Science.gov

Sample records for patos lagoon brazil

  1. Natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs to sediments of Patos Lagoon Estuary, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Patricia Matheus; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Castelao, Renato Menezes; Del Rosso, Clarissa; Fillmann, Gilberto; Zamboni, Ademilson Josemar

    2005-01-01

    The Patos Lagoon Estuary, southern Brazil, is an area of environmental interest not only because of tourism, but also because of the presence of the second major port of Brazil, with the related industrial and shipping activities. Thus, potential hydrocarbon pollution was examined in this study. Sediment samples were collected at 10 sites in the estuary, extracted, and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS for composition and concentration of the following organic geochemical markers: normal and isoprenoid alkanes, petroleum biomarkers, linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The total concentrations varied from 1.1 to 129.6 microg g(-1) for aliphatic hydrocarbons, from 17.8 to 4510.6 ng g(-1) for petroleum biomarkers, from 3.2 to 1601.9 ng g(-1) for LABs, and from 37.7 to 11,779.9 ng g(-1) for PAHs. Natural hydrocarbons were mainly derived from planktonic inputs due to a usual development of blooms in the estuary. Terrestrial plant wax compounds prevailed at sites located far from Rio Grande City and subject to stronger currents. Anthropogenic hydrocarbons are related to combustion/pyrolysis processes of fossil fuel, release of unburned oil products and domestic/industrial waste outfalls. Anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs were more apparent at sites associated with industrial discharges (petroleum distributor and refinery), shipping activities (dry docking), and sewage outfalls (sewage). The overall concentrations of anthropogenic hydrocarbons revealed moderate to high hydrocarbon pollution in the study area. PMID:15607781

  2. Metazoan parasites of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in Patos Lagoon, extreme south of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rassier, Gabriela Lopes; Pesenti, Tatiana Cheuiche; Pereira Júnior, Joaber; da Silva, Diego Silva; Wendt, Emília Welter; Monteiro, Cassandra de Moraes; Berne, Maria Elizabeth Aires

    2015-01-01

    This study has evaluated the parasitic fauna of 79 pearl cichlids (Geophagus brasiliensis) from the estuary of Patos Lagoon (31° 57' S and 52° 06' W), Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during the months of May and June in 2011 and 2012. All the hosts analyzed were infected with at least one species of parasite. A total of eleven metazoa were identified in 459 specimens collected. The trematode Austrodiplostomum compactum (34.2%) and ergasilids Ergasilus lizae (32.9%) and Gauchergasilus lizae (32.9%) were the most prevalent species. The trematodes Thometrema overstreeti and Posthodiplostomum sp. had significantly higher prevalence in fish longer than 20 cm. The sex of the host had no effect on parasite prevalence and abundance. Pearl cichlids are registered as a new host for the trematodes Lobatostoma sp., Homalometron pseudopallidum and Thometrema overstreeti, for the ergasilids Ergasilus lizae and Gauchergasilus euripedesi and for the argulid Argulus spinolosus. The crustacean E. lizae is recorded in Rio Grande do Sul for the first time. PMID:26648010

  3. Synthesis of benthic flux components in the Patos Lagoon coastal zone, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    The primary objective of this work is to synthesize components of benthic flux in the Patos Lagoon coastal zone, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Specifically, the component of benthic discharge flux forced by the terrestrial hydraulic gradient is 0.8 m3 d-1; components of benthic discharge and recharge flux associated with the groundwater tidal prism are both 2.1 m3 d-1; components of benthic discharge and recharge flux forced by surface-gravity wave setup are both 6.3 m3 d-1; the component of benthic discharge flux that transports radium-228 is 350 m3 d-1; and components of benthic discharge and recharge flux forced by surface-gravity waves propagating over a porous medium are both 1400 m3 d-1. (All models are normalized per meter shoreline.) Benthic flux is a function of components forced by individual mechanisms and nonlinear interactions that exist between components. Constructive and destructive interference may enhance or diminish the contribution of benthic flux components. It may not be possible to model benthic flux by summing component magnitudes. Geochemical tracer techniques may not accurately model benthic discharge flux or submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). A conceptual model provides a framework on which to quantitatively characterize benthic discharge flux and SGD with a multifaceted approach.

  4. Stocks and sources of carbon buried in the salt marshes and seagrass beds of Patos Lagoon Estuary, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Elizabeth; Johnson, Beverly; Dostie, Philip; Copertino, Margareth

    2016-04-01

    This project investigates carbon stocks in salt marshes and seagrass beds in the Patos Lagoon estuary, the largest choked lagoon in the world, located in Southern Brazil. The study was conducted in the mesohaline region, at three shallow shoals. At each shoal, three sediment cores (50 cm deep) and plant biomass samples (above and belowground) were collected along a transect line, spanning from the marsh to seagrass beds (total = 9 sediment cores). The 50cm cores were subsampled and analyzed for organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, C/N ratios, and the isotope ratios of 13C/12C, and 15N/14N. The organic carbon content of these sediments ranged between 10% (in surface sediments) and 1% (deeper in the core), suggesting that both the salt marshes and seagrass beds in this region are sequestering carbon. Early results indicate that cores taken in marsh dominated by C3 plants (Scirpus maritimus) tended to be the most depleted in 13C with δ13C values around -25‰. Cores taken in marsh dominated by C4 plants (Spartina alterniflora, Spartina densiflora), seagrass beds (Ruppia maritima) , and non vegetated areas were generally isotopically heavier with δ13C values ranging -20‰ to -15‰, indicating a mix of organic sources in the sediments. The δ15N values and C/N ratios both varied with most values falling in a range of 2-8‰ and 7-20 respectively. Analysis of the δ 34S isotope composition of the sediments is currently underway and may provide better information on the relative contributions of macro and micro algae in the sediments. The present data will reveal the carbon stock size, as well as the types and history of organic matter deposition in Patos Lagoon estuary.

  5. A resource management scenario for traditional and scientific management of pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus paulensis) in the Patos Lagoon estuary (RS), Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This article aims to discuss the incorporation of traditional time in the construction of a management scenario for pink shrimp in the Patos Lagoon estuary (RS), Brazil. To meet this objective, two procedures have been adopted; one at a conceptual level and another at a methodological level. At the conceptual level, the concept of traditional time as a form of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) was adopted. Method At the methodological level, we conduct a wide literature review of the scientific knowledge (SK) that guides recommendations for pink shrimp management by restricting the fishing season in the Patos Lagoon estuary; in addition, we review the ethno-scientific literature which describes traditional calendars as a management base for artisanal fishers in the Patos Lagoon estuary. Results Results demonstrate that TEK and SK describe similar estuarine biological processes, but are incommensurable at a resource management level. On the other hand, the construction of a “management scenario” for pink shrimp is possible through the development of “criteria for hierarchies of validity” which arise from a productive dialog between SK and TEK. Conclusions The commensurable and the incommensurable levels reveal different basis of time-space perceptions between traditional ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge. Despite incommensurability at the management level, it is possible to establish guidelines for the construction of “management scenarios” and to support a co-management process. PMID:23311826

  6. Aspects of fish conservation in the upper Patos Lagoon basin.

    PubMed

    Fontoura, N F; Vieira, J P; Becker, F G; Rodrigues, L R; Malabarba, L R; Schulz, U H; Möller, O O; Garcia, A M; Vilella, F S

    2016-07-01

    The Patos Lagoon basin is a large (201 626 km(2) ) and complex drainage system in southern Brazil. The lagoon is 250 km long and 60 km wide, covering an area of 10 360 km(2) . The exchange of water with the Atlantic Ocean occurs through a 0·8 km wide and 15 m deep inlet, fixed by 4 km long jetties, at the southernmost part of the Patos Lagoon. The estuarine area is restricted to its southern portion (10%), although the upper limit of saline waters migrates seasonally and year to year, influenced by the wind regime and river discharge. The known number of recorded limnetic fish species is 200, but this number is expected to increase. A higher endemism is observed in fish species occurring in upper tributaries. The basin suffers from the direct impact of almost 7 million inhabitants, concentrated in small to large cities, most with untreated domestic effluents. There are at least 16 non-native species recorded in natural habitats of the Patos Lagoon basin, about half of these being from other South American river basins. Concerning the fishery, although sport and commercial fisheries are widespread throughout the Patos Lagoon basin, the lagoon itself and the estuarine area are the main fishing areas. Landing statistics are not available on a regular basis or for the whole basin. The fishery in the northern Patos Lagoon captures 31 different species, nine of which are responsible for most of the commercial catches, but only three species are actually sustaining the artisanal fishery: the viola Loricariichthys anus: 455 kg per 10 000 m(2) gillnet per day, the mullet Mugil liza: 123 kg per 10 000 m(2) gillnet per day and the marine catfish Genidens barbus: 50 kg per 10 000 m(2) gillnet per day. A decline of the fish stocks can be attributed to inadequate fishery surveillance, which leads to overfishing and mortality of juveniles, or to decreasing water quality because of urban and industrial activities and power production. Global climatic changes also represent a

  7. The freshwater artisanal fishery of Patos Lagoon.

    PubMed

    Ceni, G; Fontoura, N F; Cabral, H N

    2016-07-01

    In this study data relative to the fishery in the freshwater area of the Patos Lagoon are analysed, and the dynamics, fishing gears used and catches evaluated. The results reveal the existence of two fishery strategies: forbidden mesh size gillnets (FMG; <35 mm; square measure) and allowed mesh size gillnets (AMG; ≥35 mm; square measure). In total, 31 species were caught (AMG = 27 and FMG = 24), but selectivity due to mesh size was significant (P < 0·001). The FMG may be very harmful since it captures individuals of most species below size at first maturity, including the target species, the armoured catfish Loricariichthys anus (61% of the total catch). In addition, this gear is used throughout the year, including the closed season (CS; November to January), when the target species is reproducing. Target species for the AMG are larger in size, comprising mainly the mullet Mugil liza, the marine catfish Genidens barbus and the whitemouth croaker Micropogonias furnieri. AMS gillnets were not used during the CS. The use of FMG reveals the need for effective fishery law enforcement and the need for additional studies to assess the status of populations of the exploited species. PMID:27250698

  8. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass

  9. Potential environmental and host gender influences on prevalence of Haemogregarina platessae (Adeleorina:Haemogregarinidae) and suspected Haemohormidium terraenovae (incertae sedis) in Brazilian flounder from the Patos Lagoon Estuary, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Davies, Angela J; Amado, Lílian L; Cook, Richard T; Bianchini, Adalto; Eiras, Jorge C

    2008-09-01

    Flounder, Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes), were captured in polluted and non-polluted sites within the Patos Lagoon Estuary, southern Brazil, over four seasons. Blood films showed a high prevalence of infection with a haemogregarine, or mixed parasitaemias of this and an organism resembling Haemohormidium terraenovae So, 1972. Haemogregarine gamont stages conformed to existing descriptions of Desseria platessae (Lebailly, 1904) Siddall, 1995 from flatfishes, but intraerythrocytic division of meronts was observed, leading to the recommendation for nomenclatural correction, placing the haemogregarine in the genus Haemogregarina (sensu lato) Danilewsky, 1885. Statistical analyses suggested that although sample sizes were small, infections with meront stages, immature and mature gamonts were all influenced by site, and possibly therefore, by pollution. Season also appeared to determine likelihood of infection with meronts and immature gamonts, but not mature gamonts, while adult fish gender apparently affected infection with immature and mature gamonts, but not meronts. The H. terraenovae-like organism exhibited unusual extracellular forms and did not match closely with the type description of H. terraenovae; precise identification was therefore difficult. Data analyses suggested that parasitism by this organism was influenced by site and fish gender, since females and males from non-polluted water were infected, but only females from the polluted site. Season was also important and significantly more adult fish of both sexes were infected with this parasite in the Brazilian summer and autumn, compared with winter and spring. Finally, these appeared to be the first observations of Haemogregarina platessae, and possibly H. terraenovae, from the southern hemisphere. PMID:19202674

  10. Patos Lagoon outflow within the Río de la Plata plume using an airborne salinity mapper: Observing an embedded plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrage, Derek; Wesson, Joel; Martinez, Carlos; Pérez, Tabare; Möller, Osmar, Jr.; Piola, Alberto

    2008-07-01

    Major river systems discharging into continental shelf waters frequently form buoyant coastal currents that propagate along the continental shelf in the direction of coastal trapped wave propagation (with the coast on the right/left, in the northern/southern hemisphere). The combined flow of the Uruguay and Paraná Rivers, which discharges freshwater into the Río de la Plata estuary (Lat. ˜36°S), often gives rise to a buoyant coastal current (the 'Plata plume') that extends northward along the continental shelf off Uruguay and Southern Brazil. Depending upon the prevailing rainfall, wind and tidal conditions, the Patos/Mirim Lagoon complex (Lat. ˜32°S) may also produce a freshwater outflow plume that expands across the inner continental shelf. Under these circumstances the Patos outflow plume can be embedded in temperature, salinity and current fields that are strongly influenced by the larger Plata plume. The purpose of this paper is to present observations of such an embedded plume structure and to determine the dynamical characteristics of the ambient and embedded plumes. We describe selected results of coincident airborne remote sensing and shipboard in-situ surveys of the salinity distribution and extent of the Plata and Patos/Mirim Lagoon plumes conducted under contrasting winter (2003) and summer (2004) conditions. The surveys were carried out in the context of a comprehensive multi-disciplinary study of the Plata plume and its response to prevailing seasonal weather conditions. The objective was to map the surface salinity distribution of the Plata plume at synoptic scales under representative winter and summer conditions. Additionally, the airborne survey included finer-scale mapping of specific features including the Río de Plata estuarine front and the Patos Lagoon plume, with the objective of determining the distribution and behavior of the plumes in the estuaries and on the continental shelf. The airborne survey was conducted with an aircraft

  11. Brazil: Duck Lagoon

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Niño events correspond with elevated dissolved ... years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional ...

  12. Stability of bacterial composition and activity in different salinity waters in the dynamic Patos Lagoon estuary: evidence from a lagrangian-like approach.

    PubMed

    They, Ng Haig; Ferreira, Lise Maria Holanda; Marins, Luís Fernando; Abreu, Paulo Cesar

    2013-10-01

    We employed a Lagrangian-like sampling design to evaluate bacterial community composition (BCC--using temporal temperature gel gradient electrophoresis), community-level physiological profiles (CLPP--using the EcoPlate™ assay), and influencing factors in different salinity waters in the highly dynamic Patos Lagoon estuary (southern Brazil) and adjacent coastal zone. Samples were collected monthly by following limnetic-oligohaline (0-1), mesohaline (14-16), and polyhaline (28-31) waters for 1 year. The BCC was specific for each salinity range, whereas the CLPPs were similar for mesohaline and polyhaline waters, and both were different from the limnetic-oligohaline samples. The limnetic-oligohaline waters displayed an oxidation capacity for almost all organic substrates tested, whereas the mesohaline and polyhaline waters presented lower numbers of oxidized substrates, suggesting that potential activities of bacteria increased from the polyhaline to oligohaline waters. However, the polyhaline samples showed a higher utilization of some simple carbohydrates, amino acids, and polymers, indicating a shortage of inorganic nutrients (especially nitrogen) and organic substrates in coastal saltwater. The hypothesis of bacterial nitrogen limitation was corroborated by the higher Nuse index (an EcoPlate™-based nitrogen limitation indicator) in the polyhaline waters and the importance of NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), low-molecular-weight substances, and the low-molecular-weight:high-molecular-weight substances ratio, indicated by the canonical correspondence analyses (CCAs). Our results demonstrate the important stability of microbial community composition and potential metabolic activity in the different water salinity ranges, which are independent of the region and time of the year of sample collection in the estuary. This is a quite unexpected result for a dynamic environment such as the Patos Lagoon estuary. PMID:23812105

  13. Bacterial community composition and physiological shifts associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the Patos Lagoon estuary.

    PubMed

    They, Ng Haig; Ferreira, Lise Maria Holanda; Marins, Luís Fernando; Abreu, Paulo Cesar

    2015-04-01

    The Patos Lagoon estuary is a microtidal system that is strongly regulated by atmospheric forces, including remote large-scale phenomena such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which affects precipitation patterns in the region. In this study, we investigated whether the bacterial community composition (BCC), community-level physiological profiles (CLPP), and a set of environmental variables were affected by the transition from a moderate El Niño to a strong La Niña event (June 2010 to May 2011). We identified two distinct periods: a period following El Niño that was characterized by low salinity and high concentrations of NO3(-) and PO4(-3) and low molecular weight (LMW) substances and a period following La Niña during which salinity, temperature, and transparency increased and the concentrations of nutrients and LMW substances decreased. The BCC and CLPP were significantly altered in response to this transition. This is the first study addressing the effect of ENSO on bacteria at the community level in an estuarine system. Our results suggest that there is a link between ENSO and bacteria, indicating the role of climate variability in bacterial activities and, hence, the cycling of organic matter by these microorganisms. PMID:25339307

  14. Strain localization in the middle- to upper continental crust: examples from the Patos and Pernambuco shear zones (Borborema Province, NE Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viegas, G.; Archanjo, C. J.; Hollanda, M. H.; Vauchez, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    The accommodation of deformation in the Earth's lithosphere typically results in a heterogeneous distribution of strain in the continental crust, which is a function of effective pressure, temperature and strain rate at different structural levels. In Northeast Brazil, the Borborema Province is characterized by an interconnected, crustal-scale shear zone system associated with a widespread granitic plutonism. Two of the most prominent structures of this system, the Patos and Pernambuco shear zones, are characterized by ~ 600 km long E-W striking mylonite belts in which strain localization processes are observed either in association with partial melting in the Patos strike-slip fault, or as zones of overprinting brittle-ductile deformation in the Pernambuco shear zone. Deformation mechanisms are distinct across the Patos shear zone, mainly marked by crystalline plasticity and diffusion creep in the high-temperature northern border, magmatic flow in the central region and dislocation creep coupled with microfracturing in the southern sector. The Espinho Branco migmatite (~ 565 Ma) acts as a weak rheological layer that accumulates strain in the northern portion of the fault. Alternatively, the absence of partial melting and the dominant cataclastic/plastic flow regime lead to grain-size sensitive strain localization at the southern border. The Pernambuco shear zone was nucleated at the vicinities of two granitoid batholiths at c.a. 588 Ma. Low-temperature mylonites adjacent to the batholiths show several microstructures indicating coeval activity of brittle-ductile deformation. Recent zircon U-Pb (SHRIMP) data on these mylonites yielded mean ages of ~ 539 Ma, suggesting successive events of thermal input and shearing within the structure. These features suggest that strain localization processes exert an important control on the rheology of the continental lithosphere; the accommodation of deformation in the middle crust is mainly attained by the presence of weak

  15. Hydrology and Salt Balance in a Large, Hypersaline Coastal Lagoon: Lagoa de Araruama, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjerfve, Björn; Schettini, C. A. F.; Knoppers, Bastiaan; Lessa, Guilherme; Ferreira, H. O.

    1996-06-01

    Lagoa de Araruama in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is a hypersaline coastal lagoon as a result of semi-arid climate conditions, a small drainage basin and a choked entrance channel. The lagoon has been continuously hypersaline for at least 4·5 centuries, but the mean salinity has varied substantially. It has recently decreased from 57 to 52 as indicated by density (salinity) measurements between 1965 and 1990. Analysis of more than 20 years of salinity time series data, in addition to monthly lagoon cruises to measure the spatial salinity distribution, indicate that the lagoon salinity largely fluctuates in response to the difference between evaporation and precipitation. The major factor explaining the long-term trend of decreasing salinity in the lagoon is the constant pumping of 1 m 3s -1of freshwater to the communities surrounding the lagoon from an adjacent watershed, and subsequent discharge of this water into Lagoa de Araruama. The net salt budget is primarily a balance between the advective import of salt from the coastal ocean and eddy diffusive export of salt to the ocean, although the extensive mining of salt from the lagoon during past decades is also a small but significant contribution to the salt budget. The flushing half-life is proposed as a useful time scale of water exchange, is calculated based on a combination of hydrological and tidal processes, and is excellent for comparison of lagoons and assessing water quality changes. The flushing half-life measures 83·5 days for Lagoa de Araruama, considerably longer than for most other coastal lagoons. The proposed dredging of a second ocean channel to Lagoa de Araruama is probably not a good idea. It is likely to accelerate the decrease of lagoon salinity and somewhat improve the lagoon water exchange. At the same time, this will eliminate the apparent buffering capacity provided by the hypersaline environment, and thus may potentially cause water quality problems.

  16. Comparative oceanography of coastal lagoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kjerfve, Bjorn

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that physical lagoon characteristics and variability depend on the channel connecting the lagoon to the adjacent coastal ocean is evaluated. The geographical, hydrological, and oceanographic characteristics of 10 lagoon systems are described and analyzed; these oceanographic features are utilized to classify the lagoon systems. Choked lagoons (Laguna Joyuda, Coorong, Lake St.Lucia, Gippsland Lakes, Lake Songkla/Thale Luang/Thale Noi, and Lagoa dos Patos) are prevalent on coasts with high wave energy and low tidal range; restricted lagoons (Lake Pontchartrain and Laguna de Terminos) are located on low/medium wave energy coasts with a low tidal range; and leaky lagoons (Mississippi Sound and Belize Lagoon/Chetumal Bay) are connected to the ocean by wide tidal passes that transmit oceanic effects into the lagoon with a minimum of resistance. The data support the hypothesis that the nature of the connecting channel controls system functions.

  17. Hydrogeochemistry Of A Modern Dolomite-Forming Lagoon System, Cabo Frio-RJ, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, N. F.; Walter, L. M.

    2004-12-01

    Two hypersaline, dolomite-forming lagoons near Cabo Frio, Brazil, and associated ground- and surface waters were sampled in a comparative sediment and fluid geochemical (solutes, stable isotopes) investigation. Although microbial mediation via sulfate reducers has been invoked to explain dolomite formation in these lagoons, we showed that dolomites are associated with sulfide oxidation (Moreira et al., 2004). Sulfide oxidation is thought to promote dolomite formation by causing undersaturation for competing carbonate phases such as Mg-calcite. Herein, we consider the larger hydrogeologic and temporal setting to further elucidate hydrogeochemical and geochemical constraints on rates and mechanisms of dolomite formation in the two lagoons. The lagoons, Brejo do Espinho (BE) and Lagoa Vermelha (LV), are shallow marginal marine systems flanked by quartz sand dunes separating them from Atlantic open seawater to the south and from Araruama lagoon, a large, hypersaline water body, to the north. In both lagoons, about 1 m of high Mg-calcite and dolomite mud has accumulated over the last 5,000 years on an underlying aquifer composed of highly permeable, quartz-rich coquinas. BE has a proximal relation to recharge from Araruama lagoon, while LV is more closely associated with meteoric recharge from lacustrine and riverine systems. BE is shallower, at 0.5 m water depth, than LV (2 m), permitting BE waters to remain oxic. Oxygen isotope values and chloride mass balances of pore waters and of fluids sampled from shallow ground water wells identify the different water and solute sources the lagoons. BE overlying brines and pore waters appear to be produced by evapoconcentration of Araruama source brines and meteoric precipitation. In contrast, LV derives from evapoconcentrated seawater mixed with regional lake and ground water sources. We envision a scenario in which dense, Mg-SO4-rich brines from Araruama migrate along a permeable flowpath in limited contact with the atmosphere

  18. Tracing anthropogenically driven groundwater discharge into a coastal lagoon from southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Isaac R.; Niencheski, Felipe; Burnett, William; Peterson, Richard; Chanton, Jeffrey; Andrade, Carlos F. F.; Milani, Idel B.; Schmidt, Axel; Knoeller, Kay

    2008-05-01

    SummaryWe investigated the distribution of naturally occurring geochemical tracers ( 222Rn, 223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, CH 4, δ18O, and δ2H) in the water column and adjacent groundwater of Mangueira Lagoon as proxies of groundwater discharge. Mangueira Lagoon is a large (90 km long), shallow (˜4-5 m deep), fresh, and non-tidal coastal lagoon in southern Brazil surrounded by extensively irrigated rice plantations and numerous irrigation canals. We hypothesized that the annual, intense irrigation for rice agriculture creates extreme conditions that seasonally change groundwater discharge patterns in the adjacent lagoon. We further supposed that dredging of irrigation canals alters groundwater fluxes. While the activities of 222Rn in shallow groundwater were 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than in surface water, CH 4 and radium isotopes were only ˜1 order of magnitude higher. Therefore, 222Rn appears to be the preferred groundwater tracer in this system. Radon concentrations and conductivities were dramatically higher near the pump house of rice irrigation canals, consistent with a groundwater source. Modeling of radon inventories accounting for total inputs (groundwater advection, diffusion from sediments, and decay of 226Ra) and losses (atmospheric evasion, horizontal mixing and decay) indicated that groundwater advection rates in the irrigation canals (˜25 cm/d) are over 2 orders of magnitude higher than along the shoreline (˜0.1 cm/d). Nearly 75% of the total area of the canals is found in the southern half of the lagoon, where groundwater inputs seem to be higher as also indicated by methane and stable isotope trends. In spite of the relatively small area of the canals, we estimate that they contribute nearly 70% of the total (˜57,000 m 3/d) groundwater input into the entire Mangueira Lagoon. We suggest that the dredging of these canals cut through aquitards which previously restricted upward advection from the underlying permeable strata. The irrigation channels

  19. Assessment of the trophic status of four coastal lagoons and one estuarine delta, eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cotovicz Junior, Luiz Carlos; Brandini, Nilva; Knoppers, Bastiaan Adriaan; Mizerkowski, Byanka Damian; Sterza, José Mauro; Ovalle, Alvaro Ramon Coelho; Medeiros, Paulo Ricardo Petter

    2013-04-01

    Anthropogenic eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems continues to be one of the major environmental issues worldwide and also of Brazil. Over the last five decades, several approaches have been proposed to discern the trophic state and the natural and cultural processes involved in eutrophication, including the multi-parameter Assessment of Estuarine Trophic Status (ASSETS) index model. This study applies ASSETS to four Brazilian lagoons (Mundaú, Manguaba, Guarapina, and Piratininga) and one estuarine delta (Paraíba do Sul River), set along the eastern Brazilian coast. The model combines three indices based on the pressure-state-response (PSR) approach to rank the trophic status and forecast the potential eutrophication of a system, to which a final ASSETS grade is established. The lagoons were classified as being eutrophic and highly susceptible to eutrophication, due primarily to their longer residence times but also their high nutrient input index. ASSETS classified the estuary of the Paraíba do Sul river with a low to moderate trophic state (e.g., largely mesotrophic) and low susceptibility to eutrophication. Its nutrient input index was high, but the natural high dilution and flushing potential driven by river flow mitigated the susceptibility to eutrophication. Eutrophication forecasting provided more favorable trends for the Mundaú and Manguaba lagoons and the Paraíba do Sul estuary, in view of the larger investments in wastewater treatment and remediation plans. The final ASSETS ranking system established the lagoons of Mundaú as "moderate," Manguaba as "bad," Guarapina as "poor," and Piratininga as "bad," whereas the Paraíba do Sul River Estuary was "good." PMID:22821328

  20. Pyrite as a proxy for the identification of former coastal lagoons in semiarid NE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Tiago O.; Nóbrega, Gabriel N.; Albuquerque, Antonia G. B. M.; Sartor, Lucas R.; Gomes, Irlene S.; Artur, Adriana G.; Otero, Xosé L.

    2015-10-01

    This work aimed to test the suitability of pyrite (FeS2) as a proxy for reconstructing past marine environmental conditions along the semiarid coast of Brazil. Morphological description combined with physicochemical analyses including Fe partitioning were conducted for soil depth profiles (30 and 60 cm depths) at three sites in two contrasting lagoons of the state of Ceará: a suspected former lagoon that would have been transformed into a freshwater "lake" at a site vegetated by Juncus effusus (site P1), and another lagoon with connection to the sea at sites vegetated by J. effusus (site P2) or Portulaca oleracea (site P3). Soil samples were collected in September 2010. Site P3 had more reducing conditions, reaching Eh values of -132 mV in the surface layer (0-10 cm), whereas minimum values for the P1 and P2 sites were +219 and +85 mV, respectively. Lower pyritic Fe values were found at site P1, with a degree of pyritization (DOP) ranging from 10 to 13%. At sites P2 and P3, DOP ranged from 9 to 67% and from 55 to 72%, respectively. These results are consistent with an interruption of tidal channels by eolian dune migration inducing strong changes in the hydrodynamics and physicochemical characteristics (lower salinity, oxidizing conditions) of these sites, causing the dieback of suspected former mangroves and a succession to freshwater marshes with an intermediate salt marsh stage. Together with other physicochemical signatures, pyrite can evidently serve as a useful proxy in tracking environmental changes in such ecotones, with implications for coastal management.

  1. Microbial Mg-carbonate Precipitation and Early Diagenetic Dolomite Crust Formation at Hypersaline Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahniuk Rumbelsperger, A. M.; McKenzie, J. A.; Perri, E.; Vögeli, N.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2015-12-01

    Sedimentary dolomite rocks are commonly considered to be primarily a replacement product of the calcium carbonate components comprising the original limestone, a process known as secondary replacement dolomitization. Although numerous dolomite formations in the geologic record are composed of fine-grained crystals of micritic dolomite, an alternative process, i.e., direct precipitation, is often excluded because of the absence of visible or geochemical indicators supporting primary precipitation. We present a study of a modern coastal hypersaline lagoon, Brejo do Espinho, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, which is located in a special climatic regime where a well-defined seasonal cycle of wet and dry conditions occur. The direct precipitation of modern high-Mg calcite and Ca-dolomite mud from the lagoonal waters under low-temperature hypersaline conditions is associated with the activity of microbial organisms living in this restricted environment. The mud undergoes an early diagenetic transformation into a 100% dolomite crust on the margins of the lagoon. The biomineralization process, characterized by the variations of the physico-chemical conditions in this environment during the annual hydrologic cycle, is integrated with isotopic analysis to define the early diagenetic processes responsible for the formation of both dolomitic mud and crust. The carbon isotope values indicate a contribution of respired organic carbon, which is greater for the crust (δ13C = -9.5‰ VPDB) than mud (δ13C = -1.2‰ VPDB). The oxygen isotope values reflect a moderate degree of evaporation during mud formation (δ18O = 1.1‰ VPDB), whereas it is greatly enhanced during early diagenetic crust formation (δ18O = 4.2‰ VPDB). The clumped isotope formation temperatures derived for the Brejo do Espinho mud is 34°C and 32°C for the crust. These temperatures are consistent with the upper range of measured values during the dry season when the lagoon experiences the most hypersaline

  2. Quantification of Sterol and Triterpenol Biomarkers in Sediments of the Cananéia-Iguape Estuarine-Lagoonal System (Brazil) by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Bataglion, Giovana Anceski; Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; Weber, Rolf Roland; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    Sterols and triterpenols present in sedimentary cores from 12 stations along the Cananéia-Iguape estuarine-lagoonal system were investigated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Ten sterols and three triterpenols were identified and quantified, indicating both natural and anthropogenic sources. The relative distributions of sterol and triterpenol showed that the study area is submitted to organic matter (OM) from the Ribeira de Iguape River, seawater, surrounding vegetation, and plankton production. The contribution of these sources depends on the region of the estuarine-lagoonal system and the depth of sediment. Regarding anthropogenic sources, only the samples submitted to freshwater flow from the Ribeira de Iguape River presented concentration of coprostanol higher than the threshold value and diagnostic ratios, coprostanol/(coprostanol + cholestanol) and coprostanol/cholesterol, that indicate moderate contamination by domestic sewage in that area of the estuarine-lagoonal system. Therefore, the approach used herein identified the OM sources and its transport along the Cananéia-Iguape estuarine-lagoonal system (Brazil), which is a complex of lagoonal channels located in a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Biosphere Reserve. PMID:27087811

  3. Quantification of Sterol and Triterpenol Biomarkers in Sediments of the Cananéia-Iguape Estuarine-Lagoonal System (Brazil) by UHPLC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Bataglion, Giovana Anceski; Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; Weber, Rolf Roland; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    Sterols and triterpenols present in sedimentary cores from 12 stations along the Cananéia-Iguape estuarine-lagoonal system were investigated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Ten sterols and three triterpenols were identified and quantified, indicating both natural and anthropogenic sources. The relative distributions of sterol and triterpenol showed that the study area is submitted to organic matter (OM) from the Ribeira de Iguape River, seawater, surrounding vegetation, and plankton production. The contribution of these sources depends on the region of the estuarine-lagoonal system and the depth of sediment. Regarding anthropogenic sources, only the samples submitted to freshwater flow from the Ribeira de Iguape River presented concentration of coprostanol higher than the threshold value and diagnostic ratios, coprostanol/(coprostanol + cholestanol) and coprostanol/cholesterol, that indicate moderate contamination by domestic sewage in that area of the estuarine-lagoonal system. Therefore, the approach used herein identified the OM sources and its transport along the Cananéia-Iguape estuarine-lagoonal system (Brazil), which is a complex of lagoonal channels located in a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Biosphere Reserve. PMID:27087811

  4. Modeling habitat suitability of the invasive clam Corbicula fluminea in a Neotropical shallow lagoon, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, T C L; Gama, A M S; Alves, T P; Fontoura, N F

    2016-04-19

    This study aimed to model the habitat suitability for an invasive clam Corbicula fluminea in a coastal shallow lagoon in the southern Neotropical region (-30.22, -50.55). The lagoon (19km2, maximum deep 2.5m) was sampled with an Ekman dredge in an orthogonal matrix comprising 84 points. At each sampling point, were obtained environmental descriptors as depth, organic matter content (OMC), average granulometry (Avgran), and the percentage of sand (Pcsand). Prediction performance of Generalized Linear Models (GLM), Generalized Additive Models (GAM) and Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) were compared. Also, niche overlapping with other native clam species (Castalia martensi, Neocorbicula limosa and Anodontites trapesialis) was examined. A BRT model with 1400 trees was selected as the best model, with cross-validated correlation of 0.82. The relative contributions of predictors were Pcsand-42.6%, OMC-35.8%, Avgran-10.9% and Depth-10.8%. Were identified that C. fluminea occur mainly in sandy sediments with few organic matter, in shallow areas nor by the shore. The PCA showed a wide niche overlap with the native clam species C. martensi, N. limosa and A. trapesialis. PMID:27097092

  5. Bioavailability of pollutants in bacterial communities of Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Fonseca, E.M.; Neto, J.A. Baptista; McAlister, J.J.; Smith, B.J.; Crapez, M.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Processes involving heavy metals and other contaminants continue to present unsolved environmental questions. To advance the understanding of geochemical processes that involve the bioavailability of contaminants, cores where collected in the Rodrigo de Freitas lagoon, and analyzed for bacterial activity and metal concentrations. Results would suggest an extremely reducing environment where organic substances seem to be the predominant agents responsible for this geochemical process. Analytical data showed sulphate reduction to be the main agent driving this process, since this kind of bacteria was found to be active in all of the samples analyzed. Esterase enzyme production did not signal the influence of heavy metals and hydrocarbon concentrations and heavy metals were found to be unavailable for biota. However, correlation between results for bacterial biomass and the potentially mobile percentage of the total Ni concentrations would suggest a negative impact. PMID:25477931

  6. Dynamics of fipronil in Oleo Lagoon in Jataí Ecological Station, São Paulo-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Peret, André Moldenhauer; Oliveira, Luciana Fontes; Bianchini, Irineu; Seleghim, Mirna Helena Regali; Peret, Alberto Carvalho; Mozeto, Antonio Aparecido

    2010-03-01

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole pesticide widely used to protect sugar-cane crops from insect pests. After reaching the environment, this insecticide may have several fates. This research aimed to propose a kinetic model to describe the fate of commercial fipronil Regent 800WG in the sediment-water interface of the Oleo Lagoon in the Mogi-Guaçu river floodplain, situated within the Jataí Ecological Station, by means of a microcosm scale experiment. Results showed that a small fraction of the pesticide is quickly dragged to the sediment while most of it remains in the water column. Biodegradation proves to be an important fipronil degradation route, especially when microorganisms capable of using fipronil as sole carbon source increase their population, as a function of exposure time. Biodegradation rates were higher in the sediment than in the water column. PMID:20079520

  7. [Cooper, cadmium and lead in the fish Cyprinodon dearborni, in the sediments and in the water of two lagoons in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Toledo, J; Lemus, M; Chung, K S

    2000-12-01

    The concentration of copper, cadmium and lead in superficial sediment, water and the fish Cyprinodon dearborni was determined in two coastal lagoons of Sucre State, Venezuela. Chacopata lagoon is hyper saline while Los Patos lagoon is hypo saline and receives significant wastewater from Cumaná city. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected in February 1998. In the laboratory, samples underwent acid digestion and were analyzed by atomic absorption spectophotometry. The mean values of the metals in C. dearborni from the Chacopata lagoon were: 159.26 +/- 210.68 microg/g for Cu, 44.71 +/- 45.58 microg/g for Cd, and 9.31 +/- 23.34 microg/g for Pb, while for Los Patos lagoon the mean values were: 64.88 +/- 16.30, 19.48 +/- 5.81 and 22.85 +/- 20.00, respectively. In the water column, the metal concentration ranges were: 2.3-11.6, 3.9-5.4 and 21-32 mg/l for copper, cadmium and lead, respectively. These results suggest that metal levels in sediment, water column and organisms in both lagoons do not differ, except for lead, even though only Los Patos receives waste water. PMID:15266812

  8. Histological Changes in Gills of Two Fish Species as Indicators of Water Quality in Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Débora M. S.; Melo, Mércia Regina S.; Mendes, Denise Carla S.; Rocha, Iolanda Karoline B. S.; Silva, Jakeline Priscila L.; Cantanhêde, Sildiane M.; Meletti, Paulo C.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality of the Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil) was assessed through histological biomarkers and microbiological parameters. To this end, 29 fish specimens (11 Centropomus undecimalis and 18 Sardinella sp) and eight water samples were collected during the rainy and dry periods of 2013. The lagoon water showed thermotolerant coliform indices above the limit set forth in CONAMA Resolution 357/2005. Histological changes observed in the gills were: lifting of the respiratory epithelium, hyperplasia of the lamellar epithelium, incomplete and complete fusion of several lamellae, disorganization of the lamellae, congestion of blood vessels, aneurysms, hypertrophy of the respiratory epithelium, hemorrhage and rupture of the lamellar epithelium and parasite. The histological alteration index (HAI) average value to Sardinella sp was 31.8 and to C. undecimalis was 22.2. The average HAI value in both species corresponds to category 21–50, with tissue injuries being classified from moderate to severe. The presence of histological injuries and the HAI values indicate that the fish sampled from the Jansen Lagoon are reacting to non-specific xenobiotics present at the site. PMID:25514148

  9. Decreasing flood risk perception in Porto Alegre - Brazil and its influence on water resource management decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allasia, D. G.; Tassi, R.; Bemfica, D.; Goldenfum, J. A.

    2015-06-01

    Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul in Southern Brazil with approximately 1.5 million inhabitants. The city lies on the eastern bank of the Guaiba Lake, formed by the convergence of five rivers and leading to the Lagoa dos Patos, a giant freshwater lagoon navigable by even the largest of ships. This river junction has become an important alluvial port as well as a chief industrial and commercial centre. However, this strategic location resulted in severe damage because of its exposure to flooding from the river system, affecting the city in the years 1873, 1928, 1936, 1941 and 1967. In order to reduce flood risk, a complex system of levees and pump stations was implemented during 1960s and 1970s. Since its construction, not a single large flood event occurred. However, in recent years, the levees in the downtown region of Porto Alegre were severally criticized by city planners and population. Several projects have been proposed to demolish the Mauá Wall due to the false perception of lack of flood risk. Similar opinions and reactions against flood infrastructure have been observed in other cities in Brazil, such as Itajaí and Blumenau, with disastrous consequences. This paper illustrates how the perception of flood risk in Porto Alegre has changed over recent years as a result of flood infrastructure, and how such changes in perceptions can influence water management decisions.

  10. X-ray microtomography characterization of carbonate microbialites from a hypersaline coastal lagoon in the Rio de Janeiro State-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, A. S.; Dal Bó, P. F. F.; Lima, I.; Borghi, L.; Lopes, R.

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study is to apply the micro-CT technique to assess recent microbialite samples from a hypersaline coastal lagoon in the Rio de Janeiro State. The study comprises structural assessment, mineralogical characterization and porosity distribution of each sample. Micro-CT is increasingly present in geological reservoir analyses, and has advantages over other laboratory techniques since it is non-invasive and allows 2D/3D visualization of inner structures without previous preparation method, such as slabbing, polishing, thinning or impregnation. This technique renders structural analyses which can be spatially resolved to a scale of micrometers. Results show that micro-CT technique is also adequate for the characterization of carbonate microbialites, providing excellent high resolution 3D images, that enabled to distinguish different mineralogies and porosity distribution beyond it is inner structure.

  11. Lagoons and Oxidation Ponds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers lagoons and oxidation ponds, and it includes some areas such as improving the effluents from ponds, stabilization ponds, aerated lagoons, and oxidation ditches. A list of 36 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Development of a solid-phase extraction system modified for preconcentration of emerging contaminants in large sample volumes from rivers of the lagoon system in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Vitor Sergio Almeida; Riente, Roselene Ribeiro; da Silva, Alexsandro Araújo; Torquilho, Delma Falcão; Carreira, Renato da Silva; Marques, Mônica Regina da Costa

    2016-09-15

    A single method modified for monitoring of emerging contaminants in river water was developed for large sample volumes. Water samples from rivers of the lagoon system in the city of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) were analyzed by the SPE-HPLC-MS-TOF analytical method. Acetaminophen was detected in four rivers in the concentration range of 0.09μgL(-1) to 0.14μgL(-1). Salicylic acid was also found in the four rivers in the concentration range of 1.65μgL(-1) to 4.81μgL(-1). Bisphenol-A was detected in all rivers in the concentration range of 1.37μgL(-1) to 39.86μgL(-1). Diclofenac was found in only one river, with concentration of 0.22μgL(-1). The levels of emerging organic pollutants in the water samples of the Jacarepaguá hydrographical basin are significant. The compounds are not routinely monitored and present potential risks to environmental health. PMID:27241881

  13. Lockport Sewage Lagoon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, John

    1995-01-01

    Describes a student initiated stewardship project that resulted in the transformation of a sewage lagoon near the school into a place to study nature. Contains a list of 20 things that discourage a successful stewardship project. (LZ)

  14. Code-to-Code Comparison, and Material Response Modeling of Stardust and MSL using PATO and FIAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidy, Ali D.; Panerai, Francesco; Martin, Alexandre; Lachaud, Jean R.; Cozmuta, Ioana; Mansour, Nagi N.

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a code-to-code comparison between PATO, a recently developed high fidelity material response code, and FIAT, NASA's legacy code for ablation response modeling. The goal is to demonstrates that FIAT and PATO generate the same results when using the same models. Test cases of increasing complexity are used, from both arc-jet testing and flight experiment. When using the exact same physical models, material properties and boundary conditions, the two codes give results that are within 2% of errors. The minor discrepancy is attributed to the inclusion of the gas phase heat capacity (cp) in the energy equation in PATO, and not in FIAT.

  15. Linking the Modern and Recent Record of Cabo Frio Upwelling with Local Climate and Biogeochemical Processes in Hypersaline Coastal Lagoons, Região dos Lagos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, J. A.; Nascimento, G. S.; Albuquerque, A. L.; Belem, A. L.; Carreira, R.; Eglinton, T. I.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2015-12-01

    A unique marine and lagoonal system along the coast east of Rio de Janeiro is being investigated to understand the impact of climatic variability on the South Atlantic carbon cycle and biomineralisation processes involved in carbonate precipitation in the hypersaline coastal lagoons. The region is dominated by a semi-arid microclimate attributed to the local coastal upwelling phenomenon near Cabo Frio. The intensity of the upwelling affects the hydrology of the annual water and biogeochemical cycles in the lagoons, as well as biogeochemical signals of environmental change recorded in both onshore and offshore sediments. Preliminary results of δ18O and δD values of water samples collected monthly in Lagoa Vermelha and Brejo do Espinho from 2011 to 2014 show lower values for waters corresponding to the wet season, reflecting increased input of meteoric water. The higher values for waters collected during the dry season reflect the greater amount of evaporation with increased seasonal aridity. Radiocarbon dating of Holocene marine and lagoonal cores indicates that Mg-carbonate precipitation in the lagoons is associated with high evaporation. Modern field observations for the last 3 years suggest that the amount of carbonate precipitation is correlated with evaporitic conditions associated with the upwelling phenomenon. A calibration study of hydrogen isotopic fractionation in the modern lagoons is underway to define a relationship between δDlipid of suspended particles and δDwater of associated water. This isotopic relationship will be applied to material obtained in cores from the lagoons. Offshore cores will be studied using well-tested paleotemperature proxies to evaluate the intensity of the upwelling during the Holocene. In summary, linking the coastal upwelling with the lagoonal hydrology has the potential to furnish important insights about the relationship between the local climate and paleoceanographic circulation associated with the regional carbon cycle.

  16. Brazil.

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem. PMID:12178118

  17. Entity/quality-based logical definitions for the human skeletal phenome using PATO.

    PubMed

    Gkoutos, Georgios V; Mungall, Chris; Dolken, Sandra; Ashburner, Michael; Lewis, Suzanna; Hancock, John; Schofield, Paul; Kohler, Sebastian; Robinson, Peter N

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to providing computer-interpretable logical definitions for the terms of the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) using PATO, the ontology of phenotypic qualities, to link terms of the HPO to the anatomic and other entities that are affected by abnormal phenotypic qualities. This approach will allow improved computerized reasoning as well as a facility to compare phenotypes between different species. The PATO mapping will also provide direct links from phenotypic abnormalities and underlying anatomic structures encoded using the Foundational Model of Anatomy, which will be a valuable resource for computational investigations of the links between anatomical components and concepts representing diseases with abnormal phenotypes and associated genes. PMID:19964203

  18. The tale of four lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic lagoons are a common management practice in the Carolinas for the treatment of swine wastewater. Although these lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple; their physical, chemical, and biological processes are actually very sophisticated. To get a better understanding of the microb...

  19. Lagoon Restoration Project: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This project is a multiyear effort focusing on energy flow in the Palace of Fine Arts lagoon just outside the Exploratorium in San Francisco. Phase 1 was a pilot study to determine the feasibility of improving biological energy flow through the small freshwater lagoon, using the expertise and resources of an environmental artist in collaboration with museum biologists and arts department staff. The primary outcome of Phase 1 is an experimental fountain exhibit inside the museum designed by public artist Laurie Lundquist with Exploratorium staff. This fountain, with signage, functions both as a model for natural aeration and filtration systems and as a focal point for museum visitors to learn about how biological processes cycle energy through aquatic systems. As part of the study of the lagoon`s health, volunteers continued biweekly bird consus from March through September, 1994. The goal was to find out whether the poor water quality of the lagoon is affecting the birds. Limited dredging was undertaken by the city Parks and Recreation Department. However, a more peermanent solution to the lagoon`s ecological problems would require an ambitious redesign of the lagoon.

  20. Circulation in Enewetak Atoll lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, M.; Smith, S.V.; Stroup, E.D.

    1981-11-01

    Currents at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, were measured on the reef margins, in the channels, and in the lagoon. Lagoon circulation is dominated by wind-driven downwind surface flow and an upwind middepth return flow. This wind-driven flow has the characteristics of an Ekman spiral in an enclosed sea. Lagoon flushing is accomplished primarily by surf-driven water input over the windward (eastern) reefs and southerly drift out the South Channel. Mean water residence time is 1 month, while water entering the northern portion of the atoll takes about 4 months to exit.

  1. Mosquito Lagoon environmental resources inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provancha, Jane A.; Hall, Carlton R.; Oddy, Donna M.

    1992-01-01

    This document provides a synopsis of biotic and abiotic data collected in the Mosquito Lagoon area in relation to water quality. A holistic ecological approach was used in this review to allow for summaries of climate, land use, vegetation, geohydrology, water quality, fishes, sea turtles, wading birds, marine mammals, invertebrates, shellfish, and mosquito control. The document includes a bibliographic database list of 157 citations that have references to the Mosquito Lagoon, many of which were utilized in development of the text.

  2. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  3. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  4. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  5. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  6. 33 CFR 117.600 - Lagoon Pond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lagoon Pond. 117.600 Section 117.600 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.600 Lagoon Pond. The draw of the Lagoon...

  7. PERFORMANCE OF AERATED LAGOONS IN NORTHERN CLIMATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of cold climate aerated lagoons conducted by the Arctic Environmental Research Station, Fairbanks, Alaska are reported. Conclusions are based on these studies, observations of full scale aerated lagoons operating in Alaska and reports on lagoons in the northern tier of th...

  8. Metagenomes of Mediterranean Coastal Lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:22778901

  9. Metals in some lagoons of Mexico.

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, F G; Sharma, V K; Alexander, V H; Frausto, C A

    1995-01-01

    The concentrations of metals, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined in some lagoons to establish the level of metal pollution. The lagoons studied were Alvarado lagoon, Veracruz; San Andres lagoon, Tamaulipas; and Terminos lagoon, Campeche. The concentrations were determined in water, oyster (Crassostrea virginica), and sediments. Metals were accumulated in either oysters or sediments. Cu and Zn were higher in oysters and Fe and Mn were higher in sediments. The results in water samples were compared with the limit established by the Secretaria de Ecologia and Desarrollo Urbano Report and briefly discussed. PMID:7621796

  10. INDIAN RIVER LAGOON IR, 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the Indian River Lagoon Program's last implementation review, the NEP through the local sponsorship of the St. Johns River Water Management District, has seen a three-fold increase in implementation funding from $6.7 million in 1999, to $21.3 million in FY 2003. This fundin...

  11. Bellechester, Minnesota, USA, lagoon collapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, E. C.; Broberg, J. S.; Kehren, A. R.; Graziani, M. M.; Turri, W. L.

    1993-12-01

    Bellechester, Minnesota, is a small community of approximately 155 residents located on the county line between Goodhue and Wabasha counties in southeast Minnesota's karst region. Bellechester is served by a 21-year-old wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) consisting of three waste-stabilization ponds. On 28 April 1992 six sinkholes were discovered to have drained cell 2 of the WWTF resulting in the loss of approximately 8.7×106 1 of partially treated effluent and about 600 m3 of soil into previously undetected subsurface voids of unknown dimensions. In the week following the collapse, approximately 200 water wells located within a 5-km radius of the WWTF were sampled in an after-the-fact, emergency sampling program. Twelve samples with elevated fecal coliform levels, 18 samples with nitrate-nitrogen greater than the 10 mg/1 standard, and no samples with elevated chlorides were found. However, the elevated levels could not be unambiguously attributed to the WWTF collapse. This is the third WWTF to fail by sinkhole collapse in southeast Minnesota since 1974. All three collapsed lagoons have been located in similar geomorphic and stratigraphic settings. However, at least two lagoons have collapsed in the adjacent area in northeast Iowa, and these lagoons are located at different stratigraphic positions. Twenty-two WWTFs constructed in southeast Minnesota's karst region in the last 25 years have been identified as subject to potential sinkhole collapse. An unknown but significant number of manure storage lagoons, flood control structures, etc., have also been constructed in the karst region and are at risk. Public agencies are beginning to develop plans to deal with the risk associated with existing and future waste lagoons in this environment. The critical hydrogeologic parameters that can be used to prioritize the risk of collapse at existing facilities include: (1) the lithology of the first bedrock beneath each lagoon, (2) the thickness of surficial materials

  12. VISTA Stares Deeply into the Blue Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    This new infrared image of the Lagoon Nebula was captured as part of a five-year study of the Milky Way using ESO's VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. This is a small piece of a much larger image of the region surrounding the nebula, which is, in turn, only one part of a huge survey. Astronomers are currently using ESO's Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to scour the Milky Way's central regions for variable objects and map its structure in greater detail than ever before. This huge survey is called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) [1]. The new infrared image presented here was taken as part of this survey. It shows the stellar nursery called the Lagoon Nebula (also known as Messier 8, see eso0936), which lies about 4000-5000 light-years away in the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer). Infrared observations allow astronomers to peer behind the veil of dust that prevents them from seeing celestial objects in visible light. This is because visible light, which has a wavelength that is about the same size as the dust particles, is strongly scattered, but the longer wavelength infrared light can pass through the dust largely unscathed. VISTA, with its 4.1-metre diameter mirror - the largest survey telescope in the world - is dedicated to surveying large areas of the sky at near-infrared wavelengths deeply and quickly. It is therefore ideally suited to studying star birth. Stars typically form in large molecular clouds of gas and dust, which collapse under their own weight. The Lagoon Nebula, however, is also home to a number of much more compact regions of collapsing gas and dust, called Bok globules [2]. These dark clouds are so dense that, even in the infrared, they can block the starlight from background stars. But the most famous dark feature in the nebula, for which it is named, is the lagoon-shaped dust lane that winds its way through the glowing cloud of gas. Hot, young stars, which give off intense

  13. VISTA Stares Deeply into the Blue Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    This new infrared image of the Lagoon Nebula was captured as part of a five-year study of the Milky Way using ESO's VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile. This is a small piece of a much larger image of the region surrounding the nebula, which is, in turn, only one part of a huge survey. Astronomers are currently using ESO's Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) to scour the Milky Way's central regions for variable objects and map its structure in greater detail than ever before. This huge survey is called VISTA Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) [1]. The new infrared image presented here was taken as part of this survey. It shows the stellar nursery called the Lagoon Nebula (also known as Messier 8, see eso0936), which lies about 4000-5000 light-years away in the constellation of Sagittarius (the Archer). Infrared observations allow astronomers to peer behind the veil of dust that prevents them from seeing celestial objects in visible light. This is because visible light, which has a wavelength that is about the same size as the dust particles, is strongly scattered, but the longer wavelength infrared light can pass through the dust largely unscathed. VISTA, with its 4.1-metre diameter mirror - the largest survey telescope in the world - is dedicated to surveying large areas of the sky at near-infrared wavelengths deeply and quickly. It is therefore ideally suited to studying star birth. Stars typically form in large molecular clouds of gas and dust, which collapse under their own weight. The Lagoon Nebula, however, is also home to a number of much more compact regions of collapsing gas and dust, called Bok globules [2]. These dark clouds are so dense that, even in the infrared, they can block the starlight from background stars. But the most famous dark feature in the nebula, for which it is named, is the lagoon-shaped dust lane that winds its way through the glowing cloud of gas. Hot, young stars, which give off intense

  14. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. )

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  15. Denitrification enzyme activity in swine wastewater lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic lagoons are typically used for treatment of swine wastewater. Although these anaerobic lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple in their physical, chemical, and biological processes, they are actually very sophisticated. Recent reports of high levels of di-nitrogen emissions and h...

  16. Analysis of denitrification in swine anaerobic lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic lagoons are a common management practice for the treatment of swine wastewater. Although these lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple; their physical, chemical, and biological processes are actually very sophisticated. To get a better understanding of the processes which occur i...

  17. INDIAN RIVER LAGOON CCMP PUBLIC PARTICIPATION INITIATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of public involvement within the Indian River Lagoon National Estuary Program (IRLNEP) was to develop the public consensus necessary to ensure long-term support for, and implementation of, the Indian River Lagoon Comprehensive Conservation Management Plan (CCMP). Consens...

  18. Aerated Lagoons. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    This student manual contains the textual material for a unit which focuses on the structural and operationally unique features of aerated lagoons. Topic areas discussed include: (1) characteristics of completely mixed aerated lagoons; (2) facultative aerated lagoons; (3) aerated oxidation ponds; (4) effects of temperature on aerated lagoons; (5)…

  19. High performance aerated lagoon systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, L.

    1999-08-01

    At a time when less money is available for wastewater treatment facilities and there is increased competition for the local tax dollar, regulatory agencies are enforcing stricter effluent limits on treatment discharges. A solution for both municipalities and industry is to use aerated lagoon systems designed to meet these limits. This monograph, prepared by a recognized expert in the field, provides methods for the rational design of a wide variety of high-performance aerated lagoon systems. Such systems range from those that can be depended upon to meet secondary treatment standards alone to those that, with the inclusion of intermittent sand filters or elements of sequenced biological reactor (SBR) technology, can also provide for nitrification and nutrient removal. Considerable emphasis is placed on the use of appropriate performance parameters, and an entire chapter is devoted to diagnosing performance failures. Contents include: principles of microbiological processes, control of algae, benthal stabilization, design for CBOD removal, design for nitrification and denitrification in suspended-growth systems, design for nitrification in attached-growth systems, phosphorus removal, diagnosing performance.

  20. Sedimentation in lagoon waters (Case study on Segara Anakan Lagoon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Lilik Kartika; Adrianto, Luky; Soewardi, Kadarwan; Atmadipoera, Agus S.; Hilmi, Endang

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the effect of sedimentation on waters area that serves as an advocate for life. It is included in the category to be wary considering these conditions will reduce the quality of life and threaten the life and survival of endemic biota. Observations rate of sedimentation since April 2014 until March 2015 performed at 6 stations that are considered to represent the condition of the lagoon. The observations for rate of sedimentation was conducted twice in a month for one year. Oceanographic parameters was taken by CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth) sensor in two seasons, at the height of the rainy season, March 2014 and August 2014. Results showed that the aquatic area more narrow characterized by changes in the outside line of the island visible on the image observation for two decades.

  1. Differences in ichthyofauna feeding habits among lateral lagoons and the river channel in a large reservoir.

    PubMed

    Ferrareze, M; Nogueira, M G; Casatti, L

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigated differences in feeding habits of small-sized ichthyofauna among lateral lagoons and the river channel in a large reservoir. The study was performed in four lagoons and in one sampling site of the main channel in Rosana Reservoir, Paranapanema River, Brazil. The samples were taken in September and November of 2004 and in January, March, May, and August of 2005. Fish were sampled with a 7.5 m2 hand net. Five manual throws were made toward aquatic macrophytes stands. The sampling design favored the collection of small-sized fish fauna (juveniles/small-sized species). The stomach contents of 42 species were analyzed. A total of 183 different items were consumed by fish. These items were grouped in 11 food categories, which were used to classify fish into seven trophic guilds. Aquatic insects were consumed by 32 species and were the predominant feeding item. In the river, the most consumed items were aquatic insects, cladocerans, and phytoplankton, whereas in the lagoons aquatic insects, copepods, and cladocerans were the main items. By comparing each trophic guild, the number of insectivores, algivores, and zooplanktivores species was higher in the lagoons than in the river, and the opposite was found only for omnivore fish. Low niche width in all sites indicates high trophic specialization and low niche overlap between pairs of species. Fish assemblage in the lateral lagoons presents feeding habits distinct from those of the river species, indicating that the coexistence and high abundance of small-sized fish in the sampling sites are explained by their high feeding adaptability, which includes a tendency toward dietary specialization, low feeding overlap, and resource partitioning, along with different temporal resource uses. PMID:26132022

  2. Report to Congress: Municipal Wastewater Lagoon Study. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    This report presents the results of the Municipal Wastewater Lagoon Study performed by the USEPA in response to Section 3018 of RCRA and Sec. 246 of the Hazardous and Solid Waste amendments of 1984. The objectives are to determine: number and size of municipal lagoons; types and quantities of waste contained in such lagoons; the extent to which such waste has been or may be released from such lagoons and contaminates ground water; and available alternatives for preventing or controlling such releases.

  3. Accuracy of lagoon gas emissions using an inverse dispersion method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring gas emissions from treatment lagoons and storage ponds poses challenging conditions for existing micrometeorological techniques because of non-ideal wind conditions. These include those induced by trees and crops surrounding the lagoons, and lagoons with dimensions too small to establish ...

  4. PERSISTENCE OF PATHOGENS IN LAGOON-STORED SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project objective was to investigate pathogen inactivation in lagoon-stored municipal sludges. The in-field lagoons were located in Louisiana (New Orleans) and in Texas (Port Aransas), both semitropical areas of the United States. ach lagoon was filled with 7.56 m3 of anaerob...

  5. Nutrient-Chlorophyll Relationships in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Indian River Lagoon is a highly diverse estuary located along Florida’s Atlantic coast. The system is made up of the main stem and two side-lagoons: the Banana River and Mosquito Lagoon. We segmented the main stem into three sections based on spatial trends in water quality ...

  6. Facultative Lagoons. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    The textual material for a unit on facultative lagoons is presented in this student manual. Topic areas discussed include: (1) loading; (2) microbial theory; (3) structure and design; (4) process control; (5) lagoon start-up; (6) data handling and analysis; (7) lagoon maintenance (considering visual observations, pond structure, safety, odor,…

  7. Inverse-dispersion technique for assessing lagoon gas emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring gas emissions from treatment lagoons and storage ponds poses challenging conditions for existing micrometeorological techniques because of non-ideal wind conditions, such as those induced by trees and crops surrounding the lagoons, and lagoons with dimensions too small to establish equilib...

  8. Nitrifier activity and diversity in swine lagoon covers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emissions from swine waste lagoons pose an environmental challenge to current pork production practices. Semi-permeable lagoon covers limit ammonia emissions by minimizing the effect of wind on the lagoon surface. Additionally, semi-permeable covers may also act as an attachment site for b...

  9. Denitrification in anaerobic lagoons used to treat swine wastewater.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic lagoons are commonly used for treatment of swine wastewater. Although these lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple; their physical, chemical, and biological processes are actually very complex. This study of anaerobic lagoons had twofold objectives: 1] quantify denitrification e...

  10. Isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat with clinical epididymo-orchitis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Fabrine Alexandre; de Azevedo, Edísio Oliveira; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Júnior, Felício Garino; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; de Cássia Peixoto Kim, Pomy; Gomes, Ana Lisa Vale; Alves, Clebert José

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the first isolation of Actinobacillus seminis from a goat in Brazil. A four-year-old Moxotó breeding goat in a flock of 70 goats and 65 sheep reared together in the county of Patos, semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil, showed clinical signs of unilateral orchitis and epididymitis. Diagnosis of A. seminis infection was confirmed by association of clinical findings, bacterial isolation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This result suggests that A. seminis may be an additional cause of infertility in goats, and that sheep may be the source of infection because the mixed farming system allows the contact between sheep and goats in the semiarid region of Northeastern Brazil. PMID:24948932

  11. Exploring new issues for coastal lagoons monitoring and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; De Wit, Rutger

    2012-12-01

    Coastal lagoons are productive and highly vulnerable ecosystems, but their management is still problematic mostly because they constitute transitional interface between terrestrial and marine domains. The "4th European Conference on Coastal Lagoon Research - Research and Management for the conservation of coastal lagoon ecosystems, South North comparisons", was focused on the scientific research on coastal lagoons and the management for their conservation and sustainable use. Selected contributions were considered in this special issue of Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science "Research and Management for the conservation of coastal lagoon ecosystems" as they deal with three important aspects for coastal lagoons management: (1) the design of monitoring programmes using biological compartments, (2) the ecosystem functioning and the impacts of perturbations and (3) ecosystem trajectories particularly after ecosystem restoration. Here we introduce the selected papers published in this issue, place these contributions in the perspective of the science-management interface and discuss new issues for coastal lagoon management.

  12. Denitrification enzyme activity in swine wastewater lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent publications of high levels of di-nitrogen emissions and high levels of potential surficial oxygen transfer indicated that large amounts of nitrogen may be removed via denitrification in anaerobic lagoons. If this denitrification is occurring via classical denitrification, the denitrification...

  13. INDIAN RIVER LAGOON CCMP PROGRESS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In, 1996, Florida Governor Lawton Chiles And USEPA Administrator Carol Browner officially adopted the Indian River Lagoon CCMP. In it are dozens of actions, that if implemented would help maintain and improve the ecological integrity of the IRL. To evaluate the progress towards i...

  14. Mercury Concentrations in Coastal Sediment from Younger Lagoon, Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohn, R. A.; Ganguli, P. M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Richardson, C. M.; Merckling, J.; Johnson, C.; Flegal, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Younger Lagoon Reserve, located in northern Monterey Bay, is one of the few relatively undisturbed wetlands that remain along the Central Coast of California. This lagoon system provides protected habitat for more than 100 bird species and for populations of fish, mammals, and invertebrates. Total mercury (HgT) concentrations in water within Younger Lagoon appear to vary with rainfall conditions and range from about 5-15 pM. These concentrations are similar to HgT in water from six nearby lagoon systems. However, Younger Lagoon contains elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (~1 mM) and monomethylmercury (MMHg, ~1 pM) relative to our comparison lagoon sites (DOC < 0.5 mM and MMHg < 0.5 pM). We attribute Younger Lagoon's high DOC and MMHg to its restricted connection to the ocean and minor riverine contribution. Coastal lagoons in this region typically form at the mouth of streams. They behave as small estuaries during the wet season when surface water discharge keeps the mouth of the stream open to the ocean, and then transition into lagoons in the dry season when a sand berm develops and effectively cuts off surface water exchange. At Younger Lagoon, the sand berm remains intact throughout the year, breaching only during particularly high tides or intense rain events. Therefore, the lagoon's connection to nearshore seawater is primarily via surface water - groundwater interaction through the sand berm. Because Younger Lagoon is largely isolated from a surface water connection with the ocean, runoff from upgradient urban and agricultural land has an enhanced impact on water (and presumably sediment) quality. As a result, the lagoon is eutrophic and experiences annual algal blooms. Groundwater surveys suggest surface water, groundwater, and coastal seawater are hydraulically connected at Younger Lagoon, and mixing among these water masses appears to influence water geochemistry. To date, no chemical analyses have been conducted on sediment from Younger

  15. Lagoons and oxidation ponds. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    George, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A review of the literature on waste stabilization pond systems is presented. Factors such as wastewater temperature, and levels of heavy metals that affect the stability of the lagoons and oxidation ponds, and methods to upgrade stabilization pond effluent to meet state and federal effluent requirements are discussed. Model simulations utilized to predict the treatment efficiency of various waste stabilization pond geometries, and inlet and outlet configurations are reviewed. (KRM)

  16. Hydrography of a hypersaline coastal lagoon in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshal, Amin H.

    1987-02-01

    Temporal and spatial variations in salinity, temperature, oxygen and pH were studied in a coastal lagoon located on the eastern coast of the Red Sea during 11 cruises taken in the period from May 1983 through April 1984. The lagoon has an area of about 30 km 2 and a maximum depth of about 3 m. The study showed that the water in the lagoon had a very high salinity that varied between 51‰ in February to 113‰ in October and was believed to reach higher values in summer. Rapid fluctuations in salinity were observed in the lagoon especially in positions near its mouth due to the daily exchange of water with the Red Sea accompanying the tides. During high tide, a layer of relatively cold and low salinity water from the Red Sea entered the lagoon and spread over its warmer and more saline water. This led to the existence of a strong vertical stratification in this shallow lagoon. During low tide, the subsurface warm and high salinity water was exposed resulting in the existence of one layer of water in the lagoon. Temporal variation of salinity was correlated with the monthly changes of the mean sea level of the Red Sea and with evaporation. Spatial variations in this property at any position in the lagoon depended upon its location from the mouth of the lagoon. Temperature variation was controlled by meteorological conditions in the region and by the volume of the water in the lagoon. The marine environment of this lagoon is under natural stress due to its high temperature and to the extreme fluctuations of its high salinity. This can be reduced by increasing the rate of exchange of water between the lagoon and the Red Sea.

  17. Hydrological dynamics of water sources in a Mediterranean lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpp, C.; Ekdal, A.; Gönenc, I. E.; Maloszewski, P.

    2014-07-01

    Lagoons are important ecosystems occupying large coastal areas worldwide. Lagoons contain various mixtures of marine and freshwater sources which are highly dynamic in time. However, it often remains a challenge to identify and quantify dynamic changes of water sources, particularly in heterogeneous lagoon systems like the Köycegiz-Dalyan Lagoon (KDL), which is located at the southwest of Turkey on the Mediterranean Sea coast. The objective of this study was to quantify different contributions of potential water sources i.e. surface water, groundwater and seawater in the lagoon and how these water sources changed over time and space. In the wet and dry season stable isotopes of water, chloride concentration (Cl-) and salinity were measured in two depths in the lagoon and surrounding water bodies (sea, lake, groundwater). Different components of water sources were quantified with a three component endmember mixing analysis. Differences in Cl- and stable isotopes over time indicated the dynamic behaviour of the system. Generally, none of the groundwater samples was impacted by water of the Mediterranean Sea. During the wet season, most of the lagoon water (>95%) was influenced by freshwater and vertically well mixed. During the dry season, high Cl- in the deeper sampling locations indicated a high contribution of marine water throughout the entire lagoon system due to salt water intrusion. However, a distinct layering in the lagoon was obvious from low Cl- and depleted isotope contents close to the surface supporting freshwater inflow into the system even during the dry season. Besides temporal dynamics also spatial heterogeneities were identified. Changes in water sources were most evident in the main lagoon channel compared to more isolate lagoon lakes, which were influenced by marine water even in the wet season, and compared to side branches indicating slower turnover times. We found that environmental tracers helped to quantify contributions of different water

  18. Hydrological dynamics of water sources in a Mediterranean lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpp, C.; Ekdal, A.; Gönenc, I. E.; Maloszewski, P.

    2014-12-01

    Lagoons are important ecosystems occupying large coastal areas worldwide. Lagoons contain various mixtures of marine and freshwater sources which are highly dynamic in time. However, it often remains a challenge to identify and quantify dynamic changes of water sources, particularly in heterogeneous lagoon systems like the Köycegiz-Dalyan lagoon (KDL), which is located at the south-west of Turkey on the Mediterranean Sea coast. The objective of this study was to quantify different contributions of potential water sources i.e. surface water, groundwater and seawater in the lagoon and how these water sources changed over time and space. In the wet- and dry-season stable isotopes of water, chloride concentration (Cl-) and salinity were measured in two depths in the lagoon and surrounding water bodies (sea, lake, groundwater). Different components of water sources were quantified with a three component endmember mixing analysis. Differences in Cl- and stable isotopes over time indicated the dynamic behaviour of the system. Generally, none of the groundwater samples was impacted by water of the Mediterranean Sea. During the wet season, most of the lagoon water (> 95%) was influenced by freshwater and vertically well mixed. During the dry season, high Cl- in the deeper sampling locations indicated a high contribution of marine water throughout the entire lagoon system due to saltwater intrusion. However, a distinct layering in the lagoon was obvious from low Cl- and depleted isotope contents close to the surface supporting freshwater inflow into the system even during the dry season. Besides temporal dynamics also spatial heterogeneities were identified. Changes in water sources were most evident in the main lagoon channel compared to more isolate lagoon lakes, which were influenced by marine water even in the wet season, and compared to side branches indicating slower turnover times. We found that environmental tracers helped to quantify highly dynamic and

  19. Sludge storage lagoon biogas recovery and use. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, D.; Norville, C.

    1991-07-01

    The City of Memphis has two wastewater treatment plants. The SWTP employs two large anaerobic digestion sludge lagoons as part of the overall sludge treatment system. Although these lagoons are effective in concentrating and digesting sludge, they can generate offensive odors. The SWTP uses aerobic digesters to partially stabilize the sludge and help reduce objectionable odors before it enters the lagoons. The anaerobic digestion of sludge in the lagoons results in the dispersion of a large quantity of biogas into the atmosphere. The City realized that if the lagoons could be covered, the odor problem could be resolved, and at the same, time, biogas could be recovered and utilized as a source of energy. In 1987, the City commissioned ADI International to conduct a feasibility study to evaluate alternative methods of covering the lagoons and recovering and utilizing the biogas. The study recommended that the project be developed in two phases: (1) recovery of the biogas and (2) utilization of the biogas. Phase 1 consists of covering the two lagoons with an insulated membrane to control odor and temperature and collect the biogas. Phase 1 was found to be economically feasible and offered a unique opportunity for the City to save substantial operating costs at the treatment facility. The Memphis biogas recovery project is the only application in the world where a membrane cover has been used on a municipal wastewater sludge lagoon. It is also the largest lagoon cover system in the world.

  20. Patterns of seasonal variation in lagoonal macrozoobenthic assemblages (Mellah lagoon, Algeria).

    PubMed

    Magni, Paolo; Draredja, Brahim; Melouah, Khalil; Como, Serena

    2015-08-01

    In coastal lagoons, many studies indicated that macrozoobenthic assemblages undergo marked temporal fluctuations as related to the strong environmental variability of these systems. However, most of these studies have not assessed the seasonal patterns of these fluctuations and none of them has investigated the consistency of this variation in different areas within the same lagoon system. In this study, we assessed patterns of variation at multiple temporal (date, season and year) scales in two different areas in the coastal lagoon of Mellah (northeast Algeria). These areas (hereafter Shore and Center) are representative of two different environments typically found in coastal lagoons. The Shore (water depth of about 1.5-2 m) is characterized by relatively higher hydrodynamics, sand to silty-sand sediments and the presence of vegetation (Ruppia maritima), the Center (water depth of about 3-3.5 m) is characterized by mud to sandy-mud, organic-enriched sediments due to fine particle accumulation. Results showed two distinct patterns of seasonal variation in Shore and Center assemblages for two consecutive years. In Shore, species richness (S), total abundance (N) and the abundance of several dominant taxa were highest in summer and/or autumn. This pattern can be related to the local environmental conditions maintaining relatively well oxidized conditions, while increasing food availability, and favoring the recruitment of species and individuals in summer/autumn. On the contrary in Center, S was lowest in summer and autumn, and N and the abundance of fewer dominant taxa were lowest in summer. In Center, the bivalve Loripes lucinalis showed a 10-fold increase from summer to autumn in both years, likely related to the lagoon's hydrodynamics favoring larval transport and settlement in the central sector of the lagoon. Overall, the seasonal variation found in Center followed a regression/recovery pattern typical of opportunistic assemblages occurring in confined

  1. Lagoon Seepage Testing Report for Central Facilities Area (CFA) Sewage Lagoons at Idaho National Laboratory, Butte County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Bridger Morrison

    2014-09-01

    J-U-B ENGINEERS, Inc. (J-U-B) performed seepage tests on the CFA Wastewater Lagoons 1, 2, and 3 between August 26th and September 22nd, 2014. The lagoons were tested to satisfy the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) Rules (IDAPA 58.01.16) that require all lagoons be tested at a frequency of every 10 years and the Compliance Activity CA-141-03 in the DEQ Wastewater Reuse Permit for the CFA Sewage Treatment Plant (LA-000141-03). The lagoons were tested to determine if the average seepage rates are less than 0.25 in/day, the maximum seepage rate allowed for lagoons built prior to April 15, 2007. The average seepage rates were estimated for each lagoon and are given in Table-ES1. The average seepage rates for Lagoons 1 and 2 are less than the allowable seepage rate of 0.25 in/day. Lagoon 1 and 2 passed the seepage test and will not have to be tested again until the year 20241. However, the average seepage rate for Lagoon 3 appears to exceed the allowable seepage rate of 0.25 in/day which means the potential source for the excessive leakage should be investigated further.

  2. Are coastal lagoons physically or biologically controlled ecosystems? Revisiting r vs. K strategies in coastal lagoons and estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Marcos, Concepción; Pérez-Ruzafa, Isabel María; Pérez-Marcos, María

    2013-11-01

    Environmental stress influences biological assemblages, with species responding to stress by adopting particular life-history strategies (e.g., r vs. K). Coastal lagoons and estuaries are considered naturally stressed and physically controlled systems with frequent environmental disturbances and fluctuations. At the same time, their transitional nature (between terrestrial, freshwater and marine) makes them especially vulnerable to human impacts and land and freshwater inputs. As a result, it is hypothesised that residents of coastal lagoons would display characteristics of r-selected species. The r-strategy involves increased reproductive effort through early reproduction, small and numerous offspring with a large dispersive capability, short lifespan and small adult body size. Together, these traits provide a selective advantage in such unpredictable or short-lived environments. Alternatively, immigrants to coastal lagoons should mostly be K-strategists, with a competitive advantage over the r-strategists, at least on a temporary time scale. These hypotheses were explored using a dataset from 73 Atlanto-Mediterranean sites: 27 estuaries, 42 coastal lagoons and 4 from the sea, obtained from published sources. A detailed analysis of the distributions of the different resident fish species according to lagoon characteristics indicated that in lagoons with a higher marine influence the families Gobiidae, Blenniidae and Syngnathidae were common, while lagoons with freshwater influence are characterized by Cyprinidae and other freshwater species. In analyzing the biological strategies of lagoon species we found that fish assemblages inhabiting marine influenced lagoons were characterized by solitary, necto-benthonic sedentary species. These species are often hermaphroditic, with benthic broods and many exhibit brooding behaviour. This suggests that marine influenced lagoons are dominated by K-strategist species, while r-strategy species will be more common in

  3. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN EXISTING SEVEN CELL LAGOON SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The general objective of this study was to determine the yearly performance of a seven cell facultative wastewater lagoon system and to compare this performance with existing state and federal discharge standards and with the criteria used to design the lagoon system and to evalu...

  4. Environmental enhancement of swine lagoons through influent treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confined swine production generates large volumes of wastewater typically stored and treated in anaerobic lagoons. Failure of these lagoons during tropical storms in North Carolina along with major public environmental concerns led to a permanent state moratorium of construction of new anaerobic lag...

  5. In Situ Measurements of Malodors of a Swine Waste Lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obtaining data on the concentrations of malodorous compounds contained in waste lagoons is essential if the factors affecting their emission are to be described. We monitored selected compounds in a 0.4 ha lagoon that received waste from approximately 2000 sows. Phenol, p-cresol, m-cresol, p-ethylph...

  6. CONTROL OF ODORS FROM ANAEROBIC LAGOONS TREATING FOOD PROCESSING WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic lagoons are used for the treatment of meat packing wastes in most areas of the country. They are a relatively low cost means of achieving BOD reduction. Although lagoon effluent is not suitable for stream discharge, it is amenable to further treatment or to land applica...

  7. Characterization of Salmonella bacteriophages isolated from swine lagoon effluent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four Salmonella bacteriophages originally isolated from swine lagoon effluent were further characterized. Their differences and similarities to known phages and to each other and their potential for biocontrol of Salmonella were assessed. In host inoculation spot tests the lagoon phages produced s...

  8. In Situ Measurements of Malodors in a Swine Waste Lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obtaining data on the concentrations of malodorous compounds contained in waste lagoons is essential if the factors affecting their emission are to be described. We monitored selected compounds in a 0.4 ha lagoon that received waste from approximately 2000 sows. Phenol, p-cresol, m-cresol, p-ethyl...

  9. DESIGN INFORMATION REPORT: PROTECTION OF WASTEWATER LAGOON INTERIOR SLOPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A problem common to many wastewater treatment and storage lagoons is erosion of the interior slopes. Erosion may be caused by surface runoff and wind-induced wave action. The soils that compose the steep interior slopes of lagoons are especially susceptible to erosion and slumpin...

  10. Clipperton, a possible future for atoll lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpy, L.; Rodier, M.; Couté, A.; Perrette-Gallet, C.; Bley-Loëz, C.

    2010-09-01

    Closure of the Clipperton Island atoll (10°17' N 109°13' W), now a meromictic lake, is estimated to have occurred between 1839 and 1849. It was still closed in 2005. Brackish waters in the upper layer (0-10 m) were oxygenated, while saline waters in the deep layer (>20 m) were anoxic. Allowing for the methodological difficulties of earlier measurements, the physical characteristics of the lagoon did not seem to have changed significantly since the last expedition (1980). The intermediate layer between brackish and saline waters was characterized by a strong density gradient and a temperature inversion of up to 1.6°C. Microbial activity, water exchange between the deep layer and surrounding oceanic waters and the geothermal flux hypothesis are discussed. The low DIN and SRP concentrations observed in the upper layer, despite high nutrient input by seabird droppings, reflect the high nutrient uptake by primary producers as attested by the elevated overall gross primary production (6.6 g C m-2 day-1), and high suspended photosynthetic biomass (2.23 ± 0.23 μg Chl a l-1) and production (263 ± 27 μg C l-1 day-1). Phytoplankton composition changed in 67 years with the advent of new taxa and the disappearance of previously recorded species. The freshwater phytoplanktonic community comprised 43 taxa: 37 newly identified during the expedition and 6 previously noted; 16 species previously found were not seen in 2005. The closure of the lagoon, combined with the positive precipitation-evaporation budget characteristic of the region, has induced drastic changes in lagoon functioning compared with other closed atolls.

  11. Macroalgae, nutrient cycles, and pollutants in the lagoon of Venice

    SciTech Connect

    Sfriso, A.; Pavoni, B.; Marcomini, A.; Orio, A.A. )

    1992-12-01

    The Lagoon of Venice is a wide, shallow coastal basin that extends for about 50 km along the northwest coast of the Adriatic Sea. The lagoon has been substantially modified through the actions of man over the last century through the artificial control of the hydraulic dynamics of the lagoon including the construction of channels to facilitate navigation. The lagoon is subjected to considerable pollutant loading through the drainage of land under cultivation, municipal sewage, and industrial effluents. In this paper are reported the results of observations designed to document recent changes in macroalgal species composition, seasonal cycles of primary producers and nutrient levels, and the effects of the macroalgal community on concentrations of organic and inorganic pollutants. The dominant macroalgae in the lagoon was Ulva rigida, and the levels of plant nutrients and pollutants were influenced by the seasonal cycles of the macroalgal community. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Toward homogenization of Mediterranean lagoons and their loss of hydrodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrarin, Christian; Bajo, Marco; Bellafiore, Debora; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Ghezzo, Michol; Umgiesser, Georg

    2014-08-01

    Lagoons are considered to be the most valuable systems of the Mediterranean coastal area, with crucial ecological, historical, economical, and social relevance. Climate change strongly affects coastal areas and can deeply change the status of transitional areas like lagoons. Herein we investigate the hydrological response of 10 Mediterranean lagoons to climate change by means of numerical models. Our results suggest that Mediterranean lagoons amplify the salinity and temperature changes expected for the open sea. Moreover, numerical simulations indicate that there will be a general loss of intralagoon and interlagoon variability of their physical properties. Therefore, as a result of climate change, we see on Mediterranean lagoons an example of a common process that in future may effect many coastal environments: that of homogenization of the physical characteristics with a tendency toward marinization.

  13. Sludge Lagoons. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Ronald M.

    This lesson describes three different types of sludge lagoons: (1) drying lagoons; (2) facultative lagoons; and (3) anaerobic lagoons. Normal operating sequence and equipment are also described. The lesson is designed to be used in sequence with the complete Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166 or as an independent lesson. The instructor's…

  14. Impact of cross-reef water fluxes on lagoon dynamics: a simple parameterization for coral lagoon circulation model, with application to the Ouano Lagoon, New Caledonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, Cristele; Sous, Damien; Devenon, Jean-Luc; Pagano, Marc; Rougier, Gilles; Blanchot, Jean

    2015-11-01

    This manuscript presents a combined experimental and numerical study of the impact of cross-reef fluxes on coral reef lagoon dynamics. The selected field site is the Ouano Lagoon (New Caledonia Island, France) in the South Western Pacific Ocean. Measurements of wave transformation above the reef and current profiles through passages and reef openings have been carried out during a 3-month survey. Data analysis reveals the preponderant roles played by both tides and waves on the lagoon dynamics. Based on field data, a simple parameterization of cross-reef fluxes is implemented in a coastal lagoon circulation model and a satisfactory agreement is found between parameterized model and field results. The model is thus used as a numerical experimental tool in order to analyse the cross-reef flows' possible influence on a narrow lagoon dynamics. The results highlight the importance of cross-reef fluxes induced by wave breaking over the reef barrier on the whole lagoon circulation and water properties.

  15. Metals in sediments of San Andres lagoon, Tamaulipas, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez, F.G.; Aguilera, L.G. ); Sharma, V.K. )

    1994-03-01

    Heavy metal pollution in water is generally associated with industrial and municipal discharges into rivers, estuaries and lagoons. Once metals are in the water column, they may be taken up by organisms, deposited in the sediments or remain for some period in the water itself. The deposition rate in sediments depends on, among other factors, metal concentration in surface sediments. The concentrations of heavy metals in sediments of coastal, estuarine and lagoon environments have been determined by many workers. For the past several years, we have been interested in determining trace and heavy metal concentrations in the lagoons in Mexico to establish the levels of metal pollution. The work reported here is the completion of our ongoing study in San Andres lagoon. San Andres lagoon is located north of two industrial ports, Tampico and Altamira. In this industrial zone, the basins of the Panuco and Tamesi Rivers are localized and have industrial effluent throughout the year. All these activities and the input of the Tigre River, which runs through an agricultural and cattle-raising region, may affect the biogeochemistry of the San Andres lagoon. In the present work, we report concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and Pb in sediments of San Andres lagoon. The measurements were made in different seasons; Rain-84 (August-September 1984); North (October-December 1984); Dry (April 1985); and Rain-85 (April-June 1985). 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Multi-centennial scale precipitation and following lagoon ecosystem fluctuation in the Holocene reconstructed by East Korean Lagoon sediment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuki, K.; Yang, D. Y.; Lim, J.; Nahm, W. H.; Nakanishi, T.; Seto, K.; Otsuka, M.; Kashima, K.

    2014-12-01

    There are lagoons in the northern east coast of the South Korea, which were formed during the transgression period in the early Holocene. These lagoons shrank about 5-30 % during the first half of 20 century due to terrestrial sediment input from soil erosion in reclamation lands. However, buried lagoonal sediments record Holocene climate change. In this study, multi-centennial scale paleo-climate and paleo-ecosystem change were investigated by analysis of this buried and present lagoon deposits. Based on the diatom assemblage analysis of the sediment in the lagoon Maeho where it is the east coast lagoons in Korea, this lagoon was formed about 8,400 years ago, and halophilic diatoms showed high peaks at three times within the last 8,400 years. Timings of these peaks were well coincident with the high-sea level periods reported in the western Japan. It is considered that sea-level of the east coast in Korea also showed high at three times during the mid-late Holocene, and then, salinity of the lagoon increased in these periods. Except for such sea-level dependent change, salinity of the lagoon Maeho showed the multi-centennial (200 or 400 years) scale periodic variation. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) also showed the clear 400 years periodicity in the mid-late Holocene. When the MS showed high value, oligohalobous diatoms showed high value. However, halophilic diatoms and number of total diatom valves increased when the MS showed low value. This correspondence probably indicates that magnetic minerals flew into the lagoon with river fresh water, and then volume of fresh water inflow has changed with 400 years cycles. Such MS cycle was also confirmed in the sediments of other lagoons. Change of fresh water inflow should be not local event, was a part of regional environmental change. These results probably indicate that the precipitation on the northeastern South Korea has changed by the 400 years cycle. On the basis of lagoon bottom sediment, it made clear that the

  17. Temperature variability in a shallow, tidally isolated coral reef lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, R. M.; Estrade, P.; Middleton, J. H.; Melville, W. K.; Roughan, M.; Lenain, L.

    2010-12-01

    Temperature data collected in the shallow, tidally isolated reef flat/lagoon of Lady Elliot Island off Queensland, Australia, show marked variability under solar and tidal forcing. Sea level drops below the height of the protective lagoon rim for a few hours during low tide, effectively isolating the remaining water. Because the lagoon is shallow, its temperature change (from diurnal solar forcing and cooling) is amplified. We develop a simple analytical model to predict the time evolution of mean lagoon temperature, beginning with a well-mixed control volume. This approach highlights the asymmetric flood/ebb physics of tidally isolated lagoons. After discussing the response of this model, we compare it with results from two idealized numerical simulations that illustrate differing aspects of lagoon temperature variability under "potential flow" and "prevailing current" situations. The conceptual model captures the essence of lagoon temperature variability and underscores the importance of solar-lunar phasing. However, because of the well-mixed assumption, it cannot reproduce sudden temperature transitions associated with new incoming water masses. Observations show that a slowly progressing thermal wave inundates the lagoon on rising tides. This wave is similar to our "potential flow" simulation in that it is approximately radially symmetric. On the other hand, it appears to advectively replace resident lagoon water, similar to our "prevailing current" simulations. We attempt to account for this behavior with a simple "frontal" modification to our conceptual model. Results show that this frontal model is able to capture the sudden temperature transitions present in the data and offers improved predictive capabilities over the well-mixed model.

  18. A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrieciu, Marian-Albert; Stanica, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    A Century of changes for Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System Marian-Albert Scrieciu (a), Adrian Stanica (a) (a) National Institute of Marine Geology and Geoecology e GeoEcoMar, Str. Dimitrie Onciul 23e25, Sector 2, 024053 Bucharest, Romania Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System, situated in the NW part of the Black Sea, in tight connection with the Danube Delta, has been subject to major changes due to human interventions in the past century. These changes have resulted into a complete change of the Lagoon specific ecosystems compared to its pristine state. In its natural state, as brackish - transitional environment, Antipa (1894) mentions Razelm Lagoon as one of the places with the greatest fisheries around the Black Sea coast (about 1879 - 1884, there were approximately 10,000 fishermen, all working on the Razelm Sinoe Lagoon System). Starting with the end of the XIXth Century, new canals were dug and existing channels were dredged in order to develop tighter connections with the Danube River. The natural inlet of Portita was blocked four decades ago and connections between the various parts of the lagoon system were controlled by the building of locks and sluices. The 2 inlets of Sinoe Lagoon were also controlled during early 1980s. Under these conditions, the lagoon ecosystem changed from brackish towards freshwater, with major effects on the existing flora and fauna. The period of brutal interventions ended in 1989 and the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System became part of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve in 1991, with a strict policy of nature protection and restoration. Spatial planning has been the major management option for the entire reserve, lagoon system included. Plans for sustainable development of the Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System have been built in a participative manner, involving the local stakeholders, as part of FP7 ARCH project. Special attention has been given to impacts of climate change. The study presents the vision for the development Razelm-Sinoe Lagoon System over

  19. Is the Venice Lagoon Noisy? First Passive Listening Monitoring of the Venice Lagoon: Possible Effects on the Typical Fish Community.

    PubMed

    Bolgan, Marta; Picciulin, Marta; Codarin, Antonio; Fiorin, Riccardo; Zucchetta, Matteo; Malavasi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Three passive listening surveys have been carried out in two of the three Venice lagoon tide inlets and inside the Venice island. The spectral content and the intensity level of the underwater noise as well as the presence or absence of Sciaena umbra and the distribution of its different sound patterns have been investigated in all the recording sites. The passive listening proved to be successful in detecting S. umbra drumming sounds in both Venice lagoon tide inlets. Our results indicate that the spectral content and the level of underwater noise pollution in the Venice lagoon could affect fish acoustic communication. PMID:26610947

  20. Self-generated morphology in lagoon reefs.

    PubMed

    Blakeway, David; Hamblin, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    The three-dimensional form of a coral reef develops through interactions and feedbacks between its constituent organisms and their environment. Reef morphology therefore contains a potential wealth of ecological information, accessible if the relationships between morphology and ecology can be decoded. Traditionally, reef morphology has been attributed to external controls such as substrate topography or hydrodynamic influences. Little is known about inherent reef morphology in the absence of external control. Here we use reef growth simulations, based on observations in the cellular reefs of Western Australia's Houtman Abrolhos Islands, to show that reef morphology is fundamentally determined by the mechanical behaviour of the reef-building organisms themselves-specifically their tendency to either remain in place or to collapse. Reef-building organisms that tend to remain in place, such as massive and encrusting corals or coralline algae, produce nodular reefs, whereas those that tend to collapse, such as branching Acropora, produce cellular reefs. The purest reef growth forms arise in sheltered lagoons dominated by a single type of reef builder, as in the branching Acropora-dominated lagoons of the Abrolhos. In these situations reef morphology can be considered a phenotype of the predominant reef building organism. The capacity to infer coral type from reef morphology can potentially be used to identify and map specific coral habitat in remotely sensed images. More generally, identifying ecological mechanisms underlying other examples of self-generated reef morphology can potentially improve our understanding of present-day reef ecology, because any ecological process capable of shaping a reef will almost invariably be an important process in real time on the living reef. PMID:26175962

  1. Self-generated morphology in lagoon reefs

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    The three-dimensional form of a coral reef develops through interactions and feedbacks between its constituent organisms and their environment. Reef morphology therefore contains a potential wealth of ecological information, accessible if the relationships between morphology and ecology can be decoded. Traditionally, reef morphology has been attributed to external controls such as substrate topography or hydrodynamic influences. Little is known about inherent reef morphology in the absence of external control. Here we use reef growth simulations, based on observations in the cellular reefs of Western Australia’s Houtman Abrolhos Islands, to show that reef morphology is fundamentally determined by the mechanical behaviour of the reef-building organisms themselves—specifically their tendency to either remain in place or to collapse. Reef-building organisms that tend to remain in place, such as massive and encrusting corals or coralline algae, produce nodular reefs, whereas those that tend to collapse, such as branching Acropora, produce cellular reefs. The purest reef growth forms arise in sheltered lagoons dominated by a single type of reef builder, as in the branching Acropora-dominated lagoons of the Abrolhos. In these situations reef morphology can be considered a phenotype of the predominant reef building organism. The capacity to infer coral type from reef morphology can potentially be used to identify and map specific coral habitat in remotely sensed images. More generally, identifying ecological mechanisms underlying other examples of self-generated reef morphology can potentially improve our understanding of present-day reef ecology, because any ecological process capable of shaping a reef will almost invariably be an important process in real time on the living reef. PMID:26175962

  2. Mercury methylation and demethylation in Hg-contaminated lagoon sediments (Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Mark E.; Poitras, Erin N.; Covelli, Stefano; Faganeli, Jadran; Emili, Andrea; Žižek, Suzana; Horvat, Milena

    2012-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) transformation activities and sulfate (SO42-) reduction were studied in sediments of the Marano and Grado Lagoons in the Northern Adriatic Sea region as part of the "MIRACLE" project. The lagoons, which are sites of clam (Tapes philippinarum) farming, have been receiving excess Hg from the Isonzo River for centuries. Marano Lagoon is also contaminated from a chlor-alkali plant. Radiotracer methods were used to measure mercury methylation (230Hg, 197Hg), methylmercury (MeHg) demethylation (14C-MeHg) and SO42- reduction (35S) in sediment cores collected in autumn, winter and summer. Mercury methylation rate constants ranged from near zero to 0.054 day-1, generally decreased with depth, and were highest in summer. Demethylation rate constants were much higher than methylation reaching values of ˜0.6 day-1 in summer. Demethylation occurred via the oxidative pathway, except in winter when the reductive pathway increased in importance in surficial sediments. Sulfate reduction was also most active in summer (up to 1600 nmol mL-1 day-1) and depth profiles reflected seasonally changing redox conditions near the surface. Methylation and demethylation rate constants correlated positively with SO42- reduction and pore-water Hg concentrations, and inversely with Hg sediment-water partition coefficients indicating the importance of SO42- reduction and Hg dissolution on Hg cycling. Hg transformation rates were calculated using rate constants and concentrations of Hg species. In laboratory experiments, methylation was inhibited by amendments of the SO42--reduction inhibitor molybdate and by nitrate. Lagoon sediments displayed a dynamic seasonal cycle in which Hg dissolution in spring/summer stimulated Hg methylation, which was followed by a net loss of MeHg in autumn from demethylation. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) tended to be responsible for methylation of Hg and the oxidative demethylation of MeHg. However, during winter in surficial sediments, iron

  3. Surface Water Quality Survey of Northern Indian River Lagoon from Sebastian Inlet to Mosquito Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, R. J.; Webb, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Following news of an emerging brown tide algal bloom in the northern Indian River Lagoon (IRL), researchers sought to gain insight into the surface water quality in the IRL, as well as the extent of the algae coverage. A Portable SeaKeeper from YSI, mounted to a personal watercraft-based coastal profiling system, autonomously collected and analyzed the surface water. The system operates by recording sample data every 12 seconds while continuously underway at speeds up to and greater than 50 km/hr. The researchers covered a transect that started at Sebastian Inlet and followed a zig-zag path extending up through the Haulover Canal and into the Mosquito Lagoon. The survey path covered 166.7 km, and collected 2248 samples. Along the way stops were made at water quality stations used by the Saint John's River Water Management District, so that the data collected can be incorporated into ongoing monitoring efforts. The system analyzed the surface water for dissolved oxygen, pH, chlorophyll-a, salinity, temperature, turbidity, refined fuels, and CDOM. In the two days following the lagoon survey, the inlets at Port Canaveral and Sebastian were also surveyed for tidal currents and hydrography. The IRL transect survey data recorded evidence of the southern extent of the algae bloom in both chlorophyll-a and pH levels. Visual evidence of the bloom was striking as the water in the northern IRL turned a milk chocolaty brown color. Chlorophyll-a levels in the two inlets suggested bloom activity at these locations; however this bloom was different. This oceanic bloom was a result of a persistent upwelling event along the East Florida shelf, and the color was a paler green-yellow. The near-synoptic nature of the comprehensive lagoon survey, conducted in just over 7 hours, allows researchers to obtain a better understanding of water quality in coastal lagoons. Elevated levels of salinity, temperature, and refined fuels in the northern IRL indicate a low exchange rate and absence

  4. Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

    2000-04-01

    Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

  5. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethynylestradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl der...

  6. Nitrification and denitrification gene abundances in swine wastewater anaerobic lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although anaerobic lagoons are used globally for livestock waste treatment, their detailed microbial cycling of nitrogen is only beginning to become understood. Within this cycling, nitrification can be performed by organisms which produce the enzyme ammonia monooxygenase (AMO). For denitrification,...

  7. ANALYSIS OF SWINE LAGOONS AND GROUND WATER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for analysis of low levels of natural (estradiol, estrone, estriol) and synthetic (ethinyl estradiol) estrogens in ground water and swine waste lagoon effluent. The method includes solid phase extraction of the estrogens, preparation of pentafluorobenzyl de...

  8. 13. Sewage treatment lagoon, drainage control at center left, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Sewage treatment lagoon, drainage control at center left, looking south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  9. 1. Oblique view: east side, from Condado Lagoon Beach on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Oblique view: east side, from Condado Lagoon Beach on southeast (context) - Puente Guillermo Esteves, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-25 (Juan Ponce de Leon Avenue), San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  10. Holocene lagoonal development in the isolated carbonate platforms off Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gischler, Eberhard

    2003-06-01

    Thirty-one vibracores were taken in interior lagoons of Glovers Reef, Lighthouse Reef, and Turneffe Islands—three isolated carbonate platforms offshore Belize, Central America. Holocene facies successions overlying the Pleistocene limestone bedrock begin with soils, followed by mangrove peats, and marine carbonate sediments of lagoonal origin. The soils formed on top of subaerially exposed Pleistocene limestone before the Holocene transgression. Mangrove peats developed during initial flooding of the platforms (Glovers ca. 8.5 ky, Lighthouse ca. 7 ky, Turneffe ca. 6 ky BP). As water depths increased, reefs colonized platform margins, lagoonal circulation improved thereby promoting carbonate production. The basal lagoonal carbonate sediments are characterized by shell beds and/or Halimeda packstones-grainstones. Mollusk-dominated wackestones and packstones follow upsection in Glovers and Lighthouse Reefs. At present, open circulation prevails in Glovers and Lighthouse lagoons. In contrast, organic-rich Halimeda wackestones and packstones dominate the Turneffe Islands Holocene succession. The main lagoon area of Turneffe is enclosed by mangroves, and restricted circulation prevails. Factors that explain the differences in geomorphology, circulation, and facies are variations in depth of antecedent topography and degree of exposure to waves and currents. The thickness of Holocene lagoon sediments may exceed the maximum core length of 6 m in all atolls. Holocene sedimentation rates average 0.6 m/ky, with highest rates in Turneffe (0.82 m/ky), followed by Lighthouse (0.53 m/ky), and Glovers (0.46 m/ky). Like in many other isolated carbonate platforms and atolls, lagoon floor sedimentation did not keep pace with rising sea level, leading to unfilled accommodation space. At present, Glovers has an 18 m deep lagoon, while Lighthouse and the main Turneffe lagoon are 8 m deep. It is unlikely that the lagoons will be completely filled during the Holocene sea level highstand

  11. Tidal dynamics in a frictionally dominated tropical lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenorio-Fernandez, L.; Gomez-Valdes, J.; Marino-Tapia, I.; Enriquez, C.; Valle-Levinson, A.; Parra, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the dynamics of tidal propagation inside a tropical lagoon. Sea surface elevation (inside) and current profiles (at the inlet) were examined over 60 days at the Chelem lagoon, which is a branched tropical lagoon located in the northern Yucatan Peninsula. Tides were predominantly diurnal with a wavelength at least 20 times longer than the total length of the basin. Spatial variations of sea surface elevation and the longitudinal transport were described in each branch by applying a linear analytical model and the results were compared to observations. Results showed that the coastal lagoon was highly frictional. The tidal signal was attenuated between 30% and 40% toward the lagoon heads, a result of the balance between pressure gradient and frictional forces. A causeway that chokes the western side of the lagoon allowed the propagation of the diurnal signal toward the west head of the basin but damped the semidiurnal signal. The causeway acted as a hydraulic low-pass filter, as in natural choked systems. The causeway's filter effect was included in the analytical model by optimizing the frictional parameters.

  12. Pathways of priority pesticides in sediments of coastal lagoons: The case study of Óbidos Lagoon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M I; Vale, C; Sontag, G; Noronha, J P

    2016-05-15

    This study reports the concentrations of the priority pesticides (PPs) in 14 surface sediments and 21 layers of a sediment core from Óbidos Lagoon, a shallow Portuguese coastal lagoon. Results show that the PPs are confined to the upper part of the lagoon that receives most of the inputs from surface runoff of the surrounding agricultural fields and from small tributaries. Past and recent applied PPs were registered in sediments, aluminum normalized concentrations varying between 0.05×10(-7) and 6.85×10(-7). The PP risk assessment based on sediment quality guidelines like the "Probable Effect Level" (PEL) shows no biological effects in either sediments or aquatic organisms of Óbidos Lagoon, except for dieldrin, lindane, DDT, heptachlor epoxide and its parent compound heptachlor. PMID:27021267

  13. Nutrient inputs to a Lagoon through submarine groundwater discharge: The case of Laoye Lagoon, Hainan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Tao; Du, Jinzhou; Moore, Willard S.; Zhang, Guosen; Su, Ni; Zhang, Jing

    2013-02-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) with inputs of nutrients in certain regions may play a significant role in controlling water quality in the coastal regions. In this paper, we have determined four naturally occurring radium isotope (223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra and 228Ra) activities and nutrient concentrations in surface water, coastal groundwater and river water in the mixing zone of Laoye Lagoon to estimate the fluxes of SGD by several models. The activities of the four radium isotopes of ground water were considerably greater than those in surface water samples. Using a 224Ra/228Ra activity ratio (AR) model, we estimated the average lagoon water age to be 3.2 days, which was comparable with the flushing time of 4.0 days. Based on the excess radium isotopes and the water age of the lagoon, the estimated fluxes of SGD (in 106 m3/d) ranged from 2.64 to 5.32 with an average of 4.11. Moreover, we used Si balance to evaluate the flux of SGD (4.8 × 106 m3/d) which was close to the result calculated by radium. The SGD-derived nutrient fluxes (in mol/d) were DIN = 1.7 × 105, PO43 - = 5.2 × 102, and SiO3 = 5.3 × 104. Furthermore, we applied the biogeochemical budget approach using SiO3 as a tracer to evaluate the impact of SGD. The differences between the results estimated by radium and SiO3 may indicate different pathways for the input of nutrients.

  14. A new species of Astyanax from headwater streams of southern Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae).

    PubMed

    De Lucena, Carlos A S; Bertaco, Vinicius A; Berbigier, Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    Astyanax pirabitira, new species, is described from the upper portion of the rio das Antas, laguna dos Patos system, and from the rio Pelotas, upper rio Uruguay drainage, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The new species belongs to the A. scabripinnis species complex and differs from its congeners by a combination of characters, viz., body depth (27.1-34.0% of standard length), narrow interorbital width (22.2-28.7% of head length), head depth (72.9-97.0% of HL), number of branched anal-fin rays (15-20), number of lateral line scales (37-40), one or two maxillary teeth, two humeral spots and absence of secondary sexual characters (bony hooks in the fins or other differences in the morphology). Comments on the endemic fish fauna of the region are presented. PMID:26106724

  15. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Mark R. Cole

    2013-12-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

  16. Fine and coarse components in surface sediments from Bikini Lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V. E., LLNL

    1997-01-01

    In 1979, 21 years after the moratorium on nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands, surface sediment samples (to depths of 2 and 4 cm) were collected from 87 locations in the lagoon of Bikini Atoll, one of the two sites in the Marshall Islands used by the United States to test nuclear devices from 1946 through 1958. The main purpose for the collections was to map the distribution of long-lived man-made radionuclides associated with the bottom material. In addition the samples were processed to estimate the fraction of fine and coarse components to show, by comparison, what modifications occurred in the composition since the sediments were first described in samples collected before testing in 1946. Nuclear testing produced more finely divided material that is now found in the surface sediment layer over large areas of the lagoon and especially in regions of the lagoon and reef adjacent to test sites. The 5 cratering events alone at Bikini Atoll redistributed sufficient material to account for the higher inventory of fine material found over the surface 4 cm of the sediment of the lagoon. Although the fraction of fine material in the bottom sediments was altered by the nuclear events, the combined processes of formation, transport and deposition were not sufficiently dynamic to greatly change the general geographical features of the major sedimentary components over most of the lagoon floor.

  17. Geochemical characterization of seaplane lagoon sediments, Alameda Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, A; Carroll, S; Esser, B; Luther, G W; O'Day, P; Randall, S

    1999-08-16

    Our objective in the characterization of sediments from Seaplane Lagoon at the Alameda Naval Air Station (NAS) was to determine the geochemical interactions that control the partitioning of cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc between the sediments and the porewaters. Our approach was to collect several cores at the east outfall location of the Seaplane Lagoon. We determined the porewater chemistry by (1) making in situ micro-electrode measurements, (2) extracting porewaters, and (3) modeling geochemical reactions. We determined the sediment chemistry by measuring (1) elemental abundance, (2) mineralogy, and (3) trace-element speciation. This information should help the US Navy determine the long-term hazard of the sediments if they are left in place and the short-term hazard if they are dredged. We did not fully examine the geochemistry of sediments from the West Beach Landfill Wetlands site, because these sediments were distinct from the Seaplane Lagoon sediments. Our initial motivation for studying the Landfill Wetlands site was to determine the trace-element geochemistry in Seaplane Lagoon sediments that had been dredged and then disposed in the Landfill Wetlands. Unfortunately, the location of these dredged sediments is unknown. The cores we sampled were not from the Seaplane Lagoon.

  18. Nutrient-Chlorophyll Relationships in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida(SEERS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Indian River Lagoon is a highly diverse estuary located along Florida’s Atlantic coast. The system is made up of the main stem and two side-lagoons: the Banana River and Mosquito Lagoon. We segmented the main stem into three sections based on spatial trends in water quality ...

  19. A system for estimating bowen ratio And evaporation from waste lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A low cost system was deployed above a swine waste lagoon to obtain estimates of Bowen ratios and characterize lagoon temperatures. The system consisted of humidity and temperature sensors and anemometers deployed above the lagoon, water temperature sensors, and a meteorological station located by t...

  20. Spring and Summer Proliferation of Floating Macroalgae in a Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon (Tancada Lagoon, Ebro Delta, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, M.; Comín, F. A.

    2000-08-01

    During the last 10 years, a drastic change in the structure of the community of primary producers has been observed in Tancada Lagoon (Ebro Delta, NE Spain). This consisted of a decrease in the abundance of submerged rooted macrophyte cover and a spring and summer increase in floating macroalgae. Two spatial patterns have been observed. In the west part of the lagoon, Chaetomorpha linum Kützing, dominated during winter and decreased progressively in spring when Cladophora sp. reached its maximum development. In the east part of the lagoon, higher macroalgal diversity was observed, together with lower cover in winter and early spring. Cladophora sp., Gracilaria verrucosa Papenfuss and Chondria tenuissima Agardh, increased cover and biomass in summer. Maximum photosynthetic production was observed in spring for G. verrucosa (10·9 mg O 2 g -1 DW h -1) and C. tenuissima (19·0 mg O 2 g -1 DW h -1) in contrast with Cladophora sp. (15·9 mg O 2 g -1 DW h -1) and Chaetomorpha linum (7·2 mg O 2 g -1 DW h -1) which reached maximum production in summer. Increased conductivity from reduced freshwater inflow, and higher water temperatures during periods of lagoon isolation, mainly in summer, were the main physical factors associated with an increase in floating macroalgal biomass across the lagoon. Reduced nitrogen availability and temperature-related changes in carbon availability during summer were related to a decrease in abundance of C. linum and increases in G. verrucosa and Cladophora sp.

  1. LANDSAT imagery of the Venetian Lagoon: A multitemporal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberotanza, L.; Zandonella, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT multispectral scanner images from 1975 to 1979 to determine pollution dispersion in the central basin of the lagoon under varying tidal conditions is described. Images taken during the late spring and representing both short and long range tidal dynamics were processed for partial haze removal and removal of residual striping. Selected spectral bands were correlated to different types of turbid water. The multitemporal data was calibrated, classified considering sea truth data, and evaluated. The classification differentiated tide diffusion, algae belts, and industrial, agricultural, and urban turbidity distributions. Pollution concentration is derived during the short time interval between inflow and outflow and from the distance between the two lagoon inlets and the industrial zones. Increasing pollution of the lagoon is indicated.

  2. Evaluation of mobile metals in sediments of Burullus Lagoon, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mona; El-Gharabawy, Suzan

    2016-08-15

    The Burullus Lagoon north Nile Delta of Egypt is a UNESCO-protected area. Recently it has become a sediment sink which led to shrinking in its area and depth accompanying with increasing contaminant levels. In this study we attempt to explore the spatial distribution and their mobility of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr and Pb) based on 21surface sediment samples recovered from Burullus lagoon basin and nine drains. The risk assessment code of the studied heavy metals can be arranged as Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr>Ni for all the samples collected from the lagoon basin and nine different drains. The heavy metals tend to accumulate in fine sediments and human activities promote the accumulation of contaminated sediments in water courses. PMID:27216045

  3. Evolution and vitality of seagrasses in a Mediterranean lagoon.

    PubMed

    Ferrat, Lila; Fernandez, C; Pasqualini, V; Pergent, G; Pergent-Martini, C

    2003-08-01

    Despite their registration on the list of the Ramsar convention sites, the Mediterranean lagoons rarely beneficiate of an effective protection, and are particularly sensitive to environmental quality. A control of these wetlands needs the creation of an inventory of knowledge for the concerned environment. In this perspective, the seagrass beds were followed up in the coastal lagoon of Urbino (Corse, France) since 1990. A cartographic study was carried out by remote sensing of aerial photography. Temporal evolution of the seagrass beds (Cymodocea nodosa principally) allows to determine the vitality of these structures. A comparison of the surface areas occupied by Cymodocea nodosa, between 1990 and 1999, did not allow seeing any significant evolution. However, some variations appear like biotopes all more fragile and coveted as the Mediterranean coastal fringe is straight and is the privileged site of appear in the localization of the beds, due to the modification of environmental conditions in the lagoon. PMID:12929800

  4. Eutrophication Process on Coastal Lagoons of North of Sinaloa, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobedo-Urias, D.; Martinez-Lopez, A.

    2007-05-01

    Coastal ecosystems in the Gulf of California support diverse and important fisheries and are reservoirs of great biological diversity. In northern Sinaloa, population growth and development, as well as increased use of these natural systems for recreation, has substantially increased the pressure placed upon marine resources. Discharge of untreated wastewaters generated by diverse human activities has been notably altered its health and integrity, principally along the lagoon's eastern shore In the late 60s, agriculture moved into a dominant role in coastal northern Sinaloa. The coastal plain encompasses more than 200,000 hectares under cultivation that now introduces large amounts of organic material, pesticides, heavy metals, and fertilizers into the lagoon systems of Topolobampo and San Ignacio-Navachiste-Macapule System at drainage discharge points and a minor grade in Colorado Lagoon. These lagoons are shallow and exhibit low water quality, lost of lagoon depth, presence of toxic substances (heavy metals) near the discharge points of wastewaters, and presence of harmful algal blooms. With the aim of evaluate the nutrients loadings (wastewaters, groundwaters) and their effects on the coastal lagoons of north of Sinaloa, the preliminary analysis of the physical, chemical and biologic variables data series are analyzed. From 1987-2007 eutrophication process is identified in Topolobampo Complex show increase tendency in annual average concentrations of DIN (Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen= NO2+NO3) from 0.5 μ M in 1987 to 2.7 μ M in 2006. Trophic Index (TRIX) values, low nutrient ratios (N: P and N: Si) and the phytoplanktonic community structure support this result. Preliminary results of nutrients loadings show a mayor contribution of wastewaters into the coastal zone.

  5. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

  6. Optical researches for cyanobacteria bloom monitoring in Curonian Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirshin, Evgeny A.; Budylin, Gleb B.; Yakimov, Boris P.; Voloshina, Olga V.; Karabashev, Genrik S.; Evdoshenko, Marina A.; Fadeev, Victor V.

    2016-04-01

    Cyanobacteria bloom is a great ecological problem of Curonian Lagoon and Baltic Sea. The development of novel methods for the on-line control of cyanobacteria concentration and, moreover, for prediction of bloom spreading is of interest for monitoring the state of ecosystem. Here, we report the results of the joint application of hyperspectral measurements and remote sensing of Curonian Lagoon in July 2015 aimed at the assessment of cyanobacteria communities. We show that hyperspectral data allow on-line detection and qualitative estimation of cyanobacteria concentration, while the remote sensing data indicate the possibility of cyanobacteria bloom detection using the spectral features of upwelling irradiation.

  7. Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes the development of a project involving the application of approximately 265,000 cubic meters of lagooned sewage sludge from a metropolitan area on privately-owned farm land in an adjacent, rural county. The sludge application project was initiated to enable use of the land occupied by the lagoons for expansion of the sewage treatment plant. The procedures developed will be valuable to those proposing to practice land disposal of stabilized sludge as part of the Nation`s resource conservation program.

  8. Distribution of prokaryotic organisms in a tropical estuary influenced by sugar cane agriculture in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Lars; Schwalger, Berit; Knoppers, Bastiaan A.; da Silva, Luiz Antonio Ferreira; Medeiros, Paulo Ricardo Petter; Pollehne, Falk

    2010-01-01

    In a joint Brazilian-German case study, distribution patterns of microorganisms were compared with environmental variables in the tropical coastal Manguaba lagoon in northeast Brazil, which is situated downstream of several sugar cane processing plants . 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) gene fingerprinting were used to follow the composition and distribution of microorganisms throughout the salinity gradient of the lagoon. Potentially abundant microorganisms were identified by sequencing representative SSCP bands. It could be demonstrated that the distribution of microbes was in close relation to the physico-chemical environmental settings and followed a common scheme. In the in- and outlet areas of the lagoon rather transient microbial communities were found, whereas in the central part a stable, diverse community was encountered, that due to the long residence time of the water, had ample time for development and adaptation. PMID:24031568

  9. Sediment budget in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarretta, A.; Pillon, S.; Molinaroli, E.; Guerzoni, S.; Fontolan, G.

    2010-05-01

    A comparison of 1927, 1970 and 2002 bathymetric surveys in the Lagoon of Venice was used to reconstruct historical changes in sedimentation. A detailed GIS-based analysis of the charts revealed the timing and pattern of geomorphic changes and allowed calculation of sediment deposition and erosion for the entire lagoon and each of its four sub-basins: Treporti, Lido, Malamocco and Chioggia. Two main developments are discernible from comparative observation of the areal distribution of the main elevation ranges: the diminution in area of the saltmarshes, which decreased by more than 50%, from 68 km 2 in 1927 to 32 km 2 in 2002, and the progressive deepening of the lagoon, with a huge increase in the area of subtidal flats (between -0.75 and -2.00 m depth), from 88 to 206 km 2 during the same period. Generally, the lagoon showed a clear-cut change in the most frequent depths (modal depth) from a value of -0.62 m in 1927 to -0.88 m in 2002. The deepening of the lagoon affected mostly the lagoonal sub-basins south of the town of Venice, where modal depth increased from -0.65 to -1.12 m in Lido, from -0.64 to -1.75 m in Malamocco and from -0.39 to -0.88 m in Chioggia. Large changes in lagoonal morphology were caused by human-induced subsidence, the dredging of navigation channels between 1927 and 1970, and intense natural erosion enhanced by sediment re-suspension due to Manila clam fishing between 1970 and 2002. There was a net loss of about 110 Mm 3 of sediment from the lagoon, most of which (73 Mm 3, ca.70%) was in the earlier period. A significant amount was lost by dredging and direct disposal outside the system, either on land or at sea, and there was a net loss of 39 Mm 3 from the lagoon to the sea through the inlets, at an annual rate of 0.5 Mm 3. Comparison of erosion rates in the two periods revealed an alarming acceleration, from a net sediment loss of 0.3 Mm 3 yr -1 in the period 1927-1970 to 0.8 Mm 3 yr -1 in 1970-2002. Deterioration caused a shift from a

  10. HYDROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COASTAL LAGOONS AT HUGH TAYLOR BIRCH STATE RECREATION AREA, FORT LAUDERDALE, FLORIDA: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The author presents initial results of an ongoing study of Southeast Florida coastal lagoon lakes. Objectives include presenting environmental conditions within and adjacent to the lagoons under a variety of hydrologic conditions and to determine water-quality changes in ground water and surface water and how these changes in water quality affect lagoonal biological communities within the lagoons.

  11. Lagoon Seepage Testing Procedures for Central Facilities Area (CFA) Sewage Lagoons at Idaho National Laboratory Butte County, Idaho April 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Giesbrecht

    2014-05-01

    The lagoon seepage testing procedures are documented herein as required by the Wastewater Rules (IDAPA 58.01.16.493). The Wastewater Rules and Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 require that the procedure used for performing a seepage test be approved by IDEQ prior to conducting the seepage test. The procedures described herein are based on a seepage testing plan that was developed by J-U-B ENGINEERS, Inc. (J-U-B) and has been accepted by several IDEQ offices for lagoons in Idaho.

  12. Holocene carbonate sedimentation in Aitutaki Lagoon, Cook Islands, South Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, B.M.; Hein, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    Aitutaki, an almost-atoll in the Southern Cook Islands, is characterized by a shallow enclosed lagoon. Sediment distribution within the lagoon can be broadly placed into three sedimentary-bathymetric provinces. (1) A low-relief reef rim (< 2 m deep), including sand flats and washover fans, is comprised mostly of clean sand and gravel. (2) The majority of the lagoon floor, which lies between 3 and 6 m water depth, is dominated by sand and silt; coral-algal patch reefs are common with densities greater than 500 reefs/km/sup 2/. Sediment commonly is coarser grained near the patch reefs. (3) Enclosed and elongate-sinuous topographic lows (basins) up to 10 m deep are marked by coral-algal reef growth along their margins. These features are typically narrow, less than 100 m wide, and are U-shaped in cross section and infilled by carbonate and terrigenous muds. High-resolution continuous seismic profiling and limited drilling indicate that differences in thickness of Holocene sediment result from primary irregularities in the pre-Holocene basement surface. Aitutaki was formed by late Miocene volcanism, with a post-edifice building mid-Pleistocene (0.77 Ma) volcanic episode. Two islets within the lagoon are also of volcanic origin, and sinuous coral ridges which extend for several kilometers probably developed on Quaternary lava flows. The coral ridges and meandering enclosed basins appear to be unique to Aitutaki in the Cook Islands.

  13. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions from a waste lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cost-effective approach was used to investigate the relationship between emission of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2, CH4, and N2O and energy fluxes from a swine waste lagoon. Energy fluxes were calculated using the Penman method. The energy fluxes showed a diurnal pattern as expected of such flux...

  14. ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT AND RECOVERY OF PHOSPHORUS FROM ANAEROBIC LAGOONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure nutrients in excess of the assimilative capacity of land available on farms are an environmental concern often associated with confined animal feeding operations (CAFO). The ability to extract phosphorus (P) from lagoon wastewater is critical to accomplish CAFO's comprehensive nutrient manage...

  15. Microplankton bloom in a brackish water lagoon of Terengganu.

    PubMed

    Shamsudin, L; Shazili, N A

    1991-10-01

    Increased primary plankton productivity was observed in a brackish water lagoon of Terengganu during the study period between January 1988 to December 1988. The lagoon is also the site for the fish cage culture activities of sea bass during the study period. An examination of water quality at the sampling stations during the study period indicated that both the organic and inorganic nutrients were high during the pre-monsoon period. The source of the nutrient in the lagoon was believed to be derived from the agro-based industrial effluents, fertilisers from paddy fields as well as untreated human and animal wastes. This coincided with the peak production of plankton in the surface waters of the brackish water lagoon. During this period both cultured and indigenous fish species were seen to suffer from oxygen asphyxiation (suffocation due to lack of oxygen). The primary productivity values ranged from 9 to 22 μg/L/h during the peak period while the microplankton species were composed of diatom, flagellates and dinoflagellates. Reduction in the primary productivity values were obtained with reduction in sallinity, specially during the peak monsoon months (November to March) corresponding to the Northeast monsoon period. PMID:24233946

  16. Antibiotic resistant bacterial profiles of anaerobic swine lagoon effluent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although land application of swine manure lagoon effluent is a common and effective method of disposal, the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, both pathogenic and commensal can complicate already understood issues associated with its safe disposal. To better understand this, more data is ne...

  17. A Field Study Training Program on Wastewater Lagoon Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water and Wastewater Technical School, Neosho, MO.

    This publication is a text and reference manual for operating personnel of both large and small wastewater lagoon systems with support from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As a text, this inservice training manual is intended to be used in a correspondence course wherein the trainee or operator would read and study each chapter before…

  18. Aerated Lagoons. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    This unit (which consists of a single lesson) describes the structural and operationally unique features of aerated lagoons. In addition, special troubleshooting and maintenance problems are discussed. The instructor's guide for the unit includes: (1) an overview of the lesson; (2) lesson plan; (3) lecture outline (keyed to a set of slides used…

  19. Distribution and stability of eelgrass beds at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, D.H.; Markon, C.J.; Douglas, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    Spatial change in eelgrass meadows, Zostera marina L., was assessed between 1978 and 1987 and between 1987 and 1995 at Izembek Lagoon, Alaska. Change in total extent was evaluated through a map to map comparison of data interpreted from a 1978 Landsat multi-spectral scanner image and 1987 black and white aerial photographs. A ground survey in 1995 was used to assess spatial change from 1987. Eelgrass beds were the predominant vegetation type in the lagoon, comprising 44-47% (15000-16000 ha) of the total area in 1978 and 1987. Izembek Lagoon contains the largest bed of seagrass along the Pacific Coast of North America and largest known single stand of eelgrass in the world. There was a high degree of overlap in the spatial distribution of eelgrass among years of change detection. The overall net change was a 6% gain between, 1978 and 1987 and a <1% gain between 1987 and 1995. The lack of significant change in eelgrass cover suggests that eelgrass meadows in Izembek Lagoon have been stable during the 17-year period of our study.

  20. Facultative Lagoons. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lorri

    This instructor's guide contains materials needed to teach a two-lesson unit on the structure and components of facultative lagoons, the biological theory of their operation, and factors affecting their operation. Control testing recommendations, maintenance guidelines, and troubleshooting hints are also provided. These materials include: (1) an…

  1. Fate of estradiol and testosterone in anaerobic lagoon digestors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory-scale lagoon digestors were constructed, and the fate of 14C-labelled 17ß-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (Test) were monitored for 42 d anaerobically under biological and sterile conditions. Hormone levels decreased in the liquid layer and increased in the sludge with time. At 42 d, 16-2...

  2. WATER QUALITY RENOVATION OF ANIMAL WASTE LAGOONS UTILIZING AQUATIC PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Duckweeds Spirodela oligorhiza, S. polyrhiza, and Lemna gibba (clone G3) grown on dairy waste lagoons gave an estimated maximum annual yield of 22,023 kg dry wt./ha. S. oligorhiza and L. gibba had higher growth rates in the spring, fall, and winter, with L. gibba growing througho...

  3. Methane Dynamics in Sediments from Mangrove-dominated Costal Lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, P. C.; Paytan, A.; Young, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    Porewater methane and sulfate concentrations from cored sediments have been measured in two coastal mangrove ecosystems (Celestún and Chelem Lagoons) on the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Methane exists in shallow sediments while sulfate is not depleted and stable carbon isotopes of methane (-87.27‰ ~ -62.08‰) imply high methane fluxes/production rates below and within the cored sediment depths. The preliminary results from a transport-reaction model show that methane emitted to the water column from these sediments could be 17.8 mg m-2 d-1 in Celestún Lagoon and much higher (565 mg m-2 d-1) in Chelem Lagoon. Since the water depths are shallow (mostly less than 100 cm), the high fluxes of methane could contribute to the atmosphere. The objectives of this study will aim to understand the biogeochemical cycles for methane and sulfate in sediments. A numerical transport-reaction model will be applied to the sedimentary geochemical data (methane, sulfate, chloride, particulate organic carbon (POC) and stable carbon isotopes of headspace methane) from the two lagoons to estimate sulfate reduction, methane oxidation and production rates and advective methane fluxes. The modeled results will be used to discuss the role of methane from mangrove areas and their potential contribution to the global methane cycle.

  4. Antibiotic Resistant Bacterial Profiles of Anaerobic Swine Lagoon Effluent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although land application of swine manure lagoon effluent is a common and effective method of disposal, the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, both pathogenic and commensal can complicate already understood issues associated with its safe disposal. The aim of this study was to assess antibi...

  5. In Situ Monitoring of Malodors in a Swine Waste Lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An apparatus for the in situ quantification of malodorous compounds from animal wastewater was developed that employed a submersible magnetic stir plate and stir bar sorbtive extraction using polydimethylsiloxane-coated stir bars. Prior to deployment of the apparatus in a hog waste lagoon, experime...

  6. SPREADING LAGOONED SEWAGE SLUDGE ON FARMLAND: A CASE HISTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project demonstrated that land application is feasible and practical for a metropolitan treatment plant for disposal of a large volume (265,000 cu m) of stabilized, liquid sewage sludge stored in lagoons. The project involved transportation of sludge by semi-trailer tankers ...

  7. Flushing of Bowden Reef lagoon, Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolanski, Eric; King, Brian

    1990-12-01

    Field and numerical studies were undertaken in 1986 and 1987 of the water circulation around and over Bowden Reef, a 5-km long kidney-shaped coral reef lagoon system in the Great Barrier Reef. In windy conditions, the flushing of the lagoon was primarily due to the intrusion into the lagoon of topographically induced tidal eddies generated offshore. In calm weather, such eddies did not prevail and lagoon flushing was much slower. The observed currents at sites a few kilometres apart in inter-reefal waters, have a significant horizontal shear apparently due to the complex circulation in the reef matrix. Under such conditions, sensitivity tests demonstrate the importance of including this shear in the specification of open boundary conditions of numerical models of the hydrodynamics around reefs. Contrary to established practice, the water circulation around a coral reef should not be modelled by assuming reefs are hydrodynamically isolated from surrounding ones. Little improvement appears likely in the reliability of reef-scale numerical models until the inter-reefal shear can be reliably incorporated in such models.

  8. A new sampler for stratified lagoon chemical and microbiological assessments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A water column sampler was needed to study stratification of nutrients and bacteria in a swine manure lagoon. Conventional samplers yielded shallow samples near the bank or required a boat. These limitations prompted development of a new sampler to collect at multiple depths with minimal disturbanc...

  9. Benthic Primary Production Budget of a Caribbean Reef Lagoon (Puerto Morelos, Mexico)

    PubMed Central

    Naumann, Malik S.; Jantzen, Carin; Haas, Andreas F.; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Wild, Christian

    2013-01-01

    High photosynthetic benthic primary production (P) represents a key ecosystem service provided by tropical coral reef systems. However, benthic P budgets of specific ecosystem compartments such as macrophyte-dominated reef lagoons are still scarce. To address this, we quantified individual and lagoon-wide net (Pn) and gross (Pg) primary production by all dominant functional groups of benthic primary producers in a typical macrophyte-dominated Caribbean reef lagoon near Puerto Morelos (Mexico) via measurement of O2 fluxes in incubation experiments. The photosynthetically active 3D lagoon surface area was quantified using conversion factors to allow extrapolation to lagoon-wide P budgets. Findings revealed that lagoon 2D benthic cover was primarily composed of sand-associated microphytobenthos (40%), seagrasses (29%) and macroalgae (27%), while seagrasses dominated the lagoon 3D surface area (84%). Individual Pg was highest for macroalgae and scleractinian corals (87 and 86 mmol O2 m−2 specimen area d−1, respectively), however seagrasses contributed highest (59%) to the lagoon-wide Pg. Macroalgae exhibited highest individual Pn rates, but seagrasses generated the largest fraction (51%) of lagoon-wide Pn. Individual R was highest for scleractinian corals and macroalgae, whereas seagrasses again provided the major lagoon-wide share (68%). These findings characterise the investigated lagoon as a net autotrophic coral reef ecosystem compartment revealing similar P compared to other macrophyte-dominated coastal environments such as seagrass meadows and macroalgae beds. Further, high lagoon-wide P (Pg: 488 and Pn: 181 mmol O2 m−2 lagoon area d−1) and overall Pg:R (1.6) indicate substantial benthic excess production within the Puerto Morelos reef lagoon and suggest the export of newly synthesised organic matter to surrounding ecosystems. PMID:24367570

  10. Sand mining and morphometric dynamics along Ologe Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaddeus, D.; Odunuga, S.

    2015-04-01

    The study focuses on the sand mining activities and morphometric dynamics of Ologe Lagoon, in Lagos, Nigeria. It determines the sand mining activities and morphometric dynamics of Ologe Lagoon catchment area, the quantity of sand mined per unit time, and the extent of environmental degradation due to the continuous sand mining activities. Topographic maps of the 1985 and 2013 Ikonos satellite imagery were used to identify the morphometric dynamics of the area. Two hypotheses were generated to determine if there are significant differences between the means of the sampled population that lost properties due to flooding, and to determine if there was a correlation between building subsidence and loss of property; it was tested using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with a correlation coefficient at 0.05 α significance level. The results of geometric measurement of the Ologe Lagoon between the two years interval show that perimeter width and circularity of the basin had reduced and shrunk, while the form factor remains the same at 0.15 km2. The basin elongation increased significantly by 0.01 km2, thus, increasing the rate at which water will be supplied to the lagoon. The ration of the form factor of 0.69/0.5 is close to the unity value R1, which shows a higher peak runoff; the values of the circularity ratio of 3.94/3.13 indicates circularity. This shows that the basin is circular time. The impact of the geometry indicates the development of mud flats and sandy bars, particularly at the lower portion of the lagoon; there is also modification of sediment deposition. The anthropogenic activity of sand mining causes destruction of the riparian forest around the lagoon. There is no significant difference in the means of sampled respondents regarding loss properties due to flooding, while there is a correlation between building subsidence and loss of life. It is recommended that a road map should be developed and implemented by the relevant agency of the government to guide

  11. POPs in the Lagoon of Venice: budgets and pathways.

    PubMed

    Guerzoni, Stefano; Rossini, Paolo; Sarretta, Alessandro; Raccanelli, Stefano; Ferrari, Giorgio; Molinaroli, Emanuela

    2007-04-01

    Dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the ecosystem of the Lagoon of Venice were studied, in order to provide a general picture of conditions in the lagoon in terms of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). We present here novel data on atmospheric deposition, water, sediment and clam samples collected in the lagoon during the period January 2001-December 2004. Atmospheric deposition was sampled monthly at six sites located both close and far from large industrial and urban sources. Water samples were collected monthly from fifteen stations, and twenty-five samples of sediments and clams (Tapes philippinarum) were collected in four areas where clams are farmed and harvested inside the lagoon. All samples were analysed for PCDD/Fs, PCBs and HCB by HRGC/HRMS in the same laboratory. All samples examined (atmospheric deposition and water) substantially confirmed the spatial pattern reported in previously published data on sediments and atmospheric deposition: the zone surrounding the Porto Marghera petrochemical plant always had the highest levels of POPs (i.e., PCDD/Fs: atmosphere approximately 6 pg of 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents (I-TE) m(-2)d(-1); water 0.37 pg I-TEl(-1); sediment: 300 ng kg(-1); clam 2.8 pg I-TE g(-1)), and the minima were found at points on the margins of the lagoon (PCDD/Fs: atmosphere approximately 1 pg I-TEm(-2)d(-1); water 0.05 pg I-TEl(-1); sediment: approximately 5 ng kg(-1); clam approximately 0.2 pg I-TE g(-1)). Intermediate values were often encountered in the historical city centre of Venice and in the central part of the lagoon. To confirm this, new data on correlation between levels of PCDD/F in sediments and clams are reported, both for absolute values and for the PCDD/F "fingerprint". There is always a clear fingerprinting signature (PCDF/PCDD>1) for samples collected near Porto Marghera, and the opposite (PCDF/PCDD<1) in the rest of the lagoon. PMID:17215019

  12. Water sources, mixing and evaporation in the Akyatan lagoon, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lécuyer, C.; Bodergat, A.-M.; Martineau, F.; Fourel, F.; Gürbüz, K.; Nazik, A.

    2012-12-01

    Akyatan lagoon, located southeast of Turkey along the Mediterranean coast, is a choked and hypersaline lagoon, and hosts a large and specific biodiversity including endangered sea turtles and migrating birds. Physicochemical properties of this lagoon were investigated by measuring temperature, salinity, and hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of its waters at a seasonal scale during years 2006 and 2007. Winter and spring seasons were dominated by mixing processes between freshwaters and Mediterranean seawater. The majority of spring season waters are formed by evapoconcentration of brackish water at moderate temperatures of 22 ± 2 °C. During summer, hypersaline waters result from evaporation of seawater and brackish waters formed during spring. Evaporation over the Akyatan lagoon reaches up to 76 wt% based on salinity measurements and operated with a dry (relative humidity of 0.15-0.20) and hot (44 ± 6 °C) air. These residual waters were characterized by the maximal seasonal isotopic enrichment in both deuterium and 18O relative to VSMOW. During autumn, most lagoonal waters became hypersaline and were formed by evaporation of waters that had isotopic compositions and salinities close to that of seawater. These autumnal hypersaline waters result from an air humidity close to 0.45 and an atmospheric temperature of evaporation of 35 ± 5 °C, which are responsible for up to 71 wt% of evaporation, with restricted isotopic enrichments relative to VSMOW. During the warm seasons, the combination of air humidity, wind velocity and temperature were responsible for a large kinetic component in the total isotopic fractionation between water liquid and water vapour.

  13. Dissolved and particulate heavy metals distribution in coastal lagoons. A case study from Mar Chiquita Lagoon, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrame, María Ornela; De Marco, Silvia G.; Marcovecchio, Jorge E.

    2009-10-01

    Mar Chiquita Coastal Lagoon is located on the Atlantic coast of Argentina, and it has been declared a Biosphere Reserve under the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB). This coastal lagoon constitutes an estuarine environment with a very particular behaviour and it is ecologically important due to its biological diversity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution and geochemical behaviour of several heavy metals in this coastal system, focusing on their distribution in both the dissolved phase (<0.45 μm) and the suspended particulate matter. Therefore, the general hydrochemical parameters (salinity, temperature, turbidity, pH and dissolved oxygen) and concentration of total particulate and dissolved metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cr and Mn) were measured along 2 years (2004-2006) at two different sites. As regards their distribution, hydrological parameters did not present any evidence of deviation with respect to historical values. Suspended particulate matter showed no seasonal variation or any relationship with the tide, thus indicating that in this shallow coastal lagoon neither tides nor freshwater sources regulate the particulate matter input. Heavy metals behaviour, both in dissolved and particulate phases did not reveal any relationship with tide or seasons. Mar Chiquita Coastal Lagoon showed a large input of dissolved and particulate metals, which is probably due to intensive agriculture within the drainage basin of this system.

  14. New platyrrhine monkeys from the Solimões Formation (late Miocene, Acre State, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Kay, Richard F; Cozzuol, Mario Alberto

    2006-06-01

    We report here a new fossil primate from the late Miocene of Brazil. The material consists of a lower first molar and a maxilla with P3-4. The fossils were collected in the Solimões Formation at the locality of Patos, upper Acre River, Acre State, Brazil. The locality is assigned to the Huayquerian South American Land Mammal Age based on faunal content (late Miocene; dated to between 9 and 6 Ma). The new material is the oldest known occurrence of fossil primates in Brazil and is recognized as a new genus and species, Solimoea acrensis. Solimoea is the oldest known member of the ateline subfamily, which includes the living genera Ateles, Lagothrix, and Brachyteles. By analogy with the molar structures and diets of extant platyrrhines, Solimoea primarily had a diet of fruit, perhaps similar to that of the spider monkey, Ateles. Two other primate teeth described previously from the same formation in Bolivia document the occurrence of alouattines and cebines. One of those specimens is a late Miocene representative of the middle Miocene Colombian genus Stirtonia. The other represents one of the largest known platyrrhine primates, for which is erected a new primate genus, Acrecebus fraileyi. PMID:16530809

  15. An integrated Pan-European perspective on coastal Lagoons management through a mosaic-DPSIR approach.

    PubMed

    Dolbeth, Marina; Stålnacke, Per; Alves, Fátima L; Sousa, Lisa P; Gooch, Geoffrey D; Khokhlov, Valeriy; Tuchkovenko, Yurii; Lloret, Javier; Bielecka, Małgorzata; Różyński, Grzegorz; Soares, João A; Baggett, Susan; Margonski, Piotr; Chubarenko, Boris V; Lillebø, Ana I

    2016-01-01

    A decision support framework for the management of lagoon ecosystems was tested using four European Lagoons: Ria de Aveiro (Portugal), Mar Menor (Spain), Tyligulskyi Liman (Ukraine) and Vistula Lagoon (Poland/Russia). Our aim was to formulate integrated management recommendations for European lagoons. To achieve this we followed a DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-State Change-Impacts-Responses) approach, with focus on integrating aspects of human wellbeing, welfare and ecosystem sustainability. The most important drivers in each lagoon were identified, based on information gathered from the lagoons' stakeholders, complemented by scientific knowledge on each lagoon as seen from a land-sea perspective. The DPSIR cycles for each driver were combined into a mosaic-DPSIR conceptual model to examine the interdependency between the multiple and interacting uses of the lagoon. This framework emphasizes the common links, but also the specificities of responses to drivers and the ecosystem services provided. The information collected was used to formulate recommendations for the sustainable management of lagoons within a Pan-European context. Several common management recommendations were proposed, but specificities were also identified. The study synthesizes the present conditions for the management of lagoons, thus analysing and examining the activities that might be developed in different scenarios, scenarios which facilitate ecosystem protection without compromising future generations. PMID:26776151

  16. A mechanistic model of runoff-associated fecal coliform fate and transport through a coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    Steets, B M; Holden, P A

    2003-02-01

    Fecal coliform (FC) contamination in coastal waters is an ongoing public health problem worldwide. Coastal wetlands and lagoons are typically expected to protect coastal waters by attenuating watershed pollutants including FC bacteria. However, new evidence suggests that coastal lagoons or marshes can also be a source of high indicator organism concentrations in coastal waters. We asked for a Mediterranean-type climate, what is the fate of runoff-associated FC through a coastal lagoon? To address this question, we developed a mass balance-based, mechanistic model of FC concentration through a coastal lagoon and simulated, for summer and winter conditions, FC within the lagoon water column, lagoon sediments, and in the ocean water just downstream of the lagoon mouth. Our model accounts for advective flow and dispersion, decay and sedimentation and resuspension of FC-laden sediments during high flow, erosional conditions. Under low flow conditions that occur in the summer, net FC decay and FC storage in lagoon sediments are predicted. Under high flow conditions that occur in the winter, FC-laden sediments are predicted to erode, resuspend and flow out of the lagoon where they elevate FC concentrations in the coastal ocean. For both seasonal conditions, the predicted water column FC concentrations were within an order of magnitude of field measurements for a reference site in southern California. Our results suggest that there are seasonally varying roles for coastal lagoons in mediating FC contamination to coastal waters. PMID:12688694

  17. Biogeochemical responses of shallow coastal lagoons to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, A.; Newton, A.; Tett, P.; Fernandes, T.

    2009-04-01

    The importance of climate change and global warming in the near future is becoming consensual within the scientific community (e.g. Kerr et al., 2008; Lloret et al., 2008). The surface temperature and sea level have increased during the last few years in the northern hemisphere (IPCC, 2007). Predictions for future changes include an increase of surface temperature and sea level for Europe. Moreover, the global warming phenomenon will also change the hydrological cycle and increase precipitation in northern and central Europe (IPCC, 2007). Sea level rise already threatens to overwhelm some lagoons, such as Venice and Moroccan lagoons (Snoussi et al., 2008). Shallow coastal lagoons are some of the most vulnerable systems that will be impacted by these changes (Eisenreich, 2005). Environmental impacts on coastal lagoons include an increase of water turbidity and therefore light attenuation. If these effects are strong enough, the lighted bottoms of shallow lagoons may loose a significant part of the benthic algal community. These communities are highly productive and are essential to control nutrient dynamics of the system by uptaking large amounts of nutrients both from the water column and from the sediments. A decrease in benthic algal communities and photosynthetic oxygen production will also contribute to increasing the vulnerability of the lagoons to hypoxia and anoxia. The flux of nutrients such as phosphate from the sediments may increase dramatically, further disrupting the nutrient balance and condition and promoting cyanobacterial blooms. Microbial activity is temperature dependent, therefore, the increase of temperature will increase the concentrations of ammonium within sediments. The release of phosphate and silicate will also increase with temperature. Coastal lagoons are valuable ecosystems and may be severely impacted, both ecologically and economically, by global change. Shallow coastal lagoons should be considered as sentinel systems and should be

  18. Toxicity of contaminants in lagoons and pannes of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, R.; Speelman, J.; Stewart, P.M.

    1995-12-31

    Contaminants in water and sediments of lagoons and pannes were 2--90 times greater at sites adjacent to slag and coal piles than those at reference sites. One site (Lagoon-US5) had sediments with very high concentrations of toxic organics (e.g. naphthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzofuran). Although analyses indicated a gradient of contaminant concentration with distance from their sources, toxicity assays were somewhat equivocal. With the exception of less reproduction in Ceriodaphnia at one lagoon site (US3 = 0.55 of reference), survival of fathead minnows and reproduction in Ceriodaphnia in lagoon and panne waters varied independently of the contaminant concentration. In fact, there was better Ceriodaphnia reproduction in water from two contaminated sites (Lagoon-US5, Panne-WP1) than in water from reference sites. Fathead minnow survival, Ceriodaphnia survival, Ceriodaphnia reproduction, amphipod survival, and amphipod growth varied among sites in toxicity assays with sediments, 100% mortality of fatheads at Lagoon-US5, 100% mortality of Ceriodaphnia at Lagoon-US3, and less survival of fathead minnows at Lagoon-US3 indicate possible toxicity from contaminants in sediments at these sites. Of all organisms and end-points tested, Ceriodaphnia survival seemed to be most closely associated with concentrations of contaminants in lagoon water and sediments. Amphipod survival also varied with contaminants in sediments, however, survival in sediments of contaminated sites ranged only from 0.90--0.93 of reference sites. Although the results are not consistent among organisms, toxicity assays indicate that sediments from the lagoon site with the highest contaminants (Lagoon-US5) and possibly those from another contaminated lagoon site (Lagoon-US3) could be toxic to aquatic organisms. Water and sediments from contaminated panne sites do not appear to be toxic to aquatic test organisms.

  19. Interannual and cyclone-driven variability in phytoplankton communities of a tropical coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    Srichandan, Suchismita; Kim, Ji Yoon; Kumar, Abhishek; Mishra, Deepak R; Bhadury, Punyasloke; Muduli, Pradipta R; Pattnaik, Ajit K; Rastogi, Gurdeep

    2015-12-15

    One of the main challenges in phytoplankton ecology is to understand their variability at different spatiotemporal scales. We investigated the interannual and cyclone-derived variability in phytoplankton communities of Chilika, the largest tropical coastal lagoon in Asia and the underlying mechanisms in relation to environmental forcing. Between July 2012 and June 2013, Cyanophyta were most prolific in freshwater northern region of the lagoon. A category-5 very severe cyclonic storm (VSCS) Phailin struck the lagoon on 12th October 2013 and introduced additional variability into the hydrology and phytoplankton communities. Freshwater Cyanophyta further expanded their territory and occupied the northern as well as central region of the lagoon. Satellite remote sensing imagery revealed that the phytoplankton biomass did not change much due to high turbidity prevailing in the lagoon after Phailin. Modeling analysis of species-salinity relationship identified specific responses of phytoplankton taxa to the different salinity regime of lagoon. PMID:26611863

  20. Spatial and temporal distribution of cyanobacteria in Batticaloa Lagoon.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jalaldeen Mohamed; Vinobaba, Periyathamby; Kularatne, Ranil Kavindra Asela; Ellawala Kankanamge, Champika

    2016-09-01

    The necessity to understand the relationship between cyanobacterial species abundance and water quality variations in coastal lagoons is crucial to develop strategies to prevent further cyanobacterial proliferation. This paper evaluates the relationship between water quality variations on the distribution of cyanobacteria during a 12-month period in Batticaloa Lagoon (Sri Lanka) using Redundancy analysis and Pearson correlations. Drastic variations in pH, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO) and total phosphorus (TP) levels were reported, but not turbidity and NO3(-). This brackish waterbody is hypereutrophic (TP levels>0.1mg/L). The cyanobacterial community contained 13 genera and 22 species. NO3(-), TP and turbidity levels positively influenced cyanobacterial abundance during all seasons indicating that nutrient (largely phosphorus) and sediment entry control is highly crucial along with periodic monitoring of cyanobacterial growth. PMID:27593288

  1. The performance of biomass-based AMBI in lagoonal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mistri, Michele; Munari, Cristina

    2015-10-15

    We studied the performance of the AZTI Marine Biotic Index AMBI manipulating input data collected from lagoonal ecosystems. Our data set consisted of macrofaunal abundance and biomass counts gathered at a variety of sites at which the disturbance status was known. Input data were also manipulated using a set of transformations of increasing severity. Biotic indices were calculated using raw and transformed abundance, biomass and production. Among the three categories of AMBI-based indices, medium transformation of data gave the highest correlation with pressures. However, increasing the severity of transformation generally resulted in a decrease of the correlation with environmental factors. The relative importance of ecological groups changed when using abundance or biomass, sometimes leading to an improved ecological status classification. Being biomass and production more ecologically relevant than abundance, using them to derive AMBI-based new indices seems intriguing, at least in lagoonal waters, where the community is naturally disturbed and dominated by opportunists. PMID:26219686

  2. Taphonomy of coral reefs from Southern Lagoon of Belize

    SciTech Connect

    Westphall, M.J.; Ginsburg, R.N.

    1985-02-01

    The Southern Lagoon of the Belize barrier complex, an area of some 600 km/sup 2/, contains a tremendous number of lagoon reefs, which range in size from patches several meters across to rhomboidal-shaped structures several kilometers in their long dimension. These lagoon reefs are remarkable because they have Holocene sediment accumulations in excess of 13 m consisting almost entirely of coral debris and lime mud and sand, and rise up to 30 m above the surrounding lagoon floor with steeply sloping sides (50-80/sup 0/), yet are totally uncemented. The reef-building biota and their corresponding deposits were studied at a representative reef, the rhomboidal complex of Channel Cay. As with many of the reefs in this area, the steeply sloping flanks of Channel Cay are covered mainly by the branched staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and ribbonlike and platy growth of Agaricia spp. The living corals are not cemented to the substrate, but are merely intergrown. Fragmented pieces of corals accumulate with an open framework below the living community; this open framework is subsequently infilled by lime muds and sands produced mainly from bioerosion. Results from probing and coring suggest that the bafflestone fabric of coral debris and sediment extends at least 13 m into the subsurface. Radiocarbon-age estimates indicate these impressive piles of coral rubble and sediment have accumulated in the past 9000 yr (giving a minimum accumulation rate of 1.4 m/1000 yr) and illustrate the potential for significant carbonate buildups without the need for early lithification.

  3. A new sampler for stratified lagoon chemical and microbiological assessments.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, M R; Brooks, J P; Adeli, A

    2014-07-01

    A sampler was needed for a spatial and temporal study of microbial and chemical stratification in a large swine manure lagoon that was known to contain zoonotic bacteria. Conventional samplers were limited to collections of surface water samples near the bank or required a manned boat. A new sampler was developed to allow simultaneous collection of multiple samples at different depths, up to 2.3 m, without a manned boat. The sampler was tethered for stability, used remote control (RC) for sample collection, and accommodated rapid replacement of sterile tubing modules and sample containers. The sampler comprised a PVC pontoon with acrylic deck and watertight enclosures, for a 12 VDC gearmotor, to operate the collection module, and vacuum system, to draw samples into reusable autoclavable tubing and 250-mL bottles. Although designed primarily for water samples, the sampler was easily modified to collect sludge. The sampler held a stable position during deployment, created minimal disturbance in the water column, and was readily cleaned and sanitized for transport. The sampler was field tested initially in a shallow fresh water lake and subsequently in a swine manure treatment lagoon. Analyses of water samples from the lagoon tests showed that chemical and bacterial levels, pH, and EC did not differ between 0.04, 0.47, and 1.0 m depths, but some chemical and bacterial levels differed between winter and spring collections. These results demonstrated the utility of the sampler and suggested that future manure lagoon studies employ fewer or different depths and more sampling dates. PMID:24549945

  4. Statistical characterization of spatiotemporal sediment dynamics in the Venice lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniello, Luca; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Botter, Gianluca; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Characterizing the dynamics of suspended sediment is crucial when investigating the long-term evolution of tidal landscapes. Here we apply a widely tested mathematical model which describes the dynamics of cohesive and noncohesive sediments, driven by the combined effect of tidal currents and wind waves, using 1 year long time series of observed water levels and wind data from the Venice lagoon. The spatiotemporal evolution of the computed suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is analyzed on the basis of the "peak over threshold" theory. Our analysis suggests that events characterized by high SSC can be modeled as a marked Poisson process over most of the lagoon. The interarrival time between two consecutive over threshold events, the intensity of peak excesses, and the duration are found to be exponentially distributed random variables over most of tidal flats. Our study suggests that intensity and duration of over threshold events are temporally correlated, while almost no correlation exists between interarrival times and both durations and intensities. The benthic vegetation colonizing the central southern part of the Venice lagoon is found to exert a crucial role on sediment dynamics: vegetation locally decreases the frequency of significant resuspension events by affecting spatiotemporal patterns of SSCs also in adjacent areas. Spatial patterns of the mean interarrival of over threshold SSC events are found to be less heterogeneous than the corresponding patterns of mean interarrivals of over threshold bottom shear stress events because of the role of advection/dispersion processes in mixing suspended sediments within the lagoon. Implications for long-term morphodynamic modeling of tidal environments are discussed.

  5. Validation of Numerical Shallow Water Models for Tidal Lagoons

    SciTech Connect

    Eliason, D.; Bourgeois, A.

    1999-11-01

    An analytical solution is presented for the case of a stratified, tidally forced lagoon. This solution, especially its energetics, is useful for the validation of numerical shallow water models under stratified, tidally forced conditions. The utility of the analytical solution for validation is demonstrated for a simple finite difference numerical model. A comparison is presented of the energetics of the numerical and analytical solutions in terms of the convergence of model results to the analytical solution with increasing spatial and temporal resolution.

  6. Heavy metals distribution in sediments of Nador lagoon (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloundi, K.; Duplay, J.

    2003-04-01

    The Nador lagoon is a paralic system, located North-East of Morocco. At the present time this ecosystem undergoes an anthropic stress induced by urban, industrial and agricultural releases, and also by fishery activity which enriches this ecosystem in organic and inorganic wastes. A geochemical study has been undertaken, first to define the areas contaminated by heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Co, Cr and V), and second to caracterize the different mineral phases, which trap these elements. Sediment samples were collected on twenty-eight stations scattered all over the lagoon, and each core (30 cm) was subdivided in two horizons (surface and depth). Mineralogical analyses as well as major and trace elements analyses were performed on surface and deep sediments. The results on major element analyses (Si, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, P) show an enrichment in halite and phosphates in the surface sediments. This highlights on one hand, low water exchange rates between the lagoon and the Mediterranean sea, and on the other hand, an increase in organic releases related to the urban, agricultural and fishery activities. The highest concentrations in inorganic micro-pollutant were recorded N-E of the lagoon and close to Nador city. With reference to the geochemical background, it can be concluded that there is a slight contamination in heavy metals. Moreover, enrichment factor calculations (EF) for heavy metals point out an increase in metal elements as following: Zn>Co>Cr>V>Cu. Sequential extractions were performed to determine the behaviour of these micro-pollutants. Thus, it was shown that carbonates, oxides and phosphates are the preferential mineral phases for trapping these heavy metals.

  7. Industrial waste treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of wastewaters in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, associated equipment, and pretreatment processes are discussed. Included in the references are treatment of wastewaters from breweries, tanneries, paper mills, agricultural operations, and other industrial operations. Descriptions and evaluations of specific facilities are provided. Municipal water and sewage treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 118 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Municipal sewage treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of municipal wastewater and sewage in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, and associated equipment for pretreatment, treatment, and storage techniques are discussed. Many citations describe the water treatment facilities of specific cities, and provide evaluations of the operations at those sites. Industrial and other non-municipal wastewater treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Municipal sewage treatment: Lagoons (ponds). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment and storage of municipal wastewater and sewage in lagoons. Lagoon design, operation, and associated equipment for pretreatment, treatment, and storage techniques are discussed. Many citations describe the water treatment facilities of specific cities, and provide evaluations of the operations at those sites. Industrial and other non-municipal wastewater treatment lagoons are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Geoelectrical signals of geologic and hydrologic processes in a fringing reef lagoon setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befus, Kevin M.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Tait, Douglas R.; Erler, Dirk V.

    2014-09-01

    Coastal groundwater may discharge into nearshore and offshore waters forced by terrestrial fluxes, controlled by local geology, and modulated by the hydrodynamics of littoral water. We investigated the electrical signature of these features with a dense, multiscale network of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys in the Muri Lagoon of Rarotonga, Cook Islands. The ERT surveys spanned from onshore to 400 m into the lagoon and used standard electrodes on land and across the foreshore, submerged electrodes in the shallow subtidal zone, and floating electrodes towed throughout the reef lagoon by a boat. ERT surveys on land mapped a typical freshwater lens underlain by a saltwater wedge, but with possible deviations from the classical model due to an adjacent tidal creek. Further inland, ERT surveys imaged a layer of lava flow deposits that is potentially a confining hydrogeologic unit; this unit was used to constrain the expected electrical resistivity of these deposits below the lagoon. ERT surveys across the intertidal zone and into the lagoon indicated fresh groundwater and porewater salinity patterns consistent with previous small-scale studies including the seaward extension of fresh groundwater pathways to the lagoon. Electrical resistivity (ER) variations in the lagoon subsurface highlighted heterogeneities in the lagoon structure that may focus submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) through previously unknown buried lava flow deposits in the lagoon. A transition to higher ER values near the reef crest is consistent with the ER signature of porosity reduction due to ongoing differential cementation of reef deposits across the lagoon. The imaged coastal hydrostratigraphic heterogeneity may thus control terrestrial and marine porewater mixing, support SGD, and provide the pathways for groundwater and the materials it transports into the lagoon. This hydrogeophysical investigation highlighted the spatial heterogeneity of submarine coastal geology and its

  11. On the circulation in the Puerto Morelos fringing reef lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronado, C.; Candela, J.; Iglesias-Prieto, R.; Sheinbaum, J.; López, M.; Ocampo-Torres, F. J.

    2007-03-01

    For a period of 22 months beginning in September 2003, an array of four current profilers were deployed on the Puerto Morelos fringing reef lagoon, a microtidal Caribbean environment characterised by the influence of the Yucatan Current (YC) and a Trade Wind regime. The dataset includes water currents, bottom pressure, and surface waves complemented with coastal meteorological data and surface currents from an acoustic Doppler current profiler moored 12 km offshore. Normal circulation conditions consisted of a surface wave-induced flow entering the lagoon over a shallow reef flat and strong flows exiting through northern and southern channels. This wave induced flow was modulated by a low-frequency sea level change related to a geostrophic response to the YC variability offshore, with tidal and direct wind forcing playing additional minor roles. Under extended summer low-wave height conditions, together with a decrease in sea level from the intensification of the offshore current, the exchange of the lagoon with the adjacent ocean was drastically reduced. Under normal wave conditions ( H S = 0.8 ± 0.4 m, mean ± SD), water residence time was on average 3 h, whereas during Hurricane Ivan’s extreme swell ( H S = 6 m) it decreased to 0.35 h.

  12. An integrated Pan-European perspective on coastal Lagoons management through a mosaic-DPSIR approach

    PubMed Central

    Dolbeth, Marina; Stålnacke, Per; Alves, Fátima L.; Sousa, Lisa P.; Gooch, Geoffrey D.; Khokhlov, Valeriy; Tuchkovenko, Yurii; Lloret, Javier; Bielecka, Małgorzata; Różyński, Grzegorz; Soares, João A.; Baggett, Susan; Margonski, Piotr; Chubarenko, Boris V.; Lillebø, Ana I.

    2016-01-01

    A decision support framework for the management of lagoon ecosystems was tested using four European Lagoons: Ria de Aveiro (Portugal), Mar Menor (Spain), Tyligulskyi Liman (Ukraine) and Vistula Lagoon (Poland/Russia). Our aim was to formulate integrated management recommendations for European lagoons. To achieve this we followed a DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-State Change-Impacts-Responses) approach, with focus on integrating aspects of human wellbeing, welfare and ecosystem sustainability. The most important drivers in each lagoon were identified, based on information gathered from the lagoons’ stakeholders, complemented by scientific knowledge on each lagoon as seen from a land-sea perspective. The DPSIR cycles for each driver were combined into a mosaic-DPSIR conceptual model to examine the interdependency between the multiple and interacting uses of the lagoon. This framework emphasizes the common links, but also the specificities of responses to drivers and the ecosystem services provided. The information collected was used to formulate recommendations for the sustainable management of lagoons within a Pan-European context. Several common management recommendations were proposed, but specificities were also identified. The study synthesizes the present conditions for the management of lagoons, thus analysing and examining the activities that might be developed in different scenarios, scenarios which facilitate ecosystem protection without compromising future generations. PMID:26776151

  13. The effect of floods on sediment contamination in a microtidal coastal lagoon: the lagoon of Lesina, Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Adamo, Raffaele; Specchiulli, Antonietta; Cassin, Daniele; Botter, Margherita; Zonta, Roberto; Fabbrocini, Adele

    2014-10-01

    The effects on the microtidal lagoon of Lesina of runoff and the discharge of water and material from agricultural activities were investigated combining chemical analyses of pollutants [11 metals and 16 priority polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs)], determination of organic matter and grain size, and performance of innovative ecotoxicological tests. For metals, enrichment factors >3 for arsenic, nickel, and copper (Cu) were observed in the eastern zone of the lagoon, which is affected by nearby urban activities with discharge of water and domestic waste and by agricultural input with waters rich in fertilizers. Cu was correlated with no other metal, and its high concentrations (≤77 µg g(-1)) may result from the use of Cu-based fungicides in vineyards. Total PAHs (2,230 ± 3,150 ng g(-1)) displayed a wide range of concentrations with hot spots near freshwater inputs from the part of the catchment area exploited for wheat crops. Pyrolitic contamination also emerged, with higher-mass PAH congeners, such as asphalt, bitumen or coal, usually present in higher fractions as the dominant components. Ecotoxicological evaluations recorded moderate to high toxicity levels; the innovative MOT test bioassay showed good discriminatory ability because it identified a lagoon area whose inputs mainly depend on agricultural activities and which is impacted by metals rather than PAHs. Floods during periods of heavy rain and the discharge of water and material from agricultural activities may impact vulnerable systems, such as the lagoon of Lesina, where the presence of hot spots with remarkably high pollution values was observed. PMID:24862981

  14. Depositional history and fault-related studies, Bolinas Lagoon, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berquist, Joel R.

    1978-01-01

    Studies of core sediments and seismic reflection profiles elucidate the structure and depositional history of Bolinas Lagoon, Calif., which covers 4.4 km 2 and lies in the San Andreas fault zone at the southeast corner of the Point Reyes Peninsula 20 km northwest of San Francisco. The 1906 trace of the San Andreas fault crosses the west side of the lagoon and was determined from (1) tectonically caused salt-marsh destruction indicated by comparison of 1854 and 1929 U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey (U.S.C. & G.S.) topographic surveys, (2) formation of a tidal channel along the border of destroyed salt marshes, and (3) azimuths of the trend of the fault measured in 1907. Subsidence in the lagoon of 30 cm occurred east of the San Andreas fault in 1906. Near the east shore, seismic-reflection profiling indicates the existence of a graben fault that may connect to a graben fault on the Golden Gate Platform. Comparison of radiocarbon dates on shells and plant debris from boreholes drilled on Stinson Beach spit with a relative sea-level curve constructed for southern San Francisco Bay indicates 5.8 to more than 17.9 m of tectonic subsidence of sediments now located 33 m below mean sea level. Cored sediments indicate a marine transgression dated at 7770?65 yrs B.P. overlying freshwater organic-rich lake deposits. Fossil pollen including 2 to 8 percent Picea (spruce) indicate a late Pleistocene (?)-Early Holocene climate, cooler, wetter, and foggier than at present. Above the transgression are discontinuous and interfingering sequences of transgressive-regressive marine, estuarine, and barrier sediments that reflect rapid lateral and vertical shifts of successive depositional environments. Fossil megafauna indicate (1) accumulation in a protected, shallow-water estuary or bay, and (2) that the lagoon was probably continuously shallow and never a deep-water embayment. Analysis of grain-size parameters, pollen frequencies, and organic remains from a core near the north end of

  15. Precambrian Cratons and Fold-Belts in Brazil: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuck, R.

    2008-05-01

    the western border of the São Francisco craton and on the northeastern margin of the Paranapanema block. Deep seismic refraction and other geophysical and geological studies were able to discriminate several crust compartments within the Brasília belt, like the juvenile Goiás magmatic arc, the Archean/Paleoproterozoic Goiás massif, and the external belt zone, as distinguished from the São Francisco craton. The Borborema Province in northeast Brazil is a complex array of Neoproterozoic fold belts (Médio Coreaú, Seridó, Sergipana, Riacho do Pontal, Rio Preto) between the São Luiz and São Francisco cratons, partially covering different crustal blocks (NW Ceará, Ceará Central, Rio Grande do Norte, Pernambuco-Alagoas) separated by large crustal-scale, strike-slip lineaments (Transbrasiliano, Senador Pompeu, Orós, Porta Alegre, Patos, Pernambuco, etc.). Basement of the crustal blocks is mainly Paleoproterozoic in age, but may include Archean cores (São José do Campestre, Grangeiro, Troia). South of the Patos lineament, Mesoproterozoic gneiss, granite and supracrustal belts are recorded in the Transversal domain, in the Pernambuco-Alagoas massif and in the Sergipano and Riacho do Pontal fold belts. Geophysical studies (MT sounding, gravity, seismology, deep seismic refraction, etc.) are underway in order to understand crustal structure and evolution of the province.

  16. Chemistry of modern sediments in a hypersaline lagoon, north of Jeddah, Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, Mahmoud Kh.

    1987-10-01

    Previous studies of modern peritidal sedimentary environments of the Red Sea, such as hypersaline lagoons and sea-marginal flats, have concentrated on its northern part, particularly in the Gulf of Aqaba. However, little is known about lagoon sediments in other localities along the Red Sea coastal stretches. This paper deals with the chemical characteristics of the sediments of a hypersaline (Ras Hatiba) lagoon, north of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The chemistry of hypersaline lagoon sediments is considerably changed following the modifications to the water chemistry by evaporation and precipitation. Ras Hatiba lagoon is a hypersaline elongated water body connected to the Red Sea by a narrow and shallow opening. The total area of the lagoon is c. 30 km 2. Coarse bioclastic sands are dominant in the lagoon and mostly surround lithified calcareous grounds. However, fine silt and clay sediments are present in separate patches. The sediments are rich in carbonates (average 78·5%) and organic carbon (average 7·3%), although they are negatively correlated. Calcium (average 25·1%) and magnesium (average 10·8‰) show a similar distribution pattern in the lagoon sediments. Strontium (average 5·2‰) is positively correlated with calcium. Sodium and potassium are relatively highly concentrated in the sediments (average 118 ppm and 173 ppm, respectively). Magnesium and strontium are of prime importance in the process of mineralization and diagenesis. The sabkha formation surrounding the lagoon is of low carbonate and organic carbon content, compared with the lagoon sediments, whilst it is characterized by high magnesium, sodium and potassium concentrations. Ras Hatiba lagoon sediments and sabkha resemble those of the northern Red Sea in the Gulfs of Aqaba and Suez and the Arabian Gulf in their major sedimentological and chemical characteristics.

  17. Measurement of seepage losses and chemical export from waste lagoons at animal feeding operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, J. M.; DeSutter, T. M.

    2001-05-01

    Whole-lagoon seepage rates were measured from 20 lagoons in Kansas using water balance techniques. Study sites included cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and one dairy. Seepage rates ranged from 0.2 mm/day to 2.4 mm/day with and overall average of 1.2 mm/day. Analysis of lagoon effluent (58 samples from 38 sites) indicated large differences in lagoon chemistry between locations. Ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), which accounted for over 99 percent of the soluble nitrogen, ranged from 10 ppm to 3500 ppm. On average, nitrogen concentrations in swine lagoons were about five times higher than those at cattle feedlots. The chemical flux density (flux boundary condition) was estimated from the seepage rate and the corresponding waste chemistry data from each lagoon. Results showed that ammonium-N export was between 0.02 and 1.06 kg NH4-N m-2 yr^{-1} with an overall average of about 0.3 kg NH4-N m^{-2} yr^{-1}$ . Similar data are available for other soluble compounds. Soil cores were collected beneath eight lagoons that had been operated from 12 to 25 years. Results showed that NH4-N was strongly adsorbed by the soil clay particles and that nitrogen concentrations often decreased to background levels at 3 m beneath the lagoon. Other ions, such as chloride, penetrated to much lower depths at all locations. The 'reservoir' of NH4-N that exists beneath older lagoons could convert to nitrate and move to lower depths after lagoon closure. Data suggest that the properties if the soil beneath lagoons, the concentration of the waste, the seepage rate, and the depth to groundwater are the crucial factors that affect the risk of groundwater contamination.

  18. Freshwater inflows and seasonal forcing strongly influence macrofaunal assemblages in Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, Patricia; Caiola, Nuno; Ibáñez, Carles

    2014-06-01

    Coastal lagoons of the Ebro Delta (Catalonia, Spain) are part of the Ebro Delta Natural Park managed by regional government authorities. Coastal lagoons have persistently received freshwater inputs from the Ebro River from May to November that have altered their natural ecology and hydrological cycle. In this study, we evaluate the seasonal effect of contrasting salinity regimes (polyhaline in the Tancada lagoon, mesohaline in the Encanyissada and oligohaline in the Clot lagoon) on the composition, abundance, species richness, alpha diversity and biomass of benthic macrofauna communities, and we assess the relative contribution of local environmental variables to the observed patterns. Additional sampling was conducted in the largest lagoon (Encanyissada) in order to assess variability at lower spatial scale. At both spatial scales (i.e., among-lagoon and within-lagoon), species richness and diversity tended to increase at higher salinities, particularly in summer. At the assemblage level, significantly different groupings were also found among lagoons and among zones of the Encanyissada lagoon, with more distinctive differences also in summer. Environmental factors accounted for up to 56-60% of the variation in macrofaunal assemblages at both spatial scales, with salinity and temperature accounting for the largest contributions (approx. 14% and 10%, respectively), whereas biomass was mostly controlled by temperature and nutrients. Distinctive oxygen and organic matter levels across the lagoons were also associated with the freshwater influx and displayed significant contributions to observed patterns. Our study shows that the low salinity regime and/or other factors related to long-term inputs of freshwater shape the community of macrofauna within the lagoons, a central trophic resource for most of the local species of fish and aquatic birds. Restoration of these systems to their natural hydrological functioning without further inputs of freshwater and higher

  19. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT: DEVELOPMENT OF OPTIMUM TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER LAGOONS PHASE II - SOLVENT EXTRACTION LABORATORY TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Army surveyed innovative treatment techniques for restoration of hazardous waste lagoons and selected solvent extraction as cost-effective restoration for further study. This treatability study focuses on treatment of organic (explosive) contaminated lagoon sediments w...

  20. Mycobacterium bovis infection in goats from the Northeast region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Higino, Severino Silvano dos Santos; Pinheiro, Sônia Regina; de Souza, Gisele Oliveira; Dib, Cristina Corsi; do Rosário, Tatiana Reis; Melville, Priscilla Anne; Alves, Clebert José; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos

    2011-01-01

    A total of 8,058 male and female mixed-breed goats and 1–4 years of age were slaughtered over a period of 7 months at the public slaughterhouse of Patos city, Paraíba state, in the Northeast region of Brazil; 822 animals were inspected for gross lesions of tuberculosis, and 12 (1.46%) had lesions suggestive of tuberculosis in the mammary gland, lungs, liver and mediastinal, mesenteric, submandibular, parotid and prescapular lymph nodes. Presence of granulomatous lesions was confirmed in the submandibular lymph node of one (8.3%) goat at the histopathological examination and at the mycobacterium culture the same sample was confirmed positive. Isolate was confirmed as belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex by PCR restriction enzyme analysis (PRA). Spoligotyping identified the isolate into spoligotype SB0295 on the M. bovis Spoligotype Database website (www.mbovis.org), and it was classified as M. bovis. The occurrence of M. bovis in goats in this study suggests that this species may be a potential source of infection for humans and should be regarded as a possible problem in the advancement of control and eradication program for bovine tuberculosis in Brazil. PMID:24031775

  1. Central Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image was acquired on October 19, 2000, over a region in Brazil large enough to show much of the country's diverse landscape. Spanning some 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles), Brazil is by far the largest South American nation--both in terms of land and population. The region known as the Amazon Basin lies to the northwest (upper left) and extends well beyond the northern and western edges of this scene. Typically, from this perspective Amazonia appears as a lush, dark green carpet due to the thick canopy of vegetation growing there. Some of the Amazon Basin is visible in this image, but much is obscured by clouds (bright white pixels), as is the Amazon River. This region is home to countless plant and animal species and some 150,000 native South Americans. The clusters of square and rectangular patterns toward the center of the image (light green or reddish-brown pixels) are where people have cleared away trees and vegetation to make room for development and agriculture. Toward the western side of the scene there is considerable haze and smoke from widespread biomass burning in parts of Brazil and Bolivia, which shares its eastern border with Brazil. Toward the east in this image is the highland, or 'cerrado,' region, which is more sparsely vegetated and has a somewhat drier climate than the Amazon Basin. The capital city, Brasilia, lies within this region just southwest of the Geral de Goias Mountains (orangish pixels running north-south). There are two large water reservoirs visible in this scene--the Sobradinho Reservoir about 800 km (500 miles) northeast of Brasilia, and the Paranaiba about 500 km (300 miles) southwest of Brasilia. MODIS flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Image courtesy Brian Montgomery, Reto Stockli, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team.

  2. Methane and ammonia emissions from New Mexico dairy lagoons in summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gaseous emissions of concern from commercial dairy operations include methane and ammonia. Dairy wastewater lagoons are sources of emission for both these gases. We quantified emissions of methane and ammonia from a lagoon system at a commercial open lot dairy in eastern New Mexico using open path l...

  3. Sludge reduction and water quality improvement in anaerobic lagoons through influent pre-treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confined swine production generates large volumes of wastewater typically stored and treated in anaerobic lagoons. These lagoons may require cleanup and closure measures in the future. In practice, liquid and sludge need to be removed by pumping, usually at great expense of energy, and land applied ...

  4. Using floating vegetation to remove nutrients from an anaerobic swine wastewater lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods are needed for utilizing nutrients contained within animal wastewater lagoons. One potential method for removing nutrients is to have vegetation growing in the lagoon. A study was conducted from 2005-2007 to determine the feasibility of growing vegetation on floating platforms on a single ...

  5. LONG TERM IMPACT OF SWINE LAGOON WASTEWATER ON SHALLOW GROUNDWATER NITROGEN LEVELS IN VEGETATED BUFFER SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An eight-year study was conducted to determine the impact of swine lagoon wastewater on shallow groundwater in vegetated buffer systems. Replicated 30 X 4 m plots were established at the interface of a pasture and riparian forest in 1993. Wastewater from the third lagoon of the University of Georg...

  6. Developing a model for the mercury cycle in the Marano-Grado Lagoon (Italy)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Marano-Grado Lagoon is a wetland system of about 160 km2 located in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy) between the Tagliamento and the Isonzo River mouths. The lagoon morphology and biogeochemistry are primarily controlled by the exchange with the Adriatic Sea and, to a lesser...

  7. Removal of Estrogenic Compounds in Dairy Waste Lagoons by Ferrate (VI): Oxidation/Coagulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferrate(VI) was used to break down and/or remove steroidal estrogens (SE) from dairy waste lagoon effluent (DWLE). Dairy lagoon sites were sampled for estrogenic content (EC) and assayed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Effects of varying...

  8. Assessment of the environmental quality of French continental Mediterranean lagoons with oyster embryo bioassay.

    PubMed

    Galgani, F; Senia, J; Guillou, J L; Laugier, T; Munaron, D; Andral, B; Guillaume, B; Coulet, E; Boissery, P; Brun, L; Bertrandy, M C

    2009-10-01

    In order to better understand environmental disturbances in the French coastal Mediterranean lagoons, we used an ecotoxicological approach based on the measurement of the toxicity of the sediments using oyster embryo bioassay that provides a basis for assessing the effects on the fauna of contaminants adsorbed on the sedimentary particles. The study covers all of the main lagoons of the French Mediterranean coasts of Languedoc Roussillon, Camargue, and Provence (Berre and Bolmon lagoons), where 188 stations were sampled. The toxicity tests provide evidence of variable levels of toxicity in sediments. Contaminated lagoons such as La peyrade, Le canet, and Ingrill and locally affected lagoons such as Bages-Sigean, Vaccares, Bolmon, and Berre have sampling stations with 100% of larval abnormalities during 24-h development. In all of the lagoons, the toxicity was mainly located close to local harbors and rivers. Salses Leucate (Languedoc roussillon) lagoon was found very clean, with no important toxicity. The results are discussed in terms of environmental disturbances of the coastal lagoons and with regard to the long-term monitoring of the impact of contaminants on the coastal environment. PMID:19288037

  9. FLOATING COVER SYSTEMS FOR WASTE LAGOONS: POTENTIAL APPLICATION AT OLD INGER SITE, LOUISIANA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous liquids are impounded in pits, ponds, and lagoons at many uncontrolled hazardous waste sites across the country. As the ranking, remedial investigations, and feasibility studies proceed at these sites, many of the lagoons gradually fill with rainwater and threaten to ov...

  10. Influence of nutrient input on the trophic state of a tropical brackish water lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, D.; Patra, Sivaji; Muduli, Pradipta R.; Vardhan, K. Vishnu; R, Abhilash K.; Robin, R. S.; Subramanian, B. R.

    2015-07-01

    Ecosystem level changes in water quality and biotic communities in coastal lagoons have been associated with intensification of anthropogenic pressures. In light of incipient changes in Asia's largest brackish water lagoon (Chilika, India), an examination of different dissolved nutrients distribution and phytoplankton biomass, was conducted through seasonal water quality monitoring in the year 2011. The lagoon showed both spatial and temporal variation in nutrient concentration, mostly altered by freshwater input, regulated the chlorophyll distribution as well. Dissolved inorganic N:P ratio in the lagoon showed nitrogen limitation in May and December, 2011. Chlorophyll in the lagoon varied between 3.38 and 17.66 mg m -3. Spatially, northern part of the lagoon showed higher values of DIN and chlorophyll during most part of the year, except in May, when highest DIN was recorded in the southern part. Statistical analysis revealed that dissolved NH-N and urea could combinedly explain 43% of Chlorophyll- a (Chl- a) variability which was relatively higher than that explained by NO-N and NO-N (12.4%) in lagoon water. Trophic state index calculated for different sectors of the lagoon confirmed the inter-sectoral and inter-seasonal shift from mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions largely depending on nutrient rich freshwater input.

  11. Survival of Salmonella enterica in aerated and nonaerated wastewaters from dairy lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is the most commonly identified foodborne pathogen in produce, meat and poultry. Cattle are known reservoirs of Salmonella and the pathogen excreted in feces end up in manure flush lagoons. Salmonella enterica survival was monitored in wastewater from on-site holding lagoons equipped with...

  12. Improving estimates of N and P loads in irrigation water from swine manure lagoons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The implementation of nutrient management plans (NMPs) for confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) requires recording N and P loads from land-applied manure, including nutrients applied in irrigation water from manure treatment lagoons. By regulation, lagoon irrigation water nutrient records in ...

  13. The Defense Committees of Sleepy Lagoon: A Convergent Struggle against Fascism, 1942-1944

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barajas, Frank P.

    2006-01-01

    The Sleepy Lagoon Defense Committee originated as an ad hoc committee and evolved to a broad-based movement for legal justice on behalf of seventeen youth convicted of murder and assault charges in connection with the Sleepy Lagoon case in Los Angeles in January 1943. This essay chronicles the multidimensional organizing to shift public opinion in…

  14. Decline of phosphorus, copper, and zinc in anaerobic lagoon columns receiving pretreated influent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confined swine production generates large volumes of wastewater typically stored and treated in anaerobic lagoons. These lagoons usually require a sludge management plan for their maintenance consisting of regular sludge removal by mechanical agitation and pumping followed by land application at agr...

  15. 75 FR 53960 - Chignik Lagoon Power Utility; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Chignik Lagoon Power Utility; Notice of Declaration of Intention and... Lagoon Power Utility. e. Name of Project: Packers Creek Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The proposed Packers Creek Hydroelectric Project will be located on Packers Creek, near the community of Chignik...

  16. Improving N and P estimates for swine manure lagoon irrigation water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient management plans (NMPs) for confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) require a record of N and P loads from manure land-applications, including irrigation with lagoon water. Mississippi regulations require nutrient records for lagoon irrigation water be based on at least one annual analy...

  17. Measuring gas emissions from animal waste lagoons with an inverse-dispersion technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring gas emissions from treatment lagoons and storage ponds poses challenging conditions for existing micrometeorological techniques due to non-ideal conditions such as trees and crops surrounding the lagoons, and short fetch to establish equilibrated microclimate conditions within the water bo...

  18. Plant growth and elemental uptake by floating vegetation on a single stage swine wastewater lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods are needed for utilizing nutrients contained within animal wastewater lagoons. One potential method for removing nutrients is to have vegetation growing on the lagoon. A study was conducted from 2005-2008 to determine the feasibility of growing vegetation on floating platforms on a single ...

  19. Nitrification and Denitrification Communities Associated with a Semi-Permeable Swine Waste Lagoon Biocover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emission from swine waste lagoons presents a serious environmental challenge to pork producers. Semi-permeable swine waste lagoon biocovers have been developed to serve as a physical barrier and as an attachment site for biofilm development, but microbial analysis of the biocover technology...

  20. Induction of Purple Sulfur Bacterial Growth in Dairy Wastewater Lagoons by Circulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To determine if circulation of diary wastewater induces the growth of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria (PSB). Methods and Results: Two dairy wastewater lagoons that were similar in size, geographic location, number and type of cattle loading the lagoons were chosen. The only obvious diffe...

  1. Microbiological quality of effluents from anaerobic swine manure lagoons in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confined swine feeding operations in Mississippi and most of the southeastern USA routinely flush manure from pits beneath confinement barns into open anaerobic storage lagoons. Lagoon effluent is reused for pit flushing and eventually land applied as fertilizer for grass hay. The fertilizer quali...

  2. Seasonal variation in heat fluxes, predicted emissions of malodorants, and wastewater quality of an anaerobic swine waste lagoon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentrations of p-cresol above a wastewater lagoon were modeled from February through June based on equations developed in a previous study. Using this model, in which p-cresol concentrations were calculated based on lagoon evaporation and net available radiation at the lagoon surface, predic...

  3. Evidence of North Africa’s Green Revolution Preserved in Sedimentary Organic Matter Deposited in Three Coastal Lagoons.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of longer residence times and limited mixing in coastal lagoons, the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient loading to lagoon food webs are often more pronounced than in other coastal ecosystems. For these reasons, many lagoons also provide an excellent environment for the dep...

  4. Project summary. PERSISTENCE OF PATHOGENS IN LAGOON-STORED SLUDGE (EPA/600/S2-89/015)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project objective was to investigate pathogen inactlvation in lagoon-stored municipal sludges. The in-field lagoons were located in Louisiana (New Orleans) and in Texas (Port Aransas), both semitropical areas of the United States. Each lagoon was filled with 7.56 mL of ...

  5. Sedimentary lipid biogeochemistry of an hypereutrophic alkaline lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Grimalt, J.O.; Albaiges, J. ); Yruela, I.; Saizjimenez, C. ); Toja, J. ); Leeuw, J.W. De. )

    1991-09-01

    A detailed study of the lipid composition of sedimentary and water particulate samples of a dilute alkaline lake (Santa Olalla Lagoon, Guadalquivir Delta, southwestern Spain) has allowed the identification and quantitation of about 300 compounds reflecting predominant inputs of organic matter and very early diagenetic processes. These lipids, dominated by fatty acids (80-86%), account for up to 0.25% wt. of dry sediment which is consistent with the high eutrophic conditions of the lagoon and suggests a good preservation of the originally produced organic matter. However, the primary lipid compounds, mainly from cyanobacterial origin, are strongly modified. The C{sub 30}-C{sub 32}, 1,13- and 1,15-diols constitute the only major group that can be attributed directly to these organisms. The predominant lipids, including the fatty acids, are indicative of intense microbial reworking, namely contributions from gram-positive and gram-negative eubacteria and methanogens. Conversely, the higher plant lipids are better preserved and dominate the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction. Hydrogenation and dehydration are two major transformation processes in the sedimentary system being reflected in the transformation of sterols into 5{alpha}(H)- and 5{beta}(H)-stanols and sterenes, and 17{beta}(H), 21{beta}(H)-hopan-22-ol into diploptene. Oxidation in the water column seems to involve the partial transformation of sterols into steroid ketones, phytol into 5,9,13-trimethyltetradecanoic acid and two isomeric 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-17-hexadecanolides, and, possibly, tetrahymanol into gammacer-3-one. Adiantone and bishomohopanoic acid probably result from the partial oxydation of extended polyhydroxyhopanes or the C{sub 30}-C{sub 33} hydroxyhopanes found in the lagoon waters.

  6. Sedimentary lipid biogeochemistry of an hypereutrophic alkaline lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimalt, J. O.; Yruela, I.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Toja, J.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Albaigés, J.

    1991-09-01

    A detailed study of the lipid composition of sedimentary and water particulate samples of a dilute alkaline lake (Santa Olalla Lagoon, Guadalquivir Delta, southwestern Spain) has allowed the identification and quantitation of about 300 compounds reflecting predominant inputs of organic matter and very early diagenetic processes. These lipids, dominated by fatty acids (80-86%), account for up to 0.25% wt. of dry sediment which is consistent with the high eutrophic conditions of the lagoon and suggests a good preservation of the originally produced organic matter. However, the primary lipid compounds, mainly from cyanobacterial origin, are strongly modified. The C30-C32, 1,13- and 1,15-diols constitute the only major group that can be attributed directly to these organisms. The predominant lipids, including the fatty acids, are indicative of intense microbial reworking, namely contributions from gram-positive and gram-negative eubacteria and methanogens. Conversely, the higher plant lipids are better preserved and dominate the aliphatic hydrocarbon fraction. Hydrogenation and dehydration are two major transformation processes in the sedimentary system being reflected in the transformation of sterols into 5α(H)- and 5β(H)-stanols and sterenes, and 17β(H),21β(H)-hopan-22-ol into diploptene. Oxidation in the water column seems to involve the partial transformation of sterols into steroid ketones, phytol into 5,9,13-trimethyltetradecanoic acid and two isomeric 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-17-hexadecanolides, and, possibly, tetrahymanol into gammacer-3-one. Adiantone and bishomohopanoic acid probably result from the partial oxydation of extended polyhydroxyhopanes or the C30-C33 hydroxyhopanes found in the lagoon waters.

  7. Winter-summer nutrient composition linkage to algae-produced toxins in shellfish at a eutrophic coastal lagoon (Óbidos lagoon, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Patrícia; Botelho, Maria João; Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Vale, Carlos; Moita, Maria Teresa; Gonçalves, Célia

    2012-10-01

    The current work examines the linkage of pronounced winter-summer fluctuations on the nutrient composition with phytoplankton assemblages and mussel toxicity produced by the presence of toxic dinoflagellates. The work was performed at the Óbidos lagoon, a coastal eutrophic ecosystem that is permanently connected to an area characterized by frequent upwelling episodes. The lagoon and adjoining coastal area exhibit recurrent incidents of diarrhetic and paralytic shellfish poisoning. The conclusions are based on: (1) inorganic and organic nutrients at five sites of the lower, middle and upper Óbidos lagoon, and inorganic nutrients at two sites of the adjacent coastal area; biannual campaigns were performed in winter and summer between 2006 and 2010; (2) phytoplankton assemblages at three sites of the lagoon (located at lower and upper areas) in winter and summer of 2009; (3) algae-derived toxicity of wild mussels from the lower lagoon and coastal area, on a 1-2 week time scale, over 2006 and 2009. Nutrient molar ratios in Óbidos lagoon contrast between winter and summer. The lower median ratios DIN:P (31 and 0.8) and Si:P (11 and 3.3) in summer reflect the excess of phosphate. Excess was mainly attributed to phosphorus regeneration in sediments of the upper lagoon with accentuated symptoms of eutrophication. Dissolved organic nitrogen and dissolved organic phosphorus were also higher in summer, particularly in this area. No significant winter-summer differences were recorded for nutrient ratios in the adjacent coastal area. Phytoplankton assemblages pointed to a winter-summer contrast characterized by a shift of non-siliceous-based phytoplankton to diatoms. The toxic dinoflagellate species (Gymnodinium catenatum, Dinophysis cf. acuminata and Dinophysis acuta), presumably imported from the adjacent coast following upwelling episodes in summer, were observed in the lower lagoon. In summer of the two surveyed years, toxins produced by dinoflagellates occurred in

  8. Skeletal composition of modern lagoon sediments in New Caledonia: Coral, a minor constituent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevillon, C.

    1996-09-01

    The skeletal composition of 273 sediment samples, collected within 14615 km2 of lagoon habitat in New Caledonia (Ouvea and Chesterfield atolls and eastern and northern lagoons of the main island), was analyzed. Major constituents were molluscs (bivalves and gastropods), foraminifers, and Halimeda plates. The quantitative examination showed that, even in a pure coralline structure such as the two atolls studied, coral debris and calcareous algae, potentially produced within the barrier reef, never constituted a dominant element in the lagoonal sediments. Distribution of coral debris showed that coral is significant only close to the barrier reef (i.e. passes and back-reef slope). From the point of view of sedimentology, this suggests that the major role of the barrier reef is to provide a physical barrier that allows the development and preservation of lagoon sediments. Sedimentation within the lagoon of grains coarser than 63 µm is the result of in situ organic production combined with low hydrodynamic control.

  9. A summary of preliminary studies of sedimentation and hydrology in Bolinas Lagoon, Marin County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritter, John R.

    1970-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating sedimentary and hydrologic conditions in Bolinas Lagoon, a 1,100-acre lagoon 15 miles northwest of San Francisco. The program began in May 1967 and will continue into 1970. Only the study results analyzed before June 1968 are summarized in the report. Two series of measurements of suspended-sediment load and water discharge in the lagoon inlet showed that much of the suspended sediment is sand and that the average velocity was as much as 4.7 feet per second. Littoral drift near the inlet was generally toward the inlet, whereas farther from the inlet the pattern is irregular. Circulation velocities in the lagoon decrease rapidly away from the inlet, but probably remain high enough to erode bottom sediment along the channels. In most of the lagoon median size of bottom sediment was fine sand. Sediment was derived chiefly from Monterey Shale.

  10. Survival of Salmonella enterica in Aerated and Nonaerated Wastewaters from Dairy Lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Ravva, Subbarao V.; Sarreal, Chester Z.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is the most commonly identified foodborne pathogen in produce, meat and poultry. Cattle are known reservoirs of Salmonella and the pathogen excreted in feces ends up in manure flush lagoons. Salmonella enterica survival was monitored in wastewater from on-site holding lagoons equipped or not with circulating aerators at two dairies. All strains had poor survival rates and none proliferated in waters from aerated or settling lagoons. Populations of all three Salmonella serovars declined rapidly with decimal reduction times (D) of <2 days in aerated microcosms prepared from lagoon equipped with circulators. Populations of Salmonella decreased significantly in aerated microcosms (D = 4.2 d) compared to nonaerated waters (D = 7.4 d) and in summer (D = 3.4 d) compared to winter (D = 9.0 d). We propose holding the wastewater for sufficient decimal reduction cycles in lagoons to yield pathogen-free nutrient-rich water for crop irrigations and fertilization. PMID:25358096

  11. Redistribution of fallout radionuclides in Enewetak Atoll lagoon sediments by callianassid bioturbation.

    PubMed

    McMurtry, G M; Schneider, R C; Colin, P L; Buddemeier, R W; Suchanek, T H

    The lagoon sediments of Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands contain a large selection of fallout radionuclides as a result of 43 nuclear weapon tests conducted there between 1948 and 1958. Studies of the burial of fallout radionuclides have been conducted on the islands and in several of the large craters, but studies of their vertical distribution have been limited to about the upper 20 cm of the lagoon sediments. We have found elevated fallout radionuclide concentrations buried more deeply in the lagoon sediments and evidence of burrowing into the sediment by several species of callianassid ghost shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea) which has displaced highly radioactive sediment. The burrowing activities of callianassids, which are ubiquitous on the lagoon floor, facilitate radionuclide redistribution and complicate the fallout radionuclide inventory of the lagoon. PMID:3974699

  12. Sedimentation rates and erosion processes in the lagoon of Venice.

    PubMed

    Sfriso, Adriano; Adriano, Sfriso; Facca, Chiara; Chiara, Facca; Marcomini, Antonio; Antonio, Marcomini

    2005-09-01

    Since the early 1990s in the lagoon of Venice, especially in the central basin, the surface sediment underwent high re-suspension and sedimentation changes and water turbidity increased both because of the disappearance of the macroalgal coverage and the harvesting of the Manila clam Tapes philippinarum Adams and Reeve, which had rapidly colonised the bottom free of macrophytes. Clams are harvested with hydraulic and mechanical dredges which remove and re-suspend surface sediments causing the transport and loss of the finest materials. Sediment transport and re-deposition in the lagoon have been monitored with sediment traps placed onto the bottoms near the Malamocco mouth (st. A), the Lido watershed (st. B) and the mainland (sts. C and D). From 1989-1993 to 1998-1999 sedimentation rates increased significantly at st. A (from 41 to 228 kg DW m(-2) year(-1)), st. B (from 65 to 760 kg DW m(-2) year(-1)) and st. C (from 140 to 721 kg DW m(-2) year(-1)), while at st. D sedimentation rates increased only by ca. 20%. In parallel sediment grain-size changed with a loss of the finest fraction especially near the mainland. The erosion or sedimentation status, acquired by utilizing sedimentation devices placed onto the bottoms, showed that sts. B, C, D were affected by sediment losses, while st. A, populated by seagrasses and characterised by seasonal variations which depend on the shoot development, did not show any significant bathymetric change on an annual basis. The highest sediment erosion was recorded at st. D (ca. 3.6 cm year(-1)) whereas a loss of ca. 1.5 and 0.5 cm year(-1) was found at sts. C and B, respectively, which accounted for a mean loss in the central lagoon of ca. 1.2 million tonnes year(-1). Those data agree with the previous indirect estimation of sediment loss which was based on the number of fishing boats operating in the lagoon on an annual basis. PMID:16083960

  13. Nitrogen availability of anaerobic swine lagoon sludge: sludge source effects.

    PubMed

    Moore, Amber D; Israel, Daniel W; Mikkelsen, Robert L

    2005-02-01

    Increased numbers of swine producers will be removing sludge from their anaerobic waste treatment lagoons in the next few years, due to sludge exceeding designed storage capacity. Information on availability of nitrogen (N) in the sludge is needed to improve application recommendations for crops. The objective of this study was to investigate possible effects of different companies and types of swine operations on the availability of N in sludge from their associated lagoons. A laboratory incubation study was conducted to quantify the availability of N (i.e. initial inorganic N plus the potentially mineralizable organic N) in the sludge. Nine sludge sources from lagoons of sow, nursery and finishing operations of three different swine companies were mixed with a loamy sand soil (200 mg total Kjeldahl N kg(-1) soil) and incubated at a water content of 0.19 g. water g(-1) dry soil and 25+/-2 degrees C for 12 weeks. Samples were taken at eight times over the 12-week period and analyzed for inorganic N (i.e. NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N) to determine mineralization of organic N in the sludge. Company and type of swine operation had no significant effects (P < 0.05) on the pattern of inorganic N accumulation over time. Thus, inorganic N accumulation from all sludge sources was fit to a first order equation [Nt = Ni + No (1-e(-kt)]. This relationship indicated that of the 200 mg of total sludge N added per kg soil, 23.5% was in the form of potentially mineralizable organic N (No) and 17.5% was in the form of inorganic N (Ni). The sum of these two pools (41%) represents an estimate of the proportion of total N in the applied sludge in plant available form after the 12 week incubation. While plant N availability coefficients were not measured in this study, the lack of significant company or type of swine operation effects on sludge N mineralization suggests that use of the same plant N availability coefficient for sludge from different types of lagoons is justifiable. The validity

  14. Temporal changes of a macrobenthic assemblage in harsh lagoon sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Como, Serena; Magni, Paolo

    2009-08-01

    An opportunistic macrobenthic assemblage was studied from 2001 to 2003 in a central area of the Cabras lagoon (western Sardinia, Italy), known to be affected by environmental disturbances (i.e. organic over-enrichment of sediments, and episodic events of hypoxia/anoxia and sulphide development). We identified recurrent seasonal changes in this macrobenthic assemblage, with a general impoverishment in summer and a recovery in winter/spring. The nereids Neanthes succinea and Hediste diversicolor were found to replace the spionid Polydora ciliata as the most dominant species in the summer for 3 consecutive years. Occasional, unsynchronized appearances of small-sized deposit feeders, such as Tubificidae, Capitella cf. capitata, chironomid larvae and Hydrobia spp., were observed in winter/spring. We suggest that these changes are driven by the interplay of environmental conditions (worse in summer) with numerous biotic factors. This includes different tolerance levels of taxa to low oxygen concentrations and sulphides, variability in larval supply and post-larval transport, as well as competition for space and food between and within different functional groups, and facilitation through animal bioturbation and sediment reoxidation. A conceptual model is proposed to demonstrate how environmental conditions and biotic interactions may control the benthic assemblage in such a harsh lagoon environment.

  15. Enteric viruses in a mangrove lagoon, survival and shellfish incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez de Cardona, I.; Bermudez, M.; Billmire, E.; Hazen, T.C.

    1988-12-31

    Mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) were screened for enteric viruses. For 18 months oysters were collected from Cano Boqueron, a tropical mangrove lagoon on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. This popular tourist resort has two primary sewage treatment plants which service 158 single family cabanas. In spite of the heavy seasonal input of sewage to Cano Boqueron and high densities of fecal coliform bacteria, enteric viruses were not detected in shellfish meat. Because no viruses were detected in the oysters, a virus survival study was performed. Poliovirus type 1 was placed in diffusion chambers in situ at two sites in Cano Boqueron. More than 95% of the poliovirus inactivation occurred within 24 h. Virus inactivation was significantly different by site, indicating different inactivation rates within the lagoon. Chamber studies done simultaneously with Escherichia coli did not reveal differences between sites. It is suggested that the sewage effluent had an antiviral effect in the absence of an antibacterial effect. This study demonstrates the importance for establishing microbial contamination standards for shellfish growing waters in the tropics based upon in situ studies with tropical species, e.g. mangrove oyster.

  16. Lagooning of wastewaters favors dissemination of clinically relevant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Petit, Stéphanie M-C; Lavenir, Raphaël; Colinon-Dupuich, Céline; Boukerb, Amine M; Cholley, Pascal; Bertrand, Xavier; Freney, Jean; Doléans-Jordheim, Anne; Nazaret, Sylvie; Laurent, Frédéric; Cournoyer, Benoit

    2013-10-01

    The significance of wastewater treatment lagoons (WWTLs) as point sources of clinically relevant Pseudomonas aeruginosa that can disseminate through rural and peri-urban catchments was investigated. A panel of P. aeruginosa strains collected over three years from WWTLs and community-acquired infections was compared by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) DNA fingerprinting and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Forty-four distantly related PFGE profiles and four clonal complexes were found among the WWTL strains analyzed. Some genotypes were repeatedly detected from different parts of WWTLs, including the influent, suggesting an ability to migrate and persist over time. MLST showed all investigated lineages to match sequence types described in other countries and strains from major clinical clones such as PA14 of ST253 and "C" of ST17 were observed. Some of these genotypes matched isolates from community-acquired infections recorded in the WWTL geographic area. Most WWTL strains harbored the main P. aeruginosa virulence genes; 13% harbored exoU-encoded cytoxins, but on at least six different genomic islands, with some of these showing signs of genomic instability. P. aeruginosa appeared to be highly successful opportunistic colonizers of WWTLs. Lagooning of wastewaters was found to favor dissemination of clinically relevant P. aeruginosa among peri-urban watersheds. PMID:23792168

  17. Vibrio Trends in the Ecology of the Venice Lagoon

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mohammad Shamsur; Cardazzo, Barbara; Facco, Pierantonio; Bordin, Paola; Mioni, Renzo; Novelli, Enrico; Fasolato, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio is a very diverse genus that is responsible for different human and animal diseases. The accurate identification of Vibrio at the species level is important to assess the risks related to public health and diseases caused by aquatic organisms. The ecology of Vibrio spp., together with their genetic background, represents an important key for species discrimination and evolution. Thus, analyses of population structure and ecology association are necessary for reliable characterization of bacteria and to investigate whether bacterial species are going through adaptation processes. In this study, a population of Vibrionaceae was isolated from shellfish of the Venice lagoon and analyzed in depth to study its structure and distribution in the environment. A multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) was developed on the basis of four housekeeping genes. Both molecular and biochemical approaches were used for species characterization, and the results were compared to assess the consistency of the two methods. In addition, strain ecology and the association between genetic information and environment were investigated through statistical models. The phylogenetic and population analyses achieved good species clustering, while biochemical identification was demonstrated to be imprecise. In addition, this study provided a fine-scale overview of the distribution of Vibrio spp. in the Venice lagoon, and the results highlighted a preferential association of the species toward specific ecological variables. These findings support the use of MLSA for taxonomic studies and demonstrate the need to consider environmental information to obtain broader and more accurate bacterial characterization. PMID:24487545

  18. Estuarine and lagoon biodiversity and their natural goods and services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basset, A.; Elliott, M.; West, R. J.; Wilson, J. G.

    2013-11-01

    Assessing and monitoring ecosystem quality status and service provision of aquatic ecosystems is an increasingly important area of scientific, socio-economical and political interest. Contributions from two related meetings organized by the Estuarine & Coastal Sciences Association (ECSA) and the Euro-Mediterranean Lagoon Federation (EUROMEDLAG) address this area of interest in estuaries and lagoons, dominant types of transitional waters, by an integration of holistic and reductionistic approaches. In this context, we synthesise the key points raised by the contributions given at the two meetings to emphasise that transitional waters have emergent properties, which support their classification as an aquatic realm different from both freshwater and marine ones. They provide crucial ecosystem services, such as food provision and support for nutrient cycling, whose value and underlying mechanisms have been addressed with particular reference to estuarine ecosystems. The experimental studies show the mechanistic relationships and the responses of ecosystem functions and biodiversity to contrasting/changing environmental conditions with human activities as key drivers affecting both biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service provision.

  19. Metal concentrations in digestive gland and mantle of Sepia officinalis from two coastal lagoons of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Patrícia; Raimundo, Joana; Vale, Carlos; Kadar, Eniko

    2009-01-15

    Concentrations of both essential (Fe, Cu, Zn) and non essential (Cd, Hg and Pb) metals were measured in the digestive gland and mantle of female cephalopods Sepia officinalis captured in two distinct lagoons in Portugal: Aveiro Lagoon, with a history of anthropogenic and industrial pollution, and Formosa Lagoon receiving urban effluents. We provide evidence for the following: (1) the digestive gland is the main target organ for both essential and non essential metals, frequently containing concentrations few orders of magnitude higher as compared to mantle; the sole exception from this was the Hg that is equally distributed in the two tissues; (2) unexpectedly, the higher levels of metals were found in animals captured in the less polluted lagoon, except for Cd whose bioavailability in Aveiro lagoon might be related to industrial sources, while the influence of Cd speciation in local pray composition should not be ruled out (3) size influenced metal concentration in different way: smaller individuals accumulated significantly more Cu, while Hg concentrations showed the opposite trend; (4) Cd is positively correlated to Zn and Cu in digestive gland of specimens collected in spring in Aveiro Lagoon, and no relationship was found in Formosa Lagoon; (5) the molar ratios Cd:Zn and Cd:Cu in digestive gland increased with body weight in specimens from Aveiro area, both ratios becoming particularly higher in older individuals. Metal-specific accumulation patterns in both mantle and digestive gland at the two sites are discussed in the light of their toxicological implications. PMID:19010515

  20. Seasonal renewal time variability in the Curonian Lagoon caused by atmospheric and hydrographical forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umgiesser, G.; Zemlys, P.; Erturk, A.; Razinkova-Baziukas, A.; Mėžinė, J.; Ferrarin, C.

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the variability of the water exchanges in the Curonian Lagoon based on the hydraulic regime and the atmospheric forcings. A finite element hydrodynamic model has been applied to the Curonian Lagoon to simulate the circulation patterns for ten years. With the help of a transport-diffusion model the salinity distribution and the renewal times of the Curonian Lagoon have been investigated when forced by river runoff, wind and Baltic Sea level fluctuations. The hydrodynamic model has been validated using in situ salinity measurements. Model results show that the variability depends mainly on seasonal changes in hydrographic forcing and on the dominant wind regimes that prevail over the Curonian Lagoon. Exchanges between the southern and the northern part of the lagoon are mostly depended on the wind forcing and are much less influenced by the river discharge. However, when looking at the water renewal time, the most important factor is the river discharge into the lagoon. Other physical forcings are only marginally determining the renewal time, and not even ice cover is able to influence it. Even if ice cover is strongly inhibiting the exchanges between southern and northern lagoon, it is basically not able to change the absolute value of the renewal times.

  1. Sludge-Drying Lagoons: a Potential Significant Methane Source in Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuting; Ye, Liu; van den Akker, Ben; Ganigué Pagès, Ramon; Musenze, Ronald S; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    "Sludge-drying lagoons" are a preferred sludge treatment and drying method in tropical and subtropical areas due to the low construction and operational costs. However, this method may be a potential significant source of methane (CH4) because some of the organic matter would be microbially metabolized under anaerobic conditions in the lagoon. The quantification of CH4 emissions from lagoons is difficult due to the expected temporal and spatial variations over a lagoon maturing cycle of several years. Sporadic ebullition of CH4, which cannot be easily quantified by conventional methods such as floating hoods, is also expected. In this study, a novel method based on mass balances was developed to estimate the CH4 emissions and was applied to a full-scale sludge-drying lagoon over a three year operational cycle. The results revealed that processes in a sludge-drying lagoon would emit 6.5 kg CO2-e per megaliter of treated sewage. This would represent a quarter to two-thirds of the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs). This work highlights the fact that sludge-drying lagoons are a significant source of CH4 that adds substantially to the overall GHG footprint of WWTPs despite being recognized as a cheap and energy-efficient means of drying sludge. PMID:26642353

  2. Use of deep water lagoons for reducing sewage toxicity prior to wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.R.; Zuiderveen, J.A.; Belcher, B.; McGinley, P.; Birge, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Investigations were conducted to determine the effectiveness of deep lagoons as a means of wastewater pretreatment. A lagoon system associated with a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was selected for study and parameters identified for monitoring included toxicity, metals, total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia. This system included two lagoons, with 7--15 day hydraulic retention times, fed sequentially with untreated water. Toxicity and other parameters were measured for raw influent water, the two lagoon outfalls, and the final WWTP effluent. In seven-day chronic tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia, the NOEC of influent water was as low as 20%, and 100% mortality occurred at 40%. Outfall from the first deep water lagoon showed reduced toxicity. The NOEC was > 50% but complete mortality occurred in undiluted effluent. Further reduction in toxicity occurred in the second lagoon. Its undiluted effluent had no effect on survival, but did markedly reduce fecundity. The final effluent discharged from the treatment plant affected neither survival nor fecundity. Results of this investigation support the use of deep water lagoons as an effective and economical means of pretreating wastewater. This approach offers promise for municipal waters, industrial effluents and stormwater runoff.

  3. Seasonal renewal time variability in the Curonian Lagoon caused by atmospheric and hydrographical forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umgiesser, Georg; Zemlys, Petras; Erturk, Ali; Razinkova-Baziukas, Arturas; Mėžinė, Jovita; Ferrarin, Christian

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the variability of the water exchanges in the Curonian Lagoon based on the hydraulic regime and the atmospheric forcings. A finite element hydrodynamic model has been applied to the Curonian Lagoon to simulate the circulation patterns for 10 years. With the help of a transport-diffusion model, the salinity distribution and the renewal times of the Curonian Lagoon have been investigated when forced by river runoff, wind, and Baltic Sea level fluctuations. The hydrodynamic model has been validated using in situ salinity measurements. Model results show that the variability depends mainly on seasonal changes in hydrographic forcing and on the dominant wind regimes that prevail over the Curonian Lagoon. Exchanges between the southern and the northern part of the lagoon mostly depend on the wind forcing and are much less influenced by the river discharge. However, when looking at the water renewal time, the most important factor is the river discharge into the lagoon. Other physical forcings only marginally determine the renewal time, and not even ice cover is able to influence it. Even if ice cover strongly inhibits the exchanges between the southern and northern lagoon, it is basically not able to change the absolute value of the renewal times.

  4. The role of connectivity and hydrodynamic conditions in the configuration of ichthyoplankton assemblages in coastal lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Quispe, Jhoni I.; Umgiesser, Georg; Ghezzo, Michol; De Pascalis, Francesca; Marcos, Concepción

    2014-05-01

    Fish assemblages in coastal lagoons are constituted by species with different gilds and life stories including estuarine residents but also a high percentage of marine stragglers and marine migrants. Previous studies showed that different ichthyoplancton assemblages can be identified inside a lagoon, depending on hydrological conditions, but at the same time a high spatial and temporal variability haven observed. The proposed models to explain lagoon assemblages configuration based on probabilities of colonization from the open sea involves an important stochastic component and introduces some randomness that could lead to that high spatial and temporal variability at short and long-term scales. In this work we analyze the relationship between ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Mar Menor lagoon and the adjacent open sea in the framework of the hydrodynamics of the lagoon and connectivity between sampling stations using hydrodynamic models. The results, show a complex interaction between the different factors that lead to a highly variable system with high accumulated richness and diversity of species, and a large proportion of occasional visitors and stragglers suggesting that the mechanisms of competitive lottery can play an important role in the maintenance of communities of coastal lagoons , where environmental variability occurs in a system with strong differences in colonization rates and connectivity, not only with the open sea, but also between locations within the lagoon.

  5. Phenology of cryptomonads and the CRY1 lineage in a coastal brackish lagoon (Vistula Lagoon, Baltic Sea).

    PubMed

    Piwosz, Kasia; Kownacka, Janina; Ameryk, Anetta; Zalewski, Mariusz; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2016-08-01

    Cryptomonadales have acquired their plastids by secondary endosymbiosis. A novel clade-CRY1-has been discovered at the base of the Cryptomonadales tree, but it remains unknown whether it contains plastids. Cryptomonadales are also an important component of phytoplankton assemblages. However, they cannot be readily identified in fixed samples, and knowledge on dynamics and distribution of specific taxa is scarce. We investigated the phenology of the CRY1 lineage, three cryptomonadales clades and a species Proteomonas sulcata in a brackish lagoon of the Baltic Sea (salinity 0.3-3.9) using fluorescence in situ hybridization. A newly design probe revealed that specimens of the CRY1 lineage were aplastidic. This adds evidence against the chromalveolate hypothesis, and suggests that the evolution of cryptomonadales' plastids might have been shorter than is currently assumed. The CRY1 lineage was the most abundant cryptomonad clade in the lagoon. All of the studied cryptomonads peaked in spring at the most freshwater station, except for P. sulcata that peaked in summer and autumn. Salinity and concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen most significantly affected their distribution and dynamics. Our findings contribute to the ecology and evolution of cryptomonads, and may advance understanding of evolutionary relationships within the eukaryotic tree of life. PMID:27136192

  6. Toxic metals in Venics lagoon sediments: Model, observation, an possible removal

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, A.; Molinaroli, E.

    1994-11-01

    We have modeled the distribution of nine toxic metals in the surface sediments from 163 stations in the Venice lagoon using published data. Three entrances from the Adriatic Sea control the circulation in the lagoon and divide it into three basins. We assume, for purposes of modeling, that Porto Marghera at the head of the Industrial Zone area is the single source of toxic metals in the Venice lagoon. In a standing body of lagoon water, concentration of pollutants at distance x from the source (C{sub 0}) may be given by C=C{sub 0}e{sup -kx} where k is the rate constant of dispersal. We calculated k empirically using concentrations at the source, and those farthest from it, that is the end points of the lagoon. Average k values (ppm/km) in the lagoon are: Zn 0.165, Cd 0.116, Hg 0.110, Cu 0.105, Co 0.072, Pb 0.058, Ni 0.008, Cr (0.011) and Fe (0.018 percent/km), and they have complex distributions. Given the k values, concentration at source (C{sub 0}), and the distance x of any point in the lagoon from the source, we have calculated the model concentrations of the nine metals at each sampling station. Tides, currents, floor morphology, additional sources, and continued dumping perturb model distributions causing anomalies (observed minus model concentrations). Positive anomalies are found near the source, where continued dumping perturbs initial boundary conditions, and in areas of sluggish circulation. Negative anomalies are found in areas with strong currents that may flush sediments out of the lagoon. We have thus identified areas in the lagoon where higher rate of sediment removal and exchange may lesson pollution. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Use of deep water lagoons for reducing sewage toxicity prior to wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.R.; Zuiderveen, J.A.; Belcher, B.; McGinley, P.; Birge, W.J.

    1995-12-31

    Investigations were conducted to determine the effectiveness of deep lagoons as a means of minimizing toxicity and reducing wastewater parameters. A lagoon system associated with a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was selected for study and parameters identified for monitoring included toxicity, metal concentrations, total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia. This system included two lagoons, with 7--15 day hydraulic retention times, which received municipal waste. Toxicity and other parameters were measured for raw influent water, the two lagoon outfalls, and the final WWTP effluent. In a definitive seven-day chronic test with Ceriodaphnia dubia, the NOEC of influent water was 20%, and the IC{sub 50} for reproduction was 22.3%. Outfall from the first deep water lagoon showed reduced toxicity. The NOEC and IC{sub 50} were 80 and 71.8%, respectively. Further reduction in toxicity occurred in the second lagoon. The NOEC was 80% and the IC{sub 50} was 75.9. The final effluent discharged from the treatment plant affected neither survival nor fecundity. A 7-day embryo larval test conducted with Pimephales promelas yielded similar results. NOEC values increased through the lagoon system and were 2.5, 40.0, 40.0 and 100%, respectively. Acute TIE procedures implicated both metals and ammonia as primary toxicants. In all tests a sequential reduction in toxicity was observed through the lagoons. Results of this investigation support the use of deep water lagoons as an effective and economical means of pretreating wastewater. This approach offers promise for municipal waters, industrial effluents and stormwater runoff.

  8. Genesis, distribution, and dynamics of lagoon marl extrusions along the Curonian Spit, southeast Baltic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Alexander; Zhamoida, Vladimir; Ryabchuk, Daria; Buynevich, Ilya; Sivkov, Vadim; Dorokhov, Dmitry; Bitinas, Albertas; Pupienis, Donatas

    2016-04-01

    The unique geological process of extrusion of lagoon marl from beneath the massive migrating sand dunes is characteristic for large segments of the Curonian Spit - a ~100-km-long sandy barrier that separates the Curonian Lagoon from the Baltic Sea. The exposures of a composite set of Holocene organic sediments such as gyttja, clayey gyttja, and gyttja clay, commonly referred to as "lagoon marl", are common along the northern half of the lagoon coast of the spit. These outcrops of lagoon marl rise up to 3-4 m above the lagoon level and were formed by extrusion from their 7-8 m in situ depth beneath the present regional water table. New detailed investigations of the Baltic Sea bottom along the southern half of the Curonian Spit using side-scan sonar, multibeam echosounder, seismic imaging, sediment sampling, and video observations allowed identification and mapping of a unique underwater landscape formed by extensive outcrops of laminated and folded lagoon marl at water depths of 5-15 m. The combined onshore-offshore database indicates that the relict lagoon marl was deformed, compacted, and dehydrated by a massive dune-covered coastal barrier migrating landward (retrograding) over these sediments during the Litorina Sea transgression in a processes termed "dune tectonics". Spatial analysis of structures of the relict sediments traced in offshore geophysical data help constrain the rates of the southeastly migration of the dune massif. A conceptual dynamic model is presented to explain the present occurrence of marl exposures above the regional water table, as well as the occurrence of relict lagoon marl extrusions (diapirs) on the underwater marine slope of the Curonian Spit. This research was funded by a RFBR project 13-05-90711 and RSF project 14-37-00047 «Geoenvironmental conditions of marine management of natural recourses of the Russian sector of South-Eastern Baltic».

  9. Lagoon microbialites on Isla Angel de la Guarda and associated peninsular shores, Gulf of California (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Markes E.; Ledesma-Vázquez, Jorge; Backus, David H.; González, Maria R.

    2012-07-01

    Examples of two closed lagoons with extensive growth of Recent microbialites showing variable surface morphology and internal structure are found on Isla Angel de la Guarda in the Gulf of California. Comparable lagoonal microbialites also occur ashore from Ensenada El Quemado on the adjacent peninsular mainland of Baja California. The perimeters of all three lagoons feature crusted structures indicative of thrombolites with a knobby surface morphology 2 cm to 3 cm in relief and internal clotting without any sign of laminations. Outward from this zone, thrombolitic construction thins to merge with a white calcified crust below which a soft substratum of dark organic material 4 cm to 6 cm in thickness is concealed. The substratum is laminated and heavily mucilaginous, as observed along the edges of extensive shrinkage cracks in the overlying crust. The thrombolitic crust is anchored to the shore, while the thinner crust and associated stromatolitic mats float on the surface of the lagoons. Laboratory cultures of the dark organic material yielded the solitary cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis as the predominant taxon interspersed with filamentous forms. In decreasing order of abundance, other morphotypes present include Phormidium, Oscillatoria, Geitlerinema, Chroococus, and probably Spirulina. The larger of the two island lagoons follows an east-west azimuth and covers 0.225 km2, while the smaller lagoon has a roughly north-south axis and covers only 0.023 km2. The salinity of water in the smaller lagoon was measured as148 ppt. Pliocene strata along the edge of the smaller modern lagoon include siltstone bearing calcified platelets suggestive of a microbial origin. Dry lagoons abandoned during the later Quaternary occur inland at higher elevations on the island, but retain no fossils except for sporadic white crusts cemented on cobbles around distinct margins. Raised Quaternary lagoons parallel to the big lagoon on Isla Angel de la Guarda are partly obscured by flood

  10. Temporal shifts in reef lagoon sediment composition, Discovery Bay, Jamaica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Christopher T.; Taylor, Kevin G.; Machent, Philip G.

    2006-03-01

    Discovery Bay, north Jamaica, forms a large (1.5 km wide), deep (up to 56 m) embayment that acts as a sink for reef-derived and lagoonal carbonate sediments. Since the mid-1960s, the bay has also provided a sink for inputs of bauxite sediment that are spilled during loading at a boat terminal constructed within Discovery Bay. Bauxite has accumulated across much of the southern section of the bay with surficial sediments presently composed of up to 35 weight% non-carbonate. Cores recovered from sites on the western side of the bay provide a stratigraphic record of this history of bauxite contamination across water depths from 5 to 25 m. The bauxite-influenced upper sediment horizons are clearly visible in each core from the distinctive red-brown colouration of the sediment. These sediments are composed of approximately 10% non-carbonate (bauxite) and have Fe contents of around 2-3000 μg/g (up to 7000 μg/g). The thickness of this upper bauxite-contaminated sequence increases down transect (approximately 18 cm in the shallowest core, to around 47 cm in the deepest core), and in each core overlies a sequence of 'clean' lagoon carbonates. These typically are poorly sorted carbonate sands with variable amounts of coral rubble. Down-core data on CaCO 3 and Fe content provide a chemical record of decreasing sediment contamination with depth, with the lower 'clean' carbonates composed of only around 2% non-carbonate and <700 μg/g Fe. Down-core sediment-constituent data also indicate significant changes in sediment production at the shallowest sites. At depths of 5 and 10 m, sediment assemblages have shifted from diverse assemblages of coral, mollusc, Amphiroa and Halimeda in the clean lagoon sands, to assemblages dominated by Halimeda and Amphiroa within the surficial sediments. At the deeper sites, no major down-core shifts in sediment constituents occur. These sites thus record a rather complex history of changes in sediment composition and chemistry. Clear shifts in

  11. Ship traffic and shoreline erosion in the Lagoon of Venice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Gian Marco; Zaggia, Luca; Lorenzetti, Giuliano; Manfè, Giorgia; Parnell, Kevin; Molinaroli, Emanuela; Rapaglia, John; Gionta, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    A study based on the analysis of a historical sequence of aerial photographs and satellite images combined with in situ measurements revealed an unprecedented shoreline regression on the side of a major waterway in the Venice Lagoon, Italy. The study considered long and short-term recession rates caused by ship-induced depression wakes in an area which was reclaimed at the end of the '60 for the expansion of the nearby Porto Marghera Industrial Zone and never used since then. The GIS analysis performed with the available imagery shows an average retreat of about 4 m yr-1 in the period between 1965 and 2015. Field measurements carried out between April 2014 and January 2015 also revealed that the shoreline's regression still proceed with a speed comparable to the long-term average regardless of the distance from the navigation channel and is not constant through time. Periods of high water levels determined by astronomical tide or storm surges, more common in the winter season, are characterized by faster regression rates. The retreat proceeds by collapse of slabs of the reclaimed muddy soil after erosion and removal of the underlying original salt marsh sediments and is a discontinuous process in time and space depending on morphology, intrinsic propertiesand vegetation cover of the artificial deposits. Digitalization of historical maps and new bathymetric surveys made in April 2015 allowed for the reconstruction of two digital terrain models for both past and present situations. The two models have been used to calculate the total volume of sediment lost during the period between 1970 and 2015. The results of this study shows as ship-channel interactions can dominate the morphodynamics of a waterway and its margins and permitted to better understand how this part of the Venice Lagoon reacted to the pressure of human activities in the post-industrial period. Evaluation of the temporal and spatial variation of shoreline position is also crucial to predict future

  12. X-616 Chromium Sludge Lagoons pictorial overview, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant uses large quantities of water for process cooling. The X-616 Liquid Effluent Control Facility was placed in operation in December 1976 to treat recirculation cooling water blowdown from the process cooling system. A chromium-based corrosion inhibitor was used in the cooling water system. A chromium sludge was produced in a clarifier to control chromium levels in the water. Chromium sludge produced by this process was stored in two surface impoundments called the X-616 Chromium Sludge Lagoons. The sludge was toxic due to its chromium concentration and therefore required treatment. The sludge was treated, turning it into a sanitary waste, and buried in an Ohio EPA approved landfill. The plant's process cooling water system has changed to a more environmentally acceptable phosphate-based inhibitor. Closure activities at X-616 began in August 1990, with all construction activities completed in June 1991, at a total cost of $8.0 million.

  13. The present environmental scenario of the Nador Lagoon (Morocco).

    PubMed

    Ruiz, F; Abad, M; Olías, M; Galán, E; González, I; Aguilá, E; Hamoumi, N; Pulido, I; Cantano, M

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, we present a multivariate approach (waters, sediments, microfauna) concerning the environmental state of the Nador Lagoon (NE Morocco). The normal water quality parameters (salinity, pH, nutrients) of the dominant marine flows are altered by local fecal water effluents, urban discharges, sewages derived from a water treatment station, and residues originated in a slaughterhouse. The geochemical analyses carried out in surficial sediment samples show very high concentrations of all metals studied near an old iron mine and moderate contents between Nador and its treatment station. Ostracods are good bioindicators of these environmental impacts, with the presence of a highly brackish assemblage in the quieter, more confined areas or the appearance of opportunistic species under hypoxic conditions. In addition, these microcrustaceans are absent in polluted bottom sediments or areas with high hydrodynamic gradients, whereas they decrease in both density and diversity if the subaerial exposure increases. PMID:16624276

  14. Biological control of trace metal and organometal benthic fluxes in a eutrophic lagoon (Thau Lagoon, Mediterranean Sea, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Point, D.; Monperrus, M.; Tessier, E.; Amouroux, D.; Chauvaud, L.; Thouzeau, G.; Jean, F.; Amice, E.; Grall, J.; Leynaert, A.; Clavier, J.; Donard, O. F. X.

    2007-04-01

    In situ benthic chamber experiments were conducted in the Thau Lagoon that allowed the simultaneous determination of the benthic exchanges of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb and U) and mercury species (iHg and MMHg). Fluxes of organotin compounds (MBT, DBT and TBT) were also investigated for the first time. The benthic incubations were performed during two campaigns at four stations that presented different macrobenthic and macrophytic species distribution and abundance (see [Thouzeau, G., Grall, J., Clavier, J., Chauvaud, L., Jean, F., Leynaert, A., Longpuirt, S., Amice, E., Amouroux, D., 2007. Spatial and temporal variability of benthic biogeochemical fluxes associated with macrophytic and macrofaunal distributions in the Thau lagoon (France). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 72 (3), 432 446.]). The results indicate that most of the flux intensity as well as the temporal and spatial variability can be explained by the combined influence of microscale and macroscale processes. Microscale changes were identified using Mn flux as a good indicator of the redox conditions at the sediment water interface, and by extension, as an accurate proxy of benthic fluxes for most trace metals and mercury species. We also observed that the redox gradient at the interface is promoted by both microbial and macrobenthic species activity that governs O2 budgets. Macroscale processes have been investigated considering macrobenthic organisms activity (macrofauna and macroalgal cover). The density of such macroorganisms is able to explain most of the spatial and temporal variability of the benthic metal fluxes within a specific site. A tentative estimation of the flux of metals and organometals associated with deposit feeder and suspension feeder activity was found to be in the range of the flux determined within the chambers for most considered elements. Furthermore, a light/dark incubation investigating a dense macroalgal cover present at the sediment surface illustrates the role

  15. Detection of Brucella ovis in ovine from Paraíba State, in the Northeast region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Clebert José; de Figueiredo, Salomão Moreira; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Clementino, Inácio José; Keid, Lara Borges; Vasconcellos, Sílvio Arruda; de Sousa Américo Batista, Carolina; Rocha, Vivianne Cambuí Mesquita; Higino, Severino Silvano

    2010-01-01

    To determine the presence of Brucella ovis in ovine from Paraíba State, in the Northeast region of Brazil, 80 animals slaughtered in the public slaughterhouse of Patos city were used. Before slaughter, blood samples were collected by jugular venopuncture from each animal, and after slaughter, testicles, epidydimus and uterus were aseptically collected. For the serological diagnosis of B. ovis and B. abortus infections, the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and Rose Bengal (RBT) tests were carried out, respectively. In addition, microbiological culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed on testicle, epidydimus and uterus samples. Six animals (7.5%) tested positive for the presence of B. ovis antibodies and all animals tested negative for the presence of B. abortus antibodies. One AGID-positive animal tested positive at uterine swab culture. PCR was able to amplify DNA of Brucella spp. from the pool of testicle, epidydimus and uterus samples from AGID-positive animals. This is the first report of isolation and detection of B. ovis DNA by PCR in ovine from the Northeast region of Brazil. PMID:24031505

  16. Molecular Characterization of Swine Manure Lagoon Microbial and Antibiotic Resistant Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The differences in swine manure lagoon effluent based on differing management styles or approaches such as different stages of swine rearing determines the presence of variable antibiotic resistance determinants and functional microbial populations. These concerns determine the suitabil...

  17. ANALYSIS OF LAGOON SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS FOR ESTROGENS AND ESTROGEN CONJUGATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations CAFOs) have been identified as potentially important sources for the release of estrogens into the environment, information is lacking on the concentrations of estrogens in whole lagoon effluents (including suspended solids)which ar...

  18. Problems and Alternatives of Settlement Lagoons for Mine Water Treatment System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Kil

    2015-04-01

    A field test and computational flow analysis were conducted to identify the structural problems with existing settlement lagoons and to propose effective alternatives. When it comes to existing settlement lagoons without any specifically designed internal structure, mine water flows along a specific route while other regions remained stagnant. Such a flow pattern along a specific region causes a significant reduction in retention time as well as the ineffective use of the space in a settlement lagoon. When applying the modified settlement lagoon design proposed in this study, the flow distribution of mine drainage became uniform and the time taken for mine drainage to reach the outlet was improved by as much as 360 times and the exchange efficiency was significantly enhanced from 14.5% to 82.7%.

  19. Heavy metals in water, sediment and tissues of Liza saliens from Esmoriz-Paramos lagoon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, C; Fontaínhas-Fernandes, A; Cabral, D; Salgado, M A

    2008-01-01

    Esmoriz-Paramos lagoon is an ecosystem of great ecological importance that is located on the northwest coast of Portugal and has been degraded as a result of industrial and anthropogenic activities. Concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) were measured in water, sediment and in tissues (liver and muscle) of Liza saliens, which is the dominant fish from the lagoon. Comparisons between metal concentrations in water and sediments were made with those in tissues of fish caught at the lagoon. Metals in water were quantified predominantly bound to particulate and equalled or exceeded the limit of chronic reference values. Metal concentrations in sediments varied among sampled sites. The relative order of concentrations was "Zn > Cu approximately Pb > Cr" the same pattern observed for metals in water. Metals in fish tissues showed higher concentrations in liver (262 mg CuxKg(-1) and 89 mg ZnxKg(-1)) than in muscle (<3 mg CuxKg(-1) and 26 mg ZnxKg(-1)), while Pb and Cr were not detected. These results suggest that Cu and Zn are the metals of major concern in the lagoon. Mullet detritivorous feeding habits, bioaccumulation pattern and the high sediment metals concentrations relative to the water suggest that sediments can be the most important source of contamination in this ecosystem. The positive relationship found between Cu in liver and fish length demonstrates that time of exposure is a crucial factor in bioaccumulation. Condition indices (K and HSI) in mullets from the lagoon were higher compared to mullets from sea, suggesting abnormal condition in the lagoon population. We conclude that metals chronic exposure in the lagoon can impose considerable fish stress. The results also show that the lagoon is an area of environmental concern. PMID:17447151

  20. Monitoring pollution in Esmoriz-Paramos lagoon, Portugal: liver histological and biochemical effects in Liza saliens.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, C; Fontaínhas-Fernandes, A; Rocha, E; Salgado, M A

    2008-10-01

    The Esmoriz-Paramos lagoon is one important ecosystem located in the Northwest coast of Portugal. This study is concerned with the assessment of pollution of the lagoon contributed by urban, industrial and agricultural activities. The parameters selected for this aim were the occurrence of hepatic histological alterations and plasma blood biochemistry in Liza saliens, the dominant fish in this lagoon. Blood parameters were compared between mullets collected from the lagoon and from the sea and included plasma enzyme activities (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP)), glucose (GLU) and total protein (TP). A positive relationship between hepatocyte vacuolization index and hepatosomatic index was found, suggesting that lipid accumulation could have contributed to the increase of liver weight. The hepatic alterations recorded included general diagnostic categories and additionally large areas of heterogeneous parenchyma, composed of hepatocytes with different spectrum of vacuolization. Liver histopathological evaluation revealed a sample prevalence of 34% for heterogeneous parenchyma, 31% for foci of necrosis and 9% for non-neoplastic lesions. No neoplastic lesions were found. Livers with heterogeneous parenchyma showed higher Cu and Zn content than livers without this category of lesion, suggesting that metals accumulated could trigger this hepatic alteration. AST was higher in mullets from the lagoon than in mullets from the sea, but no differences in ALP and ALT were found, suggesting a change in protein metabolism as an adaptive response to metals exposure. The higher glucose and protein contents observed in fish caught in the lagoon are consistent with a stress response and the measurement of plasma AST activity could be a sensitive indicator of lagoon fish stress. In conclusion, Esmoriz-Paramos lagoon biomonitorization, using indicator species will proceed to assess the impact of the restoration program under

  1. CISOCUR - Residence time modelling in the Curonian Lagoon and validation through stable isotope measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umgiesser, Georg; Razinkovas-Baziukas, Arturas; Zemlys, Petras; Ertürk, Ali; Mėžinė, Jovita

    2015-04-01

    The spatial pattern of the hydrodynamic circulation of the Curonian lagoon, the largest European coastal lagoon, is still little understood. In absence of automatic current registration data all the existing models relied mostly on such data as water levels leaving high level of uncertainty. Here we present CISOCUR, a new project financed by European Social Fund under the Global Grant measure. The project applies a new methodology that uses the carbon stable isotope (SI) ratio of C12 and C13 that characterize different water sources entering the lagoon and may be altered by internal kinetic processes. Through the tracing of these isotope ratios different water masses can be identified. This gives the possibility to validate several hypotheses of water circulation and validate hydrodynamic models. In particular it will be possible to 1) trace water masses entering the lagoon through the Nemunas and the Klaipeda strait; 2) test the hypothesis of sediment transport mechanisms inside the lagoon; 3) evaluate the importance of physical forcing on the lagoon circulation. The use of a hydrodynamic finite element model, coupled with the SI method, will allow for a realistic description of the transport processes inside the Curonian lagoon. So the main research goal is to apply the stable isotope tracers and a finite element model to determine the circulation patterns in the Curonian lagoon. Here we show how the SI analysis was used to validate the hydrodynamic model on the basis of residence time. The average residence time of the Nemunas waters is estimated through SI data and is then compared with the model data computed through standard algorithms. Seasonal changes of carbon content are taken care of through a preliminary application of a carbon kinetic model. The results are compared to literature data.

  2. The Dynamics of Mercury Speciation and Transport at a Central California Coastal Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, P. M.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Dimova, N. T.; Merckling, J.; Kehrlein, N. C.; Hohn, R. A.; Richardson, C. M.; Johnson, C. D.; Fisher, A. T.; Lamborg, C. H.; Flegal, A. R., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated spatial and temporal trends in total mercury and monomethylmercury (MMHg) in groundwater, lagoon water, and nearshore seawater to assess the drivers of MMHg production in a coastal lagoon system. Many West Coast streams transition from estuarine to lagoon conditions in the dry season when a sand berm develops at the stream mouth, restricting surface water exchange with the ocean. Because lagoons accumulate nutrients from their upstream watershed they are susceptible to eutrophication, which can promote the growth of anaerobic bacteria. In nearshore settings, these bacteria are primarily responsible for producing MMHg, a bioaccumulative neurotoxin. We found that MMHg concentrations in lagoon water (1 - 5 pM) were higher than in groundwater (0.2 - 1 pM) and coastal seawater (0.1 - 0.6 pM). Groundwater depth profiles combined with subsurface resistivity images suggest MMHg in lagoon water was transported through the sand berm to adjacent seawater. MMHg in seawater and groundwater followed similar trends, providing additional evidence of groundwater-surface water interaction. MMHg in groundwater directly below the lagoon was consistently higher where dissolved oxygen and NO3- decreased, implying MMHg production by anaerobic bacteria. Over a ~7-hour period we observed a 0.6 pM decrease in groundwater MMHg (1 to 0.4 pM) that coincided with a decrease in water temperature (16.5 to 13 °C). We hypothesize that microbial activity, and consequently MMHg production, were enhanced in warmer water. Because coastal lagoons support intricate food webs and serve as nurseries for a variety of organisms, processes that influence mercury speciation and transport in these ecosystems may have a disproportionate impact on nearshore mercury biogeochemical cycling.

  3. Stage-specific distribution models can predict eel (Anguilla anguilla) occurrence during settlement in coastal lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, C.; Zucchetta, M.; Capoccioni, F.; Gravina, M. F.; Franzoi, P.; Ciccotti, E.

    2016-03-01

    Eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a catadromous fish species typical of Mediterranean coastal lagoons, that currently suffers from several anthropogenic and natural impacts. These are thought to be the cause of a stock-wide decline that this panmictic species is facing, in inland and coastal waters of Europe and North Africa. The decline affects both adult phases and recruitment, i.e. glass eel arrival to coastal waters and their ascent to inland waters. Quantitative features of eel recruitment reflect a transoceanic global scale, but also depend on local environmental conditions, the latter also affecting settlement dynamics in transitional waters. There is only little information on the dynamics of these two processes in coastal lagoons, notwithstanding the paramount importance of both in sustaining local stocks abundance and their demographic structure for this typical but also economically important inhabitant of Mediterranean lagoons, habitats that constitute an important share of the eel distribution area. The present study aims, therefore, to clarify space and time dynamics of local scale recruitment and of settlement in a coastal lagoon in the Mediterranean area, also by setting up a specific methodological approach. For this purpose, data from field surveys in combination with Species Distribution Models (SDMs) have been used in order to relate distribution of eel juvenile stages to the environmental conditions within the lagoon. Specifically, models were calibrated to quantify the relationship between presence of juvenile eel and the main environmental drivers, with the aim of identifying potential habitats for eel settlement within the lagoon. Results gained by modelling suggest certain spatial and temporal colonization patterns for the juvenile eel in the Fogliano lagoon, a typical Mediterranean coastal lake. The modelling approach has therefore proved to be a useful tool for predicting habitats for eel recruitment at the local scale and settlement, because

  4. Lagoon-sea exchanges, nutrient dynamics and water quality management of the Ria Formosa (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Alice; Mudge, Stephen M.

    2005-02-01

    Historical data from the Ria Formosa lagoon are classified according to the EEA 2001 guidelines to provide a frame of reference to evaluate the effect of management during the implementation of the environmental legislative Directives. Water samples from the Ria Formosa lagoon were significantly enriched in nitrogen (NH 4+ NO 2- and NO 3-) with respect to the adjacent coastal waters indicating that inputs from sewage, agricultural runoff and benthic fluxes were not fully assimilated within the lagoon. Tidal flushing was insufficient in the inner areas of the lagoon to remove or effectively dilute these inputs. Enrichment was most severe close to the urban centres of Faro and Olhão, as well as in the Gilão Estuary and the shallow extremities. Dissolved oxygen undersaturation (mean 75% during daylight hours) was associated with the area close to the sewage outlets of Faro. In the shallow west end of the lagoon during summer, dissolved oxygen supersaturation reached 140% during the day but fell to 50% at night. Classification using the EEA (2001) guidelines suggests the system is "poor" or "bad" with respect to phosphate concentrations for the majority of the year and "poor" in nitrogen contamination during the autumn rainy period. Due to the high overall nitrogen load in the lagoon, there is a net export to the coastal waters, especially during November and December, and phosphate only becomes limiting briefly during the spring bloom (April). Therefore, substantial phytoplankton populations may be supported year-round in the lagoon. The consequences of water quality deterioration in the Ria Formosa would negatively affect the lagoon as a regional resource, important for its ecological, economic and recreational value. The industries most affected would be tourism, fisheries and aquaculture. Management options include Urban Waste Water Treatment, dredging, artificial inlets, limits on urban development and changes in agricultural practices.

  5. Seagrasses and sediment response to the changing physical forcing in a coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo da Silva, J.; Duck, R. W.; Pereira, M. J.; Catarino, J. B.

    2003-04-01

    The Ria de Aveiro is an estuary - coastal lagoon system connected to the Atlantic Ocean by a channel with a cross-sectional area that has steadily increased over more than one century. Local ocean tides, with amplitudes of 1-3 m, are today transmitted to the lagoon by the single, engineered inlet channel and propagate to the end of the lagoon channels as a damped progressive wave. The natural channel connecting the lagoon to the ocean evolved during historical times, moving southward and reducing its cross-section. The natural evolution was reverted in 1808 by opening the new inlet channel that has since been protected by breakwaters and deepened by dredging. This controlled evolution has caused an increase in the tidal prism associated with a larger tidal oscillation inside the lagoon. The change in tidal amplitude has important effects on the lagoon ecosystem, which are related to the increase in tidal currents, water level and salinity of the water. The pollution load reaching the lagoon from its catchment area is now, however, more readily flushed to the ocean. Most affected by the change are mudflat and intertidal areas, including the old salt-pans, some showing signs of erosion while others accumulate sediment that is transported in suspension by the strong tidal currents. Important indicators of ecosystem change are the seagrass beds. Until 1980 large areas of the lagoon bed were covered by seagrasses (Zostera, Ruppia, Potamogeton), which were collected in large quantities for use in agriculture. After 1980, the collection declined and the seagrass beds became sediment-covered. This resulted in a large decrease in the area of seagrasses in spite of the decline in the quantity collected. Our results show a pattern in the change of the seagrass populations that can be related to the changes in the physical forcing associated with tidal wave propagation. A parallel change in sediment texture was also observed.

  6. Dissipation of wave energy and turbulence in a shallow coral reef lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhi-Cheng; Lenain, Luc; Melville, W. Kendall; Middleton, Jason H.; Reineman, Benjamin; Statom, Nicholas; McCabe, Ryan M.

    2012-03-01

    Simultaneous in situ measurements of waves, currents and turbulence are presented to describe dissipation rates of wave energy and turbulent kinetic energy in the windward coral reef-lagoon system at Lady Elliot Island (LEI), Australia. The dissipation of wave energy in the lagoon is tidally modulated and strongly correlates with frictional dissipation due to the presence of the extremely rough bottom boundary. The observed turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation rate, ɛ, in this wave-dominated lagoon is much larger than recently reported values for unidirectional flows over natural fringing coral reefs. The correlation between the wave dissipation and ɛ is examined. The average rate of dissipation induced by the rough turbulent flow was estimated directly from the observed ɛ coupled with both a depth-integrated approach and with a bottom boundary layer scaling. Rates of TKE dissipation estimated using the two approaches approximate well, within a factor of 1.5 to 2.4, to the surface-wave energy dissipation rate. The wave dissipation and friction factor in the lagoon can be described by a spectral wave-frictional model with a bottom roughness length scale that is approximately constant across the lagoon. We also present estimates of dissipation induced by the canopy drag force of the coral heads. The dissipation in this case is enhanced and becomes more significant for the total energy dissipation when the water depth in the lagoon is comparable to the height of the coral heads.

  7. Rates of sediment supply and sea-level rise in a large coastal lagoon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, R.A.; Ward, G.H.; White, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Laguna Madre, Texas, is 3-7 km wide and more than 190 km long, making it one of the longest lagoons in the world. The lagoon encompasses diverse geologic and climatic regions and it is an efficient sediment trap that accumulates clastic sediments from upland, interior, and oceanic sources. The semi-arid climate and frequent tropical cyclones historically have been responsible for the greatest volume of sediment influx. On an average annual basis, eolian transport, tidal exchange, storm washover, mainland runoff, interior shore erosion, and authigenic mineral production introduce approximately one million m3 of sediments into the lagoon. Analyses of these sediment transport mechanisms and associated line sources and point sources of sediment provide a basis for: (1) estimating the long-term average annual sediment supply to a large lagoon; (2) calculating the average net sedimentation rate; (3) comparing introduced sediment volumes and associated aggradation rates with observed relative sea-level change; and (4) predicting future conditions of the lagoon. This comparison indicates that the historical average annual accumulation rate in Laguna Madre (<1 mm/yr) is substantially less than the historical rate of relative sea-level rise (~4 mm/yr). Lagoon submergence coupled with erosion of the western shore indicates that Laguna Madre is being submerged slowly and migrating westward rather than filling, as some have suggested.

  8. Phytoplankton community dynamics in an intermittently open hypereutrophic coastal lagoon in southern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Susana; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Gamito, Sofia

    2015-12-01

    Phytoplankton community' dynamics were studied in Salgados coastal lagoon in order to evaluate the effects of excessive organic loads and also physical stress caused by the irregular opening of the lagoon. Salgados is a hypereutrophic intermittently open coastal lagoon, which received freshwater inputs from small rivers and from a wastewater treatment plant. Cyanophyceae dominated the phytoplankton communities most of the time; Bacillariophyceae became the main taxonomic group in winter when the lagoon was closed; Chlorophyceae was the major class in early summer; pico-nano flagellate algae accounted for a high percentage of total phytoplankton during spring. Potentially harmful taxa were observed during most of the sampling periods, forming blooms and accounting for a considerable percentage of total phytoplankton abundance. A strong differentiation among dry and wet seasons could be noticed. The dry season was dominated by Microsystis aeruginosa, Rhodomonas sp., pico-nano flagellate algae, Cyclotella spp. and Planktothrix sp., while the wet season, although still with the presence of Microsystis aeruginosa, was dominated by Dolichospermum spiroides. The best environmental variables explaining stations patterns and based on phytoplankton taxa were days of isolation, pH, and salinity. Temperature, cumulative rain and total phosphorus were also related with species and stations patterns. The high nutrient load in Salgados lagoon promoted the development and persistence of harmful algae blooms. Proper management of coastal lagoons involves not only the control of direct discharges of nutrients, but also of other factors, including water level and communication with the sea.

  9. Strontium isotopic-paleontological method as a high-resolution paleosalinity tool for lagoonal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Eduard G.; Stanley, Daniel Jean; Patterson, R. Timothy

    1998-11-01

    A combined strontium isotopic (87Sr/86Sr) and paleontological method is newly applied to a modern lagoon in Egypt's Nile River delta to test its applicability as a paleosalinity proxy. Analyses of 22 surficial samples collected throughout the lagoon include 81 Sr isotopic analyses of mollusks, foraminifera, ostracods, barnacles, bryozoans, serpulid worm tubes, pore water, and gypsum crystals. Two salinity groups are distinguished in each sample: a lower salinity group (˜1 ppt) mixed with a higher salinity group (˜3 10 ppt) that, respectively, are interpreted as the modern biocoenosis and an older relict fauna. The relict fauna denotes higher salinity conditions in the lagoon prior to closure of the Aswan High Dam (1964), and the modern fauna records freshening of the lagoon. Recent decreased salinity is a response to regulated Nile River flow and increased discharge into Manzala of fresh water via canals and drains. Quantification of this short-term salinity change holds promise for study of modern lagoons in other world settings, and may provide paleoclimatic information for older lagoon sequences in the Nile River delta and the geologic record.

  10. Living in a coastal lagoon environment: photosynthetic and biochemical mechanisms of key marine macroalgae.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Marta; Korbee, Nathalie; Pérez-Ruzafa, Isabel María; Marcos, Concepción; Figueroa, Félix L; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel

    2014-10-01

    The physiological status of Cystoseira compressa, Padina pavonica and Palisada tenerrima was studied by in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence, pigment content, stoichiometry (C:N), accumulation of UV photoprotectors and antioxidant activity; comparing their photosynthetic response in a coastal lagoon (Mar Menor) and in Mediterranean coastal waters. In general, the specimens reached their highest ETRmax in spring in the Lagoon, but in summer in the Mediterranean, coinciding with their maximum biomass peak. The species exhibited a dynamic photoinhibition. Except C. compressa, they showed a lower decrease in Fv/Fm and higher recovery rates in the Mediterranean populations when exposed to high irradiance. The higher salinity and temperature of the lagoon could impair the photoprotection mechanisms. The acclimation to lagoon environments is species-specific and involves complex regulatory mechanisms. The results underline the importance of N in repair, avoidance, quenching and scavenging mechanisms. In general, Lagoon specimens showed higher pigment concentration. Although xanthophylls play important photo-protective and antioxidant roles, the observed trend is more likely to be explained by the higher temperatures reached in the lagoon compared to Mediterranean. Therefore the studied photosynthetic and biochemical mechanisms can be effective not only for high irradiance, but also for higher temperatures in a climate change scenario, but are highly dependent on nutrient availability. PMID:25164017