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Sample records for patterns water quality

  1. Determining regional water quality patterns and their ecological relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, Tim W.; Hunsaker, Carolyn T.; Beauchamp, John J.

    1987-08-01

    A multivariate statistical method for analyzing spatial patterns of water quality in Georgia and Kansas was tested using data in the US Environmental Protection Agency's STORET data system. Water quality data for Georgia and Kansas were organized by watersheds. We evaluated three questions: (a) can distinctive regional water quality patterns be detected and predicted using only a few water quality variables, (b) are regional water quality patterns correlated with terrestrial biotic regions, and (c) are regional water quality patterns correlated with fish distributions? Using existing data, this method can distinguish regions with water quality very different from the average conditions (as in Georgia), but it does not discriminate well between regions that do not have diverse water quality conditions (as in Kansas). Data that are spatially and temporally adequate for representing large regions and for multivariate statistical analysis are available for only a few common water quality parameters. Regional climate, lithology, and biotic regimes all have the potential to affect water quality, and terrestrial biotic regions and fish distributions do compare with regional water quality patterns, especially in a state like Georgia, where watershed characteristics are diverse. Thus, identifiable relationships between watershed characteristics and water quality should allow the development of an integrated landaquatic classification system that would be a valuable tool for resource management. Because geographical distributions of species may be limited by Zoogeographic and environmental factors, the recognition of patterns in fish distributions that correlate with regional water quality patterns could influence management strategies and aid regional assessments.

  2. Water spectral pattern as holistic marker for water quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Zoltan; Bázár, György; Oshima, Mitsue; Shigeoka, Shogo; Tanaka, Mariko; Furukawa, Akane; Nagai, Airi; Osawa, Manami; Itakura, Yukari; Tsenkova, Roumiana

    2016-01-15

    Online water quality monitoring technologies have been improving continuously. At the moment, water quality is defined by the respective range of few chosen parameters. However, this strategy requires sampling and it cannot provide evaluation of the entire water molecular system including various solutes. As it is nearly impossible to monitor every single molecule dissolved in water, the objective of our research is to introduce a complimentary approach, a new concept for water screening by observing the water molecular system changes using aquaphotomics and Quality Control Chart method. This approach can continuously provide quick information about any qualitative change of water molecular arrangement without taking into account the reason of the alteration of quality. Different species and concentrations of solutes in aqueous systems structure the water solvent differently. Aquaphotomics investigates not the characteristic absorption bands of the solute in question, but the solution absorption at vibrational bands of water's covalent and hydrogen bonds that have been altered by the solute. The applicability of the proposed concept is evaluated by monitoring the water structural changes in different aqueous solutions such as acid, sugar, and salt solutions at millimolar concentration level and in ground water. The results show the potential of the proposed approach to use water spectral pattern monitoring as bio marker of water quality. Our successful results open a new venue in water quality monitoring by offering a quick and cost effective method for continuous screening of water molecular arrangement. Instead of the regular analysis of individual physical or chemical parameters, with our method - as a complementary tool - the structural changes of water molecular system used as a mirror reflecting even small disturbances in water can indicate the necessity of further detailed analysis by conventional methods. PMID:26592651

  3. National patterns in wetland water quality from the 2001 NWCA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality (WQ) is central to understanding ecological condition of lakes, streams, and coastal waters but less often assessed in wetlands. The utility of national-scale wetland WQ data was examined in the 2011 National Wetland Condition Assessment, which covered 48 USA state...

  4. Identifying regional water quality patterns and their relationships with terrestrial ecosystems and fish distributions

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, T.W.; Hunsaker, C.T.; Beauchamp, J.J.

    1986-09-01

    A multivariate statistical method for analyzing spatial patterns in regional water quality was developed using existing water quality data in the US Environmental Protection Agency's STORET system. Regional patterns of terrestrial ecosystems have been described and mapped for various management and scientific purposes. Most of these methods ignored or placed little emphasis on the regional patterns in aquatic ecosystems even though they are bounded by the terrestrial systems and affected by their functioning. The procedure we used examined geographical patterns for selected water quality variables in Kansas and Georgia. It was able to distinguish regions with water quality very different from average conditions (as in Georgia) but did not discriminate well between regions that did not have diverse conditions in water quality (as in Kansas). The observed regional water quality patterns were compared with terrestrial ecosystem patterns. In addition, fish distributions were compared with regional patterns in water quality to determine if there was an association between them. In Georgia, water quality patterns were similar to ecosystem patterns and fish distributions, but correlation was not as good for the more homogeneous landscape in Kansas.

  5. [Relationship between landscape pattern and river water quality in Wujingang region, Taihu Lake watershed].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-wei; Li, Yang-fan; Sun, Xiang; Zhang, Fang-shan; Zhu, Hong-xing; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Ying; Zhuang, Min; Zhu, Xiao-dong

    2010-08-01

    Wujingang region was taken as the study area to explore the relationship between landscape pattern and river water quality. Remote sensing image was interpreted and buffer zones were constructed, and then landscape patterns characterized by land-use patterns and five selected landscape metrics including Number of patches (NP), Area-weighted mean patch fractal dimension (FRAC _AM), Shannon's diversity index (SHDI), Shannon' s evenness index (SHEI), Contagion index (CONTAG) in each buffer zone were obtained. By employing the correlation analysis between the landscape pattern and river water quality, the results indicated that the river water quality was influenced by landscape pattern. The percentage of built-up area was positively related with water quality indicators, demonstrating that the percentage of built-up area was one of the key factors affecting the river water quality, while the percentage of cultivated land showed a negative relationship. Furthermore, the relationships between the selected five landscape metrics and water quality were also revealed. SHDI and SHEI were significantly positively related with water quality indicators, while CONTAG showed the opposite relationship. PMID:21090292

  6. A practitioner's guide for exploring water quality patterns using principal components analysis and Procrustes.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, C J; Starkey, E N; Bartz, K K; Wilson, M H; Mueter, F J

    2016-04-01

    To design sustainable water quality monitoring programs, practitioners must choose meaningful variables, justify the temporal and spatial extent of measurements, and demonstrate that program objectives are successfully achieved after implementation. Consequently, data must be analyzed across several variables and often from multiple sites and seasons. Multivariate techniques such as ordination are common throughout the water quality literature, but methods vary widely and could benefit from greater standardization. We have found little clear guidance and open source code for efficiently conducting ordination to explore water quality patterns. Practitioners unfamiliar with techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA) are faced with a steep learning curve to summarize expansive data sets in periodic reports and manuscripts. Here, we present a seven-step framework for conducting PCA and associated tests. The last step is dedicated to conducting Procrustes analysis, a valuable but rarely used test within the water quality field that describes the degree of concordance between separate multivariate data matrices and provides residual values for similar points across each matrix. We illustrate the utility of these tools using three increasingly complex water quality case studies in US parklands. The case studies demonstrate how PCA and Procrustes analysis answer common applied monitoring questions such as (1) do data from separate monitoring locations describe similar water quality regimes, and (2) what time periods exhibit the greatest water quality regime variability? We provide data sets and annotated R code for recreating case study results and as a base for crafting new code for similar monitoring applications. PMID:27021692

  7. Dynamic Assessment of Water Quality Based on a Variable Fuzzy Pattern Recognition Model

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shiguo; Wang, Tianxiang; Hu, Suduan

    2015-01-01

    Water quality assessment is an important foundation of water resource protection and is affected by many indicators. The dynamic and fuzzy changes of water quality lead to problems for proper assessment. This paper explores a method which is in accordance with the water quality changes. The proposed method is based on the variable fuzzy pattern recognition (VFPR) model and combines the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model with the entropy weight (EW) method. The proposed method was applied to dynamically assess the water quality of Biliuhe Reservoir (Dailan, China). The results show that the water quality level is between levels 2 and 3 and worse in August or September, caused by the increasing water temperature and rainfall. Weights and methods are compared and random errors of the values of indicators are analyzed. It is concluded that the proposed method has advantages of dynamism, fuzzification and stability by considering the interval influence of multiple indicators and using the average level characteristic values of four models as results. PMID:25689998

  8. Identifying spatial and seasonal patterns of river water quality in a semiarid irrigated agricultural Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Darwiche-Criado, Nadia; Jiménez, Juan José; Comín, Francisco A; Sorando, Ricardo; Sánchez-Pérez, José Miguel

    2015-12-01

    A detailed understanding of the study area is essential to achieve key information and optimize the monitoring, analysis, and evaluation of water quality of natural ecosystems that have been highly transformed into agricultural areas. Using classification techniques like the hierarchical cluster analysis (CA) and partial triadic analysis (PTA), we assessed the sources of water pollution and the seasonal influence of human activities in water composition in a river basin from northeastern Spain. The results suggested that a strong connection existed between water quality and the seasonality of the human activities. The CA showed the spatial relationship between water chemistry and the adjacent land uses. The PTA associated the analyzed variables to their pollutant source. Electrical conductivity (EC), Cl(-), SO4(2-)-S, Na(+), and Mg(2+) ions were related with agricultural sources, whereas NH4(+)-N, PT, and PO4(3-)-P were linked with urban polluted sites. Concentration of NO3(-)-N was associated with urban land use. Differences in water composition according to the irrigation intensity were also found during the irrigation season. The statistical tools used in this work, especially the PTA, allowed us to jointly analyze the spatial and seasonal components of water pollutant trends. We obtained a more comprehensive knowledge of water quality patterns in the study area, which will be essential when taking measures to minimize the effects of water pollution. PMID:26429137

  9. Spatial Pattern of Great Lakes Estuary Processes from Water Quality Sensing and Geostatistical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.; Minsker, B. S.; Bailey, B.; Collingsworth, P.

    2014-12-01

    Mixing of river and lake water can alter water temperature, conductivity, and other properties that influence ecological processes in freshwater estuaries of the Great Lakes. This study uses geostatistical methods to rapidly visualize and understand water quality sampling results and enable adaptive sampling to remove anomalies and explore interesting phenomena in more detail. Triaxus, a towed undulating sensor package, was used for collecting various physical and biological water qualities in three estuary areas of Lake Michigan in Summer 2011. Based on the particular sampling pattern, data quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) processes, including sensor synchronization, upcast and downcast separation, and spatial outlier removal are first applied. An automated kriging interpolation approach that considers trend and anisotropy is then proposed to estimate data on a gridded map for direct visualization. Other methods are explored with the data to gain more insights on water quality processes. Local G statistics serve as a supplementary tool to direct visualization. The method identifies statistically high value zones (hot spots) and low value zones (cold spots) in water chemistry across the estuaries, including locations of water sources and intrusions. In addition, chlorophyll concentration distributions are different among sites. To further understand the interactions and differences between river and lake water, K-means clustering algorithm is used to spatially cluster the water based on temperature and specific conductivity. Statistical analysis indicates that clusters with significant river water can be identified from higher turbidity, specific conductivity, and chlorophyll concentrations. Different ratios between zooplankton biomass and density indicate different zooplankton structure across clusters. All of these methods can contribute to improved near real-time analysis of future sampling activity.

  10. Controls of catchments` sub-storage contributions to dynamic water quality patterns in the stream network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetz, Tobias; Maike Hegenauer, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Water quality is usually observed either continuously at a few stations within a catchment or with few snapshot sampling campaigns throughout the whole stream network. Although we know that the depletion of catchment sub-storages can vary throughout the stream network according to their actual water content (spatial variability of actual storage conditions can be caused amongst others by unevenly distributed rainfall, storage size or spatial differences in soil characteristics and land use), we know little about the impact of this process on spatial water quality patterns. For summer low flow recession periods, when stream water composition can be crucial for aquatic ecosystem conditions and the exceedance of water quality thresholds, knowledge on the controls of the dynamic interplay of catchment storages and stream water composition might improve water quality management and the implementation of corresponding mitigation measures. We studied this process throughout the stream network of a first-order agricultural headwater catchment in south-western Germany during two summer low flow recession periods. The underlying geology of the study area is a deep layer of aeolian loess, whilst the dominating soil is a silty calcaric regosol with gleizations in the colluvium. The land use in the catchment is dominated by viniculture (63 %) and arable crops (18 %). Due to the dense drainpipe network within the catchment we could identify 12 sub-catchments contributing during summer low flow recession periods to total stream discharge. We continuously observed discharge, electrical conductivity and water temperatures for 8 of the sub-catchments and at the catchment outlet. This data set was accomplished by 10 snapshot campaigns where we sampled for water temperatures, electrical conductivity, major ions, pH and O2 throughout the stream network. Using either discharge concentration relationships or time dependent functions, we derived continuous export rates for all measures in

  11. Regional water quality patterns in an alluvial aquifer: direct and indirect influences of rivers.

    PubMed

    Baillieux, A; Campisi, D; Jammet, N; Bucher, S; Hunkeler, D

    2014-11-15

    The influence of rivers on the groundwater quality in alluvial aquifers can be twofold: direct and indirect. Rivers can have a direct influence via recharge and an indirect one by controlling the distribution of fine-grained, organic-carbon rich flood deposits that induce reducing conditions. These direct and indirect influences were quantified for a large alluvial aquifer on the Swiss Plateau (50km(2)) in interaction with an Alpine river using nitrate as an example. The hydrochemistry and stable isotope composition of water were characterized using a network of 115 piezometers and pumping stations covering the entire aquifer. Aquifer properties, land use and recharge zones were evaluated as well. This information provided detailed insight into the factors that control the spatial variability of groundwater quality. Three main factors were identified: (1) diffuse agricultural pollution sources; (2) dilution processes resulting from river water infiltrations, revealed by the δ(18)OH2O and δ(2)HH2O contents of groundwater; and (3) denitrification processes, controlled by the spatial variability of flood deposits governed by fluvial depositional processes. It was possible to quantify the dependence of the nitrate concentration on these three factors at any sampling point of the aquifer using an end-member mixing model, where the average nitrate concentration in recharge from the agricultural area was evaluated at 52mg/L, and the nitrate concentration of infiltrating river at approximately 6mg/L. The study shows the importance of considering the indirect and direct impacts of rivers on alluvial aquifers and provides a methodological framework to evaluate aquifer scale water quality patterns. PMID:25249478

  12. Regional water quality patterns in an alluvial aquifer: Direct and indirect influences of rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillieux, A.; Campisi, D.; Jammet, N.; Bucher, S.; Hunkeler, D.

    2014-11-01

    The influence of rivers on the groundwater quality in alluvial aquifers can be twofold: direct and indirect. Rivers can have a direct influence via recharge and an indirect one by controlling the distribution of fine-grained, organic-carbon rich flood deposits that induce reducing conditions. These direct and indirect influences were quantified for a large alluvial aquifer on the Swiss Plateau (50 km2) in interaction with an Alpine river using nitrate as an example. The hydrochemistry and stable isotope composition of water were characterized using a network of 115 piezometers and pumping stations covering the entire aquifer. Aquifer properties, land use and recharge zones were evaluated as well. This information provided detailed insight into the factors that control the spatial variability of groundwater quality. Three main factors were identified: (1) diffuse agricultural pollution sources; (2) dilution processes resulting from river water infiltrations, revealed by the δ18OH2O and δ2HH2O contents of groundwater; and (3) denitrification processes, controlled by the spatial variability of flood deposits governed by fluvial depositional processes. It was possible to quantify the dependence of the nitrate concentration on these three factors at any sampling point of the aquifer using an end-member mixing model, where the average nitrate concentration in recharge from the agricultural area was evaluated at 52 mg/L, and the nitrate concentration of infiltrating river at approximately 6 mg/L. The study shows the importance of considering the indirect and direct impacts of rivers on alluvial aquifers and provides a methodological framework to evaluate aquifer scale water quality patterns.

  13. Discovering temporal patterns in water quality time series, focusing on floods with the LDA method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hélène Aubert, Alice; Tavenard, Romain; Emonet, Rémi; Malinowski, Simon; Guyet, Thomas; Quiniou, René; Odobez, Jean-Marc; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2013-04-01

    Studying floods has been a major issue in hydrological research for years. It is often done in terms of water quantity but it is also of interest in terms of water quality. Stream chemistry is a mix of solutes. They originate from various sources in the catchment, reach the stream by various flow pathways and are transformed by biogeochemical reactions at different locations. Therefore, we hypothesized that reaction of the stream chemistry to a rainfall event is not unique but varies according to the season (1), and the global meteorological conditions of the year (2). Identifying a typology of temporal chemical patterns of reaction to a rainfall event is a way to better understand catchment processes at the flood time scale. To answer this issue, we applied a probabilistic model (Latent Dirichlet Allocation or LDA (3)) mining recurrent sequential patterns to a dataset of floods. The dataset is 12 years long and daily recorded. It gathers a broad range of parameters from which we selected rainfall, discharge, water table depth, temperature as well as nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, sulphate and chloride concentrations. It comes from a long-term hydrological observatory (AgrHys, western France) located at Kervidy-Naizin. A set of 472 floods was automatically extracted (4). From each flood, a document has been generated that is made of a set of "hydrological words". Each hydrological word corresponds to a measurement: it is a triplet made of the considered variable, the time at which the measurement is made (relative to the beginning of the flood), and its magnitude (that can be low, medium or high). The documents are used as input data to the LDA algorithm. LDA relies on spotting co-occurrences (as an alternative to the more traditional study of correlation) between words that appear within the flood documents. It has two nice properties that are its ability to easily deal with missing data and its additive property that allows a document to be seen as a mixture

  14. WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual was develped to provide an overview of microfiltration and ultrafiltration technology for operators, administrators, engineers, scientists, educators, and anyone seeking an introduction to these processes. Chapters on theory, water quality, applications, design, equip...

  15. Water quality.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, T.D.; Stefan, H.G.

    1979-01-01

    Significant contributions in the broad area of water quality over the quadrennium 1975-78 are highlighted. This summare is concerned primarily with physical and chemical aspects of water quality. The diversity of subject areas within the topic heading and the large volume of published research results necessitated the selection of representative contributions. Over 400 references are cited which are believed to be indicative of general trends in research and of the more important developments during this period.- from Authors

  16. Multi-scale analysis of relationship between landscape pattern and urban river water quality in different seasons

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Rui; Wang, Guofeng; Zhang, Qianwen; Zhang, Zhonghao

    2016-01-01

    Water quality is highly dependent on the landscape characteristics. In this study, we investigated the relationships between water quality and landscape pattern (composition and configuration) in Huzhou City, China. The water quality variables, including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (CODMn), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), NH3-N, petroleum, dissolved total phosphorus (DTP), and total nitrogen (TN) in low water, normal water and flood periods were identified by investigating 34 sampling sites in Huzhou City during the period from 2001 to 2007. Landscape composition and landscape configuration metrics were calculated for different scales. It was found that scales and seasons both play important role when analyzing the relationships between landscape characteristics of different land use types. The results implied that some water quality parameters such as CODMn, petroleum are more polluted in flood period than the other two seasons at different scales, while DTP and TN are more polluted in low water period. Influences of different landscape metrics on water quality should operate at different spatial scales. The results shown in this paper will effectively provide scientific basis for the policy making in sustainable development of water environment. PMID:27147104

  17. Multi-scale analysis of relationship between landscape pattern and urban river water quality in different seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Rui; Wang, Guofeng; Zhang, Qianwen; Zhang, Zhonghao

    2016-05-01

    Water quality is highly dependent on the landscape characteristics. In this study, we investigated the relationships between water quality and landscape pattern (composition and configuration) in Huzhou City, China. The water quality variables, including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (CODMn), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), NH3-N, petroleum, dissolved total phosphorus (DTP), and total nitrogen (TN) in low water, normal water and flood periods were identified by investigating 34 sampling sites in Huzhou City during the period from 2001 to 2007. Landscape composition and landscape configuration metrics were calculated for different scales. It was found that scales and seasons both play important role when analyzing the relationships between landscape characteristics of different land use types. The results implied that some water quality parameters such as CODMn, petroleum are more polluted in flood period than the other two seasons at different scales, while DTP and TN are more polluted in low water period. Influences of different landscape metrics on water quality should operate at different spatial scales. The results shown in this paper will effectively provide scientific basis for the policy making in sustainable development of water environment.

  18. Multi-scale analysis of relationship between landscape pattern and urban river water quality in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rui; Wang, Guofeng; Zhang, Qianwen; Zhang, Zhonghao

    2016-01-01

    Water quality is highly dependent on the landscape characteristics. In this study, we investigated the relationships between water quality and landscape pattern (composition and configuration) in Huzhou City, China. The water quality variables, including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (CODMn), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), NH3-N, petroleum, dissolved total phosphorus (DTP), and total nitrogen (TN) in low water, normal water and flood periods were identified by investigating 34 sampling sites in Huzhou City during the period from 2001 to 2007. Landscape composition and landscape configuration metrics were calculated for different scales. It was found that scales and seasons both play important role when analyzing the relationships between landscape characteristics of different land use types. The results implied that some water quality parameters such as CODMn, petroleum are more polluted in flood period than the other two seasons at different scales, while DTP and TN are more polluted in low water period. Influences of different landscape metrics on water quality should operate at different spatial scales. The results shown in this paper will effectively provide scientific basis for the policy making in sustainable development of water environment. PMID:27147104

  19. Spatial Patterns in Water Quality Changes during Dredging in Tropical Environments.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Rebecca; Stark, Clair; Ridd, Peter; Jones, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Dredging poses a potential risk to tropical ecosystems, especially in turbidity-sensitive environments such as coral reefs, filter feeding communities and seagrasses. There is little detailed observational time-series data on the spatial effects of dredging on turbidity and light and defining likely footprints is a fundamental task for impact prediction, the EIA process, and for designing monitoring projects when dredging is underway. It is also important for public perception of risks associated with dredging. Using an extensive collection of in situ water quality data (73 sites) from three recent large scale capital dredging programs in Australia, and which included extensive pre-dredging baseline data, we describe relationships with distance from dredging for a range of water quality metrics. Using a criterion to define a zone of potential impact of where the water quality value exceeds the 80th percentile of the baseline value for turbidity-based metrics or the 20th percentile for the light based metrics, effects were observed predominantly up to three km from dredging, but in one instance up to nearly 20 km. This upper (~20 km) limit was unusual and caused by a local oceanographic feature of consistent unidirectional flow during the project. Water quality loggers were located along the principal axis of this flow (from 200 m to 30 km) and provided the opportunity to develop a matrix of exposure based on running means calculated across multiple time periods (from hours to one month) and distance from the dredging, and summarized across a broad range of percentile values. This information can be used to more formally develop water quality thresholds for benthic organisms, such as corals, filter-feeders (e.g. sponges) and seagrasses in future laboratory- and field-based studies using environmentally realistic and relevant exposure scenarios, that may be used to further refine distance based analyses of impact, potentially further reducing the size of the dredging

  20. Spatial Patterns in Water Quality Changes during Dredging in Tropical Environments

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Rebecca; Stark, Clair; Ridd, Peter; Jones, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Dredging poses a potential risk to tropical ecosystems, especially in turbidity-sensitive environments such as coral reefs, filter feeding communities and seagrasses. There is little detailed observational time-series data on the spatial effects of dredging on turbidity and light and defining likely footprints is a fundamental task for impact prediction, the EIA process, and for designing monitoring projects when dredging is underway. It is also important for public perception of risks associated with dredging. Using an extensive collection of in situ water quality data (73 sites) from three recent large scale capital dredging programs in Australia, and which included extensive pre-dredging baseline data, we describe relationships with distance from dredging for a range of water quality metrics. Using a criterion to define a zone of potential impact of where the water quality value exceeds the 80th percentile of the baseline value for turbidity-based metrics or the 20th percentile for the light based metrics, effects were observed predominantly up to three km from dredging, but in one instance up to nearly 20 km. This upper (~20 km) limit was unusual and caused by a local oceanographic feature of consistent unidirectional flow during the project. Water quality loggers were located along the principal axis of this flow (from 200 m to 30 km) and provided the opportunity to develop a matrix of exposure based on running means calculated across multiple time periods (from hours to one month) and distance from the dredging, and summarized across a broad range of percentile values. This information can be used to more formally develop water quality thresholds for benthic organisms, such as corals, filter-feeders (e.g. sponges) and seagrasses in future laboratory- and field-based studies using environmentally realistic and relevant exposure scenarios, that may be used to further refine distance based analyses of impact, potentially further reducing the size of the dredging

  1. Urgency for sustainable development in coastal urban areas with reference to weather pattern, land use, and water quality.

    PubMed

    Sheela, A M; Letha, J; Swarnalatha, K; Baiju, K V; Sankar, Divya

    2014-05-01

    Water pollution is one of the most critical problems affecting mankind. Weather pattern and land use of catchment area have significant role in quality of water bodies. Due to climate change, there is frequent variation in weather pattern all over the world. There is also rapid change in land use due to increase in population and urbanization. The study was carried out to analyze the effect of change in weather pattern during the monsoon periods of 2008 and 2012 on water quality of a tropical coastal lake system. The nature and extent of variation in different water quality parameters namely electrical conductivity (EC), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), sulphate (SO4), turbidity, Secchi disk depth, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), phosphate (PO4), calcium (Ca), and water temperature as well as the effect of various land use activities in the lake basin on water quality have also been studied. There is significant reduction in precipitation, EC, Mg, Na, Cl, SO4, turbidity, and Secchi disk depths whereas a significant rise in the BOD, PO4, Ca, and water temperature were observed in 2012. This significant reduction in electrical conductivity during 2012 revealed that because of less precipitation, the lake was separated from the sea by the sandbar during most of the monsoon period and thereby interrupted the natural flushing process. This caused the accumulation of organic matter including phosphate and thereby resulting reduction in clarity and chlorophyll-a (algae) in the lake. The unsustainable development activities of Thiruvanathapuram city are mainly responsible for the degradation of water bodies. The lack of maintenance and augmentation activities namely replacement of old pipes and periodical cleaning of pipe lines of the old sewer system in the city results in the bypass of sewage into water bodies. Because of the existence of the old sewerage system, no effort has been taken by the individual establishment/house of the city to provide their own

  2. Principles of Water Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    CONTENTS: Introduction to Water Quality Concepts. Natural Environmental Processes. Toxic Metals as Factors in Water Quality. Refractory Organic Compounds. Nutrients, Productivity, and Eutrophication. Microbes and Water Quality. Thermal Effects and Water Quality. Air Quality. Water Quality Interactions. Introduction to Water Quality Modeling. Water Quality Standards, and Management Approaches.

  3. Long-term distribution patterns of remotely sensed water quality parameters in Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Chengfeng; Hu, Chuanmin; Cannizzaro, Jennifer; Duan, Hongtao

    2013-08-01

    Chesapeake Bay is the largest and one of the most productive estuaries in the U.S., where long-term monitoring and assessment of its water quality are necessary to understand trends and events in order to support management decisions. Significant progress has been made during the past decade in developing remote sensing algorithms for estimating two key water quality parameters, chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla, mg m-3) and diffuse light attenuation coefficient at 490 nm (Kd (490), m-1), from satellite ocean color measurements in oceanic, coastal, and estuarine waters. Yet deriving a robust Chla data product for Chesapeake Bay still remains a challenge because of its complex optical properties. Here, a recently developed algorithm approach (Red-Green Chlorophyll Index or RGCI, based on red-green remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs (λ)) ratios) was tested, validated, and applied to Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to establish a 14-year (September 1997 to December 2011) Chla Environmental Data Record (EDR). The new approach showed significant improvement over the traditional blue-green Rrs (λ) band-ratio algorithms (e.g., OC4, OC3M), with consistent performance for MODIS (mean relative error = 40.9%, mean ratio = 1.09) and SeaWiFS (MRE = 45.8%, mean ratio = 1.09) for Chla ranging between 1 and 50 mg m-3. Anomaly and EOF analyses revealed strong spatial gradients, seasonality, and climate-driven inter-annual changes in the satellite-based Chla EDR. These changes were highly correlated with satellite-based Kd (490) EDR, leading to the development of a Water Quality Decision Matrix (WQDM) and providing support to on-going nutrient reduction management programs for this estuary.

  4. Spatial patterns of water quality in Xingu River Basin (Amazonia) prior to the Belo Monte dam impoundment.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Filho, J L; Abe, D S; Gatti-Junior, P; Medeiros, G R; Degani, R M; Blanco, F P; Faria, C R L; Campanelli, L; Soares, F S; Sidagis-Galli, C V; Teixeira-Silva, V; Tundisi, J E M; Matsmura-Tundisi, T; Tundisi, J G

    2015-08-01

    The Xingu River, one of the most important of the Amazon Basin, is characterized by clear and transparent waters that drain a 509.685 km2 watershed with distinct hydrological and ecological conditions and anthropogenic pressures along its course. As in other basins of the Amazon system, studies in the Xingu are scarce. Furthermore, the eminent construction of the Belo Monte for hydropower production, which will alter the environmental conditions in the basin in its lower middle portion, denotes high importance of studies that generate relevant information that may subsidize a more balanced and equitable development in the Amazon region. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the water quality in the Xingu River and its tributaries focusing on spatial patterns by the use of multivariate statistical techniques, identifying which water quality parameters were more important for the environmental changes in the watershed. Data sampling were carried out during two complete hydrological cycles in twenty-five sampling stations. The data of twenty seven variables were analyzed by Spearman's correlation coefficients, cluster analysis (CA), and principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed a high auto-correlation between variables (> 0.7). These variables were removed from multivariate analyzes because they provided redundant information about the environment. The CA resulted in the formation of six clusters, which were clearly observed in the PCA and were characterized by different water quality. The statistical results allowed to identify a high spatial variation in the water quality, which were related to specific features of the environment, different uses, influences of anthropogenic activities and geochemical characteristics of the drained basins. It was also demonstrated that most of the sampling stations in the Xingu River basin showed good water quality, due to the absence of local impacts and high power of depuration of the river itself. PMID:26691074

  5. Quantifying Variability in Four US Streams Using a Long-Term Data Set: Patterns in Water Quality Endpoints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Douglas B.; Flinders, Camille A.

    2016-02-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of variability in aquatic ecosystems can be complex and difficult to quantify or predict. However, understanding this variability is critical to making a wide range of water quality assessment and management decisions effectively. Here we report on the nature and magnitude of spatial and temporal variation observed in conductivity, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen during a 15-year study of four US stream systems receiving pulp and paper mill effluent discharges. Sampling locations included mainstem sites upstream and downstream of effluent discharge, as well as tributary sites. In all four stream systems, variability in conductivity as measured by the coefficient of variation was typically in the range of 10-50 %, and was as low or lower than the variability in nutrient endpoints. The effect of effluent discharge was relatively minor overall, except in some site-specific instances. Some relatively large differences between tributary and mainstem variability were also observed. Flow variation tended to have a more consistent and larger effect on conductivity variation compared to the nutrient endpoints. After removing flow effects, significant relatively complex trends over time were observed at several sites. Changes in variability during the study also were observed. This paper highlights the importance of long-term studies to accurately characterize water quality variability used in water quality management decision-making.

  6. Coupling hydro-chemical models and water quality datasets: signatures of mixing patterns and non-stationary travel time distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benettin, P.; Botter, G.; Rinaldo, A.

    2013-12-01

    Water quality data in rivers represent an integrated measure of catchment transport processes, and their importance can hardly be overestimated. Recently, coupled hydrologic and geochemical models have provided new insight on catchment function and the dominant transport processes. The signals of hidden processes are thus being increasingly understood like e.g. those related to the presence of residual storages that are poorly visible in the hydrological response but strongly affect water quality dynamics. The increased availability of hydrochemical data, jointly with the related improved measurement accuracy, requires parallel improvements in the theoretical tools used to interpret such data. The newly available datasets, for instance, challenge simplistic modeling of long-term transport features, putting the focus on transient dynamics and fluctuations taking place at multiple time-scales, from single storm events to inter-annual timescales. The general formulation of transport by travel time distributions, being intrinsically robust owing to its integrated nature, is suitable to the above scopes in that it may account for spatial and temporal heterogeneity, say of chemical sources, flow fields and hydrologic forcings. Large-scale specification mixing processes is unavoidable, however, jointly with behavioral shifts occurring during floods and droughts. Here, we provide an assessment of recent theoretical results that involve the use of environmental tracers to identify emergent mixing patterns at catchment scale, and the related impacts on travel time distributions. Emphasis is placed on the improved process understanding achieved by coupling hydro-chemical models with highly resolved water quality datasets.

  7. Quantifying Variability in Four US Streams Using a Long-Term Data Set: Patterns in Water Quality Endpoints.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Douglas B; Flinders, Camille A

    2016-02-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of variability in aquatic ecosystems can be complex and difficult to quantify or predict. However, understanding this variability is critical to making a wide range of water quality assessment and management decisions effectively. Here we report on the nature and magnitude of spatial and temporal variation observed in conductivity, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen during a 15-year study of four U.S. stream systems receiving pulp and paper mill effluent discharges. Sampling locations included mainstem sites upstream and downstream of effluent discharge, as well as tributary sites. In all four stream systems, variability in conductivity as measured by the coefficient of variation was typically in the range of 10-50%, and was as low or lower than the variability in nutrient endpoints. The effect of effluent discharge was relatively minor overall, except in some site-specific instances. Some relatively large differences between tributary and mainstem variability were also observed. Flow variation tended to have a more consistent and larger effect on conductivity variation compared to the nutrient endpoints. After removing flow effects, significant relatively complex trends over time were observed at several sites. Changes in variability during the study also were observed. This paper highlights the importance of long-term studies to accurately characterize water quality variability used in water quality management decision-making. PMID:26404431

  8. Spatial and temporal patterns of surface water quality and ichthyotoxicity in urban and rural river basins in Texas.

    PubMed

    Vanlandeghem, Matthew M; Meyer, Matthew D; Cox, Stephen B; Sharma, Bibek; Patiño, Reynaldo

    2012-12-15

    The Double Mountain Fork Brazos River (Texas, USA) consists of North (NF) and South Forks (SF). The NF receives urban runoff and twice-reclaimed wastewater effluent, whereas the SF flows through primarily rural areas. The objective of this study was to determine and compare associations between standard water quality variables and ichthyotoxicity at a landscape scale that included urban (NF) and rural (SF) sites. Five NF and three SF sites were sampled quarterly from March 2008 to March 2009 for specific conductance, salinity, hardness, pH, temperature, and turbidity; and a zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo bioassay was used to determine ichthyotoxicity. Metal and nutrient concentrations at all sites were also measured in addition to standard water quality variables in spring 2009. Principal component analyses identified hardness, specific conductance, and salinity as the water variables that best differentiate the urban NF (higher levels) from rural SF habitat. Nutrient levels were also higher in the NF, but no landscape scale patterns in metal concentrations were observed. Ichthyotoxicity was generally higher in NF water especially in winter, and multiple regression analyses suggested a positive association between water hardness and ichthyotoxicity. To test for the potential influence of the toxic golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) on overall ichthyotoxicity, a cofactor known to enhance golden alga toxin activity was used in the bioassays. Golden alga ichthyotoxicity was detected in the NF but not the SF, suggesting golden alga may have contributed to overall ichthyotoxicity in the urban but not in the rural system. In conclusion, the physicochemistry of the urban-influenced NF water was conducive to the expression of ichthyotoxicity and also point to water hardness as a novel factor influencing golden alga ichthyotoxicity in surface waters. PMID:22682267

  9. Influences of the land use pattern on water quality in low-order streams of the Dongjiang River basin, China: A multi-scale analysis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jiao; Jiang, Yuan; Liu, Qi; Hou, Zhaojiang; Liao, Jianyu; Fu, Lan; Peng, Qiuzhi

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the relationships between land use patterns and water quality in low-order streams is useful for effective landscape planning to protect downstream water quality. A clear understanding of these relationships remains elusive due to the heterogeneity of land use patterns and scale effects. To better assess land use influences, we developed empirical models relating land use patterns to the water quality of low-order streams at different geomorphic regions across multi-scales in the Dongjiang River basin using multivariate statistical analyses. The land use pattern was quantified in terms of the composition, configuration and hydrological distance of land use types at the reach buffer, riparian corridor and catchment scales. Water was sampled under summer base flow at 56 low-order catchments, which were classified into two homogenous geomorphic groups. The results indicated that the water quality of low-order streams was most strongly affected by the configuration metrics of land use. Poorer water quality was associated with higher patch densities of cropland, orchards and grassland in the mountain catchments, whereas it was associated with a higher value for the largest patch index of urban land use in the plain catchments. The overall water quality variation was explained better by catchment scale than by riparian- or reach-scale land use, whereas the spatial scale over which land use influenced water quality also varied across specific water parameters and the geomorphic basis. Our study suggests that watershed management should adopt better landscape planning and multi-scale measures to improve water quality. PMID:26878633

  10. Flow pattern and related chemical quality of ground water in the "500-foot" sand in the Memphis area, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, Edwin Allen; Nyman, Dale J.

    1968-01-01

    water occurs in the northwestern part of the area. The variations in chemical quality of water en route through the '500-foot' sand are virtually proportional to increases or decreases of the major chemical constituents. The variations are chiefly attributed to the mixing or blending of water from different directions or sources of recharge as wells are pumped. As water levels are lowered by continuous pumping in the future, increasing rates of recharge from the outcrop areas and from shallow aquifers will probably cause little, if any, change in chemical quality of the water. Certainly, the effects on quality are not expected to be detrimental. Although future changes in chemical quality of water in the '500-foot' sand in the Memphis area will probably be neither intense nor extensive, some changes can be anticipated as a result of man's activities associated with the continued growth and development of the area. Increased pumping at existing pumping centers will deepen existing cones of depression and thereby increase gradients. These increases will not necessarily cause a change in chemical quality unless the increases in pumping are unevenly distributed. If a major well field were developed in the '500-foot' sand in the southwestern part of the Memphis area, little change in quality would result because water would be caused to move toward the well field from both the northwest and southeast. This movement would not affect the blending of updip and downdip water at other well fields If water were impounded in the Wolf River a few miles upstream from Memphis, the impoundment could furnish recharge, at least temporarily, to the '500-foot' sand. It is improbable that any detrimental effects on the chemical quality of the water supply of Memphis would result, because the water in the impoundment would probably be softer ,and less mineralized than the water in the '500-foot' sand in that area.

  11. Water Quality Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ted; Andersen, Lyle; Robison-Cox, Jim; Jones, Clain

    2004-01-01

    Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…

  12. WATER QUALITY CRITERIA DOCUMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background

    Water quality standards and criteria are the foundation for a wide range of programs under the Clean Water Act. Specifically, under section 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act it requires EPA to develop criteria for water quality that accurately re...

  13. Spatial and seasonal pattern of macrozoobenthic assemblages and the congruence in water quality bioassessment using different taxa in artificial Mingzhu Lake in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhongjun; Jia, Xixi; Chen, Xihua; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Qigen

    2015-09-01

    The spatial and seasonal pattern of macrozoobenthic structure and its relationship with environmental factors were studied from July 2006 to April 2008 in Mingzhu Lake, Chongming Island, Shanghai at the Changjiang River mouth. The congruences in water quality bioassessment based on diversity and biotic indices and using different taxonomic categories were also explored to find the best assessment method of water quality for the lake. All major structural characteristics of macrozoobenthic community, including species composition, abundance, biomass and four biomass-based diversity indices (Shannon's diversity, Simpson's diversity, Pielou's evenness and Simpson's evenness index) fluctuated significantly in season but in space. The above four abundance-based diversity indices plus abundance-based Margalef's richness index did not display significant spatial variations; and significant seasonal differences were found in three indices only. Water temperature was the key environmental factor responsible for macrozoobenthic spatio-temporal distribution patterns. Water quality assessed by Shannon's index (H a') and biological pollution index (BPI) rather than the other four biotic indices were consistent with those by trophic state index (TSI). Results from chironomids and oligochaetes did not always agree to those from the whole community when H a' or Hilsenhoff biotic index was applied to bioassessment. Therefore, combining multiple indices and avoiding a single taxonomic category to assess water quality are strongly recommended and in Mingzhu Lake using a mixture of H a' and BPI will ensure the most effective investigation of water quality. Our results also show that the main structural characteristics of macrozoobenthic communities in the small lake may display consistent spatial patterns.

  14. Spatial and seasonal pattern of macrozoobenthic assemblages and the congruence in water quality bioassessment using different taxa in artificial Mingzhu Lake in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhongjun; Jia, Xixi; Chen, Xihua; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Qigen

    2016-09-01

    The spatial and seasonal pattern of macrozoobenthic structure and its relationship with environmental factors were studied from July 2006 to April 2008 in Mingzhu Lake, Chongming Island, Shanghai at the Changjiang River mouth. The congruences in water quality bioassessment based on diversity and biotic indices and using different taxonomic categories were also explored to find the best assessment method of water quality for the lake. All major structural characteristics of macrozoobenthic community, including species composition, abundance, biomass and four biomass-based diversity indices (Shannon's diversity, Simpson's diversity, Pielou's evenness and Simpson's evenness index) fluctuated significantly in season but in space. The above four abundance-based diversity indices plus abundance-based Margalef's richness index did not display significant spatial variations; and significant seasonal differences were found in three indices only. Water temperature was the key environmental factor responsible for macrozoobenthic spatio-temporal distribution patterns. Water quality assessed by Shannon's index ( H a') and biological pollution index (BPI) rather than the other four biotic indices were consistent with those by trophic state index (TSI). Results from chironomids and oligochaetes did not always agree to those from the whole community when H a' or Hilsenhoff biotic index was applied to bioassessment. Therefore, combining multiple indices and avoiding a single taxonomic category to assess water quality are strongly recommended and in Mingzhu Lake using a mixture of H a' and BPI will ensure the most effective investigation of water quality. Our results also show that the main structural characteristics of macrozoobenthic communities in the small lake may display consistent spatial patterns.

  15. EPANET WATER QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA NET represents a third generation of water quality modeling software developed by the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division, offering significant advances in the state of the art for network water quality analysis. PANET performs extended period simulation of hydraulic ...

  16. Assessing the relationship between water quality parameters and changes in landuse patterns in the Upper Manyame River, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibena, J.; Nhapi, I.; Gumindoga, W.

    For the past 30 years, the increases in population pressure and external influences, such as economic growth, have accelerated the demand for land within the Upper Manyame River catchment in Zimbabwe which has caused substantial changes in landuse. The general objective of this research was to assess the impacts of landuse activities on the water quality of the Upper Manyame River which drains the rural and urbanised part of the catchment up to flow gauging station C21. Landcover data for the month of April in years of 1984, 1995, 2003 and 2011 were acquired from available Landsat TM and ETM images and were classified through the maximum likelihood digital image classification using the supervised classification approach. The status of water quality of the Upper Manyame River was also assessed through analyses of historical concentrations and pollution loads for TP, DO, COD, NH3-N, SS, Pb, NO3, BOD5, EC, PO4-P and TN at the Environmental Management Agency (EMA) gauging station CR21 sampling point for 1996, 2000/1 and 2008/9. Water quality of 15 monitoring sites comprising 25 water quality parameters were monitored monthly from January to June 2012. These locations were selected to reflect a wide array of landuse for both the dry and wet seasons. The results indicated that there was an increase in pollution load from 1995 to 2012; for TP from 130 kg/day to 376 kg/d, and for TN from 290 kg/day to 494 kg/d. This indicates high pollution levels which have severe impacts on downstream users and also severe sewage contamination. Significant deviations occurred in DO (0.1-6.8) mg/L, COD (11-569) mg/L, BOD5 (5-341) mg/L, PO4-P (0.01-4.45) mg/L, NH3-N (0.001-6.800) mg/L and EC (38-642) μS/cm. Hydrologic Response Unit and buffer analysis were used to determine the dominant landuse which contributes to a certain water quality. Results of digital image classification indicate that woodland/forest, grassland and bareland decreased between years 1984 to 2011 by 24.0%, 22.6% and

  17. Source Water Quality Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will provide background information on continuous source water monitoring using online toxicity monitors and cover various tools available. Conceptual and practical aspects of source water quality monitoring will be discussed.

  18. Interactive Effects of Storms, Drought, and Weekly Land Cover Changes on Water Quality Patterns in an Agricultural-dominated Subtropical Catchment in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julian, J.; Owsley, B.; de Beurs, K.; Hughes, A.

    2013-12-01

    Rivers are the funnels of landscapes, with the quality of water at the catchment outlet reflecting interactions among geomorphic processes, vegetation characteristics, weather patterns, and anthropogenic land uses. The impacts of changing climate and land cover on water quality are not straightforward; but instead, are set by the interaction of numerous landscape components at multiple spatiotemporal scales. In agricultural-dominated subtropical landscapes such as the Hoteo River Catchment in northern North Island of New Zealand, the land surface can be very dynamic, responding quickly to storms, drought, forest clearings, and grazing practices. In order to capture these short-term fluctuations, we created an 8-day land disturbance index for the catchment using MODIS Nadir BRDF-adjusted reflectance (NBAR) data (500 meter resolution) from 2000 to 2013. We also fused this time-series with Landsat TM/ETM surface reflectance data (30 meter resolution) to more precisely capture the location and extent of these land disturbances. This high-resolution land disturbance time-series was then compared to daily rainfall, daily river discharge, and monthly water samples to assess the effects of changing weather and land cover on a suite of water quality variables including water clarity, turbidity, ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), total nitrogen (TN), dissolved reactive phosphate (DRP), total phosphorus (TP), and fecal coliforms. Forest clearings in the early part of our study period created the most intense land disturbances, which led to elevated turbidity and DRP during subsequent storms. Pasture areas during drought were also characterized by high disturbance indices, particularly in 2013 - the worst drought on record for northern New Zealand. Seasonal effects on land disturbance and water quality were also detected, especially for water clarity and turbidity. From 2011 to 2013, river discharge and turbidity from three sub-catchments were measured at 5-minute intervals to

  19. Nutrient water quality of the Wye catchment, UK: exploring patterns and fluxes using the Environment Agency data archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvie, H. P.; Neal, C.; Withers, P. J. A.; Robinson, A.; Salter, N.

    Water quality data, collected by the Environment Agency in England and Wales over 10 years (1991 - 2000) were used to examine the spatial distribution of nutrient pollution risk and for assessing broad-scale spatial and temporal variability in nutrient fluxes across the Wye catchment. Nutrient water quality across the upper and middle Wye catchment, and along the main River Wye, is generally very good. However, the main areas of concern lie in the small tributaries in the south and east of the catchment, which have lower dilution capacity and high agricultural and effluent inputs, and where mean Total Reactive Phosphorus (TRP) in some cases exceed 1 mg-P l-1. Indeed, mass load calculations have demonstrated that the lowland south and east portion of the catchment contributes more than 85% of the whole-catchment TRP and more than 78% of nitrate (NO3‾) loads. Ratios of NO3‾:Ca were used to fingerprint different water-types across the catchment, linked to weathering and agricultural activity. The Wye catchment has been subject to two major sets of perturbations during the study period: (i) climatic fluctuations, with a drought during 1995-6, followed by a subsequent drought-break in 1997/8, and extreme high river flows in the autumn/winter of 2000/2001, and (ii) introduction of tertiary P-treatment at major sewage treatment works in the catchment. The implications of these perturbations for the nutrient water quality of the Wye catchment are discussed. Recommendations are made for more targeted monitoring to directly assess diffuse source nutrient contributions.

  20. Spatial and seasonal patterns in water quality in an embayment-mainstem reach of the tidal freshwater Potomac River, USA: a multiyear study.

    PubMed

    Jones, R Christian; Kelso, Donald P; Schaeffer, Elaine

    2008-12-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns in water quality were studied for seven years within an embayment-river mainstem area of the tidal freshwater Potomac River. The purpose of this paper is to determine the important components of spatial and temporal variation in water quality in this study area to facilitate an understanding of management impacts and allow the most effective use of future monitoring resources. The study area received treated sewage effluent and freshwater inflow from direct tributary inputs into the shallow embayment as well as upriver sources in the mainstem. Depth variations were determined to be detectable, but minimal due mainly to the influence of tidal mixing. Results of principal component analysis of two independent water quality datasets revealed clear spatial and seasonal patterns. Interannual variation was generally minimal despite substantial variations in tributary and mainstem discharge among years. Since both spatial and seasonal components were important, data were segmented by season to best determine the spatial pattern. A clear difference was found between a set of stations located within one embayment (Gunston Cove) and a second set in the nearby Potomac mainstem. Parameters most highly correlated with differences were those typically associated with higher densities of phytoplankton: chlorophyll a, photosynthetic rate, pH, dissolved oxygen, BOD, total phosphorus and Secchi depth. These differences and their consistency indicated two distinct water masses: one in the cove harboring higher algal density and activity and a second in the river with lower phytoplankton activity. A second embayment not receiving sewage effluent generally had an intermediate position. While this was the most consistent spatial pattern, there were two others of a secondary nature. Stations closer to the effluent inputs in the embayment sometimes grouped separately due to elevated ammonia and chloride. Stations closer to tributary inflows into the embayment

  1. Cornell University remote sensing program. [application to waste disposal site selection, study of drainage patterns, and water quality management.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, T.; Mcnair, A. J.; Philipson, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite remote sensing technology were applied in the following areas: (1) evaluation of proposed fly ash disposal sites; (2) development of priorities for drainage improvements; (3) state park analysis for rehabilitation and development; (4) watershed study for water quality planning; and (5) assistance project-landfill site selection. Results are briefly summarized. Other projects conducted include: (1) assessment of vineyard-related problems; (2) LANDSAT analysis for pheasant range management; (3) photo-historic evaluation of Revolutionary War sites; and (4) thermal analysis of building insulation. The objectives, expected benefits and actions, and status of these projects are described.

  2. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  3. Irrigation water quality assessments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demands on fresh water supplies by municipal and industrial users means decreased fresh water availability for irrigated agriculture in semi arid and arid regions. There is potential for agricultural use of treated wastewaters and low quality waters for irrigation but this will require co...

  4. Water Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the photo above, the cylindrical container being lowered into the water is a water quality probe developed by NASA's Langley Research Center for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in an applications engineering project. It is part of a system- which also includes recording equipment in the helicopter-for on-the-spot analysis of water samples. It gives EPA immediate and more accurate information than the earlier method, in which samples are transported to a lab for analysis. Designed primarily for rapid assessment of hazardous spills in coastal and inland waters, the system provides a wide range of biological and chemical information relative to water pollution.

  5. Water Quality Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With the backing of NASA, researchers at Michigan State University, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Wisconsin have begun using satellite data to measure lake water quality and clarity of the lakes in the Upper Midwest. This false color IKONOS image displays the water clarity of the lakes in Eagan, Minnesota. Scientists measure the lake quality in satellite data by observing the ratio of blue to red light in the satellite data. When the amount of blue light reflecting off of the lake is high and the red light is low, a lake generally had high water quality. Lakes loaded with algae and sediments, on the other hand, reflect less blue light and more red light. In this image, scientists used false coloring to depict the level of clarity of the water. Clear lakes are blue, moderately clear lakes are green and yellow, and murky lakes are orange and red. Using images such as these along with data from the Landsat satellites and NASA's Terra satellite, the scientists plan to create a comprehensive water quality map for the entire Great Lakes region in the next few years. For more information, read: Testing the Waters (Image courtesy Upper Great Lakes Regional Earth Science Applications Center, based on data copyright Space Imaging)

  6. STREAM WATER QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    QUAL2K (or Q2K) is a river and stream water quality model that is intended to represent a modernized version of the QUAL2E (or Q2E) model (Brown and Barnwell 1987). Q2K is similar to Q2E in the following respects:

    • One dimensional. The channel is well-mixed vertically a...

    • Water-Quality Characteristics for Sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River Drainage Basins, Wyoming and Montana, Water Years 2001-05, with Temporal Patterns of Selected Long-Term Water-Quality Data

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Clark, Melanie L.; Mason, Jon P.

      2007-01-01

      Water-quality sampling was conducted regularly at stream sites within or near the Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana during water years 2001-05 (October 1, 2000, to September 30, 2005) to characterize water quality in an area of coalbed natural gas development. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, characterized the water quality at 22 sampling sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins. Data for general hydrology, field measurements, major-ion chemistry, and selected trace elements were summarized, and specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios were evaluated for relations with streamflow and seasonal variability. Trend analysis for water years 1991-2005 was conducted for selected sites and constituents to assess change through time. Average annual runoff was highly variable among the stream sites. Generally, streams that have headwaters in the Bighorn Mountains had more runoff as a result of higher average annual precipitation than streams that have headwaters in the plains. The Powder River at Moorhead, Mont., had the largest average annual runoff (319,000 acre-feet) of all the sites; however, streams in the Tongue River drainage basin had the highest runoff per unit area of the four major drainage basins. Annual runoff in all major drainage basins was less than average during 2001-05 because of drought conditions. Consequently, water-quality samples collected during the study period may not represent long-term water-quality con-ditions for all sites. Water-quality characteristics were highly variable generally because of streamflow variability, geologic controls, and potential land-use effects. The range of median specific-conductance values among sites was smallest in the Tongue River drainage basin. Median values in that basin ranged from 643 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (?S/cm at 25?C) on the

    • Water quality in the Fort Cobb Watershed, USA: Spatial and temporal patterns of dissolved P stream concentrations

      Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

      Dissolved phosphorus (P) has often been identified as the nutrient of concern in lakes, reservoirs and streams especially where there is evidence of eutrophication. The objective of this work is to identify spatial and temporal patterns in dissolved P [soluble reactive P (SRP) and bioavailable P (B...

    • TRIBAL WATER QUALITY STANDARDS WORKSHOP

      EPA Science Inventory

      Water quality standards are the foundation for water management actions. They provide the basis for regulating discharges of pollutants to surface waters, and provide a target for restoration of degraded waters. Water quality standards identify and protect uses of the water bod...

    • Water Quality Monitor

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      1982-01-01

      An automated water quality monitoring system was developed by Langley Research Center to meet a need of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Designed for unattended operation in water depths up to 100 feet, the system consists of a subsurface buoy anchored in the water, a surface control unit (SCU) and a hydrophone link for acoustic communication between buoy and SCU. Primary functional unit is the subsurface buoy. It incorporates 16 cells for water sampling, plus sensors for eight water quality measurements. Buoy contains all the electronic equipment needed for collecting and storing sensor data, including a microcomputer and a memory unit. Power for the electronics is supplied by a rechargeable nickel cadmium battery that is designed to operate for about two weeks. Through hydrophone link the subsurface buoy reports its data to the SCU, which relays it to land stations. Link allows two-way communications. If system encounters a problem, it automatically shuts down and sends alert signal. Sequence of commands sent via hydrophone link causes buoy to release from anchor and float to the surface for recovery.

    • Linking sewage pollution and water quality to spatial patterns of Porites lobata growth anomalies in Puako, Hawaii.

      PubMed

      Yoshioka, Reyn M; Kim, Catherine J S; Tracy, Allison M; Most, Rebecca; Harvell, C Drew

      2016-03-15

      Sewage pollution threatens the health of coastal populations and ecosystems, including coral reefs. We investigated spatial patterns of sewage pollution in Puako, Hawaii using enterococci concentrations and δ(15)N Ulva fasciata macroalgal bioassays to assess relationships with the coral disease Porites lobata growth anomalies (PGAs). PGA severity and enterococci concentrations were high, spatially variable, and positively related. Bioassay algal δ(15)N showed low sewage pollution at the reef edge while high values of resident algae indicated sewage pollution nearshore. Neither δ(15)N metric predicted PGA measures, though bioassay δ(15)N was negatively related to coral cover. Furthermore, PGA prevalence was much higher than previously recorded in Hawaii and the greater Indo-Pacific, highlighting Puako as an area of concern. Although further work is needed to resolve the relationship between sewage pollution and coral cover and disease, these results implicate sewage pollution as a contributor to diminished reef health. PMID:26781454

    • Stream Invertebrate Communities, Water Quality, and Land-Use Patterns in an Agricultural Drainage Basin of Northeastern Nebraska, USA

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Whiles, Matt R.; Brock, Brent L.; Franzen, Annette C.; Dinsmore, Steven C., II

      2000-11-01

      We used invertebrate bioassessment, habitat analysis, geographic information system analysis of land use, and water chemistry monitoring to evaluate tributaries of a degraded northeast Nebraska, USA, reservoir. Bimonthly invertebrate collections and monthly water chemistry samples were collected for two years on six stream reaches to identify sources contributing to reservoir degradation and test suitability of standard rapid bioassessment methods in this region. A composite biotic index composed of seven commonly used metrics was effective for distinguishing between differentially impacted sites and responded to a variety of disturbances. Individual metrics varied greatly in precision and ability to discriminate between relatively impacted and unimpacted stream reaches. A modified Hilsenhoff index showed the highest precision (reference site CV = 0.08) but was least effective at discriminating among sites. Percent dominance and the EPT (number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa) metrics were most effective at discriminating between sites and exhibited intermediate precision. A trend of higher biotic integrity during summer was evident, indicating seasonal corrections should differ from other regions. Poor correlations were evident between water chemistry variables and bioassessment results. However, land-use factors, particularly within 18-m riparian zones, were correlated with bioassessment scores. For example, there was a strong negative correlation between percentage of rangeland in 18-m riparian zones and percentage of dominance in streams (r 2 = 0.90, P < 0.01). Results demonstrate that standard rapid bioassessment methods, with some modifications, are effective for use in this agricultural region of the Great Plains and that riparian land use may be the best predictor of stream biotic integrity.

    • International Business Research: Coauthorship Patterns and Quality

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Chan, Kam C; Fung, Hung-Gay; Leung, Wai K.

      2008-01-01

      The authors investigate published international business research in four international business journals over a 10-year period, 1995-2004: (a) patterns of coauthorship across regions, and (b) the relation between coauthorship patterns and the quality of international business (IB) articles. A cross-region coauthorship enhances the quality of an…

    • Handbook for aquaculture water quality

      Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

      Efficient aquaculture production depends upon maintaining acceptable water quality conditions in culture units. This handbook discusses background information from chemistry, physics, biology, and engineering necessary for understanding the principles of water quality management in aquaculture. It a...

    • Hemodialysis and Water Quality

      PubMed Central

      Coulliette, Angela D.; Arduino, Matthew J.

      2015-01-01

      Over 383,900 individuals in the U.S. undergo maintenance hemodialysis that exposes them to water, primarily in the form of dialysate. The quality of water and associated dialysis solutions have been implicated in adverse patient outcomes and is therefore critical. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has published both standards and recommended practices that address both water and the dialyzing solutions. Some of these recommendations have been adopted into Federal Regulations by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as part of the Conditions for Coverage, which includes limits on specific contaminants within water used for dialysis, dialysate, and substitution fluids. Chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin contaminants are health threats to dialysis patients, as shown by the continued episodic nature of outbreaks since the 1960s causing at least 592 cases and 16 deaths in the U.S. The importance of the dialysis water distribution system, current standards and recommendations, acceptable monitoring methods, a review of chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin outbreaks, and infection control programs are discussed. PMID:23859187

    • Survey of environmental complex systems: pattern recognition of physicochemical data describing coastal water quality in the Gulf of Trieste.

      PubMed

      Barbieri, P; Adami, G; Predonzani, S; Reisenhofer, E; Massart, D L

      1999-02-01

      A data set reporting temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen as ammonia, nitrite and nitrate, silicate, chlorophyll a and phaeopigment values, determined in seawaters sampled during two years with a monthly frequency in 16 stations in the Gulf of Trieste, and at different depths of the water column, has been studied. In order to find synthetic descriptors useful for following the spatial and temporal variations of biogeochemical phenomena occurring in the considered ecosystem, the data set has been factorized using principal component analysis. A graphical display of scores, by means of boxplots and biplots, helped in the interpretation of the data set. The first factor conditioning the system is related to the input of freshwater from the estuary of the Isonzo River and to the stratification of the seawater (thermohaline discontinuity), while the second and third components describe interactions between biological activity, nutrients and physicochemical parameters; typical spring and autumn phytoplankton blooms were identified, in addition to an exceptional winter bloom conditioned by anomalous meteorological/climatic conditions. The fourth principal component explains the reducing activity of seawaters, which often increases when the decomposition of organic matter is relevant. The simple linear model proposed, and the related graphs, are shown to be useful tools for monitoring the main features of such a complex dynamic environmental system. The outlined approach to the considered complex data structure presents in a cognitive easy way (graphical outputs) the significant variations of the data, and allows for a detailed interpretation of the results of the monitoring campaign. Temporal and spatial effects are outlined, as well as those related to the depth in the water column. PMID:11529083

    • CONNECTICUT GROUND WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS

      EPA Science Inventory

      This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of Ground Water Quality Classifications in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes polygons for GA, GAA, GAAs, GB, GC and other related ground water quality classes. Each polygon is assigned a ground water quality class, which is s...

    • Patterns of water-quality variability in San Francisco Bay during the first six years of the regional monitoring program, 1993-1998

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Cloern, J.E.; Cole, B.E.; Edmunds, J.L.; Schraga, T.S.; Arnsberg, A.

      2000-01-01

      Monitoring Results presents data from the Status and Trends portion of the 1998 San Francisco Estuary Regional Monitoring Program for Trace Substances (RMP). A list of reports on Pilot and Special Studies, as well as other RMP related activities can be found at the end of this document. These reports provide perspective and insight on important contaminant issues identified by the RMP, and they describe results from projects that took advantage of RMP field operations. For a summary of the conditions of the Estuary see The Pulse . A print copy may also be ordered by contacting the San Francisco Estuary Institute (SFEI). In 1998, the San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board (Regional Board) and seventy-three federal, state, and local agencies and companies participated in the RMP as funders and service providers (Table 1.1). Participants also assist in directing the Program through input or participation on the Steering and Technical Review Committees. The RMP’s overall goal is to provide data and interpretation that helps to address certain information needs of the Regional Board. In general, these efforts fall under five major objectives which provide a framework for efforts to respond to more specific management questions. 1. Describe patterns and trends in contaminant concentration and distribution. 2. Describe general sources and loadings of contamination to the Estuary. 3. Measure contaminant effects on selected parts of the Estuary ecosystem. 4. Compare monitoring information to relevant water quality objectives and other guidelines. 5. Synthesize and distribute information from a range of sources to present a more complete picture of the sources, distribution, fates, and effects of contaminants in the Estuary ecosystem.

    • Nowcasting recreational water quality

      USGS Publications Warehouse

      Boehm, Alexandria B.; Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith; Hou, Deyi; Weisberg, Stephen B.

      2007-01-01

      Advances in molecular techniques may soon provide new opportunities to provide more timely information on whether recreational beaches are free from fecal contamination. However, an alternative approach is the use of predictive models. This chapter presents a summary of these developing efforts. First, we describe documented physical, chemical, and biological factors that have been demonstrated by researchers to affect bacterial concentrations at beaches and thus represent logical parameters for inclusion in a model. Then, we illustrate how various types of models can be applied to predict water quality at freshwater and marine beaches.

    • Effects of land use patterns on stream water quality: a case study of a small-scale watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China.

      PubMed

      Huang, Zhilin; Han, Liyang; Zeng, Lixiong; Xiao, Wenfa; Tian, Yaowu

      2016-02-01

      In this study, we have considered the relationship between the spatial configuration of land use and water quality in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Using land use types, landscape metrics, and long-term water quality data, as well as statistical and spatial analysis, we determined that most water quality parameters were negatively correlated with non-wood forest and urban areas but were strongly positively correlated with the proportion of forest area. Landscape indices such as patch density, contagion, and the Shannon diversity index were able to predict some water quality indicators, but the mean shape index was not significantly related to the proportions of farmland and water in the study area. Regression relationships were stronger in spring and fall than in summer, and relationships with nitrogen were stronger than those of the other water quality parameters (R(2) > 0.80) in all three seasons. Redundancy analysis showed that declining stream water quality was closely associated with configurations of urban, agricultural, and forest areas and with landscape fragmentation (PD) caused by urbanization and agricultural activities. Thus, a rational land use plan of adjusting the land use type, controlling landscape fragmentation, and increasing the proportion of forest area would help to achieve a healthier river ecosystem in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA). PMID:26681324

  1. Spatial patterns and temporal variability in water quality from City of Albuquerque drinking-water supply wells and piezometer nests, with implications for the ground-water flow system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality data for 93 City of Albuquerque drinking-water supply wells, 7 deep piezometer nests, and selected additional wells were examined to improve understanding of the regional ground-water system and its response to pumpage. Plots of median values of several major parameters showed discernible water-quality differences both areally and with depth in the aquifer. Areal differences were sufficiently large to enable delineation of five regions of generally distinct water quality, which are consistent with areas of separate recharge defined by previous investigators. Data for deep piezometer nests indicate that water quality generally degrades somewhat with depth, except in areas where local recharge influenced by evapotranspiration or contamination could be affecting shallow water. The orientations of the five water-quality regions indicate that the direction of ground-water flow has historically been primarily north to south. This is generally consistent with maps of predevelopment hydraulic heads, although some areas lack consistency, possibly because of differences in time scales or depths represented by water quality as opposed to hydraulic head. The primary sources of recharge to ground water in the study area appear to be mountain-front recharge along the Sandia Mountains to the east and the Jemez Mountains to the north, seepage from the Rio Grande, and infiltration through Tijeras Arroyo. Elevated concentrations of many chemical constituents in part of the study area appear to be associated with a source of water having large dissolved solids, possibly moving upward from depth. Hydraulic-head data for deep piezometer nests indicate that vertical head gradients differ in direction and magnitude across the study area. Hydraulic-head gradients are downward in the central and western parts of the study area and upward across much of the eastern part, except at the mountain front. Water-quality data for the piezometers indicate that the ground water is not

  2. Water chemistry and poultry processing water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the influences of water chemistry on the quality of process water used in immersion chillers. During commercial poultry processing the bird carcasses come in direct contact with process water during washing and chilling operations. Contamination of the process water with bacteria...

  3. WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY (WQAM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Quality Assessment Methodology (WQAM) is a screening procedure for toxic and conventional pollutants in surface and ground waters and is a collection of formulas, tables, and graphs that planners can use for preliminary assessment of surface and ground water quality in ...

  4. RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY AND HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this pilot study was to develop and evaluate methods to determine the effect of quality of recreational waters on the health of persons bathing in those waters. There is little scientific evidence upon which to base water quality standards for the safety ...

  5. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  6. WaterQualityWatch and water-quality information bookmark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D.

    2014-01-01

    WaterQualityWatch is an online resource of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that provides access to continuous real-time measurements of water temperature, specific electrical conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and nitrate at selected data-collection stations throughout the Nation. Additional online resources of the USGS that pertain to various types of water-quality information are shown on the reverse side of this bookmark.

  7. Instrumental Surveillance of Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. A.; And Others

    The role analytical instrumentation performs in the surveillance and control of the quality of water resources is reviewed. Commonly performed analyses may range from simple tests for physical parameters to more highly sophisticated radiological or spectrophotometric methods. This publication explores many of these types of water quality analyses…

  8. Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

  9. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS SIMULATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP6), an enhancement of the original WASP (Di Toro et al., 1983; Connolly and Winfield,1984; Ambrose, R.B. et al.,1988). This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and man-made polluti...

  10. Primer on Water Quality

    MedlinePlus

    ... streams and ground water. After decades of use, pesticides are now widespread in streams and ground water, ... and guidelines established to protect human health. Some pesticides have not been used for 20 to 30 ...

  11. Space Station Water Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  12. Aquatic Plant Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA, as stated in the Clean Water Act, is tasked with developing numerical Aquatic Life Critiera for various pollutants found in the waters of the United States. These criteria serve as guidance for States and Tribes to use in developing their water quality standards. The G...

  13. Water Quality Monitoring by Satellite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The availability of abundant water resources in the Upper Midwest of the United States is nullified by their contamination through heavy commercial and industrial activities. Scientists have taken the responsibility of detecting the water quality of these resources through remote-sensing satellites to develop a wide-ranging water purification plan…

  14. GREENROOF RUNOFF WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs was compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation unplanted media roofs was also compared, and the influence of ...

  15. Water Quality Monitoring Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Fred J.; Houdart, Joseph F.

    This manual is designed for students involved in environmental education programs dealing with water pollution problems. By establishing a network of Environmental Monitoring Stations within the educational system, four steps toward the prevention, control, and abatement of water pollution are proposed. (1) Train students to recognize, monitor,…

  16. What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

    This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

  17. OPERATION OF WATER QUALITY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of drinking water can change between the discharge from the treatment plant and the point of consumption. n order to study these changes in a systematic manner a Cooperative Agreement was initiated between EPA's Drinking Water Research Division and the North Penn Wate...

  18. NEUSE RIVER WATER QUALITY DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Neuse River water quality database is a Microsoft Access application that includes multiple data tables and some associated queries. The database was developed by Prof. Jim Bowen's research group.

  19. Quality assurance/quality control manual; National Water Quality Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritt, J.W.; Raese, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Quality-control practices are established for the operation of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Laboratory. These practices specify how samples are preserved, shipped, and analyzed in the Laboratory. This manual documents the practices that are currently (1995) used in the Laboratory.

  20. Water Quality Field Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Nonpoint source pollution is both a relatively recent concern and a complex phenomenon with many unknowns. Knowing the extent to which agricultural sources contribute to the total pollutant load, the extent to which various control practices decrease this load, and the effect of reducing the pollutants delivered to a water body are basic to the…

  1. CONNECTICUT SURFACE WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of Surface Water Quality Classifications for Connecticut. It is comprised of two 0Shapefiles with line and polygon features. Both Shapefiles must be used together with the Hydrography datalayer. The polygon Shapefile includes surface water qual...

  2. Water Quality Control, Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington City Board of Education, NC.

    Activities which study how water is used, contaminated, and treated or purified are presented in this curriculum guide, culminating in the investigation of a local water quality problem. Designed as a 12 week mini-course for students in grades eight and nine, the guide first presents a review of the content, objectives, major concepts, and sources…

  3. Harlem River water quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2011-12-01

    Harlem River is a navigable tidal strait, which flows 8 miles connecting the Hudson River and the East River. In wet weather condition, there is untreated sewage mixed rainfall discharged to the river directly at CSO's discharge point. These raw sewer contain bacteria such as Fecal Coliform, E. Coli, Entercocci those can cause illness. There are total 37 CSOs dicharge point along the Harlem River. Water samples were collected from five sites and analyzed on a weekly basis in spring from March to May 2011, and on a monthly basis in July and August. Results showed that ammonia concentrations were ranged from 0.25 to 2.2 mg/L, and there was an increased pattern in summer when temperature increases; soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) ranged from 0.04 to 0.2 mg/L; total P (TP) ranged from 0.03 to 0.7 mg/L; organic P (OP) ranged from 0.006 to 0.5 mg/L. In rain storm (wet weather condition), untreated sewer discharged into the river with distinguished higher nutrient concentrations (ammonia=2.9 mg/L, TP=3.1 mg/L, OP=2.9 mg/L) and extremely high bacteria levels (fecal coliform-millions, countless colonies; E. Coli-thousands). Results showed spatial variations among the five sites, seasonal variations from spring to summer, and variations under different weather conditions (temperature, storms). The raw sewer discharge during heavy rainstorms resulted in higher nutrients and bacteria levels, and the water quality was degraded.

  4. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  5. Statistical Analysis of Regional Surface Water Quality in Southeastern Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodo, Byron A.

    1992-01-01

    Historical records from Ontario's Provincial Water Quality Monitoring Network for rivers and streams were analyzed to assess the feasibility of mapping regional water quality patterns in southeastern Ontario, spanning the Precambrian Shield and the St. Lawrence Lowlands. The study served as a model for much of Ontario. (54 references) (Author/MDH)

  6. National Water Quality Laboratory Profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raese, Jon W.

    1994-01-01

    The National Water Quality Laboratory determines organic and inorganic constituents in samples of surface and ground water, river and lake sediment, aquatic plant and animal material, and precipitation collected throughout the United States and its territories by the U.S. Geological Survey. In water year 1994, the Laboratory produced more than 900,000 analytical results for about 65,000 samples. The Laboratory also coordinates an extensive network of contract laboratories for the determination of radiochemical and stable isotopes and work for the U.S. Department of Defense Environmental Contamination Hydrology Program. Heightened concerns about water quality and about the possible effects of toxic chemicals at trace and ultratrace levels have contributed to an increased demand for impartial, objective, and independent data.

  7. Water quality for freshwater fish

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, G. )

    1994-01-01

    This timely and up-to-date volume brings together recent critical reviews on water quality requirements for freshwater fish commissioned by the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Commission, an agency of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. It provides a unique and authoritative source of critically evaluated water quality data concerning the effects of chromium, nickel, aluminum and nitrite on freshwater fish and includes an assessment of the toxicity of mixtures. The reports presented in this volume cover all stages of the life cycle and relevant trophic levels, including aquatic invertebrates and plants and potential bioaccumulation through the food chain. An extensive bibliography is provided for each chapter as well as a glossary of terms and a list of fish species mentioned in the text. This compilation of papers is the definitive reference volume for chemists, biologists, ecologists and toxicologists as well as for water resource managers concerned with management and control of pollution in fresh waters.

  8. Water quality . . . potential sources of pollution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Farrar, Frank, (artist)

    1996-01-01

    What is water quality? To most students, water quality may suggest only "clean" water for drinking, swimming, and fishing. But to the farmer or manufacturer, water quality may have an entirely different meaning. One of the most important issues concerning the quality of water is how that water will be used. Water that is perfectly fine for irrigation might not be suitable for drinking or swimming.

  9. Pesticide Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred

    This publication describes in nontechnical language the problem of pesticide use and how it affects water quality. It provides information on laws affecting pesticide use and the reasons for them, as well as giving directions for the proper use of pesticides. The booklet is divided into five chapters, each of which concludes with a list of study…

  10. Water quality in organic systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-point source contamination is a major water quality concern in the upper Midwestern USA, where plant nutrients, especially NO3-N, are susceptible to leaching due to extensive subsurface draining of the highly productive, but poorly drained, soils found in this region. Environmental impacts assoc...

  11. VERIFICATION OF WATER QUALITY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The basic concepts of water quality models are reviewed and the need to recognize calibration and verification of models with observed data is stressed. Post auditing of models after environmental control procedures are implemented is necessary to determine true model prediction ...

  12. Solid Wastes and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Quality criteria for water, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    Section 304(a) (1) of the Clean Water Act 33 U.S.C. 1314(a) (1) requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to publish and periodically update ambient water-quality criteria. These criteria are to accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge (a) on the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on health and welfare including, but not limited to, plankton, fish shellfish, wildlife, plant life, shorelines, beaches, aesthetics, and recreation that may be expected from the presence of pollutants in any body of water including ground water; (b) on the concentration and dispersal of pollutants, or their byproducts, through biological, physical, and chemical processes; and (c) on the effects of pollutants on biological community diversity, productivity, and stability, including information on the factors affecting rates of eutrophication and organic and inorganic sedimentation for varying types of receiving waters. In a continuing effort to provide those who use EPA's water-quality and human-health criteria with up-to-date criteria values and associated information, the document was assembled. The document includes summaries of all the contaminants for which EPA has developed criteria recommendations.

  14. Shallow Water Optical Water Quality Buoy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bostater, Charles

    1998-01-01

    This NASA grant was funded as a result of an unsolicited proposal submission to Kennedy Space Center. The proposal proposed the development and testing of a shallow water optical water quality buoy. The buoy is meant to work in shallow aquatic systems (ponds, rivers, lagoons, and semi-enclosed water areas where strong wind wave action is not a major environmental During the project period of three years, a demonstration of the buoy was conducted. The last demonstration during the project period was held in November, 1996 when the buoy was demonstrated as being totally operational with no tethered communications line. During the last year of the project the buoy was made to be solar operated by large gel cell batteries. Fund limitations did not permit the batteries in metal enclosures as hoped for higher wind conditions, however the system used to date has worked continuously for in- situ operation of over 18 months continuous deployment. The system needs to have maintenance and somewhat continuous operational attention since various components have limited lifetime ages. For example, within the last six months the onboard computer has had to be repaired as it did approximately 6 months after deployment. The spectrograph had to be repaired and costs for repairs was covered by KB Science since no ftmds were available for this purpose after the grant expired. Most recently the computer web page server failed and it is currently being repaired by KB Science. In addition, the cell phone operation is currently being ftmded by Dr. Bostater in order to maintain the system's operation. The above points need to be made to allow NASA to understand that like any sophisticated measuring system in a lab or in the field, necessary funding and maintenance is needed to insure the system's operational state and to obtain quality factor. The proposal stated that the project was based upon the integration of a proprietary and confidential sensor and probe design that was developed by

  15. SWQM: Source Water Quality Modeling Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-01-08

    The Source Water Quality Modeling software (SWQM) simulates the water quality conditions that reflect properties of water generated by water treatment facilities. SWQM consists of a set of Matlab scripts that model the statistical variation that is expected in a water treatment facility’s water, such as pH and chlorine levels.

  16. Optical sensors for water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in commercially available in situ sensors, data platforms, and new techniques for data analysis provide an opportunity to monitor water quality in rivers, lakes, and estuaries on the time scales in which changes occur. For example, measurements that capture the variability in freshwater systems over time help to assess how shifts in seasonal runoff, changes in precipitation intensity, and increased frequencies of disturbances (such as fire and insect outbreaks) affect the storage, production, and transport of carbon and nitrogen in watersheds. Transmitting these data in real-time also provides information that can be used for early trend detection, help identify monitoring gaps, and provide sciencebased decision support across a range of issues related to water quality, freshwater ecosystems, and human health.

  17. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  18. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  19. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  20. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  1. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... OFFSTREAM STORAGE OF COLORADO RIVER WATER AND DEVELOPMENT AND RELEASE OF INTENTIONALLY CREATED UNUSED APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality....

  2. Dam water quality study. Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    The objective of the report is to identify water quality effects attributable to the impoundment of water by dams as required by Section 524 of the Water Quality Act of 1987. The document presents a study of water quality effects associated with impoundments in the U.S.A.

  3. Water quality monitor. [spacecraft potable water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, S.; Crisos, J.; Baxter, W.

    1979-01-01

    The preprototype water quality monitor (WQM) subsystem was designed based on a breadboard monitor for pH, specific conductance, and total organic carbon (TOC). The breadboard equipment demonstrated the feasibility of continuous on-line analysis of potable water for a spacecraft. The WQM subsystem incorporated these breadboard features and, in addition, measures ammonia and includes a failure detection system. The sample, reagent, and standard solutions are delivered to the WQM sensing manifold where chemical operations and measurements are performed using flow through sensors for conductance, pH, TOC, and NH3. Fault monitoring flow detection is also accomplished in this manifold assembly. The WQM is designed to operate automatically using a hardwired electronic controller. In addition, automatic shutdown is incorporated which is keyed to four flow sensors strategically located within the fluid system.

  4. Water quality in Lake Lanier

    SciTech Connect

    Callaham, M.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Thirteen water quality tests measuring five categories of pollution were conducted twice monthly from May, 1987 to April, 1990 at eight locations on Lake Sidney Lanier to establish baseline data and detect trends. Additionally, sediment and water samples were analyzed for ten toxic metals. Sampling stations were located at or near the point of entry of streams into the Lake. Oxygen demanding pollutants were highest in urban streams and phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations were highest in streams having poultry processing operations within their watersheds. Indicators of siltation increased coincidentally with highway construction in one watershed. Fecal coliform bacteria counts decreased at Flat Creek and increased in the Chattahoochee River. Zinc and copper occurred in water samples at levels of detectability. Sediment samples from several locations contained metal concentrations which warrant further study.

  5. Characterizing Water Quality in Students' Own Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, S. K.; Speelman, Nicole; Yeary, Amber; Slattery, William

    2007-01-01

    The surface water quality studies are developed to help first year college students who are preparing to become high school teachers. These water quality impact studies allow students to correlate geologic conditions and chemistry.

  6. MOST CURRENT WATER QUALITY STANDARDS - WATERBODY SHAPEFILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    State Water Quality Standards' Designated Uses for river segments, lakes, and estuaries. 2000 Water Quality Standards coded onto the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) Waterbody Reaches (region.rch) to create Waterbody Shapefiles.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF MARINE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protectional Agency has developed guidelines for deriving numerical national water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. These guidelines provide the method for deriving water quality criteria, including minimum data base...

  8. Quantifying The Water Quality Services Of Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands are well recognized for their potential for providing a wide range of important ecological services including their ability to provide water quality protection. Watershed-scale water quality trading could create market driven incentives to restore and construct wetlands...

  9. MOST CURRENT WATER QUALITY STANDARDS - LINEAR EVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Designated uses (from State Water Quality Standards) for river segments, lakes, and estuaries. Most current Water Quality Standards Waterbodies coded onto route.rch (Transport and Coastline Reach) feature of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) to create Linear Events.

  10. Understanding water quality trading: the basics.

    PubMed

    Kibler, Virginia M; Kasturi, Kavya P

    2007-12-01

    The United States has entered a new era in water quality protection: the era of market-based incentives. In January 2003, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its National Water Quality Trading Policy (Trading Policy) (USEPA, 2003). This action has generated greater interest in water quality trading and has prompted EPA to develop tools and training to assist interested parties in understanding what water quality trading is and what constitutes a successful trading program. PMID:18049767

  11. WATER QUALITY AND ASSOCIATIONS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality is quantified using several measures, available from various data sources. These can be combined to create a single index of overall water quality which can be used for health research. We developed a water quality index for all United States counties and assessed a...

  12. Water quality management plan for Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The management plan provides an assessment of Cherokee Reservoir's current water quality, identifies those factors which affect reservoir water quality, and develops recommendations aimed at restoring or maintaining water quality at levels sufficient to support diverse beneficial uses. 20 references, 8 figures, 15 tables. (ACR)

  13. Optimal calibration method for water distribution water quality model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zheng Yi

    2006-01-01

    A water quality model is to predict water quality transport and fate throughout a water distribution system. The model is not only a promising alternative for analyzing disinfectant residuals in a cost-effective manner, but also a means of providing enormous engineering insights into the characteristics of water quality variation and constituent reactions. However, a water quality model is a reliable tool only if it predicts what a real system behaves. This paper presents a methodology that enables a modeler to efficiently calibrate a water quality model such that the field observed water quality values match with the model simulated values. The method is formulated to adjust the global water quality parameters and also the element-dependent water quality reaction rates for pipelines and tank storages. A genetic algorithm is applied to optimize the model parameters by minimizing the difference between the model-predicted values and the field-observed values. It is seamlessly integrated with a well-developed hydraulic and water quality modeling system. The approach has provided a generic tool and methodology for engineers to construct the sound water quality model in expedient manner. The method is applied to a real water system and demonstrated that a water quality model can be optimized for managing adequate water supply to public communities. PMID:16854809

  14. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin...

  15. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin...

  16. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin...

  17. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin...

  18. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7 Section 801.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin...

  19. Automated monitoring of recovered water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misselhorn, J. E.; Hartung, W. H.; Witz, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    Laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system provides automatic system for online monitoring of chemical, physical, and bacteriological properties of recovered water and for signaling malfunction in water recovery system. Monitor incorporates whenever possible commercially available sensors suitably modified.

  20. Pollution and the protection of water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Risebrough, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book reports on research and development in the study of pollution and methodologies to protect water quality, with emphasis on arid countries. Topics covered include overview of the effects of pollution on natural and human environments; water cycle and groundwater resources in arid countries; salinization; standards and technologies for waste water treatment; uses of recycled water; solid waste disposal; assessment of wastes from industry, agriculture, and shipping; methodologies of quality control; synthetic organic pollutants, including pesticides and PCBs; analytical techniques; quality control; sampling methodologies for organics, metals, and trace elements, including data acquisition techniques and instrumentation; data management; bioindicator organisms; assimilative capacity of receiving waters; application of appropriate water quality standards.

  1. Phosphorus and Water Quality Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, H. K.

    2008-12-01

    Paradoxically, phosphorus (P) is one of the major nutrients for higher agricultural production, as well as it causes eutrophication/algal blooms in aquatic and semi-aquatic systems. Phosphorus loadings from agricultural/urban runoffs into lakes and rivers are becoming a global concern for the protection of water quality. Artificial wetlands are considered as a low cost alternative for treating wastewater including removal of P from sources such as agricultural and urban runoffs. However, the selection of the construction site may well determine the effectiveness of these wetlands. Studies show that P transformations in sediments/ soils are crucial for P sequestration in a wetland rather than the amounts of native P. Using 31Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31P NMR), previously unreported an active organic P form, phosphoarginine, was identified, and the study indicates that abandonment of P impacted sites may not solve the P loading problem to the water bodies as the organic P compounds would not be as stable as they were thought, thus, can play a detrimental role in eutrophication of water bodies, after all.

  2. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities in the USGS Ohio Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Shaffer, Kimberly H.

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been written for use by the Ohio Water Science Center in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Ohio Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the Ohio Water Science Center quality-assurance plans for water-quality monitors, the microbiology laboratory, and surface-water and ground-water activities.

  3. Reading Water Quality Variables with a Smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Overloop, Peter-Jules; Minkman, Ellen

    2015-04-01

    Many relevant water quality variables can be measured cost-effectively with standard indicator strips. These are local measurements, although usually done within a larger water network. Only if these measurements can be made available in a central database, the entire network can benefit from the extra data point. This requires an analog data source to be converted to a digital data point. A tool that is equipped to do that and also communicate the value to a central system, is a smartphone. A water quality monitoring method is introduced that requires standard indicator strips attached to a reference card and an app with which a picture can be taken from this card. The color or other indication is automatically read with dedicated pattern recognition algorithms and, by using the gps-localization of the smartphone, is stored in the right location in the central database. The method is low-cost and very user-friendly, which makes it suitable for crowd sourcing.

  4. Water Quality of Hills Water, Supply Water and RO Water Machine at Ulu Yam Selangor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngadiman, N.; ‘I Bahari, N.; Kaamin, M.; Hamid, N. B.; Mokhtar, M.; Sahat, S.

    2016-07-01

    The rapid development resulted in the deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Malaysia. Recognizing the importance of water quality, new alternatives for drinking water such as mineral water processing from reverse osmosis (RO) machine become more popular. Hence, the demand for mineral water, natural spring water or water from the hills or mountains rose lately. More consumers believed the quality of these spring water better than other source of drinking water. However, the quality of all the drinking water sources is to meet the required quality standard. Therefore, this paper aims to measure the quality of the waters from hills, from RO machine and the water supply in Ulu Yam, Selangor Batang Kali, Malaysia. The water quality was determined based on following parameters: ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3), iron (Fe), turbidity (NTU) and pH. The results show that the water from hills has better quality compared to water supply and water from RO machine. The value of NH3 ranged from 0.03 mg/L- 0.67 mg/L; Fe was from 0.03mg/L - 0.12 mg/L, turbidity at 0.42 NTU - 0.88 NTU and pH is at 6.60 - 0.71. Based on the studied parameters, all three types of water are fit for drinking and have met the required national drinking water quality standard.

  5. Development and Application of Water Quality Classification Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Tahir Ali

    Though surface water quality is a dynamic quantity; factors, such as increase in population, changes in climate, and anthropogenic activities impose more variability in recent times. The main objectives of this thesis were to: (i) develop models for classification of raw surface water quality, (ii) analyze the spatial patterns and temporal trends of surface water quality, (iii) obtain exceedances of parameters in each class; and (iv) develop remote sensing based models for Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI) and turbidity. A methodology was developed using principal component analysis (PCA) and clustering techniques on the basis of 19 water quality parameters for 18 lakes of Alberta. Three principal components (PCs) were indicators of hardness, salinity and biological activities for lakes. The surface water quality showed deterioration as the cluster number increased from 1 to 5. The most deteriorated quality of water was found in Cardinal Lake, Moonshine Lake, Winagami Lake, Miquelon Lake and Saskatoon Lake. A total exceedance model was developed for clusterization of surface water quality for 12 major rivers of Alberta. The PCs were the indicators of watershed geology, mineralization and anthropogenic activities related to land use/cover for rivers. The clusters showed a strong relationship with CWQI classes. Snow melting deteriorated the surface water quality of rivers due to anthropogenic activities from different land uses/covers. There was increasing trend for the mean exceedance of the parameters as the cluster number increased from low to high. Empirical models were developed for Canadian Water Quality Index and turbidity using 31 scenes of Landsat-5 TM satellite data for the Bow River. The significant models were 14 for CWQI and 12 for turbidity. 100% matching was found for 72% and 83% of data in best-fit models for CWQI and turbidity respectively. The variation in the Bow River water quality was due to climatic changes and irrigation.

  6. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  7. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  8. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  9. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  10. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure shall not contain water which would be detrimental to the health of the marine mammal contained...

  11. CONNECTICUT GROUND WATER QUALITY CLASSIFICATIONS - WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of Ground Water Quality Classifications for public supply wells in Connecticut. It is a polygon Shapefile that includes GAA areas for public water supply wells. Each polygon is assigned a GAA ground water quality class, which is stored in the d...

  12. Water Quality of a Micronesian Atoll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabbett, Arthur N.

    1975-01-01

    In 1972, a water quality survey of the eastern end of Majuro Atoll, Marshall Islands was conducted to determine the water quality of selected lagoon and open ocean sites and provide guidance for the construction of a sewerage system. This study revealed that lagoon waters were moderately to severely contaminated. (BT)

  13. Texas Water Quality Board Teachers Workshop Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Water Quality Board, Austin.

    These materials are designed for teachers participating in an inservice workshop on water quality. Included in the materials are a workshop agenda, a water awareness pretest, and the various parameters and tests that are used to determine and measure water quality. The parameters are discussed from the standpoint of their potential impact to…

  14. IMPLEMENTATION GUIDANCE FOR AMBIENT WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Implementation Guidance for Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Bacteria is a guidance document to assist state, territory, and authorized tribal water quality programs in adopting and implementing bacteriological water quality criteria into their water quality standards to pr...

  15. Protecting water quality in the watershed

    SciTech Connect

    James, C.R.; Johnson, K.E. ); Stewart, E.H. )

    1994-08-01

    This article highlights the water quality component of a watershed management plan being developed for the San Francisco (CA) Water Department. The physical characteristics of the 63,000-acre watersheds were analyzed for source and transport vulnerability for five groups of water quality parameters--particulates, THM precursors, microorganisms (Giardia and cryptosporidium), nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), and synthetic organic chemicals--and vulnerability zones were mapped. Mapping was achieved through the use of an extensive geographic information system (GIS) database. Each water quality vulnerability zone map was developed based on five watershed physical characteristics--soils, slope, vegetation, wildlife concentration, and proximity to water bodies--and their relationships to each of the five groups of water quality parameters. An approach to incorporate the watershed physical characteristics information into the five water quality vulnerability zone maps was defined and verified. The composite approach was based in part on information gathered from existing watershed management plans.

  16. Healthy Water Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 200-page activity guide for educators of students in grades six through university level raises the awareness and understanding of water quality issues and their relationship to personal, public and environmental health. "Healthy Water Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" will help educators address science standards through 25…

  17. WATER QUALITY EFFECTS RELATED TO BLENDING WATERS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of blending two or more waters of different quality and to relate their composition to the corrosive effects and calcium carbonate deposition tendency of the water on distribution systems. The EPA mobile water quality monitoring la...

  18. Deriving Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tango, Peter J.; Batiuk, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining the water quality conditions necessary to protect the aquatic living resources of the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries has required a foundation of quantifiable water quality criteria. Quantitative criteria serve as a critical basis for assessing the attainment of designated uses and measuring progress toward meeting water quality goals of the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership. In 1987, the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership committed to defining the water quality conditions necessary to protect aquatic living resources. Under section 303(c) of the Clean Water Act, States and authorized tribes have the primary responsibility for adopting water quality standards into law or regulation. The Chesapeake Bay Program partnership worked with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop and publish a guidance framework of ambient water quality criteria with designated uses and assessment procedures for dissolved oxygen, water clarity, and chlorophyll a for Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries in 2003. This article reviews the derivation of the water quality criteria, criteria assessment protocols, designated use boundaries, and their refinements published in six addendum documents since 2003 and successfully adopted into each jurisdiction's water quality standards used in developing the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load.

  19. Drinking water quality management: a holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Rizak, S; Cunliffe, D; Sinclair, M; Vulcano, R; Howard, J; Hrudey, S; Callan, P

    2003-01-01

    A growing list of water contaminants has led to some water suppliers relying primarily on compliance monitoring as a mechanism for managing drinking water quality. While such monitoring is a necessary part of drinking water quality management, experiences with waterborne disease threats and outbreaks have shown that compliance monitoring for numerical limits is not, in itself, sufficient to guarantee the safety and quality of drinking water supplies. To address these issues, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) has developed a Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality (the Framework) for incorporation in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines, the primary reference on drinking water quality in Australia. The Framework was developed specifically for drinking water supplies and provides a comprehensive and preventive risk management approach from catchment to consumer. It includes holistic guidance on a range of issues considered good practice for system management. The Framework addresses four key areas: Commitment to Drinking Water Quality Management, System Analysis and System Management, Supporting Requirements, and Review. The Framework represents a significantly enhanced approach to the management and regulation of drinking water quality and offers a flexible and proactive means of optimising drinking water quality and protecting public health. Rather than the primary reliance on compliance monitoring, the Framework emphasises prevention, the importance of risk assessment, maintaining the integrity of water supply systems and application of multiple barriers to assure protection of public health. Development of the Framework was undertaken in collaboration with the water industry, regulators and other stakeholder, and will promote a common and unified approach to drinking water quality management throughout Australia. The Framework has attracted international interest. PMID:12830937

  20. ORD Studies of Water Quality in Hospitals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation descibes results from two studies of water quality and pathogen occurrence in water and biofilm samples from two area hospitals. Includes data on the effectiveness of copper/silver ionization as a disinfectant.

  1. DRINKING WATER MICROBIOLOGY - NEW DIRECTIONS TOWARD WATER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many concerns result from information on new waterborne agents, treatment problems of raw water qualities, biofilm development in some distribution systems, and special quality needs unique to hospitals and industries. Protozoan cyst penetration after some disinfection practices ...

  2. Infectious Disinfection: "Exploring Global Water Quality"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaya, Evans; Tippins, Deborah J.; Mueller, Michael P.; Thomson, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Learning about the water situation in other regions of the world and the devastating effects of floods on drinking water helps students study science while learning about global water quality. This article provides science activities focused on developing cultural awareness and understanding how local water resources are integrally linked to the…

  3. MEASURING & MODELING VARIATIONS IN DISTRIBUTION WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Until recently most interest in drinking water quality has been in the finished water as it leaves the treatment plant. he Safe Drinking Water requires that MCLs be met at the consumers tap. ecause finished water may undergo substantial changes while being transported through the...

  4. WATER QUALITY IN OPEN FINISHED WATER RESERVOIRS - ALLEGHENY COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this investigation was to study water quality changes occurring in open reservoirs in the distribution systems of five water supplies located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. Results of chemical, bacteriological, and biological analyses showed deterioration of wa...

  5. Drainage water management for water quality protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land drainage has been central to the development of North America since colonial times. Increasingly, agricultural drainage is being targeted as a conduit for pollution, particularly nutrient pollution. The export of agricultural drainage water and associated pollutants to surface water can be mana...

  6. Professional Development for Water Quality Control Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Clinton Lewis

    This study investigated the availability of professional development opportunities for water quality control personnel in the midwest. The major objective of the study was to establish a listing of educational opportunities for the professional development of water quality control personnel and to compare these with the opportunities technicians…

  7. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  8. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  9. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  10. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  11. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality....

  12. WATER QUALITY OF THE MIDDLE SNAKE RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clear Spring Foods, Inc., conducted a year-long study in the Middle Snake River to provide a perspective on water quality issues and the impact of aquaculture activities on water quality. The study area extended from Shoshone Falls Park to below Box Canyon. Physical and chemical ...

  13. MOBILE BAY AND WATERSHED WATER QUALITY MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two major products will come out of this project. The first is a compilation of 2001 water quality data for the Mobile bay area. The second is to develop and run a water quality moded for the bay to assist with development of TMDLs for the Bay

  14. MOST CURRENT WATER QUALITY STANDARDS - POINT EVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    State Water Quality Standards' Designated Uses for river segments, lakes, and estuaries. Most current Water Quality Standards coded onto route.rch (Transport and Coastline Reach) feature of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) to create NHD - Point Events. Point events are...

  15. Three dimensional water quality modeling of a shallow subtropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yongshan; Ji, Zhen-Gang; Shen, Jian; Hu, Guangdou; Sun, Detong

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of estuarine hydrodynamics and water quality comes mostly from studies of large estuarine systems. The processes affecting algae, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen (DO) in small and shallow subtropical estuaries are relatively less studied. This paper documents the development, calibration, and verification of a three dimensional (3D) water quality model for the St. Lucie Estuary (SLE), a small and shallow estuary located on the east coast of south Florida. The water quality model is calibrated and verified using two years of measured data. Statistical analyses indicate that the model is capable of reproducing key water quality characteristics of the estuary within an acceptable range of accuracy. The calibrated model is further applied to study hydrodynamic and eutrophication processes in the estuary. Modeling results reveal that high algae concentrations in the estuary are likely caused by excessive nutrient and algae supplies in freshwater inflows. While algal blooms may lead to reduced DO concentrations near the bottom of the waterbody, this study indicates that stratification and circulation induced by freshwater inflows may also contribute significantly to bottom water hypoxia in the estuary. It is also found that high freshwater inflows from one of the tributaries can change the circulation pattern and nutrient loading, thereby impacting water quality conditions of the entire estuary. Restoration plans for the SLE ecosystem need to consider both a reduction of nutrient loading and regulation of the freshwater discharge pattern. PMID:23122270

  16. Water consumption patterns as a basis for water demand modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avni, Noa; Fishbain, Barak; Shamir, Uri

    2015-10-01

    Future water demand is a main consideration in water system management. Consequently, water demand models (WDMs) have evolved in past decades, identifying principal demand-generating factors and modeling their influence on water demand. Regional water systems serve consumers of various types (e.g., municipalities, farmers, industrial regions) and consumption patterns. Thus, one of the challenges in regional water demand modeling is the heterogeneity of the consumers served by the water system. When a high-resolution, regional WDM is desired, accounting for this heterogeneity becomes all the more important. This paper presents a novel approach to regional water demand modeling. The two-step approach includes aggregating the data set into groups of consumers having similar consumption characteristics, and developing a WDM for each homogeneous group. The development of WDMs is widely applied in the literature and thus, the focus of this paper is to discuss the first step of data aggregation. The research hypothesis is that water consumption records in their original or transformed form can provide a basis for aggregating the data set into groups of consumers with similar consumption characteristics. This paper presents a methodology for water consumption data clustering by comparing several data representation methods (termed Feature Vectors): monthly normalized average, monthly consumption coefficient of variation, a combination of the monthly average and monthly variation, and the autocorrelation coefficients of the consumption time series. Clustering using solely normalized monthly average provided homogeneous and distinct clusters with respect to monthly consumption, which succeed in capturing different consumer characteristics (water use, geographical location) that were not specified a-priori. Clustering using the monthly coefficient of variation provided different, yet homogeneous clusters, clustering consumers characterized by similar variation trends that

  17. Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D.

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

  18. Water Quality Indicators Guide [and Teacher's Handbook]: Surface Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Charles R.; Perfetti, Patricia Bytnar

    This guide aids in finding water quality solutions to problems from sediment, animal wastes, nutrients, pesticides, and salts. The guide allows users to learn the fundamental concepts of water quality assessment by extracting basic tenets from geology, hydrology, biology, ecology, and wastewater treatment. An introduction and eight chapters are…

  19. 40 CFR 230.23 - Current patterns and water circulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Current patterns and water circulation... Potential Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.23 Current patterns and water circulation. (a) Current patterns and water circulation are the physical movements...

  20. 40 CFR 230.23 - Current patterns and water circulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Current patterns and water circulation... Potential Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.23 Current patterns and water circulation. (a) Current patterns and water circulation are the physical movements...

  1. 40 CFR 230.23 - Current patterns and water circulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Current patterns and water circulation... Potential Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.23 Current patterns and water circulation. (a) Current patterns and water circulation are the physical movements...

  2. 40 CFR 230.23 - Current patterns and water circulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Current patterns and water circulation... Potential Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.23 Current patterns and water circulation. (a) Current patterns and water circulation are the physical movements...

  3. 40 CFR 230.23 - Current patterns and water circulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Current patterns and water circulation... Potential Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.23 Current patterns and water circulation. (a) Current patterns and water circulation are the physical movements...

  4. Spatial and temporal characterizations of water quality in Kuwait Bay.

    PubMed

    Al-Mutairi, N; Abahussain, A; El-Battay, A

    2014-06-15

    The spatial and temporal patterns of water quality in Kuwait Bay have been investigated using data from six stations between 2009 and 2011. The results showed that most of water quality parameters such as phosphorus (PO4), nitrate (NO3), dissolved oxygen (DO), and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) fluctuated over time and space. Based on Water Quality Index (WQI) data, six stations were significantly clustered into two main classes using cluster analysis, one group located in western side of the Bay, and other in eastern side. Three principal components are responsible for water quality variations in the Bay. The first component included DO and pH. The second included PO4, TSS and NO3, and the last component contained seawater temperature and turbidity. The spatial and temporal patterns of water quality in Kuwait Bay are mainly controlled by seasonal variations and discharges from point sources of pollution along Kuwait Bay's coast as well as from Shatt Al-Arab River. PMID:24768174

  5. School on Alert over Water Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the issue on the quality of water in Seattle's school districts. Seattle's water woes became public when four little containers of rust-colored water from fountains in the city district's Wedgewood Elementary School, collected by concerned parents, were tested by a certified laboratory and found to exceed federal lead limits.…

  6. Microbes and Water Quality in Developed Countries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water has been a concern for mankind through out the world for centuries. In the developed world, governments consider access to safe and clean drinking water to be a basic human right. Government regulations generally address the quality of the source water, adequ...

  7. ION SELECTIVE ELECTRODES IN WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The maintenance of water quality whether at the treatment plant or out in the distribution system is predicated on accurately knowing the condition of the water at any particular moment. Ion selective electrodes have shown tremendous potential in the area of continuous water qual...

  8. Examining Water Quality Variations of Tidal Pond System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, T. F. M.; Cui, W.

    2014-12-01

    Brackish tidal shrimp ponds, traditionally referred to as gei wais, have been constructed along coastal areas in many parts of the world. The regular exchange of pond water with the surrounding coastal environment is important as it brings shrimp larvae and nutrients, etc. into and out of the pond. Such a water exchange can reduce the quality of the receiving waters; though there are opposing views recently because farming practices are becoming more sustainable while other sources of pollutions in the surroundings are increasing. This project monitors the water quality of a tidal shrimp pond and its receiving water at high temporal resolution. The pond is located within the wetland complex of Mai Po Nature Reserve in Hong Kong, China. Water quality parameters (i.e., dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, pH, water depth and chlorophyll) were recorded at 15-minute interval from December 2013 to March 2014 within the pond and also at its receiving water which is a water channel within a mangrove forest. Data reveals both daily and fortnightly fluctuations. Daily variations in mangrove correspond to both tidal flushing and insolation, whereas those within the pond correspond mainly to insolation. For example, dissolved oxygen in mangrove shows two peaks daily which correlate with tidal elevation, and that within the pond shows only one peak which correlates with sunlight. Dissolved oxygen within the pond also shows a fortnightly pattern that corresponds to the schedule of water exchange. Such high temporal resolution of monitoring reveals the two-way water quality influences between the pond and the mangrove. It sheds insights that can possibly lead to refinement of water exchange practice and water sampling schedule given the temporal variations of the water quality both inside and outside the pond. It thus enables us to take a step closer in adopting more sustainable farming practices despite increasing pollution in the surrounding areas.

  9. Water quality in Lis river, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Judite; Fonseca, André; Vilar, Vítor J P; Boaventura, Rui A R; Botelho, Cidália M S

    2012-12-01

    In the past 30 years, the Lis river basin has been subjected to constant ecological disasters mainly due to piggery untreated wastewater discharges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of existing domestic, agricultural, and industrial activities on the water quality, and to propose a watershed plan to protect and manage surface water resources within the Lis river basin. For this purpose, 16 monitoring stations have been strategically selected along the Lis river stretch and its main tributaries to evaluate the water quality in six different sampling periods (2003–2006). All samples were characterized in terms of organic material, nutrients, chlorophyll, and pathogenic bacteria. Generally, the Lis river presents poor water quality, according to environmental quality standards for surface water, principally in terms of dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and fecal coliform, which can be associated mainly with the contamination source from pig-breeding farms. PMID:22286837

  10. Quality assessment of plant transpiration water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macler, Bruce A.; Janik, Daniel S.; Benson, Brian L.

    1990-01-01

    It has been proposed to use plants as elements of biologically-based life support systems for long-term space missions. Three roles have been brought forth for plants in this application: recycling of water, regeneration of air and production of food. This report discusses recycling of water and presents data from investigations of plant transpiration water quality. Aqueous nutrient solution was applied to several plant species and transpired water collected. The findings indicated that this water typically contained 0.3-6 ppm of total organic carbon, which meets hygiene water standards for NASA's space applications. It suggests that this method could be developed to achieve potable water standards.

  11. Water Quality Assessment using Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Saad Ul

    2016-07-01

    The two main global issues related to water are its declining quality and quantity. Population growth, industrialization, increase in agriculture land and urbanization are the main causes upon which the inland water bodies are confronted with the increasing water demand. The quality of surface water has also been degraded in many countries over the past few decades due to the inputs of nutrients and sediments especially in the lakes and reservoirs. Since water is essential for not only meeting the human needs but also to maintain natural ecosystem health and integrity, there are efforts worldwide to assess and restore quality of surface waters. Remote sensing techniques provide a tool for continuous water quality information in order to identify and minimize sources of pollutants that are harmful for human and aquatic life. The proposed methodology is focused on assessing quality of water at selected lakes in Pakistan (Sindh); namely, HUBDAM, KEENJHAR LAKE, HALEEJI and HADEERO. These lakes are drinking water sources for several major cities of Pakistan including Karachi. Satellite imagery of Landsat 7 (ETM+) is used to identify the variation in water quality of these lakes in terms of their optical properties. All bands of Landsat 7 (ETM+) image are analyzed to select only those that may be correlated with some water quality parameters (e.g. suspended solids, chlorophyll a). The Optimum Index Factor (OIF) developed by Chavez et al. (1982) is used for selection of the optimum combination of bands. The OIF is calculated by dividing the sum of standard deviations of any three bands with the sum of their respective correlation coefficients (absolute values). It is assumed that the band with the higher standard deviation contains the higher amount of 'information' than other bands. Therefore, OIF values are ranked and three bands with the highest OIF are selected for the visual interpretation. A color composite image is created using these three bands. The water quality

  12. National Water Quality Laboratory - A Profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raese, Jon W.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) is a full-service laboratory that specializes in environmental analytical chemistry. The NWQL's primary mission is to support USGS programs requiring environmental analyses that provide consistent methodology for national assessment and trends analysis. The NWQL provides the following: high-quality chemical data; consistent, published, state-of-the-art methodology; extremely low-detection levels; high-volume capability; biological unit for identifying benthic invertebrates; quality assurance for determining long-term water-quality trends; and a professional staff.

  13. Principles of Water Quality Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebbutt, T. H. Y.

    This book is designed as a text for undergraduate civil engineering courses and as preliminary reading for postgraduate courses in public health engineering and water resources technology. It is also intended to be of value to workers already in the field and to students preparing for the examinations of the Institute of Water Pollution Control…

  14. National Water-Quality Assessment Program - Source Water-Quality Assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delzer, Gregory C.; Hamilton, Pixie A.

    2007-01-01

    In 2002, the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) implemented Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) to characterize the quality of selected rivers and aquifers used as a source of supply to community water systems in the United States. These assessments are intended to complement drinking-water monitoring required by Federal, State, and local programs, which focus primarily on post-treatment compliance monitoring.

  15. Factors affecting water quality in Cherokee Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Iwanski, M.L.; Higgins, J.M.; Kim, B.R.; Young, R.C.

    1980-07-01

    The purpose was to: (1) define reservoir problems related to water quality conditions; (2) identify the probable causes of these problems; and (3) recommend procedures for achieving needed reservoir water quality improvements. This report presents the project findings to date and suggests steps for upgrading the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section II presents background information on the characteristics of the basin, the reservoir, and the beneficial uses of the reservoir. Section III identifies the impacts of existing reservoir water quality on uses of the reservoir for water supply, fishery resources, recreation, and waste assimilation. Section IV presents an assessment of cause-effect relationships. The factors affecting water quality addressed in Section IV are: (1) reservoir thermal stratification and hydrodynamics; (2) dissolved oxygen depletion; (3) eutrophication; (4) toxic substances; and (5) reservoir fisheries. Section V presents a preliminary evaluation of alternatives for improving the quality of Cherokee Reservoir. Section VI presents preliminary conclusions and recommendations for developing and implementing a reservoir water quality management plan. 7 references, 22 figures, 21 tables.

  16. Intermittent Water Supply: Prevalence, Practice, and Microbial Water Quality.

    PubMed

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2016-01-19

    Intermittent water supplies (IWS), in which water is provided through pipes for only limited durations, serve at least 300 million people around the world. However, providing water intermittently can compromise water quality in the distribution system. In IWS systems, the pipes do not supply water for periods of time, supply periods are shortened, and pipes experience regular flow restarting and draining. These unique behaviors affect distribution system water quality in ways that are different than during normal operations in continuous water supplies (CWS). A better understanding of the influence of IWS on mechanisms causing contamination can help lead to incremental steps that protect water quality and minimize health risks. This review examines the status and nature of IWS practices throughout the world, the evidence of the effect of IWS on water quality, and how the typical contexts in which IWS systems often exist-low-income countries with under-resourced utilities and inadequate sanitation infrastructure-can exacerbate mechanisms causing contamination. We then highlight knowledge gaps for further research to improve our understanding of water quality in IWS. PMID:26670120

  17. GKI water quality studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D L

    1980-01-01

    GKI water quality data collected in 1978 and early 1979 was evaluated with the objective of developing preliminary characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen, Uintah County, Utah. Restrictive analytical definitions were developed to describe native groundwater and GKI retort water in an effort to eliminate from the sample population both groundwater samples affected by retorting and retort water samples diluted by groundwater. Native groundwater and retort water sample analyses were subjected to statistical manipulation and testing to summarize the data to determine the statistical validity of characterizations based on the data available, and to identify probable differences between groundwater and retort water based on available data. An evaluation of GKI water quality data related to developing characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen was conducted. GKI retort water and the local native groundwater both appeared to be of very poor quality. Statistical testing indicated that the data available is generally insufficient for conclusive characterizations of native groundwater and retort water. Statistical testing indicated some probable significant differences between native groundwater and retort water that could be determined with available data. Certain parameters should be added to and others deleted from future laboratory analyses suites of water samples.

  18. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of CVRF in adults participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake and cluster analysis was used to identify the snacking patterns. Height and weight were obtained and the health indices that were evaluated included diastolic and systolic blood pressure, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerides, blood glucose, and insulin. Results The sample was participants (n = 18,988) 19+ years (50% males; 11% African-Americans; 72% white, 12% Hispanic-Americans, and 5% other). Cluster analyses generated 12 distinct snacking patterns, explaining 61% of the variance in snacking. Comparisons of snacking patterns were made to the no snack pattern. It was found that miscellaneous snacks constituted the most common snacking pattern (17%) followed by cakes/cookies/pastries (12%) and sweets (9%). Most snacking patterns were associated with higher energy intakes. Snacking patterns cakes/cookies/pastries, vegetables/legumes, crackers/salty snacks, other grains and whole fruit were associated with lower intakes of saturated fatty acids. Added sugars intakes were higher in the cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, milk desserts, and soft drinks patterns. Five snack patterns (cakes/cookies/pastries, sweets, vegetable/legumes, milk desserts, soft drinks) were associated with lower sodium intakes. Several snack patterns were associated with higher intakes of potassium, calcium, fiber, vitamin A, and magnesium. Five snacking patterns (miscellaneous snacks; vegetables/legumes; crackers/salty snacks; other grains; and whole fruit) were associated with better diet quality scores. Alcohol was associated with

  19. WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF AMERICAN FALLS RESERVOIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A water quality model was developed to support a TMDL for phosphorus related to phytoplankton growth in the reservoir. This report documents the conceptual model, available data, model evaluation, and simulation results.

  20. Water Availability--The Connection Between Water Use and Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, Robert M.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Miller, Timothy L.; Myers, Donna N.

    2008-01-01

    Water availability has become a high priority in the United States, in large part because competition for water is becoming more intense across the Nation. Population growth in many areas competes with demands for water to support irrigation and power production. Cities, farms, and power plants compete for water needed by aquatic ecosystems to support their minimum flow requirements. At the same time, naturally occurring and human-related contaminants from chemical use, land use, and wastewater and industrial discharge are introduced into our waters and diminish its quality. The fact that degraded quality limits the availability and suitability of water for critical uses is a well-known reality in many communities. What may be less understood, but equally true, is that our everyday use of water can significantly affect water quality, and thus its availability. Landscape features (such as geology, soils, and vegetation) along with water-use practices (such as ground-water withdrawals and irrigation) govern water availability because, together, they affect the movement of chemical compounds over the land and in the subsurface. Understanding the interactions of human activities with natural sources and the landscape is critical to effectively managing water and sustaining water availability in the future.

  1. Producing Quality Water for Industrial Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaezler, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    This article discusses the quality of water demanded by industrial plants and the techniques which are currently employed to achieve them. Both quality and quantity requirements are considered including total plant operation, physical and chemical operating controls, and systems monitoring. (CS)

  2. Instruments for Water Quality Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sidney L.; Mack, Dick A.

    1975-01-01

    This discussion gives a general picture of the instrumentation available or being developed for measuring the four major categories of water pollutants: metals, nutrients, pesticides and oxygen demand. The instruments are classified as follows: manually operated laboratory analyzers, automated laboratory instrumentation, manual field monitors, and…

  3. BIOMONITORING OF SOURCE WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Living organisms are commonly used to determine the toxicity of environmental samples but are usually limited to survival, growth, or reproduction. With advances in electronic and computer technology, biomonitors are being developed that can assess the toxicity of water by monit...

  4. Baseline water quality of Iowa's coal region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, Larry J.

    1979-01-01

    To assist the Iowa Department of Environmental Quality in determining the effects that coal mining and attendant activities will have on the water quality of Iowa streams, the U.S. Geological Survey collected three sets of water-quality samples (representative of high, average, and low streamflow) in the White Breast, English,aand Cedar Creek basins in south-central Iowa. These samples were analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey Central Laboratory at Denver, Colorado, and by the Iowa State Hygienic Laboratory (Iowa City and Des Moines). The report presents the data collected from May to November 1978 at 15 stations in the study area. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. Water Quality Standards for Coral Reef Protection

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Clean Water Act provides a legal framework to protect coastal biological resources such as coral reefs, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows from the damaging effects of human activities. Even though many resources are protected under this authority, water quality stan...

  6. SAMPLING DESIGN FOR ASSESSING RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current U.S. EPA guidelines for monitoring recreatoinal water quality refer to the geometric mean density of indicator organisms, enterococci and E. coli in marine and fresh water, respectively, from at least five samples collected over a four-week period. In order to expand thi...

  7. WATER QUALITY MULTI-YEAR PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The water quality research program provides approaches and methods the Agency and its partners need to develop and apply criteria to support designated uses, tools to diagnose and assess impairment in aquatic systems, and tools to restore and protect aquatic systems. Water qualit...

  8. WQM: A Water Quality Management Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharda, Ramesh; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Description of WQM, a simulation game designed to introduce students to the water quality management function, emphasizes the decision-making process involved in various facets of business. The simulation model is described, computer support is explained, and issues in water resource management are discussed. (13 references) (LRW)

  9. Using water-quality profiles to characterize seasonal water quality and loading in the upper Animas River basin, southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Mast, M. Alisa; Wright, Winfield G.

    2003-01-01

    One of the important types of information needed to characterize water quality in streams affected by historical mining is the seasonal pattern of toxic trace-metal concentrations and loads. Seasonal patterns in water quality are estimated in this report using a technique called water-quality profiling. Water-quality profiling allows land managers and scientists to assess priority areas to be targeted for characterization and(or) remediation by quantifying the timing and magnitude of contaminant occurrence. Streamflow and water-quality data collected at 15 sites in the upper Animas River Basin during water years 1991?99 were used to develop water-quality profiles. Data collected at each sampling site were used to develop ordinary least-squares regression models for streamflow and constituent concentrations. Streamflow was estimated by correlating instantaneous streamflow measured at ungaged sites with continuous streamflow records from streamflow-gaging stations in the subbasin. Water-quality regression models were developed to estimate hardness and dissolved cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations based on streamflow and seasonal terms. Results from the regression models were used to calculate water-quality profiles for streamflow, constituent concentrations, and loads. Quantification of cadmium, copper, and zinc loads in a stream segment in Mineral Creek (sites M27 to M34) was presented as an example application of water-quality profiling. The application used a method of mass accounting to quantify the portion of metal loading in the segment derived from uncharacterized sources during different seasonal periods. During May, uncharacterized sources contributed nearly 95 percent of the cadmium load, 0 percent of the copper load (or uncharacterized sources also are attenuated), and about 85 percent of the zinc load at M34. During September, uncharacterized sources contributed about 86 percent of the cadmium load, 0 percent of the copper load (or uncharacterized

  10. Drinking water quality monitoring using trend analysis.

    PubMed

    Tomperi, Jani; Juuso, Esko; Eteläniemi, Mira; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2014-06-01

    One of the common quality parameters for drinking water is residual aluminium. High doses of residual aluminium in drinking water or water used in the food industry have been proved to be at least a minor health risk or even to increase the risk of more serious health effects, and cause economic losses to the water treatment plant. In this study, the trend index is developed from scaled measurement data to detect a warning of changes in residual aluminium level in drinking water. The scaling is based on monotonously increasing, non-linear functions, which are generated with generalized norms and moments. Triangular episodes are classified with the trend index and its derivative. The severity of the situations is evaluated by deviation indices. The trend episodes and the deviation indices provide good tools for detecting changes in water quality and for process control. PMID:24937217

  11. Water-quality indices for specific water uses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoner, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    Water-quality indices were developed to assess waters for two specific uses--public water supply and irrigation. The assessment for a spcific water use is based on the availability f (of (1) a set of limits for each water quality property selected, (2) a rationale for selection, and (3) information that permits one to appraise the relationship of the concentration of the selected property to the suitability of the specific water use. The selected properties are divided into two classes: Type-I properties, those normaly considered toxic at low concentrations, and type-II properties, those which affect aesthetic conditions or which at high concentrations can be considered toxic or would otherwise render the water unfit for its intended use. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Participatory Patterns in an International Air Quality Monitoring Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Sîrbu, Alina; Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; De Baets, Bernard; Elen, Bart; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Hotho, Andreas; Ingarra, Stefano; Loreto, Vittorio; Molino, Andrea; Mueller, Juergen; Peters, Jan; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Saracino, Fabio; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Stumme, Gerd; Theunis, Jan; Tria, Francesca; Van den Bossche, Joris

    2015-01-01

    The issue of sustainability is at the top of the political and societal agenda, being considered of extreme importance and urgency. Human individual action impacts the environment both locally (e.g., local air/water quality, noise disturbance) and globally (e.g., climate change, resource use). Urban environments represent a crucial example, with an increasing realization that the most effective way of producing a change is involving the citizens themselves in monitoring campaigns (a citizen science bottom-up approach). This is possible by developing novel technologies and IT infrastructures enabling large citizen participation. Here, in the wider framework of one of the first such projects, we show results from an international competition where citizens were involved in mobile air pollution monitoring using low cost sensing devices, combined with a web-based game to monitor perceived levels of pollution. Measures of shift in perceptions over the course of the campaign are provided, together with insights into participatory patterns emerging from this study. Interesting effects related to inertia and to direct involvement in measurement activities rather than indirect information exposure are also highlighted, indicating that direct involvement can enhance learning and environmental awareness. In the future, this could result in better adoption of policies towards decreasing pollution. PMID:26313263

  13. Participatory Patterns in an International Air Quality Monitoring Initiative.

    PubMed

    Sîrbu, Alina; Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; De Baets, Bernard; Elen, Bart; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Hotho, Andreas; Ingarra, Stefano; Loreto, Vittorio; Molino, Andrea; Mueller, Juergen; Peters, Jan; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Saracino, Fabio; Servedio, Vito D P; Stumme, Gerd; Theunis, Jan; Tria, Francesca; Van den Bossche, Joris

    2015-01-01

    The issue of sustainability is at the top of the political and societal agenda, being considered of extreme importance and urgency. Human individual action impacts the environment both locally (e.g., local air/water quality, noise disturbance) and globally (e.g., climate change, resource use). Urban environments represent a crucial example, with an increasing realization that the most effective way of producing a change is involving the citizens themselves in monitoring campaigns (a citizen science bottom-up approach). This is possible by developing novel technologies and IT infrastructures enabling large citizen participation. Here, in the wider framework of one of the first such projects, we show results from an international competition where citizens were involved in mobile air pollution monitoring using low cost sensing devices, combined with a web-based game to monitor perceived levels of pollution. Measures of shift in perceptions over the course of the campaign are provided, together with insights into participatory patterns emerging from this study. Interesting effects related to inertia and to direct involvement in measurement activities rather than indirect information exposure are also highlighted, indicating that direct involvement can enhance learning and environmental awareness. In the future, this could result in better adoption of policies towards decreasing pollution. PMID:26313263

  14. Assessment of Drinking Water Quality from Bottled Water Coolers

    PubMed Central

    FARHADKHANI, Marzieh; NIKAEEN, Mahnaz; AKBARI ADERGANI, Behrouz; HATAMZADEH, Maryam; NABAVI, Bibi Fatemeh; HASSANZADEH, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Drinking water quality can be deteriorated by microbial and toxic chemicals during transport, storage and handling before using by the consumer. This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial and physicochemical quality of drinking water from bottled water coolers. Methods A total of 64 water samples, over a 5-month period in 2012-2013, were collected from free standing bottled water coolers and water taps in Isfahan. Water samples were analyzed for heterotrophic plate count (HPC), temperature, pH, residual chlorine, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC) and total organic carbon (TOC). Identification of predominant bacteria was also performed by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. Results The mean HPC of water coolers was determined at 38864 CFU/ml which exceeded the acceptable level for drinking water in 62% of analyzed samples. The HPC from the water coolers was also found to be significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of the tap waters. The statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the values of pH, EC, turbidity and TOC in water coolers and tap waters. According to sequence analysis eleven species of bacteria were identified. Conclusion A high HPC is indicative of microbial water quality deterioration in water coolers. The presence of some opportunistic pathogens in water coolers, furthermore, is a concern from a public health point of view. The results highlight the importance of a periodic disinfection procedure and monitoring system for water coolers in order to keep the level of microbial contamination under control. PMID:26060769

  15. Geographic techniques and recent applications of remote sensing to landscape-water quality studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    This article overviews recent advances in studies of landscape-water quality relationships using remote sensing techniques. With the increasing feasibility of using remotely-sensed data, landscape-water quality studies can now be more easily performed on regional, multi-state scales. The traditional method of relating land use and land cover to water quality has been extended to include landscape pattern and other landscape information derived from satellite data. Three items are focused on in this article: 1) the increasing recognition of the importance of larger-scale studies of regional water quality that require a landscape perspective; 2) the increasing importance of remotely sensed data, such as the imagery-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and vegetation phenological metrics derived from time-series NDVI data; and 3) landscape pattern. In some studies, using landscape pattern metrics explained some of the variation in water quality not explained by land use/cover. However, in some other studies, the NDVI metrics were even more highly correlated to certain water quality parameters than either landscape pattern metrics or land use/cover proportions. Although studies relating landscape pattern metrics to water quality have had mixed results, this recent body of work applying these landscape measures and satellite-derived metrics to water quality analysis has demonstrated their potential usefulness in monitoring watershed conditions across large regions.

  16. Quality of water, Quillayute River basin, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Fretwell, M.O.

    1984-01-01

    Ground water in the Quillayute River basin is generally of the calcium bicarbonate type, although water from some wells is affected by seawater intrusion and is predominantly of the sodium chloride type. The water is generally of excellent quality for most uses, with the exception of water in two wells which had iron concentrations that potentially could be tasted in beverages and could cause staining of laundry and porcelain fixtures. A comparison of the chemical compositions of ground and surface waters showed a strong similarity over a wide geographic area. Proportions of the major chemical constituents in the rivers of the basin were nearly constant despite concentration fluctuations in response to dilution from precipitation and snowmelt. River-water quality was generally excellent, as evaluated against Washington State water use and water-quality criteria. Fecal-coliform bacteria counts generally were much lower than the total-coliform bacteria counts, indicating that most of the coliform bacteria were of nonfecal origin and probably originated in soils. Fecal coliform concentrations in all the major tributaries met State water-quality criteria. Water temperatures occasionally exceeded criteria maximum during periods of warm weather and low streamflow; dissolved-oxygen concentrations were occasionally less than criteria minimum because of increased water temperature. Both conditions occurred naturally. Nutrient concentrations were generally low to very low and about the same as in streams from virgin forestland in the Olympic National Park. However, some slight increases in nutrient concentrations were observed, particularly in the vicinity of Mill Creek and the town of Forks; due to dilution and biological assimilation, these slightly elevated concentrations decreased as the water moved downstream. 35 refs., 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. Using Lagrangian Coherent Structures to understand coastal water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorentino, L. A.; Olascoaga, M. J.; Reniers, A.; Feng, Z.; Beron-Vera, F. J.; MacMahan, J. H.

    2012-09-01

    The accumulation of pollutants near the shoreline can result in low quality coastal water with negative effects on human health. To understand the role of mixing by tidal flows in coastal water quality we study the nearshore Lagrangian circulation. Specifically, we reveal Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs), i.e., distinguished material curves which shape global mixing patterns and thus act as skeletons of the Lagrangian circulation. This is done using the recently developed geodesic theory of transport barriers. Particular focus is placed on Hobie Beach, a recreational subtropical marine beach located in Virginia Key, Miami, Florida. According to studies of water quality, Hobie Beach is characterized by high microbial levels. Possible sources of pollution in Hobie Beach include human bather shedding, dog fecal matter, runoff, and sand efflux at high tides. Consistent with the patterns formed by satellite-tracked drifter trajectories, the LCSs extracted from simulated currents reveal a Lagrangian circulation favoring the retention near the shoreline of pollutants released along the shoreline, which can help explain the low quality water registered at Hobie Beach.

  18. Test patterns and quality metrics for digital video compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenimore, Charles P.; Field, Bruce F.; Van Degrift, Craig

    1997-06-01

    Lossy video compression systems such as MPEG2 introduce picture impairments such as image blocking, color distortion and persistent color fragments, 'mosquito noise,' and blurring in their outputs. While there are video test clips which exhibit one or more of these distortions upon coding, there is need of a set of well-characterized test patterns and video quality metrics. Digital test patterns can deliver calibrated stresses to specific features of the encoder, much as the test patterns for analog video stress critical characteristics of that system. Metrics quantify the error effects of compression by a computation. NIST is developing such test patterns and metrics for compression rates that typically introduce perceptually negligible artifacts, i.e. for high quality video. The test patterns are designed for subjective and objective evaluation. The test patterns include a family of computer-generated spinning wheels to stress luminance-based macro-block motion estimation algorithms and images with strongly directional high-frequency content to stress quantization algorithms. In this paper we discuss the spinning wheel test pattern. It has been encoded at a variety of bit rates near the threshold for the perception of impairments. We have observed that impairment perceptibility depends on the local contrast. For the spinning wheel we report the contrast at the threshold for perception of impairments as a function of the bit rate. To quantify perceptual image blocking we have developed a metric which detects 'flats:' image blocks of constant (or near constant) luminance. The effectiveness of this metric is appraised.

  19. Water quality analysis of surface water: a Web approach.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Poonam; Chaurasia, Meenal; Sohony, R A; Gupta, Indrani; Kumar, R

    2013-07-01

    The chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water with respect to its suitability describe its quality. Concentration of pesticides or fertilisers degrades the water quality and affects marine life. A comprehensive environmental data information system helps to perform and complete common tasks in less time with less effort for data verification, data calculations, graph generation, and proper monitoring, which helps in the further mitigation step. In this paper, focus is given to a web-based system developed to express the quality of water in the imprecise environment of monitoring data. Water samples were analyzed for eight different surface water parameters, in which four parameters such as pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and fecal coliform were used for the water quality index calculation following MPCB Water Quality Standards of class A-II for best designated use. The analysis showed that river points in a particular year were in very bad category with certainty level of 0-38% which is unsuitable for drinking purposes; samples in bad category had certainty level that ranged from 38 to 50%; samples in medium to good category had certainty levels from 50 to 100%, and the remaining samples were in good to excellent category, suitable for drinking purposes, with certainty levels from 63 to 100%. PMID:23238782

  20. Rare Event Detection Algorithm Of Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungs, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    A novel method is presented describing the development and implementation of an on-line water quality event detection algorithm. An algorithm was developed to distinguish between normal variation in water quality parameters and changes in these parameters triggered by the presence of contaminant spikes. Emphasis is placed on simultaneously limiting the number of false alarms (which are called false positives) that occur and the number of misses (called false negatives). The problem of excessive false alarms is common to existing change detection algorithms. EPA's standard measure of evaluation for event detection algorithms is to have a false alarm rate of less than 0.5 percent and a false positive rate less than 2 percent (EPA 817-R-07-002). A detailed description of the algorithm's development is presented. The algorithm is tested using historical water quality data collected by a public water supply agency at multiple locations and using spiking contaminants developed by the USEPA, Water Security Division. The water quality parameters of specific conductivity, chlorine residual, total organic carbon, pH, and oxidation reduction potential are considered. Abnormal data sets are generated by superimposing water quality changes on the historical or baseline data. Eddies-ET has defined reaction expressions which specify how the peak or spike concentration of a particular contaminant affects each water quality parameter. Nine default contaminants (Eddies-ET) were previously derived from pipe-loop tests performed at EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) Test and Evaluation (T&E) Facility. A contaminant strength value of approximately 1.5 is considered to be a significant threat. The proposed algorithm has been able to achieve a combined false alarm rate of less than 0.03 percent for both false positives and for false negatives using contaminant spikes of strength 2 or more.

  1. Water quality assessment in Ecuador

    SciTech Connect

    Chudy, J.P.; Arniella, E.; Gil, E.

    1993-02-01

    The El Tor cholera pandemic arrived in Ecuador in March 1991, and through the course of the year caused 46,320 cases, of which 692 resulted in death. Most of the cases were confined to cities along Ecuador's coast. The Water and Sanitation for Health Project (WASH), which was asked to participate in the review of this request, suggested that a more comprehensive approach should be taken to cholera control and prevention. The approach was accepted, and a multidisciplinary team consisting of a sanitary engineer, a hygiene education specialist, and an institutional specialist was scheduled to carry out the assessment in late 1992 following the national elections.

  2. Water quality and the grazing animal.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, R K; Newton, G L; Hill, G M

    2004-01-01

    Grazing animals and pasture production can affect water quality both positively and negatively. Good management practices for forage production protect the soil surface from erosion compared with conventionally produced crops. Grazing animals and pasture production can negatively affect water quality through erosion and sediment transport into surface waters, through nutrients from urine and feces dropped by the animals and fertility practices associated with production of high-quality pasture, and through pathogens from the wastes. Erosion and sediment transport is primarily associated with high-density stocking and/or poor forage stands. The two nutrients of primary concern relating to animal production are N and P. Nitrogen is of concern because high concentrations in drinking water in the NO(3) form cause methemoglobinemia (blue baby disease), whereas other forms of N (primarily nitrite, NO(2)) are considered to be potentially carcinogenic. Phosphorus in the PO(4) form is of concern because it causes eutrophication of surface water bodies. The effect of grazing animals on soil and water quality must be evaluated at both the field and watershed scales. Such evaluation must account for both direct input of animal wastes from the grazing animal and also applications of inorganic fertilizers to produce quality pastures. Watershed-scale studies have primarily used the approach of nutrient loadings per land area and nutrient removals as livestock harvests. A number of studies have measured nutrient loads in surface runoff from grazed land and compared loads with other land uses, including row crop agriculture and forestry. Concentrations in discharge have been regressed against standard grazing animal units per land area. Watersheds with concentrated livestock populations have been shown to discharge as much as 5 to 10 times more nutrients than watersheds in cropland or forestry. The other major water quality concern with grazing animals is pathogens, which may move

  3. Development of reclaimed potable water quality criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flory, D. A.; Weir, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    In order to minimize launch requirements necessary to meet the demands of long-term spaceflight, NASA will reuse water reclaimed from various on-board sources including urine, feces, wash water and humidity condensate. Development of reclamation systems requires the promulgation of water quality standards for potable reuse of the reclaimed water. Existing standards for domestic U.S. potable water consumption were developed, but do not consider the peculiar problems associated with the potable reuse of recycled water. An effort was made to: (1) define a protocol by which comprehensive reclaimed water potability/palatability criteria can be established and updated; and (2) continue the effort to characterize the organic content of reclaimed water in the Regenerative Life Support Evaluation.

  4. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM) plans. WQM plans consist of...

  5. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM) plans. WQM plans consist of...

  6. WATER QUALITY EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS FOR SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Source waters of the U.S. are vulnerable to natural and anthropogenic factors affecting quality for use as both a drinking water and ecological media. Important factors include physical parameters such as increased turbidity, ecological cycles such as algal blooms, and episodic ...

  7. OPERATION OF WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of drinking water can change between the discharge from the treatment plant and the point of consumption. In order to study these changes in a systematic manner a Cooperative Agreement was initiated between EPA's Drinking Water Research Division and the North Penn Wat...

  8. In Brief: Improving Mississippi River water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-10-01

    If water quality in the Mississippi River and the northern Gulf of Mexico is to improve, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) needs to take a stronger leadership role in implementing the federal Clean Water Act, according to a 16 October report from the U.S. National Research Council. The report notes that EPA has failed to use its authority to coordinate and oversee activities along the river. In addition, river states need to be more proactive and cooperative in efforts to monitor and improve water quality, and the river should be monitored and evaluated as a single system, the report indicates. Currently, the 10 states along the river conduct separate and widely varying water quality monitoring programs. ``The limited attention being given to monitoring and managing the Mississippi's water quality does not match the river's significant economic, ecological, and cultural importance,'' said committee chair David A. Dzombak, director of the Steinbrenner Institute for Environmental Education and Research at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa. The report notes that while measures taken under the Clean Water Act have successfully reduced much point source pollution, nutrient and sediment loads from nonpoint sources continue to be significant problems. For more information, visit the Web site: http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12051.

  9. Water quality in sugar catchments of Queensland.

    PubMed

    Rayment, G E

    2003-01-01

    Water quality condition and trend are important indicators of the impact of land use on the environment, as degraded water quality causes unwelcome changes to ecosystem composition and health. These concerns extend to the sea, where discharges of nutrients, sediments and toxicants above natural levels are unwelcome, particularly when they drain to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and other coastal waters of Queensland. Sugarcane is grown in 26 major river catchments in Queensland, most in environmentally sensitive areas. This puts pressure on the Queensland Sugar Industry to manage the land in ways that have minimum adverse off-site impacts. Sugar researchers including CRC Sugar have been associated with water quality studies in North Queensland. These include investigations and reviews to assess the role of groundwater as a pathway for nitrate loss from canelands in the Herbert Catchment, to find causes of oxygen depletion in water (including irrigation runoff) from Ingham to Mackay, to use residues of superseded pesticides as indicators of sediment loss to the sea, and to assemble information on water quality pressure and status in sugar catchments. Key findings, plus information on input pressures are described in this paper, and areas of concern and opportunities discussed. PMID:14653632

  10. Observations on a Montana water quality proposal.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.

    2006-01-12

    In May 2005, a group of petitioners led by the Northern Plains Resource Council (NPRC) submitted a petition to revise water quality requirements to the Montana Board of Environmental Review (BER). Under Montana law, the BER had to consider the petition and either reject it or propose it as a new regulation. In September 2005, the BER announced proposed changes to the Montana water quality regulations. The proposal, which included almost the exact language found in the petition, was directed toward discharges of water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production. The key elements of the proposal included: (1) No discharges of CBNG water are allowed to Montana surface waters unless operators can demonstrate that injection to aquifers with the potential for later recovery of the water is not feasible. (2) When operators can demonstrate the injection is not feasible, the CBNG water to be discharged must meet very strict technology-based limits for multiple parameters. (3) The Montana water quality standards for the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) would be evaluated using the 7Q10 flow (lowest 7-consecutive-day flow in a 10-year period) rather than a monthly flow that is currently used. (4) SAR and EC would be reclassified as ''harmful parameters'', thereby greatly restricting the ability for CBNG discharges to be allowed under Montana's nondegradation regulations. The proposed regulations, if adopted in their current form, are likely to substantially reduce the amount of CBNG production in Montana. The impact also extends to Wyoming CBNG production through much greater restrictions on water quality that must be met at the interstate border.

  11. Water quality in conventional and home haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Damasiewicz, Matthew J; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Kerr, Peter G

    2012-12-01

    Dialysis water can be contaminated by chemical and microbiological factors, all of which are potentially hazardous to patients on haemodialysis. The quality of dialysis water has seen incremental improvements over the years, with advances in water preparation, monitoring and disinfection methods, and high standards are now readily achievable in clinical practice. Advances in dialysis membrane technology have refocused attention on water quality and its potential role in the bioincompatibility of haemodialysis circuits and adverse patient outcomes. The role of ultrapure dialysate is increasingly being advocated, given its proposed clinical benefits and relative ease of production as a result of the widespread use of reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration. Many of the issues pertaining to water quality in hospital-based dialysis units are also pertinent to haemodialysis in the home. Furthermore, an increased awareness of the environmental and financial consequences of home haemodialysis has resulted in the development of automated and more efficient dialysis machines. These new machines have an increased emphasis on water conservation and recycling along with a decreased need for a complex infrastructure for water purification and maintenance. PMID:23090444

  12. 41. PATTERN STORAGE, GRIND STONE, WATER TANK, SHAFTING, AND TABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. PATTERN STORAGE, GRIND STONE, WATER TANK, SHAFTING, AND TABLE SAW (L TO R)-LOOKING WEST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  13. Monitoring water quality by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A limited study was conducted to determine the applicability of remote sensing for evaluating water quality conditions in the San Francisco Bay and delta. Considerable supporting data were available for the study area from other than overflight sources, but short-term temporal and spatial variability precluded their use. The study results were not sufficient to shed much light on the subject, but it did appear that, with the present state of the art in image analysis and the large amount of ground truth needed, remote sensing has only limited application in monitoring water quality.

  14. Water Quality and Sustainable Environmental Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setegn, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of adequate safe water, the pollution of the aquatic environment and the mismanagement of resources are major causes of ill-health and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. In order to accommodate more growth, sustainable fresh water resource management will need to be included in future development plans. One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. To understand the sustainability of the water resources, one needs to understand the impact of future land use and climate changes on the natural resources. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the Millennium Development Goals will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. A balanced approach to water resources exploitation for development, on the one hand, and controls for the protection of health, on the other, is required if the benefits of both are to be realized without avoidable detrimental effects manifesting themselves. Meeting the millennium development goals for water and sanitation in the next decade will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. In addition to providing "improved" water and "basic" sanitation services, we must ensure that these services provide: safe drinking water, adequate quantities of water for health, hygiene, agriculture and development and sustainable sanitation approaches to protect health and the environment.

  15. Analysis of trends in water-quality data for water conservation area 3A, the Everglades, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattraw, H.C., Jr.; Scheidt, D.J.; Federico, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    Rainfall and water quality data bases from the South Florida Water Management District were used to evaluate water quality trends at 10 locations near or in Water Conservation Area 3A in The Everglades. The Seasonal Kendall test was applied to specific conductance, orthophosphate-phosphorus, nitrate-nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and total nitrogen regression residuals for the period 1978-82. Residuals of orthophosphate and nitrate quadratic models, based on antecedent 7-day rainfall at inflow gate S-11B, were the only two constituent-structure pairs that showed apparent significant (p < 0.05) increases in constituent concentrations. Elimination of regression models with distinct residual patterns and data outlines resulted in 17 statistically significant station water quality combinations for trend analysis. No water quality trends were observed. The 1979 Memorandum of Agreement outlining the water quality monitoring program between the Everglades National Park and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers stressed collection four times a year at three stations, and extensive coverage of water quality properties. Trend analysis and other rigorous statistical evaluation programs are better suited to data monitoring programs that include more frequent sampling and that are organized in a water quality data management system. Pronounced areal differences in water quality suggest that a water quality monitoring system for Shark River Slough in Everglades National Park include collection locations near the source of inflow to Water Conservation Area 3A. (Author 's abstract)

  16. SPARROW MODELING - Enhancing Understanding of the Nation's Water Quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Preston, Stephen D.; Alexander, Richard B.; Woodside, Michael D.; Hamilton, Pixie A.

    2009-01-01

    The information provided here is intended to assist water-resources managers with interpretation of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) SPARROW model and its products. SPARROW models can be used to explain spatial patterns in monitored stream-water quality in relation to human activities and natural processes as defined by detailed geospatial information. Previous SPARROW applications have identified the sources and transport of nutrients in the Mississippi River basin, Chesapeake Bay watershed, and other major drainages of the United States. New SPARROW models with improved accuracy and interpretability are now being developed by the USGS National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program for six major regions of the conterminous United States. These new SPARROW models are based on updated geospatial data and stream-monitoring records from local, State, and other federal agencies.

  17. Coal conversion siting on coal mined lands: water quality issues

    SciTech Connect

    Triegel, E. K.

    1980-01-01

    The siting of new technology coal conversion facilities on land disturbed by coal mining results in both environmental benefits and unique water quality issues. Proximity to mining reduces transportation requirements and restores disrupted land to productive use. Uncertainties may exist, however, in both understanding the existing site environment and assessing the impact of the new technology. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is currently assessing the water-related impacts of proposed coal conversion facilities located in areas disturbed by surface and underground coal mining. Past mining practices, leaving highly permeable and unstable fill, may affect the design and quality of data from monitoring programs. Current mining and dewatering, or past underground mining may alter groundwater or surface water flow patterns or affect solid waste disposal stability. Potential acid-forming material influences the siting of waste disposal areas and the design of grading operations. These and other problems are considered in relation to the uncertainties and potentially unique problems inherent in developing new technologies.

  18. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column.

  19. Climate change influence on drinking water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Melinda Haydee; Ristoiu, Dumitru; Voica, Cezara; Moldovan, Zaharie

    2013-11-01

    Although it are quite well known the possible effects of climate changes on surface waters availability and their hydrological risks, their consequences on drinking water quality is not well defined yet. Disinfection agents (as Cl2, O3, etc.) or multiple combinations of them for water treatment and disinfection purposes are applied by water treatment plants at worldwide level. Unfortunately, besides the benefits of these processes were also highlighted some undesirable effects such as formation of several disinfection by-products (DBPs) after reaction of disinfection agent with natural organic matter (NOM) from water body. DBPs formation in drinking water, suspected to posses adverse health effects to humans are strongly regulated in our days. Thus, throughout this study kinetics experiments both the main physicochemical factors that influencing the quality of drinking waters were evaluated as well how they act through possible warming or the consequences of extreme events. Increasing water temperatures with 1 - 5 °C above its normal value has showed that NOMs are presented in higher amount which led to the need for greater amount of disinfectant agent (5 - 15 %). Increasing the amount of disinfecting agent resulted in the formation of DBPs in significantly higher concentrations (between 5 - 30 %).

  20. Variations in statewide water quality of New Jersey streams, water years 1998-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heckathorn, Heather A.; Deetz, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    (control stations that are located on reaches of streams relatively unaffected by human activity) during water years 1998-2009. Results of tests on concentrations of total dissolved solids, dissolved chloride, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen indicate a significant difference in water quality at Statewide Status stations but not at Background stations during the study period. Excluding water year 2009, all significant changes that were observed in the median concentrations were ultimately increases, except for total phosphorus, which varied significantly but in an inconsistent pattern during water years 1998-2009. Streamflow data aided in the interpretation of the results for this study. Extreme values of water-quality constituents generally followed inverse patterns of streamflow. Low streamflow conditions helped explain elevated concentrations of several constituents during water years 2001-02. During extreme drought conditions in 2002, maximum concentrations occurred for four of the six water-quality constituents examined in this study at Statewide Status stations (maximum concentration of 4,190 milligrams per liter of total dissolved solids) and three of six constituents at Background stations (maximum concentration of 179 milligrams per liter of total dissolved solids). The changes in water quality observed in this study parallel many of the findings from previous studies of trends in New Jersey.

  1. Quality requirements for reclaimed/recycled water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janik, Daniel S.; Sauer, Richard L.; Pierson, Duane L.; Thorstenson, Yvonne R.

    1987-01-01

    Water used during current and previous space missions has been either carried or made aloft. Future human space endeavors will require some form of water reclamation and recycling. There is little experience in the U.S. space program with this technology. Water reclamation and recycling constitute engineering challenges of the broadest nature that will require an intensive research and development effort if this technology is to mature in time for practical use on the proposed U.S. Space Station. In order for this to happen, reclaimed/recycled water specifications will need to be devised to guide engineering development. Present NASA Potable Water Specifications are not applicable to reclaimed or recycled water. Adequate specifications for ensuring the quality of the reclaimed or recycled potable water system is reviewed, limitations of present water specifications are examined, world experience with potable water reclamation/recycling systems and systems analogs is reviewed, and an approach to developing pertinent biomedical water specifications for spacecraft is presented. Space Station water specifications should be designed to ensure the health of all likely spacecraft inhabitants including man, animals, and plants.

  2. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... purposes of this rule and the Clean Water Act assistance programs under 40 CFR part 35, subparts A and H if... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management...

  3. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... purposes of this rule and the Clean Water Act assistance programs under 40 CFR part 35, subparts A and H if... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Water quality management plans. 130.6... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management...

  4. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  5. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  6. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  7. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    PubMed

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development. PMID:27070382

  8. Impacts of aquatic macrophytes configuration modes on water quality.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiakai; Liu, Jinglan; Zhang, Rong; Zou, Yuqi; Wang, Huihui; Zhang, Zhenming

    2014-01-01

    Constructed wetland technology is regarded as an important ecological restoration technology and used widely in sewage disposal. In order to give them a wider scope of application and to improve their performance in water restoration, the current experiment was designed. Four aquatic macrophytes (dwarf cattail (TM), yellow-flowered iris (WI), water shallot (ST) and watermifoil (MS)) were picked and planted in artificial floating islands (AFIs) in different configurations (TM + WI, ST + MS and TM + WI + MS) and two patterns, radiation pattern (RP) and annular pattern (AP), for a 60-day experiment. Then, water quality and growth were monitored every 10 days. The results indicate that the different configurations performed diversely on waste water purification. First, a composite plant configuration removed more pollutant than a single one with the same total increment of biomass. Second, the plant configuration of MS + ST was most effective in total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) or PO4(3-) removal, and TM + IW + MS was good at chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NO3(-) removal. However, different patterns comprised from the same species had a certain effect on absorption of pollutants. Generally speaking, plant configurations with a RP were better than an AP in purification. Accordingly, these provided the methods for the pollution wetland restoration. PMID:24473292

  9. Water quality of North Carolina streams. Chapter E

    SciTech Connect

    Harned, D.; Meyer, D.

    1983-01-01

    Interpretation of water-quality data for the Yadkin-Pee Dee River system, has identified water-quality variations, characterized the current condition of the river in reference to water-quality standards, estimated the degree of pollution caused by man, and evaluated long-term trends in concentrations of major dissolved constituents. Overall, the ambient water quality of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River system is satisfactory for most water uses. Iron and manganese concentrations are often above desirable levels, but they are not unusually high in comparison to other North Carolina streams. Lead concentrations also periodically rise above the recommended criterion for domestic water use. Mercury concentrations frequently exceed, and pH levels fall below, the recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life. Dissolved-oxygen levels, while generally good, are lowest at the Pee Dee near Rockingham, due to the station's location not far downstream from a lake. Suspended sediment is the most significant water-quality problem of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River. The major cation in the river is sodium and the major anions are bicarbonate and carbonate. Nutrient concentrations are high enough to allow rich algal growth. Eutrophication is currently a problem in the Yadkin-Pee Dee, particularly in High Rock Lake. Statistically significant trends show a pattern of increasing concentration of most dissolved constituents over time, with a leveling off and declines in the middle of late 1970's. Relatively steady increases in sulfate and in nitrate and a steady decrease in pH with time probably are largely due to the increasing acidity of atmospheric precipitation. 43 figs., 22 tabs.

  10. NONPOINT SOURCES AND WATER QUALITY TRADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of nonpoint sources (NPS) of nutrients may reduce discharge levels more cost effectively than can additional controls on point sources (PS); water quality trading (WQT), where a PS buys nutrient or sediment reductions from an NPS, may be an alternative means for the PS...

  11. Examining issues with water quality model configuration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex watershed–scale, water quality models require a considerable amount of data in order to be properly configured, especially in view of the scarcity of data in many regions due to temporal and economic constraints. In this study, we examined two different input issues incurred while building ...

  12. Nutrient Management: Water Quality/Use

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient management programs must have a positive impact on water quality. The challenge for producers is to understand the nutrient balance in the soil and to reduce the risk of surface runoff of manure. The challenge for science is to increase our understanding of the value of manure in the soil a...

  13. Evaluating Water Quality in a Suburban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S. M.; Garza, N.

    2008-12-01

    A water quality analysis and modeling study is currently being conducted on the Martinez Creek, a small catchment within Cibolo watershed, a sub-basin of the San Antonio River, Texas. Several other major creeks, such as Salatrillo, Escondido, and Woman Hollering merge with Martinez Creek. Land use and land cover analysis shows that the major portion of the watershed is dominated by residential development with average impervious cover percentage of approximately 40% along with a some of agricultural areas and brushlands. This catchment is characterized by the presence of three small wastewater treatment plants. Previous site visits and sampling of water quality indicate the presence of algae and fecal coliform bacteria at levels well above state standards at several locations in the catchment throughout the year. Due to the presence of livestock, residential development and wastewater treatment plants, a comprehensive understanding of water quality is important to evaluate the sources and find means to control pollution. As part of the study, a spatial and temporal water quality analyses of conventional parameters as well as emerging contaminants, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals and microbial pathogens is being conducted to identify critical locations and sources. Additionally, the Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) will be used to identify best management practices that can be incorporated given the projected growth and development and feasibility.

  14. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists from ten countries presented papers at the Fifth International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality, which was held on the campus of the city University of Hong Kong on November 10-13, 1998. These Proceedings include 23 papers presented in sessi...

  15. Water Quality Unit, Edmonds School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds School District 15, Lynnwood, WA.

    This interdisciplinary program, developed for secondary students, contains 20 water quality activities that can either be used directly in, or as a supplement to, curriculum in Science, Home Economics and Industrial Arts, Mathematics, Health, English, and Social Studies. The topics investigated include: pollution analysis, industrial need,…

  16. Water quality issues and energy assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.

    1980-11-01

    This report identifies and evaluates the significant water quality issues related to regional and national energy development. In addition, it recommends improvements in the Office assessment capability. Handbook-style formating, which includes a system of cross-references and prioritization, is designed to help the reader use the material.

  17. FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY:

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-one participants from Europe, North America and China convened in Chongqing, China, October 12-14, 2005, for the Eighth International Symposium in Fish Physiology, Toxicology and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was "Hypoxia in vertebrates: Comparisons of terrestr...

  18. ASSESSING WATER QUALITY: AN ENERGETICS PERPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated measures of food web dynamics could serve as important supplemental indicators of water quality that are well related with ecological integrity and environmental well-being. When the concern is a well-characterized pollutant (posing an established risk to human health...

  19. Research on water quality of reservoir tailwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Dortch, M.S.; Hamlin, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    Many reservoirs experience seasonal thermal stratification often accompanied by dissolved oxygen (DO) depletion in bottom waters. When water is released to the downstream environment, reaeration occurs. Eventually, the water quality recovers to a more natural stream condition. The recovery distance, which depends on physical and biogeochemical factors, is often on the order of miles. To address this need, a study was conducted on poor water quality associated with deep, anoxic releases at four sites: (1) the tailwater of Lake Greeson, Little Missouri River, Arkansas; (2) tailwater of Nimrod Reservoir (Fourche La Fave River, Arkansas); (3) tailwater of Rough River Reservoir, Kentucky; and (4) Buford Dam tailwater on the Chattahoochee River, Georgia. The objectives were: to develop an improved understanding of chemical transformation in tailwaters; to provide guidance on sampling and analysis of tailwater quality; and to develop an easy-to-use PC model to predict impacts of reservoir releases on tailwater quality. Preliminary results are reported for the Greeson tailwater study only. The major process affecting DO concentrations was stream reaeration. Flow rate was shown to affect oxidation rates (e.g. for iron and manganese) so that a generalized formulation for reduced iron and manganese oxidation kinetics may need to account for the local temperature, DO concentration, pH, possible a flow-related variable, and the type of substrate in the stream. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Integration of air and water quality issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental sustainability of dairy farms is dependent upon a number of air and water quality issues. Atmospheric emissions include hazardous compounds such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide along with greenhouse gases and their implications with global climate change. Runoff of sediment, phosph...

  1. Water Quality Considerations and Related Dishwashing Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Nina I.

    A number of the chemical and physical factors which cause dishwashing problems are presented in a series of charts. Water quality considerations are vital, but the importance of good housekeeping and proper operating practices cannot and must not be minimized. Topics discussed include--(1) dissolved minerals, (2) dissolved gases, (3) detergents,…

  2. Water quality assessment using water quality index and geographical information system methods in the coastal waters of Andaman Sea, India.

    PubMed

    Jha, Dilip Kumar; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Vidyalakshmi, Rajendran; Brindha, Balan; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam

    2015-11-15

    Seawater samples at 54 stations in the year 2011-2012 from Chidiyatappu, Port Blair, Rangat and Aerial Bays of Andaman Sea, have been investigated in the present study. Datasets obtained have been converted into simple maps using coastal water quality index (CWQI) and Geographical Information System (GIS) based overlay mapping technique to demarcate healthy and polluted areas. Analysis of multiple parameters revealed poor water quality in Port Blair and Rangat Bays. The anthropogenic activities may be the likely cause for poor water quality. Whereas, good water quality was witnessed at Chidiyatappu Bay. Higher CWQI scores were perceived in the open sea. However, less exploitation of coastal resources owing to minimal anthropogenic activity indicated good water quality index at Chidiyatappu Bay. This study is an attempt to integrate CWQI and GIS based mapping technique to derive a reliable, simple and useful output for water quality monitoring in coastal environment. PMID:26346804

  3. Quality of Surface Water in Missouri, Water Year 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otero-Benitez, William; Davis, Jerri V.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designed and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2007 water year (October 1, 2006 through September 30, 2007), data were collected at 67 stations including two U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations and one spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved nitrite plus nitrte, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and selected pesticide data summaries are presented for 64 of these stations, which primarily have been classified in groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, main land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State during water year 2007 is presented.

  4. WATER QUALITY REPORT, PALOUSE RIVER, WASHINGTON, 1970-1971

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accumulated water quality monitoring data indicates that Palouse River mainstem and south fork waters (17060108) suffer severe pollution problems throughout the year. South fork stations were more seriously affected. Coliform levels were generally far in excess of water quality...

  5. EPANET - AN ADVANCED WATER QUALITY MODELING PACKAGE FOR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPANET is a third generation software package for modeling water quality within drinking water distribution systems. he program performs extended period simulation of hydraulic and water quality conditions within pressurized pipe networks. n addition to substance concentration wa...

  6. Mechanisms affecting water quality in an intermittent piped water supply.

    PubMed

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water distribution systems throughout the world supply water intermittently, leaving pipes without pressure between supply cycles. Understanding the multiple mechanisms that affect contamination in these intermittent water supplies (IWS) can be used to develop strategies to improve water quality. To study these effects, we tested water quality in an IWS system with infrequent and short water delivery periods in Hubli-Dharwad, India. We continuously measured pressure and physicochemical parameters and periodically collected grab samples to test for total coliform and E. coli throughout supply cycles at 11 sites. When the supply was first turned on, water with elevated turbidity and high concentrations of indicator bacteria was flushed out of pipes. At low pressures (<10 psi), elevated indicator bacteria were frequently detected even when there was a chlorine residual, suggesting persistent contamination had occurred through intrusion or backflow. At pressures between 10 and 17 psi, evidence of periodic contamination suggested that transient intrusion, backflow, release of particulates, or sloughing of biofilms from pipe walls had occurred. Few total coliform and no E. coli were detected when water was delivered with a chlorine residual and at pressures >17 psi. PMID:24459990

  7. Identification of water quality degradation hotspots in developing countries by applying large scale water quality modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malsy, Marcus; Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina

    2014-05-01

    Decreasing water quality is one of the main global issues which poses risks to food security, economy, and public health and is consequently crucial for ensuring environmental sustainability. During the last decades access to clean drinking water increased, but 2.5 billion people still do not have access to basic sanitation, especially in Africa and parts of Asia. In this context not only connection to sewage system is of high importance, but also treatment, as an increasing connection rate will lead to higher loadings and therefore higher pressure on water resources. Furthermore, poor people in developing countries use local surface waters for daily activities, e.g. bathing and washing. It is thus clear that water utilization and water sewerage are indispensable connected. In this study, large scale water quality modelling is used to point out hotspots of water pollution to get an insight on potential environmental impacts, in particular, in regions with a low observation density and data gaps in measured water quality parameters. We applied the global water quality model WorldQual to calculate biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings from point and diffuse sources, as well as in-stream concentrations. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries i.e. Africa, Asia, and South America, as they are most affected by water pollution. Hereby, model runs were conducted for the year 2010 to draw a picture of recent status of surface waters quality and to figure out hotspots and main causes of pollution. First results show that hotspots mainly occur in highly agglomerated regions where population density is high. Large urban areas are initially loading hotspots and pollution prevention and control become increasingly important as point sources are subject to connection rates and treatment levels. Furthermore, river discharge plays a crucial role due to dilution potential, especially in terms of seasonal variability. Highly varying shares of BOD sources across

  8. [Numerical evaluation of soil quality under different conservation tillage patterns].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Hong; Tian, Xiao-Hong; Chi, Wen-Bo; Nan, Xiong-Xiong; Yan, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Rui-Xiang; Tong, Yan-An

    2010-06-01

    A 9-year field experiment was conducted on the Guanzhong Plain of Shaanxi Province to study the effects of subsoiling, rotary tillage, straw return, no-till seeding, and traditional tillage on the soil physical and chemical properties and the grain yield in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation system, and a comprehensive evaluation was made on the soil quality under these tillage patterns by the method of principal components analysis (PCA). Comparing with traditional tillage, all the conservation tillage patterns improved soil fertility quality and soil physical properties. Under conservative tillage, the activities of soil urease and alkaline phosphatase increased significantly, soil quality index increased by 19.8%-44.0%, and the grain yield of winter wheat and summer maize (expect that under no till seeding with straw covering) increased by 13%-28% and 3%-12%, respectively. Subsoiling every other year, straw-chopping combined with rotary tillage, and straw-mulching combined with subsoiling not only increased crop yield, but also improved soil quality. Based on the economic and ecological benefits, the practices of subsoiling and straw return should be promoted. PMID:20873622

  9. Evaluation of military field-water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.I.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1990-05-01

    This is the first and summary volume of the nine-volume study entitled Evaluation of Military Field-Water Quality. This study is a comprehensive assessment of the chemical, radiological, and biological constituents of field-water supplied that could pose health risks to military personnel around the world; it also provides a detailed evaluation of the field-water-treatment capability of the US Armed Forces. This study identifies as being of concern three physical properties, i.e., turbidity, color, and total dissolved solids; seven chemical constituents, i.e., chloride, magnesium, sulfate, arsenic, cyanide, lindane, and metabolites of algae and associated aquatic bacteria; and over twenty types of water-related pathogenic microorganisms. It also addresses five threat agents, i.e., hydrogen cyanide, radioactivity, organophosphorous nerve agents, the trichotecene mycotoxin T-2, and lewisite. An overview of the criteria and recommendations for standards for these constituents for short- term and long-term exposure periods are presented in this volume, as are health-effects summaries for assessing the potential soldier performance degradation when recommended standards are exceeded. In addition, the existing military field-water-treatment capability is reviewed, and an abbreviated discussion is presented of the general physical, chemical, and biological qualities of field waters in geographic regions worldwide, representing potential theaters of operation for US military forces. Finally, research recommendations are outlined. 18 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Drainage water management effects on tile discharge and water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) fluxes from tile drained watersheds have been implicated in water quality studies of the Mississippi River Basin, but the contribution of tile drains to N export in headwater watersheds is not well understood. The objective of this study was to ascertain seasonal and annual contribution...

  11. Quantitative water quality with ERTS-1. [Kansas water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L.; Mccauley, J. R.; James, G. W.; Magnuson, L. M.; Marzolf, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of ERTS-1 MSS computer compatible tapes of reservoir scenes in Kansas along with ground truth show that MSS bands and band ratios can be used for reliable prediction of suspended loads up to at least 900 ppm. The major reservoirs in Kansas, as well as in other Great Plains states, are playing increasingly important roles in flood control, recreation, agriculture, and urban water supply. Satellite imagery is proving useful for acquiring timely low cost water quality data required for optimum management of these fresh water resources.

  12. Linking biological and physicochemical water quality.

    PubMed

    Bernatowicz, Waldemar; Weiss, Annett; Matschullat, Jörg

    2009-12-01

    To define water quality, the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) demands complex assessments through physicochemical, biological, and hydromorphological controls of water bodies. Since the biological assessment became the central focus with hydrochemistry playing a supporting role, an evaluation of the interrelationships within this approach deems necessary. This work identified and tested these relationships to help improve the quality and efficiency of related efforts. Data from the 384 km(2) Weisseritz catchment (eastern Erzgebirge, Saxony, Germany and northern Bohemia, Czech Republic) were used as a representative example for central European streams in mountainous areas. The data cover the time frame 1992 to 2003. To implement WFD demands, the analysis was based on accepted German methods and classifications, WFD quality standards, and novel German methods for the biological status assessment. Selected chemical parameters were compared with different versions of the German Saprobic Index, based on macroinvertebrate indicator taxa. Relevant dependencies applicable for integrated stream assessment were statistically tested. Correlation analysis showed significant relationships. The highest scores were found for nutrients (NO(2)(-), N(inorg), and total N), salinity (Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), conductivity), and microelements (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)). The Saprobic Index used in the Integrated Assessment System for the Ecological Quality of Streams and Rivers throughout Europe using Benthic Macro-invertebrates program seems to be the most sensitive indicator to correlate with chemical parameters. PMID:19067209

  13. An ontology design pattern for surface water features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sinha, Gaurav; Mark, David; Kolas, Dave; Varanka, Dalia; Romero, Boleslo E.; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Usery, E. Lynn; Liebermann, Joshua; Sorokine, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Surface water is a primary concept of human experience but concepts are captured in cultures and languages in many different ways. Still, many commonalities exist due to the physical basis of many of the properties and categories. An abstract ontology of surface water features based only on those physical properties of landscape features has the best potential for serving as a foundational domain ontology for other more context-dependent ontologies. The Surface Water ontology design pattern was developed both for domain knowledge distillation and to serve as a conceptual building-block for more complex or specialized surface water ontologies. A fundamental distinction is made in this ontology between landscape features that act as containers (e.g., stream channels, basins) and the bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes) that occupy those containers. Concave (container) landforms semantics are specified in a Dry module and the semantics of contained bodies of water in a Wet module. The pattern is implemented in OWL, but Description Logic axioms and a detailed explanation is provided in this paper. The OWL ontology will be an important contribution to Semantic Web vocabulary for annotating surface water feature datasets. Also provided is a discussion of why there is a need to complement the pattern with other ontologies, especially the previously developed Surface Network pattern. Finally, the practical value of the pattern in semantic querying of surface water datasets is illustrated through an annotated geospatial dataset and sample queries using the classes of the Surface Water pattern.

  14. Quality and Control of Water Vapor Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from the geostationary satellites such as GOES, Meteosat, and GMS provides synoptic views of dynamical events on a continual basis. Because the imagery represents a non-linear combination of mid- and upper-tropospheric thermodynamic parameters (three-dimensional variations in temperature and humidity), video loops of these image products provide enlightening views of regional flow fields, the movement of tropical and extratropical storm systems, the transfer of moisture between hemispheres and from the tropics to the mid- latitudes, and the dominance of high pressure systems over particular regions of the Earth. Despite the obvious larger scale features, the water vapor imagery contains significant image variability down to the single 8 km GOES pixel. These features can be quantitatively identified and tracked from one time to the next using various image processing techniques. Merrill et al. (1991), Hayden and Schmidt (1992), and Laurent (1993) have documented the operational procedures and capabilities of NOAA and ESOC to produce cloud and water vapor winds. These techniques employ standard correlation and template matching approaches to wind tracking and use qualitative and quantitative procedures to eliminate bad wind vectors from the wind data set. Techniques have also been developed to improve the quality of the operational winds though robust editing procedures (Hayden and Veldon 1991). These quality and control approaches have limitations, are often subjective, and constrain wind variability to be consistent with model derived wind fields. This paper describes research focused on the refinement of objective quality and control parameters for water vapor wind vector data sets. New quality and control measures are developed and employed to provide a more robust wind data set for climate analysis, data assimilation studies, as well as operational weather forecasting. The parameters are applicable to cloud-tracked winds as well with minor

  15. Water quality monitoring using remote sensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adsavakulchai, Suwannee; Panichayapichet, Paweena

    2003-03-01

    There has been a rapid growth of shrimp farm around Kung Krabaen Bay in the past decade. This has caused enormous rise in generation of domestic and industrial wastes. Most of these wastes are disposed in the Kung Krabaen Bay. There is a serious need to retain this glory by better water quality management of this river. Conventional methods of monitoring of water quality have limitations in collecting information about water quality parameters for a large region in detailed manner due to high cost and time. Satellite based technologies have offered an alternate approach for many environmental monitoring needs. In this study, the high-resolution satellite data (LANDSAT TM) was utilized to develop mathematical models for monitoring of chlorophyll-a. Comparison between empirical relationship of spectral reflectance with chl-a and band ratio between the near infrared (NIR) and red was suggested to detect chlorophyll in water. This concept has been successfully employed for marine zones and big lakes but not for narrow rivers due to constraints of spatial resolution of satellite data. This information will be very useful in locating point and non-point sources of pollution and will help in designing and implementing controlling structures.

  16. Water Quality Vocabulary Development and Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the

  17. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  18. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  19. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  20. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  1. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  2. Chapter 5: Surface water quality sampling in streams and canals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface water sampling and water quality assessments have greatly evolved in the United States since the 1970s establishment of the Clean Water Act. Traditionally, water quality referred to only the chemical characteristics of the water and its toxicological properties related to drinking water or ...

  3. Spatio-temporal evaluation of Yamchi Dam basin water quality using Canadian water quality index.

    PubMed

    Farzadkia, Mahdi; Djahed, Babak; Shahsavani, Esmaeel; Poureshg, Yousef

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the growth of population and increase of the industries around the tributaries of Yamchi Dam basin have led to deterioration of dam water quality. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the Yamchi Dam basin water, which is used for drinking and irrigation consumptions using Canadian Water Quality Index (CWQI) model, and to determine the main water pollution sources of this basin. Initially, nine sampling stations were selected in the sensitive locations of the mentioned basin's tributaries, and 12 physico-chemical parameters and 2 biological parameters were measured. The CWQI for drinking consumptions was under 40 at all the stations indicating a poor water quality for drinking consumptions. On the other hand, the CWQI was 62-100 for irrigation at different stations; thus, the water had an excellent to fair quality for irrigation consumptions. Almost in all the stations, the quality of irrigation and drinking water in cold season was better. Besides, for drinking use, total coliform and fecal coliform had the highest frequency of failure, and total coliform had the maximum deviation from the specified objective. For irrigation use, total suspended solids had the highest frequency of failure and deviation from the objective in most of the stations. The pisciculture center, aquaculture center, and the Nir City wastewater discharge were determined as the main pollution sources of the Yamchi Dam basin. Therefore, to improve the water quality in this important surface water resource, urban and industrial wastewater treatment prior to disposal and more stringent environmental legislations are recommended. PMID:25750066

  4. Overview of water quality and water resource research in the Water Quality and Ecology Research Unit, Oxford, MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Water Quality and Ecology Research Unit (WQERU) is part of the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) National Sedimentation Laboratory located in Oxford, Mississippi. The stated research mission of the WQERU is to “address issues of water quality/quan...

  5. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality monitoring. 130.4 Section 130.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section...

  6. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality monitoring. 130.4 Section 130.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section...

  7. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality report. 130.8 Section 130.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and...

  8. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or...

  9. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality report. 130.8 Section 130.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and...

  10. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Water quality report. 130.8 Section 130.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and submit biennially...

  11. 9 CFR 108.11 - Water quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water quality requirements. 108.11... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.11 Water quality requirements. A certification from the appropriate water pollution control agency, that the establishment is in compliance with applicable water quality...

  12. 9 CFR 108.11 - Water quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water quality requirements. 108.11... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.11 Water quality requirements. A certification from the appropriate water pollution control agency, that the establishment is in compliance with applicable water quality...

  13. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality monitoring. 130.4 Section 130.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section...

  14. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or...

  15. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Water quality monitoring. 130.4 Section 130.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section...

  16. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or...

  17. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality report. 130.8 Section 130.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and...

  18. Water quality in Illinois, 1990-1991. Biennial report

    SciTech Connect

    Northrop, C.

    1993-01-01

    The report is a summary of the 305(b) Illinois Water Quality Report. It highlights the 1990 - 1991 water quality conditions of Illinois rivers, streams, inland lakes, Lake Michigan, and groundwater. The report also outlines current water quality issues and the IEPA's water pollution control programs.

  19. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or its... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23...

  20. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or its... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23...

  1. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality report. 130.8 Section 130.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and...

  2. 9 CFR 108.11 - Water quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water quality requirements. 108.11... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.11 Water quality requirements. A certification from the appropriate water pollution control agency, that the establishment is in compliance with applicable water quality...

  3. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality monitoring. 130.4 Section 130.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section...

  4. 9 CFR 108.11 - Water quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality requirements. 108.11... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.11 Water quality requirements. A certification from the appropriate water pollution control agency, that the establishment is in compliance with applicable water quality...

  5. Quality of surface water in Missouri, water year 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Miya N.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, designs and operates a series of monitoring stations on streams throughout Missouri known as the Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network. During the 2009 water year (October 1, 2008, through September 30, 2009), data were collected at 75 stations-69 Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network stations, 2 U.S. Geological Survey National Stream Quality Accounting Network stations, 1 spring sampled in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, and 3 stations sampled in cooperation with the Elk River Watershed Improvement Association. Dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, water temperature, suspended solids, suspended sediment, fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli bacteria, dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, dissolved and total recoverable lead and zinc, and select pesticide compound summaries are presented for 72 of these stations. The stations primarily have been classified into groups corresponding to the physiography of the State, primary land use, or unique station types. In addition, a summary of hydrologic conditions in the State including peak discharges, monthly mean discharges, and seven-day low flow is presented.

  6. Monitoring of soil water content and quality inside and outside the water curtain cultivation facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, K.; Kim, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Water curtain cultivation system is an energy saving technique for winter season by splashing groundwater on the inner roof of green house. Artificial groundwater recharge application to the water curtain cultivation facilities was adopted and tested to use groundwater sustainably in a rural region of Korea. The groundwater level in the test site shows natural trend corresponding rainfall pattern except during mid-November to early April when groundwater levels decline sharply due to groundwater abstraction for water curtain cultivation. Groundwater levels are also affected by surface water such as stream, small dams in the stream and agricultural ditches. Infiltration data were collected from lysimeter installation and monitoring inside and outside water cultivation facility and compared with each other. The infiltration data were well correlated with rainfall outside the facility, but the data in the facility showed very different from the other. The missing infiltration data were attributed to groundwater level rise and level sensor location below water table. Soil water contents in the unsaturated zone indicated rainfall infiltration propagation at depth and with time outside the facility. According to rainfall amount and water condition at the initial stage of a rainfall event, the variation of soil water content was shown differently. Soil water contents and electrical conductivities were closely correlated with each other, and they reflected rainfall infiltration through the soil and water quality changes. The monitoring results are useful to reveal the hydrological processes from the infiltration to groundwater recharge, and water management planning in the water cultivation areas.

  7. Quality assessment of Romanian bottled mineral water and tap water.

    PubMed

    M Carstea, Elfrida; Levei, Erika A; Hoaghia, Maria-Alexandra; Savastru, Roxana

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the evaluation of bottled mineral water characteristics using fluorescence spectroscopy (synchronous fluorescence scans and emission spectra) and physico-chemical analyses. Samples from 14 still mineral water brands were compared to 11 tap waters collected from two Romanian cities. Correlation and factor analyses were undertaken to understand the relationships between the individual components. The concentration of major and minor ions showed great variation between the bottled mineral water samples highlighting the diversity of the water intakes, while in the case of tap water the chemical composition was relatively similar for samples collected in the same city. Fluorescence data showed that the mineral water contained low quantities of organic matter. The humic fraction was dominant in all samples, while the microbial fraction was low in most samples. Synchronous fluorescence scans provided more information, regarding the composition of organic matter, compared to emission spectra. The study evidenced the correlation between fluorescence parameters and major elements and highlighted the potential of using fluorescence for qualitative evaluation of the bottled mineral water quality, as a screening method before undertaking complex analyses. PMID:27526046

  8. Use of Cooperative K-12 Water Quality Data by Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, M. H.; Clemons, J.; Bales, R. C.

    2001-05-01

    Cooperative data collected by volunteers who are not paid professionals has been successfully used in weather observations, groundwater levels, and water quality. However, the notion of involving K-12 students directly in research, specifically concerning water quality data, has left many research scientists wondering "what about quality assurance and control (QA/QC)?" Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) is a worldwide network of K-12 students, teachers, and scientists working together to study and understand the global environment. Students and teachers from over 8,000 schools in more than 80 countries are working with research scientists to learn more about our planet. GLOBE students make environmental observations (hydrology, meteorology, soils, and other measurements) at or near their schools and report their data through the Internet (www.globe.gov). GLOBE and other parallel K-12 volunteer measurement programs have developed multi-year records of stream water quality at locations where career scientists do not or only infrequently sample. Since 1995, over 600 GLOBE schools throughout the U.S. have gathered and reported surface water quality data for alkalinity, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and temperature. A comparative analysis of GLOBE and USGS water quality data, and the protocols used to make these measurements, was done to assess: i) how measurement protocols compare qualitatively, ii) how the variability in data compare, and iii) what spatial and/or temporal patterns are apparent in the data. When compared to equivalent USGS protocols, it becomes apparent that some of the GLOBE hydrology protocols can be improved. However there are limits to the quality of K-12 data imposed by the levels of scientific training of participants and sophistication of instrumentation. The higher spatial and statistical variability of GLOBE data compared to USGS data makes it unsuited for use as a stand-alone method for

  9. Dynamics in urban water quality: monitoring the Amsterdam city area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Vlugt, Corné; Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, Boris; Ouboter, Maarten; Stuurman, Roelof; Broers, Hans Peter

    2014-05-01

    Urban water quality is influenced by a large number of heterogeneous sources. We aimed to identify solute pathways from different sources in the urban area of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The city is situated in the Dutch delta, and largely below mean sea level. The water system of the centre of the city is connected to the large fresh water lake Ijsselmeer, but suburbs are mainly located within reclaimed lake and polder areas where water is pumped out in order to maintain the water levels, which are generally 1 tot 4 m. below sea level. Sources of water include: urban storm runoff, inlet water from the Ijsselmeer and surrounding areas, groundwater seepage and possibly also leaking sewage systems. The temporal dynamics and spatial patterns related to these flow routes and sources were largely unknown to date. Water quality is measured at those pumping stations systematically each month. We analysed the pumping discharge data and the concentration data to calculate daily water balances and annual load estimates for HCO3,Ca, Cl, Na, SO4, Ptot, Ntot ,NH4, NH3 and NO3. Chloride appears to be a good tracer to identify inlet water and bicarbonate and DIC were effective to estimate the groundwater contribution to the surface water outflow to the regional system. We were able to improve the solute balances by calibrating the measured temporal patterns of chloride and DIC using known concentrations from the individual sources. Subsequently the water balances where used to identify periods where one of the sources was dominant and by doing so we improved our understanding of the dynamics of N, P and S fluxes and the relations with dry and wet meteorological conditions. It appeared that N and P were largely related to groundwater outflow , whereas S was mainly related to dry periods and shallow flow routes influenced by sewage, urban storm runoff and shallow groundwater flow . The results are used to optimize urban water management which benefits from the improved insight in

  10. Canadian water quality guidelines. Appendix 22: Interim marine and estuarine water quality guidelines for general variables

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This document has been prepared in response to the need for marine water quality guidelines for general water quality variables. It presents interim guidelines, summaries of existing guidelines if any, the rationale for the guidelines, and variable-specific background information, and notes gaps in data, for the following variables: Debris, including floating or submerged litter, and settleable matter; dissolved oxygen; pH; salinity; temperature; and suspended solids and turbidity. For the purpose of this document, the marine environment includes shorelines, estuaries up to the freshwater limit, and nearshore and offshore waters.

  11. Data Auditor: Analyzing Data Quality Using Pattern Tableaux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Divesh

    Monitoring databases maintain configuration and measurement tables about computer systems, such as networks and computing clusters, and serve important business functions, such as troubleshooting customer problems, analyzing equipment failures, planning system upgrades, etc. These databases are prone to many data quality issues: configuration tables may be incorrect due to data entry errors, while measurement tables may be affected by incorrect, missing, duplicate and delayed polls. We describe Data Auditor, a tool for analyzing data quality and exploring data semantics of monitoring databases. Given a user-supplied constraint, such as a boolean predicate expected to be satisfied by every tuple, a functional dependency, or an inclusion dependency, Data Auditor computes "pattern tableaux", which are concise summaries of subsets of the data that satisfy or fail the constraint. We discuss the architecture of Data Auditor, including the supported types of constraints and the tableau generation mechanism. We also show the utility of our approach on an operational network monitoring database.

  12. Water quality problems in Nogales, Sonora.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, R A

    1995-02-01

    This article presents the results of a transboundary water quality monitoring program at the two Nogales area in the Arizona-Sonora border region. The program was carried out jointly in 1990 by U.S. and Mexican institutions. The results show pollution problems due to deficiencies in Nogales, Sonora municipal sewerage system, causing not only sewage spills in several parts of the city but also creating occasional transboundary problems. The results also showed potential illegal dumping of industrial hazardous waste (VOCs) into Nogales' municipal sewerage system. All of the organic compounds found in the sewage samples are solvents frequently used by the border industry. Occasional brakes of pipes spill the pollutants into the Nogales Wash, a water stream that runs parallel to Nogales' main sewerage line. Samples of the municipal water system showed no traces of pollutants. However, two rounds of samples detected concentrations of VOCs in wells used to supply water by trucks to low income neighborhoods in Nogales, Sonora. Ironically, the pollution detected in these wells has a greater impact in low income groups of the city that pay three to four times more per liter of water they consume, than the rest of the inhabitants with clean water from the municipal system. PMID:7621811

  13. Water quality problems in Nogales, Sonora.

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, R A

    1995-01-01

    This article presents the results of a transboundary water quality monitoring program at the two Nogales area in the Arizona-Sonora border region. The program was carried out jointly in 1990 by U.S. and Mexican institutions. The results show pollution problems due to deficiencies in Nogales, Sonora municipal sewerage system, causing not only sewage spills in several parts of the city but also creating occasional transboundary problems. The results also showed potential illegal dumping of industrial hazardous waste (VOCs) into Nogales' municipal sewerage system. All of the organic compounds found in the sewage samples are solvents frequently used by the border industry. Occasional brakes of pipes spill the pollutants into the Nogales Wash, a water stream that runs parallel to Nogales' main sewerage line. Samples of the municipal water system showed no traces of pollutants. However, two rounds of samples detected concentrations of VOCs in wells used to supply water by trucks to low income neighborhoods in Nogales, Sonora. Ironically, the pollution detected in these wells has a greater impact in low income groups of the city that pay three to four times more per liter of water they consume, than the rest of the inhabitants with clean water from the municipal system. PMID:7621811

  14. Relations between large scale oscillation patterns and rising water temperatures at Lake Neusiedl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, Anna-Maria; Soja, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Lake Neusiedl (Neusiedler See, Fertitó) is a very shallow steppe lake (area 320 km2, mean depth 1.2 m) at the border of Austria/Hungary. The low ratio of water depth to water volume accounts for dynamic, air temperature-dependent developments of water temperature with the potential of unusually warm waters that are a pillar of the touristic attractiveness of the lake. Likewise these conditions are a risk factor for water quality deterioration. In the frame of the EULAKES-project (European Lakes under Environmental Stressors, www.eulakes.eu), financed by the Central Europe Programme of the EU, data records of water temperature at 5 monitoring stations of Lake Neusiedl (eHYD) and the nearby air temperature monitoring station Eisenstadt - Sopron (HISTALP database and ZAMG) were used to investigate the period 1976-2009. Additionally the influences of 7 teleconnection patterns, i.e. the East Atlantic pattern (EAP), the East Atlantic/West Russia pattern (EA/WR), the Eastern Mediterranean Pattern (EMP), the Mediterranean Oscillation (MO) for Algiers and Cairo, and for Israel and Gibraltar, resp., the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Scandinavia pattern (SCA) were assessed. The increase of temperature during the observation period was more pronounced for water than for air. Water temperatures increased significantly (p

  15. Quality-assurance and data-management plan for water-quality activities in the Kansas Water Science Center, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Foster, Guy M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Putnam, James E.

    2014-01-01

    As the Nation’s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey is relied on to collect high-quality data, and produce factual and impartial interpretive reports. This quality-assurance and data-management plan provides guidance for water-quality activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center. Policies and procedures are documented for activities related to planning, collecting, storing, documenting, tracking, verifying, approving, archiving, and disseminating water-quality data. The policies and procedures described in this plan complement quality-assurance plans for continuous water-quality monitoring, surface-water, and groundwater activities in Kansas.

  16. 1990 National Water Quality Laboratory Services Catalog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritt, Jeffrey, (Edited By); Jones, Berwyn E.

    1989-01-01

    PREFACE This catalog provides information about analytical services available from the National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) to support programs of the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. To assist personnel in the selection of analytical services, the catalog lists cost, sample volume, applicable concentration range, detection level, precision of analysis, and preservation techniques for samples to be submitted for analysis. Prices for services reflect operationa1 costs, the complexity of each analytical procedure, and the costs to ensure analytical quality control. The catalog consists of five parts. Part 1 is a glossary of terminology; Part 2 lists the bottles, containers, solutions, and other materials that are available through the NWQL; Part 3 describes the field processing of samples to be submitted for analysis; Part 4 describes analytical services that are available; and Part 5 contains indices of analytical methodology and Chemical Abstract Services (CAS) numbers. Nomenclature used in the catalog is consistent with WATSTORE and STORET. The user is provided with laboratory codes and schedules that consist of groupings of parameters which are measured together in the NWQL. In cases where more than one analytical range is offered for a single element or compound, different laboratory codes are given. Book 5 of the series 'Techniques of Water Resources Investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey' should be consulted for more information about the analytical procedures included in the tabulations. This catalog supersedes U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 86-232 '1986-87-88 National Water Quality Laboratory Services Catalog', October 1985.

  17. Changes in the water quality conditions of Kuwait's marine waters: Long term impacts of nutrient enrichment.

    PubMed

    Devlin, M J; Massoud, M S; Hamid, S A; Al-Zaidan, A; Al-Sarawi, H; Al-Enezi, M; Al-Ghofran, L; Smith, A J; Barry, J; Stentiford, G D; Morris, S; da Silva, E T; Lyons, B P

    2015-11-30

    This work analyses a 30 year water quality data set collated from chemical analyses of Kuwait's marine waters. Spatial patterns across six sites in Kuwait Bay and seven sites located in the Arabian Gulf are explored and discussed in terms of the changing influences associated with point and diffuse sources. Statistical modelling demonstrated significant increases for dissolved nutrients over the time period. Kuwait marine waters have been subject to inputs from urban development, untreated sewage discharges and decreasing river flow from the Shatt al-Arab River. Chlorophyll biomass showed a small but significant reduction; the high sewage content of the coastal waters from sewage discharges likely favouring the presence of smaller phytoplankton taxa. This detailed assessment of temporal data of the impacts of sewage inputs into Kuwait's coastal waters establishes an important baseline permitting future assessments to be made as sewage is upgraded, and the river continues to be extracted upstream. PMID:26490407

  18. Patterns, structures and regulations of domestic water cycle systems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Junying; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jianhua; Qin, Dayong

    2010-05-01

    Domestic water cycle systems serving as one critical component of artificial water cycle at the catchment's scale, is so closely related to public healthy, human rights and social-economic development, and has gained the highest priority in strategic water resource and municipal infrastructure planning. In this paper, three basic patterns of domestic water cycle systems are identified and analyzed, including rural domestic water system (i.e. primary level), urban domestic water system (i.e. intermediate level) and metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level), with different "abstract-transport-consume-discharge" mechanisms and micro-components of water consumption (such as drinking, cooking, toilet flushing, showering or cleaning). The rural domestic water system is general simple with three basic "abstract-consume-discharge" mechanisms and micro-components of basic water consumption such as drinking, cooking, washing and sanitation. The urban domestic water system has relative complex mechanisms of "abstract-supply-consume-treatment-discharge" and more micro-components of water consumption such as bath, dishwashing or car washing. The metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level) has the most complex mechanisms by considering internal water reuse, external wastewater reclamation, and nutrient recycling processes. The detailed structures for different water cycle pattern are presented from the aspects of water quantity, wastewater quality and nutrients flow. With the speed up of urbanization and development of social-economy in China, those three basic patterns are interacting, transforming and upgrading. According to the past experiences and current situations, urban domestic water system (i.e. intermediate level) is the dominant pattern based on indicator of system number or system scale. The metropolitan domestic water system (i.e. senior level) is the idealized model for the future development and management. Current domestic water system

  19. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2003; Volume 3. Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLuca, Michael J.; Hoppe, Heidi L.; Heckathorn, Heather A.; Riskin, Melissa L.; Gray, Bonnie J.; Melvin, Emma-Lynn; Liu, Nicholas A.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and water-quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water-quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface- and ground-water hydrologic conditions for the 2003 water year, a listing of current water-resources projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 123 continuing-record surface-water stations, 35 ground-water sites, records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 20 continuous-recording stations, and 5 special-study sites consisting of 2 surface-water sites, 1 spring site, and 240 groundwater sites. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 21-25. Locations of special-study sites are shown in figures 49-53. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating federal, state, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  20. Cellular-enabled water quality measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Kerkez, B.

    2013-12-01

    While the past decade has seen significant improvements in our ability to measure nutrients and other water quality parameters, the use of these sensors has yet to gain traction due to their costprohibitive nature and deployment expertise required on the part of researchers. Furthermore, an extra burden is incurred when real-time data access becomes an experimental requirement. We present an open-source hardware design to facilitate the real-time, low-cost, and robust measurements of water quality across large urbanized areas. Our hardware platform interfaces an embedded, vastly configurable, high-precision, ultra-low power measurement system, with a low-power cellular module. Each sensor station is configured with an IP address, permitting reliable streaming of sensor data to off-site locations as measurements are made. We discuss the role of high-quality hardware components during extreme event scenarios, and present preliminary performance metrics that validate the ability of the platform to provide streaming access to sensor measurements.

  1. Barriers to adopting satellite remote sensing for water quality management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Satellite technology can provide a robust and synoptic approach for measuring water quality parameters. Water quality measures typically include chlorophyll-a, suspended material, light attenuation, and colored dissolved organic matter. The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal ...

  2. LANDSAT ESTUARINE WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF SILVICULTURE AND DREDGING ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the application of Landsat multispectral scanning to estuarine water quality, with specific reference to dredging and silviculture practices. Water quality data collected biweekly since 1972 in the Apalachicola, Bay, Florida, by Florida State University, and...

  3. Relating watershed nutrient loads to satellite derived estuarine water quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient enhanced phytoplankton production is a cause of degraded estuarine water quality. Yet, relationships between watershed nutrient loads and the spatial and temporal scales of phytoplankton blooms and subsequent water quality impairments remain unquantified for most systems...

  4. MATERIALS SUPPORTING THE NEW RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR PATHOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing new, rapid methods for monitoring water quality at beaches to determine adequacy of water quality for swimming. The methods being developed rely upon quantitive polymerase chain reaction technology. They will permit real time decisions regarding beach closures...

  5. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities of the U.S. Geological Survey Montana Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambing, John H., (compiler)

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the USGS Montana Water Science Center in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the USGS Montana Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures presented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities complement the quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and suspended-sediment analysis.

  6. Connecting Water Quality With Air Quality Through Microbial Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueker, M. Elias

    air by increasing microbial aerosol settling rates and enhancing viability of aerosolized marine microbes. Using methods developed for the non-urban site, the role of local environment and winds in mediating water-air connections was further investigated in the urban environment. The local environment, including water surfaces, was an important source of microbial aerosols at urban sites. Large portions of the urban waterfront microbial aerosol communities were aquatic and, at a highly polluted Superfund waterfront, were closely related to bacteria previously described in environments contaminated with hydrocarbons, heavy metals, sewage and other industrial waste. Culturable urban aerosols and surface waters contained bacterial genera known to include human pathogens and asthma agents. High onshore winds strengthened this water-air connection by playing both a transport and production role. The microbial connection between water and air quality outlined by this dissertation highlights the need for information on the mechanisms that deliver surface water materials to terrestrial systems on a much larger scale. Moving from point measurements to landscape-level analyses will allow for the quantitative assessment of implications for this microbial water-air-land transfer in both urban and non-urban arenas.

  7. TYPICAL HOT WATER DRAW PATTERNS BASED ON FIELD DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, Jim; Melody, Moya

    2012-11-08

    There is significant variation in hot water use and draw patterns among households. This report describes typical hot water use patterns in single-family residences in North America. We found that daily hot water use is highly variable both among residences and within the same residence. We compared the results of our analysis of the field data to the conditions and draw patterns established in the current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure for residential water heaters. The results show a higher number of smaller draws at lower flow rates than used in the test procedure. The data from which the draw patterns were developed were obtained from 12 separate field studies. This report describes the ways in which we managed, cleaned, and analyzed the data and the results of our data analysis. After preparing the data, we used the complete data set to analyze inlet and outlet water temperatures. Then we divided the data into three clusters reflecting house configurations that demonstrated small, medium, or large median daily hot water use. We developed the three clusters partly to reflect efforts of the ASHRAE standard project committee (SPC) 118.2 to revise the test procedure for residential water heaters to incorporate a range of draw patterns. ASHRAE SPC 118.2 has identified the need to separately evaluate at least three, and perhaps as many as five, different water heater capacities. We analyzed the daily hot water use data within each cluster in terms of volume and number of hot water draws. The daily draw patterns in each cluster were characterized using distributions for volume of draws, duration of draws, time since previous draw, and flow rates.

  8. Quantitative evaluation of water quality in the coastal zone by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, W. P.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing as a tool in a waste management program is discussed. By monitoring both the pollution sources and the environmental quality, the interaction between the components of the exturaine system was observed. The need for in situ sampling is reduced with the development of improved calibrated, multichannel sensors. Remote sensing is used for: (1) pollution source determination, (2) mapping the influence zone of the waste source on water quality parameters, and (3) estimating the magnitude of the water quality parameters. Diffusion coefficients and circulation patterns can also be determined by remote sensing, along with subtle changes in vegetative patterns and density.

  9. Design of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program; occurrence and distribution of water-quality conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilliom, Robert J.; Alley, William M.; Gurtz, Martin E.

    1995-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program assesses the status of and trends in the quality of the Nation's ground- and surface-water resources. The occurrence and distribution assessment component characterizes broad-scale water-quality conditions in relation to major contaminant sources and background conditions in each study area. The surface-water design focuses on streams. The ground-water design focuses on major aquifers, with emphasis on recently recharged ground water associated with human activities.

  10. Water Resources Data, New Jersey, Water Year 2002--Volume 3. Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLuca, M.J.; Hoppe, H.L.; Heckathorn, H.A.; Gray, B.J.; Riskin, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for New Jersey are presented in three volumes, and consists of records of stage, discharge, and quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and levels and quality of ground water. Volume 3 contains a summary of surface- and ground-water hydrologic conditions for the 2002 water year, a listing of current water-resources projects in New Jersey, a bibliography of water-related reports, articles, and fact sheets for New Jersey completed by the Geological Survey in recent years, water-quality records of chemical analyses from 118 continuing-record surface-water stations, 15 miscellaneous ground-water sites, and records of daily statistics of temperature and other physical measurements from 6 continuous-recording stations. Locations of water-quality stations are shown in figures 12-14. Locations of miscellaneous water-quality sites are shown in figures 40-41. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating federal, state, and local agencies in New Jersey.

  11. Bacteriological Assessment of Spoon River Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shundar; Evans, Ralph L.; Beuscher, Davis B.

    1974-01-01

    Data from a study of five stations on the Spoon River, Ill., during June 1971 through May 1973 were analyzed for compliance with Illinois Pollution Control Board's water quality standards of a geometric mean limitation of 200 fecal coliforms per 100 ml. This bacterial limit was achieved about 20% of the time during June 1971 through May 1972, and was never achieved during June 1972 through May 1973. Ratios of fecal coliform to total coliform are presented. By using fecal coliform-to-fecal streptococcus ratios to sort out fecal pollution origins, it was evident that a concern must be expressed not only for municipal wastewater effluents to the receiving stream, but also for nonpoint sources of pollution in assessing the bacterial quality of a stream. PMID:4604145

  12. Measuring the quality of linear patterns in biclusters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuhua; Liu, Juan; Zeng, Tao

    2015-07-15

    In microarray analysis, biclustering is used to find the maximal subsets of rows and columns satisfying some coherence criteria. The found submatrices are usually called as biclusters. On one hand, different criteria would help to find different types of biclusters, thus the definition of coherence criterion is critical to the biclustering method. On the other hand, qualitative criteria result to qualitative biclustering methods that cannot evaluate the qualities of the biclusters, while quantitative criteria can numerically show how well the mined biclusters and are more useful in real applications. In bioinformatics communities, there are several quantitative coherence measurements for linear patterns proposed. However, they face the problem of weakness in finding all subtypes of linear patterns or sensitivity to the noise. In this work, we introduce a coherence measurement for the general linear patterns, the minimal mean squared error (MMSE), which is designed to handle the evaluation of biclusters with shifting, scaling and the general linear (the mixed form of shifting and scaling) correlations. The experiments on synthetic and real data sets show that the proposed methods is appropriate for identifying significant general linear biclusters. PMID:25890245

  13. U.S. Geological Survey Catskill/Delaware Water-Quality Network: Water-Quality Report Water Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHale, Michael R.; Siemion, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey operates a 60-station streamgaging network in the New York City Catskill/Delaware Water Supply System. Water-quality samples were collected at 13 of the stations in the Catskill/Delaware streamgaging network to provide resource managers with water-quality and water-quantity data from the water-supply system that supplies about 85 percent of the water needed by the more than 9 million residents of New York City. This report summarizes water-quality data collected at those 13 stations plus one additional station operated as a part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Regional Long-Term Monitoring Network for the 2006 water year (October 1, 2005 to September 30, 2006). An average of 62 water-quality samples were collected at each station during the 2006 water year, including grab samples collected every other week and storm samples collected with automated samplers. On average, 8 storms were sampled at each station during the 2006 water year. The 2006 calendar year was the second warmest on record and the summer of 2006 was the wettest on record for the northeastern United States. A large storm on June 26-28, 2006, caused extensive flooding in the western part of the network where record peak flows were measured at several watersheds.

  14. A workbook for preparing a district quality- assurance plan for water-quality activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schertz, Terry L.; Childress, Carolyn J.O.; Kelly, Valerie J.; Boucher, Michelle S.; Pederson, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    APPEARS TO BE A REPORT ON HOW TO WRITE REPORTS --THE 'ABSTRACT' THAT FOLLOWS IS JUST THE GENERIC ABSTRACT TO BE USED FOR WATER USE REPORTS: In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the [State name] District in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the [State name] District for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures that are documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the District quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and to supplement the [State name] District quality-assurance plan.

  15. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan...

  16. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to:...

  17. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan...

  18. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to:...

  19. WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, STOCKNEY CREEK, IDAHO COUNTY, IDAHO. 1986

    EPA Science Inventory

    A water quality monitoring study was conducted on Stockney Creek (17060305) for the following purposes: 1) to determine baseline water quality; 2) to document water quality effects of spring and storm agricultural runoff; and 3) to determine whether implementation of Best Manage...

  20. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35... stream segments which have not, at least once since December 29, 1981, had their water quality standards...) The State has in good faith submitted such water quality standards and the Regional Administrator...

  1. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35... stream segments which have not, at least once since December 29, 1981, had their water quality standards...) The State has in good faith submitted such water quality standards and the Regional Administrator...

  2. ANIMATION AND VISUALIZATION OF WATER QUALITY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water may undergo a number of changes in the distribution system, making the quality of the water at the customer's tap different from the quality of the water that leaves the treatment plant. Such changes in quality may be caused by chemical or biological variations or by a loss...

  3. A Water Quality Monitoring Programme for Schools and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellerberg, Ian; Ward, Jonet; Smith, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    A water quality monitoring programme for schools is described. The purpose of the programme is to introduce school children to the concept of reporting on the "state of the environment" by raising the awareness of water quality issues and providing skills to monitor water quality. The programme is assessed and its relevance in the context of…

  4. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan...

  5. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to:...

  6. Toward a Global Water Quality Observing and Forecasting System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Coastal and Inland Water Quality Working Group held a Water Quality Summit at the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in Geneva, Switzerland April 20 to 22, 2015. The goal was to define specific water quality component requirements and de...

  7. NHD INDEXED LOCATIONS FOR WATER QUALITY STANDARDS (WQS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    State (also includes DC, tribes, and territories; i.e., "jurisdictions") Water Quality Standards' Designated Uses for river segments, lakes, and estuaries. The Water Quality Standards' Designated Uses are able to be linked to tables of water quality criteria w...

  8. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to:...

  9. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan...

  10. Multivariate tests for trend in water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loftis, Jim C.; Taylor, Charles H.; Chapman, Phillip L.

    1991-07-01

    Several methods of testing for multivariate trend have been discussed in the statistical and water quality literature. We review both parametric and nonparametric approaches and compare their performance using, synthetic data. A new method, based on a robust estimation and testing approach suggested by Sen and Puri, performed very well for serially independent observations. A modified version of the covariance inversion approach presented by Dietz and Killeen also performed well for serially independent observations. For serially correlated observations, the covariance eigenvalue method suggested by Lettenmaier was the best performer.

  11. Progress at Fresh Kills improving water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Londres, E.J.

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports that in December 1987, the federal district court in Nevada issued a consent order forcing New York City (NYC) to improve its handling of solid waste and reduce the discharge of solid waste into the surrounding waterway. Implementation of the consent order by NYC resulted in many improvements in the transport of solid waste from the Marine Transfer Station (MTS) to Fresh Kills Landfill. The end result was a marked reduction in solid waste discharge and an improvement in water quality along the New Jersey shore areas.

  12. Lake water quality mapping from Landsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherz, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    In the project described remote sensing was used to check the quality of lake waters. The lakes of three Landsat scenes were mapped with the Bendix MDAS multispectral analysis system. From the MDAS color coded maps, the lake with the worst algae problem was easily located. The lake was closely checked, and the presence of 100 cows in the springs which fed the lake could be identified as the pollution source. The laboratory and field work involved in the lake classification project is described.

  13. Water quality management library. 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenfelder, W.W.; Malina, J.F.; Patterson, J.W.

    1998-12-31

    A series of ten books offered in conjunction with Water Quality International, the Biennial Conference and Exposition of the International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control (IAWPRC). Volume 1, Activated Sludge Process, Design and Control, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 2, Upgrading Wastewater Treatment Plants, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 3, Toxicity Reduction, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 4, Municipal Sewage Sludge Management, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 5, Design and Retrofit of Wastewater Treatment Plants for Biological Nutrient Removal, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 6, Dynamics and Control of the Activated Sludge Process, 2nd edition, 1998: Volume 7: Design of Anaerobic Processes for the Treatment of Industrial and Municipal Wastes, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 8, Groundwater Remediation, 1st edition, 1992: Volume 9, Nonpoint Pollution and Urban Stormwater Management, 1st edition, 1995: Volume 10, Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse, 1st edition, 1998.

  14. Use of probability based sampling of water quality indicators in supporting water quality criteria development - 2/28/08

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine the proposition that water quality indicator data collected from large scale, probability based assessments of coastal condition such as the US Environmental Protection Agency National Coastal Assessment (NCA) can be used to support water quality criteria development f...

  15. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities in the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Richard J.; Kimbrough, Robert A.; Turney, Gary L.

    2007-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), this quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the USGS Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) in conducting water-quality activities. The plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the personnel of the WAWSC for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures that are documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the WAWSC's quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and to supplement the WAWSC quality-assurance plan.

  16. Deterioration of water quality of Surma river.

    PubMed

    Alam, J B; Hossain, A; Khan, S K; Banik, B K; Islam, Molla R; Muyen, Z; Rahman, M Habibur

    2007-11-01

    Surma River is polluted day by day by human activities, poor structured sewerage and drainage system, discharging industrial and household wastes. The charas (natural channels) are responsible for surface runoff conveyance from its urban catchments to the receiving Surma River. Water samples have been collected from a part of Surma River along different points and analyzed for various water quality parameters during dry and monsoon periods. Effects of industrial wastes, municipal sewage, and agricultural runoff on river water quality have been investigated. The study was conducted within the Chattak to Sunamganj portion of Surma River, which is significant due to the presence of two major industries--a paper mill and a cement factory. The other significant feature is the conveyors that travel from India to Chattak. The river was found to be highly turbid in the monsoon season. But BOD and fecal coliform concentration was found higher in the dry season. The water was found slightly acidic. The mean values of parameters were Conductivity 84-805 micros; DO: dry-5.52 mg/l, monsoon-5.72 mg/l; BOD: dry-1mg/l, monsoon-0.878 mg/l; Total Solid: dry-149.4 mg/l, monsoon-145.7 mg/l. In this study, an effort has been taken to investigate the status of concentration of phosphate (PO(-4)) and ammonia-nitrogen (NH4-N) at four entrance points of Malnichara to the city, Guali chara, Gaviar khal and Bolramer khal. Data has been collected from March-April and September-October of 2004. Concentrations have been measured using UV Spectrophotometer. Although the phosphate concentration has been found within the limit set by DOE for fishing, irrigation and recreational purposes, however ammonia-nitrogen has been found to exceed the limit. PMID:17294273

  17. Water Quality in Drinking Water Reservoirs of a Megacity, Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baykal, Bilsen Beler; Tanik, Aysegul; Gonenc, I. Ethem

    2000-12-01

    Providing clean water at relevant quality and quantity is a challenge that regulatory authorities have to face in metropolitan cities that seem to develop at their limits of sustainability. Istanbul strives to face such a challenge for its population of over 10 million, through six surface water resources. Two approaches of classification for the reservoirs are presented, one based on current regulations and an alternative based on a more detailed classification. The results have shown that nutrient control is the primary issue, and one of the reservoirs has already exceeded the limits of being eutrophic, one is at mesotrophic conditions, and the remaining four are at the limit of being eutrophic, indicating the significance of making the correct decision and taking pertinent measures for management and control. It has been observed that the only mesotrophic resource, which also has the best general quality class, has no industry and a very low population density, whereas the one that is already eutrophic is also the one with the lowest quality class, has the highest population density, and has the greatest percentage of urban land use within its watershed.

  18. Evaluation of military field-water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Selleck, R.E.; Ungun, Z.; Chesler, G.; Diyamandoglu, V.; Marinas, B. . Sanitary Engineering and Environmental Health Research Lab.); Daniels, J.I. )

    1990-05-01

    A comparison is made between the performances of the 600-gph Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit (ROWPU) operated in the bypass mode and the Mobile Water Purification Unit (MWPU, frequently referred to as an ERDLATOR because the equipment was developed at the Engineer Research and Development Laboratory at Fort Belvoir, VA.) Generally, the performance of the MWPU is significantly better than the pretreatment units of the ROWPU in terms of removing both turbidity and pathogenic organisms. It is recommended that the practice of bypassing the reverse osmosis (RO) components of the ROWPU be avoided unless it can be demonstrated clearly that the cartridge filters will remove the cysts of infectious organisms effectively and reliably. If the ROWPU must be operated in the bypass mode, it is recommended that the dose of disinfectant used be made equal to that currently employed in the field for untreated raw water. The analytical methods used to determine total dissolved solids (TDS) and residual free chlorine with the new Water-Quality Monitor (WQM) are also reviewed briefly. The limitations of the methods used to calibrate the TDS and free-chlorine probes of the new WQM are discussed. 98 refs., 19 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. ANALYSIS OF LANDSCAPE AND WATER QUALITY IN THE NEW YORK CATSKILL - DELAWARE WATERSHED (1973-1998)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of this study is to improve risk assessment through the development of methods and tools for characterization of landscape and water resource change. Exploring the relationship between landscape pattern and water quality in the Catskill-Delaware basins will impro...

  20. Water Quality Monitoring of Inland Waters using Meris data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potes, M.; Costa, M. J.; Salgado, R.; Le Moigne, P.

    2012-04-01

    The successful launch of ENVISAT in March 2002 has given a great opportunity to understand the optical changes of water surfaces, including inland waters such as lakes and reservoirs, through the use of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS). The potential of this instrument to describe variations of optically active substances has been examined in the Alqueva reservoir, located in the south of Portugal, where satellite spectral radiances are corrected for the atmospheric effects to obtain the surface spectral reflectance. In order to validate this spectral reflectance, several field campaigns were carried out, with a portable spectroradiometer, during the satellite overpass. The retrieved lake surface spectral reflectance was combined with limnological laboratory data and with the resulting algorithms, spatial maps of biological quantities and turbidity were obtained, allowing for the monitoring of these water quality indicators. In the framework of the recent THAUMEX 2011 field campaign performed in Thau lagoon (southeast of France) in-water radiation, surface irradiation and reflectance measurements were taken with a portable spectrometer in order to test the methodology described above. At the same time, water samples were collected for laboratory analysis. The two cases present different results related to the geographic position, water composition, environment, resources exploration, etc. Acknowledgements This work is financed through FCT grant SFRH/BD/45577/2008 and through FEDER (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade - COMPETE) and National funding through FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia in the framework of projects FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-007122 (PTDC / CTE-ATM / 65307 / 2006) and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-009303 (PTDC/CTE-ATM/102142/2008). Image data has been provided by ESA in the frame of ENVISAT projects AOPT-2423 and AOPT-2357. We thank AERONET investigators for their effort in establishing and maintaining Évora AERONET

  1. Multiple interactive pollutants in water quality trading.

    PubMed

    Sarang, Amin; Lence, Barbara J; Shamsai, Abolfazl

    2008-10-01

    Efficient environmental management calls for the consideration of multiple pollutants, for which two main types of transferable discharge permit (TDP) program have been described: separate permits that manage each pollutant individually in separate markets, with each permit based on the quantity of the pollutant or its environmental effects, and weighted-sum permits that aggregate several pollutants as a single commodity to be traded in a single market. In this paper, we perform a mathematical analysis of TDP programs for multiple pollutants that jointly affect the environment (i.e., interactive pollutants) and demonstrate the practicality of this approach for cost-efficient maintenance of river water quality. For interactive pollutants, the relative weighting factors are functions of the water quality impacts, marginal damage function, and marginal treatment costs at optimality. We derive the optimal set of weighting factors required by this approach for important scenarios for multiple interactive pollutants and propose using an analytical elasticity of substitution function to estimate damage functions for these scenarios. We evaluate the applicability of this approach using a hypothetical example that considers two interactive pollutants. We compare the weighted-sum permit approach for interactive pollutants with individual permit systems and TDP programs for multiple additive pollutants. We conclude by discussing practical considerations and implementation issues that result from the application of weighted-sum permit programs. PMID:18584238

  2. Quality requirements for irrigation with sewage water

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwer, H.; Idelovitch, E. )

    1987-11-01

    Irrigation is an excellent use for sewage effluent because it is mostly water with nutrients. For small flows, the effluent can be used on special, well-supervised sewage farms, where forage, fiber, or seed crops are grown that can be irrigated with standard primary or secondary effluent. Large-scale use of the effluent requires special treatment so that it meets the public health, agronomic, and aesthetic requirements for unrestricted use. Crops in the unrestricted-use category include those that are consumed raw or brought raw into the kitchen. Most state or government standards deal only with public health aspects, and prescribe the treatment processes or the quality parameters that the effluent must meet before it can be used to irrigate a certain category of crops. However, agronomic aspects related to crops and soils must also be taken into account. Quality parameters to be considered include bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens; total salt content and sodium adsorption ratio of the water; nitrogen; phosphorus; chloride and chlorine; bicarbonate; heavy metals, boron, and other trace elements; pH; and synthetic organics. 23 refs., 9 tabs.

  3. Multiple Interactive Pollutants in Water Quality Trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarang, Amin; Lence, Barbara J.; Shamsai, Abolfazl

    2008-10-01

    Efficient environmental management calls for the consideration of multiple pollutants, for which two main types of transferable discharge permit (TDP) program have been described: separate permits that manage each pollutant individually in separate markets, with each permit based on the quantity of the pollutant or its environmental effects, and weighted-sum permits that aggregate several pollutants as a single commodity to be traded in a single market. In this paper, we perform a mathematical analysis of TDP programs for multiple pollutants that jointly affect the environment (i.e., interactive pollutants) and demonstrate the practicality of this approach for cost-efficient maintenance of river water quality. For interactive pollutants, the relative weighting factors are functions of the water quality impacts, marginal damage function, and marginal treatment costs at optimality. We derive the optimal set of weighting factors required by this approach for important scenarios for multiple interactive pollutants and propose using an analytical elasticity of substitution function to estimate damage functions for these scenarios. We evaluate the applicability of this approach using a hypothetical example that considers two interactive pollutants. We compare the weighted-sum permit approach for interactive pollutants with individual permit systems and TDP programs for multiple additive pollutants. We conclude by discussing practical considerations and implementation issues that result from the application of weighted-sum permit programs.

  4. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Bogle, M.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-09-15

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish.

  5. Influence of teleconnection on water quality in agricultural river catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellander, Per-Erik; Jordan, Phil; Shore, Mairead; McDonald, Noeleen; Shortle, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Influences such as weather, flow controls and lag time play an important role in the processes influencing the water quality of agricultural catchments. In particular weather signals need to be clearly considered when interpreting the effectiveness of current measures for reducing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural sources to water bodies. In north-western Europe weather patterns and trends are influenced by large-scale systems such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the position of the Gulf Stream, the latter expressed as the Gulf Stream North Wall index (GSNW index). Here we present five years of monthly data of nitrate-N concentration in stream water and groundwater (aggregated from sub-hourly monitoring in the stream outlet and monthly sampling in multilevel monitoring wells) from four agricultural catchments (ca. 10 km2) together with monitored weather parameters, long-term weather data and the GSNW index. The catchments are situated in Ireland on the Atlantic seaboard and are susceptible to sudden and seasonal shifts in oceanic climate patterns. Rain anomalies and soil moisture deficit dynamics were similar to the dynamics of the GSNW index. There were monitored changes in nitrate-N concentration in both groundwater and surface water with no apparent connection to agricultural management; instead such changes also appeared to follow the GSNW index. For example, in catchments with poorly drained soils and a 'flashy hydrology' there were seasonal dynamics in nitrate-N concentration that correlated with the seasonal dynamics of the GSNW index. In a groundwater driven catchment there was a consistent increase in nitrate-N concentration over the monitored period which may be the result of increasingly more recharge in summer and autumn (as indicated by more flux in the GSNW index). The results highlight that the position of the Gulf Stream may influence the nitrate-N concentration in groundwater and stream water and there is a risk

  6. Water quality success stories: Integrated assessments from the IOOS regional associations and national water quality monitoring network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragsdale, Rob; Vowinkel, Eric; Porter, Dwayne; Hamilton, Pixie; Morrison, Ru; Kohut, Josh; Connell, Bob; Kelsey, Heath; Trowbridge, Phil

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS®) Regional Associations and Interagency Partners hosted a water quality workshop in January 2010 to discuss issues of nutrient enrichment and dissolved oxygen depletion (hypoxia), harmful algal blooms (HABs), and beach water quality. In 2007, the National Water Quality Monitoring Council piloted demonstration projects as part of the National Water Quality Monitoring Network (Network) for U.S. Coastal Waters and their Tributaries in three IOOS Regional Associations, and these projects are ongoing. Examples of integrated science-based solutions to water quality issues of major concern from the IOOS regions and Network demonstration projects are explored in this article. These examples illustrate instances where management decisions have benefited from decision-support tools that make use of interoperable data. Gaps, challenges, and outcomes are identified, and a proposal is made for future work toward a multiregional water quality project for beach water quality.

  7. Literature relevant to remote sensing of water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, E. M.; Marcell, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    References relevant to remote sensing of water quality were compiled, organized, and cross-referenced. The following general categories were included: (1) optical properties and measurement of water characteristics; (2) interpretation of water characteristics by remote sensing, including color, transparency, suspended or dissolved inorganic matter, biological materials, and temperature; (3) application of remote sensing for water quality monitoring; (4) application of remote sensing according to water body type; and (5) manipulation, processing and interpretation of remote sensing digital water data.

  8. An Ontology Design Pattern for Surface Water Features

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Gaurav; Mark, David; Kolas, Dave; Varanka, Dalia; Romero, Boleslo E; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Usery, Lynn; Liebermann, Joshua; Sorokine, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Surface water is a primary concept of human experience but concepts are captured in cultures and languages in many different ways. Still, many commonalities can be found due to the physical basis of many of the properties and categories. An abstract ontology of surface water features based only on those physical properties of landscape features has the best potential for serving as a foundational domain ontology. It can then be used to systematically incor-porate concepts that are specific to a culture, language, or scientific domain. The Surface Water ontology design pattern was developed both for domain knowledge distillation and to serve as a conceptual building-block for more complex surface water ontologies. A fundamental distinction is made in this on-tology between landscape features that act as containers (e.g., stream channels, basins) and the bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes) that occupy those containers. Concave (container) landforms semantics are specified in a Dry module and the semantics of contained bodies of water in a Wet module. The pattern is imple-mented in OWL, but Description Logic axioms and a detailed explanation is provided. The OWL ontology will be an important contribution to Semantic Web vocabulary for annotating surface water feature datasets. A discussion about why there is a need to complement the pattern with other ontologies, es-pecially the previously developed Surface Network pattern is also provided. Fi-nally, the practical value of the pattern in semantic querying of surface water datasets is illustrated through a few queries and annotated geospatial datasets.

  9. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    Presented is a compilation of over 3,000 abstracts on print and non-print materials related to water quality and water resources education. Entries are included from all levels of governmental sources, private concerns, and educational institutions. Each entry includes: title, author, cross references, descriptors, and availability. (CLS)

  10. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Presented are abstracts and indexes to selected materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction. In addition, some materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation are included. Also included are procedures to illustrate how instructors and curriculum developers in the water quality…

  11. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Water Quality and Its Relationship to Land Use and Land Cover in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang; Zhou, Weiqi; Pickett, Steward T A; Li, Weifeng; Han, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization with intense land use and land cover (LULC) change and explosive population growth has a great impact on water quality. The relationship between LULC characteristics and water quality provides important information for non-point sources (NPS) pollution management. In this study, we first quantified the spatial-temporal patterns of five water quality variables in four watersheds with different levels of urbanization in Beijing, China. We then examined the effects of LULC on water quality across different scales, using Pearson correlation analysis, redundancy analysis, and multiple regressions. The results showed that water quality was improved over the sampled years but with no significant difference (p > 0.05). However, water quality was significantly different among nonurban and both exurban and urban sites (p < 0.05). Forest land was positively correlated with water quality and affected water quality significantly (p < 0.05) within a 200 m buffer zone. Impervious surfaces, water, and crop land were negatively correlated with water quality. Crop land and impervious surfaces, however, affected water quality significantly (p < 0.05) for buffer sizes greater than 800 m. Grass land had different effects on water quality with the scales. The results provide important insights into the relationship between LULC and water quality, and thus for controlling NPS pollution in urban areas. PMID:27128934

  12. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Water Quality and Its Relationship to Land Use and Land Cover in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiang; Zhou, Weiqi; Pickett, Steward T. A.; Li, Weifeng; Han, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization with intense land use and land cover (LULC) change and explosive population growth has a great impact on water quality. The relationship between LULC characteristics and water quality provides important information for non-point sources (NPS) pollution management. In this study, we first quantified the spatial-temporal patterns of five water quality variables in four watersheds with different levels of urbanization in Beijing, China. We then examined the effects of LULC on water quality across different scales, using Pearson correlation analysis, redundancy analysis, and multiple regressions. The results showed that water quality was improved over the sampled years but with no significant difference (p > 0.05). However, water quality was significantly different among nonurban and both exurban and urban sites (p < 0.05). Forest land was positively correlated with water quality and affected water quality significantly (p < 0.05) within a 200 m buffer zone. Impervious surfaces, water, and crop land were negatively correlated with water quality. Crop land and impervious surfaces, however, affected water quality significantly (p < 0.05) for buffer sizes greater than 800 m. Grass land had different effects on water quality with the scales. The results provide important insights into the relationship between LULC and water quality, and thus for controlling NPS pollution in urban areas. PMID:27128934

  13. Groundwater quality data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, May 2012 through December 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Terri L.; Desimone, Leslie A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Musgrove, Marylynn; Kingsbury, James A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 748 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from May 2012 through December 2013. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and radionuclides. These groundwater quality data are tabulated in this report. Quality-control samples also were collected; data from blank and replicate quality-control samples are included in this report.

  14. Water quality and water contamination in the Harlem River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharge untreated sewage into the Harlem River during rainstorms; which elevated nutrient and bacteria/pathogen levels, degraded water quality, reduced dissolved oxygen levels, impact on fish consumption safety and threatening public health. Swimming, boating, fishing was not safe especially during rainstorms. Harlem River, a 9 miles natural straight connects the Hudson River and the East River, was used for water recreation in the past. Phosphate, ammonia, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pathogens levels in CSOs collected during storms were significantly higher than EPA/DEP's standards (phosphate <0.033mg/L; ammonia<0.23mg/L; turbidity<5.25FAU; DO>=4mg/L; fecal coliform<200MPN/100ml; E.Coli.<126MPN/100ml; enterococcus < 104MPN /100ml). The maximum values are: phosphate: 0.181mg/L; ammonia: 2.864mg/L; turbidity: 245 FAU& 882 FAU; fecal coliform>millions MPN/100ml; E.coli > 5000MPN /100ml; enterococcus>10,000MPN/100ml; DO<2.9 mg/L. Data showed that pathogen levels are higher than published data from riverkeepers (enterococcus) and USGS (fecal coliform). PCB 11 (3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl, C12H8Cl2), an indicator of raw sewage and stormwater runoff, is analyzed. Fish caught from the Harlem River is banned from commercial. New York State Department of Health (NYS DOH) suggests that not to eat the fish because concerns of PCBs, dioxin and cadmium. How to reduce CSOs is critical on water quality improvement. Green wall/roof and wetland has been planned to use along the river to reduce stormwater runoff consequently to reduce CSOs volume.

  15. Quality of rivers of the United States, 1975 water year; based on the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, John C.; Ficke, John F.

    1977-01-01

    The National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) was established by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide a nationally uniform basis for continuously assessing the quality of U.S. rivers. Stations generally are at the downstream end of hydrologic accounting units in order to measure the quantity and quality of water flowing from the units. Data are available on a large number of water-quality constituents measured at 345 stations during the 1975 water year. Temperature data (usually continuous or daily measurements) from NASQAN stations were fitted to a first order harmonic equation and the parameters for the harmonic function are reported for each station. Considering chemical and biological characteristics of U.S. streams as described by NASQAN data, water quality is best (by many standards) in the Northeast, Southeast, and Northwest. Many of these waters show the effects of pollution and carry moderate or high levels of major nutrients. High counts of indicator bacteria also show signs of local pollution. In the Northeast, some heavy metals are at moderate levels, but not above most water-quality criteria. Rivers of most of the Mid-Continent and Southwest reflect the arid or semi-arid climate, erodible soils, and agricultural activities. A special analysis was made to study the patterns of dissolved solids, major nutrients, phytoplankton, and zinc in the Mississippi River above Memphis, Tennessee. (Kosco-USGS)

  16. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35... quality standards. After December 29, 1984, no grant can be awarded for projects that discharge into stream segments which have not, at least once since December 29, 1981, had their water quality...

  17. Effects of urban stormwater-management strategies on stream-water quantity and quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loperfido, J.V.; Hogan, Dianna M.

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization results in elevated stormwater runoff, greater and more intense streamflow, and increased delivery of pollutants to local streams and downstream aquatic systems such as the Chesapeake Bay. Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) are used to mitigate these effects of urban land use by retaining large volumes of stormwater runoff (water quantity) and removing pollutants in the runoff (water quality). Current USGS research aims to understand how the spatial pattern and connectivity of stormwater BMPs affect water quantity and water quality in urban areas.

  18. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Lathrop, R.G., JR. )

    1992-04-01

    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions. 17 refs.

  19. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathrop, Richard G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions.

  20. Hydroeconomic optimization of reservoir management under downstream water quality constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo; Holm, Peter E.; Trapp, Stefan; Rosbjerg, Dan; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2015-10-01

    A hydroeconomic optimization approach is used to guide water management in a Chinese river basin with the objectives of meeting water quantity and water quality constraints, in line with the China 2011 No. 1 Policy Document and 2015 Ten-point Water Plan. The proposed modeling framework couples water quantity and water quality management and minimizes the total costs over a planning period assuming stochastic future runoff. The outcome includes cost-optimal reservoir releases, groundwater pumping, water allocation, wastewater treatments and water curtailments. The optimization model uses a variant of stochastic dynamic programming known as the water value method. Nonlinearity arising from the water quality constraints is handled with an effective hybrid method combining genetic algorithms and linear programming. Untreated pollutant loads are represented by biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and the resulting minimum dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is computed with the Streeter-Phelps equation and constrained to match Chinese water quality targets. The baseline water scarcity and operational costs are estimated to 15.6 billion CNY/year. Compliance to water quality grade III causes a relatively low increase to 16.4 billion CNY/year. Dilution plays an important role and increases the share of surface water allocations to users situated furthest downstream in the system. The modeling framework generates decision rules that result in the economically efficient strategy for complying with both water quantity and water quality constraints.

  1. Nursery Production Technologies for Enhancing Water Quality Protection and Water Conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The broad objectives of the Floral and Nursery Research Initiative, Nursery Production Technologies for Enhancing Water Quality Protection and Water Conservation project are to develop economically feasible production systems and management practices that promote water conservation and protect water...

  2. Improving Water Quality With Conservation Buffers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowrance, R.; Dabney, S.; Schultz, R.

    2003-12-01

    Conservation buffer technologies are new approaches that need wider application. In-field buffer practices work best when used in combination with other buffer types and other conservation practices. Vegetative barriers may be used in combination with edge-of-field buffers to protect and improve their function and longevity by dispersing runoff and encouraging sediment deposition upslope of the buffer. It's important to understand how buffers can be managed to help reduce nutrient transport potential for high loading of nutrients from manure land application sites, A restored riparian wetland buffer retained or removed at least 59 percent of the nitrogen and 66 percent of the phosphorus that entered from an adjacent manure land application site. The Bear Creek National Restoration Demonstration Watershed project in Iowa has been the site of riparian forest buffers and filter strips creation; constructed wetlands to capture tile flow; stream-bank bioengineering; in-stream structures; and controlling livestock grazing. We need field studies that test various widths of buffers of different plant community compositions for their efficacy in trapping surface runoff, reducing nonpoint source pollutants in subsurface waters, and enhancing the aquatic ecosystem. Research is needed to evaluate the impact of different riparian grazing strategies on channel morphology, water quality, and the fate of livestock-associated pathogens and antibiotics. Integrating riparian buffers and other conservation buffers into these models is a key objective in future model development.

  3. Skylab study of water quality. [Kansas reservoirs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L. (Principal Investigator); Mccauley, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of S-190A imagery from 1 EREP pass over 3 reservoirs in Kansas establishes a strong linear correlation between the red/green radiance ratio and suspended solids. This result compares quite favorably to ERTS MSS CCT results. The linear fits RMS for Skylab is 6 ppm as compared to 12 ppm for ERTS. All of the ERTS satellite passes yielded fairly linear results with typical RMS values of 12 ppm. However, a few of the individual passes did yield RMS values of 5 or 6 ppm which is comparable to the one Skylab pass analyzed. In view of the cloudy conditions in the Skylab photos, yet good results, the indications are that S-190A may do somewhat better than the ERTS MSS in determining suspended load. More S-190A data is needed to confirm this. As was the case with the ERTS MSS, the Skylab S-190A showed no strong correlation with other water quality parameters. S-190B photos because of their high resolution can provide much first look information regarding relative degrees of turbidity within various parts of large lakes and among smaller bodies of water.

  4. A national-scale analysis of the impacts of drought on water quality in UK rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coxon, G.; Howden, N. J. K.; Freer, J. E.; Whitehead, P. G.; Bussi, G.

    2015-12-01

    Impacts of droughts on water quality qre difficult to quanitify but are essential to manage ecosystems and maintain public water supply. During drought, river water quality is significantly changed by increased residence times, reduced dilution and enhanced biogeochemical processes. But, the impact severity varies between catchments and depends on multiple factors including the sensitivity of the river to drought conditions, anthropogenic influences in the catchment and different delivery patterns of key nutrient, contaminant and mineral sources. A key constraint is data availability for key water quality parameters such that impacts of drought periods on certain determinands can be identified. We use national-scale water quality monitoring data to investigate the impacts of drought periods on water quality in the United Kingdom (UK). The UK Water Quality Sampling Harmonised Monitoring Scheme (HMS) dataset consists of >200 UK sites with weekly to monthly sampling of many water quality variables over the past 40 years. This covers several major UK droughts in 1975-1976, 1983-1984,1989-1992, 1995 and 2003, which cover severity, spatial and temporal extent, and how this affects the temporal impact of the drought on water quality. Several key water quality parameters, including water temperature, nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, orthophosphate, chlorophyll and pesticides, are selected from the database. These were chosen based on their availability for many of the sites, high sampling resolution and importance to the drinking water function and ecological status of the river. The water quality time series were then analysed to investigate whether water quality during droughts deviated significantly from non-drought periods and examined how the results varied spatially, for different drought periods and for different water quality parameters. Our results show that there is no simple conclusion as to the effects of drought on water quality in UK rivers; impacts are

  5. Hydrologic and water quality modeling: spatial and temporal considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrologic and water quality models are used to help manage water resources by investigating the effects of climate, land use, land management, and water management on water resources. Each water-related issue is better investigated at a specific scale, which can vary spatially from point to watersh...

  6. The Water Quality Portal: a single point of access for water quality data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreft, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Water Quality Portal (WQP) is a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) overseen by the National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC). It was launched in April of 2012 as a single point of access for discrete water quality samples stored in the USGS NWIS and EPA STORET systems. Since launch thousands of users have visited the Water Quality Portal to download billions of results that are pertinent to their interests. Numerous tools have also been developed that use WQP web services as a source of data for further analysis. Since the launch of the Portal, the WQP development team at the USGS Center for Integrated Data Analytics has worked with USGS and EPA stakeholders as well as the wider user community to add significant new features to the WQP. WQP users can now directly plot sites of interest on a web map based on any of the 164 WQP query parameters, and then download data of interest directly from that map. In addition, the WQP has expanded beyond just serving out NWIS and STORET data, and provides data from the US Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service STEWARDS system, the USGS BioData system and is working with others to bring in additional data. Finally, the WQP is linked to another NWQMC-supported project, the National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), so WQP users can easily find the method behind the data that they are using. Future work is focused on incorporating additional biological data from the USGS BioData system, broadening the scope of discrete water quality sample types from STORET, and developing approaches to make the data in the WQP more visible and usable. The WQP team is also exploring ways to further integrate with other systems, such as those operated the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and other federal agencies to facilitate the overarching goal of improving access to water quality data for all users.

  7. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Weary, David J.; Field, Malcolm S.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Schill, William Bane; Young, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Leetown Science Center and the co-located U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture both depend on large volumes of cold clean ground water to support research operations at their facilities. Currently, ground-water demands are provided by three springs and two standby production wells used to augment supplies during periods of low spring flow. Future expansion of research operations at the Leetown Science Center is dependent on assessing the availability and quality of water to the facilities and in locating prospective sites for additional wells to augment existing water supplies. The hydrogeology of the Leetown area, West Virginia, is a structurally complex karst aquifer. Although the aquifer is a karst system, it is not typical of most highly cavernous karst systems, but is dominated by broad areas of fractured rock drained by a relatively small number of solution conduits. Characterization of the aquifer by use of fluorometric tracer tests, a common approach in most karst terranes, therefore only partly defines the hydrogeologic setting of the area. In order to fully assess the hydrogeology and water quality in the vicinity of Leetown, a multi-disciplinary approach that included both fractured rock and karst research components was needed. The U.S. Geological Survey developed this multi-disciplinary research effort to include geologic, hydrologic, geophysical, geographic, water-quality, and microbiological investigations in order to fully characterize the hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia. Detailed geologic and karst mapping provided the framework on which hydrologic investigations were based. Fracture trace and lineament analysis helped locate potential water-bearing fractures and guided installation of monitoring wells. Monitoring wells were drilled for borehole geophysical surveys, water-quality sampling, water-level measurements, and aquifer tests to

  8. 77 FR 71191 - 2012 Recreational Water Quality Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... AGENCY 2012 Recreational Water Quality Criteria AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability of the 2012 Recreational Water Quality Criteria. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 304(a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing...

  9. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2111 Revised water... stream segments which have not, at least once since December 29, 1981, had their water quality...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  11. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2111 Revised water... stream segments which have not, at least once since December 29, 1981, had their water quality...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  16. National Water Quality Inventory, 1975 Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This document summarizes state submissions and provides a national overview of water quality as requested in Section 305(b) of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments (P.L. 92-500). This report provides the first opportunity for states to summarize their water quality and to report to EPA and Congress. Chapters of this report deal…

  17. Applications of spectroscopy to remote determination of water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, M. C.; Weiner, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    The use of remote laser Raman and molecular spectroscopic techniques to measure water quality is examined. Measurements cover biological, chemical, and physical properties of the water. Experimental results show chemical properties are harder to obtain remotely than biological or physical properties and that molecular spectroscopy seems to be the best method for obtaining water quality data.

  18. Hydrologic and Water Quality Assessment from Managed Turf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for nutrients and pesticides to be transported to surface water from turf systems (especially golf courses) is often debated because of limited information on water quality exiting these systems. This four year study quantified the amount and quality of water draining from part of Nort...

  19. Catfish production and water quality in circulated ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horizontal discharge, and up-welling and down-welling vertical discharge circulators have been used to manipulate water quality in large water bodies. Circulator-induced impact on lake or reservoir water quality has been variable, particularly in terms of the effect on phytoplankton abundance and sp...

  20. WATER QUALITY EFFECTS OF HYPORHEIC PROCESSING IN A LARGE RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality changes along hyporheic flow paths may have
    important effects on river water quality and aquatic habitat. Previous
    studies on the Willamette River, Oregon, showed that river water follows
    hyporheic flow paths through highly porous deposits created by river...

  1. Water Quality from Grass-Based Dairy Farm Tile Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface water quality from agricultural systems varies with the type of system and management. Systems with high inputs from fertilizer and/or manure may have high nutrient levels, e.g. NO3-N, in subsurface water. This study investigates the water quality from tile lines on grass-based dairy fa...

  2. DRY CREEK, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1976-1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality samples were collected monthly at one station in Water Year 1977 to determine the water quality status of Dry Creek in Twin Falls and Cassia Counties, Idaho (17040212). The stream was sampled near the mouth upstream from Murtaugh Lake. The section of Dry Creek abo...

  3. 76 FR 38592 - Phosphorus Water Quality Standards for Florida Everglades

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ...EPA is proposing a rule that would identify provisions of Florida's Water Quality Standards for Phosphorus in the Everglades Protection Area (Phosphorus Rule) and Florida's Amended Everglades Forever Act (EFA) that EPA has disapproved and that therefore are not applicable water quality standards for purposes of the Clean Water Act. EPA is proposing today's rule following EPA's disapproval of......

  4. The Maladies of Water and War: Addressing Poor Water Quality in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Water is essential in providing nutrients, but contaminated water contributes to poor population health. Water quality and availability can change in unstructured situations, such as war. To develop a practical strategy to address poor water quality resulting from intermittent wars in Iraq, I reviewed information from academic sources regarding waterborne diseases, conflict and war, water quality treatment, and malnutrition. The prevalence of disease was high in impoverished, malnourished populations exposed to contaminated water sources. The data aided in developing a strategy to improve water quality in Iraq, which encompasses remineralized water from desalination plants, health care reform, monitoring and evaluation systems, and educational public health interventions. PMID:23597360

  5. The maladies of water and war: addressing poor water quality in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Zolnikov, Tara Rava

    2013-06-01

    Water is essential in providing nutrients, but contaminated water contributes to poor population health. Water quality and availability can change in unstructured situations, such as war. To develop a practical strategy to address poor water quality resulting from intermittent wars in Iraq, I reviewed information from academic sources regarding waterborne diseases, conflict and war, water quality treatment, and malnutrition. The prevalence of disease was high in impoverished, malnourished populations exposed to contaminated water sources. The data aided in developing a strategy to improve water quality in Iraq, which encompasses remineralized water from desalination plants, health care reform, monitoring and evaluation systems, and educational public health interventions. PMID:23597360

  6. An innovative index for evaluating water quality in streams.

    PubMed

    Said, Ahmend; Stevens, David K; Sehlke, Gerald

    2004-09-01

    A water quality index expressed as a single number is developed to describe overall water quality conditions using multiple water quality variables. The index consists of water quality variables: dissolved oxygen, specific conductivity, turbidity, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform. The objectives of this study were to describe the preexisting indices and to define a new water quality index that has advantages over these indices. The new index was applied to the Big Lost River Watershed in Idaho, and the results gave a quantitative picture for the water quality situation. If the new water quality index for the impaired water is less than a certain number, remediation-likely in the form of total maximum daily loads or changing the management practices-may be needed. The index can be used to assess water quality for general beneficial uses. Nevertheless, the index cannot be used in making regulatory decisions, indicate water quality for specific beneficial uses, or indicate contamination from trace metals, organic contaminants, and toxic substances. PMID:15520897

  7. SPIRIT LAKE, KOOTENAI COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spirit Lake is a high quality recreational lake located in northwestern Kootenai County, Idaho (17010214). A 1984 water quality assessment indicated nutrient enrichment from nonpoint sources, such as timber harvest and domestic wastewater, were causing increased aquatic plant gr...

  8. Seasonal variation of water quality in a lateral hyporheic zone with response to dam operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Chen, L.; Zhao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Aquatic environment of lateral hyporheic zone in a regulated river were investigated seasonally under fluctuated water levels induced by dam operations. Groundwater levels variations in preassembled wells and changes in electronic conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, water temperature and pH in the hyporheic zone were examined as environmental performance indicators for the water quality. Groundwater tables in wells were highly related to the river water levels that showed a hysteresis pattern, and the lag time is associated with the distances from wells to the river bank. The distribution of DO and EC were strongly related to the water temperature, indicating that the cold water released from up-reservoir could determine the biochemistry process in the hyporheic zone. Results also showed that the hyporheic water was weakly alkaline in the study area but had a more or less uniform spatial distribution. Dam release-storage cycles were the dominant factor in changing lateral hyporheic flow and water quality.

  9. Coral Skeletal Records of Water Quality Change in Mesoamerica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carilli, J.; Prouty, N.; Hughen, K.; Norris, R. D.

    2007-12-01

    Corals are thought to incorporate metals into their aragonitic skeletons in direct proportion to those found in the surrounding seawater. As they can live for hundreds of years, they are unique recorders of water quality over anthropogenic time scales. We utilized cores from the massive coral Montastrea faveolata from four locations across the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef, the second largest barrier reef on the planet. The sites were chosen to span an inferred gradient of runoff, from the high runoff Sapodilla Cayes and Cayos Cochinos to Utila and Turneffe Atoll, the farthest from major runoff effects. Surface samples of corals at all sites confirm that Turneffe is the least runoff-affected site. Annual samples of coral skeletal material were separated and cleaned using a multi-step leaching procedure to remove surface and interstitial contamination. 18 metals were then measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and normalized to calcium. Ba/Ca, a proxy for sedimentation, shows similar patterns for annual samples from the Sapodilla Cayes and Cayos Cochinos. At both sites, background Ba/Ca increases between ~1950-1970, indicating an overall increase in the amount of sediment reaching the reefs. Also, large spikes in the record may record massive runoff events from storms tracking overland, such as Hurricane Fifi in 1974. 100-150 year long records of Ba/Ca and other metals from these four sites will be compared to investigate changes in water quality over time and location on the reef.

  10. Environmetric data interpretation to assess the water quality of Maritsa River catchment.

    PubMed

    Papazova, Petia; Simeonova, Pavlina

    2013-01-01

    Maritsa River is one of the largest rivers flowing on Bulgarian territory. The quality of its waters is of substantial importance for irrigation, industrial, recreation and domestic use. Besides, part of the river is flowing on Turkish territory and the control and management of the Maritsa catchment is of mutual interst for the neighboring countires. Thus, performing interpretation and modeling of the river water quality is a major environmetric problem. Two multivariate statstical methods (Cluster analysis/CA/and Principal components analysis/PCA/) were applied for model assessment of the water quality of Maritsa River on Bulgarian territory. The study used long-term monitoring data from 21 sampling sites characterized by 8 surface water quality indicators. The application of CA to the indicators results in 3 significant clusters showing the impact of biological, anthropogenic and eutrophication sources. For further assessment of the monitoring data, PCA was implemented, which identified, again,three latent factors confirming, in principle, the clustering output. The latent factors were conditionally named "biologic", "anthropogenic" and "eutrophication" source. Their identification coinside correctly to the location of real pollution sources along the Maritsa River catchment. The linkage of the sampling sites along the river flow by CA identified four special patterns separated by specific tracers levels: biological and anthropogenic major impact for pattern 1, euthrophication major impact for pattern 2, background levels for pattern 3 and eutrophication and agricultural major impact for pattern 4. The apportionment models of the pollution determined the contribution of each one of identified pollution factors to the total concentration of each one of the water quality parameters. Thus, a better risk management of the surface water quality is achieved both on local and national level. PMID:23485248

  11. WASP3 (WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS PROGRAM), A HYDRODYNAMIC AND WATER QUALITY MODEL - MODEL THEORY, USER'S MANUAL, AND PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program--3 (WASP3) is a dynamic compartment modeling system that can be used to analyze a variety of water quality problems in a diverse set of water bodies. WASP3 simulates the transport and transformation of conventional and toxic pollutant...

  12. Refining models for quantifying the water quality benefits of improved animal management for use in water quality trading

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality trading (WQT) is a market-based approach that allows point sources of water pollution to meet their water quality obligations by purchasing credits from the reduced discharges from other point or nonpoint sources. Non-permitted animal operations and fields of permitted animal operatio...

  13. Land use/land cover water quality nexus: quantifying anthropogenic influences on surface water quality.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Cyril O

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic forces widely influence the composition, configuration, and trend of land use and land cover (LULC) changes with potential implications for surface water quality. These changes have the likelihood of generating non-point source pollution with additional environmental implications for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Monitoring the scope and trajectory of LULC change is pivotal for region-wide planning, tracking the sustainability of natural resources, and meeting the information needs of policy makers. A good comprehension of the dynamics of anthropogenic drivers (proximate and underlying) that influence such changes in LULC is important because any potential adverse change in LULC that may be inimical to sustainable water quality might be addressed at the anthropogenic driver level rather than the LULC change stage. Using a dense time stack of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images, a hydrologic water quality and socio-geospatial modeling framework, this study quantifies the role of anthropogenic drivers of LULC change on total suspended solids and total phosphorus concentrations in the Lower Chippewa River Watershed, Wisconsin, at three time steps-1990, 2000, and 2010. Results of the study demonstrated that proximate drivers of LULC change accounted for between 32 and 59% of the concentration and spatial distribution of total suspended solids, while the extent of phosphorus impairment attributed to the proximate drivers ranged between 31 and 42%. PMID:26065891

  14. Recreational stream assessment using Malaysia water quality index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Hanisah; Kutty, Ahmad Abas

    2013-11-01

    River water quality assessment is crucial in order to quantify and monitor spatial and temporally. Malaysia is producing WQI and NWQS indices to evaluate river water quality. However, the study on recreational river water quality is still scarce. A study was conducted to determine selected recreational river water quality area and to determine impact of recreation on recreational stream. Three recreational streams namely Sungai Benus, Sungai Cemperuh and Sungai Luruh in Janda Baik, Pahang were selected. Five sampling stations were chosen from each river with a 200-400 m interval. Six water quality parameters which are BOD5, COD, TSS, pH, ammoniacal-nitrogen and dissolved oxygen were measured. Sampling and analysis was conducted following standard method prepared by USEPA. These parameters were used to calculate the water quality subindex and finally an indicative WQI value using Malaysia water quality index formula. Results indicate that all recreational streams have excellent water quality with WQI values ranging from 89 to 94. Most of water quality parameter was homogenous between sampling sites and between streams. An one-way ANOVA test indicates that no significant difference was observed between each sub index values (p> 0.05, α=0.05). Only BOD and COD exhibit slightly variation between stations that would be due to organic domestic wastes done by visitors. The study demonstrated that visitors impact on recreational is minimum and recreation streams are applicable for direct contact recreational.

  15. Assessment of water quality along a recreational section of the Damour River in Lebanon using the water quality index.

    PubMed

    Massoud, May Afif

    2012-07-01

    Considering that water is becoming progressively scarce, monitoring water quality of rivers is a subject of ongoing concern and research. It is very intricate to accurately express water quality as water quantity due to the various variables influencing it. A water quality index which integrates several variables in a specific value may be used as a management tool in water quality assessment. Moreover, this index may facilitate communication with the public and decision makers. The main objectives of this research project are to evaluate the water quality index along a recreational section of a relatively small Mediterranean river in Southern Lebanon and to characterize the spatial and temporal variability. Accordingly, an assessment was conducted at the end of the dry season for a period of 5 years from 2005 to 2009. The estimated water quality index classified the average water quality over a 5-year period at the various sites as good. Results revealed that water quality of the Damour River is generally affected by the anthropogenic activities taking place along its watershed. The best quality was found in the upper sites and the worst at the estuary. The presence of fecal coliform bacteria in very high levels may indicate potential health risks to swimmers. This study can be used to support the evaluation of management, regulatory, and monitoring decisions. PMID:21853414

  16. MODIS water quality algorithms for northwest Florida estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synoptic and frequent monitoring of water quality parameters from satellite is useful for determining the health of aquatic ecosystems and development of effective management strategies. Northwest Florida estuaries are classified as optically-complex, or waters influenced by chlo...

  17. A Geographically Variable Water Quality Index Used in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunnette, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the procedure developed in Oregon to formulate a valid water quality index which accounts for the specific conditions in the water body of interest. Parameters selected include oxygen depletion, BOD, eutrophication, dissolved substances, health hazards, and physical characteristics. (CS)

  18. Water quality program elements for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Ramanathan, Raghupathy; Straub, John E.; Schultz, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A strategy is outlined for the development of water-quality criteria and standards relevant to recycling and monitoring the in-flight water for the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The water-reclamation subsystem of the SSF's ECLSS is described, and the objectives of the water-quality are set forth with attention to contaminants. Quality parameters are listed for potable and hygiene-related water including physical and organic parameters, inorganic constituents, bactericides, and microbial content. Comparisons are made to the quality parameters established for the Shuttle's potable water and to the EPA's current standards. Specific research is required to develop in-flight monitoring techniques for unique SSF contaminants, ECLSS microbial control, and on- and off-line monitoring. After discussing some of the in-flight water-monitoring hardware it is concluded that water reclamation and recycling are necessary and feasible for the SSF.

  19. Water quality in Atlantic rainforest mountain rivers (South America): quality indices assessment, nutrients distribution, and consumption effect.

    PubMed

    Avigliano, Esteban; Schenone, Nahuel

    2016-08-01

    The South American Atlantic rainforest is a one-of-a-kind ecosystem considered as a biodiversity hotspot; however, in the last decades, it was intensively reduced to 7 % of its original surface. Water resources and water quality are one of the main goods and services this system provides to people. For monitoring and management recommendations, the present study is focused on (1) determining the nutrient content (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and phosphate) and physiochemical parameters (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, and total dissolved solids) in surface water from 24 rainforest mountain rivers in Argentina, (2) analyzing the human health risk, (3) assessing the environmental distribution of the determined pollutants, and (4) analyzing water quality indices (WQIobj and WQImin). In addition, for total coliform bacteria, a dataset was used from literature. Turbidity, total dissolved solids, and nitrite (NO2 (-)) exceeded the guideline value recommended by national or international guidelines in several sampling stations. The spatial distribution pattern was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis and Factor Analysis (PCA/FA) showing well-defined groups of rivers. Both WQI showed good adjustment (R (2) = 0.89) and rated water quality as good or excellent in all sampling sites (WQI > 71). Therefore, this study suggests the use of the WQImin for monitoring water quality in the region and also the water treatment of coliform, total dissolved solids, and turbidity. PMID:27083909

  20. Attenuation coefficients for water quality trading.

    PubMed

    Keller, Arturo A; Chen, Xiaoli; Fox, Jessica; Fulda, Matt; Dorsey, Rebecca; Seapy, Briana; Glenday, Julia; Bray, Erin

    2014-06-17

    Water quality trading has been proposed as a cost-effective approach for reducing nutrient loads through credit generation from agricultural or point source reductions sold to buyers facing costly options. We present a systematic approach to determine attenuation coefficients and their uncertainty. Using a process-based model, we determine attenuation with safety margins at many watersheds for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads as they transport from point of load reduction to the credit buyer. TN and TP in-stream attenuation generally increases with decreasing mean river flow; smaller rivers in the modeled region of the Ohio River Basin had TN attenuation factors per km, including safety margins, of 0.19-1.6%, medium rivers of 0.14-1.2%, large rivers of 0.13-1.1%, and very large rivers of 0.04-0.42%. Attenuation in ditches transporting nutrients from farms to receiving rivers is 0.4%/km for TN, while for TP attenuation in ditches can be up to 2%/km. A 95 percentile safety margin of 30-40% for TN and 6-10% for TP, applied to the attenuation per km factors, was determined from the in-stream sensitivity of load reductions to watershed model parameters. For perspective, over 50 km a 1% per km factor would result in 50% attenuation = 2:1 trading ratio. PMID:24866482

  1. Drinking-water quality management: the Australian framework.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; Rizak, Samantha

    The most effective means of assuring drinking-water quality and the protection of public health is through adoption of a preventive management approach that encompasses all steps in water production from catchment to consumer. However, the reliance of current regulatory structures on compliance monitoring of treated water tends to promote a reactive management style where corrective actions are initiated after monitoring reveals that prescribed levels have been exceeded, and generally after consumers have received the noncomplying water. Unfortunately, the important limitations of treated water monitoring are often not appreciated, and there is a widespread tendency to assume that intensification of compliance monitoring or lowering of compliance limits is an effective strategy to improving the protection of public health. To address these issues and emphasize the role of preventive system management, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council in collaboration with the Co-operative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment has developed a comprehensive quality management approach for drinking water. This Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality will assist water suppliers in providing a higher level of assurance for drinking water quality and safety. The framework integrates quality and risk management principles, and provides a comprehensive, flexible, and proactive means of optimizing, drinking-water quality and protecting public health. It does not eliminate the requirement for compliance monitoring but allows it to be viewed in the proper perspective as providing verification that preventive measures are effective, rather than as the primary means of protecting public health. PMID:15371202

  2. Patterns of Oversubscribed Water Services: Implications for Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, E. M.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    Water resources, even at continental and global scales, show signs of water scarcity and stress. Prior work has shown that non-sustainable water use could be a non-trivial component of total withdrawals, a conclusion drawn from documentary evidence but one fraught with high uncertainty. We assessed water supply using a geospatial framework, which enabled calculations to be made of the degree to which fresh water withdrawals exceed locally accessible supplies and those in river corridors. Sources of water to accommodate this oversubscription include interbasin transfers, desalination, and groundwater overdraught. Successfully delivering fresh water under such conditions can also create impairment of inland surface waterways, especially when these become source waters themselves. We find the fraction of global fresh water oversubscription in the range of 10-15% of total human water use, under this condition. While the aggregate percentage is relatively small, overdraft tends to be focused in a few regions of the world and hence very substantial at the local to regional scale. Syndromes include those well-known but now shown to be pandemic: saltwater intrusion, land subsidence, pollution, and economic losses. We present a global mapping that shows good correspondence with documentary evidence corroborating the simulated patterns. We also see evidence for active responses pursued in response to these water stresses. These include so-called “hard path” supply-oriented strategies like the construction of water infrastructure, but also more management-oriented such as those that reduce use through efficiency gains, integrated management, and wastewater reuse. We also see impetus for privatization of water supplies in response to this scarcity.

  3. Guidelines for use of water-quality monitors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, A. Brice; Katzenbach, Max S.

    1983-01-01

    This manual contains methods and procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for collecting specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, water temperature, and pH data for ground water, streams, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries by means of permanently installed, continuously recording, water quality monitors. The topics discussed include the selection of monitoring sites, selection and installation of shelters and equipment, and standard methods of calibration, operation and maintenance of water-quality monitors.

  4. Identification of Surface Water Quality along the Coast of Sanya, South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhen-Zhen; Che, Zhi-Wei; Wang, You-Shao; Dong, Jun-De; Wu, Mei-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) are utilized to identify the effects caused by human activities on water quality along the coast of Sanya, South China Sea. PCA and CA identify the seasonality of water quality (dry and wet seasons) and polluted status (polluted area). The seasonality of water quality is related to climate change and Southeast monsoons. Spatial pattern is mainly related to anthropogenic activities (especially land input of pollutions). PCA reveals the characteristics underlying the generation of coastal water quality. The temporal and spatial variation of the trophic status along the coast of Sanya is governed by hydrodynamics and human activities. The results provide a novel typological understanding of seasonal trophic status in a shallow, tropical, open marine bay. PMID:25894980

  5. New York harbor water quality survey, 1993. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brosnan, T.M.; O`Shea, M.L.

    1994-11-30

    The 84th Water Quality Survey of New York Harbor was performed by the New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) in 1993. The purpose of this report is to describe recent patterns of summer (June through September) water quality, to determine compliance with New York State standards, to assess long-term trend, and to provide data for calibration of water quality and hydrodynamic mathematical models. Several special studies were also performed during 1993, including: analysis of metals and organic priority pollutants (including PCBs) in sewage; development of a site-specific copper criteria for New York Harbor; the impact of sewage abatement on water quality in the Hudson River; overview of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Jamaica Bay; additional hypoxia and nutrient monitoring for the Long Island Sound Study, and in the New York Bight; monitoring of the tributaries of the East River and Jamaica Bay; and daily suspended solids monitoring of the Hudson River.

  6. The need for water quality criteria for frogs.

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, R; Grue, C E

    1995-01-01

    Amphibians are considered reliable indicators of environmental quality. In the western United States, a general decline of frog populations parallels an apparent worldwide decline. The factors thought to be contributing to declines in frog populations include habitat loss, introduction of exotic species, overexploitation, disease, climate change, and decreasing water quality. With respect to water quality, agroecosystems use 80-90% of the water resources in the western United States, frequently resulting in highly eutrophic conditions. Recent investigations suggest that these eutrophic conditions (elevated pH, water temperature, and un-ionized ammonia) may be associated with frog embryo mortality or malformations. However, water quality criteria for frogs and other amphibians do not currently exist. Here, we briefly review data that support the need to develop water quality parameters for frogs in agroecosystems and other habitats. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 5. PMID:7607135

  7. Water Quality Analysis of Yosemite Creek Watershed, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. R.; Snow, M. K.; Aquino, A.; Huang, C.; Thai, A.; Yuen, C.

    2003-12-01

    Surface water quality in urban settings can become contaminated by anthropogenic inputs. Yosemite Creek watershed is situated on the east side of San Francisco near Bayview Hunters Point and provides an ideal location for water quality investigations in urban environments. Accordingly, students from Philip and Sala Burton High School monitored water quality at three locations for their physicochemical and biological characteristics. Water was tested for pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, total dissolved solids, salinity, and oxidation reduction potential. In addition, a Hach DR 850 digital colorimeter was utilized to measure chlorine, fluorine, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfate. The biological component was assessed via monitoring benthic macro invertebrates. Specifically, the presence of caddisfly (Trichoptera) were used to indicate low levels of contaminants and good water quality. Our results indicate that water quality and macro invertebrate populations varied spatially within the watershed. Further investigation is needed to pinpoint the precise location of contaminant inputs.

  8. Quality-control design for surface-water sampling in the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David K.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Lopes, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    The data-quality objectives of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program include estimating the extent to which contamination, matrix effects, and measurement variability affect interpretation of chemical analyses of surface-water samples. The quality-control samples used to make these estimates include field blanks, field matrix spikes, and replicates. This report describes the design for collection of these quality-control samples in National Water-Quality Assessment Program studies and the data management needed to properly identify these samples in the U.S. Geological Survey's national data base.

  9. A ground-water-quality monitoring program for Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowlin, Jon O.

    1986-01-01

    A program was designed for the systematic monitoring of ground-water quality in Nevada. Basic hydrologic and water-quality principles are discussed in the formulation of a rational approach to developing a statewide monitoring program. A review of ground-water monitoring efforts in Nevada through 1977 indicates that few requirements for an effective statewide program are being met. A suggested program has been developed that consists of five major elements: (1) A Background-Quality Network to assess the existing water quality in Nevada aquifers, (2) a Contamination Source Inventory of known or potential threats to ground-water quality, (3) Surveillance Networks to monitor ground-water quality in selected hydrographic areas, (4) Intensive Surveys of individual instances of known or potential ground-water contamination, and (5) Ground-Water Data File to manage data generated by the other monitoring elements. Two indices have been developed to help assign rational priorities for monitoring ground water in the 255 hydrographic areas of Nevada: (1) A Hydrographic-Area Priority Index for surveillance monitoring, and (2) A Development-Potential Index for background monitoring of areas with little or no current development. Requirements for efficient management of data from ground-water monitoring are discussed and the three major systems containing Nevada ground-water data are reviewed. More than 11,000 chemical analyses of ground water have been acquired from existing systems and incorporated into a prototype data base.

  10. Understanding long-term baseflow water quality trends using a synoptic survey of the ground water-surface water interface, central Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Browne, Bryant A; Guldan, Nathan M

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between stream water quality and landscape activities is difficult to evaluate where the principal source of stream flow is ground water seepage because the average travel time from ground water recharge areas to stream discharge positions can be on the order of decades. We tested the idea that past and future baseflow water quality can be predicted based on a synoptic survey of ground water recharge age-dates (based on chlorofluorocarbon [CFC] measurements) and water quality measurements obtained at the ground water-surface water interface. In this study we (i) characterize the discharge-weighted age distribution and water quality of ground water seepage into the Little Plover River (LPR); (ii) use this information to backcast and forecast baseflow NO(3)(-) concentrations; and (iii) evaluate NO(3)(-) backcasts against historical baseflow data (1960 to 2000). The discharge-weighted apparent CFC age of ground water seepage into the LPR was 23.7 (+/-7) yr. Baseflow backcasts matched the four decade rise of baseflow NO(3)(-) from 2 to 8 mg L(-1). Baseflow forecasts included three scenarios. Scenario A projects the historical rise of NO(3)(-) in the LPR basin's ground water recharge through 2050. Scenario B projects a leveling off of NO(3)(-) in ground water recharge in the year 2000. Scenario C projects a leveling off in the year 1985. Under Scenario A, LPR baseflow NO(3)(-) will increase steadily from 8 to 19 mg L(-1) between 2000 and 2050. Under scenarios B and C baseflow NO(3)(-) will plateau at 13 mg L(-1) in 2030 and at 10 mg L(-1) in 2010, respectively. The approach developed in this study can be used to (i) reconstruct historical baseflow water quality patterns in the absence of long-term monitoring data and (ii) project the effects of potential management decision on future water quality. PMID:15843645

  11. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  12. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources, Supplement XIV (1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  13. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  14. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  15. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XVI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  16. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement VIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials; related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and…

  17. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials, Supplement XVIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  18. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  19. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS). A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement XVII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  20. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  1. Water Quality Instructional Resources Information System (IRIS): A Compilation of Abstracts to Water Quality and Water Resources Materials. Supplement X.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH. Information Reference Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.

    Compiled are abstracts and indexes to selected print and non-print materials related to wastewater treatment and water quality education and instruction, as well as materials related to pesticides, hazardous wastes, and public participation. Sources of abstracted/indexed materials include all levels of government, private concerns, and educational…

  2. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, J.D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, J.E.

    1996-11-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual household. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies. 21 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Modeling patterns of hot water use in households

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, James D.; Liu, Xiaomin; McMahon, James E.; Dunham, Camilla; Shown, Leslie J.; McCure, Quandra T.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a detailed model of hot water use patterns in individual households. The model improves upon an existing model by including the effects of four conditions that were previously unaccounted for: the absence of a clothes washer; the absence of a dishwasher; a household consisting of seniors only; and a household that does not pay for its own hot water use. Although these four conditions can significantly affect residential hot water use, and have been noted in other studies, this is the first time that they have been incorporated into a detailed model. This model allows detailed evaluation of the impact of potential efficiency standards for water heaters and other market transformation policies.

  4. Water quality and surfactant effects on the water repellency of a sandy soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in irrigation water quality may affect the water repellency of soils treated or untreated with surfactants. Using simulated irrigations, we evaluated water quality and surfactant application rate effects upon the water repellency of a Quincy sand (Xeric Torripsamment). We used a split ...

  5. Water quality status and trends in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Werkheiser, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Information about water quality is vital to ensure long-term availability and sustainability of water that is safe for drinking and recreation and suitable for industry, irrigation, fish, and wildlife. Protecting and enhancing water quality is a national priority, requiring information on water-quality status and trends, progress toward clean water standards, continuing problems, and emerging challenges. In this brief review, we discuss U.S. Geological Survey assessments of nutrient pollution, pesticides, mixtures of organic wastewater compounds (known as emerging contaminants), sediment-bound contaminants (like lead and DDT), and mercury, among other contaminants. Additionally, aspects of land use and current and emerging challenges associated with climate change are presented. Climate change must be considered, as water managers continue their efforts to maintain sufficient water of good quality for humans and for the ecosystem.

  6. Willingness to pay for improvements in drinking water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Jeffrey L.; Elnagheeb, Abdelmoneim H.

    1993-02-01

    In this paper, data from a 1991 survey of Georgia residents were used to study people's willingness to pay (WTP) for improvements in drinking water quality and people's perceptions of potential groundwater contamination. Results showed that 27% of the respondents served by public water supplies rated drinking water quality as poor, and 23% were uncertain about their drinking water quality. The contingent valuation method was used to estimate WTP using a checklist format. The median estimated WTP was 5.49 per month above their current water bills for people on public systems and 7.38 for those using private wells, after rejecting outliers and using the maximum likelihood method. The aggregate WTP for all of Georgia was estimated to be about 111.5 million per year for public water users and 42.3 million per year for private well owners. This aggregate WTP can serve as an estimate of benefits to consumers from improvements in drinking water quality statewide.

  7. ASSESSING WATER CLARITY AS A COMPONENT OF WATER QUALITY IN GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) uses water clarity as a water quality indicator for integrated assessments. After the publication of the first National Coastal Condition Report, the national water clarity reference v...

  8. Availability and quality of water from the Dakota aquifer, northwest Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkart, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of water pumped from the aquifer may be altered by induced leakage from the underlying aquifers in Paleozoic age rocks if withdrawals reverse the pattern of natural flow from the Dakota into the Paleozoic aquifers. Evidence for such a reversal exists in the area around the city of LeMars.

  9. Evaluating Water Quality in the Lovros River (Greece), Using Biotic Indices based on Invertebrate Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koussouris, Theodore; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a survey of a river including physiochemical measurements and river fauna observations. It is shown that the self-purification gradient of river water quality and the possible ecological disturbances due to pollutants entering the river create an unpredictable pattern of recovery. (CW)

  10. Microbiological monitoring for the US Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Myers, Donna N.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    2000-01-01

    Data to characterize the microbiological quality of the Nation?s fresh, marine, and estuarine waters are usually collected for local purposes, most often to judge compliance with standards for protection of public health in swimmable or drinkable waters. Methods and procedures vary with the objectives and practices of the parties collecting data and are continuously being developed or modified. Therefore, it is difficult to provide a nationally consistent picture of the microbial quality of the Nation?s waters. Study objectives and guidelines for a national microbiological monitoring program are outlined in this report, using the framework of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. A national program is designed to provide long-term data on the presence of microbiological pathogens and indicators in ground water and surface water to support effective water policy and management. Three major groups of waterborne pathogens affect the public health acceptability of waters in the United States?bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. Microbiological monitoring in NAWQA would be designed to assess the occurrence, distribution, and trends of pathogenic organisms and indicators in surface waters and ground waters; relate the patterns discerned to factors that help explain them; and improve our understanding of the processes that control microbiological water quality.

  11. Subjective vs. objective measures in the valuation of water quality.

    PubMed

    Artell, Janne; Ahtiainen, Heini; Pouta, Eija

    2013-11-30

    Environmental valuation studies rely on accurate descriptions of the current environmental state and its change. Valuation scenario can be based on objective quality measures described to respondents, on individual subjective perceptions or their combination. If subjective perceptions differ systematically from objective measures, valuation results may be biased. We examine the factors underlying the divergence between perceptions of water quality among summer house owners and the objective water quality classification. We use bivariate probit and multinomial logit models to identify factors that explain both the divergence between perceived and objectively measured water quality and its direction, paying special attention to variables essential in valuation, including those describing the respondent, the summer house and the water body. Some 50% of the respondents perceive water quality differently from the objective quality measures. Several factors are identified behind systematic differences between the perceived and objectively measured quality, in particular the water body type, the level of the objective quality classification and the travel distance to the site. The results emphasize the need to take individual perceptions into account in addition to objective measures in valuation studies, especially if the environmental quality of the study area differs considerably from the average quality in general. PMID:24095791

  12. Water Quality: Water Education for Teachers. A 4-H School Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, G. Morgan; Kling, Emily B.

    This looseleaf notebook is a teacher resource package that is designed for enrichment program use. It contains five units dealing with water quality: (1) The Water Cycle; (2) Our Water Supply; (3) Waste/Water Treatment; (4) Water Conservation; (5) Water Pollution. The units provide background information, experiments, stories, poems, plays, and…

  13. Issues in water quality trading: Introduction to featured collection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality trading is a type of market mechanism for water pollution control. Policy makers have discovered that market mechanisms can play important roles in protecting and improving environmental quality by changing the economic signals an individual or firm faces. Potenti...

  14. How Can Remote Sensing Be Used for Water Quality Monitoring?

    EPA Science Inventory

    “How can remote sensing address information needs and gaps in water quality and quantity management?” was a workshop convened during the biennial National Water Quality Monitoring Conference 2014, held in Cincinnati, OH. The focus of this workshop was to provide an o...

  15. A Two-Year Water Quality Monitoring Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Richard B.; And Others

    The Environmental Protection Agency developed this curriculum to train technicians to monitor water quality. Graduates of the program should be able to monitor municipal, industrial, and commercial discharges; test drinking water for purity; and determine quality of aquatic environments. The program includes algebra, communication skills, biology,…

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE WATER QUALITY OF THE LOWER MISSISSIPPI RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was performed to characterize the water quality of the Lower Mississippi River and to survey the available data and methods that may be used for future water quality management studies of this stretch of river. Primary emphasis was placed on the 150 mile highly industr...

  17. River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

  18. RILEY CREEK, IDAHO WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1975-1976

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents a review of Riley Creek, Idaho (17040212) water quality data collected from September 1975 through September 1976. The creek meets all water quality standards except for total and fecal coliform bacteria. Sources of coliform bacteria include fish hatcheries,...

  19. Bacteriological Methods in Water Quality Control Programs. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This instructor's manual presents material on basic bacteriological laboratory procedures as required by Federal Register Water Quality Guidelines. Course topics include: characteristics, occurrences, and significance of bacterial indicators of pollution; bacteriological water quality standards and criteria; collection and handling of samples;…

  20. Bacteriological Methods in Water Quality Control Programs. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on basic bacteriological laboratory procedures as required by Federal Register Water Quality Guidelines. Course topics include: characteristics, occurrences, and significance of bacterial indicators of pollution; bacteriological water quality standards and criteria; collection and handling of samples;…

  1. Long-term Trends in St. Louis River Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality impairments caused by sewage and industrial waste discharge into the St. Louis River have been a primary concern for clean-up efforts throughout the last century. Surveys dating back to 1928 reveal severely degraded water quality in much of the river below Fond du L...

  2. BEAR RIVER BASIN, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY INVESTIGATION, 1974

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quality of the waters in the Bear River Basin, Idaho (160102) was surveyed from August 27 to August 29, 1974. The purposes of the survey were to determine point and non-point source loading, to determine whether water quality has improved since the adoption of the 1958 Enfor...

  3. Chemical quality of ground water in Fairfax County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    Two maps portray the chemical quality of ground water in Fairfax County, Virginia. One map shows dissolved-solids concentration and chemical analyses diagrams. The other indicates hardness and areas of marginal water quality. Three tables of chemical analysis representing the three distinct rock types in the county are presented also. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. ANALYZING WATER QUALITY WITH IMAGES ACQUIRED FROM AIRBORNE SENSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring different parameters of water quality can be a time consuming and expensive activity. However, the use of airborne light-sensitive (optical) instruments may enhance the abilities of resource managers to monitor water quality in rivers in a timely and cost-effective ma...

  5. DEVELOPING WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR SUSPENDED AND BEDDED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA’s Framework for Developing Suspended and Bedded Sediments (SABS) Water Quality Criteria (SABS Framework) is a nationally-consistent process for developing ambient sediment quality criteria for surface waters. The SABS Framework accommodates natural variation among wa...

  6. Nutrient Management Certification for Delaware: Developing a Water Quality Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David J.; Binford, Gregory D.

    2004-01-01

    Water quality is a critical environmental, social, and political issue in Delaware. In the late 1990s, a series of events related to water quality issues led to the passage of a state nutrient management law. This new law required nutrient management planning and established a state certification program for nutrient users in the agricultural and…

  7. Upper Washita River Experimental Watersheds: Nutrient Water Quality Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality datasets were acquired by the USDA-ARS in three large research watersheds in Oklahoma: the Southern Great Plains Research Watershed (SGPRW), and the Little Washita River and Fort Cobb Reservoir Experimental Watersheds (LWREW and FCREW, respectively). Water quality data in the SGPRW we...

  8. Development of Water Quality Modeling in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes historical trends in water quality model development in the United States, reviews current efforts, and projects promising future directions. Water quality modeling has a relatively long history in the United States. While its origins lie in the work...

  9. HAYDEN LAKE, KOOTENAI COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hayden Lake (17010305) is a high quality recreational lake located in Kootenai County, Idaho. Water quality investigations and trend monitoring data from 1985 until 1987 reveal that Hayden Lake is a relatively nutrient poor, oligo-mesotrophic lake with good water clarity and low...

  10. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35.2102 Section 35.2102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2102 Water quality management planning. Before...

  11. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35.2023 Section 35.2023 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality management planning. (a) From...

  12. Phosphorus Indices: What is the water quality goal?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have collected water quality and land use data from plot- and field-scale studies throughout the South (AR, GA, MS, NC, OK, and TX). The water quality data provide information on runoff and P concentrations and loads. Land use data provide information on management practices, including the amount...

  13. Primary Datasets for Case Studies of River-Water Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulder, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Level 6 (final-year BSc) students undertook case studies on between-site and temporal variation in river-water quality. They used professionally-collected datasets supplied by the Environment Agency. The exercise gave students the experience of working with large, real-world datasets and led to their understanding how the quality of river water is…

  14. ENHANCED STREAM WATER QUALITY MODEL (QUAL2EU)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The enhanced stream water quality model QUAL2E and QUAL2E-UNCAS (37) permits simulation of several water quality constituents in a branching stream system using a finite difference solution to the one-dimensional advective-dispersive mass transport and reaction equation. The con...

  15. Improving Water Quality Using Soil Amendments in Conservation Tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality is a major problem in many parts of the world. Agriculture has been blamed for adverse water quality problems because of the considerable inputs of nutrients and pesticides in high production modern agricultural systems. When runoff occurs both soluble forms and those attached to soi...

  16. Chapter 12: Uncertainty in measured water quality data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality assessment, management, and regulation continue to rely on measured water quality data, in spite of advanced modeling capabilities. However, very little information is available on one very important component of the measured data - the inherent measurement uncertainty. Although all ...

  17. Great Lakes nearshore-offshore: Distinct water quality regions

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared water quality of nearshore regions in the Laurentian Great Lakes to water quality in offshore regions. Sample sites for the nearshore region were from the US EPA National Coastal Condition Assessment and based on a criteria or sample-frame of within the 30-m depth co...

  18. Framework for Evaluating Water Quality of the New England Crystalline Rock Aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Ayotte, Joseph D.; Flanagan, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    Little information exists on regional ground-water-quality patterns for the New England crystalline rock aquifers (NECRA). A systematic approach to facilitate regional evaluation is needed for several reasons. First, the NECRA are vulnerable to anthropogenic and natural contaminants such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), arsenic, and radon gas. Second, the physical characteristics of the aquifers, termed 'intrinsic susceptibility', can lead to variable and degraded water quality. A framework approach for characterizing the aquifer region into areas of similar hydrogeology is described in this report and is based on hypothesized relevant physical features and chemical conditions (collectively termed 'variables') that affect regional patterns of ground-water quality. A framework for comparison of water quality across the NECRA consists of a group of spatial variables related to aquifer properties, hydrologic conditions, and contaminant sources. These spatial variables are grouped under four general categories (features) that can be mapped across the aquifers: (1) geologic, (2) hydrophysiographic, (3) land-use land-cover, and (4) geochemical. On a regional scale, these variables represent indicators of natural and anthropogenic sources of contaminants, as well as generalized physical and chemical characteristics of the aquifer system that influence ground-water chemistry and flow. These variables can be used in varying combinations (depending on the contaminant) to categorize the aquifer into areas of similar hydrogeologic characteristics to evaluate variation in regional water quality through statistical testing.

  19. Impacts of extreme flooding on riverbank filtration water quality.

    PubMed

    Ascott, M J; Lapworth, D J; Gooddy, D C; Sage, R C; Karapanos, I

    2016-06-01

    Riverbank filtration schemes form a significant component of public water treatment processes on a global level. Understanding the resilience and water quality recovery of these systems following severe flooding is critical for effective water resources management under potential future climate change. This paper assesses the impact of floodplain inundation on the water quality of a shallow aquifer riverbank filtration system and how water quality recovers following an extreme (1 in 17 year, duration >70 days, 7 day inundation) flood event. During the inundation event, riverbank filtrate water quality is dominated by rapid direct recharge and floodwater infiltration (high fraction of surface water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) >140% baseline values, >1 log increase in micro-organic contaminants, microbial detects and turbidity, low specific electrical conductivity (SEC) <90% baseline, high dissolved oxygen (DO) >400% baseline). A rapid recovery is observed in water quality with most floodwater impacts only observed for 2-3 weeks after the flooding event and a return to normal groundwater conditions within 6 weeks (lower fraction of surface water, higher SEC, lower DOC, organic and microbial detects, DO). Recovery rates are constrained by the hydrogeological site setting, the abstraction regime and the water quality trends at site boundary conditions. In this case, increased abstraction rates and a high transmissivity aquifer facilitate rapid water quality recoveries, with longer term trends controlled by background river and groundwater qualities. Temporary reductions in abstraction rates appear to slow water quality recoveries. Flexible operating regimes such as the one implemented at this study site are likely to be required if shallow aquifer riverbank filtration systems are to be resilient to future inundation events. Development of a conceptual understanding of hydrochemical boundaries and site hydrogeology through monitoring is required to assess the

  20. Water quality changes in Chini Lake, Pahang, West Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Lim, Eng C; Mushrifah, Idris

    2007-08-01

    A study of the water quality changes of Chini Lake was conducted for 12 months, which began in May 2004 and ended in April 2005. Fifteen sampling stations were selected representing the open water body in the lake. A total of 14 water quality parameters were measured and Malaysian Department of Environment Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI) was calculated and classified according to the Interim National Water Quality Standard, Malaysia (INWQS). The physical and chemical variables were temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, pH, total dissolved solid (TDS), turbidity, chlorophyll-a, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solid (TSS), ammonia-N, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate. Results show that base on Malaysian WQI, the water in Chini Lake is classified as class II, which is suitable for recreational activities and allows body contact. With respect to the Interim National Water Quality Standard (INWQS), temperature was within the normal range, conductivity, TSS, nitrate, sulphate and TDS are categorized under class I. Parameters for DO, pH, turbidity, BOD, COD and ammonia-N are categorized under class II. Comparison with eutrophic status indicates that chlorophyll-a concentration in the lake was in mesotrophic condition. In general water quality in Chini Lake varied temporally and spatially, and the most affected water quality parameters were TSS, turbidity, chlorophyll-a, sulphate, DO, ammonia-N, pH and conductivity. PMID:17171269

  1. Water Quality Assessment of Ayeyarwady River in Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatoe Nwe Win, Thanda; Bogaard, Thom; van de Giesen, Nick

    2015-04-01

    Myanmar's socio-economic activities, urbanisation, industrial operations and agricultural production have increased rapidly in recent years. With the increase of socio-economic development and climate change impacts, there is an increasing threat on quantity and quality of water resources. In Myanmar, some of the drinking water coverage still comes from unimproved sources including rivers. The Ayeyarwady River is the main river in Myanmar draining most of the country's area. The use of chemical fertilizer in the agriculture, the mining activities in the catchment area, wastewater effluents from the industries and communities and other development activities generate pollutants of different nature. Therefore water quality monitoring is of utmost importance. In Myanmar, there are many government organizations linked to water quality management. Each water organization monitors water quality for their own purposes. The monitoring is haphazard, short term and based on individual interest and the available equipment. The monitoring is not properly coordinated and a quality assurance programme is not incorporated in most of the work. As a result, comprehensive data on the water quality of rivers in Myanmar is not available. To provide basic information, action is needed at all management levels. The need for comprehensive and accurate assessments of trends in water quality has been recognized. For such an assessment, reliable monitoring data are essential. The objective of our work is to set-up a multi-objective surface water quality monitoring programme. The need for a scientifically designed network to monitor the Ayeyarwady river water quality is obvious as only limited and scattered data on water quality is available. However, the set-up should also take into account the current socio-economic situation and should be flexible to adjust after first years of monitoring. Additionally, a state-of-the-art baseline river water quality sampling program is required which

  2. Conceptualizing and communicating management effects on forest water quality.

    PubMed

    Futter, Martyn N; Högbom, Lars; Valinia, Salar; Sponseller, Ryan A; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2016-02-01

    We present a framework for evaluating and communicating effects of human activity on water quality in managed forests. The framework is based on the following processes: atmospheric deposition, weathering, accumulation, recirculation and flux. Impairments to water quality are characterized in terms of their extent, longevity and frequency. Impacts are communicated using a "traffic lights" metaphor for characterizing severity of water quality impairments arising from forestry and other anthropogenic pressures. The most serious impairments to water quality in managed boreal forests include (i) forestry activities causing excessive sediment mobilization and extirpation of aquatic species and (ii) other anthropogenic pressures caused by long-range transport of mercury and acidifying pollutants. The framework and tool presented here can help evaluate, summarize and communicate the most important issues in circumstances where land management and other anthropogenic pressures combine to impair water quality and may also assist in implementing the "polluter pays" principle. PMID:26744053

  3. Applications of MIDAS regression in analysing trends in water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penev, Spiridon; Leonte, Daniela; Lazarov, Zdravetz; Mann, Rob A.

    2014-04-01

    We discuss novel statistical methods in analysing trends in water quality. Such analysis uses complex data sets of different classes of variables, including water quality, hydrological and meteorological. We analyse the effect of rainfall and flow on trends in water quality utilising a flexible model called Mixed Data Sampling (MIDAS). This model arises because of the mixed frequency in the data collection. Typically, water quality variables are sampled fortnightly, whereas the rain data is sampled daily. The advantage of using MIDAS regression is in the flexible and parsimonious modelling of the influence of the rain and flow on trends in water quality variables. We discuss the model and its implementation on a data set from the Shoalhaven Supply System and Catchments in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Information criteria indicate that MIDAS modelling improves upon simplistic approaches that do not utilise the mixed data sampling nature of the data.

  4. Use of ocean color scanner data in water quality mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorram, S.

    1981-01-01

    Remotely sensed data, in combination with in situ data, are used in assessing water quality parameters within the San Francisco Bay-Delta. The parameters include suspended solids, chlorophyll, and turbidity. Regression models are developed between each of the water quality parameter measurements and the Ocean Color Scanner (OCS) data. The models are then extended to the entire study area for mapping water quality parameters. The results include a series of color-coded maps, each pertaining to one of the water quality parameters, and the statistical analysis of the OCS data and regression models. It is found that concurrently collected OCS data and surface truth measurements are highly useful in mapping the selected water quality parameters and locating areas having relatively high biological activity. In addition, it is found to be virtually impossible, at least within this test site, to locate such areas on U-2 color and color-infrared photography.

  5. A New Qualitative Typology to Classify Treading Water Movement Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzler, Christophe; Button, Chris; Croft, James L.

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a new qualitative typology that can be used to classify learners treading water into different skill-based categories. To establish the typology, 38 participants were videotaped while treading water and their movement patterns were qualitatively analyzed by two experienced biomechanists. 13 sport science students were then asked to classify eight of the original participants after watching a brief tutorial video about how to use the typology. To examine intra-rater consistency, each participant was presented in a random order three times. Generalizability (G) and Decision (D) studies were performed to estimate the importance variance due to rater, occasion, video and the interactions between them, and to determine the reliability of the raters’ answers. A typology of five general classes of coordination was defined amongst the original 38 participants. The G-study showed an accurate and reliable assessment of different pattern type, with a percentage of correct classification of 80.1%, an overall Fleiss’ Kappa coefficient K = 0.6, and an overall generalizability φ coefficient of 0.99. This study showed that the new typology proposed to characterize the behaviour of individuals treading water was both accurate and highly reliable. Movement pattern classification using the typology might help practitioners distinguish between different skill-based behaviours and potentially guide instruction of key aquatic survival skills. Key points Treading water behavioral adaptation can be classified along two dimensions: the type of force created (drag vs lift), and the frequency of the force impulses Based on these concepts, 9 behavioral types can be identified, providing the basis for a typology Provided with macroscopic descriptors (movements of the limb relative to the water, and synchronous vs asynchronous movements), analysts can characterize behavioral type accurately and reliably. PMID:26336339

  6. A New Qualitative Typology to Classify Treading Water Movement Patterns.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Christophe; Button, Chris; Croft, James L; Seifert, Ludovic

    2015-09-01

    This study proposes a new qualitative typology that can be used to classify learners treading water into different skill-based categories. To establish the typology, 38 participants were videotaped while treading water and their movement patterns were qualitatively analyzed by two experienced biomechanists. 13 sport science students were then asked to classify eight of the original participants after watching a brief tutorial video about how to use the typology. To examine intra-rater consistency, each participant was presented in a random order three times. Generalizability (G) and Decision (D) studies were performed to estimate the importance variance due to rater, occasion, video and the interactions between them, and to determine the reliability of the raters' answers. A typology of five general classes of coordination was defined amongst the original 38 participants. The G-study showed an accurate and reliable assessment of different pattern type, with a percentage of correct classification of 80.1%, an overall Fleiss' Kappa coefficient K = 0.6, and an overall generalizability φ coefficient of 0.99. This study showed that the new typology proposed to characterize the behaviour of individuals treading water was both accurate and highly reliable. Movement pattern classification using the typology might help practitioners distinguish between different skill-based behaviours and potentially guide instruction of key aquatic survival skills. Key pointsTreading water behavioral adaptation can be classified along two dimensions: the type of force created (drag vs lift), and the frequency of the force impulsesBased on these concepts, 9 behavioral types can be identified, providing the basis for a typologyProvided with macroscopic descriptors (movements of the limb relative to the water, and synchronous vs asynchronous movements), analysts can characterize behavioral type accurately and reliably. PMID:26336339

  7. Comparison of 2002 Water Year and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spahr, N.E.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Population growth and changes in land-use practices have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local sponsors, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, and Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations, stations that are considered as long term and stations that are rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions have changed over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short term concerns. Another group of stations (rotational group 2) will be chosen and sampled beginning in water year 2004. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality sampling in the upper Gunnison River basin. This summary includes data collected during water year 2002. The introduction provides a map of the sampling locations, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water year 2002 are compared to historical data (data collected for this network since 1995), state water-quality standards, and federal water-quality guidelines

  8. Quality of water in hemodialysis centers in Baghdad, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Al-Naseri, Saadi K; Mahdi, Zinah Mohammed; Hashim, Mohammed Fawzi

    2013-10-01

    Dialysis water quality is one of the important parameters all over the world because of its direct influence on the health of kidney patients. In Iraq, there are more than 20 dialysis centers; most of them contain identical units for the production of dialysis water. In this work, the quality of water used for dialysis in six dialysis centers located within Baghdad hospitals was evaluated. Samples of product water from each of the six dialysis centers were examined for total heterotrophic bacteria, endotoxin, and chemical contaminants. Endotoxin was measured on-site using a portable instrument. Bacteriological and chemical examinations were done in the laboratory after collecting samples from each dialysis center. The results showed a fluctuation in the produced water quality that makes the produced water unaccepted when compared with international standards. Bacterial counts for 60% of the analyzed samples were above the action level (50 colony-forming units[CFU]/mL), while five out of the six dialysis centers showed values higher than the maximum value (100 CFU/mL). Chemical analysis showed that the dialysis water quality suffers from elevated aluminum concentration for all dialysis centers. All hemodialysis centers need thorough monitoring and preventive maintenance to ensure good water quality. In addition, it is important to revise the design of the water treatment units according to the feed and product water quality. PMID:23461710

  9. Hyperspectral remote sensing of water quality in Lake Atitlan, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores Cordova, Africa Ixmucane

    Lake Atitlan in Guatemala is a vital source of drinking water. The deteriorating conditions of water quality in this lake threaten human and ecological health as well as the local and national economy. Given the sporadic and limited measurements available, it is impossible to determine the changing conditions of water quality. The goal of this thesis is to use Hyperion satellite images to measure water quality parameters in Lake Atitlan. For this purpose in situ measurements and satellite-derived reflectance data were analyzed to generate an algorithm that estimated Chlorophyll concentrations. This research provides for the first time a quantitative application of hyperspectral satellite remote sensing for water quality monitoring in Guatemala. This approach is readily transferable to other countries in Central America that face similar issues in the management of their water resources.

  10. Comparison of Water Quality Trends in Two Hydrologically Similar Iowa Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, C.; Arenas Amado, A.; Weber, L. J.; Thomas, N. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Iowa Water Quality Information System (IWQIS) was established in 2014 and provides access to continuously monitored water quality data at 53 locations across Iowa in near real time. The sensors measure and collect various surface water quality data, including nitrate and nitrite (NOx) concentration, specific conductance (SC), turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, and water temperature. Using data from this network, water quality trends were compared for paired watersheds in eastern Iowa over the sensors' periods of record (April 2015 - present) by comparing upstream land use composition and anthropogenic activity (e.g. point source pollution sources). Several water quality variables, including DO, pH, and water temperature, exhibited clear diurnal and seasonal patterns and high correlation with other variables. While the watersheds share similar topography, geology, and meteorology, the amount of urban and rural land use in each differ substantially. The watershed with a greater percent of row crop agriculture (23% compared to 15%) had consistently higher NOx concentration, as expected, and greater turbidity during low flow conditions. In contrast, the watershed with more urban land use (52% compared to 11%) exhibited flashier behavior in SC and turbidity and greater levels of each over a longer duration following rain events. Additional reasons for difference in the timing and magnitude of certain water quality variables were hypothesized. These early results reveal the value of the IWQIS for monitoring the quality of Iowa's surficial waters and helping establish baseline nutrient conditions to assist with improving water quality in the state through the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy.

  11. High frequency measurements of optical lake water properties: Is there a seasonal pattern?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, R. A.; Podgrajsek, E.; Kothawala, D.; Weyhenmeyer, G. A.

    2012-04-01

    Optical properties of lake waters can give insight into quantity and quality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). DOC from in-lake and terrestrial production fuels the aquatic system with energy. This energy is used for various biotransformation processes, of which the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere plays a central role. In our study, we assessed seasonal variations in the optical properties of lake water. We tested a new absorbance spectrophotometer (spectrolyser s:can, Austria) which is capable of measuring the in-lake unfiltered absorbance spectra (250 to 735 nm) at high frequency intervals. In water quality monitoring, the absorbance spectra can be used as a surrogate for dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Between spring and fall of 2011, we retrieved continuous scans at Lake Tämnaren, an oligotrophic, humic lake in the boreal region of Sweden. Our in situ measurements were supported by a controlled sampling program consisting of bi-weekly grab samples to quantify DOC concentrations along with in laboratory spectral analysis (absorbance and fluorescence) and water quality parameters (pH, total inorganic carbon, turbidity, filtered and unfiltered absorbance, filtered fluorescence). Interpreting absorbance and fluorescence scans with common optical metrics (specific absorbance, spectral slope, fluorescence index) we found clear temporal patterns in DOC quality over the summer season which we related to a variety of variables including chamber and Eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide fluxes at the lake-atmosphere interface.

  12. Pesticide mitigation strategies for surface water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pesticide residues are being increasingly detected in surface water in agricultural and urban areas. In some cases water bodies are being listed under the Clean Water Act 303(d) as impaired and Total Maximum Daily Loads are required to address the impairments in agricultural areas. Pesticides in sur...

  13. Using Omics to Study Microbial Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water is one of the most important resources of all natural ecosystems. Not only is water important to life, but it is also a habitat for a large diversity of microbial forms, in many cases carrying critical geochemical functions. In other instances, water is implicated in outbre...

  14. Ground-water quality in selected areas of Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hindall, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of 2,071 ground-water samples from 970 wells throughout Wisconsin indicate large variations in ground-water quality. Ground water in Wisconsin is generally suitable for most uses, but in some areas concentrations of chemical constituents exceed recommended drinking-water standards. Iron, manganese, and nitrate commonly exceed recommended drinking-water standards and dissolved solids, sulfate, heavy metals, and phenolic materials may present local problems. (USGS)

  15. Remote Sensing of Water Quality in the Niger River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, C.; Palacios, S. L.; Milesi, C.; Schmidt, C.; Baney, O. N.; Mitchell, Å. R.; Kislik, E.; Palmer-Moloney, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    An overarching goal of the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA) Anticipatory Analytics- -GEOnarrative program is to establish water linkages with energy, food, and climate and to understand how these linkages relate to national security and stability. Recognizing that geopolitical stability is tied to human health, agricultural productivity, and natural ecosystems' vitality, NGA partnered with NASA Ames Research Center to use satellite remote sensing to assess water quality in West Africa, specifically the Niger River Basin. Researchers from NASA Ames used MODIS and Landsat imagery to apply two water quality indices-- the Floating Algal Index (FAI) and the Turbidity Index (TI)--to large rivers, lakes and reservoirs within the Niger Basin. These indices were selected to evaluate which observations were most suitable for monitoring water quality in a region where coincident in situ measurements are not available. In addition, the FAI and TI indices were derived using data from the Hyperspectral Imagery for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) sensor for Lake Erie in the United States to determine how increased spectral resolution and in-situ measurements would improve the ability to measure the spatio-temporal variations in water quality. Results included the comparison of outputs from sensors with different spectral and spatial resolution characteristics for water quality monitoring. Approaches, such as the GEOnarrative, that incorporate water quality will enable analysts and decision-makers to recognize the current and potentially future impacts of changing water quality on regional security and stability.

  16. Impacts of Extreme Flood Inundation on Bank Filtration Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascott, Matthew; Lapworth, Daniel; Gooddy, Daren; Sage, Robert; Karapanos, Ilias; Ward, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Bank filtration systems are a significant component of global water supply and considered to be vulnerable to climate change. Understanding the resilience and water quality recovery of these systems following severe flooding is critical for effective water resources planning and management under potential future climate change. We provide the first systematic assessment of the recovery in water quality following extreme inundation at a bank filtration site following an extreme (1 in 17 year, duration > 70 days) flood event. During the inundation event, bank filtrate water quality is dominated by rapid direct recharge and floodwater infiltration (fraction of surface water, fSW ˜ 1, high DOC > 140% steady state values (SS), > 1 log increase in micro-organic contaminants, microbial detects and turbidity, low SEC < 90% SS, low nitrate, high DO > 500% SS). A rapid recovery is observed in water quality with most floodwater impacts only observed for 2 - 3 weeks after the flooding event and a return to normal groundwater conditions within 6 weeks (fSW ˜ 0.2 - 0.5, higher nitrate and SEC, lower DOC, organic and microbial detects, DO). Recovery rates are constrained by the hydrogeological setting of the site, the abstraction regime and the water quality trends at site boundary conditions. In this case, increased abstraction rates and a high transmissivity aquifer facilitate rapid water quality recoveries, with longer term trends controlled by background river and groundwater qualities. Temporary reductions in abstraction rates appear to slow water quality recoveries. Water resources planners and managers should consider flexible operating regimes such as the one implemented at this study site if riverbank filtration systems are to be resilient to future inundation events under climate change. Development of a conceptual understanding of hydrochemical boundaries and site hydrogeology through monitoring is required to assess the suitability of a prospective bank filtration

  17. Shallow ground-water flow, water levels, and quality of water, 1980-84, Cowles Unit, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, D.A.; Shedlock, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Cowles Unit of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in Porter County, northwest Indiana, contains a broad dune-beach complex along the southern shoreline of Lake Michigan and a large wetland, called the Great Marsh, that occupies the lowland between the shoreline dunes and an older dune-beach complex farther inland. Water levels and water quality in the surficial aquifer were monitored from 1977 to 1984 near settling ponds on adjacent industrial property at the western end of the Cowles Unit. Since 1980, when the settling pond bottoms were sealed, these intradunal lowlands contained standing water only during periods of high snowmelt or rainfall. Water level declines following the cessation of seepage ranged from 6 feet at the eastern-most settling pond to nearly 14 feet at the western-most pond. No general pattern of water table decline was observed in the Great Marsh or in the shoreline dune complex at distances > 3,000 ft east or north of the settling ponds. Since the settling ponds were sealed, the concentration of boron has decreased while concentrations of cadmium, arsenic, zinc, and molybdenum in shallow ground-water downgradient of the ponds show no definite trends in time. Arsenic, boron and molybdenum have remained at concentrations above those of shallow groundwater in areas unaffected by settling pond seepage. 11 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Surveillance of bacteriological quality of drinking water in Chandigarh, northern India.

    PubMed

    Goel, Naveen K; Pathak, Rambha; Gulati, Sangeeta; Balakrishnan, S; Singh, Navpreet; Singh, Hardeep

    2015-09-01

    The study was carried out in Chandigarh, India with the following objectives: (1) to monitor the bacteriological quality of drinking water; (2) to collect data on bacteriological contamination of water collected at point of use; (3) to test both groundwater being supplied through hand pumps and pre-treated water; and (4) to determine the pattern of seasonal variations in quality of water. The community-based longitudinal study was carried out from 2002 to 2007. Water samples from hand pumps and tap water were collected from different areas of Chandigarh following a simple random sampling strategy. The time trends and seasonal variations in contamination of water according to area and season were analysed. It was found that the contamination of water was higher during the pre-monsoon period compared with the rest of the year. The water being used in slums and rural areas for drinking purposes also had higher contamination levels than urban areas, with highest levels in rural areas. This study found that drinking water supply in Chandigarh is susceptible to contamination especially in rural areas and during pre-monsoon. Active intervention from public health and the health department along with raising people's awareness regarding water hygiene are required for improving the quality of drinking water. PMID:26322778

  19. Better understanding of water quality evolution in water distribution networks using data clustering.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Pierre; Maurel, Marie; Chenu, Damien

    2015-12-15

    The complexity of water distribution networks raises challenges in managing, monitoring and understanding their behavior. This article proposes a novel methodology applying data clustering to the results of hydraulic simulation to define quality zones, i.e. zones with the same dynamic water origin. The methodology is presented on an existing Water Distribution Network; a large dataset of conductivity measurements measured by 32 probes validates the definition of the quality zones. The results show how quality zones help better understanding the network operation and how they can be used to analyze water quality events. Moreover, a statistical comparison with 158,230 conductivity measurements validates the definition of the quality zones. PMID:26378733

  20. Urban Hydrology and Water Quality Modeling - Resolution Modeling Comparison for Water Quantity and Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, T. J.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization presents challenging water resource problems for communities worldwide. The hydromodifications associated with urbanization results in increased runoff rates and volumes and increased peak flows. These hydrologic changes can lead to increased erosion and stream destabilization, decreased evapotranspiration, decreased ground water recharge, increases in pollutant loading, and localized anthropogenic climate change or Urban Heat Islands. Stormwater represents a complex and dynamic component of the urban water cycle that requires careful mitigation. With the implementation of Phase II rules under the CWA, stormwater management is shifting from a drainage-efficiency focus to a natural systems focus. The natural system focus, referred to as Low Impact Development (LID), or Green Infrastructure, uses best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the impacts caused by urbanization hydromodification. Large-scale patterns of stormwater runoff from urban environments are complex and it is unclear what the large-scale impacts of green infrastructure are on the water cycle. High resolution physically based hydrologic models can be used to more accurately simulate the urban hydrologic cycle. These types of models tend to be more dynamic and allow for greater flexibility in evaluating and accounting for various hydrologic processes in the urban environment that may be lost with lower resolution conceptual models. We propose to evaluate the effectiveness of high resolution models to accurately represent and determine the urban hydrologic cycle with the overall goal of being able to accurately assess the impacts of LID BMPs in urban environments. We propose to complete a rigorous model intercomparison between ParFlow and FLO-2D. Both of these models can be scaled to higher resolutions, allow for rainfall to be spatially and temporally input, and solve the shallow water equations. Each model is different in the way it accounts for infiltration, initial abstraction losses

  1. Climate change and water conservation effects on water availability and vegetation patterns in a stream valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Knaap, Yasmijn; de Graaf, Myrjam; van Ek, Remco; Witte, Jan-Philip; Aerts, Rien; Bierkens, Marc; van Bodegom, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Climate change predictions include an increase in global temperature and changes in precipitation patterns at spatial and seasonal scale. The seasonal changes for temperate Europe include a decrease in the amount of precipitation in summer and an increase in winter. This may lead to an increased flooding risk in winter and early spring, while in summer the drought risk is likely to increase. These hydrological changes can have profound effects on vegetation patterns and development, especially for groundwater dependent vegetation. Water conservation measures can be used to combat the potential negative effects of these changes. Conservation measures can include aquifer storage and recovery, damming streams, or creating retention zones for flooding events. The implementation of these measures can contribute to preserving groundwater dependent vegetation patterns. In this study we simulated with an integrated surface- and groundwater model and a climate robust vegetation model, the implementation of water conservation measures in a stream valley catchment in the Netherlands. We modeled the effects on water availability and on vegetation patterns. The conservation measures were simulated for the current climate and for two climate scenarios, with a temperature increase of two degrees Celsius and either an increase or decrease in precipitation. Water tables were increased in stream valley zones, where groundwater dependent vegetation dominates, to ensure suitable abiotic conditions. The results showed that the water conservation measures increased the water table considerably in a future climate, compared to no conservation measures. Groundwater dependent vegetation was positively stimulated with these new hydrological conditions. With these models we successfully tested the effectiveness of the water conservation measures on water availability and vegetation patterns to ameliorate the negative effects of climate change. We therefore argue that water conservation

  2. Investigation of Drinking Water Quality in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water). The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO. PMID:23509472

  3. Investigation of drinking water quality in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water). The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO. PMID:23509472

  4. Surface water quality-assurance plan, U.S. Geological Survey, Kentucky Water Science Center, water year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    This Surface Water Quality-Assurance Plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Kentucky Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of surface-water data.

  5. Coastal water quality estimation from Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) satellite data using machine learning approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Jungho; Ha, Sunghyun; Kim, Yong Hoon; Ha, Hokyung; Choi, Jongkuk; Kim, Miae

    2014-05-01

    as predictor variables. Results show that support vector regression outperformed the other two machine learning approaches as well as conventional statistical models, yielding calibration R2 of 0.9 and cross validation RMSE of 1.7 mg/m3 for chlorophyll-a concentration, and calibration R2 of 0.97 and cross validation RMSE of 11.4 g/m3 for suspended sediment. Relative importance of the predictor variables was examined and the spatiotemporal patterns of the water quality parameter distribution were analyzed along with tidal information.

  6. Analyze and test violin's tonal quality from holographic pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hengsheng

    1994-05-01

    The frequency response curve--laser holographic method which studies the tonal quality of violin's and musical instruments. The method is based on macro measure of frequency response curve and full used sensitivity of laser holograph on weak vibration. We have analyzed violins of different tonal quality and have summarized fine violin's holographic mode. A new measuring method on tonal quality of musical instruments is being developed. We take the microscopic holograms of a violin when it is being vibrated (time--average method), and also with the frequency response curve, to analyze and measure a violin's vibration, to calculate the amplitude of the top and back plate of a violin, to find out the plate of a violin's plate where is should be repaired and micro quantity (micrometer), to change the interval of a violin's box (top and back plate) to improve the violin's tonal quality, to explore the quantitative rules of a whole violin's fine quality.

  7. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... purposes of this rule and the Clean Water Act assistance programs under 40 CFR part 35, subparts A and H if... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6 Section 130.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...

  8. IMPACT OF LEAD AND OTHER METALLIC SOLDERS ON WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study of the relationship between water quality at the consumer's taps and the corrosion of lead solder was conducted under actual field conditions in 90 homes supplied by public water in the South Huntington Water District (New York) and at l4 houses supplied by private wells ...

  9. ADDRESSING EMERGING ISSUES IN WATER QUALITY THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public concern over cleanliness and safety of source and recreational waters has prompted researchers to look for indicators of water quality. Giving public water authorities multiple tools to measure and monitor levels of chemical contaminants, as well as chemical markers of c...

  10. Rural Water Quality Database: Educational Program to Collect Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemley, Ann; Wagenet, Linda

    1993-01-01

    A New York State project created a water quality database for private drinking water supplies, using the statewide educational program to collect the data. Another goal was to develop this program so rural residents could increase their knowledge of water supply management. (Author)

  11. National Water Quality Inventory, 1976 Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This report summarizes the state submissions and provides a national overview of water quality as required in Section 305(b) of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments (P.L. 92-500). Topics receiving the greatest coverage include toxic substances, quantitative assessments of the percentage of waters currently meeting the goals of…

  12. Using Scientific Inquiry to Teach Students about Water Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puche, Helena; Holt, Jame

    2012-01-01

    This semi-guided inquiry activity explores the macroinvertebrate fauna in water sources affected by different levels of pollution. Students develop their ability to identify macroinvertebrates, compare aquatic fauna from different sources of water samples, evaluate water quality using an index, document and analyze data, raise questions and…

  13. Assessment of phytoplankton diversity as an indicator of water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Yergeau, S.E.; Lang, A.; Teeters, R.

    1997-08-01

    For the measurement of water quality in freshwater systems, there are established indices using macroinvertebrate larvae. There is no such comparable measure for marine and estuarine environments. A phytoplankton diversity index (PDI), whose basic form was conceived by Dr. Ruth Gyure of Save the Sound, Inc., is being investigated as a possible candidate to rectify this situation. Phytoplankton were chosen as the indicators of water quality since algae have short generation times and respond quickly to changing water quality conditions. The methodologies involved in this initial assessment of the PDI are incorporated into the Adopt-a-Harbor water quality monitoring program and its associated laboratory. The virtues of the procedures are that they are simple and quick to use, suitable for trained volunteers to carry out, easily reproducible, and amenable to quality assurance checks.

  14. Diurnal cycles in water quality across the periodic table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, James

    2014-05-01

    , because their amplitude and phase contain important clues to the mechanisms controlling these solutes in streamwater. The amplitudes of these cycles vary seasonally, and from wet to dry conditions; the phases are typically much more consistent over time. Under low-flow conditions, the diurnal cycle phases of different elements vary systematically with their electronic structure, as reflected in their placement in the periodic table. Potential mechanisms for this surprising pattern will be discussed. Neal, C., B. Reynolds, J. W. Kirchner, P. Rowland, D. Norris, D. Sleep, A. Lawlor, C. Woods, S. Thacker, H. Guyatt, C. Vincent, K. Lehto, S. Grant, J. Williams, M. Neal, H. Wickham, S. Harman, and L. Armstrong. 2013. High-frequency precipitation and stream water quality time series from Plynlimon, Wales: an openly accessible data resource spanning the periodic table. Hydrological Processes 27:2531-2539. Kirchner, J. W., and C. Neal. 2013. Universal fractal scaling in stream chemistry and its implications for solute transport and water quality trend detection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110:12213-12218.

  15. 76 FR 16285 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... proposed amendments appeared in the Federal Register (75 FR 41106) on July 15, 2010 as well as in the... CFR Part 410 Incorporation by reference, Water audit, Water pollution control, Water reservoirs, Water... COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan...

  16. Pattern Formation in Drying Drops of Polystyrene/Water nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brutin, David; Sobac, Benjamin

    2011-11-01

    We study the pattern formation and the evaporation dynamics of drying drops of polystyrene/water based nanofluids with concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 6%. Cracks formation is evidenced to depend on the nanoparticles concentration. The dynamics of evaporation is recorded using an electronic balance with an accuracy of 10 μg. A top view recording enables to analyze the pattern formation in relation with the mass evolution. We determine several key parameters such as the time of evaporation, the wetting diameter, the final solid deposition diameter, the number and the spacing of the cracks. We evidence a ring formation above a critical concentration. We evidenced by change of the surrounding humidity in the range of 10 to 90% that this pattern remains constant. The pattern formation is influenced by the liquid phase evaporation dynamics but only depends on the concentration in nanoparticles. These results are of great interest regarding the formation of droplets in several areas such as inkjet printing, pharmacology...

  17. An assessment of drinking-water quality post-Haiyan

    PubMed Central

    Anarna, Maria Sonabel; Fernando, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Access to safe drinking-water is one of the most important public health concerns in an emergency setting. This descriptive study reports on an assessment of water quality in drinking-water supply systems in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan immediately following and 10 months after the typhoon. Methods Water quality testing and risk assessments of the drinking-water systems were conducted three weeks and 10 months post-Haiyan. Portable test kits were used to determine the presence of Escherichia coli and the level of residual chlorine in water samples. The level of risk was fed back to the water operators for their action. Results Of the 121 water samples collected three weeks post-Haiyan, 44% were contaminated, while 65% (244/373) of samples were found positive for E. coli 10 months post-Haiyan. For the three components of drinking-water systems – source, storage and distribution – the proportions of contaminated systems were 70%, 67% and 57%, respectively, 10 months after Haiyan. Discussion Vulnerability to faecal contamination was attributed to weak water safety programmes in the drinking-water supply systems. Poor water quality can be prevented or reduced by developing and implementing a water safety plan for the systems. This, in turn, will help prevent waterborne disease outbreaks caused by contaminated water post-disaster. PMID:26767136

  18. The case for regime-based water quality standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poole, Geoffrey C.; Dunham, J.B.; Keenan, D.M.; Sauter, S.T.; McCullough, D.A.; Mebane, Christopher; Lockwood, Jeffrey C.; Essig, Don A.; Hicks, Mark P.; Sturdevant, Debra J.; Materna, E.J.; Spalding, M.; Risley, John; Deppman, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    Conventional water quality standards have been successful in reducing the concentration of toxic substances in US waters. However, conventional standards are based on simple thresholds and are therefore poorly structured to address human-caused imbalances in dynamic, natural water quality parameters, such as nutrients, sediment, and temperature. A more applicable type of water quality standarda??a a??regime standarda??a??would describe desirable distributions of conditions over space and time within a stream network. By mandating the protection and restoration of the aquatic ecosystem dynamics that are required to support beneficial uses in streams, well-designed regime standards would facilitate more effective strategies for management of natural water quality parameters.

  19. Influence of Water Age on Reclaimed Water Quality in Distribution Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated chemical and microbial water quality changes in two reclaimed waters as a function of residence time within distribution systems or storage time in tanks. Here we report the microbial water quality changes with particular focus on the incidence of waterborne and waterbased patho...

  20. Sources of trends in water-quality data for selected streams in Texas, 1975-89 water years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schertz, T.L.; Wells, F.C.; Ohe, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Sources of trends in water-quality data for selected streams in Texas for the 1975-89 water years were investigated in this study. The investigation of sources was confined to distinct geographic patterns in the trend indicators for one constituent or for a group of related constituents. The probable source of trend patterns in nutrients and measures of oxygen in the Trinity River Basin was changes in the wastewater treatment facilities in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area. A pattern of increased concentrations of inorganic constituents in the upper Colorado River Basin resulted from emergency releases of water from the Natural Dam Lake, a salinity control structure. Trend patterns in inorganic constituents in the Rio Grande Basin were a result of increasing concentrations in the Pecos River and, to a lesser extent, the Rio Grande above the Amistad Reservoir, combined with the effects of reservoir regulation. A pattern of increasing concentrations of organic plus ammonia nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen was detected for the 1975-86 water years for stations with low concentrations (generally less than 5 milligrams per liter) of these nitrogen species. The trends were no longer evident when the period of trend analysis was extended to the 1989 water year. A positive bias in the data caused by the addition of mercuric chloride tablets to preserve nutrient samples during 1980-86 was the probable source of this trend pattern. A pattern of increasing concentrations in dissolved sulfate in the eastern part of the State was a result of a positive bias in the analytical results of a turbidimetric method of sulfate analysis. The source of a state-wide pattern of increased pH in streams could not be identified.