Science.gov

Sample records for patients high levels

  1. High levels of lipid peroxidation in semen of diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S; Condorelli, R A; Vicari, E; D'Agata, R; Salemi, M; Calogero, A E

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) (one of the final products of lipid peroxidation and well-known marker of oxidative stress) in semen of infertile men with type 2 diabetes and to investigate its relationship with their glycaemic control. Forty infertile men with type 2 diabetes were evaluated. The mean ages were 36.5 ± 8.0. Men with diabetes were divided into two groups. Group A (n = 20) with glycated haemoglobin >10% and group B (n = 20) with glycated haemoglobin <7%. A single sample was examined according to the criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO Laboratory Manual for the Examination of Human Semen and Sperm-Cervical Mucus Interaction, 1999, Cambridge University Press). MDA was assessed using the thiobarbituric acid method. MDA concentration in semen of group A patients (0.95 ± 0.35 nmol ml(-1)) was significantly higher than in group B patients (0.43 ± 0.13 nmol ml(-1)) (P value < 0.05) and had negative relationship with sperm density (r = -.717; P value < 0.05), total sperm count (r = -.625; P value < 0.05), progressive motility (r = -.489; P value < 0.05) and normal forms (r = -.545; P value < 0.05). Based on these results, it could be concluded that increase in lipid peroxidation in men with diabetes with poor metabolic control was associated with low sperm quality. PMID:21919944

  2. High levels of Zinc-?-2-Glycoprotein among Omani AIDS patients on combined antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Sidgi Syed Anwer; Al-Balushi, Mohammed Saeed; Al Yahmadi, Muzna Hamed; Al-Busaidi, Juma Zaid; Said, Elias Antony; Othman, Mohammed Shafeeq; Sallam, Talal Abdullah; Idris, Mohammed Ahmad; Al-Jabri, Ali Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the levels of zinc-?-2-glycoprotein (ZAG) among Omani AIDS patients receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Methods A total of 80 Omani AIDS patients (45 males and 35 females), average age of 36 years, who were receiving cART at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Muscat, Oman, were tested for the levels of ZAG. In addition, 80 healthy blood donors (46 males and 34 females), average age of 26 years, attending the SQUH Blood Bank, were tested in parallel as a control group. Measurement of the ZAG levels was performed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Results The ZAG levels were found to be significantly higher among AIDS patients compared to the healthy individuals (P=0.033). A total of 56 (70%) of the AIDS patients were found to have higher levels of ZAG and 16 (20%) AIDS patients were found to have high ZAG levels, which are significantly (P>0.031) associated with weight loss. Conclusions ZAG levels are high among Omani AIDS patients on cART and this necessitates the measurement of ZAG on routine basis, as it is associated with weight loss. PMID:25183329

  3. High Blood Glucose Levels Correlate with Tumor Malignancy in Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ge; Zhang, Ting; Ren, Fan; Feng, Wen-Ming; Yao, Yunliang; Cui, Jie; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Shi, Qi-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background Research shows that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects the risk and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we conducted a retrospective study to investigate whether the clinicopathological features of CRC patients correlate with their blood glucose levels. Material/Methods We enrolled 391 CRC patients hospitalized in our center between 2008 and 2013. Data of their first fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h postprandial glucose (2hPPG) level after admission, their clinicopathological features, and survival were collected. The correlations between blood glucose level and clinicopathological features were analyzed by Pearson chi-square analysis. Patient survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analysis. Results There were 116 out of the 391 CRC patients who had high blood glucose level (H-G group, 29.67%), among which 58 (14.83%), 18 (4.60%), and 40 (10.23%) were diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose (IFG), respectively, while 275 (70.33%) patients had normal glucose level (N-G group). Compared with the N-G group, patients in the H-G group had larger tumor diameters and lower tumor differentiation (p<0.05). A higher ratio of patients in the H-G group also had more advanced TNM staging and more ulcerative CRC gross type (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed in patient overall survival among different glucose groups. No effect of insulin therapy on CRC development and patient survival was observed. Conclusions Blood glucose level in CRC patients correlates significantly with local tumor malignancy, but no significant effect on distant metastasis and patient overall survival was observed. PMID:26644185

  4. High Blood Glucose Levels Correlate with Tumor Malignancy in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ge; Zhang, Ting; Ren, Fan; Feng, Wen-Ming; Yao, Yunliang; Cui, Jie; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Shi, Qi-Lin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Research shows that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects the risk and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we conducted a retrospective study to investigate whether the clinicopathological features of CRC patients correlate with their blood glucose levels. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 391 CRC patients hospitalized in our center between 2008 and 2013. Data of their first fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h postprandial glucose (2hPPG) level after admission, their clinicopathological features, and survival were collected. The correlations between blood glucose level and clinicopathological features were analyzed by Pearson chi-square analysis. Patient survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analysis. RESULTS There were 116 out of the 391 CRC patients who had high blood glucose level (H-G group, 29.67%), among which 58 (14.83%), 18 (4.60%), and 40 (10.23%) were diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose (IFG), respectively, while 275 (70.33%) patients had normal glucose level (N-G group). Compared with the N-G group, patients in the H-G group had larger tumor diameters and lower tumor differentiation (p<0.05). A higher ratio of patients in the H-G group also had more advanced TNM staging and more ulcerative CRC gross type (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed in patient overall survival among different glucose groups. No effect of insulin therapy on CRC development and patient survival was observed. CONCLUSIONS Blood glucose level in CRC patients correlates significantly with local tumor malignancy, but no significant effect on distant metastasis and patient overall survival was observed. PMID:26644185

  5. Correlation between high blood IL-6 level, hyperglycemia, and glucose control in septic patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the blood IL-6 level, the blood glucose level, and glucose control in septic patients. Methods This retrospective observational study in a general ICU of a university hospital included a total of 153 patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock who were admitted to the ICU between 2005 and 2010, stayed in the ICU for 7 days or longer, and did not receive steroid therapy prior to or after ICU admission. The severity of stress hyperglycemia, status of glucose control, and correlation between those two factors in these patients were investigated using the blood IL-6 level as an index of hypercytokinemia. Results A significant positive correlation between blood IL-6 level and blood glucose level on ICU admission was observed in the overall study population (n = 153; r = 0.24, P = 0.01), and was stronger in the nondiabetic subgroup (n = 112; r = 0.42, P < 0.01). The rate of successful glucose control (blood glucose level < 150 mg/dl maintained for 6 days or longer) decreased with increase in blood IL-6 level on ICU admission (P < 0.01). The blood IL-6 level after ICU admission remained significantly higher and the 60-day survival rate was significantly lower in the failed glucose control group than in the successful glucose control group (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively). Conclusions High blood IL-6 level was correlated with hyperglycemia and with difficulties in glucose control in septic patients. These results suggest the possibility that hypercytokinemia might be involved in the development of hyperglycemia in sepsis, and thereby might affect the success of glucose control. PMID:22494810

  6. TSLP Expression and High Serum TSLP Level Indicate a Poor Prognosis in Gastric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Joji; Saito, Hiroaki; Miyatani, Kozo; Ikeguchi, Masahide; Umekita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays an important role in promoting tumor survival, by manipulating the immune response and angiogenesis. However, the clinical significance of TSLP in gastric cancer is unclear. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate TSLP expression in non-cancerous gastric mucosa and gastric cancer tissue from patients with gastric cancer. Serum TSLP levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Tumors with TSLP expression were significantly larger than those without TSLP expression. TSLP expression was observed more frequently in advanced (T2/T3/T4) than in early (T1) gastric cancer and in stage 3/4 than in stage 1/2. Lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis, positive peritoneal lavage cytology, lymphatic invasion, and vascular invasion occurred significantly more often in TSLP-expressing than in non-expressing tumors. The prognosis of patients with TSLP-positive tumors was significantly worse than that of patients with TSLP-negative tumors. Patients with high serum TSLP concentrations also had a significantly worse prognosis than those with low concentrations. Multivariate analysis identified serum TSLP level as an independent prognostic indicator. Conclusion TSLP is closely related to the progression of gastric cancer and may predict survival in these patients. PMID:26538800

  7. High frequency of low serum levels of vitamin 12 among patients attending Jordan University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Barghouti, F F; Younes, N A; Halaseh, L J; Said, T T; Ghraiz, S M

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the status of serum vitamin B12 level in patients attending Jordan University Hospital in Amman, and to examine the relationship with demographic data, chronic illness, dietary habits, haematological parameters and symptoms related to vitamin B12 levels. A total of 838 patients completed a questionnaire and gave blood samples; 44.6% were vitamin B12 deficient (< 180 pg/mL) and 34.2% had hypovitaminosis (180-300 pg/mL). Vitamin B12 deficiency was associated with memory impairment, low meat intake and strict vegetarian (vegan) diets. The high frequency of low vitamin B12 warrants the development of a strategy to correct this problem in Jordan. PMID:20187536

  8. The Accessibility of patient information leaflets concerning cervical cancer - the effect of high leaflet readability level and the reader's level of education 

    E-print Network

    Gale, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Research suggests that many Patient Information Leaflets are written at too high a level for the population to understand. This study took 2 leaflets on Cervical Cancer, with their readability measured using 3 different ...

  9. High levels of phosphorylated MAP kinase are associated with poor survival among patients with glioblastoma during the temozolomide era.

    PubMed

    Patil, Chirag G; Nuño, Miriam; Elramsisy, Adam; Mukherjee, Debraj; Carico, Christine; Dantis, Jocelynn; Hu, Jethro; Yu, John S; Fan, Xuemo; Black, Keith L; Bannykh, Serguei I

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether high levels of activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-MAPK) were associated with poor survival among patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma during the temozolomide era. Nuclear p-MAPK expression of 108 patients with GBM was quantified and categorized in the following levels: low (0%-10%), medium (11%-40%), and high (41%-100%). Independent predictors of overall survival were determined using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. Our study included 108 patients with newly diagnosed GBM. Median age was 65 years, and 74% had high Karnofsky performance status (KPS ? 80). Median overall survival among all patients was 19.5 months. Activated MAPK expression levels of <10%, 11%-40%, and ? 41% were observed in 33 (30.6%), 37 (34.3%), and 38 (35.2%) patients, respectively. Median survival for low, medium, and high p-MAPK expression was 32.4, 18.2, and 12.5 months, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed 2.4-times hazard of death among patients with intermediate p-MAPK than low p-MAPK expression (hazard ratio [HR], 2.4; P = .02); high-expression patients were 3.9 times more likely to die, compared with patients with low p-MAPK (HR, 3.9; P = .007). Patients aged ? 65 years (HR, 2.8; P = .002) with KPS < 80 (HR, 3.1; P = .0003) and biopsy or partial resection (HR, 1.9; P = .02) had higher hazard of death. MGMT and PTEN expression were not associated with survival differences. This study provides quantitative means of evaluating p-MAPK in patients with GBM. It confirms the significant and independent prognostic relevance of p-MAPK in predicting survival of patients with GBM treated in the temozolomide era and highlights the need for therapies targeting the p-MAPK oncogenic pathway. PMID:23115159

  10. Elevated level of prostate specific antigen among prostate cancer patients and high prevalence in the Gangetic zone of Bihar, India.

    PubMed

    Nath, A; Singh, J K; Vendan, S Ezhil; Priyanka; Sinha, Shreya

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is a common reproductive cancer among men. This study was conducted to correlate the cancer incidence with Gangetic zone and to correlate the tumor marker prostate specific antigen (PSA) level in serum with different age groups and stage of malignancy. Patients suffering from CaP in the pathology unit of Mahavir Cancer Sansthan (Hospital and Research Centre), Patna, Bihar, India were studied from June 2009 to May 2010. PSA level in the serum of CaP patients was estimated by ELISA method. CaP incidence was highly recorded in Gangetic zone than the non-Gangetic zone. Maximum patients were in the 56 - 75 years age group with a marked predominance. Results of PSA examination showed that serum PSA level was not correlating with the age of patient and stage of malignancy. Significantly, elevated level of more than 10 ng/ml of PSA was recorded among the studied cancer patients. In this study, it is concluded that Gangetic zone habitat have high risk of CaP and elevated level of PSA was marked in Bihar, India. PMID:22502673

  11. Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol are Associated With Biomarkers of Inflammation in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    González-Pacheco, Héctor; Amezcua-Guerra, Luis M; Vazquez-Rangel, Armando; Martínez-Sánchez, Carlos; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Verdejo, Juan; Bojalil, Rafael

    2015-12-01

    Pathologic conditions associated with inflammation show an inverse correlation between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and inflammatory biomarker levels. Our aim was to investigate, in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), whether very low HDL-C levels are associated with inflammatory biomarkers. In a cross-sectional study, we included 6,134 patients with ACS; they were classified as having very low (<30 mg/dl), low (30 to 39.9 mg/dl), and normal HDL-C (?40 mg/dl) levels. We analyzed the association of different categories of HDL-C levels with serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), albumin, and white blood cell count at admission. Overall, 18.5% of patients had very low HDL-C levels. Patients with very low HDL-C levels, compared to patients with low or normal HDL-C levels, had the highest hs-CRP (median 17.8 [interquartile range 7.2 to 54.5] vs 12.6 [5.6 to 33.9] vs 12.0 [5.4 to 36.9] mg/L, respectively, p <0.001) and the lowest albumin levels (median 3.6 [IQR 3.3 to 4.0] vs 3.8 [3.5 to 4.0] vs 3.8 [3.5 to 4.1] g/dl, respectively, p <0.001). White blood cell count did not differ significantly (p = 0.40). The multivariate analysis showed that albumin ?3.5 g/dl (odds ratio 2.16, 95% confidence interval 1.88 to 2.49, p <0.001) and hs-CRP ?10 mg/L (odds ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 1.55, p <0.001) were independent predictors of very low HDL-C levels. Patients with very low HDL-C levels had the highest inhospital mortality rates compared with the other groups. In conclusion, in patients with ACS, hs-CRP and serum albumin were associated independently with very low HDL-C levels. PMID:26456205

  12. High serum and urine neutrophil gelatinaseassociated lipocalin levels are independent predictors of renal progression in patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Harin; Shin, Nari; Shin, Min Ji; Yang, Byung Yun; Kim, Il Young; Song, Sang Heon; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Soo Bong; Kwak, Ihm Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Tubulointerstitial injury plays an important role in the progression of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is among the most sensitive tubular biomarkers. We investigated whether serum or urine NGAL predicts prognosis in patients with IgAN. Methods The present study enrolled patients with biopsy-proven IgAN from January 2005 to December 2010, whose serum and urine samples at the time of kidney biopsy were preserved by freezing. We retrospectively reviewed patient clinical data and followed patients until October 2012. Serum and urine NGAL levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Renal progression was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate decline by > 50% or progression to end-stage renal disease. Results There were 121 patients enrolled in this study. During the median follow-up period of 41.49 months, renal progression was found in nine patients (7.4%). Serum or urine NGAL alone could not predict renal progression; however, when serum and urine NGAL levels were combined, belonging to the high NGAL group independently predicted renal progression (hazard ratio [HR], 5.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42 to 21.73; p = 0.014), along with tubular damage graded according to the Oxford classification as T2 (HR, 8.79; 95% CI, 2.01 to 38.51; p = 0.004). In addition, a Kaplan-Meier curve of renal survival showed significantly higher renal progression in patients in the high NGAL group (log rank, p = 0.004). Conclusions In patients with IgAN, high serum and urine NGAL levels at the time of kidney biopsy predict renal progression. PMID:25995666

  13. High Hemoglobin Levels Maintained by an Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agent Improve Renal Survival in Patients with Severe Renal Impairment.

    PubMed

    Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu; Akizawa, Tadao; Iwasaki, Manabu; Shimazaki, Ryutaro

    2015-10-01

    Our goal was to investigate the effect modification of maintaining a high Hb target range through erythropoiesis-stimulating agent therapy on the renal outcome with respect to chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage and concurrent diabetes condition in patients with CKD. We used data from a previously reported randomized controlled trial involving 321 CKD patients not on dialysis, with Hb levels of <10?g/dL, and serum creatinine (Cr) of 2.0 to 6.0?mg/dL, and in which maintaining Hb levels at 11.0-13.0?g/dL with darbepoetin-? (High Hb group) resulted in a greater renal protective effect than maintaining Hb levels at 9.0-11.0?g/dL with epoetin-? (Low Hb group). We conducted a post-hoc analysis of the effects of baseline CKD stage and concurrent diabetic condition on the renal composite endpoint, consisting of death, initiation of renal replacement therapy, and doubling of the serum Cr level. Both groups with stage 4 CKD had a 3-year cumulative renal survival rate of 53.8%, whereas in patients with stage 5 CKD, the rate in the High Hb group (31.0%) was significantly (P?=?0.012) higher than that in the Low Hb group (19.1%). The observations made in patients with stage 5 CKD were maintained on further analysis of non-diabetic patients, but were not seen in those with diabetes or stage 4 CKD. These results suggest that in patients with stage 5 CKD, especially those without diabetes, achieving a higher target Hb level with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents is associated with a greater renoprotective effect. PMID:25944732

  14. High levels of B-type natriuretic peptide predict weaning failure from mechanical ventilation in adult patients after cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Thiago Martins; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahao; de Almeida, Juliano Pinheiro; Fukushima, Julia Tizue; Barbas, Carmem Silvia Valente; Rodrigues, Adriano Rogerio Baldacin; Nozawa, Emilia; Feltrim, Maria Ignes Zanetti; Almeida, Elisangela; Coimbra, Vera; Osawa, Eduardo; de Moraes Ianotti, Rafael; Leme, Alcino Costa; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli; Auler-Jr., Jose Otavio Costa; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The failure to wean from mechanical ventilation is related to worse outcomes after cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the serum level of B-type natriuretic peptide is a predictor of weaning failure from mechanical ventilation after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study of 101 patients who underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. B-type natriuretic peptide was measured postoperatively after intensive care unit admission and at the end of a 60-min spontaneous breathing test. The demographic data, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters, fluid balance, need for vasopressor or inotropic support, and length of the intensive care unit and hospital stays were recorded. Weaning failure was considered as either the inability to sustain spontaneous breathing after 60 min or the need for reintubation within 48 h. RESULTS: Of the 101 patients studied, 12 patients failed the weaning trial. There were no differences between the groups in the baseline or intraoperative characteristics, including left ventricular function, EuroSCORE and lengths of the cardiac procedure and cardiopulmonary bypass. The B-type natriuretic peptide levels were significantly higher at intensive care unit admission and at the end of the breathing test in the patients with weaning failure compared with the patients who were successfully weaned. In a multivariate model, a high B-type natriuretic peptide level at the end of a spontaneous breathing trial was the only independent predictor of weaning failure from mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: A high B-type natriuretic peptide level is a predictive factor for the failure to wean from mechanical ventilation after cardiac surgery. These findings suggest that optimizing ventricular function should be a goal during the perioperative period. PMID:23420154

  15. Combination of Autoantibody Signature with PSA Level Enables a Highly Accurate Blood-Based Differentiation of Prostate Cancer Patients from Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Leidinger, Petra; Keller, Andreas; Milchram, Lisa; Harz, Christian; Hart, Martin; Werth, Angelika; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Weinhäusel, Andreas; Keck, Bastian; Wullich, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Although an increased level of the prostate-specific antigen can be an indication for prostate cancer, other reasons often lead to a high rate of false positive results. Therefore, an additional serological screening of autoantibodies in patients’ sera could improve the detection of prostate cancer. We performed protein macroarray screening with sera from 49 prostate cancer patients, 70 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and 28 healthy controls and compared the autoimmune response in those groups. We were able to distinguish prostate cancer patients from normal controls with an accuracy of 83.2%, patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia from normal controls with an accuracy of 86.0% and prostate cancer patients from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia with an accuracy of 70.3%. Combining seroreactivity pattern with a PSA level of higher than 4.0 ng/ml this classification could be improved to an accuracy of 84.1%. For selected proteins we were able to confirm the differential expression by using luminex on 84 samples. We provide a minimally invasive serological method to reduce false positive results in detection of prostate cancer and according to PSA screening to distinguish men with prostate cancer from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:26039628

  16. High-Flux Hemodialysis Benefits Hemodialysis Patients by Reducing Serum FGF-23 Levels and Reducing Vascular Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiao; Cui, Qin-Qin; Ning, Jian-Ping; Fu, Shuang-Shuang; Liao, Xiao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background High- and low-flux hemodialysis (HFHD and LFHD, respectively) are dialysis procedures designed to eliminate blood toxins that accumulate in end-stage renal disease. HFHD may reduce vascular calcification by removing serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23). However, whether HFHD is better than LFHD is still under debate. We therefore compared the efficacy of HFHD and LFHD in controlling FGF-23 and vascular calcification. Material/Methods Fifty hemodialysis patients were recruited and randomly treated with either HFHD or LFHD. Fasting venous blood was collected at baseline, six months, and twelve months after the treatment. We then measured levels of FGF-23, calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and alkaline phosphatase. Further, abdominal lateral radiographs were taken to calculate aorta abdominalis calcification scores (AACs). Results Compared to the LFHD group, FGF-23 and AACs in the HFHD group significantly decreased after 12 months treatment (p=0.049 and p=0.002, respectively). AACs were positively correlated with FGF-23 in all patients (p=0.004), the HFHD group alone (p=0.040), and the LFHD group alone (p=0.037). We also found that older patients, patients with higher blood phosphorus levels, and higher FGF-23 levels had an increased risk of aorta abdominalis calcification (p=0.048, p=0.003, p=0.001, respectively). HFHD was more able to reduce the risk of aorta abdominalis calcification than LFHD (p=0.003). Conclusions FGF-23 is an independent risk factor for the development of vascular calcification. HFHD may benefit hemodialysis patients by reducing serum FGF-23 levels and controlling vascular calcification. PMID:26558428

  17. Fecal bile acid excretion and messenger RNA expression levels of ileal transporters in high risk gallstone patients

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Cholesterol gallstone disease (GS) is highly prevalent among Hispanics and American Indians. In GS, the pool of bile acids (BA) is decreased, suggesting that BA absorption is impaired. In Caucasian GS patients, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporters are decreased. We aimed to determine fecal BA excretion rates, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporter genes and of regulatory genes of BA synthesis in Hispanic GS patients. Results Excretion of fecal BA was measured in seven GS females and in ten GS-free individuals, all with a body mass index < 29. Participants ingested the stool marker Cr2O3 (300 mg/day) for 10 days, and fecal specimens were collected on the last 3 days. Chromium was measured by a colorimetric method, and BA was quantitated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Intake of calories, nutrients, fiber and cholesterol were similar in the GS and GS-free subjects. Mean BA excretion levels were 520 ± 80 mg/day for the GS-free group, and 461 ± 105 mg/day for the GS group. Messenger RNA expression levels were determined by RT-PCR on biopsy samples obtained from ileum during diagnostic colonoscopy (14 GS-free controls and 16 GS patients) and from liver during surgery performed at 8 and 10 AM (12 GS and 10 GS-free patients operated on for gastrointestinal malignancies), all with a body mass index < 29. Messenger RNA level of the BA transporter genes for ileal lipid binding protein, multidrug resistance-associated protein 3, organic solute transporter alpha, and organic solute transporter beta were similar in GS and GS-free subjects. Messenger RNA level of Cyp27A1, encoding the enzyme 27?-hydroxylase, the short heterodimer partner and farnesoid X receptor remained unchanged, whereas the mRNA level of Cyp7A1, the rate limiting step of BA synthesis, was increased more than 400% (p < 0.01) in the liver of GS compared to GS-free subjects. Conclusion Hispanics with GS have fecal BA excretion rates and mRNA levels of genes for ileal BA transporters that are similar to GS-free subjects. However, mRNA expression levels of Cyp7A1 are increased in GS, indicating that regulation of BA synthesis is abnormal in Hispanics with GS. PMID:19995447

  18. Lung Cancer (2004) 46, 333--340 High serum YKL-40 level in patients with small

    E-print Network

    Price, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    May 2004; accepted 6 May 2004 KEYWORDS Small cell lung carcinoma; Tumor invasiveness; YKL-40; HC gp-39 Summary YKL-40, a growth factor for connective tissue cells, is secreted by cancer cells and macrophages. Elevated serum YKL-40 in patients with metastatic carcinoma has been associated with poor prognosis. We

  19. Increased cancer cell proliferation in prostate cancer patients with high levels of serum folate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: A recent clinical trial revealed that folic acid supplementation is associated with an increased incidence of prostate cancer (1). The present study evaluates serum and prostate tissue folate levels in men with prostate cancer, compared to histologically normal prostate glands from can...

  20. Impact of irbesartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, on uric acid level and oxidative stress in high-risk hypertension patients.

    PubMed

    Chida, Ryuji; Hisauchi, Itaru; Toyoda, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Migaku; Komatsu, Takaaki; Hori, Yuichi; Nakahara, Shiro; Sakai, Yoshihiko; Inoue, Teruo; Taguchi, Isao

    2015-11-01

    Hyperuricemia is a known cardiovascular risk factor. The angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) losartan is known to decrease serum uric acid (UA) level. A recent in vitro study demonstrated a strong interaction between irbesartan and UA transporters that exceeded that of losartan. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the hypouricemic effect of irbesartan in a clinical setting. A total of 40 high-risk hypertensive outpatients with coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease and/or diabetes complications who were taking ARBs other than irbesartan and losartan were enrolled in this study. After a 4-week control period, the patients' prescribed ARBs were exchanged for an equivalent dose of irbesartan. We assessed blood pressure, heart rate, serum UA level, parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism, cardiac and renal function and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in blood samples taken immediately before the initiation of irbesartan treatment and again after 12 weeks of treatment. All 40 recruited patients were followed (31 men and 9 women, mean age: 68 years) without any dropouts. During the 12 weeks of irbesartan treatment, no significant changes in blood pressure, heart rate, parameters of lipid or glucose metabolism or other biomarkers of cardiac function, renal function, or inflammation were observed. However, UA level (5.9±1.6 to 5.5±1.6?mg?ml(-1), P=0.028) and the oxidative stress marker derivative reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs) (354±83 to 310±65?U.CARR, P<0.001) were significantly lower at 12 weeks of treatment compared with before treatment. These results suggest that irbesartan has beneficial effects on hyperuricemia and oxidative stress. PMID:26178150

  1. High levels of TSP1+/CD142+ platelet-derived microparticles characterise young patients with high cardiovascular risk and subclinical atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Suades, Rosa; Padró, Teresa; Alonso, Rodrigo; Mata, Pedro; Badimon, Lina

    2015-11-25

    Circulating microparticles (cMPs) play important roles in cellular crosstalk and are messengers of cell activation. We have previously reported that platelet-released microparticles (pMPs) stimulate thrombosis and that lipid-lowering treatment as per guidelines in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is not sufficiently effective in reducing pro-inflammatory cell activation and, consequently, CD45+/CD3+-lymphocyte-derived cMP shedding. FH patients, due to life-long vascular exposure to high LDL-cholesterol levels, are at high cardiovascular risk (HCVR) and develop premature coronary artery disease. Our objectives were to investigate a) whether patients with HCVR have cMPs with a prothrombotic phenotype, and b) whether patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of lipid-rich atherosclerotic lesions have a specific cMP profile regarding prothrombotic protein cargos. cMPs were isolated from HCVR-patients and from age/gender/treatment-matched control patients. cMP phenotype was characterised by triple-labelling flow cytometry. HCVR--patients have higher numbers of pMPs derived from activated platelets as well as of tissue factor-rich microparticles (TF+-cMPs) than controls (Ppatients, overall TF+-cMPs (monocyte-derived [CD142+/CD14+] and platelet-derived [CD142+/TSP1+]) and activated pMPs directly correlate with MRI-detected lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques while inversely correlate with MRI-detected calcified plaques. C-statistics analysis showed that prothrombotic cMPs add significant prognostic value to a risk factor model for the prediction of lipid-rich plaques. In conclusion, the activation status of blood cells in HCVR-patients differed markedly from controls as shown by higher circulating levels of prothrombotic and TF+-cMPs. Prothrombotic cMP numbers identify subclinical atherosclerotic plaque burden. PMID:26178021

  2. High levels of carbonic anhydrase IX in tumour tissue and plasma are biomarkers of poor prognostic in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    ?lie, M; Mazure, N M; Hofman, V; Ammadi, R E; Ortholan, C; Bonnetaud, C; Havet, K; Venissac, N; Mograbi, B; Mouroux, J; Pouysségur, J; Hofman, P

    2010-01-01

    Background: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is an enzyme upregulated by hypoxia during tumour development and progression. This study was conducted to assess if the expression of CAIX in tumour tissue and/or plasma can be a prognostic factor in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Tissue microarrays containing 555 NSCLC tissue samples were generated for quantification of CAIX expression. The plasma level of CAIX was determined by ELISA in 209 of these NSCLC patients and in 58 healthy individuals. The CAIX tissue immunostaining and plasma levels were correlated with clinicopathological factors and patient outcome. Results: CAIX tissue overexpression correlated with shorter overall survival (OS) (P=0.05) and disease-specific survival (DSS) of patients (P=0.002). The CAIX plasma level was significantly higher in patients with NSCLC than in healthy individuals (P<0.001). A high level of CAIX in the plasma of patients was associated with shorter OS (P<0.001) and DSS (P<0.001), mostly in early stage I+II NSCLC. Multivariate Cox analyses revealed that high CAIX tissue expression (P=0.002) was a factor of poor prognosis in patients with resectable NSCLC. In addition, a high CAIX plasma level was an independent variable predicting poor OS (P<0.001) in patients with NSCLC. Conclusion: High expression of CAIX in tumour tissue is a predictor of worse survival, and a high CAIX plasma level is an independent prognostic biomarker in patients with NSCLC, in particular in early-stage I+II carcinomas. PMID:20461082

  3. High Mannose-Binding Lectin Serum Levels Are Associated with Diabetic Retinopathy in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qian; Shang, Guilian; Deng, Haohua; Liu, Jie; Mei, Yan; Xu, Yancheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate mannose-binding lectin (MBL) serum levels in type 2 diabetic patients with and without diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods Serum MBL levels were determined in type 2 diabetic patients (N=324) as well as in 300 healthy control Subjects. Multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) was used to test the overall predict accuracy of MBL and other markers. Results Diabetic patients with DR and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) had significantly higher MBL levels on admission (P<0.0001 and P<0.0001). MBL improved the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the diabetes duration for DRfrom 0.82(95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77–0.86) to 0.88(95% CI, 0.82–0.96; P<0.01) and for VDTR from 0.85(95% CI, 0.77–0.92) to 0.90(95% CI, 0.83–0.96; P<0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for common risk factors showed that serum MBL levels(per log-unit increase) was an independent predictor of DR (OR=3.45; 95%CI: 1.42–7.05) and VTDR (OR=4.42; 95%CI: 1.51-8.18). Conclusion MBL is a novel, independent diagnostic marker of DR in type 2 diabetic patients, suggesting that MBL may be involved in the pathogenesis of DR in diabetic patients. PMID:26136138

  4. [Immunohistochemical Analysis of Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) Expression in Lung Tissue in Primary Lung Cancer Patients with High Serum KL-6 Levels].

    PubMed

    Yatsuyanagi, Eiji; Sato, Kazuhiro; Sato, Keisuke

    2015-09-01

    We investigated sialylated carbohydrate antigen( Krebs von den Lungen-6:KL-6) expression in lung tissue and correlation between the expression and serum KL-6 level in the patients with primary lung cancer. Thirty-four primary lung cancer patients with high serum KL-6 levels( >500 U/ml) were evaluated. A coexistence of interstitial pneumonia (IP) was histopathologically evaluated and an immunohistochemical staining using a mouse anti-human KL-6 antibody (mKL-6) was performed. A multiple regression analysis was also caluculated using a serum KL-6 level as a target variable and the histopathological and immunohistochemical factors (KL-6 expression in cancer tissue and IP tissue, coexistence of IP, tumor size, pathological staging) as descriptive variables. Twenty-two patients (64.7%) were histopathologically concomitant with IP. Cancer tissues were positively stained by mKL-6 in 32 patients (94.1%). Among them, 20 patients were concomitant with IP and all of their cancer tissues were more strongly stained by mKL-6 than IP tissues. Although considerable high rate of lung cancer patients might express the KL-6 in the cancer tissue, we could not reveal the relationship between the expression and serum KL-6 level by a multiple regression analysis. For revealing the mechanism of elevating serum KL-6 level in the patients with lung cancer, more detailed and powerful study is thought to be needed. PMID:26329623

  5. Effect of High-Flux Dialysis on Circulating FGF-23 Levels in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients: Results from a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Andreas; Schneider, Markus P.; Krieter, Detlef H.; Genser, Bernd; Scharnagl, Hubert; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Wanner, Christoph; Drechsler, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Background In patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD), increased levels of circulating fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) are independently associated with cardiovascular events and mortality. Interventional strategies aiming to reduce levels of FGF-23 in HD patients are of particular interest. The purpose of the current study was to compare the impact of high-flux versus low-flux HD on circulating FGF-23 levels. Methods We conducted a post-hoc analysis of the MINOXIS study, including 127 dialysis patients randomized to low-flux (n = 62) and high-flux (n = 65) HD for 52 weeks. Patients with valid measures for FGF-23 investigated baseline and after 52 weeks were included. Results Compared to baseline, a significant increase in FGF-23 levels after one year of low-flux HD was observed (Delta plasma FGF-23: +4026 RU/ml; p < 0.001). In contrast, FGF-23 levels remained stable in the high flux group (Delta plasma FGF-23: +373 RU/ml, p = 0.70). The adjusted difference of the absolute change in FGF-23 levels between the two treatment groups was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Conclusions Over a period of 12 months, high-flux HD was associated with stable FGF-23 levels, whereas the low-flux HD group showed an increase of FGF-23. However, the implications of the different FGF 23 time-trends in patients on high flux dialysis, as compared to the control group, remain to be explored in specifically designed clinical trials. Trial Registration German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) DRKS00007612. PMID:26024521

  6. High Level of Tregs Is a Positive Prognostic Marker in Patients with HPV-Positive Oral and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Lukesova, E.; Boucek, J.; Rotnaglova, E.; Salakova, M.; Koslabova, E.; Grega, M.; Eckschlager, T.; Rihova, B.; Prochazka, B.; Klozar, J.; Tachezy, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been proved as one of the etiological factors of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Patients with tumors of viral etiology have a lower recurrence rate and better prognosis. OPSCC is linked to an alteration in the immune system. Only a limited number of studies have correlated both the immunological parameters and HPV status with patient prognosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether HPV infection and the immunological status influence patient prognosis individually or in concurrence. Material and Methods. Sixty patients with oral and oropharyngeal carcinomas were enrolled. They were divided into HPV-positive and HPV-negative groups based on the expression of HPV 16 E6 mRNA. Basic lymphocyte subpopulations were determined in the peripheral blood by means of flow cytometry. Results. Significantly better disease-specific survival (DSS) was observed in patients with HPV-positive tumors. Nodal status, tumor grade, recurrence, and CD8+/Tregs ratio were identified as factors influencing DSS. A higher level of Tregs and a lower ratio of CD8/Tregs influenced overall survival (OS) independently of HPV status and age. Patients with HPV-positive tumors and high levels of Tregs survived significantly better than patients from the other groups. Conclusion. Better survival is associated with HPV positivity and elevated Tregs levels. Our data suggest that HPV infection and Tregs do not influence patient prognosis in concurrence. PMID:24864233

  7. High Pretreatment Plasma D-dimer Levels Are Associated With Poor Prognosis in Patients With Ovarian Cancer Independently of Venous Thromboembolism and Tumor Extension

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Manabu; Satoh, Toyomi; Matsumoto, Koji; Michikami, Hiroo; Nakamura, Yuko; Nakao, Sari; Ochi, Hiroyuki; Onuki, Mamiko; Minaguchi, Takeo; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Objective Elevated plasma D-dimer (DD) is associated with decreased survival among patients with breast, lung, and colon cancers. The present study clarifies the prognostic significance of pretreatment plasma DD levels in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods We investigated pretreatment DD levels and other variables for overall survival using univariate and multivariate analyses in 134 consecutive patients with EOC stages II to IV who were initially treated between November 2004 and December 2010. Results The median follow-up period was 53 (7–106) months. Univariate analysis significantly associated elevated pretreatment DD (?2.0 ?g/mL) levels to poor 5-year overall survival rates irrespective of previously treated venous thromboembolism (72.2% vs 52.6%, P = 0.039). Cancer antigen 125 levels of 200 U/mL or higher (P = 0.011), distant metastases (P = 0.0004), residual tumors (P < 0.0001), and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage III/IV (P = 0.0033) were also poor prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis independently associated DD levels of 2.0 ?g/mL or higher (P = 0.041), distant metastases (P = 0.013), and residual tumors (P < 0.0001) with poor overall survival. Conclusions High pretreatment DD levels are associated with poor overall survival in patients with EOC independently of venous thromboembolism and tumor extension and might comprise a promising prognostic biomarker for patients with EOC. PMID:25756402

  8. High levels at baseline of serum pyridinoline crosslinked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen are associated with worse prognosis for breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Michiko; Nishimukai, Arisa; Higuchi, Tomoko; Ozawa, Hiromi; Yanai, Ayako; Miyagawa, Yoshimasa; Murase, Keiko; Sakita, Isao; Hatada, Takuya; Takatsuka, Yuichi; Katagiri, Toyomasa; Miyoshi, Yasuo

    2015-12-01

    It is speculated that adjuvant use of bisphosphonate reduces recurrence in breast cancer patients through suppression of bone resorption. To determine the prognostic impact of bone resorption markers, we investigated serum levels of the pyridinoline crosslinked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (1CTP) and N-terminal crosslinking telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX). 1CTP and NTX were measured at baseline (before operation or neoadjuvant therapies) and afterward in 469 patients operated on breast cancer. The optimal cutoff value of 1CTP for relapse-free survival (RFS) was set at 3.6 ng/ml with an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.641 [95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.560-0.721; p = 0.0011]. However, we were unable to determine a significant cutoff value for NTX. RFS was significantly worse for 1CTP-high patients with than for those with low levels of 1CTP (p = 0.0002). Multivariate analysis with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, and nuclear grade showed that 1CTP was a significant independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio = 2.04, 95 % CI = 1.13-3.68; p = 0.018). Worse prognosis for the subset with high 1CTP levels applied only to postmenopausal patients (p = 0.0002). RFS of 130 patients whose 1CTP changed from low at baseline to high at 6 months postoperatively showed RFS almost as poor as that for patients with high 1CTP throughout. These findings suggest that 1CTP may be useful not only for identifying patients with unfavorable prognosis, but also for selecting patients who may benefit from administration of bone-modifying agents in an adjuvant setting. PMID:26573829

  9. Rapid Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Antagonism in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients with High Gonadotropin Levels in the AGRA Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kåss, Anita; Hollan, Ivana; Fagerland, Morten Wang; Gulseth, Hans Christian; Torjesen, Peter Abusdal; Førre, Øystein Torleiv

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and pituitary gonadotropins, which appear to be proinflammatory, undergo profound secretory changes during events associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) onset, flares, or improvement e.g. menopausal transition, postpartum, or pregnancy. Potential anti-inflammatory effects of GnRH-antagonists may be most pronounced in patients with high GnRH and gonadotropin levels. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a GnRH-antagonist, cetrorelix, in RA patients with high gonadotropin levels. Methods We report intention-to-treat post hoc analyses among patients with high gonadotropin levels (N = 53), i.e. gonadotropin levels>median, from our proof-of-concept, double-blind AGRA-study (N = 99). Patients with active longstanding RA, randomized to subcutaneous cetrorelix (5mg days1–2; 3mg days 3–5) or placebo, were followed through day 15. Only predefined primary and secondary endpoints were analyzed. Results The primary endpoint, Disease Activity Score of 28-joint counts with C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP), improved with cetrorelix compared with placebo by day 5 (-1.0 vs. -0.4, P = 0?010). By day 5, more patients on cetrorelix achieved at least a 20% improvement in the American College of Rheumatology scale (44% vs. 19%, P = 0.049), DAS28-CRP?3.2 (24% vs. 0%, P = 0.012), and European League against Rheumatism ‘Good-responses’ (19% vs. 0%, P = 0.026). Tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, interleukin-10, and CRP decreased with cetrorelix (P = 0.045, P = 0.034, P = 0.020 and P = 0.042 respectively) compared with placebo by day 15. Adverse event rates were similar between groups. Conclusions GnRH-antagonism produced rapid anti-inflammatory effects in RA patients with high gonadotropin levels. GnRH should be investigated further in RA. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00667758 PMID:26460564

  10. High Levels of Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase and Indocyanine Green Retention Rate at 15?min as Preoperative Predictors of Tumor Recurrence in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Song, Peipei; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Wang, Zhigang; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Arita, Junichi; Tang, Wei; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the preoperative independent risk factors associated with survival and recurrence for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent hepatic resection. In total, 384 consecutive patients who underwent curative hepatic resection for single primary HCC were studied. Predictive factors associated with 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were assessed using a univariate log-rank test and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) > 100?U/L was identified as a preoperative independent risk factor affecting 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival whereas GGT > 50?U/L and indocyanine green retention 15?min (ICG-R15) > 10% were identified as preoperative independent risk factors affecting 1-, 3-, and 5-year RFS. The 384 patients studied had a 1-, 3-, and 5-year RFS rate of 72.8%, 43.3%, and 27%, respectively. Patients with GGT > 50?U/L had a 1-, 3-, and 5-year RFS rate of 64.5%, 36.0%, and 21.7%. These patients had lower survival rates than did patients with GGT ? 50?U/L (P?Patients with GGT > 50?U/L and ICG-R15 > 10% had a 1-, 3-, and 5-year RFS rate of 62.4%, 29.5%, and 14.1%, respectively. These patients had lower survival rates than did patients in the other 2 groups with different levels of GGT and ICG (P?patients with a tumor high levels of GGT and ICG-R15 is a preoperative predictor that warrants full attention when evaluating tumor recurrence postoperatively. PMID:26020384

  11. High preoperative levels of serum glypican-3 containing N-terminal subunit are associated with poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after partial hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Haruyama, Yukihiro; Yorita, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Kitajima, Sachiko; Amano, Jun; Ohtomo, Toshihiko; Ohno, Akinobu; Kondo, Kazuhiro; Kataoka, Hiroaki

    2015-10-01

    Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cell surface glycoprotein overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and may serve as a potential molecular target for therapeutic intervention. This study evaluated the prognostic significance of serum GPC3 in HCC patients receiving curative surgery. A novel sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative and sensitive determination of serum GPC3 N-terminal subunit antigen (sGPC3N) was developed and used to measure sGPC3N levels in 25 healthy volunteers and 115 HCC patients who underwent curative partial hepatectomy. The relationships between sGPC3N and clinicopathologic features were analyzed and the prognostic impact on overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS) was also investigated. Mean and median levels of sGPC3N in healthy controls were 110.12 and 115.95 pg mL(-1) , respectively, with 185.52 pg mL(-1) (mean?+?2 SD) being set as the upper limit of the normal range. In HCC patients, sGPC3N levels were significantly increased (mean/median, 405.16/236.19 pg mL(-1) ) compared to healthy controls (p?levels that were higher than the upper normal limit. High sGPC3N levels were significantly associated with serum AFP level, high Child-Pugh score and positive HCV. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that elevated pre-operative sGPC3N was associated with shorter OS and DFS after hepatectomy (p???0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed elevated sGPC3N as an independent poor prognostic marker for OS (p?level serves as an independent prognostic biomarker in HCC patients. PMID:25784484

  12. Coexistence of Low Vitamin D and High Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 Plasma Levels Predicts an Adverse Outcome in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tuñón, José; Cristóbal, Carmen; Tarín, Nieves; Aceña, Álvaro; González-Casaus, María Luisa; Huelmos, Ana; Alonso, Joaquín; Lorenzo, Óscar; González-Parra, Emilio; Mahíllo-Fernández, Ignacio; Pello, Ana María; Carda, Rocío; Farré, Jerónimo; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Objective Vitamin D and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) are related with cardiovascular disorders. We have investigated the relationship of calcidiol (vitamin D metabolite) and FGF-23 plasma levels with the incidence of adverse outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods Prospective follow-up study of 704 outpatients, attending the departments of Cardiology of four hospitals in Spain, 6–12 months after an acute coronary event. Baseline calcidiol, FGF-23, parathormone, and phosphate plasma levels were assessed. The outcome was the development of acute ischemic events (any acute coronary syndrome, stroke, or transient ischemic attack), heart failure, or death. Cox regression adjusted for the main confounders was performed. Results Calcidiol levels showed a moderate-severe decrease in 57.3% of cases. Parathormone, FGF-23, and phosphate levels were increased in 30.0%, 11.5% and 0.9% of patients, respectively. Only 22.4% of patients had glomerular filtration rate<60 ml/min1.73 m2. After a mean follow-up was 2.15±0.99 years, 77 patients developed the outcome. Calcidiol (hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.48–0.94; p?=?0.021) and FGF-23 (HR?=?1.13; 95% CI?=?1.04–1.23; p?=?0.005) plasma levels predicted independently the outcome. There was a significant interaction between calcidiol and FGF-23 levels (p?=?0.025). When the population was divided according to FGF-23 levels, calcidiol still predicted the outcome independently in patients with FGF-23 levels higher than the median (HR?=?0.50; 95% CI?=?0.31–0.80; p?=?0.003) but not in those with FGF-23 levels below this value (HR?=?1.03; 95% CI?=?0.62–1.71; p?=?0.904). Conclusions Abnormalities in mineral metabolism are frequent in patients with stable coronary artery disease. In this population, low calcidiol plasma levels predict an adverse prognosis in the presence of high FGF-23 levels. PMID:24748388

  13. High 15-F2t-Isoprostane Levels in Patients with a Previous History of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer: The Effects of Supplementary Antioxidant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Betânia de Jesus e Silva de Almendra; Lloret, Gustavo Rafaini; Visacri, Marília Berlofa; Tuan, Bruna Taliani; Amaral, Lais Sampaio; Baldini, Daniele; de Sousa, Vanessa Marcílio; de Castro, Laís Lima; Aguiar, Jordana Rayane Sousa; Pincinato, Eder de Carvalho; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Moriel, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background. Phase I of this study was aimed at comparing the profiles of oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with history of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), previously treated with surgery, to the healthy subjects. Phase II aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementary antioxidant therapy on the levels of biomarkers in the case group. Materials and Methods. In Phase I, oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in blood samples obtained from 24 healthy subjects and 60 patients with history of NMSC previously treated with surgery. In Phase II, the 60 patients with history of NMSC were randomized into two subgroups, one receiving placebo (n = 34) and the other (n = 26) receiving vitamin C, vitamin E, and zinc supplementation for 8 weeks, followed by reevaluation of biomarkers. Results. In Phase I, patients with history of NMSC showed increased plasma concentrations of all biomarkers, but only 15-F2t-isoprostane was significantly higher than in the healthy subjects. Risk of NMSC increased by 4% for each additional 1?pg/mL increase in 15-F2t-isoprostane. In Phase II, supplementation did not significantly reduce levels of oxidative stress biomarkers. Conclusion. Patients with history of NMSC had significantly high 15-F2t-isoprostane plasma levels; supplementation did not result in significant reduction of oxidative stress biomarkers. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT02248584). PMID:26509174

  14. High Levels of Soluble Ctla-4 Are Present in Anti-Mitochondrial Antibody Positive, but Not in Antibody Negative Patients with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Saverino, Daniele; Pesce, Giampaola; Antola, Princey; Porcelli, Brunetta; Brusca, Ignazio; Villalta, Danilo; Tampoia, Marilina; Tozzoli, Renato; Tonutti, Elio; Alessio, Maria Grazia; Bagnasco, Marcello; Bizzaro, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic autoimmune cholestatic liver disease frequently characterized by anti-mitochondrial autoantibodies (AMA). A minority of patients are AMA-negative. Cytotoxic-T-Lymphocyte-Antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a surface molecule expressed on activated T-cells delivering a critical negative immunoregulatory signal. A soluble form of CTLA-4 (sCTLA-4) has been detected at high concentrations in several autoimmune diseases, and its possible functional meaning has been suggested. We aimed to evaluate sCTLA-4 concentration in sera of patients with PBC and to correlate it to immunological abnormalities associated with the disease. Blood samples were collected from 82 PBC-patients diagnosed according to international criteria (44 AMA-positive/MIT3-positive and 38 AMA-negative-MIT3-negative), and 65 controls. sCTLA-4 levels were evaluated by ELISA and Western blot. Increased sCTLA-4 concentrations were found in all AMA-positive PBC-patients, but in none of the AMA-negative ones, nor in normal controls or in controls with unrelated liver diseases. sCTLA-4 presence was associated with autoantibodies against MIT3, but not with nuclear autoantibodies (sp100, gp210). This is the first study to demonstrate that levels of sCTLA-4 are elevated in sera of PBC patients. However, they are clearly restricted to patients with AMA positivity, suggesting an immunological difference with respect to AMA-negative ones. PMID:25383768

  15. Cimetidine increases survival of colorectal cancer patients with high levels of sialyl Lewis-X and sialyl Lewis-A epitope expression on tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, S; Imaeda, Y; Umemoto, S; Kobayashi, K; Suzuki, H; Okamoto, T

    2002-01-01

    Cimetidine has been shown to have beneficial effects in colorectal cancer patients. In this study, a total of 64 colorectal cancer patients who received curative operation were examined for the effects of cimetidine treatment on survival and recurrence. The cimetidine group was given 800?mg day?1 of cimetidine orally together with 200?mg day?1 of 5-fluorouracil, while the control group received 5-fluorouracil alone. The treatment was initiated 2 weeks after the operation and terminated after 1 year. Robust beneficial effects of cimetidine were noted: the 10-year survival rate of the cimetidine group was 84.6% whereas that of control group was 49.8% (P<0.0001). According to our previous observations that cimetidine blocked the expression of E-selectin on vascular endothelium and inhibited the adhesion of cancer cells to the endothelium, we have further stratified the patients according to the expression levels of sialyl Lewis antigens X (sLx) and A (sLa). We found that cimetidine treatment was particularly effective in patients whose tumour had higher sLx and sLa antigen levels. For example, the 10-year cumulative survival rate of the cimetidine group with higher CSLEX staining, recognizing sLx, of tumours was 95.5%, whereas that of control group was 35.1% (P=0.0001). In contrast, in the group of patients with no or low levels CSLEX staining, cimetidine did not show significant beneficial effect (the 10-year survival rate of the cimetidine group was 70.0% and that of control group was 85.7% (P=n.s.)). These results clearly indicate that cimetidine treatment dramatically improved survival in colorectal cancer patients with tumour cells expressing high levels of sLx and sLa. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 161–167. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600048 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 The Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11870500

  16. Pre-Operative, High-IL-6 Blood Level is a Risk Factor of Post-Operative Delirium Onset in Old Patients

    PubMed Central

    Capri, Miriam; Yani, Stella Lukas; Chattat, Rabih; Fortuna, Daniela; Bucci, Laura; Lanzarini, Catia; Morsiani, Cristina; Catena, Fausto; Ansaloni, Luca; Adversi, Marco; Melotti, Maria Rita; Di Nino, Gianfranco; Franceschi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Background: Post-operative delirium (POD) is a common complication in elderly patients undergoing surgery, but the underpinning causes are not clear. We hypothesized that inflammaging, the subclinical low and chronic grade inflammation characteristic of old people, can contribute to POD onset. Accordingly, we investigated the association of pre-operative and circulating cytokines in elderly patients (>65?years), admitted for elective and emergency surgery. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a sub-cohort of patients belonging to a previous large case–control study, where 351 patients were clinically and cognitively thoroughly characterized, together with the assessment of POD (47 patients) by confusion assessment method and delirium rating scale. Seventy-four pre-operative plasma samples were selected from a larger bio-bank and they included 37 subjects with POD and 37 without POD. Inflammaging related cytokines, i.e., IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-?, were assayed by ELISA in pre-operative blood samples; univariate and multivariable analyses have been applied to identify cytokines independently associated to POD. Associations of cytokine levels with functional status, cognitive decline, intra-hospital mortality, and comorbidity were also analyzed independently of POD onset. Results: High IL-6 and low-IL-2 levels were significantly associated with POD. After adjustment for potential confounders in multivariate analysis, high level of pre-operative IL-6 was confirmed to be significantly associated with risk of POD onset. High level of IL-6 was also associated with several baseline features (including poor functional status, cognitive impairment, emergency admission, and higher comorbidity burden) and intra-hospital mortality. Conclusion: Pre-operative, high-plasma level of IL-6 (?9?pg/mL) was significantly associated with POD onset. We propose IL-6 as an additional risk factor of POD onset together with the previously identified factors. Discovery of all risk factors contributing to POD onset will permit to improve hospitalized patient management and the decrease of healthcare cost. PMID:25368603

  17. Low-level plasma HIVs in patients on prolonged suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy are produced mostly by cells other than CD4 T-cells.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Gautam K; Paar, David; Frost, Simon D W; Smith, Melissa M; Weaver, Scott; Cloyd, Miles W

    2009-01-01

    The cellular source(s) and the clinical significance of persistent low-level viremia, below 50 HIV RNA copies per ml of plasma, achieved in many patients with high adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) remain unclear. Also, it is not clear if residual plasma HIVs during HAART can become predominant populations in the rebounding plasma viral loads after therapy interruption. Since, different HIV quasispecies tend to compartmentalize in various cell types and tissue locations in patients during chronic infection, the phylogenetic relationships between HIV sequences amplified from residual plasma viruses and CD4 T cells of five patients on long-term suppressive therapy were examined. Three of these patients stopped therapy voluntarily for 3 weeks, but only one of them demonstrated viral load rebound in plasma. In phylogenetic analyses, the residual plasma viruses were found to be distinct genetically from the majority of CD4 T cell-associated virus populations in four of five patients. The compartmental analyses revealed that in all patients, plasma- and CD4 T cell-derived viral sequences were compartmentalized separately. Interestingly, the plasma sequences obtained before and after HAART-off in two patients were produced apparently from the same compartment, which was different from the circulating CD4 T cell-compartment. These results suggest the possibility that residual plasma viruses in patients on long-term suppressive HAART may be produced persistently from a cellular source yet to be identified, and are capable of spreading quickly in vivo, accounting for the rapid rebound of viral loads in plasma after therapy interruption. PMID:19031450

  18. Anti-TNF? therapy transiently improves high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and microvascular endothelial function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). This can be only partially attributed to traditional CVD risk factors such as dyslipidaemia and their downstream effects on endothelial function. The most common lipid abnormality in RA is reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, probably due to active inflammation. In this longitudinal study we hypothesised that anti-tumor necrosis factor-? (anti-TNF?) therapy in patients with active RA improves HDL cholesterol, microvascular and macrovascular endothelial function. Methods Twenty-three RA patients starting on anti-TNF? treatment were assessed for HDL cholesterol level, and endothelial-dependent and -independent function of microvessels and macrovessels at baseline, 2-weeks and 3?months of treatment. Results Disease activity (CRP, fibrinogen, DAS28) significantly decreased during the follow-up period. There was an increase in HDL cholesterol levels at 2?weeks (p?patients appears to be accompanied by transient but significant improvements in HDL cholesterol levels, which coexists with an improvement in microvascular endothelial-dependent function. PMID:22824166

  19. Current skin symptoms of Yusho patients exposed to high levels of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyls in 1968.

    PubMed

    Mitoma, Chikage; Mine, Yoshiko; Utani, Atsushi; Imafuku, Shinichi; Muto, Masahiko; Akimoto, Takamichi; Kanekura, Takuro; Furue, Masutaka; Uchi, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    Yusho was a mass food poisoning event due to the ingestion of rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and various dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. At its outbreak in 1968, Yusho patients suffered severe skin symptoms. Although the blood concentrations of PCBs and dioxins, especially highly toxic 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF) remain high in these patients, extensive analysis has not been performed on their current skin symptoms. We categorized and evaluated the specific skin symptoms in Yusho in 2012 by grading their severity using an arbitrary scoring system, and analyzed their correlations with the blood concentrations of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and PCBs. A total of 352 Yusho patients underwent annual dermatological check-ups, in which five skin symptoms: black comedones, acneiform eruptions, scar formation, pigmentation and nail deformity, were evaluated for their distribution and severity. Approximately one-third of Yusho patients still presented with black comedones, acneiform eruptions and scar formation; the distributions of these symptoms were similar to those at the time of the Yusho outbreak. The mean blood concentrations of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and total PCBs in Yusho patients were still higher than those in controls. The prevalence and severity of black comedones were correlated with age. Severity scores of black comedones and scar formation were positively correlated with 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF blood level, and those of black comedones, scar formation, and pigmentation were positively correlated with total PCBs blood level. This study suggests that 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and PCBs remaining in Yusho patients still play crucial roles in the development of skin symptoms in Yusho. PMID:25985428

  20. Mucosal interleukin-21 mRNA expression level is high in patients with Helicobacter pylori and is associated with the severity of gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Nader; Azadegan-Dehkordi, Fatemeh; Zamanzad, Benham; Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Taghikhani, Afshin; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is associated with gastritis and marked infiltration of the gastric mucosa by several cytokines secreting inflammatory cells. Different clinical forms of the infection may reflect distinctive patterns of cytokine expression. Interleukin (IL)-17, IL-21, IL-22, and IL-23 have been reported to be involved in H. pylori-induced gastric mucosal inflammation, but the details and relationship to different patterns of inflammation and virulence factors remain unclear. The present study was launched to analyse IL-6 expression in H. pylori-infected and uninfected gastric patients and to investigate its correlation with chronic gastritis among H. pylori-infected patients. Total RNA was extracted from the gastric antrum biopsies of 48 H. pylori-infected patients and 38 H. pylori uninfected patients. Mucosal IL-21 mRNA expression level in H. pylori-infected and uninfected gastric biopsy was determined by real-time PCR. The presence of vacA (vacuolating cytotoxin A) and cagA (cytotoxin associated gene A) virulence factors were evaluated using PCR. Interleukin-21 mRNA expression was significantly high in biopsies of H. pylori-infected patients compared to H. pylori uninfected patients, and the mucosal IL-21 mRNA level was positively correlated with the grade of chronic inflammation. There was no association between virulence factors and IL-21 mRNA expression. We believe that IL-21 might be involved in the pathogenesis of H. pylori and might be an index of the severity of chronic gastritis. PMID:26155185

  1. Subject groups high and low in urinary selenium levels: workers exposed to heavy metals and patients with cancer and epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Hojo, Y.

    1981-04-01

    Selenium was first recognized for its toxicity; its essential nature in animals was discovered and established later. That Se is essential to human nutrition has yet to be confirmed. Recently the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) was isolated from human erythrocyte and placenta. In order to discover the role Se plays in human health and disease, Thomson and Robinson emphasized a need for continuing studies of special needs of certain groups such as those exposed to heavy metals and those with certain disease and illness for example, cancer and cardiovascular disease. It is amongst these groups that Se deficiency or Se-responsive conditions may be found. Urinary Se excretion has been mainly used to assess the nutritional Se status. Recently estimation of urinary Se level in the form of its content per creatinine (abbreviated as CT) content using 24-h or random urine samples was shown to be more precise in reducing dilution and variation effects than that per urinary volume using 24-h urines (HOJO). The purpose of this study is to search the subject groups high or low in Se status by employing urinary Se content per CT content or per urine volume.

  2. High prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in Crohn's disease patients according to serum retinol levels and the relative dose-response test

    PubMed Central

    Soares-Mota, Márcia; Silva, Tianny A; Gomes, Luanda M; Pinto, Marco AS; Mendonça, Laura MC; Farias, Maria Lúcia F; Nunes, Tiago; Ramalho, Andrea; Zaltman, Cyrla

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the vitamin A status of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) by evaluating serum retinol levels and the relative dose response (RDR) test (liver retinol stores). METHODS: Vitamin A nutritional status was measured by serum retinol obtained by high performance liquid chromatography and the RDR test for evaluation of the hepatic stores. Body composition was performed by densitometry by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Vitamin A dietary intake was assessed from a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: This study included 38 CD patients and 33 controls. Low serum retinol concentrations were detected in 29% of CD patients vs 15% in controls (P < 0.005). The RDR test was positive in 37% of CD patients vs 12% in controls, which indicated inadequate hepatic vitamin A stores (P < 0.005). Individuals with hypovitaminosis A had lower BMI and body fat compared with those without this deficiency. There was no association between vitamin A deficiency and its dietary intake, ileal location, presence of disease activity and prior bowel resections. CONCLUSION: Patients with CD have higher prevalence of vitamin A deficiency, as assessed by two independent methods. PMID:25663781

  3. High level expression of AMAP1 protein correlates with poor prognosis and survival after surgery of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite recent advances in cancer therapeutics in general, the survival of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) has not improved substantially over the past few decades. HNSCC cells often exhibit invasive and metastatic phenotypes, and expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cortactin has been highly implicated in the development of malignancy in HNSCCs. We have shown previously that an Arf6 pathway, in which Arf6 is activated by GEP100 and employs AMAP1 (also called DDEF1 or ASAP1) as its downstream effector, is pivotal for the invasion and metastasis of different breast cancer cells. This pathway is activated by receptor tyrosine kinases, including EGFR; and moreover, AMAP1 physically associates with cortactin, in which inhibition of this binding effectively blocks invasion and metastasis. We here investigated whether the expression of Arf6 pathway components correlates with the poor prognosis of HNSCC patients. We have shown previously that AMAP1 protein levels are not correlated with its mRNA levels, and hence we here employed immunohistochemical staining of HNSCC clinical specimens to investigate AMAP1 protein levels. Results We found that high levels of AMAP1 protein expression on its own, as well as its co-overexpression with EGFR statistically correlates with poor disease-free survival and poor overall survival, while high levels of cortactin expression or its co-expression with EGFR did not. Conclusion Our identification of predictive biomarkers, together with our previous findings on the coherent signaling pathway that these biomarkers ultimately generate should be powerful information for the further development of HNSCC therapeutics. PMID:24621372

  4. Psoriasis and Diabetes: A Multicenter Study in 222078 Type 2 Diabetes Patients Reveals High Levels of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Schwandt, Anke; Bergis, Dominik; Dapp, Albrecht; Ebner, Stefan; Jehle, Peter M.; Köppen, Stefan; Risse, Alexander; Zimny, Stefan; Holl, Reinhard W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to investigate the association between psoriasis and disease outcome in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods. 222078 T2D patients (?10 years old) from the prospective, multicenter diabetes patient registry were analyzed. Specific search items were used to identify psoriasis patients. Multiple regression models were fitted and adjusted for demographic confounder. Results. 232 T2D patients had comorbid psoriasis. After adjusting psoriasis patients revealed a higher BMI (31.8 [31.0; 32.6] versus 30.6 [30.5; 30.6]?kg/m2, p = 0.004) and HbA1c (64.8 [62.1; 67.6] versus 59.0 [58.9; 59.1]?mmol/mol, p < 0.0001). Insulin was used more frequently (62.3 [55.7; 68.5] versus 50.9 [50.7; 51.1] %, p = 0.001), only OAD/GLP-1 was similar, and nonpharmacological treatment was less common (13.3 [9.5; 18.3] versus 21.9 [21.7; 22.1] %, p = 0.002). Severe hypoglycemia (0.31 [0.238; 0.399] versus 0.06 [0.057; 0.060] events per patient-year, p < 0.0001), hypertension (86.1 [81.1; 90.0] versus 68.0 [67.8; 68.2] %, p < 0.0001), and thyroid disease (14.0 [10.1; 19.2] versus 4.6 [4.5; 4.7] %, p < 0.0001) were more prevalent. Depression occurred more often (10.5 [7.1; 15.2] versus 2.8 [2.7; 2.8] %, p < 0.0001). Conclusions. Clinical diabetes characteristics in psoriasis T2D patients were clearly worse compared to patients without psoriasis. Comorbid conditions and depression were more prevalent, and more intensive diabetes therapy was required. PMID:26357664

  5. Comparison of Environmental MRSA Levels on High-Touch Surfaces in Contact Isolation and Noncontact Isolation Patient Rooms.

    PubMed

    Villamaria, Frank C; Berlanga, Gemma; Liao, I-Chia; Ganachari-Mallappa, Nagaraja; Stock, Eileen M; Zeber, John E; Jinadatha, Chetan

    2015-12-01

    Environmental samples were collected from 100 hospital rooms, 32 noncontact rooms, and 68 contact isolation rooms. We isolated 202 and 1,830 MRSA colonies in noncontact and contact isolation rooms, respectively. The study identified MRSA isolates in hospital rooms of patients without colonization or infection with MRSA. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(12):1472-1475. PMID:26311001

  6. Physical and mathematical aspects of blood-glucose- and insulin-level kinetics in patients with coronary heart disease and high risk of its development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisova, Tatyana P.; Malinova, Lidia I.; Malinov, Igor A.

    2001-05-01

    The intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed to estimate the kinetics of blood glucose and insulin levels. Glucose was injected in individual standardized dose (0.5 g. per 1 kg of body weight). Three groups of patients were checked up: 1) patients with coronary heart disease verified by cicatricial alterations in myocardium found by electrocardiographic and echocardiographic methods; 2) children of patients with transmural myocardial infarction practically healthy at the moment of study; 3) persons practically healthy at the moment of study without any indications on cardiovascular diseases and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus among all ancestors and relatives who frequently were long-livers. Last groups didn't differ by age and sex. Peripheral blood glucose level, immunoreactive and free insulin (tested by muscular tissue) were studied just before glucose injection (on an empty stomach) and 4 times after it. The received discrete data were approximated by high degree polynomials, the estimation of blood glucose and insulin time functions symmetric was performed. The deceleration of degradation of insulin circulating in peripheral blood and the time decrease of second phase of insulin secretion were analytically established. This fact proves the complicated mechanism of insulin alterations in atherosclerosis, consisting not only of insulin resistance of peripheral tissues but of decrease of plastic processes in insulin- generating cells.

  7. High levels of SIRT1 expression enhance tumorigenesis and associate with a poor prognosis of colorectal carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaojing; Sun, Kai; Jiao, Shufan; Cai, Ning; Zhao, Xue; Zou, Hanbing; Xie, Yuexia; Wang, Zhengshi; Zhong, Ming; Wei, Lixin

    2014-01-01

    SIRT1, a NAD+ dependent class III deacetylase, takes part in many important biological processes. Previous studies show that SIRT1 is overexpressed in some cancers and plays an essential role in tumorigenesis. However, the association between SIRT1 and colorectal cancer (CRC) is still unclear. We found that many CRC specimens had strong SIRT1 expression, which had an obvious correlation with poor prognosis of CRC patients. Meanwhile, SIRT1 expression had a co-localization with CD133, a current universal marker to characterize colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs). In vitro studies also revealed that SIRT1 was overexpressed in colorectal CSC-like cells. Moreover, SIRT1 deficiency decreased percentage of CD133+ cells, attenuated the abilities of colony and sphere formation, and inhibited tumorigenicity in vivo in CRC cells. Further study demonstrated that the expressions of several stemness-associated genes, including Oct4, Nanog, Cripto, Tert and Lin28, were reduced by SIRT1 knockdown in CRC cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that SIRT1 plays a crucial role in keeping the characteristics of CSCs cells. SIRT1 is a potential independent prognostic factor of CRC patients after tumor resection with curative intent, and will contribute to providing a promising new approach to target at CSCs in CRC treatment. PMID:25500546

  8. High potassium level

    MedlinePLUS

    ... symptoms. Tests that may be ordered include: Electrocardiogram (ECG) Potassium level Your doctor will likely check your ... have danger signs, such as changes in an ECG . Emergency treatment may include: Calcium given into your ...

  9. High levels of microRNA-21 in the stroma of colorectal cancers predict short disease-free survival in stage II colon cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Stine; Fog, Jacob Ulrik; Søkilde, Rolf; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Hansen, Ulla; Brünner, Nils; Baker, Adam; Møller, Søren; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 25% of all patients with stage II colorectal cancer will experience recurrent disease and subsequently die within 5 years. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is upregulated in several cancer types and has been associated with survival in colon cancer. In the present study we developed a robust in situ hybridization assay using high-affinity Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) probes that specifically detect miR-21 in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples. The expression of miR-21 was analyzed by in situ hybridization on 130 stage II colon and 67 stage II rectal cancer specimens. The miR-21 signal was revealed as a blue chromogenic reaction, predominantly observed in fibroblast-like cells located in the stromal compartment of the tumors. The expression levels were measured using image analysis. The miR-21 signal was determined as the total blue area (TB), or the area fraction relative to the nuclear density (TBR) obtained using a red nuclear stain. High TBR (and TB) estimates of miR-21 expression correlated significantly with shorter disease-free survival (p = 0.004, HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.06–1.55) in the stage II colon cancer patient group, whereas no significant correlation with disease-free survival was observed in the stage II rectal cancer group. In multivariate analysis both TB and TBR estimates were independent of other clinical parameters (age, gender, total leukocyte count, K-RAS mutational status and MSI). We conclude that miR-21 is primarily a stromal microRNA, which when measured by image analysis identifies a subgroup of stage II colon cancer patients with short disease-free survival. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10585-010-9355-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:21069438

  10. Cystathionine Levels in Patients With Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, N.A.; Onkenhout, W.; Kerstens, H.J.; Roos, Raymund A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently a profound depletion of cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE), the principal enzyme involved in the generation of cysteine from cystathionine, was shown in Huntington disease (HD) patients and several transgenic HD mouse models. We therefore hypothesized that blood and urine cystathionine levels may be increased in HD patients and that this increase might correlate with disease progression. Methods: We measured concentrations of cystathionine as well as 22 other amino acids in fasting plasma and 24-h urine samples of nine early-stage HD patients and nine age, sex, and body mass index matched controls. Results: There were no significant differences in the plasma or urine concentrations of cystathionine or any other amino acid between HD patients and controls. Conclusion: We found no evidence for changes in plasma or urine concentrations of cystathionine in early-stage HD patients. Therefore, cystathionine levels are unlikely to be useful as a state biomarker in HD. PMID:26435880

  11. Increased number of forkhead box P3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes correlates with high preoperative albumin level and better survival in patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-liang; Liu, Yan-yan; Gu, Yuan-long; Qin, Yu; Ji, Hong-fei; Wu, Li-hua; Qi, Ning; Su, Dan; Huang, Sun-hui; Zhang, Yan-qiao

    2015-07-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) that test positive for forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) and elevated preoperative serum albumin levels have been positively associated with survival in colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate correlations among FOXP3+ TILs, preoperative serum albumin, overall survival, and other clinicopathological features of CRC patients. Surgical specimens from 340 stage II-III CRC patients were stained immunohistochemically for the presence of FOXP3+ TILs. Serum albumin levels were determined using an automatic biochemistry analyzer. Associations between various clinicopathological features and patient survival were analyzed via a Cox proportional hazards regression model. The correlation between FOXP3+ TILs and preoperative serum albumin was assessed using Pearson's correlation analysis. Survival curves were constructed by the Kaplan-Meier method. A high FOXP3+ TIL density (>15/five high-power fields), elevated preoperative serum albumin (?35 g/L), and proximal colon carcinoma were significantly associated with better survival, and high FOXP3+ TIL number and elevated preoperative serum albumin were independent predictors of better survival. The correlation between the number of FOXP3+ TILs and preoperative serum albumin level was significant but neither of these correlated with gender, age, tumor size, tumor differentiation, mucinous tumor, T4 stage, postoperative chemotherapy, or tumor location. Our findings suggest that increased FOXP3+ TILs and high preoperative serum albumin levels are independent prognostic markers for improved survival in CRC patients. Furthermore, the number of FOXP3+ TILs correlates with preoperative serum albumin levels in these patients. PMID:25697896

  12. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bean, Vern E. (Frederick, MD); Long, Frederick G. (Ijamsville, MD)

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  13. High in vitro immune reactivity to Escherichia coli in neuromyelitis optica patients is correlated with both neurological disabilities and elevated plasma lipopolysaccharide levels.

    PubMed

    Barros, Priscila O; Linhares, Ulisses C; Teixeira, Bruna; Kasahara, Taissa M; Ferreira, Thais B; Alvarenga, Regina; Hygino, Joana; Silva-Filho, Renato G; Bittencourt, Vera Carolina B; Andrade, Regis M; Andrade, Arnaldo F; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2013-09-01

    The pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is influenced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including infectious agents. Several infectious diseases can both trigger or exacerbate autoimmunity. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the in vitro immune responsiveness to Escherichia coli (EC), Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Candida albicans (CA) in remittent-recurrent NMO patients, and correlate it with the level of neurological disability. Our results revealed that the extent of lymphoproliferation and cytokine profile in response to SA- and CA-stimulated PBMC cultures was similar between NMO patients and healthy individuals. Nevertheless, a higher in vitro CD4(+) T cell proliferation associated with elevated IL-1?, IL-6 and IL-17 release was observed in NMO-derived EC-stimulated cell cultures. Additionally, in these last cultures, the IL-10 production was significantly lower as compared with control group. The in vitro EC-induced levels of IL-6 and IL-17 were positively related with neurological disabilities. This higher tendency to produce Th17-related cytokines was proportional to the production of IL-23 and IL-6 by LPS-activated monocytes. Interestingly, elevated LPS levels were quantified in the plasma of NMO patients. The results suggest that a higher Th17-responsiveness to E. coli could be involved in the NMO pathogenesis. PMID:23777933

  14. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  15. Genetic determination of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-1 plasma levels in a family study of cardiac catheterization patients

    SciTech Connect

    Prenger, V.L.; Beaty, T.H.; Kwiterovich, P.O. )

    1992-11-01

    Plasma levels of two lipoprotein risk factors, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-1 (apo A-1), have been shown to be negatively associated with the risk of developing coronary artery disease, and several reports have examined familial factors in HDL-C and apo A-1 levels. A number of studies suggest that shared genes influence familial resemblance of these lipoprotein levels far more than do shared environments. Possible mechanisms for the inheritance of these risk factors (HDL-C and apo A-1 plasma levels) are explored using data from 390 individuals in 69 families ascertained through probands undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Segregation analysis was used to test a series of specific models of inheritance. Evidence for single-locus control of apo A-1 levels, with Mendelian transmission of a dominant allele leading to elevated apo A-1 levels, was seen in these families, although there was additional correlation among sibs present. This locus accounted for 48.6% and 37.2% of the total variation in apo A-1 levels in males and females, respectively. Similar evidence of segregation at a single locus controlling HDL-C levels was not seen in these families. 27 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. The ALICE high level trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alt, T.; Grastveit, G.; Helstrup, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Röhrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Tilsner, H.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbø, A.; Vik, T.; Wiebalck, A.; ALICE Collaboration

    2004-08-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC will implement a high-level trigger system for online event selection and/or data compression. The largest computing challenge is posed by the TPC detector, which requires real-time pattern recognition. The system entails a very large processing farm that is designed for an anticipated input data stream of 25 GB s-1. In this paper, we present the architecture of the system and the current state of the tracking methods and data compression applications.

  17. Prognostic Impact of 9-Month High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels on Long-Term Clinical Outcomes and In-Stent Restenosis in Patients at 9 Months after Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, I-Chang; Chen, Chun-Chi; Hsieh, Ming-Jer; Yang, Chia-Hung; Chen, Dong-Yi; Chang, Shang-Hung; Wang, Chao-Yung; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Tsai, Ming-Lung

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The level of 9-month high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in predicting cardiovascular outcomes is scanty in patients at 9 months after receiving drug-eluting stent (DES) implantations. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between 9-month follow-up hsCRP levels and long-term clinical outcomes in patients at 9 months after receiving DES. Methods A total of 1,763 patients who received 9-month follow-up angiography were enrolled and grouped according to hsCRP level 9 months after the DES implantation: group I (718 patients, hsCRP<1.0 mg/L), group II (639 patients, 1.0?hsCRP?3.0 mg/L), and group III (406 patients, hsCRP>3.0 mg/L). Results Group III patients had a lower cardiovascular event-free survival rate than group I or II patients during a follow-up of 64±45 months (64.5% vs. 71.6% vs. 72.8%, respectively, p = 0.012). Multivariate analysis showed that a follow-up hsCRP level <3.0 mg/L was an independent predictor of a major adverse cardiovascular event (cardiac death, reinfarction, target lesion revascularization, stenting in a new lesion, or coronary bypass surgery). Group III patients had a higher restenosis rate (11.3% vs. 5.8% vs. 6.6%, respectively, p = 0.002) and loss index (0.21±0.32 vs. 0.16±0.24 vs. 0.18±0.28, respectively, p = 0.001) than group I or II patients in 9-month follow-up angiography. Conclusions A high 9-month follow-up hsCRP level is an independent predictor of long-term clinical cardiovascular outcomes in patients at 9 months after DES implantation. It is also associated with a higher restenosis rate, larger late loss and loss index at 9 months after DES implantation. PMID:26406989

  18. The cost-effectiveness and public health benefit of nalmefene added to psychosocial support for the reduction of alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients with high/very high drinking risk levels: a Markov model

    PubMed Central

    Laramée, Philippe; Brodtkorb, Thor-Henrik; Rahhali, Nora; Knight, Chris; Barbosa, Carolina; François, Clément; Toumi, Mondher; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether nalmefene combined with psychosocial support is cost-effective compared with psychosocial support alone for reducing alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients with high/very high drinking risk levels (DRLs) as defined by the WHO, and to evaluate the public health benefit of reducing harmful alcohol-attributable diseases, injuries and deaths. Design Decision modelling using Markov chains compared costs and effects over 5?years. Setting The analysis was from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. Participants The model considered the licensed population for nalmefene, specifically adults with both alcohol dependence and high/very high DRLs, who do not require immediate detoxification and who continue to have high/very high DRLs after initial assessment. Data sources We modelled treatment effect using data from three clinical trials for nalmefene (ESENSE 1 (NCT00811720), ESENSE 2 (NCT00812461) and SENSE (NCT00811941)). Baseline characteristics of the model population, treatment resource utilisation and utilities were from these trials. We estimated the number of alcohol-attributable events occurring at different levels of alcohol consumption based on published epidemiological risk-relation studies. Health-related costs were from UK sources. Main outcome measures We measured incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained and number of alcohol-attributable harmful events avoided. Results Nalmefene in combination with psychosocial support had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £5204 per QALY gained, and was therefore cost-effective at the £20?000 per QALY gained decision threshold. Sensitivity analyses showed that the conclusion was robust. Nalmefene plus psychosocial support led to the avoidance of 7179 alcohol-attributable diseases/injuries and 309 deaths per 100?000 patients compared to psychosocial support alone over the course of 5?years. Conclusions Nalmefene can be seen as a cost-effective treatment for alcohol dependence, with substantial public health benefits. Trial registration numbers This cost-effectiveness analysis was developed based on data from three randomised clinical trials: ESENSE 1 (NCT00811720), ESENSE 2 (NCT00812461) and SENSE (NCT00811941). PMID:25227627

  19. Serum Fibronectin Levels in Acute and Chronic Viral Hepatitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    ERTURK, Ayse; CURE, Erkan; OZKURT, Zulal; PARLAK, Emine; CURE, Medine Cumhur

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the serum fibronectin (FN) levels and liver enzyme activities in patients with acute hepatitis (A, B, C) and chronic viral hepatitis (B, C); determine whether the virus types correlated with disease severity; and assess whether FN could be used as a marker of virus type or disease severity in patients. Methods: A total of 60 subjects were enrolled in the study, including 20 patients with acute hepatitis (A, B, C), 20 with chronic hepatitis (B, C), and 20 healthy controls. Serum fibronectin (FN), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and albumin were measured in all patients from blood samples. Results: Serum FN levels were significantly lower in acute (122.9 ?g/mL (SD 43.1), P < 0.001) and chronic hepatitis patients (135.7 ?g/mL (SD 46.0), P < 0 .001) compared to controls 221.4 ?g/mL (SD 32.5). A negative correlation was found between serum FN and AST (r2 = 0.528, P < 0.001), ALT (r2 = 0.425, P < 0.001), and GGT (r2 = 0.339, P < 0.001). Additionally, high serum GGT levels (? = –0.375, P = 0.010), and low serum albumin levels (? = –0.305, P = 0.008) were associated with low serum FN levels. Conclusion: Serum FN levels were lower in both acute and chronic hepatitis patients, and an inverse relationship between serum FN and serum AST, ALT, and GGT levels was found. A decrease in serum FN levels may indicate hepatitis severity as AST and ALT represent hepatocyte damage. PMID:24639609

  20. Longitudinal study of leptin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The influence of serum leptin levels on nutritional status and survival in chronic hemodialysis patients remained to be elucidated. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of leptin levels and nutritional parameters to determine whether changes of serum leptin levels modify nutritional status and survival in a cohort of prevalent hemodialysis patients. Methods Leptin, dietary energy and protein intake, biochemical markers of nutrition and body composition (anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis) were measured at baseline and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following enrollment, in 101 prevalent hemodialysis patients (37% women) with a mean age of 64.6 ± 11.5 years. Observation of this cohort was continued over 2 additional years. Changes in repeated measures were evaluated, with adjustment for baseline differences in demographic and clinical parameters. Results Significant reduction of leptin levels with time were observed (linear estimate: -2.5010 ± 0.57 ng/ml/2y; p < 0.001) with a more rapid decline in leptin levels in the highest leptin tertile in both unadjusted (p = 0.007) and fully adjusted (p = 0.047) models. A significant reduction in body composition parameters over time was observed, but was not influenced by leptin (leptin-by-time interactions were not significant). No significant associations were noted between leptin levels and changes in dietary protein or energy intake, or laboratory nutritional markers. Finally, cumulative incidences of survival were unaffected by the baseline serum leptin levels. Conclusions Thus leptin levels reflect fat mass depots, rather than independently contributing to uremic anorexia or modifying nutritional status and/or survival in chronic hemodialysis patients. The importance of such information is high if leptin is contemplated as a potential therapeutic target in hemodialysis patients. PMID:21676262

  1. Assessing the utility of testing aluminum levels in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashish K; Toussaint, Nigel D; Pickering, Janice; Beeston, Tony; Smith, Edward R; Holt, Stephen G

    2015-04-01

    Plasma aluminum (Al) is routinely tested in many dialysis patients. Aluminum exposure may lead to acute toxicity and levels in excess of ?2.2??mol/L (60??g/L) should be avoided. Historically, toxicity has been caused by excessive dialyzate Al but modern reverse osmosis (RO) water should be Al free. Nevertheless, many units continue to perform routine Al levels on dialysis patients. This single-center study retrospectively analyzed Al levels in plasma, raw water feed, and RO product between 2010 and 2013 using our database (Nephworks 6) with the aim of determining the utility of these measurements. Two thousand fifty-eight plasma Al tests in 755 patients (61.9% male, mean age 64.7 years) were reviewed showing mean?±?SD of 0.41?±?0.30??mol/L. One hundred eleven (5.4%) tests from 61 patients had Al levels >0.74??mol/L and 45 (73.8%) of these patients were or had been prescribed Al hydroxide (Al(OH)(3)) as a phosphate binder. Seven patients had Al concentrations >2.2??mol/L with no source of Al identified in 1 patient. One hundred sixty-six patients taking Al(OH)(3) (78.7% of all patients on Al(OH)(3)) had levels ?0.74??mol/L, the odds ratio of plasma Al?>?0.74??mol/L on Al(OH)3 was 9. The cost of plasma Al assay is $A30.60; thus, costs were $A62,974.80 over the study period. Despite RO feed water Al levels as high as 48??mol/L, Al output from the RO was almost always undetectable (<0.1??mol/L) with dialyzate Al levels?>?2.2??mol/L only 3 times since 2010, and never in the last 3 years. Routine unselected testing of plasma Al appears unnecessary and expensive and more selective testing in dialysis patients should be considered. PMID:25306885

  2. Satisfaction levels in orthopaedic out-patients.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Dominic M.; Gill, Kathryn; Ricketts, David M.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It is important that patients are satisfied with an out-patient consultation. This ensures compliance with treatment and attendance for follow-up. The aim of this study was to identify factors regarding out-patient consultation associated with patient satisfaction. METHODS: A two-part questionnaire identifying expectations of, and subsequent satisfaction with, a new out-patient consultation was completed by 106 out-patients. RESULTS: There was no correlation between not seeing the clinician anticipated and reduced satisfaction (P = 0.17). Using more information sources was associated with less satisfaction (P = 0.02). Patients were less satisfied if their expectations of either treatment or outcome were changed. CONCLUSIONS: Meeting patients' expectations is an essential part of effective communication. The use of specialist physiotherapists and general practitioners with a special interest is an effective way of seeing more new patients. PMID:15826419

  3. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-09-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being evaluated at Idaho National Laboratory and the facilities we’ve designed to evaluate options and support optimization.

  4. Circulating KL-6 levels in patients with drug induced pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, H; Yokoyama, A; Yasuhara, Y; Watanabe, A; Naka, T; Hamada, H; Abe, M; Nishimura, K; Higaki, J; Ikezoe, J; Kohno, N

    2003-01-01

    Background: The circulating level of KL-6/MUC1 is a sensitive marker for various interstitial lung diseases. Previous case reports have suggested that KL-6 may also be increased in some patients with drug induced pneumonitis. A study was undertaken to determine whether serum KL-6 could be a marker for particular types of drug induced pneumonitis. Methods: The findings of high resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) chest scans of 30 patients with drug induced pneumonitis were reviewed separately by two independent observers. The pneumonitis was classified into four predominant patterns: widespread bilateral consolidation (diffuse alveolar damage, DAD; n=7), fibrosis with or without consolidation (chronic interstitial pneumonia, CIP; n=11), consolidation without fibrosis (bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia or eosinophilic pneumonia, BOOP/EP; n=8), and diffuse ground glass opacities without fibrosis (hypersensitivity pneumonitis, HP; n=4). Serum KL-6 levels were measured by a sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The overall sensitivity of serum KL-6 in detecting drug induced lung disease was 53.3%, which was lower than its sensitivity in detecting other interstitial lung diseases. However, the KL-6 level was increased in most patients with a DAD or CIP pattern (16/18; 88.9%) and was closely correlated with their clinical course. In contrast, serum KL-6 levels were within the normal range in all patients with a BOOP/EP or HP pattern. Conclusions: Particular patterns detected by HRCT scanning, such as DAD and CIP but not the BOOP/EP or HP patterns, are associated with increased circulating KL-6 levels in drug induced pneumonitis. Serum KL-6 levels may reflect the clinical activity of the particular disorders. PMID:14514942

  5. Do Ask, Do Tell: High Levels of Acceptability by Patients of Routine Collection of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Data in Four Diverse American Community Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Sean; Singal, Robbie; Grasso, Chris; King, Dana; Mayer, Kenneth; Baker, Kellan; Makadon, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine and The Joint Commission have recommended asking sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) questions in clinical settings and including such data in Electronic Health Records (EHRs). This is increasingly viewed as a critical step toward systematically documenting and addressing health disparities affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. The U.S. government is currently considering whether to include SOGI data collection in the Stage 3 guidelines for the incentive program promoting meaningful use of EHR. However, some have questioned whether acceptable standard measures to collect SOGI data in clinical settings exist. Methods In order to better understand how a diverse group of patients would respond if SOGI questions were asked in primary care settings, 301 randomly selected patients receiving primary care at four health centers across the U.S. were asked SOGI questions and then asked follow-up questions. This sample was mainly heterosexual, racially diverse, and geographically and regionally broad. Results There was a strong consensus among patients surveyed about the importance of asking SOGI questions. Most of the LGBT respondents thought that the questions presented on the survey allowed them to accurately document their SOGI. Most respondents—heterosexual and LGBT—answered the questions, and said that they would answer such questions in the future. While there were some age-related differences, respondents of all ages overwhelmingly expressed support for asking SOGI questions and understood the importance of providers' knowing their patients' SOGI. Conclusions Given current deliberations within national health care regulatory bodies and the government's increased attention to LGBT health disparities, the finding that patients can and will answer SOGI questions has important implications for public policy. This study provides evidence that integrating SOGI data collection into the meaningful use requirements is both acceptable to diverse samples of patients, including heterosexuals, and feasible. PMID:25198577

  6. High Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Levels in Older Patients with Acute Hip Fracture Are Correlated with Worse Function and Increased Bone Resorption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies suggested that higher SHBG levels are associated with an increased hip fracture risk and that higher testosterone levels may reduce the odds of falling among men and women age 65 and older. The objective of this study is to examine the correlation of serum testosterone and SHBG with...

  7. High temperature liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01

    A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

  8. Neurosteroid Levels in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kartalci, Sukru

    2015-01-01

    Objective Changes in serum neurosteroid levels have been reported in stress-related disorders such as anxiety and depression, but not in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We thus investigated such changes in patients with OCD. Methods We compared the serum levels of progesterone, pregnanolone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), cortisol and testosterone in 30 patients with OCD and 30 healthy controls. Results When male and female patients were evaluated together, DHEA and cortisol levels were significantly higher in patients with OCD than the control group. When the genders were evaluated separately, DHEA and cortisol levels were higher in female patients than the female controls. The increase in DHEA levels in female patients is likely an effect of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In contrast, cortisol levels in male patients were higher than the control group, while testosterone levels were lower. The increased cortisol and decreased testosterone levels in male patients likely involves the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Conclusion These findings suggest that neurosteroid levels in patients with OCD should be investigated together with the HPA and HPG axes in future studies. PMID:26508966

  9. Immune Dysfunction in Rett Syndrome Patients Revealed by High Levels of Serum Anti-N(Glc) IgM Antibody Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Papini, Anna Maria; Real-Fernandez, Feliciana; Rossi, Giada; Tiberi, Caterina; Sabatino, Giuseppina; Pandey, Shashank; Lavielle, Solange; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting exclusively (99%) female infants, is associated with loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) and, more rarely, cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) and forkhead box protein G1 (FOXG1). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the function of the immune system by measuring serum immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM) in RTT patients (n = 53) and, by comparison, in age-matched children affected by non-RTT pervasive developmental disorders (non-RTT PDD) (n = 82) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 29). To determine immunoglobulins we used both a conventional agglutination assay and a novel ELISA based on antibody recognition by a surrogate antigen probe, CSF114(Glc), a synthetic N-glucosylated peptide. Both assays provided evidence for an increase in IgM titer, but not in IgG, in RTT patients relative to both healthy controls and non-RTT PDD patients. The significant difference in IgM titers between RTT patients and healthy subjects in the CSF114(Glc) assay (P = 0.001) suggests that this procedure specifically detects a fraction of IgM antibodies likely to be relevant for the RTT disease. These findings offer a new insight into the mechanism underlying the Rett disease as they unveil the possible involvement of the immune system in this pathology. PMID:25389532

  10. Serum malondialdehyde level in patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Eser; Yazar, Süleyman; Saraymen, Recep; Ozbilge, Hatice

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the changes of serum malondialdehyde level, i.e; the oxidative stress hypothesis in patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides. METHODS: Serum malondialdehyde activity was measured in 43 patients who were positive for intestinal parasite of Ascaris lumbricoides. Scores were obtained for the positives and their age-and sex-matched 60 Ascaris lumbricoides negative healthy controls. RESULTS: The difference between malondialdehyde levels of patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and control group was statistically significant both for females (P < 0.05) and for males (P < 0.05). In the patient and control groups, no correlation was found between age and malondialdehyde levels (P > 0.05) both in females and in males. In addition, no significant correlation could be found between malondialdehyde levels of both females and males for patients and control groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Malondialdehyde levels clearly increase in patients infected with Ascaris lumbricoides. PMID:14562404

  11. Feedback Loop between High Level Semantics and Low Level Vision

    E-print Network

    Daume III, Hal

    scores. For example, in an event recognition system for basketball, the low level detections like shot-on-one basketball videos that uses Markov Logic Networks. 1 Introduction Computer vision systems are generally missed and rebound events are related by high level rules of the game which say that a shot missed event

  12. Coal Ash Contains High Levels of Radioactivity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 154590.html Coal Ash Contains High Levels of Radioactivity: Study End product from coal-fired plants may ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Coal ash contains levels of radioactivity that raise concern about the environment and human ...

  13. High-Level Data Races

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artho, Cyrille; Havelund, Klaus; Biere, Armin; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Data races are a common problem in concurrent and multi-threaded programming. They are hard to detect without proper tool support. Despite the successful application of these tools, experience shows that the notion of data race is not powerful enough to capture certain types of inconsistencies occurring in practice. In this paper we investigate data races on a higher abstraction layer. This enables us to detect inconsistent uses of shared variables, even if no classical race condition occurs. For example, a data structure representing a coordinate pair may have to be treated atomically. By lifting the meaning of a data race to a higher level, such problems can now be covered. The paper defines the concepts view and view consistency to give a notation for this novel kind of property. It describes what kinds of errors can be detected with this new definition, and where its limitations are. It also gives a formal guideline for using data structures in a multi-threading environment.

  14. Defining high activity in arthroplasty patients.

    PubMed

    Robertson, N B; Battenberg, A K; Kertzner, M; Schmalzried, T P

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that high levels of physical activity following arthroplasty of the hip or knee can lead to early revision. However, the term 'highly active' is not well defined. A validated ankle accelerometer was used to quantify activity in 13 patients, who had undergone a total of 20 arthroplasties of the lower limbs and who had active lifestyles. The assessments were taken at a mean of 8.7 years post-operatively (1.8 to 15.8). The mean gait cycles per day was 8273 (5964 to 12 557), which extrapolates to 3.0 million cycles per year (cpy) (2.2 to 4.6). The mean percentage of time spent in high activity mode was 4.3%, or about one hour per day. The mean percentage of cycles in high activity was 40%. Based on these data, we propose the following definitions of high activity: > 3 million cpy; one hour per day in high activity mode; 40% of cycles in high activity mode. Extrapolating the sample of activity over the time since operation, the mean cycles per arthroplasty was 25.2 million, with a maximum of 44.1 million. No joint has been revised, or shows evidence of impending failure. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B(1 Suppl A):95-7. PMID:26733651

  15. Low Levels of Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate in Younger Burnout Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Kushnir, Mark M.; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-s) is an anabolic protective hormone of importance for maintenance of health. DHEA-s levels peak in young adults and decline thereafter with age. DHEA-s has previously been shown to be lower in individuals reporting prolonged stress. This study investigates DHEA-s levels in patients with clinical burnout, a disorder caused by long-term psychosocial stress. Methods 122 patients (51% men) and 47 controls (51% men) in the age 25–54 years were included in the study. DHEA-s levels were compared between patients and controls in the whole sample and within each of the three 10-year-interval age groups. Results In the youngest age group (25–34 years), DHEA-s levels were on average 25% lower in the patients (p = 0.006). The differences in DHEA-s levels between patients and controls were more pronounced among female than male participants (on average 32% and 13% lower, respectively). There were no differences in DHEA-s levels between patients and controls in the age group 35–44 years (p = 0.927) or 45–54 years (p = 0.897) or when analyzing all age groups together (p = 0.187). Conclusion The study indicates that levels of the health promoting “youth” hormone DHEA-s are low in younger burnout patients. The fact that younger adults have much higher DHEA-s levels and more pronounced inter-subject variability in DHEA-s levels than older individuals might explain why burnout status differentiates patients from controls only among the youngest patients included in this study. PMID:26441131

  16. Mercury levels in high-end consumers of fish.

    PubMed Central

    Hightower, Jane M; Moore, Dan

    2003-01-01

    Consumption of food containing mercury has been identified as a health risk. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and the National Academy of Sciences recommend keeping the whole blood mercury level < 5.0 microg/L or the hair level < 1.0 microg/g. This corresponds to a reference dose (RfD) of 0.1 microg/kg body weight per day. All patients in a 1-year period (n = 720) who came for an office visit in a private internal medicine practice in San Francisco, California, were evaluated for mercury excess using the current RfD. One hundred twenty-three patients were tested (93 females, 30 males). Of these, data were statistically analyzed for 89 subjects. Mercury levels ranged from 2.0 to 89.5 microg/L for the 89 subjects. The mean for 66 women was 15 microg/L [standard deviation (SD) = 15], and for 23 men was 13 microg/L (SD = 5); 89% had levels exceeding the RfD. Subjects consumed 30 different forms or types of fish. Swordfish had the highest correlation with mercury level. Sixty-seven patients with serial blood levels over time after stopping fish showed a decline in mercury levels; reduction was significant (p < 0.0001). A substantial fraction of patients had diets high in fish consumption; of these, a high proportion had blood mercury levels exceeding the maximum level recommended by the U.S. EPA and National Academy of Sciences. The mean level for women in this survey was 10 times that of mercury levels found in a recent population survey by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Some children were > 40 times the national mean. PMID:12676623

  17. Parallel Processing at the High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheary, Kathryn Anne

    This study investigated the ability of high school students to cognitively understand and implement parallel processing. Data indicates that most parallel processing is being taught at the university level. Instructional modules on C, Linux, and the parallel processing language, P4, were designed to show that high school students are highly

  18. Serum eotaxin levels in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, A; Asero, R; Lorini, M; Marzano, A V; Cugno, M

    2012-10-01

    Eotaxin is a potent agonist for CC chemokine receptor 3 that can attract eosinophils at sites of inflammation. Given the potential role of eosinophils in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CU), we measured serum eotaxin levels together with C-reactive protein in 100 CU patients who were characterized according to autologous serum skin test (ASST) and disease severity. Serum eotaxin concentration was significantly higher in CU patients (median 140.1 pg/ml, range 33.7-718.7 pg/ml) than in 45 healthy controls (median 108.9 pg/ml, range 45.5-409.4 pg/ml) (p = 0.032) Serum eotaxin concentration was not significantly different in ASST-positive and ASST-negative patients as well as in patients with different urticaria activity scores. However, eotaxin levels tended to be higher in patients with intense symptoms. In the 7 patients observed during CU exacerbation and during remission, eotaxin serum levels tended to decrease during remission, although statistical significance was not reached (median concentration decreased from 170.0 pg/ml to 123.8 pg/ml). CRP levels were not significantly different in CU patients and healthy subjects, although there was a trend towards higher levels in the former population. Furthermore, in the 7 patients observed during CU exacerbation and during remission, CRP levels decreased significantly during remission (median concentration dropped from 4.1 microg/ml to 0.7 microg/ml, p = 0.015). No significant correlation was found between eotaxin and CRP serum levels. These findings indicate that serum eotaxin levels are increased in CU patients, although they do not reflect strictly disease activity. A role for eotaxin in eosinophil attraction and activation in CU can be envisaged. PMID:23156066

  19. Impact of serum omentin-1 levels on cardiac prognosis in patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Various adipokines are reported to be associated with the development of heart failure (HF) through insulin resistance and chronic inflammation. Omentin-1 is a novel adipokine and is associated with incident coronary artery disease. However, it remains unclear whether serum omentin-1 levels are associated with cardiac prognosis in patients with HF. Methods We measured serum omentin-1 levels at admission in 136 consecutive patients with HF, and 20 control subjects without signs of significant heart disease. We prospectively followed patients with HF to endpoints of cardiac death or re-hospitalization for worsening HF. Results Serum omentin-1 levels were markedly lower in HF patients with cardiac events compared with to without. The patients who were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class IV showed significantly lower serum omentin-1 levels compared to those in class II and III, whereas serum omentin-1 levels did not correlate with serum brain natriuretic peptide levels (r?=?0.217, P?=?0.011). We divided the HF patients into three groups based on the tertiles of serum omentin-1 level (low T1, middle T2, and high T3). Multivariate Cox hazard analysis showed that the lowest serum omentin-1 level (T1) was independently associated with cardiac events after adjustment for confounding factors (hazard ratio 5.78, 95% confidence interval 1.20-12.79). We divided the HF patients into two groups according to the median serum omentin-1 levels. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the patients with low serum omentin-1 levels had a higher risk of cardiac events compared with those with high serum omentin-1 levels (log-rank test p?levels were associated with a poor cardiac outcome in patients with HF. PMID:24755035

  20. [Cytokines level in patients with drug-induced jaw necrosis].

    PubMed

    Ivaniushko, T P; Gankovskaia, L V; Kartashov, D D; Basin, E M; Balykin, R A

    2014-01-01

    The study included 15 patients with purulent inflammatory diseases of maxillofacial area and 25 patients with facial bone necrosis induced by synthetic drugs. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines levels in saliva and wound fluid were analyzed in two groups. The results proved cytokines to play important role in jaw necrosis induced by drugs containing red phosphorus. PMID:24990783

  1. Apelin Serum Level in Egyptian Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    El-Mesallamy, Hala O.; Hamdy, Nadia M.; Rizk, Hanan H.; El-Zayadi, Abdel-Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Highlighting the apelin system would present a new therapeutic target for liver disease. Apelin; endogenous ligand for the orphan receptor APJ, was recently suggested to be associated with fibrosis progression and cirrhosis in addition to insulin resistance (IR) and inflammation. The present study was conducted to evaluate blood apelin level changes among 73 chronic hepatitis C (CHC) Egyptian patients and if associated with body mass index (BMI), IR, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?). Serum apelin levels were significantly higher in patients with CHC with median value (3.25) when compared with controls (1.11), at P < 0.0001, with significant apelin variations among asymptomatic carriers (ASC), fibrosis, and cirrhosis patients, and also among obese and nonobese patients. Multiple regression analysis depicted that BMI, triglycerides, and total cholesterol were independent correlation factors to apelin levels, whereas TNF-? was found to be significantly negatively correlated to adjusted apelin in CHC patients (r = ?0.5944, P < 0.0001). IR was positively correlated to adjusted apelin in CHC patients (r = 0.2663, P < 0.05). Conclusion. Apelin level varies among stages of CHC, which may contribute to fibrosis progression. In addition, obesity and IR could act as comorbid factors affecting apelin level in patients with CHC. PMID:22007137

  2. Decrease in TSH levels after lactose restriction in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients with lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Asik, Mehmet; Gunes, Fahri; Binnetoglu, Emine; Eroglu, Mustafa; Bozkurt, Neslihan; Sen, Hacer; Akbal, Erdem; Bakar, Coskum; Beyazit, Yavuz; Ukinc, Kubilay

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerance (LI) in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis(HT) and the effects of lactose restriction on thyroid function in these patients. Eighty-three HT patients taking L-thyroxine (LT4) were enrolled, and lactose tolerance tests were performed on all patients. Lactose intolerance was diagnosed in 75.9 % of the patients with HT. Thirty-eight patients with LI were started on a lactose-restricted diet for 8 weeks. Thirty-eight patients with LI (30 euthyroid and 8 with subclinical hypothyroidism), and 12 patients without LI were included in the final analysis. The level of TSH significantly decreased in the euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroid patients with LI [from 2.06 ± 1.02 to 1.51 ±1.1 IU/mL and from 5.45 ± 0.74 to 2.25 ± 1.88 IU/mL,respectively (both P<0.05)]. However, the level of TSH in patients without LI did not change significantly over the 8 weeks (P>0.05). Lactose intolerance occurs at a high frequency in HT patients. Lactose restriction leads to decreased levels of TSH, and LI should be considered in hypothyroid patients who require increasing LT4 doses,have irregular TSH levels and are resistant to LT4 treatment. PMID:24078411

  3. The Serum Lead level in Patients With Retained Lead Pellets

    PubMed Central

    Moazeni, Mohammad; Mohammad Alibeigi, Faramarz; Sayadi, Masoud; Poorya Mofrad, Ebrahim; Kheiri, Soleiman; Darvishi, Malihe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients, who survived from shotgun injuries, often have some retained lead pellets in their bodies. Several cases of lead toxicity have been reported regarding these patients. Objectives: This study seeks to compare the serum lead level in patients who have retained lead pellets in their bodies with the control group. Patients and Methods: In this case-control study, we gathered the serum lead levels of 25 patients with some retained lead pellets in their bodies due to shotgun and 25 volunteers without similar lead exposure and compared them in view of the age, gender, and living place. Results: While the mean serum lead level in both groups was lower than the standard level (i.e. 40 µg/dL) , the mean ± SD of serum lead level were 29 ± 12.8 µg/dL and 25.3 ± 6.4 µg/dL in the case and control groups, respectively without any significant difference (P = 0. 30) . However, a positive relationship was seen between serum lead level, and the number of retained lead pellets (r = 0.447, P = 0. 025) . Conclusions: Although extensive surgery to remove the lead pellets is not recommended in patients injured with shotguns, those with many retained lead pellets in their bodies should be considered at risk for lead poisoning and monitored carefully. PMID:25147780

  4. Altered Serum Uric Acid Level in Lichen Planus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborti, Goutam; Biswas, Rabindranath; Chakraborti, Sandip; Sen, Pradyot Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a common disorder whose etiopathogenesis is not clear. Recently, it has been suggested that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the underlying mechanism of LP. Objectives: The principal aim of this study was to evaluate serum uric acid (UA) levels as a measure of the antioxidant defense status in LP patients. Methods: Serum UA levels were determined in 58 LP patients and 61 controls. Results: Serum UA levels were significantly decreased in patients with respect to controls. Moreover, serum UA level was decreased according to increasing duration of disease. Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that LP is associated with decrease of UA levels in serum. UA may be a potential, useful biomarker of antioxidant status in LP for elaboration of treatment strategy and monitoring. PMID:25484383

  5. Zinc levels and infections in hospitalized patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Koch, J; Neal, E A; Schlott, M J; Garcia-Shelton, Y L; Chan, M F; Weaver, K E; Cello, J P

    1996-01-01

    Impaired cellular and humoral immunity and phagocytic function have been attributed to zinc deficiency. This study examined the association between low serum zinc concentration and opportunistic infections in hospitalized patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). We examined the records from all 505 inpatient consultations performed by our Nutrition Service from May 1992 through June 1994. The medical records from all 228 patients with AIDS with known serum zinc levels (determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry) were reviewed. The length of HIV seropositivity, most recent CD4 count, presence of diarrhea, and degree of malnutrition were noted. The principal diagnosis accounting for the admission was grouped according to the type of infection: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), viral, fungal, bacterial, and other. Sixty-seven patients (29%) had abnormally low serum zinc levels (LSZ < 55 micrograms/dL), 49 patients (21%) had borderline low serum zinc (BSZ > or = 55 and < or = 65 microgram/dL), and 112 (49%) patients had normal serum zinc levels (NSZ > 65 micrograms/dL). There was no significant difference among the groups in CD4 count, length of HIV seropositivity, presence of diarrhea, or severity of malnutrition. Patients with zinc deficiency (LSZ) had a significantly higher incidence of bacterial infection than did patients with normal zinc. Patients with borderline zinc levels had an intermediate incidence of bacterial infection. There were no significant differences among the three groups in the incidence of PCP, viral, or fungal infections. Severe zinc deficiency was noted in 29% and borderline levels in an additional 21% of hospitalized AIDS patients. A low zinc level was not associated with the length of HIV seropositivity, CD4 count, or degree of malnutrition. Hypozincemia was associated with an increased incidence of concomitant systemic bacterial infections. PMID:8878145

  6. High-Level Application Framework for LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P; Chevtsov, S.; Fairley, D.; Larrieu, C.; Rock, J.; Rogind, D.; White, G.; Zalazny, M.; /SLAC

    2008-04-22

    A framework for high level accelerator application software is being developed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The framework is based on plug-in technology developed by an open source project, Eclipse. Many existing functionalities provided by Eclipse are available to high-level applications written within this framework. The framework also contains static data storage configuration and dynamic data connectivity. Because the framework is Eclipse-based, it is highly compatible with any other Eclipse plug-ins. The entire infrastructure of the software framework will be presented. Planned applications and plug-ins based on the framework are also presented.

  7. Myeloperoxidase Levels Predict Accelerated Progression of Coronary Atherosclerosis in Diabetic Patients: Insights from Intravascular Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Yu; Shao, Mingyuan; Wolski, Kathy; Uno, Kiyoko; Puri, Rishi; Tuzcu, E. Murat; Hazen, Stanley L.; Nissen, Steven E.; Nicholls, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective While inflammation has been proposed to contribute to the adverse cardiovascular outcome in diabetic patients, the specific pathways involved have not been elucidated. The leukocyte derived product, myeloperoxidase (MPO), has been implicated in all stages of atherosclerosis. The relationship between MPO and accelerated disease progression observed in diabetic patients has not been studied. Methods We investigated the relationship between MPO and disease progression in diabetic patients. 881 patients with angiographic coronary artery disease underwent serial evaluation of atherosclerotic burden with intravascular ultrasound. Disease progression in diabetic (n=199) and non-diabetic (n=682) patients, stratified by baseline MPO levels was investigated. Results MPO levels were similar in patients with and without diabetes (1362 vs. 1255 pmol/L, p=0.43). No relationship was observed between increasing quartiles of MPO and either baseline (p=0.81) or serial changes (p=0.43) in levels of percent atheroma volume (PAV) in non-diabetic patients. In contrast, increasing MPO quartiles were associated with accelerated PAV progression in diabetic patients (p=0.03). While optimal control of lipid and the use of high-dose statin were associated with less disease progression, a greater benefit was observed in diabetic patients with lower compared with higher MPO levels at baseline. Conclusions Increasing MPO levels are associated with greater progression of atherosclerosis in diabetic patients. This finding indicates the potential importance of MPO pathways in diabetic cardiovascular disease. PMID:24468151

  8. High Estradiol Levels During Postmenopause – Pitfalls in Laboratory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mebes, I.; Graf, M.; Kellner, M.; Keck, C.; Segerer, S. E.

    2015-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman was admitted with a result of high serum estradiol levels (>?4300?pg/ml) and typical postmenopausal symptoms. She had a history of an adnexectomy (normal histopathology) due to the elevated estradiol levels. After surgery, estradiol levels were as high as before. Analyzing the anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), inhibin B, DHEA-S and estrone, typical postmenopausal levels were found. Serum estradiol levels were controlled several times with rabbit-derived polyclonal as well as monoclonal antibodies to optimize the selectivity of the test system. Secondary, a radioimmunoassay was performed to exclude interferences of the detection system where lower, but still elevated estradiol levels (186?pg/ml) were found. Hypothesizing that our patient underwent a cross reaction with irregular antibodies, a control was done using sheep-derived antibodies, which proved a postmenopausal hormone level (estradiol level high levels of irregular antibodies (>?200?mg/l; reference levels in a postmenopausal woman. PMID:26500371

  9. Change of anti-Mullerian-hormone levels during follicular phase in PCOS patients.

    PubMed

    Köninger, A; Koch, L; Enekwe, A; Birdir, C; Kasimir-Bauer, S; Kimmig, R; Strowitzki, T; Schmidt, B

    2015-01-01

    Anti-Mullerian-hormone (AMH) does not seem to fluctuate significantly during the menstrual cycle in healthy women. However, little is known about cycle fluctuations of AMH levels in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The purpose of this study was to examine AMH fluctuations during the follicular phase in PCOS patients receiving antiestrogens or recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). About 40 PCOS patients diagnosed according to Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group 2003 and 19 controls were prospectively enrolled. PCOS patients received either antiestrogens or recombinant FSH for monoovulation induction and controls received antiestrogens. AMH levels were determined (1) between the 2nd and the 5th day of follicular phase and (2) when a single large dominant follicle ?18?mm had appeared. Our study shows that AMH levels do not change during follicular development in controls as well as in PCOS patients with AMH levels?patients with AMH levels ?5?ng/ml, AMH declines significantly during follicular development (p?levels should be determined in the early follicular phase in PCOS patients without the influence of antiestrogens or exogenous FSH, because these interventions may lower AMH values in patients with high levels. PMID:25222840

  10. Evaluation of Homocysteine Levels in Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salehpour, Saghar; Manzor-al-ajdad, Ozra; Samani, Elham Neisani; Abadi, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    Background To determine the level of plasma homocysteine in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with healthy controls. Materials and Methods In this prospective case-control study on 85 PCOS women and 83 controls matched by body mass index (BMI), homocysteine levels were assessed. Results The mean level of homocysteine was 16.25 ± 11.94 ?mol/L in patients with PCOS and 11.58 ± 3.82 ?mol/L in controls (p=0.002). Patients with PCOS had a significantly higher risk for hyperhomocysteinemia compared with BMI-matched control women. Conclusion These data suggest that homocysteine levels are elevated in the PCOS population. Further studies are needed to characterize this relationship. PMID:24851177

  11. Challenges and Opportunities for Exploring Patient-Level Data

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Pedro; Silva, Luis Bastião; Oliveira, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The proper exploration of patient-level data will pave the way towards personalised medicine. To better assess the state of the art in this field we identify the challenges and uncover the opportunities for the exploration of patient-level data through the review of well-known initiatives and projects focusing on the exploration of patient-level data. These cover a broad array of topics, from genomics to patient registries up to rare diseases research, among others. For each, we identified basic goals, involved partners, defined strategies and key technological and scientific outcomes, establishing the foundation for our analysis framework with four pillars: control, sustainability, technology, and science. Substantial research outcomes have been produced towards the exploration of patient-level data. The potential behind these data will be essential to realise the personalised medicine premise in upcoming years. Hence, relevant stakeholders continually push forward new developments in this domain, bringing novel opportunities that are ripe for exploration. Despite last decade's translational research advances, personalised medicine is still far from being a reality. Patients' data underlying potential goes beyond daily clinical practice. There are miscellaneous challenges and opportunities open for the exploration of these data by academia and business stakeholders. PMID:26504779

  12. Case hardenability at high carbon levels

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, H.W.

    1995-02-01

    Loss of hardenability in the case was thought to be responsible for a lower than specified hardness found on a large carburized bushing. Pseudo Jominy testing on several high hardenability carburizing grades confirmed that hardenability fade was present at carbon levels above 0.65% and particularly for those steels containing molybdenum. Analysis of previous work provided a formula for calculating Jominy hardenability at various carbon levels. Again the results confirmed that the loss of hardenability was more severe in steels containing molybdenum.

  13. Future high sea levels in south Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Blomgren, S.H.; Hanson, H.

    1997-12-31

    An estimation of future mean high water levels in Oeresund and the southwest Baltic Sea is presented together with a discussion of probable consequences for Falsterbo Peninsula, a trumpet-shaped sandy formation of some 25 km{sup 2} size situated in the very southwest corner of Sweden. A literature review coupled with sea-level measurements and observations made in the area every four hours since October 1945 are given and comprise the base for the present analysis.

  14. A Software Architecture for High Level Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shen,G.

    2009-05-04

    A modular software platform for high level applications is under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source II project. This platform is based on client-server architecture, and the components of high level applications on this platform will be modular and distributed, and therefore reusable. An online model server is indispensable for model based control. Different accelerator facilities have different requirements for the online simulation. To supply various accelerator simulators, a set of narrow and general application programming interfaces is developed based on Tracy-3 and Elegant. This paper describes the system architecture for the modular high level applications, the design of narrow and general application programming interface for an online model server, and the prototype of online model server.

  15. Serum Alkaline Phosphatase Levels and Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Olimpia; Rodriguez, Isabel; Hinostroza, Julie; Laso, Nuria; Callejas, Ramiro; Gallar, Paloma; Mon, Carmen; Herrero, Juan Carlos; Ortiz, Milagros; Oliet, Aniana; Vigil, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Background High levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have been associated with increased mortality in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesize that elevated ALP could be partly explained by subclinical liver congestion related to left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Methods Doppler echocardiography was performed in 68 patients with advanced CKD followed up for a median of 2.1 years. Time-averaged levels of ALP and ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were compared between patients with and without diastolic dysfunction. We also evaluated the effect of intensifying diuretic treatment on ALP levels in a small group of 16 patients with high ALP and signs of volume overload. Results ALP correlated significantly (p < 0.001) with GGT but not with parathyroid hormone (p = 0.09). Patients with diastolic dysfunction showed higher ALP (p = 0.01), higher GGT (p = 0.03) and lower albumin (p = 0.04). The highest values of ALP were observed in patients with diastolic dysfunction plus pulmonary hypertension (p = 0.01). Intensifying diuretic therapy in a subgroup of patients with signs of fluid overload induced a significant reduction in body weight, GGT (p < 0.001) and ALP levels (p < 0.001). Conclusions Elevated ALP in patients with advanced CKD could be partly explained by subclinical liver congestion related to left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, hypervolemia or both. The worse prognosis of these patients could be explained by their myocardial damage. PMID:22470402

  16. The significance of circulating levels of both cardiac troponin I and high?sensitivity C reactive protein for the prediction of intravenous thrombolysis outcome in patients with ST?segment elevation myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Foussas, S G; Zairis, M N; Makrygiannis, S S; Manousakis, S J; Anastassiadis, F A; Apostolatos, C S; Patsourakos, N G; Glyptis, M P; Papadopoulos, J K; Xenos, D C; Adamopoulou, E N; Olympios, C D; Argyrakis, S K

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate, using continuous 12?lead ECG ST?segment monitoring, the role of circulating levels of both cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and high?sensitivity C reactive protein (hs?CRP), on presentation, in the prediction of intravenous thrombolysis outcome in patients with ST?segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Design and setting Prospective observational study in a tertiary referral centre. Patients 786 consecutive patients with STEMI, who received intravenous thrombolysis in the first 6?h from index pain. Main outcome measures The incidence of failed thrombolysis and of cardiac death by 30 days. Failed thrombolysis was defined as the absence of abrupt and sustained ?50% ST?segment recovery in the first 90?min after the initiation of intravenous thrombolysis. Results The incidence of failed thrombolysis and 30?day cardiac death was 57.4% and 11.8%, respectively. By multivariate logistic regression analysis according to tertiles of both cTnI (RR, 1.5; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8, p?=?0.004 for highest vs middle third; 2.2, 1.9 to 3.5, p<0.001 for highest vs lowest third; 1.5, 1.2 to 1.8, p?=?0.001 for middle vs lowest third) and hs?CRP (RR, 2.0, 95% CI, 1.6 to 2.2; p<0.001 for highest vs middle third; 2.6, 2.1 to 3.5, p<0.001 for highest vs lowest third; 1.3, 1.2 to 1.7, p?=?0.02 for middle vs lowest third), were independently associated with failed thrombolysis. Moreover, by multivariate Cox regression analysis according to tertiles of both cTnI (HR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8, p?=?0.03 for highest vs middle third; 1.5, 1.2 to 2.2, p?=?0.004 for highest vs lowest third; 1.1, 0.6 to 1.4, p?=?0.6 for middle vs lowest third) and hs?CRP (HR1.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.6, p?=?0.04 for highest vs middle third; 1.7, 1.3 to 2.6, p?=?0.001 for highest vs lowest third; 1.1, 0.9 to 2.1, p?=?0.1 for middle vs lowest third), were independently related with an increased risk of 30?day cardiac death. Conclusions High circulating levels of both cTnI and hs?CRP are related with an independent increased risk of intravenous thrombolysis failure and 30?day cardiac death in patients who received intravenous thrombolysis in the first 6?h of STEMI. PMID:17344331

  17. Low Resistin Level is Associated with Poor Hospitalization-Free Survival in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Wookyung; Jung, Eul Sik; Shin, Dongsu; Choi, Shung Han; Jung, Ji Yong; Chang, Jae Hyun; Lee, Hyun Hee; Kim, Dong Ki

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition and inflammation are related to high rates of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Resistin is associated with nutrition and inflammation. We attempted to determine whether resistin levels may predict clinical outcomes in hemodialysis patients. We conducted a prospective evaluation of 100 outpatients on hemodialysis in a single dialysis center (male, 46%; mean age, 53.7 ± 16.4 yr). We stratified the patients into 4 groups according to quartiles of serum resistin levels. During the 18-month observational period, patients with the lowest quartile of serum resistin levels had poor hospitalization-free survival (log rank test, P = 0.016). After adjustment of all co-variables, patients with the lowest quartile of serum resistin levels had poor hospitalization-free survival, compared with reference resistin levels. Higher levels of interleukin-6 were an independent predictor of poor hospitalization-free survival. In contrast, serum resistin levels were not correlated with interleukin-6 levels. The current data showed that low resistin levels may independently predict poor hospitalization free survival in hemodialysis patients. PMID:22468100

  18. Impact of intraoperative parathyroid hormone levels on surgical results in patients with renal hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Weber, Theresia; Zeier, Martin; Hinz, Ulf; Schilling, Tobias; Büchler, Markus W

    2005-09-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurement on surgical results in patients with renal hyperparathyroidism (HPT). From December 1999 to February 2004, a series of 95 consecutive patients underwent total parathyroidectomy and intraoperative PTH measurement for renal HPT. Intraoperative PTH was measured before and 15 minutes after parathyroidectomy with the Immulite DPC assay for intact PTH. The median PTH levels before surgery were 133.0 pmol/L, which declined to 5.9 pmol/L at the end of the operation. At follow-up, 91 of 95 (96%) patients presented with normal calcium levels. Persistent renal HPT was seen in three patients, and recurrent HPT was diagnosed in another. In 99% of the patients the intraoperative PTH levels declined more than 50% and in 73% the PTH decay was more than 90%. In 64% of the patients PTH levels dropped into the normal range (< 7.6 pmol/L). Altogether, 97% of the patients with an intraoperative PTH decrease of more than 90% presented with normal PTH levels postoperatively (p = 0.0237), as did all of the patients whose intraoperative PTH dropped into the normal range (p = 0.0432). Intraoperative PTH measurement with a decrease in intraoperative PTH of at least 90% is highly predictive of successful parathyroidectomy and normalization of postoperative calcium and PTH levels. PMID:16132402

  19. Plasma betatrophin levels in patients with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Loste, Maria Teresa; García-Unzueta, Maria Teresa; Llerena, Susana; Iruzubieta, Paula; Puente, Angela; Cabezas, Joaquín; Alonso, Carmen; Cuadrado, Antonio; Amado, José Antonio; Crespo, Javier; Fábrega, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the plasma levels of betatrophin in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Forty patients diagnosed at the clinic with liver cirrhosis according to biological, ultrasonographic, or histological criteria were included. The severity of cirrhosis was classified according to Pugh’s modification of Child’s classification and MELD score. Insulin resistance (IR) was assessed by the Homeostasis Model Assessment. A total of 20 patients showed a MELD score higher than 14. The control group consisted in 15 sex-and aged-matched subjects. Fasting blood samples were obtained for subsequent analysis. Serum insulin was determined by Liaison automated immune chemiluminiscence assay (DiaSorin S.p.A.) using a sandwich assay. The sensitivity of the assay was 0.2 ?U/mL. The intra and interassay variation coefficients were < 4% and < 10%, respectively. The normal values were between 2 and 17 ?U/mL. Human active betatrophin was analyzed by specific quantitative sandwich ELISA (Aviscera Bioscience®). The sensitivity of the assay was 0.4 ng/mL, and the intra and interassay reproducibility were < 6% and < 10%, respectively. RESULTS: Plasma betatrophin levels were significantly increased in patients with cirrhosis compared with those in healthy subjects (P = 0.0001). Betatrophin levels were also associated with disease severity, being higher in Child-Pugh C patients compared to Child-Pugh B (P < 0.0005) and in patients who displayed a MELD score higher than 14 points compared to patients with lower punctuation (P = 0.01). In addition, we found a positive correlation between plasma betatrophin levels and the severity of cirrhosis according to Child-Pugh classification (r = 0.53; P < 0.01) or MELD score (r = 0.45; P < 0.01). In the overall cohort, a moderate correlation between serum betatrophin and plasmatic bilirrubin (r = 0.39; P < 0.01) has been observed, as well as an inverse correlation between betatrophin and albumin (r = -0.41; P < 0.01) or prothrombin time (r = -0.44; P <0.01). Moreover, insulin resistance was observed in 82.5% of the cirrhotic patients. In this group of patients, betatrophin levels were significantly higher than those in the group of patients without IR (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Plasma betatrophin is increased in patients with cirrhosis. This increase is related to the severity of cirrhosis, as well as with the emergence of insulin resistance. PMID:26457026

  20. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    SciTech Connect

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  1. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  2. High Level Modeling and Evaluation of

    E-print Network

    High Level Modeling and Evaluation of Multi-Channel Services Thesis for the degree of Philosophiae service acceptance model (MSAM) to access the adoption of mobile services. Research artifact two is a conceptual modeling language, called business process characterizing model (BPCM), which aims to support

  3. Elevated Serum Bisphenol A Level in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qinmei; Liu, Xiao; Shen, Yang; Yu, Peng; Chen, Sisi; Hu, Jinzhu; Yu, Jianhua; Li, Juxiang; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Hong, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine serum Bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) as well as the association between serum BPA and several hormonal parameters in DCM patients compared with a healthy control group. Materials and methods: Eighty-eight DCM patients and 88 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included. Serum BPA levels and several hormonal parameters (including total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2) were measured by using corresponding ELISA Kits. The free androgen index (FAI) was calculated by the formula: total T in nmol/L × 100/SHBG in nmol/L. Results: BPA levels in the total DCM group were significantly higher compared with that in the controls (6.9 ± 2.7 ng/mL vs. 3.8 ± 1.9 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Significant difference was also observed in SHBG and FAI between DCM patients and controls, (76.9 ± 30.9 nM/L vs. 41.0 ± 15.6 nM/L and 2.9 ± 3.5 vs. 5.3 ± 2.6, respectively, both of p < 0.001). Similar trends were observed in the male and female subgroup. Mean T level was lower in DCM group than in control group (540.8 ± 186.0 pg/mL vs. 656.3 ± 112.9 pg/mL, p < 0.001). Linear regression analysis has shown that increasing serum BPA levels were statistically significantly associated with increased SHBG levels. However, no statistical difference was noted for E2. Conclusion: Our findings firstly demonstrated that BPA exposure increased in DCM patients compared with that in healthy controls, while FAI and T levels decreased. SHBG presented a positive association with BPA. It is concluded that hormone disorder induced by BPA exposure might be an environmental factor in the pathology of DCM. PMID:25996886

  4. Metabolic Syndrome and Serum Liver Enzymes Level at Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Music, Miralem; Dervisevic, Amela; Pepic, Esad; Lepara, Orhan; Fajkic, Almir; Ascic-Buturovic, Belma; Tuna, Enes

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate liver function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with and without metabolic syndrome (MS) by determining serum levels of gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). We also investigated correlation between levels of liver enzymes and some components of MS in both groups of patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 96 patients (age 47–83 years) with T2DM. All patients were divided according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) in two groups: 50 patients with T2 DM and MS (T2DM-MS) and 46 patients with T2DM without MS (T2DM-Non MS). The analysis included blood pressure monitoring and laboratory tests: fasting blood glucose (FBG), total lipoprotein cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), fibrinogen and liver enzymes: GGT, ALT and AST. T2DM-MS group included patients which had FBG ? 6,1 mmol/L, TG ? 1,7 mmol/L and blood pressure ? 130/85 mm Hg. Results: T2DM-MS patients had significant higher values of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and medium arterial pressure compared to T2DM-Non MS patients. Serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and FBG were significantly higher in the T2DM-MS group compared to the T2DM-Non MS group. Serum fibrinogen level and GGT level were significantly higher in patients with T2DM-MS compared to the serum fibrinogen level and GGT level in T2DM-Non MS patients. Mean serum AST and ALT level were higher, but not significantly, in patients with T2DM and MS compared to the patients with T2DM without MS. Significant negative correlations were observed between TC and AST (r= -0,28, p<0,05), as well as between TC and ALT level (r= -0,29, p<0,05) in T2DM-MS group of patients. Conclusion: These results suggest that patients with T2DM and MS have markedly elevated liver enzymes. T2DM and MS probably play a role in increasing the risk of liver injury. PMID:26543313

  5. Serum omentin level in patients with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Uyeturk, Ugur; Sar?c?, Hasmet; K?n Tekce, Buket; Eroglu, Muzaffer; Kemahl?, Eray; Uyeturk, Ummugul; Gucuk, Adnan

    2014-04-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in males. Hypertriglyceridemia and obesity are known risk factors for disease development. Omentin is a plasma adipokine that is synthesized in visceral adipose tissue; its plasma concentration changes in colorectal cancer and conditions associated with insulin resistance. To our knowledge, the relationship between omentin and PCa has not been investigated previously. Therefore, we evaluated omentin levels in PCa patients in this matched case-control study. Fifty consecutive patients newly diagnosed with PCa and 30 consecutive patients newly diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were assessed. Patients with PCa were divided into three subgroups according to the Gleason score. The omentin concentrations were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Blood urea nitrogen (p < 0.001), creatinine (Cr; p < 0.001), total cholesterol (p < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein (p < 0.001), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA; p = 0.03) levels were significantly higher in the PCa group than the BPH group. The median omentin level in BPH patients was 373 (207-792) versus 546.8 (297.1-945.7) ng/mL in the PCa group (p < 0.001). There was a negative weak/moderate correlation between omentin and body mass index in the BPH group (r = -0.364, p = 0.048). Circulating omentin levels were elevated in patients with PCa. Further studies would be useful to establish the mechanism underlying this increase and to assess the interaction between PCa and adipose tissue. PMID:24659266

  6. Comparison of salivary and serum glucose levels in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shruti; Sandhu, Simarpreet Virk; Bansal, Himanta; Sharma, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a noncommunicable disease with a rising prevalence worldwide and in developing countries. The most commonly used diagnostic biofluid for detection of glucose levels is blood, but sample collection is an invasive and painful procedure. Thus, there arises a need for a noninvasive and painless technique to detect glucose levels. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the glucose levels of saliva, to assess if any significant correlation existed between the serum and salivary glucose levels, and to correlate salivary glucose levels with regard to duration of diabetes, age, and gender. In the present study, serum and salivary glucose levels of 200 subjects (100 diabetic subjects and 100 nondiabetic subjects) were estimated by glucose oxidase method. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were also measured in randomly selected 40 diabetic subjects. The findings of present study revealed a significant correlation between salivary and serum glucose levels in both diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. No significant relationship was observed between salivary glucose levels and gender or age in both diabetics and nondiabetics and between salivary glucose levels and duration of diabetes in diabetics. On the basis of the findings, it was concluded that salivary glucose levels could serve as a potentially noninvasive adjunct to monitor glycemic control in diabetic patients. PMID:25294888

  7. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    Perez Jr, Joseph M; Bickford, Dennis F; Day, Delbert E; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L; Marra, Sharon L; Peeler, David K; Strachan, Denis M; Triplett, Mark B; Vienna, John D; Wittman, Richard S

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  8. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  9. Serum levels of TWEAK in patients with psoriasis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bilgiç, Özlem; Sivrikaya, Abdullah; Toker, Aysun; Ünlü, Ali; Alt?nyazar, Cevdet

    2016-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory disorders and autoimmune diseases. However, studies conducted on the relationship of TWEAK and psoriasis patients are limited. In this study, we aimed to explore the serum levels of TWEAK and investigated whether TWEAK levels are associated with clinical variables and expression of other well-known psoriasis-related cytokines including IL-6, IL-23 and TNF-?. Forty-five patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and 43 controls were enrolled in this study. The severity of psoriasis was assessed by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Serum levels of cytokines were measured using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The mean TWEAK, IL-6, IL-23, and TN-? levels were significantly higher in psoriasis patients than in control subjects. However, there were no significant correlations between the psoriasis severity, the illness duration and serum cytokine levels. This study shows that TWEAK may be associated with the pathogenesis of psoriasis, like TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-23. PMID:26499979

  10. Study of antioxidant levels in patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alpana; Tripathi, Manjul; Satyam, Abhigyan; Kumar, Lalit

    2009-05-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM), neoplastic disorder, is a B-cell malignancy characterised by the accumulation of clonal population of plasma cells. Reactive oxygen species and other free radicals mediate phenotypic and genotypic changes leading from mutation to neoplasia in all cancers including MM. In the present study, 50 clinically diagnosed patients with MM at stage II of international staging system and 50 healthy controls were included. beta(2) microglobulin levels were estimated by ELISA. The circulating levels of enzymatic antioxidants; superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were spectrophotometrically estimated using RANDOX kits whereas catalase, malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin C and E were estimated by standardised protocols using spectrophotometer/fluorometer. The serum beta(2) microglobulin levels were significantly higher (>3 microg/mL) in patients with MM than healthy controls. The estimated levels of SOD, GPX and catalase (enzymatic antioxidants) and vitamin C and E (non-enzymatic antioxidants) were significantly declined in patients whereas MDA levels were elevated as compared with controls. These results suggest that MM is closely associated with oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant capacity and further investigation might provide an insight to understand a putative causal link between oxidative stress and MM disease progression. PMID:19452319

  11. Decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Marangoni, Roberta Gonçalves; Hayata, Andre L.; Borba, Eduardo F.; Azevedo, Pedro M.; Bonfá, Eloisa; Goldenstein-Schainberg, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of dyslipoproteinemia in a homogeneous cohort of polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients. METHODS: Based on the National Cholesterol Education Program, fasting lipoprotein levels and risk levels for coronary artery disease were determined in 28 patients with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The exclusion criteria included diabetes, thyroid dysfunction, smoking, proteinuria, lipid-lowering drugs, and hormone/diuretic therapy. Disease activity, disease duration, and therapy with corticosteroids and/or chloroquine were defined at the time of lipid measurements. RESULTS: Dyslipoproteinemia was identified in 20 of the 28 (71%) patients with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The primary lipoprotein risk factor was decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (57%), followed by elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (18%), triglycerides (14%), and total cholesterol (7%). The male patients had decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than the female patients (p<0.05). The incidence of decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels did not seem to be affected by disease activity or therapy because the incidence was similar in patients with active or inactive disease, with or without corticosteroid use and with or without chloroquine use. In addition, the frequency of decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was similar in patients with short (?5 years) vs. long (>5 years) disease duration. CONCLUSIONS: Dyslipoproteinemia is highly prevalent in patients with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis and is primarily related to decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels; therefore, early intervention is essential. PMID:22179157

  12. Procalcitonin Level and Its Predictive Effect on Mortality in Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Patients.

    PubMed

    Gul, Serdar; Ozturk, Dogan Baris; Kisa, Ucler; Kacmaz, Birgul; Yesilyurt, Murat

    2015-11-20

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a potentially fatal disease which is endemic to Turkey. We aimed to investigate the procalcitonin levels and their prognostic value over fatality in CCHF patients. The sera were harvested from patients who were diagnosed with CCHF within the first 2 days of the onset of their symptoms. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to their survival status: fatal or non-fatal. The biochemical and hematological parameters were studied in the Biochemistry Laboratory of Sorgun City Hospital. The sera were stored at -80? until testing for procalcitonin, and the procalcitonin levels were assayed by ELISA at the Biochemistry Laboratory of Kirikkale University. Forty- eight patients were included in the study, with 8 and 40 patients in the fatal and non-fatal groups, respectively. While the procalcitonin level was high in all patients in the fatal group, the same was observed in 30 patients in the non-fatal group (75%). The mean value of procalcitonin was 1.12 ng/ml in the fatal group and was 0.21 ng/ml in the non-fatal group (P = 0.003). According to the results of our study, the procalcitonin levels in the first 2 days of the onset of the symptoms might be helpful for predicting fatality in CCHF patients. PMID:25866108

  13. Urine levels of HMGB1 in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients with and without renal manifestations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Lupus nephritis (LN) is a severe and frequent manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Its pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated but immune complexes are considered to contribute to the inflammatory pathology in LN. High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear non-histone protein which is secreted from different types of cells during activation and/or cell death and may act as a pro-inflammatory mediator, alone or as part of DNA-containing immune complexes in SLE. Urinary excretion of HMGB1 might reflect renal inflammatory injury. To assess whether urinary HMGB1 reflects renal inflammation we determined serum levels of HMGB1 simultaneously with its urinary levels in SLE patients with and without LN in comparison to healthy controls (HC). We also analyzed urinary HMGB1 levels in relation with clinical and serological disease activity. Methods The study population consisted of 69 SLE patients and 17 HC. Twenty-one patients had biopsy proven active LN, 15 patients had a history of LN without current activity, and 33 patients had non-renal SLE. Serum and urine levels of HMGB1 were both measured by western blotting. Clinical and serological parameters were assessed according to routine procedures. In 17 patients with active LN a parallel analysis was performed on the expression of HMGB1 in renal biopsies. Results Serum and urinary levels of HMGB1 were significantly increased in patients with active LN compared to patients without active LN and HC. Similarly, renal tissue of active LN patients showed strong expression of HMGB1 at cytoplasmic and extracellular sites suggesting active release of HMGB1. Serum and urinary levels in patients without active LN were also significantly higher compared to HC. Urinary HMGB1 levels correlated with SLEDAI, and showed a negative correlation with complement C3 and C4. Conclusion Levels of HMGB1 in urine of SLE patients, in particular in those with active LN, are increased and correlate with SLEDAI scores. Renal tissue of LN patients shows increased release of nuclear HMGB1 compared to control renal tissue. HMGB1, although at lower levels, is, however, also present in the urine of patients without active LN. These data suggest that urinary HMGB1 might reflect both local renal inflammation as well as systemic inflammation. PMID:22892043

  14. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

  15. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

  16. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

  17. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

  18. Serum apelin levels in patients with thyroid dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Gürel, Ali; Do?antekin, Akif; Özkan, Yusuf; Ayd?n, Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    Adipocytes are not only for energy storage, but are also functionally active cells, producing biologically active peptides called adipocytokines. Adipocytokines control nutrition, thermogenesis, immunity, thyroid and reproductive hormones, and neuroendocrine functions. One of the most important new members of this family is apelin. In patients with thyroid dysfunctions, there are usually changes in weight, thermogenesis and adipose tissue lipolysis. Here, we investigated the serum apelin levels in different thyroid hormone states. Our study group consisted of the following patients: 32 thyrotoxicosis, 32 subclinical hyperthyroidism, 31 hypothyroidism, 34 subclinical hypothyroidism and 31 healthy control cases. In addition to routine blood tests, serum free T3 (FT3), free T4 (FT4), TSH and apelin levels were measured, and the body mass index (BMI) was recorded. In terms of the demographic characteristics, age and BMI, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups (P>0.05). The mean serum apelin levels of the groups were as follows: thyrotoxicosis group, 4.6±1.9 ng/ml; subclinical hyperthyroidism group, 3.7±1.9 ng/ml; hypothyroid group, 4.8±2.5 ng/ml; subclinical hypothyroidism group, 4.3±2.2 ng/mL; and control group, 3.4±1.4 ng/ml, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of the mean apelin levels between the groups (P>0.05). The hypothyroid group had the highest and the control group had the lowest mean apelin levels. As a result, the apelin levels were higher in both the patients with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, in comparison with the normal population, but without statistical significance. PMID:26629164

  19. Quality of doctor-patient communication through the eyes of the patient: variation according to the patient's educational level.

    PubMed

    Aelbrecht, Karolien; Rimondini, Michela; Bensing, Jozien; Moretti, Francesca; Willems, Sara; Mazzi, Mariangela; Fletcher, Ian; Deveugele, Myriam

    2015-10-01

    Good doctor-patient communication may lead to better compliance, higher patient satisfaction, and finally, better health. Although the social variance in how physicians and patients communicate is clearly demonstrated, little is known about what patients with different educational attainments actually prefer in doctor-patient communication. In this study we describe patients' perspective in doctor-patient communication according to their educational level, and to what extent these perspectives lean towards the expert opinion on doctor-patient communication. In a multi-center study (Belgium, The Netherlands, UK and Italy), focus group discussions were organised using videotaped medical consultations. A mixed methods approach was used to analyse the data. Firstly, a difference in perspective in communication style was found between the lower educated participants versus the middle and higher educated participants. Secondly, lower educated participants referred positively most to aspects related to the affective/emotional area of the medical consultation, followed by the task-oriented/problem-focused area. Middle and higher educated participants positively referred most to the task-oriented/problem-focused area. The competency of the physician was an important category of communication for all participants, independent of social background. The results indicate that the preferences of lower educated participants lean more towards the expert opinion in doctor-patient communication than the middle and higher educated participants. Patients' educational level seems to influence their perspective on communication style and should be taken into account by physicians. Further quantitative research is needed to confirm these results. PMID:25428194

  20. Service Oriented Architecture for High Level Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Chungming; Chevtsov, Sergei; Wu, Juhao; Shen, Guobao; /Brookhaven

    2012-06-28

    Standalone high level applications often suffer from poor performance and reliability due to lengthy initialization, heavy computation and rapid graphical update. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is trying to separate the initialization and computation from applications and to distribute such work to various service providers. Heavy computation such as beam tracking will be done periodically on a dedicated server and data will be available to client applications at all time. Industrial standard service architecture can help to improve the performance, reliability and maintainability of the service. Robustness will also be improved by reducing the complexity of individual client applications.

  1. Regulation of high density lipoprotein levels

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, R.M.

    1982-03-01

    An increasing awareness of the physiologic and pathologic importance of serum high density lipoproteins (HDL) has led to a large number of observations regarding factors which influence their concentrations. HDL consists of a heterogeneous collection of macromolecules with diverse physical properties and chemical constituents. While laboratory techniques have made it possible to measure HDL and their individual components, there are as yet large gaps in our knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms and clinical significance of changes in these laboratory parameters. In this review, current concepts of the structure and metabolism of HDL will be briefly summarized, and the factors influencing their levels in humans will be surveyed. 313 references.

  2. Serum Gamma-Glutamyltransferase Levels Predict Mortality in Patients With Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Woo-Yeong; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Young Ok; Jin, Dong Chan; Song, Ho Chul; Choi, Euy Jin; Kim, Yong Lim; Kim, Yon Su; Kang, Shin Wook; Kim, Nam Ho; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level has been considered marker of oxidative stress as well as liver function. Serum GGT level has been reported to be associated with the mortality in hemodialysis patients. However, it is not well established whether serum GGT level is associated with all-cause mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The aim of this study was to determine the association between serum GGT levels and all-cause mortality in PD patients. PD patients were included from the Clinical Research Center registry for end-stage renal disease cohort, a multicenter prospective observational cohort study in Korea. Patients were categorized into 3 groups by tertile of serum GGT levels as follows: tertile 1, GGT??27?IU/L. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality. A total of 820 PD patients were included. The median follow-up period was 34 months. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that the all-cause mortality rate was significantly different according to tertiles of GGT (P?=?0.001, log-rank). The multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that higher tertiles significantly associated with higher risk for all-cause mortality (tertile 2: hazard ratio [HR] 2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17–3.72, P?=?0.013; tertile 3: HR 1.83, 95% CI, 1.04–3.22, P?=?0.035) in using tertile 1 as the reference group after adjusting for clinical variables. Our study demonstrated that high serum GGT levels were an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in PD patients. Our findings suggest that serum GGT levels might be a useful biomarker to predict all-cause mortality in PD patients. PMID:26252286

  3. The High Level Data Reduction Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, P.; Gabasch, A.; Jung, Y.; Modigliani, A.; Taylor, J.; Coccato, L.; Freudling, W.; Neeser, M.; Marchetti, E.

    2015-09-01

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO) provides pipelines to reduce data for most of the instruments at its Very Large telescope (VLT). These pipelines are written as part of the development of VLT instruments, and are used both in the ESO's operational environment and by science users who receive VLT data. All the pipelines are highly specific geared toward instruments. However, experience showed that the independently developed pipelines include significant overlap, duplication and slight variations of similar algorithms. In order to reduce the cost of development, verification and maintenance of ESO pipelines, and at the same time improve the scientific quality of pipelines data products, ESO decided to develop a limited set of versatile high-level scientific functions that are to be used in all future pipelines. The routines are provided by the High-level Data Reduction Library (HDRL). To reach this goal, we first compare several candidate algorithms and verify them during a prototype phase using data sets from several instruments. Once the best algorithm and error model have been chosen, we start a design and implementation phase. The coding of HDRL is done in plain C and using the Common Pipeline Library (CPL) functionality. HDRL adopts consistent function naming conventions and a well defined API to minimise future maintenance costs, implements error propagation, uses pixel quality information, employs OpenMP to take advantage of multi-core processors, and is verified with extensive unit and regression tests. This poster describes the status of the project and the lesson learned during the development of reusable code implementing algorithms of high scientific quality.

  4. Correlation between Increased Arginase Activity Levels and Disease Severity in HIV-Seropositive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cloke, T. E.; Garvey, L.; Choi, B.-S.; Abebe, T.; Hailu, A.; Hancock, M.; Kadolsky, U.; Bangham, C. R. M.; Munder, M.; Müller, I.; Taylor, G. P.; Kropf, P.

    2015-01-01

    Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a chronic infection that progressively impairs the immune system. Although depletion of CD4+ T cells is frequently used to explain immunosuppression, chronicity of infection and progressive loss of CD4+ T cells are not sufficient to fully account for immune dysregulation. Arginase-induced l-arginine deprivation is emerging as a key mechanism for the down-regulation of immune responses. Here, we hypothesized that arginase activity levels increase with disease severity in HIV-seropositive patients. We determined the levels of arginase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-seropositive patients and uninfected control participants. Our results show that peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-seropositive patients with low CD4+ T cell counts expressed statistically significantly higher levels of arginase activity, compared with patients with high CD4+ T cell counts or with uninfected control participants. Furthermore, we found a statistically significant correlation between high arginase activity level and high viral load in HIV-seropositive patients. PMID:20575659

  5. High accuracy electronic material level sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-03-11

    The High Accuracy Electronic Material Level Sensor (electronic dipstick) is a sensor based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line or guide wire that is partially immersed in the material being measured; a launcher plate is positioned at the beginning of the guide wire. Reflected pulses are produced at the material interface due to the change in dielectric constant. The time difference of the reflections at the launcher plate and at the material interface are used to determine the material level. Improved performance is obtained by the incorporation of: (1) a high accuracy time base that is referenced to a quartz crystal, (2) an ultrawideband directional sampler to allow operation without an interconnect cable between the electronics module and the guide wire, (3) constant fraction discriminators (CFDs) that allow accurate measurements regardless of material dielectric constants, and reduce or eliminate errors induced by triple-transit or ``ghost`` reflections on the interconnect cable. These improvements make the dipstick accurate to better than 0.1%. 4 figs.

  6. High accuracy electronic material level sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    The High Accuracy Electronic Material Level Sensor (electronic dipstick) is a sensor based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) of very short electrical pulses. Pulses are propagated along a transmission line or guide wire that is partially immersed in the material being measured; a launcher plate is positioned at the beginning of the guide wire. Reflected pulses are produced at the material interface due to the change in dielectric constant. The time difference of the reflections at the launcher plate and at the material interface are used to determine the material level. Improved performance is obtained by the incorporation of: 1) a high accuracy time base that is referenced to a quartz crystal, 2) an ultrawideband directional sampler to allow operation without an interconnect cable between the electronics module and the guide wire, 3) constant fraction discriminators (CFDs) that allow accurate measurements regardless of material dielectric constants, and reduce or eliminate errors induced by triple-transit or "ghost" reflections on the interconnect cable. These improvements make the dipstick accurate to better than 0.1%.

  7. Technetium Chemistry in High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Nancy J.

    2006-06-01

    Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry.

  8. Application of the Beers Criteria to Alternate Level of Care Patients in Hospital Inpatient Units

    PubMed Central

    Slaney, Heather; MacAulay, Stacey; Irvine-Meek, Janice; Murray, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Beers criteria were developed to help in identifying potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) for elderly patients. These medications are often associated with adverse events and limited effectiveness in older adults. Patients awaiting an alternate level of care (ALC patients) are those who no longer require acute care hospital services and are waiting for placement elsewhere. They are often elderly, have complex medication regimens, and are at high risk of adverse events. At the time of this study no studies had applied the Beers criteria to ALC patients in Canadian hospitals. Objectives: To determine the proportion of ALC patients receiving PIMs and the proportion experiencing selected PIM-related adverse events. Methods: A retrospective chart review of ALC patients 65 years of age or older was performed to identify PIMs and the occurrence of selected adverse events (specifically central nervous system [CNS] events, falls, bradycardia, hypoglycemia, seizures, insomnia, gastrointestinal bleeding, and urinary tract infections). A logistic regression model with a random intercept for each patient was constructed to estimate odds ratios and probabilities of adverse events. Results: Fifty-two ALC patients were included in the study. Of these, 48 (92%) were taking a PIM. Of the 922 adverse events evaluated, 407 (44.1%) were associated with a regularly scheduled PIM. Among patients who were taking regularly scheduled PIMs, there was a significantly increased probability of an adverse CNS event and of a fall (p < 0.001 for both). The most common PIM medication classes were first-generation antihistamines (24 [46%] of the 52 patients), antipsychotics (21 patients [40%]), short-acting benzodiazepines (15 patients [29%]), and nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics (14 patients [27%]). Conclusions: A high proportion of ALC patients were taking PIMs and experienced an adverse event that may have been related to these drugs. These findings suggest that the ALC population might benefit from regular medication review and monitoring to prevent or detect adverse events. PMID:26157183

  9. Mannose-Binding Lectin Levels and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Káplár, Miklós; Sweni, Shah; Kulcsár, Julianna; Cogoi, Barbara; Esze, Regina; Somodi, Sándor; Papp, Mária; Oláh, László; Magyar, Mária Tünde; Szabó, Katalin; Czuriga-Kovács, Katalin Réka; Hársfalvi, Jolán; Paragh, György

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) activates complement system and has been suggested to play a role in vascular complications in diabetics. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) detects subclinical atherosclerosis. We evaluated the association of MBL and IMT in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients. Methods. Serum MBL levels and cIMT were measured in a total of 103 diabetics and in 98 age-matched healthy controls. Results. There was no significant difference in MBL level in T2DM versus controls. As expected, IMT was significantly higher in T2DM patients than in controls (P = 0.001). In T2DM, the lowest cIMT was seen in patients with normal MBL level (500-1000) while cIMT continuously increased with both high MBL and absolute MBL deficiency states. This was especially significant in high MBL versus normal MBL T2DM patients (P = 0.002). According to multiple regression analysis the main predictors of IMT in T2DM are age (P < 0.003), ApoA level (P = 0.023), and the MBL (P = 0.036). Conclusions. Our results suggest a dual role of MBL as a risk factor for cIMT in T2DM. MBL may also be used as a marker of macrovascular disease, as both low and high levels indicate the susceptibility for atherosclerosis in T2DM. PMID:26640806

  10. Serum matrix metalloproteinases-3 levels in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Gao, J W; Zhang, K F; Lu, J S; Su, T

    2015-01-01

    Cumulated evidence indicates that matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) is significantly involved in cancer progression. Recent studies yielded conflicting results regarding the association between serum MMP-3 and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). To clarify this correlation, we performed a meta-analysis. Potential relevant studies were identified by searching the following databases: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Science Citation Index database, the Cochrane Library, Current Contents Index, Chinese Biomedical, the Chinese Journal Full-Text, and the Weipu Journal. Data from eligible studies were extracted and included into the meta-analysis using a random-effect model. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association between serum MMP-3 levels and AS. Thirteen case-control studies, including 707 AS cases and 442 healthy controls, were selected for the meta-analysis. The results indicate a significantly higher serum MMP-3 level in patients with AS than that in the controls (cases vs controls: SMD = 1.31, 95%CI = 0.84-1.78, P < 0.001). Ethnicity-subgroup analysis indicated a higher MMP-3 level in Asian and Caucasian patients with AS (all P < 0.05). This meta-analysis indicates that increased serum MMP-3 level correlates with the development of AS, suggesting that MMP-3 may present a clinical value in reflecting the progression of AS. Further larger sample size studies are warranted. PMID:26681054

  11. Chemokine and cytokine levels in inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    PubMed

    Singh, Udai P; Singh, Narendra P; Murphy, E Angela; Price, Robert L; Fayad, Raja; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S

    2016-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), two forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are chronic, relapsing, and tissue destructive lesions that are accompanied by the uncontrolled activation of effector immune cells in the mucosa. Recent estimates indicate that there are 1.3 million annual cases of IBD in the United States, 50% of which consists of CD and 50% of UC. Chemokines and cytokines play a pivotal role in the regulation of mucosal inflammation by promoting leukocyte migration to sites of inflammation ultimately leading to tissue damage and destruction. In recent years, experimental studies in rodents have led to a better understanding of the role played by these inflammatory mediators in the development and progression of colitis. However, the clinical literature on IBD remains limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate systemic concentrations of key chemokines and cytokines in forty-two IBD patients with a range of disease activity compared to levels found in ten healthy donors. We found a significant increase in an array of chemokines including macrophage migration factor (MIF), CCL25, CCL23, CXCL5, CXCL13, CXCL10, CXCL11, MCP1, and CCL21 in IBD patients as compared to normal healthy donors (P<0.05). Further, we also report increases in the inflammatory cytokines IL-16, IFN-?, IL-1? and TNF-? in IBD patients when compared to healthy donors (P<0.05). These data clearly indicate an increase in circulating levels of specific chemokines and cytokines that are known to modulate systemic level through immune cells results in affecting local intestinal inflammation and tissue damage in IBD patients. Blockade of these inflammatory mediators should be explored as a mechanism to alleviate or even reverse symptoms of IBD. PMID:26520877

  12. Phosphorylated neurofilament subunit levels in the serum of cervical compressive myelopathy patients.

    PubMed

    Kato, So; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Ohya, Junichi; Hayakawa, Kentaro; Takeshita, Katsushi; Tanaka, Sakae; Ogata, Toru

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the serum levels of the phosphorylated form of the high molecular weight neurofilament subunit (pNF-H) in patients with cervical compressive myelopathy. pNF-H is becoming increasingly recognized as a biomarker for axonal injury, however, it remains unclear whether serum pNF-H is elevated in chronic spinal cord compression. We examined 26 patients who underwent surgery for cervical compressive myelopathy. Peripheral blood samples were obtained both preoperatively and 1 week after surgery to evaluate the serum pNF-H levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A history of recent aggravation of myelopathy was also investigated. Of the 26 myelopathy patients, the preoperative serum pNF-H level was negative in 20 patients and moderately elevated in six. Patients who were positive for pNF-H were more likely to have had a recent aggravation of myelopathy compared with the pNF-H negative patients (83 versus 25%; p=0.02). All patients who were positive for pNF-H before surgery remained positive after surgery. Two patients who became positive after surgery demonstrated a neurologic deterioration associated with the surgery. In conclusion, the serum pNF-H level was negative in the majority of patients with cervical compressive myelopathy. Our results suggest that an elevated serum level of pNF-H is associated with an acute worsening of myelopathy and that a positive conversion of pNF-H after surgery is a marker of perioperative neural damage. PMID:26195334

  13. Serum levels of beta-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin in patients with pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Gil-del-Alamo, P; Saccomanno, K; Lania, A; Pettersson, K S; Beck-Peccoz, P; Spada, A

    1995-07-01

    Many studies have shown that normal and tumoral pituitary is able to synthesize chorionic gonadotropin (CG). The aim of the present work was to investigate the circulating levels of free beta-subunit of CG (CG-beta) in a large number of patients with pituitary tumors in basal conditions and after thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) injection. The study includes 27 healthy subjects, 23 patients with prolactinoma, 20 with growth hormone-secreting adenoma and 77 with non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA). The CG-beta was evaluated using a new one-step immunometric assay employing two monoclonal antibodies directed against epitopes present only on the free CG-beta and showing a detection limit of 0.04 U/l and a cross-reactivity with complete CG < 0.01%. In basal conditions, serum CG-beta was undetectable in healthy subjects and in the majority of patients, while in seven patients with NFPA and four with prolactinoma the CG-beta values ranged between 0.05 and 0.72 U/l. In these 11 patients serum levels of intact CG were found within the normal range (normal range < 5 U/l), while two patients with NFPA and one with prolactinoma had levels of free alpha-subunit inappropriately high with respect to gonadotropins and thyrotropin. Injection of TRH caused CG-beta to increase in two out of 16 patients with NFPA, whereas it was ineffective in 12 healthy subjects and 10 patients with prolactinoma. The present data indicate that detectable level of CG-beta not associated with hypersecretion of the intact CG molecule may be observed in about 10% of patients with NFPA or prolactinoma, while abnormal CG-beta responses to TRH are observed infrequently in individual patients with NFPA. PMID:7542981

  14. Postoperative Serum Levels of sCD26 for Surveillance in Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    De Chiara, Loretta; Rodríguez-Piñeiro, Ana M.; Cordero, Oscar J.; Vázquez-Tuñas, Lidia; Ayude, Daniel; Rodríguez-Berrocal, Francisco J.; de la Cadena, María Páez

    2014-01-01

    One of the main aims of the follow-up after curative resection of colorectal cancer is the early detection and treatment of tumor recurrence. We previously demonstrated decreased preoperative soluble CD26 (sCD26) levels in serum from colorectal cancer patients. We extended now the study to investigate if sCD26 levels in postoperative serum serve as marker of recurrence of the disease during surveillance. Soluble sCD26 was measured in pre- and postoperative serum samples of 43 patients with primary colorectal cancer. Carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19.9 and 72.4 levels were also measured during surveillance. The average follow-up period was 41.8±20.8 months. sCD26 levels during follow-up showed well-defined patterns in patients without disease (n?=?28), and in patients with tumor persistence (n?=?2), local recurrence (n?=?3) or distant metastasis (n?=?10). Disease-free patients showed stable levels between 460–850 ng/mL during follow-up, while high (over 850 ng/mL) and unstable sCD26 levels were found before recurrence was diagnosed. The mean maximum/minimum sCD26 ratios during surveillance were 1.52, 2.12 and 2.63 for patients with no recurrence, local recurrence and metastasis, respectively (p?=?0.005). From the cut-off obtained from a receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve built with the maximum/minimum sCD26 ratios and the upper and lower cut-offs of sCD26, we were able to discriminate patients with and without recurrent disease. We propose that the measurement of serum sCD26 during the follow-up of patients diagnosed of colorectal cancer could be valuable for the early detection of local and distant recurrence. A large, randomized, prospective trial should be performed to confirm our findings. PMID:25210927

  15. Effect of Blood Cadmium Level on Mortality in Patients Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ching-Wei; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Lin, Ja-Liang; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Huang, Wen-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies of general populations indicated environmental exposure to low-level cadmium increases mortality. However, the effect of cadmium exposure on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients is unclear. A total of 937 MHD patients from 3 centers in Taiwan were enrolled in this 36-month observational study. Patients were stratified by baseline blood cadmium level (BCL) into 3 groups: high BCL (>0.521??g/L; n?=?312), intermediate BCL (0.286?0.521??g/L; n?=?313), and low BCL (<0.286??g/L; n?=?312). The mortality rates and causes of death were analyzed. The analytic results demonstrated patients in the high BCL group had a significantly higher prevalence of malnutrition and inflammation than patients in the low and intermediate BCL groups. After 3 years of follow-up, 164 (17.5%) patients died and the major cause of death was cardiovascular disease. A Cox multivariate analysis indicated the high BCL group had increased hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality (HR?=?1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14–2.63; P?=?0.018), cardiovascular-related mortality (HR?=?1.85; 95% CI: 1.09–3.23; P?=?0.032), and infection-related mortality (HR?=?2.27; 95% CI: 1.12–4.55; P?=?0.035). A Cox multivariate analysis of MHD patients who never smoked (n?=?767) indicated the high BCL group had increased HRs for all-cause mortality (HR?=?1.67; 95% CI: 1.04–2.63; P?=?0.048) and cardiovascular-related mortality (HR?=?2.08; 95% CI: 1.08–4.00; P?=?0.044). In conclusion, BCL is an important determinant of mortality in MHD patients. Therefore, MHD patients should avoid cadmium exposure as much as possible, such as tobacco smoking and eating cadmium-containing foods. PMID:26496294

  16. Decreased plasma levels of neureglin-1 in drug naïve patients and chronic patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ran; Wang, Yumei; Hu, Rui; Chen, Xingshi; Song, Mei; Wang, Xueyi

    2015-10-01

    Although the neuregulin-1 (NRG1) gene is one of the susceptibility genes for schizophrenia and various other psychiatric diseases, it remains unclear how individual psychiatric diseases affect the expression of the NRG1 protein in patients. A previous study reported a schizophrenia-linked decrease in serum NRG1 levels. The present study aimed to replicate this initial finding and to assess its disease specificity for schizophrenia. We collected plasma samples from drug-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia (n=80), patients with chronic schizophrenia (n=86), patients with bipolar I disorder (n=60), patients with bipolar II disorder (n=60) and patients with major depressive disorder (n=60), we measured the plasma levels of NRG1?1 and compared the levels with those of age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (n=82). One-way ANOVA and post hoc analyses detected specific NRG1?1 decreases in the participants with first-episode and chronic schizophrenia but not in those with bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder or major depressive disorder. The mean plasma levels of NRG1?1 immunoreactivity were 4.27±0.71ng/mL in the participants with first-episode schizophrenia, 4.08±0.64ng/mL in the participants with chronic schizophrenia and 7.21±0.91ng/mL in the healthy controls. Although we analyzed the pathological correlations of NRG1?1 immunoreactivity in terms of the clinical parameters of the sample, we observed only weak positive correlations with the age of the participants with chronic schizophrenia and the disease onset times of the participants with bipolar II disorder. We failed to identify correlations between other clinical parameters and plasma NRG1?1 immunoreactivity among all patient subjects. These findings suggest that NRG1 may serve as a relatively specific disease marker for schizophrenia. However, the pathological role of this decrease must be explored further. PMID:26365407

  17. Umbra's High Level Architecture (HLA) Interface

    SciTech Connect

    GOTTLIEB, ERIC JOSEPH; MCDONALD, MICHAEL J.; OPPEL III, FRED J.

    2002-04-01

    This report describes Umbra's High Level Architecture HLA library. This library serves as an interface to the Defense Simulation and Modeling Office's (DMSO) Run Time Infrastructure Next Generation Version 1.3 (RTI NG1.3) software library and enables Umbra-based models to be federated into HLA environments. The Umbra library was built to enable the modeling of robots for military and security system concept evaluation. A first application provides component technologies that ideally fit the US Army JPSD's Joint Virtual Battlespace (JVB) simulation framework for Objective Force concept analysis. In addition to describing the Umbra HLA library, the report describes general issues of integrating Umbra with RTI code and outlines ways of building models to support particular HLA simulation frameworks like the JVB.

  18. High-level connectionist models. Semiannual report

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, J.B.

    1989-08-01

    The major achievement of this semiannum was the significant revision and extension of the Recursive Auto-Associative Memory (RAAM) work for publication in the journal Artificial Intelligence. Included as an appendix to this report, the article includes several new elements: (1) Background - The work was more clearly set into the area of recursive distributed representations, machine learning, and the adequacy of the connectionist approach for high-level cognitive modeling; (2) New Experiment - RAAM was applied to finding compact representations for sequences of letters; (3) Analysis - The developed representations were analyzed as features which range from categorical to distinctive. Categorical features distinguish between conceptual categories while distinctive features vary within categories and discriminate or label the members. The representations were also analyzed geometrically; and (4) Applications - Feasibility studies were performed and described on inference by association, and on using RAAM-generated patterns along with cascaded networks for natural language parsing. Both of these remain long-term goals of the project.

  19. Evaluation of Low-Level Laser Therapy in TMD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ayyildiz, Simel; Emir, Faruk; Sahin, Cem

    2015-01-01

    Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (laser) is one of the most recent treatment modalities in dentistry. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is suggested to have biostimulating and analgesic effects through direct irradiation without causing thermal response. There are few studies that have investigated the efficacy of laser therapy in temporomandibular disorders (TMD), especially in reduced mouth opening. The case report here evaluates performance of LLLT with a diode laser for temporomandibular clicking and postoperative findings were evaluated in two cases of TMD patients. First patient had a history of limited mouth opening and pain in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region since nine months. Second patient's main complaint was his restricted mouth opening, which was progressed in one year. LLLT was performed with a 685?nm red probed diode laser that has an energy density of 6.2?J/cm2, three times a week for one month, and application time was 30 seconds (685?nm, 25?mW, 30?s, 0.02?Hz, and 6.2?J/cm2) (BTL-2000, Portative Laser Therapy Device). The treatment protocol was decided according to the literature. One year later patients were evaluated and there were no changes. This application suggested that LLLT is an appropriate treatment for TMD related pain and limited mouth opening and should be considered as an alternative to other methods. PMID:26587294

  20. Clinical correlates of arterial lactate levels in STEMI patients.

    PubMed

    Weil, Max Harry; Tang, Wanchun

    2011-01-01

    Increases in blood lactate reflect decreases in systemic blood flows associated with low blood flow states characteristic of circulatory shock. Accordingly, the report by Vermeulen and colleagues documents the use of the blood lactate measurement as a prognostic indicator in settings of ST elevation myocardial infarction. That lactate value therefore identified high-risk patients as a complication, often with clinical signs of cardiogenic shock of corresponding severities. PMID:21345276

  1. Familial aggregation of high tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Mangale, Dorothy; Kariuki, Silvia N; Chrabot, Beverly S; Kumabe, Marissa; Kelly, Jennifer A; Harley, John B; James, Judith A; Sivils, Kathy L; Niewold, Timothy B

    2013-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients frequently have high circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) levels. We explored circulating TNF-? levels in SLE families to determine whether high levels of TNF-? were clustered in a heritable pattern. We measured TNF-? in 242 SLE patients, 361 unaffected family members, 23 unaffected spouses of SLE patients, and 62 unrelated healthy controls. Familial correlations and relative recurrence risk rates for the high TNF-? trait were assessed. SLE-affected individuals had the highest TNF-? levels, and TNF-? was significantly higher in unaffected first degree relatives than healthy unrelated subjects (P = 0.0025). No Mendelian patterns were observed, but 28.4% of unaffected first degree relatives of SLE patients had high TNF-? levels, resulting in a first degree relative recurrence risk of 4.48 (P = 2.9 × 10??). Interestingly, the median TNF-? value in spouses was similar to that of the first degree relatives. Concordance of the TNF-? trait (high versus low) in SLE patients and their spouses was strikingly high at 78.2%. These data support a role for TNF-? in SLE pathogenesis, and TNF-? levels may relate with heritable factors. The high degree of concordance in SLE patients and their spouses suggests that environmental factors may also play a role in the observed familial aggregation. PMID:24187561

  2. Significance of serum vascular endothelial growth factor level in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ando, Masaru; Miyazaki, Eishi; Ito, Takeo; Hiroshige, Shigeo; Nureki, Shin-ich; Ueno, Takuya; Takenaka, Ryuichi; Fukami, Tetsujiro; Kumamoto, Toshihide

    2010-06-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of angiogenesis, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of fibrotic lung diseases, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The aim of this study was to examine the clinical significance of the serum VEGF level for evaluating disease severity and progression. The levels of VEGF in serum were measured in 41 patients with IPF, 14 patients with lung cancer, and 43 healthy volunteers. We measured the serum levels of CRP, LDH, KL-6, SP-D, and the parameters obtained from arterial blood gas analysis and pulmonary function tests. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was performed to determine the extent of the interstitial and the alveolar opacities. The ability of each biomarker to predict disease severity was estimated by measuring the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The VEGF levels of IPF patients with high alveolar-arterial difference of oxygen (AaDO(2)) levels were significantly elevated than those with low AaDO(2) levels and those of healthy volunteers. When examined within the IPF group, a significant positive correlation was found between the VEGF levels and the HRCT interstitial score (p = 0.027) and the KL-6 levels (p = 0.037). Among several serum biomarkers, VEGF showed the largest AUC for predicting disease severity as defined by a high AaDO(2) value. There was an inverse correlation between the baseline VEGF level and the monthly change in percent predicted vital capacity. The serum VEGF level may reflect the severity of IPF and offer clinical benefits to predict the disease's progression. PMID:20066538

  3. Elevated chemerin levels in synovial fluid and synovial membrane from patients with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Niu, Dong-Sheng; Wan, Ning-Jun; Qin, Yi; Guo, Chong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    To test the serum, synovial fluid and synovial membrane levels of the adipokine chemerin in patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and investigate their relationships with the severity of articular cartilage damage and synovitis. According to the American College of Rheumatology criteria for diagnosis of osteoarthritis (OA), 30 cases with OA diagnoses (OA group) were selected from patients who underwent arthroscopic surgery in our hospital from June 2013 to February 2014. Another 30 cases with other knee joint diseases (non-OA group) were included as controls. The synovial fluid and serum levels of chemerin were assayed by ELISA, and the synovial membrane level of chemerin was assayed by the immunohistochemical method. The severity of the knee articular cartilage damage and synovitis-related pathological changes were evaluated by arthroscopy using the Outerbridge and Ayral scores, respectively. The synovial fluid and synovial membrane levels of chemerin in the OA group were higher than those in the non-OA group. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in the synovial fluid and synovial membrane levels of chemerin (P < 0.05). The synovial fluid and synovial membrane levels of chemerin were positively correlated with the serum level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), Outerbridge score and Ayral score in the OA group. The synovial fluid and synovial membrane levels of chemerin are increased in KOA patients and are positively correlated with the severity of KOA. PMID:26722546

  4. Serum levels of IL-6 and IL-1? can predict the efficacy of gemcitabine in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mitsunaga, S; Ikeda, M; Shimizu, S; Ohno, I; Furuse, J; Inagaki, M; Higashi, S; Kato, H; Terao, K; Ochiai, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: With this study, we sought to characterise the impact of pro-inflammatory cytokines on the outcomes of gemcitabine monotherapy (GEM) in patients with pancreatic cancer (PC). Methods: Treatment-naive patients with advanced PC and no obvious infections were eligible for enrolment. All of the patients were scheduled to undergo systemic chemotherapy. Serum pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured using an electro-chemiluminescence assay method before chemotherapy. High cytokine levels were defined as values greater than the median. Clinical data were collected prospectively. Results: Sixty patients who received GEM were included in the analysis. High IL-6 and IL-1? levels were poor prognostic factors for overall survival in a multivariate analysis (P=0.011 and P=0.048, respectively). Patients with both a high IL-6 level and a high IL-1? level exhibited shortened overall and progression-free survival, a reduction in the tumour control rate, and a high dose intensity of GEM compared with patients with low levels of both IL-6 and IL-1?. Conclusion: The serum levels of IL-6 and IL-1? predict the efficacy of GEM in patients with advanced PC. PMID:23591198

  5. Low-level resistance and clonal diversity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa among chronically colonized cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Alex Guerra; Leão, Robson Souza; Carvalho-Assef, Ana Paula D'alincourt; da Silva, Érica Aparecida Dos Santos Ribeiro; de Cássia Firmida, Monica; Folescu, Tania Wrobel; Paixão, Vilma Almeida; Santana, Maria Angélica; de Abreu E Silva, Fernando Antonio; Barth, Afonso Luís; Marques, Elizabeth Andrade

    2015-12-01

    A prospective study was conducted in Brazil to evaluate antimicrobial resistance patterns and molecular epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic lung infection. All isolates were obtained between May 2009 and June 2010 from 75 patients seen in four reference centers in Brazil: HCPA (20 patients) and HEOM (15 patients), located in southern and northeastern Brazil, respectively; IFF (20 patients) and HUPE (20 patients), both in southwestern Brazil. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR for detection of carpapenemases, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed in 274 isolates. A total of 224 PFGE types were identified and no clones were found circulating among the centers or within the same center. Despite the chronic infection, most patients were colonized by intermittent clones. Only three patients (4%) maintained the same clone during the study. The resistance rates were lower than 30% for the majority of antimicrobials tested in all centers and only 17% of isolates were multiresistant. Isolates (n = 54) with reduced susceptibility to imipenem and/or meropenem presented negative results for blaSPM-1, blaIMP-1, blaVIM , and blaKPC genes. Our results indicate an unexpected low level of antimicrobial resistance and a high genotypic diversity among P. aeruginosa from Brazilian chronic CF patients. PMID:26522829

  6. Sharing clinical trial data on patient level: Opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Franz; Slattery, Jim; Groves, Trish; Lang, Thomas; Benjamini, Yoav; Day, Simon; Bauer, Peter; Posch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In recent months one of the most controversially discussed topics among regulatory agencies, the pharmaceutical industry, journal editors, and academia has been the sharing of patient-level clinical trial data. Several projects have been started such as the European Medicines Agency´s (EMA) “proactive publication of clinical trial data”, the BMJ open data campaign, or the AllTrials initiative. The executive director of the EMA, Dr. Guido Rasi, has recently announced that clinical trial data on patient level will be published from 2014 onwards (although it has since been delayed). The EMA draft policy on proactive access to clinical trial data was published at the end of June 2013 and open for public consultation until the end of September 2013. These initiatives will change the landscape of drug development and publication of medical research. They provide unprecedented opportunities for research and research synthesis, but pose new challenges for regulatory authorities, sponsors, scientific journals, and the public. Besides these general aspects, data sharing also entails intricate biostatistical questions such as problems of multiplicity. An important issue in this respect is the interpretation of multiple statistical analyses, both prospective and retrospective. Expertise in biostatistics is needed to assess the interpretation of such multiple analyses, for example, in the context of regulatory decision-making by optimizing procedural guidance and sophisticated analysis methods. PMID:24942505

  7. [Etravirine in highly treatment-experienced patients].

    PubMed

    Palter, Daniel Podzamczer; Corbera, Elena Ferrer; Tiraboschi, Juan Manuel

    2009-12-01

    Etravirine (ETR) has demonstrated efficacy in patients with multiple prior treatments with prior virological failure and resistance mutations to various families of antiretroviral drugs. Most of the evidence concerning this drug has been drawn from the DUET studies, consisting of two multicenter, randomized, double-blind clinical trials with identical designs that included 1,200 patients. These trials showed that ETR obtained a superior virological and immunological response to placebo, reducing the incidence of hospital admissions and progression to AIDS/death. The most frequent adverse effect was rash, which was generally mild to moderate and required treatment discontinuation in only 2%. There were no differences in gastrointestinal, liver or lipid toxicities compared with the placebo arm. Because of the recent development of new drugs, effective regimens are now available for multi-treated patients. The TRIO study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of one of the regimens most widely used today (ETR/raltegravir/darunavir/r) with excellent virological and immunological response (86% of viral load < 50 copies and CD4 +108 at 48 weeks) and excellent tolerance. ETR is effective and well tolerated and is the first non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) that allows the sequential use of drugs in this family, due to its high genetic barrier compared with firstgeneration NNRTI. Moreover, its long half-life allows once daily administration in patients requiring a QD regimen. PMID:20116622

  8. Decontamination of high-level waste canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces.

  9. HIGH LEVEL RF FOR THE SNS RING.

    SciTech Connect

    ZALTSMAN,A.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRENNAN,J.; BRODOWSKI,J.; METH,M.; SPITZ,R.; SEVERINO,F.

    2002-06-03

    A high level RF system (HLRF) consisting of power amplifiers (PA's) and ferrite loaded cavities is being designed and built by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project. It is a fixed frequency, two harmonic system whose main function is to maintain a gap for the kicker rise time. Three cavities running at the fundamental harmonic (h=l) will provide 40 kV and one cavity at the second harmonic (h=2) will provide 20 kV. Each cavity has two gaps with a design voltage of 10 kV per gap and will be driven by a power amplifier (PA) directly adjacent to it. The PA uses a 600kW tetrode to provide the necessary drive current. The anode of the tetrode is magnetically coupled to the downstream cell of the cavity. Drive to the PA will be provided by a wide band, solid state amplifier located remotely. A dynamic tuning scheme will be implemented to help compensate for the effect of beam loading.

  10. Fasting blood glucose levels affect hospitalization time and relapse and mortality rates of cerebral infarction patients

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yi; Wang, Fei; Cheng, Qianpeng; Jiao, Xiumin; Lv, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study determined the relationship between fasting glucose levels of cerebral infarction patients and the hospitalization time and relapse and mortality rates. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted between February 1996 and December 2006 involving 974 inpatients with cerebral infarctions. Fasting blood glucose and lipid levels and blood pressure were measured the morning after hospitalization. The length of hospital stay, and data obtained from telephone follow-up interviews regarding relapse and complications were recorded. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regressions, logistic regression, the chi-square test, and the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance of ranks test. Results: Our data show that the duration of hospitalization and relapse and mortality rates of patients with cerebral infarctions correlate with the admission fasting blood glucose levels. Cerebral infarction patients with fasting blood glucose levels > 11.1 mmol/L and LDL levels > 3.5 mmol/L have higher mortality rates (50.00%). Patients with fasting blood glucose levels > 11.1 mmol/L combined with a diastolic pressure < 80 mmHg or > 100 mmHg also have high mortality rates (33.33% and 30.00%, respectively). Conclusions: Fasting glucose levels of inpatients with cerebral infarctions are closely related to the duration of hospitalization and relapse and mortality rates. Higher fasting blood glucose levels exacerbate damage to cerebral blood vessels caused by alterations in blood lipid levels and blood pressure. Therefore, blood glucose levels should be monitored during the early stage of cerebral infarction and intervention should be provided promptly to decrease the length of hospital stay and the risk of relapse and mortality. PMID:26379971

  11. Prognostic value of circulating DNA levels in critically ill and trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Filho, Edison Moraes; Ikuta, Nilo; Simon, Daniel; Regner, Andrea Pereira

    2014-01-01

    The number of studies investigating circulating nucleic acids as potential biomarkers has increased in recent years. The detection of such biomarkers is a minimally invasive alternative for the diagnosis and prognosis of various clinical conditions. The value of circulating DNA levels as a predictive biomarker has been demonstrated in patients suffering from numerous acute pathologies that have a high risk of intensive care needs and in-hospital deaths. The mechanism by which circulating DNA levels increase in patients with these conditions remains unclear. In this review, we focused on the potential use of this biomarker for prognosis prediction in critically ill and trauma patients. The literature review was performed by searching MedLine using PubMed in the English language. PMID:25295826

  12. Prognostic value of circulating DNA levels in critically ill and trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues Filho, Edison Moraes; Ikuta, Nilo; Simon, Daniel; Regner, Andrea Pereira

    2014-01-01

    The number of studies investigating circulating nucleic acids as potential biomarkers has increased in recent years. The detection of such biomarkers is a minimally invasive alternative for the diagnosis and prognosis of various clinical conditions. The value of circulating DNA levels as a predictive biomarker has been demonstrated in patients suffering from numerous acute pathologies that have a high risk of intensive care needs and in-hospital deaths. The mechanism by which circulating DNA levels increase in patients with these conditions remains unclear. In this review, we focused on the potential use of this biomarker for prognosis prediction in critically ill and trauma patients. The literature review was performed by searching MedLine using PubMed in the English language. PMID:25295826

  13. High estradiol levels improve false memory rates and meta-memory in highly schizotypal women.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Sophie; Hausmann, Markus; Weis, Susanne

    2015-10-30

    Overconfidence in false memories is often found in patients with schizophrenia and healthy participants with high levels of schizotypy, indicating an impairment of meta-cognition within the memory domain. In general, cognitive control is suggested to be modulated by natural fluctuations in oestrogen. However, whether oestrogen exerts beneficial effects on meta-memory has not yet been investigated. The present study sought to provide evidence that high levels of schizotypy are associated with increased false memory rates and overconfidence in false memories, and that these processes may be modulated by natural differences in estradiol levels. Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, it was found that highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol produced significantly fewer false memories than those with low estradiol. No such difference was found within the low schizotypy participants. Highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol were also less confident in their false memories than those with low estradiol; low schizotypy participants with high estradiol were more confident. However, these differences only approached significance. These findings suggest that the beneficial effect of estradiol on memory and meta-memory observed in healthy participants is specific to highly schizotypal individuals and might be related to individual differences in baseline dopaminergic activity. PMID:26292620

  14. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk of Compensated Cirrhosis Patients with Elevated HBV DNA Levels according to Serum Aminotransferase Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junggyu; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jung Hee; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Kim, Hye Seung; Jung, Sin-Ho; Paik, Yong-Han; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Yoo, Byung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Sometimes, hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhotic patients with normal aminotransferase levels are closely followed-up for the elevation of aminotransferase levels instead of prompt antiviral therapy (AVT). We analyzed the long-term hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk according to the aminotransferase levels in a retrospective cohort of 1,468 treatment-naïve, HBV-related, compensated cirrhosis patients with elevated HBV DNA levels (?2,000 IU/mL). Based on aminotransferase levels, patients were categorized into normal (< 40 U/L, n = 364) and elevated group (?40 U/L, n = 1,104). During a median of 5.3 yr of follow-up (range: 1.0-8.2 yr), HCC developed in 296 (20%) patients. The 5-yr cumulative HCC incidence rate was higher in patients with elevated aminotransferase level, but was not low in normal aminotransferase level (17% vs. 14%, P = 0.004). During the follow-up, 270/364 (74%) patients with normal aminotransferase levels experienced elevation of aminotransferase levels, and AVT was initiated in 1,258 (86%) patients. Less patients with normal aminotransferase levels received AVT (70% vs. 91%, P < 0.001) and median time to start AVT was longer (17.9 vs. 2.4 months, P < 0.001). AVT duration was an independent factor associated with HCC, and median duration of AVT was shorter (4.0 vs. 2.6 yr, P < 0.001) in patients with normal aminotransferase levels. The HCC risk of compensated cirrhosis patients with normal aminotransferase level is not low, and AVT duration is associated with lowered HCC risk, indicating that prompt AVT should be strongly considered even for those with normal aminotransferase levels. PMID:26539006

  15. Is there an association between body temperature and serum lactate levels in hip fracture patients?

    PubMed

    Murtuza, F; Farrier, A J; Venkatesan, M; Smith, R; Khan, A; Uzoigwe, C E; Chami, G

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Hyperlactataemia is associated with adverse outcomes in trauma cases. It is thought to be the result of anaerobic respiration during hypoperfusion. This produces much less energy than complete aerobic glycolysis. Low body temperature in the injured patient carries an equally poor prognosis. Significant amounts of energy are expended in maintaining euthermia. Consequently, there may be a link between lactate levels and dysthermia. Hyperlactataemia may be indicative of inefficient energy production and therefore insufficient energy to maintain euthermia. Alternatively, significant amounts of available oxygen may be sequestered in thermoregulation, resulting in anaerobic respiration and lactate production. Our study investigated whether there is an association between lactate levels and admission body temperature in hip fracture patients. Furthermore, it looked at whether there is a difference in the mean lactate levels between hip fracture patients with low (<36.5°C), normal (36.5-37.5°C) and high (>37.5°C) body temperature on admission, and for patients who have low body temperature, whether there is a progressive rise in serum lactate levels as body temperature falls. Methods The admission temperature and serum lactate of 1,162 patients presenting with hip fracture were recorded. Patients were divided into the euthermic (body temperature 36.5-37.5°C), the pyrexial (>37.5°C) and those with low body temperature (<36.5°C). Admission lactate and body temperature were compared. Results There was a significant difference in age between the three body temperature groups (p=0.007). The pyrexial cohort was younger than the low body temperature group (mean: 78 vs 82 years). Those with low body temperature had a higher mean lactate level than the euthermic (2.2mmol/l vs 2.0mmol/l, p=0.03). However, there was no progressive rise in serum lactate level as admission temperature fell. Conclusions The findings suggest that in hip fracture patients, the body attempts initially to maintain euthermia, incurring an oxygen debt. This would explain the difference in lactate level between the low body temperature and euthermic cohorts. The fact that there is no correlation with the degree of temperature depression and lactate levels indicates that the body does not fuel thermohomeostasis indefinitely with oxygen. Instead, in part, it abandons thermoregulatory mechanisms. Consequently, in this population, active rewarming may be indicated rather than depending on patients' own thermogenic ability. PMID:26274739

  16. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid levels of colistin in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Karvanen, Matti; Iosifidis, Elias; Jansson, Britt; Plachouras, Diamantis; Cars, Otto; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2010-09-01

    Using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of colistin were determined in patients aged 1 months to 14 years receiving intravenous colistimethate sodium (60,000 to 225,000 IU/kg of body weight/day). Only in one of five courses studied (a 14-year-old receiving 225,000 IU/kg/day) did serum concentrations exceed the 2 microg/ml CLSI/EUCAST breakpoint defining susceptibility to colistin for Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. CSF colistin concentrations were <0.2 microg/ml but increased in the presence of meningitis (approximately 0.5 microg/ml or 34 to 67% of serum levels). PMID:20585114

  17. Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of Colistin in Pediatric Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Karvanen, Matti; Iosifidis, Elias; Jansson, Britt; Plachouras, Diamantis; Cars, Otto; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method, the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of colistin were determined in patients aged 1 months to 14 years receiving intravenous colistimethate sodium (60,000 to 225,000 IU/kg of body weight/day). Only in one of five courses studied (a 14-year-old receiving 225,000 IU/kg/day) did serum concentrations exceed the 2 ?g/ml CLSI/EUCAST breakpoint defining susceptibility to colistin for Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. CSF colistin concentrations were <0.2 ?g/ml but increased in the presence of meningitis (?0.5 ?g/ml or 34 to 67% of serum levels). PMID:20585114

  18. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must...operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally...spaces subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...

  19. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must...operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally...spaces subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...

  20. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must...operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally...spaces subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...

  1. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must...operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally...spaces subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...

  2. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must...operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally...spaces subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...

  3. Patient’s Perceptions Regarding Orthodontic Needs and Satisfactory Level with the Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Farishta, Saibel

    2015-01-01

    Background: In order to keep the patients satisfied with Orthodontic treatment and to address the growing concern among new orthodontic patients, this study was undertaken to evaluate patient’s perceptions of their orthodontic treatment needs and the satisfactory level with the procedure. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample of 362 patients who had received orthodontic treatment. Questionnaires included information factors that encouraged them to take orthodontic treatment, painful experience of orthodontic therapy, and also to know the effectiveness of the treatment. Student’s t-test and ANOVA test were used to analyze results at P = 0.05. Results: Most of the participants faced problems due to their dentition (60.2%), followed by mastication 23.6%. It was found that most of the study subjects were motivated by orthodontist to receive the treatment (29.7%). When the participants were asked about the complications faced by them during the procedure and the most common answer was a longer duration of the treatment (23.3%). Pain was also a common factor faced by the participants (15.9%). Significant results were seen according to gender and age. Conclusion: The study concluded that problems in the dentition were the main factor to seek orthodontic treatment and most of the subjects were convinced by the specialist to undergo orthodontic therapy. Many problems faced during the treatment, but still majority gave a positive response to the treatment. PMID:26435623

  4. Serum Gamma-Glutamyltransferase Levels Predict Clinical Outcomes in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Young Ok; Jin, Dong Chan; Song, Ho Chul; Choi, Euy Jin; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon-Su; Kang, Shin-Wook; Kim, Nam-Ho; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is a biomarker of liver injury. GGT has also been reported to be a marker of oxidative stress and a predictor of mortality in the general population. Hemodialysis (HD) patients suffer from oxidative stress. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between serum GGT levels and clinical outcomes in HD patients. Methods A total of 1,634 HD patients were enrolled from the Clinical Research Center registry for end-stage renal disease, a prospective cohort in Korea. Patients were categorized into three groups by tertiles of serum GGT levels. The primary outcome was all-cause, cardiovascular, or infection-related mortality and hospitalization. Results During the median follow-up period of 30 months, the highest tertile of serum GGT levels had a significantly higher risk for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 2.39, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.55–3.69, P<0.001), cardiovascular mortality (HR 2.14, 95% CI, 1.07–4.26, P = 0.031) and infection-related mortality (HR 3.07, 95% CI, 1.30–7.25, P = 0.011) using tertile 1 as the reference group after adjusting for clinical variables including liver diseases. The highest tertile also had a significantly higher risk for first hospitalization (HR 1.22, 95% CI, 1.00–1.48, P = 0.048) and cardiovascular hospitalization (HR 1.42, 95% CI, 1.06–1.92, P = 0.028). Conclusions Our data demonstrate that high serum GGT levels were an independent risk factor for all-cause, cardiovascular, and infection-related mortality, as well as cardiovascular hospitalization in HD patients. These findings suggest that serum GGT levels might be a useful biomarker to predict clinical outcomes in HD patients. PMID:26376075

  5. Serum Levels of the Adipokine Zinc-?2-glycoprotein Are Decreased in Patients with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hui Juan; Wang, Xiang qing; Pan, Hui; Gong, Feng ying; Zhang, Dian xi; Li, Nai shi; Wang, Lin jie; Yang, Hong bo

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Zinc-?2-glycoprotein (ZAG) has recently been proposed as a new adipokine involved in body weight regulation. The purpose of this study is to investigate serum levels of ZAG in patients with hypertension and its association with related characteristics. Methods. 32 hypertension patients and 42 normal controls were recruited and the relationship between serum ZAG, total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and metabolic-related parameters was investigated. Results. Serum ZAG concentrations were significantly lowered in patients with hypertension compared with healthy controls (61.4 ± 32 versus 78.3 ± 42??g/mL, P < 0.05). The further statistical analysis demonstrated that serum ZAG levels were negatively correlated with waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (r = ?0.241, P < 0.05) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (r = ?0.243, P < 0.05). Additionally, serum HMW adiponectin significantly decreased, while TNF? greatly increased in hypertension patients as compared with healthy controls (2.32 ± 0.41 versus 5.24 ± 1.02??g/mL, 3.30 ± 1.56 versus 2.34 ± 0.99?pg/mL, P < 0.05). Conclusions. Serum ZAG levels are significantly lowered in hypertension patients and negatively correlated with obesity-related item WHR, suggesting ZAG is a factor associated with hypertension. PMID:24665369

  6. Zinc status and dietary quality of type 2 diabetic patients: implication of physical activity level.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin-Sook

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationships among zinc status, diet quality, glycemic control and self-rated physical activity level of type 2 diabetic patients. Dietary intakes for two non-consecutive days were measured by 24-hour recall method for seventy-six diabetic patients. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c were measured for the assessment of glycemic control. We evaluated the extent of dietary adequacy by the percentage of subjects with a dietary intake of a nutrient less than the estimated average requirement(EAR), the dietary diversity score(DDS) and the dietary variety score(DVS). Zinc status was assessed from serum levels and urinary excretion. Dietary inadequacy was serious for five nutrients: riboflavin, calcium, thiamin, zinc and vitamin C. Dietary intakes from the meat, fish, and egg food groups and the milk food group were below the recommended level. We found that subjects with high levels of physical activities had significantly higher DVS and serum zinc levels compared to others (p<0.05). Fasting blood glucose levels and HbA1c were not significantly different across self-reported physical activity levels. Therefore, we suggest that maintaining physical activity at or above a moderate level is beneficial to improving dietary quality and zinc status. PMID:20126364

  7. Can patients with coronary heart disease go to high altitude?

    PubMed

    Dehnert, Christoph; Bärtsch, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Tourism to high altitude is very popular and includes elderly people with both manifest and subclinical coronary heart disease (CHD). Thus, risk assessment regarding high altitude exposure of patients with CHD is of increasing interest, and individual recommendations are expected despite the lack of sufficient scientific evidence. The major factor increasing cardiac stress is hypoxia. At rest and for a given external workload, myocardial oxygen demand is increased at altitude, particularly in nonacclimatized individuals, and there is some evidence that blood-flow reserve is reduced in atherosclerotic coronary arteries even in the absence of severe stenosis. Despite a possible imbalance between oxygen demand and oxygen delivery, studies on selected patients have shown that exposure and exercise at altitudes of 3000 to 3500?m is generally safe for patients with stable CHD and sufficient work capacity. During the first days at altitude, patients with stable angina may develop symptoms of myocardial ischemia at slightly lower heart rate x ?blood-pressure products. Adverse cardiac events, however, such as unstable angina coronary syndromes, do not occur more frequently compared with sea level except for those who are unaccustomed to exercise. Therefore, training should start before going to altitude, and the altitude-related decrease in exercise capacity should be considered. Travel to 3500?m should be avoided unless patients have stable disease, preserved left ventricular function without residual capacity, and above-normal exercise capacity. CHD patients should avoid travel to elevations above 4500?m owing to severe hypoxia at these altitudes. The risk assessment of CHD patients at altitude should always consider a possible absence of medical support and that cardiovascular events may turn into disaster. PMID:20919884

  8. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection... Definitions § 227.30 High-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting...

  9. High Level Synthesis of Timed Asynchronous Circuits Tomohiro Yoneda

    E-print Network

    Myers, Chris J.

    implementations. The high level synthesis of asynchronous circuits have been studied mainly in the context reasons that this approach has not been used to date for high level synthesis are the state explosionHigh Level Synthesis of Timed Asynchronous Circuits Tomohiro Yoneda National Institute

  10. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  11. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  12. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  13. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  14. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  15. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  16. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  17. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  18. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  19. Statistics of high-level scene context

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Michelle R.

    2013-01-01

    Context is critical for recognizing environments and for searching for objects within them: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48, 167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell et al., 2008). From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed “things” in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human scene categorization is discussed. Of the three levels, ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature), and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. However, certain objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help the visual cognition community to design experiments guided by statistics rather than intuition. PMID:24194723

  20. Comparison of serum vitamin D level in multiple sclerosis patients, their siblings, and healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Eskandari, Ghazaleh; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Gorji, Razieh; Rajaei, Faezeh; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Faridar, Alireza; Azimi, Amirreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, neuro-inflammatory disease of central nervous system affecting physical, emotional, and cognitive aspects of patients. Association of vitamin D deficiency and MS has been shown in previous studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum vitamin D level in MS cases and their sex-matched healthy siblings (who are genetically near similar) and non-relative sex-matched healthy controls. Methods: A total of 135 subjects enrolled in this case-control study. Group one (n = 45) consisted of patients with established MS. Group two (n = 45) included sex-matched healthy siblings of the group one and group three participants (n = 45) were non-relative sex-matched healthy controls. Demographic data (age, sex), level of education, daily sun exposure duration, and month of birth gathered for all. Serum sample of all participants was collected for 25-hydroxy vitamin D measurement. Results: There was no significant difference between vitamin D level, sun exposure duration, education level, and season of birth in three evaluated groups. Mean vitamin D level was 8.2 ± 10.1 (nmol/l) in women and 13.3 ± 7 (nmol/l) in men (P = 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between daily sun exposure duration and vitamin D level in whole participants (r = 0.28, P < 0.001) as well as in MS patients (r = 0.32, P = 0.030). Mean vitamin D level was significantly lower in participants who have born in spring and summer. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is high among Iranian population as well as MS patients. PMID:26056552

  1. How Do Metal Ion Levels Change over Time in Hip Resurfacing Patients? A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Savarino, Lucia; Cadossi, Matteo; Chiarello, Eugenio; Fotia, Caterina; Greco, Michelina; Baldini, Nicola; Giannini, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing (MOM-HR) is offered as an alternative to traditional hip arthroplasty for young, active adults with advanced osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, concerns remain regarding wear and corrosion of the bearing surfaces and the resulting increase in metal ion levels. We evaluated three cohorts of patients with Birmingham hip resurfacing (BHR) at an average follow-up of 2, 5, and 9 years. We asked whether there would be differences in ion levels between the cohorts and inside the gender. Nineteen patients were prospectively analyzed. The correlation with clinical-radiographic data was also performed. Chromium, cobalt, nickel, and molybdenum concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Chromium and cobalt levels demonstrated a tendency to decrease over time. Such tendency was present only in females. An inverse correlation between chromium, implant size, and Harris hip score was present at short term; it disappeared over time together with the decreased ion levels. The prospective analysis showed that, although metal ion levels remained fairly constant within each patient, there was a relatively large variation between subjects, so mean data in this scenario must be interpreted with caution. The chronic high exposure should be carefully considered during implant selection, particularly in young subjects, and a stricter monitoring is mandatory. PMID:25580456

  2. How do metal ion levels change over time in hip resurfacing patients? A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Savarino, Lucia; Cadossi, Matteo; Chiarello, Eugenio; Fotia, Caterina; Greco, Michelina; Baldini, Nicola; Giannini, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing (MOM-HR) is offered as an alternative to traditional hip arthroplasty for young, active adults with advanced osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, concerns remain regarding wear and corrosion of the bearing surfaces and the resulting increase in metal ion levels. We evaluated three cohorts of patients with Birmingham hip resurfacing (BHR) at an average follow-up of 2, 5, and 9 years. We asked whether there would be differences in ion levels between the cohorts and inside the gender. Nineteen patients were prospectively analyzed. The correlation with clinical-radiographic data was also performed. Chromium, cobalt, nickel, and molybdenum concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Chromium and cobalt levels demonstrated a tendency to decrease over time. Such tendency was present only in females. An inverse correlation between chromium, implant size, and Harris hip score was present at short term; it disappeared over time together with the decreased ion levels. The prospective analysis showed that, although metal ion levels remained fairly constant within each patient, there was a relatively large variation between subjects, so mean data in this scenario must be interpreted with caution. The chronic high exposure should be carefully considered during implant selection, particularly in young subjects, and a stricter monitoring is mandatory. PMID:25580456

  3. Fibrillin levels in a severely affected Marfan syndrome patient with a null allele

    SciTech Connect

    Boxer, M.; Withers, A.P.; Al-Ghaban, Z. |

    1994-09-01

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited connective tissue disorder characterized by defects in the cardiovascular, skeletal and ocular systems. A patient was first examined in 1992 having survived an acute sortic dissection with subsequent composite repair and insertion of a prosthetic aortic valve. Clinical examination revealed arachnodactyly, narrow, high arched palate with dental crowding, an arm span exceeding her height by 10.5 cm, joint laxity and bilateral lens subluxation. Analysis of the family showed affected members in three generations and the fibrillin gene, FBN1, was shown to segregate with the disease when using polymorphic markers including an RsaI polymorphism in the 3{prime}-untranslated region of the gene. Analysis of patient mRNA for this RsaI polymorphism by RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-PCR) amplification and restriction enzyme digestion of the PCR products showed that the copy of the gene segregating with the disease was not transcribed. No low level expression of this allele was observed despite RT-PCR amplification incorporating radioactively labelled dCTP, thus revealing a null allele phenotype. Western blotting analysis of fibrillin secreted by the patient`s dermal fibroblasts using fibrillin-specific antibodies showed only normal sized fibrillin protein. However, immunohistochemical studies of the patient`s tissue and fibroblasts showed markedly lowered levels in staining of microfibrillar structures compared with age-matched controls. This low level of expression of the protein affected in Marfan syndrome in a patient with such severe clinical manifestations is surprising since current understanding would suggest that this molecular phenotype should lead to a mild clinical disorder.

  4. Composition of fatty acids in plasma and erythrocytes and eicosanoids level in patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disturbances of the fatty acids composition in plasma and red blood cells and eicosanoid synthesis play an important role in the metabolic syndrome (MS) formation. Methods The observation group included 61 people with metabolic syndrome (30 patients with MS and normal levels of insulin, 31 people with MS and insulin resistance - IR). The parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in blood serum were examined. The composition of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), fatty acid (FA) of red blood cells lipids was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Eicosanoids level in MS patients blood serum was studied by enzyme immunoassay. Results In MS patients in the absence of glucose-insulin homeostasis disturbances and in patients with IR the accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (18:2 n6, 18:3 n3, 22:4 n6) and lower pool of saturated FA (12:0, 14:0, 16: 0, 17:0) in plasma were discovered. A deficit of polyunsaturated FA (18:3 n3, 20:4 n6) with a predominance of on-saturated FA (14:0, 18:0) in erythrocyte membranes was revealed. In MS patients regardless of the carbohydrate metabolism status high levels of leukotriene B4 and 6-keto-prostaglandin-F1? in serum were found. The development of IR in MS patients leads to increased synthesis of thromboxane A2. Conclusion The results revealed a disturbance in nonesterified fatty acids of plasma lipids and red blood cells, eicosanoid synthesis in MS patients. The breach of the plasma and cell membranes fatty acids compositions, synthesis of vasoactive and proinflammatory eicosanoids is an important pathogenetic part of the MS development. PMID:21595891

  5. Uremic retention solute indoxyl sulfate level is associated with prolonged QTc interval in early CKD patients.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Chao-Ping; Chung, Fu-Mei; Huang, Lynn L H; Yu, Teng-Hung; Hung, Wei-Chin; Lu, Li-Fen; Chen, Po-Yuan; Luo, Ching-Hsing; Lee, Kun-Tai; Lee, Yau-Jiunn; Lai, Wen-Ter

    2015-01-01

    Total mortality and sudden cardiac death is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In CKD patients, the protein-bound uremic retention solute indoxyl sulfate (IS) is independently associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of this association have yet to be elucidated. The relationship between IS and cardiac electrocardiographic parameters was investigated in a prospective observational study among early CKD patients. IS arrhythmogenic effect was evaluated by in vitro cardiomyocyte electrophysiological study and mathematical computer simulation. In a cohort of 100 early CKD patients, patients with corrected QT (QTc) prolongation had higher IS levels. Furthermore, serum IS level was independently associated with prolonged QTc interval. In vitro, the delay rectifier potassium current (IK) was found to be significantly decreased after the treatment of IS in a dose-dependent manner. The modulation of IS to the IK was through the regulation of the major potassium ion channel protein Kv 2.1 phosphorylation. In a computer simulation, the decrease of IK by IS could prolong the action potential duration (APD) and induce early afterdepolarization, which is known to be a trigger mechanism of lethal ventricular arrhythmias. In conclusion, serum IS level is independently associated with the prolonged QTc interval in early CKD patients. IS down-regulated IK channel protein phosphorylation and the IK current activity that in turn increased the cardiomyocyte APD and QTc interval in vitro and in the computer ORd model. These findings suggest that IS may play a role in the development of arrhythmogenesis in CKD patients. PMID:25893644

  6. Uremic Retention Solute Indoxyl Sulfate Level Is Associated with Prolonged QTc Interval in Early CKD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Chao-Ping; Chung, Fu-Mei; Huang, Lynn L. H.; Yu, Teng-Hung; Hung, Wei-Chin; Lu, Li-Fen; Chen, Po-Yuan; Luo, Ching-Hsing; Lee, Kun-Tai; Lee, Yau-Jiunn; Lai, Wen-Ter

    2015-01-01

    Total mortality and sudden cardiac death is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In CKD patients, the protein-bound uremic retention solute indoxyl sulfate (IS) is independently associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of this association have yet to be elucidated. The relationship between IS and cardiac electrocardiographic parameters was investigated in a prospective observational study among early CKD patients. IS arrhythmogenic effect was evaluated by in vitro cardiomyocyte electrophysiological study and mathematical computer simulation. In a cohort of 100 early CKD patients, patients with corrected QT (QTc) prolongation had higher IS levels. Furthermore, serum IS level was independently associated with prolonged QTc interval. In vitro, the delay rectifier potassium current (IK) was found to be significantly decreased after the treatment of IS in a dose-dependent manner. The modulation of IS to the IK was through the regulation of the major potassium ion channel protein Kv 2.1 phosphorylation. In a computer simulation, the decrease of IK by IS could prolong the action potential duration (APD) and induce early afterdepolarization, which is known to be a trigger mechanism of lethal ventricular arrhythmias. In conclusion, serum IS level is independently associated with the prolonged QTc interval in early CKD patients. IS down-regulated IK channel protein phosphorylation and the IK current activity that in turn increased the cardiomyocyte APD and QTc interval in vitro and in the computer ORd model. These findings suggest that IS may play a role in the development of arrhythmogenesis in CKD patients. PMID:25893644

  7. Preoperative Serum CA125 Levels Predict the Prognosis in Hyperbilirubinemia Patients With Resectable Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Zhang, Min-Gui; Xu, Hua-Xiang; Wang, Wen-Quan; Liu, Liang; Yu, Xian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) is widely used to predict the prognosis for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, hyperbilirubinemia and the CA19-9 nonsecretor phenotype restrict the usage of serum CA19-9 alone. The goal of this study was to confirm the prognostic role of preoperative serum CA125 in PDAC, especially in patients with jaundice. A total of 211 patients with resected PDAC were eligible for this retrospective study, and were classified into 2 groups based on serum bilirubin levels. The prognostic significance of all clinicopathologic factors was evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses, and the performance of each factor in predicting overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) was compared. High preoperative CA125, high TNM stage, and lymph node metastasis were independent risk predictors for OS and RFS in all patients and the 2 subgroups, but high CA19-9 was only significant when considering all patients and those with nonelevated bilirubin. Using time-dependent receiver-operating characteristic analysis, better predictive performance for OS and RFS was observed for serum CA19-9 as compared to serum CA125 in these patients. High serum CA125 can independently predict poor prognosis. Importantly, in PDAC patients with hyperbilirubinemia, preoperative serum CA125 can predict the prognosis, whereas CA19-9 cannot. Preoperative CA19-9 had better predictive performance for survival than CA125, and the performance of CA19-9 did not decline between all patients and those with nonelevated bilirubin, but was significantly affected by hyperbilirubinemia. PMID:25984661

  8. Patient Dose Reference Levels for Interventional Radiology: A National Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Vano, Eliseo Sanchez, R.; Fernandez, J. M.; Gallego, J. J.; Verdu, J. F.; Garay, M. Gonzalez de; Azpiazu, A.; Segarra, A.; Hernandez, M. T.; Canis, M.; Diaz, F.; Moreno, F.; Palmero, J.

    2009-01-15

    A set of patient dose reference levels (RLs) for fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures was obtained in a survey launched by the National Society of Interventional Radiology (IR), involving 10 public hospitals, as recommended by the European Medical Exposures Directive. A sample of 1391 dose values (kerma area product [KAP]) was collected randomly during clinical procedures for seven of the most frequent procedures. Third quartiles of the KAP distributions were used to set the RLs. A regular quality control of the X-ray systems and a calibration of the dose meters were performed during the survey. The fluoroscopy time and total number of digital subtraction angiography images per procedure were also analyzed. The RL values proposed were 12 Gy cm{sup 2} for fistulography (hemodialysis access; sample of 180 cases), 73 Gy cm{sup 2} for lower limb arteriography (685 cases), 89 Gy cm{sup 2} for renal arteriography (55 cases), 80 Gy cm{sup 2} for biliary drainage (205 cases), 289 Gy cm{sup 2} for hepatic chemoembolization (151 cases), 94 Gy cm{sup 2} for iliac stent (70 cases), and 236 Gy cm{sup 2} for uterine embolization (45 cases). The provisional national RL values are lower than those obtained in a similar survey carried out in the United States from 2002 to 2004. These new values could be used to improve the practice of centers consistently working with doses higher than the RLs. This national survey also had a positive impact, as it helped increase the awareness of the members of the National Society of IR on a topic as crucial as patient dose values and programs on radiation protection.

  9. Aqueous Levels of Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor and Macular Choroidal Thickness in High Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Guan, Yubo; He, Guanghui; Li, Zhiwei; Song, Hui; Xie, Shiyong; Han, Quanhong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the correlation between aqueous and serum levels of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) and macular choroidal thickness in high myopia patients, both with and without choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Methods. Serum and aqueous levels of PEDF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 36 high myopia patients (36 eyes) with no CNV (non-CNV group), 14 high myopia patients (14 eyes) with CNV (CNV group), and 42 nonmyopia patients (42 eyes) (control group). Macular choroidal thickness was measured by enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Results. Aqueous levels of PEDF were significantly higher in CNV group compared with non-CNV (P < 0.001) and control (P < 0.001) groups. Macular choroidal thicknesses were significantly decreased in the non-CNV and CNV groups compared with the control (P < 0.001) group. A statistically significant difference (P = 0.012) was found between the CNV and non-CNV groups. There was a positive correlation between aqueous PEDF and macular choroidal thickness in the non-CNV group (P = 0.005), but no correlation with the CNV group. No correlation between serum PEDF and macular choroidal thickness was detected in the three groups. Conclusion. Variations in aqueous PEDF levels coincide with changes in macular choroidal thickness in high myopia patients with no CNV, while no such relationship exists in high myopia patients with CNV. PMID:26491554

  10. Serum Cadmium Levels in Pancreatic Cancer Patients from the East Nile Delta Region of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Kriegel, Alison M.; Soliman, Amr S.; Zhang, Qing; El-Ghawalby, Nabih; Ezzat, Farouk; Soultan, Ahmed; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed; Fathy, Omar; Ebidi, Gamal; Bassiouni, Nadia; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Lacey, Michelle R.; Blake, Diane A.

    2006-01-01

    The northeast Nile Delta region exhibits a high incidence of early-onset pancreatic cancer. It is well documented that this region has one of the highest levels of pollution in Egypt. Epidemiologic studies have suggested that cadmium, a prevalent pollutant in the northeast Nile Delta region, plays a role in the development of pancreatic cancer. Objective: We aimed to assess serum cadmium levels as markers of exposure in pancreatic cancer patients and noncancer comparison subjects from the same region in Egypt. Design and Participants: We assessed serum cadmium levels of 31 newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer patients and 52 hospital comparison subjects from Mansoura, Egypt. Evaluation/Measurements: Serum cadmium levels were measured using a novel immunoassay procedure. Results: We found a significant difference between the mean serum cadmium levels in patients versus comparison subjects (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 7.7 ng/mL vs. 7.1 ± 5.0 ng/mL, respectively; p = 0.012) but not in age, sex, residence, occupation, or smoking status. The odds ratio (OR) for pancreatic cancer risk was significant for serum cadmium level [OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04–1.23; p = 0.0089] and farming (OR = 3.25; 95% CI, 1.03–11.64; p = 0.0475) but not for age, sex, residence, or smoking status. Conclusions: The results from this pilot study suggest that pancreatic cancer in the East Nile Delta region is significantly associated with high levels of serum cadmium and farming. Relevance to Clinical Practice/Public Health: Future studies should further investigate the etiologic relationship between cadmium exposure and pancreatic carcinogenesis in cadmium-exposed populations. PMID:16393667

  11. Brief Report: Plasma Beta-Endorphin and Cortisol Levels in Autistic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman, Curt A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of plasma levels of beta-endorphin (BE) found that levels in 8 adult autistic patients were lower than levels in 17 healthy controls, for both morning and evening measurements. Plasma BE concentrations were also significantly lower for 13 developmentally disabled patients than levels for normal controls. (JDD)

  12. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste...

  13. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste...

  14. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste...

  15. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On...station to indicate a high water level in each of the following...subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space...paragraph (a), provide bilge level alarms in all...

  16. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On...station to indicate a high water level in each of the following...subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space...paragraph (a), provide bilge level alarms in all...

  17. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On...station to indicate a high water level in each of the following...subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space...paragraph (a), provide bilge level alarms in all...

  18. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On...station to indicate a high water level in each of the following...subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space...paragraph (a), provide bilge level alarms in all...

  19. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On...station to indicate a high water level in each of the following...subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space...paragraph (a), provide bilge level alarms in all...

  20. High level indole signalling in Escherichia coli

    E-print Network

    Gaimster, Hannah Dorne

    2014-06-10

    -di-GMP levels, because synthesis and breakdown are controlled by a range of factors (reviewed by Hengge, 2009). c-di-GMP can mediate its effects by binding to effector proteins, transcription factors or riboswitches. An example of c-di-GMP interacting... ATP Adenosine triphosphate A/E attaching and effacing cAMP cyclic adenosine monophosphate CRP cAMP receptor protein CCSM cell to cell signalling molecule c-di-GMP cyclic dimeric guanosine 3’-5’-monophosphate cGMP cyclic guanosine 3...

  1. Meta-analysis of apolipoprotein E levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Puneet; Sinha, Juhi; Grover, Sandeep; Agarwal, Rachna; Kushwaha, Suman; Srivastava, M V Padma; Kukreti, Ritushree

    2016-01-15

    The possible association between Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been studied extensively. However, previous findings have been inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies, seeking to provide insights into ApoE's potential as a biomarker for AD. A systematic literature search of PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, and Web of Science was performed to retrieve relevant studies evaluating ApoE levels in CSF from AD subjects and controls. The association between ApoE levels in the CSF and AD was estimated by the weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using a random-effect model. We identified 24 studies that included 1064AD cases and 1338 non-demented controls. Although the pooled WMD did not indicate a significant association between AD and ApoE levels (-0.30mg/l; 95% CI: -0.69 to 0.09; P=0.13), sub-group analysis controlling for patient sample size (n?43) revealed significantly lower ApoE levels (WMD: -0.66mg/l; 95% CI: -1.02 to -0.31; P=0.0002) among patients with AD than in controls. Publication bias was absent and sensitivity analysis did not result in any significant change in the pooled estimates, indicating highly stable results. The present meta-analysis indicates the potential of CSF ApoE levels as a predictor of AD association. PMID:26723997

  2. Parathyroid Hormone Levels May Predict Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in Morbidly Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghoghaei, Morteza; Taghdiri, Foad; Khajeh, Elias; Azmoudeh Ardalan, Farid; Sedaghat, Mojtaba; Hosseini Shirvani, Sepideh; Zarei, Shadi; Toolabi, Karamollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity as a worldwide health problem is associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Since severe liver injury may be present in asymptomatic obese patients and a definite diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis can only be made after an invasive procedure of liver biopsy, there is a need for noninvasive methods to predict the probability of NASH. Objectives: To investigate the role of vitamin D endocrine system in predicting the probability of presence of NASH in asymptomatic morbidly obese candidates of bariatric surgery. Patients and Methods: From December 09 to March 11, every patient undergoing bariatric surgery had a liver biopsy. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was diagnosed using the Lee’s criteria, the baseline labs obtained and the association between laboratory data and presence of NASH assessed. Results: Forty-six patients (34 women, aged 36.5 ± 10.6 years) were analyzed. The mean levels of liver enzymes were significantly higher in the group with NASH (P value < 0.01). In an unadjusted logistic model, PTH was the only variable in vitamin D endocrine system which was significantly associated with NASH (odds ratio (OR): 1.04, 95%CI: 1.01 - 1.07). After adjustment for possible confounding factors, age (OR: 1.22, 95%CI: 1.00 - 1.50) and PTH (OR: 1.08, 95%CI: 1.01 - 1.16) were predictive factors for NASH (P value < 0.05). Conclusions: Elevated serum PTH level was the predictive factor for NASH in morbidly obese patients. Also, we reported elevated serum liver enzymes, high serum PTH levels and older age as predictors of NASH in patients seeking obesity surgical treatments. PMID:26300934

  3. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  4. Poor nutrition and alcohol consumption are related to high serum homocysteine level at post-stroke

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung-Hye; Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Jong-Sung

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Increased serum homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been reported to be related to the occurrence of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. High serum Hcy levels are also related to the development of secondary stroke and all-cause mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of high serum homocysteine level and relating factors, and the change over the 10 month period post-stroke. SUBJECTS/METHODS Consecutive stroke patients who were admitted to the Asan Medical Center were enrolled. Ten months after the onset of stroke, an interview with a structured questionnaire was performed and blood samples were obtained for the biochemical parameters. Nutritional status was determined using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) score and dietary nutrient intakes were also obtained using a 24 hour recall method. RESULTS Out of 203 patients, 84% were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, and 26% had high homocysteine levels at 10 months post-stroke. Using logistic regression, the factors related with high homocysteine levels at 10 months post-stroke included heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.020), low MNA scores (P = 0.026), low serum vitamin B12 (P = 0.021) and low serum folate levels (P = 0.003). Of the 156 patients who had normal homocysteine levels at admission, 36 patients developed hyperhomocysteinemia 10 months post-stroke, which was related to heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.013). Persistent hyperhomocysteinemia, observed in 22 patients (11%), was related to male sex (P = 0.031), old age (P = 0.042), low vitamin B6 intake (P = 0.029), and heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.013). CONCLUSION Hyperhomocysteinemia is common in post-stroke, and is related to malnutrition, heavy alcohol drinking and low serum level of folate and vitamin B12. Strategies to prevent or manage high homocysteine levels should consider these factors. PMID:26425280

  5. Infrared Thermography in High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    GLEATON, DAVIDT.

    2004-08-24

    The Savannah River Site is a Department of Energy, government-owned, company-operated industrial complex built in the 1950s to produce materials used in nuclear weapons. Five reactors were built to support the production of nuclear weapons material. Irradiated materials were moved from the reactors to one of the two chemical separation plants. In these facilities, known as ''canyons,'' the irradiated fuel and target assemblies were chemically processed to separate useful products from waste. Unfortunately, the by-product waste of nuclear material production was a highly radioactive liquid that had to be stored and maintained. In 1993 a strategy was developed to implement predictive maintenance technologies in the Liquid Waste Disposition Project Division responsible for processing the liquid waste. Responsibilities include the processing and treatment of 51 underground tanks designed to hold 750,000 to1,300,000 gallons of liquid waste and operation of a facility that vitrifies highly radioactive liquid waste into glass logs. Electrical and mechanical equipment monitored at these facilities is very similar to that found in non-nuclear industrial plants. Annual inspections are performed on electrical components, roof systems, and mechanical equipment. Troubleshooting and post installation and post-maintenance infrared inspections are performed as needed. In conclusion, regardless of the industry, the use of infrared thermography has proven to be an efficient and effective method of inspection to help improve plant safety and reliability through early detection of equipment problems.

  6. High level tools for GKS graphics

    SciTech Connect

    Worlton, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    GKS graphics software provides a device independent method of producing graphics on a number of different devices, but it is a rather low level package which is difficult to use. The GPLOT Fortran library of graphics tools discussed here can be used to simplify the creation of scientific graphics with VAX GKS(GPL). GPLOT contains routines for drawing and labelling of axes for linear, log, and log-log plots. It supports the drawing of data curves with or without markers and/or error bars on the data points. It provides routines for producing a legend which automatically keeps track of the line type, color, and marker type used in producing each of the curves on a plot. There are also routines for producing contour plots, bar graphs and for drawing vectors with various types of arrow heads. GPLOT allows setting the text font by font name and attributes. It also allows the definition of switch characters to switch fonts or do subscripts and superscripts using instructions embedded in the string. GPLOT supports the GKS feature of multiple active workstations which allows creation of hardcopy plots while plotting to the screen. GPLOT supports creation of GKS metafiles and includes a program for interpreting and plotting GKS metafiles. It also supports graphics locator input with conversion of coordinates to user units if desired. To simplify user interaction during input, there are routines for switching between VT220 mode and graphics mode. A number of examples are presented. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Nurse Staffing Levels and Patient-Reported Missed Nursing Care.

    PubMed

    Dabney, Beverly Waller; Kalisch, Beatrice J

    2015-01-01

    A total of 729 inpatients were surveyed using the MISSCARE Survey-Patient. Missed timeliness, patient reports of the time it took for them to receive care from nursing staff, was negatively associated with total nursing staff hours of care per patient-day (r = -0.09, P = .015), registered nurse (RN) hours per patient-day (r = -0.14, P = .0002), and RN skill mix (r = -0.13, P = .0004). RN skill mix was also a predictor of missed timeliness (P = .01). PMID:25929314

  8. Beta2 glycoprotein I containing immune-complexes in lupus patients: association with thrombocytopenia and lipoprotein (a) levels.

    PubMed

    George, J; Gilburd, B; Langevitz, P; Levy, Y; Nezlin, R; Harats, D; Shoenfeld, Y

    1999-01-01

    In this study we determined the prevalence and clinical associations of immune-complexes-containing beta-2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI) in randomly selected SLE patients. We studied 38 consecutive SLE patients attending the Rheumatology Unit. Previous arterial or venous-thrombosis were documented by the appropriate diagnostic test. Lipid profile including total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, HDL and Lp(a) levels were determined from the sera of the fasting patients. Antibodies to cardiolipin, oxidized LDL and beta2GPI were detected employing ELISA. Beta2GPI containing IgG immune-complexes were assayed by using a dot-blot assay. Fourteen SLE patients (36.8%) were found to be positive for the presence of IgG anti-beta2GPI antibodies. Ten of the SLE patients (26.3%) were found to have high levels of beta2GPI containing immune-complexes. There was a positive correlation between beta2GPI-IC levels and the occurrence of thrombocytopenia in the patients (P < 0.05). Furthermore, patients with SLE and venous thrombosis had higher levels of beta2GPI-IC when compared with thrombosis-free patients or with healthy controls (P < 0.05). Patients with higher Lp(a) levels (> 50 mg/dl) possessed higher levels of beta2GPI-IC as compared with patients with lower Lp(a) concentration (< 20 mg/dl) (P < 0.05). These results suggest that IC-containing beta2GPI can help in defining a subpopulation of SLE patients with increased risk of thrombocytopenia and further aid in resolving mechanisms of immune-mediated tissue damage. PMID:10192505

  9. Can patients reliably identify safe, high quality care?

    PubMed Central

    Tevis, Sarah E.; Schmocker, Ryan K.; Kennedy, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey is a publicly reported tool that measures patient satisfaction. As both patients and Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) reimbursement rely on survey results as a metric of quality of care, we reviewed the current literature to determine if patient satisfaction correlates with quality, safety, or patient outcomes. We found varying associations between safety culture, process of care measure compliance, and patient outcomes with patient satisfaction on the HCAHPS survey. Some studies found inverse relationships between quality and safety metrics and patient satisfaction. The measure that most reliably correlated with high patient satisfaction was low readmission rate. Future studies using patient specific data are needed to better identify which factors most influence patient satisfaction and to determine if patient satisfaction is a marker of safer and better quality care. Furthermore, the HCAHPS survey should continue to undergo evaluations to assure it generates predictable results. PMID:26413179

  10. Does spiritual care program affect levels of depression in patients with Leukemia? A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Musarezaie, Amir; Moeini, Mahin; Taleghani, Fariba; Mehrabi, Tayebeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although 25-33% of patients with non-hematological malignancies suffer from depression disorder, some studies have reported the rate among patients with leukemia as high as 50%. Furthermore, based on studies chronic disease such as leukemia increases the patients’ spiritual needs and may accelerate the patient problems. Therefore, spirituality has a significant role in adapting to leukemia and coping with its consequent mental disorders such as depression. Owing to the spirituality aspect importance and contradictory results of previous research, this study was hence performed to determine the effects of a spiritual care program on depression of patients with leukemia. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted in specialized cancer treatment center affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Isfahan, Iran). A total of 64 adult patients with leukemia were randomly divided into experiment and control groups. The spiritual care program including supportive presence and support for religious rituals was implemented for 3 days. Depression sub-scale of 42-item depression, anxiety and stress scale-42 was completed before and after the intervention for both groups. Data was analyzed using ANCOVA, Mann-Whitney U-test, Chi-square, in SPSS statistical software (version 18, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Results: After the intervention, mean score of depression was significantly lower in the experiment group than in the control group (P < 0.01). Comparison the mean score of depression in two groups, revealed the decrees in mean score of depression 11.09 (8.47) after spiritual care program that it was significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our spiritual care program could successfully decrease depression level in patients with leukemia and nurses have to apply a holistic care approach with emphasis on spiritual care to decrease depression, so paid attention to spiritual aspect of patients accompanying with physical aspects in therapy process is recommended. PMID:25250362

  11. Bumblebee Pupae Contain High Levels of Aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 ?g/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) ?g/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer’s disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline. PMID:26042788

  12. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 ?g/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) ?g/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline. PMID:26042788

  13. 42 CFR 413.235 - Patient-level adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...patient age, body surface area, low body mass index, onset of dialysis (new patient), and co-morbidities, as specified by CMS...wage-adjusted add-on per treatment adjustment for home and self-dialysis training. [75 FR 49201, Aug. 12, 2010]...

  14. 42 CFR 413.235 - Patient-level adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...patient age, body surface area, low body mass index, onset of dialysis (new patient), and co-morbidities, as specified by CMS...wage-adjusted add-on per treatment adjustment for home and self-dialysis training. [75 FR 49201, Aug. 12,...

  15. 42 CFR 413.235 - Patient-level adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...patient age, body surface area, low body mass index, onset of dialysis (new patient), and co-morbidities, as specified by CMS...wage-adjusted add-on per treatment adjustment for home and self-dialysis training. [75 FR 49201, Aug. 12,...

  16. 42 CFR 413.235 - Patient-level adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...patient age, body surface area, low body mass index, onset of dialysis (new patient), and co-morbidities, as specified by CMS...wage-adjusted add-on per treatment adjustment for home and self-dialysis training. [75 FR 49201, Aug. 12,...

  17. 42 CFR 413.235 - Patient-level adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...patient age, body surface area, low body mass index, onset of dialysis (new patient), and co-morbidities, as specified by CMS...wage-adjusted add-on per treatment adjustment for home and self-dialysis training. [75 FR 49201, Aug. 12,...

  18. Management in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Burns, Patrick; Highlander, Pete; Shinabarger, Andrew B

    2014-10-01

    Injuries to the foot and ankle are often missed or underestimated in patients with polytrauma and are a source of long-term limitations. Injures below the knee are among the highest causes for unemployment, longer sick leave, more pain, more follow-up appointments, and decreased overall outcome. As mortalities decrease for patients with polytrauma a greater emphasis on timely diagnosis and treatment of foot and ankle injuries is indicated. Geriatric patients represent nearly one-quarter of trauma admissions in the United States. This article discusses perioperative management and complications associated with foot and ankle injuries in polytrauma, and in diabetic and geriatric patients. PMID:25281513

  19. Study of the correlation between serum ferritin levels and the aggregation of metabolic disorders in non-diabetic elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    LI, BIQIANG; LIN, WEI; LIN, NAN; DONG, XIAOWEN; LIU, LIBIN

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the correlation between serum ferritin (SF) levels and the aggregation of metabolic disorders in non-diabetic elderly patients. A total of 2,600 patients were enrolled in the study. Various parameters, including blood pressure (BP), height, weight, lipid profiles, blood glucose (BG), body mass index (BMI), fasting insulin (FINS), serum uric acid (SUA), the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) and SF levels were measured. A homeostatic model was used to evaluate insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and ?-cell function (HOMA-?). The quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) and disposition index (DI) were calculated. The QUICKI and DI decreased significantly and other parameters increased significantly when the number of metabolic disorders increased. Patients with high triglycerides (TG), high total cholesterol (TC), high SUA and obesity demonstrated higher SF levels than those with normal TG, normal TC, normal SUA and normal weight, respectively (P<0.01). Male patients with metabolic disorders (high TG, high TC, high BP, high SUA and obesity) had higher SF levels than female patients with the corresponding disorders (P<0.01). BG, FINS, BMI, TC, TG, SUA, HOMA-IR and HOMA-? were positively correlated with SF, while DI and QUICKI were negatively correlated with SF (P<0.01). Stepwise regression analysis showed that HOMA-IR, BMI, TC, TG and SUA were risk factors for elevated SF levels. In conclusion, the SF levels in non-diabetic, elderly individuals with metabolic disorders may be significantly related to the clustering of the metabolic disorders. Dyslipidemia, obesity, disorders of purine metabolism and insulin resistance may be important risk factors for higher SF levels in the elderly. PMID:24926364

  20. Patient Level Analysis of Outcomes Using Structured Labor and Delivery Data

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Eric S.; Poynton, Mollie R.; Narus, Scott P.; Jones, Spencer S.; Evans, R. Scott; Varner, Michael W.; Thornton, Sidney N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents methods for identifying and analyzing associations among nursing care processes, patient attributes, and patient outcomes using unit-level and patient-level representations of care derived from computerized nurse documentation. The retrospective, descriptive analysis included documented nursing events for 900 Labor and Delivery patients at three hospitals over the 2-month period of January and February 2006. Two models were used to produce quantified measurements of nursing care received by each patient. The first model considered only the hourly census of nurses and patients. The second model considered the size of nurses’ patient loads as represented by computerized nurse-entered documentation. Significant relationships were identified between durations of labor and nursing care scores generated by the second model. In addition to the clinical associations identified, the study demonstrated an approach with global application for representing the amount of nursing care received at the individual patient level in analyses of patient outcomes. PMID:19535002

  1. The Actual Level of Symptomatic Soft Disc Herniation in Patients with Cervical Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Su Yong; Kim, Woo Kyung; Son, Seong; Jeong, Tae Seok

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to predict the relationship between the symptomatic disc herniation level and the osteophyte level or decreased disc height in patients with cervical disc herniation. Methods Between January 2011 and December 2012, 69 patients with an osteophyte of the cervical spine underwent surgery at a single center due to soft cervical disc herniation. Data including soft disc herniation level, osteophyte level in the posterior vertebral margin, Cobb's angle, and symptom duration were retrospectively assessed. The patients were divided into three groups according to the relationship between the degenerative change level and the level of reported symptoms. Results Among the 69 patients, 48 (69.6%) showed a match between osteophyte level and soft disc herniation level. Disc herniation occurred at the adjacent segment to degenerative osteophyte level in 12 patients (17.4%) and at both the adjacent and the osteophyte level in nine (13.0%). There was no significant difference in Cobb's angle or duration among the three groups. Osteophyte type was not significant. The mean disc height of the prominent degenerative change level group was lower than the adjacent segment level, but this was not significant. Conclusion Soft cervical disc herniation usually occurs at the level an osteophyte forms. However, it may also occur at segments adjacent to that of the osteophyte level. Therefore, in patients with cervical disc herniation, although a prominent osteophyte alone may appear on plain radiography, we must suspect the presence of soft disc herniation at other levels. PMID:26512266

  2. Elevated urinary d-lactate levels in patients with diabetes and microalbuminuria.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chu-Kuang; Lee, Ya-Ting; Chen, Shih-Ming; Hsieh, Chi-Wen; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Li, Yi-Chieh; Lee, Jen-Ai

    2015-12-10

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become the major cause of end-stage renal disease. Early detection of disease risk, to enable intervention before advanced renal damage occurs, is an important goal. Microalbuminuria has been used to monitor renal damage in clinical settings for years. In this study, we divided patients with diabetes into different groups based on their microalbumin values to elucidate the relationship between urinary d-lactate and corresponding microalbumin values. Group DM1 comprised of patients with an albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) of less than 30?g albumin/mg creatinine (normal range); Group DM2 comprised of patients with an ACR of 30-299?g albumin/mg creatinine (microalbuminuria); and Group DM3 comprised of patients with an ACR of ?300?g albumin/mg creatinine (macroalbuminuria). The urinary d-lactate concentration of patients with diabetes was determined by pre-column fluorescence derivatization with 4-nitro-7-piperazino-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-PZ), and the accuracy (recovery) and precision (relative standard deviation; RSD) were validated. The measured values showed an accuracy that was in the acceptable range (91.59-112.96%), with an RSD in the range of 3.13-13.21%. The urinary d-lactate levels of the 3 diabetic groups (groups DM1, DM2, and DM3) were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects (78.31±22.13, 92.47±21.98, and 47.29±17.51 vs. 6.28±2.39 nmol/mg creatinine, respectively; p<0.05), with urinary d-lactate levels in the DM2 group being the highest. This modified fluorescence-based, high-performance liquid chromatography method to quantify d-lactate concentrations in the urine of patients with diabetes was established. Also, measuring the new risk marker identified in this study (d-lactate) in combination with microalbumin may facilitate the prevention of DN. PMID:26166004

  3. Ultrasound evaluation of traumatic patient in a tertiary level hospital.

    PubMed

    Ara, R; Khan, N; Chakraborty, R K; Rima, S Z; Nahar, N; Islam, S M; Mahmud, S; Hossain, G A; Islam, S; Uddin, F

    2013-04-01

    This study was designed to assess the use of ultrasonography in evaluation of trauma patients to see any intraperitoneal collection, collection in pleural cavity, any vital organ injury or any localized collection in blunt trauma to abdomen. This cross sectional study was performed in patient having history of trauma who attended the Centre for Nuclear Medicine & Ultrasound (CNM&U), Mymensingh for ultrasonic evaluation. Ultrasonography scanning was done to see any intraperitoneal collection, pleural collection or vital organ injury. Vulnerable age, causes of trauma, types of organ injury and relation between ages & types of organ involved were also evaluated. Fifty patients were evaluated among those 44(88%) were male & 6(12%) were female. Ultrasonographic examination detected 26(52%) patients with intraperitoneal collection, 13(26%) patients with intraabdominal organ injury, 5(10%) patients with pleural collection. Liver (30%) is the mostly affected organ. It was also found that the most vulnerable age having trauma to abdomen was 11 to 30 (54%) years. The most common cause of trauma was road traffic accident (46%). Younger people were more vulnerable to liver and pancreatic injury, older people to splenic injury and middle aged to renal injury. Ultrasonography is a useful primary tool for evaluating traumatic patient specially to detect intraperitoneal collection and organ injury in country like Bangladesh where accidental injury is very common. PMID:23715345

  4. Determination of Tetanus Antibody Levels in Trauma Patients Referred To Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kashan, Iran, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Afzali, Hasan; Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Mousavi, Shamsaddin

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a noticeable difference in serologic immune status against tetanus among different age and social groups in various countries due to different national vaccination policies and methods. Objectives: Considering that the immunization status of trauma patients against tetanus is not-known or uncertain and they may need to receive the vaccine and tetabulin, this study was conducted to determine the tetanus antibody levels in patients referred to the trauma emergency ward of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kashan City, Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 204 trauma patients referred to the trauma emergency ward of Shahid Beheshti hospital in Kashan City, Iran, in 2014. After obtaining a written informed consent from the patients, a questionnaire consisted of demographic information and tetanus vaccination record was completed by the patients. Afterwards, a 4 - 5 mL venous blood sample was taken from each patient and the tetanus antibody level (IgG) was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The tetanus antibody levels equal or more than 0.1 IU/mL were considered protective. Data were analyzed using chi-square test, independent t-test and one-way ANOVA with SPSS software version 16. Results: From a total of 204 patients, 35 cases (16.7%) were females and 169 (83.2%) were males with the mean age of 40.9 ± 3.7 years. There was no statistically significant difference in the tetanus antibody levels between both sexes (P = 0.09). Moreover, there was no significant difference in immunization status between the patients who had a history of tetanus vaccination and those who had not received the vaccine before (P = 0.67). The antibody levels were significantly reduced with the passage of time since the last vaccination (P < 0.001). Also, 87.3% of the patients had the high protective level of immunity to tetanus. Conclusions: The findings of the present study show a high level of tetanus antibody among trauma patients in this hospital; so, taking the tetanus vaccine history can be misleading. It is suggested that further studies be performed in different regions of our country and with larger sample sizes and detection of the immunization status of patients by measuring anti-tetanus antibody levels among trauma patients is recommended to make suitable policy for a national vaccine protocol in the future. PMID:26566514

  5. Peritoneal fluids from patients with certain gynecologic tumor contain elevated levels of bioactive lysophospholipase D activity.

    PubMed

    Tokumura, Akira; Kume, Tetsuya; Fukuzawa, Kenji; Tahara, Masahiro; Tasaka, Keiichi; Aoki, Junken; Arai, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Katsuhiko; Kanzaki, Hideharu

    2007-04-10

    Levels of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), an important phospholipid mediator, in serum and ascitic fluid from ovarian cancer patients were shown to be higher than those from healthy women and from patients with other type of cancer, respectively. Although LPA in human serum seems mainly to be generated by lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD), the source and pathway for LPA in the ascitic fluid remain still obscure. In this study, we examined whether lysoPLD activity producing bioactive LPA in human peritoneal fluid was significantly elevated under pathological statuses. Lysophospholipase D activity in human peritoneal fluids was measured by quantifying choline released from exogenous lysophosphatidylcholine on their incubation at 37 degrees C. We also compared the activity of lysoPLD in sera from patients with different gynecologic diseases. We found relatively high lysoPLD activity in peritoneal fluids from patients with ovarian cancer, dermoid cyst or mucinous cystadenoma, whereas there were no significant differences in the serum lysoPLD activity among clinical groups and healthy subjects. The lysoPLD in the peritoneal fluid was found to have similar substrate specificity and metal ion requirement to those of serum lysoPLD, that has been identified as autotaxin, a tumor cell-motility stimulating protein. Our results suggest that increased lysoPLD activity in peritoneal fluid from patients with certain gynecologic tumors might be relevant to its potential of tumor progression. PMID:17367815

  6. Hemoglobin levels and transfusions in neurocritically ill patients: a systematic review of comparative studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Accumulating evidence suggests that, in critically ill patients, a lower hemoglobin transfusion threshold is safe. However, the optimal hemoglobin level and associated transfusion threshold remain unknown in neurocritically ill patients. Methods We conducted a systematic review of comparative studies (randomized and nonrandomized) to evaluate the effect of hemoglobin levels on mortality, neurologic function, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and multiple organ failure in adult and pediatric neurocritically ill patients. We searched MEDLINE, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar. Studies focusing on any neurocritical care conditions were included. Data are presented by using odds ratios for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences for continuous outcomes. Results Among 4,310 retrieved records, six studies met inclusion criteria (n = 537). Four studies were conducted in traumatic brain injury (TBI), one in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and one in a mixed population of neurocritically ill patients. The minimal hemoglobin levels or transfusion thresholds ranged from 7 to 10 g/dl in the lower-Hb groups and from 9.3 to 11.5 g/dl in the higher-Hb groups. Three studies had a low risk of bias, and three had a high risk of bias. No effect was observed on mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, or multiple organ failure. In studies reporting on length of stay (n = 4), one reported a significant shorter ICU stay (mean, -11.4 days (95% confidence interval, -16.1 to -6.7)), and one, a shorter hospital stay (mean, -5.7 days (-10.3 to -1.1)) in the lower-Hb groups, whereas the other two found no significant association. Conclusions We found insufficient evidence to confirm or refute a difference in effect between lower- and higher-Hb groups in neurocritically ill patients. Considering the lack of evidence regarding long-term neurologic functional outcomes and the high risk of bias of half the studies, no recommendation can be made regarding which hemoglobin level to target and which associated transfusion strategy (restrictive or liberal) to favor in neurocritically ill patients. PMID:22471943

  7. Serum leptin levels in gastric cancer patients and the relationship with insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Mehmet; Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur; Emre, Habib; Kemik, Ahu; Kemik, Ozgur; Esen, Ramazan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Serum leptin levels have been examined in various cancers, with conflicting results. However, there is limited information regarding serum leptin levels and insulin resistance in gastric cancer patients. Therefore, we aimed to investigate serum leptin levels, performance status, insulin levels and insulin resistance in patients with gastric cancer. In addition, we examined the relationship between these measurements and leptin levels. Material and methods Thirty-nine patients with gastric cancer and 30 control subjects were enrolled in the study. Serum leptin, total protein, albumin, growth hormone, insulin and glucose levels were measured. The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was used to assess insulin resistance. Results Serum levels of insulin, glucose and growth hormone and insulin resistance were significantly lower in gastric cancer patients than controls (p < 0.05 for all). In the Pearson correlation analysis, insulin resistance was found to be significantly correlated with serum leptin levels in gastric cancer patients (r = 0.320, p = 0.047). We observed a significant negative correlation between performance status and insulin resistance in patients with cachexia (r = –0.512, p = 0.030), while no association was found in non-cachectic patients. Conclusions We concluded that serum leptin levels are significantly lower in gastric cancer patients. In addition, gastric cancer patients have decreases in insulin levels, insulin resistance and growth hormone levels. This study found a positive association between serum leptin levels and insulin resistance. Moreover, there is a negative association between serum leptin levels and growth hormone levels. Thus, low insulin and growth hormone levels may suppress the production of leptin in gastric cancer patients. PMID:25995751

  8. [Increased level of KL-6 in a BJP-?-type multiple myeloma patient with poor prognosis].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yasunori; Iizuka, Hiromitsu; Nishiyama, Sayuri; Abe, Yu; Kusaka, Sayaka; Sekine, Rieko; Suzuki, Kenshi

    2012-05-01

    A 63-year-old female with BJP-multiple myeloma (Durie-Salmon stage III B, International Staging System III) showed an increased level of KL-6, a sialylated carbohydrate antigen that is a MUC1 molecule expressed in type II pneumocytes and reflects activity of interstitial pneumonia. At the time of diagnosis, KL-6 was as high as 22,030 U/ml; however, surfactant protein D (SP-D) was normal, and stroma-related pneumonia was not indicated on CT images. Expression of KL-6 in multiple myeloma cells was detected by immunostaining and the patient was diagnosed with KL-6-positive multiple myeloma. Usually, MUC1 is encoded by chromosome 1q21, but the karyotypic analysis of the patient's bone marrow cells lacked chromosome 1. KL-6 increased as the disease progressed. The patient did not respond to chemotherapy, including bortezomib, showed an increase of pleural effusion, and died. For this patient, multiple myeloma with high KL-6 was refractory to chemotherapy, suggesting that new treatment strategies, including transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells, are required. PMID:22728554

  9. Identifying patients at high risk of breast cancer recurrence: strategies to improve patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Martei, Yehoda M; Matro, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Identifying patients at high risk of breast cancer recurrence has important implications not only for enabling the ability to provide accurate information to patients but also the potential to improve patient outcomes. Patients at high recurrence risk can be offered appropriate treatment to improve the overall survival. However, the major challenge is identifying patients with early-stage breast cancer at lower risk who may be spared potentially toxic therapy. The successful integration of molecular assays into clinical practice may address the problem of overtreatment and improve overall patient outcomes. PMID:26504408

  10. The Plasma Level of Proprotein Convertase FURIN in Patients with Suspected Infection in the Emergency Room: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Ranta, N; Turpeinen, H; Oksanen, A; Hämäläinen, S; Huttunen, R; Uusitalo-Seppälä, R; Rintala, E; Aittoniemi, J; Pesu, M

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing need for novel biomarkers that enable better diagnostic and prognostic stratification of patients with suspected infection. A proprotein convertase enzyme FURIN is upregulated upon immune cell activation, and it promotes infectivity by cleaving and activating pathogens. In this study, we determined FURIN levels in plasma using ELISA from 537 patients that were admitted to emergency room with suspected infection. Patients were sorted to high- and low-level FURIN groups with a cut-off level of 370 pg/ml. The study cohort included five diagnostic groups: Group 1, no systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, n = 59 patients); Group 2, bacterial infection without SIRS (n = 67); Group 3, SIRS, but no bacterial infection (n = 308); Group 4, sepsis without organ failure (n = 308); and Group 5, severe sepsis (n = 49). Statistically significant associations were not found between the plasma level of FURIN and the prevalence of sepsis (P = 0.957), diagnostic group of a patient (P = 0.737) or the bacteria in blood culture (P = 0.499). Additionally, the concentration of FURIN did not predict the severity or case fatality of the infectious disease. However, statistically significant associations were found between high plasma level of FURIN and diagnosed rheumatic disease (P < 0.001) as well as with the prevalence of non-smokers (P = 0.034). Thus, albeit the plasma level of FURIN does not predict the severity of infectious disease, it may be of use in the diagnostics of autoimmune diseases. PMID:26346780

  11. CSF B-Endorphin Levels in Patients with Infantile Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A Japanese study measured CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) levels of beta-endorphin in 19 children (ages 4-6) with infantile autism and in 3 children (ages 10-14) with Rett syndrome. In infantile autism, levels did not differ significantly from control participants (n=23). However, levels were significantly higher in those with Rett syndrome. (Author/CR)

  12. Elevated Preoperative Serum CA19-9 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Is Associated with Poor Prognosis after Resection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Hung; Hu, Rey-Heng; Ho, Ming-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Serum levels of the tumor marker CA19-9 have been reported to be elevated in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its clinicopathologic significance is still unknown. A cohort of 304 patients undergoing surgical resection for HCC and having preoperative CA19-9 data was enrolled in this study. Serum CA19-9 levels were correlated with clinicopathologic factors. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the predictors of patient survival. On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cut off value of CA19-9 was determined to be 27?U/mL. One hundred and six patients had preoperative CA19-9 values >27?U/mL. High serum CA19-9 levels did not correlate with patient age, sex, viral status, ?-fetoprotein level, tumor size, tumor grade, tumor stage, multiplicity, and vascular invasion. Patients with elevated preoperative CA19-9 levels had lower 10-year survival than those without CA19-9 elevation. Multivariate analysis revealed that CA19-9 level, tumor grade, and tumor size are independent prognostic factors for long-term survival. In conclusion, a preoperative CA19-9 value >27?U/mL is associated with poor prognosis after resection for HCC. PMID:23843733

  13. Adhesive High-Level Replacement Categories and Systems

    E-print Network

    Habel, Annegret

    Adhesive High-Level Replacement Categories and Systems Hartmut Ehrig1 , Annegret Habel2 , Julia.habel@informatik.uni-oldenburg.de Abstract. Adhesive high-level replacement (HLR) categories and sys- tems are introduced as a new of HLR systems with the new concept of adhesive categories introduced by Lack and Soboci

  14. High-Level Synthesis of Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    E-print Network

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    , the synthesis approach is applied to a protein assay, which serves as a more complex bioassay application16 High-Level Synthesis of Digital Microfluidic Biochips FEI SU Intel Corporation and KRISHNENDU design methodology that attempts to apply classical high-level synthesis techniques to the design

  15. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  16. Dynamic Communicating Automata and Branching High-Level MSCs

    E-print Network

    Bollig, Benedikt

    Communicating Automata · Branching High-Level MSCs ... x := new(s,x) x ? comx ! req(y) #12;Outline · Dynamic Communicating Automata · Branching High-Level MSCs ... x y x y req(y) x y com com x := new(s,x) x ? comx ! req com x := new(s,x) x ? comx ! req(y) implementable? #12;Outline · Dynamic Communicating Automata

  17. SNAP II index: an alternative to the COMFORT scale in assessing the level of sedation in mechanically ventilated pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Nievas, I Federico Fernandez; Spentzas, Thomas; Bogue, Clifford W

    2014-01-01

    Sedation monitoring is essential in pediatric patients on ventilatory support to achieve comfort and safety. The COMFORT scale was designed and validated to assess the level of sedation in intubated pediatric patients. However, it remains unreliable in pharmacologically paralyzed patients. The SNAP II index is calculated using an algorithm that incorporates high-frequency (80-420 Hz) electroencephalogram (EEG) components, known to be useful in discriminating between awake and unconscious states, unlike other measurements that only include low-frequency EEG segments such as the bispectral index score. Previous studies suggested that the SNAP II index is a reliable and sensitive indicator of the level of consciousness in adult patients. Despite its potential, no data are currently available in the pediatric critically ill population on ventilatory support. This is the first pilot study assessing the potential application of the SNAP II index in critically ill pediatric patients by comparing it to the commonly used COMFORT scale. PMID:23753227

  18. Predictors of Placement in Lower Level versus Higher Level High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archbald, Doug; Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth N.

    2012-01-01

    Educators and researchers have long been interested in determinants of access to honors level and college prep courses in high school. Factors influencing access to upper level mathematics courses are particularly important because of the hierarchical and sequential nature of this subject and because students who finish high school with only lower…

  19. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels in patients with crohn disease undergoing treatment with infliximab.

    PubMed

    Bolignano, Davide; Della Torre, Anna; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Costantino, Giuseppe; Fries, Walter; Buemi, Michele

    2010-03-01

    Increased levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a small 25-kd stress protein released by several injured cells, have been reported in different pathological conditions such as kidney and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. As NGAL is also emerging as a biomarker for monitoring the response to different types of treatment, the aims of this pilot study were to analyze urinary NGAL levels in a small cohort of patients affected by Crohn disease and to evaluate the eventual impact of the intravenous administration of infliximab on these levels.Crohn disease patients presented increased NGAL values compared with controls (210.5 ng/mL [88.3-1100.0 ng/mL] vs 7.6 [4.4] ng/mL; P = 0.001); the infusion of a single high dose of infliximab induced an impressive reduction in these levels to 80.1 ng/mL (38.6-400.2 ng/mL; P = 0.006) with a mean reduction ratio of 62.1%. These findings suggest a pivotal role of NGAL in the systemic adaptations to Crohn disease, also confirming the potential usefulness of NGAL measurement in the evaluation of early responses to therapy or in predicting different clinical outcomes. PMID:20061984

  20. Diminished serum repetin levels in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Ren, Huixun; Xu, Jie; Yu, Yanjun; Han, Shuiping; Qiao, Hui; Cheng, Shaoli; Xu, Chang; An, Shucheng; Ju, Bomiao; Yu, Chengyuan; Wang, Chanyuan; Wang, Tao; Yang, Zhenjun; Taylor, Ethan Will; Zhao, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Repetin (RPTN) protein is a member of S100 family and is known to be expressed in the normal epidermis. Here we show that RPTN is ubiquitously expressed in both mouse and human brain, with relatively high levels in choroid plexus, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. To investigate the expression of RPTN in neuropsychiatric disorders, we determined serum levels of RPTN in patients with schizophrenia (n = 88) or bipolar disorder (n = 34) and in chronic psychostimulant users (n = 91). We also studied its expression in a mouse model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The results showed that serum RPTN levels were significantly diminished in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder or in psychostimulant users, compared with healthy subjects (n = 115) or age-matched controls (n = 92) (p < 0.0001). In CUMS mice, RPTN expression in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex was reduced with progression of the CUMS procedure; the serum RPTN level remained unchanged. Since CUMS is a model for depression and methamphetamine (METH) abuse induced psychosis recapitulates many of the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia, the results from this study may imply that RPTN plays a potential role in emotional and cognitive processing; its decrease in serum may indicate its involvement in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. PMID:25613293

  1. The Influence of Alcoholic Liver Disease on Serum PIVKA-II Levels in Patients without Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Keunhee; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kang, Seong Hee; Lee, Beom Jae; Seo, Yeon Seok; Yim, Hyung Joon; Yeon, Jong Eun; Park, Jong-Jae; Kim, Jae Seon; Bak, Young-Tae; Byun, Kwan Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Prothrombin induced by vitamin K deficiency or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) is a widely used diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We evaluated the correlation between alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and serum PIVKA-II levels in chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 2,528 CLD patients without HCC. Among these patients, 76 exhibited serum high PIVKA-II levels of >125 mAU/mL (group 1). We categorized 76 control patients matched by age, sex, and the presence of liver cirrhosis from the remaining patients who were negative for serum PIVKA-II (group 2). Results Group 1 revealed increased antibiotic usage (23.7% vs 2.6%, p<0.001) and incidence of ALD (60.5% vs 14.5%, p<0.001) as well as elevated aspartate aminotransferase (52.5 IU/L vs 30.5 IU/L, p=0.025) and ? glutamyl transpeptidase (67.5 IU/L vs 36.5 IU/L, p=0.005) levels compared with group 2. Further, group 1 was significantly associated with a worse Child-Pugh class than group 2. In the multivariate analysis, ALD (odds ratio [OR], 7.151; p<0.001) and antibiotic usage (OR, 5.846; p<0.001) were significantly associated with positive PIVKA-II levels. Conclusions Our study suggests that ALD and antibiotics usage may be confounding factors when interpreting high serum PIVKA-II levels in patients without HCC. Therefore, serum PIVKA-II levels in patients with ALD or in patients administered antibiotics should be interpreted with caution. PMID:25473073

  2. Quality of Doctor-Patient Communication through the Eyes of the Patient: Variation According to the Patient's Educational Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aelbrecht, Karolien; Rimondini, Michela; Bensing, Jozien; Moretti, Francesca; Willems, Sara; Mazzi, Mariangela; Fletcher, Ian; Deveugele, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Good doctor-patient communication may lead to better compliance, higher patient satisfaction, and finally, better health. Although the social variance in how physicians and patients communicate is clearly demonstrated, little is known about what patients with different educational attainments actually prefer in doctor-patient communication. In…

  3. Seasonal variation in vitamin D levels in psoriatic arthritis patients from different latitudes and its association with clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Touma, Zahi; Eder, Lihi; Zisman, Devy; Feld, Joy; Chandran, Vinod; Rosen, Cheryl F; Shen, Hua; Cook, Richard J; Gladman, Dafna D

    2011-10-01

    Objective. Vitamin D insufficiency appears to be a pandemic problem and is more common in inhabitants of high latitude compared to low latitude areas. We aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), its seasonal and geographic variation, and the possible association with demographics and disease activity.Methods. This study was conducted in a northern geographic area and in a subtropical region from March 2009 to August 2009. Most subjects were assessed in both winter and summer. Demographics, clinical data, skin photo type, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels were determined. Multivariate linear and logistic mixed models were used to assess the relationship with serum 25(OH)D levels.Results. In total, 302 PsA patients were enrolled. Two hundred fifty-eight patients were evaluated during the winter,while 214 patients were evaluated during the summer. 25(OH)D levels in winter and summer were adequate (north: 41.3%winter and 41.4% summer, south: 42.1% winter and 35.1% summer), insufficient (north: 55.7% winter and 58.6% summer,south: 50.9% winter and 62.2% summer), and deficient (north: 3% winter and 0% summer, south: 7% winter and 2.7%summer) among patients. There was no association between 25(OH)D levels, geographic and seasonal interaction, race,employment status, and skin photo type or disease activity in both seasons. No association between disease activity in summer and vitamin D levels in winter could be found.Conclusion. A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among PsA patients was found. There was no seasonal variation in 25(OH)D levels among PsA patients in the southern and northern sites. No association could be established between disease activity and vitamin D level. PMID:22121512

  4. Increase in thyroid stimulating hormone levels in patients with gout treated with inhibitors of xanthine oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Chinchilla, Sandra Pamela; Atxotegi, Joana; Urionagüena, Irati; Herrero-Beites, Ana Maria; Aniel-Quiroga, Maria Angeles

    2015-11-01

    Increase in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels over the upper normal limit has been reported in a small percentage of patients treated with febuxostat in clinical trials, but a mechanistic explanation is not yet available. In an observational parallel longitudinal cohort study, we evaluated changes in TSH levels in patients with gout at baseline and during urate-lowering treatment with febuxostat. Patients to be started on allopurinol who had a measurement of TSH in the 6-month period prior to baseline evaluation were used for comparison. TSH levels and change in TSH levels at 12-month follow-up were compared between groups. Patients with abnormal TSH levels or previous thyroid disease or on amiodarone were not included for analysis. Eighty-eight patients treated with febuxostat and 87 with allopurinol were available for comparisons. Patients to be treated with febuxostat had higher urate levels and TSH levels, more severe gout, and poorer renal function, but were similar regarding other characteristics. A similar rise in TSH levels was observed in both groups (0.4 and 0.5 µUI/mL for febuxostat and allopurinol, respectively); at 12-mo, 7/88 (7.9 %) of patients on febuxostat and 4/87 (3.4 %) of patients on allopurinol showed TSH levels over 0.5 µUI/mL. Doses prescribed (corrected for estimated glomerular filtration rate in the case if patients on allopurinol) and baseline TSH levels were determinants of TSH levels at 12-month follow-up. No impact on free T4 (fT4) levels was observed. Febuxostat, but also allopurinol, increased TSH levels in a dose-dependent way, thus suggesting rather a class effect than a drug effect, but with no apparent impact on either clinical or fT4 levels. PMID:26342297

  5. Levels of anti-cytokine antibodies may be elevated in patients with pulmonary disease associated with non-tuberculous mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungchul; Waterer, Grant; Thomson, Rachel; Yang, Ian A; Nashi, Najla; Tan, Dino B A; Price, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    Pulmonary disease due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is caused by several species (particularly Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare) that are abundant in the environment. Th1 cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-? are important in the control of mycobacteria, but in vitro production of IFN-? is not deficient in adult patients with pulmonary NTM disease. Antibodies reactive with IFN-? have been described in patients with disseminated NTM disease, but it is not clear whether they are common in pulmonary disease. Here we show that patients with pulmonary NTM have a higher level of anti-IFN-? and anti-GM-CSF antibodies than healthy controls, although some controls also have high levels. Levels of anti-IFN-? antibodies did not correlate with levels of total immunoglobulin. Longitudinal studies are required to determine whether anti-cytokine autoantibodies are consequence rather than a cause of pulmonary NTM disease. PMID:24508556

  6. [PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ENDOTHELIN-I LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION DIFFERING IN VITAMIN D LEVEL].

    PubMed

    Yankovskaya, L V; Snezhitsky, V A; Lyalikov, S A; Slobodskaya, N S; Kezhun, L V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure blood vitamin D (25(OH)D) and endothelin-1 levels by enzyme immunoassay and estimate their relation to results of 24-hr arterial pressure monitoring (APM) in patients with arterial hypertension differing in vitamin D level. The study included 144 patients with grade II AH (114 women of mean aged 50.8 ± 6 yr and 30 men of mean age 46 ± 6 yr). They were divided into 3 groups depending on the total 25(OH)D level. Group I was comprised of patients with 25(OH)D deficiency (below 20 ng/ml), group 2 included patients with 25(OH) D insufficiency (20-30 ng/ml), group 3 consisted of patients with optimal 25(OH)D level (over 39 ng/ml). Mean total 25(OH)D and endothelin-1 levels were 24.87 [17.03;34.07] ng/ml and 0.54 [0.38;0.63]pg/ml respectively The patients of groups 1 and 2, but not group 3 showed positive correlations between the following APM characteristics: mean systolic/diastolic arterial pressure (SAP/DAP) and SAP/DAP time index during 24 hours, day- and night-time; SAP/DAP variability at night-time and endothelin-1 level. The endothelin-1 level 10.51 pg/ml or higher measured with a sensitivity of 8% allows to predict, regardless of the 25(OH)D level, the superthreshold values of the following APM parameters: mean daily SAP/DAP during 24 hours, day- and night-time, SAP/DAP time index during 24 hours and daytime, enhanced SAP/DAP variability at night-time, DAP at daytime. PMID:26495528

  7. High-Risk Lung Cancer Patients May Benefit from Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155646.html High-Risk Lung Cancer Patients May Benefit From Surgery Study showed procedure ... effective treatment option for people with early stage lung cancer, even those traditionally considered "high-risk," a new ...

  8. Risk level analysis for deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A study of Turkish patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Büyüky?lmaz, Funda; ?endir, Merdiye; Autar, Ricky; Yazgan, ?lknur

    2015-09-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a prevalent problem for orthopedic patients, particularly owing to the nature of operative interventions and treatment procedures, predisposing to an high risk of DVT. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the levels of risk, the risk factors, and their odds ratio for DVT in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery. Data were collected using a Patient Information Form and the Autar DVT Risk Assessment Scale (DVTRAS) in orthopedic wards of a university hospital on postoperative day 2. Data were analyzed using descriptive, comparative analysis, and binary logistic regression. The 102 patients (mean age, 52.58 ± 21.58 years) were hospitalized for a mean of 14.35 ± 14.56. Of the sample, 53.9% were female, 65.7% had a history of previous surgery, and 54.9% had undergone total hip/knee arthroplastic surgery, 67.6% of patients wore graduated compression stockings, and 62.7% were administered liquid infusion. Those patients had moderate risk score (12.77 ± 5.66) in the Autar DVTRAS. According to binary logistic regression analysis, aging, obesity, immobility, and acute and chronic diseases were significant risk factors for postoperative DVT (p ? .05). This study highlights evidence on the degree of DVT risk, risk factors, and impact of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing major orthopedic operations. For evidence-based clinical practice, these high-level risk factors should be taken into account in the prevention of DVT in orthopedic patients. PMID:26298613

  9. Study of Serum Levels of Leptin, C-Reactive Protein and Nutritional Status in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Karajibani, Mansour; Hassanpour, Zahra; Pourmofatteh, Mahla

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and decreases appetite. However, the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of hemodialysis (HD)-related malnutrition has not been fully evaluated. Objectives: The aim of study was to investigate the association between the serum leptin levels, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and nutritional status in hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods: This analytical descriptive study included 45 hemodialysis patients and 40 healthy subjects. Biochemical parameters and serum leptin levels were measured. The nutritional status was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the calculation of the body mass index (BMI). Results: Serum leptin (P < 0.05) and albumin (P < 0.0001) levels and BMI (P < 0.001) of HD patients were significantly lower, while CRP levels were significantly higher than those of controls (P < 0.0001). HD patients consumed the lower daily servings of the food groups compared to the control subjects (P < 0.0001). A significant positive correlation between serum levels of leptin and albumin and BMI was demonstrated. No significant correlations were identified between leptin level, CRP level, and other variables. Conclusions: The findings suggest that low levels of leptin may be a contributory factor for malnutrition in HD patients. Further studies are required to ascertain the significance of leptin levels in relation to nutritional factors in hemodialysis patients. PMID:26430525

  10. Impact of anxiety level on circadian rhythm of blood pressure in hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Özpelit, Mehmet Emre; Özpelit, Ebru; Do?an, Nazile Bilgin; Pekel, Nihat; Ozyurtlu, Ferhat; Y?lmaz, Akar; Sayg?, Serkan; Tengiz, ?stemihan; Ercan, Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Considering the high prevalence rates and growing incidences of hypertension (HT) and anxiety disorders in the modern world, a full understanding of anxiety’s relationship to HT is crucial. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of anxiety level on circadian rhythm of blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients. Material and method: This cross-sectional study included 160 previously diagnosed essential hypertensive patients (80 female, 80 male, mean age: 55.3±15.1 years). All participants underwent 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and filled State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) (trait) Questionnaire. The study population was divided into 2 groups according to their STAI scores; an anxiety group (n=97; STAI ?45) and a control group (n=63; STAI<44). Clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and ABPM measurements were compared between the groups. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups for ABPM parameters except morning blood pressure surge (MBPS). Anxiety group had a significantly higher MBPS compared to control group (14.4±17.0 vs 9.1±11.9 mmHg, P:0.03). Multivariate analysis showed that duration of HT and STAI score were the only independent predictors of MBPS. Conclusion: Patients’ anxiety level is associated with MBPS which is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular complications. Assessment and control of anxiety seems to be worthy in effective treatment of hypertension. PMID:26629141

  11. Information Needs of Hospital Patients: A Survey of Satisfaction Levels in a Large City Hospital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Pauline; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of patient information needs and satisfaction levels in a large hospital in the United Kingdom as part of a feasibility study on the provision of a patient information service. Topics discussed include changes in the patient/doctor relationship; gender differences; and verbal versus written information. (Contains 20…

  12. Interaural level differences and sound source localization for bilateral cochlear implant patients

    PubMed Central

    Dorman, Michael F.; Loiselle, Louise; Stohl, Josh; Yost, William A.; Spahr, Anthony; Brown, Chris; Cook, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were (i) to determine the magnitude of the interaural level differences (ILDs) that remain after cochlear implant (CI) signal processing and (ii) to relate the ILDs to the pattern of errors for sound source localization on the horizontal plane. Design The listeners were 16 bilateral CI patients fitted with MED-EL cochlear implants and 34 normal hearing listeners. The stimuli were wideband, high-pass and low-pass noise signals. ILDs were calculated by passing signals, filtered by head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), to a Matlab simulation of MED-EL signal processing. Results For the wideband signal and high-pass signals, maximum ILDs of 15–17dB in the input signal were reduced to 3–4dB after CI signal processing. For the low-pass signal, ILDs were reduced to 1–2dB. For wideband and high-pass signals, the largest ILDs for +/? 15 degree speaker locations were between .4 and .7dB; for the +/? 30 degree locations between .9 and 1.3dB; for the 45 degree locations between 2.4 and 2.9dB, for the +/? 60 degree locations, between 3.2 and 4.1dB and for the +/? 75 degree locations between 2.7 and 3.4dB. All of the CI patients in all stimulus conditions showed poorer localization than the normal hearing listeners. Localization accuracy for CI patients was best for the wideband and high-pass signals and was poorest for the low-pass signal. Conclusions Localization accuracy was related to the magnitude of the ILD cues available to the normal hearing listeners and CI patients. The pattern of localization errors for the CI patients was related to the magnitude of the ILD differences among loudspeaker locations. The error patterns for the wideband and high-pass signals, suggest that, for the conditions of this experiment, patients, on average, sorted signals on the horizontal plane into four sectors – on each side of the midline, one sector including 0, 15 and possibly 30 degrees, and a sector from 45 degrees to 75 degrees. Resolution within a sector was relatively poor. PMID:25127322

  13. Validation of serum versus plasma measurements of chromogranin A levels in patients with carcinoid tumors.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromogranin A (CGA) levels are used to confirm the diagnosis, and monitor the course of patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Chromogranin A levels are significantly reduced when patients are acutely treated with octreotide; however, limited data is available that correlates octreotide long-acting ...

  14. Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition.

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.; Partain, W.L.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents technical data and performance characteristics of a high-level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high-level waste product that will be produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high-level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

  15. Pyridoxine?dependent seizures in Dutch patients: diagnosis by elevated urinary alpha?aminoadipic semialdehyde levels

    PubMed Central

    Bok, Levinus A; Struys, Eduard; Willemsen, Michel A A P; Been, Jasper V; Jakobs, Cornelis

    2007-01-01

    Background Pyridoxine?dependent seizures (PDS) is a rare, autosomal recessively inherited disorder. Recently ??aminoadipic semialdehyde (??AASA) dehydrogenase deficiency was identified as a major cause of PDS, which causes accumulation of both ??AASA and pipecolic acid (PA) in body fluids. Methods We studied urinary and plasma ??AASA and PA levels in 12 Dutch clinically diagnosed patients with PDS. Results ??AASA was elevated in both urine and plasma in 10 patients. In these patients plasma PA levels were also elevated but urinary PA levels were normal. Discussion In all patients with clinically definite PDS, and in most patients with probable or possible PDS, the clinical diagnosis of PDS could be confirmed at the metabolite level. Non?invasive urinary screening for ??AASA accumulation provides a reliable tool to diagnose PDS and can save these patients from the classical and potentially dangerous pyridoxine withdrawal test to prove PDS. PMID:17088338

  16. High-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Chiou, Shue-Shian

    2015-01-01

    High level disinfection (HLD) of the gastrointestinal (GI) endoscope is not simply a slogan, but rather is a form of experimental monitoring-based medicine. By definition, GI endoscopy is a semicritical medical device. Hence, such medical devices require major quality assurance for disinfection. And because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods, such as liquid chemical germicide, must be used rather than steam sterilization. In summarizing guidelines for infection prevention and control for GI endoscopy, there are three important steps that must be highlighted: manual washing, HLD with automated endoscope reprocessor, and drying. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because compared to any other medical device, the GI endoscope is associated with more outbreaks linked to inadequate cleaning or disinfecting during HLD. Both experimental evaluation on the surveillance bacterial cultures and in-use clinical results have shown that, the monitoring of the stringent processes to prevent and control infection is an essential component of the broader strategy to ensure the delivery of safe endoscopy services, because endoscope reprocessing is a multistep procedure involving numerous factors that can interfere with its efficacy. Based on our years of experience in the surveillance of culture monitoring of endoscopic reprocessing, we aim in this study to carefully describe what details require attention in the GI endoscopy disinfection and to share our experience so that patients can be provided with high quality and safe medical practices. Quality management encompasses all aspects of pre- and post-procedural care including the efficiency of the endoscopy unit and reprocessing area, as well as the endoscopic procedure itself. PMID:25699232

  17. The ATLAS high level trigger region of interest builder.;

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, R.; Dawson, J.; Drake, G.; Haberichter, W.; Schlereth, J.; Zhang, J.; Ermoline, Y.; Pope, B.; Aboline, M.; High Energy Physics; Michigan State Univ.

    2008-04-01

    This article describes the design, testing and production of the ATLAS Region of Interest Builder (RoIB). This device acts as an interface between the Level 1 trigger and the high level trigger (HLT) farm for the ATLAS LHC detector. It distributes all of the Level 1 data for a subset of events to a small number of (16 or less) individual commodity processors. These processors in turn provide this information to the HLT. This allows the HLT to use the Level 1 information to narrow data requests to areas of the detector where Level 1 has identified interesting objects.

  18. The relation between serum Vitamin D levels and body antioxidant status in ischemic stroke patients: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Afshari, Laleh; Amani, Reza; Soltani, Farhad; Haghighizadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Afsharmanesh, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stroke is the second cause of death among elderly people. Oxidative stress plays an important role in brain damage after stroke. Currently, Vitamin D has been shown as an antioxidant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of Vitamin D, antioxidant enzymes, and the relation between them in ischemic stroke patients. Materials and Methods: This case–control study was carried out on 36 patients with ischemic stroke patients and 36 matched subjects as controls. Intake of fruits and vegetables, exposure of sunlight, serum lipid profile, concentrations of serum 25-dihydroxy Vitamin D (25(OH) D), activities of serum superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase enzymes were determined. Results: Severe Vitamin D deficiency was seen in 30% of the patients versus 11% of the controls (P < 0.05). Consumption of fruits and vegetables was lower in patients than that of controls (P < 0.05). Activities of antioxidant enzymes and intake of fruits were positively correlated in stroke patients (P = 0.02). The most potent predictors of stroke risk were hypertension, high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) (odds ratios: 3.33, 3.15, and 3.14, respectively, P < 0.05 for all). There was no association between 25(OH) D levels with activities of serum antioxidant enzymes and lipid profile in the two groups. Conclusion: Ischemic stroke patients have higher prevalence of severe Vitamin D deficiency and lower intakes of fruits and vegetables. Intake of fruits was positive correlated to higher antioxidant enzymes levels. High levels of blood pressure, history of CVD, and high LDL-C levels are the strongest predictors of ischemic stroke. PMID:26605242

  19. Circulating interleukin-6 level is a prognostic marker for survival in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin Hao; Hsiao, Chin Fu; Yeh, Yu Min; Chang, Gee Chen; Tsai, Ying Huang; Chen, Yuh Min; Huang, Ming Shyan; Chen, Hui Ling; Li, Yao Jen; Yang, Pan Chyr; Chen, Chien Jen; Hsiung, Chao A; Su, Wu Chou

    2013-05-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide as well as in Taiwan. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine and has been implicated in tumor progression. This study recruited 245 patients with advanced (Stage 3B/4) nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that had received chemotherapy, to evaluate associations between IL-6 and lung cancer-specific survival. Among these subjects, 112 gave blood samples before and 133 after the start of chemotherapy. Plasma IL-6 was measured using an enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay. The 33rd and 66th percentiles of IL-6 concentrations were 2.01 and 25.16 for the 245 patients and were defined as the cutoff points for dividing the patients into low, intermediate and high groups. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional-hazard models were used to evaluate the relationship between the IL-6 level and survival time. Results after adjusting for age, sex, smoking history, histologic type and stage of lung cancer revealed a significant relationship. For all patients, the hazard ratio with high IL-6 levels for lung cancer-specific survival was 2.10 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.49 - 2.96] compared with low IL-6 levels. The hazard ratio for patients who were recruited before and after the start of chemotherapy was1.25 (95% CI = 0.73 - 2.13) and 3.66 (95% CI = 2.18 - 6.15), respectively. Patients with high circulating IL-6 also responded poorly to chemotherapy. Therefore, a high level of circulating IL-6 was associated with an inferior response and survival outcome in NSCLC patients treated with chemotherapy. PMID:23034889

  20. ELEVATED PLASMA TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-B1 LEVELS IN BREASTCANCER PATIENTS DECREASE AFTER SURGICAL REMOVAL OF THE TUMOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    In breast cancer patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation increased plasma TGFB levels are predictive for the occurrence of normal tissue complications (Anscher et al. EJM 328:1592-1598, 1993). n this investigation, we have d...

  1. A Multi-Center Assessment of Nutrient Levels and Foods Provided by Hospital Patient Menus

    PubMed Central

    Trang, Susan; Fraser, Jackie; Wilkinson, Lori; Steckham, Katherine; Oliphant, Heather; Fletcher, Heather; Tzianetas, Roula; Arcand, JoAnne

    2015-01-01

    Diets of high nutritional quality can aid in the prevention and management of malnutrition in hospitalized patients. This study evaluated the nutritional quality of hospital patient menus. At three large acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, 84 standard menus were evaluated, which included regular and carbohydrate-controlled diets and 3000 mg and 2000 mg sodium diets. Mean levels of calories, macronutrients and vitamins and minerals provided were calculated. Comparisons were made with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) and Canada’s Food Guide (CFG) recommendations. Calorie levels ranged from 1281 to 3007 kcal, with 45% of menus below 1600 kcal. Protein ranged from 49 to 159 g (0.9–1.1 g/kg/day). Energy and protein levels were highest in carbohydrate-controlled menus. All regular and carbohydrate-controlled menus provided macronutrients within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges. The proportion of regular diet menus meeting the DRIs: 0% for fiber; 7% for calcium; 57% for vitamin C; and 100% for iron. Compared to CFG recommended servings, 35% met vegetables and fruit and milk and alternatives, 11% met grain products and 8% met meat and alternatives. These data support the need for frequent monitoring and evaluation of menus, food procurement and menu planning policies and for sufficient resources to ensure menu quality. PMID:26569294

  2. A Multi-Center Assessment of Nutrient Levels and Foods Provided by Hospital Patient Menus.

    PubMed

    Trang, Susan; Fraser, Jackie; Wilkinson, Lori; Steckham, Katherine; Oliphant, Heather; Fletcher, Heather; Tzianetas, Roula; Arcand, JoAnne

    2015-01-01

    Diets of high nutritional quality can aid in the prevention and management of malnutrition in hospitalized patients. This study evaluated the nutritional quality of hospital patient menus. At three large acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, 84 standard menus were evaluated, which included regular and carbohydrate-controlled diets and 3000 mg and 2000 mg sodium diets. Mean levels of calories, macronutrients and vitamins and minerals provided were calculated. Comparisons were made with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) and Canada's Food Guide (CFG) recommendations. Calorie levels ranged from 1281 to 3007 kcal, with 45% of menus below 1600 kcal. Protein ranged from 49 to 159 g (0.9-1.1 g/kg/day). Energy and protein levels were highest in carbohydrate-controlled menus. All regular and carbohydrate-controlled menus provided macronutrients within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges. The proportion of regular diet menus meeting the DRIs: 0% for fiber; 7% for calcium; 57% for vitamin C; and 100% for iron. Compared to CFG recommended servings, 35% met vegetables and fruit and milk and alternatives, 11% met grain products and 8% met meat and alternatives. These data support the need for frequent monitoring and evaluation of menus, food procurement and menu planning policies and for sufficient resources to ensure menu quality. PMID:26569294

  3. Holism and High Level Wellness in the Treatment of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartha, Robert; Davis, Tom

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how a holistic and wellness philosophy is a viable alternative in the treatment of alcoholism. Describes five major dimensions of high-level wellness: nutritional awareness, physical fitness, stress management, environmental sensitivity, and self-responsibility. (RC)

  4. Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management are briefly described in the areas of: Hydrology; geology; biological sciences; mathematics; engineering; heavy equipment operation; and skilled labor and crafts.

  5. Treatment resistant or resistant to treatment? Antipsychotic plasma levels in patients with poorly controlled psychotic symptoms.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, Robert; Beck, Katherine; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Marques, Tiago R; Rogdaki, Maria; Howes, Oliver D

    2015-08-01

    A large proportion of individuals with schizophrenia show an inadequate response to treatment with antipsychotics. It can be unclear whether this is secondary to subtherapeutic antipsychotic plasma levels or to medication ineffectiveness. The purpose of the present study was to determine the extent of subtherapeutic antipsychotic plasma levels in a group of patients clinically identified as treatment-resistant. In addition we investigated the frequency of antipsychotic plasma level monitoring in standard clinical practice. Antipsychotic plasma levels were measured in 36 patients identified as having treatment-resistant schizophrenia by their treating clinicians. Sixteen (44%) patients showed either undetectable (19%) or subtherapeutic levels (25%), and 20 (56%) patients had levels in the therapeutic range. Subtherapeutic plasma levels were significantly associated with black ethnicity, shorter duration of current treatment and antipsychotics other than olanzapine and amisulpride. Antipsychotic plasma levels had been measured in only one patient in the year prior to our study. We found over one-third of patients identified as treatment-resistant have subtherapeutic antipsychotic levels. This indicates that they may be under-treated rather than treatment-resistant, and thus should receive different management. Currently the measurement of antipsychotic levels may be under-utilised. PMID:25788157

  6. UNCORRECTEDPROOF Anatomical distribution of abnormally high levels of starch

    E-print Network

    Burns, Jacqueline K.

    UNCORRECTEDPROOF Anatomical distribution of abnormally high levels of starch in HLB or citrus greening) is characterized, among other symptoms, by extraordinary levels of starch accumulation partitioning imbalances throughout the tree. In all aerial tissues, starch accumulation in HLB-affected trees

  7. Field Trips as Cognitive Motivators for High Level Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Marlene M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a composite example of field trips from several years of traveling to Yellowstone with high school biology students, the author illustrates how to raise the cognitive level of science instruction and student learning through science field trips. The author examines what teachers can do to raise the level of both teaching and learning in all…

  8. Survey of National Programs for Managing High-Level Radioactive

    E-print Network

    Survey of National Programs for Managing High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel A Report to Congress and the Secretary of Energy October 2009 #12 Safety (Germany) Peter De Preter: National Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials

  9. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    SciTech Connect

    d'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-14

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment.

  10. Analysis of Novel Mutations and Methylmalonyl-CoA Mutase Levels in Thai Patients with Isolated Methylmalonic Acidemia.

    PubMed

    Sawangareetrakul, Phannee; Ketudat Cairns, James R; Vatanavicharn, Nithiwat; Liammongkolkul, Somporn; Wasant, Pornswan; Svasti, Jisnuson; Champattanachai, Voraratt

    2015-12-01

    Isolated methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is an autosomal recessive, inherited disorder that results from either a mut defect of the methylmalonyl-CoA mutase apoenzyme (MCM, the product of the MUT gene) or a cbl defect in the synthesis of its cofactor, adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl). In this study, biochemical and mutational analyses of three patients clinically diagnosed with MMA were performed. No MCM activity was detected in leukocyte extracts of two patients, while high MCM activity was found in the other, suggesting mut (0) and cbl defects, respectively. A novel (c.IVS6 -3 to -8delCTTTTT, p.K444_L445insFC*) and two known mutations in the MUT gene and one novel (c.227_36delGACCCAAAGA, p.R76Mfs*14) mutation in the MMAB gene were identified. In addition, MCM immunoblot analysis of leukocyte extract samples of these three patients and eight patients previously reported by our group, as well as their parents, showed a good correlation between the MCM protein and activity levels. Patients with mut (0) defective subtypes lacked MCM activity and had no MCM band, while patients carrying the cbl defects had high MCM activity levels and an intense MCM band at about 83 kDa, in comparison to those in their parents. These data expand the mutation spectrum of MMA deficiency. In addition, the examination of MCM protein level may be used as an alternative technique to determine the mut (0) and cbl defective subgroups. PMID:26370686

  11. Incisional reinforcement in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, Timothy F; Young, Monica T; Pigazzi, Alessio

    2014-12-01

    Hernia formation after surgical procedures continues to be an important cause of surgical morbidity. Incisional reinforcement at the time of the initial operation has been used in some patient populations to reduce the risk of subsequent hernia formation. In this article, reinforcement techniques in different surgical wounds are examined to identify situations in which hernia formation may be prevented. Mesh use for midline closure, pelvic floor reconstruction, and stoma site reinforcement is discussed. Additionally, the use of retention sutures, closure of the open abdomen, and reinforcement after component separation are examined using current literature. Although existing studies do not support the routine use of mesh reinforcement for all surgical incisions, certain patient populations appear to benefit from reinforcement with lower rates of subsequent hernia formation. The identification and characterization of these groups will guide the future use of mesh reinforcement in surgical incisions. PMID:25435823

  12. Circulating levels of cell adhesion molecule L1 as a prognostic marker in gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background L1 cell adhesion molecule (CD171) is expressed in many malignant tumors and its expression correlates with unfavourable outcome. It thus represents a target for tumor diagnosis and therapy. An earlier study conducted by our group identified L1 expression levels in primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) as a prognostic marker. The aim of the current study was to compare L1 serum levels of GIST patients with those of healthy controls and to determine whether levels of soluble L1 in sera could serve as a prognostic marker. Methods Using a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), soluble L1 was measured in sera of 93 GIST patients und 151 healthy controls. Soluble L1 levels were then correlated with clinicopathological data. Results Median levels of soluble L1 were significantly higher (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U test) in sera of GIST patients compared to healthy individuals. Median soluble L1 levels were particularly elevated in patients with recurrence and relapse (p < 0.05; Mann Whitney U test). Conclusion These results suggest that high soluble L1 levels predict poor prognosis and may thus be a promising tumor marker that can contribute to individualise therapy. PMID:21600041

  13. Correlation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level with vascular calcification in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Wu, Shukun; Ruan, Yizhe; Wang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level with vascular calcification in patients treated with hemodialysis. Methods: As a cross-sectional study, 126 patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) in our hospital were enrolled in this study. According to the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, the patients were divided into 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency group (30 ?g/ml or less than 30 ?g/ml) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D normal level group (>30 ?g/ml). All of the subjects underwent lateral lumbar, pelvis and hands X-ray examination to score the degree of calcification (Kauppila score). Results: Among the 126 patients treated with MHD, there were 110 patients with 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and 16 patients with normal 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. There was no significant difference found in gender, age, age of dialysis, active vitamin D treatment, blood calcium, blood phosphorus, blood parathyroid hormone (PTH) and other related indicators between the two groups. The incidence of vascular calcification in patients with 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency was significantly higher than that in patients with normal 25-hydroxyvitamin D level (P = 0.001). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level had a negative correlation with the calcification score (r = 0.193, P = 0.193). Logistic regression showed that 25-hydroxyvitamin D was not a risk factor for vascular calcification in MHD patients. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level is generally low in patients with MHD. Conclusions: Patients with 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency have a higher incidence of vascular calcification with a markedly negative correlation. Thus, for the patients treated with MHD, vitamin D deficiency should be actively treated. PMID:26629071

  14. Impact of cystatin-C level on the prevalence and angiographic characteristics of vasospastic angina in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Nam; Shin, Dong Il; Jung, Mi-Hyang; Choi, Ik Jun; Seo, Suk Min; Her, Sung Ho; Kim, Pum-Joon; Moon, Keon-Woong; Yoo, Ki-Dong; Baek, Sang Hong; Seung, Ki-Bae

    2015-01-01

    Cystatin-C, a marker of mild renal dysfunction, has been reported to be associated with cardiovascular diseases including vasospastic angina (VSA). We aimed to investigate the impact of cystatin-C level on the prevalence and angiographic characteristics of VSA in Korean patients.A total of 549 patients in the VA-KOREA (Vasospastic Angina in KOREA) registry who underwent ergonovine provocation tests were consecutively enrolled. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and levels of serum creatinine (Cr) and cystatin-C were assessed before angiography.The patients were classified into two groups: the VSA group (n = 149, 27.1%) and the non-VSA group (n = 400). Although eGFR and Cr levels were similar between the two groups, the VSA group had a significantly higher level of cystatin-C (P < 0.05). A high level of cystatin-C (second tertile, hazard ratio 1.432; 95% confidence interval [1.1491.805]; P = 0.026, third tertile, 1.947 [1.132-2.719]; P = 0.003) and current smoking (2.710 [1.415-4.098]; P < 0.001) were independently associated with the prevalence of VSA. Furthermore, the highest level of cystatin-C (> 0.96 ng/mL) had a significant impact on the incidence of multivessel spasm (2.608 [1.061-4.596]; P = 0.037).A high level of cystatin-C was independently associated with the prevalence of VSA and with a high-risk type of VSA in Korean patients, suggesting that proactive investigation of VSA should be considered for patients with mild renal dysfunction indicated by elevated cystatin-C. PMID:25742943

  15. Dominance, plasma testosterone levels, and testis size in house mice artificially selected for high activity levels

    E-print Network

    Saltzman, Wendy

    Dominance, plasma testosterone levels, and testis size in house mice artificially selected for high-bred control lines with respect to dominance, testis size, and plasma testosterone level. Behavior was measured tube test; plasma testosterone was measured by enzyme immunoassay with chromatography. As compared

  16. Correlation between cell free DNA levels and medical evaluation of disease progression in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    PubMed

    Tug, Suzan; Helmig, Susanne; Menke, Julia; Zahn, Daniela; Kubiak, Thomas; Schwarting, Andreas; Simon, Perikles

    2014-01-01

    High levels of cell free DNA (cfDNA) in human blood plasma have been described in patients with autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of cfDNA in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and to assess fluctuations of cfDNA concentrations compared to the course of disease progression under standard treatment. Therefore, nuclear cfDNA concentrations in plasma were measured in 59 SLE patients and 59 healthy controls. Follow-up blood plasma was collected from 27 of the 59 SLE patients. Patients were characterised by clinical parameters (antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-dsDNA-antibodies, C3, C4, and CRP), SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) and medical therapy. Our results showed that cfDNA concentrations were significantly higher in SLE patients compared to healthy individuals. Levels of cfDNA assessed in serial samples correlated significantly with the medical evaluation of disease activity in SLE patients. Our results could implicate cfDNA as a global marker for disease activity. PMID:25243646

  17. Lower cortisol levels predict recurrence in remitted patients with recurrent depression: a 5.5 year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bockting, Claudi L H; Lok, Anja; Visser, Ieke; Assies, Johanna; Koeter, Maarten W; Schene, Aart H

    2012-12-30

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a highly recurrent disease. Stress-responsive system dysfunction seems to persist after remission. In patients with more chronic and recurrent depressive episodes, state related HPA-axis dysregulation might be a risk factor for prospective recurrence. This study examines the predictive effect of cortisol on consecutive episodes in remitted recurrently depressed patients. Cortisol was assessed in saliva in remitted recurrently depressed patients (n=55) that were followed up prospectively for 5.5 years after remission. Recurrence was assessed using a well validated structured interview. Lower mean morning cortisol levels predicted earlier time to recurrence over 5.5 year after correction for residual symptoms (p=0.015). Residual symptoms and childhood trauma slightly confounded the association between cortisol and recurrence. Lower cortisol levels were associated with having experienced traumatic childhood life events (42.3% in patients with lower cortisol versus 19.2% in patients with higher cortisol). Our study provides further support for the predictive role over 5.5 year of HPA axis dysregulation, i.e. lower morning cortisol levels, of recurrence in recurrently depressed patients. Childhood trauma is associated to having lower cortisol levels. It might have long term consequences for dealing with stress and the HPA-axis. PMID:22503382

  18. Should heparin-binding protein levels be routinely monitored in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Heparin-binding protein (HBP), also known as azurocidin, has multiple functions in the inflammatory process, especially during severe infections. Beside its antimicrobial properties, HBP may induce vascular leakage leading to extravascular efflux, which is an important pathophysiologic event in the development of septic shock. Not surprisingly, high HBP plasma levels are found in severe sepsis patients and in septic shock patients as well as in serious infections associated with endothelial damage. In the present issue of Critical Care, Linder and colleagues demonstrate new aspects of HBP daily monitoring in ICU patients. The authors observed that high HBP plasma levels are associated with an increased mortality rate in both septic and nonseptic critically ill patients, indicating that HBP may be a reliable prognostic biomarker. However, there are some limitations hindering rapid translation of these interesting findings into the daily routine. First, the group of nonseptic critically ill patients (n = 28) enrolled in the study was rather small as compared with the septic group (n = 151). Moreover, 50% of nonseptic patients developed infection while hospitalized in the ICU, and to classify them as truly nonseptic patients is problematic. Second, there is a lack of a routine diagnostic method for HBP analysis. Nevertheless, if the results of the present study are validated in large clinical trials in different ICU populations and cost-effectiveness data become available, the serial HBP measurements will have a promising future. PMID:22748111

  19. Water borne transport of high level nuclear waste in very deep borehole disposal of high level nuclear waste

    E-print Network

    Cabeche, Dion Tunick

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine the feasibility of the very deep borehole experiment and to determine if it is a reasonable method of storing high level nuclear waste for an extended period of time. The objective ...

  20. An overview of very high level software design methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asdjodi, Maryam; Hooper, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Very High Level design methods emphasize automatic transfer of requirements to formal design specifications, and/or may concentrate on automatic transformation of formal design specifications that include some semantic information of the system into machine executable form. Very high level design methods range from general domain independent methods to approaches implementable for specific applications or domains. Applying AI techniques, abstract programming methods, domain heuristics, software engineering tools, library-based programming and other methods different approaches for higher level software design are being developed. Though one finds that a given approach does not always fall exactly in any specific class, this paper provides a classification for very high level design methods including examples for each class. These methods are analyzed and compared based on their basic approaches, strengths and feasibility for future expansion toward automatic development of software systems.

  1. Coulomb drag in high Landau levels I. V. Gornyi,1,

    E-print Network

    von Oppen, Felix

    Coulomb drag in high Landau levels I. V. Gornyi,1, * A. D. Mirlin,1,2, and F. von Oppen3,4 1 December 2004) Recent experiments on Coulomb drag in the quantum Hall regime have yielded a number of surprises. The most striking observations are that the Coulomb drag can become negative in high Landau

  2. A Testing Instrument for High School Arabic, Level III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolowelsky, Joel B.

    The Arabic language examination was designed for Jewish immigrants from Syria wishing to satisfy New York State language requirements for high school graduation by indicating their proficiency in Arabic. The test is essentially a translation of a state test of Hebrew, and is intended to test Arabic at the third-year high school level. The…

  3. Assessment of Serum Zinc Levels of Patients with Thalassemia Compared to Their Siblings

    PubMed Central

    El Missiry, Mohamed; Hamed Hussein, Mohamed; Khalid, Sadaf; Yaqub, Naila; Khan, Sarah; Itrat, Fatima; Uderzo, Cornelio

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is essential for appropriate growth and proper immune function, both of which may be impaired in thalassemia children. Factors that can affect serum Zn levels in these patients may be related to their disease or treatment or nutritional causes. We assessed the serum Zn levels of children with thalassemia paired with a sibling. Zn levels were obtained from 30 children in Islamabad, Pakistan. Serum Zn levels and anthropometric data measures were compared among siblings. Thalassemia patients' median age was 4.5 years (range 1–10.6 years) and siblings was 7.8 years (range 1.1–17 years). The median serum Zn levels for both groups were within normal range: 100??g/dL (10??g/dL–297??g/dL) for patients and 92??g/dL (13??g/dL–212??g/dL) for siblings. There was no significant difference between the two groups. Patients' serum Zn values correlated positively with their corresponding siblings (r = 0.635, P < 0.001). There were no correlations between patients' Zn levels, height for age Z-scores, serum ferritin levels, chelation, or blood counts (including both total leukocyte and absolute lymphocyte counts). Patients' serum Zn values correlated with their siblings' values. In this study, patients with thalassemia do not seem to have disease-related Zn deficiency. PMID:25197566

  4. High patient satisfaction in 445 patients who underwent fast-track hip or knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Specht, Kirsten; Kjaersgaard-Andersen, Per; Kehlet, Henrik; Wedderkopp, Niels; Pedersen, Birthe D

    2015-12-01

    Background and purpose - Patient satisfaction is important in fast-track total hip and knee replacement (THR, TKR). We assessed: (1) how satisfied patients were with the treatment; (2) factors related to overall satisfaction; and (3) whether there was a difference between THR and TKR regarding length of stay (LOS) and patient satisfaction. Patients and methods - In this follow-up study, a consecutive series of 445 patients undergoing THR and TKR completed a questionnaire 2 weeks after discharge. LOS and short-term patient satisfaction with the fast-track management were measured. Patient satisfaction was measured using a numerical rating scale (NRS; 0-10). Results - For THR, the median satisfaction score was 9-10 and for TKR it was 8.5-10 in all parameters. Older THR patients had higher overall satisfaction. No association was found between overall satisfaction following THR or TKR and sex comorbidity, or LOS. THR patients had shorter mean LOS than TKR patients, even though the median LOS was 2 days for both groups. THR patients were more satisfied than TKR patients in the first weeks after discharge. Interpretation - Patient satisfaction is high following fast-track THR and TKR, with scores ranging from 8.5 to 10 on the NRS. A qualitative investigation of the first weeks after discharge is required to learn more about how to improve the experience of recovery. PMID:26109124

  5. Alterations in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with schizophrenia before and after treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bun-Hee; Hong, Jin-Pyo; Hwang, Jung-A; Ham, Byung-Joo; Na, Kyoung-Sae; Kim, Won-Joong; Trigo, Jose; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2015-07-30

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent angiogenetic factor, is a known neurotrophic factor. In this study, we examined plasma levels of VEGF in 50 patients with schizophrenia (SPR) and 50 healthy control subjects. We also explored any changes in plasma VEGF levels after 6-week treatment with antipsychotic agents in patients with schizophrenia. All subjects with schizophrenia were either medication-naïve or medication-free for at least 4 weeks before assessment. Plasma VEGF levels in all subjects were significantly correlated with smoking duration, which was considered to be a significant covariate. Pre-treatment plasma VEGF levels in patients with schizophrenia were significantly lower than those in healthy controls. Post-treatment VEGF levels were significantly increased in patients with schizophrenia. Plasma VEGF levels in patients with schizophrenia did not exhibit significant correlation with the total or subscale scores of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) either at baseline or at the end of the 6-week treatment. In conclusion, our findings reveal that plasma VEGF levels before treatment were lower in patients with schizophrenia and that their VEGF levels increased after treatment. Thus, VEGF may have a neuroprotective role in the improvement of schizophrenia or in the treatment effects of antipsychotics. PMID:25977072

  6. Increased serum nitric oxide and malondialdehyde levels in patients with acute intestinal amebiasis

    PubMed Central

    Nam?duru, ES; Tarakç?o?lu, M; Nam?duru, M; Kocaba?, R; Erba?c?, B; Meram, I; Karao?lan, I; Y?lmaz, N; Çekmen, M

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the level of oxygen-nitrogen stress parameters in the pathogenesis of amebiasis. Methods Twenty-four acute intestinal amebiasis patients and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the present study. Serum malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels were determined spectrophotometrically. Results Serum malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels were significantly higher in acute intestinal amebiasis patients than healthy controls (P<0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that oxidative and nitrosative stress may play a major role in tissue damage in acute intestinal amebiasis patients. Also these parameters can be used to supplement the conventional microscopic method for reliable diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis. PMID:23569817

  7. Hepatic adenylate energy charge levels in patients with hepatoma after hepatic artery embolization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Yan, Lu-Nan; Chen, Xiao-Li; Lu, Wu-Sheng; Xie, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Yan-Tao

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate hepatic energy charge levels of the patients with hepatoma after hepatic artery embolization and its relation to postoperative complications. METHODS: Sixty-nine patients with hepatoma were continuously measured for their arterial blood ketone body ratio (AKBR) and compared with their postoperative clinical course or conventional liver function test after various hepatic artery embolization. RESULTS: AKBR in high radiation dose or jaundice group drastically decreased at 1-3 d and recovered slowly. Patients were classified into three groups according to the value of AKBR: group A (35 cases), AKBR remained higher than 0.7; group B (31 cases), AKBR had transiently dropped to 0.4-0.7 and then increased to preoperative value; and group C (3 cases), AKBR decreased steadily to below 0.4. The occurrence rate of various complications were 5.7%, 32.3% and 100% in the three groups, respectively (P < 0.005). CONCLUSION: The AKBR which reflects hepatic mitochondria redox state is morereliable as a direct indicator to assess hepatic tolerance for embolization than routine liver function test. PMID:11819250

  8. Decreased expression levels of Nurr1 are associated with chronic inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Huang, Qi; Zhang, Wenfang; Wang, Yaping; Zeng, Qingling; He, Chunyan; Xue, Junli; Chen, Jin; Hu, Xuemei; Xu, Yancheng

    2015-10-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with insulin resistance, a characteristic of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Nuclear receptor?related protein 1 (Nurr1) can regulate inflammation, dependent on the nature of individual diseases. However, whether Nurr1 regulates chronic inflammation during the pathogenic process of T2D in humans remains to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the potential association between the expression of Nurr1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and inflammation in patients with T2D. The levels of plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)? and interleukin (IL)?6, the relative expression levels of Nurr1, and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)?3? phosphorylation in PBMCs from 40 patients with T2D and 40 healthy controls (HC group) were examined, and their potential association with clinical measures were analyzed. The expression levels of Nurr1, induced by high glucose and palmitic acid, were assessed in the PBMCs from the HC group. Compared with the HC group, significantly higher levels of plasma TNF? and IL?6 were correlated positively with the degree of insulin resistance in the T2D patients. However, significantly lower expression levels of Nurr1 and GSK?3? phosphorylation in the PBMCs were correlated negatively with the levels of TNF?, IL?6, fasting insulin and insulin resistance in the T2D patients. Treatment of the PBMCs with high glucose or palmitic acid inhibited the expression of Nurr1 in a dose? and time?dependent manner. Therefore, decreased expression levels of Nurr1 were associated with chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in patients with T2D. PMID:26239742

  9. Evaluation of Serum Homocysteine, High-Sensitivity CRP, and RBC Folate in Patients with Alopecia Areata

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Maryam; Namazi, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi, Hoda; Younespour, Shima; Ehsani, Amir Houshang; Shakoei, Safoura

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Alopecia areata (AA) is a common type of hair loss with an autoimmune basis. As the role of homocysteine (Hcys), folate, and CRP has been considered in some autoimmune diseases. Objectives: To evaluate homocysteine, folate and CRP level in AA. Methods: This study was performed on 29 patients who had AA for at least 6 months affecting more than 20% of scalp, and 32 healthy controls. Levels of serum Hcys, blood high-sensitivity CRP, and RBC folate were measured in all subjects. Results: The mean level of RBC folate was significantly lower in the patient group than that in controls (P < 0.001). Also, the level of RBC folate was significantly lower in patients with extensive forms of disease (alopecia totalis/alopecia universalis) in comparison with more localized form (patchy hair loss) (P < 0.05). Patients with higher “Severity of Alopecia Total” (SALT) score had lower RBC folate, as well. Serum Hcys and blood high-sensitivity CRP levels did not show a significant difference in two groups. Conclusion: Patients with alopecia areata have lower level of RBC folate which is in negative correlation with both severity and extension of AA. PMID:25484412

  10. Increased serum levels of soluble vascular endothelial-cadherin in patients with systemic vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Guo, Zai-Pei; Cao, Na; Qin, Sha; Li, Meng-Meng; Jia, Rui-Zhen

    2014-08-01

    Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a commonest systemic vasculitis (SV) in childhood characterized by an inflammatory reaction directed at vessels. Endothelial damage and perivascular leukocyte infiltrates are vital in the development of HSP. Vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is an endothelial cell-specific adhesion molecule, which plays critical roles in angiogenesis and endothelial integrity. Herein, we investigated the serum levels of soluble VE-cadherin (sVE-cadherin) in patients with HSP and other forms of SV. The serum levels of sVE-cadherin in 30 patients with HSP, together with patients with urticarial vasculitis, allergic vasculitis, Behcet disease, psoriasis vulgaris (PV) and atopic dermatitis (AD) and 26 health controls were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum levels of sVE-cadherin were significantly increased in patients with HSP in acute stage and patients with other forms of SV but not in patients with PV or AD. Moreover, Serum sVE-cadherin levels in HSP patients were correlated with the severity of this disease and serum concentrations of IgA anticardiolipin antibodies and vascular endothelial growth factor. Taken together, we show firstly that serum sVE-cadherin is abnormally increased in HSP patients. Increased serum levels of sVE-cadherin might be a novel biomarker for evaluating the severity of HSP and useful for identifying the presence of SV in inflammatory skin conditions. PMID:24469639

  11. Total oxidative stress, paraoxonase and arylesterase levels at patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Dursun, Feyza; Vural Ozec, Ayse; Aydin, Huseyin; Topalkara, Aysen; Dursun, Ayhan; Toker, Mustafa Ilker; Erdogan, Haydar; Arici, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the oxidative stress status of the aqueous humor and serum of patients with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEG) and to measure paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARE) levels. METHODS A total of 78 patients were enrolled in the study, with 26 patients in each separate group. The patients were divided into three groups: the first group entailed PEX syndrome patients, while the second group consisted of patients with PEG and the third group involved patients with no additional systemic diseases, other than the diagnosis of cataract as control. Total oxidative stress (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), PON, and ARE levels in aqueous humor and serum were measured. RESULTS TAC, PON and arylesterase levels in aqueous humor and serum of the PEX syndrome and PEG patients were significantly decreased compared with control group (P<0.05). TOS values were higher in patients with PEX syndrome and PEG than controls (P<0.05). TAC, PON and ARE levels of aqueous humor did not differ significantly between the PEX syndrome and PEG groups CONCLUSION These findings are potentially of significance and add to the growing body of evidence for oxidative stress in PEX syndrome and PEG. Decreased antioxidant defense and increased oxidative stress system may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PEX syndrome and PEG. PMID:26558214

  12. Serum hCG Levels following the Ovulatory Injection: Associations with Patient Weight and Implantation Time

    PubMed Central

    Noorhasan, Dorette J.; McGovern, Peter G.; Cho, Michael; Seungdamrong, Aimee; Ahmad, Khaliq; McCulloh, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To test if serum hCG levels the morning after the ovulatory hCG injection correlate with (1) retrieval efficiency, (2) oocyte maturity, (3) embryo quality, (4) pregnancy, and/or (5) time to implantation in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Design. Retrospective cohort analysis. Setting. University-based IVF clinic. Patient(s). All IVF/ICSI cycles from April 2005 to February 2008 whose hCG administration was confirmed (n = 472 patients). Intervention(s). Serum hCG was measured the morning following the ovulatory injection, on the 16th day following retrieval, and repeated on day 18 for those with positive results. Main Outcome Measure(s). Number of follicles on the day of hCG injection, number of oocytes retrieved, maturity of oocytes, embryo quality, pregnancy outcome, and time to implantation. Result(s). hCG levels did not correlate with retrieval efficiency, oocyte maturity, embryo quality, or pregnancy. Postinjection hCG levels were inversely associated with patient weight and time to implantation. Conclusion(s). No correlation was found between hCG level and any parameter of embryo quality. Patient weight affected hCG levels following hCG injection and during the early period of pregnancy following implantation. No association between postinjection hCG level and time of implantation (adjusted for patient weight) was apparent. PMID:26587025

  13. Relevance of plasma malondialdehyde level and severity of portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-Lan; Zhu, Xin-Yan; Zhang, Dong-Wei; Zhang, Zhao-Jie; Gao, Heng-Jun; Yang, Chang-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background: Portal hypertension is one of the death reasons for the liver cirrhosis patients. The oxidative stress is related to the occurrence and development of portal hypertension in cirrhosis. Malondialdehyde (MDA), one of the lipid peroxides, increases substantially in cirrhotic patients. Aims: To evaluate the relevance between the MDA level and portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients. Methods: 60 liver cirrhotic patients and 30 healthy controls were enrolled. The plasma MDA level and general blood tests including ALT, AST, ALB, total bilirubin, and platelet were measured. All people enrolled accepted endoscopic examination and B-Ultrasound check to evaluate the severity of portal hypertension. Results: The MDA plasma level of cirrhotic patients was significantly higher than the controls (P<0.001) and increased significantly accompanied by the severity of liver fibrosis and portal hypertension (P<0.01). Further, the plasma MDA level of cirrhotic patients was significantly correlated with Child-Pugh classification of cirrhosis (r=0.820, P<0.001), the degree of esophageal varices (r=0.857, P<0.001) and the width of portal vein (r=0.652, P<0.001). The ROC curve analyses showed that the plasma MDA level is a strong predictor of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Conclusions: Plasma MDA level may correlate with the severity of portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients. PMID:26379897

  14. Treating Patients with High-Risk Smoldering Myeloma

    Cancer.gov

    In this phase III clinical trial, patients with smoldering myeloma classified as high risk for progression will be randomly assigned to undergo standard observation or six 4-week courses of treatment with the drug lenalidomide.

  15. Levels of selected oxidative stress markers in the vitreous and serum of diabetic retinopathy patients

    PubMed Central

    Brzovi?-Šari?, Vlatka; Landeka, Irena; Šari?, Borna; Barberi?, Monika; Andrijaševi?, Lidija; Cerovski, Branimir; Oršoli?, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In diabetes, an impaired antioxidant defense system contributes to the development of diabetic retinopathy. The main objective of this paper was to find correlations of oxidative stress parameters within and between the vitreous and serum in patients with type 2 diabetes who had developed proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Methods The study included and compared two groups of patients who underwent vitrectomy: 37 patients with type 2 diabetes and proliferative retinopathy (PDR), and 50 patients with non-diabetic eye disorders (NDED). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), advanced oxidized protein product (AOPP), and oxidative stress markers (direct lipid hydroperoxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH)) were measured in the vitreous and serum of both groups and correlated with one another, between humoral compartments and with gender, age, and serum glucose levels. Results In the vitreous of PDR patients, VEGF, LPO, and MDA (p<0.05) were increased and SOD values were slightly lowered (p<0.05) than in NDED patients. Vitreous AOPP and GSH showed no differences between the groups. In the serum, AOPP, MDA, and SOD were increased (p<0.05) and VEGF was slightly increased (p<0.05) in the PDR group compared to NDED. With regard to gender, similar changes were recorded for both groups, except for the lower serum MDA in males than females in the NDED group. Advanced age showed no significant effect on changes of measured parameters in the vitreous. In the serum, VEGF was positively correlated (p<0.05) and MDA and SOD negatively correlated (p<0.05) with increasing age. Among measured parameters within and between the vitreous and serum, several correlative links occurred in the PDR group that were not present in the NDED group. The most prominent correlation changes were between serum LPO and vitreal LPO, serum SOD and vitreal LPO, serum LPO and serum SOD, and vitreal VEGF and serum SOD. Conclusions Among the selected oxidative stress markers, SOD and LPO were highly correlative in both the vitreous and serum in PDR compared to patients without metabolic disorders. Their correlations suggested that monitoring their mutual alterations might be informative during PDR development and should be considered in further research. PMID:26120270

  16. Levels and function of regulatory T cells in patients with polymorphic light eruption: relation to photohardening

    PubMed Central

    Reginato, E.; Bambach, I.; Quehenberger, F.; Byrne, S.N.; Wolf, P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background We hypothesized that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in the immunological abnormalities seen in patients with polymorphic light eruption (PLE). Objectives To investigate the number and suppressive function of peripheral Tregs in patients with PLE compared with healthy controls. Methods Blood sampling was done in 30 patients with PLE [seeking or not seeking 311-nm ultraviolet (UV)B photohardening] as well as 19 healthy controls at two time points: TP1, March to June (before phototherapy); and TP2, May to August (after phototherapy). We compared the number of CD4+CD25highCD127?FoxP3+ Tregs by flow cytometry and their function by assessing FoxP3 mRNA levels and effector T cell/Treg suppression assays. Results Tregs isolated from healthy controls significantly suppressed the proliferation of effector T cells at TP1 by 68% (P = 0·0156). In contrast, Tregs from patients with PLE entirely lacked the capacity to suppress effector T-cell proliferation at that time point. The medical photohardening seen in 23 patients with PLE resulted in a significant increase in the median percentage of circulating Tregs [both as a proportion of all lymphocytes; 65 6% increase (P = 0·0049), and as a proportion of CD4+ T cells; 32.5% increase (P = 0·0049)]. This was accompanied by an increase in the expression of FoxP3 mRNA (P = 0·0083) and relative immunosuppressive function of Tregs (P = 0·083) comparing the two time points in representative subsets of patients with healthy controls tested. Seven patients with PLE not receiving 311-nm UVB also exhibited an increase in the number of Tregs but this was not statistically significant. No significant differences in Treg numbers were observed in healthy subjects between the two time points. Conclusions An impaired Treg function is likely to play a role in PLE pathogenesis. A UV-induced increase in the number of Tregs (either naturally or therapeutically) may be a compensatory mechanism by which the immune system counteracts the susceptibility to PLE. PMID:26032202

  17. High-level aminoglycoside resistant enterococci isolated from swine.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, C. R.; Fedorka-Cray, P. J.; Barrett, J. B.; Ladely, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 42% (187/444) of swine enterococci collected between the years 1999 and 2000 exhibited high-level resistance to gentamicin (MIC > or =500 microg/ml), kanamycin (MIC > or =500 microg/ml), or streptomycin (MIC > or =1000 microg/ml). Eight aminoglycoside resistance genes were detected using PCR, most frequently ant(6)-Ia and aac(6')-Ii from Enterococcus faecium. Twenty-four per cent (45/187) of total high-level aminoglycoside-resistant isolates and 26% (4/15) of isolates resistant to high levels of all three antimicrobials were negative for all genes tested. These data suggest that enterococci isolated from swine contain diverse and possibly unidentified aminoglycoside resistance genes. PMID:15816164

  18. Phenylethylmalonamide serum levels in patients treated with primidone and the effects of other antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Streete, J M; Berry, D J; Pettit, L I; Newbery, J E

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented for the serum levels of 2-ethyl-2-phenylmalonamide (PEMA) in patients receiving anticonvulsant medication. Statistical analysis of these data indicates that the serum level of PEMA, which is a metabolite of primidone, is affected not only by the dose of primidone but also by the serum levels of other prescribed anticonvulsant drugs. In particular, phenobarbitone is shown to be a major perturbation upon the PEMA serum level. PMID:3088778

  19. High Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  20. High level radioactive waste management facility design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikh, N.A.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1993-10-01

    This paper discusses the engineering systems for the structural design of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At the DWPF, high level radioactive liquids will be mixed with glass particles and heated in a melter. This molten glass will then be poured into stainless steel canisters where it will harden. This process will transform the high level waste into a more stable, manageable substance. This paper discuss the structural design requirements for this unique one of a kind facility. A special emphasis will be concentrated on the design criteria pertaining to earthquake, wind and tornado, and flooding.

  1. UK Patient-level Data and Capabilities for Epidemiologic Research - Dr. Antonis Kousoulis

    Cancer.gov

    The Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) is the English governmental data service that enables research through linking individual level primary patient care data with other resources, such as cancer and death registries, and hospital event statistics. The core of the CPRD is a database of anonymised patient records directly collected from hundreds of general practices throughout the United Kingdom.

  2. Clinical Implications of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Mutations and Plasma Homocysteine Levels in Patients with Thromboembolic Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Won-Cheol; Chang, Jeong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been identified as an independent risk factor in arterial and venous thrombosis. Mutations in genes encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), involved in the metabolism of homocysteine, may account for reduced enzyme activity and elevated plasma homocysteine levels. In this study, we investigated the interrelation of MTHFR C677T genotype and level of homocysteine in patients with arterial and venous thrombosis. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 146 patients who were diagnosed as having arterial and venous thrombosis. We excluded patients diagnosed with atrial fibrillation. We examined routinely the plasma concentration of total homocysteine level and MTHFR C677T polymorphism for evaluation of thrombotic tendency in all patients. Screening processes of MTHFR C677T polymorphism were performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Investigated groups consisted of thrombotic arterial occlusion in 48 patients and venous occlusion in 63 patients. The distribution of the three genotypes was as follows: homozygous normal (CC) genotype in 29 (26.1%), heterozygous (CT) genotype in 57 (51.4%), and homozygous mutant (TT) genotype in 25 (22.5%) patients. There were no significant differences among individuals between each genotype group for baseline characteristics. Plasma concentration of homocysteine in patients with the TT genotype was significantly increased compared to the CC genotype (P<0.05). Conclusion: We observed a significant interaction between TT genotypes and homocysteine levels in our results. The results might reflect the complex interaction between candidate genes and external factors responsible for thrombosis. PMID:26217629

  3. Serum Levels of Resistin, Adiponectin, and Apelin in Gastroesophageal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Markocka-M?czka, Krystyna; Szelachowski, Piotr; Grabowski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was the investigation of relationship between cachexia syndrome and serum resistin, adiponectin, and apelin in patients with gastroesophageal cancer (GEC). Material and Methods. Adipocytokines concentrations were measured in sera of 85 GEC patients and 60 healthy controls. They were also evaluated in tumor tissue and appropriate normal mucosa of 38 operated cancer patients. Results. Resistin and apelin concentrations were significantly higher in GEC patients than in the controls. The highest resistin levels were found in cachectic patients and in patients with distant metastasis. Serum adiponectin significantly decreased in GEC patients with regional and distant metastasis. Serum apelin was significantly higher in cachectic patients than in the controls. Apelin was positively correlated with hsCRP level. Resistin and apelin levels increased significantly in tumor tissues. Weak positive correlations between adipocytokines levels in serum and in tumor tissue were observed. Conclusions. Resistin is associated with cachexia and metastasis processes of GEC. Reduction of serum adiponectin reflects adipose tissue wasting in relation to GEC progression. Correlation of apelin with hsCRP can reflect a presumable role of apelin in systemic inflammatory response in esophageal and gastric cancer. PMID:25049439

  4. Next-generation sequencing reveals a Novel NSCLC ALK F1174V mutation and confirms ALK G1202R mutation confers high-level resistance to alectinib (CH5424802/RO5424802) in ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients who progressed on crizotinib.

    PubMed

    Ignatius Ou, Sai-Hong; Azada, Michele; Hsiang, David J; Herman, June M; Kain, Tatiana S; Siwak-Tapp, Christina; Casey, Cameron; He, Jie; Ali, Siraj M; Klempner, Samuel J; Miller, Vincent A

    2014-04-01

    Acquired secondary mutations in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene have been identified in ALK-rearranged (ALK+) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who developed disease progression while on crizotinib treatment. Here, we identified a novel secondary acquired NSCLC ALK F1174V mutation by comprehensive next-generation sequencing in one ALK+ NSCLC patient who progressed on crizotinib after a prolonged partial response to crizotinib. In a second case, we identified a secondary acquired ALK G1202R, which also confers resistance to alectinib (CH5424802/RO5424802), a second-generation ALK inhibitor that can inhibit ALK gatekeeper L1196M mutation in vitro. ALK G1202R is located at the solvent front of the ALK kinase domain and exhibits a high level of resistance to all other ALK inhibitors currently in clinical development in vitro. Comprehensive genomic profiling of resistant tumor is increasingly important in tailoring treatment decisions after disease progression on crizotinib in ALK+ NSCLC given the promise of second-generation ALK inhibitors and other therapeutic strategies. PMID:24736079

  5. Effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    El-Shazly, Ahmed Nabih; Ibrahim, Soha Abd El-Hady; El-Mashad, Ghada Mohamed; Sabry, Jehan H; Sherbini, Nashwa Said

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Zinc is an essential trace element for human nutrition, and its deficiency is associated with anorexia, poor food efficiency, growth retardation, and impaired neurological and immune systems. The zinc-deficiency rate is particularly high in many disease states, such as with end-stage renal disease patients undertaking hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index (BMI) and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients. Patients and methods This was a prospective clinical trial study in which 60 hemodialysis patients were randomly divided into two groups: group I received 50–100 mg zinc sulfate (equivalent to 11–22 mg elemental zinc) according to age, sex, and nutritional status of the child; and group II received placebo (cornstarch) twice daily for 90 days. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and serum zinc and leptin levels were determined by colorimetric test with 5-Br-3?-phosphoadenosine-5?-phosphosulfate and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, at days 0 and 90 of the study. Results Zinc supplementation resulted in a significant increase in mean serum zinc level and BMI. Serum leptin decreased significantly after supplementation in children under hemodialysis. A significant negative correlation was observed between serum zinc and leptin levels as a result of zinc supplementation. Conclusion There was an increase in serum zinc level and BMI and decreased serum leptin after zinc supplementation in children under hemodialysis. PMID:26677341

  6. Cortisol Level and Hemodynamic Changes During Tooth Extraction at Hypertensive and Normotensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Agani, Zana Bajrami; Benedetti, Alberto; Krasniqi, Vjosa Hamiti; Ahmedi, Jehona; Sejfija, Zana; Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Murtezani, Arben; Rexhepi, Aida Namani; Ibraimi, Zana

    2015-01-01

    Background: The patients that are subjects to oral-surgical interventions produce large amounts of steroids in comparison with healthy patients which are not a subject to any dental intervention. The aim of research was to determine the level of stress hormone cortisol in serum, arterial blood pressure and arterial pulse, and to compare the effectiveness of the usage of lidocaine with adrenalin in comparison with lidocaine without adrenalin during the tooth extraction. Patients and methods: This clinical research includes patients with indication of tooth extraction divided in hypertensive and normotensive patients. Results: There is no important statistical distinction between groups, for the cortisol levels before, during and after tooth extraction regardless of the type of anesthetic used, while we registered higher values of systolic and diastolic values at hypertensive patients, regardless of the type of anesthetic Conclusion: There is significant systolic and diastolic blood pressure rise in both groups of patients hypertensive and normotensive patients, (regardless of anesthetic used with or without vasoconstrictor), who underwent tooth extraction. The special emphasize is attributed to hypertensive patients where these changes are more significant. As per cortisol level and pulse rate, our results indicate no significant statistical difference in between groups. PMID:26005263

  7. Comparison of pulmonary thin section CT findings and serum KL-6 levels in patients with sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Honda, K; Okada, F; Ando, Y; Mori, H; Umeki, K; Ishii, H; Kadota, J; Ando, M; Miyazaki, E; Kumamoto, T

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to compare thin-section CT images from sarcoidosis patients who had either normal or elevated serum KL-6 levels. Methods 101 patients with sarcoidosis who underwent thin-section CT examinations of the chest and serum KL-6 measurements between December 2003 and November 2008 were retrospectively identified. The study group comprised 75 sarcoidosis patients (23 male, 52 female; aged 19–82 years, mean 54.1 years) with normal KL-6 levels (152–499 U ml–1, mean 305.7 U ml–1) and 26 sarcoidosis patients (7 male, 19 female; aged 19–75 years, mean 54.3 years) with elevated KL-6 levels (541–2940 U ml–1, mean 802.4 U ml–1). Two chest radiologists, unaware of KL-6 levels, retrospectively and independently interpreted CT images for parenchymal abnormalities, enlarged lymph nodes and pleural effusion. Results CT findings in sarcoidosis patients consisted mainly of lymph node enlargement (70/75 with normal KL-6 levels and 21/26 with elevated KL-6 levels), followed by nodules (50 and 25 with normal and elevated levels, respectively) and bronchial wall thickening (25 and 21 with normal and elevated levels, respectively). Ground-glass opacity, nodules, interlobular septal thickening, traction bronchiectasis, architectural distortion and bronchial wall thickening were significantly more frequent in patients with elevated KL-6 levels than those with normal levels (p<0.001, p<0.005, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). By comparison, there was no significant difference in frequency of lymph node enlargement between the two groups. Conclusion These results suggest that serum KL-6 levels may be a useful marker for indicating the severity of parenchymal sarcoidosis. PMID:21045068

  8. Quality of Care and Patient Satisfaction in Hospitals With High Concentrations of Black Patients

    PubMed Central

    Brooks-Carthon, J. Margo; Kutney-Lee, Ann; Sloane, Douglas M.; Cimiotti, Jeannie P.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the influence of nursing– specifically nurse staffing and the nurse work environment– on quality of care and patient satisfaction in hospitals with varying concentrations of Black patients. Design Cross-sectional secondary analysis of 2006–2007 nurse survey data collected across four states (Florida, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and California), the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey, and administrative data. Global analysis of variance and linear regression models were used to examine the association between the concentration of Black patients on quality measures (readiness for discharge, patient or family complaints, health care–associated infections) and patient satisfaction, before and after accounting for nursing and hospital characteristics. Results Nurses working in hospitals with higher concentrations of Blacks reported poorer confidence in patients’ readiness for discharge and more frequent complaints and infections. Patients treated in hospitals with higher concentrations of Blacks were less satisfied with their care. In the fully adjusted regression models for quality and patient satisfaction outcomes, the effects associated with the concentration of Blacks were explained in part by nursing and structural hospital characteristics. Conclusions This study demonstrates a relationship between nursing, structural hospital characteristics, quality of care, and patient satisfaction in hospitals with high concentrations of Black patients. Clinical Relevance Consideration of nursing factors, in addition to other important hospital characteristics, is critical to understanding and improving quality of care and patient satisfaction in minority-serving hospitals. PMID:21884376

  9. Individual- and Neighborhood-Level Predictors of Mortality in Florida Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tannenbaum, Stacey L.; Hernandez, Monique; Zheng, D. Dandan; Sussman, Daniel A.; Lee, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We examined individual-level and neighborhood-level predictors of mortality in CRC patients diagnosed in Florida to identify high-risk groups for targeted interventions. Methods Demographic and clinical data from the Florida Cancer Data System registry (2007–2011) were linked with Agency for Health Care Administration and US Census data (n?=?47,872). Cox hazard regression models were fitted with candidate predictors of CRC survival and stratified by age group (18–49, 50–64, 65+). Results Stratified by age group, higher mortality risk per comorbidity was found among youngest (21%), followed by middle (19%), and then oldest (14%) age groups. The two younger age groups had higher mortality risk with proximal compared to those with distal cancer. Compared with private insurance, those in the middle age group were at higher death risk if not insured (HR?=?1.35), or received healthcare through Medicare (HR?=?1.44), Medicaid (HR?=?1.53), or the Veteran’s Administration (HR?=?1.26). Only Medicaid in the youngest (52% higher risk) and those not insured in the oldest group (24% lower risk) were significantly different from their privately insured counterparts. Among 18–49 and 50–64 age groups there was a higher mortality risk among the lowest SES (1.17- and 1.23-fold higher in the middle age and 1.12- and 1.17-fold higher in the older age group, respectively) compared to highest SES. Married patients were significantly better off than divorced/separated (HR?=?1.22), single (HR?=?1.29), or widowed (HR?=?1.19) patients. Conclusion Factors associated with increased risk for mortality among individuals with CRC included being older, uninsured, unmarried, more comorbidities, living in lower SES neighborhoods, and diagnosed at later disease stage. Higher risk among younger patients was attributed to proximal cancer site, Medicaid, and distant disease; however, lower SES and being unmarried were not risk factors in this age group. Targeted interventions to improve survivorship and greater social support while considering age classification may assist these high-risk groups. PMID:25170910

  10. Free Triiodothyronine Levels Are Associated with Diabetic Nephropathy in Euthyroid Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jingcheng; Li, Xiaohua; Tao, Yang; Wang, Yufei; Peng, Yongde

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the association of thyroid function and diabetic nephropathy (DN) in euthyroid patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. A total of 421 patients were included in this cross-sectional study. The following parameters were assessed: anthropometric measurements, fast plasma glucose, serum creatinine, lipid profile, HbA1c, free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). Patients with UACR of ?30?mg/g were defined as those suffering from DN. Results. Of the 421 patients, 203 (48.2%) suffered from DN, and no difference was found between males and females. The patients with DN yielded significantly lower FT3 levels than those without DN (P < 0.01). The prevalence of DN showed a significantly decreasing trend across the three tertiles based on FT3 levels (59.6%, 46.4%, and 38.6%, P < 0.01). After adjustment for gender and age, FT3 levels were found to correlate positively with estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.03) and negatively with UACR (P < 0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that FT3 level was independently associated with UACR (? = ?0.18, t = ?3.70, and P < 0.01). Conclusion. Serum FT3 levels are inversely associated with DN in euthyroid patients with type 2 diabetes, independent of traditional risk factors. PMID:26697065

  11. Low voltage to high voltage level shifter and related methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mentze, Erik J. (Inventor); Hess, Herbert L. (Inventor); Buck, Kevin M. (Inventor); Cox, David F. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A shifter circuit comprises a high and low voltage buffer stages and an output buffer stage. The high voltage buffer stage comprises multiple transistors arranged in a transistor stack having a plurality of intermediate nodes connecting individual transistors along the stack. The transistor stack is connected between a voltage level being shifted to and an input voltage. An inverter of this stage comprises multiple inputs and an output. Inverter inputs are connected to a respective intermediate node of the transistor stack. The low voltage buffer stage has an input connected to the input voltage and an output, and is operably connected to the high voltage buffer stage. The low voltage buffer stage is connected between a voltage level being shifted away from and a lower voltage. The output buffer stage is driven by the outputs of the high voltage buffer stage inverter and the low voltage buffer stage.

  12. Expression levels of urotensin II are associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress in patients with severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    He, W-Y; Chen, G-J; Lai, X; Wu, F; Tang, C-S; Zhang, A-H

    2016-02-01

    Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy remain a leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. We aim to study urotensin II (UII) and its association with the markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in placentas of patients with severe preeclampsia (SPE). Thirty-three patients with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and twenty-two healthy pregnant women designated as healthy controls were recruited. Expression levels of UII, UII receptor (GPR14) and the markers of ERS in placenta specimens of patients were performed. Plasma and urinary UII levels were measured by radioimmunoassay method. Our study showed that the plasma levels of UII in patients with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy were significantly higher than that of the healthy control group. However, the urinary levels of UII had no difference in two groups. The expression level of mRNA and protein of UII, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and glucose regulation protein 78 in placentas of SPE was significantly increased. Immunohistochemical analyses show that the expression levels of UII and ERS markers were mainly located in the cytoplasm of placental trophoblastic cells. Moreover, expression level of UII mRNA and protein was positively correlated with that of the markers of ERS. The positive correlation between UII and ERS markers expression level also corresponded with the level of patient's systolic blood pressure and proteinuria. In conclusion, we first verify that expression of UII is associated with ERS in patients with SPE. Our results indicate that UII may trigger ERS in placental trophoblastic cells in patients with preeclampsia. PMID:25880595

  13. Prognostic value of circulating Bcl-2/IgH levels in patients with follicular lymphoma receiving first-line immunochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zohren, Fabian; Bruns, Ingmar; Pechtel, Sabrina; Schroeder, Thomas; Fenk, Roland; Czibere, Akos; Maschmeyer, Georg; Kofahl-Krause, Dorothea; Niederle, Norbert; Heil, Gerhard; Losem, Christoph; Welslau, Manfred; Brugger, Wolfram; Germing, Ulrich; Kronenwett, Ralf; Barth, Juergen; Rummel, Mathias J; Haas, Rainer; Kobbe, Guido

    2015-09-17

    Bcl-2/IgH rearrangements can be quantified in follicular lymphoma (FL) from peripheral blood (PB) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The prognostic value of Bcl-2/IgH levels in FL remains controversial. We therefore prospectively studied PB Bcl-2/IgH levels from 173 first-line FL patients who were consecutively enrolled, randomized, and treated within the multicenter phase 3 clinical trial NHL1-2003 comparing bendamustine-rituximab (B-R) with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone. From April 2005 to August 2008, 783 pre- and posttreatment PB samples were quantified by quantitative PCR. At inclusion, 114 patients (66%) tested positive and 59 (34%) were negative for Bcl-2/IgH. High pretreatment Bcl-2/IgH levels had an adverse effect on progression-free survival (PFS) compared with intermediate or low levels (high vs intermediate: hazard [HR], 4.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.70-10.77; P = .002; high vs low: HR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.55-5.86; P = .001). No PFS difference between treatment arms was observed in Bcl-2/IgH-positive patients. A positive posttreatment Bcl-2/IgH status was associated with shorter PFS (8.7 months vs not reached; HR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.51-6.58; P = .002). By multivariate analysis, the pretreatment Bcl-2/IgH level was the strongest predictor for PFS. Our data suggest that pre- and posttreatment Bcl-2/IgH levels from PB have significant prognostic value for PFS in FL patients receiving first-line immunochemotherapy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00991211 and at the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices as #BfArM-4021335. PMID:26239087

  14. Glycodeoxycholic Acid Levels as Prognostic Biomarker in Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; McGill, Mitchell R.; Staggs, Vincent S.; Winefield, Robert D.; Gholami, Parviz; Olyaee, Mojtaba; Sharpe, Matthew R.; Curry, Steven C.; Lee, William M.; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver failure (ALF) remains a major clinical problem. Although a majority of patients recovers after severe liver injury, a subpopulation of patients proceeds to ALF. Bile acids are generated in the liver and accumulate in blood during liver injury, and as such, have been proposed as biomarkers for liver injury and dysfunction. The goal of this study was to determine whether individual bile acid levels could determine outcome in patients with APAP-induced ALF (AALF). Serum bile acid levels were measured in AALF patients using mass spectrometry. Bile acid levels were elevated 5–80-fold above control values in injured patients on day 1 after the overdose and decreased over the course of hospital stay. Interestingly, glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) was significantly increased in non-surviving AALF patients compared with survivors. GDCA values obtained at peak alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and from day 1 of admission indicated GDCA could predict survival in these patients by receiver-operating characteristic analysis (AUC?=?0.70 for day 1, AUC?=?0.68 for peak ALT). Of note, AALF patients also had significantly higher levels of serum bile acids than patients with active cholestatic liver injury. These data suggest measurements of GDCA in this patient cohort modestly predicted outcome and may serve as a prognostic biomarker. Furthermore, accumulation of bile acids in serum or plasma may be a result of liver cell dysfunction and not cholestasis, suggesting elevation of circulating bile acid levels may be a consequence and not a cause of liver injury. PMID:25239633

  15. Cytokine Polymorphisms, Their Influence and Levels in Brazilian Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis during Antituberculosis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Larissa Ragozo Cardoso; da Silva, Weber Laurentino; da Costa, Érika Alessandra Pellison Nunes; Araujo, João Pessoa; Ayres, Jairo Aparecido; Fortes, Maria Rita Parise; Graviss, Edward A.; Pereira, Ana Carla; Calvi, Sueli Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Cytokines play an essential role during active tuberculosis disease and cytokine genes have been described in association with altered cytokine levels. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify if IFNG, IL12B, TNF, IL17A, IL10, and TGFB1 gene polymorphisms influence the immune response of Brazilian patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) at different time points of antituberculosis treatment (T1, T2, and T3). Our results showed the following associations: IFNG +874 T allele and IFNG +2109 A allele with higher IFN-? levels; IL12B +1188 C allele with higher IL-12 levels; TNF ?308 A allele with higher TNF-? plasma levels in controls and mRNA levels in PTB patients at T1; IL17A A allele at rs7747909 with higher IL-17 levels; IL10 ?819 T allele with higher IL-10 levels; and TGFB1 +29 CC genotype higher TGF-? plasma levels in PTB patients at T2. The present study suggests that IFNG +874T/A, IFNG +2109A/G, IL12B +1188A/C, IL10 ?819C/T, and TGFB1 +21C/T are associated with differential cytokine levels in pulmonary tuberculosis patients and may play a role in the initiation and maintenance of acquired cellular immunity to tuberculosis and in the outcome of the active disease while on antituberculosis treatment. PMID:23634300

  16. High Thyroglobulin Antibody Levels Increase the Risk of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jing; Yu, Zhenqian; Guan, Haixia; Shi, Liangfeng; Liu, Yongping; Zhao, Na; Shan, Zhongyan; Han, Cheng; Li, Yushu; Teng, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite the many studies examining thyroid cancers, the effect of thyroid autoantibodies on differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) remains unclear. Objective. To investigate the association between serologic thyroid autoantibodies (ATAs) and DTC, we retrospectively evaluated data of thyroid nodules obtained from patients who underwent thyroid surgery. Methods. Data of thyroid nodules obtained from 1,638 patients who underwent thyroid surgery were evaluated. Thyroid autoimmunity was assessed by the presence of thyroglobulin (TgAb) or thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb). Results. Among our study cohort, the prevalence of elevated TgAb (?40?IU/mL) and TPOAb (?50?IU/mL) was higher in patients with DTC than those with benign nodules. Patients with DTC and elevated TgAb had a higher prevalence of extrathyroidal invasion. In the multivariate analysis, TgAb ? 40?IU/mL was significantly associated with DTC (odds ratio [OR] = 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40–3.15) compared with TgAb < 40?IU/mL group, independent of other confounding factors such as decreased age, single nodule, and elevated TSH level. In conclusion, elevated TgAb was associated with DTC. Conclusions. This study revealed that high levels of TgAb may act as an independent prediction factor for DTC, and suggests that patients with high TgAb concentrations may be predisposed to DTC. PMID:26600670

  17. Association between increased serum osteoprotegerin levels and improvement in bone mineral density after parathyroidectomy in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Cai-Mei; Chu, Pauling; Wu, Chia-Chao; Ma, Wen-Ya; Hung, Kuo-Chin; Hsu, Yung-Ho; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Diang, Liang-Kuang; Lu, Kuo-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common complication in chronic renal disease. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), an extracellular cytokine receptor secreted by osteoblasts, can promote bone formation by inhibiting the function of osteoclasts. Hemodialysis (HD) patients have elevated serum OPG levels. OPG secretion can be suppressed with high parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. HD patients with refractory SHPT can benefit from parathyroidectomy (PTX) treatment, but the changes of serum OPG, bone turnover markers and bone mineral density (BMD) following PTX in HD patients remain unclear. In this study, patients on maintenance HD who received PTX for refractory SHPT (n = 28) were prospectively followed for 1 year. Serum intact PTH (iPTH), alkaline phosphatase (Alk-P), and OPG were measured serially; BMD was measured pre-PTX and at 1 year after PTX. After PTX, serum iPTH levels reduced profoundly. Serum Alk-P levels increased rapidly, peaking at 2 weeks post-PTX, while serum OPG levels gradually increased at 2 weeks after PTX and peaked at 2 months. BMD improved in both femoral neck (FN; cancellous and cortical bone) and lumbar spine (LS; cancellous bone). Higher baseline iPTH levels were associated with greater FN and LS BMD improvements at one year after PTX. The increment of serum OPG was correlated with the increase in LS BMD, implying that inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption may improve BMD within the first year after PTX. These findings suggest that PTX removes the suppressive effects of high PTH on OPG secretion, resulting in the increased serum OPG levels that may contribute to BMD improvement. PMID:22156488

  18. CSF levels of receptor-active endorphins in schizophrenic patients: correlations with symptomatology and monoamine metabolites.

    PubMed

    Lindström, L H; Besev, G; Gunne, L M; Terenius, L

    1986-10-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of an opioid receptor-active, chromatographically separated endorphin fraction (Fraction I) were measured in 45 schizophrenic patients and 18 healthy volunteers. Significantly increased levels of Fraction I differentiated the patient group from controls, with no difference being found between newly admitted untreated and chronic previously neuroleptic-treated subjects. Fraction I levels did not correlate with age, weight, height, duration of illness, total time hospitalized, or age when symptoms first appeared. No differences were found between patients with or without a family history of schizophrenia. Fraction I levels were negatively correlated with "hallucinations" and "indecision" on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale. Increased levels of Fraction I were associated with low levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid in drug-free schizophrenics. This relationship was not present after neuroleptic treatment or in healthy controls. No relationship was found between Fraction I and the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Neuroleptic treatment did not significantly change Fraction I levels; when only patients above the control range were considered, however, a significant decrease was observed. The data support our previous hypothesis of an increased opioid activity in schizophrenia and further indicate a concomitant dysfunction of brain endorphin and dopamine activity in schizophrenic patients. PMID:2431427

  19. Serum amyloid-beta levels are increased in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Xian-Le; Liu, Yu-Hui; Wang, Qing-Hua; Jiao, Shu-Sheng; Zeng, Fan; Yao, Xiu-Qing; Gao, Dong; Chen, Ji-Chuan; Wang, Yan-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    A critical link between amyloid-beta (A?) and hypoxia has been demonstrated in in vitro and animal studies but has not yet been proven in humans. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder that is characterized by nocturnal intermittent hypoxaemia. This study sought to examine the association between the chronic intermittent hypoxia and A? in OSAS patients. Forty-five cognitively normal OSAS patients and forty-nine age- and gender-matched subjects diagnosed with simple snoring and not OSAS were included in the present study. Serum A?40, A?42, total tau and phosphorylated tau 181 (P-tau 181) levels were measured using ELISA kits. All subjects were evaluated with nighttime polysomnography and cognitive tests. Compared with the controls, the OSAS patients exhibited significantly higher serum A?40, A?42 and total A? levels, and each of these levels was positively correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index, the oxygen desaturation index, and the mean and lowest oxyhaemoglobin saturations in the OSAS patients. Moreover, the OSAS patients exhibited strikingly higher serum P-tau 181 levels, and these levels were positively correlated with serum A? levels. This study suggests that there is an association between chronic intermittent hypoxia and increased A? levels, implying that hypoxia may contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26351108

  20. Blood and urine levels of heavy metal pollutants in female and male patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Sponder, Michael; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Marculescu, Rodrig; Mittlböck, Martina; Uhl, Maria; Köhler-Vallant, Birgit; Strametz-Juranek, Jeanette

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy metal pollutants such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) are rarely the subjects of cardiovascular research although they have been suspected for decades to negatively impact the circulatory system. Methods Apart from detailed anamnestic data, urinary levels of Cd and full blood levels of Pb and Hg were measured in 53 female (mean age: 68.04±7.03 years) and 111 male (mean age: 60.68±11.43 years) nonsmoking or never-smoking patients with angiographically verified and precisely quantified coronary artery disease (CAD). Results Although Cd was quantifiable in 68.3% of subjects, only 34.1% of these patients exceeded the critical 1 ?g/L Human Biomonitoring (HBM)-I level. Median Pb (20 ?g/L) and Hg (0.55 ?g/L) levels were lower than the HBM-I, as well as reference levels of Pb. Wine consumption was the main source for Pb, fish and wine consumption for Hg, and previous nicotine abuse for Cd. There was no correlation between Cd, Pb, or Hg and severity of CAD although severity correlated positively with atherosclerosis parameters (uric acid, creatinine, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen, C-reactive protein) and negatively with high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusion Cd levels detected in CAD patients were high compared to German and European reference levels but it could not be proven that urine levels of Cd and blood levels of Hg or Pb played a major role in the genesis of CAD, particularly when compared to well-known biomarkers such as blood pressure, glucose, and lipids. PMID:24868163

  1. Serum Apelin Level Predicts the Major Adverse Cardiac Events in Patients With ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Receiving Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hai-Tao; Chen, Mai; Yu, Jin; Li, Wei-Jie; Tao, Ling; Li, Yan; Guo, Wen-Yi; Wang, Hai-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cardiovascular profile of the apelin makes it a promising therapeutic target for heart failure and ischemic heart disease. However, it remains unknown whether apelin affect the clinical outcome of patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and received percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We enrolled a total of 120 patients with acute STEMI who underwent primary PCI. Serum apelin was detected. After PCI procedure, all patients were followed for 12 months. The follow-up end-point was occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE). Lower serum apelin levels (<0.54?ng/mL) was significantly associated with higher serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol level, higher peak creatine kinase MB fraction (CK-MB) and peak troponin-I (TNI) levels, the number of obstructed vessels, and need for inotropic support. The incidence of MACE was significantly higher in the low apelin group (23 patients out of 67) than in the high apelin group (10 patients out of 75, P?patients with low apelin than those with high apelin (P?patients with STEMI. PMID:25634182

  2. The Estuary Guide. Level 3: High School. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Glen; And Others

    Estuaries are marine systems that serve as nurseries for animals, links in the migratory pathways, and habitat for a complex community of organisms. This curriculum guide intended for use at the high school level seeks to teach what estuaries are; provide opportunities to practice decision-making that affects estuaries; and encourage students to…

  3. High level cognitive information processing in neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnden, John A.; Fields, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    Two related research efforts were addressed: (1) high-level connectionist cognitive modeling; and (2) local neural circuit modeling. The goals of the first effort were to develop connectionist models of high-level cognitive processes such as problem solving or natural language understanding, and to understand the computational requirements of such models. The goals of the second effort were to develop biologically-realistic model of local neural circuits, and to understand the computational behavior of such models. In keeping with the nature of NASA's Innovative Research Program, all the work conducted under the grant was highly innovative. For instance, the following ideas, all summarized, are contributions to the study of connectionist/neural networks: (1) the temporal-winner-take-all, relative-position encoding, and pattern-similarity association techniques; (2) the importation of logical combinators into connection; (3) the use of analogy-based reasoning as a bridge across the gap between the traditional symbolic paradigm and the connectionist paradigm; and (4) the application of connectionism to the domain of belief representation/reasoning. The work on local neural circuit modeling also departs significantly from the work of related researchers. In particular, its concentration on low-level neural phenomena that could support high-level cognitive processing is unusual within the area of biological local circuit modeling, and also serves to expand the horizons of the artificial neural net field.

  4. High-level similarity of dentitions in carnivorans and rodents

    E-print Network

    Jernvall, Jukka

    LETTERS High-level similarity of dentitions in carnivorans and rodents Alistair R. Evans1 , Gregory or in summarizing their tooth shapes, yet both carnivorans and rodents possess a comparable spectrum of dietary) analysis of 441 teeth from 81 species of carnivorans and rodents, we show that the surface complexity

  5. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge...

  6. Equity-Focused Schools Carry All Students to High Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WestEd, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of experience supporting efforts from local to state levels to improve learning for underserved students, Sonia Caus Gleason and WestEd's Nancy Gerzon could not point to examples of entire schools accomplishing what they believed was possible: high-poverty public schools personalizing learning for all students to consistently reach…

  7. MIXING PROCESSES IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flammable gases can be generated in DOE high-level waste tanks, including radiolytic hydrogen, and during cesium precipitation from salt solutions, benzene. Under normal operating conditions the potential for deflagration or detonation from these gases is precluded by purging and...

  8. Execution Monitoring of High-Level Robot Giuseppe De Giacomo

    E-print Network

    De Giacomo, Giuseppe

    Execution Monitoring of High-Level Robot Programs. Giuseppe De Giacomo Dipartimento di Informatica Science University of Toronto mes@cs.toronto.edu Abstract Imagine a robot that is executing a program on-line, and, insofar as it is reasonable to do so, it wishes to continue with this on-line program execution

  9. THE XAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR HIGH LEVEL CONTROL ROOM APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shishlo, Andrei P; Allen, Christopher K; Chu, Paul; Galambos, John D; Pelaia II, Tom

    2009-01-01

    XAL is a Java programming framework for building high-level control applications related to accelerator physics. The structure, details of implementation, and interaction between components, auxiliary XAL packages, and the latest modifications are discussed. A general overview of XAL applications created for the SNS project is presented.

  10. Elevated serum interleukin-23 levels in ankylosing spondylitis patients and the relationship with disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Ugur, Mahir; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Melikoglu, Meltem Alkan; Baygutalp, Fatih; Altas, Elif Umay; Seferoglu, Buminhan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum interleukin-23 (IL-23) levels and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).Twenty male patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis according to the 1984 modified New York criteria for AS and twenty male healthy controls were included in this study.The demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Serum IL-23 levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in both the AS and control groups. The Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity ?ndex (BASDAI), the Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), and the Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) were evaluated as disease activity parameters. The AS patients were divided into two subgroups as active and inactive in respect of CRP, ESR levels and BASDAI scores. The mean serum IL-23 levels of the AS and control groups were 334.45±176.54 pg/ml and 166.49±177.50 pg/ml respectively, and there was a significant difference between the groups. Correlation analysis of serum IL-23 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters showed that there were positive correlations between serum IL-23 levels and the BASDAI, BASFI scores in total, active and inactive patients and the BASMI scores in total and inactive patients and negative correlations between serum IL-23 levels and ESR in inactive patients. It was shown that altered serum IL-23 levels were related to AS disease activity. Further studies in large patient series are necessary to investigate the role of IL-23 protein in etiopathogenesis of AS. PMID:26663940

  11. Significance of low plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Takashio, Seiji; Sugiyama, Seigo; Yamamuro, Megumi; Takahama, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Tomohiro; Sugano, Yasuo; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Hokimoto, Seiji; Minamino, Naoto; Yasuda, Satoshi; Anzai, Toshihisa; Ogawa, Hisao

    2015-07-15

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family, which regulates neuronal differentiation and functions. Low levels of BDNF are because of psychological stress and potentially play a role in the pathogenesis of depression and cognition disorders. Because psychological stress and depression are associated with increased risk of heart failure (HF), the pathogenic link between HF and psychological status has attracted clinical attention. We hypothesized that plasma BDNF levels might be decreased in patients with HF and that BDNF could be a key factor associated with HF. We evaluated plasma BDNF levels in 242 patients with HF and 80 subjects without HF who are age and gender matched. Plasma BDNF levels were significantly lower in patients with HF (3,712 pg/ml [2,124 to 6,180]) than those without HF (7,247 pg/ml [5,388 to 9,255], p <0.001) and lower in patients with HF with the New York Heart Association functional class III than class I (p = 0.01) and class II (p <0.001). Log BDNF levels correlated negatively with log B-type natriuretic peptide (r = -0.203, p = 0.03) in patients with HF. Of 61 acute decompensated patients with HF, plasma BDNF levels were significantly higher at discharge (4,194 pg/ml [2,356 to 6,916]) compared with those at admission (2,749 pg/ml [1,380 to 4,161], p = 0.003). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified log BDNF level as a significant correlate with the presence of HF (odds ratio 0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 0.91, p <0.001). In conclusion, plasma BDNF levels were decreased in patients with HF and associated with HF severity. BDNF could be a potentially clinically useful biomarker of HF reflecting possible cardio-neuronal linkage. PMID:25983281

  12. Serum levels of C-peptide are associated with coronary artery calcification in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Burgmaier, Mathias; Hoppe, Sophia; Krüger, Thilo; Mahnken, Andreas H; Ketteler, Markus; Reith, Sebastian; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Marx, Nikolaus; Brandenburg, Vincent

    2015-09-01

    C-peptide has pro-atherogenic effects in animal models, and elevated C-peptide levels are associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients undergoing coronary angiography. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between C-peptide serum levels and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a high-risk group for cardiovascular events. Fifty-four patients with RA were recruited from an arthritis outpatient department at the University Hospital in Aachen, Germany. CAC was measured by multi-slice CT scan, and blood samples were drawn from all patients for the analysis of C-peptide and other cardiovascular biomarkers. Mean serum levels of C-peptide (1.187 ± 0.771 vs 0.745 ± 0.481 nmol/L, p = 0.02), YKL-40, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were significantly higher in patients with CAC (n = 32, 59 %) compared to those without CAC (n = 22, 41 %). Univariate analysis revealed a significant association of C-peptide [OR 4.7, 95 % CI (1.1, 20.2)], YKL-40, triglycerides, hypertension, smoking, age, and male sex with the presence of CAC. After adjustment for body mass index, cholesterol, diabetes, adiponectin, calcium, and phosphate, C-peptide was still significantly associated with CAC in a multivariate logistic regression model. In conclusion, C-peptide serum levels are independently associated with the presence of CAC in patients with RA. These data suggest a potential role of C-peptide in cardiovascular disease in patients with RA. PMID:25782584

  13. The role of antiepileptic drugs in free radicals generation and antioxidant levels in epileptic patients.

    PubMed

    Eldin, Essam Eldin Mohamed Nour; Elshebiny, Hosam Abdel-Fattah; Mostafa Mohamed, Tarek; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed Abdel-Azim; El-Readi, Mahmoud Zaki

    2016-02-01

    Many risk factors are encountered during the pathogenesis of epilepsy. In this study, the effect of seizure frequency on free radical generation and antioxidants levels in epileptic patients was evaluated. This study was carried out on 15 healthy controls (GI) and 60 epileptic patients treated with mono- or poly-therapy of carbamazepine, valproic acid, or phenytoin. The treated epileptic patients were divided into 2 main groups according to the seizure frequency: controlled seizure patients GII (n = 30) and uncontrolled seizure patients GIII (n = 30). GII included the GIIA subgroup (n = 15) which had been seizure free for more than 12 months and the GIIB subgroup (n = 15) which had been seizure free for a period from 6 to12 months. GIII included GIIIA (n = 15) and GIIIB (n = 15) for patients which had a seizure frequency of less than and more than four times/month, respectively. In comparison to the control group (GI), the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde/creatinine ratio were significantly increased in GIIB, GIIIA, and GIIIB, while vitamins A and E levels were significantly decreased in GIIIB. Serum NO levels had significant negative correlations with serum vitamin E in the GIIA and GIIB groups, and with vitamin A in the GIIIA and GIIIB groups. However, serum NO had positive correlation with urinary MDA/Cr ratio. The imbalance between free radical generation and antioxidant system in epileptic patients may be a factor in seizure frequency. PMID:25539180

  14. Evaluation of vitamin D level in patients from neurosurgical intensive care unit?

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ho Jun; Jeong, Je Hoon; Jin, Eun-Sun; Shin, Il Young; Hwang, Hyung Sik; Moon, Seung-Myung

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in maintaining normal bone metabolism. Recent studies have suggested that vitamin D influences many other physiological processes, including muscle function, cardiovascular homeostasis, nerve function, and immune response. Furthermore, accumulated evidence suggests that vitamin D also mediates the immune system response to infection. Critical neurosurgical patients have higher infection and mortality rates. To correlate vitamin D deficiency to the immunological status of neurosurgical intensive care unit patients, we detected serum vitamin D level in 15 patients with clinically suspected infection and 10 patients with confirmed infection. Serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the primary circulating form of vitamin D, was significantly decreased in patients with suspected or confirmed infection after a 2-week neurosurgical intensive care unit hospitalization, while serum level of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, the active form of vitamin D, was significantly decreased in patients after a 4-week neurosurgical intensive care unit hospitalization. These findings suggest that vitamin D deficiency is linked to the immunological status of neurosurgical intensive care unit patients and vitamin D supplementation can improve patient's immunological status. PMID:25206449

  15. Pentraxin-3 Levels in Beta Thalassemia Major and Minor Patients and Its Relationship With Antioxidant Capacity and Total Oxidant Stress.

    PubMed

    Isik Balci, Yasemin; Nuray, Esin; Polat, Aziz; Enli, Ya?ar; Ozgurler, Funda; Akin, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Thalassemia major (TM) results in hemolytic anemia, an increase in intestinal iron absorption, and occurrence of iron loading due to erythrocyte transfusion; the disease is characterized by oxidative damage in major organs. Oxidative stress leads to vascular endothelial damage and forms the basis for serious cardiovascular diseases. Pentraxin-3 (PTX-3) is one of the markers of vascular endothelial damage that increases in response to the oxidative stress, which can be used as an early diagnostic marker for inflammation. This study's purpose is to define the relation between PTX-3 and the vascular endothelial damage that increases with oxidative stress in thalassemia patients. Our study included 35 TM patients, 30 ?-thalassemia minor patients, and 30 healthy children. As a result of our study, in TM patients, a positive relation was detected between the PTX-3 levels and the total oxidative stress, triglyceride, and very low-density lipoprotein values, whereas a negative relation was detected with the total antioxidant capacity and high-density lipoprotein values. This result shows that as oxidant stress increases, PTX-3 levels also increase; very low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride contribute to the endothelial damage occurring with oxidative stress. As a result, it was concluded that vascular endothelial damage in thalassemia patients can be evaluated through the serum PTX-3 level. PMID:26599985

  16. The relationship between plasma homocysteine level and different treatment modalities in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Capkin, Erhan; Karkucak, Murat; Akyüz, Ay?e; Alver, Ahmet; Turkyilmaz, Aysegul Kucukali; Zengin, Elif

    2012-08-01

    To determine plasma homocysteine levels in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and their correlation with disease activity measurements. To examine the effects of different treatment modalities on homocysteine levels. One hundred eight patients diagnosed with AS according to New York criteria and 65 healthy individuals matched in terms of age and gender were enrolled in the study. Patients were given detailed physical examinations. The Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) was used for disease activity, the Bath AS Metrology Index (BASMI) for spinal mobility, the Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI) to determine functional status and the Bath AS Radiological Index (BASRI) for radiological analysis. Sedimentation rate (ESR) and C reactive protein (CRP) levels, acute phase reactants, were measured. Plasma homocysteine levels, serum interleukin (IL) -6 and serum tumor necrosis factor- ? (TNF- ?) levels were investigated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Plasma homocysteine levels in AS patients were statistically significantly lower compared with those in the healthy control group (P = 0.0001). There was no significant difference among sub-groups established on the basis of medical treatments and disease activity (BASDAI ?4 and >4). No statistically significant correlation was determined between homocysteine level and disease activity parameters, radiological score and functional indices. A significant negative correlation was, however, established between age and homocysteine level in the AS group (P < 0.05, r = -0.426). Plasma homocysteine was lower in AS patients compared with the control group. This is not correlated with disease activation and medical treatment employed. PMID:21644039

  17. Increased Levels of IgG Antibodies against Human HSP60 in Patients with Spondyloarthritis

    E-print Network

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    Increased Levels of IgG Antibodies against Human HSP60 in Patients with Spondyloarthritis Astrid homologous, cross-reactivity has been suggested in disease initiation. In this study, levels of antibodies between such antibodies and disease severity in relation to HLA-B27 was evaluated. Serum samples from 82

  18. Soluble TWEAK Plasma Levels as a Novel Biomarker of Endothelial Function in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Mahmut Ilker; Carrero, Juan Jesús; Ortiz, Alberto; Martín-Ventura, Jose Luis; Sonmez, Alper; Saglam, Mutlu; Yaman, Halil; Yenicesu, Mujdat; Egido, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Recently, we showed that soluble TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) plasma levels are diminished in hemodialysis patients and had additive effects with IL-6 on survival. Because sTWEAK plasma level has been associated with the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease, we hypothesized that in patients with CKD, sTWEAK levels may relate to the increased prevalence of endothelial dysfunction that usually accompanies the decline of estimated GFR (eGFR). Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We studied 295 patients with different stages of nondiabetic CKD (52% male; age 47 ± 12 yr), testing the association between sTWEAK plasma levels and CKD stage and the relationship between flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and sTWEAK concentrations. Fifty-five healthy volunteers (51% male; age 47 ± 11 yr) served as matched control subjects. Results: A gradual decrease in FMD was observed as eGFR decreased. Compared with healthy control subjects, sTWEAK plasma levels were diminished in all stages of CKD and correlated strongly with eGFR. FMD levels were associated with sTWEAK concentrations in univariate analysis. This association persisted after multivariate adjustment for eGFR levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, diastolic BP, and sTWEAK, all of which were found to be significant and independent contributors to FMD. Conclusions: A decline in eGFR is accompanied by gradual reductions in sTWEAK plasma levels. Because sTWEAK strongly and independently correlated with FMD, our study suggests novel links between sTWEAK and endothelial dysfunction in patients with CKD. PMID:19820131

  19. The Prognostic Value of Adaptive Nuclear Texture Features from Patient Gray Level Entropy Matrices in Early Stage Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Birgitte; Albregtsen, Fritz; Kildal, Wanja; Abeler, Vera M.; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Danielsen, Håvard E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nuclear texture analysis gives information about the spatial arrangement of the pixel gray levels in a digitized microscopic nuclear image, providing texture features that may be used as quantitative tools for prognosis of human cancer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of adaptive nuclear texture features in early stage ovarian cancer. Methods: 246 cases of early stage ovarian cancer were included in the analysis. Isolated nuclei (monolayers) were prepared from 50 ?m tissue sections and stained with Feulgen-Schiff. Local gray level entropy was measured within small windows of each nuclear image and stored in gray level entropy matrices. A compact set of adaptive features was computed from these matrices. Results: Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly better relapse-free survival (p < 0.001) for patients with low adaptive feature values compared to patients with high adaptive feature values. The 10-year relapse-free survival was about 78% for patients with low feature values and about 52% for patients with high feature values. Adaptive features were found to be of independent prognostic significance for relapse-free survival in a multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Adaptive nuclear texture features from entropy matrices contain prognostic information and are of independent prognostic significance for relapse-free survival in early stage ovarian cancer. PMID:22596183

  20. Aflatoxin levels in chronic hepatitis B patients with cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma in Bal?kesir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ayd?n, M; Ayd?n, S; Bacanl?, M; Ba?aran, N

    2015-11-01

    Aflatoxins, the secondary metabolites produced by species of naturally occurring Aspergilli, are commonly found in food such as cereals, dried fruits and juice, wine, beer and spices. They are hepatotoxic and are well known human carcinogens based on evidence from human studies. Aflatoxins are an environmental risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Chronic hepatitis B-infected patients are at increased risk of cirrhosis, hepatic failure and liver cancer. This study was designed to determine the serum aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2 ), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1 ) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2 ) concentrations using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) in hepatitis B-infected patients with or without cirrhosis and liver cancer, alongside healthy controls in Bal?kesir, Turkey. The mean AFB1 and total AF levels in patients without liver cancer and cirrhosis were significantly higher than healthy controls. The mean AFB1 and total AF levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B and HCC were significantly higher than infected patients with or without cirrhosis. These results suggest that patients with chronic hepatitis B who are exposed to AFs are at increased risk for developing HCC, which might be prevented by reducing consumption of contaminated foods. PMID:25894298

  1. Serum heat shock protein 27 levels in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gruden, Gabriella; Carucci, Patrizia; Lolli, Valentina; Cosso, Loretta; Dellavalle, Erika; Rolle, Emanuela; Cantamessa, Alessandro; Pinach, Silvia; Abate, Maria Lorena; Campra, Donata; Brunello, Franco; Bruno, Graziella; Rizzetto, Mario; Perin, Paolo Cavallo

    2013-03-01

    Levels of serum heat shock protein 27 (sHsp27) have been studied in numerous cancer types, but their potential relevance in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is undetermined. Our aim was to compare sHsp27 levels in patients with HCC and HCC-free controls. Specifically, we recruited 71 patients with HCC (80 % with early tumour), 80 patients with chronic liver disease (59 with liver cirrhosis and 21 with chronic active hepatitis) and 42 healthy subjects. sHsp27 was measured by immunoenzymatic assay. Results showed that sHsp27 levels were significantly (p?patients with HCC than in the other groups, particularly in those with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related disease. In HCC patients, sHsp27 levels were not associated with prognostic risk factors, such as size/multiplicity of nodules and stage. In logistic regression analysis, performed in patients with liver disease, log-sHsp27 was associated with a significant age-adjusted 2.5-fold increased odds ratio of HCC and with a significant 4.4-fold higher odds ratio of HCC in the subgroup with HCV-related liver disease. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, sensitivity and specificity of the best sHsp27 cut-off value (456.5 pg/ml) for differentiating patients with HCC from those with HCC-free chronic liver disease were 70 and 73 %, respectively. In conclusion, sHsp27 levels are enhanced in patients with HCC and may represent a candidate biomarker of HCC. PMID:23073653

  2. [The oral cavity condition in patients with high blood pressure].

    PubMed

    Rosiak, Joanna; Kubi?-Filiks, Beata; Szyma?ska, Jolanta

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of high blood pressure in adults is estimated at ca. 30-40% of the general population. Both hypertension disease and hypertensive drugs affect the condition of the patients' oral cavity. A review of the current literature shows that disorders most frequently found in the masticatory organ of patients with hypertension include: xerostomia, changes in salivary glands, gum hypertrophy, lichenoid lesions, taste disorders, and paraesthesias. The authors emphasize that patients with high blood pressure, along with the treatment of the underlying disease, should receive prophylactic and therapeutic dental care. This would enable reduction and/or elimination of unpleasant complaints, and also help prevent the emergence of secondary disorders in the patients' oral cavity as a result of hypertension pharmacotherapy. PMID:26608497

  3. Association between serum ferritin level and diastolic cardiac function in patients with major ?-thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Eghbali, A; Taherahmadi, H; Bagheri, B; Nikanjam, S; Ebrahimi, L

    2015-01-01

    Background Prevention of myocardial siderosis is a key step to reduce rate of mortality in thalassemic patients. Our objective was to study association between echocardiography parameters and serum ferritin level in patients with major thalassemia. Materials and Methods Sixty-six patients with major thalassemia were studied in Amir Kabir hospital, Arak, Iran. Serum ferritin levels were measured during 3 months in patients with no symptoms of infection. It was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ejection Fraction (EF), Fractional Shortening (FS) and Early/Late ratio (E/A) were studied by echocardiography. Results Fifty two percent were female and 48% were male. Mean age was 16 ± 9 years and the age range was3-26years. Mean serum ferritin level was1912 ± 1748 ng/dl and its range was from 303 to 8333 ng/dl. There were significant correlations between serum ferritin level and EF(r=0.3 and P=0.05) and also between serum ferritin level and FS. Conclusion Due to significant association between serum ferritin level and echo parameters, it is beneficial that all patients with major thalassemia undergo echocardiography to gain better understating about cardiac function. PMID:26131346

  4. Prognostic significance of postoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels in patients with completely resected pathological-stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Until date, there are no clear recommendations for regular perioperative measurements of serum CEA levels for lung cancer in any guidelines. The purpose in the present study is to evaluate the prognostic significance of perioperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels in patients with pathological-stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods We retrospectively reviewed 263 completely resected pathological-stage I NSCLC patients whose preoperative and postoperative serum CEA levels were measured. Patients were subdivided according to the perioperative change of CEA levels: continuously normal CEA levels (NN group), continuously high CEA levels (HH group), and high preoperative CEA levels that returned to normal levels post-operation (HN group). The clinicopathological factors and overall survival (OS) among these 3 groups were compared. Univariate and multivariate analyses of the correlation between clinicopathological factors and OS were performed. Results High preoperative CEA levels significantly correlated with men aged >70 years with smoking history, high serum CYFRA 21–1 levels, greater tumor diameter, presence of visceral pleural invasion (VPI), and moderate-to-poor differentiation. Five-year OS rates in the NN and HH groups were 95.5% and 59.3%, respectively. Four-year OS rate in the HN group was 85.5%. Multivariate analyses indicated tumor diameter of more than 30 mm, presence of VPI, and the HH group were independent unfavorable prognostic factors. Conclusions A high postoperative CEA level was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor in pathological-stage I NSCLC patients. Patients with high postoperative CEA levels may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:23607757

  5. Plasma Levels of Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-? in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed S

    2015-01-01

    Background: In chronic HCV infection, pathological accumulation of the extracellular matrix is the main feature of liver fibrosis; that indicates the imbalanced rate of increased matrix synthesis to decreased breakdown of connective tissue proteins. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a crucial role in remodeling of extracellular matrix. It is known that expression of MMPs is regulated by Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?. Also, levels of TNF-? in liver and serum are increased in chronic HCV patient. Accordingly, this study aimed to correlate the plasma levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and TNF-? in chronic HCV patients with the pathogenesis of the liver. Methods: The current study was conducted on 15 ?brotic liver cases with detectable HCV RNA, 10 HCV cirrhotic liver cases, and 15 control subjects of matched age and sex. Plasma MMP-2, MMP-9 and TNF-? were measured by ELISA. Results: Data revealed that the MMP2, MMP9 and TNF-? levels showed a significant elevation in chronic HCV patients compared to control group (p= 0.001). But, no significant correlation was observed in levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TNF-? between fibrotic and cirrhotic cases. Conclusions: MMP-2, MMP-9 and TNF-? showed high reproducibility to differentiate chronic HCV patients from control group. On the contrary, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TNF-? were not able to differentiate fibrotic from cirrhotic liver cases. Thus, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TNF-? could not be correlated with the progression of liver disease. Rather they could be used as prognostic markers of liver fibrosis. PMID:26464613

  6. C-reactive protein levels in stable COPD patients: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Denise Rossato; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have documented that C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are increased in stable COPD patients. However, most studies have also shown that higher CRP levels are observed in patients with comorbidities like diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate if CRP levels are increased in stable COPD patients, and if there is an association between CRP levels and pulmonary function tests and clinical characteristics. Methods We conducted a case-control study in a tertiary care, university-affiliated hospital. COPD patients and controls were matched for sex and age in a 2:1 matching ratio. We included only those patients who had quit smoking. CRP levels were determined and pulmonary function tests were performed in both the groups. Results A total of 60 COPD patients and 30 controls were included in the analysis. The study subjects had a mean age of 64.8±8.5 years in COPD group and 64.3±9.2 years in control group (P=0.214). The median of CRP levels was 3.17 mg/L (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.73–5.99 mg/L) in COPD group and 2.13 mg/L (IQR: 1.18–7.69 mg/L) in control group (P=0.370). There were 34 (56.7%) patients in COPD group and 14 (46.7%) patients in control group with CRP levels greater than 3 mg/dL (P=0.382). Using bivariate correlations, we found significant positive correlations in COPD patients between body mass index (BMI) and CRP (r=0.3, P=0.045), and between CRP and forced vital capacity (FVC, % of predicted) (r=?0.3; P=0.023). In a multivariate model, female sex and FVC (% of predicted) were associated with a CRP value greater than 3 mg/dL in the COPD group. Conclusion The levels of CRP in the stable COPD patients were not significantly different when compared to those in the control subjects. Female sex and FVC (% predicted) were associated with CRP levels greater than 3 mg/dL in the COPD group. PMID:26357470

  7. Levels of cytokines in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, but not in plasma, are associated with levels of markers of lipid peroxidation in breath of ventilated ICU patients.

    PubMed

    Boshuizen, Margit; Leopold, Jan Hendrik; Zakharkina, Tetyana; Knobel, Hugo H; Weda, Hans; Nijsen, Tamara M E; Vink, Teunis J; Sterk, Peter J; Schultz, Marcus J; Bos, Lieuwe D J

    2015-09-01

    Alkanes and alkenes in the breath are produced through fatty acid peroxidation, which is initialized by reactive oxygen species. Inflammation is an important cause and effect of reactive oxygen species. We aimed to evaluate the association between fatty acid peroxidation products and inflammation of the alveolar and systemic compartment in ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients.Volatile organic compounds were measured by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in the breath of newly ventilated ICU patients within 24?h after ICU admission. Cytokines were measured in non-directed bronchial lavage fluid (NBL) and plasma by cytometric bead array. Correlation coefficients were calculated and presented in heatmaps.93 patients were included. Peroxidation products in exhaled breath were not associated with markers of inflammation in plasma, but were correlated with those in NBL. IL-6, IL-8, IL-1? and TNF-? concentration in NBL showed inverse correlation coefficients with the peroxidation products of fatty acids. Furthermore, NBL IL-10, IL-13, GM-CSF and IFN? demonstrated positive associations with breath alkanes and alkenes. Correlation coefficients for NBL cytokines were high regarding peroxidation products of n-6, n-7 and particularly in n-9 fatty acids.Levels of lipid peroxidation products in the breath of ventilated ICU patients are associated with levels of inflammatory markers in NBL, but not in plasma. Alkanes and alkenes in breath seems to be associated with an anti-inflammatory, rather than a pro-inflammatory state in the alveoli. PMID:26333527

  8. High-accurate optical fiber liquid level sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dexing; Chen, Shouliu; Pan, Chao; Jin, Henghuan

    1991-08-01

    A highly accurate optical fiber liquid level sensor is presented. The single-chip microcomputer is used to process and control the signal. This kind of sensor is characterized by self-security and is explosion-proof, so it can be applied in any liquid level detecting areas, especially in the oil and chemical industries. The theories and experiments about how to improve the measurement accuracy are described. The relative error for detecting the measurement range 10 m is up to 0.01%.

  9. Level of sustained glycemic control and associated factors among patients with diabetes mellitus in Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Alemu, Shitaye; Mesfin, Nebiyu

    2015-01-01

    Background The level of sustained glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major determinant of the occurrence of both acute and chronic complications. However, information about the level of glycemic control among patients in the follow-up care at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital is scanty. The study assessed the degree of glycemic control and associated factors among diabetic patients in the study area. Method A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital. All diabetic patients aged ?18 years who visited the Diabetes Clinic in January and February 2013 for follow-up medical evaluation and medication participated in the study. Patients with glycosylated hemoglobin test (HbA1c) of ?7% were classified as having a poor level of glycemic control. Propensity score was used to estimate the treatment effect. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the associated factors. Result Two hundred and fifty three (64.7%) of the 391 diabetic patients included in the study had a poor level of glycemic control, as evidenced by HbA1c ?7%. Poor glycemic control was much higher among Type 1 patients (82.9%) compared with Type 2 patients (57.5%). Being on insulin treatment (AOR =2.51; 95% CI =1.25, 5.04) and reporting poor medication adherence (AOR =3.19; 95% CI =1.76, 5.80) were found to be associated with poor glycemic control among Type 2 DM patients. High waist circumference was inversely associated with a poor level of glycemic control in Type 1 DM patients (AOR =0.05; 95% CI =0.01, 0.85). Conclusion The proportion of diabetic patients with a poor level of glycemic control is high. We recommend a comprehensive intervention to improve the overall treatment adherence with special attention to DM patients receiving insulin. PMID:25657591

  10. Overview of high-level waste management accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Lawroski, H; Berreth, J R; Freeby, W A

    1980-01-01

    Storage of power reactor spent fuel is necessary at present because of the lack of reprocessing operations particularly in the U.S. By considering the above solidification and storage scenario, there is more than reasonable assurance that acceptable, stable, low heat generation rate, solidified waste can be produced, and safely disposed. The public perception of no waste disposal solutions is being exploited by detractors of nuclear power application. The inability to even point to one overall system demonstration lends credibility to the negative assertions. By delaying the gathering of on-line information to qualify repository sites, and to implement a demonstration, the actions of the nuclear power detractors are self serving in that they can continue to point out there is no demonstration of satisfactory high-level waste disposal. By maintaining the liquid and solidified high-level waste in secure above ground storage until acceptable decay heat generation rates are achieved, by producing a compatible, high integrity, solid waste form, by providing a second or even third barrier as a compound container and by inserting the enclosed waste form in a qualified repository with spacing to assure moderately low temperature disposal conditions, there appears to be no technical reason for not progressing further with the disposal of high-level wastes and needed implementation of the complete nuclear power fuel cycle.

  11. The Correlation of Serum Growth Differentiation Factor-15 Level in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Kamran; Ede, Huseyin; Kapusuz Gencer, Zeliha; Ozkiris, Mahmut; Gocmen, Ayse Yesim; Intepe, Yavuz Selim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Growth differentiation factor-(GDF-) is a prognostic biomarker in cardiovascular disorders (CVD). GDF-15 level was not studied in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) before. In this study, we investigated serum GDF-15 levels in OSAS patients and compared them with healthy controls. Material and Methods. Polysomnographically, confirmed forty consecutive OSAS patients (20 men and 20 women) and forty consecutive healthy controls (23 men and 17 women) were enrolled in the study. The samples in each group had similar demographic characteristics and body mass index (BMI) values. Results. In the study, no significant correlation was found about GDF-15 levels of OSAS group and healthy controls. However, there was a significant statistical correlation between age and GDF-15 level. In correlation analysis, there was not any significant correlation between age and BMI. Conclusion. Although various developing biomarkers have been studied in cardiovascular disorders, GDF-15 levels have attracted a widespread interest as predictors of cardiovascular risk. GDF-15 level has not been evaluated previously in patients with OSAS. A significant statistical correlation was found between age and GDF-15 level. To reveal close relation between OSAS and GDF-15, further studies are needed with combination of GDF-15 and other biomarkers in OSAS. PMID:26075263

  12. Assessment of serum and urine ghrelin levels in patients with acute stroke

    PubMed Central

    Seyhanli, Eyyup Sabri; Lok, Ugur; Gulacti, Umut; Buyukaslan, Hasan; Atescelik, Metin; Yildiz, Mustafa; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Goktekin, Mehmet Cagri; Ayd?n, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Ghrelin is a novel brain-gut peptide hormone consisted of 28 amino-acid. In the plasma, it exists in two major molecular forms, acylated and des-acyled ghrelin, filtered in glomeruli or secreted by nephrons. Primary biological effects of hormones are regulating appetite, foods intake and energy metabolism. We investigated the changing and relationships between serum and urine ghrelin levels in acute stroke patients to provide more information whether diagnostic parameter. Methods: Thirty acute stroke patients and thirty consecutive volunteers included in study prospectively. To analyze serum and urine ghrelin levels, at the time of diagnose, all of participant blood and fresh urine (1 ml serum, 2 ml urine respectively) samples were obtained. Serum ghrelin levels analyzed ELISA technique, and urine ghrelin levels studied by validation technique. To compare quantitative data student’s t test, and for qualitative data chi-square and Fisher’s Exact Chi-square test was used. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Urine acyl ghrelin levels found statistically significant between patient and control groups (P=0.001), but there were no statistically significant differences between both groups (P>0.05) in serum acyl gherelin, des-acyl ghrelin and urine des-acyle ghrelin levels. Conclusions: The results indicate that urine acyl ghrelin levels may be considered as a diagnostic parameter in acute ischemic stroke patients. Further studies delineating the mechanism of these observed results are warranted. PMID:25785049

  13. High Prevalence of Respiratory Ciliary Dysfunction in Congenital Heart Disease Patients With Heterotaxy

    PubMed Central

    Nakhleh, Nader; Francis, Richard; Giese, Rachel A.; Tian, Xin; Li, You; Zariwala, Maimoona A.; Yagi, Hisato; Khalifa, Omar; Kureshi, Safina; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; Sabol, Steven L.; Swisher, Matthew; Connelly, Patricia S.; Daniels, Mathew P.; Srinivasan, Ashok; Kuehl, Karen; Kravitz, Nadav; Burns, Kimberlie; Sami, Iman; Omran, Heymut; Barmada, Michael; Olivier, Kenneth; Chawla, Kunal K.; Leigh, Margaret; Jonas, Richard; Knowles, Michael; Leatherbury, Linda; Lo, Cecilia W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) and heterotaxy show high postsurgical morbidity/mortality, with some developing respiratory complications. Although this finding is often attributed to the CHD, airway clearance and left-right patterning both require motile cilia function. Thus, airway ciliary dysfunction (CD) similar to that of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) may contribute to increased respiratory complications in heterotaxy patients. Methods and Results We assessed 43 CHD patients with heterotaxy for airway CD. Videomicrocopy was used to examine ciliary motion in nasal tissue, and nasal nitric oxide (nNO) was measured; nNO level is typically low with PCD. Eighteen patients exhibited CD characterized by abnormal ciliary motion and nNO levels below or near the PCD cutoff values. Patients with CD aged >6 years show increased respiratory symptoms similar to those seen in PCD. Sequencing of all 14 known PCD genes in 13 heterotaxy patients with CD, 12 without CD, 10 PCD disease controls, and 13 healthy controls yielded 0.769, 0.417, 1.0, and 0.077 novel variants per patient, respectively. One heterotaxy patient with CD had the PCD causing DNAI1 founder mutation. Another with hyperkinetic ciliary beat had 2 mutations in DNAH11, the only PCD gene known to cause hyperkinetic beat. Among PCD patients, 2 had known PCD causing CCDC39 and CCDC40 mutations. Conclusions Our studies show that CHD patients with heterotaxy have substantial risk for CD and increased respiratory disease. Heterotaxy patients with CD were enriched for mutations in PCD genes. Future studies are needed to assess the potential benefit of prescreening and prophylactically treating heterotaxy patients for CD. PMID:22499950

  14. Serum FSH bioactivity and inhibin levels in patients with gonadotropin secreting and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Borgato, S; Persani, L; Romoli, R; Cortelazzi, D; Spada, A; Beck-Peccoz, P

    1998-06-01

    It has been reported that serum FSH bioactivity and inhibin levels can be used as markers of the presence of true gonadotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma (Gn-oma). To verify this hypothesis, we have investigated the bioactivity of FSH and serum inhibin alpha-alpha and alpha-beta A levels in a series of patients with either Gn-oma or nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA). Nine patients with Gn-oma (6 men and 3 women), 21 with NFPA (9 men and 12 women) and 30 normal subjects were included in the study. We studied FSH biological activity (FSH-B) by using Sertoli cell aromatase bioassay (SAB) and alpha-alpha and alpha-beta A inhibin levels by two noncompetitive immunometric assays (IEMA). In male patients with Gn-oma, serum immunoreactive FSH (FSH-I) and FSH-B levels ranged from 5.1 to 35.5 U/L and from 8.3 to 48 U/L, respectively, FSH B/I ratio being elevated in 2 (2.5 and 4.1; normal male range: 0.3-1.5), while female patients with Gn-oma had serum FSH-I and FSH-B levels ranging from 43.2 to 162 U/L and from 41.2 to 112.8 U/l, respectively, with a normal FSH B/I ratio. In male patients with NFPA, FSH-I and FSH-B levels ranged from 2.7 to 10.7 U/l and from 2.4 to 11.4 U/l while in females they ranged from 3.4 to 67.9 and from 4.6 to 60.8 U/l, respectively. FSH B/I ratio was elevated in 1 male (3.3) and normal in the remaining patients with NFPA. Serum alpha-alpha inhibin levels were normal or low in patients with Gn-oma and NFPA, while alpha-beta A inhibin concentrations were slightly elevated in 1 of 6 postmenopausal women (0.9; normal range < 0.7 U/ml). The present study confirms and extends previous reports indicating that male patients with Gn-oma may secrete FSH molecules with increased bioactivity. However, this abnormality was also observed in one male patient with NFPA. Moreover, the measurement of inhibin levels does not appear to be a reliable in vivo marker of pituitary tumors of gonadotroph origin, as it was normal or low in almost all patients with either Gn-oma or NFPA. PMID:9699129

  15. Analysis of skin patch test results and metalloproteinase-2 levels in a patient with contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Czajkowski, Rafa?; Kowaliszyn, Bogna; ?bikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The complex course of skin reactions that contact eczema involves is due in part to abnormalities of the extracellular matrix function. Proteins that degrade extracellular matrix components include metalloproteinases (MMP), which are divided into subcategories depending on the chemical structure and substrate specificity. Aim To analyse patch test results in contact dermatitis patients and to assess MMP-2 levels during skin lesion exacerbation and remission. Material and methods Fifty patients suffering from contact eczema were qualified to the study and 20 healthy volunteers as a control group. The study group patients had epidermal skin tests performed with the “European Standard” set. To assess the MMP-2 level in serum, venous blood was drawn, twice from study group patients – during contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods – and once from control group patients. Assessment of MMP-2 in serum was done with ELISA immunoassay. To verify the proposed hypotheses, parametric and nonparametric significance tests were used. Results Hands were the most frequent location of contact dermatitis. Nickel (II) sulphate was the most frequent sensitizing substance. Mean MMP-2 levels were statistically higher in the study group both in contact dermatitis exacerbation and remission periods than in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference between MMP-2 levels and skin patch test results. Conclusions Nickel is one of the most allergenic contact allergens in patients with contact dermatitis. Metalloproteinase-2 is a good marker of contact dermatitis in various stages of the disease. PMID:26161054

  16. Serum neutrophil gelatinase-B associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels in Down’s syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a group of proteins with different functions. NGAL is released by different cell types such as epithelial cell, hepatocytes and renal tubular cells during inflammation and after cell injury. Expression of NGAL is induced under various pathophysiological conditions such as infection, cancer, inflammation, kidney injury, cardiovascular disease, burn injury, and intoxication, which has an important anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory role. Subjects with Down’s syndrome (DS) are affected by many pathological age related conditions such as mental retardation, Alzheimer’s disease, immune defects and increased susceptibility to infections. The aim of this study is to evaluate possible use of NGAL as a marker of inflammatory status for allow an early diagnosis of inflammatory disease such as autoimmune disease in DS patients, that are more susceptible to these pathologies, especially in elderly subjects. In this study were recruited 3 groups of DS subjects (children, adults and elderly) and compared them to healthy control group. The molecules of interest was determinated by immuno-enzymatic assay (ELISA). Our results show that NGAL plasmatic level was significantly higher in DS patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover NGAL levels increase in correlation with the age, and showed a significantly correlation between the increase with the severity of disease. DS is characterized by an enhancement of gene production such as GART, SOD-1 and CBS that encode specific protein and enzyme involved in hydrogen peroxide and superoxide production, species highly cytotoxic implicated in inflammation and ageing. NGAL may have the potential application to ameliorate the toxicity induced by oxidative stress conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, thalassemia, cardiovascular disease, burn injury, transplantation, diabetes, and aging. PMID:21172066

  17. Levels of State and Trait Anxiety in Patients Referred to Ophthalmology by Primary Care Clinicians: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Christopher J.; Harley, Clare; Elliott, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There is a high level of over-referral from primary eye care leading to significant numbers of people without ocular pathology (false positives) being referred to secondary eye care. The present study used a psychometric instrument to determine whether there is a psychological burden on patients due to referral to secondary eye care, and used Rasch analysis to convert the data from an ordinal to an interval scale. Design Cross sectional study. Participants and Controls 322 participants and 80 control participants. Methods State (i.e. current) and trait (i.e. propensity to) anxiety were measured in a group of patients referred to a hospital eye department in the UK and in a control group who have had a sight test but were not referred. Response category analysis plus infit and outfit Rasch statistics and person separation indices were used to determine the usefulness of individual items and the response categories. Principal components analysis was used to determine dimensionality. Main Outcome Measure Levels of state and trait anxiety measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results State anxiety scores were significantly higher in the patients referred to secondary eye care than the controls (p<0.04), but similar for trait anxiety (p>0.1). Rasch analysis highlighted that the questionnaire results needed to be split into “anxiety-absent” and “anxiety-present” items for both state and trait anxiety, but both subscales showed the same profile of results between patients and controls. Conclusions State anxiety was shown to be higher in patients referred to secondary eye care than the controls, and at similar levels to people with moderate to high perceived susceptibility to breast cancer. This suggests that referral from primary to secondary eye care can result in a significant psychological burden on some patients. PMID:23785444

  18. The effect of Corynebacterium parvum therapy on immunoglobulin class and IgG subclass levels in cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    James, K.; Clunie, G. J.; Woodruff, M. F.; McBride, W. H.; Stimson, W. H.; Drew, R.; Catty, D.

    1975-01-01

    Detailed serological studies have been undertaken in a small group of cancer patients receiving nonspecific immunotherapy with Corynebacterium parvum (C. parvum). These patients included 4 cases of recurrent malignant melanoma, 2 of stomach cancer and 2 of recurrent breast cancer. They all received an initial i.v. infusion of 20 mg of a formol killed suspension of C. parvum followed by 2 mg (i.m.) at weekly intervals for 10-11 weeks. This protocol consistently resulted in an increase in the circulating IgG levels of all patients but had a variable effect on their IgA, IgM and IgE levels. Increases in the concentration of all 4 IgG subclasses contributed to the overall increase in IgG levels and these changes ranked IgG2 greater than IgG1 greater than IgG3 = IgG4. It also had an inconsistent effect upon the levels of alpha-macroglobulin in pregnancy but the levels of normal serum alpha2-macroglobulin were virtually unchanged. Pre-existing antibodies to C. parvum were noted in all the patients. Titres rose appreciably following C. parvum administration and remained at high, though fluctuating levels, throughout the 100-day period of observation. Absorption studies suggested that the development of antibodies to C. parvum accounted in part for the increased IgG levels noted following this form of therapy. The significance of these changes in relation to the possible anti-tumour effect of C. parvum is discussed. PMID:61040

  19. The effect of mud pack therapy on serum YKL-40 and hsCRP levels in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Güngen, Gonca; Ardic, Fusun; F?nd?ko?lu, Gülin; Rota, Simin

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of treatment with mud pack in knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to determine whether mud pack effects serum levels of YKL-40 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) which are reported to be biological markers for articular damage or inflammation in patients with OA. Forty-four patients with the diagnosis of knee OA assigned into two groups were treated with local natural mineral-rich mud pack or hot pack. Treatments were applied for 6 days a week for 2 weeks as a total of 12 sessions. Patients were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and 3 months after the treatment. VAS, range of motion, 15-m walking time, WOMAC index, Nottingham Health Profile, serum YKL-40, and hsCRP levels were the outcome measures. Pain intensity and joint stiffness decreased in both groups at all follow-ups. Physical activity status was found to persist for 3 months after treatment only in mud pack group. Serum mean YKL-40 and hsCRP levels of the patients were higher compared to healthy control group. Serum YKL-40 level increased significantly only in hot pack group 3 months after the treatment (P < 0.017). No significant change was observed in hsCRP levels in both groups during the whole follow-up periods (P > 0.05). Mud pack and hot pack therapy were both demonstrated to be effective in symptomatic treatment of knee OA until the end of the 2-week treatment period, whereas only mud pack therapy was shown to be effective in functional status over time. In the hot pack group, increased serum YKL-40 level 3 months after the treatment might indicate persistence of cartilage degradation. Maintenance of YKL-40 level in mud pack therapy seems to slow down the progression of knee OA. PMID:21258804

  20. High nevus counts confer a favorable prognosis in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Ribero, Simone; Davies, John R; Requena, Celia; Carrera, Cristina; Glass, Daniel; Rull, Ramon; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Vilalta, Antonio; Alos, Lucia; Soriano, Virtudes; Quaglino, Pietro; Traves, Victor; Newton-Bishop, Julia A; Nagore, Eduardo; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana; Bataille, Veronique

    2015-10-01

    A high number of nevi is the most significant phenotypic risk factor for melanoma and is in part genetically determined. The number of nevi decreases from middle age onward but this senescence can be delayed in patients with melanoma. We investigated the effects of nevus number count on sentinel node status and melanoma survival in a large cohort of melanoma cases. Out of 2,184 melanoma cases, 684 (31.3%) had a high nevus count (>50). High nevus counts were associated with favorable prognostic factors such as lower Breslow thickness, less ulceration and lower mitotic rate, despite adjustment for age. Nevus count was not predictive of sentinel node status. The crude 5- and 10-year melanoma-specific survival rate was higher in melanomas cases with a high nevus count compared to those with a low nevus count (91.2 vs. 86.4% and 87.2 vs. 79%, respectively). The difference in survival remained significant after adjusting for all known melanoma prognostic factors (hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.43, confidence interval [CI]?=?0.21-0.89). The favorable prognostic value of a high nevus count was also seen within the positive sentinel node subgroup of patients (HR?=?0.22, CI?=?0.08-0.60). High nevus count is associated with a better melanoma survival, even in the subgroup of patients with positive sentinel lymph node. This suggests a different biological behavior of melanoma tumors in patients with an excess of nevi. PMID:25809795

  1. Serum YKL-40 Levels Correlate with Infarct Volume, Stroke Severity, and Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Young; Jun, Chang-Duk; Jeon, Se-Jeong; Choi, See-Sung; Kim, Hak-Ryul; Choi, Dan-Bee; Kwak, Seongae; Lee, Hak-Seung; Cheong, Jin Sung; So, Hong-Seob; Lee, Young-Jin; Park, Do-Sim

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose YKL-40 is associated with various neurological disorders. However, circulatory YKL-40 levels early after onset of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) have not been systematically assessed. We aimed to identify the temporal changes and clinical usefulness of measuring serum YKL-40 immediately following AIS. Methods Serum YKL-40 and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were monitored over time in AIS patients (n?=?105) and compared with those of stroke-free controls (n?=?34). Infarct volume and stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; NIHSS) were measured within 48 hours of symptom onset, and functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale; mRS) was measured 3 months after AIS. Results Within 12 hours of symptom onset, levels of YKL-40 (251 vs. 41 ng/mL) and CRP (1.50 vs. 0.96 µg/mL) were elevated in AIS patients compared to controls. The power of YKL-40 for discriminating AIS patients from controls was superior to that of CRP (area under the curve 0.84 vs. 0.64) and YKL-40 (r?=?0.26, P<0.001) but not CRP levels were correlated with mRS. On day 2 of admission (D2), YKL-40 levels correlated with infarct volume and NIHSS. High YKL-40 levels predicted poor functional outcome (odds ratio 5.73, P?=?0.03). YKL-40 levels peaked on D2 and declined on D3, whereas CRP levels were highest on D3. Conclusions Our results demonstrate serial changes in serum YKL-40 levels immediately following AIS and provide the first evidence that it is a valid indicator of AIS extent and an early predictor of functional outcome. PMID:23272150

  2. Elevated erythropoietin and cytokines levels are related to impaired reticulocyte maturation in thalassemic patients.

    PubMed

    Butthep, Punnee; Wisedpanichkij, Raewadee; Jindadamrongwech, Sumalee; Fucharoen, Suthat

    2015-02-01

    Serum EPO concentration is related primarily to the rate of erythrocyte production and, under the stimulation of hypoxia, increases exponentially as hemoglobin (Hb) decreased. The level of EPO was determined in 141 subjects including 43 normal, 44 thalassemic patients and 54 thalassemic trait subjects. The EPO level was significantly higher in the thalassemic patients (54.8mU/ml in HbH disease [? thal1/? thal2;], 78.1mU/ml in HbH with Hb CS [? thal 1/CS]; 95.6mU/ml in ?-thal/HbE splenectomized [BE(S)]; and 114.8mU/ml in ?-thal/HbE non-splenectomized [BE(NS)]as compared with 12.0mU/ml in normal subjects. No significant differences were detected in thalassemic trait subjects. In addition, the levels of EPO in thalassemic patients is correlated significantly with the number of reticulocytes and the reticulocyte fractions especially the fraction of immature reticulocytes. Interestingly, the highest level of EPO/% retic ratio as indicated for EPO non-responder was detected in BE(NS) patients. However, the impaired reticulocytes maturation was found to be related significantly with the levels of TNF-?,IFN-?,IL-10, and VEGF. Since, TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-10 and VEGF are reported as the cytokines with erythropoietic inhibitory mediators, the variation of these cytokines in thalassemic environments may be associated to the anemic crisis in these patients. PMID:25477265

  3. Evaluation of literacy level of patient education pages in health-related journals.

    PubMed

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E; Carpenter-Haefele, Kara M

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reading level of patient education material from selected current health care journals. Ten patient education pages from a variety of health care journals were entered into a Microsoft Word program. Applying the Flesch-Kincaid readability formula available from Microsoft Word, a reading level for each page was established and compared to recommended standards. Only 2 of 10 patient education pages fell within the recommended reading levels for health-related materials, and 5 of 10 were above the estimated mean U.S. reading level of 8th grade. A 5th to 6th grade level is recommended for patient education materials. This study suggests that although it is known that low health literacy is a widespread problem, it is not always considered when patient-targeted materials are developed. Health care professionals need to become more active in addressing the literacy needs of the intended receiver of written health-related information. PMID:15847246

  4. Oxidative stress and decreased thiol level in patients with migraine: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Eren, Yasemin; Dirik, Ebru; Ne?elio?lu, Salim; Erel, Özcan

    2015-12-01

    Although migraine is a neurological disorder known since long, its physiopathology remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that migraine is associated with oxidative stress; however, they report divergent results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and serum thiol level in migraine patients with or without aura. The study group consisted of 141 migraine patients. The control group included 70 healthy subjects. TAS, TOS, OSI were evaluated using a method developed by Erel. Serum thiol level was measured using the Hu method. No difference was found in TAS, TOS, OSI between the patients and controls. The level of thiol was significantly lower in patients than in controls. Negative correlations were detected between thiol level and Migraine Disability Assessment score in patients. Although TAS, TOS, and OSI were similar to those of the control group, serum thiol level, an important marker of antioxidant capacity, was significantly lower in migraines compared with controls, and caused more serious disability. Novel treatment approaches may be developed based on these data, and compounds containing thiol, such as alpha lipoic acid and N-acetyl cysteine, may be used in prophylaxis. PMID:25595415

  5. Increased Mercury Levels in Patients with Celiac Disease following a Gluten-Free Regimen.

    PubMed

    Elli, Luca; Rossi, Valentina; Conte, Dario; Ronchi, Anna; Tomba, Carolina; Passoni, Manuela; Bardella, Maria Teresa; Roncoroni, Leda; Guzzi, Gianpaolo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim. Although mercury is involved in several immunological diseases, nothing is known about its implication in celiac disease. Our aim was to evaluate blood and urinary levels of mercury in celiac patients. Methods. We prospectively enrolled 30 celiac patients (20 treated with normal duodenal mucosa and 10 untreated with duodenal atrophy) and 20 healthy controls from the same geographic area. Blood and urinary mercury concentrations were measured by means of flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Enrolled patients underwent dental chart for amalgam fillings and completed a food-frequency questionnaire to evaluate diet and fish intake. Results. Mercury blood/urinary levels were 2.4 ± 2.3/1.0 ± 1.4, 10.2 ± 6.7/2.2 ± 3.0 and 3.7 ± 2.7/1.3 ± 1.2 in untreated CD, treated CD, and healthy controls, respectively. Resulting mercury levels were significantly higher in celiac patients following a gluten-free diet. No differences were found regarding fish intake and number of amalgam fillings. No demographic or clinical data were significantly associated with mercury levels in biologic samples. Conclusion. Data demonstrate a fourfold increase of mercury blood levels in celiac patients following a gluten-free diet. Further studies are needed to clarify its role in celiac mechanism. PMID:25802516

  6. Increased Mercury Levels in Patients with Celiac Disease following a Gluten-Free Regimen

    PubMed Central

    Elli, Luca; Rossi, Valentina; Conte, Dario; Ronchi, Anna; Tomba, Carolina; Passoni, Manuela; Bardella, Maria Teresa; Roncoroni, Leda; Guzzi, Gianpaolo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim. Although mercury is involved in several immunological diseases, nothing is known about its implication in celiac disease. Our aim was to evaluate blood and urinary levels of mercury in celiac patients. Methods. We prospectively enrolled 30 celiac patients (20 treated with normal duodenal mucosa and 10 untreated with duodenal atrophy) and 20 healthy controls from the same geographic area. Blood and urinary mercury concentrations were measured by means of flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Enrolled patients underwent dental chart for amalgam fillings and completed a food-frequency questionnaire to evaluate diet and fish intake. Results. Mercury blood/urinary levels were 2.4 ± 2.3/1.0 ± 1.4, 10.2 ± 6.7/2.2 ± 3.0 and 3.7 ± 2.7/1.3 ± 1.2 in untreated CD, treated CD, and healthy controls, respectively. Resulting mercury levels were significantly higher in celiac patients following a gluten-free diet. No differences were found regarding fish intake and number of amalgam fillings. No demographic or clinical data were significantly associated with mercury levels in biologic samples. Conclusion. Data demonstrate a fourfold increase of mercury blood levels in celiac patients following a gluten-free diet. Further studies are needed to clarify its role in celiac mechanism. PMID:25802516

  7. Disease-induced level of shame in patients with acne, psoriasis and syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Rzepa, Teresa; Witmanowski, Henryk; ?aba, Ryszard

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A prolonged feeling of shame leads to particularly negative consequences and it accompanies, as well as triggers, any kind of stigma. Aim As empirical works on shame due to stigmatizing diseases are scarce, the authors aimed to investigate the following: 1) which diseases are perceived as the most embarrassing, and 2) what level of shame is attributed to the embarrassing diseases by affected patients. Additionally, the authors assumed that the differentiation variable for the second aim would be the level of infectiousness (or non-infectiousness) of a given disease. Material and methods A two-stage study was carried out in 2011–2013. Three groups of patients affected by various diseases were included into the actual study: 1) people suffering from non-infectious (42 psoriasis and 42 acne subjects) and 2) infectious (25 syphilis cases) diseases. The patients filled in an original questionnaire, designed especially for the purpose of the study. Results As the most shameful acne patients consider syphilis, but patients with syphilis – AIDS. Patients with syphilis assigned to their disease the greatest shame (average 75%), and the lowest – acne patients (average 30%). Patients with psoriasis assessed on 52% shame experienced because of the disease. Conclusions The conducted study confirmed the accuracy of the empirical assumptions which may be applicable in prevention as well as therapy of negative consequences of shame. PMID:24278080

  8. Vitamin D in epilepsy: vitamin D levels in epilepsy patients, patients on antiepileptic drug polytherapy and drug-resistant epilepsy sufferers.

    PubMed

    Nagarjunakonda, S; Amalakanti, S; Uppala, V; Rajanala, L; Athina, S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess vitamin D levels in epileptic patients and to compare its serum levels in patients on antiepileptic monotherapy and polytherapy. We analyzed the serum 25-hydroxy (25-OH) vitamin D levels in 98 consecutive subjects (43 epileptic patients and 55 non-epileptics). Factors influencing its serum levels such as degree of sun exposure, physical activity and dietary intake were taken into consideration. Overall, 41% had deficient, 49% had insufficient and 9% had sufficient levels of serum vitamin D. Elderly individuals (>60 years) and people employed in offices and schools had lower blood vitamin D levels. Across both the sexes, epileptic patients and non-epileptics, epileptic patients on monotherapy and polytherapy and patients with drug-responsive and -resistant seizures, there were no significant differences in serum 25-OH vitamin D levels. Our study shows that people with epilepsy suffer with vitamin D deficiency along with their normal peers. PMID:26220571

  9. The effects of chelators on zinc levels in patients with thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Erdo?an, Elvan; Canatan, Duran; Ormeci, Ahmet Rifat; Vural, Hüseyin; Aylak, Firdevs

    2013-04-01

    Zinc which is an essential element has very important effects on growth and immune system in patients with thalassemia major (TM). The effects of two oral iron chelator agents, desferrioxamine (DFO) and deferiprone (DFP), on zinc levels were investigated in previous studies and they were found to cause zinc deficiency. Zinc level alteration by the new chelator deferasirox (DFX) is not present in the literature. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different oral chelators on serum and urine zinc levels in TM patients. Zinc levels are compared in the patients who received different chelators: only DFX, combined chelation with DFO plus DFP and the healthy control group. A total of 56 patients with TM were involved in this study: 39 patients received only DFX and 17 patients were given combined treatment DFO+DFP between August 2008 and August 2009. In addition, a control group was established from the healthy population. Blood was taken from all the patients for serum zinc levels and 24hour-urine samples were collected for urine zinc levels. Serum zinc levels were found to be 64.8±14.8?g/dL in DFX group and 66.5±15.1?g/dL in DFO+DFP group. These levels were statistically lower than that in the control group (149±54.3?g/dL) (p<0.05), but there was no statistically difference between the two different chelation groups (p>0.05). The urine zinc levels of DFX and DFO+DFP group were 662.2±428.2?g/day and 1182.3±980.3?g/day respectively (p<0.05). Urinary zinc excretion in the chelation groups (DFX and DFO+DFP) was significantly higher than the control group (395.1±208.9?g/day) (p<0.05). As a conclusion, the new chelation agent, DFX, also leads to zinc deficiency, though its urinary zinc excretion is lower. New studies are required to examine the effects of DFX on zinc extensively. Zinc levels of patients with TM should be followed up regularly and zinc supply should be given at early ages. PMID:23164519

  10. High-level waste management technology program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Bernadzikowski, T. A.; Allender, J. S.; Butler, J. L.; Gordon, D. E.; Gould, Jr., T. H.; Stone, J. A.

    1982-03-01

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms.

  12. Life Extension of Aging High-Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, D.; Callahan, V.; Ostrom, M.; Bryan, W.; Berman, H.

    2002-02-26

    The Double Shell Tanks (DSTs) play a critical role in the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex, and therefore activities are underway to protect and better understand these tanks. The DST Life Extension Program is focused on both tank life extension and on evaluation of tank integrity. Tank life extension activities focus on understanding tank failure modes and have produced key chemistry and operations controls to minimize tank corrosion and extend useful tank life. Tank integrity program activities have developed and applied key technologies to evaluate the condition of the tank structure and predict useful tank life. Program results to date indicate that DST useful life can be extended well beyond the original design life and allow the existing tanks to fill a critical function within the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex. In addition the tank life may now be more reliably predicted, facilitating improved planning for the use and possible future replacement of these tanks.

  13. Nondestructive examination of DOE high-level waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, S.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Kassir, M.; Mather, B.; Shewmon, P.; Streicher, M.; Thompson, B.; van Rooyen, D.; Weeks, J.

    1995-05-01

    A number of DOE sites have buried tanks containing high-level waste. Tanks of particular interest am double-shell inside concrete cylinders. A program has been developed for the inservice inspection of the primary tank containing high-level waste (HLW), for testing of transfer lines and for the inspection of the concrete containment where possible. Emphasis is placed on the ultrasonic examination of selected areas of the primary tank, coupled with a leak-detection system capable of detecting small leaks through the wall of the primary tank. The NDE program is modelled after ASME Section XI in many respects, particularly with respects to the sampling protocol. Selected testing of concrete is planned to determine if there has been any significant degradation. The most probable failure mechanisms are corrosion-related so that the examination program gives major emphasis to possible locations for corrosion attack.

  14. Review of High Level Waste Tanks Ultrasonic Inspection Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B

    2006-03-09

    A review of the data collected during ultrasonic inspection of the Type I high level waste tanks has been completed. The data was analyzed for relevance to the possibility of vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion. The review of the Type I tank UT inspection data has confirmed that the vapor space general corrosion is not an unusually aggressive phenomena and correlates well with predicted corrosion rates for steel exposed to bulk solution. The corrosion rates are seen to decrease with time as expected. The review of the temperature data did not reveal any obvious correlations between high temperatures and the occurrences of leaks. The complex nature of temperature-humidity interaction, particularly with respect to vapor corrosion requires further understanding to infer any correlation. The review of the waste level data also did not reveal any obvious correlations.

  15. RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.

    2010-09-07

    High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

  16. Management of data quality of high level waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    Over the past 10 years, the Hanford Site has been transitioning from nuclear materials production to Site cleanup operations. High-level waste characterization at the Hanford Site provides data to support present waste processing operations, tank safety programs, and future waste disposal programs. Quality elements in the high-level waste characterization program will be presented by following a sample through the data quality objective, sampling, laboratory analysis and data review process. Transition from production to cleanup has resulted in changes in quality systems and program; the changes, as well as other issues in these quality programs, will be described. Laboratory assessment through quality control and performance evaluation programs will be described, and data assessments in the laboratory and final reporting in the tank characterization reports will be discussed.

  17. Evaluation of cortisol levels in gingival crevicular fluid and saliva in anxious and non-anxious patients with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Sangeeta Umesh; Nayak, Dilip G.; Uppoor, Ashita S.; Pai, K. Keshava

    2013-01-01

    Background: To evaluate gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and salivary cortisol levels in anxious and non-anxious patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 patients with a mean age 43.4 ± 6.12 years were assigned to three groups: Healthy control group (Group 1), group with chronic periodontitis but no anxiety (Group 2) and group with chronic periodontitis and with anxiety (Group 3). State – Trait anxiety inventory and Hamilton Anxiety rating scale were used to assess the anxiety levels of all the subjects. Clinical measures such as plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded. GCF and unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected, and cortisol levels were determined using ELISA kit. Results: PI, GI, PPD, and CAL were higher in Group 3. Hormone level was significantly higher in Group 3. A positive correlation was found among salivary and GCF cortisol and CAL in Group 3. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results individuals with high-levels of anxiety seem to be more prone to have periodontal disease. Salivary and GCF cortisol levels can be used as biomarker for evaluating part of the etiopathogenesis of chronic periodontitis. PMID:24130582

  18. Architecture to Summarize Patient-Level Data Across Borders and Countries.

    PubMed

    Bastião Silva, Luís A; Días, Carlos; van der Lei, Johan; Oliveira, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Translational medicine is becoming fundamental in promoting information flow between basic research and clinical practice, and in improving patients' health. The need for efficient systems to process and share information from multiple sources--including distinct areas of medicine--is a pressing need in biomedical research. Nevertheless, healthcare information systems are fragmented over different databases, medical institutions, and geographical locations. There are already several approaches to tackle this problem based on centralized or distributed solutions. Nonetheless, mainly due to privacy reasons, these models only work for specific silos. In this paper, we present a new ecosystem for connecting database owners and researchers. Our approach consists of gathering, via a common fingerprint, an extensive characterization of dispersed databases. This fingerprint typically contains high-level aggregated information addressing questions at a population level and allowing, for instance, quick identification of databases with data that may help to answer a specific research question. This work is being conducted in the context of EMIF (European Medical Information Framework), an IMI (The Innovative Medicines Initiative) joint undertaking funded project, wherein the Catalogue is being used to collect data from cohorts and Electronic Health Record systems of several European countries. PMID:26262139

  19. Ionization chamber for measurements of high-level tritium gas

    SciTech Connect

    Carstens, D.H.W.; David, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The construction and calibration of a simple ionization-chamber apparatus for measurement of high level tritium gas is described. The apparatus uses an easily constructed but rugged chamber containing the unknown gas and an inexpensive digital multimeter for measuring the ion current. The equipment after calibration is suitable for measuring 0.01 to 100% tritium gas in hydrogen-helium mixes with an accuracy of a few percent. At both the high and low limits of measurements deviations from the predicted theoretical current are observed. These are briefly discussed.

  20. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  1. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  2. Local acceptance of a high-level nuclear waste repository.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Lennart

    2004-06-01

    The siting of nuclear waste facilities has been very difficult in all countries. Recent experience in Sweden indicates, however, that it may be possible, under certain circumstances, to gain local support for the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository. The article reports on a study of attitudes and risk perceptions of people living in four municipalities in Sweden where HLNW siting was being intensely discussed at the political level, in media, and among the public. Data showed a relatively high level of consensus on acceptability of at least further investigation of the issue; in two cases local councils have since voted in favor of a go-ahead, and in one case only a very small majority defeated the issue. Models of policy attitudes showed that these were related to attitude to nuclear power, attributes of the perceived HLNW risk, and trust. Factors responsible for acceptance are discussed at several levels. One is the attitude to nuclear power, which is becoming more positive, probably because no viable alternatives are in sight. Other factors have to do with the extensive information programs conducted in these municipalities, and with the logical nature of the conclusion that they would be good candidates for hosting the national HLNW repository. PMID:15209942

  3. Case for retrievable high-level nuclear waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseboom, Eugene H., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Plans for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository have called for permanently closing and sealing the repository soon after it is filled. However, the hydrologic environment of the proposed site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, should allow the repository to be kept open and the waste retrievable indefinitely. This would allow direct monitoring of the repository and maintain the options for future generations to improve upon the disposal methods or use the uranium in the spent fuel as an energy resource.

  4. Automatic rule generation for high-level vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhee, Frank Chung-Hoon; Krishnapuram, Raghu

    1992-01-01

    Many high-level vision systems use rule-based approaches to solving problems such as autonomous navigation and image understanding. The rules are usually elaborated by experts. However, this procedure may be rather tedious. In this paper, we propose a method to generate such rules automatically from training data. The proposed method is also capable of filtering out irrelevant features and criteria from the rules.

  5. Usefulness of C-Reactive Protein Plasma Levels to Predict Exercise Intolerance in Patients With Chronic Systolic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Canada, Justin McNair; Fronk, Daniel Taylor; Cei, Laura Freeman; Carbone, Salvatore; Erdle, Claudia Oddi; Abouzaki, Nayef Antar; Melchior, Ryan David; Thomas, Christopher Scott; Christopher, Sanah; Turlington, Jeremy Shane; Trankle, Cory Ross; Thurber, Clinton Joseph; Evans, Ronald Kenneth; Dixon, Dave L; Van Tassell, Benjamin Wallace; Arena, Ross; Abbate, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Patients with heart failure (HF) have evidence of chronic systemic inflammation. Whether inflammation contributes to the exercise intolerance in patients with HF is, however, not well established. We hypothesized that the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), an established inflammatory biomarker, predict impaired cardiopulmonary exercise performance, in patients with chronic systolic HF. We measured CRP using high-sensitivity particle-enhanced immunonephelometry in 16 patients with ischemic heart disease (previous myocardial infarction) and chronic systolic HF, defined as a left ventricular ejection fraction ?50% and New York Heart Association class II-III symptoms. All subjects with CRP >2 mg/L, reflecting systemic inflammation, underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing using a symptom-limited ramp protocol. CRP levels predicted shorter exercise times (R = -0.65, p = 0.006), lower oxygen consumption (VO2) at the anaerobic threshold (R = -0.66, p = 0.005), and lower peak VO2 (R = -0.70, p = 0.002), reflecting worse cardiovascular performance. CRP levels also significantly correlated with an elevated ventilation/carbon dioxide production slope (R = +0.64, p = 0.008), a reduced oxygen uptake efficiency slope (R = -0.55, p = 0.026), and reduced end-tidal CO2 level at rest and with exercise (R = -0.759, p = 0.001 and R = -0.739, p = 0.001, respectively), reflecting impaired gas exchange. In conclusion, the intensity of systemic inflammation, measured as CRP plasma levels, is associated with cardiopulmonary exercise performance, in patients with ischemic heart disease and chronic systolic HF. These data provide the rationale for targeted anti-inflammatory treatments in HF. PMID:26546248

  6. Executive functions in kindergarteners with high levels of disruptive behaviours.

    PubMed

    Monette, Sébastien; Bigras, Marc; Guay, Marie-Claude

    2015-11-01

    Executive function (EF) deficits have yet to be demonstrated convincingly in children with disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD), as only a few studies have reported these. The presence of EF weaknesses in children with DBD has often been contested on account of the high comorbidity between DBD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and of methodological shortcomings regarding EF measures. Against this background, the link between EF and disruptive behaviours in kindergarteners was investigated using a carefully selected battery of EF measures. Three groups of kindergarteners were compared: (1) a group combining high levels of disruptive behaviours and ADHD symptoms (COMB); (2) a group presenting high levels of disruptive/aggressive behaviours and low levels of ADHD symptoms (AGG); and (3) a normative group (NOR). Children in the COMB and AGG groups presented weaker inhibition capacities compared with normative peers. Also, only the COMB group showed weaker working memory capacities compared with the NOR group. Results support the idea that preschool children with DBD have weaker inhibition capacities and that this weakness could be common to both ADHD and DBD. PMID:26198079

  7. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government`s system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government`s program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project.

  8. Elevated serum levels of neopterin and soluble interleukin-2 receptor in patients with ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Gadducci, A; Ferdeghini, M; Malagnino, G; Prontera, C; Fanucchi, A; Annicchiarico, C; Bianchi, R; Fioretti, P; Facchini, V

    1994-03-01

    Preoperative serum neopterin, soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), and CA125 levels were assayed in 47 patients with ovarian cancer and 113 patients with benign ovarian disease undergoing laparotomy. The cutoff limits of the antigens for the preoperative evaluation of ovarian cancer were fixed according to the Youden plot, using the patients with benign ovarian disease as controls. These limits were 7.9 nmole/liter for neopterin, 71 U/ml for sIL-2R, and 83 U/ml for CA125. The preoperative mean values of serum neopterin and sIL-2R were significantly higher in patients with ovarian cancer than in those with benign ovarian disease. Therefore these tests would seem to be useful in distinguishing benign from malignant ovarian masses. Serum levels of neopterin, sIL-2R, and CA125 above the cutoff limits were detected in 66.0, 78.7, and 76.6% of patients with ovarian cancer. Patients with advanced-stage disease (FIGO > or = III) were significantly more likely to have a higher percentage of elevated values of sIL-2R and CA125, but not neopterin, compared to patients with early-stage disease. However, neopterin was the antigen most often raised in early disease. As for advanced ovarian cancer, preoperative serum sIL-2R levels were higher in patients who developed progressive disease than in those who were progression-free (P = 0.02) after a median follow-up time of 18 months. Furthermore, a trend to higher preoperative serum neopterin values was found in the former patients (P = 0.08). Tumor progression occurred in 3 of 8 (37.5%) patients with low serum preoperative neopterin (< 7.9 nmole/liter) and in 16 of 19 (84.2%) patients with elevated serum neopterin, respectively (P = 0.027). Multivariate analysis on a larger number of patients followed for a longer time is warranted to elucidate the prognostic relevance of these immunologic markers in ovarian cancer. Changes in serum neopterin, sIL-2R, and CA125 levels correlated with the disease course in 50.0, 54.8, and 92.9% of 42 instances, respectively. Moreover, serum CA125 was more sensitive than the other two antigens in the early detection of tumor progression. Therefore serial neopterin and sIL-2R measurements seem to be of limited value in monitoring the disease course in patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:8157196

  9. Elevated Galectin-3 Levels in the Serum of Patients With Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuexin; Zhang, Shuping; Lin, Faliang; Chu, Wenzheng; Yue, Shouwei

    2015-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is characterized by a conserved sequence within the carbohydrate recognition domain. The effect of Gal-3 in AD is presently unknown. In this study, we found significantly increased Gal-3 serum levels in patients with AD compared to control participants (P = .017). There was no significant difference between patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy controls (P = .143) or between patients with AD and MCI (P = .688). The degree of cognitive impairment, as measured by the Mini-Mental Status Examination score, was found to have a significant correlation with the Gal-3 serum levels in all patients and healthy controls. These data suggest that Gal-3 potentially plays a role in the neuropathogenesis of AD. The Gal-3 found in serum could be a potential candidate for a biomarker panel for AD diagnosis. PMID:23823143

  10. MDC/CCL22 intrathecal levels in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Galimberti, D; Fenoglio, C; Comi, C; Scalabrini, D; De Riz, M; Leone, M; Venturelli, E; Cortini, F; Piola, M; Monaco, F; Bresolin, N; Scarpini, E

    2008-05-01

    MDC/CCL22 has been detected in the brain of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. MDC/CCL22 cerebrospinal fluid levels were evaluated in 56 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and in 17 controls. No significant differences were found, even when stratifying patients according to the disease subtype. Stratifying by gender, significantly increased MDC/CCL22 levels were observed in female patients when compared with female controls and male patients (109.03 versus 98.54 and 99.37 pg/mL, P = 0.034 and 0.018, respectively). Therefore, MDC/CCL22 is likely to play a role in the development of MS in females only, possibly influencing the intracerebral recruitment of Th2 cells, which produce anti-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:18208895

  11. Adaptive user interfaces for relating high-level concepts to low-level photographic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Edward; Madhawa Silva, Pubudu; Pardo, Bryan; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.

    2011-03-01

    Common controls for photographic editing can be difficult to use and have a significant learning curve. Often, a user does not know a direct mapping from a high-level concept (such as "soft") to the available parameters or controls. In addition, many concepts are subjective in nature, and the appropriate mapping may vary from user to user. To overcome these problems, we propose a system that can quickly learn a mapping from a high-level subjective concept onto low- level image controls using machine learning techniques. To learn such a concept, the system shows the user a series of training images that are generated by modifying a seed image along different dimensions (e.g., color, sharpness), and collects the user ratings of how well each training image matches the concept. Since it is known precisely how each modified example is different from the original, the system can determine the correlation between the user ratings and the image parameters to generate a controller tailored to the concept for the given user. The end result - a personalized image controller - is applicable to a variety of concepts. We have demonstrated the utility of this approach to relate low-level parameters, such as color balance and sharpness, to simple concepts, such as "lightness" and "crispness," as well as more complex and subjective concepts, such as "pleasantness." We have also applied the proposed approach to relate subband statistics (variance) to perceived roughness of visual textures (from the CUReT database).

  12. Selenium levels in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and controls in lower Austria.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, I; Hartmann, T; Brustbauer, R; Minear, G; Dam, K

    2014-09-01

    Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases; genetic as well as environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis. The thyroid is the organ with the highest selenium content per unit weight. Selenium status appears to have an impact on the development of thyroid pathologies. We investigated a possible difference of selenium serum levels as a marker of nutritional selenium supply between patients with AIT in central Lower Austria and a matched group of healthy persons living in the same region. Selenium serum levels in the patients with AIT were 98.0 ± 15.6??g/l. A significant difference to the matched group of normal persons, whose selenium serum levels were 103.2 ± 12.4 ?g/l, could not be detected by the t-test (p>0.05). We considered the serum selenium levels to be indicators of selenium supply (by alimentation). A serum level of 120-160 ?g/l of selenium represents the normal range. According to this, most patients and control persons showed mild to moderate selenium deficiency (80-120 ?g/l selenium). Although our data present slightly higher selenium levels in normal persons than in patients with AIT, this weak and statistically insignificant trend is not sufficient to support the conclusion of a link between inadequate selenium supply and autoimmune thyroid disease. PMID:24977659

  13. Introducing patient perspective in health technology assessment at the local level

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Lepage-Savary, Dolorès; Gagnon, Johanne; St-Pierre, Michèle; Simard, Chantale; Rhainds, Marc; Lemieux, Renald; Gauvin, François-Pierre; Desmartis, Marie; Légaré, France

    2009-01-01

    Background Recognizing the importance of increased patient participation in healthcare decisions leads decision makers to consider effective ways to incorporate patient perspectives in Health Technology Assessment (HTA) processes. The implementation of local health HTA units in university hospitals in Quebec provides a unique opportunity to foster an increased participation of patients in decisions regarding health technologies and clinical interventions. This project explores strategies that could be effective in involving patients in HTA activities at the local level. To do so, three objectives are pursued: 1) To synthesise international knowledge and experiences on patient and public involvement in HTA activities; 2) To explore the perceptions of stakeholders (administrators, clinical managers, healthcare professionals, HTA producers, and patients) regarding strategies for involving patients in various HTA activities; and 3) To produce a consensual strategic framework that could guide interventions for involving patients in HTA activities at the local level. Methods A systematic review of the literature will be conducted to synthesise international knowledge and experiments regarding the implication of patients and public in HTA. Then, focus groups will be carried out with representatives of various stakeholder groups in order to explore their perceptions regarding patient participation in HTA. Based on findings from the systematic review and the focus groups, a framework to support patient participation in HTA activities will be proposed. It will then be validated during a deliberative meeting with the research team, composed of scientists and decision makers, and representatives from different groups involved in HTA in Quebec. This deliberative meeting will aim at identifying the type and the degree of participation as well as the adequate timing for involving patients in local HTA activities. Discussion Given the actual state of evidence, integrating patient perspective in HTA activities has the potential to improve the quality of healthcare services. This study provides an opportunity to bridge the gap between HTA producers and its ultimate end-user: the patient. It will provide guidance to support local HTA units in Quebec and elsewhere in their decisions regarding patient participation. The framework developed could be applied to design and implement strategies for involving patients in HTA activities. PMID:19327160

  14. Elevated plasma levels of TIMP-1 in patients with rotator cuff tear

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Extracellular matrix remodeling is altered in rotator cuff tears, partly due to altered expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors. It is unclear whether this altered expression can be traced as changes in plasma protein levels. We measured the plasma levels of MMPs and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) in patients with rotator cuff tears and related changes in the pattern of MMP and TIMP levels to the extent of the rotator cuff tear. Methods Blood samples were collected from 17 patients, median age 61 (39–77) years, with sonographically verified rotator cuff tears (partial- or full-thickness). These were compared with 16 age- and sex-matched control individuals with sonographically intact rotator cuffs. Plasma levels of MMPs and TIMPs were measured simultaneously using Luminex technology and ELISA. Results The plasma levels of TIMP-1 were elevated in patients with rotator cuff tears, especially in those with full-thickness tears. The levels of TIMP-1, TIMP-3, and MMP-9 were higher in patients with full-thickness tears than in those with partial-thickness tears, but only the TIMP-1 levels were significantly different from those in the controls. Interpretation The observed elevation of TIMP-1 in plasma might reflect local pathological processes in or around the rotator cuff, or a genetic predisposition in these patients. That the levels of TIMP-1 and of certain MMPs were found to differ significantly between partial and full-thickness tears may reflect the extent of the lesion or different etiology and pathomechanisms. PMID:23043271

  15. The association between plasma thiol levels and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patient with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Erkus, Musluhittin Emre; Altiparmak, Ibrahim Halil; Akyuz, Ali Riza; Demirbag, Recep; Sezen, Yusuf; Gunebakmaz, Ozgur; Neselioglu, Salim; Erel, Ozcan

    2015-12-01

    The balance of oxidant and antioxidant status plays an important role in the left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) in patients with hypertension (HT). Thiol is an important part of antioxidant system in the body. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma thiol levels and LVDD in patients with HT. A total of 138 patients with newly diagnosed essential hypertensive and 20 age-gender matched subjects as control group enrolled in the study. After echocardiographic assessment, the hypertensive patients were divided into three groups: Group 1: without LVDD (n = 41); group 2: with LVDD grade 1 (n = 57); and group 3: with LVDD grade 2 (n = 40). Plasma thiol, lipid and glucose levels were measured in all subjects. Plasma thiol levels were significantly different between the groups (all of p < 0.05). While the lowest thiol level was in the group 3, the highest level was in the control group. The presence of LVDD was correlated with age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, thiol levels, and history of coronary artery disease and hyperlipidemia (all of p < 0.05). Age and thiol were however independent predictors of LVDD in multivariate analyses (? = 0.318, p < 0.001, and ? = - 0.314, p < 0.001, respectively). ROC-curve analysis revealed that thiol levels over 163 ?mol/L predict LVDD in hypertensive patients with 75% sensitivity and 70% specificity (AUC = 0.783; 95% CI: 0.714-0.852). Plasma thiol is an independent predictor for the presence of LVDD. This suggests that thiol plays a role in the pathogenesis of diastolic function. Increased thiol levels may provide protection against the development of diastolic dysfunction. PMID:26252832

  16. Variations in levels of care between nursing home patients in a public health care system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Within the setting of a public health service we analyse the distribution of resources between individuals in nursing homes funded by global budgets. Three questions are pursued. Firstly, whether there are systematic variations between nursing homes in the level of care given to patients. Secondly, whether such variations can be explained by nursing home characteristics. And thirdly, how individual need-related variables are associated with differences in the level of care given. Methods The study included 1204 residents in 35 nursing homes and extra care sheltered housing facilities. Direct time spent with patients was recorded. In average each patient received 14.8 hours direct care each week. Multilevel regression analysis is used to analyse the relationship between individual characteristics, nursing home characteristics and time spent with patients in nursing homes. The study setting is the city of Trondheim, with a population of approximately 180 000. Results There are large variations between nursing homes in the total amount of individual care given to patients. As much as 24 percent of the variation of individual care between patients could be explained by variation between nursing homes. Adjusting for structural nursing home characteristics did not substantially reduce the variation between nursing homes. As expected a negative association was found between individual care and case-mix, implying that at nursing home level a more resource demanding case-mix is compensated by lowering the average amount of care. At individual level ADL-disability is the strongest predictor for use of resources in nursing homes. For the average user one point increase in ADL-disability increases the use of resources with 27 percent. Conclusion In a financial reimbursement model for nursing homes with no adjustment for case-mix, the amount of care patients receive does not solely depend on the patients’ own needs, but also on the needs of all the other residents. PMID:24597468

  17. Effects of fluticasone propionate inhalation on levels of arachidonic acid metabolites in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Verhoeven, G T; Garrelds, I M; Hoogsteden, H C; Zijlstra, F J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In smoking COPD patients the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid contains high numbers of inflammatory cells. These cells might produce arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites, which contribute to inflammation and an increased bronchomotor tone. AIMS: To investigate levels of AA metabolites in BAL fluid, before and after inhaled glucocorticoid therapy: fluticasone propionate (FP) 1 mg per day, or placebo. METHODS: A double-blind placebo controlled trial lasting six months. COPD patients were selected by clinical criteria and the presence of bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR). Lung function was recorded and in BAL fluid we counted cell numbers and measured LTB4, LTC4/D4/E4, PGE2, 6kPGF1alpha, PGF2alpha and TxB2. A control group consisted of asymptomatic smokers (n=6). RESULTS: Paired data were obtained from 9 FP treated and 11 placebo patients. BAL cells were almost exclusively alveolar macrophages. In patients and controls both cellularity and levels of AA metabolites were equal Cell numbers did not change after treatment. Statistically significant decreases after FP therapy were noticed for PGE2 (30%), 6kPGF1alpha (41%) and PGF2alpha (54%). CONCLUSIONS: In COPD, the capability of inflammatory cells to produce certain AA metabolites was decreased after inhaled FP treatment. This result is discussed in its relation to clinical effects, the influence of smoking, and the results of an earlier, similar study in asthma patients. PMID:11324900

  18. Phototherapeutic hardening modulates systemic cytokine levels in patients with polymorphic light eruption.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Peter; Gruber-Wackernagel, Alexandra; Rinner, Beate; Griesbacher, Antonia; Eberhard, Katharina; Groselj-Strele, Andrea; Mayer, Gerlinde; Stauber, Rudolf E; Byrne, Scott N

    2013-01-01

    The etiopathogenesis of polymorphic light eruption (PLE) has been linked to impaired UV-immunosuppression, Langerhans cell (LC) retention, and an absence of neutrophil infiltration into UV-exposed PLE skin. We have previously shown that photohardening restores the impaired neutrophil responsiveness to the chemoattractants leucotriene B4 and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanin in PLE patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether photohardening modulates baseline chemokine and cytokine levels which would alter chemoresponsiveness and hence immune function in PLE patients. Sixteen PLE patients received photohardening therapy for 4-9 weeks by 311 nm UVB. Plasma samples were taken both before and within 48 h of the penultimate phototherapeutic exposure. Plasma from these 16 patients, 8 non-irradiated PLE patients, and 14 control subjects was analyzed for IL-1?, CXCL8 (IL-8), IL-10, IL-17, TNF, CCL2 (MCP-1), CCL5 (RANTES), CCL11 (eotaxin), and CCL22 (MDC). These cytokines and chemokines were measured in early spring (March to April) and again in late spring (April to June). PLE patients had a significantly elevated level of CCL11 (p = 0.003) and IL-1? (p = 0.002) in early spring (before phototherapy). In late spring, after phototherapy, PLE patients had significantly elevated CCL2 (p = 0.002) and TNF (p = 0.002) but a trend for lowered plasma levels of CXCL8 (p = 0.021). When comparing the cytokine shifts from early to late spring, while healthy controls and non-UV-irradiated PLE patients showed an increase, PLE patients undergoing photohardening exhibited a trend for decrease in IL-1? (p = 0.012). Taken together, our results indicate that photohardening may alter the complex cytokine milieu in PLE, in particular via IL-1?, helping to normalise the pathophysiologic response to subsequent UV exposure. PMID:22949107

  19. Permissive and Non-permissive Hypercapnia: Mechanisms of Action and Consequences of High Carbon Dioxide Levels

    PubMed Central

    Briva, Arturo; Lecuona, Emilia; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury is a disease with high mortality, which affects a large numbers of patients whose treatment continues to be debated. It has recently been postulated that hypercapnia can attenuate the inflammatory response during lung injury, which would assign it a specific role within lung protection strategies during mechanical ventilation. In this paper, we review current evidence on the role that high levels of CO2 in the blood play in lung injury. We conclude that, although there are reports that show benefits, the most recent evidence suggests that hypercapnia can be harmful and can contribute to worsening lung damage. PMID:20303638

  20. Effect of Exercise Intervention on Changes in Free Fatty Acid Levels and Metabolic Risk Factors in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Young; Jung, Sun-Young; Seo, Byoung-Do

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated the effects of regular exercise on the improvement of free fatty acid (FFA) levels and metabolic risk factors of stroke patients. [Methods] The subjects were 20 male patients aged 47?59?years who were diagnosed as having hemiplegia resulting from stroke. Exercise was conducted using a stationary bicycle, a rehabilitative exercise machine. The exercise program utilized the heart rate reserve (HRR) method to create an exercise intensity amounting to 50?70% of the target heart rate (THR). The program lasted for 30 minutes and was conducted 5 times per week for a total of 12 weeks. [Results] In stroke patients, 12 weeks of exercise training yielded a significant interaction effect with weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). There were also significant differences in triglycerides (TG) according to the time of measurement, and an interaction effect was observed for triglycerides (TC). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), an important marker of improvement in metabolic risk factors, showed a significant interaction effect with exercise training. In addition, free fatty acids (FFA) showed a significant difference based on the time of measurement and showed a significant negative correlation with HDLC (r = ?0.77). [Conclusion] The results of the present study suggest that regular exercise by stroke patients reduces their risk of metabolic complications and stroke recurrence by reducing obesity indices, improving serum lipid and FFA levels, and increasing HDLC levels. PMID:24648648

  1. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 levels are increased in patients with IgA nephropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, Koki; Uto, Hirofumi; Takami, Yoichiro; Mera, Kumiko; Nishida, Chika; Yoshimine, Yozo; Fukumoto, Mayumi; Oku, Manei; Sogabe, Atsushi; Nosaki, Tsuyoshi; Moriuchi, Akihiro; Oketani, Makoto; Ido, Akio; Tsubouchi, Hirohito

    2010-08-20

    Research highlights: {yields} IGFBP-1 mRNA over express in kidneys obtained from mice model of IgA nephropathy. {yields} Serum IGFBP-1 levels are high in patients with IgA nephropathy. {yields} Serum IGFBP-1 levels correlate with renal function and the severity of renal injury. -- Abstract: The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) are not well understood. In this study, we examined gene expression profiles in kidneys obtained from mice with high serum IgA levels (HIGA mice), which exhibit features of human IgAN. Female inbred HIGA, established from the ddY line, were used in these experiments. Serum IgA levels, renal IgA deposition, mesangial proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis were increased in 32-week-old HIGA mice in comparison to ddY animals. By microarray analysis, five genes were observed to be increased by more than 2.5-fold in 32-week-old HIGA in comparison to 16-week-old HIGA; these same five genes were decreased more than 2.5-fold in 32-week-old ddY in comparison to 16-week-old ddY mice. Of these five genes, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein (IGFBP)-1 exhibited differential expression between these mouse lines, as confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, serum IGFBP-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with IgAN than in healthy controls. In patients with IgAN, these levels correlated with measures of renal function, such as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), but not with sex, age, serum IgA, C3 levels, or IGF-1 levels. Pathologically, serum IGFBP-1 levels were significantly associated with the severity of renal injury, as assessed by mesangial cell proliferation and interstitial fibrosis. These results suggest that increased IGFBP-1 levels are associated with the severity of renal pathology in patients with IgAN.

  2. Socio-Economic Factors, Food Habits and Phosphorus Levels in Patients on Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Domenico; Ingegnieri, Maria Teresa; Vita, Giuseppe; Lucisano, Silvia; Zuppardo, Carmelo; Canale, Valeria; Savica, Vincenzo; Buemi, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hyperphosphoremia is one of the most important risk factors for morbidity and mortality for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and also, for the general population. Excessive dietary intake of phosphate (P) is one of the key factors. In particular, P in its inorganic form, which is contained in food additives, is more readily absorbed. Unfortunately, these food additives are mostly present in convenience so called “fast foods” (pre-cooked), soft drinks, which represent the typical food consumed by our hemodialysis (HD) population, composed by elderly people, mostly low-socio economic class, who often live alone. Objectives: We performed an observational retrospective multicenter study to find any association between social, cultural and economic situation, as well as food habits, and P levels in a cohort of patients on HD. Secondarily; we also examined the association between the fast food consumption and increased P levels, as well as patient compliance for P binding products. Patients and Methods: To explore the association between socio-economic factors and serum P levels, we enrolled 100 patients on periodic HD treatment from three different units. Information on social, cultural, economic, diet habits, therapy for hyperphosphoremia and hematological and clinical parameters had been collected through specific questionnaires, administered by a physician. Results: Results showed serum P level was reduced in patients who live alone compared to patients in family (P = 0.04), in self-sufficient (P = 0.05) and in patients belonging to middle-upper class, versus low-class (P = 0.003). Fast foods intake correlates with increase in P serum levels (P = 0.002), whilst the same correlation was not found for cheese intake. Our data show that socio-economic status and food habits are useful predictors of P serum levels. Conclusions: In conclusion, dietary counseling of patients on HD is mandatory. Interventions that consider the socio-economic situation allow delivering important messages on foods with the least amount of P and adequate protein content, and they may be a successful strategy in targeting patients at a higher risk of hyperphosphoremia. PMID:26539414

  3. Second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors prevent disease progression in high-risk (high CIP2A) chronic myeloid leukaemia patients.

    PubMed

    Lucas, C M; Harris, R J; Holcroft, A K; Scott, L J; Carmell, N; McDonald, E; Polydoros, F; Clark, R E

    2015-07-01

    High cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) protein levels at diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) are predictive of disease progression in imatinib-treated patients. It is not known whether this is true in patients treated with second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (2G TKI) from diagnosis, and whether 2G TKIs modulate the CIP2A pathway. Here, we show that patients with high diagnostic CIP2A levels who receive a 2G TKI do not progress, unlike those treated with imatinib (P=<0.0001). 2G TKIs induce more potent suppression of CIP2A and c-Myc than imatinib. The transcription factor E2F1 is elevated in high CIP2A patients and following 1 month of in vivo treatment 2G TKIs suppress E2F1 and reduce CIP2A; these effects are not seen with imatinib. Silencing of CIP2A, c-Myc or E2F1 in K562 cells or CML CD34+ cells reactivates PP2A leading to BCR-ABL suppression. CIP2A increases proliferation and this is only reduced by 2G TKIs. Patients with high CIP2A levels should be offered 2G TKI treatment in preference to imatinib. 2G TKIs disrupt the CIP2A/c-Myc/E2F1 positive feedback loop, leading to lower disease progression risk. The data supports the view that CIP2A inhibits PP2Ac, stabilising E2F1, creating a CIP2A/c-Myc/E2F1 positive feedback loop, which imatinib cannot overcome. PMID:25765543

  4. Long-term high-dose cholecalciferol in patients with heavy proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Singer, Richard F

    2011-10-01

    Four patients presenting with heavy proteinuria, vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism were treated with cholecalciferol for 1.5-3 years. Doses of 7143-14286 U/day were necessary to achieve the calcidiol target of >75 nmol/L. The effect of dosing on calcidiol levels was inconsistent and there was no apparent relationship between changing calcidiol levels and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Toxicity was not observed. This series suggests high doses of cholecalciferol over a prolonged period of time are necessary to achieve recommended calcidiol levels; however, the lack of an impact on PTH casts doubt on the suitability of the calcidiol target, in patients with heavy proteinuria. PMID:25984177

  5. Radiative Lifetimes for High Levels of Neutral Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, E.; Guzman, A.

    2013-01-01

    New radiative lifetime measurements for ~ 50 high lying levels of Fe I are reported. Laboratory astrophysics faces a challenge to provide basic spectroscopic data, especially reliable atomic transition probabilities, in the IR region for abundance studies. The availability of HgCdTe (HAWAII) detector arrays has opened IR spectral regions for extensive new spectroscopic studies. The SDSS III APOGEE project in the H-Band is an important example which will penetrate the dust obscuring the Galactic bulge. APOGEE will survey elemental abundances of 100,000 red giant stars in the bulge, bar, disk, and halo of the Milky Way. Many stellar spectra in the H-Band are, as expected, dominated by transitions of Fe I. Most of these IR transitions connect high levels of Fe. Our program has started an effort to meet this challenge with new radiative lifetime measurements on high lying levels of Fe I using time resolved laser induced fluorescence (TRLIF). The TRLIF method is typically accurate to 5% and is efficient. Our goal is to combine these accurate, absolute radiative lifetimes with emission branching fractions [1] to determine log(gf) values of the highest quality for Fe I lines in the UV, visible, and IR. This method was used very successfully by O’Brian et al. [2] on lower levels of Fe I. This method is still the best available for all but very simple spectra for which ab-initio theory is more accurate. Supported by NSF grant AST-0907732. [1] Branching fractions are being measured by M. Ruffoni and J. C. Pickering at Imperial College London. [2] O'Brian, T. R., Wickliffe, M. E., Lawler, J. E., Whaling, W., & Brault, J. W. 1991, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1185

  6. Serum galectin-9 levels are elevated in the patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Galectin-9 (Gal-9) induces apoptosis in activated T helper 1 (TH1) cells as a ligand for T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3). Gal-9 also inhibits the G1 phase cell cycle arrest and hypertrophy in db/db mice, the hallmark of early diabetic nephropathy, by reversing the high glucose-induced up-regulation of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors such as p27Kip1 and p21Cip1. Methods We investigated the serum levels of Gal-9 in the patients with type 2 diabetes and various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (n=182). Results Serum Gal-9 levels in the patients with type 2 diabetes were 131.9 ± 105.4 pg/ml and Log10Gal-9 levels significantly and positively correlated with age (r=0.227, p=0.002), creatinine (r=0.175, p=0.018), urea nitrogen (r=0.162, p=0.028) and osmotic pressure (r=0.187, p=0.014) and negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (r=?0.188, p=0.011). Log10Gal-9 levels increased along with the progression of GFR categories of G1 to G4, and they were statistically significant by Jonckheere-Terpstra test (p=0.012). Log10Gal-9 levels remained similar levels in albuminuria stages of A1 to A3. Conclusion The elevation of serum Gal-9 in the patients with type 2 diabetes is closely linked to GFR and they may be related to the alteration of the immune response and inflammation of the patients with type 2 diabetes and CKD. PMID:23339460

  7. Serum Nogo-A levels are not elevated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Harel, Noam Y; Cudkowicz, Merit E; Brown, Robert H; Strittmatter, Stephen M

    2009-09-01

    Improved biomarkers would facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Muscle content of the neuritic outgrowth inhibitor Nogo-A is increased in patients with ALS and other denervating conditions. Seeking a less invasive diagnostic method, we sought to determine whether or not Nogo increases in the serum of ALS patients. We developed a dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassay (DELFIA) protocol to screen serum samples from 172 ALS patients and 172 healthy controls for Nogo-A immunoreactivity. Unexpectedly, there was a trend toward decreased levels of serum Nogo-A in ALS. Mean serum Nogo-A level in ALS patients was 0.71 nM (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42-1.00), as opposed to 1.15 nM (95% CI 0.72-1.59) in healthy controls. A significantly larger percentage of healthy control sera (11.0% vs 4.7%) displayed markedly elevated levels of Nogo-A. Additional study is required to determine the factors that lead to elevated Nogo-A levels in a subset of both ALS patients and healthy controls. PMID:19548774

  8. Serum resistin levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qing; Tao, Sha-Sha; Zhang, Yu-Jing; Zhang, Chao; Li, Lian-Ju; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Meng-Qin; Li, Peng; Pan, Hai-Feng; Mao, Chen; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate whether serum resistin level was associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by comparing serum resistin levels between RA or SLE patients and normal controls. PubMed and EMBASE databases (up to May 13, 2014) were used to search all related articles. The weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated using random-effect model analysis. The Cochrane Q test and I (2) statistic were used to test heterogeneity. To assess publication bias, the Egger's test and visual observation of a funnel plot were used. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess the study quality. The STATA statistical software (version 11.0) was applied to deal with statistical data. A total of eight studies of RA including 620 patients and 460 healthy controls, and six studies of SLE including 559 patients and 430 healthy controls were finally included in the meta-analysis. The results revealed that the serum resistin levels in RA were significantly higher than those in normal controls (WMD?=?0.767 ng/ml, 95 % CI?=?0.114-1.419, P?=?0.021), but there was no significant difference between SLE patients and normal controls (WMD?=?2.771 ng/ml, 95 % CI?=?-0.521-6.063, P?=?0.099). Publication bias was undetected. In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicate that serum resistin level was significantly elevated in RA patients. PMID:25935455

  9. Serum testosterone and gonadotropins levels in patients with premature ejaculation: A comparison with normal men

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni, Mohammad G.; Hosseini, Seyed Reza; Alizadeh, Farshid; Rangzan, Nazir

    2014-01-01

    Background: To investigate the role of testosterone (T) in the pathogenesis of ejaculatory symptoms, particularly premature ejaculation (PE). Materials and Methods: A total of 41 male patients with PE as well as 41 controls with no sexual dysfunction were recruited in this cross-sectional study. We used the stopwatch measurement to monitor the intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). Patients with mean IELT values lower than 60 s were considered to have PE. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) were measured in patients as well as controls. Patients with thyroid dysfunction, hypogonadism, hypertension and dyslipidemia were excluded from the study. Results: The serum levels of FT and FSH were significantly higher in cases (P = 0.036 and 0.003, respectively). There was no significant difference between TT, LH and PRL levels of the two groups. Conclusion: Patients with PE have higher FT and FSH levels compared with normal men. The causative relationship between these entities and also the clinical importance of this finding has to be determined by more comprehensive studies. PMID:24592360

  10. Exceptionally high levels of multiple mating in an army ant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, A. Jay; Franks, Nigel R.; Powell, Scott; Edwards, Keith J.

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, although there are notable exceptions. Competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of high levels of multiple mating, but this issue is far from resolved. Here we use microsatellites to investigate mating frequency in the army ant Eciton burchellii and show that queens mate with an exceptionally large number of males, eclipsing all but one other social insect species for which data are available. In addition we present evidence that suggests that mating is serial, continuing throughout the lifetime of the queen. This is the first demonstration of serial mating among social hymenoptera. We propose that high paternity within colonies is most likely to have evolved to increase genetic diversity and to counter high pathogen and parasite loads.

  11. ALICE: Project Overview and High Level Science Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soummer, Remi; Choquet, Elodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Brendan Hagan, J.; Gofas-Salas, Elena; Rajan, Abhijith; Perrin, Marshall D.; Chen, Christine; Debes, John H.; Golimowski, David A.; Hines, Dean C.; Schneider, Glenn; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Mawet, Dimitri; Marois, Christian; Barman, Travis

    2015-01-01

    We report on the status of the ALICE project (Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments), which consists in a consistent reanalysis of the entire HST-NICMOS coronagraphic archive. Over the last two years, we have developed a sophisticated pipeline able to handle the data of the 400 stars of the archive. This pipeline builds on the Karhunen-Loeve Image Projection (KLIP) algorithm, and was completed in the fall of 2014. We discuss the first processing and analysis results of the overall reduction campaign. As we will deliver high-level science products to the STScI MAST archive, we are defining a new standard format for high-contrast science products, which will be compatible with every new high-contrast imaging instrument (GPI, SPHERE, P1640, CHARIS, etc.) and used by the JWST coronagraphs. We present here the specifications of this standard.

  12. Reduced levels of S-nitrosothiols in plasma of patients with systemic sclerosis and Raynaud's phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Devi; Abraham, David; Black, Carol M.; Denton, Christopher P.; Bruckdorfer, K. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objective S-Nitrosothiols (RSNOs) are bioactive forms of nitric oxide which are involved in cell signalling and redox regulation of vascular function. Circulating S-nitrosothiols are predominantly in the form of S-nitrosoalbumin. In this study plasma concentrations of S-nitrosothiols were measured in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) where NO metabolism is known to be abnormal. Patients and methods Venous blood was collected from 16 patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), 45 with systemic sclerosis (SSc) (34 patients had limited SSc (IcSSc) and 11 diffuse cutaneous disease (dcSSc)). Twenty six healthy subjects were used as controls. Plasma S-nitrosothiol concentrations were measured by chemiluminescence. The measurements were related to the extent of biological age, capillary/skin scores and disease duration. Results Plasma RSNO levels in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) and in those with SSc was significantly lower compared to the concentrations in control subjects. In SSc, plasma S-nitrosothiols were often below the level of detection (1nM). Conclusions Low S-nitrosothiol concentrations were observed in the blood of patients with SSc and patients with RP indicating a profound disturbance of nitric oxide metabolism. PMID:25446164

  13. Does Airway Surgery Lower Serum Lipid Levels in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients? A Retrospective Case Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Zhan, Xiaojun; Wang, Ningyu; Pinto, Jayant Marian; Ge, Xiaohui; Wang, Chunyan; Tian, Jun; Wei, Yongxiang

    2014-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is tightly linked to increased cardiovascular disease. Surgery is an important method to treat OSA, but its effect on serum lipid levels in OSA patients is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effect of upper airway surgery on lipid profiles. Material/Methods We performed a retrospective review of 113 adult patients with OSA who underwent surgery (nasal or uvulopalatopharyngoplasty [UPPP]) at a major, urban, academic hospital in Beijing from 2012 to 2013 who had preoperative and postoperative serum lipid profiles. Results Serum TC (4.86±0.74 to 4.69±0.71) and LP(a) (median 18.50 to 10.90) all decreased significantly post-operatively (P<0.01, 0.01, respectively), with no changes in serum HDL, LDL, or TG (P>0.05, all). For UPPP patients (n=51), serum TC, HDL and LP(a) improved (P=0.01, 0.01,<0.01, respectively). For nasal patients (n=62), only the serum LP(a) decreased (P<0.01). In patients with normal serum lipids at baseline, only serum LP(a) decreased (P<0.01). In contrast, in patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia, the serum HDL, TG and LP(a) showed significant improvements (P=0.02, 0.03, <0.01, respectively). In patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia, the serum LP(a) decreased significantly (P=0.01), with a similar trend for serum TC (P=0.06). In patients with mixed hyperlipidemia, the serum TC and LDL also decreased (P=0.02, 0.03, respectively). Conclusions Surgery may improve blood lipid levels in patients with OSA, especially in patients with preoperative dyslipidemia, potentially yielding a major benefit in metabolism and cardiovascular sequelae. Prospective studies should examine this potential metabolic effect of airway surgery for OSA. PMID:25503376

  14. Clinical and Microbiological Factors Associated with High Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Density in Patients with Pneumococcal Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Alpkvist, Helena; Athlin, Simon; Nauclér, Pontus; Herrmann, Björn; Abdeldaim, Guma; Slotved, Hans-Christian; Hedlund, Jonas; Strålin, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to study if certain clinical and/or microbiological factors are associated with a high nasopharyngeal (NP) density of Streptococcus pneumoniae in pneumococcal pneumonia. In addition, we aimed to study if a high NP pneumococcal density could be useful to detect severe pneumococcal pneumonia. Methods Adult patients hospitalized for radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia were included in a prospective study. NP aspirates were collected at admission and were subjected to quantitative PCR for pneumococcal DNA (Spn9802 DNA). Patients were considered to have pneumococcal etiology if S. pneumoniae was detected in blood culture and/or culture of respiratory secretions and/or urinary antigen test. Results Of 166 included patients, 68 patients had pneumococcal DNA detected in NP aspirate. Pneumococcal etiology was noted in 57 patients (84%) with positive and 8 patients (8.2%) with negative test for pneumococcal DNA (p<0.0001). The median NP pneumococcal density of DNA positive patients with pneumococcal etiology was 6.83 log10 DNA copies/mL (range 1.79–9.50). In a multivariate analysis of patients with pneumococcal etiology, a high pneumococcal density was independently associated with severe pneumonia (Pneumonia Severity Index risk class IV-V), symptom duration ?2 days prior to admission, and a medium/high serum immunoglobulin titer against the patient’s own pneumococcal serotype. NP pneumococcal density was not associated with sex, age, smoking, co-morbidity, viral co-infection, pneumococcal serotype, or bacteremia. Severe pneumococcal pneumonia was noted in 28 study patients. When we studied the performance of PCR with different DNA cut-off levels for detection of severe pneumococcal pneumonia, we found sensitivities of 54–82% and positive predictive values of 37–56%, indicating suboptimal performance. Conclusions Pneumonia severity, symptom duration ?2 days, and a medium/high serum immunoglobulin titer against the patient’s own serotype were independently associated with a high NP pneumococcal density. NP pneumococcal density has limited value for detection of severe pneumococcal pneumonia. PMID:26466142

  15. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine levels in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Türksoy, Nuray; Bilici, Rabia; Yalç?ner, Altan; Özdemir, Y Özay; Örnek, Ibrahim; Tufan, Ali Evren; Kara, Ay?e

    2014-01-01

    It is known that elevated serum homocysteine, decreased folate, and low vitamin B12 serum levels are associated with poor cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. Current literature shows that some psychiatric disorders, mainly affective and psychotic ones, can be related to the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine. These results can be explained by the importance of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in carbon transfer metabolism (methylation), which is required for the production of serotonin as well as for other monoamine neurotransmitters and catecholamines. Earlier studies focused on the relationship between folate deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and depressive disorders. Although depressive and anxiety disorders show a common comorbidity pattern, there are few studies addressing the effect of impaired one-carbon metabolism in anxiety disorders – especially in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). This study aimed to measure the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine specifically in order to see if eventual alterations have an etiopathogenetic significance on patients with OCD. Serum vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine concentrations were measured in 35 patients with OCD and 22 controls. In addition, the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety were conducted for each patient. It was found that vitamin B12 levels were decreased and homocysteine levels were increased in some OCD patients. Homocysteine levels were positively correlated with Yale–Brown compulsion and Yale–Brown total scores. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that some OCD patients might have vitamin B12 deficiency and higher homocysteine levels. PMID:25228807

  16. Vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine levels in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Türksoy, Nuray; Bilici, Rabia; Yalç?ner, Altan; Ozdemir, Y Özay; Ornek, Ibrahim; Tufan, Ali Evren; Kara, Ay?e

    2014-01-01

    It is known that elevated serum homocysteine, decreased folate, and low vitamin B12 serum levels are associated with poor cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. Current literature shows that some psychiatric disorders, mainly affective and psychotic ones, can be related to the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine. These results can be explained by the importance of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine in carbon transfer metabolism (methylation), which is required for the production of serotonin as well as for other monoamine neurotransmitters and catecholamines. Earlier studies focused on the relationship between folate deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and depressive disorders. Although depressive and anxiety disorders show a common comorbidity pattern, there are few studies addressing the effect of impaired one-carbon metabolism in anxiety disorders - especially in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study aimed to measure the levels of vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine specifically in order to see if eventual alterations have an etiopathogenetic significance on patients with OCD. Serum vitamin B12, folate, and homocysteine concentrations were measured in 35 patients with OCD and 22 controls. In addition, the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety were conducted for each patient. It was found that vitamin B12 levels were decreased and homocysteine levels were increased in some OCD patients. Homocysteine levels were positively correlated with Yale-Brown compulsion and Yale-Brown total scores. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that some OCD patients might have vitamin B12 deficiency and higher homocysteine levels. PMID:25228807

  17. Exercise increases serum endostatin levels in female and male patients with diabetes and controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often associated with atherosclerotic changes in coronary vessels, most notably plaques. The angiostatic parameter endostatin is able to inhibit angiogenesis in tissue as well as in plaques and therefore plays an important role in physiological and pathological neovascularisation. The aim of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences and the influence of exercise on circulating endostatin levels in patients suffering from diabetes, and control subjects. Methods In total, 42 T2DM-patients and 45 control subjects were investigated. They underwent a graded physical stress test (ergometry). Serum endostatin levels were measured in venous blood at rest and directly after reaching maximum workload. Results Females showed significantly higher endostatin levels at baseline measurements compared to men, independently of their underlying disease. In both female and male T2DM-patients endostatin levels were significantly lower compared to controls. Both groups and sexes showed a significant increase of endostatin after physical stress, whereas the extent of endostatin-increase was between 10.59-15.05%. Conclusion Middle-aged healthy female individuals as well as female T2DM-patients showed higher circulating serum endostatin levels compared to males, suggesting a hormonal influence on baseline circulating endostatin amounts. Exercise-induced increase in endostatin is also observable in patients suffering from T2DM. Concerning vascularisation, lower endostatin levels in T2DM might be advantageous. Concerning plaque stability, lower levels might be prejudicial. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01165515 PMID:24393402

  18. Ultrasonic level sensors for liquids under high pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Mazel, D. S.; Hodges, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    An ultrasonic level sensor of novel design continuously measures the level of a liquid subjected to a high pressure (up to about 40 MPa), as is sometimes required for the effective transfer of the liquid. The sensor operates as a composite resonator fabricated from a standard high-pressure plug. A flat-bottom hole is machined into the plug along its center line. An ultrasonic transducer is bonded rigidly to the interior surface of the bottom wall, while the exterior surface is in contact with the liquid. Although the bottom wall is designed to satisfy the pressure code, it is still sufficiently thin to permit ready excitation of the axisymmetric plate modes of vibration. The liquid level is measured by a conventional pulse-echo technique. A prototype sensor was tested successfully in a 2300-l water vessel at pressures up to about 37 MPa. A spectral analysis of the transmitted pulse reveals that the flexural, extensional, thickness-shear, and radial plate modes are excited into vibration, but none of these appears to be significantly affected by the pressurization of the liquid.

  19. Space augmentation of military high-level waste disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T.; Lees, L.; Divita, E.

    1979-01-01

    Space disposal of selected components of military high-level waste (HLW) is considered. This disposal option offers the promise of eliminating the long-lived radionuclides in military HLW from the earth. A space mission which meets the dual requirements of long-term orbital stability and a maximum of one space shuttle launch per week over a period of 20-40 years, is a heliocentric orbit about halfway between the orbits of earth and Venus. Space disposal of high-level radioactive waste is characterized by long-term predictability and short-term uncertainties which must be reduced to acceptably low levels. For example, failure of either the Orbit Transfer Vehicle after leaving low earth orbit, or the storable propellant stage failure at perihelion would leave the nuclear waste package in an unplanned and potentially unstable orbit. Since potential earth reencounter and subsequent burn-up in the earth's atmosphere is unacceptable, a deep space rendezvous, docking, and retrieval capability must be developed.

  20. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kreutz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  1. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (inventor); Kruetz, Kenneth K. (inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  2. Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage

    SciTech Connect

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1997-04-23

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist.

  3. Characterization of Transducers and Resonators under High Drive Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, X.; Sigel, D. A.; Gradziel, M. J.; Askins, S. A.; Dolgin, B. P.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2001-01-01

    In many applications, piezoelectric transducers are driven at AC voltage levels well beyond the level for which the material was nominally characterized. In this paper we describe an experimental setup that allows for the determination of the main transducer or resonator properties under large AC drive. A sinusoidal voltage from a waveform generator is amplified and applied across the transducer/resonator in series with a known high power resistor. The amplitude of applied voltage and the amplitude and the relative phase of the current through the resistor are monitored on a digital scope. The frequency of the applied signal is swept through resonance and the voltage/current signals are recorded. After corrections for the series resistance and parasitic elements the technique allows for the determination of the complex impedance spectra of the sample as a function of frequency. In addition, access to the current signal allows for the direct investigation of non-linear effects through the application of Fourier transform techniques on the current signal. Our results indicate that care is required when interpreting impedance data at high drive level due to the frequency dependence of the dissipated power. Although the transducer/resonator at a single frequency and after many cycles may reach thermal equilibrium, the spectra as a whole cannot be considered an isothermal measurement due to the temperature change with frequency. Methods to correct for this effect will be discussed. Results determined from resonators of both soft and hard PZT and a ultrasonic horn transducer are presented.

  4. Angiotensin converting enzyme activity is positively associated with IL-17a levels in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, Ary; Yonamine, Camila M; Nering, Marcela; Rizzo, Lucas Bortolotto; Noto, Cristiano; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Bressan, Rodrigo; Maes, Michael; Brietzke, Elisa; Hayashi, Mirian A F

    2015-10-30

    Previous studies of our group showed increased plasmatic Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) activity in schizophrenia (SCZ) patients compared to healthy controls, which was also associated to poor cognitive functioning. The ACE main product angiotensin II (Ang-II) has pro-inflammatory properties. Activated immune-inflammatory responses in SCZ and their association with disease progression and cognitive impairments are also well-described. Therefore, we examined here the association of plasma ACE activity and inflammatory mediators in 33 SCZ patients and 92 healthy controls. Non-parametric correlations were used to investigate the association of the enzyme activity and the peripheral levels of immune inflammatory markers as interleukins, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?), and interferon (IFN-?). Although no significant correlations could be observed for ACE activity and measured cytokines levels in healthy controls, a significant positive correlation for ACE enzymatic activity and IL-17a levels was observed in SCZ patients. Correcting for gender did not change these results. Moreover, a significant association for ACE activity and IFN-? levels was also observed. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show a significant association between higher ACE activity and the levels of cytokines, namely IL-17a and IFN-?, in patients with SCZ. PMID:26296754

  5. ET-1 Plasma Levels, Aqueous Flare, and Choroidal Thickness in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Strobbe, Ernesto; Fresina, Michela; Campos, Emilio C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess endothelin-1 (ET-1) plasma levels, choroidal thickness, and aqueous flare in patients with early stage retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and to search for possible correlations. Methods. We compared 24 RP patients with 24 healthy controls. Choroidal thickness and aqueous flare were measured, respectively, by using a spectral domain optical coherence tomography and a laser flare-cell meter, whereas plasma samples were obtained from each patient to evaluate ET-1 plasma levels. Results. Notably, RP subjects showed significantly increased ET-1 plasma levels and reduced choroidal thickness compared with controls: 2.143 ± 0.258 versus 1.219 ± 0.236?pg/mL, P < 0.002, and 226.75 ± 76.37 versus 303.9 ± 39.87??m, P < 0.03, respectively. Higher aqueous flare values were also demonstrated in RP compared to controls: in detail, 10.51 ± 3.97 versus 5.66 ± 1.29 photon counts/ms, P < 0.0001. Spearman's correlation test highlighted that the increase of ET-1 plasma levels was related with the decrease of choroidal thickness (r = ?0.702; P < 0.023) and the increase of aqueous flare (r = 0.580; P < 0.007). Conclusions. Early stage RP patients show a breakdown of blood-ocular barrier and increased ET-1 plasma levels and these findings may contribute to the reduction of choroidal thickness. PMID:26137317

  6. International trends in erythropoietin use and hemoglobin levels in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Philip A; Pisoni, Ronald L; Eichleay, Margaret A; Wald, Ron; Port, Friedrich K; Mendelssohn, David

    2010-07-01

    Hemoglobin levels and the dose of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have risen over time in hemodialysis patients within the United States. There are concerns that these trends may be driven by reimbursement policies that provide potential incentives to increase this use. To determine this we studied trends in the use of ESA and hemoglobin levels in hemodialysis patients and the relationship of these trends to the mode of reimbursement. Using the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) database of hemodialysis we analyzed facility practices in over 300 randomly selected dialysis units in 12 countries. At each of three phases (years 1996-2001, 2002-2004, and 2005-present), we randomly selected over 7500 prevalent hemodialysis, hemofiltration, or hemodiafiltration patients. ESA usage rose significantly in every country studied except Belgium. All but Sweden demonstrated a substantial increase in hemoglobin levels. In 2005 more than 40% of patients had hemoglobin levels above the KDOQI upper target limit of 120 g/l in all but Japan. These trends appeared to be independent of the manner of reimbursement even though the United States is the only country with significant financial incentives promoting increased use of these agents. Thus, our study found that prescribing higher doses of ESAs and achieving higher hemoglobin levels by physicians reflects a broad trend across DOPPS countries regardless of the reimbursement policies. PMID:20428102

  7. Concanavalin Agglutinin Levels are Decreased in Peripheral Blood of Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuying; Ma, Ronghong; Yao, Xiuqing; Shang, Xiaoling; Wang, Qun; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Gongping

    2015-09-24

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) seriously threatens patients' lives and causes severe burden to the families. Early prevention and treatment can alleviate the development of the disease; therefore it is important to find new effective and non-traumatic biomarkers for early diagnosis. In this study, peripheral blood samples were collected from 24 AD patients and the same number of age- and gender-matched control subjects. Lectin reactive glycosylation levels including beta-D-galactosyl ricinus communis agglutinin 120 (RCA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), concanavalin agglutinin (Con A), alpha-L-fucosyl ulex europeus agglutinin (UEA), dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), and galanthus nivalis (GNL), in the red blood cells of peripheral blood were examined by western blotting. We found that lectin levels were altered with aging and gender; some lectin levels were different between AD patients and the control subjects. Only Con A levels were significantly decreased in AD patients compared to age-matched control subjects. These results suggest that Con A levels in peripheral blood may be a potent diagnostic marker for AD. PMID:26444791

  8. Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction in Hemodialysis Patients With High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T Assay.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hua-Lan; Zhu, Shuai; Wang, Wei-Qing; Nie, Xin; Shi, Ying-Ying; He, Yong; Song, Hao-Lan; Miao, Qiang; Fu, Ping; Wang, Lan-Lan; Li, Gui-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Context .- Cardiac troponins have become the gold standard for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the general population; however, their diagnostic accuracy for hemodialysis (HD) patients presenting with chest pain or dyspnea is uncertain. Objective .- To examine the diagnostic accuracy of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) assay for AMI in HD patients. Design .- In this prospective study, we enrolled 670 consecutive stable HD patients presenting with chest pain or dyspnea on routine predialysis therapy in the nephrology department. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to examine the diagnostic accuracy of hs-cTnT levels at enrollment in HD patients presenting with chest pain or dyspnea, and the dynamic change in these levels after 3 hours. Results .- Acute myocardial infarction was the adjudicated final diagnosis in 12% of HD patients. Among patients with a final diagnosis other than AMI, 97% had a plasma hs-cTnT concentration above the 99th percentile. At the time of enrollment, the area under the ROC curve of hs-cTnT levels for diagnosis of AMI was 0.68 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-0.74; P < .001) with a cutoff value of 107.7 ng/L; the relative change after 3 hours was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.82-0.96, P < .001) with a cutoff value of 24%, and the absolute change was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.82-0.94, P < .001) with a cutoff value of 32.6 ng/L. The prognostic value for 40-day mortality varied with the magnitude of elevation in hs-cTnT levels. Conclusions .- Tracking the dynamic change in hs-cTnT levels during the short term significantly increased this measure's diagnostic accuracy for AMI in HD patients. PMID:26717058

  9. How successful is errorless learning in supporting memory for high and low-level knowledge in dementia?

    PubMed

    Haslam, Catherine; Gilroy, Donna; Black, Sarah; Beesley, Thomas

    2006-10-01

    Errorless learning has been shown to be very successful in the rehabilitation of memory problems particularly in patients with severe forms of memory impairment. Much of this research has focused on testing knowledge of specific details studied, ignoring any additional, higher-level knowledge that patients may have acquired during the learning process. Hence, it is pertinent to ask whether errorless learning is equally successful in the acquisition of high and low-level knowledge. In this paper, we present results of several studies comparing the effectiveness of errorless and standard trial-and-error methods in acquisition of high and low-level knowledge in people diagnosed with dementia and non-impaired controls. In Study 1, participants were asked to learn novel face-name-occupation associations; and knowledge across a range of levels, from very general (i.e., high-level) to very specific (i.e., low-level), was examined. For patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and controls there was evidence of increased benefit from errorless training in general, but the technique was most beneficial for patients attempting to retrieve specific detail. Study 2 was conducted to address the problem raised by the failure in Study 1 to manipulate learning condition at our highest knowledge level. This novel manipulation was successful, but neither of the patients received the standard benefit from errorless training. Study 3, involving a small group of dementia patients with mixed diagnoses, was conducted to replicate findings from Study 1. Results from the group analysis confirmed that the benefit obtained from errorless learning increased as a function of knowledge specificity, but again several patients failed to show a consistent effect of learning condition. Implications for use of the errorless technique are discussed. PMID:16952891

  10. Blood metal levels and related antioxidant enzyme activities in patients with ataxia telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Squadrone, Stefania; Brizio, Paola; Mancini, Cecilia; Pozzi, Elisa; Cavalieri, Simona; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Brusco, Alfredo

    2015-09-01

    Transition metals are cofactors for a wide range of vital enzymes and are directly or indirectly involved in the response against reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage cellular components. Their altered homeostasis has been studied in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but no data are available on rarer conditions. We aimed at studying the role of essential trace elements in ataxia telangiectasia (A-T), a rare form of pediatric autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia with altered antioxidant response. We found an increased level of copper (Cu, p=0.0002) and a reduced level of zinc (Zn, p=0.0002) in the blood of patients (n. 16) compared to controls, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Other trace elements involved in the oxidative stress response, such as manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se), were unaltered. Cu/Zn-dependent superoxide dismutase (SOD1) was shown to have a 30% reduction in gene expression and 40% reduction in enzyme activity upon analysis of lymphoblastoid cell lines of patients (Student's t-test, p=0.0075). We also found a 30% reduction of Mn-SOD (SOD2; Student's t-test, p=0.02), probably due to a feedback regulatory loop between the two enzymes. The expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), and SOD2 was unaltered, whereas catalase (CAT) was increased in A-T cells, both at the mRNA level and in terms of enzyme activity (~25%). Enhanced CAT expression can be attributed to the high ROS status, which induces CAT transcription. These results suggest that alterations in essential trace elements and their related enzymes may play a role in the pathogenesis of A-T, although we cannot conclude if altered homeostasis is a direct effect of A-T mutated genes (ATM). Altered homeostasis of trace elements may be more prevalent in neurodegenerative diseases than previously thought, and it may represent both a biomarker and a generic therapeutic target for different disorders with the common theme of altered antioxidant enzyme responses associated with an unbalance of metals. PMID:25882094

  11. High STAT5 levels mediate imatinib resistance and indicate disease progression in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Warsch, Wolfgang; Kollmann, Karoline; Eckelhart, Eva; Fajmann, Sabine; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Hölbl, Andrea; Gleixner, Karoline V; Dworzak, Michael; Mayerhofer, Matthias; Hoermann, Gregor; Herrmann, Harald; Sillaber, Christian; Egger, Gerda; Valent, Peter; Moriggl, Richard; Sexl, Veronika

    2011-03-24

    In BCR-ABL1(+) leukemia, drug resistance is often associated with up-regulation of BCR-ABL1 or multidrug transporters as well as BCR-ABL1 mutations. Here we show that the expression level of the transcription factor STAT5 is another parameter that determines the sensitivity of BCR-ABL1(+) cells against tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as imatinib, nilotinib, or dasatinib. Abelson-transformed cells, expressing high levels of STAT5, were found to be significantly less sensitive to TKI-induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo but not to other cytotoxic drugs, such as hydroxyurea, interferon-?, or Aca-dC. The STAT5-mediated protection requires tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT5 independent of JAK2 and transcriptional activity. In support of this concept, under imatinib treatment and with disease progression, STAT5 mRNA and protein levels increased in patients with Ph(+) chronic myeloid leukemia. Based on our data, we propose a model in which disease progression in BCR-ABL1(+) leukemia leads to up-regulated STAT5 expression. This may be in part the result of clonal selection of cells with high STAT5 levels. STAT5 then accounts for the resistance against TKIs, thereby explaining the dose escalation frequently required in patients reaching accelerated phase. It also suggests that STAT5 may serve as an attractive target to overcome imatinib resistance in BCR-ABL1(+) leukemia. PMID:21220747

  12. University-Level Research Projects for High School Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McConnell, Mark L.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project was to provide an opportunity for high school students to participate in university-level research projects. In this case, students from Pinkerton Academy (Derry, New Hampshire) were invited to participate in efforts to catalog data from the COMPTEL experiment on NASA's Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). These activities were part of a senior level honors course at Pinkerton. Although the success of this particular program was rather limited, we feel that the general concept is a sound one. In principle, the concept of partnerships between local schools and university researchers is one that could be especially attractive to soft money researchers. Programs can be carefully designed to benefit both the students and the research program.

  13. Salivary Interferon Gamma and Interleukin-4 Levels in Patients Suffering from Oral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Malekzadeh, Hossein; Robati, Maryam; Yousefimanesh, Hojatollah; Ghafourian Boroujerdnia, Mehri; Nadripour, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease. Immunological factor may act as etiological factor. The cellular immune cells such as T cells are impor- tant in pathogenesis. Interferon gamma (IFN-?) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) are secreted by T-helper 1 (Th1) and Th2, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the cor- relation between salivary levels of IFN-? and IL-4 with OLP. Materials and Methods This case control study included sixty three Iranian OLP patients who were selected from the Department of Oral Medicine of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences from January to July 2013. An equal number of healthy volunteers were also selected as a control group. The OLP patients were then divided into two follow- ing sub-groups: reticular (n=30) and erythematous/ulcerative (n=33). All patients had no systemic disease and received no medication. IFN-? and IL-4 levels in whole unstimulated saliva (WUS) were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. Data analysis was done using t test, ANOVA, least significant difference (LSD) test, and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results Reticular OLP patients showed higher salivary IFN-? (7.74 ± 0.09 pg/ml ) and IL-4 (3.876 ± 0.05 pg/ml) levels compared with the control group, indicating that difference was significant. Salivary IFN-?/IL-4 ratio significantly increased compared with control group (P=0.042). Salivary IFN-? and IL-4 levels between sub-groups (re- ticular and erythematous/ulcerative) were not significantly different (2.6 ± 0.06 and 2.3 ± 0.05, respectively, P<0.05). Conclusion Salivary IFN-? and IL-4 levels were increased in OLP patients. An increase of salivary IFN-?/IL-4 ratio in OLP patients showed that Th1 might have a dominant role in the OLP pathogenesis. PMID:26464828

  14. The PHENIX High Transverse Momentum Charged Particle Level-2 Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajoie, John; PHENIX Collaboration

    2001-10-01

    The PHENIX Experiment is one of the large detector projects at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory designed to study matter under extreme conditions. High transverse momentum particles created in the collision of heavy nuclei from the scattering of partons (quarks and gluons) are an excellent probe of the properties of the produced matter. The suppression of high transverse momentum particles through interaction with the surrounding matter may be an indication of a phase transition from ordinary hadronic matter to a deconfined state knows as the Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). The PHENIX Level-2 trigger is a software based trigger tasked with selecting rare events and providing sufficient rejection to keep the data acquistion system within its allocated bandwidth for recording data. A high transverse momentum charged particle trigger has been developed by using a set of primitives that are generated online from the PHENIX tracking detector data. An overview of the design and performance of this Level-2 trigger and its physics capabilities will be presented.

  15. Clinical significance of preoperative serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in soft tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Que, Yi; Jiang, Feng; Liu, Liting; Li, Yuanfang; Chen, Yongming; Qiu, Haibo; Zhou, Zhiwei; Zhang, Xing

    2015-05-01

    The prognostic value of lipid profile remains unclear in soft tissue sarcoma. The aim of the present study was to validate the prognostic value of preoperative plasma lipid profile (high density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], low density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], cholesterol, and triglycerides) levels on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) patients undergoing extensive and radical surgical resection.The preoperative plasma lipid profile levels of 234 STS patients, who were operated on between 2000 with 2010, were retrospectively evaluated. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox proportional models were calculated for DFS and OS.In univariate analysis, a decreased HDL-C level was significantly associated with decreased OS (hazard ratio [HR], 3.405; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.445-8.021, P?=?0.005) and remained significant in the multivariate analysis (HR, 5.615; 95% CI, 1.243-25.378, P?=?0.025). Patients with HDL-C?patients with HDL-C ?1.475?mmol/L had a median OS of 101 months. In univariate analysis, a decreased HDL-C level was significantly associated with decreased DFS (HR, 2.085; 95% CI, 1.271-3.422, P?=?0.004) and remained significant in the multivariate analysis (HR, 1.808; 95% CI, 1.118-2.924, P?=?0.016). Patients with HDL-C <1.475?mmol/L presented with a median DFS of 47 months, whereas patients with HDL-C ?1.475?mmol/L had a median DFS of 78 months. In univariate analysis and multivariate analyses regarding OS and DFS, there was no significant association between the groups in terms of LDL-C, CHO and TG.Our study investigated the potential prognostic utility of preoperative plasma HDL-C levels as an independent factor in STS patients who had undergone radical surgical resection. PMID:25950696

  16. Engineering Escherichia coli for high-level production of propionate.

    PubMed

    Akawi, Lamees; Srirangan, Kajan; Liu, Xuejia; Moo-Young, Murray; Perry Chou, C

    2015-07-01

    Mounting environmental concerns associated with the use of petroleum-based chemical manufacturing practices has generated significant interest in the development of biological alternatives for the production of propionate. However, biological platforms for propionate production have been limited to strict anaerobes, such as Propionibacteria and select Clostridia. In this work, we demonstrated high-level heterologous production of propionate under microaerobic conditions in engineered Escherichia coli. Activation of the native Sleeping beauty mutase (Sbm) operon not only transformed E. coli to be propionogenic (i.e., propionate-producing) but also introduced an intracellular "flux competition" between the traditional C2-fermentative pathway and the novel C3-fermentative pathway. Dissimilation of the major carbon source of glycerol was identified to critically affect such "flux competition" and, therefore, propionate synthesis. As a result, the propionogenic E. coli was further engineered by inactivation or overexpression of various genes involved in the glycerol dissimilation pathways and their individual genetic effects on propionate production were investigated. Generally, knocking out genes involved in glycerol dissimilation (except glpA) can minimize levels of solventogenesis and shift more dissimilated carbon flux toward the C3-fermentative pathway. For optimal propionate production with high C3:C2-fermentative product ratios, glycerol dissimilation should be channeled through the respiratory pathway and, upon suppressed solventogenesis with minimal production of highly reduced alcohols, the alternative NADH-consuming route associated with propionate synthesis can be critical for more flexible redox balancing. With the implementation of various biochemical and genetic strategies, high propionate titers of more than 11 g/L with high yields up to 0.4 g-propionate/g-glycerol (accounting for ~50 % of dissimilated glycerol) were achieved, demonstrating the potential for industrial application. To our knowledge, this represents the most effective engineered microbial system for propionate production with titers and yields comparable to those achieved by anaerobic batch cultivation of various native propionate-producing strains of Propionibacteria. PMID:25948049

  17. Pituitary protein 7B2 plasma levels in patients with liver disease: Comparisons with other hormones and neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    VENETIKOU, MARIA S.; MELEAGROS, LUKE; GHATEI, MOHHAMMAD A.; BLOOM, STEPHEN R.

    2013-01-01

    7B2, a protein initially isolated from the porcine pituitary gland, has been identified in numerous animal and human tissues, with the highest concentrations in the pituitary and hypothalamus. The 7B2 molecule is highly evolutionarily conserved and is considered to be indispensable in the function and regulation of proprotein convertase 2 (PC2). In the present study, the plasma 7B2 immunoreactivity (7B2-IR) of 18 patients with liver disease was studied. Of these patients, seven (three male and four female), aged 37–67 [54.6±13.5 (SD)] years, suffered from liver cirrhosis of cryptogenic (n=2) or alcoholic (n=5) aetiology. The remaining 11 patients (four male and seven female), aged 22–76 [56.1±17.6 (SD)] years, suffered from miscellaneous liver abnormalities. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed in the majority of patients by the histological examination of a percutaneous liver biopsy or by appropriate radiological investigations. Plasma bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, prothrombin time, electrolytes, urea and creatinine were measured. The plasma 7B2-IR levels were estimated using a sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA), and the elution position of 7B2-IR was verified by gel chromatography. The mean plasma 7B2-IR concentration in patients with liver disease was 99.44±15.9 pmol/l. In the patients with hepatocellular damage due to metastatic tumours [Ca bronchus, carcinoid (n=6)], the 7B2-IR concentrations were significantly higher [185±36.9 pmol/l, (P<0.05)] compared with the overall subjects with liver damage. The results of the present study demonstrate that 7B2-IR is increased in liver disease, with the highest levels detected in patients with tumourous liver conditions. PMID:24137355

  18. Patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage show higher levels of DR+ activated T-cells that are less responsive to mitogens.

    PubMed

    Kuon, R J; Schaumann, J; Goeggl, T; Strowitzki, T; Sadeghi, M; Opelz, G; Daniel, V; Toth, B

    2015-11-01

    In 50% of recurrent miscarriages (RM) the cause remains unknown and standardized immunological diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic RM (iRM) is yet not established. In this prospective case-control study, out of 220 RM patients screened, 97 iRM patients were identified and compared to 26 healthy controls without a previous pregnancy or blood transfusion in order to identify deregulated immunological parameters. Blood levels of lymphocyte subpopulations, cytokines and neopterin were determined by FACS, ELISA, and Luminex technique. Lymphocyte function was studied by in-vitro lympocyte proliferation tests. As compared to controls, patients had significantly higher proportions of activated CD3+DR+, CD4+DR+ and CD8+DR+ lymphocytes, elevated levels of neopterin and a lower in-vitro proliferation of lymphocytes (all p<0.05). Within the iRM patients higher proportions of CD3+DR+ T-lymphocytes correlated with higher proportions and absolute numbers of CD4+DR+ and CD8+DR+ T-lymphocytes and lower CD16+CD56+ NK-cells. Further, it was associated with lower absolute numbers of CD19+ B-lymphocytes, CD3+CD25+ T-lymphocytes and CD45+ total lymphocytes (all p<0.05). In addition we found decreased in-vitro lymphocyte proliferation in iRM patients with high CD3+DR+ T-lymphocytes (p<0.05). In summary patients with iRM showed increased activated T-cells that are less responsive to mitogens in-vitro. The inverse relationship of increased DR but decreased CD25 expression on CD3+ T-cells and the decreased in-vitro proliferation characterize an immunological disorder with similarities to T-cell exhaustion in patients with HIV and cancer. These abnormalities potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of iRM and might be a target for future immunomodulatory therapies. PMID:26398781

  19. Proteins with altered levels in plasma from glioblastoma patients as revealed by iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Poonam; Nair, Sudha C; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Sharma, Rakesh; Polisetty, Ravindra Varma; Uppin, Megha S; Sundaram, Challa; Puligopu, Aneel K; Ankathi, Praveen; Purohit, Aniruddh K; Chandak, Giriraj R; Harsha, H C; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBMs) are the most common and lethal primary tumors of the central nervous system with high level of recurrence despite aggressive therapy. Tumor-associated proteins/peptides may appear in the plasma of these patients as a result of disruption of the blood-brain barrier in them, raising the scope for development of plasma-based tests for diagnosis and monitoring the disease. With this objective, we analyzed the levels of proteins present in the plasma from GBM patients using an iTRAQ based LC-MS/MS approach. Analysis with pooled plasma specimens from the patient and healthy control samples revealed high confidence identification of 296 proteins, of which 61 exhibited a fold-change ?1.5 in the patient group. Forty-eight of them contained signal sequence. A majority have been reported in the differentially expressed transcript or protein profile of GBM tissues; 6 have been previously studied as plasma biomarkers for GBM and 16 for other types of cancers. Altered levels of three representative proteins-ferritin light chain (FTL), S100A9, and carnosinase 1 (CNDP1)-were verified by ELISA in a test set of ten individual plasma specimens. FTL is an inflammation marker also implicated in cancer, S100A9 is an important member of the Ca(2+) signaling cascade reported to be altered in GBM tissue, and CNDP1 has been reported for its role in the regulation of the levels of carnosine, implicated as a potential drug for GBM. These and other proteins in the dataset may form useful starting points for further clinical investigations for the development of plasma-based biomarker panels for GBM. PMID:23029420

  20. Oxytocin plasma levels in psychiatric patients with and without recent suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Deisenhammer, Eberhard A; Hofer, Susanne; Schwitzer, Oliver; Defrancesco, Michaela; Kemmler, Georg; Wildt, Ludwig; Hinterhuber, Hartmann

    2012-11-30

    Easily available biomarkers for suicidality would be valuable for the identification of individuals at risk. Oxytocin has been shown to be associated with mental illness. We assessed basal oxytocin plasma levels of patients with (SA, n=41) and without (NSA, n=40) a 1-year history of attempted suicide. SA and NSA groups did not differ with respect to oxytocin levels. Plasma oxytocin may not be a biological suicide marker candidate. PMID:22698260

  1. Time-averaged serum potassium levels and its fluctuation associate with 5-year survival of peritoneal dialysis patients: two-center based study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shen-Heng; Xie, Jian-Teng; Long, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Wei-Dong; Niu, Hong-Xin; Tang, Xun; Feng, Zhong-Lin; Ye, Zhi-Ming; Zuo, Yang-Yang; Fu, Lei; Wen, Feng; Wang, Li-Ping; Wang, Wen-Jian; Shi, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The time-averaged serum potassium was more comprehensive to reflect the all-time changes of serum potassium levels during peritoneal dialysis (PD). However, the association of fluctuation of time-averaged serum potassium level with long-time survival of PD patients remains unknown. In this retrospective study, we included 357 incident PD patients in 2 centers from January 1, 2007 to October 31, 2012 with follow-up through October 31, 2014. Our data demonstrated that it was the lower time-averaged serum potassium level rather than baseline of serum potassium level that was associated with high risk of death. Patients with higher standard deviation (SD) had significantly poorer all-cause (p?=?0.016) and cardiovascular mortality (p?=?0.041). Among the patients with time-averaged serum potassium levels below 4.0 mEq/L, a lower mean value was more important than its SD to predict death risk. In contrast, the patients with time-averaged serum potassium levels above 4.0?mEq/L, those with serum potassium SD?high death risk in PD patients. PMID:26507157

  2. Local patient dose diagnostic reference levels in pediatric interventional cardiology in Chile using age bands and patient weight values

    SciTech Connect

    Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Vano, Eliseo

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To present the results of a patient dose evaluation program in pediatric cardiology and propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for different types of procedure and age range, in addition to suggesting approaches to correlate patient dose values with patient weight. This study was the first conducted in Latin America for pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Methods: Over three years, the following data regarding demographic and patient dose values were collected: age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time (FT), and two dosimetric quantities, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative dose (CD), at the patient entrance reference point. The third quartile values for FT, DAP, CD, number of cine series, and the DAP/body weight ratio were proposed as the set of quantities to use as local DRLs. Results: Five hundred and seventeen patients were divided into four age groups. Sample sizes by age group were 120 for <1 yr; 213 for 1 to <5 yr; 82 for 5 to <10 yr; and 102 for 10 to <16 yr. The third quartile values obtained for DAP by diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and age range were 1.17 and 1.11 Gy cm{sup 2} for <1 yr; 1.74 and 1.90 Gy cm{sup 2} for 1 to <5 yr; 2.83 and 3.22 Gy cm{sup 2} for 5 to <10 yr; and 7.34 and 8.68 Gy cm{sup 2} for 10 to <16 yr, respectively. The third quartile value obtained for the DAP/body weight ratio for the full sample of procedures was 0.17 (Gy cm{sup 2}/kg) for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Conclusions: The data presented in this paper are an initial attempt at establishing local DRLs in pediatric interventional cardiology, from a large sample of procedures for the standard age bands used in Europe, complemented with the values of the ratio between DAP and patient weight. This permits a rough estimate of DRLs for different patient weights and the refining of these values for the age bands when there may be large differences in child size. These DRLs were obtained at the largest pediatric hospital in Chile, with an active optimization program, and could be used by other hospitals in the Latin America region to compare their current patient dose values and determine whether corrective action is appropriate.

  3. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by closure operations. Subsequent down selection was based on compressive strength and saturated hydraulic conductivity results. Fresh slurry property results were used as the first level of screening. A high range water reducing admixture and a viscosity modifying admixture were used to adjust slurry properties to achieve flowable grouts. Adiabatic calorimeter results were used as the second level screening. The third level of screening was used to design mixes that were consistent with the fill material parameters used in the F-Tank Farm Performance Assessment which was developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closures.

  4. Development of a High Level Waste Tank Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, D.K.; Loibl, M.W.; Meese, D.C.

    1995-03-21

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center was requested by it`s sister site, West Valley Nuclear Service (WVNS), to develop a remote inspection system to gather wall thickness readings of their High Level Waste Tanks. WVNS management chose to take a proactive approach to gain current information on two tanks t hat had been in service since the early 70`s. The tanks contain high level waste, are buried underground, and have only two access ports to an annular space between the tank and the secondary concrete vault. A specialized remote system was proposed to provide both a visual surveillance and ultrasonic thickness measurements of the tank walls. A magnetic wheeled crawler was the basis for the remote delivery system integrated with an off-the-shelf Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System. A development program was initiated for Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to design, fabricate, and test a remote system based on the Crawler. The system was completed and involved three crawlers to perform the needed tasks, an Ultrasonic Crawler, a Camera Crawler, and a Surface Prep Crawler. The crawlers were computer controlled so that their operation could be done remotely and their position on the wall could be tracked. The Ultrasonic Crawler controls were interfaced with ABB Amdata`s I-PC, Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System so that thickness mapping of the wall could be obtained. A second system was requested by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), to perform just ultrasonic mapping on their similar Waste Storage Tanks; however, the system needed to be interfaced with the P-scan Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System. Both remote inspection systems were completed 9/94. Qualifications tests were conducted by WVNS prior to implementation on the actual tank and tank development was achieved 10/94. The second inspection system was deployed at WSRC 11/94 with success, and the system is now in continuous service inspecting the remaining high level waste tanks at WSRC.

  5. Stagnation Region Heat Transfer Augmentation at Very High Turbulence Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, Forrest; Kingery, Joseph E.

    2015-06-17

    A database for stagnation region heat transfer has been extended to include heat transfer measurements acquired downstream from a new high intensity turbulence generator. This work was motivated by gas turbine industry heat transfer designers who deal with heat transfer environments with increasing Reynolds numbers and very high turbulence levels. The new mock aero-combustor turbulence generator produces turbulence levels which average 17.4%, which is 37% higher than the older turbulence generator. The increased level of turbulence is caused by the reduced contraction ratio from the liner to the exit. Heat transfer measurements were acquired on two large cylindrical leading edge test surfaces having a four to one range in leading edge diameter (40.64 cm and 10.16 cm). Gandvarapu and Ames [1] previously acquired heat transfer measurements for six turbulence conditions including three grid conditions, two lower turbulence aero-combustor conditions, and a low turbulence condition. The data are documented and tabulated for an eight to one range in Reynolds numbers for each test surface with Reynolds numbers ranging from 62,500 to 500,000 for the large leading edge and 15,625 to 125,000 for the smaller leading edge. The data show augmentation levels of up to 136% in the stagnation region for the large leading edge. This heat transfer rate is an increase over the previous aero-combustor turbulence generator which had augmentation levels up to 110%. Note, the rate of increase in heat transfer augmentation decreases for the large cylindrical leading edge inferring only a limited level of turbulence intensification in the stagnation region. The smaller cylindrical leading edge shows more consistency with earlier stagnation region heat transfer results correlated on the TRL (Turbulence, Reynolds number, Length scale) parameter. The downstream regions of both test surfaces continue to accelerate the flow but at a much lower rate than the leading edge. Bypass transition occurs in these regions providing a useful set of data to ground the prediction of transition onset and length over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and turbulence intensity and scales.

  6. A case of severe anorexia, excessive weight loss and high peptide YY levels after sleeve gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Pucci, Andrea; Cheung, Wui Hang; Jones, Jenny; Manning, Sean; Kingett, Helen; Adamo, Marco; Elkalaawy, Mohamed; Jenkinson, Andrew; Finer, Nicholas; Doyle, Jacqueline; Hashemi, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Summary Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is the second most commonly performed bariatric procedure worldwide. Altered circulating gut hormones have been suggested to contribute post-operatively to appetite suppression, decreased caloric intake and weight reduction. In the present study, we report a 22-year-old woman who underwent laparoscopic SG for obesity (BMI 46?kg/m2). Post-operatively, she reported marked appetite reduction, which resulted in excessive weight loss (1-year post-SG: BMI 22?kg/m2, weight loss 52%, >99th centile of 1-year percentage of weight loss from 453 SG patients). Gastrointestinal (GI) imaging, GI physiology/motility studies and endoscopy revealed no anatomical cause for her symptoms, and psychological assessments excluded an eating disorder. Despite nutritional supplements and anti-emetics, her weight loss continued (BMI 19?kg/m2), and she required nasogastric feeding. A random gut hormone assessment revealed high plasma peptide YY (PYY) levels. She underwent a 3?h meal study following an overnight fast to assess her subjective appetite and circulating gut hormone levels. Her fasted nausea scores were high, with low hunger, and these worsened with nutrient ingestion. Compared to ten other post-SG female patients, her fasted circulating PYY and nutrient-stimulated PYY and active glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) levels were markedly elevated. Octreotide treatment was associated with suppressed circulating PYY and GLP1 levels, increased appetite, increased caloric intake and weight gain (BMI 22?kg/m2 after 6 months). The present case highlights the value of measuring gut hormones in patients following bariatric surgery who present with anorexia and excessive weight loss and suggests that octreotide treatment can produce symptomatic relief and weight regain in this setting. Learning points Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and SG produce marked sustained weight reduction. However, there is a marked individual variability in this reduction, and post-operative weight loss follows a normal distribution with extremes of ‘good’ and ‘poor’ response.Profound anorexia and excessive weight loss post-SG may be associated with markedly elevated circulating fasted PYY and post-meal PYY and GLP1 levels.Octreotide treatment can produce symptomatic relief and weight regain for post-SG patients that have an extreme anorectic and weight loss response.The present case highlights the value of measuring circulating gut hormone levels in patients with post-operative anorexia and extreme weight loss.

  7. Increased serum level of IL-37 in patients with multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed

    Farrokhi, Mehrdad; Rezaei, Ali; Amani-Beni, Ali; Etemadifar, Masoud; Kouchaki, Ebrahim; Zahedi, Abolfazl

    2015-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common autoimmune disease of central nervous system in which neurodegenerative and inflammatory mechanisms cause alternate neurological impairments. Many inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were suggested as contributor in MS pathogenesis, and the balance between these opposing cytokines can regulate MS severity. IL-37, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is the most recently identified member of IL-1 family, which acts as a natural inhibitor of innate immunity. However, the role of IL-37 in MS has not investigated so far. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to measure serum level of IL-37 in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO). In a case-control study, plasma was collected from healthy controls (n = 49) and also patients with RRMS (n = 122) and NMO (n = 31). Serum level measurement of IL-37 was performed using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) method. The serum levels of IL-37 were 247.46 ± 74.02 and 312.00 ± 86.72 and 114.63 ± 20.58 in RRMS and NMO patients and healthy controls, respectively, showing statistically significant difference between them (P = 0.00). Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between the serum levels of IL-37 and EDSS of patients (r = +0.31 and P = 0.00). In summary, the serum level of IL-37 was found to be significantly increased in MS patients compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, the mean serum level of IL-37 was correlated with disease severity. This suggests that IL-37 may be part of a feed-back loop to control underlying inflammation in MS pathogenesis. However, further studies will be required to indicate exact role of IL-37 in the MS pathomechanisms. PMID:26008726

  8. Relationship between serum uric acid level and cardiometabolic risks in nondiabetic patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Shirley; Zalpuri, Isheeta; Harrington, Amy; Cimpeanu, Cezar; Song, Xueqin; Fan, Xiaoduo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between serum levels of uric acid and insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic patients with schizophrenia. Outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated in a multicenter, cross-sectional study. Fasting blood samples were obtained to determine serum levels of metabolic measures. A total of 135 patients were recruited for the study. A significant positive relationship was found between serum levels of uric acid and the homeostasis model of assessing insulin resistance (log transformed, r=0.394, P<0.001), and a significant negative relationship was found between serum levels of uric acid and low-density lipoprotein particle size (log transformed, r=-0.306, P=0.001) after controlling for potential confounding variables. Hierarchical multiple regression suggested that serum uric acid level is a significant predictor of insulin resistance (P=0.001) and of low-density lipoprotein particle size (P<0.015). Further, logistic regression showed that serum uric acid levels strongly predicted the condition of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 0.630, 95% confidence interval 0.463-0.856, P=0.003). This study suggested that uric acid may be a clinically useful biomarker to indicate cardiometabolic risks in nondiabetic patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26550697

  9. Leptin Levels Are Negatively Correlated with 2-Arachidonoylglycerol in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, James; Azim, Syed; Rebecchi, Mario J.; Galbavy, William; Feng, Tian; Reinsel, Ruth; Rizwan, Sabeen; Fowler, Christopher J.; Benveniste, Helene; Kaczocha, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background There is compelling evidence in humans that peripheral endocannabinoid signaling is disrupted in obesity. However, little is known about the corresponding central signaling. Here, we have investigated the relationship between gender, leptin, body mass index (BMI) and levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of primarily overweight to obese patients with osteoarthritis. Methodology/Principal Findings Patients (20 females, 15 males, age range 44-78 years, BMI range 24-42) undergoing total knee arthroplasty for end-stage osteoarthritis were recruited for the study. Endocannabinoids were quantified by liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry. AEA and 2-AG levels in the serum and CSF did not correlate with either age or BMI. However, 2-AG levels in the CSF, but not serum, correlated negatively with CSF leptin levels (Spearman’s ? -0.48, P=0.0076, n=30). No such correlations were observed for AEA and leptin. Conclusions/Significance In the patient sample investigated, there is a negative association between 2-AG and leptin levels in the CSF. This is consistent with pre-clinical studies in animals, demonstrating that leptin controls the levels of hypothalamic endocannabinoids that regulate feeding behavior. PMID:25835291

  10. Efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients on hemodialysis as evaluated by parathyroid hormone levels according to K/DOQI guidelines.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Motoko; Itoh, Kazuko; Matsushita, Kazunori; Matsushita, Kazutaka; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2005-02-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a major complication of hemodialysis patients. Recently, percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) has become a useful alternative treatment to parathyroidectomy (PTx). In this study, we evaluate the usefulness of PEIT for SHPT according to Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) guidelines. We studied 28 patients on hemodialysis with high intact-PTH (>400 pg/mL) and one to four swollen parathyroid glands detected by power Doppler ultrasonography. They were classified into Group 1 (N = 16), with 1 or 2 swollen glands, Group 2 (N = 5), with 3 or 4 swollen glands, and Group 3 (N = 7), high-risk patients for PTx. We compared serum intact-PTH levels 1 year after PEIT according to K/DOQI guidelines among these groups. We also evaluated the effectiveness of PEIT and PTx by comparing intact-PTH levels in 21 patients 1 year after PEIT (groups 1 and 2) with 11 patients after PTx. In Group 1, adequate intact-PTH levels were noted in 13 of 16 (81.2%) patients after PEIT, while 1 patient of 5 (20%) was achieved in Group 2, and 2 of 7 (28.6%) patients of Group 3. Adequate intact-PTH levels were attained in 14 of 21 (66.7%) patients of the PEIT group but only in 2 of 11 (18.2%) patients of the PTx group. Our results suggest that PEIT is a useful treatment for SHPT, especially in patients with one or two swollen glands. Through appropriate selection of patients for PEIT and correct injection of ethanol into the enlarged parathyroid gland, PEIT could accomplish better outcomes based on K/DOQI guidelines. PMID:15828906

  11. Effects of High Volume Haemodiafiltration on Inflammatory Response Profile and Microcirculation in Patients with Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Tamme, Kadri; Kruusat, Rein; Ehrlich, Hans-Erik; Viirelaid, Mirjam

    2015-01-01

    Background. High volumes of haemofiltration are used in septic patients to control systemic inflammation and improve patient outcomes. We aimed to clarify if extended intermittent high volume online haemodiafiltration (HVHDF) influences patient haemodynamics and cytokines profile and/or has effect upon sublingual microcirculation in critically ill septic shock patients. Methods. Main haemodynamic and clinical variables and concentrations of cytokines were evaluated before and after HVHDF in 19 patients with septic shock requiring renal replacement therapy due to acute kidney injury. Sublingual microcirculation was assessed in 9 patients. Results. The mean (SD) time of HVHDF was 9.4 (1.8) hours. The median convective volume was 123?mL/kg/h. The mean (SD) dose of norepinephrine required to maintain mean arterial pressure at the target range of 70–80?mmHg decreased from 0.40 (0.43)??g/kg/min to 0.28 (0.33)??g/kg/min (p = 0.009). No significant changes in the measured cytokines or microcirculatory parameters were observed before and after HVHDF. Conclusions. The single-centre study suggests that extended HVHDF results in decrease of norepinephrine requirement in patients with septic shock. Haemodynamic improvement was not associated with decrease in circulating cytokine levels, and sublingual microcirculation was well preserved. PMID:26064875

  12. High Affinity Antibodies against Influenza Characterize the Plasmablast Response in SLE Patients After Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kaval; Zheng, Nai-Ying; Smith, Kenneth; Huang, Min; Li, Lie; Pauli, Noel T.; Henry Dunand, Carole J.; Lee, Jane-Hwei; Morrissey, Michael; Wu, Yixuan; Joachims, Michelle L.; Munroe, Melissa E.; Lau, Denise; Qu, Xinyan; Krammer, Florian; Wrammert, Jens; Palese, Peter; Ahmed, Rafi; James, Judith A.; Wilson, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    Breakdown of B cell tolerance is a cardinal feature of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Increased numbers of autoreactive mature naïve B cells have been described in SLE patients and autoantibodies have been shown to arise from autoreactive and non-autoreactive precursors. How these defects, in the regulation of B cell tolerance and selection, influence germinal center (GC) reactions that are directed towards foreign antigens has yet to be investigated. Here, we examined the characteristics of post-GC foreign antigen-specific B cells from SLE patients and healthy controls by analyzing monoclonal antibodies generated from plasmablasts induced specifically by influenza vaccination. We report that many of the SLE patients had anti-influenza antibodies with higher binding affinity and neutralization capacity than those from controls. Although overall frequencies of autoreactivity in the influenza-specific plasmablasts were similar for SLE patients and controls, the variable gene repertoire of influenza-specific plasmablasts from SLE patients was altered, with increased usage of JH6 and long heavy chain CDR3 segments. We found that high affinity anti-influenza antibodies generally characterize the plasmablast responses of SLE patients with low levels of autoreactivity; however, certain exceptions were noted. The high-avidity antibody responses in SLE patients may also be correlated with cytokines that are abnormally expressed in lupus. These findings provide insights into the effects of dysregulated immunity on the quality of antibody responses following influenza vaccination and further our understanding of the underlying abnormalities of lupus. PMID:25951191

  13. Abnormally high serum ferritin levels among professional road cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Zotter, H; Robinson, N; Zorzoli, M; Schattenberg, L; Saugy, M; Mangin, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: An international, longitudinal medical follow up examination of male professional road cyclists revealed excessively elevated serum ferritin levels. Objective: To evaluate the importance of elevated ferritin values among professional cyclists, their relationship with age and nationality, and their evolution over 3 years. Methods: Over 1000 serum ferritin values were collected. Other parameters were included in order to exclude conditions which might have increased ferritin levels without changing body iron stores. Results: In 1999, over 45% of riders displayed ferritin values above 300 ng/ml and one fourth levels over 500 ng/ml. These percentages had decreased to 27% and 9%, respectively, 3 years later, while the overall average, which was above the normal limits in 1999, had decreased by 33% in 3 years. Older cyclists had higher ferritin values than younger cyclists. There was also a relationship between ferritin levels and the nationality of the cyclists. Analysis of 714 riders in 2000 and 2002 showed only a slight and insignificant decrease in the mean ferritin value although those with initially elevated iron stores had a much greater decrease. Conclusion: Professional road cyclists used excessive iron supplementation leading to high serum ferritin levels correlating with increased body iron stores. Although the situation progressively improved over 3 years, it remains worrying as increased body iron stores are related to health complications. Therefore, prevention in addition to the fight against doping should be a main goal of the UCI. Aggressive therapy for athletes with excessive ferritin values should be carried out at or before the end of their careers. PMID:15562163

  14. HIGH LEVELS OF URANIUM IN GROUNDWATER OF ULAANBAATAR, MONGOLIA

    PubMed Central

    Nriagu, Jerome; Nam, Dong-Ha; Ayanwola, Titilayo A.; Dinh, Hau; Erdenechimeg, Erdenebayar; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Bolormaa, Tsend-Ayush

    2011-01-01

    Water samples collected from 129 wells in seven of the nine sub-divisions of Ulaanbaatar were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using Clean Lab methods. The levels of many trace elements were found to be very low with the average concentrations (ranges in brackets) being 0.9 (<0.1-7.9) ?g/L for As; 7.7 (0.12-177) ?g/L for Mn; 0.2 (<0.05-1.9) ?g/L for Co; 16 (<0.1-686) ?g/L for Zn; 0.7 (<0.1-1.8) ?g/L for Se; <0.1 (<0.02-0.69) ?g/L for Cd; and 1.3 (<0.02-32) ?g/L for Pb. The levels of uranium were surprisingly elevated (mean, 4.6 ?g/L; range <0.01-57 ?g/L, with the values for many samples exceeding the World Health Organization's guideline of 15 ?g/L for uranium in drinking water. Local rocks and soils appear to be the natural source of the uranium. The levels of uranium in Ulaanbaatar's groundwater are in the range that has been associated with nephrotoxicity, high blood pressure, bone dysfunction and likely reproductive impairment in human populations. We consider the risk associated with drinking the groundwater with elevated levels of uranium in Ulaanbaatar to be a matter for some public health concern and conclude that the paucity of data on chronic effects of low level exposure is a risk factor for continuing the injury to many people in this city. PMID:22142646

  15. High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

    1983-05-01

    High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included.

  16. Corrosion and failure processes in high-level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Mahidhara, R.K.; Elleman, T.S.; Murty, K.L.

    1992-11-01

    A large amount of radioactive waste has been stored safely at the Savannah River and Hanford sites over the past 46 years. The aim of this report is to review the experimental corrosion studies at Savannah River and Hanford with the intention of identifying the types and rates of corrosion encountered and indicate how these data contribute to tank failure predictions. The compositions of the High-Level Wastes, mild steels used in the construction of the waste tanks and degradation-modes particularly stress corrosion cracking and pitting are discussed. Current concerns at the Hanford Site are highlighted.

  17. Modern Alchemy: Solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, C.C.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is putting a modern version of alchemy to work to produce an answer to a decades-old problem. It is taking place at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) near Buffalo, New York. At both locations, contractor Westinghouse Electric Corporation is applying technology that is turning liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stabilized, durable glass for safer and easier management. The process is called vitrification. SRS and WVDP are now operating the nation`s first full-scale HLW vitrification plants.

  18. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

    2014-10-01

    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  19. Comparison of sialylated N-glycopeptide levels in serum of pancreatic cancer patients, acute pancreatitis patients, and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Kontro, Hilkka; Joenväärä, Sakari; Haglund, Caj; Renkonen, Risto

    2014-08-01

    Serum protein glycosylation is known to be affected by pathological conditions, including cancer and inflammatory diseases. Pancreatic cancer patients would benefit from early diagnosis, as the disease is often detected in an advanced stage and has poor prognosis. Searching for changes in serum protein site-specific glycosylation could reveal novel glycoprotein biomarkers. We used Sambucus nigra lectin affinity chromatography to enrich ?-2,6 sialylated tryptic N-glycopeptides from albumin-depleted sera of pancreatic cancer patients, acute pancreatitis patients, and healthy individuals, and compared their relative abundance using ultra performance LC-MS. Relative quantitation was done using the spectrum processing software MZmine. Identification was performed on the web-based tool GlycopeptideID, developed for in silico analysis of intact N-glycopeptides. Seventeen high-abundance serum proteins, mainly acute-phase proteins, and immunoglobulins, with total 27 N-glycosylation sites, and 62 glycoforms, were identified. Pancreatitis patient sera contained 38, and pancreatic cancer patients sera contained 13 glycoform changes with statistical significance (p < 0.05). In pancreatitis, up to tenfold changes were found in some glycoforms, and in pancreatic cancer, threefold. Analysis showed that the changes often concerned one or two, but not all, N-glycosylation sites in a specific glycoprotein. In conclusion, the analysis shows that pancreatic cancer, and acute pancreatitis are associated with changes in concentrations of intact sialylated N-glycopeptides derived from acute-phase proteins, and immunoglobulins, and that changes are site specific. PMID:24841998

  20. Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Bays, Harold E

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and/or progressive loss of ?-cell function. T2DM patients are at increased risk of micro- and macrovascular disease, and are often considered as representing an atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD) risk equivalent. Interventions directed at glucose and lipid level control in T2DM patients may reduce micro- and macrovascular disease. The optimal T2DM agent is one that lowers glucose levels with limited risk for hypoglycemia, and with no clinical trial evidence of worsening CHD risk. Lipid-altering drugs should preferably reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (apo B) and have evidence that the mechanism of action reduces CHD risk. Statins reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apo B and have evidence of improving CHD outcomes, and are thus first-line therapy for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. In patients who do not achieve optimal lipid levels with statin therapy, or who are intolerant to statin therapy, add-on therapy or alternative therapies may be indicated. Additional available agents to treat hypercholesterolemic patients with T2DM include bile acid sequestrants, fibrates, niacin, and ezetimibe. This review discusses the use of these alternative agents to treat hypercholesterolemia in patients with T2DM, either as monotherapy or in combination with statin therapy. PMID:25045281

  1. Association between Serum Soluble Klotho Levels and Mortality in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Otani-Takei, Naoko; Masuda, Takahiro; Akimoto, Tetsu; Honma, Sumiko; Watanabe, Yuko; Shiizaki, Kazuhiro; Miki, Takuya; Kusano, Eiji; Asano, Yasushi; Kuro-o, Makoto; Nagata, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Klotho is a single-pass transmembrane protein predominantly expressed in the kidney. The extracellular domain of Klotho is subject to ectodomain shedding and is released into the circulation as a soluble form. Soluble Klotho is also generated from alternative splicing of the Klotho gene. In mice, defects in Klotho expression lead to complex phenotypes resembling those observed in dialysis patients. However, the relationship between the level of serum soluble Klotho and overall survival in hemodialysis patients, who exhibit a state of Klotho deficiency, remains to be delineated. Here we prospectively followed a cohort of 63 patients with a mean duration of chronic hemodialysis of 6.7 ± 5.4 years for a median of 65 months. Serum soluble Klotho was detectable in all patients (median 371?pg/mL, interquartile range 309–449). Patients with serum soluble Klotho levels below the lower quartile (<309?pg/mL) had significantly higher cardiovascular and all-cause mortality rates. Furthermore, the higher all-cause mortality persisted even after adjustment for confounders (hazard ratio 4.14, confidence interval 1.29–13.48). We conclude that there may be a threshold for the serum soluble Klotho level associated with a higher risk of mortality. PMID:26604925

  2. Independent association between serum sclerostin levels and carotid artery atherosclerosis in prevalent haemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpantur, Alper; Balci, Mustafa; Turkvatan, Aysel; Afsar, Baris

    2015-01-01

    Background Sclerostin is a soluble inhibitor of the Wnt signalling pathway and has been shown to be associated with decreased bone turnover and vascular and/or valvular calcification in patients with chronic kidney disease. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) assessment and common carotid artery (CCA) plaque identification with ultrasound imaging are well-recognized tools for the identification and monitoring of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the circulating levels of sclerostin might be associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis in prevalent haemodialysis patients. Methods In this cross-sectional study, serum sclerostin concentrations were measured using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. CIMT was measured and carotid plaques were identified by B-mode and Doppler ultrasound imaging. Results One hundred and twenty-two prevalent haemodialysis patients were involved in the study. Serum sclerostin levels were higher in patients with plaques in CCA than patients free of plaques (227 ± 166 versus 117 ± 91 pmol/L, P = 0.016). A significant correlation was recorded between serum sclerostin levels and CIMT (r = 0.459, P < 0.0001). In the multiple regression analysis, sclerostin concentrations were one of the independent factors that remained significantly associated with CIMT. Conclusion Sclerostin is independently associated with CIMT although further studies are needed. PMID:26613034

  3. Impact of reduced levels of APE1 transcripts on the survival of patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

    PubMed Central

    CHANTRE-JUSTINO, MARIANA; ALVES, GILDA; BRITTO, CONSTANÇA; CARDOSO, ANGÉLICA; SCHERRER, LUCIANO; MOREIRA, ALINE DOS SANTOS; QUIRINO, RAUL; ORNELLAS, ANTONIO; LEITÃO, ALVARO; LAGE, CLAUDIA

    2015-01-01

    Molecular evidence indicates that alterations in genes involved in the maintenance of genome stability may be related to susceptibility to bladder carcinoma. Our goal was to evaluate the prognostic role of base excision repair (BER) genes in a cohort of patients diagnosed with primary urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB). The levels of all APE1, XRCC1 and POLB transcripts were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technique in tumor samples from 52 patients undergoing transurethral resection (TUR) for primary UCB at the Department of Urology, Brazilian National Cancer Institute, Rio de Janeiro. Increased levels of APE1, XRCC1 and POLB transcripts were significantly associated with high-grade tumors when compared to these levels in low-grade tumors (p<0.01) and could be attributed to different mechanisms of transcriptional regulation as a response to tumorigenesis and oxidative stress. By analyzing the collected data in the present study, regardless of pathological grade or stage, univariate analysis revealed that the reduced levels of APE1 transcripts were significantly associated with cancer-specific mortality (p=0.032). Furthermore, the variant genotype (TG/GG) of the APE1 T1349G polymorphism was observed in 75% of a subset of patients who concomitantly experienced reduced levels of the APE1 transcript and death and/or recurrence events. Taken together, our data reinforce the idea that human DNA repair mechanisms must be finely regulated in order to avoid instability leading to tumorigenesis and poor clinical outcomes in UCB patients. PMID:26238022

  4. Effect of Jeju Water on Blood Glucose Levels in Diabetic Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Gwanpyo; Lee, Dae Ho; Lee, Sang Ah; Kang, Eun-Kyung; Hwang, Okkyeong; Han, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Sok Young; Yang, Eun-Jin; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Chin, Hyoun-Jung

    2013-01-01

    Jeju water is the groundwater of Jeju Island, a volcanic island located in Republic of Korea. We investigated whether Jeju water improved glycemic control in patients with diabetes. This was a 12-week single-center, double-blind, randomized, and controlled trial. The subjects daily drank a liter of one of three kinds of water: two Jeju waters (S1 and S2) and Seoul tap water (SS). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients in the per-protocol (PP) population achieving glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) < 7.0% at week 12. In total, 196 patients were randomized and analyzed in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population (66 consuming S1, 63 consuming S2, and 67 consuming SS); 146 patients were considered in the PP population. There were no significant differences in the primary outcomes of the groups consuming S1, S2, or SS. However, the percentage of patients achieving HbA1c < 8% was significantly higher in the S2 group than in the SS group. In the ITT population, the 12-week HbA1c and fructosamine levels were lower in the S1 group than in the SS group and the 4-, 8-, and 12-week fructosamine levels were lower in the S2 group than in the SS group. Although we failed to achieve the primary outcome, it is possible that the Jeju waters improve glycemic control compared with the Seoul tap water in diabetic patients. PMID:24348692

  5. Functional outcome of patients undergoing replantation of hand at wrist level-7 year experience

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Ravi Kumar; Mittal, Seema

    2013-01-01

    Background: Replantation is defined as reattachment of amputated limb using neurovascular and musculoskeletal structures in order to obtain recovery of limb. Re-vascularisation involves all the above steps in case of limb injuries that result in a near total amputation. Aim and Objective: To study the functional outcome of patients undergoing replantation of hand at wrist level. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients who underwent replantation of total amputation of hand at wrist level within a period of Jan 2003-June 2010. We evaluated post operative functional outcome compared to uninjured hand taking into consideration: 1. The patient's overall satisfaction with the hand. 2. Recovery of flexor and extensor function of thumb and fingers. 3. Recovery of thumb opposition. 4. Recovery of sensations in the median and ulnar nerve distribution. 5. Ability of surviving hand to perform daily tasks. Results: There were total seventeen pati