower extremity amputation. PMID:22906244

Corey, Michael R.; Julien, Jamii St; Miller, Carly; Fisher, Bryan; Cederstrand, Sara L.; Nylander, William A.; Guzman, Raul J.; Dattilo, Jeffery B.

2014-01-01

188

Significance of serum vascular endothelial growth factor level in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of angiogenesis, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of fibrotic lung diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The aim of this study was to examine the clinical significance of the serum VEGF level for evaluating disease severity and progression. The levels of VEGF in serum were measured in 41 patients with IPF, 14 patients with lung cancer, and 43 healthy volunteers. We measured the serum levels of CRP, LDH, KL-6, SP-D, and the parameters obtained from arterial blood gas analysis and pulmonary function tests. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was performed to determine the extent of the interstitial and the alveolar opacities. The ability of each biomarker to predict disease severity was estimated by measuring the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The VEGF levels of IPF patients with high alveolar-arterial difference of oxygen (AaDO(2)) levels were significantly elevated than those with low AaDO(2) levels and those of healthy volunteers. When examined within the IPF group, a significant positive correlation was found between the VEGF levels and the HRCT interstitial score (p = 0.027) and the KL-6 levels (p = 0.037). Among several serum biomarkers, VEGF showed the largest AUC for predicting disease severity as defined by a high AaDO(2) value. There was an inverse correlation between the baseline VEGF level and the monthly change in percent predicted vital capacity. The serum VEGF level may reflect the severity of IPF and offer clinical benefits to predict the disease's progression. PMID:20066538

Ando, Masaru; Miyazaki, Eishi; Ito, Takeo; Hiroshige, Shigeo; Nureki, Shin-ich; Ueno, Takuya; Takenaka, Ryuichi; Fukami, Tetsujiro; Kumamoto, Toshihide

2010-06-01

189

Diagnostic reference levels for medical exposure of patients: ICRP guidance and related ICRU quantities.  

PubMed

In Publication 60 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection reference levels were described as values of measured quantities at which some specified action or decision should be taken. One particular form of reference level, the diagnostic reference level, applies specifically to medical exposure of patients. The objective of a diagnostic reference level is to help avoid radiation dose to the patient that does not contribute to the clinical purpose of a medical imaging task. This is accomplished by comparison between the numerical value of the diagnostic reference level and the mean or other appropriate value observed in practice for a suitable reference group of patients or a suitable reference phantom. A diagnostic reference level is not applied to individual patients. Diagnostic reference levels have no direct linkage to the numerical values for dose limits or dose constraints, and it is inappropriate to use them for regulatory or commercial purposes. Diagnostic reference levels should be selected by professional medical bodies (often in conjunction with health and radiation protection authorities) and their values may be specific to a country or region. A diagnostic reference level can be used: (1) to improve a regional, national or local distribution of observed results for a general medical imaging task, by reducing the frequency of unjustified high or low values; (2) to promote attainment of a narrower range of values that represent good practice for a more specific medical imaging task; or (3) to promote attainment of an optimum range of values for a specified medical imaging protocol. Authorized bodies are encouraged to set diagnostic reference levels that best meet their specific needs and that are consistent for the regional, national or local area to which they apply. Report 74 of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements includes a commentary regarding quantities useful in establishing diagnostic reference levels. PMID:18849685

Rosenstein, Marvin

2008-11-01

190

Adverse Outcome of Pregnancies with Extremely High Levels of Maternal Serum Human Chorionic Gonadotropin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The associated risk of elevated levels of maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (MShCG) with pregnancy complications was reported in many studies. However, the outcome of pregnancies with extremely high levels of MShCG was never independently studied. Methods: We report on 6 out of 45,990 studied patients with extremely high levels of MShCG (>15 multiples of the medians) analyzed during

Reuven Sharony; Deganit Itzhaky; Aliza Amiel; Anat Hershko; Yulia Grinshpoon; Moshe Fejgin

2008-01-01

191

High Level Programming, Arun Chauhan, Rochester 2009-11-30 Higher Level Programming on Parallel  

E-print Network

High Level Programming, Arun Chauhan, Rochester 2009-11-30 Higher Level Programming on Parallel Computers: Sweetening the Deal for Programmers (and Making Compilers Work Harder) Arun Chauhan, Indiana University University of Rochester, Nov 30, 2009 #12;High Level Programming, Arun Chauhan, Rochester 2009

Chauhan, Arun

192

Flaxseed oil supplementation decreases C-reactive protein levels in chronic hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

Malnutrition and chronic inflammation in dialysis patients negatively impact their survival prognosis, and nutrients, such as omega-3 oils, are postulated to reduce proinflammatory response. In this randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effects of flaxseed oil (FO) on the inflammatory state of patients with chronic renal failure undergoing renal replacement therapy with hemodialysis (HD). We hypothesized that FO supplementation lowers C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. One hundred sixty patients with chronic renal failure who received HD therapy of 3 dialysis units over a 3-month period in South Brazil were included. The patients received blind doses of FO (1 g twice a day) and placebo (mineral oil, 1 g twice a day) for a period of 120 days. Inflammation was observed in 89 patients (61%) at the beginning of the study. There was a correlation between CRP and the body mass index (R(s) = 0.22; P = .022) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (R(s) = -0.23; P = .032), and the CRP levels decreased significantly over time in the group that received FO compared with the control group (P < .001). During the study period, 33.3% of the FO group changed from an inflamed to a not-inflamed category, whereas only 16.9% changed in the mineral oil group (P = .04). We conclude that the administration of FO decreases the CRP levels and that inflammation in HD patients appears to be correlated to their body mass index and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Studies with a larger number of patients and over a longer duration are necessary to corroborate these findings. PMID:23244537

Lemos, Joana R N; Alencastro, Mariana Gascue de; Konrath, Anita Vieceli; Cargnin, Marina; Manfro, Roberto Ceratti

2012-12-01

193

Antibody levels for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and rubella in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Significantly higher proportions of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or lymphadenopathy syndrome (LAS) were positive for antibodies to cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) compared with control groups of commercial blood donors. In contrast, no differences were found in the incidence of individuals positive for antibodies to rubella in these groups of subjects. Of those positive for antibodies to CMV and HSV in each group, the mean antibody levels were significantly higher in AIDS-LAS patients compared with the controls. The entire distribution of antibody concentrations to CMV and HSV in AIDS patients was shifted upward, so that significantly more patients showed high values and significantly fewer showed low values, indicating hyperactive humoral immune responses to these viruses. In sharp contrast, the AIDS patients with antibody levels for rubella showed the same distribution of antibody levels as did two groups of controls. No correlation was found between concentrations of CMV and HSV antibodies in individual AIDS-LAS patients. PMID:3009534

Halbert, S P; Kiefer, D J; Friedman-Kien, A E; Poiesz, B

1986-01-01

194

Serum levels of IL-6 and IL-1? can predict the efficacy of gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: With this study, we sought to characterise the impact of pro-inflammatory cytokines on the outcomes of gemcitabine monotherapy (GEM) in patients with pancreatic cancer (PC). Methods: Treatment-naive patients with advanced PC and no obvious infections were eligible for enrolment. All of the patients were scheduled to undergo systemic chemotherapy. Serum pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured using an electro-chemiluminescence assay method before chemotherapy. High cytokine levels were defined as values greater than the median. Clinical data were collected prospectively. Results: Sixty patients who received GEM were included in the analysis. High IL-6 and IL-1? levels were poor prognostic factors for overall survival in a multivariate analysis (P=0.011 and P=0.048, respectively). Patients with both a high IL-6 level and a high IL-1? level exhibited shortened overall and progression-free survival, a reduction in the tumour control rate, and a high dose intensity of GEM compared with patients with low levels of both IL-6 and IL-1?. Conclusion: The serum levels of IL-6 and IL-1? predict the efficacy of GEM in patients with advanced PC. PMID:23591198

Mitsunaga, S; Ikeda, M; Shimizu, S; Ohno, I; Furuse, J; Inagaki, M; Higashi, S; Kato, H; Terao, K; Ochiai, A

2013-01-01

195

Contribution of Interfacility Patient Movement to Overall Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Prevalence Levels  

PubMed Central

Objectives The effect of patient movement between hospitals and long-term care facilities (LTCFs) on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevalence levels is unknown. We investigated these effects to identify scenarios that may lead to increased prevalence in either facility type. Methods We used a hybrid simulation model to simulate MRSA transmission among hospitals and LTCFs. Transmission within each facility was determined by mathematical model equations. The model predicted the long-term prevalence of each facility and was used to assess the effects of facility size, patient turnover, and decolonization. Results Analyses of various healthcare networks suggest that the effect of patients moving from a LTCF to a hospital is negligible unless the patients are consistently admitted to the same unit. In such cases, MRSA prevalence can increase significantly regardless of the endemic level. Hospitals can cause sustained increases in prevalence when transferring patients to LTCFs, where the population size is smaller and patient turnover is less frequent. For 1 particular scenario, the steady-state prevalence of a LTCF increased from 6.9% to 9.4% to 13.8% when the transmission rate of the hospital increased from a low to a high transmission rate. Conclusions These results suggest that the relative facility size and the patient discharge rate are 2 key factors that can lead to sustained increases in MRSA prevalence. Consequently, small facilities or those with low turnover rates are especially susceptible to sustaining increased prevalence levels, and they become more so when receiving patients from larger, high-prevalence facilities. Decolonization is an infection-control strategy that can mitigate these effects. PMID:22011533

Barnes, Sean L.; Harris, Anthony D.; Golden, Bruce L.; Wasil, Edward A.; Furuno, Jon P.

2012-01-01

196

A rational approach to employing high plasma levels of antipsychotics for violence associated with schizophrenia: case vignettes.  

PubMed

Forensic psychiatric settings contain a high prevalence of treatment-resistant violent schizophrenia patients. Clozapine therapy has the most robust data for the management of violence in patients with schizophrenia, but for those who cannot tolerate or refuse clozapine, high-dose antipsychotic treatment to high achieve high plasma levels remains a viable option despite limited evidence for efficacy in controlled trials. This article enumerates rational guidelines for employing high plasma level strategies, emphasizing the appropriate interpretation of, and reaction to high plasma antipsychotic levels in these treatment resistant patients, and the need to push treatment to the limits of tolerability or clinical response. PMID:24865765

Meyer, Jonathan M

2014-10-01

197

Determining level of care appropriateness in the patient journey from acute care to rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Background The selection of patients for rehabilitation, and the timing of transfer from acute care, are important clinical decisions that impact on care quality and patient flow. This paper reports utilization review data on inpatients in acute care with stroke, hip fracture or elective joint replacement, and other inpatients referred for rehabilitation. It examines reasons why acute level of care criteria are not met and explores differences in decision making between acute care and rehabilitation teams around patient appropriateness and readiness for transfer. Methods Cohort study of patients in a large acute referral hospital in Australia followed with the InterQual utilization review tool, modified to also include reasons why utilization criteria are not met. Additional data on team decision making about appropriateness for rehabilitation, and readiness for transfer, were collected on a subset of patients. Results There were 696 episodes of care (7189 bed days). Days meeting acute level of care criteria were 56% (stroke, hip fracture and joint replacement patients) and 33% (other patients, from the time of referral). Most inappropriate days in acute care were due to delays in processes/scheduling (45%) or being more appropriate for rehabilitation or lower level of care (30%). On the subset of patients, the acute care team and the utilization review tool deemed patients ready for rehabilitation transfer earlier than the rehabilitation team (means of 1.4, 1.3 and 4.0 days from the date of referral, respectively). From when deemed medically stable for transfer by the acute care team, 28% of patients became unstable. From when deemed stable by the rehabilitation team or utilization review, 9% and 11%, respectively, became unstable. Conclusions A high proportion of patient days did not meet acute level of care criteria, due predominantly to inefficiencies in care processes, or to patients being more appropriate for an alternative level of care, including rehabilitation. The rehabilitation team was the most accurate in determining ongoing medical stability, but at the cost of a longer acute stay. To avoid inpatients remaining in acute care in a state of 'terra nullius', clinical models which provide rehabilitation within acute care, and more efficient movement to a rehabilitation setting, is required. Utilization review could have a decision support role in the determination of medical stability. PMID:22040281

2011-01-01

198

Mortality Benefit of Transfer to Level I versus Level II Trauma Centers for Head-Injured Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether head-injured patients transferred to level I trauma centers have reduced mortality relative to transfers to level II trauma centers. Data Source/Study Setting Retrospective cohort study of 542 patients with head injury who initially presented to 1 of 31 rural trauma centers in Oregon and Washington, and were transferred from the emergency department to 1 of 15 level I or level II trauma centers, between 1991 and 1994. Study Design A bivariate probit, instrumental variables model was used to estimate the effect of transfer to level I versus level II trauma centers on 30-day postdischarge mortality. Independent variables included age, gender, Injury Severity Scale (ISS), other indicators of injury severity, and a dichotomous variable indicating transfer to a level I trauma center. The differential distance between the nearest level I and level II trauma centers was used as an instrument. Principal Findings Patients transferred to level I trauma centers differ in unmeasured ways from patients transferred to level II trauma centers, biasing estimates based on standard statistical methods. Transfer to a level I trauma center reduced absolute mortality risk by 10.1% (95% confidence interval 0.3%, 22.2%) compared with transfer to level II trauma centers. Conclusions Patients with severe head injuries transferred from rural trauma centers to level I centers are likely to have improved survival relative to transfer to level II centers. PMID:15762901

McConnell, K John; Newgard, Craig D; Mullins, Richard J; Arthur, Melanie; Hedges, Jerris R

2005-01-01

199

Increased plasma levels of CK-18 as potential cell death biomarker in patients with HELLP syndrome  

PubMed Central

HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) syndrome represents a life-threatening pregnancy disorder with high fetal and maternal mortality, but its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Although apoptosis has been implicated in HELLP syndrome, its pathogenic role remains largely unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether the detection of apoptosis by novel plasma biomarkers is of diagnostic value in HELLP patients. For this purpose, we analyzed two biomarkers that specifically detect apoptosis or overall cell death of epithelial cells, such as hepatocytes or placental trophoblasts, through the release of caspase-cleaved or total (caspase-cleaved and uncleaved) cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) in plasma of HELLP patients compared with pregnant as well as non-pregnant healthy women. In addition, caspase activation and cell death were determined in placental tissues of HELLP patients and individuals with normal pregnancy. In contrast to pregnant or non-pregnant healthy controls, we observed significantly increased levels of both caspase-cleaved and total CK-18 in plasma of HELLP patients. Following delivery, CK-18 levels rapidly decreased in HELLP patients. Caspase activation and cell death were also elevated in placental tissues from HELLP patients compared with healthy pregnant women. These data demonstrate not only that apoptosis is increased in HELLP syndrome, but also that caspase-cleaved or total CK-18 are promising plasma biomarkers to identify patients with HELLP syndrome. Thus, further studies are warranted to evaluate the utility of these biomarkers for monitoring disease activity in HELLP syndrome. PMID:24157880

John, K; Wielgosz, S; Schulze-Osthoff, K; Bantel, H; Hass, R

2013-01-01

200

Decreased plasma nesfatin-1 levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Nesfatin-1 is a novel anorexigenic hormone which has close relationship with diabetes, obese, anorexia nervosa, psychiatric disorders and neurogenic diseases. The aim of our study was to evaluate levels of plasma nesfatin-1 among patients presenting with coronary artery disease and the correlation between nesfatin-1 levels and other clinical parameters. Fasting plasma levels of nesfatin-1 were tested in 48 acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, 74 stable angina pectoris (SAP) patients and 34 control subjects. All of them were examined by coronary angiography. The severity of coronary atherosclerosis was assessed using the Gensini score. Plasma nesfatin-1 levels were significantly lower in AMI group than SAP group or control group (0.91±0.08 ng/mL vs. 0.98±0.19 ng/mL and 1.09±0.39 ng/mL, respectively, P<0.05). In AMI patients, plasma nesfatin-1 levels were negatively correlated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, neutrophil% or Gensini scores. Such information implies that lower nesfatin-1 concentration may play a very important role in the development of AMI. PMID:23806888

Dai, Hongyan; Li, Xiaolu; He, Tao; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Zhengzhong; Wang, Shoudong; Xing, Mingqing; Sun, Wenjuan; Ding, Huamin

2013-08-01

201

High matrix metalloproteinase levels are associated with dermal graft failure in diabetic foot ulcers.  

PubMed

The aim of our study is to analyze factors, including matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels, that could influence the integration of dermal grafts in diabetic foot ulcers. From September 2012 to September 2013, 35 diabetic patients with IIA lesion (Texas Wound Classification) and an extensive foot tissue loss were considered suitable for dermal graft. Before the enrollment we ensured the best local conditions: adequate blood supply, control of infection, and offloading. The MMP level of each lesion was evaluated blindly before the application of dermal substitutes. At 1-month follow-up, we analyzed the correlation between clinical patient characteristics, local wound features including MMP levels, dermal substitute applied, and the outcome expressed in terms of dermal graft integration. We observed dermal graft integration in 28/35 patients (80% of our population). In multivariate analysis high MMP level was the only negative predictor for dermal graft integration (P < .0007). In addition, we divided the patients into 2 groups according to MMP levels: group 1 with low protease activity (24 patients) and group 2 with elevated protease activity (11 patients). The integration of the dermal graft was 100% in group 1 (n = 24 patients) and 36.4% in group 2 (n = 4patients), P < .0001. According to our data, the evaluation of MMP levels may be useful to choose the right strategy to get the best results in terms of clinical success and cost saving. However, further studies are necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:25106443

Izzo, Valentina; Meloni, Marco; Vainieri, Erika; Giurato, Laura; Ruotolo, Valeria; Uccioli, Luigi

2014-09-01

202

Baseline serum TARC levels predict therapy outcome in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma.  

PubMed

Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has become one of the best curable cancers. However, better biomarkers are needed for outcome prediction that would allow protecting patients from over- or under-dosing of treatment. Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine/CCL17 (TARC) is highly and specifically elevated in this disease and has been proposed as possible biomarker in HL patients. In this study, we show that pretreatment TARC levels were associated with established clinical risk factors and predictive for response to treatment in a large cohort of HL patients treated in clinical trials by the German Hodgkin Study Group. Moreover, TARC levels also significantly contributed to a novel multivariate model predicting treatment response. These data clearly suggest an important role for this chemokine as biomarker in HL. PMID:23225085

Sauer, Maike; Plütschow, Annette; Jachimowicz, Ron D; Kleefisch, Dominik; Reiners, Katrin S; Ponader, Sabine; Engert, Andreas; von Strandmann, Elke Pogge

2013-02-01

203

High-fibre diets for diabetic and hypertriglyceridemic patients.  

PubMed Central

Diets high in complex carbohydrate result in lower insulin requirements than the high-fat diets conventionally used to treat diabetes. Accompanying unacceptable increases in fasting triglyceride levels can be overcome by increasing the fibre content of the diet. In diabetics a diet providing 70% of energy from carbohydrate and containing 35 to 40 g of fibre per 1000 Cal will rapidly reduce the plasma glucose level and the requirement for insulin or sulfonylurea. It will also lower the serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in individuals with hypertriglyceridemia. These improvements are maintained in patients following a modified high-carbohydrate, high-fibre diet providing 55% to 60% of energy by carbohydrate (75% of which is complex), 15% to 20% by protein and 20% to 30% by fat, with 25 g of plant fibre per 1000 Cal. With long-term use (for up to 48 months) of the maintenance diets patients maintained or corrected their body weight, and no nutritional deficiencies were observed. PMID:6256046

Anderson, J W

1980-01-01

204

A Framework for Translating a High Level Security Policy into Low Level Security Mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Security policies have different components; firewall, active directory, and IDS are some examples of these components. Enforcement of network security policies to low level security mechanisms faces some essential difficulties. Consistency, verification, and maintenance are the major ones of these difficulties. One approach to overcome these difficulties is to automate the process of translation of high level security policy into low level security mechanisms. This paper introduces a framework of an automation process that translates a high level security policy into low level security mechanisms. The framework is described in terms of three phases; in the first phase all network assets are categorized according to their roles in the network security and relations between them are identified to constitute the network security model. This proposed model is based on organization based access control (OrBAC). However, the proposed model extend the OrBAC model to include not only access control policy but also some other administrative security policies like auditing policy. Besides, the proposed model enables matching of each rule of the high level security policy with the corresponding ones of the low level security policy. Through the second phase of the proposed framework, the high level security policy is mapped into the network security model. The second phase could be considered as a translation of the high level security policy into an intermediate model level. Finally, the intermediate model level is translated automatically into low level security mechanism. The paper illustrates the applicability of proposed approach through an application example.

Hassan, Ahmed A.; Bahgat, Waleed M.

2010-01-01

205

Patient Dose Reference Levels for Interventional Radiology: A National Approach  

SciTech Connect

A set of patient dose reference levels (RLs) for fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures was obtained in a survey launched by the National Society of Interventional Radiology (IR), involving 10 public hospitals, as recommended by the European Medical Exposures Directive. A sample of 1391 dose values (kerma area product [KAP]) was collected randomly during clinical procedures for seven of the most frequent procedures. Third quartiles of the KAP distributions were used to set the RLs. A regular quality control of the X-ray systems and a calibration of the dose meters were performed during the survey. The fluoroscopy time and total number of digital subtraction angiography images per procedure were also analyzed. The RL values proposed were 12 Gy cm{sup 2} for fistulography (hemodialysis access; sample of 180 cases), 73 Gy cm{sup 2} for lower limb arteriography (685 cases), 89 Gy cm{sup 2} for renal arteriography (55 cases), 80 Gy cm{sup 2} for biliary drainage (205 cases), 289 Gy cm{sup 2} for hepatic chemoembolization (151 cases), 94 Gy cm{sup 2} for iliac stent (70 cases), and 236 Gy cm{sup 2} for uterine embolization (45 cases). The provisional national RL values are lower than those obtained in a similar survey carried out in the United States from 2002 to 2004. These new values could be used to improve the practice of centers consistently working with doses higher than the RLs. This national survey also had a positive impact, as it helped increase the awareness of the members of the National Society of IR on a topic as crucial as patient dose values and programs on radiation protection.

Vano, Eliseo, E-mail: eliseov@med.ucm.es; Sanchez, R.; Fernandez, J. M. [Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Department of Medical Physics (Spain); Gallego, J. J. [Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Department of Radiology (Spain); Verdu, J. F. [Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Department of Radiology (Spain); Garay, M. Gonzalez de [Hospital de Basurto, Department of Radiology (Spain); Azpiazu, A. [Hospital Txagoritxu, Department of Radiology (Spain); Segarra, A. [Hospital Valle de Hebron, Department of Radiology (Spain); Hernandez, M. T. [Hospital Funacion Alcorcon, Department of Radiology (Spain); Canis, M. [Hospital Reina Sofia, Department of Radiology (Spain); Diaz, F. [Hospital Universitario de Canarias, Department of Radiology (Spain); Moreno, F. [Hospital Juan Ramon Jimenez (Spain); Palmero, J. [Hospital Clinico de Valencia (Spain)

2009-01-15

206

Circulating Level of miR-378 Predicts Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Patients with Aortic Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Aims Excessively high left ventricle mass is an independent predictor of adverse prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRs) play crucial roles in the regulation of left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH). However, few circulating miRs have been established as predictors of LVH in aortic stenosis (AS) patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether circulating levels of miR-1, miR-133, and miR-378 predict LVH in patients with AS. Methods and Results One-hundred twelve patients with moderate to severe AS and 40 healthy controls were included in the study. Levels of miR-1, miR-133, and miR-378 in the plasma were measured by qPCR. Compared with healthy controls, AS patients had significantly lower circulating levels of miR-1, miR-133, and miR-378. AS patients with LVH had significantly lower miR-378 but not miR-1 and miR-133 compared with those without LVH. Linear regression analysis showed circulating miR-378 had strong correlation with left ventricular mass index (r?=?0.283, p?=?0.002) and logistic regression showed that lower miR-378 was an independent predictor for LVH in patients with AS (p?=?0.037, OR 4.110, 95% CI 1.086 to 15.558). Conclusion Circulating levels of miR-1, miR-133 and miR-378 were decreased in AS patients, and miR-378 predicts LVH independent of the pressure gradient. Further prospective investigations are needed to elucidate whether these circulating miRs affect clinical outcome. PMID:25157568

Xu, Yuanning; Li, Yajiao; Yang, Hao; Rao, Li

2014-01-01

207

MEMORY AWARE HIGH-LEVEL SYNTHESIS FOR EMBEDDED SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

MEMORY AWARE HIGH-LEVEL SYNTHESIS FOR EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Gwenole Corre, Eric Senn, Nathalie Julien to take into account the memory architecture and the memory mapping in the High- Level Synthesis of Real-Time embedded systems. We formalize the memory mapping as a set of constraints for the synthesis, and defined

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

208

Prediction of infarct severity from triiodothyronine levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between thyroid hormone levels and infarct severity in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods We retrospectively reviewed thyroid hormone levels, infarct severity, and the extent of transmurality in 40 STEMI patients evaluated via contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Results The high triiodothyronine (T3) group (? 68.3 ng/dL) exhibited a significantly higher extent of transmural involvement (late transmural enhancement > 75% after administration of gadolinium contrast agent) than did the low T3 group (60% vs. 15%; p = 0.003). However, no significant difference was evident between the high- and low-thyroid-stimulating hormone/free thyroxine (FT4) groups. When the T3 cutoff level was set to 68.3 ng/dL using a receiver operating characteristic curve, the sensitivity was 80% and the specificity 68% in terms of differentiating between those with and without transmural involvement. Upon logistic regression analysis, high T3 level was an independent predictor of transmural involvement after adjustment for the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and the use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (odds ratio, 40.62; 95% confidence interval, 3.29 to 502; p = 0.004). Conclusions The T3 level predicted transmural involvement that was independent of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor use and DM positivity. PMID:25045293

Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Seo-Won; Kim, Bo-Bae; Chung, Joong-Wha; Koh, Young-Youp; Chang, Kyong-Sig; Hong, Soon-Pyo

2014-01-01

209

Decreased serum level of NGF in alcohol-dependent patients with declined executive function  

PubMed Central

The role of neurotrophic factors has been highlighted as a cause of decline in the cognitive function of alcohol-dependent patients. It is known that nerve-growth factor (NGF), one of the neurotrophins, is related to the growth and differentiation of nerve cells, as well as to a decline in cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between decreased NGF levels and cognitive decline in alcohol-dependent patients. The serum concentration of NGF was measured in 38 patients with chronic alcohol dependence, and several neuropsychological tests were also performed for cognitive function assessment. The results indicated a significant correlation between serum NGF level and the trail-making test part B, which evaluates executive function, but did not show a significant correlation with other cognitive function tests. An increased serum level of NGF was associated with a decreased completion time in the trail-making test B, and this finding indicates that a high serum level of NGF is related to greater executive function. This finding may imply a protective role of NGF in preventing neuron damage among patients with alcohol dependence. Larger controlled studies will be necessary in the future to investigate this issue further.

Bae, Hwallip; Ra, Youngsun; Han, Changwoo; Kim, Dai-Jin

2014-01-01

210

Relationship between Serum Visfatin and Vascular Inflammation Markers Level in Beta Thalassemia Major Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Understanding the possible role of visfatin in the pathogenesis of beta-thalassemia major (BTM) and its relationship with markers of endothelial function could help us to provide more effective therapeutic approaches for treatment of patients with BTM and its related complications. The aim of current study was to compare serum level of visfatin between patients with BTM and control group and determine its correlation with markers of endothelial function, intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) and vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM). Methods: In this case-control study, patients with BTM receiving regular blood transfusion aged 10-20 years and a group of healthy subjects were enrolled. Selected subjects examined clinically and venous blood samples obtained for visfatin, ICAM, VCAM, cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and ferritin measurements. Mean (standard deviation) of studied laboratory measurements compared in two studied groups and the relation between visfatin and ICAM, VCAM, ferrittin, body mass index determined. Results: In this study 31 patients with BTM and 30 healthy controls studied. Mean of visfatin was significantly higher in patients with BTM than control group (133.9 ± 60.1 vs. 43.3 ± 27.9, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The higher level of visfatin among patients with BTM indicated the possible inflammatory role of this adipocytokine in BTM. It seems that for understanding the underlying mechanisms and its relation with vascular inflammatory markers and endothelial function further studies with larger sample size is needed. PMID:25400885

Dehkordi, Elham Hashemi; Nourbakhsh, Seyed Mohammad Kazem; Rostampour, Noushin; Boroujeni, Fateme Alizadeh

2014-01-01

211

Ferric gluconate treatment provides cost savings in patients with high ferritin and low transferrin saturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subgroup of hemodialysis patients experience high serum ferritin and low tansferrin saturation for reasons not clearly understood. Here we determined the economic impact of administering sodium ferric gluconate complex to patients with serum ferritin levels higher than 500 ng\\/ml and a transferrin saturation less than 25% based on the Dialysis Patients Response to IV Iron with Elevated Ferritin (DRIVE)

Laura T Pizzi; Thomas J Bunz; Daniel W Coyne; David S Goldfarb; Ajay K Singh

2008-01-01

212

Relationship between blood peroxidases activity and visfatin levels in metabolic syndrome patients  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The observed relationships between visfatin, peroxidases activity, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are inconsistent; therefore, this study was undertaken to understand these relationships. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted as a part of the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program, Iran. A blood sample of 90 MetS and non-MetS patients were used to estimate total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TGs), fasting blood glucose (FBG), waist circumference (WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), visfatin and peroxidases activity. Data analysis for MetS group was carried out in two ways. (1) MetS with three components and with > 3 components. (2) MetS with hyperglycemia and without hyperglycemia. RESULTS SBP, DBP, WC, FBG, TC, TG, LDL-C, and were higher and HDL-C levels was lower in MetS patients. There was a significant correlation between visfatin levels and peroxidases activity in MetS patients with three components. Levels of visfatin were significantly higher in male as compared to female subjects in the MetS with three components group. There was a significant decrease in peroxidases activity in > 45 years old subjects in the MetS with > 3 components group. A significant correlation was observed between serum visfatin levels and FBG in the MetS without hyperglycemia group. CONCLUSION Peroxidases activities in MetS patients can be related to visfatin levels. Gender influences on peroxidases activity probably and was lower in female patients with MetS. Hyperglycemia does not influence peroxidases activities and visfatin levels.

Samsam-Shariat, Seyyed Ziaedin; Bolhasani, Mohammad; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Najafi, Somayeh; Asgary, Sedigheh

2014-01-01

213

Significance of Serum Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Levels in Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Hormonal Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is one of the neuroendocrine markers. The serum CGRP levels in untreated prostate cancer (PCa) patients reportedly reflect the tumor volume and aggressiveness. However, the detailed evaluation of the serum CGRP levels in the PCa patients treated with hormonal therapy (HT) has never been reported. We measured the serum CGRP levels in PCa patients receiving

Kazumi Suzuki; Yutaka Kobayashi; Tatsuo Morita

2009-01-01

214

Segmentectomy for giant pulmonary sclerosing haemangiomas with high serum KL-6 levels  

PubMed Central

We describe a 61-year old female patient with a giant pulmonary sclerosing haemangioma (PSH) and an extremely high preoperative serum KL-6 level. During an annual health screening, the patient showed a posterior mediastinal mass on chest radiography. Chest computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-circumscribed 60 mm diameter nodule with a marked contrast enhancement in the left lower lobe. The preoperative serum KL-6 level was elevated to 8204 U/ml. We performed a four-port thoracoscopic basal segmentectomy and lymph node sampling for diagnosis and therapy. The postoperative diagnosis showed PSH. The serum KL-6 level decreased dramatically with tumour resection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with PSH showing a high serum KL-6 level. PMID:22454483

Kuroda, Hiroaki; Mun, Mingyon; Okumura, Sakae; Nakagawa, Ken

2012-01-01

215

Fusing high- and low-level features for speaker recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The area of automatic speaker recognition has been dominated by systems using only short-term, low-level acoustic information, such as cepstral features. While these systems have produced low error rates, they ignore higher levels of information beyond low-level acoustics that convey speaker information. Recently published works have demonstrated that such high-level information can be used successfully in automatic speaker recognition systems

Joseph P. Campbell; Douglas A. Reynolds; Robert B. Dunn

2003-01-01

216

Recommendations for management of dyslipidemia in high cardiovascular risk patients  

PubMed Central

Overwhelming evidence supports a causal relationship between elevated levels of plasma cholesterol, particularly low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased risk of coronary artery disease, which remains the leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering has been the main goal of therapy, and clinical trial results from recently published studies of intensive statin therapy confirm the benefits of more aggressive lipid-lowering targets, particularly in subjects at high risk for cardiovascular events. This management update will focus on the implications of risk reduction in patients at high cardiovascular risk, and will provide practical steps to help further risk stratify these patients and help them reach their target goals. PMID:19343119

Braga, Manoela B; Langer, Anatoly; Leiter, Lawrence A

2008-01-01

217

42 CFR 413.235 - Patient-level adjustments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...adjustments. 413.235 Section 413.235 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...adults to account for patient age, body surface area, low body mass index, onset of dialysis (new patient), and...

2013-10-01

218

Can patients with coronary heart disease go to high altitude?  

PubMed

Tourism to high altitude is very popular and includes elderly people with both manifest and subclinical coronary heart disease (CHD). Thus, risk assessment regarding high altitude exposure of patients with CHD is of increasing interest, and individual recommendations are expected despite the lack of sufficient scientific evidence. The major factor increasing cardiac stress is hypoxia. At rest and for a given external workload, myocardial oxygen demand is increased at altitude, particularly in nonacclimatized individuals, and there is some evidence that blood-flow reserve is reduced in atherosclerotic coronary arteries even in the absence of severe stenosis. Despite a possible imbalance between oxygen demand and oxygen delivery, studies on selected patients have shown that exposure and exercise at altitudes of 3000 to 3500?m is generally safe for patients with stable CHD and sufficient work capacity. During the first days at altitude, patients with stable angina may develop symptoms of myocardial ischemia at slightly lower heart rate x ?blood-pressure products. Adverse cardiac events, however, such as unstable angina coronary syndromes, do not occur more frequently compared with sea level except for those who are unaccustomed to exercise. Therefore, training should start before going to altitude, and the altitude-related decrease in exercise capacity should be considered. Travel to 3500?m should be avoided unless patients have stable disease, preserved left ventricular function without residual capacity, and above-normal exercise capacity. CHD patients should avoid travel to elevations above 4500?m owing to severe hypoxia at these altitudes. The risk assessment of CHD patients at altitude should always consider a possible absence of medical support and that cardiovascular events may turn into disaster. PMID:20919884

Dehnert, Christoph; Bärtsch, Peter

2010-01-01

219

Dietary flavanol intervention lowers the levels of endothelial microparticles in coronary artery disease patients.  

PubMed

Current evidence suggests that regenerative v. degenerative endothelial responses can be integrated in a clinical endothelial phenotype, reflecting the net result between damage from risk factors and endogenous repair capacity. We have previously shown that a cocoa flavanol (CF) intervention can improve endothelial function and increase the regenerative capacity of the endothelium by mobilising circulating angiogenic cells in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether CF can lower the levels of circulating endothelial microparticles (EMP), markers of endothelial integrity, along with improvements in endothelial function. The levels of EMP in the frozen plasma samples of CAD patients were measured along with endothelial function (flow-mediated vasodilation, FMD); n 16, FMD data published previously), and these data were compared with those of young (n 12) and age-matched (n 12) healthy control subjects. The CAD patients exhibited significantly increased levels of EMP along with impaired FMD when compared with the healthy control subjects. The levels of CD144? and CD31?/41? EMP were inversely correlated with FMD (r -0.67, P=0.01 and r -0.59, P=0.01, respectively). In these CAD patients, the levels of EMP were measured after they had consumed a drink containing 375 mg of CF (high-CF intervention, HiFI) or 9 mg of CF (macro- and micronutrient-matched low-CF control, LoFl) twice daily over a 30-d period in a randomised, double-blind, cross-over study. After 1 month of HiFI, the levels of CD31?/41? and CD144? EMP decreased (-25 and -23%, respectively), but not after LoFl. Our data show that flavanols lower the levels of EMP along with higher endothelial function, lending evidence to the novel concept that flavanols may improve endothelial integrity. PMID:24286443

Horn, Patrick; Amabile, Nicolas; Angeli, Franca S; Sansone, Roberto; Stegemann, Berthold; Kelm, Malte; Springer, Matthew L; Yeghiazarians, Yerem; Schroeter, Hagen; Heiss, Christian

2014-04-14

220

Correlation between biopterin levels and intimal-media thickness in type-2 diabetic hypertensive patients  

PubMed Central

Background Biopterins have a crucial role in the function of nitric oxide synthase, uncoupling of the enzyme leads to endothelial dysfunction and vascular damage, The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the levels of biopterins with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in hypertensive type-2 diabetic patients. Methods We studied 30 hypertensive type-2 diabetic patients and 30 normotensive non-diabetic age-matched subjects, in whom biopterins levels were measured by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Additionally, the CIMT of both the common and internal carotid arteries was measured. The levels of biopterins and CIMT were correlated using the Pearson correlation coefficient test. Results We did not find a significantly correlation between biopterins levels and CIMT. However, we found a significantly inverse correlation between the BH4/BH2 ratio and the CIMT in patients (r?=?-0.54, p?levels. PMID:24393252

2014-01-01

221

Fasting APO B48 levels are associated with microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

In view of the high incidence of macrovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria, the study evaluates the association of microalbuminuria with fasting plasma Apo B48 levels, a marker of the residual presence of intestinally derived TRLs lipoproteins, thought to be highly atherogenic. We studied 50 patients with type 2 diabetes aged 35-75 years. Exclusion criteria were overt macrovascular disease, overt nephropathy (Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <45 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), or use of hypolipidemic agents. Anthropometry, fasting plasma lipids, plasma creatinine, and HbA1c were measured. Urinary albumin excretion was measured on a morning urine sample with the ELISA and expressed as albumin/creatinine ratio. GFR was estimated using the MDRD formula. The plasma fasting Apo B48 was measured by ELISA. Age, gender distribution, fasting plasma lipids, HbA1c, smoking status, plasma creatinine, estimate GFR, and the proportion of patients treated with insulin or antihypertensive drugs were similar for patients with or without microalbuminuria. People with microalbuminuria had longer diabetes duration (borderline significance) and significantly higher Apo B48 (1.765 ± 1.379 ?g/ml vs. 1.022 ± 0.692 ?g/ml, p = 0.01) than those without microalbuminuria. Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that fasting Apo B48 levels were significantly associated with microalbuminuria independent of major confounders measured in the study. In patients with type 2 diabetes, microalbuminuria is associated with elevated Apo B48 levels, independent of major confounders; this may partly explain the excess cardiovascular risk of these patients. PMID:22430605

Lapice, E; Cipriano, P; Patti, L; Romano, G; Vaccaro, O; Rivellese, A A

2012-10-01

222

Hemoglobin A1c levels in non-diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level represents an established tool to monitor glycemic control in diabetic patients, but the previous commonly used tests of HbA1c in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) may not be reliable because of the presence of anemia, assay interference from uremia, and decreased red blood cell (RBC) life span. HbA1c level measured by turbidimetric immunoassay method is not affected by the above factors. We enrolled 40 non-diabetic ESRD patients receiving hemodialysis and 55 non-diabetic patients without ESRD for this study. HbA1c was analyzed by turbidimetric immunoassays with Synchron CX system. We found that the average HbA1c level in non-diabetic ESRD patients receiving hemodialysis was 5.99% and in the control group was 5.45% (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in fasting glucose levels and Hct % between the two groups (p>0.05). Our limited data indicate that HbA1c levels are elevated in nondiabetic ESRD patients receiving hemodialysis. We propose that the elevated HbA1c level may be due to the repetitive exposure of patients' RBCs to the high glucose level in dialysate (200 mg/dl) or may reflect true glucose intolerance in non-diabetic patients with ESRD. PMID:15636425

Wang, X; Peesapati, S K; Renedo, M F; Moktan, S

2004-09-01

223

High level glucose increases mutagenesis in human lymphoblastoid cells  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological data have suggested an increased cancer rates in diabetic patients, for which the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. We studied whether high level of glucose (HG) treatment that mimic the hyperglycemic condition in diabetes mellitus is mutagenic. Mutagenesis studies were carried out at both hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (hprt) and thymidine kinase (tk) loci. Role of p53 in HG-induced mutagenesis was also investigated by using human lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from same donor but differs in p53 statuses; TK6 has wild-type p53, NH32 has null p53, and WTK1 has mutant p53 (ile237). In addition, we studied the influence of antioxidant treatment on HG-induced mutagenesis. Mutation fractions at both loci increased significantly in all three lines at 21 and 28 days after HG treatments. At tk locus, the increase of a class of mutants with normal growth rate is mainly responsible for the overall increased mutant fraction. Compared to TK6 cells, both NH32 and WTK1 cells showed an early onset of mutagenesis. Treatment of cells with antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine partially reduced HG induced mutagenesis. This study is the first to indicate that HG is able to induce gene mutation which may be one of the important mechanisms of diabetes-associated carcinogenesis. PMID:17848982

Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Junqing; Wang, Tieli; Cai, Lu

2007-01-01

224

Brief Report: Plasma Beta-Endorphin and Cortisol Levels in Autistic Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparison of plasma levels of beta-endorphin (BE) found that levels in 8 adult autistic patients were lower than levels in 17 healthy controls, for both morning and evening measurements. Plasma BE concentrations were also significantly lower for 13 developmentally disabled patients than levels for normal controls. (JDD)

Sandman, Curt A.; And Others

1991-01-01

225

Association of serum lipids with level of blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Dyslipidemia and high blood pressure in diabetic patients increase the risk of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the association between serum lipids and level of blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients (T2D). Patients and Methods: A prospective analytical study was carried out in 60 patients with T2D of both genders. None of the patients had a history of hypertension, and none was treated with antihypertensive drugs. Resting systolic blood pressures and fifth phase diastolic blood pressures were measured three times while the subjects were seated, and the results were averaged second and third measurements. Sixty patients with T2D were enrolled to the study. None of the patients who had a history of gout, was treated with allopurinol or treated with antihypertensive drugs previously. Results: Of 60 participants, mean of serum creatinine was 0.98±0.22 mg/dL. Mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 133±13 mmHg and 84±7.4 mmHg respectively. In this study, a significant positive correlation of serum cholesterol with systolic (r=0.598, p=0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (r=0.584, p=0.001) was seen. Also the associations of serum LDL-C with systolic and diastolic blood pressure were as follow (r = 0.335, p<0.001) and (0.491, p<0.001) respectively. Associations of HDL-C with systolic and diastolic blood pressure were not significance as follow -0.05 and 0.04 respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that serum cholesterol has a strong association with levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in T2D patients. More attention to serum lipids and treatment of dyslipidemia could halt the progress of diabetic kidney disease. PMID:25340166

Nasri, Hamid; Behradmanesh, Saeed; Ahmadi, Ali; Baradaran, Azar; Nasri, Parto; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

2014-01-01

226

GGT levels in type II diabetic patients with acute coronary syndrome (does diabetes have any effect on GGT levels in acute coronary syndrome?).  

PubMed

Elevated gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level is independently correlated with conditions associated with increased atherosclerosis, such as obesity, elevated serum cholesterol, high blood pressure and myocardial infarction. It is demonstrated that serum GGT activity is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction and cardiac death in patients with coronary artery disease. Diabetes is also a well-known cardiovascular risk factor and an equivalent of coronary artery disease. Although the relationship between GGT and coronary artery disease has been reported, there are limited data exploring the changes of GGT in acute coronary syndromes, especially in patients with diabetes. So, this study aimed to determine changes in GGT level in diabetic and non-diabetic acute coronary syndromes. This trial was carried out at Kosuyolu Cardiovascular Training and Research Hospital and Van Yuksek Ihtisas Hospital, Turkey. A total of 219 patients (177 men and 42 women) presenting with acute coronary syndrome) and 51 control subjects between September 2007 and September 2008 were included in the study. Serum ?-glutamyltransferase and serum lipoprotein levels were determined. The resuls indicated that serum GGT levels were higher in acute coronary syndrome patients compared with control. In subgroup analyses, there was no difference between diabetic and non-diabetic subgroups. There was also weak correlation between GGT and blood glucose levels. There was no correlation between GGT and serum lipoprotein levels. In conclusion, serum GGT levels were higher in acute coronary syndrome patients. In subgroup analyses, There was no difference between diabetic and non diabetic subgroup. PMID:20625912

Emiroglu, Mehmet Yunus; Esen, Ozlem Batukan; Bulut, Mustafa; Karapinar, Hekim; Kaya, Zekeriya; Akcakoyun, Mustafa; Kargin, Ramazan; Aung, Soe Moe; Alizade, Elnur; Pala, Selcuk; Esen, Ali Metin

2013-02-01

227

Engineering chloroplasts for high-level foreign protein expression.  

PubMed

Expression of transgenes from the plastid genome offers a number of attractions to biotechnologists, with the potential to attain very high protein accumulation levels arguably being the most attractive one. High-level transgene expression is of particular importance in resistance engineering (e.g., via expression of insecticidal proteins) and molecular farming. Over the past years, the production of many commercially valuable proteins in chloroplast-transgenic (transplastomic) plants has been attempted, including pharmaceutical proteins (such as subunit vaccines and protein antibiotics) and industrial enzymes. Although, in some cases, spectacularly high foreign protein accumulation levels have been obtained, expression levels were disappointingly poor in other cases. In this review, I summarize our current knowledge about the factors influencing the efficiency of plastid transgene expression and highlight possible optimization strategies to alleviate problems with poor expression levels. PMID:24599848

Bock, Ralph

2014-01-01

228

Prognostic significance of IL-6 and IL-8 ascites levels in ovarian cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background The acellular fraction of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) ascites promotes de novo resistance of tumor cells and thus supports the idea that tumor cells may survive in the surrounding protective microenvironment contributing to disease recurrence. Levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 are elevated in EOC ascites suggesting that they could play a role in tumor progression. Methods We measured IL-6 and IL-8 levels in the ascites of 39 patients with newly diagnosed EOC. Commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine IL-6 and IL-8 ascites levels. Ascites cytokine levels were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and progression-free survival. Results Mean ascites levels for IL-6 and IL-8 were 6419 pg/ml (SEM: 1409 pg/ml) and 1408 pg/ml (SEM: 437 pg/ml) respectively. The levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in ascites were significantly lower in patients that have received prior chemotherapy before the surgery (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.037 for IL-6 and P = 0.008 for IL-8). Univariate analysis revealed that high IL-6 ascites levels (P = 0.021), serum CA125 levels (P = 0.04) and stage IV (P = 0.009) were significantly correlated with shorter progression-free survival. Including these variables in a multivariate analysis revealed that elevated IL-6 levels (P = 0.033) was an independent predictor of shorter progression-free survival. Conclusion Elevated IL-6, but not IL-8, ascites level is an independent predictor of shorter progression-free survival. PMID:21619709

2011-01-01

229

Neptunium estimation in dissolver and high-level-waste solutions  

SciTech Connect

This papers deals with the optimization of the experimental conditions for the estimation of {sup 237}Np in spent-fuel dissolver/high-level waste solutions using thenoyltrifluoroacetone as the extractant. (authors)

Pathak, P.N.; Prabhu, D.R.; Kanekar, A.S.; Manchanda, V.K. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai - 400 085 (India)

2008-07-01

230

Transportation system modeling using the High Level Architecture  

E-print Network

This dissertation investigates the High Level Architecture (HLA) as a possible distributed simulation framework for transportation systems. The HLA is an object-oriented approach to distributed simulations developed by the Department of Defense (Do...

Melouk, Sharif

2004-09-30

231

HIGH-LEVEL OZONE DISINFECTION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A 20 month operating experimental program was conducted at Marlborough, Massachusetts to evaluate the feasibility, engineering, and economic aspects of achieving high levels of effluent disinfection with ozone. The ozone research pilot facility was designed to operate at a consta...

232

Cocaethylene Levels in Patients Who Test Positive for Cocaine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To determine the presence of cocaethylene, an active metabolite of the combination of cocaine and ethanol, among trauma patients who test positive for cocaine. Methods: We assembled a case series of 416 consecutive urban trauma center patients with major trauma. Urine was tested for the presence of the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine. Plasma was quantitatively assayed for cocaine, ethanol,

Daniel Brookoff; Michael F Rotondo; Leslie M Shaw; Elizabeth A Campbell; Leona Fields

1996-01-01

233

IFN? Serum Levels Are Associated with Endothelial Progenitor Cells Imbalance and Disease Features in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction IFN? has been largely implicated in the ethiopathogenesis of autoimmune diseases but only recently it has been linked to endothelial damage and accelerated atherosclerosis in autoimmunity. In addition, proinflammatory conditions are supposed to be implicated in the cardiovascular status of these patients. Since a role for IFN? in endothelial damage and impaired Endothelial Progenitor Cell (EPC) number and function has been reported in other diseases, we aimed to evaluate the potential associations of IFN? serum levels on EPC populations and cytokine profiles in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients. Methods pre-EPC, EPC and mature EPC (mEPC) populations were quantified by flow cytometry analyzing their differential CD34, CD133 and VEGFR2 expression in blood samples from 120 RA patients, 52 healthy controls (HC), and 83 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients as disease control. Cytokine serum levels were measured by immunoassays and clinical and immunological data, including cardiovascular (CV) events and CV risk factors, were retrospectively obtained by reviewing clinical records. Results Long-standing, but not recent onset RA patients displayed a significant depletion of all endothelial progenitor populations, unless high IFN? levels were present. In fact, the IFNhigh RA patient group (n?=?40, 33%), showed increased EPC levels, comparable to SLE patients. In addition, high IFN? serum levels were associated with higher disease activity (DAS28), presence of autoantibodies, higher levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10 and MIP-1?, lower amounts of TGF-?, and increased mEPC/EPC ratio, thus suggesting higher rates of endothelial damage and an endothelial repair failure. Finally, the relationship between high IFN? levels and occurrence of CV events observed in RA patients seems to support this hypothesis. Conclusions IFN? serum marker could be used to identify a group of RA patients with increased disease activity, EPC imbalance, enhanced proinflammatory profile and higher cardiovascular risk, probably due, at least in part, to an impaired endothelial repair. PMID:24465874

Rodriguez-Carrio, Javier; de Paz, Banesa; Lopez, Patricia; Prado, Catuxa; Alperi-Lopez, Mercedes; Ballina-Garcia, Francisco Javier; Suarez, Ana

2014-01-01

234

Evolving Automatically High-Level Music Descriptors from Acoustic Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-Level music descriptors are key ingredients fo r music information retrieval systems. Although there is a long tradition in extracting information from acoustic signals, the field of mus ic information extraction is largely heuristic in nature. We present here a heur istic-based generic approach for extracting automatically high-level music descr iptors from acoustic signals. This approach is based on Genetic

François Pachet; Aymeric Zils

2003-01-01

235

Adaptive Simulated Annealer for high level synthesis design space exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a microarchitectural design space exploration tool called cwbexplorer based on an Adaptive Simulated Annealer Exploration Algorithm (ASA-ExpA) for behavioral descriptions written in untimed C or SystemC. Cwbexplorer automatically generates a series of designs given a set of constraints (area and latency) from an untimed high level language description. A commercial high level synthesis tool (Cy- berWorkBench) is

Benjamin Carrion Schafer; Takashi Takenaka; Kazutoshi Wakabayashi

2009-01-01

236

Dynamic Communicating Automata and Branching High-Level MSCs  

E-print Network

Communicating Automata · Branching High-Level MSCs ... x := new(s,x) x ? comx ! req(y) #12;Outline · Dynamic Communicating Automata · Branching High-Level MSCs ... x y x y req(y) x y com com x := new(s,x) x ? comx ! req com x := new(s,x) x ? comx ! req(y) implementable? #12;Outline · Dynamic Communicating Automata

Bollig, Benedikt

237

High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description  

SciTech Connect

The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment.

d'Entremont, P.D.

1999-01-14

238

Discovery of high-level tasks in the operating room.  

PubMed

Recognizing and understanding surgical high-level tasks from sensor readings is important for surgical workflow analysis. Surgical high-level task recognition is also a challenging task in ubiquitous computing because of the inherent uncertainty of sensor data and the complexity of the operating room environment. In this paper, we present a framework for recognizing high-level tasks from low-level noisy sensor data. Specifically, we present a Markov-based approach for inferring high-level tasks from a set of low-level sensor data. We also propose to clean the noisy sensor data using a Bayesian approach. Preliminary results on a noise-free dataset of ten surgical procedures show that it is possible to recognize surgical high-level tasks with detection accuracies up to 90%. Introducing missed and ghost errors to the sensor data results in a significant decrease of the recognition accuracy. This supports our claim to use a cleaning algorithm before the training step. Finally, we highlight exciting research directions in this area. PMID:20060495

Bouarfa, L; Jonker, P P; Dankelman, J

2011-06-01

239

Elevated Serum Interleukin-18 Level Is Associated with All-Cause Mortality in Stable Hemodialysis Patients Independently of Cardiac Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background High circulating interleukin (IL)-18 level predicts a higher hospitalization rate among dialysis patients, possibly through cardiovascular mechanisms; however, whether higher IL-18 level is associated with mortality in dialysis patients is less clear. In addition, its impacts on left ventricular (LV) function are also unknown. We conducted a cohort study to examine the impacts of IL-18 level on LV function and prognosis among clinically stable hemodialysis patients. Methods Clinically stable patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (?3 months) were prospectively enrolled from December 2008 to January 2009, and were followed up for 31 months. The enrolled patients (41% male, 66.4±10.9 years of age) received 2-dimensional echocardiography and myocardial deformation (strain) analysis, including LV peak systolic longitudinal strain (GLS) and circumferential strain (CS). Laboratory measurements were also performed. Cox regression analysis was used to investigate prognostic factors. Results Seventy-five patients were stratified into 2 groups by the median value of IL-18 (654.2 pg/ml). Between these 2 groups, there was no significant difference in baseline characteristics including LV ejection fraction. The high IL-18 group had a worse LV systolic function as demonstrated by reduced GLS and CS. Seventeen patients (22.7%) died during the follow-up period. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that low serum albumin, the presence of hypertension, high serum IL-18, and less negative GLS (>?15%) were independently associated with all-cause mortality. No significant interaction between IL-18 and less negative GLS was noted in the final Cox model. Conclusion Hemodialysis patients with high IL-18 levels tend to have worse LV systolic function and higher mortality rate. However, elevated serum IL-18 level is predictive of poor prognosis among stable hemodialysis patients, independently of LV dysfunction. This suggests an additional value of IL-18 to echocardiographic study in predicting all-cause mortality, and IL-18 may be helpful in early risk stratification of hemodialysis patients. PMID:24599060

Liu, Yen-Wen; Su, Chi-Ting; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Tsai, Wei-Chuan; Su, Yu-Ru; Wang, Saprina P. H.; Yang, Chun-Shin; Tsai, Liang-Miin; Chen, Jyh-Hong; Sung, Junne-Ming

2014-01-01

240

Effect of Whole Body Massage by Patient's Companion on the Level of Blood Cortisol in Coronary Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Inconsistent results have been reported on the effect of massage therapy on the blood cortisol levels. Also, no study is available about the effect of massage done by patient's companions on the level of blood cortisol in patients hospitalized at CCU. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of whole body massage performed by patient's companion on the level of blood cortisol among the patients admitted in CCU. Patients and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 60 patients admitted to a CCU ward. Patients were randomly placed into two groups of massage performed by patient's companion and the control group. In the intervention group, whole body massage was administered. The control group did not receive massage. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS 11.5 software. Independent sample and Paired samples t-test, Chi Square and Fisher's Exact tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean age for the patients was 58.90 ± 15.63 years. None of them had the history of massage therapy. In the group massaged by the patients' companions, the mean of blood cortisol was 323.6 ± 162.6 nanomoles which decreased to 268.4 ± 141.1 after the intervention (P < 0.102). The mean of blood cortisol in the control group did not change significantly. Conclusions: Massage therapy lowered the level of cortisol in the group massaged by the patients' companions. It can be recommended that massage therapy be used in patients admitted in CCU.

Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Rajabi-Beheshtabad, Rahman; Abasi, Ali

2013-01-01

241

MD Anderson study explains high platelets in ovarian cancer patients; survival reduced  

Cancer.gov

Highly elevated platelet levels fuel tumor growth and reduce the survival of ovarian cancer patients, an international team of researchers led by scientists at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer center reports in the New England Journal of Medicine.

242

Reasoning about High-Level Tree Update and its Low-Level Implementation  

E-print Network

- ifying properties about arbitrary structured data up- date such as XML update. Since then, we have had requiring addi- tional pointer surgery. Tying up the high-level and low-level reasoning is therefore rather identifiers and lists of children which may vary in length. This simple structure gives the essence of XML

Gardner, Philippa

243

Activity in high-level brain regions reflects visibility of low-level stimuli.  

PubMed

Stimulus visibility is associated with neural signals in multiple brain regions, ranging from visual cortex to prefrontal regions. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate to which extent the perceived visibility of a "low-level" grating stimulus is reflected in the brain activity in high-level brain regions. Oriented grating stimuli were presented under varying visibility conditions created by backward masking. Visibility was manipulated using four different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), which created a continuum from invisible to highly visible target stimuli. Brain activity in early visual areas, high-level visual brain regions (fusiform gyrus), as well as parietal and prefrontal brain regions was significantly correlated with subjects' psychometric visibility functions. In addition, increased stimulus visibility was reflected in the functional coupling between low and high-level visual areas. Specifically, neuroimaging signals in the middle occipital gyrus were significantly more correlated with signals in the inferior temporal gyrus when subjects successfully perceived the target stimulus than when they did not. These results provide evidence that not only low-level visual but also high-level brain regions reflect visibility of low-level grating stimuli and that changes in functional connectivity reflect perceived stimulus visibility. PMID:25175537

Imamoglu, F; Heinzle, J; Imfeld, A; Haynes, J-D

2014-11-15

244

Detection of high levels of anti-?-galactosyl antibodies in sera of patients with Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis: a possible tool for diagnosis and biomarker for cure in an elimination setting.  

PubMed

SUMMARY In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is mainly caused by Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica parasites. Diagnosis of CL is predominately made by clinicians, who at times fail to detect the disease and are unable to identify parasite species. Here, we report the development of a chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CL-ELISA) to measure the levels of anti-?-galactosyl antibodies in human sera. Using this assay, we have found that individuals infected with either Leishmania spp. had significantly elevated levels (up to 9-fold higher) of anti-?-Gal IgG compared to healthy control individuals. The assay sensitivity was 96% for L. major (95% CI; 94-98%) and 91% for L. tropica (95% CI; 86-98%) infections and therefore equivalent to restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction analysis of parasite ITS1 gene. In addition, the assay had higher sensitivity than microscopy analysis, which only detected 68 and 45% of the L. major and L. tropica infections, respectively. Interestingly, up to 2 years following confirmed CL cure individuals had 28-fold higher levels of anti-?-Gal IgG compared to healthy volunteers. Monitoring levels of anti-?-Gal antibodies can be exploited as both a diagnostic tool and as a biomarker of cure of Old World CL in disease elimination settings. PMID:25297927

Al-Salem, Waleed S; Ferreira, Daniela M; Dyer, Naomi A; Alyamani, Essam J; Balghonaim, Salah M; Al-Mehna, Ahmed Y; Al-Zubiany, Saleem; Ibrahim, El-Keir; Al Shahrani, Ali M; Alkhuailed, Hamed; Aldahan, Mohammed A; Al Jarallh, Abdulaziz M; Abdelhady, Samer S; Al-Zahrani, Mohammed H; Almeida, Igor C; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro

2014-12-01

245

Basal serum cortisol levels are not predictive of response to corticotropin but have prognostic significance in patients with septic shock.  

PubMed

Because high levels of cortisol are frequently observed in patients with septic shock, low levels of serum cortisol are considered indicative of relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI). This study was performed to investigate whether pretest clinical characteristics, including basal serum cortisol levels, are predictive of serum cortisol response to corticotropin and whether basal cortisol levels have a prognostic significance in patients with septic shock. We performed a retrospective analysis of 68 patients with septic shock who underwent short corticotropin stimulation testing. RAI was defined as an increase in cortisol level <9 microgram/dL from baseline, and results showed that 48 patients (70.6%) had this insufficiency. According to the univariate analysis, the RAI group had significantly higher simplified acute physiology score II (SAPS II) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores than the non-RAI group. The incidence of RAI was the same regardless of the basal serum cortisol level (p=0.447). The hospital mortality rate was 58.8% and was not significantly different between the RAI and non-RAI groups. However, a high basal serum cortisol level (> or =30 microgram/dL) was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. In conclusion, our data suggest that basal serum cortisol levels are not predictive of serum cortisol response to corticotropin but have a significant prognostic value in patients with septic shock. PMID:17596656

Kwon, Yong Soo; Suh, Gee Young; Kang, Eun-Hae; Koh, Won-Jung; Chung, Man Pyo; Kim, Hojoong; Kwon, O Jung

2007-06-01

246

Increased Blood Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a growth factor for vascular endothelial cells in vitro. The present study was designed to determine whether serum VEGF levels increase in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared with patients with stable exertional angina and control subjects, and to examine the serial changes of serum VEGF levels in patients with AMI. We examined

Hisao Ogawa; Hisakazu Suefuji; Hirofumi Soejima; Koichi Nishiyama; Kenji Misumi; Keiji Takazoe; Shinzo Miyamoto; Ichiro Kajiwara; Hitoshi Sumida; Tomohiro Sakamoto; Michihiro Yoshimura; Kiyotaka Kugiyama; Hirofumi Yasue; Katsuhiko Matsuo

2000-01-01

247

Genderwise Comparison of Serum Creatinine and Blood Sugar Levels in Type2 Diabetic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results : Beyond the age of 40 years, mean blood sugar levels of female patients were significantly higher on comparing statistically with that of male patients; whereas the serum creatinine levels in male patients were significantly higher than females, indicating the effect of gender on progression of disease. Conclusion : This study will help clinicians to draw different baselines for

Tejal J Wagle

2010-01-01

248

Serum levels of YKL-40 and PIIINP as prognostic markers in patients with alcoholic liver disease  

E-print Network

Serum levels of YKL-40 and PIIINP as prognostic markers in patients with alcoholic liver disease markers of liver fibrosis. The aim was to evaluate the prognostic value of serum YKL-40 and PIIINP levels in patients with alcoholic liver disease. Methods: Three hundred and seventy patients with alcoholic liver

Price, Paul A.

249

High-Level Synthesis of Software Function Calls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter presents a novel framework in high-level synthesis where hardware modules synthesized from functions in a given ANSI-C program can call the other software functions in the program. This enables high-level synthesis from C programs that contains calls to hard-to-synthesize functions, such as dynamic memory management, I/O request, or very large and complex functions. A single-thread implementation scheme is shown, whose correctness has been verified through register transfer level simulation.

Nishimura, Masanari; Ishiura, Nagisa; Ishimori, Yoshiyuki; Kanbara, Hiroyuki; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki

250

Management in high-risk patients.  

PubMed

Injuries to the foot and ankle are often missed or underestimated in patients with polytrauma and are a source of long-term limitations. Injures below the knee are among the highest causes for unemployment, longer sick leave, more pain, more follow-up appointments, and decreased overall outcome. As mortalities decrease for patients with polytrauma a greater emphasis on timely diagnosis and treatment of foot and ankle injuries is indicated. Geriatric patients represent nearly one-quarter of trauma admissions in the United States. This article discusses perioperative management and complications associated with foot and ankle injuries in polytrauma, and in diabetic and geriatric patients. PMID:25281513

Burns, Patrick; Highlander, Pete; Shinabarger, Andrew B

2014-10-01

251

Water borne transport of high level nuclear waste in very deep borehole disposal of high level nuclear waste  

E-print Network

The purpose of this report is to examine the feasibility of the very deep borehole experiment and to determine if it is a reasonable method of storing high level nuclear waste for an extended period of time. The objective ...

Cabeche, Dion Tunick

2011-01-01

252

A Testing Instrument for High School Arabic, Level III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Arabic language examination was designed for Jewish immigrants from Syria wishing to satisfy New York State language requirements for high school graduation by indicating their proficiency in Arabic. The test is essentially a translation of a state test of Hebrew, and is intended to test Arabic at the third-year high school level. The…

Wolowelsky, Joel B.

253

MPGS: a high-level language for microprogram generating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high level microprogramming language MPGS is described.MPGS programs consist of three parts; the machine description part, the function part , and the microprogram part. In an MPGS program a microprogrammer can write micro-instructions in any symbolic language defined by himself. By means of control statements in the function part, a high efficiency object code can be obtained. The language

Mitsuhiro Hattori; Michiko Yano; Kiichi Fujino

1972-01-01

254

Cytokine gene polymorphisms and serum cytokine levels in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have demonstrated associations between cytokine gene polymorphisms and the risk of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We therefore examined polymorphisms in the genes encoding interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, interferon gamma (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1), and compared the serum levels of these cytokines in IPF patients and healthy controls. Furthermore, we examined the association of the studied genotypes and serum cytokine levels with physiological parameters and the extent of parenchymal involvement determined by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Methods Sixty patients with IPF and 150 healthy controls were included. Cytokine genotyping was performed using the polymerase chain reaction sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) method. In a subset of patients and controls, serum cytokine levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results There was no difference between IPF patients and controls in the genotype and allele distributions of polymorphisms in TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-6, IL-10, and TGF-?1 (all p?>?0.05). The TNF-? (?308) GG, IL-6 (?174) GG and CG, and IL-10 (?1082, -819, -592) ACC ATA genotypes were significantly associated with HRCT scores (all p?patients) was significantly associated with higher PaO2 value and less parenchymal involvement (i.e., a lower total extent score) compared to the other TGF-?1 genotypes (81.5?±?11.8 mm Hg vs. 67.4?±?11.1 mm Hg, p?=?0.009 and 5.60?±?1.3 vs. 8.51?±?2.9, p?=?0.037, respectively). Significant differences were noted between patients (n?=?38) and controls (n?=?36) in the serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 (both, p?levels of TNF-? and TGF-?1 (both, p?>?0.05). Conclusion The studied genotypes and alleles do not predispose to the development of IPF but appear to play an important role in disease severity. Our results suggest that the TGF-?1 (codons 10 and 25) CC GG genotype could be a useful genetic marker for identifying a subset of IPF patients with a favorable prognosis; however, validation in a larger sample is required. PMID:23815594

2013-01-01

255

Evaluation of quality of life and anxiety and depression levels in patients receiving chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: impact of patient education before treatment initiation  

PubMed Central

Background As a consequence of the improved survival due to the availability of several treatment option cost-effectiveness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) issues have gained increasing attention in colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, we aimed to evaluate quality of life, level of anxiety and depression before and after a 6-month follow-up period in chemotherapy receiving patients with CRC. Methods The study was conducted in 50 patients with colon or rectal cancer. All patients were informed and educated about their disease and treatment before getting the treatment and were followed for 6 months, during which they received chemotherapy. A “Questionnaire Form” to collect patient demographic characteristics; the “EORTC QLQ-C30 Scale” and “EQ-5D Scale” to evaluate patient’s quality of life; and the “Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale” to evaluate the level of anxiety and depression status of patients, were used as data collecting tools. Results Quality of life scores in all functional fields were high in the sixth course when compared to the first according to EORTC QLQ-C30 Scale, reaching to statistically significant level in emotional function score compared to the initial ones (P<0.05). Moreover quality of life score measured in the sixth month with EQ-5D was statistically significantly higher than the initial. Conclusions These data, shows that with proper patient management, quality of life score, and the anxiety and depression levels improve during the course of treatment. PMID:25083300

Polat, Ulku; Arpac?, Afey; Demir, Sat?; Erdal, Sevgi; Yalcin, Suayib

2014-01-01

256

A comparison of high level synthesis and register transfer level design techniques for custom computing machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most expensive component in the process of building a custom computing machine is the time consuming and highly qualified work of hardware designers. This hinders the wide proliferation of CCMs and pushes this innovative technology into a niche market of research applications. A potential solution to the problem is behavioural or high level synthesis (HLS) which promises the compilation

Adam Postula; David Abramsont; Ziping Fang; P. Logathetis

1998-01-01

257

High prevalence of alcoholism in dialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcoholism is one of the most common psychosocial disorders, affecting approximately 10% of the general population. The impact of alcoholism on the care of patients with other medical illnesses has not been addressed in many of these populations, including patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing hemodialysis. We set out to determine the prevalence of alcoholism in an urban hemodialysis

Aroti Hegde; Judith H. Veis; Aimee Seidman; Shazia Khan; Jack Moore

2000-01-01

258

ELEVATED SPERMIDINE AND SPERMINE LEVELS IN THE BLOOD OF PSORIASIS PATIENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of blood, anticoagulated with EDTA, from 11 patients with psoriasis and 11 individuals without psoriasis were analyzed for their polyamine content. The average spermidine level in patients with psoriasis was approximately twice that of the controls and the average spermine level was three times that of the controls. The levels of spermidine and spermine in the skin of two

Michael Scott Proctor; Howard Vance Fletcher Jr.; Jayesh B. Shukla; Owen M. Rennert

1975-01-01

259

Diabetes Care . Author manuscript High baseline insulin levels associated with 6-year incident observed sleep  

E-print Network

Diabetes Care . Author manuscript Page /1 8 High baseline insulin levels associated with 6-year.balkau@inserm.fr > Abstract OBJECTIVE Obstructive sleep apnea is common in patients with type 2 diabetes; cross diseases, diabetes and other chronic diseases ( ). Sleep apnea can be classed as central1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

260

Aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes in high-level streptomycin and gentamicin resistant Enterococcus spp. in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aminoglycoside resistance was evaluated in 690 enterococcus strains isolated from different clinical sources originating from patients at the University Clinic Hospital of Zaragoza (Spain). The enterococci obtained from clinically significant samples (blood, urine, or exudates) showed more high-level resistance to gentamicin and streptomycin (65 and 42%, respectively) than those isolated from faecal samples (49 and 23%, respectively). Aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AME)

R del Campo; C Tenorio; C Rubio; J Castillo; C Torres; R Gómez-Lus

2000-01-01

261

Energy Performance and Comfort Level in High Rise and Highly Glazed Office Buildings  

E-print Network

Thermal and visual comfort in buildings play a significant role on occupants' performance but on the other hand achieving energy savings and high comfort levels can be a quite difficult task especially in high rise buildings with highly glazed...

Bayraktar, M.; Perino, M.; Yilmaz, A. Z.

2010-01-01

262

Does spiritual care program affect levels of depression in patients with Leukemia? A randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Background: Although 25-33% of patients with non-hematological malignancies suffer from depression disorder, some studies have reported the rate among patients with leukemia as high as 50%. Furthermore, based on studies chronic disease such as leukemia increases the patients’ spiritual needs and may accelerate the patient problems. Therefore, spirituality has a significant role in adapting to leukemia and coping with its consequent mental disorders such as depression. Owing to the spirituality aspect importance and contradictory results of previous research, this study was hence performed to determine the effects of a spiritual care program on depression of patients with leukemia. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted in specialized cancer treatment center affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Isfahan, Iran). A total of 64 adult patients with leukemia were randomly divided into experiment and control groups. The spiritual care program including supportive presence and support for religious rituals was implemented for 3 days. Depression sub-scale of 42-item depression, anxiety and stress scale-42 was completed before and after the intervention for both groups. Data was analyzed using ANCOVA, Mann-Whitney U-test, Chi-square, in SPSS statistical software (version 18, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Results: After the intervention, mean score of depression was significantly lower in the experiment group than in the control group (P < 0.01). Comparison the mean score of depression in two groups, revealed the decrees in mean score of depression 11.09 (8.47) after spiritual care program that it was significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our spiritual care program could successfully decrease depression level in patients with leukemia and nurses have to apply a holistic care approach with emphasis on spiritual care to decrease depression, so paid attention to spiritual aspect of patients accompanying with physical aspects in therapy process is recommended. PMID:25250362

Musarezaie, Amir; Moeini, Mahin; Taleghani, Fariba; Mehrabi, Tayebeh

2014-01-01

263

Comparable Low-Level Mosaicism in Affected and Non Affected Tissue of a Complex CDH Patient  

PubMed Central

In this paper we present the detailed clinical and cytogenetic analysis of a prenatally detected complex Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH) patient with a mosaic unbalanced translocation (5;12). High-resolution whole genome SNP array confirmed a low-level mosaicism (20%) in uncultured cells, underlining the value of array technology for identification studies. Subsequently, targeted Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization in postmortem collected tissues demonstrated a similar low-level mosaicism, independently of the affected status of the tissue. Thus, a higher incidence of the genetic aberration in affected organs as lung and diaphragm cannot explain the severe phenotype of this complex CDH patient. Comparison with other described chromosome 5p and 12p anomalies indicated that half of the features presented in our patient (including the diaphragm defect) could be attributed to both chromosomal areas. In contrast, a few features such as the palpebral downslant, the broad nasal bridge, the micrognathia, microcephaly, abnormal dermatoglyphics and IUGR better fitted the 5p associated syndromes only. This study underlines the fact that low-level mosaicism can be associated with severe birth defects including CDH. The contribution of mosaicism to human diseases and specifically to congenital anomalies and spontaneous abortions becomes more and more accepted, although its phenotypic consequences are poorly described phenomena leading to counseling issues. Therefore, thorough follow–up of mosaic aberrations such as presented here is indicated in order to provide genetic counselors a more evidence based prediction of fetal prognosis in the future. PMID:21203572

Veenma, Danielle; Beurskens, Niels; Douben, Hannie; Eussen, Bert; Noomen, Petra; Govaerts, Lutgarde; Grijseels, Els; Lequin, Maarten; de Krijger, Ronald; Tibboel, Dick; de Klein, Annelies; Van Opstal, Dian

2010-01-01

264

Cesarean delivery wound infection in high-risk patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether simple inexpensive measures can reduce the frequency and severity of cesarean delivery wound infections in high-risk patients in a nonteaching hospital.Methods: The charts of 286 patients were reviewed for duration of membrane rupture, duration of labor, number of pelvic examinations, patient’s weight, and coexisting medical conditions. Office visits, at least two for each patient, after hospital

Suresh L. Persad

2000-01-01

265

[Diagnostic value of blood myoglobin level elevation in patient in intensive care unit].  

PubMed

The goal of the study was assessment of clinical value of myoglobin level elevation in patients in neurointensive care unit. 15 healthy volunteers and 60 patients of neuroICU (40 postoperative patients and 20 patients with prolonged consciousness disorders of different states) were involved in the study. Myoglobin level was assessed immunologically. Episodes of arterial hypotension (< or = 50% from baseline) for 10-15 minutes were the cause of myoglobin level elevation in 11 from 40 postoperative patients. Association of myoglobin level elevation with type of pathology (tumor or aneurism), localization and surgery duration wasn't found. Severe hemodynamic disturbances with hypotension in 3-4 days before measurement were noted also in patients with hypermyoglobinemia in the group with prolonged consciousness disorders. Correlation of myoglobin level and duration of polyneuromyopathy, sepsis, MODS wasn't noted. Authors conclude that myoglobin level elevation is associate with hemodynamic instability and isn't specific marker of polyneuromyopathy or its duration. PMID:23082653

2012-01-01

266

Blood glucose levels in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with sunitinib  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunitinib, a multitargeted tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, extends survival of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) and gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Between October 2005 and March 2007, we retrospectively reviewed blood glucose level variations associated with sunitinib therapy in patients treated for mRCC. Nineteen of the patients had type II diabetes. All 19 patients had a decrease in blood glucose level (mean

B Billemont; J Medioni; L Taillade; D Helley; J B Meric; O Rixe; S Oudard

2008-01-01

267

Study of the correlation between serum ferritin levels and the aggregation of metabolic disorders in non-diabetic elderly patients  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to explore the correlation between serum ferritin (SF) levels and the aggregation of metabolic disorders in non-diabetic elderly patients. A total of 2,600 patients were enrolled in the study. Various parameters, including blood pressure (BP), height, weight, lipid profiles, blood glucose (BG), body mass index (BMI), fasting insulin (FINS), serum uric acid (SUA), the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) and SF levels were measured. A homeostatic model was used to evaluate insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and ?-cell function (HOMA-?). The quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) and disposition index (DI) were calculated. The QUICKI and DI decreased significantly and other parameters increased significantly when the number of metabolic disorders increased. Patients with high triglycerides (TG), high total cholesterol (TC), high SUA and obesity demonstrated higher SF levels than those with normal TG, normal TC, normal SUA and normal weight, respectively (P<0.01). Male patients with metabolic disorders (high TG, high TC, high BP, high SUA and obesity) had higher SF levels than female patients with the corresponding disorders (P<0.01). BG, FINS, BMI, TC, TG, SUA, HOMA-IR and HOMA-? were positively correlated with SF, while DI and QUICKI were negatively correlated with SF (P<0.01). Stepwise regression analysis showed that HOMA-IR, BMI, TC, TG and SUA were risk factors for elevated SF levels. In conclusion, the SF levels in non-diabetic, elderly individuals with metabolic disorders may be significantly related to the clustering of the metabolic disorders. Dyslipidemia, obesity, disorders of purine metabolism and insulin resistance may be important risk factors for higher SF levels in the elderly. PMID:24926364

LI, BIQIANG; LIN, WEI; LIN, NAN; DONG, XIAOWEN; LIU, LIBIN

2014-01-01

268

Polycythemia, increased erythropoietin levels in a patient with renal lymphoma  

PubMed Central

A young male presented to our clinic with 3 months history of shortness of breathness and progressive distension of abdomen. On investigations, patient had renal failure, polycythemia and nephromegaly. A diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was made on renal and lymph node biopsy. Serum erythropoietin concentrations were physiologically inappropriate. – Erythropoietin immunohistochemistry on renal tissue samples demonstrated positive staining for tumor cells. This patient was managed as a case of infiltrative lymphoproliferative disorder with kidney involvement having polycythemia owing to paraneoplastic Erythropoietin production and possibly local hypoxia produced by tumor cells. With maximum efforts, we could not find such an association in the literature. PMID:25161994

Bhat, Riyaz Ahmad; Khan, Imran; Khan, Irfan; Mir, Mohd Ashraf

2014-01-01

269

Circulating levels of nitrated apolipoprotein A-I are increased in type 2 diabetic patients.  

PubMed

Recent work has shown that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) isolated from human atherosclerotic lesions and the blood of patients with established coronary artery disease contains elevated levels of 3-nitrotyrosine and 3-chlorotyrosine. A higher nitrotyrosine content in lipoprotein is significantly associated with diminished cholesterol efflux capacity of the lipoprotein. Since accelerated atherogenesis is a key complication of diabetes mellitus, and nitrosative stress has recently been implicated in diabetic pathology, we set out to demonstrate an increase in the circulating levels of nitrated apolipoprotein A (apoA)-I in type 2 diabetic patients and its putative correlation with metabolic biomarkers. In this work we addressed this hypothesis in a case-control study with 30 type 2 diabetic patients and 30 age-matched control subjects. Nitrated apoA-I was 3280+/-1910 absorbance peak area/apoA-I (g/L) for diabetic patients and 2320+/-890 for control subjects (p<0.037). This represents a 50% increase in circulating nitrated apoA-I in diabetic patients to age-matched controls. Diabetic patients also showed increases of a similar magnitude in circulating advanced glycation endproducts measured as pentosidine fluorescence (44.16+/-16.26 vs. 30.84+/-12.86 AU; p<0.01) and in circulating lipoperoxides (46.0+/-18.0 vs. 37.2+/-18.0 nmol/L; p<0.03). No significant correlation was found between nitration of apoA-I and glycosylated hemoglobin or any of the other parameters measured. If proven in subsequent functional and in vivo studies, increased nitrated apoA-I would represent another mechanism by which nitrosative stress participates in diabetic macro-angiopathy. PMID:16006255

Hermo, Ricardo; Mier, Cristina; Mazzotta, Mary; Tsuji, Masatomi; Kimura, Satoshi; Gugliucci, Alejandro

2005-01-01

270

Increase in triglyceride blood level in patients treated with capecitabine: a retrospective survey.  

PubMed

According to registry studies of capecitabine, grade 3-4 hypertriglyceridemia can occur in 0.1-1% of patients, unexplained by the drug's mechanism of action. This retrospective study aimed at estimating the incidence of capecitabine-induced hypertriglyceridemia (CIH) and attempted to identify the risk factors for its occurrence. In a retrospective survey, the files of 289 patients treated with capecitabine as a single agent or combined with other drugs were reviewed. A total of 102 patients without grade 2 or more hypertriglyceridemia at baseline and with at least one test of triglyceride blood level (TGBL) at least 2 months from the start of capecitabine were eligible for the study. The mean TGBL was 149±80 mg/dl at the onset of treatment and the mean maximal level after two or more cycles of capecitabine was 236±137 mg/dl (P<0.001; average increase 93 mg/dl). Nineteen (19%) patients developed grade?2 CIH, four (4%) of whom had grade 3-4. The median time to developing grade?2 CIH was 79 days (range, 16-243 days). A high rate of grade?2 CIH, without statistical significance, was observed on the basis of several risk factors: pre-existing hypertriglyceridemia grade 1 (11/45; 24%), diabetes (7/25; 37%), hypertension (10/60; 17%), and ischemic heart disease (IHD) (5/14; 36%). The only identified risk factor for grade?3 CIH was IHD (2/14; P=0.02). Increased capecitabine-induced TGBL is common and grade?2 was detected in 19% of patients in this series. Close monitoring of lipid profile is recommended in patients on capecitabine treatment. IHD may be a risk factor for development of severe hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:24595094

Bar-Sela, Gil; Cohensius-Kent, Dorit; Vornikova, Olga; Haim, Nissim

2014-07-01

271

Novel type of cryogenic liquid level sensor with high sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of experiments carried out during the investigation of the thermoelectric force of different high Tc superconductors led to the development of a cryogenic liquid level indicator. These sensors can be easily realized using high temperature superconductors based on different high Tc compounds, such as compounds of the Y-Ba-Cu-O 123, iron doped 123, 124, and 5611 and Bi-(Pb)-Ca-Sr-Cu-O systems in both bulk ceramic and thick film form. The measuring equipment designed in the study is suitable for examination of different high Tc materials to be used as cryogenic liquid level indicators. An example demonstrates the method of selection of the proper high Tc material, the sensitivity of the material, and the simplicity of the application.

Immonen, E.; Uusimaki, A.; Hagberg, J.; Leppavuori, S.; Porjesz, T.

272

Elevated serum eotaxin levels in patients with inflammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Eotaxin is a recently characterized chemokine with potent and selective chemotactic activity for eosinophils. Previous studies indicating that eosinophils accumulate and become activated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) led us to hypothesize that eotaxin is potentially involved in the pathophysiology of IBD and, therefore, that eotaxin would be increased in the serum of patients with IBD. The objective of this

Amparo Mir; Miguel Minguez; Jose Tatay; Isabel Pascual; Antonio Peña; Vicente Sanchiz; Pedro Almela; Francisco Mora; Adolfo Benages

2002-01-01

273

High-level language debugging for concurrent programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated system design for debugging distributed programs written in concurrent high-level languages is described. A variety of user-interface, monitoring, and analysis tools integrated around a uniform process model are provided. Because the tools are language-based, the user does not have to deal with low-level implementation details of distribution and concurrency, and instead can focus on the logic of the

German S. Goldszmidt; Shaula Yemini; Shmuel Katz

1990-01-01

274

High-level test generation using physically-induced faults  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-level fault modeling and testing philosophy is proposed which is aimed at ensuring full detection of low- level, physical faults, as well as the industry-standard sin- gle stuck-line (SSL) faults. A set of independent functional faults and the corresponding functional tests are derived (induced) from the circuit under test; of particular interest are SSL-induced functional faults or SIFs. We

Mark C. Hansen; John P. Hayes

1995-01-01

275

Algorithms, performance, development of the ATLAS High-Level trigger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ATLAS trigger system has been used for the online event selection for three years of LHC data-taking and is preparing for the next run. The trigger system consists of a hardware level-1 and a software high-level trigger (HLT) which is implemented in a region-of-interest based level-2 stage and a event filter operating after event building with offline-like software. During the past three years, the luminosity and pile-up (number of collisions per beam crossing) has increased significantly placing escalating demands on the rejection and timing performance. The HLT algorithms advanced during this period to maintain and even improve performance. Also discussed is the work towards the merging of the two HLT levels in to a single level HLT.

Nagano, Kunihiro; Atlas Collaboration

2014-06-01

276

Plasma coenzyme Q10 levels in type 2 diabetic patients with retinopathy  

PubMed Central

AIM To determine the relationship between proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDRP) and plasma coenzyme Q10(CoQ10) concentration. METHODS Patients with type 2 diabetes and PDRP were determined to be the case group (n=50). The control group was consist of healthy individuals (n=50). Plasma CoQ10 and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in both groups. RESULTS Ubiquinone-10 (Coenzyme Q10) levels in PDRP and control subjects are 3.81±1.19µmol/L and 1.91±0.62µmol/L, respectively. Plasma MDA levels in PDRP and control subjects were 8.16±2µmol/L and 3.44±2.08µmol/L, respectively. Ratio of Ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 in PDRP and control subjects were 0.26±0.16 and 1.41±0.68, respectively. CONCLUSION The ratio of ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 is found lower in patients with PDRP. High levels of plasma ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 ratio indicate the protective effect on diabetic retinopathy. PMID:24195048

Ates, Orhan; Bilen, Habip; Keles, Sadullah; Alp, H. Hakan; Keles, Mevlut Sait; Y?ld?r?m, Kenan; Ondas, Osman; P?nar, L. Can; Civelekler, Mustafa; Baykal, Orhan

2013-01-01

277

High level radioactive waste management facility design criteria  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the engineering systems for the structural design of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At the DWPF, high level radioactive liquids will be mixed with glass particles and heated in a melter. This molten glass will then be poured into stainless steel canisters where it will harden. This process will transform the high level waste into a more stable, manageable substance. This paper discuss the structural design requirements for this unique one of a kind facility. A special emphasis will be concentrated on the design criteria pertaining to earthquake, wind and tornado, and flooding.

Sheikh, N.A.; Salaymeh, S.R.

1993-10-01

278

High Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

STAEHR, T.W.

2000-06-14

279

Repeated Assessment by High-Throughput Assay Demonstrates that Sperm DNA Methylation Levels Are Highly Reproducible  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess reliability of high-throughput assay of sperm DNA methylation. Design Observational study comparing DNA methylation of sperm isolated from three divided and twelve longitudinally collected semen samples. Setting Academic Medical Center Patients One man undergoing screening semen analysis during evaluation of the infertile couple and two healthy fertile male volunteers. Interventions Spermatozoa were separated from seminal plasma and somatic cells using gradient separation. DNA was extracted from spermatozoa, and DNA methylation was assessed at 1,505 DNA-sequence specific sites. Main Outcome Measures Repeatability of sperm DNA methylation measures, estimated by correlation coefficients. Results DNA methylation levels were highly correlated within matched sets of divided samples (all r?0.97) and longitudinal samples (average r=0.97). Conclusions The described methodology reliably assesses methylation of sperm DNA at large numbers of sites. Methylation profiles were consistent over time. High-throughput assessment of sperm DNA methylation is a promising tool for studying the role of epigenetic state in male fertility. PMID:22035967

Cortessis, Victoria K.; Siegmund, Kimberly; Houshdaran, Sahar; Laird, Peter W.; Sokol, Rebecca Z.

2011-01-01

280

High levels of fluctuating asymmetry in isolated stickleback populations  

PubMed Central

Background Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), defined as small random deviations from the ideal bilateral symmetry, has been hypothesized to increase in response to both genetic and environmental stress experienced by a population. We compared levels of FA in 12 bilateral meristic traits (viz. lateral-line system neuromasts and lateral plates), and heterozygosity in 23 microsatellite loci, among four marine (high piscine predation risk) and four pond (zero piscine predation risk) populations of nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius). Results Pond sticklebacks had on average three times higher levels of FA than marine fish and this difference was highly significant. Heterozygosity in microsatellite markers was on average two times lower in pond (HE ? 0.3) than in marine (HE ? 0.6) populations, and levels of FA and heterozygosity were negatively correlated across populations. However, after controlling for habitat effect on heterozygosity, levels of FA and heterozygosity were uncorrelated. Conclusions The fact that levels of FA in traits likely to be important in the context of predator evasion were elevated in ponds compared to marine populations suggests that relaxed selection for homeostasis in ponds lacking predatory fish may be responsible for the observed habitat difference in levels of FA. This inference also aligns with the observation that the levels of genetic variability across the populations did not explain population differences in levels of FA after correcting for habitat effect. Hence, while differences in strength of selection, rather than in the degree of genetic stress could be argued to explain habitat differences in levels of FA, the hypothesis that increased FA in ponds is caused by genetic stress cannot be rejected. PMID:22788717

2012-01-01

281

Leadership Retreats for Middle Level and Senior High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student leadership is a critical aspect of all middle level and senior high school experiences. Involving students in the workings of the school can mean the difference for them between a mediocre school experience and an exceptional one. This retreat manual is a resource guide for student advisors who wish to develop retreat programs in their…

Stevens, Kelly

282

A Preview of High School Level Economic Software.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to locate and evaluate high-school-level economic software compatible with an Apple II or IIe computer. To identify software, computer searches were run, bibliographies were scanned, and reviews were collected. Only software that was recommended by some outside source was included in the evaluation. The following…

Kincade, Jeannine H.

283

Multigame — A Very High Level Language for Describing Board Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Languages with implicit parallelism are easier to program in than those wit h explicit par- allelism, but finding and efficiently exploiting parallelism in general-p urpose programming languages by parallelizing compilers is hard. A compiler for a Very High Level Language, de- signed for a specific application domain, has more knowledge about its application domain and may use this knowledge to

John Romein; Henri Bal; Dick Grune

284

High levels of genetic variability in west African Dwarf Crocodiles  

E-print Network

High levels of genetic variability in west African Dwarf Crocodiles Osteolaemus tetraspis getraspis Crocodile (Osteolaemus) has been a long-standing problem for crocodilian systematists. Previously divided, to which the dwarf African crocodile belongs, is generally considered the sister taxon to the genus

Ray, David

285

Box Calculus with High-Level Buffers Ccile Bui Thanh  

E-print Network

Box Calculus with High-Level Buffers Cécile Bui Thanh LACL, Université Paris 12 61 avenue du: Process algebra, handshake/buffered commu- nication, structured operational semantics, coloured Petri nets both handshake and buffered communication. This allows a sim- ple and compositional expression

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

286

High-Level waste process and product data annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this document is to provide information on available issued documents that will assist interested parties in finding available data on high-level waste and transuranic waste feed compositions, properties, behavior in candidate processing operations, and behavior on candidate product glasses made from those wastes. This initial compilation is only a partial list of available references.

Stegen, G.E.

1996-02-13

287

PROGRAMMING AT A HIGH-LEVEL ON MULTI-CORES  

E-print Network

PROGRAMMING AT A HIGH- LEVEL ON MULTI-CORES What is a compiler to do? Arun Chauhan Indiana University #12;Arun Chauhan, Indiana University HP Research, July 29, 2008 The Multi-core crisis · Physical limitations Transistor sizes Clock skew · Power consumption ·"Moore's Law" #12;Arun Chauhan, Indiana

Chauhan, Arun

288

Effect of high-level content organizers on hypertext learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the cognitive abilities involved in hypertext learning and design approaches that can help users. We examined the effects of two types of high-level content organizers – a graphic spatial map and an alphabetical list – on readers’ memory for hypertext structure. In the control condition, a simple “home” page with no navigational aid was offered. Subjects were

Zsofia Vörös; Jean-François Rouet; Csaba Pléh

2011-01-01

289

46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1) A space with a through-hull fitting below the deepest load waterline, such as a...

2010-10-01

290

A Behavioral Intermediate Format For High Level Synthesis  

E-print Network

#12; BIF: A Behavioral Intermediate Format For High Level Synthesis BY Nikil D. Dutt Tedd Hadley Daniel D. Gajski Technical Report 89­03 (Revised 9/19/89) Information and Computer Science University of California at Irvine Irvine, CA 92717 Abstract BIF is a new intermediate format for behavioral synthesis

California at Irvine, University of

291

High?level radioactive waste management in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

High?level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal policy in the USA since 1987 has focused on a site in volcanic tuffs 305 meters beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, with current plans calling for the repository to be opened in 2017 subject to approval by the Obama Administration. Yet the offsite radiation release standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency are still being finalized,

Barry D. Solomon

2009-01-01

292

Computational Modeling of High-Level Cognition and Brain Function  

E-print Network

Computational Modeling of High-Level Cognition and Brain Function Marcel Adam Just,* Patricia A. Carpenter, and Sashank Varma Center for Cognitive Brain Imaging, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh key properties of cortical function into the design of the modeling system. Hum. Brain Mapping 8

293

THE XAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR HIGH LEVEL CONTROL ROOM APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

XAL is a Java programming framework for building high-level control applications related to accelerator physics. The structure, details of implementation, and interaction between components, auxiliary XAL packages, and the latest modifications are discussed. A general overview of XAL applications created for the SNS project is presented.

Shishlo, Andrei P [ORNL] [ORNL; Allen, Christopher K [ORNL] [ORNL; Chu, Paul [Stanford University] [Stanford University; Galambos, John D [ORNL] [ORNL; Pelaia II, Tom [ORNL] [ORNL

2009-01-01

294

High-level manpower movement and Japan's foreign aid.  

PubMed

"Japan's technical assistance programs to Asian countries are summarized. Movements of high-level manpower accompanying direct foreign investments by private enterprise are also reviewed. Proposals for increased human resources development include education and training of foreigners in Japan as well as the training of Japanese aid experts and the development of networks for information exchange." PMID:12285771

Furuya, K

1992-01-01

295

Truck cask design for shipping Defense High Level Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Defense High Level Waste (DHLW) cask is a Type B packaging currently under development by the US Department of Energy (DOE). This truck cask has been designed to initially transport borosilicate glass waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Specific program activities include designing, testing, certifying, and fabricating a prototype legal-weight

M. M. Madsen; A. Zimmer

1985-01-01

296

HighLevel Execution Time Analysis Farn Wang 1  

E-print Network

High�Level Execution Time Analysis Farn Wang 1 Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan 115, R.O.C. +886�2�7883799 ext. 1717 FAX : +886�2�7824814 farn@iis.sinica.edu.tw 1 Supported by National Science Council, Taiwan, ROC under grant NSC 86�2213�E�001�009 #12; High

Chen, Sheng-Wei

297

The Estuary Guide. Level 3: High School. Draft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Estuaries are marine systems that serve as nurseries for animals, links in the migratory pathways, and habitat for a complex community of organisms. This curriculum guide intended for use at the high school level seeks to teach what estuaries are; provide opportunities to practice decision-making that affects estuaries; and encourage students to…

Alexander, Glen; And Others

298

Extending Java for High-Level Web Service Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We incorporate innovations from the project into the Java language to provide high- level features for Web service programming. The resulting language, JWIG, contains an advanced session model and a flexible mechanism for dynamic construction of XML documents, in particular XHTML. To support program development we provide a suite of program analyses that at compile- time verify for a

Aske Simon Christensen; Anders Mller; Michael I. Schwartzbach

299

Extending Java for high-level Web service construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We incorporate innovations from the project into the Java language to provide high-level features for Web service programming. The resulting language, JWIG, contains an advanced session model and a flexible mechanism for dynamic construction of XML documents, in particular XHTML. To support program development we provide a suite of program analyses that at compile time verify for a given program

Aske Simon Christensen; Anders Møller; Michael I. Schwartzbach

2003-01-01

300

High-Level Languages and Floating-Point  

E-print Network

for the entire design process. CFD is currently used only at some design steps, and wind tunnel tests are stillHigh-Level Languages and Floating-Point Arithmetic for FPGA- Based CFD Simulations Diego Sanchez Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Francisco Palacios Stanford University COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS (CFD) plays

Alonso, Juan J.

301

Structuring Peer Interaction To Promote High-Level Cognitive Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the kind of peer learning that demands high-level cognitive processing, discussing how peer interaction influences cognitive processes (structuring peer interaction and using guided reciprocal peer questioning); how to promote cognitive processing (knowledge construction and integration and socio- cognitive conflict); metacognition; and…

King, Alison

2002-01-01

302

MIXING PROCESSES IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

Flammable gases can be generated in DOE high-level waste tanks, including radiolytic hydrogen, and during cesium precipitation from salt solutions, benzene. Under normal operating conditions the potential for deflagration or detonation from these gases is precluded by purging and...

303

Hot Potato T e chniques in High Level Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces hot potato high level synthesis transformation techniques. These techniques add deflection operations in the behavioral description of a computation in such a way that the requirements for two important components of the final implementation cost, the number of registers and the number of interconnects, are significantly reduced. Moreover, it is shown how hot potato techniques can be

Miodrag Potkonjak; Sujit Dey

304

Does presence of prostate cancer affect serum testosterone levels in clinically localized prostate cancer patients?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between serum level of testosterone (T) and prostate cancer (PCa) are complex. The present study evaluated whether presence of PCa alters serum T levels. Subjects were 125 patients with clinically localized PCa treated using radical prostatectomy (RP), for whom pretreatment T levels were recorded. We investigated clinical and pathological factors such as pretreatment serum T level, age, pretreatment

T Imamoto; H Suzuki; M Yano; K Kawamura; N Kamiya; K Araki; A Komiya; Y Naya; T Shiraishi; T Ichikawa

2009-01-01

305

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access C-reactive protein levels in patients at  

E-print Network

or lipid-lowering drugs for patients with hypertension or elevated serum cholesterol levels, respectively were not receiving statin therapy. Results: In the overall population, CRP levels were positively-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. CRP levels were also higher in women, those at higher traditionally estimated

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

306

Review of high-level waste form properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waste form options for the immobilization of high-level-liquid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle are reviewed. Proposed waste forms have properties falling within a relatively narrow range. In regard to crystalline versus glass waste forms, either glass of crystalline materials have some advantage when a single property is considered; however, at this date no single waste form offers optimum properties over the entire range of characteristics investigated. A long-term effort is applied to the development of glass and calcine waste forms. Synthetic minerals, the multibarrier approach with coated particles in a metal matrix, and high pressure-high temperature ceramics offer advantages.

Rusin, J. M.

1980-12-01

307

High CRP values predict poor survival in patients with penile cancer  

PubMed Central

Background High levels of circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) have recently been linked to poor clinical outcome in various malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the preoperative serum CRP level in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. Methods This retrospective analysis included 79 penile cancer patients with information about their serum CRP value prior to surgery who underwent either radical or partial penectomy at two German high-volume centers (Ulm University Medical Center and Hannover Medical School) between 1990 and 2010. They had a median (mean) follow-up of 23 (32) months. Results A significantly elevated CRP level (>15 vs. ? 15?mg/l) was found more often in patients with an advanced tumor stage (?pT2) (38.9 vs. 11.6%, p=0.007) and in those with nodal disease at diagnosis (50.0 vs. 14.6%, p=0.007). However, high CRP levels were not associated with tumor differentiation (p=0.53). The Kaplan-Meier 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate was 38.9% for patients with preoperative CRP levels above 15?mg/l and 84.3% for those with lower levels (p=0.001). Applying multivariate analysis and focusing on the subgroup of patients without metastasis at the time of penile surgery, both advanced local tumor stage (?pT2; HR 8.8, p=0.041) and an elevated CRP value (>15?mg/l; HR 3.3, p=0.043) were identified as independent predictors of poor clinical outcome in patients with penile cancer. Conclusions A high preoperative serum CRP level was associated with poor survival in patients with penile cancer. If larger patient populations confirm its prognostic value, its routine use could enable better risk stratification and risk-adjusted follow-up of patients with SCC of the penis. PMID:23642165

2013-01-01

308

Analysis of Blood and Salivary Urea Levels in Patients Undergoing Haemodialysis and Kidney Transplant  

PubMed Central

Aims and Objectives: To determine correlation between the Salivary Urea levels with that of Blood Urea levels. Materials and Methods: Subjects were selected from patients undergoing haemodialysis and patients who had underwent kidney transplantation at Ashwini Hospitals Guntur. The study comprised of 45 patients, of which Haemodialysis group (HD) with 20 patients, Transplant (T) group with 15 patients and 10 patients in control group. Samples of blood and saliva were taken from all the patients to assess the Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) and Salivary Urea (SU) levels respectively under strict aseptic precautions. Blood was collected just prior to the dialysis in HD group and in renal transplant (T) patients during their review visit. Informed consent was taken from patients and ethical committee approval taken. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between Blood Urea and Salivary Urea levels in the HD and T group (p<0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between T and Control group with respect to Blood Urea and Salivary Urea levels. The salivary urea levels are slightly higher than blood urea levels in all the study groups. Conclusion: The salivary urea tests can be used in place of blood tests as a non invasive diagnostic tool. Thus, preventing the unnecessary and periodic withdraw of blood which is not only cumbersome but also leads to recurrent infections. PMID:25177630

A, Ravi Kiran; Y, Samata; N, Purnachandrarao Naik; A, Vijay Kumar

2014-01-01

309

High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

A ''Settlement Agreement'' between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a compliance date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of the high-level waste in a High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility based on the assumption that no more New Waste Calcining Facility campaigns will be conducted after June 2000. Under this option, the sodium-bearing waste remaining in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm, and newly generated liquid waste produced between now and the start of 2013, will be processed using a different option, such as a Cesium Ion Exchange Facility. The cesium-saturated waste from this other option will be sent to the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities to be mixed with existing calcine. The calcine and cesium-saturated waste will be processed in the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility by the end of calendar year 2035. In addition, the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility will process all newly-generated liquid waste produced between 2013 and the end of 2035. Vitrification of this waste is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the waste and pouring it into stainless-steel canisters that will be ready for shipment out of Idaho to a disposal facility by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until they are sent to a national geologic repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from the end of 2015 through 2035.

D. A. Lopez

1999-08-01

310

Evaluation of D-dimer serum levels among patients with chronic urticaria, psoriasis and urticarial vasculitis*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND It has been demonstrated that neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes, under appropriated stimulus, may express tissue factor and therefore, activate the extrinsic pathway of coagulation. We performed a transversal and case-control study of patients with chronic urticaria and patients with psoriasis, in our outpatient clinic to evaluate the production of D-dimer. OBJECTIVE To evaluate D-dimer serum levels in patients with chronic urticaria and its possible correlation with disease activity. PATIENTS AND METHODS The study was conducted from October 2010 until March 2011. We selected 37 consecutive patients from our Allergy Unit and Psoriasis Unit, and divided them into three groups for statistical analysis: (i) 12 patients with active chronic urticaria (CU); (ii) 10 patients with chronic urticaria under remission and (iii) 15 patients with psoriasis (a disease with skin inflammatory infiltrate constituted by neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes). Another five patients with urticarial vasculitis were allocated in our study, but not included in statistical analysis. The serum levels of D-dimer were measured by Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA), and the result units were given in ng/ml FEU. RESULTS Patients with active chronic urticaria had the highest serum levels of D-dimer (p<0.01), when compared to patients with CU under remission and the control group (patients with psoriasis). CONCLUSIONS Patients with active chronic urticaria have higher serum levels of D-dimer, when compared to patients with chronic urticaria under remission and patients with psoriasis. We found elevated serum levels of D-dimer among patients with urticarial vasculitis. PMID:23793207

Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Antinori, Lidi Che Leon; Maruta, Celina Wakisaka; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva

2013-01-01

311

Decrease of serum carnitine levels in patients with or without gastrointestinal cancer cachexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To evaluate the levels of serum carnitine in patients with cancer in digestive organs and to compare them with other cancers in order to provide new insights into the mechanisms of cachexia. METHODS: Fifthy-fi ve cachectic patients with or without gastrointestinal cancer were enrolled in the present study. They underwent routine laboratory investigations, including examination of the levels of

Mariano Malaguarnera; Corrado Risino; Maria Pia Gargante; Giovanni Oreste; Gloria Barone; Anna Veronica; Mario Costanzo Tomasello; Matteo Angelo Cannizzaro

2006-01-01

312

Homocysteine Levels in Patients with Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Increased homocysteine (HCY) levels are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Plasma HCY is increased in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients, and previous studies suggest that hyperhomocysteinemia causes adverse cardiac remodeling and affects pump function. We aimed to evaluate the HCY levels in patients with diastolic heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Methods: We

Ahmet Uslu; Mehmet Akif Çakar; Irfan Sahin; Imran Önür; Halil Ibrahim Biter; Mustafa Hakan Dinçkal

2010-01-01

313

Plasma levels of HDL and carotenoids are lower in dementia patients with vascular comorbidities  

PubMed Central

Elevated serum cholesterol concentrations in mid-life increase risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in later life. However, lower concentrations of cholesterol-carrying high density lipoprotein (HDL) and its principal apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) correlate with increased risk for AD. As HDL transports oxocarotenoids, which are scavengers of peroxynitrite, we have investigated the hypothesis that lower HDL and oxocarotenoid concentrations during AD may render HDL susceptible to nitration and oxidation and in turn reduce the efficiency of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) from lipid-laden cells. Fasting blood samples were obtained from subjects with (1) AD without cardiovascular comorbidities and risk factors (AD); (2) AD with cardiovascular comorbidities and risk factors (AD Plus); (3) normal cognitive function; for carotenoid determination by HPLC, analysis of HDL nitration and oxidation by ELISA and 3H-cholesterol export to isolated HDL. HDL concentration in the plasma from AD Plus patients was significantly lower compared to AD or control subject HDL levels. Similarly, lutein, lycopene and zeaxanthin concentrations were significantly lower in AD Plus patients compared to those in control subjects or AD patients and oxocarotenoid concentrations correlated with MMSE. At equivalent concentrations of ApoA1, HDL isolated from all subjects irrespective of diagnosis was equally effective at mediating RCT. HDL concentration is lower in AD Plus patients’ plasma and thus capacity for RCT is compromised. In contrast, HDL from patients with AD-only was not different in concentration, modifications or function from HDL of healthy age-matched donors. The relative importance of elevating HDL alone compared with elevating carotenoids alone or elevating both to reduce risk for dementia should be investigated in patients with early signs of dementia. PMID:24448787

Dias, Irundika HK; Polidori, Maria Cristina; Li, Li; Weber, Daniela; Stahl, Wilhelm; Nelles, Gereon; Grune, Tilman; Griffiths, Helen R

2014-01-01

314

Comparison of vancomycin and teicoplanin trough serum levels in patients with infected orthopedic devices: new data for old therapies.  

PubMed

We compared retrospectively vancomycin and teicoplanin trough serum levels after loading doses and, subsequently, after high daily doses, in 52 patients (26 in each group) who had developed infections after implantation of an orthopedic device. The target trough serum level was > 25 mg/l. Trough levels were significantly higher at 2 days (±1) and 5 days (±1) in patients who received teicoplanin compared with patients who received a continuous perfusion of vancomycin (26.1 vs. 16 mg/l at day 2 ± 1, P = 0.01; 27.8 vs. 19.9 mg/l at day 5 ± 1, P = 0.01). One of the 26 patients taking vancomycin reached the target trough serum level by day 2 (±1), whereas 10 of the 26 patients taking teicoplanin reached the target by that time (P = 0.002). At day 5 (±1), 6/26 patients taking vancomycin reached the target, versus 13/26 patients taking teicoplanin (P = 0.04). However, physicians should remain cautious when administering teicoplanin empirically because of the higher MIC?? values observed for coagulase-negative staphylococci compared with vancomycin. PMID:21053041

Lemaire, Xavier; Loiez, Caroline; Valette, Michel; Migaud, Henri; Dubreuil, Luc; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Senneville, Eric

2011-06-01

315

High level cross of the esophagus with the descending aorta in scoliosis: CT study  

SciTech Connect

The esophagus occasionally crosses the descending aorta at an unusually high level (3-5 cm inferior to the carina) in right-sided scoliosis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the mechanism of this finding. We prospectively evaluated thoracic CT scans in 30 patients with right-sided scoliosis. We assessed the alterations in the positions of the esophagus and the descending aorta by the thoracic deformity. The descending aorta followed the scoliotic curve of the spine in 26 (87%) patients. The esophagus followed the scoliotic curve of the spine in 14 (47%) patients and did not in 16 (53%). The anteroposterior diameter of the thorax in the former group was significantly smaller than that in the latter (p < 0.01). High level cross of both structures was identified in 14 (47%) patients, and all of them belonged to the group in which the esophagus did not follow the scoliotic curve of the spine. The unusual high level cross of the esophagus with the descending aorta occasionally seen in scoliosis is due to a difference in the positional alterations of the two structures resulting from the scoliosis. 6 refs., 3 figs.

Takahashi, Koji; Kikuno, Motoyuki; Hyodoh, Hideki [Jichi Medical School Hospital, Minamikawachi-machi, Tochigi-ken (Japan)] [and others] [Jichi Medical School Hospital, Minamikawachi-machi, Tochigi-ken (Japan); and others

1996-05-01

316

High-accurate optical fiber liquid level sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A highly accurate optical fiber liquid level sensor is presented. The single-chip microcomputer is used to process and control the signal. This kind of sensor is characterized by self-security and is explosion-proof, so it can be applied in any liquid level detecting areas, especially in the oil and chemical industries. The theories and experiments about how to improve the measurement accuracy are described. The relative error for detecting the measurement range 10 m is up to 0.01%.

Sun, Dexing; Chen, Shouliu; Pan, Chao; Jin, Henghuan

1991-08-01

317

The estimation of metaloproteinases and their inhibitors blood levels in patients with pancreatic tumors  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the concentration of proteolytic enzymes, MMP-2 and MMP-9, and their tissue inhibitors, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, in the blood of patients with benign and malignant pancreatic tumors. Methods MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 were evaluated in the patients with benign and malignant pancreatic tumors before surgery and in the 30-day follow-up. The study covered 134 patients aged 54 to 76 years, who were divided into groups by TNM staging. Results Before the operation, the highest mean concentration of MMP-2 was found in patients with unresectable cancer, whereas the highest level of MMP-9 was in patients with resectable cancer. The highest level of TIMP-1 was noted in patients with inflammatory tumors. In 1 month following the operation, the highest level of MMP-2 was also in patients with unresectable cancer and the highest level of TIMP-2 in patients with inflammatory tumors. Conclusions The evaluation of the level of the studied cytokines in the pancreatic tumor patients can be diagnostically significant in the differentiation of benign and malignant changes. The changes in the levels of the studied enzymes and their inhibitors can have a prognostic value in the clinical severity of pancreatic cancer. PMID:23768069

2013-01-01

318

Increased IgE serum levels are unrelated to allergic and parasitic diseases in patients with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the IgE serum levels in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients and to evaluate possible associations with clinical and laboratory features, disease activity and tissue damage. METHODS: The IgE serum concentrations in 69 consecutive juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients were determined by nephelometry. IgG, IgM and IgA concentrations were measured by immunoturbidimetry. All patients were negative for intestinal parasites. Statistical analysis methods included the Mann-Whitney, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, as well as the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Increased IgE concentrations above 100 IU/mL were observed in 31/69 (45%) juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients. The mean IgE concentration was 442.0±163.4 IU/ml (range 3.5-9936.0 IU/ml). Fifteen of the 69 patients had atopic disease, nine patients had severe sepsis and 56 patients presented with nephritis. The mean IgE level in 54 juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients without atopic manifestations was 271.6±699.5 IU/ml, and only nine of the 31 (29%) patients with high IgE levels had atopic disease. The IgE levels did not statistically differ with respect to the presence of atopic disease, severe sepsis, nephritis, disease activity, or tissue damage. Interestingly, IgE concentrations were inversely correlated with C4 levels (r?=?-0.25, p?=?0.03) and with the SLICC/ACR-DI score (r?=?-0.34, p?=?0.005). The IgE concentration was also found to be directly correlated with IgA levels (r?=?0.52, p?=?0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated for the first time that juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients have increased IgE serum levels. This increase in IgE levels was not related to allergic or parasitic diseases. Our results are in line with the hypothesis that high IgE levels can be considered a marker of immune dysregulation. PMID:23184203

Liphaus, Bernadete L.; Jesus, Adriana A.; Silva, Clovis A.; Coutinho, Antonio; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda

2012-01-01

319

Kynurenic Acid Levels in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Alzheimer's Disease or Dementia with Lewy Bodies  

PubMed Central

Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is implicated in cognitive functions. Altered concentrations of the compound are found in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Further studies to determine whether KYNA serves as a biomarker for cognitive decline and dementia progression are required. In this study, we measured CSF KYNA levels in AD patients (n = 19), patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) (n = 18), and healthy age-matched controls (Ctrls)) (n = 20) to further explore possible correlations between KYNA levels, cognitive decline, and well-established AD and inflammatory markers. Neither DLB patients nor AD patients showed significantly altered CSF KYNA levels compared to Ctrls. However, female AD patients displayed significantly higher KYNA levels compared to male AD patients, a gender difference not seen in the Ctrl or DLB group. Levels of KYNA significantly correlated with the AD-biomarker P-tau and the inflammation marker soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in the AD patient group. No associations between KYNA and cognitive functions were found. Our study shows that, although KYNA was not associated with cognitive decline in AD or DLB patients, it may be implicated in AD-related hyperphosphorylation of tau and inflammation. Further studies on larger patient cohorts are required to understand the potential role of KYNA in AD and DLB. PMID:24855376

Wennstrom, Malin; Nielsen, Henrietta M; Orhan, Funda; Londos, Elisabet; Minthon, Lennart; Erhardt, Sophie

2014-01-01

320

Early serum (1?3)-?-D-glucan levels in patients with burn injury.  

PubMed

Serum (1?3)-?-D-glucan (BG) is increasingly used as diagnostic marker for invasive fungal infections. Exposure to gauze may lead to false-positive BG assays. The role of BG is unclear in thermally injured patients who frequently require extensive gauze coverage; therefore, we prospectively evaluated BG levels in burn-injured patients. Serum BG levels were measured in 18 burn patients immediately before application of the first dressing and 12 h after. Patients were stratified by extent of total body surface area (TBSA) requiring gauze coverage: <20%, 20-39%, 40-60% and >60%. BG levels were obtained from patients with non-burn trauma as controls. BG results were positive (>80 pg ml?¹) in 9/18 (50%) patients at baseline and in 8/18 (44%) 12 h after application of the first dressing. BG levels were positive in 1/5 (20%) of patients with <20% TBSA requiring gauze and in 10/13 (77%) with ? 20% (P < 0.05). None of the control patients had positive BG at any time point and none of the patients had candidemia at baseline. Mean serum BG levels decreased (19.44 pg ml?¹) after gauze placement. False-positive serum BG elevations are common in this patient population. Positivity correlates with extent of TBSA injured, but is not impacted by the gauze itself. PMID:21771107

Shupp, Jeffrey W; Petraitiene, Ruta; Jaskille, Amin D; Pavlovich, Anna R; Matt, Sarah E; Nguyen, Do T; Kath, Melissa A; Jeng, James C; Jordan, Marion H; Finkelman, Malcolm; Walsh, Thomas J; Shoham, Shmuel

2012-05-01

321

IL-31 Serum Protein and Tissue mRNA Levels in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis  

PubMed Central

Background Severe pruritus is the primary symptom in atopic dermatitis (AD). Recently, the novel cytokine IL-31 has been implicated in the itching associated with AD. Objective We performed this study to determine whether IL-31 serum levels are elevated in AD patients and to better characterize the relationship between serum IL-31 level and other established laboratory parameters. Methods We recruited 55 AD patients, 34 with allergic type AD and 21 with non-allergic type AD, and 38 healthy, non-atopic controls. We checked the laboratory values, severity score, and serum IL-31 levels in all patients and controls, and IL-31 mRNA levels in lesion skin were measured in 13 subjects with AD and in four controls. Results AD patients displayed significantly higher levels of serum IL-31 that were associated with serum IgE, disease severity, and subjective itch intensity. In AD patients, IL-31 mRNA levels from the lesional skin samples also correlated with serum IL-31 level. Conclusion IL-31 is likely one of the many mediators inducing inflammation and pruritus in AD. Although our limited sample size prevents us from making any definitive conclusions, our data demonstrate a strong correlation between IL-31 mRNA level and serum IL-31 protein level, which has never been reported before. Moreover, we found correlations between serum IL-31 level and serum IgE, eosinophil cationic protein, disease severity, and subject itch intensity in certain degrees in AD patients. PMID:22148014

Kim, Song; Kim, Hyun-Je; Yang, Hee Seung; Kim, Eugene; Huh, Ik-Soo

2011-01-01

322

Abnormally elevated serum transcobalamin II levels in patients with cerebral malaria.  

PubMed

Transcobalamin II (TCII) levels have been reported to be elevated in patients with many clinical conditions including proliferative reticuloendothelial system. As reactive macrophage hyperplasia frequently occurs in patients with malaria, the objective of the present study was to determine TCII in patients with Plasmodium falciparum with cerebral symptoms. The studies were performed on 14 cerebral malaria patients as well as 60 normal subjects. The mean values of serum vitamin B12 and TCII levels were significantly higher in the patient group and 6 and 7 patients had serum vitamin B12 and TCII levels higher than the normal values. There was direct relationship between serum TCII levels and BUN or creatinine levels. These findings indicated that raised serum TCII level occurred only in patients with renal insufficiency. A decreased glomerular fiLtration rate reduced the amount of vitamin B12 and TCII-B12 that filtered through the glomeruli resulting in the reduced proximal tubular cells uptake and its degradation of TCII. This reduced lysosomal enzyme activity, therefore, prolongs the intravascular TCII survival and increased secretion of TCII into the circulation. Therefore, serum TCII levels were elevated in these cerebral malaria patients. PMID:7759977

Areekul, S; Churdchu, K; Thanomsak, W; Cheeramakara, C; Wilairatana, P; Charoenlarp, P

1994-12-01

323

Correlation between plasma D-dimer levels and the severity of patients with chronic urticaria  

PubMed Central

Background Beside autoimmunity, coagulation pathway is also involved in the pathogenesis of chronic urticaria (CU). Previous studies showed that plasma D-dimer levels paralleled the severity of the disease. To date, there are no data concerning D-dimer level in Thai patients with CU. Objective This study aimed to find the relationship between plasma D-dimer levels and the disease severity of Thai CU patients. The secondary objective is to analyze plasma D-dimer level in each group of patients who performed autologous plasma skin testing (APST) and autologous serum skin testing (ASST). Methods We retrospectively reviewed case record forms of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) patients aged at least 18 years in Skin Allergy Clinic, Siriraj Hospital Mahidol University, Bangkok, during June 2008 to June 2011. Results Of 120 patients, plasma D-dimer level was abnormal in 58 patients (48.3%). The study showed statistically significant positive correlation between disease severity and plasma D-dimer level (p < 0.05, r = 0.537). There was no statistically significant difference in plasma D-dimer level between APST positive and negative groups, and also between ASST positive and negative groups. In APST negative group, plasma D-dimer level was elevated in 29 patients (47.5%) and correlated with disease severity. Conclusion This study showed elevated plasma D-dimer levels in nearly half of Thai patients with CIU. There was a positive correlation between plasma D-dimer levels and the severity of disease activity. Investigation for plasma D-dimer level may be an alternative way to evaluate disease severity in patients with CIU. PMID:23667833

Triwongwaranat, Daranporn; Chularojanamontri, Leena; Pinkaew, Samruay

2013-01-01

324

ELEVATED PLASMA TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-B1 LEVELS IN BREASTCANCER PATIENTS DECREASE AFTER SURGICAL REMOVAL OF THE TUMOR  

EPA Science Inventory

In breast cancer patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation increased plasma TGFB levels are predictive for the occurrence of normal tissue complications (Anscher et al. EJM 328:1592-1598, 1993). n this investigation, we have d...

325

Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Levels in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels, cerebrovascular risk factors, and distribution of cerebral infarct areas in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Patients and Methods. Sixty patients with AIS and 44 controls who had not cerebrovascular disease were included in the study. The patients were divided into four groups according to the location of the infarct area and evaluated as for GGT levels and the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), and hyperlipidemia (HL). Results. The frequency of DM, HT, and HL and gender distributions were similar. The mean GGT levels were significantly higher in patients with AIS and those with relatively larger areas of infarction (P < 0.05). Increased mean GGT levels were found in the subgroup with hypertension, higher LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride levels among cases with AIS (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Higher GGT levels in AIS patients reinforce the relationship of GGT with inflammation and oxidative stress. The observation of higher GGT levels in patients with relatively larger areas of infarction is indicative of a positive correlation between increases in infarct areas and elevated GGT levels.

Gurbuzer, Nurbanu; Ayhan Basturk, Zeliha

2014-01-01

326

Relevance of hepatitis B surface antigen levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B during 5 year of tenofovir treatment.  

PubMed

The role of quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels in patients receiving highly potent oral antiviral therapy is controversial, and here, we determined the HBsAg response in 121 chronic hepatitis B patients treated with tenofovir 300 mg daily. During tenofovir treatment, HBsAg decline of ? 1.0 log from baseline was seen in 16.1%, 16.3%, 18.4%, 34.6%, 36.4% and 11.8%, 15.2%, 14.8%, 28.6%, 20% at years 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 for HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative patients, respectively. Early decline in HBsAg levels at week 4 was predictive of subsequent significant HBsAg level decline. HBeAg seroconversion occurred in 29.9% of HBeAg-positive patients. On multinomial logistic regression, HBsAg level decline from baseline at week 4 and week 12 or any time subsequently did not correlate with HBeAg seroconversion and HBV DNA level decline from baseline at week 4 and week 12 (OR = 3.704; 95% CI = 1.511-9.076; P = 0.006 and OR = 1.732; 95% CI = 1.032-2.867; P = 0.037, respectively) was significantly predictive of seroconversion. A small proportion of chronic HBV-infected patients treated with tenofovir exhibit a significant (? 1.0 log) decline in HBsAg levels. Early decline in HBsAg levels at week 4 was predictive of subsequent and significant HBsAg level decline. The HBsAg decline did not correlate with HBeAg seroconversion in HBeAg-positive patients. Reduction in HBV DNA levels at week 4 and 12 correlated with seroconversion. PMID:24750522

Singh, A K; Sharma, M K; Hissar, S S; Gupta, E; Sarin, S K

2014-06-01

327

Relationship between Serum Level of Lymphatic Vessel Endothelial Hyaluronan Receptor-1 and Prognosis in Patients with Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1) is a hyaluronic acid receptor that is selectively expressed in the endothelia of lymphatic capillaries. The density of lymphatic vessels expressing LYVE-1 on immunohistochemistry negatively correlates with prognosis of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. However, the relationship between LYVE-1 serum levels and lung cancer staging is unknown. Methods: We collected blood samples from 58 lung cancer patients before treatment and measured LYVE-1 serum levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Mean serum LYVE-1 levels were 1,420 pg/mL. Serum LYVE-1 levels correlated positively with serum albumin levels, but inversely with primary tumor size, leukocyte counts, and platelet counts by Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient. A high cancer staging, occurrence of lymph-node metastases, and occurrence of distant metastases were significantly associated with low LYVE-1 levels. Moreover, multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that LYVE-1 levels were predictive of the presence of lymph node and distant metastases, independently of the other factors. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the survival of patients with serum LYVE-1 ?1,553 pg/mL was significantly poorer than that of patients with serum LYVE-1 >1,553 pg/mL. This survival difference relative to LYVE-1 levels remained statistically significant after adjusting for age and gender by the Cox proportional-hazard analysis. Conclusion: Serum LYVE-1 is significantly low in lung cancer patients with metastasis, compared with those without. Measuring LYVE-1 levels in lung cancer patients may be useful for evaluating lung cancer progression. PMID:24665348

Nunomiya, Keiko; Shibata, Yoko; Abe, Shuichi; Inoue, Sumito; Igarashi, Akira; Yamauchi, Keiko; Kimura, Tomomi; Aida, Yasuko; Nemoto, Takako; Sato, Masamichi; Kishi, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Hiroshi; Sato, Kento; Kubota, Isao

2014-01-01

328

Measuring the effects of high CO? levels in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important molecule in cell metabolism. It is also a byproduct of many physiological processes. In humans, impaired lung function and lung diseases disrupt the body's ability to dispose of CO2 and elevate its levels in the body (hypercapnia). Animal models allow further understanding of how CO2 is sensed in the body and what are the physiological responses to high CO2 levels. This information can provide new strategies in the battle against the detrimental effects of CO2 accumulation in lung diseases. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans provides us with such a model animal due to its natural ability to sense and navigate through varying concentrations of CO2, as well as the fact that it can be genetically manipulated with ease. Here we describe the different methods used to measure the effects elevated levels of CO2 have on the molecular sensing mechanism and physiology of C. elegans. PMID:24650565

Zuela, Noam; Friedman, Nurit; Zaslaver, Alon; Gruenbaum, Yosef

2014-08-01

329

The SuperSID project: exploiting high-level information for high-accuracy speaker recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The area of automatic speaker recognition has been dominated by systems using only short-term, low-level acoustic information, such as cepstral features. While these systems have indeed produced very low error rates, they ignore other levels of information beyond low-level acoustics that convey speaker information. Recently published work has shown examples that such high-level information can be used successfully in automatic

Douglas Reynolds; Walter Andrews; Joseph Campbell; Jiri Navratil; Barbara Peskin; Andre Adami; Qin Jin; David Klusacek; Joy Abramson; Radu Mihaescu; Jack Godfrey; Doug Jones; Bing Xiang

2003-01-01

330

High-level waste management technology program plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

Harmon, H.D.

1995-01-01

331

Radioactive high level waste insight modelling for geological disposal facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within this paper we present a simplified analytical model to provide insight into the key performance measures of a generic disposal system for high level waste within a geological disposal facility. The model assumes a low solubility waste matrix within a corrosion resistant disposal container surrounded by a low permeability buffer. Radionuclides migrate from the disposal area through a porous geosphere to the biosphere and give a radiological dose to a receptor. The system of equations describing the migration is transformed into Laplace space and an approximation used to determine peak values for the radionuclide mass transfer rate entering the biosphere. Results from the model are compared with those from more detailed numerical models for key radionuclides in the UK high level waste inventory. Such an insight model can provide a valuable second line of argument to assist in confirming the results of more detailed models and build confidence in the safety case for a geological disposal facility.

Carter, Alexander; Kelly, Martin; Bailey, Lucy

332

Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms  

SciTech Connect

Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms.

None

1982-03-01

333

FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL  

SciTech Connect

Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

Williams, M

2008-05-09

334

Effect of Boswellia serrata supplementation on blood lipid, hepatic enzymes and fructosamine levels in type2 diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Background Type 2 diabetes is an endocrine disorder that affects a large percentage of patients. High blood glucose causes fatty deposits in the liver which is likely to increase in SGOT and SGPT activities. Significant increase in SGOT/SGPT and low HDL levels is observed in patients with diabetes. Serum fructosamine concentration reflects the degree of blood glucose control in diabetic patients. This study was aimed to investigate the antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of supplementation of Boswellia serrata in type2 diabetic patients. Methods 60 type 2 diabetic patients from both sexes (30 males and 30 females) were dedicated to the control and intervention groups (30 subjects per group). Boswellia serrata gum resin in amount of 900 mg daily for 6 weeks were orally administered (as three 300 mg doses) in intervention group and the control group did not receive anything. Blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study and after 6 weeks. Blood levels of fructosamine, lipid profiles as well as hepatic enzyme in type 2 diabetic patients were measured. Results Treatment of diabetic patient with Boswellia serrata was caused to significant increase in blood HDL levels as well as a remarkable decrease in cholesterol, LDL, fructosamine (p?levels after 6 weeks (p?levels in intervention group, we did not detect a significant difference after 6 weeks. Conclusion This study showed that Boswellia serrata supplementation can be beneficial in controlling blood parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, its use can be useful in patients with medicines. PMID:24495344

2014-01-01

335

Security Mechanisms in High-Level Network Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implications of adding security mechanisms to high-level network protocols operating in an open-system environment are analyzed. First the threats to security that may arise in such an environment are described, and then a set of goals for communications security measures is established. This is followed by a brief description of the two basic approaches to communications security, link-oriented measures

Victor L. Voydock; Stephen T. Kent

1983-01-01

336

High Level System Design and Analysis Using Abstract State Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide an introduction to a practical method for rigorous system development which has been used successfully, under industrial\\u000a constraints, for design and analysis of complex hardware\\/software systems. The method allows one to start system development\\u000a with a trustworthy high level system specification and to link such a “ground model” in a well documented and inspectable\\u000a way through intermediate design

Egon Börger

1998-01-01

337

[Corrosion testing of high level radioactive waste. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Alloys under consideration as candidates for the high level nuclear waste containers at Yucca Mountain were exposed to a range of corrosion conditions and their performance measured. The alloys tested were Incoloy 825, 70/30 Copper-Nickel, Monel 400, Hastelloy C- 22, and low carbon steel. The test conditions varied were: temperature, concentration, agitation, and crevice simulation. Only in the case of carbon steel was significant attack noted. This attack appeared to be transport limited.

NONE

1996-06-01

338

BDNF and GDNF serum levels in alcohol-dependent patients during withdrawal.  

PubMed

Preclinical study results suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) modulate addictive behaviour. Therefore we investigated alterations in BDNF (81 male patients) and GDNF serum levels (52 male patients) in alcohol-dependent patients during alcohol withdrawal (day 1, 7 and 14) in comparison to healthy controls (41 male controls). BDNF serum levels were not significantly altered in alcohol-dependent patients compared to healthy controls (p=0.685). GDNF serum levels were significantly reduced in the alcohol-dependent patients (p<0.001). BDNF (p=0.265) and GDNF (p=0.255) serum levels did not change significantly during alcohol withdrawal. BDNF serum levels were significantly negatively associated with alcohol withdrawal severity on day 1 (CIWA-Ar score, p=0.004). GDNF serum levels were significantly negatively associated with individual estimation of alcohol tolerance (SESA-XT score, p=0.028). There was no further association with psychometric dimensions of alcohol withdrawal. In conclusion we found that GDNF serum levels are significantly reduced in alcohol-dependent patients. GDNF serum levels were negatively associated with alcohol tolerance. Moreover BDNF serum levels were found to be associated with withdrawal severity. PMID:20553781

Heberlein, Annemarie; Muschler, Marc; Wilhelm, Julia; Frieling, Helge; Lenz, Bernd; Gröschl, Michael; Kornhuber, Johannes; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

2010-08-16

339

Comparative Study of Bacteremias Caused by Enterococcus spp. with and without High-Level Resistance to Gentamicin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective, multicenter study was carried out over a period of 10 months. All patients with clinically significant bacteremia caused by Enterococcus spp. were included. The epidemiological, microbiological, clin- ical, and prognostic features and the relationship of these features to the presence of high-level resistance to gentamicin (HLRG) were studied. Ninety-three patients with enterococcal bacteremia were included, and 31 of

FRANCISCO JAVIER CABALLERO-GRANADO; J. M. CISNEROS; R. LUQUE; M. TORRES-TORTOSA; F. GAMBOA; F. DIEZ; J. L. VILLANUEVA; R. PEREZ-CANO; J. PASQUAU; D. MERINO; A. MENCHERO; D. MORA; M. A. LOPEZ-RUZ; A. VERGARA

340

Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation  

SciTech Connect

The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government`s system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government`s program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project.

Sattler, L.R.

1992-10-01

341

Circulating levels of cell adhesion molecule L1 as a prognostic marker in gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients  

PubMed Central

Background L1 cell adhesion molecule (CD171) is expressed in many malignant tumors and its expression correlates with unfavourable outcome. It thus represents a target for tumor diagnosis and therapy. An earlier study conducted by our group identified L1 expression levels in primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) as a prognostic marker. The aim of the current study was to compare L1 serum levels of GIST patients with those of healthy controls and to determine whether levels of soluble L1 in sera could serve as a prognostic marker. Methods Using a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), soluble L1 was measured in sera of 93 GIST patients und 151 healthy controls. Soluble L1 levels were then correlated with clinicopathological data. Results Median levels of soluble L1 were significantly higher (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U test) in sera of GIST patients compared to healthy individuals. Median soluble L1 levels were particularly elevated in patients with recurrence and relapse (p < 0.05; Mann Whitney U test). Conclusion These results suggest that high soluble L1 levels predict poor prognosis and may thus be a promising tumor marker that can contribute to individualise therapy. PMID:21600041

2011-01-01

342

Placental growth factor, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products, extracellular newly identified receptor for receptor for advanced glycation end products binding protein and high mobility group box 1 levels in patients with acute kidney injury: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Placental growth factor (PlGF), pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), extracellular newly identified receptor for RAGE binding protein (EN-RAGE) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1) are novel biomarkers in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, their clinical significance in acute kidney injury (AKI) is unknown. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether selected biomarkers are changed in AKI patients. Methods Serum PlGF, PAPP-A, sRAGE, EN-RAGE and HMGB-1 levels were assessed in 40 patients with AKI, 42 CKD 5 patients, 31 haemodialysis patients (HD) and 39 age-matched healthy controls. Results PAPP-A was elevated in AKI (20.6?±?16.9 mIU/L) compared with controls (9.1?±?2.3 mIU/L, p?levels were associated with transferrin (p <0.001), negatively with albumin (p?levels were associated with C - reactive protein (p?levels were associated with ferritin (p?levels with leukocyte count (p?patients, PAPP-A, EN-RAGE and HMGB1 are elevated, but sRAGE and PlGF are not increased. Whereas PAPP-A correlates with markers of nutrition; PlGF, EN-RAGE and HMGB-1 are related to inflammatory parameters. PMID:24188108

2013-01-01

343

The Effect of Renal Dysfunction on Circulating Sclerostin Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Objective. Sclerostin is a Wnt inhibitor produced specifically by osteocytes. However, it is not currently clear whether renal dysfunction has an effect on circulating sclerostin level in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to evaluate this relationship. Design and Patients. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of 302 type 2 diabetic patients with or without chronic kidney disease. Serum sclerostin level was analyzed by ELISA, and renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Results. There was a strong correlation between sclerostin level with renal function presented as serum creatinine (r = 0.745, P < 0.001) and eGFR (r = ?0.590, P < 0.001). Serum sclerostin level was significantly higher in patients with CKD-G3 stage than those with CKD-G1/2 stages after adjusting for age, sex, and BMI (P = 0.011). Patients with CKD-G4/5 stages had dramatically increased level of circulating sclerostin. Multiple regression analyses found that age, sex, and eGFR were independent determining factors for circulating sclerostin level. Conclusion. Our data showed that serum sclerostin levels start to increase in diabetic patients with CKD-G3 stage. Further studies are needed to establish the potential role of elevated sclerostin in diabetic patients with CKD. PMID:25053944

Kim, Se Hwa; Yoon, Soo Young; Lim, Sung-Kil; Rhee, Yumie

2014-01-01

344

The effect of renal dysfunction on circulating sclerostin level in patients with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Objective. Sclerostin is a Wnt inhibitor produced specifically by osteocytes. However, it is not currently clear whether renal dysfunction has an effect on circulating sclerostin level in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to evaluate this relationship. Design and Patients. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of 302 type 2 diabetic patients with or without chronic kidney disease. Serum sclerostin level was analyzed by ELISA, and renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Results. There was a strong correlation between sclerostin level with renal function presented as serum creatinine (r = 0.745, P < 0.001) and eGFR (r = -0.590, P < 0.001). Serum sclerostin level was significantly higher in patients with CKD-G3 stage than those with CKD-G1/2 stages after adjusting for age, sex, and BMI (P = 0.011). Patients with CKD-G4/5 stages had dramatically increased level of circulating sclerostin. Multiple regression analyses found that age, sex, and eGFR were independent determining factors for circulating sclerostin level. Conclusion. Our data showed that serum sclerostin levels start to increase in diabetic patients with CKD-G3 stage. Further studies are needed to establish the potential role of elevated sclerostin in diabetic patients with CKD. PMID:25053944

Kim, Se Hwa; Yoon, Soo Young; Lim, Sung-Kil; Rhee, Yumie

2014-01-01

345

Increased circulating levels of soluble HLA class I heterodimers in patients with sickle cell disease.  

PubMed Central

This study examined the presence of a persistent state of low-grade inflammation in sickle cell anemia patients by measuring circulating sHLA-I heterodimers and C-reactive protein during the steady state and after recent crises. Thirty-nine pediatric sickle hemoglobinopathy patients were studied during the steady state and 11 patients were evaluated within 1 month of a painful crisis. A disease severity score was generated for each patient, and soluble HLA-I (sHLA-I) and C-reactive protein levels were determined. Soluble HLA-I was significantly elevated in 55% of the steady-state group and in 36% of the recent-crisis group. The percentage of patients with elevated sHLA-I differed in the various disease subgroups in the steady state: 46% of Hb SS patients, 70% of Hb SC patients, 75% of Hb S beta-thal patients, and 20% of Hb SSF patients. Steady-state and recent-crisis sHLA-I levels were not significantly different. C-reactive protein levels were elevated in 11% of steady-state patients and in 9% of recent-crisis patients. Soluble HLA-I levels did not correlate with C-reactive protein levels or disease severity score, age, hemoglobin, reticulocyte count, platelet count, or white cell count. These results show that the majority of sickle hemoglobinopathy patients have elevated sHLA-I levels during the steady state and after recent crisis, suggesting the presence of chronic inflammation during the steady state. PMID:9549979

Moore, C.; Ehlayel, M.; Inostroza, J.; Leiva, L. E.; Kuvibidila, S.; Yu, L.; Gardner, R.; Ode, D. L.; Warrier, R.; Sorensen, R. U.

1998-01-01

346

Level of A1C control and its predictors among Lebanese type 2 diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Aim: Lebanon is among the top 10 countries with the highest prevalence of diabetes in the Middle East region with estimates reaching as high as 16.6% in adults aged 20–79 years. The objective of this study was to assess the level of A1C control among a cohort of type 2 diabetic patients and factors associated with uncontrolled A1C. Methods: We carried out a retrospective observational study among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending an outpatient endocrinologist’s clinic between June 2008 and July 2012 in Beirut, Lebanon. Two groups were compared, based on their diabetic control (A1C < 7% and A1C ? 7%). Results: A total of 551 patients were included in this study, where 31.8% attained A1C control. Crude analyses showed that some factors were significantly associated with uncontrolled A1C, and these were long-standing diabetes, diabetes-related complications, uncontrolled blood pressure, lipid profile, as well as the use of metformin, sulfonylurea, or insulin. When multivariate analysis was carried out, the chances of having uncontrolled A1C were significantly higher among patients who developed neuropathy (odds ratio [OR] 2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11–3.90), had uncontrolled triglycerides (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.33–2.94), used insulin (OR 4.52, 95% CI 2.32–8.83), and sulfonylureas (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.88–4.40). Conclusion: Uncontrolled diabetes is more likely to exist in patients with neuropathy, uncontrolled triglycerides and those using insulin or sulfonylurea. Further research is needed to confirm the findings. PMID:25126407

Noureddine, Hanan; Nakhoul, Nancy; Galal, Amal; Soubra, Lama

2014-01-01

347

Peer-Level Patient Presenters Decrease Pharmacy Students' Social Distance From Patients With Schizophrenia and Clinical Depression  

PubMed Central

Objectives To create a doctor of pharmacy curricular experience that will decrease students' social barriers to interaction with and treatment of mentally-ill patients. Design We created a survey instrument to measure 4 aspects of students' conceptions of schizophrenia and clinical depression: (1) understanding of the medical nature of each disease, (2) understanding of patient behavior, (3) belief in the efficacy of treatment, and (4) social distance. We delivered this instrument before and after a neuropsychiatry curriculum including “peer-level patient presenters” in addition to the traditional first-year pharmacy curriculum. Assessment Social-distance scores significantly decreased in first-year pharmacy students who attended peer-level patient presentations, indicating increased willingness to interact with persons with schizophrenia and clinical depression. In addition, students' understanding of the causes of illness, behavior of patients, and most importantly, efficacy of drug counseling for these diseases increased. Conclusions Changes to the curriculum including the addition of peer-level patient presentations can quantitatively decrease pharmacy students' social barriers to the treatment of mentally-ill patients. PMID:19214260

Karimi, Reza M.

2008-01-01

348

Elevated levels of serum mucin-associated antigen in adult patients with cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

Previous studies using the CA 19-9 antibody have demonstrated that serum mucin levels in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are elevated and that the degree of elevation relates to the age of the patient and possibly to his or her clinical status. However, CA 19-9 only recognizes the mucin-associated blood group sialyl Le(a+) antigen, so mucin levels cannot be measured in patients without Lewis antigens. The present study used the 17B1 monoclonal antibody to measure serum mucin levels in normal subjects, and in patients with CF, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and patients with lung transplants. Serum mucin levels were 25 ng/ml (+/- 1 SEM, n = 8) in normal subjects, 13,853 ng/ml (+/- 1,281, n = 25) in patients with CF, and 25.5 ng/ml (+/- 1.9, n = 17) in patients with COPD. Patients with CF who were sialyl Le(a-b-) also had elevated serum mucin levels (715 +/- 152, n = 2). Serum mucin levels of six lung transplant recipients with CF were elevated compared with those in normal subjects (4,621 +/- 765 ng/ml), but they were not different from serum mucin levels in six lung transplant recipients without CF (5,307 +/- 1.677 ng/ml). Preliminary characterization of the serum mucin antigen showed that: (1) in CF sera, the antigen is polydisperse and smaller than the antigen in normal sera; (2) the mucin antigen is distinct from ABO blood group antigens. Serum mucin levels may be a useful marker to follow a specific patient's response to therapy. PMID:8342902

Robinson, C B; Martin, W R; Ratliff, J L; Holland, P V; Wu, R; Cross, C E

1993-08-01

349

Improving Albumin Levels Among Hemodialysis Patients: A Community-Based Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Background: Low albumin level is a strong predictor of mortality and morbidity among hemodialysis patients, yet few interventions are available to improve albumin levels. Moreover, the relative importance of nutritional barriers versus inflammation in contributing to hypoalbuminemia is unclear. We sought to determine whether targeting specific nutritional barriers will improve albumin levels. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial

Janeen B. Leon; Jeffrey M. Albert; Gina Gilchrist; Irving Kushner; Edith Lerner; Suzanne Mach; Angela Majerle; David Porter; Edmond Ricanati; Laurine Sperry; Catherine Sullivan; Jennifer Zimmerer; Ashwini R. Sehgal

2006-01-01

350

High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Predicts Mortality and Technique Failure in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction An elevated level of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) is widely considered an indicator of an underlying inflammatory disease and a long-term prognostic predictor for dialysis patients. This cross-sectional cohort study was designed to assess the correlation between the level of high-sensitivity CRP (HS-CRP) and the outcome of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods A total of 402 patients were stratified into 3 tertiles (lower, middle, upper) according to serum HS-CRP level and and followed up from October 2009 to September 2011. During follow-up, cardiovascular events, infection episodes, technique failure, and mortality rate were recorded. Results During the 24-month follow-up, 119 of 402 patients (29.6%) dropped out from PD, including 28 patients (7.0%) who died, 81 patients (20.1%) who switched to hemodialysis, and 10 patients (2.5%) who underwent kidney transplantation. The results of Kaplan–Meier analysis and log-rank test demonstrated a significant difference in the cumulative patient survival rate across the 3 tertiles (the lowest rate in upper tertile). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, only higher HS-CRP level, older age, the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM), lower serum albumin level, and the occurrence of cardiovascular events during follow-up were identified as independent predictors of mortality. Every 1 mg/L increase in HS-CRP level was independently predictive of a 1.4% increase in mortality. Multivariate Cox regression analysis also showed that higher HS-CRP level, the presence of DM, lower hemoglobin level, lower serum albumin level, higher dialysate/plasma creatinine ratio, and the occurrence of infective episodes and cardiovascular events during follow-up were independent predictors of technique failure. Conclusions The present study shows the importance of HS-CRP in the prediction of 2-year mortality and technique survival in PD patients independent of age, diabetes, hypoalbuminemia, and the occurrence of cardiovascular events. PMID:24667814

Liu, Shou-Hsuan; Li, Yi-Jung; Wu, Hsin-Hsu; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Lin, Chan-Yu; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Chen, Yung-Chang; Chang, Ming-Yang; Hsu, Hsiang-Hao; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Yang, Chih-Wei; Tian, Ya-Chung

2014-01-01

351

[Investigation of the relationship between serum nitric oxide levels, HBV-DNA and ALT levels in chronic hepatitis B patients].  

PubMed

It has been reported that increased nitric oxide (NO) production by the hepatocytes during chronic inflammatory processes, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum levels of NOx (nitrite + nitrate) with the viral load and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. A total of 93 CHB patients (67 male, 26 female; mean age: 47.3 +/- 10.9 years) and 53 healthy control subjects (17 male, 36 female; mean age: 58.6 +/- 2.1 years) followed-up during 2006-2007 period were included to the study. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) serologic markers, viral load and ALT levels were studied by chemiluminescence method (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, USA), by real-time polimerase chain reaction (PCR) (ABI PRISM 7700, Applied Biosystem, CA), and by Aeroset System (Abbott Laboratories, USA), respectively. NOx levels were determined by a method which was based on the reduction of nitrate to nitrite by cadmium. Mean levels of ALT and HBV-DNA of the patients were found as 98.7 +/- 138.4 IU/I and 1.6 x 10(9) +/- 4.0 x 10(9) copies/ml, respectively. In the evaluation of mean levels of NOx in patient and control groups, the difference was found statistically significant (30.6 +/- 21.7 micromol/l and 23.7 +/- 5.2 micromol/l, respectively; p< 0.05). In view of the relationship between the parameters, a positive correlation was detected between viral load and ALT levels (r= 0.768; p< 0.001), besides the significant correlations between NOx and viral load, and NOx and ALT (r= 0.346, p= 0.001 and r= 0.314, p= 0.002, respectively). As a result, although the NOx levels in chronic hepatitis patients were found higher than those in the control group, and significant correlations were detected between NO, viral load and ALT, the exact role of NO in the disease pathogenesis and outcome needs to be studied further at cellular level. PMID:19334384

Sener, Asli Gamze; Kirdar, Sevin; Serter, Mukadder; Af?ar, Ilhan; Demir, Ece Mine; Ceylan, Cengiz; Aydin, Neriman

2009-01-01

352

Evaluation of a conceptual framework for retraining high-level mobility following traumatic brain injury: two case reports.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the primary cause of death and disability for 18- to 45-year-olds. High-level mobility is important for many of the social, leisure, sporting, and employment roles of young adults. The aim of these case reports was to evaluate a conceptual framework for retraining high-level mobility after TBI. The progression of 2 patients who had sustained a severe TBI but had contrasting clinical presentations was monitored over 6 months. Patient 1 presented with left hemiplegia following a TBI 10 years earlier, whereas patient 2 presented with ataxia 2 months following a TBI. Quantitative gait analysis and clinical measures of mobility were used to evaluate outcomes of a 6-month intervention phase. Intervention strategies were based on a conceptual framework comprising 2 main elements: (1) the hierarchical ordering of high-level mobility tasks and (2) the key biomechanical features of able-bodied running. Both patients achieved the ability to run by the end of the intervention phase. Patient 1 displayed improved gait symmetry associated with improved high-level mobility, despite the long-standing duration of his injury. Patient 2 demonstrated improved postural control and stability in gait that resulted in an ability to run, skip, hop, and jump. Findings of these case reports provide evidence supporting "proof of concept" that clinical interventions can lead to improvement in high-level mobility following severe TBI. PMID:20473090

Williams, Gavin P; Schache, Anthony G

2010-01-01

353

Vitamin D levels, dietary intake, and photoprotective behaviors among patients with skin cancer.  

PubMed

Photoprotection against ultraviolet light is an important part of our armamentarium against actinically derived skin cancers. However, there has been concern that adherence to photoprotection may lead to low vitamin D status, leading to negative effects on patients' health. In this work we discuss previous findings in this area, which do not give a clear picture as to the relationship between vitamin D levels and photoprotection measures, as well as research performed by the authors, who did not detect a relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and adherence to photoprotection measures in subjects with skin cancer, as assessed by the use of sunscreen, clothing, hats, sunglasses, and umbrellas/shade through the Sun Protection Habits Index. Subjects who took vitamin D oral supplementation had greater serum 25(OH)D levels than those who did not, whereas dietary intake through foods did not predict 25(OH)D levels in the authors' study. However, there was a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in the authors' study population, highlighting the importance of assessing vitamin D status and recommending oral vitamin D supplementation when indicated. PMID:21051012

DeLong, Laura K; Wetherington, Sarah; Hill, Nikki; Kumari, Meena; Gammon, Bryan; Dunbar, Scott; Tangpricha, Vin; Chen, Suephy C

2010-09-01

354

Presence of ochratoxin A in Tunisian blood nephropathy patients. Exposure level to OTA.  

PubMed

Ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium genera contaminates cereals and different food compounds. OTA presents a wide range of toxic effects, especially nephrotoxicity. It is also considered to be the main causal agent of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) which is similar to the Chronic Interstitial Nephropathy with unknown aetiology seen in Tunisia. In this study, we attempted to confirm the relationship between OTA blood levels and the development of renal pathology. Hence, serum OTA levels were measured in several groups of patients having different renal diseases: a group presenting Chronic Interstitial Nephropathy (CIN) with unknown aetiology, a group presenting Chronic Interstitial Nephropathy (CIN) with known aetiology, a group presenting Chronic Glomerular Nephropathy (CGN), and a group presenting Chronic Vascular Nephropathy (CVN). Each group was compared to a healthy control group. In the healthy group, 49% of individuals showed OTA concentrations ranging from 1.7 to 8.5 ng/ml, with a mean value of 3.3±1.5 ng/ml. However, among nephropathic patients, the group with CIN of unknown aetiology showed the highest incidence (76%), ranging from 1.8 to 65 ng/ml with a mean value of 18±7 ng/ml. Even in the healthy group, the calculated Daily Intake (DI) ranged from 5.0 to 24.9 ng/kgb.w./day when compared to the recommended DI by the scientific committee on foods of 5 ng/kgb.w./day, indicating a high degree of exposure to OTA in the Tunisian population. Our study confirms the involvement of this nephrotoxic mycotoxin, present at high blood levels in the Tunisian population, in the outcome of this particular human nephropathy (CIN with unknown aetiology) which is similar to BEN. PMID:20708395

Zaied, Chiraz; Bouaziz, Chayma; Azizi, Islam; Bensassi, Fatma; Chour, Abdelthif; Bacha, Hassen; Abid, Salwa

2011-11-01

355

Granzyme H Serum Levels Variations with Both Reproductive Hormone Receptors, and Related Hormone Receptors in Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Breast Cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in Iranian women, meanwhile the Iranian patients are relatively young. Granzyme H (GZMH) is a functional cytotoxic serine protease of NK cell granules, which expands the cell death-inducing repertoire of innate immune system. GZMH is constitutively and highly expressed in human NK cells, in order to possess chymotrypsin-like (chymase) enzymatic activity. The purpose of this study was to determine GZMH level, in BC and healthy women. Methods 30 breast cancer patients, and 30 control women in premenopausal status, have participated in this study. GZMH, Estrogen levels, and ER, PR have been measured in cancer and healthy women subsequently, as using ELISA, Radioimmunoassay, and Immunohistochemistry methods. Results Mean GZMH value was lower in BC than healthy women (p<0.0001). Conclusion Our study has implicated existence of suppressor or problem for producing of GZMH in patients group and levels of estrogen couldn't effect on making positive ER, PR.

Tahbaz-lahafi, Behnoosh; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Amir-Rassouli, Houshang; Rahimipour, Ali; Azargashb, Eznollah; Nafissi, Nahid; Jahani, Farida

2014-01-01

356

Radiative Lifetimes for High Levels of Neutral Fe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New radiative lifetime measurements for ~ 50 high lying levels of Fe I are reported. Laboratory astrophysics faces a challenge to provide basic spectroscopic data, especially reliable atomic transition probabilities, in the IR region for abundance studies. The availability of HgCdTe (HAWAII) detector arrays has opened IR spectral regions for extensive new spectroscopic studies. The SDSS III APOGEE project in the H-Band is an important example which will penetrate the dust obscuring the Galactic bulge. APOGEE will survey elemental abundances of 100,000 red giant stars in the bulge, bar, disk, and halo of the Milky Way. Many stellar spectra in the H-Band are, as expected, dominated by transitions of Fe I. Most of these IR transitions connect high levels of Fe. Our program has started an effort to meet this challenge with new radiative lifetime measurements on high lying levels of Fe I using time resolved laser induced fluorescence (TRLIF). The TRLIF method is typically accurate to 5% and is efficient. Our goal is to combine these accurate, absolute radiative lifetimes with emission branching fractions [1] to determine log(gf) values of the highest quality for Fe I lines in the UV, visible, and IR. This method was used very successfully by O’Brian et al. [2] on lower levels of Fe I. This method is still the best available for all but very simple spectra for which ab-initio theory is more accurate. Supported by NSF grant AST-0907732. [1] Branching fractions are being measured by M. Ruffoni and J. C. Pickering at Imperial College London. [2] O'Brian, T. R., Wickliffe, M. E., Lawler, J. E., Whaling, W., & Brault, J. W. 1991, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1185

Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, E.; Guzman, A.

2013-01-01

357

A surveillance of high-level gentamicin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterococci have recently been recognized as a causative organism of intractable infections, including severe sepsis and infective\\u000a endocarditis, in immunocompromised patients. This study investigated the epidemiological, microbiological, and prognostic\\u000a characteristics of high-level gentamicin-resistant (HLGR) enterococcal bacteremia, including severe cases of infective endocarditis,\\u000a in Japan. A total of 155 enterococcal bacteremia episodes were identified between July 2007 and December 2009. HLGR

Hideki Araoka; Muneyoshi Kimura; Akiko Yoneyama

2011-01-01

358

High-Level Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Associated with a Polymicrobial Biofilm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycopeptides such as vancomycin are the treatment of choice for infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This study describes the identification of high-level vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) isolates in a polymicrobial biofilm within an indwelling nephrostomy tube in a patient in New York. S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Micrococcus species, Morganella morganii, and Pseudomo- nas aeruginosa were isolated from

Linda M. Weigel; Rodney M. Donlan; Dong Hyeon Shin; Bette Jensen; Nancye C. Clark; Linda K. McDougal; Wenming Zhu; Kimberlee A. Musser; Jill Thompson; Donna Kohlerschmidt; Nellie Dumas; Ronald J. Limberger; Jean B. Patel

2007-01-01

359

Trends of IL6 and IL8 levels in patients with recurrent breast cancer: preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  We reported that IL-6 and IL-8 levels at the beginning of treatment are predictive indicators of response to therapy and prognosis\\u000a of patients with recurrent breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the trend of IL-6 and IL-8 levels in heavily\\u000a pretreated patients with recurrent breast cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Cytokine level trends in 12 patients heavily pretreated with anthracyclines

Takao Yokoe; Yuichi lino; Yasuo Morishita

2000-01-01

360

Transplantation in the highly sensitized pediatric patient.  

PubMed

Sensitization against HLA antigens is a growing problem in the field of pediatric cardiac transplantation. Although surgical outcomes for congenital heart disease have improved over the decades, these successes have added to the growing list of sensitized patients who eventually may require transplantation.Cardiac transplantation survival has improved, but morbidity and mortality secondary to HLA antibodies hinder outcome. Aside from acute hemodynamic compromise, there is compelling evidence linking sensitization and AMR with the development of CAV, a major limiting factor affecting long-term graft survival. Clinical advances have improved our understanding of the roles of antibody type, CFAs and non-CFAs, and DSAs and non-DSAs. Therapeutic strategies target both the T- and B-cell lines. Combinations that include plasmapheresis, IVIG, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab have been used in clinical studies with variable success.Two newer agents show promise, targeting both ends of the antibody-mediated spectrum: Bortezomib depletes plasma cell populations, and eculizumab blocks the terminal effects of antibody action, thus preventing myocardial cell dysfunction and death. Despite numerous diagnostic and therapeutic advances, many questions remain about the best approaches.The role of HLA antibodies remains the central target of investigation. PMID:24891624

Castleberry, Chesney; Ryan, Thomas D; Chin, Clifford

2014-06-01

361

Space augmentation of military high-level waste disposal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space disposal of selected components of military high-level waste (HLW) is considered. This disposal option offers the promise of eliminating the long-lived radionuclides in military HLW from the earth. A space mission which meets the dual requirements of long-term orbital stability and a maximum of one space shuttle launch per week over a period of 20-40 years, is a heliocentric orbit about halfway between the orbits of earth and Venus. Space disposal of high-level radioactive waste is characterized by long-term predictability and short-term uncertainties which must be reduced to acceptably low levels. For example, failure of either the Orbit Transfer Vehicle after leaving low earth orbit, or the storable propellant stage failure at perihelion would leave the nuclear waste package in an unplanned and potentially unstable orbit. Since potential earth reencounter and subsequent burn-up in the earth's atmosphere is unacceptable, a deep space rendezvous, docking, and retrieval capability must be developed.

English, T.; Lees, L.; Divita, E.

1979-01-01

362

High level language-based robotic control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

Rodriguez, Guillermo (inventor); Kruetz, Kenneth K. (inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (inventor)

1994-01-01

363

High level language-based robotic control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kreutz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

1996-01-01

364

Clinical Benefit from Ipilimumab Therapy in Melanoma Patients may be Associated with Serum CTLA4 Levels  

PubMed Central

Stage IV metastatic melanoma patients historically have a poor prognosis with 5–10% 5-year survival. Ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), is one of the first treatments to provide beneficial durable responses in advanced melanoma. However, less than 25% of those treated benefit, treatment is expensive, and side effects can be fatal. Since soluble (s) CTLA4 may mediate inhibitory effects previously ascribed to the membrane-bound isoform (mCTLA4), we hypothesized patients benefiting from ipilimumab have higher serum levels of sCTLA4. We found that higher sCTLA4 levels correlated both with response and improved survival in patients treated with ipilimumab in a small patient cohort [patients with (n?=?9) and without (n?=?5) clinical benefit]. sCTLA4 levels were statistically higher in ipilimumab-treated patients with response to ipilimumab. In contrast, sCTLA4 levels did not correlate with survival in patients who did not receive ipilimumab (n?=?11). These preliminary observations provide a previously unrecognized link between serum sCTLA4 levels and response to ipilimumab as well as to improved survival in ipilimumab-treated melanoma patients and a potential mechanism by which ipilimumab functions. PMID:24904825

Leung, Anna M.; Lee, Agnes Fermin; Ozao-Choy, Junko; Ramos, Romela Irene; Hamid, Omid; O'Day, Steven J.; Shin-Sim, Myung; Morton, Donald L.; Faries, Mark B.; Sieling, Peter A.; Lee, Delphine J.

2014-01-01

365

Is serum vitamin D levels associated with disability in patients with newly diagnosed multiple sclerosis?  

PubMed Central

Background Although the precise etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is unknown, it seems that both genetic and environmental factors are important. Recent studies suggest that low serum vitamin D levels are important environmental factor in MS. The aim of this study was to compare the serum levels of vitamin D between MS patients and healthy subjects, and to determine its association with disability in MS patients. Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 52 patients with MS were randomly recruited and matched for age and sex with 52 healthy subjects. Demographic characteristics and serum vitamin D levels for both groups, as well as duration of disease Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) for MS patients were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed by independent samples t-test and multiple linear regression analysis. Results The mean serum vitamin D levels were 26.5 ± 16.3 ng/ml in MS patients vs. 37.1 ±19.7 in healthy subjects (P = 0.003). A linear regression analysis showed no significant association between vitamin D levels and EDSS score of patients with MS (P = 0.345), after adjusting for the covariates. Conclusion Our findings did not suggest a protective association for serum vitamin D levels against disability in MS patients. PMID:24250900

Hatamian, Hamidreza; Bidabadi, Elham; Saadat, Seyed Mohammad Seyed; Saadat, Niloufar Seyed; Kazemnezhad, Ehsan; Ramezani, Hamed

2013-01-01

366

Serum prohepcidin levels are potential prognostic markers in patients with multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

Prohepcidin is the prohormone of hepcidin. Anemia is one of the main clinical features in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and hepcidin may be associated with iron homeostasis in these patients. However, the clinical significance of prohepcidin is not fully understood. In this retrospective study, we measured serum prohepcidin levels using an immunoassay technique to study its clinical significance in 39 MM patients. Serum prohepcidin levels in patients with MM were weakly correlated with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels (r=0.32, P=0.048), calculated by Spearman's rank correlation, but not with other clinical data, including hemoglobin, serum iron or ferritin. In addition, patients with severe renal insufficiency [creatinine clearance (CCr) <50 ml/min] had significantly higher prohepcidin levels compared with patients with mild or no renal insufficiency (CCr ?50 ml/min, P=0.047). In contrast, low serum prohepcidin levels less than 110 ng/ml were an independent predictor of poor overall survival [hazard ratio (HR), 5.29; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.65-17.03] in addition to serum creatinine levels of at least 2 mg/dl (HR, 5.32; CI, 1.10-25.64), serum calcium (HR, 3.53; CI, 1.01-12.33) and ECOG performance status grade 4 (HR, 4.15; CI, 1.32-13.09) in the multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards model. In the subset of 31 MM patients with CCr ?50 ml/min, low serum prohepcidin (HR, 5.65; CI, 1.60-19.95) was an indicator of poor prognosis in multivariate analysis. These results indicate that serum prohepcidin levels may be associated with ALP and renal function but not iron homeostasis, in MM patients. In addition, lower serum prohepcidin levels are potential independent indicators of poor overall survival in MM patients regardless of renal function. PMID:23170109

Haraguchi, Kouichi; Uto, Hirofumi; Ohnou, Nobuhito; Tokunaga, Masahito; Tokunaga, Mayumi; Utsunomiya, Atae; Hanada, Shuichi; Tsubouchi, Hirohito

2012-10-01

367

Determination of Serum Adenosine Deaminase and Xanthine Oxidase Levels in Patients with Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate. Despite increasing knowledge about hemorrhagic fever viruses, little is known about the pathogenesis of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever. In this study, we measured serum adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase levels in Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever patients. METHODS: Serum adenosine deaminase levels were measured with a sensitive colorimetric method described by Giusti and xanthine oxidase levels by the method of Worthington in 30 consecutive hospitalized patients (mean age 42.6 ± 21.0). Laboratory tests confirmed their diagnoses of Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever. Thirty-five subjects (mean age 42.9 ± 19.1) served as the control group. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase levels between cases and controls (p<0.05). However, neither adenosine deaminase nor xanthine oxidase levels varied with the severity of disease in the cases assessed (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase levels were increased in patients with Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever. Elevated serum xanthine oxidase activity in patients with Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever may be associated with reactive oxygen species generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system during inflammatory responses. In addition, elevated lipid peroxidation may contribute to cell damage and hemorrhage. The association of cell damage and hemorrhage with xanthine oxidase activity should be further investigated in large-scale studies. PMID:20668627

Celik, V. Kenan; Sari, Ismail; Engin, Aynur; Yildiz, Gursel; Aydin, Huseyin; Bakir, Sevtap

2010-01-01

368

University-Level Research Projects for High School Students  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this project was to provide an opportunity for high school students to participate in university-level research projects. In this case, students from Pinkerton Academy (Derry, New Hampshire) were invited to participate in efforts to catalog data from the COMPTEL experiment on NASA's Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). These activities were part of a senior level honors course at Pinkerton. Although the success of this particular program was rather limited, we feel that the general concept is a sound one. In principle, the concept of partnerships between local schools and university researchers is one that could be especially attractive to soft money researchers. Programs can be carefully designed to benefit both the students and the research program.

McConnell, Mark L.

2000-01-01

369

Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure  

SciTech Connect

In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved.

Bond, V.P.

1983-01-01

370

Low level of inflammatory marker in hyperhomocysteinemic patients on statin therapy.  

PubMed

Inflammatory processes including increased activation of chemokines play an important role in atherogenesis. Patients with hyperhomocysteinemia have increased risk for cardiovascular events that potentially involve enhanced inflammation. Statins may have anti-inflammatory actions at least partly independent on their lipid-lowering effects. In the present study we examined the association between statins and chemokine levels in patients with hyperhomocysteinemia. Our major findings were (i) patients with hyperhomocysteinemia on statin treatment (n = 14) have significantly lower plasma levels of the CXC chemokine epithelial neutrophil activating peptide (ENA)-78 compared to hyperhomocysteinemic patients not on statin treatment (n = 8). In fact, levels of ENA-78 in statin-treated patients did not differ from those of healthy controls (n = 17); (ii) plasma levels of ENA-78 and growth-related oncogene (GRO)? correlated with levels of LDL-cholesterol and homocysteine; (iii) in contrast, plasma levels of the CC chemokine monocyte chemoattractant peptide (MCP)-1 were similar between statin-users, non-statin users and controls, and did not correlate with levels of LDL-cholesterol or homocysteine; and (iv) in vitro studies showed that simvastatin significantly reduced release of ENA-78, GRO? and MCP-1 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells in healthy controls (n = 7) in a concentration-dependent manner, without affecting release of RANTES. Our data may suggest that ENA-78 and GRO? may be involved in the inflammatory arm of atherogenesis in patients with elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, with potential down-regulatory effect of statins. PMID:24236948

Nenseter, Marit S; Aukrust, Pål; Ose, Leiv; Holven, Kirsten B

2014-01-01

371

Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Parameters and Urinary Deoxypyridinoline Levels in Geriatric Patients with Osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] To evaluate the oxidative stress parameters and urinary deoxypyridinoline levels in geriatric patients with osteoporosis. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty geriatric patients aged over 65?years were recruited. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n=40) consisted of patients with osteoporosis, and Group 2 (n=40) consisted of patients without osteoporosis. Bone mineral density measurements were performed for all patients using DEXA. Oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in blood samples, and deoxypyridinoline levels were analyzed in 24-hour urinary samples. [Results] Compared to Group 2, the total antioxidant status and oxidative stress index levels of Group 1 were not significantly different; however, total oxidant status and 24-hour urinary deoxypyridinoline levels were significantly higher. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that OSI and urinary deoxypyridinoline levels were not correlated with any biochemical parameters. ROC-curve analysis revealed that urinary deoxypyridinoline levels over 30.80?mg/ml predicted osteoporosis with 67% sensitivity and 68% specificity (area under the curve = 0.734; %95 CI: 0.624–0.844). [Conclusion] Our results indicate that oxidative stress would play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, and that urinary deoxypyridinoline levels may be a useful screening test for osteoporosis.

Demir, Mehmet; Ulas, Turgay; Tutoglu, Ahmet; Boyaci, Ahmet; Karakas, Emel Yigit; Sezen, Hatice; Ustunel, Murat; Bilinc, Hasan; Gencer, Mehmet; Buyukhatipoglu, Hakan

2014-01-01

372

Treatment of patients with pineoblastoma with high dose cyclophosphamide.  

PubMed

The outcome for patients with pineoblastoma has historically been very poor, with most patients dying of disseminated disease despite irradiation. Furthermore, the low incidence of this tumor has hindered progress toward defining better treatment strategies. Here we report the activity and toxicity of cyclophosphamide administered as a single agent at a dose schedule of 2 g/m2/day for 2 successive days at monthly intervals for a maximum of four courses. Eight patients were evaluated, six newly diagnosed and two recurrent. Amongst the six newly diagnosed patients, there were three patients demonstrating partial responses, and three had stable disease throughout the cyclophosphamide treatment period. All six patients are alive and disease free after further therapy. One patient with recurrent disease demonstrated tumor progression on cyclophosphamide, and the other had stable disease throughout the cyclophosphamide treatment period. Both patients subsequently died of progressive disease. The major toxicity of high dose cyclophosphamide was hematopoietic, with one patient requiring a dose reduction after three courses due to prolonged thrombocytopenia. One patient was also withdrawn from treatment with cyclophosphamide due to impaired pulmonary function. This study demonstrates the activity of high dose cyclophosphamide in the treatment of pineoblastoma and may serve as basis for the design of future studies of this tumor. PMID:8614374

Ashley, D M; Longee, D; Tien, R; Fuchs, H; Graham, M L; Kurtzberg, J; Casey, J; Olson, J; Meier, L; Ferrell, L; Kerby, T; Duncan-Brown, M; Stewart, E; Colvin, O M; Pipas, J M; McCowage, G; McLendon, R; Bigner, D D; Friedman, H S

1996-06-01

373

Sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: identification of high risk patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESWe sought to identify patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) at high risk of sudden death (SD).BACKGROUNDRelatively low mortality rates in HCM make conventional analysis of multiple clinical risk markers for SD problematic. This study used a referral center registry to investigate a smaller number of generally accepted noninvasive risk markers.METHODSWe studied 368 patients (14 to 65 years old, 239 males)

Perry M. Elliott; Jan Poloniecki; Shaughan Dickie; Sanjay Sharma; Lorenzo Monserrat; Amanda Varnava; Niall G. Mahon; William J. McKenna

2000-01-01

374

High-Lethality Status in Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent suicidal behaviors in patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) are often considered communicative gestures; however, 10% complete suicide. This study seeks to identify risk factors for sui- cide within a BPD sample by comparing patients with High- and Low- Lethality attempts. BPD attempters (n = 113) were assessed on dem- ographic, diagnostic, and personality variables: clinical symptoms, suicidal behaviors;

Paul H. Soloff; Anthony Fabio; Thomas M. Kelly; Kevin M. Malone; J. John Mann

2005-01-01

375

CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315  

SciTech Connect

In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by closure operations. Subsequent down selection was based on compressive strength and saturated hydraulic conductivity results. Fresh slurry property results were used as the first level of screening. A high range water reducing admixture and a viscosity modifying admixture were used to adjust slurry properties to achieve flowable grouts. Adiabatic calorimeter results were used as the second level screening. The third level of screening was used to design mixes that were consistent with the fill material parameters used in the F-Tank Farm Performance Assessment which was developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closures.

Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

2012-01-10

376

High level secretion of cellobiohydrolases by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Background The main technological impediment to widespread utilization of lignocellulose for the production of fuels and chemicals is the lack of low-cost technologies to overcome its recalcitrance. Organisms that hydrolyze lignocellulose and produce a valuable product such as ethanol at a high rate and titer could significantly reduce the costs of biomass conversion technologies, and will allow separate conversion steps to be combined in a consolidated bioprocess (CBP). Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for CBP requires the high level secretion of cellulases, particularly cellobiohydrolases. Results We expressed various cellobiohydrolases to identify enzymes that were efficiently secreted by S. cerevisiae. For enhanced cellulose hydrolysis, we engineered bimodular derivatives of a well secreted enzyme that naturally lacks the carbohydrate-binding module, and constructed strains expressing combinations of cbh1 and cbh2 genes. Though there was significant variability in the enzyme levels produced, up to approximately 0.3 g/L CBH1 and approximately 1 g/L CBH2 could be produced in high cell density fermentations. Furthermore, we could show activation of the unfolded protein response as a result of cellobiohydrolase production. Finally, we report fermentation of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel™) to ethanol by CBH-producing S. cerevisiae strains with the addition of beta-glucosidase. Conclusions Gene or protein specific features and compatibility with the host are important for efficient cellobiohydrolase secretion in yeast. The present work demonstrated that production of both CBH1 and CBH2 could be improved to levels where the barrier to CBH sufficiency in the hydrolysis of cellulose was overcome. PMID:21910902

2011-01-01

377

Development of a High Level Waste Tank Inspection System  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center was requested by it`s sister site, West Valley Nuclear Service (WVNS), to develop a remote inspection system to gather wall thickness readings of their High Level Waste Tanks. WVNS management chose to take a proactive approach to gain current information on two tanks t hat had been in service since the early 70`s. The tanks contain high level waste, are buried underground, and have only two access ports to an annular space between the tank and the secondary concrete vault. A specialized remote system was proposed to provide both a visual surveillance and ultrasonic thickness measurements of the tank walls. A magnetic wheeled crawler was the basis for the remote delivery system integrated with an off-the-shelf Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System. A development program was initiated for Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to design, fabricate, and test a remote system based on the Crawler. The system was completed and involved three crawlers to perform the needed tasks, an Ultrasonic Crawler, a Camera Crawler, and a Surface Prep Crawler. The crawlers were computer controlled so that their operation could be done remotely and their position on the wall could be tracked. The Ultrasonic Crawler controls were interfaced with ABB Amdata`s I-PC, Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System so that thickness mapping of the wall could be obtained. A second system was requested by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), to perform just ultrasonic mapping on their similar Waste Storage Tanks; however, the system needed to be interfaced with the P-scan Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System. Both remote inspection systems were completed 9/94. Qualifications tests were conducted by WVNS prior to implementation on the actual tank and tank development was achieved 10/94. The second inspection system was deployed at WSRC 11/94 with success, and the system is now in continuous service inspecting the remaining high level waste tanks at WSRC.

Appel, D.K.; Loibl, M.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, SC (United States); Meese, D.C. [Westinghouse West Valley Nuclear Services, West Valley, NY (United States)

1995-03-21

378

Color image retrieval: from low-level representation to high-level concept.  

PubMed

This work takes place within the framework of color image retrieval in specialized databases. A CBIR scheme has been proposed allowing to use a description thanks to low-level features in the framework of a high-level concept using a knowledge management. Starting from a representation of the three most frequently used features i.e. color, texture and shape, cooperation techniques are proposed in order to use the expert knowledge in the combination process. Two types of cooperation have been defined; the first is without categorization and the second with categorization. The second approach allows to make a selection of the query category in order to simplify queries in large image databases. Finally, in order to avoid the standard relevance feedback stage, a competition technique has been proposed allowing an unsupervised refinement of the submitted query. The proposed techniques have shown their performances and their robustness and are generalizable to all types of image databases. PMID:17543211

Larabi, M-C; Richard, N; Fernandez-Maloigne, C

2006-01-01

379

High level waste at Hanford: Potential for waste loading maximization  

SciTech Connect

The loading of Hanford nuclear waste in borosilicate glass is limited by phase-related phenomena, such as crystallization or formation of immiscible liquids, and by breakdown of the glass structure because of an excessive concentration of modifiers. The phase-related phenomena cause both processing and product quality problems. The deterioration of product durability determines the ultimate waste loading limit if all processing problems are resolved. Concrete examples and mass-balance based calculations show that a substantial potential exists for increasing waste loading of high-level wastes that contain a large fraction of refractory components.

Hrma, P.R.; Bailey, A.W.

1995-09-01

380

CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTIANER  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) defense high-level waste disposal container system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

J.A. Ziegler

1999-08-31

381

High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual  

SciTech Connect

High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included.

Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

1983-05-01

382

Treating Patients with High-Risk Smoldering Myeloma  

Cancer.gov

In this phase III clinical trial, patients with smoldering myeloma classified as high risk for progression will be randomly assigned to undergo standard observation or six 4-week courses of treatment with the drug lenalidomide.

383

Designs for studying the effectiveness of long-term psychoanalytic treatments: balancing level of evidence and acceptability to patients.  

PubMed

Long-Term Psychoanalytic Treatments (LTPT) include both long-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy (LTPP) and psychoanalysis (PsAn). Current opinion seems to be that there is some evidence for the effectiveness of LTPP, but none for that of PsAn. This may be due in part to researchers not balancing the level of evidence of randomized controlled studies (RCTs), cohort studies, and pre-post studies with patients' acceptance of these various research designs used in studying the effectiveness of LTPT. After a review of the merits of eight possible control conditions for LTPT in RCTs and cohort studies, and a consideration of the limitations and merits of pre-post studies, it was found that RCTs pair high levels of evidence with limited degrees of patient acceptance, especially where PsAn is concerned. Cohort studies appear to provide at most a moderate level of evidence. Their acceptability is hardly better than that of RCTs, as it depends on the acceptability of control conditions similar to those of RCTs. The acceptability of pre-post studies is much better, but they can provide, at most, a moderate level of evidence. Apart from randomization, they can meet all methodological criteria for high-quality research (often they do not, but there are ways to correct this). In summary, in the long-term treatment of complex mental disorders with LTPT, RCTs often pair a high level of evidence with limited patient acceptance of the method. Compared to RCTs, cohort studies show a lower level of evidence without much gain in acceptability. Pre-post studies pair the highest level of acceptability with the lowest level of evidence of the three designs. Limited acceptability is not to be confused with no acceptability, nor moderate level of evidence with none. PMID:22582323

de Jonghe, Frans; de Maat, Saskia; Barber, Jacques P; Abbas, Allan; Luyten, Patrick; Gomperts, Wouter; Swinkels, Jan; Dekker, Jack

2012-04-01

384

Levetiracetam improves verbal memory in high-grade glioma patients  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment of high-grade glioma (HGG) patients with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) has met with various side effects, such as cognitive deterioration. The cognitive effects of both older and newer AEDs in HGG patients are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of older and newer AEDs on cognitive performance in postoperative HGG patients. Methods We selected HGG patients from 3 separate cohorts for use of older, newer, or no AEDs, as they represented distinct treatment eras and provided the opportunity to compare older and newer AEDs. In all 3 cohorts, patients were included within 6 weeks following neurosurgery before the start of postoperative treatment. Cognitive functioning was evaluated by an extensive neuropsychological assessment, executed in 6 cognitive domains (attention, executive functioning, verbal memory, working memory, psychomotor functioning, and information processing speed). Results One hundred seventeen patients met the inclusion criteria; 44 patients used no AED, 35 were on monotherapy with a newer AED (all levetiracetam), and 38 were on monotherapy with an older AED (valproic acid or phenytoin). Patients on older and newer AEDs performed equally well as patients not on an AED, and patients on levetiracetam performed even better on verbal memory tests than patients not on an AED. Post-hoc analyses revealed that within the group using older AEDs, patients on valproic acid performed better than patients on phenytoin. Conclusions Neither levetiracetam nor valproic acid was associated with additional cognitive deficits in HGG patients. Both AEDs even appeared to have a beneficial effect on verbal memory in these patients. PMID:23233537

de Groot, Marjolein; Douw, Linda; Sizoo, Eefje M.; Bosma, Ingeborg; Froklage, Femke E.; Heimans, Jan J.; Postma, Tjeerd J.; Klein, Martin; Reijneveld, Jaap C.

2013-01-01

385

Noninvasive respiratory management of high level spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

This article describes noninvasive acute and long-term management of the respiratory muscle paralysis of high spinal cord injury (SCI). This includes full-setting, continuous ventilatory support by noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIV) to support inspiratory muscles and mechanically assisted coughing (MAC) to support inspiratory and expiratory muscles. The NIV and MAC can also be used to extubate or decannulate ‘unweanable’ patients with SCI, to prevent intercurrent respiratory tract infections from developing into pneumonia and acute respiratory failure (ARF), and to eliminate tracheostomy and resort to costly electrophrenic/diaphragm pacing (EPP/DP) for most ventilator users, while permitting glossopharyngeal breathing (GPB) for security in the event of ventilator failure. PMID:22525322

Bach, John R.

2012-01-01

386

Increased total serum random cortisol levels predict mortality in critically ill trauma patients.  

PubMed

Dysfunction in the hypothalamopituitary adrenal axis is thought to exist; however, there continues to be controversy about what level of serum cortisol corresponds to adrenal insufficiency. Few studies have focused on the significance of serum random cortisol in the critically ill trauma patient. Trauma patients with total serum random cortisol levels drawn in the intensive care unit within the first seven days of hospitalization were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome measured was in-hospital mortality. Two hundred forty-two patients were analyzed. Nonsurvivors had significantly higher mean cortisol levels than survivors (28.7 ± 15.80 ?g/dL vs 22.9 ± 12.35 ?g/dL, P = 0.01). Patients with cortisol 30 ?g/dL or greater were more likely to die with odds ratio of 2.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 5). The odds ratio increased to 4.0 and 3.8 (95% CI, 1.4 to 11.4 and 1.3 to 10.9) when cortisol was drawn on hospital Day 2 and Days 3 through 7, respectively. Among nonsurvivors, patients with an injur