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Sample records for pbfa ii ion

  1. Lithium ion beam driven hohlraums for PBFA II

    SciTech Connect

    Dukart, R.J.

    1994-05-06

    In our light ion inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program, fusion capsules are driven with an intense x-ray radiation field produced when an intense beam of ions penetrates a radiation case and deposits energy in a foam x-ray conversion region. A first step in the program is to generate and measure these intense fields on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II). Our goal is to generate a 100-eV radiation temperature in lithium ion beam driven hohlraums, the radiation environment which will provide the initial drive temperature for ion beam driven implosion systems designed to achieve high gain. In this paper, we describe the design of such hohlraum targets and their predicted performance on PBFA II as we provide increasing ion beam intensities.

  2. Light ion sources and target results on PBFA II (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II)

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, D.L.; Bailey, J.E.; Bieg, K.W.; Bloomquist, D.D.; Coats, R.S.; Chandler, G.C.; Cuneo, M.E.; Derzon, M.S.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Dreike, P.L.; Dukart, R.J.; Gerber, R.A.; Johnson, D.J.; Leeper, R.J.; Lockner, T.R.; McDaniel, D.H.; Maenchen, J.E.; Matzen, M.K.; Mehlhorn, T.A.; Mix, L.P.; Moats, A.R.; Nelson, W.E.; Pointon, T.D.; Pregenzer, A.L.; Quintenz, J.P.; Renk, T.J.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Ruiz, C.L.; Slutz, S.A.; Stinnett, R

    1990-01-01

    Advances in ion beam theory, diagnostics, and experiments in the past two years have enabled efficient generation of intense proton beams on PBFA II, and focusing of the beam power to 5.4 TW/cm{sup 2} on a 6-mm-diameter target. Target experiments have been started with the intense proton beams, since the range of protons at 4--5 MeV is equivalent to that of lithium at 30 MeV. Three series of experiments have been conducted using planar, conical, and cylindrical targets. These tests have provided information on ion beam power density, uniformity, and energy deposition. In order to increase the power density substantially for target implosion experiments, we are now concentrating on development of high voltage lithium ion beams. 10 refs., 13 figs.

  3. Ion beam generation and focusing on PBFA (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator) II

    SciTech Connect

    Stinnett, R.W.; Bailey, J.E.; Bieg, K.W.; Coats, R.S.; Chandler, G.; Derzon, M.S.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Dreike, P.L.; Gerber, R.A.; Johnson, D.J.; Leeper, R.J.; Lockner, T.R.; Maenchen, J.; Mehlhorn, T.A.; Pregenzer, A.L.; Quintenz, J.P.; Renk, T.J.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Ruiz, C.L.; Slutz, S.A.; Stygar, W.A.; Tisone, G.C.; Woodworth, J.R. ); Maron, Y. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, R

    1990-01-01

    During the past year we have succeeded in obtaining a 5 TW/cm{sup 2} proton focus on Sandia National Laboratories' Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator (PBFA) II. This has allowed us to shift our experimental emphasis to the implementation of an improved ion diode geometry for higher voltage operation, full azimuthal beam characterization, and especially lithium ion source experiments. We have made significant progress in each of these areas during the past year, demonstrating 10 MV diode operation, {plus minus}10% azimuthal beam symmetry, and promising initial results from lithium ion source experiments. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Simulation and interpretation of ion beam diagnostics on PBFA-II

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlhorn, T.A.; Nelson, W.E.; Maenchen, J.E.; Stygar, W.A.; Ruiz, C.L.; Lockner, T.R.; Johnson, D.J.

    1988-08-01

    Ion diode and beam focusing experiments are in progress on PBFA-II working toward an ultimate goal of significant burn of an ICF pellet. Beam diagnostics on these experiments include a Thomson parabola, K..cap alpha.. x-ray pinhole cameras, filtered ion pinhole cameras, and a magnetic spectrometer. We are developing two new computer programs to simulate and interpret the data obtained from these diagnostics. VId-smcapsA is a VAX-based program that manipulates and unfolds data from digitized particle and x-ray diagnostic images. VId-smcapsA operations include: image display, background subtraction, relative-to-absolute coordinate transformations, and image projection into the beam reference frame. p-smcapsIc-smcapsd-smcapsIAg-smcaps allows us to study the effects of time-dependent ion focusing on the performance of ion beam diagnostics.

  5. Light ion hohlraum target experiments on PBFA II and Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Leeper, R.J.; Bailey, J.E.; Barber, T.L.; Carlson, A.L.; Chandler, G.A.; Cook, D.L.; Derzon, M.S.; Dukart, R.J.; Hebron, D.E.; Johnson, D.J.; Matzen, M.K.; Mehlhorn, T.A.; Moats, A.R.; Nash, T.J.; Noack, D.D.; Olsen, R.W.; Olson, R.E.; Porter, J.L.; Quintenz, J.P.; Ruiz, C.L.; Stark, M.A.; Torres, J.A.; Wenger, D.F.

    1996-05-01

    The goal of the National Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program in the United States is a target yield in the range of 200 to 1000 MJ. To address this goal, the near-term emphasis in the Light Ion Target Physics program is to design a credible high-gain target driven by ion beams. Based on this target design, we have identified ion beam spatial parameters, ion beam energy and power deposition, the conversion of ion-beam energy into soft x-ray thermal radiation, the conversion of ion-beam energy into hydrodynamic motion, radiation smoothing in low-density foams, and internal pulse shaping as the critical physics issues. These issues are currently being addressed in both ion- and laser-driven experiments. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Light ion hohlraum target experiments on PBFA II and Nova

    SciTech Connect

    Leeper, R.J.; Bailey, J.E.; Barber, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of the National Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program in the United States is a target yield in the range of 200 to 1000 MJ. To address this goal, the near-term emphasis in the Light Ion Target Physics program is to design a credible high-gain target driven by ion beams. Based on this target design, we have identified ion beam spatial parameters, ion beam energy and power deposition, the conversion of ion-beam energy into soft x-ray thermal radiation, the conversion of ion-beam energy into hydrodynamic motion, radiation smoothing in low-density foams, and internal pulse shaping as the critical physics issues. These issues are currently being addressed in both ion- and laser-driven experiments.

  7. Target diagnostics for intense lithium ion hohlraum experiments on PBFA II

    SciTech Connect

    Leeper, R.J.; Bailey, J.E.; Carlson, A.L.

    1994-12-31

    A review of the diagnostics used at Sandia National Laboratories to measure the parameters of intense lithium ion-beam hohlraum target experiments on PBFA II will be presented. This diagnostic package contains an extensive suite of x-ray spectral and imaging diagnostics that enable measurements of target temperature and x-ray output. The x-ray diagnostics include time-integrated and time-resolved pinhole cameras, energy-resolved I-D streaked imaging, diagnostics, time-integrated and time-resolved grazing, incidence spectrographs, a transmission grating spectrograph, an elliptical crystal spectrograph, a bolometer array, an eleven-element x-ray diode (XRD) array, and an eleven-element PIN diode detector array. The incident Li beam symmetry and an estimate of incident Li beam power density can be measured from ion beam-induced characteristic x-ray line emission and neutron emission.

  8. Production of lithium positive ions from LiF thin films on the anode in PBFA II

    SciTech Connect

    Green, T.A.; Stinnett, R.W.; Gerber, R.A.

    1995-09-01

    The production of positive lithium ions using a lithium-fluoride-coated stainless steel anode in the particle beam fusion accelerator PBFA II is considered from both the experimental and theoretical points of view. It is concluded that the mechanism of Li{sup +} ion production is electric field desorption from the tenth-micron-scale crystallites which compose the columnar growth of the LiF thin film. The required electric field is estimated to be of the order of 5 MV/cm. An essential feature of the mechanism is that the crystallites are rendered electronically conducting through electron-hole pair generation by MeV electron bombardment of the thin film during the operation of the diode. It is proposed that the ion emission mechanism is an electronic conductivity analogue to that discovered by Rollgen for lithium halide crystallites which were rendered ionically conducting by heating to several hundred degrees Celsius. Since an electric field desorption mechanism cannot operate if a surface flashover plasma has formed and reduced the anode electric field to low values, the possibility of flashover on the lithium fluoride coated anode of the PBFA II Li{sup +} ion source is studied theoretically. It is concluded with near certainty that flashover does not occur.

  9. Ion Diode Experiments on PBFA-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockner, Thomas

    1996-05-01

    The PBFA-II pulsed power accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories has been modified to replace the radially focusing ion diode with an extraction ion diode. In the extraction diode mode (PBFA X) the ion beam is generated on the surface of an annular disk and extracted along the cylindrical axis. An additional magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) has been installed to transmit power from the center to the bottom of the accelerator, where it drives a magnetically insulated extraction ion diode. The modification increases access to the diode and the diagnostics, permitting a higher shot rate, and allows us to study extraction diode technology at a power level near what is required for a high yield facility. The modification also includes reversing the polarity of the top half of the accelerator to permit operation at twice the previous source voltage. In the new configuration the diode could operate at 15 MV and 0.8 MA. This operating point is near the 30 MV, 1.0 MA operating point envisioned for one module of a high yield facility, and will allow the study of intense extraction ion diodes at power levels relevant to such a facility. Experimental results will be presented including MITL coupling studies, beam current density control, discharge cleaning of diode surfaces to reduce the presence of contaminant ions in the source beam, and the effect of anode substrate materials on the purity of the lithium beam. A comparison between predicted and measured radial beam profiles will also be presented, with the predicted profiles obtained from the ATHETA code that solves magnetostatics problems in two dimensions. This work was supported by the US/DOE under contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. +In collaboration with R. S. Coats, M. E. Cuneo, M. P. Desjarlias, D. J. Johnson, T. A. Mehlhorn, C. W. Mendel, Jr., P. Menge#, and W. J. Poukey,

  10. PBFA II-Z: A 20-MA driver for z-pinch experiments

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Sandia is modifying the PBFA II accelerator into a dual use facility. While maintaining the present ion-beam capability, we are developing a long-pulse, high-current operating mode for magnetically-driven implosions. This option, called PBFA II-Z, will require new water transmission lines, a new insulator stack, and new magnetically-insulated transmission lines (MITLs). Each of the existing 36, coaxial water pulse-forming sections will couple to a 4.5-{Omega}, bi-plate water-transmission line. The water transmission lines then feed a four-level insulator stack. The insulators are expected to operate at a maximum, spatially-averaged electric field of {approximately}l00 kV/cm. The MITL design is based on the successful biconic Saturn design. The four ``disk`` feeds will each have a vacuum impedance of {approximately}2.0 {Omega}. The disk feeds are added in parallel using a double post-hole convolute at a diameter of 15 cm. We predict that the accelerator will deliver 20 MA to a 15-mg z-pinch load in 100 ns, making PBFA II-Z the most powerful z-pinch driver in the world providing a pulsed power and load physics scaling testbed for future 40-80-MA drivers.

  11. A Shot Parameter Specification Subsystem for automated control of PBFA (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator) II accelerator shots

    SciTech Connect

    Spiller, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Shot Parameter Specification Subsystem (SPSS) is an integral part of the automatic control system developed for the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) by the Control Monitor (C/M) Software Development Team. This system has been designed to fully utilize the accelerator by tailoring shot parameters to the needs of the experimenters. The SPSS is the key to this flexibility. Automatic systems will be required on many pulsed power machines for the fastest turnaround, the highest reliability, and most cost effective operation. These systems will require the flexibility and the ease of use that is part of the SPSS. The PBFA II control system has proved to be an effective modular system, flexible enough to meet the demands of both the fast track construction of PBFA II and the control needs of Hermes III at the Simulation Technology Laboratory. This system is expected to meet the demands of most future machine changes.

  12. Marx generator engineering and assembly line technology for the PBFA II accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Woolston, T.L.; Ives, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    The energy storage section of PBFA II requires 36 Marx generators. The Marx generator was designed to minimize the total number and types of parts in order to speed the assembly process and maintain simplicity. Some mechanical highlights include a shorting system, a quick connect spark gap fitting (using unmodified existing spark gaps), and an arragement allowing insertion and removal of the Marx from a filled oil tank. A rapid assembly system for the Marx generators was also designed and consists of (1) a trolley system, (2) an industrial manipulator, and (3) a gantry crane. Three persons can safely assemble at least two Marxes a week using the equipment. The system also will be used to expedite disassembly required for routine maintenance.

  13. Development and characterization of a time-, position- and energy-resolved x-ray diagnostic for PBFA II target experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Derzon, M.S.; Filuk, A.B.; Pantuso, J.; Dukart, R.J.; Olsen, R.; Barber, T.; Bernard, M.

    1992-12-31

    A time-, position- and energy-resolved soft x-ray (100--500 eV) diagnostic is being developed for PBFA II target experiments. The diagnostic provides measurements of hydrodynamic motion and thermal gradients in light-ion fusion targets. A slit-image of the source is imprinted onto thin sheets (20{mu}m) of organic scintillator to create a one-dimensional image. The scintillator light is then proximity-coupled to a linear array of fiber-optics that transports the light to a streak camera that is operated without an intensifier. The streak camera output is recorded on a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera. We are characterizing the spatial and temporal resolutions of the systems. This is done by collecting data from as many as 90 individual fibers and correcting for variations in throughput and the effects of spatial resolution to roughly 5% standard deviation in their relative throughput. Spatial resolution of these systems at the source is approximately 0.4 mm. Timing resolution is nominally 2 ns and it is limited primarily by the scintillator response and dispersion in the 50-m-long fiber array. We describe the measurement techniques and the results of the characterization.

  14. Power Oscillator Circuit Modeling And Redesign For The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA-II) Switch Trigger Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David L.; Hamil, Roy A.; Prestwich, Kenneth R.; Rohwein, Gerald J.; Donovan, Guy L.; Schaub, Charles M.

    1987-05-01

    The energy output and reliability of the multi-joule, injection-locked KrF laser used to trigger the PBFA II accelerator gas switches were improved through modifications identified in modeling the Blumlein driver circuit for the power oscillator. A combination of the SCEPTRE1 network solver code and JASON2 electrostatic field code were used to model the laser pulse-forming circuit in its single-channel rail gap configuration and modified versions with three or five discrete switches across the 1.45-m-wide, water-insulated transmission line. Three regularly spaced trigatron spark gaps resulted in a more uniformly driven laser volume with lower variations in voltages (10%) and rise times (9%) along its length. With the new configuration, over 3000 shots have been recorded without a single misfire compared to an average of ---25 shots before a prefire with the original design. The gas mix and pressure had to be optimized to match a given driver pulse voltage and rise time to achieve maximum performance from the laser. We summarize the model results which led to our decision to change the Blumlein switch configuration.

  15. Safety training and safe operating procedures written for PBFA (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator) II and applicable to other pulsed power facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, G.L.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1986-12-01

    To ensure that work in advancing pulsed power technology is performed with an acceptably low risk, pulsed power research facilities at Sandia National Laboratories must satisfy general safety guidelines established by the Department of Energy, policies and formats of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Department, and detailed procedures formulated by the Pulsed Power Sciences Directorate. The approach to safety training and to writing safe operating procedures, and the procedures presented here are specific to the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) Facility but are applicable as guidelines to other research and development facilities which have similar hazards.

  16. Pulsed power performance of PBFA Z

    SciTech Connect

    Spielman, R.B.; Stygar, W.A.; Seamen, J.F.

    1997-08-01

    PBFA Z is a new 60-TW/5-MJ electrical driver located at Sandia National Laboratories. The authors use PBFA Z to drive z pinches. The pulsed power design of PBFA Z is based on conventional single-pulse Marx generator, water-line pulse-forming technology used on the earlier Saturn and PBFA II accelerators. PBFA Z stores 11.4 MJ in its 36 Marx generators, couples 5 MJ in a 60-TW/105-ns pulse to the output water transmission lines, and delivers 3.0 MJ and 50 TW of electrical energy to the z-pinch load. Depending on the initial load inductance and the implosion time, the authors attain peak currents of 16-20 MA with a rise time of 105 ns. Current is fed to the z-pinch load through self magnetically-insulated transmission lines (MITLs). Peak electric fields in the MITLs exceed 2 MV/cm. The current from the four independent conical-disk MITLs is combined together in a double post-hole vacuum convolute with an efficiency greater than 95%. The authors achieved x-ray powers of 200 TW and x-ray energies of 1.9 MJ from tungsten wire-array z-pinch loads.

  17. Bremsstrahlung Measurements at PBFA Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochau, G. A.; Derzon, M. S.; Fehl, D.; Mock, R.; Ruiz, C.; Sweeney, M. A.; Struve, K.; Lazier, S.; Cooper, G.

    1997-11-01

    The PBFA Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories demonstrates z-pinch implosions capable of producing 1.8 MJ of soft x-rays. Associated with the power flow on PBFA Z is a bremsstrahlung background produced by electrons with endpoint energies greater than 2 MeV. In this presentation we present time-integrated images of the bremsstrahlung source, the measured bremsstrahlung spectrum both on-axis and side-on with respect to the target, and the bremsstrahlung background intensity as a function of azimuthal angle over the target. Measurements indicate that this background may be isotropic making it less of a concern when fielding diagnostics than previously considered. Additionally, electron losses, which have critical effects on power flow, are estimated with the Screamer circuit code and compared to the losses as determined by unfolding the measured bremsstrahlung field. Disagreements between these estimates are presented and discussed.

  18. Design validation of the PBFA-Z vacuum insulator stack

    SciTech Connect

    Shoup, R.W.; Long, F.; Martin, T.H.

    1997-07-01

    Sandia has developed PBFA-Z, a 20-MA driver for z-pinch experiments by replacing the water lines, insulator stack. and MITLs on PBFA II with hardware of a new design. The PBFA-Z accelerator was designed to deliver 20 MA to a 15-mg z-pinch load in 100 ns. The accelerator was modeled using circuit codes to determine the time-dependent voltage and current waveforms at the input and output of the water lines, the insulator stack, and the MITLs. The design of the vacuum insulator stack was dictated by the drive voltage, the electric field stress and grading requirements, the water line and MITL interface requirements, and the machine operations and maintenance requirements. The insulator stack consists of four separate modules, each of a different design because of different voltage drive and hardware interface requirements. The shape of the components in each module, i.e., grading rings, insulator rings, flux excluders, anode and cathode conductors, and the design of the water line and MITL interfaces, were optimized by using the electrostatic analysis codes, ELECTRO and JASON. The time-dependent performance of the insulator stacks was evaluated using IVORY, a 2-D PIC code. This paper will describe the insulator stack design, present the results of the ELECTRO and IVORY analyses, and show the results of the stack measurements.

  19. In situ evaporation of lithium for LEVIS ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, B.; Lopez, M.; Lamppa, K.; Stearns, W.; Bieg, K.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes the In Situ evaporation of pure lithium on the anode of PBFA II which then can be evaporated and ionized by Laser Evaporation and Ionization Source (LEVIS). Included in this report are the necessary calculations, light laboratory experiments and details of the hardware for PBFA II. This report gives all the details of In Situ evaporation for PBFA II so when a decision is made to provide an active lithium source for PBFA II, it can be fielded in a minimum of time.

  20. Important concepts in the assembly and early characterization of the PBFA 2 accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, S. A.; Clevenger, R. J.; Donovan, G. L.; Holman, G. T.; Johnston, R. R.; Nations, D. R.

    Some of the concepts for orchestrating large numbers of events associated with accelerator assembly and characterization include: (1) structuring of activity into smaller workable and trackable packages, with associated subelements assigned to each section of the accelerator, (2) establishing detailed assembly and characterization documentation to assist in component testing and subsystem integration, (3) structuring the project team for efficient communication, identification of responsibility, and capability for problem and conflict resolution, and (4) developing technologies for receival, inventory, controlled storage, staging, and phased installation and testing of components and pieceparts. The application of these and other concepts to PBFA II, and the progress of accelerator assembly is discussed.

  1. Engineering design for the PBFA-2 pulse forming section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyes, J. D.; Cap, J. S.

    This paper presents an overview of the conceptual and detailed mechanical design of the PBFA-II Pulse Forming Section. The design goals were configuration specification, modularity for ease of installation and maintenance, durability and low cost. The design process began by determining the basic configuration. As was true throughout the design, access for ease of maintenance is a major driving factor. initial assembly requirements dictated a design of separate, modular units for the intermediate store, line one, and line two/three. Integration with the laser system used to trigger the main gas switch put location, stability and adjustment requirements on both the intermediate store and line one. Cost forced the hardware to be fabricated of aluminum. Design for ease of fabrication further held these costs down. Survival in the water shock environment was addressed through specific design and weld techniques. Critical surfaces on all components had to be capable of carrying the high voltages and currents of the machine. The design was developed through prototype testing in the one module machine, Demon.

  2. PBFA Z: A 20-MA z-pinch driver for plasma radiation sources

    SciTech Connect

    Spielman, R.B.; Breeze, S.F.; Deeney, C.

    1996-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is completing a major modification to the PBFA-II facility. PBFA Z will be a z-pinch driver capable of delivering up to 20 MA to a z-pinch load. It optimizes the electrical coupling to the implosion energy of z pinches at implosion velocities of {approximately} 40 cm/{mu}s. Design constraints resulted in an accelerator with a 0.12-{Omega} impedance, a 10.25-nH inductance, and a 120-ns pulse width. The design required new water transmission lines, insulator stack, and vacuum power feeds. Current is delivered to the z-pinch load through four, self-magnetically-insulated vacuum transmission lines and a double post-hole convolute. A variety of design codes are used to model the power flow. These predict a peak current of 20 MA to a z-pinch load having a 2-cm length, a 2-cm radius, and a 15--mg mass, coupling 1.5 MJ into kinetic energy. We present 2-D Rad-Hydro calculations showing MJ x-ray outputs from tungsten wire-array z pinches.

  3. Design and analysis of the PBFA-Z vacuum insulator stack

    SciTech Connect

    Shoup, R.W. |; Long, F.; Martin, T.H.

    1996-06-01

    Sandia is developing PBFA-Z, a 20-MA driver for z-pinch experiments by replacing the water lines, insulator stack, and MITLs on PBFA II with new hardware. The design of the vacuum insulator stack was dictated by the drive voltage, the electric field stress and grading requirements, the water line and MITL interface requirements, and the machine operations and maintenance requirements. The insulator stack will consist of four separate modules, each of a different design because of different voltage drive and hardware interface requirements. The shape of the components in each module, i.e., grading rings, insulator rings, flux excluders, anode and cathode conductors, and the design of the water line and MITL interfaces, were optimized by using the electrostatic analysis codes, ELECTRO and JASON. The time dependent performance of the insulator stack was evaluated using IVORY, a 2-D PIC code. This paper will describe the insulator stack design and present the results of the ELECTRO and IVORY analyses.

  4. An experimental investigation of radioactivity induced by ions associated with the operation of pulsed-power accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosburg, S. K.; Ruiz, C. L.; Cooper, G. W.; Schmidlapp, F. A.

    1993-03-01

    Energetic light ion beams are being studied in Sandia National Laboratories' Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) for the purpose of studying the physics of applied B-diodes with the hope that these beams can be applied to inertial confinement fusion. These beams induce nuclear reactions both in the diode itself and in the materials surrounding the diode. A series of experiments was conducted wherein samples of metals typically used in the diode/gas cell region of PBFA II were exposed to ion beams at energies expected to be achieved in PBFA II. The metals studied were aluminum alloys 2024 and 6061, brass, copper, Inconel alloys 625 and 718, Stainless Steel 304, tantalum, titanium, and tungsten. The ion beams studied consisted of protons at energies of 6, 12, and 19 MeV; deuterons at 6 MeV; Lithium-7 at energies of 10, 15, 20, and 30 MeV; Lithium-6 at 30 MeV; and Boron-10 and Boron-11 at 30 MeV. The induced activity of each sample was measured as a function of time with an ion chamber and was used to estimate the rate at which the initial short-lived activity of the sample decayed. In addition, the activity of each sample was periodically measured with a Geiger counter in contact with the irradiated surface of the sample, was normalized to the total amount of energy incident on the sample, and was used as a basis to compare the amount of activity generated per mega-joule of energy for each sample. Additionally, gamma-ray spectra of the activated samples were collected using a germanium detector, and these spectra were analyzed qualitatively to identify the long-lived radioisotopes present in the sample.

  5. Pb(II) ion-imprinted micro-porous particles for the selective separation of Pb(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yang; Kim, Dukjoon

    2014-11-01

    Pb(II) ion-imprinted micro-porous particles were prepared from the ionic complexes formed between vinyl pyridine functional monomers and template Pb(II) ions. The self-assembled Pb(II)/monomer complex was suspension polymerized in the presence of divinylbenzene cross-linker. The prepared micro-particles were 400-600 μm in size. Their chemical and physical structures, morphologies, and adsorption capacity were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, scanningelectron microscopy (SEM), and atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AAS). The adsorption capacity of the imprinted polymer for the Pb(II) template ions was significantly affected by the initial concentration and the pH of the feed solution. Adsorptionis rapid in the first 1 h, after which it slowly increases to equilibrium. The imprinted particles showed high selectivity for lead ions; the adsorption capacity for the Pb(II) ions, 28 mg g(-1) polymer, was much higher than those for other metal ions such as Ni(II)Zn(II), Fe(II), or Cd(II). The imprinted particles maintain high standards of their adsorption ability after 10 repeated uses. PMID:25958566

  6. Beam-Ion Instability in PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Heifets, S.; Kulikov, A.; Wang, Min-Huey; Wienands, U.; /SLAC

    2007-11-07

    The instability in the PEP-II electron ring has been observed while reducing the clearing gap in the bunch train. We study the ion effects in the ring summarizing existing theories of the beam-ion interaction, comparing them with observations, and estimating effect on luminosity in the saturation regime. Considering the gap instability we suggest that the instability is triggered by the beam-ion instability, and discuss other mechanisms pertinent to the instability.

  7. Simulations of radiatively-driven implosions on the PBFA-Z facility

    SciTech Connect

    Aubrey, J.B.; Bowers, R.L.; Peterson, D.L.

    1997-11-01

    We have performed two-dimensional calculations of the implosions of thin-walled aluminum cylinders driven by a source of radiation. The source is generated by the stagnation of an imploding plasma liner on to a foam target (dynamic hohlraum or flying radiation case) in the PBFA-Z facility at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Both Lagrangian and Eulerian codes are used for the simulations of the compression of the shell by the ablatively-driven main shock.

  8. Simulations of radiatively-driven implosions on the PBFA-Z facility

    SciTech Connect

    Aubrey, Joysree B.; Bowers, Richard L.; Peterson, Darrell L.

    1997-05-05

    We have performed two-dimensional calculations of the implosions of thin-walled aluminum cylinders driven by a source of radiation. The source is generated by the stagnation of an imploding plasma liner on to a foam target (dynamic hohlraum or flying radiation case) in the PBFA-Z facility at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Both Lagrangian and Eulerian codes are used for the simulations of the compression of the shell by the ablatively-driven main shock.

  9. Interaction of beta-cyclodextrin with cadmium(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Norkus, Eugenijus; Grinciene, Giedre; Vuorinen, Tapani; Vaitkus, Rimantas; Butkus, Eugenijus

    2003-12-01

    Reduction of Cd(II) on a dropping mercury electrode was used to study interaction of beta-cyclodextrin with Cd(II) ions. It was found that Cd(II) forms Cdbeta-CD(OH)(2)(2-) hydroxy-complex with the anion of beta-cyclodextrin in alkaline solutions (pH>11), the logarithm of stability constant being 10.4+/-0.1 (20 degrees C; I=1.0). The calculated value of the diffusion coefficient equal to 1.0x10(-6)cm(2)/s shows a large size Cd(II) complex species formation in alkaline solutions containing beta-CD. PMID:14607371

  10. The use of divalent metal ions by type II topoisomerases.

    PubMed

    Deweese, Joseph E; Osheroff, Neil

    2010-07-01

    Type II topoisomerases are essential enzymes that regulate DNA under- and overwinding and remove knots and tangles from the genetic material. In order to carry out their critical physiological functions, these enzymes utilize a double-stranded DNA passage mechanism that requires them to generate a transient double-stranded break. Consequently, while necessary for cell survival, type II topoisomerases also have the capacity to fragment the genome. This feature of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes, respectively, is exploited to treat a variety of bacterial infections and cancers in humans. All type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions for catalytic function. These metal ions function in two separate active sites and are necessary for the ATPase and DNA cleavage/ligation activities of the enzymes. ATPase activity is required for the strand passage process and utilizes the metal-dependent binding and hydrolysis of ATP to drive structural rearrangements in the protein. Both the DNA cleavage and ligation activities of type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions and appear to utilize a novel variant of the canonical two-metal-ion phosphotransferase/hydrolase mechanism to facilitate these reactions. This article will focus primarily on eukaryotic type II topoisomerases and the roles of metal ions in the catalytic functions of these enzymes. PMID:20703329

  11. The Use of Divalent Metal Ions by Type II Topoisomerases

    PubMed Central

    Deweese, Joseph E.; Osheroff, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Type II topoisomerases are essential enzymes that regulate DNA under- and overwinding and remove knots and tangles from the genetic material. In order to carry out their critical physiological functions, these enzymes utilize a double-stranded DNA passage mechanism that requires them to generate a transient double-stranded break. Consequently, while necessary for cell survival, type II topoisomerases also have the capacity to fragment the genome. This feature of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes, respectively, is exploited to treat a variety of bacterial infections and cancers in humans. All type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions for catalytic function. These metal ions function in two separate active sites and are necessary for the ATPase and DNA cleavage/ligation activities of the enzymes. ATPase activity is required for the strand passage process and utilizes the metal-dependent binding and hydrolysis of ATP to drive structural rearrangements in the protein. Both the DNA cleavage and ligation activities of type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions and appear to utilize a novel variant of the canonical two-metal-ion phosphotransferase/hydrolase mechanism to facilitate these reactions. This article will focus primarily on eukaryotic type II topoisomerases and the roles of metal ions in the catalytic functions of these enzymes. PMID:20703329

  12. Kr II and Xe II axial velocity distribution functions in a cross-field ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Lejeune, A.; Bourgeois, G.; Mazouffre, S.

    2012-07-15

    Laser induced fluorescence measurements were carried out in a cross-field ion source to examine the behaviour of the axial ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs) in the expanding plasma. In the present paper, we focus on the axial VDFs of Kr II and Xe II ions. We examine the contourplots in a 1D-phase space (x,v{sub x}) representation in front of the exhaust channel and along the centerline of the ion source. The main ion beam, whose momentum corresponds to the ions that are accelerated through the whole potential drop, is observed. A secondary structure reveals the ions coming from the opposite side of the channel. We show that the formation of the neutralized ion flow is governed by the annular geometry. The assumption of a collisionless shock or a double layer due to supersonic beam interaction is not necessary. A non-negligible fraction of slow ions originates in local ionization or charge-exchange collision events between ions of the expanding plasma and atoms of the background residual gas. Slow ions that are produced near the centerline in the vicinity of the exit plane are accelerated toward the source body with a negative velocity leading to a high sputtering of front face. On the contrary, the ions that are produced in the vicinity of the channel exit plane are partially accelerated by the extended electric field.

  13. Kr II and Xe II axial velocity distribution functions in a cross-field ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejeune, A.; Bourgeois, G.; Mazouffre, S.

    2012-07-01

    Laser induced fluorescence measurements were carried out in a cross-field ion source to examine the behaviour of the axial ion velocity distribution functions (VDFs) in the expanding plasma. In the present paper, we focus on the axial VDFs of Kr II and Xe II ions. We examine the contourplots in a 1D-phase space (x,vx) representation in front of the exhaust channel and along the centerline of the ion source. The main ion beam, whose momentum corresponds to the ions that are accelerated through the whole potential drop, is observed. A secondary structure reveals the ions coming from the opposite side of the channel. We show that the formation of the neutralized ion flow is governed by the annular geometry. The assumption of a collisionless shock or a double layer due to supersonic beam interaction is not necessary. A non-negligible fraction of slow ions originates in local ionization or charge-exchange collision events between ions of the expanding plasma and atoms of the background residual gas. Slow ions that are produced near the centerline in the vicinity of the exit plane are accelerated toward the source body with a negative velocity leading to a high sputtering of front face. On the contrary, the ions that are produced in the vicinity of the channel exit plane are partially accelerated by the extended electric field.

  14. Neutralization tests on the SERT II spacecraft. [of ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, W. R.; Domitz, S.

    1979-01-01

    Orbit precession returned the SERT II spacecraft to continuous sunlight in January 1979 for the first time since early 1972, and new experiments were planned and conducted. Neutralization of an ion beam was accomplished by a second neutralizer cathode located 1 meter away. Plasma potential measurements were made of the plasma surrounding the ion beam and connecting the beam to the second neutralizer. When the density of the connecting plasma was increased by turning on the main discharge of a neighboring ion thruster, the neutralization of the ion beam occurred with improved (lower) coupling voltage. These and other tests reported should aid in the future design of spacecraft using electric thruster systems. Data taken indicate that cross neutralization of ion thrusters in a multiple thruster array should occur readily.

  15. A polystyrene based membrane electrode for cadmium(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Panwar, A; Baniwal, S; Sharma, C L; Singh, A K

    2000-12-01

    A polystyrene based membrane of 3,4:12,13-dibenzo-2,5,11,14-tetraoxo- 1,6,10,15-tetraazacyclooctade-cane shows a Nernstian response to Cd(II) ions over a wide concentration range (3.16 x 10(-6) - 1.00 x 10(-1) mol L(-1) with a Nernstian slope of 29.8 mV/decade of concentration, between pH 2.0 and 6.0. This electrode has been found to be chemically inert and of adequate stability with a response time of 20s. The electrode gives reproducible results with a lifetime of 130 days. The membrane works satisfactorily in a partially non-aqueous medium up to a maximum 35% (v/v) content of methanol and ethanol. The practical utility of the proposed chemical sensor has been observed by using it as end-point indicator in the titration of Cd(II) ions with EDTA. The potentiometric selectivity coefficient values indicate that the membrane sensor is highly selective for Cd(II) ions over a number of cations. Small amounts of surfactants do not disturb the functioning of the sensor. This electrode has also been used to estimate cadmium ions in real samples. PMID:11227561

  16. Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions alter the dynamics and distribution of Mn(II) in cultured chick glial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wedler, F.C.; Ley, B.W. )

    1990-12-01

    Previous studies revealed that Mn(II) is accumulated in cultured glial cells to concentrations far above those present in whole brain or in culture medium. The data indicated that Mn(II) moves across the plasma membrane into the cytoplasm by facilitated diffusion or counter-ion transport with Ca(II), then into mitochondria by active transport. The fact that 1-10 microM Mn(II) ions activate brain glutamine synthetase makes important the regulation of Mn(II) transport in the CNS. Since Cu(II) and Zn(II) caused significant changes in the accumulation of Mn(II) by glia, the mechanisms by which these ions alter the uptake and efflux of Mn(II) ions has been investigated systematically under chemically defined conditions. The kinetics of (54MN)-Mn(II) uptake and efflux were determined and compared under four different sets of conditions: no adducts, Cu(II) or Zn(II) added externally, and with cells preloaded with Cu(II) or Zn(II) in the presence and absence of external added metal ions. Zn(II) ions inhibit the initial velocity of Mn(II) uptake, increase total Mn(II) accumulated, but do not alter the rate or extent Mn(II) efflux. Cu(II) ions increase both the initial velocity and the net Mn(II) accumulated by glia, with little effect on rate or extent of Mn(II) efflux. These results predict that increases in Cu(II) or Zn(II) levels may also increase the steady-state levels of Mn(II) in the cytoplasmic fraction of glial cells, which may in turn alter the activity of Mn(II)-sensitive enzymes in this cell compartment.

  17. Simulations of radiatively-driven implosions on the PBFA-Z facility

    SciTech Connect

    Aubrey, J.B.; Bowers, R.L.; Peterson, D.L.

    1997-05-01

    We have performed two-dimensional calculations of the implosions of thin-walled aluminum cylinders driven by a source of radiation. The source is generated by the stagnation of an imploding plasma liner on to a foam target (dynamic hohlraum or flying radiation case) in the PBFA-Z facility at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Both Lagrangian and Eulerian codes are used for the simulations of the compression of the shell by the ablatively-driven main shock. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Adsorption of Cu(II), Hg(II), and Ni(II) ions by modified natural wool chelating fibers.

    PubMed

    Monier, M; Ayad, D M; Sarhan, A A

    2010-04-15

    The graft copolymerization of ethyl acrylate (EA) onto natural wool fibers initiated by potassium persulphate and Mohr's salt redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Ester groups of the grafted copolymers were partially converted into hydrazide function groups followed by hydrazone formation through reaction with isatin. Also the application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Cu(II), Hg(II) and Ni(II). The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction. PMID:19962235

  19. Ion-imprinted modified chitosan resin for selective removal of Pd(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Monier, M; Abdel-Latif, D A; Abou El-Reash, Y G

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a selective Pd(II) ions chelating resin based on 2-aminobenzaldehyde modified chitosan Schiff's base (Pd-CAZ) was synthesized through ion-imprinting technique. All the performed chemical and morphological changes during the modification and Pd(II) ion-imprinting process were investigated using instrumental techniques including FTIR, (1)H NMR, XRD and SEM. In addition, the mechanism of Pd(II) binding to the synthesized polymeric active sites was elucidated using both XPS and FTIR spectra, and the results indicated that Pd(II) ions coordinated in square planar geometry. Also, the selective extraction experiments with respect to Pd-CAZ and control non-imprinted NI-CAZ resins were performed to obtain the fundamental thermodynamic, kinetic and isotherm parameters. In all cases the adsorption was endothermic, spontaneous, fit well with pseudo-second order kinetic model and Langmuir adsorption isotherm model with maximum adsorption capacities of 275±0.4 and 114±0.2mg/g for Pd-CAZ and NI-CAZ, respectively. Moreover, the regeneration and recovery experiments indicated that the resin maintain about 96% of its original activity after the fifth adsorption-desorption cycle, revealing the high economic value. PMID:26921759

  20. Biosorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions by cross-linked metal-imprinted chitosans with epichlorohydrin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Arh-Hwang

    2011-03-01

    Cross-linked metal-imprinted chitosan microparticles were prepared from chitosan, using four metals (Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II)) as templates, and epichlorohydrin as the cross-linker. The microparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. They were used for comparative biosorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions in an aqueous solution. The results showed that the sorption capacities of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) on the templated microparticles increased from 25 to 74%, 13 to 46%, 41 to 57%, and 12 to 43%, respectively, as compared to the microparticles without metal ion templates. The dynamic study showed that the sorption process followed the second-order kinetic equation. Three sorption models, Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich, were applied to the equilibrium isotherm data. The result showed that the Langmuir isotherm equation best fitted for monolayer sorption processes. Furthermore, the microparticles can be regenerated and reused for the metal removal. PMID:21044814

  1. Selective transport of copper(I, II), cadmium(II), and zinc(II) ions through a supported liquid membrane containing bathocuproine, neocuproine, or bathophenanthroline

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Takashi )

    1994-06-01

    Some selective transport systems for heavy metallic ions through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing a 2,2[prime]-dipyridyl derivative ligand, 4,7-diphenyl-2,9-dimethyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (bathocuproine), 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine), or 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthroline), were investigated. The transport of copper(I, II), cadmium(II), zinc(II), lead(II), and cobalt(II) ions was accomplished with a halogen ion such as chloride, bromide, or iodide ion as a pairing ion species for any SLM. The ranking of the permeability of the metallic ions was Cu[sup +,2+], Zn[sup 2+], Cd[sup 2+] [much gt] Pb[sup 2+], Co[sup 2+]. When the oxidation-reduction potential gradient was used as a driving force for metallic ions, the transport of Cu[sup +] ions was higher than those of Cd[sup 2+] and Zn[sup 2+] ions for any SLM containing bathocuproine, neocuproine, or bathophenanthroline. On the other hand, in the transport system which used the concentration gradient of pairing ion species, the permeability of the Cu[sup 2+] ion decreased whereas that of the Cd[sup 2+] ion increased. Moreover, it was found that the different selectivity for the transport of metallic ions is produced by using various pairing ion species. 18 refs., 9 figs.

  2. [N II ion spectra related to lightning discharges].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ping; Liu, Xin-sheng; Zhang, Yi-jun

    2004-03-01

    Appling the atomic structure theory to the research field of physical processes of lightning discharges, parameters such as wavelengths, oscillator strengths, transition probabilities and excitation energy of upper levels have been calculated for the transitions of N II ions related to lightning discharges. Large-scale multi-configuration Dirac-Fock wavefunctions were applied to include the most important effects of relativity, correlation, and rearrangement of the electron density within the same (computational) model. More detailed identification than ever for lightning spectra has been done, and reference data have been provided for further theoretic and experimental works on the physical mechanism of lightning discharges. PMID:15759977

  3. Synthesis and characterization of a surface-grafted Cd(II) ion-imprinted polymer for selective separation of Cd(II) ion from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Feng, Changgen; Li, Mingyu; Zeng, Qingxuan; Gan, Qiang; Yang, Haiyan

    2015-03-01

    A novel Cd(II) ion-imprinted polymer (Cd(II)-IIP) was prepared with surface imprinting technology by using cadmium chloride as a template and allyl thiourea (ATU) as a functional monomer for on-line solid-phase extraction of trace Cd(II) ion and selective separation Cd(II) ion in water samples. The Cd(II)-IIP exhibited good chemical performance and thermal stability. Kinetics studies showed that the equilibrium adsorption was achieved within 8.0 min and the adsorption process can be described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Compared to the Cd(II) non-imprinted polymer (Cd(II)-NIP), the Cd(II)-IIP had a higher adsorption capacity and selectivity for Cd(II) ion. The maximum adsorption capacities of the Cd(II)-IIP and Cd(II)-NIP for Cd(II) were 38.30 and 13.21 mg g-1, respectively. The relative selectivity coefficients of the adsorbent for Cd(II) in the presence of Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ were 2.86, 6.42, 11.50, 9.46 and 3.73, respectively. In addition, the Cd(II) ion adsorbed was easy to remove from sorbent and the Cd(II)-IIP exhibited good stability and reusability. The adsorption capacity had no obvious decrease after being used six times. The accuracy of this method was verified by the standard reference material, it was then applied for cadmium ion determination in different types of water samples.

  4. Inertial confinement fusion with light ion beams.

    PubMed

    Vandevender, J P; Cook, D L

    1986-05-16

    The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) is presently under construction and is the only existing facility with the potential of igniting thermonuclear fuel in the laboratory. The accelerator will generate up to 5 megamperes of lithium ions at 30 million electron volts and will focus them onto an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target after beam production and focusing have been optimized. Since its inception, the light ion approach to ICF has been considered the one that combines low cost, high risk, and high payoff. The beams are of such high density that their self-generated electric and magnetic fields were thought to prohibit high focal intensities. Recent advances in beam production and focusing demonstrate that these self-forces can be controlled to the degree required for ignition, break-even, and high gain experiments. ICF has been pursued primarily for its potential military applications. However, the high efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the light ion approach enhance its potential for commercial energy application as well. PMID:17755963

  5. Electron-ion Recombination and Photoionization of P II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, Sultana

    2016-05-01

    Study of the inverse processes of photoionization and electron-ion recombination of P II will be reported. It is a highly reactive ion and has been difficult to detect without detailed information of its interactions. Although a low charged ion, present study shows features in photoionization resulting from relativistic fine structure couplings at low energy region near the ionization threshold of many levels. Unified method under the framework of close coupling approximation and R-matrix method and an extension of Bell and Seaton theory has been used to study the inverse processes. The method gives the level-specific as well as the total recombination rate coefficients which include both the radiative recombination (RR) and dielectronic recombination (DR) in a precise manner. The present results include level specific rates and photoionization cross sections of 475 fine structure levels with n <= 10. Preliminary results on the total recombination rates show considerable interference of RR and DR around 4000 K and a DR peak around 105 K. NSF,DOE,OSC.

  6. Biosorption of Fe(II) and Mn(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution by Rice Husk Ash

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiaying; Jiang, Zhao; Shan, Dexin; Lu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Rice husk ash (RHA), an agricultural waste, was used as biosorbent for the removal of Iron(II) and Manganese(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The structural and morphological characteristics of RHA and its elemental compositions before and after adsorption of Fe(II) and Mn(II) were determined by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses. Batch experiments were carried out to determine the influence of initial pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial concentration on the removal of Fe(II) and Mn(II) ions. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by RHA. The correlation coefficient (R2) of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models equals 0.995 and 0.901 for Fe(II), 0.9862 and 0.8924 for Mn(II), respectively, so the Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm model. The mean free energy values evaluated from the D-R model indicated that the biosorption of Fe(II) and Mn(II) onto RHA was physical in nature. Experimental data also showed that the biosorption processes of both metal ions complied with the pseudo-second-order kinetics. PMID:24982918

  7. Removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution by thiosemicarbazide modified chitosan.

    PubMed

    Li, Manlin; Zhang, Zengqiang; Li, Ronghua; Wang, Jim J; Ali, Amjad

    2016-05-01

    The removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution by thiosemicarbazide modified chitosan (TCS) was studied in this article. The synthesized TCS was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), element analysis, N2 adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectrophotometer (XPS). Moreover, the influence of solution pH, contact time, initial heavy metal concentration, and solution temperature on the adsorption process was examined, and the adsorbent reusability and adsorption mechanisms were also studied. The results showed that TCS adsorbed greater amount of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions than the raw chitosan. The adsorption amounts of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions were affected by increasing solution pH and temperature. The maximum adsorption capacities of the TCS for Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions were found to be 325.2 and 257.2 mg/g, respectively. The endothermic adsorption fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetics equation and the adsorption isotherms could be well described by Langmuir model. The metal ions adsorption mechanism was concluded to be mainly dominated by complexation reaction process. The desorption study indicated that the target adsorbent was easy to be regenerated. PMID:26879912

  8. Kinetic modelling for zinc (II) ions biosorption onto Luffa cylindrica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oboh, I.; Aluyor, E.; Audu, T.

    2015-03-01

    The biosorption of Zinc (II) ions onto a biomaterial - Luffa cylindrica has been studied. This biomaterial was characterized by elemental analysis, surface area, pore size distribution, scanning electron microscopy, and the biomaterial before and after sorption, was characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectrometer. The kinetic nonlinear models fitted were Pseudo-first order, Pseudo-second order and Intra-particle diffusion. A comparison of non-linear regression method in selecting the kinetic model was made. Four error functions, namely coefficient of determination (R2), hybrid fractional error function (HYBRID), average relative error (ARE), and sum of the errors squared (ERRSQ), were used to predict the parameters of the kinetic models. The strength of this study is that a biomaterial with wide distribution particularly in the tropical world and which occurs as waste material could be put into effective utilization as a biosorbent to address a crucial environmental problem.

  9. Kinetic modelling for zinc (II) ions biosorption onto Luffa cylindrica

    SciTech Connect

    Oboh, I.; Aluyor, E.; Audu, T.

    2015-03-30

    The biosorption of Zinc (II) ions onto a biomaterial - Luffa cylindrica has been studied. This biomaterial was characterized by elemental analysis, surface area, pore size distribution, scanning electron microscopy, and the biomaterial before and after sorption, was characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectrometer. The kinetic nonlinear models fitted were Pseudo-first order, Pseudo-second order and Intra-particle diffusion. A comparison of non-linear regression method in selecting the kinetic model was made. Four error functions, namely coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}), hybrid fractional error function (HYBRID), average relative error (ARE), and sum of the errors squared (ERRSQ), were used to predict the parameters of the kinetic models. The strength of this study is that a biomaterial with wide distribution particularly in the tropical world and which occurs as waste material could be put into effective utilization as a biosorbent to address a crucial environmental problem.

  10. Electrochemical Microsensors for the Detection of Cadmium(II) and Lead(II) Ions in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Krystofova, Olga; Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Zehnalek, Josef; Hubalek, Jaromir; Babula, Petr; Kizek, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Routine determination of trace metals in complex media is still a difficult task for many analytical instruments. The aim of this work was to compare three electro-chemical instruments [a standard potentiostat (Autolab), a commercially available miniaturized potentiostat (PalmSens) and a homemade micropotentiostat] for easy-to-use and sensitive determination of cadmium(II) and lead(II) ions. The lowest detection limits (hundreds of pM) for both metals was achieved by using of the standard potentiostat, followed by the miniaturized potentiostat (tens of nM) and the homemade instrument (hundreds of nM). Nevertheless, all potentiostats were sensitive enough to evaluate contamination of the environment, because the environmental limits for both metals are higher than detection limits of the instruments. Further, we tested all used potentiostats and working electrodes on analysis of environmental samples (rainwater, flour and plant extract) with artificially added cadmium(II) and lead(II). Based on the similar results obtained for all potentiostats we choose a homemade instrument with a carbon tip working electrode for our subsequent environmental experiments, in which we analyzed maize and sunflower seedlings and rainwater obtained from various sites in the Czech Republic. PMID:22219663

  11. Response to mercury (II) ions in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Boden, Rich; Murrell, J Colin

    2011-11-01

    The mercury (II) ion is toxic and is usually detoxified in Bacteria by reduction to elemental mercury, which is less toxic. This is catalysed by an NAD(P)H-dependent mercuric reductase (EC 1.16.1.1). Here, we present strong evidence that Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) - a methanotrophic member of the Gammaproteobacteria - uses this enzyme to detoxify mercury. In radiorespirometry studies, it was found that cells exposed to mercury dissimilated 100% of [(14) C]-methane provided to generate reducing equivalents to fuel mercury (II) reduction, rather than the mix of assimilation and dissimilation found in control incubations. The detoxification system is constitutively expressed with a specific activity of 352 (±18) nmol NADH oxidized min(-1) (mg protein)(-1) . Putative mercuric reductase genes were predicted in the M. capsulatus (Bath) genome and found in mRNA microarray studies. The MerA-derived polypeptide showed high identity (> 80%) with MerA sequences from the Betaproteobacteria. PMID:22092810

  12. Determining the Amount of Copper(II) Ions in a Solution Using a Smartphone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montangero, Marc

    2015-01-01

    When dissolving copper in nitric acid, copper(II) ions produce a blue-colored solution. It is possible to determine the concentration of copper(II) ions, focusing on the hue of the color, using a smartphone camera. A free app can be used to measure the hue of the solution, and with the help of standard copper(II) solutions, one can graph a…

  13. Electron-ion recombination of FetII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    1997-03-01

    A complete treatment of electron-ion recombination of e+Fe III-->Fe II employing a unified method is presented. The treatment incorporates both the radiative and dielectronic recombinations in a self-consistent manner. Total recombination rate coefficients are obtained from photoionization cross sections, and from collision strengths for dielectronic recombination calculated using the precise theory of Bell and Seaton [J. Phys. B 18, 1589 (1985)]. Large-scale computations for both of these quantities are carried out in the close coupling approximation using the R-matrix method with an eigenfunction expansion that includes 83 states of Fe III dominated by the ground 3d6, and the excited 3d54s and 3d54p configurations. Both the total and state-specific recombination rate coefficients are obtained. Comparison of the present results with the previous ones shows considerable difference for most of the temperature regions. The present results provide accurate and self-consistent recombination rates, in the temperature range of practical applications (T<105 K), for ionization balance in photoionization models employing the detailed photoionization cross sections from the Opacity Project.

  14. Electron-ion recombination of FeII

    SciTech Connect

    Nahar, S.N.

    1997-03-01

    A complete treatment of electron-ion recombination of e+FeIII{r_arrow}FeII employing a unified method is presented. The treatment incorporates both the radiative and dielectronic recombinations in a self-consistent manner. Total recombination rate coefficients are obtained from photoionization cross sections, and from collision strengths for dielectronic recombination calculated using the precise theory of Bell and Seaton [J. Phys. B {bold 18}, 1589 (1985)]. Large-scale computations for both of these quantities are carried out in the close coupling approximation using the R-matrix method with an eigenfunction expansion that includes 83 states of FeIII dominated by the ground 3d{sup 6}, and the excited 3d{sup 5}4s and 3d{sup 5}4p configurations. Both the total and state-specific recombination rate coefficients are obtained. Comparison of the present results with the previous ones shows considerable difference for most of the temperature regions. The present results provide accurate and self-consistent recombination rates, in the temperature range of practical applications (T{lt}10{sup 5} K), for ionization balance in photoionization models employing the detailed photoionization cross sections from the Opacity Project. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Chelation of poly(methacryloylpiperidine) with copper (II) ions in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Zhaimina, G.M.; Babaev, T.M.; Bekturov, E.A.; Kudaibergenov, S.E.; Musaev, U.N.

    1985-04-20

    These authors use potentiometric and conductometric titration, spectroscopy, and viscosimetry to study interaction of copper ions with poly(methacryloylpiperidine) (PMAP) in aqueous solution. Charts present curves for potentiometric titration of PMAP hydrochloride in absence and in presence of copper(II) ions and for formation of PMAP/Cu/sup 2 +/, and for the dependence of optical density and conductivity on the Cu/sup 2 +//PMAP ratio. The authors conclude that copper(II) ions coordinate with two nitrogen atoms of piperidine units of the polyligand. The close proximity of donor groups in the principal macromolecular chain creates steric hindrance to the formation of the electronic configuration required for the copper(II) ions. They succeed in formation of intramolecular crosslinked structures in which copper(II) ions act as bridges.

  16. Interactions of the anticancer antibiotic altromycin B with copper(II), palladium(II) and platinum(II) ions and in vitro activity of the formed complexes.

    PubMed

    Nikolis, Nikolaos; Methenitis, Constantinos; Pneumatikakis, George; Fiallo, Marina M L

    2002-04-10

    Interaction of the anticancer antibiotic altromycin B with Cu(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) ions was studied using 1H-NMR, EPR, electronic absorption and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The results derived from NMR studies where that the Pt(II) and Pd(II) ions interact with the nitrogen atom of the dimethylamino group of the C(10)-disaccharide, while the C(2)-epoxide group does not participate and remains intact. Cu(II) ions interact in a different way with altromycin B as was concluded by EPR and circular dichroism spectra. Altromycin B coordinates to the Cu(II) ions via the oxygen atoms of the C(11) phenolic and the C(12) carbonyl group while the nitrogen atom does not participate in the complexation. The presence of these metal ions improves the stability of altromycin B in solution. These complexes were studied in vitro against K562 leukemia sensitive and doxorubicin-resistant cells and GLC4 lung tumor cells, sensitive and doxorubicin-resistant. The activity of the complexes compared to the free drug is improved against resistant cells and is affected moderately against sensitive cells. Finally, 20% of platinum added as altromycin B metal complex entered GLC4 cells. PMID:11931973

  17. In vitro studies of the loss of antibacterial activity of oxytetracycline in presence of Ca(II) or Mg(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Naz, S; Khan, K A; Zubairi, S A

    1996-07-01

    The results of a comparative study, which evaluated the in vitro effect on the antibacterial activity of oxytetracycline (OTC, CAS 79-57-2) in presence of Ca(II)/Mg(II) ions suggest that susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus pumilis and Bacillus subtilis to OTC is reduced in presence of Ca(II)/Mg(II) ions. As the ratio of concentration of Ca(II)/Mg(II) to OTC was increased, antibacterial activity of OTC declined. In addition to the difference observed between the antibacterial effect of pure OTC and its Ca(II)/Mg(II) complexes, it was found that decline in antibacterial activity is greater for Mg(II)-OTC complex than Ca(II)-OTC complex for the same concentration of Ca(II)/Mg(II) ions. PMID:8842342

  18. Preparation of cross-linked magnetic chitosan-phenylthiourea resin for adsorption of Hg(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Monier, M; Abdel-Latif, D A

    2012-03-30

    In this study, cross-linked magnetic chitosan-phenylthiourea (CSTU) resin were prepared and characterized by means of FTIR, (1)H NMR, SEM high-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), magnetic properties and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The prepared resin were used to investigate the adsorption properties of Hg(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) metal ions in an aqueous solution. The extent of adsorption was investigated as a function of pH and the metal ion removal reached maximum at pH 5.0. Also, the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process were estimated. These data indicated that the adsorption process is exothermic and followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. Equilibrium studies showed that the data of Hg(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) adsorption followed the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities for Hg(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) were estimated to be 135 ± 3, 120 ± 1 and 52 ± 1 mg/g, which demonstrated the high adsorption efficiency of CSTU toward the studied metal ions. PMID:22277339

  19. Penicillamine-modified sensor for the voltammetric determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in natural samples.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ràfols, Clara; Serrano, Núria; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Ariño, Cristina; Esteban, Miquel

    2015-11-01

    A new penicillamine-GCE was developed based on the immobilization of d-penicillamine on aryl diazonium salt monolayers anchored to the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface and it was applied for the first time to the simultaneous determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions by stripping voltammetric techniques. The detection and quantification limits at levels of µg L(-1) suggest that the penicillamine-GCE could be fully suitable for the determination of the considered ions in natural samples. PMID:26452863

  20. A comprehensive investigation on adsorption of Ca (II), Cr (III) and Mg (II) ions by 3D porous nickel films.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chuan; Guo, Xiaogang; Xiong, Zhongshu; Liu, Changlu; Zhu, Hui; Wu, Mei; Zhang, Daixiong

    2016-02-01

    The present study reports the removal of Ca (II), Cr (III), Mg (II) ions from aqueous solution using 3D-porous nickel films (3DNFs) as a novel adsorbent material prepared by hydrogen bubble dynamic template (HBDT) method at room temperature. The structure morphology and the phase constitution of 3DNFs were characterized by FESEM, EDS and XRD. Adsorption process of Ca (II), Cr (III), Mg (II) ions was fast as the equilibrium was established within 30min, and the maximum adsorption at equilibrium was 44.1mg/g, 46.4mg/g and 32.7mg/g, respectively. The adsorption kinetics well fitted using a pseudo second-order kinetic model. The adsorption isotherm data of all the three metals fit well the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm model. It was found out that kinetics of adsorption varies with initial concentration of metal ions. Thermodynamic parameters (i.e., the standard Gibbs free energies (ΔG), enthalpy change (ΔH), standard entropy change (ΔS)) were also evaluated. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that a high temperature is favored for the adsorption of metal ions by 3DNFs. These results suggest that 3DNFs have good potential application in effective adsorption of metal ions with satisfactory results. PMID:26520822

  1. Characteristics of ion Bernstein wave heating in JIPPT-II-U tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, M.; Ono, M.

    1985-11-01

    Using a transport code combined with an ion Bernstein wave tokamak ray tracing code, a modelling code for the ion Bernstein wave heating has been developed. Using this code, the ion Bernstein wave heating experiment on the JIPPT-II-U tokamak has been analyzed. It is assumed that the resonance layer is formed by the third harmonic of deuterium-like ions, such as fully ionized carbon, and oxygen ions near the plasma center. For wave absorption mechanisms, electron Landau damping, ion cyclotron harmonic damping, and collisional damping are considered. The characteristics of the ion Bernstein wave heating experiment, such as the ion temperature increase, the strong dependence of the quality factor on the magnetic field strength, and the dependence of the ion temperature increment on the input power, are well reproduced.

  2. Mechanism of the catalytic ozonization of lignin in the presence of Mn(II) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanova, A. N.; Khudoshin, A. G.; Lunin, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    The reaction between ozone and lignin in aqueous solutions catalyzed by Mn(II) ions is studied. The rate of destruction for aromatic structures of lignin is found to increase in the presence of Mn(II) ions. However, the greatest catalytic effect is observed upon the transformation of aliphatic acids that are difficult to oxidize with ozone. The introduction of catalyst raises the total consumption of ozone from 3 to 7 mol per each structural unit of lignin. A scheme is proposed for the transformation of phenol fragments of lignin using ozone with the participation of Mn(II) ions: at the initial stage, we observe the ozone oxidation of lignin and Mn(II) to Mn(III) ions stabilized with products of lignin oxidation and accompanied by the formation of chelate complexes, and the Mn(III) chelate complexes act as low-molecular mediators, attacking phenol structures and initiating radical processes.

  3. Comparative equilibrium studies of sorption of Pb(II) ions by sodium and calcium alginate.

    PubMed

    Khotimchenko, Maxim; Kovalev, Valeri; Khotimchenko, Yuri

    2008-01-01

    The absorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by different alginate compounds was studied in a batch sorption system. Water soluble sodium alginate and insoluble calcium alginate beads were investigated. The lead-binding capacity of both alginate compounds was highest within the pH range 6-8. The binding capacities and rates of Pb(II) ions by alginate compounds were evaluated. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and Bruneaur, Emmet and Teller (BET) sorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and isotherm constants. Sorption isothermal data could be well interpreted by the Langmuir model. The results obtained through the study suggest that alginate compounds are favorable sorbents. The largest amount of Pb(II) ions were bound by sodium alginate although the difference between two compounds was slight. Therefore, alginate substances may be considered as an alternative for sorption and removal of Pb(II) ions from wastewaters. PMID:18814578

  4. Removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single metal aqueous solution using rice husk-based activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, Mohd F. Shaharun, Maizatul S.; Shuib, Anis Suhaila Borhan, Azry

    2014-10-24

    An attempt was made to investigate the potential of rice husk-based activated carbon as an alternative low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single aqueous solution. Rice husk-based activated carbon was prepared via treatment of rice husk with NaOH followed by the carbonization process at 400°C for 2 hours. Three samples, i.e. raw rice husk, rice husk treated with NaOH and rice husk-based activated carbon, were analyzed for their morphological characteristics using field-emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray (FESEM/EDX). These samples were also analyzed for their carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and silica contents using CHN elemental analyzer and FESEM/EDX. The porous properties of rice husk-based activated carbon were determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, and its surface area and pore volume were 255 m{sup 2}/g and 0.17 cm{sup 2}/g, respectively. The adsorption studies for the removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single metal aqueous solution were carried out at a fixed initial concentration of metal ion (150 ppm) with variation amount of adsorbent (rice husk-based activated carbon) as a function of varied contact time at room temperature. The concentration of each metal ion was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results obtained from adsorption studies indicate the potential of rice husk as an economically promising precursor for the preparation of activated carbon for removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single aqueous solution. Isotherm and kinetic model analyses suggested that the experimental data of adsorption studies fitted well with Langmuir, Freundlich and second-order kinetic models.

  5. Removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single metal aqueous solution using rice husk-based activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Mohd F.; Shuib, Anis Suhaila; Shaharun, Maizatul S.; Borhan, Azry

    2014-10-01

    An attempt was made to investigate the potential of rice husk-based activated carbon as an alternative low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single aqueous solution. Rice husk-based activated carbon was prepared via treatment of rice husk with NaOH followed by the carbonization process at 400°C for 2 hours. Three samples, i.e. raw rice husk, rice husk treated with NaOH and rice husk-based activated carbon, were analyzed for their morphological characteristics using field-emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray (FESEM/EDX). These samples were also analyzed for their carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and silica contents using CHN elemental analyzer and FESEM/EDX. The porous properties of rice husk-based activated carbon were determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, and its surface area and pore volume were 255 m2/g and 0.17 cm2/g, respectively. The adsorption studies for the removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single metal aqueous solution were carried out at a fixed initial concentration of metal ion (150 ppm) with variation amount of adsorbent (rice husk-based activated carbon) as a function of varied contact time at room temperature. The concentration of each metal ion was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results obtained from adsorption studies indicate the potential of rice husk as an economically promising precursor for the preparation of activated carbon for removal of Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) ions from single aqueous solution. Isotherm and kinetic model analyses suggested that the experimental data of adsorption studies fitted well with Langmuir, Freundlich and second-order kinetic models.

  6. Highly sensitive and selective fluorescence detection of copper (II) ion based on multi-ligand metal chelation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan; Yu, Tao; Sun, Mingtai; Yu, Huan; Zhang, Zhongping; Wang, Suhua; Jiang, Hui

    2014-08-01

    A fluorescent probe was synthesized and demonstrated to be highly selective and sensitive in the reaction with copper (II) ion, generating a large variation of the fluorescence intensity in a dose-response manner. The probe contains a dansyl moiety as fluorophore and a multidentate ligand for copper (II) ion recognition. The reaction of the molecular probe with copper (II) ion proceeds rapidly and irreversibly in a 1 to 1 stoichiometric way, leading to the production of stable copper (II) complex, which subsequently results in the quenching of fluorescence. The detection limit for copper (II) ion was measured to be about 2ppb. It was also shown that the probe has high selectivity for copper (II) ion and good anti-interference ability against other transition metal ions. The herein reported very simple and reliable fluorescence probe could be employed for copper (II) ion detection in many aspects. PMID:24881551

  7. Removal of Co(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions by polymer based 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate: thermodynamics and desorption studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Removal thermodynamics and desorption studies of some heavy metal ions such as Co(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) by polymeric surfaces such as poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (PHEMA) and copolymer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with monomer methyl methacrylate P(MMA-HEMA) as adsorbent surfaces from aqueous single solution were investigated with respect to the changes in pH of solution, adsorbent composition, contact time and temperature in the individual aqueous solution. The linear correlation coefficients of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were obtained and the results revealed that the Langmuir isotherm fitted the experiment results better than Freundlich isotherm. Using the Langmuir model equation, the monolayer removal capacity of PHEMA surface was found to be 0.7388, 0.8396 and 3.0367 mg/g for Co(II), Cu(ΙΙ) and Pb(II) ions and removal capacity of P(MMA-HEMA) was found to be 28.8442, 31.1526 and 31.4465 mg/g for Co(II), Cu(ΙΙ) and Pb(II) ions, respectively. Changes in the standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG0), standard enthalpy (ΔH0) and standard entropy (ΔS0) showed that the removals of mentioned ions onto PHEMA and P(MMA-HEMA) are spontaneous and exothermic at 293–323 K. The maximum desorption efficiency was 75.26% for Pb(II) using 0.100 M HNO3, 70.10% for Cu(II) using 0.100 M HCl, 59.20% for 0.100 M HCl 63.67% Co(II). PMID:23369255

  8. Complexation in cobalt(II)-sulfide(polysulfide)-ion-organic-base-chloroform systems

    SciTech Connect

    Demutskaya, L.N.; Pilipenko, A.T.; Trachevskii, V.V.; Ryabushko, O.P.

    1986-08-01

    It has been shown by the methods of electronic, IR, and ESR spectroscopy, and magnetometry that the occurrence of a set of acid-base and redox processes in a cobalt(II)-sulfide(polysulfide)-ion-cetyltrimethylammonium extraction system in an alkaline medium results in the formation of the coordination compound /(CTA)/sub 6/(Co/sup II//sub 2/Co/sup III//sub 2/S/sub 7-n/(S/sub x/)/sub n/(OH)/sub 2/)//sub m/ (I), where x = 2 to 5. The combined presence of Ni(II) and Co(II) in the analogous system with sulfide ions at first results in the formation of a compound similar to compound I, which is a product of the replacement of cobalt(II) by nickel(II), whose further reaction with nickel(II) is completed with the formation of a complex with a Co(II):Ni(II) ratio equal to 2:3. The higher complexing ability of the polysulfide ions caused the extraction of Ni(II) in the form of an ionic associate with the formula (CTA)/sub 2/-(Ni(S/sub x/)/sub 2/).

  9. Tested Demonstrations. Color, Solubility, and Complex Ion Equilibria of Nickel (II) Species in Aqueous Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Presents three different procedures in which reagents are added in a specified order to a large beaker containing an aqueous solution of nickel sulfate. Complex ions of nickel (II) are prepared by using aqueous solutions of ammonia, ethylenediamine, dimethylglyoxime, and cyanide ion. (CS)

  10. Fluctuations of a negative ion current in turbulent He-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. W.; Tejwani, M. J.

    1984-09-01

    The power spectral density of the fluctuations of an ion current through a region of vortex-line turbulence in He-II shows a high frequency asymptotic behavior of f-4 over four orders of magnitude. This frequency dependence is consistent with a generalized description of the motion of ions trapped on vortex-lines.

  11. Removal of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions using native and acid treated Ni-hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum discolor from Turkish serpentine soil.

    PubMed

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Arica, M Yakup; Adiguzel, Nezaket

    2012-09-01

    Alyssum discolor biomass was collected from serpentine soil and was used for removal of metal ions. The plant species grown on serpentine soils are known to be rich with metals ions and thus have more capability for accumulating heavy metals. Native and acid-treated biomass of A. discolor (A. discolor) were utilized for the removal of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The effects of contact time, initial concentration, and pH on the biosorption of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions were investigated. Biosorption equilibrium was established in about 60 min. The surface properties of the biomass preparations were varied with pH, and the maximum amounts of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions on both A. discolor biomass preparations were adsorbed at pH 5.0. The maximum biosorption capacities of the native, and acid-treated biomass preparations for Ni(II) were 13.1 and 34.7 mgg(-1) and for Cu(II) 6.15 and 17.8 mgg(-1) dry biomass, respectively. The biosorption of Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions from single and binary component systems can be successfully described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. When the heavy metal ions were in competition, the amounts of biosorbed metal ions on the acid treated plant biomass were found to be 0.542 mmolg(-1) for Ni(II) and 0.162 mmolg(-1) for Cu(II), the A. discolor biomass was significantly selective for Ni(II) ions. The information gained from these studies was expected to indicate whether the native, and acid-treated forms can have the potential to be used for the removal and recovery of Ni(II) ions from wastewaters. PMID:22608134

  12. Sorption kinetics of Zn (II) ion by thermally treated rice husk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, K. K.; Tarmizi, A. F. A.; Wan Yunus W. M., Z.; Safidin, K. M.; Fitrianto, A.; Hussin, A. G. A.; Azmi, F. M.

    2015-05-01

    Agricultural wastes such as orange peels, tea leave waste, rice husk and corn cobs have been widely studied as sorbents for heavy metal ion removal from various wastewaters. In order to understand their sorption mechanism, the adsorption kinetics is studied. This report describes the kinetics study of a thermally treated rice husk to adsorb Zn (II) ion from an aqueous solution. The adsorbent was obtained by heating the rice husk in a furnace at 500°C for two hours. Increase the contact period improved percentage of the removal of Zn (II) ion until an equilibrium was reached. The data obtained showed that the adsorption of Zn (II) ion by thermally treated rice husk obeyed pseudo-second order kinetics model, which is in agreement with chemisorption as the rate limiting mechanism.

  13. Enhanced removal of nickel(II) ions from aqueous solutions by SDS-functionalized graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    Salihi, Elif Çalışkan; Wang, Jiabin; Coleman, Daniel J. L.; Šiller, Lidija

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper, a one-pot and easy-to-handle method at room temperature without additional chemicals for the modification of graphene oxide (GO) with surfactant is found. Removal of nickel (II) ions from aqueous solutions by GO and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate) modified graphene oxide (SDS-GO) was studied spectrophotometrically at room temperature as a function of time, initial concentration and pH. Adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was increased dramatically (from 20.19 to 55.16 mg/g found by Langmuir model) due to the functionalization of the surface by SDS. The driving force of the adsorption of Ni(II) ions is electrostatic attraction and Ni(II) ions adsorbed on the GO surface chemically besides ion exchange. PMID:27365545

  14. Ion heating during magnetic relaxation in the helicity injected torus-II experiment

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, R.G.; Redd, A.J.; Hamp, W.T.; Smith, R.J.; Jarboe, T.R.

    2005-12-15

    Ion doppler spectroscopy (IDS) is applied to the helicity injected torus (HIT-II) spherical torus to measure impurity ion temperature and flows. [A. J. Redd et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2006 (2002)] The IDS instrument employs a 16-channel photomultiplier and can track temperature and velocity continuously through a discharge. Data for the coaxial helicity injection (CHI), transformer, and combined current drive configurations are presented. Ion temperatures for transformer-driven discharges are typically equal to or somewhat lower than electron temperatures measured by Thomson scattering. Internal reconnection events in transformer-driven discharges cause rapid ion heating. The CHI discharges exhibit anomalously high ion temperatures >250 eV, which are an order of magnitude higher than Thomson measurements, indicating ion heating through magnetic relaxation. The CHI discharges that exhibit current and poloidal flux buildup after bubble burst show sustained ion heating during current drive.

  15. Ion exchange induced removal of Pb(ii) by MOF-derived magnetic inorganic sorbents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dezhi; Shen, Weisong; Wu, Shaolin; Chen, Caiqin; Luo, Xubiao; Guo, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Nanoporous adsorbents of ZnO/ZnFe2O4/C were synthesized by using a metal organic framework (Fe(III)-modified MOF-5) as both the precursor and the self-sacrificing template. The adsorption properties of ZnO/ZnFe2O4/C toward Pb(ii) ions were investigated, including the pH effect, adsorption equilibrium and adsorption kinetics. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics were well described by using the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order model, respectively. The MOF-derived inorganic adsorbents exhibited high absorption performance with a maximum adsorption capacity of 344.83 mg g(-1). X-ray powder diffraction and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggest that Zn(ii) was substituted by a significant portion of Pb(ii) on the surface of ZnO nanocrystals. Microscopic observations also demonstrate the effect of Pb(ii) ions on ZnO crystals as reflected by the considerably reduced average particle size and defective outer layer. Quantitative measurement of the released Zn(ii) ions and the adsorbed Pb(ii) ions indicated a nearly linear relationship (R(2) = 0.977). Moreover, Pb-containing ZnO/ZnFe2O4/C adsorbents are strongly magnetic allowing their separation from the water environment by an external magnet. PMID:26967550

  16. Synthesis, characterization and analytical applications of Ni(II)-ion imprinted polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, D. K.; Mishra, Shraddha

    2010-10-01

    Ion recognition-based separation techniques have received much attention because of their high selectivity for target ions. In this study, we have prepared a novel ion imprinted polymer (IIP) to remove nickel ions with high selectivity. The imprinted polymer was prepared by copolymerization of 2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA) with nickel vinylbenzoate complex in the presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a crosslinker. The polymerization was carried out in bulk with free radical initiation using 2-methoxy ethanol as a solvent and porogen. The adsorbed nickel was completely eluted with 15 mL of 1 M HCl. Control polymer was also prepared by similar experimental conditions without using imprint ion. The above synthesized polymers were characterized by surface area measurements, FT-IR, microanalysis and SEM analysis. The adsorption capacity of IIP and CP was found to be 1.51 and 0.65 mmol g -1, respectively. The optimal pH for quantitative enrichment was 6.5. Nature of eluent, eluent concentration and eluent volume were also studied. The relative selectivity factor ( αr) values of Ni(II)/Zn(II), Ni(II)/Cu(II) and Ni(II)/Co(II) were 78.6, 111.1 and 91.6, respectively. Five replicate determinations of 30 μg L -1 of Ni(II) gave a mean absorbance of 0.067 with a relative standard deviation of 1.06%. The lowest concentration determined by GTA-AAS below which the recovery becomes non-quantitative is 6 μg L -1. IIP was tested for removal of Ni(II) from sea water sample.

  17. Complexation of Hg (II) ions with humic acids of tundra soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilevich, Roman

    2013-04-01

    Humic acids (HA) play an important role in processes of heavy metals migration, controlling their geochemical streams in environment. Accumulative and detoxification abilities of HA to heavy metals are realized by means of formation of steady complexes salycylate and pyrocatechin types. Modern researches show that HA of the Arctic and Subarctic areas are poorly enriched by aromatic frames, so and metalbinding centres. The work purpose is to study interaction mechanisms of Hg (II) ions with HA and to define tread possibilities of a tundra soils humic acids. It is established that binding ability of Hg (II) ions depends on concentration of an element, on quantity of functional groups in peripheral and nuclear parts of HA molecule as well as on a solution pH. coomplexation proceeds at pH 2.5-3.5 efficiently. On the basis of kinetic models it is shown that HA interaction with Hg (II) ions, at microconcentration of a pollutant (0.025-5.0 mkmol/dm3), has a zero order of reaction. Rate of a reaction does not depend on initial components concentration and is defined by process of Hg (II) ions diffusion to organic ligands. High correlation of a HA sorption capacity to Hg (II) ions is observed: with the nitrogen content and maintenance of amino groups (according to a 13C-NMR, element composition) and negative correlation - with degree of HA aromaticity. It testifies to primary binding of Hg (II) ions by amino-acid fragments of a HA molecule peripheral part. When concentration of Hg (II) ions increases, binding proceeds on carboxylic and phenolic groups of a molecule nuclear part. Higher order of kinetic models reaction and FTIR spectroscopy data testify to it. Comparison of FTIR spectra of HA preparations and mercury humates, shows that Hg (II) ions binding in humate complexes is carried out mainly by -COOH. Reduction of a spectral line intensity not ionized -COOH at 1700-1720 sm-1 and intensity increases of dissymetric valency vibration at 1610-1650 sm-1 diagnose increase

  18. Cleaning techniques for applied-B ion diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Cuneo, M.E.; Menge, P.R.; Hanson, D.L.

    1995-09-01

    Measurements and theoretical considerations indicate that the lithium-fluoride (LiF) lithium ion source operates by electron-assisted field-desorption, and provides a pure lithium beam for 10--20 ns. Evidence on both the SABRE (1 TW) and PBFA-II (20 TW) accelerators indicates that the lithium beam is replaced by a beam of protons, and carbon resulting from electron thermal desorption of hydrocarbon surface and bulk contamination with subsequent avalanche ionization. Appearance of contaminant ions in the beam is accompanied by rapid impedance collapse, possibly resulting from loss of magnetic insulation in the rapidly expanding and ionizing, neutral layer. Electrode surface and source substrate cleaning techniques are being developed on the SABRE accelerator to reduce beam contamination, plasma formation, and impedance collapse. We have increased lithium current density a factor of 3 and lithium energy a factor of 5 through a combination of in-situ surface and substrate coatings, impermeable substrate coatings, and field profile modifications.

  19. Relativistic Configuration Interaction calculations of the atomic properties of selected transition metal positive ions; Ni II, V II and W II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalmoneam, Marwa Hefny

    -quantitative agreement with experiment for the oscillator strength and branching fractions. However the calculated lifetimes and Lande g-values are in very good agreement with the available measured quantities. We found the sums of lifetimes and the sums of Lande g-values of the nearby levels were almost independent of the calculation stage. The calculated atomic properties for Ni II, V II, and W II fill in many gaps in the available atomic data for these three ions. Also, they are expected to facilitate the fundamental understanding of electric and magnetic behaviors of most of the transition metal ions and atoms with similar electronic configurations.

  20. Summary II - Fusion Ion sources, Beam Formation, Acceleration and Neutralisation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T. T. C.

    2007-08-10

    The 11th International Symposium on the Production and Neutralization of Negative Ions and Beams was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico on 13th - 15th September 2006 and was hosted by Los Alamos National Laboratory. This summary covers the sessions of the Symposium devoted to the topics listed in the title.

  1. Fundamentals of Trapped Ion Mobility Spectrometry Part II: Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, Joshua A.; Michelmann, Karsten; Ridgeway, Mark E.; Park, Melvin A.

    2016-04-01

    Trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) is a new high resolution (R up to ~300) separation technique that utilizes an electric field to hold ions stationary against a moving gas. Recently, an analytical model for TIMS was derived and, in part, experimentally verified. A central, but not yet fully explored, component of the model involves the fluid dynamics at work. The present study characterizes the fluid dynamics in TIMS using simulations and ion mobility experiments. Results indicate that subsonic laminar flow develops in the analyzer, with pressure-dependent gas velocities between ~120 and 170 m/s measured at the position of ion elution. One of the key philosophical questions addressed is: how can mobility be measured in a dynamic system wherein the gas is expanding and its velocity is changing? We noted previously that the analytically useful work is primarily done on ions as they traverse the electric field gradient plateau in the analyzer. In the present work, we show that the position-dependent change in gas velocity on the plateau is balanced by a change in pressure and temperature, ultimately resulting in near position-independent drag force. That the drag force, and related variables, are nearly constant allows for the use of relatively simple equations to describe TIMS behavior. Nonetheless, we derive a more comprehensive model, which accounts for the spatial dependence of the flow variables. Experimental resolving power trends were found to be in close agreement with the theoretical dependence of the drag force, thus validating another principal component of TIMS theory.

  2. Fundamentals of Trapped Ion Mobility Spectrometry Part II: Fluid Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Joshua A; Michelmann, Karsten; Ridgeway, Mark E; Park, Melvin A

    2016-04-01

    Trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) is a new high resolution (R up to ~300) separation technique that utilizes an electric field to hold ions stationary against a moving gas. Recently, an analytical model for TIMS was derived and, in part, experimentally verified. A central, but not yet fully explored, component of the model involves the fluid dynamics at work. The present study characterizes the fluid dynamics in TIMS using simulations and ion mobility experiments. Results indicate that subsonic laminar flow develops in the analyzer, with pressure-dependent gas velocities between ~120 and 170 m/s measured at the position of ion elution. One of the key philosophical questions addressed is: how can mobility be measured in a dynamic system wherein the gas is expanding and its velocity is changing? We noted previously that the analytically useful work is primarily done on ions as they traverse the electric field gradient plateau in the analyzer. In the present work, we show that the position-dependent change in gas velocity on the plateau is balanced by a change in pressure and temperature, ultimately resulting in near position-independent drag force. That the drag force, and related variables, are nearly constant allows for the use of relatively simple equations to describe TIMS behavior. Nonetheless, we derive a more comprehensive model, which accounts for the spatial dependence of the flow variables. Experimental resolving power trends were found to be in close agreement with the theoretical dependence of the drag force, thus validating another principal component of TIMS theory. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26864793

  3. Removal of Lead (II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions onto Activated Carbon Derived from Waste Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Murat; Ucar, Suat; Karagöz, Selhan; Tay, Turgay

    2013-01-01

    The removal of lead (II) ions from aqueous solutions was carried out using an activated carbon prepared from a waste biomass. The effects of various parameters such as pH, contact time, initial concentration of lead (II) ions, and temperature on the adsorption process were investigated. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis after adsorption reveals the accumulation of lead (II) ions onto activated carbon. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to analyze equilibrium data. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of activated carbon was found to be 476.2 mg g−1. The kinetic data were evaluated and the pseudo-second-order equation provided the best correlation. Thermodynamic parameters suggest that the adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous. PMID:23853528

  4. Design of PAMAM-COO dendron-grafted surfaces to promote Pb(II) ion adsorption.

    PubMed

    Chong, Leebyn; Dutt, Meenakshi

    2015-04-28

    An expanding area of green technology is the wastewater treatment of heavy metal ions. As the adsorption of cations onto solid surfaces has been proven to be successful, recent research has demonstrated enhanced adsorption profiles by grafting dendron brushes onto a solid support. Via the molecular dynamics technique, we examine the adsorption of Pb(II) ions onto polyamidoamine (PAMAM) with carboxylate terminal groups through a coarse-grained implicit solvent model. We identify dendron generations and grafting densities, or surface coverage levels, which demonstrate optimal adsorption of Pb(II) ions. Our results can be potentially used to design functionalized surfaces for metal ion adsorption in application entailing environmental remediation or protective surface coating. PMID:25804856

  5. Visible emission spectroscopy of highly charged tungsten ions in LHD: II. Evaluation of tungsten ion temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakai, Y.; Kato, D.; Goto, M.; Morita, S.; Hasuo, M.; Experiment Group2, LHD

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrated a polarization-resolved high resolution spectroscopy of a visible emission line of highly charged tungsten ions (λ0 = 668.899 nm, Shinohara et al Phys. Scr. 90 125402) for the large helical device (LHD) plasma, where the tungsten ions were introduced by a pellet injection. Its spectral profile shows broadening and polarization dependence, which are attributed to the Doppler and Zeeman effects, respectively. The tungsten ion temperature was evaluated for the first time from the broadening of visible the emission line, with its emission location determined by the Abel inversion of the chord-integrated emission intensities observed with multiple chords. The tungsten ion temperature was found to be close to the helium-like argon ion temperature, which is used as an ion temperature monitor in LHD.

  6. Extraction and ion-exchange behavior of mendelevium (II)

    SciTech Connect

    Guseva, L.I.; Tikhomirova, G.S.; Buklanov, G.V.; Pkhar, Z.Z.; Lebedev, I.A.; Katargin, N.V.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    1988-09-01

    Medelevium-256 was obtained via multinucleon transfer reactions upon irradiation of /sup 249/Bk by /sup 22/Ne ions from the extracted beam of a U-300 cyclotron. In order to extract mendelevium and separate it from the products of nuclear reactions, an express ion-exchange method using one column with cationite and zinc amalgam in a solution of 1 mole/liter HCl as the eluent was developed. It was shown that under these conditions mendelevium is reduced and washes out as an alkaline earth element. On the basis of the location of the peaks of the elution curves of Sr/sup 2+/, Eu/sup 2+/, and Md/sup 2+/, the value of the ionic radium of Md/sup 2+/ is estimated and is used to estimate the heat of hydration.

  7. Adsorptive removal of nickel(II) ions from aqueous environment: A review.

    PubMed

    Raval, Nirav P; Shah, Prapti U; Shah, Nisha K

    2016-09-01

    Among various methods adsorption can be efficiently employed for the treatment of heavy metal ions contaminated wastewater. In this context the authors reviewed variety of adsorbents used by various researchers for the removal of nickel(II) ions from aqueous environment. One of the objectives of this review article is to assemble the scattered available enlightenment on a wide range of potentially effective adsorbents for nickel(II) ions removal. This work critically assessed existing knowledge and research on the uptake of nickel by various adsorbents such as activated carbon, non-conventional low-cost materials, nanomaterials, composites and nanocomposites. The system's performance is evaluated with respect to the overall metal removal and the adsorption capacity. In addition, the equilibrium adsorption isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics data as well as various optimal experimental conditions (solution pH, equilibrium contact time and dosage of adsorbent) of different adsorbents towards Ni(II) ions were also analyzed. It is evident from a literature survey of more than 190 published articles that agricultural solid waste materials, natural materials and biosorbents have demonstrated outstanding adsorption capabilities for Ni(II) ions. PMID:27149285

  8. Investigating the air oxidation of V(II) ions in a vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngamsai, Kittima; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2015-11-01

    The air oxidation of vanadium (V(II)) ions in a negative electrolyte reservoir is a major side reaction in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRB), which leads to electrolyte imbalance and self-discharge of the system during long-term operation. In this study, an 80% charged negative electrolyte solution is employed to investigate the mechanism and influential factors of the reaction in a negative-electrolyte reservoir. The results show that the air oxidation of V(II) ions occurs at the air-electrolyte solution interface area and leads to a concentration gradient of vanadium ions in the electrolyte solution and to the diffusion of V(II) and V(III) ions. The effect of the ratio of the electrolyte volume to the air-electrolyte solution interface area and the concentrations of vanadium and sulfuric acid in an electrolyte solution is investigated. A higher ratio of electrolyte volume to the air-electrolyte solution interface area results in a slower oxidation reaction rate. The high concentrations of vanadium and sulfuric acid solution also retard the air oxidation of V(II) ions. This information can be utilized to design an appropriate electrolyte reservoir for the VRB system and to prepare suitable ingredients for the electrolyte solution.

  9. Salicylyl Fluorene Derivatives as Fluorescent Sensors for Cu(II) Ions.

    PubMed

    Khaokeaw, Chenwit; Sukwattanasinitt, Mongkol; Rashatasakhon, Paitoon

    2016-03-01

    Two derivatives of fluorene containing salicylic acid groups are successfully synthesized by palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions and subsequent hydrolysis of salicylate esters. The compounds are characterized by various spectroscopic methods. In phosphate buffer (pH 8.0) solutions, these compounds are well soluble. They show maximum absorption wavelengths in the range of 304-330 nm and exhibit maximum emission wavelength around 420 and 430 nm with the quantum yields of 2.7 and 4.4 %, respectively. The compound with alkynyl salicylate groups (2) exhibits a selective fluorescence quenching towards Cu(II) and Fe(II) with a relatively similar sensitivity. The selectivity favoring Cu(II) over Fe(II) and other metal ions can be achieved upon the addition of 30 μM Triton X-100. The Cu(II) detection limit in solution phase is 1.47 ppb. The fluorescence signal recovery upon the addition of EDTA indicate a reversible complexation between 2 and Cu(II) ion. Fabrication of 2 on filter paper using a 50 μM solution in THF affords a naked-eye detection for Cu(II) and Fe(II) in aqueous media at picomole level. PMID:26753759

  10. Effect of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Sacral Chordoma: Results of Phase I-II and Phase II Clinical Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Reiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Sugawara, Shinji; Serizawa, Itsuko; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Tatezaki, Shin-ichiro

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To summarize the results of treatment for sacral chordoma in Phase I-II and Phase II carbon ion radiotherapy trials for bone and soft-tissue sarcomas. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 38 patients with medically unresectable sacral chordomas treated with the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, Japan between 1996 and 2003. Of the 38 patients, 30 had not received previous treatment and 8 had locally recurrent tumor after previous resection. The applied carbon ion dose was 52.8-73.6 Gray equivalents (median, 70.4) in a total of 16 fixed fractions within 4 weeks. Results: The median patient age was 66 years. The cranial tumor extension was S2 or greater in 31 patients. The median clinical target volume was 523 cm{sup 3}. The median follow-up period was 80 months. The 5-year overall survival rate was 86%, and the 5-year local control rate was 89%. After treatment, 27 of 30 patients with primary tumor remained ambulatory with or without supportive devices. Two patients experienced severe skin or soft-tissue complications requiring skin grafts. Conclusion: Carbon ion radiotherapy appears effective and safe in the treatment of patients with sacral chordoma and offers a promising alternative to surgery.

  11. Controlling FAMA by the Ptolemy II model of ion beam transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balvanović, R.; Rađenović, B.; Beličev, P.; Nešković, N.

    2009-08-01

    FAMA is a facility for modification and analysis of materials with ion beams. Due to the wide range of ion beams and energies used in the facility and its future expansion, the need has arisen for faster tuning of ion beams transport control parameters. With this aim, a new approach to modeling ion-beam transport system was developed, based on the Ptolemy II modeling and design framework. A model in Ptolemy II is a hierarchical aggregation of components called actors, which communicate with other actors using tokens, or pieces of data. Each ion optical element is modeled by a composite actor implementing beam matrix transformation function, while tokens carry beam matrix data. A basic library of models of typical ion optical elements is developed, and a complex model of FAMA ion beam transport system is hierarchically integrated with bottom-up approach. The model is extended to include control functions. The developed model is modular, flexible and extensible. The results obtained by simulation on the model demonstrate easy and efficient tuning of beam line control parameters. Fine tuning of control parameters, due to uncertainties inherent to modeling, still has to be performed on-line.

  12. Ion distribution measurements to probe target and plasma processes in electronegative magnetron discharges. II. Positive ions

    SciTech Connect

    Welzel, Th.; Ellmer, K.; Naumov, S.

    2011-04-01

    Spectra of the ion mass and energy distributions of positive ions in reactive (Ar/O{sub 2}) and nonreactive (Ar) dc magnetron sputtering discharges have been investigated by energy-resolved mass spectrometry. The results of three sputter target materials, i.e., Cu, In, and W are compared to each other. Besides the main gas constituents, mass spectra reveal a variety of molecular ions which are dependent on the target material. In reactive mode, ArO{sup +} is always observed in Ar/O{sub 2} but molecules containing Ar and the metal were exclusively found for the Cu target. The occurrence of the different ions is explained in the context of their bond strengths obtained from density functional theory calculations. The energy spectra generally contain the known low-energy peak corresponding to the plasma potential. Differently extended high-energy tails due to sputtered material were observed for the different targets. Besides these, high-energetic ions were detected with up to several 100 eV. Their energies are significantly different for Ar{sup +} and O{sup +} with Ar{sup +} strongly depending on the target material. The spectra are discussed together with results from transport of ions in matter (TRIM) calculation to elucidate the origin of these energetic ions.

  13. Complexation of Copper (II) Ion with Tetraglycine as Followed by Electronic Absorption Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garribba, Eugenio; Micera, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    An experiment which explores the interaction between Cu (II) ion and tetraglycine (TetraGly) as an excellent model of a protein fragment is presented. The analysis has allowed the students to determine the coordination modes of TetraGly with varying pH.

  14. [Ln(III)-Mn(II)-Ln(III)] heterometallic compounds: rare linear SMMs with divalent manganese ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Lei; Min, Fan-Yong; Wang, Chao; Lin, Shuang-Yan; Liu, Zhiliang; Tang, Jinkui

    2015-02-21

    The reaction of Mn(OAc)2·4H2O and Ln(NO3)3·6H2O with N-(2-aminopropyl)-2-hydroxybenzamide and salicylic aldehyde in methanol/methylene dichloride produces yellow crystals of Ln2Mn(C7H5O2)8 (Ln = Gd (), Tb (), Dy (), Ho () and Er ()), in the presence of triethylamine. Three metal ions are connected by six μ2-phenolate oxygen atoms of six salicylic aldehyde ligands, resulting in perfect linear [Ln(III)-Mn(II)-Ln(III)] structures. Magnetic studies of these complexes have been performed and AC susceptibility measurements show the presence of a temperature-dependent out-of-phase ac signal for complexes and indicating single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior. The Dy(III)2Mn(II) compound shows double relaxation pathways which may originate from the single ion behavior of individual Dy(III) ions and the weak coupling between Dy(III) and Mn(II) ions, respectively. The Ueff of 92.4(2) K is a relatively high value among 3d-4f SMMs. Moreover, complexes and represent the first linear Mn-Ln SMMs containing only divalent manganese ions as far as we know. The result suggests the positive effects of magnetic coupling to enhance their SMM behavior, presenting a promising strategy for constructing efficient heterometallic SMMs. PMID:25601415

  15. Studies of removal of palladium(II) ions from chloride solutions on weakly and strongly basic anion exchangers.

    PubMed

    Hubicki, Z; Wołowicz, A; Leszczyńska, M

    2008-11-30

    Palladium and its compounds find wide application in industry as a catalytic agent in different manufacture processes. Recovery of precious metals from industrial wastes is difficult and time consuming but in spite of these disadvantages it becomes profitable. Palladium(II) ions sorption from various chloride solutions of the composition: 0.1-6.0M HCl-0.00056 M Pd(II), 1.0M ZnCl(2)-0.1M HCl-0.00056 M Pd(II), 1.0M AlCl(3)-0.1M HCl-0.00056 M Pd(II) on the weakly and strongly basic anion exchangers (Varion ATM, Varion ADM and Varion ADAM) was discussed. The sorption research of Pd(II) ions on these resins was carried out by means of static and dynamic methods. The dynamic processes were applied in order to determine the breakthrough curves of Pd(II) ions. Moreover, the working ion-exchange capacities as well as the weight and bed distribution coefficients were determined from the Pd(II) breakthrough curves. The recovery factors of Pd(II) ions (% R) depending on the phase contact time were obtained by means of static methods. The highest ion-exchange capacities for the 0.1-6.0M HCl-0.00056 M Pd(II) systems were obtained for the weakly basic ion-exchange resin Varion ADAM. PMID:18358602

  16. Beam dynamics of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II),a novel pulse-compressing ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Grote, D.P.; Lund, S.M.; Sharp, W.M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J.-Y.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Logan, B.G.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.; Gilson, E.P.; Kaganovich, I.D.

    2009-12-19

    Intense beams of heavy ions are well suited for heating matter to regimes of emerging interest. A new facility, NDCX-II, will enable studies of warm dense matter at {approx}1 eV and near-solid density, and of heavy-ion inertial fusion target physics relevant to electric power production. For these applications the beam must deposit its energy rapidly, before the target can expand significantly. To form such pulses, ion beams are temporally compressed in neutralizing plasma; current amplification factors of {approx}50-100 are routinely obtained on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at LBNL. In the NDCX-II physics design, an initial non-neutralized compression renders the pulse short enough that existing high-voltage pulsed power can be employed. This compression is first halted and then reversed by the beam's longitudinal space-charge field. Downstream induction cells provide acceleration and impose the head-to-tail velocity gradient that leads to the final neutralized compression onto the target. This paper describes the discrete-particle simulation models (1-D, 2-D, and 3-D) employed and the space-charge-dominated beam dynamics being realized.

  17. Beam dynamics of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II), a novel pulse-compressing ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Cohen, R H; Grote, D P; Lund, S M; Sharp, W M; Faltens, A; Henestroza, E; Jung, J; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Leitner, M A; Logan, B G; Vay, J; Waldron, W L; Davidson, R C; Dorf, M; Gilson, E P; Kaganovich, I

    2009-11-19

    Intense beams of heavy ions are well suited for heating matter to regimes of emerging interest. A new facility, NDCX-II, will enable studies of warm dense matter at {approx}1 eV and near-solid density, and of heavy-ion inertial fusion target physics relevant to electric power production. For these applications the beam must deposit its energy rapidly, before the target can expand significantly. To form such pulses, ion beams are temporally compressed in neutralizing plasma; current amplification factors of {approx}50-100 are routinely obtained on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at LBNL. In the NDCX-II physics design, an initial non-neutralized compression renders the pulse short enough that existing high-voltage pulsed power can be employed. This compression is first halted and then reversed by the beam's longitudinal space-charge field. Downstream induction cells provide acceleration and impose the head-to-tail velocity gradient that leads to the final neutralized compression onto the target. This paper describes the discrete-particle simulation models (1-D, 2-D, and 3-D) employed and the space-charge-dominated beam dynamics being realized.

  18. Adsorption of Cu(II), Co(II), and Ni(II) ions by modified magnetic chitosan chelating resin.

    PubMed

    Monier, M; Ayad, D M; Wei, Y; Sarhan, A A

    2010-05-15

    Cross-linked magnetic chitosan-isatin Schiff's base resin (CSIS) was prepared for adsorption of metal ions. CSIS obtained was investigated by means of FTIR, (1)H NMR, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXRD), magnetic properties and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The adsorption properties of cross-linked magnetic CSIS resin toward Cu(2+), Co(2+) and Ni(2+) ions were evaluated. Various factors affecting the uptake behavior such as contact time, temperature, pH and initial concentration of the metal ions were investigated. The kinetic parameters were evaluated utilizing the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Tempkin isotherm models. The adsorption kinetics followed the mechanism of the pseudo-second-order equation for all systems studied, evidencing chemical sorption as the rate-limiting step of adsorption mechanism and not involving a mass transfer in solution. The best interpretation for the equilibrium data was given by Langmuir isotherm, and the maximum adsorption capacities were 103.16, 53.51, and 40.15mg/g for Cu(2+), Co(2+) and Ni(2+) ions, respectively. Cross-linked magnetic CSIS displayed higher adsorption capacity for Cu(2+) in all pH ranges studied. The adsorption capacity of the metal ions decreased with increasing temperature. The metal ion-loaded cross-linked magnetic CSIS were regenerated with an efficiency of greater than 88% using 0.01-0.1M ethylendiamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). PMID:20122793

  19. A Biphenol-Based Chemosensor for Zn(II) and Cd(II) Metal Ions: Synthesis, Potentiometric Studies, and Crystal Structures.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Gianluca; Formica, Mauro; Fusi, Vieri; Giorgi, Luca; Macedi, Eleonora; Micheloni, Mauro; Paoli, Paola; Rossi, Patrizia

    2016-08-01

    We synthesized and characterized the ligand N,N'-bis[(2,2'-dihydroxybiphen-3-yl)methyl]-N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine (L), which contains two biphenol moieties linked as side arms to an N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine scaffold. The ligand is highly soluble in a 50/50 (v/v) water/ethanol mixture and, in its deprotonated form H-2L(2-), is able to coordinate transition-metal ions such as Ni(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Pd(II). The crystal structures of [Ni(H-2L)·2n-BuOH], [Ni(H-2L)·2MeOH], [Cd(H-2L)·2DMF], [Cu(H-2L)(DMF)], and [Pd(H-2L)(DMF)] were also determined and described. Potentiometric titrations were carried out in a mixed solvent with Zn(II), Cu(II), and Ni(II) metal ions to determine the acid-base and stability constants. L was highly fluorescent in the visible range (400 nm). Moreover, its emission intensity increased upon the addition of Zn(II) or Cd(II) ions in an ethanol/water solution and behaved as a chemosensor for the presence of these ions in the solution. PMID:27439670

  20. Crosslinked Electro-Spun Chitosan Nanofiber Mats with Cd(II) as Template Ions for Adsorption Applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Xu, Cong; Qiu, Tianbao; Xu, Xiaoyan

    2015-06-01

    The Cd(II) ion imprinting electro-spun crosslinked chitosan nanofiber mats were successfully prepared using Cd(II) as template ions and glutaraldehyde (GA) as crosslinker to investigate the adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in aqueous solutions. The Cd(II) ion imprinting electro-spun crosslinked chitosan nanofiber mats were characterized by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), elemental analysis and solubility tests. The prepared chitosan nanofiber mats exhibited a higher adsorption capacity for both Cd(II) (364.3 mg/g) and Pb(II) (272.0 mg/g) ions. The dynamic study demonstrated that the adsorption process followed the second-order kinetic equation. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were used to analyze the equilibrium isotherm data. The results showed that the Langmuir model was best suitable for predicting the adsorption isotherm of the studied system. The as prepared Cd(II) ion imprinting electro-spun crosslinked chitosan nanofiber mats might be used as an effective adsorbent for Cd(II) and Pb(II) removal from heavy metal wastewater. PMID:26369036

  1. Ion exchange induced removal of Pb(ii) by MOF-derived magnetic inorganic sorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dezhi; Shen, Weisong; Wu, Shaolin; Chen, Caiqin; Luo, Xubiao; Guo, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Nanoporous adsorbents of ZnO/ZnFe2O4/C were synthesized by using a metal organic framework (FeIII-modified MOF-5) as both the precursor and the self-sacrificing template. The adsorption properties of ZnO/ZnFe2O4/C toward Pb(ii) ions were investigated, including the pH effect, adsorption equilibrium and adsorption kinetics. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics were well described by using the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order model, respectively. The MOF-derived inorganic adsorbents exhibited high absorption performance with a maximum adsorption capacity of 344.83 mg g-1. X-ray powder diffraction and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggest that Zn(ii) was substituted by a significant portion of Pb(ii) on the surface of ZnO nanocrystals. Microscopic observations also demonstrate the effect of Pb(ii) ions on ZnO crystals as reflected by the considerably reduced average particle size and defective outer layer. Quantitative measurement of the released Zn(ii) ions and the adsorbed Pb(ii) ions indicated a nearly linear relationship (R2 = 0.977). Moreover, Pb-containing ZnO/ZnFe2O4/C adsorbents are strongly magnetic allowing their separation from the water environment by an external magnet.Nanoporous adsorbents of ZnO/ZnFe2O4/C were synthesized by using a metal organic framework (FeIII-modified MOF-5) as both the precursor and the self-sacrificing template. The adsorption properties of ZnO/ZnFe2O4/C toward Pb(ii) ions were investigated, including the pH effect, adsorption equilibrium and adsorption kinetics. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics were well described by using the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order model, respectively. The MOF-derived inorganic adsorbents exhibited high absorption performance with a maximum adsorption capacity of 344.83 mg g-1. X-ray powder diffraction and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggest that Zn(ii) was substituted by a significant portion of Pb(ii) on the surface of Zn

  2. Bio-Sensing of Cadmium(II) Ions Using Staphylococcus aureus†

    PubMed Central

    Sochor, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Hynek, David; Jilkova, Eva; Krejcova, Ludmila; Trnkova, Libuse; Adam, Vojtech; Hubalek, Jaromir; Kynicky, Jindrich; Vrba, Radimir; Kizek, Rene

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium, as a hazardous pollutant commonly present in the living environment, represents an important risk to human health due to its undesirable effects (oxidative stress, changes in activities of many enzymes, interactions with biomolecules including DNA and RNA) and consequent potential risk, making its detection very important. New and unique technological and biotechnological approaches for solving this problems are intensely sought. In this study, we used the commonly occurring potential pathogenic microorganism Staphylococcus aureus for the determination of markers which could be used for sensing of cadmium(II) ions. We were focused on monitoring the effects of different cadmium(II) ion concentrations (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 25 and 50 μg mL−1) on the growth and energetic metabolism of Staphylococcus aureus. Highly significant changes have been detected in the metabolism of thiol compounds—specifically the protein metallothionein (0.79–26.82 mmol/mg of protein), the enzyme glutathione S-transferase (190–5,827 μmol/min/mg of protein), and sulfhydryl groups (9.6–274.3 μmol cysteine/mg of protein). The ratio of reduced and oxidized glutathione indicated marked oxidative stress. In addition, dramatic changes in urease activity, which is connected with resistance of bacteria, were determined. Further, the effects of cadmium(II) ions on the metabolic pathways of arginine, β-glucosidase, phosphatase, N-acetyl β-d-glucosamine, sucrose, trehalose, mannitol, maltose, lactose, fructose and total proteins were demonstrated. A metabolomic profile of Staphylococcus aureus under cadmium(II) ion treatment conditions was completed seeking data about the possibility of cadmium(II) ion accumulation in cells. The results demonstrate potential in the application of microorganisms as modern biosensor systems based on biological components. PMID:22346664

  3. Coordination Behavior of 3-Ethoxycarbonyltetronic Acid towards Cu(II) and Co(II) Metal Ions

    PubMed Central

    Athanasellis, Giorgos; Zahariou, Georgia; Kikionis, Stefanos; Igglessi-Markopoulou, Olga; Markopoulos, John

    2008-01-01

    Tetronic acids, 4-hydroxy-5H-furan-2-ones, constitute a class of heterocyclic compounds with potent biological and pharmacological activity. The β, β′-tricarbonyl moiety plays an integral role in biological systems and forms a variety of metal complexes. In this report, we present the complexation reactions of 3-ethoxycarbonyl tetronic acids with acetates and chlorides of Cu(II) and Co(II). These complexes have been studied by means of EPR spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements. From the obtained results, a preliminary complexation mode of the ligand is proposed. PMID:19197392

  4. Redox magnetohydrodynamics enhancement of stripping voltammetry of lead(II), cadmium(II) and zinc(II) ions using 1,4-benzoquinone as an alternative pumping species.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, Ali A; Nazari, Z; Fritsch, I

    2012-01-21

    Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) coupled with redox-magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is used to enhance the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) response using a mercury thin film-glassy carbon electrode. The sensitivity increased to at least a factor of two (at 1.2 T) and is facilitated by using 20.0 mmol L(-1) 1,4-benzoquinone as an alternative pumping species to enhance ASV by redox-MHD. The MHD force formed by the cross-product of ion flux with magnetic field induces solution convection during the deposition step, enhancing mass transport of the analytes to the electrode surface and increasing their preconcentrated quantity in the mercury thin film. Therefore, larger ASV peaks and improved sensitivities are obtained, compared with analyses performed without a magnet. The influence of pH, 1,4-benzoquinone concentration, accumulation potential, and time are also investigated. Detection limits of 0.05, 0.09 and 2.2 ng mL(-1) Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) were established with an accumulation time of 65 s. The method is used for the analysis of Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) in different water samples, certified reference materials, and saliva samples with satisfactory results. PMID:22116833

  5. Adsorption of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) ions by cross-linked magnetic chitosan-2-aminopyridine glyoxal Schiff's base.

    PubMed

    Monier, M; Ayad, D M; Abdel-Latif, D A

    2012-06-01

    The adsorption of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution by cross-linked magnetic chitosan-2-aminopyridine glyoxal Schiff's base resin (CSAP) was studied in a batch adsorption system. Cu(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) removal is pH dependent and the optimum adsorption was observed at pH 5.0. The adsorption was fast with estimated initial rate of 2.7, 2.4 and 1.4 mg/(g min) for Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Ni(2+) respectively. The adsorption data could be well interpreted by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin model. The maximum adsorption capacities obtained from the Langmuir model were 124±1, 84±2 and 67±2 mg g(-1) for Cu(2+), Cd(2+) and Ni(2+) respectively. The adsorption process could be described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Thermodynamic parameters revealed the feasibility, spontaneity and exothermic nature of adsorption. The sorbents were successfully regenerated using EDTA and HCl solutions. PMID:22386793

  6. Simulations of ion beams for NDCX-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grote, D. P.; Friedman, A.; Sharp, W. M.

    2014-01-01

    NDCX-II, the second neutralized drift compression experiment, is a moderate energy, high current accelerator designed to drive targets for warm dense matter and IFE-relevant energy coupling studies, and to serve as a testbed for high current accelerator physics. As part of the design process, studies were carried out to assess the sensitivities of the accelerator to errors, and to further optimize the design in concert with the evolving pulsed power engineering. The Warp code was used to carry out detailed simulations in both axisymmetric and full 3-D geometry. Ensembles of simulations were carried out to characterize the effects of errors, such as timing jitter and noise on the accelerator waveforms, noise on the source waveform, and solenoid and source offsets. In some cases, the ensemble studies resulted in better designs, revealing operating points with improved performance and showing possible means for further improvement. These studies also revealed a new non-paraxial effect of the final focus solenoid on the beam, which must be taken into account in designing an optimal final focusing system.

  7. pH-dependence of the specific binding of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions to the amyloid-β peptide.

    PubMed

    Ghalebani, Leila; Wahlström, Anna; Danielsson, Jens; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S; Gräslund, Astrid

    2012-05-11

    Metal ions like Cu(II) and Zn(II) are accumulated in Alzheimer's disease amyloid plaques. The amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide involved in the disease interacts with these metal ions at neutral pH via ligands provided by the N-terminal histidines and the N-terminus. The present study uses high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to monitor the residue-specific interactions of Cu(II) and Zn(II) with (15)N- and (13)C,(15)N-labeled Aβ(1-40) peptides at varying pH levels. At pH 7.4 both ions bind to the specific ligands, competing with one another. At pH 5.5 Cu(II) retains its specific histidine ligands, while Zn(II) seems to lack residue-specific interactions. The low pH mimics acidosis which is linked to inflammatory processes in vivo. The results suggest that the cell toxic effects of redox active Cu(II) binding to Aβ may be reversed by the protective activity of non-redox active Zn(II) binding to the same major binding site under non-acidic conditions. Under acidic conditions, the protective effect of Zn(II) may be decreased or changed, since Zn(II) is less able to compete with Cu(II) for the specific binding site on the Aβ peptide under these conditions. PMID:22525674

  8. Near infrared fluorescence quenching properties of copper (II) ions for potential applications in biological imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Dolonchampa; Zhou, Mingzhou; Sarder, Pinaki; Achilefu, Samuel

    2014-03-01

    Fluorescence quenching properties of copper(II) ions have been used for designing Cu(II) sensitive fluorescent molecular probes. In this paper, we demonstrate that static quenching plays a key role in free Cu(II)-mediated fluorescence quenching of a near infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye cypate. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant was calculated to be KSV = 970,000 M-1 in 25 mM MES buffer, pH 6.5 at room temperature. We synthesized LS835, a compound containing cypate attached covalently to chelated Cu(II) to study fluorescence quenching by chelated Cu(II). The fluorescence quenching mechanism of chelated Cu(II) is predominantly dynamic or collisional quenching. The quenching efficiency of chelated Cu(II) was calculated to be 58% ± 6% in dimethylsulfoxide at room temperature. Future work will involve further characterization of the mechanism of NIR fluorescence quenching by Cu(II) and testing its reversibility for potential applications in designing fluorophore-quencher based molecular probes for biological imaging.

  9. The location of the Ca II ions in the beta Pictoris disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, L. M.; Welty, D. E.; Lagrange-Henri, A. M.; Ferlet, R.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

    1988-01-01

    Echelle spectra of beta Pictoris have been obtained in the region of the Ca II 8542A line which arises from the metastable 3d 2D5/2 level. A narrow, weak, circumstellar absorption line is seen at the stellar radial velocity. A simple theory is developed of the radiative pumping of the metastable levels of the Ca II ions by the radiation from the star at the H and K lines. The relatively large fractional population, N3(Ca II)/N1(Ca II) of roughly 0.05, observed for the metastable level then requires that the calcium absorbers be largely concentrated within about 1 AU of the star. This result confirms two previous, independent estimates of the location of this gas. A time-variable circumstellar component of the 8542A line also is found at an infall velocity of about 15 km/s.

  10. DEVELOPING THE PHYSICS DESIGN FOR NDCX-II, A UNIQUE PULSE-COMPRESSING ION ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Grote, D. P.; Lund, S. M.; Sharp, W. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J-Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Leitner, M. A.; Logan, B. G.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.; Gilson, E.P.; Kaganovich, I.

    2009-07-20

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory(a collaboration of LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL) is using intense ion beams to heat thin foils to the"warm dense matter" regime at<~;; 1 eV, and is developing capabilities for studying target physics relevant to ion-driven inertial fusion energy. The need for rapid target heating led to the development of plasma-neutralized pulse compression, with current amplification factors exceeding 50 now routine on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX). Construction of an improved platform, NDCX-II, has begun at LBNL with planned completion in 2012. Using refurbished induction cells from the Advanced Test Accelerator at LLNL, NDCX-II will compress a ~;;500 ns pulse of Li+ ions to ~;;1 ns while accelerating it to 3-4 MeV over ~;;15 m. Strong space charge forces are incorporated into the machine design at a fundamental level. We are using analysis, an interactive 1D PIC code (ASP) with optimizing capabilities and centroid tracking, and multi-dimensional Warpcode PIC simulations, to develop the NDCX-II accelerator. This paper describes the computational models employed, and the resulting physics design for the accelerator.

  11. Design and Fabrication of the Lithium Beam Ion Injector for NDCX-II

    SciTech Connect

    Takakuwa, J.

    2011-03-01

    A 130 keV injector is developed for the NDCX-II facility. It consists of a 10.9 cm diameter lithium doped alumina-silicate ion source heated to {approx}1300 C and 3 electrodes. Other components include a segmented Rogowski coil for current and beam position monitoring, a gate valve, pumping ports, a focusing solenoid, a steering coil and space for inspection and maintenance access. Significant design challenges including managing the 3-4 kW of power dissipation from the source heater, temperature uniformity across the emitter surface, quick access for frequent ion source replacement, mechanical alignment with tight tolerance, and structural stabilization of the cantilevered 27-inch OD graded HV ceramic column. The injector fabrication is scheduled to complete by May 2011, and assembly and installation is scheduled to complete by the beginning of July. The Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX-II) is for the study of high energy density physics and inertial fusion energy research utilizing a lithium ion (Li+) beam with a current of 93 mA and a pulse length of 500 ns (compressed to 1 ns at the target). The injector is one of the most complicated sections of the NDCX-II accelerator demanding significant design and fabrication resources. It needs to accommodate a relatively large ion source (10.9 cm), a high heat load (3-4 kW) and specific beam optics developed from the physics model. Some specific design challenges are noted in this paper.

  12. Developing The Physics Desing for NDCS-II, A Unique Pulse-Compressing Ion Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Cohen, R H; Grote, D P; Lund, S M; Sharp, W M; Faltens, A; Henestroza, E; Jung, J; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Leitner, M A; Logan, B G; Vay, J -; Waldron, W L; Davidson, R C; Dorf, M; Gilson, E P; Kaganovich, I

    2009-09-24

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (a collaboration of LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL) is using intense ion beams to heat thin foils to the 'warm dense matter' regime at {approx}< 1 eV, and is developing capabilities for studying target physics relevant to ion-driven inertial fusion energy. The need for rapid target heating led to the development of plasma-neutralized pulse compression, with current amplification factors exceeding 50 now routine on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX). Construction of an improved platform, NDCX-II, has begun at LBNL with planned completion in 2012. Using refurbished induction cells from the Advanced Test Accelerator at LLNL, NDCX-II will compress a {approx}500 ns pulse of Li{sup +} ions to {approx} 1 ns while accelerating it to 3-4 MeV over {approx} 15 m. Strong space charge forces are incorporated into the machine design at a fundamental level. We are using analysis, an interactive 1D PIC code (ASP) with optimizing capabilities and centroid tracking, and multi-dimensional Warpcode PIC simulations, to develop the NDCX-II accelerator. This paper describes the computational models employed, and the resulting physics design for the accelerator.

  13. An ion species model for positive ion sources: II. Analysis of hydrogen isotope effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surrey, E.; Holmes, A. J. T.

    2015-02-01

    A one-dimensional model of the magnetic multipole volume plasma source has been developed for application to intense ion/neutral atom beam injectors. The model uses plasma transport coefficients for particle and energy flow to create a detailed description of the plasma parameters along an axis parallel to that of the extracted beam. In this paper the isotopic modelling of positive hydrogenic ions is considered and compared with experimental data from the neutral beam injectors of the Joint European Torus. The use of the code to gain insights into the processes contributing to the ratios of the ionic species is demonstrated and the conclusion is drawn that 75% of the atomic ion species arises from ionization of dissociated molecules and 25% from dissociation of the molecular ions. However, whilst the former process is independent of the filter field, the latter is sensitive to the change in distribution of fast and thermal electrons produced by the magnetic filter field and an optimum combination of field strength and depth exists. Finally, the code is used to predict the species ratios for the JET source operating in tritium and hence the neutral beam power injected into the plasma in the JET tritium campaign planned for 2016.

  14. Selective adsorption of silver(I) ions over copper(II) ions on a sulfoethyl derivative of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Yulia S; Pestov, Alexandr V; Usoltseva, Maria K; Neudachina, Ludmila K

    2015-12-15

    This study presents a simple and effective method of preparation of N-(2-sulfoethyl) chitosan (NSE-chitosan) that allows obtaining a product with a degree of modification up to 1.0. The chemical structure of the obtained polymers was confirmed by FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopies. Cross-linking of N-(2-sulfoethyl) chitosans by glutaraldehyde allows preparation of sorbents for removal and concentration of metal ions. Capacity of sorbents towards hydroxide ions was determined depending on the degree of sulfoethylation under static and dynamic conditions. Dissociation constants of functional amino groups of the analyzed sorbents were determined by potentiometric titration. It was shown that basicity of the amino groups decreased (wherein pKa decreased from 6.53 to 5.67) with increase in degree of sulfoethylation. It explains the significant influence of sulfo groups on selectivity of sorption of metal ions on N-(2-sulfoethyl) chitosan-based sorbents. The investigated substances selectively remove copper(II) and silver(I) ions from solutions of complex composition. Wherein the selectivity coefficient KAg/Cu increased to 20 (pH 6.5, ammonium acetate buffer solution) with increase in degree of sulfoethylation of the sorbent up to 1.0. PMID:26282087

  15. Selective Detection of Mercury (II) Ion Using Nonlinear Optical Properties of Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Darbha, Gopala Krishna; Singh, Anant Kumar; Rai, Uma Shanker; Yu, Eugene; Yu, Hongtao

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with heavy metal ions has been an important concern throughout the world for decades. Driven by the need to detect trace amounts of mercury in environmental samples, this article demonstrates for the first time that nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of MPA–HCys–PDCA-modified gold nanoparticles can be used for rapid, easy and reliable screening of Hg(II) ions in aqueous solution, with high sensitivity (5 ppb) and selectivity over competing analytes. The hyper Rayleigh scattering (HRS) intensity increases 10 times after the addition of 20 ppm Hg2+ ions to modified gold nanoparticle solution. The mechanism for HRS intensity change has been discussed in detail using particle size-dependent NLO properties as well as a two-state model. Our results show that the HRS assay for monitoring Hg(II) ions using MPA–HCys–PDCA-modified gold nanoparticles has excellent selectivity over alkali, alkaline earth (Li+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+), and transition heavy metal ions (Pb2+, Pb+, Mn2+, Fe2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Cd2+). PMID:18517205

  16. Kinetic effect of zinc(II) and cadmium(II) ions on configurational inversion of deltaLLL-fac(S)-tris(L-cysteinato-N,S)cobalt(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, S; Ohishi, Y; Yamada, S; Nakamura, M

    2001-02-01

    It has been confirmed from circular dichroism (CD) spectral changes of aqueous solutions of deltaLLL-fac(S)-[Co(L-cys-N,S)3]3- that the absolute configurational inversion to the ALLL isomer is remarkably accelerated by zinc(II), while it is retarded by cadmium(II). In the diluted solutions of these metal ions containing excess deltaLLL-fac(S)-[Co(L-cys-N,S)3]3-, the observed inversion rate constant linearly depends on the zinc(II) concentration with an intercept, while it is not affected by the cadmium(II) concentration. The kinetic behavior has been explained by difference between zinc(II)- and cadmium(II)-interactions with lone pairs on sulfur donor atoms of fac(S)-[Co(L-cys-N,S)3]3-. It has also been proposed that concentrations of zinc(II) and cadmium(II) can be simultaneously determined by the kinetic measurements. PMID:11990552

  17. Studies of the fast ion energy spectra in TJ-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos, A.; Fontdecaba, J. M.; Castejón, F.; Velasco, J. L.; Tereshchenko, M.; Arévalo, J.

    2013-02-01

    The dynamics of the neutral beam injection fast ions in the TJ-II stellarator is studied in this paper from both the theoretical and experimental points of view. The code Integrator of Stochastic Differential Equations for Plasmas (ISDEP) is used to estimate the fast ion distribution function in 3D:1D in real space and 2D in velocity space, considering the 3D structure of TJ-II, the electrostatic potential, non turbulent collisional transport, and charge exchange losses. The results of ISDEP are compared with the experimental data from the compact neutral particle analyzer, which measures the outgoing neutral flux spectra in the energy range E ∈(1-45) keV.

  18. Studies of the fast ion energy spectra in TJ-II

    SciTech Connect

    Bustos, A.; Fontdecaba, J. M.; Arevalo, J.; Castejon, F.; Velasco, J. L.; Tereshchenko, M.

    2013-02-15

    The dynamics of the neutral beam injection fast ions in the TJ-II stellarator is studied in this paper from both the theoretical and experimental points of view. The code Integrator of Stochastic Differential Equations for Plasmas (ISDEP) is used to estimate the fast ion distribution function in 3D:1D in real space and 2D in velocity space, considering the 3D structure of TJ-II, the electrostatic potential, non turbulent collisional transport, and charge exchange losses. The results of ISDEP are compared with the experimental data from the compact neutral particle analyzer, which measures the outgoing neutral flux spectra in the energy range E Element-Of (1-45) keV.

  19. A rhodamine B-based fluorescent sensor toward highly selective mercury (II) ions detection.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yang; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Peng

    2016-04-01

    This work presented the design, syntheses and photophysical properties of a rhodamine B-based fluorescence probe, which exhibited a sensitive and selective recognition towards mercury (II). The chemosensor RA (Rhodamine- amide- derivative) contained a 5-aminoisophthalic acid diethyl ester and a rhodamine group, and the property of spirolactone of this chemosensor RA was detected by X-ray crystal structure analyses. Chemosensor RA afforded turn-on fluorescence enhancement and displayed high brightness for Hg(2+), which leaded to the opening of the spirolactone ring and consequently caused the appearance of strong absorption at visible range, moreover, the obvious and characteristic color changed from colorless to pink was observed. We envisioned that the chemosensor RA exhibited a considerable specificity with two mercury (II) ions which was attributed to the open of spirolactone over other interference metal ions. PMID:26838376

  20. Remediation of Cu(II), Ni(II), and Cr(III) ions from simulated wastewater by dendrimer/titania composites.

    PubMed

    Barakat, M A; Ramadan, M H; Alghamdi, M A; Algarny, S S; Woodcock, H L; Kuhn, J N

    2013-03-15

    Generation 4 polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers with ethylenediamine cores (G4-OH) were immobilized on titania (TiO(2)) and examined as novel metal chelation materials. Characterization results indicate both the effective immobilization of dendrimers onto titania and retention of the dendrimer on titania following remediation. The effective remediation of Cu(II), Ni(II), and Cr(III), which are model pollutants commonly found in industrial electroplating wastewater, is demonstrated in this work. Important parameters that influence the efficiency of metal ion removal were investigated; e.g. solution pH, retention time, metal ion concentration, and composite material dosage. Metal ion removal was achieved over a wide metal concentration range within a 1 h equilibration time. Maximum metal ion removal was achieved at pH ≥7 for both Cu(II) and Cr(III), and pH ≥9 for Ni(II). Further, the dendrimer/titania composite materials were even more effective when metal ion mixtures were tested. Specifically, a dramatic increase was observed for Ni(II) chelation when in a mixture was compared to a pure nickel solution. These findings suggest new strategies for improving metal ion removal from industrial wastewater. PMID:23353877

  1. Complexation of mercury(II) ions with humic acids in tundra soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilevich, R. S.; Beznosikov, V. A.; Lodygin, E. D.; Kondratenok, B. M.

    2014-03-01

    The interaction mechanisms of mercury(II) ions with preparations of humic acids (HAs) isolated from organic horizons of surface-gleyed soils (Haplic Stagnosol (Gelic, Siltic)) of shrub tundra and hydromorphic peat gley soils (Histic Cryosol (Reductaquic, Siltic)) of moss-lichen tundra have been studied. The particular features of the interactions between the mercury(II) ions and the HAs are related to the molecular structure of the HAs, the mercury concentration range, and the environmental parameters. The fixation of mercury(II) ions into stable coordination compounds is most efficient in the pH range of 2.5-3.5. At the element concentrations below 0.50 μmol/dm3, the main complexing sites of HAs are their peripheral aminoacid functional groups. Pyrocatechol, salicylate, and phenolic groups from the nuclear moiety of molecules interact in the concentration range of 0.0005-0.50 mmol/dm3; the physical sorption of mercury hydroxo complexes by the surface of HAs is the main process occurring in the system.

  2. Adsorption of Pb(II) ions onto biomass from Trifolium resupinatum: equilibrium and kinetic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athar, Makshoof; Farooq, Umar; Aslam, Muhammad; Salman, M.

    2013-09-01

    The present study provides information about the binding of Pb(II) ions on an eco-friendly and easily available biodegradable biomass Trifolium resupinatum. The powdered biomass was characterized by FTIR, potentiometric titration and surface area analyses. The FTIR spectrum showed the presence of hydroxyl, carbonyl and amino functional groups and Pb(II) ions bound with the oxygen- and nitrogen-containing sites (hydroxyl and amino groups). The acidic groups were also confirmed by titrations. Effects of various environmental parameters (time, pH and concentration) have been studied. The biosorption process achieved equilibrium in a very short period of time (25 min). Non-linear approach for Langmuir and Freundlich models was used to study equilibrium process and root mean-square error was used as an indicator to decide the fitness of the mathematical model. The biosorption process was found to follow pseudo-second-order kinetics and was very fast. Thus, the biomass can be cost-effectively used for the binding of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions.

  3. Construction of Insulin 18-mer Nanoassemblies Driven by Coordination to Iron(II) and Zinc(II) Ions at Distinct Sites.

    PubMed

    Munch, Henrik K; Nygaard, Jesper; Christensen, Niels Johan; Engelbrekt, Christian; Østergaard, Mads; Porsgaard, Trine; Hoeg-Jensen, Thomas; Zhang, Jingdong; Arleth, Lise; Thulstrup, Peter W; Jensen, Knud J

    2016-02-12

    Controlled self-assembly (SA) of proteins offers the possibility to tune their properties or to create new materials. Herein, we present the synthesis of a modified human insulin (HI) with two distinct metal-ion binding sites, one native, the other abiotic, enabling hierarchical SA through coordination with two different metal ions. Selective attachment of an abiotic 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) ligand to HI, yielding HI-bipy, enabled Zn(II)-binding hexamers to SA into trimers of hexamers, [[HI-bipy]6]3, driven by octahedral coordination to a Fe(II)  ion. The structures were studied in solution by small-angle X-ray scattering and on surfaces with AFM. The abiotic metal ligand had a higher affinity for Fe(II) than Zn(II)  ions, enabling control of the hexamer formation with Zn(II) and the formation of trimers of hexamers with Fe(II)  ions. This precise control of protein SA to give oligomers of oligomers provides nanoscale structures with potential applications in nanomedicine. PMID:26762534

  4. Structure and mode of action of cyclic lipopeptide pseudofactin II with divalent metal ions.

    PubMed

    Janek, Tomasz; Rodrigues, Lígia R; Gudiña, Eduardo J; Czyżnikowska, Żaneta

    2016-10-01

    The interaction of natural lipopeptide pseudofactin II with a series of doubly charged metal cations was examined by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and molecular modelling. The molecular modelling for metal-pseudofactin II provides information on the metal-peptide binding sites. Overall, Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) favor the association with oxygen atoms spanning the peptide backbone, whereas Cu(2+) is coordinated by three nitrogens. Circular dichroism (CD) results confirmed that Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) can disrupt the secondary structure of pseudofactin II at high concentrations, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) did not essentially affect the structure of the lipopeptide. Interestingly, our results showed that the addition of Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) helped smaller micelles to form larger micellar aggregates. Since pseudofactin II binds metals, we tested whether this phenomena was somehow related to its antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Proteus mirabilis. We found that the antimicrobial effect of pseudofactin II was increased by supplementation of culture media with all tested divalent metal ions. Finally, by using Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria we showed that the higher antimicrobial activity of metal complexes of pseudofactin II is attributed to the disruption of the cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:27416562

  5. Similarities between N-Acetylcysteine and Glutathione in Binding to Lead(II) Ions.

    PubMed

    Sisombath, Natalie S; Jalilehvand, Farideh

    2015-12-21

    N-Acetylcysteine is a natural thiol-containing antioxidant, a precursor for cysteine and glutathione, and a potential detoxifying agent for heavy metal ions. However, previous accounts of the efficiency of N-acetylcysteine (H2NAC) in excretion of lead are few and contradicting. Here, we report results on the nature of lead(II) complexes formed with N-acetylcysteine in aqueous solution, which were obtained by combining information from several spectroscopic methods, including (207)Pb, (13)C, and (1)H NMR, Pb LIII-edge X-ray absorption, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, and electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Two series of solutions were used containing CPb(II) = 10 and 100 mM, respectively, varying the H2NAC/Pb(II) mole ratios from 2.1 to 10.0 at pH 9.1-9.4. The coordination environments obtained resemble those previously found for the Pb(II) glutathione system: at a ligand-to-lead mole ratio of 2.1, dimeric or oligomeric Pb(II) N-acetylcysteine complexes are formed, while a trithiolate [Pb(NAC)3](4-) complex dominates in solutions with H2NAC/Pb(II) mole ratios >3.0. PMID:26624959

  6. Ion heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies in the Wisconsin Tokapole II

    SciTech Connect

    Biddle, A. P.

    1980-06-01

    Ion temperatures of 75 eV, a doubling of the ohmic heating temperature in a normal discharge, have been achieved using the fast magnetosonic wave heating at the second, third, and fourth harmonics of the cyclotron frequency in a single component hydrogen plasma. The wave launching structure is a single turn, shielded, insulated loop which constitutes the inductor of the rf source tank circuit. Power levels of 800 kW have been applied to the plasma for periods of up to 1.1 milliseconds. Good agreement has been found between theory and experiment for loading and wave propagation in the plasma for m = 0 and m = +1 modes. Eigenmodes have been observed by peaking of both the rf wave amplitude and the loading of the oscillator, as well as by oscillator frequency shifts imposed by their passage.

  7. Mercury(II) ion-selective electrodes based on p-tert-butyl calix[4]crowns with imine units.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar; Kaur, Ravneet; Kaur, Inderpreet; Sharma, Vandana; Kumar, Manoj

    2004-05-01

    A PVC membrane incorporating p-tert-butyl calix[4]crown with imine units as an ionophore was prepared and used in an ion-selective electrode for the determination of mercury(II) ions. An electrode based on this ionophore showed a good potentiometric response for mercury(II) ions over a wide concentration range of 5.0 x 10(-5) - 1.0 x 10(-1) M with a near-Nernstian slope of 27.3 mV per decade. The detection limit of the electrode was 2.24 x 10(-5) M and the electrode worked well in the pH range of 1.3 - 4.0. The electrode showed a short response time of less than 20 s. The electrode also showed better selectivity for mercury(II) ions over many of the alkali (Na+, -1.69; K+, -1.54), alkaline-earth (Ca2+, -3.30; Ba2+, -3.32), and heavy metal ions (Co2+, -3.67; Ni2+, -3.43; Pb2+, -3.31; Fe3+, -1.82). Ag+ ion was found to be the strongest interfering ion. Also, sharp end points were obtained when the sensor was used as an indicator electrode for the potentiometric titration of mercury(II) ions with iodide and dichromate ions. PMID:15171285

  8. A new chitosan biopolymer derivative as metal-complexing agent: synthesis, characterization, and metal(II) ion adsorption studies.

    PubMed

    Krishnapriya, K R; Kandaswamy, M

    2010-09-23

    In this study, a new chitosan biopolymer derivative (CTSL) has been synthesized by anchoring a new vanillin-based complexing agent or ligand, namely 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-[(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl] benzaldehyde, (L) with chitosan (CTS) by means of condensation. The new material was characterized by elemental (CHN), spectral (FTIR and solid state (13)C NMR), thermal (TG-DTA and DSC), structural (powder XRD), and morphological (SEM) analyses. The CTSL was employed to study the equilibrium adsorption of various metal ions, namely, Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II), as functions of pH of the solutions. Its kinetics of adsorption was evaluated utilizing the pseudo first order and pseudo second order equation models and the equilibrium data were analyzed by Langmuir isotherm model. The CTSL shows good adsorption capacity for metal ions studied in the order Cu(II)>Ni(II)>Cd(II)> or =Co> or =Mn(II)>Fe(II)>Pb(II) in all studied pH ranges due to the presence of many coordinating moieties present in it. PMID:20708730

  9. pH-dependence of the specific binding of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions to the amyloid-{beta} peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Ghalebani, Leila; Wahlstroem, Anna; Danielsson, Jens; Waermlaender, Sebastian K.T.S.; Graeslund, Astrid

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu(II) and Zn(II) display pH-dependent binding to the A{beta}(1-40) peptide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At pH 7.4 both metal ions display residue-specific binding to the A{beta} peptide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At pH 5.5 the binding specificity is lost for Zn(II). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential Cu(II) and Zn(II) binding may help explain metal-induced AD toxicity. -- Abstract: Metal ions like Cu(II) and Zn(II) are accumulated in Alzheimer's disease amyloid plaques. The amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptide involved in the disease interacts with these metal ions at neutral pH via ligands provided by the N-terminal histidines and the N-terminus. The present study uses high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to monitor the residue-specific interactions of Cu(II) and Zn(II) with {sup 15}N- and {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-labeled A{beta}(1-40) peptides at varying pH levels. At pH 7.4 both ions bind to the specific ligands, competing with one another. At pH 5.5 Cu(II) retains its specific histidine ligands, while Zn(II) seems to lack residue-specific interactions. The low pH mimics acidosis which is linked to inflammatory processes in vivo. The results suggest that the cell toxic effects of redox active Cu(II) binding to A{beta} may be reversed by the protective activity of non-redox active Zn(II) binding to the same major binding site under non-acidic conditions. Under acidic conditions, the protective effect of Zn(II) may be decreased or changed, since Zn(II) is less able to compete with Cu(II) for the specific binding site on the A{beta} peptide under these conditions.

  10. Highly efficient simultaneous ultrasonic-assisted adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Cu (II) ions from aqueous solutions by graphene oxide modified with 2,2'-dipyridylamine: Central composite design optimization.

    PubMed

    Zare-Dorabei, Rouholah; Ferdowsi, Somayeh Moazen; Barzin, Ahmad; Tadjarodi, Azadeh

    2016-09-01

    In present work, a graphene oxide chemically modified with 2,2'-dipyridylamine (GO-DPA), was synthesized by simple, fast and low-cost process for the simultaneous adsorption of four toxic heavy metals, Pb(II), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II), from aqueous solutions. The synthesized adsorbent was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, XPS, SEM and AFM measurements. The effects of variables such as pH solution, initial ion concentrations, adsorbent dosage and sonicating time were investigated on adsorption efficiency by rotatable central composite design. The optimum conditions, specified as 8mg of adsorbent, 20mgL(-1) of each ion at pH 5 and short time of 4min led to the achievement of a high adsorption capacities. Ultrasonic power had important role in shortening the adsorption time of ions by enhancing the dispersion of adsorbent in solution. The adsorption kinetic studies and equilibrium isotherms for evaluating the mechanism of adsorption process showed a good fit to the pseudo-second order and Langmuir model, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities (Qm) of this adsorbent were 369.749, 257.201, 180.893 and 358.824mgg(-1) for lead, cadmium, nickel and copper ions, respectively. The removal performance of adsorbent on the real wastewater samples also showed the feasibility of adsorbent for applying in industrial purposes. PMID:27150770

  11. Electrodialysis of vanadium(III) and iron(II) ions from a simulated decontamination solution

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, J.B.; Oh, W.Z.; Lee, B.J.; Park, H.S.; Kim, J.D.

    1999-07-01

    The transport of vanadium(III) and iron(II) ions through the Nafion 117 cation-exchange membrane in the presence of picolinic acid was investigated by simulating the equilibrium distribution of ionic species as a function of pH, and by electrodialyzing the simulated waste solution. From distribution calculations of the model reaction systems it could be predicted that at pH 1.6 most vanadium ions exist predominantly in the form of the V{sup III}(Pic{sup {minus}}){sub 2}{sup +} complex, and this form of complex permeates across the cation-exchange membrane during electrodialysis. The experimental results, including variations in the color and cation concentrations of the catholyte, confirm the existence of the vanadium(III) picolinate complex. Iron ions permeated into the catholyte were converted to their hydroxide precipitates, which could be formed at the high pH condition resulting from the reduction of hydrogen ions and the production of OH{sup {minus}} ions by water electrolysis at the cathode. It was also found that the in-situ precipitation of iron in the electrodialyzer could be self-modulated by shifting the catholyte pH from the acidic state to the alkaline state during electrodialysis operation.

  12. Comparative biosorption of Mn(II) and Pb(II) ions on raw and oxalic acid modified maize husk: kinetic, thermodynamic and isothermal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeogun, Abideen Idowu; Idowu, Mopelola Abidemi; Ofudje, Andrew Edwin; Kareem, Sarafadeen Olateju; Ahmed, Sikiru Akinyeye

    2013-03-01

    Maize husk, an abundant agricultural waste was used to prepare a biosorbent for the biosorption of Mn(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution in a batch process. Equilibrium and kinetics of biosorption of the metals ions were studied at 25 °C. The adsorbtion data were treated with common kinetic and isotherm models. The equilibrium data fitted well with Langmuir isotherm with maximum capacity of 8.52 and 7.38 mg g-1 for Mn(II) and Pb(II), respectively on raw biomass (UTCS). The capacity of 9.00 and 9.33 mg g-1 was observed for Mn(II) and Pb(II), respectively on acid modified biomass (ATCS). The study also revealed that the sorption process in both cases depend on biomass dosage, temperature, pH and initial metal ion concentration, respectively. The calculated thermodynamic parameters (∆ G o, ∆ H o and ∆ S o) showed that the biosorption of the metal ions onto maize husk is feasible, spontaneous and exothermic in nature.

  13. Ca(II) Binding Regulates and Dominates the Reactivity of a Transition-Metal-Ion-Dependent Diesterase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Marcelo M; Larrabee, James A; Ely, Fernanda; Gwee, Shuhui E; Mitić, Nataša; Ollis, David L; Gahan, Lawrence R; Schenk, Gerhard

    2016-01-18

    The diesterase Rv0805 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a dinuclear metallohydrolase that plays an important role in signal transduction by controlling the intracellular levels of cyclic nucleotides. As Rv0805 is essential for mycobacterial growth it is a promising new target for the development of chemotherapeutics to treat tuberculosis. The in vivo metal-ion composition of Rv0805 is subject to debate. Here, we demonstrate that the active site accommodates two divalent transition metal ions with binding affinities ranging from approximately 50 nm for Mn(II) to about 600 nm for Zn(II) . In contrast, the enzyme GpdQ from Enterobacter aerogenes, despite having a coordination sphere identical to that of Rv0805, binds only one metal ion in the absence of substrate, thus demonstrating the significance of the outer sphere to modulate metal-ion binding and enzymatic reactivity. Ca(II) also binds tightly to Rv0805 (Kd ≈40 nm), but kinetic, calorimetric, and spectroscopic data indicate that two Ca(II) ions bind at a site different from the dinuclear transition-metal-ion binding site. Ca(II) acts as an activator of the enzymatic activity but is able to promote the hydrolysis of substrates even in the absence of transition-metal ions, thus providing an effective strategy for the regulation of the enzymatic activity. PMID:26662456

  14. Sputtered bismuth screen-printed electrode: a promising alternative to other bismuth modifications in the voltammetric determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Velia; Serrano, Núria; Ariño, Cristina; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel

    2014-02-01

    A commercially available sputtered bismuth screen-printed electrode (BispSPE) has been pioneeringly applied for the simultaneous determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in a certified groundwater sample by means of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) as an alternative to more conventional bismuth screen-printed carbon electrodes (BiSPCEs). BispSPEs can be used for a large set of measurements without any previous plating or activation. The obtained detection and quantification limits suggest that BispSPEs produce a better analytical performance as compared to In-situ BiSPCE for Pb(II) and Cd(II) determination, but also to Ex-situ BiSPCE for Cd(II) determination. The results confirm the applicability of these devices for the determination of low level concentrations of these metal ions in natural samples with very high reproducibility (0.7% and 2.5% for Pb(II) and Cd(II) respectively), and good trueness (0.3% and 2.4% for Pb(II) and Cd(II) respectively). PMID:24401424

  15. Column dynamic studies and breakthrough curve analysis for Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions adsorption onto palm oil boiler mill fly ash (POFA).

    PubMed

    Aziz, Abdul Shukor Abdul; Manaf, Latifah Abd; Man, Hasfalina Che; Kumar, Nadavala Siva

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the adsorption characteristics of palm oil boiler mill fly ash (POFA) derived from an agricultural waste material in removing Cd(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution via column studies. The performance of the study is described through the breakthrough curves concept under relevant operating conditions such as column bed depths (1, 1.5, and 2 cm) and influent metal concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mg/L). The Cd(II) and Cu(II) uptake mechanism is particularly bed depth- and concentration-dependant, favoring higher bed depth and lower influent metal concentration. The highest bed capacity of 34.91 mg Cd(II)/g and 21.93 mg Cu(II)/g of POFA was achieved at 20 mg/L of influent metal concentrations, column bed depth of 2 cm, and flow rate of 5 mL/min. The whole breakthrough curve simulation for both metal ions were best described using the Thomas and Yoon–Nelson models, but it is apparent that the initial region of the breakthrough for Cd(II) was better described using the BDST model. The results illustrate that POFA could be utilized effectively for the removal of Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution in a fixed-bed column system. PMID:24659435

  16. Reversible photoswitching specifically responds to mercury(II) ions: the gated photochromism of bis(dithiazole)ethene.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Zhu, Weihong; Wan, Wei; Xie, Yongshu; Tian, He; Li, Alexander D Q

    2014-11-25

    Photoswitching of bis(dithiazole)ethene can be regulated by Hg(II) ions and EDTA in a "lock-and-unlock" manner. The molecular photoswitch provides an enzyme-like binding pocket that selectively binds specifically to mercury ions, thus modulating the degree of photoswitching in its presence. PMID:25283709

  17. Visual sensor for the detection of trace Cu(II) ions using an immunochromatographic strip.

    PubMed

    Xing, Changrui; Feng, Min; Hao, Changlong; Xu, Liguang; Wang, Libing; Xu, Chuanlai

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and simple immunochromatography method based on a gold nanoparticle-labeled monoclonal antibody was developed for the on-site detection of copper (Cu) in water samples. This monoclonal antibody, obtained by a cell fusion technique, recognized the Cu-ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) complex, but not metal-free EDTA, with high sensitivity and specificity. In optimized conditions, the visual limit of detection for qualitative detection of Cu(II) ions was 10 ng/mL and the LOD for semi-quantitative detection decreased to 0.45 ng/mL with the help of a scanning reader system. The detection process was achieved within 10 min with no cross-reactivity from other heavy metal ions. The recovery of the test samples ranged from 98% to 109%. To our knowledge, this antibody-based test strip for Cu(II) ions has not been previously reported. Based on the above results, this strip sensor could be used as an alternative tool for screening heavy metal pollution in the environment. PMID:23461614

  18. Biosorption of lead (II) ions by NaOH-activated apple (Malus domestica) juice residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimurti, Devita Dwi; Heraldy, Eddy; Lestari, Witri Wahyu

    2016-02-01

    This research studied the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions using NaOH-activated apple (Malus domestica) juice residue. Biosorbent was characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR), and Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). The effects of biosorbent dosage, pH, contact time and initial metal ion concentration had been investigated in batch-adsorption method. The biosorption kinetic data were analyzed by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics model. Freundlich and Langmuir's isotherm were used to describe the biosorption process. The optimum conditions of Pb(II) adsorption was observed at 60 min of contact time, pH 4, and 0.1 g biosorbent dosage in 25 ml solution. The biosorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, resulted biosorption constant rate of 0.184 g.mg-1.min-1. The Langmuir isotherm model exhibited the best fit to experimental data. The maximum biosorption capacity of Pb(II) determined according to the Langmuir model was 90.90 mg.g-1 at 302 K, with the adsorption energy of 26.429 kJ.mol-1.

  19. Indole-7-carbaldehyde thiosemicarbazone as a flexidentate ligand toward ZnII, CdII, PdII and PtII ions: cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing properties of the PtII complex.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Abeer A; Khaledi, Hamid; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Karimian, Hamed

    2014-03-14

    A new thiosemicarbazone (LH2) derived from indole-7-carbaldehyde was synthesized and reacted with Zn(II), Cd(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) salts. The reactions with zinc and cadmium salts in 2 : 1 (ligand-metal) molar ratio afforded complexes of the type MX2(LH2)2, (X = Cl, Br or OAc), in which the thiosemicarbazone acts as a neutral S-monodentate ligand. In the presence of potassium hydroxide, the reaction of LH2 with ZnBr2 resulted in deprotonation of the thiosemicarbazone at the hydrazine and indole nitrogens to form Zn(L)(CH3OH). The reaction of LH2 with K2PdCl4 in the presence of triethylamine, afforded Pd(L)(LH2) which contains two thiosemicarbazone ligands: one being dianionic N,N,S-tridentate while the other one is neutral S-monodentate. When PdCl2(PPh3)2 was used as the Pd(II) ion source, Pd(L)(PPh3) was obtained. In a similar manner, the analogous platinum complex, Pt(L)(PPh3), was synthesized. The thiosemicarbazone in the latter two complexes behaves in a dianionic N,N,S-tridentate fashion. The platinum complex was found to have significant cytotoxicity toward four cancer cells lines, namely MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, HT-29, and HCT-116 but not toward the normal liver WRL-68 cell line. The apoptosis-inducing properties of the Pt complex was explored through fluorescence microscopy visualization, DNA fragmentation analysis and propidium iodide flow cytometry. PMID:24442181

  20. The computed distribution of copper(II) and zinc(II) ions among seventeen amino acids present in human blood plasma

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, P. S.; Perrin, D. D.; Watt, Ann E.

    1971-01-01

    The equilibrium distribution of copper(II) and zinc(II) ions among a mixture of 17 amino acids has been computed from stability-constant and blood-plasma-composition data. At pH7.4, 98% of the copper(II) in the simulated plasma solution is co-ordinated to histidine and cystine, predominantly as the mixed-ligand complexes [Cu·His·Cystine]− and [Cu·H·His·Cystine]. Approximately half of the zinc(II) is co-ordinated to cysteine and histidine, but appreciable complex-formation occurs with most of the other amino acids. Stability constants are given for copper(II) and zinc(II) amino acid complexes, including some mixed-ligand species, at 37°C and I=0.15m. PMID:5119792

  1. Novel ion specificity of a carboxylate cluster Mg(II) binding site: strong charge selectivity and weak size selectivity.

    PubMed

    Needham, J V; Chen, T Y; Falke, J J

    1993-04-01

    Carboxylate cluster Mg(II) binding sites consist of a cluster of side-chain carboxylates, typically 3-4 in number, partially buried in a shallow cleft on the surface of a Mg(II) binding protein. Such clusters are often found in the active sites of enzymes catalyzing phosphochemistry. An example is the phospho-signaling protein CheY of the Escherichia coli chemotaxis pathway, which binds Mg(II) via a cluster of three carboxylates at its phosphorylation site. The present study quantitates both the ion charge and size specificity of the CheY site by measuring the dissociation constants of metal ions from groups Ia, IIa, IIIa, and the lanthanides; these spherical cations provide a range of substrates with incrementally varying charge and radius. The site binds divalent and trivalent cations, but it effectively excludes monovalent cations, including the physiological ions Na(I) and K(I). This charge specificity is in contrast to the site's remarkable lack of size specificity: divalent and trivalent cations exhibit affinities which are essentially independent of radius. It is revealing to compare the ion specificity of the Mg(II) site with the previously characterized specificity of the EF-hand class of Ca(II) sites commonly found in Ca(II) signaling proteins. The Mg(II) and Ca(II) sites exhibit similar charge selectivity, but the Ca(II) site is highly size-selective, preferring divalent and trivalent ions with radii similar to that of Ca(II).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8461299

  2. A novel agricultural waste adsorbent for the removal of lead (II) ions from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M N Mohamad; Ngah, W S Wan; Norliyana, M S; Daud, W R Wan; Rafatullah, M; Sulaiman, O; Hashim, R

    2010-10-15

    The present study explores the ability of modified soda lignin (MSL) extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) in removing lead (II) ions from aqueous solutions. The effect of contact time, point zero charge (pH(pzc)) and pH of the solution, initial metal ion concentration and adsorbent dosage on the removal process were investigated. Furthermore, the MSL is characterized by SEM, XRF, FT-IR and surface area analysis. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models of adsorption. The kinetic data obtained at different initial concentrations were analyzed using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The results provide strong evidence to support the hypothesis of adsorption mechanism. PMID:20619537

  3. Study on column SPE with synthesized graphene oxide and FAAS for determination of trace amount of Co(II) and Ni(II) ions in real samples.

    PubMed

    Pourjavid, Mohammad Reza; Arabieh, Masoud; Yousefi, Seyed Reza; Jamali, Mohammad Reza; Rezaee, Mohammad; Hosseini, Majid Haji; Sehat, Ali Akbari

    2015-02-01

    A selective method for the preconcentration and separation of trace amounts of Co(II) and Ni(II) by column solid phase extraction has been developed. The method is based on the adsorption of metal ions as N-(5-methyl-2-hydroxyacetophenone)-N'-(2-hydroxyacetophenone) ethylene diamine (MHE) complex on synthesized graphene oxide. Computational modeling based on PM6 semi-empirical potential energy surface was utilized to investigate the interaction of metallic complexes with graphene oxide sheet. The adsorption was achieved quantitatively on graphene oxide at pH6.0 and then the retained analyte contents on the column were quantitatively eluted with 3.0 mol L(-1) HNO3. Experimental conditions for effective separation of trace levels of the analyte ions such as pH, flow rate, concentration of eluent, sample volume and interference ions were investigated. A preconcentration factor of 250 was achieved by passing 1250 mL of sample through the solid phase, while the limit of detection of Co(II) and Ni(II) ions were found to be 0.25 and 0.18 ng mL(-1), respectively. The method was applied to the determination of analyte ions in water, black tea and tomato samples. PMID:25492179

  4. Efficient biosorption of lead(II) and cadmium(II) ions from aqueous solutions by functionalized cell with intracellular CaCO3 mineral scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoming; Cui, Weigang; Yang, Lin; Yang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Huifeng; Wang, Kui

    2015-06-01

    The functionalized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell with biogenic intracellular CaCO3 mineral scaffold, synthesized via a simple and environmentally friendly approach, was efficient for removing lead (II) and cadmium (II) ions from aqueous solutions. The CaCO3 mineral scaffold could promote the uptake of the heavy metal ions and increase the biosorption capabilities of the adsorbent. Compared with the Freundlich isotherm, Langmuir model more fitted the equilibrium data. The maximum removal capacity of functionalized cells for Pb(II) and Cd(II) was 116.69 and 42.63mgg(-1), respectively. Further investigation showed that the adsorbent had high removal efficiency for trace amount of heavy metal ions. Adsorption data were modeled using the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion kinetics equations. The results indicated that pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and intra-particle diffusion model could better describe the adsorption kinetics. The heavy metal ions might be removed by functionalized cells via membrane transport of metal ions and precipitation transformation. PMID:25755015

  5. Antifouling bastadin congeners target mussel phenoloxidase and complex copper(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Mirko; Hellio, Claire; Maréchal, Jean-Philippe; Frank, Walter; Lin, Wenhan; Weber, Horst; Proksch, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Synthetically prepared congeners of sponge-derived bastadin derivatives such as 5,5'-dibromohemibastadin-1 (DBHB) that suppress the settling of barnacle larvae were identified in this study as strong inhibitors of blue mussel phenoloxidase that is involved in the firm attachment of mussels to a given substrate. The IC₅₀ value of DBHB as the most active enzyme inhibitor encountered in this study amounts to 0.84 μM. Inhibition of phenoloxidase by DBHB is likely due to complexation of copper(II) ions from the catalytic centre of the enzyme by the α-oxo-oxime moiety of the compound as shown here for the first time by structure activity studies and by X-ray structure determination of a copper(II) complex of DBHB. PMID:21547349

  6. Damage around the ion path in cellulose triacetate. II. A track model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decossas, J. L.; Vareille, J. C.; Moliton, J. P.; Teyssier, J. L.

    1984-07-01

    In this paper, a model of an ion track is proposed. It is justified by experimental results obtained by electron microscopy. These results show that a track is composed of two parts: (i) a core in which the material is totally destroyed, and (ii) a ``halo'' in which the damage decreases when the distance from the ion path increases. The overall results given in paper I and the calculation of deposited energy density of Fain [J. Fain, M. Monnin, and M. Montret, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Nuclear Photo., S.S.N.T.D., Bucarest (1972), p. 34, and J. Fain, M. Monnin, and M. Montret, Radiat. Res. 57, 379 (1974)] led us to the volume density of free radicals at every point inside the latent track. The core radius is established for ions of Z≤18 and E≤10 MeV/amu. A great density of damage close to the ion path is shown, and the influence of this phenomenon on track etching is studied.

  7. Simulation and modeling of the Gamble II self-pinched ion beam transport experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, D.V.; Ottinger, P.F.; Hinshelwood, D.D.

    1999-07-01

    Progress in numerical simulations and modeling of the self-pinched ion beam transport experiment at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is reviewed. In the experiment, a 1.2-MeV, 100-kA proton beam enters a 1-m long, transport region filled with a low pressure gas (30--250 mTorr helium, or 1 Torr air). The time-dependent velocity distribution function of the injected ion beam is determined from an orbit code that uses a pinch-reflex ion diode model and the measured voltage and current from this diode on the Gamble II generator at NRL. This distribution function is used as the beam input condition for numerical simulations carried out using the hybrid particle-in-cell code IPROP. Results of the simulations will be described, and detailed comparisons will be made with various measurements, including line-integrated electron-density, proton-fluence, and beam radial-profile measurements. As observed in the experiment, the simulations show evidence of self-pinching for helium pressures between 35 and 80 mTorr. Simulations and measurements in 1 Torr air show ballistic transport. The relevance of these results to ion-driven inertial confinement fusion will be discussed.

  8. Planned flight test of a mercury ion auxiliary propulsion system. II - Integration with host spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    This is part II of a three-part paper describing the approved flight test of a mercury ion auxiliary propulsion system. The objectives of the flight test are summarized with reference to user application. The approach to accomplishment is presented as it applies to integrating the propulsion system with the host spacecraft, USAF's STP P80-1. A number of known interface design considerations which affect the propulsion system and the spacecraft are discussed. Finally, analogies are drawn comparing the relationship of the organizations involved with this flight test with those anticipated for future operational missions. Attention is given to the viewpoint of the project office

  9. Copper(II) ions and the Alzheimer's amyloid-β peptide: Affinity and stoichiometry of binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tõugu, Vello; Friedemann, Merlin; Tiiman, Ann; Palumaa, Peep

    2014-10-01

    Deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides into amyloid plaques is the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. According to the amyloid cascade hypothesis this deposition is an early event and primary cause of the disease, however, the mechanisms that cause this deposition remain elusive. An increasing amount of evidence shows that the interactions of biometals can contribute to the fibrillization and amyloid formation by amyloidogenic peptides. From different anions the copper ions deserve the most attention since it can contribute not only toamyloid formation but also to its toxicity due to the generation of ROS. In this thesis we focus on the affinity and stoichiometry of copper(II) binding to the Aβ molecule.

  10. Adsorption of lead (II) ions onto novel cassava starch 5-choloromethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline polymer from an aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Shah, Prapti U; Raval, Nirav P; Vekariya, Mayur; Wadhwani, Poonam M; Shah, Nisha K

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption of lead (II) ions onto cassava starch 5-choloromethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline polymer (CSCMQ) was investigated with the variation in the parameters of pH, contact time, lead (II) ions concentration, temperature and the adsorbent dose. The Langmuir and Freundlich models have been applied. CSCMQ was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the adsorption process was better described by the Langmuir model. Adsorption kinetics data obtained for the metal ions sorption were investigated using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion model. The maximum adsorption capacities (qm) were 46.512, 43.859 and 42.735 mg/g at 25, 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The dynamical data fit well with the second-order kinetics model. The results indicate that CSCMQ could be employed as low-cost material for the adsorption of Pb(II) ions from aqueous medium. PMID:27533869

  11. Ion flotation of rhodium(III) and palladium(II) with anionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    He, X C

    1991-03-01

    The ion flotation of rhodium(III) and palladium(II) with some anionic surfactants has been investigated. Two flotation procedures are proposed for the separation of some platinum metals, based on differences in the kinetic properties of the chloro-complexes of rhodium(III), palladium(II) and platinum(IV). The first involves the selective flotation of Rh(H(2)O)(3+)(6) from PdCl(2-)(4) and PtCl(2-)(6) in dilute hydrochloric acid with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS). After precipitation of the hydroxide and redissolution in dilute acid, the Rh(III) is converted into Rh(H(2)O)(3+)(6), Pd(II) and Pt(IV) remaining as PdCl(2-)(4) and PtCl(2-)(6) respectively, and separation is achieved by floating the Rh(H(2)O)(3+)(6) with SDBS. The second is for separation of Pd(II). Prior to flotation, the solution of PdCl(2-)(4) and PtCl(2-)(6) is heated with ammonium acetate to convert PdCl(2-)(4) into Pd(NH(3))(2+)(4). The chloro-complex of Pt(IV) is unaffected. The complex cation, Pd(NH(3))(2+)(4), is then selectively floated with SDBS. The procedures are fast, simple and do not require expensive reagents and apparatus. PMID:18965147

  12. Immobilization of the [RuII(edta)NO+] Ion on the surface of functionalized silica gel.

    PubMed

    Zanichelli, Patrícia G; Sernaglia, Rosana L; Franco, Douglas W

    2006-01-01

    The reaction of NO and the immobilized dimer complex (edta)(2)Ru(2)(III(1/2),III(1/2)) on silica gel chemically modified with [3-(2-aminoethyl)aminopropyl]trimethoxysilane (AEATS) produces the corresponding immobilized nitrosyl complex AEATS/Ru(II)NO(+). This compound, a monomer, was obtained by reducing the immobilized ruthenium dimer either electrochemically or with Eu(II) and reacting this species with NO(2)(-) ions. The properties of [Ru(edta)NO](-) in solution and anchored (AEATS/Ru(II)NO(+)) on silica were compared using electrochemical (DPV, CV) and spectroscopic (IR, UV-vis, and ESR) techniques. The results indicate that immobilization does not alter the reactivity of the ruthenium complex and confirm that [Ru(edta)(H(2)O)](2)(-) may be used, either in solution or immobilized, as a catalyst for the conversion of NO(2)(-) to NO(+). Both the anchored nitrosyl complex AEATS/Ru(II)NO(+) and the [Ru(edta)NO](-) species in solution, upon one-electron reduction, liberate NO at comparable rates. PMID:16378421

  13. Ion-exchange extraction of platinum(II,IV) from chloride solutions in the presence of iron(III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononova, O. N.; Duba, E. V.; Karplyakova, N. S.; Krylov, A. S.

    2015-08-01

    The sorption concentration of platinum(II,IV) in the presence of iron(III) is studied on new samples of domestically produced ionites of the CYBBER brand. In comparing the sorption and kinetic properties of the new ionites to those of sorbents of the Purolite brand studied earlier, the higher effectiveness of the former is demonstrated via the extraction of platinum(II,IV) ions from strongly and weakly acidic chloride solutions. It is found that the sorbed platinum ions can be completely separated from iron(III) ions through separate elution using 0.01-0.001 M HCl (iron ions) and a thiourea solution (80 g/L) in 0.3 M H2SO4 (platinum ions).

  14. Selective and Quantitative Detection of Trace Amounts of Mercury(II) Ion (Hg²⁺) and Copper(II) Ion (Cu²⁺) Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS).

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenqiong; Chase, D Bruce; Sparks, Donald L; Rabolt, John F

    2015-07-01

    We report the development of a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based heavy metal ion sensor targeting the detection of mercury(II) ion (Hg(2+)) and copper(II) ion (Cu(2+)) with high sensitivity and selectivity. To achieve the detection of vibrational-spectroscopically silent heavy metal ions, the SERS substrate composed of gold nanorod (AuNR)-polycaprolactone (PCL) nanocomposite fibers was first functionalized using metal ion-binding ligands. Specifically, 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole dimer (di-DMT) and trimercaptotriazine (TMT) were attached to the SERS substrates serving as bridging molecules to capture Hg(2+) and Cu(2+), respectively, from solution. Upon heavy metal ion coordination, changes in the vibrational spectra of the bridging molecules, including variations in the peak-intensity ratios and peak shifts were observed and taken as indicators of the capture of the target ions. With rigorous spectral analysis, the coordination mechanism between the heavy metal ion and the corresponding bridging molecule was investigated. Mercury(II) ion primarily interacts with di-DMT through the cleavage of the disulfide bond, whereas Cu(2+) preferentially interacts with the heterocyclic N atoms in TMT. The specificity of the coordination chemistry provided both di-DMT and TMT with excellent selectivity for the detection of Hg(2+) and Cu(2+) in the presence of other interfering metal ion species. In addition, quantitative analysis of the concentration of the heavy metal ions was achieved through the construction of internal calibration curves using the peak-intensity ratios of 287/387 cm(-1) for Hg(2+) and 1234/973 cm(-1) for Cu(2+). PMID:26037773

  15. Thiopental and Phenytoin as Novel Ionophores for Potentiometric Determination of Lead (II) Ions

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, Nashwa M.H.; Abbas, Samah S.; Hamza, Salem M.; Abd EL-Karem, Yasser M.

    2009-01-01

    Two novel polymeric membrane sensors for the analysis of Pb(II) have been developed based on two therapeutic drugs, thiopental (TP) and phenytoin (PT) as two new ionophores and potassium tetrakis(p-chlorophenyl) borate (KTpClPB) as a lipophilic additive, in plasticized PVC membranes. The sensors show a Nernstian response for Pb(II) ions over the wide concentration ranges of 1×10−2 – 7×10−6 M and 1×10−2 – 8×10−6 M for the sensors based on thiopental and phenytoin, respectively. The proposed sensors have a fast response time and can be used for more than nine weeks without any considerable divergence in potentials. The sensors exhibit comparatively good selectivity with respect to alkaline, alkaline earth and some transition and heavy metal ions. They were employed for direct determination of lead in solder alloys and in galena rocks with a good agreement with the obtained results by atomic absorption spectroscopy. PMID:22573991

  16. Fate of the initial state perturbations in heavy ion collisions. II. Glauber fluctuations and sounds

    SciTech Connect

    Staig, Pilar; Shuryak, Edward

    2011-09-15

    Heavy-ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are well described by the (nearly ideal) hydrodynamics for average events. In the present paper we study initial state fluctuations appearing on an event-by-event basis and the propagation of perturbations induced by them. We found that (i) fluctuations of several of the lowest harmonics have comparable magnitudes and (ii) that at least all odd harmonics are correlated in phase, (iii) thus indicating the local nature of fluctuations. We argue that such local perturbations should be the source of the ''tiny bang,'' a pulse of sound propagating from it. We identify its two fundamental scales as (i) the ''sound horizon'' (analogous to the absolute ruler in cosmic microwave background and galaxy distributions) and (ii) the ''viscous horizon'' separating damped and undamped harmonics. We then qualitatively describe how one can determine them from the data and thus determine two fundamental parameters of the matter: the (average) speed of sound and viscosity. The rest of the paper explains how one can study mutual coherence of various harmonics. For that, one should go beyond the two-particle correlations to three (or more) particles. Mutual coherence is important for the picture of propagating sound waves.

  17. Aqueous Co(II) adsorption using 8-hydroxyquinoline anchored γ-Fe2O3@chitosan with Co(II) as imprinted ions.

    PubMed

    Hossein Beyki, Mostafa; Shemirani, Farzaneh; Shirkhodaie, Mahsa

    2016-06-01

    A novel, bio-based 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) anchored magnetic chitosan using Co(II) as imprinted ions was prepared and applied for selective removal of Co(II) from aqueous solutions. At first, γ-Fe2O3 has been synthesized by solvent free precipitation route and then combined with 8-hydroxyquinoline anchored chitosan using epichlorohydrin (EPH) as crosslinking agent. The FT- IR spectra showed that 8-HQ has been successfully anchored onto chitosan structure. Moreover, TEM analysis confirmed that the nanocomposite has core-shell structure. The experimental results showed that equilibrium time was 10min moreover, the maximum adsorption capacity of Co(II) with non-imprinted and surface imprinted polymer at pH 8 were 66.6 and 100mgg(-1), respectively. The selectivity coefficient of Co(II) ions relative to Cd(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) were 11, 42 and 2, respectively. Prepared biosorbent represented good stability and good repeatability after three cycle of sorption and desorption using 0.5molL-(1) of HNO3 as eluent. Kinetic and thermodynamic behavior were also investigated and result showed that cobalt adsorption followed second order model and endothermic path. PMID:26944662

  18. Interaction of Mg(II), Ca(II) and Mn(II) ions with the light-harvesting proteins of chloroplast thylakoid membranes studied by FT-IR difference spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, A.; Tajmir-Riahi, H. A.

    1994-03-01

    The interaction of Mg(II), Ca(II) and Mn(II) ions with the light-harvesting (LHC-II) proteins of chloroplast thylakoid membranes was investigated in aqueous solution at different metal ion concentrations (0.01-20 mM), using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) difference spectroscopy. The infrared difference spectroscopic results for the amide I and amide II regions (1800-1500 cm -1) have shown a strong metal—protein interaction at high metal ion concentrations (5-20 mM), whereas at very low concentrations (0.01-1 mM) the metal cation binding is negligible. The metal ion binding is mainly via the protein carbonyl group at low cation concentration, whereas metal ion coordination to the protein CO and CN groups were observed at higher cation concentrations. The Mn—tyrosine binding was also observed at high metal ion concentrations. Major conformational changes from α-helix (48% in uncomplexed protein) to β-sheet and turn structures were observed in the presence of these metal cations at high concentrations (10-20 mM).

  19. Complexes of sulfur-containing ligands. I. Factors influencing complex formation between D-penicillamine and copper (II) ion.

    PubMed

    Gergely, A; Sóvágó, I

    1978-07-01

    Complex formation and redox reactions between copper (II) ion and D-penicillamine were studied in detail as functions of the metal/-ligand ratio and the concentration of halide ions. It was established that a copper (I)- D-penicillamine polymeric complex of amphoteric character is formed when excess D-penicillamine is present. When the D-penicillamine/copper (II) ratio = 1.45 in the starting reaction mixture, a mixed valence complex with an intense red-violet color is formed. The formation of this compound, which contains 44% copper (II) ion, is greatly influenced by the experimental conditions, primarily by the concentration of halide ions. The main chemical and physical characteristics of the mixed valence complex were determined via magnetic and spectroscopic measurements. It was further established that a very intense blue complex is formed when the D-penicillamine/copper (II) ratio = 2 and halide ions are present. On the basis of the nature of the products formed under various conditions it was concluded that the copper (II)-D-penicillamine system may serve as a good model for studying the binding sites of copper-containing proteins. PMID:210846

  20. The preparation of polyelectrolyte complexes carboxymethyl chitosan(CMC)-pectin by reflux method as a Pb (II) metal ion adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastuti, Budi; Mudasir, Siswanta, Dwi; Triyono

    2016-02-01

    Aim of this research is to synthesized a chemically stable polyelectrolyte complexs carboxymetyl chitosan CMC-pectin as Pb(II) ion adsorbent by reflux method. During synthesis process, the optimum mass ratio of CMC and pectin was pre-determined and the active groups of the CMC-pectin complex was characterized by using IR spectrofotometer. Finally, adsorption capacity of the adsorbent material for Pb (II) ions was studied under optimum condition, i.e. adsorbent mass, contact time, and pH. Result shows that CMC could be succesfully combined with pectin to produce CMC-pectin complex. The optimum mass ratio CMC: pectin to form the polyelectrolyte complexs CMC-pectin was 70% : 30%. The active groups identified in the CMC-pectin complex was a hydroxyl (OH) and carboxylate (-COOH) groups. The optimum conditions for Pb (II) ion absoprtion was 10 mg of the adsorbent mass, 75 min of contact time, and pH 5. This material can be effectively used as adsorbents for Pb (II) ions, where up to 91% Pb (II) metal ions was adsorbed from aqueous solution and the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was 41.63 mg/g.

  1. Oscillatory oxidation of Mn(II) ions by hexacyanoferrates(III) and bistability in the reductions of MnO 2 by hexacyanoferrates(II) in a CSTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olexová, Anna; Melicherčík, Milan; Treindl, L'udovít

    1997-04-01

    A new transition metal oscillator based on the oxidation of Mn 2+ ions by Fe(CN) 3-6 ions in a CSTR has been found. As well as the oscillations of the absorbance of the Mn(IV) species, pH-oscillations have been observed. In the reduction of manganese dioxide by Fe(CN) 4-6 ions a kinetic bistability has been described. A skeleton mechanism described recently for Mn(II)H 2O 2 and Mn(II)Br 2 oscillators has been applied here and further developed by the idea of the catalytic activity of colloidal particles and of the assistance of the pH-value change of both main processes, i.e. of the Mn(II) oxidation by Fe(CN) 3-6 ions and of the Mn(IV) reduction by Fe(CN) 4-6 ions. This appears to be the first case where both sides of a reversible reaction are autocatalytic.

  2. Biosorption of toxic lead (II) ions using tomato waste (Solanum lycopersicum) activated by NaOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permatasari, Diah; Heraldy, Eddy; Lestari, Witri Wahyu

    2016-02-01

    This research present to uptake lead (II) ion from aqueous solutions by activated tomato waste. Biosorbent were characterized by applying Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). The biosorption investigated with parameters including the concentration of NaOH, effects of solution pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time,and initial metal concentration. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of two kinetic model such us the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied todescribe the biosorption process. According to the experiment, the optimum concentration of NaOH was achieved at 0.1 M. The maximum % lead (II) removal was achieved at pH 4 with 94.5%. Optimum biosorbentdosage were found as 0.1 g/25 mL solution while optimum contact time were found at 75 minutes. The results showed that the biosorption processes of Lead (II) followed pseudo-second order kinetics. Langmuir adsorption isotherm was found fit the adsorption data with amaximum capacity of 24.079 mg/g with anadsorption energy of 28.046 kJ/mol.

  3. Supramolecular control over molecular magnetic materials: γ-cyclodextrin-templated grid of cobalt(II) single-ion magnets.

    PubMed

    Nedelko, Natalia; Kornowicz, Arkadiusz; Justyniak, Iwona; Aleshkevych, Pavlo; Prochowicz, Daniel; Krupiński, Piotr; Dorosh, Orest; Ślawska-Waniewska, Anna; Lewiński, Janusz

    2014-12-15

    Single-ion magnets (SIMs) are potential building blocks of novel quantum computing devices. Unique magnetic properties of SIMs require effective separation of magnetic ions and can be tuned by even slight changes in their coordination sphere geometry. We show that an additional level of tailorability in the design of SIMs can be achieved by organizing magnetic ions into supramolecular architectures, resulting in gaining control over magnetic ion packing. Here, γ-cyclodextrin was used to template magnetic Co(II) and nonmagnetic auxiliary Li(+) ions to form a heterometallic {Co, Li, Li}4 ring. In the sandwich-type complex [(γ-CD)2Co4Li8(H2O)12] spatially separated Co(II) ions are prevented from superexchange magnetic coupling. Ac/dc magnetic and EPR studies demonstrated that individual Co(II) ions with positive zero-field splitting exhibit field-induced slow magnetic relaxation consistent with the SIMs' behavior, which is exceptional in complexes with easy-plane magnetic anisotropy. PMID:25494948

  4. Rapid assessment of human amylin aggregation and its inhibition by copper(II) ions by laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with ion mobility separation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hang; Ha, Emmeline; Donaldson, Robert P; Jeremic, Aleksandar M; Vertes, Akos

    2015-10-01

    Native electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) is often used to monitor noncovalent complex formation between peptides and ligands. The relatively low throughput of this technique, however, is not compatible with extensive screening. Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) MS combined with ion mobility separation (IMS) can analyze complex formation and provide conformation information within a matter of seconds. Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) or amylin, a 37-amino acid residue peptide, is produced in pancreatic beta-cells through proteolytic cleavage of its prohormone. Both amylin and its precursor can aggregate and produce toxic oligomers and fibrils leading to cell death in the pancreas that can eventually contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The inhibitory effect of the copper(II) ion on amylin aggregation has been recently discovered, but details of the interaction remain unknown. Finding other more physiologically tolerated approaches requires large scale screening of potential inhibitors. Here, we demonstrate that LAESI-IMS-MS can reveal the binding stoichiometry, copper oxidation state, and the dissociation constant of human amylin-copper(II) complex. The conformations of hIAPP in the presence of copper(II) ions were also analyzed by IMS, and preferential association between the β-hairpin amylin monomer and the metal ion was found. The copper(II) ion exhibited strong association with the -HSSNN- residues of the amylin. In the absence of copper(II), amylin dimers were detected with collision cross sections consistent with monomers of β-hairpin conformation. When copper(II) was present in the solution, no dimers were detected. Thus, the copper(II) ions disrupt the association pathway to the formation of β-sheet rich amylin fibrils. Using LAESI-IMS-MS for the assessment of amylin-copper(II) interactions demonstrates the utility of this technique for the high-throughput screening of potential inhibitors of amylin

  5. Rapid Assessment of Human Amylin Aggregation and Its Inhibition by Copper(II) Ions by Laser Ablation Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry with Ion Mobility Separation

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Robert P.; Jeremic, Aleksandar M.; Vertes, Akos

    2015-01-01

    Native electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) is often used to monitor noncovalent complex formation between peptides and ligands. The relatively low throughput of this technique, however, is not compatible with extensive screening. Laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) MS combined with ion mobility separation (IMS) can analyze complex formation and provide conformation information within a matter of seconds. Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) or amylin, a 37-amino acid residue peptide, is produced in pancreatic beta-cells through proteolytic cleavage of its prohormone. Both amylin and its precursor can aggregate and produce toxic oligomers and fibrils leading to cell death in the pancreas that can eventually contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The inhibitory effect of the copper(II) ion on amylin aggregation has been recently discovered, but details of the interaction remain unknown. Finding other more physiologically tolerated approaches requires large scale screening of potential inhibitors. Here, we demonstrate that LAESI-IMS-MS can reveal the binding stoichiometry, copper oxidation state, and the dissociation constant of human amylin–copper(II) complex. The conformations of hIAPP in the presence of copper(II) ions were also analyzed by IMS, and preferential association between the β-hairpin amylin monomer and the metal ion was found. The copper(II) ion exhibited strong association with the –HSSNN– residues of the amylin. In the absence of copper(II), amylin dimers were detected with collision cross sections consistent with monomers of β-hairpin conformation. When copper(II) was present in the solution, no dimers were detected. Thus, the copper(II) ions disrupt the association pathway to the formation of β-sheet rich amylin fibrils. Using LAESI-IMS-MS for the assessment of amylin–copper(II) interactions demonstrates the utility of this technique for the high-throughput screening of potential inhibitors of

  6. Monolithic Nickel (II) Oxide Aerogels Using an Organic Epoxide: The Importance of the Counter Ion

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A E; Satcher, J H; Simpson, R L

    2004-01-13

    The synthesis and characterization of nickel (II) oxide aerogel materials prepared using the epoxide addition method is described. The addition of the organic epoxide propylene oxide to an ethanolic solution of NiCl{sub 2} 6H{sub 2}O resulted in the formation of an opaque light green monolithic gel and subsequent drying with supercritical CO{sub 2} gave a monolithic aerogel material of the same color. This material has been characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis. The results indicate that the nickel (II) oxide aerogel has very low bulk density (98 kg/m{sup 3} ({approx}98 %porous)), high surface area (413 m{sup 2}/g), and has a particulate-type aerogel microstructure made up of very fine spherical particles with an open porous network. By comparison, a precipitate of Ni{sub 3}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 4} is obtained when the same preparation is attempted with the common Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} 6H{sub 2}O salt as the precursor. The implications of the difference of reactivity of the two different precursors are discussed in the context of the mechanism of gel formation via the epoxide addition method. The synthesis of nickel (II) oxide aerogel, using the epoxide addition method, is especially unique in our experience. It is our first example of the successful preparation of a metal oxide aerogel using a metal divalent metal ion and may have implications for the application of this method to the preparation of aerogels or nanoparticles of other divalent metal oxides. To our knowledge this is the first report of a monolithic pure nickel (II) oxide aerogel materials.

  7. Prediction of equilibrium parameters of adsorption of lead (II) ions onto diatomite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Taylan; Ardalı, Yüksel; Gamze Turan, N.

    2013-04-01

    Heavy metals from industrial wastewaters are one of the most important environmental issues to be solved today. Due to their toxicity and nonbiodegradable nature, heavy metals cause environmental and public health problems. Various techniques have been developed to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions. These include chemical precipitation, reverse osmosis, ion Exchange and adsorption. Among them, adsorption is considered to be a particularly competitive and effective process for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. There is growing interest in using low cost, commercially available materials for the adsorption of heavy metals. Diatomite is a siliceous sedimentary rock having an amorphous form of silica (SiO2. nH2O) containing a small amount of microcrystalline material. It has unique combination of physical and chemical properties such as high porosity, high permeability, small particle size, large surface area, and low thermal conductivity. In addition, it is available in Turkey and in various locations around the world. Therefore, diatomite has been successfully used as adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals. The aim of the study is to investigate the adsorption properties of diatomite. The equilibrium adsorption data were applied to the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevic (D-R) isotherm models. Adsorption experiments were performed under batch process, using Pb (II) initial concentration, pH of solution and contact time as variables. The results demonstrated that the adsorption of Pb (II) was strongly dependent on pH of solution. The effect of pH on adsorption of Pb(II) on diatomite was conducted by varying pH from 2 to 12 at 20 oC. In the pH range of 2.0-4.0, the adsorption percentage increases slightly as the pH increasing. At pH>4, the adsorption percentage decreases with increasing pH because hydrolysis product and the precipitation begin to play an important role in the sorption of Pb (II). At pH4, the maximum adsorption

  8. Sunflower Plants as Bioindicators of Environmental Pollution with Lead (II) Ions

    PubMed Central

    Krystofova, Olga; Shestivska, Violetta; Galiova, Michaela; Novotny, Karel; Kaiser, Jozef; Zehnalek, Josef; Babula, Petr; Opatrilova, Radka; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the influence of lead (II) ions on sunflower growth and biochemistry was investigated from various points of view. Sunflower plants were treated with 0, 10, 50, 100 and/or 500 μM Pb-EDTA for eight days. We observed alterations in growth in all experimental groups compared with non-treated control plants. Further we determined total content of proteins by a Bradford protein assay. By the eighth day of the experiment, total protein contents in all treated plants were much lower compared to control. Particularly noticeable was the loss of approx. 8 μg/mL or 15 μg/mL in shoots or roots of plants treated with 100 mM Pb-EDTA. We also focused our attention on the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and urease. Activity of the enzymes increased with increasing length of the treatment and applied concentration of lead (II) ions. This increase corresponds well with a higher metabolic activity of treated plants. Contents of cysteine, reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and phytochelatin 2 (PC2) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Cysteine content declined in roots of plants with the increasing time of treatment of plants with Pb-EDTA and the concentration of toxic substance. Moreover, we observed ten times higher content of cysteine in roots in comparison with shoots. The observed reduction of cysteine content probably relates with its utilization for biosynthesis of GSH and phytochelatins, because the content of GSH and PC2 was similar in roots and shoots and increased with increased treatment time and concentration of Pb-EDTA. Moreover, we observed oxidative stress caused by Pb-EDTA in roots where the GSSG/GSH ratio was about 0.66. In shoots, the oxidative stress was less distinctive, with a GSSG/GSH ratio 0.14. We also estimated the rate of phytochelatin biosynthesis from the slope of linear equations plotted with data measured in the particular

  9. Sunflower Plants as Bioindicators of Environmental Pollution with Lead (II) Ions.

    PubMed

    Krystofova, Olga; Shestivska, Violetta; Galiova, Michaela; Novotny, Karel; Kaiser, Jozef; Zehnalek, Josef; Babula, Petr; Opatrilova, Radka; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the influence of lead (II) ions on sunflower growth and biochemistry was investigated from various points of view. Sunflower plants were treated with 0, 10, 50, 100 and/or 500 μM Pb-EDTA for eight days. We observed alterations in growth in all experimental groups compared with non-treated control plants. Further we determined total content of proteins by a Bradford protein assay. By the eighth day of the experiment, total protein contents in all treated plants were much lower compared to control. Particularly noticeable was the loss of approx. 8 μg/mL or 15 μg/mL in shoots or roots of plants treated with 100 mM Pb-EDTA. We also focused our attention on the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and urease. Activity of the enzymes increased with increasing length of the treatment and applied concentration of lead (II) ions. This increase corresponds well with a higher metabolic activity of treated plants. Contents of cysteine, reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and phytochelatin 2 (PC2) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Cysteine content declined in roots of plants with the increasing time of treatment of plants with Pb-EDTA and the concentration of toxic substance. Moreover, we observed ten times higher content of cysteine in roots in comparison with shoots. The observed reduction of cysteine content probably relates with its utilization for biosynthesis of GSH and phytochelatins, because the content of GSH and PC2 was similar in roots and shoots and increased with increased treatment time and concentration of Pb-EDTA. Moreover, we observed oxidative stress caused by Pb-EDTA in roots where the GSSG/GSH ratio was about 0.66. In shoots, the oxidative stress was less distinctive, with a GSSG/GSH ratio 0.14. We also estimated the rate of phytochelatin biosynthesis from the slope of linear equations plotted with data measured in the particular

  10. Bis(N,N'-dimethyl-ethylenediammonium) tris-(oxalato-κO,O)cobaltate(II) dihydrate: an ion-pair complex.

    PubMed

    Gaye, Papa Aly; Sy, Adama; Thiam, Ibrahima Elhadj; Gaye, Mohamed; Retailleau, Pascal

    2011-09-01

    The Co(II) ion in the title complex, (C(4)H(14)N(2))(2)[Co(C(2)O(4))(3)]·2H(2)O, is coordinated by three oxalate ions, resulting in a distorted octa-hedral geometry. Two uncoordinated water mol-ecules are present in asymmetric unit. Inter-molecular N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the different entities stabilize the crystal structure. PMID:22058871

  11. Online spectrophotometric determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) by flow injection combined with low pressure ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shujuan; Li, Nan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yang, Dongjing; Jiang, Heimei

    2015-03-01

    A simple and new low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric procedure for determining Fe(II) and Fe(III) was established. It is based on the selective adsorption of low pressure ion chromatography column to Fe(II) and Fe(III), the online reduction reaction of Fe(III) and the reaction of Fe(II) in sodium acetate with phenanthroline, resulting in an intense orange complex with a suitable absorption at 515nm. Various chemical (such as the concentration of colour reagent, eluant and reductive agent) and instrumental parameters (reaction coil length, reductive coil length and wavelength) were studied and were optimized. Under the optimum conditions calibration graph of Fe(II)/Fe(III) was linear in the Fe(II)/Fe(III) range of 0.040-1.0mg/L. The detection limit of Fe(III) and Fe(II) was respectively 3.09 and 1.55μg/L, the relative standard deviation (n=10) of Fe(II) and Fe(III) 1.89% and 1.90% for 0.5mg/L of Fe(II) and Fe(III) respectively. About 2.5 samples in 1h can be analyzed. The interfering effects of various chemical species were studied. The method was successfully applied in the determination of water samples. PMID:25523043

  12. Online spectrophotometric determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) by flow injection combined with low pressure ion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shujuan; Li, Nan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yang, Dongjing; Jiang, Heimei

    2015-03-01

    A simple and new low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric procedure for determining Fe(II) and Fe(III) was established. It is based on the selective adsorption of low pressure ion chromatography column to Fe(II) and Fe(III), the online reduction reaction of Fe(III) and the reaction of Fe(II) in sodium acetate with phenanthroline, resulting in an intense orange complex with a suitable absorption at 515 nm. Various chemical (such as the concentration of colour reagent, eluant and reductive agent) and instrumental parameters (reaction coil length, reductive coil length and wavelength) were studied and were optimized. Under the optimum conditions calibration graph of Fe(II)/Fe(III) was linear in the Fe(II)/Fe(III) range of 0.040-1.0 mg/L. The detection limit of Fe(III) and Fe(II) was respectively 3.09 and 1.55 μg/L, the relative standard deviation (n = 10) of Fe(II) and Fe(III) 1.89% and 1.90% for 0.5 mg/L of Fe(II) and Fe(III) respectively. About 2.5 samples in 1 h can be analyzed. The interfering effects of various chemical species were studied. The method was successfully applied in the determination of water samples.

  13. The design and simulation of high-voltage Applied-B ion diodes for inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutz, S. A.; Seidel, D. B.; Coats, R. S.

    1987-06-01

    We present the design of the high-voltage (30 MV) Applied-B ion diode that is now being tested on the PBFA-II accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. This diode design is the first application of a new set of numerical design tools that have been developed over the past several years. Furthermore, this design represents significant departures from previous designs due to much higher voltage and the use of a nonprotonic ion, Li+. The higher voltage increases the magnetic field strength required to insulate the diode from 1 to 2 T of previous diodes to 3-7 T. This represents a very large increase in the magnetic field energy and the magnetic forces exerted on the field-coil structures. Our new design incorporates changes in the field-coil locations to significantly reduce the field energy and the forces on the field-coil structures. The use of nonprotonic ions introduces a new complication in that these ions will be stripped when they penetrate material, i.e., the gas cell membrane. The importance of current neutralization, charge-exchange reactions, and the conservation of canonical angular momentum are discussed in the context of designing light ion diodes suitable as drivers for inertial confinement fusion. We have simulated the performance of this diode design using the electromagnetic particle-in-cell code, magic. We find that the most sensitive point in the power flow is the transition from the self-magnetically insulated transmission line to the applied field region of the diode.

  14. Adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions by cross-linking chitosan/rectorite nano-hybrid composite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lixuan; Chen, Yufei; Zhang, Qiuyun; Guo, Xingmei; Peng, Yanni; Xiao, Huijuan; Chen, Xiaocheng; Luo, Jiwen

    2015-10-01

    Chitosan/rectorie (CTS/REC) nano-hybrid composite microsphere was prepared by changing the proportion of CTS/REC with 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. Compared with the pure cross-linking chitosan microsphere, the nano-hybrid composite microsphere was proved to have better sorption capacity of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II), especially 2:1(CTS/REC-1). The adsorption behavior of the microsphere of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) was investigated in single and binary metal systems. In single system, the equilibrium studies showed that the adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) followed the Langmuir model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The negative values of (ΔG) suggested that the adsorption process was spontaneous. In binary system, the combined action of the metals was found to be antagonistic and the metal sorption followed the order of Cu(II)>Cd(II)>Ni(II). The regeneration studies indicated that EDTA desorbed Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) from cross-linking microspheres better than HCl. The FT-IR and XPS spectra showed that coordination bonds were formed between Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) and the nitrogen atoms of cross-linking CTS/REC nano-hybrid composite microspheres. PMID:26076634

  15. Development of mercury (II) ion biosensors based on mercury-specific oligonucleotide probes.

    PubMed

    Li, Lanying; Wen, Yanli; Xu, Li; Xu, Qin; Song, Shiping; Zuo, Xiaolei; Yan, Juan; Zhang, Weijia; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-15

    Mercury (II) ion (Hg(2+)) contamination can be accumulated along the food chain and cause serious threat to the public health. Plenty of research effort thus has been devoted to the development of fast, sensitive and selective biosensors for monitoring Hg(2+). Thymine was demonstrated to specifically combine with Hg(2+) and form a thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) structure, with binding constant even higher than T-A Watson-Crick pair in DNA duplex. Recently, various novel Hg(2+) biosensors have been developed based on T-rich Mercury-Specific Oligonucleotide (MSO) probes, and exhibited advanced selectivity and excellent sensitivity for Hg(2+) detection. In this review, we explained recent development of MSO-based Hg(2+) biosensors mainly in 3 groups: fluorescent biosensors, colorimetric biosensors and electrochemical biosensors. PMID:26356764

  16. Immobilized palladium(II) ion affinity chromatography for recovery of recombinant proteins with peptide tags containing histidine and cysteine.

    PubMed

    Kikot, Pamela; Polat, Aise; Achilli, Estefania; Fernandez Lahore, Marcelo; Grasselli, Mariano

    2014-11-01

    Fusion of peptide-based tags to recombinant proteins is currently one of the most used tools for protein production. Also, immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) has a huge application in protein purification, especially in research labs. The combination of expression systems of recombinant tagged proteins with this robust chromatographic system has become an efficient and rapid tool to produce milligram-range amounts of proteins. IMAC-Ni(II) columns have become the natural partners of 6xHis-tagged proteins. The Ni(II) ion is considered as the best compromise of selectivity and affinity for purification of a recombinant His-tagged protein. The palladium(II) ion is also able to bind to side chains of amino acids and form ternary complexes with iminodiacetic acid and free amino acids and other sulfur-containing molecules. In this work, we evaluated two different cysteine- and histidine-containing six amino acid tags linked to the N-terminal group of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and studied the adsorption and elution conditions using novel eluents. Both cysteine-containing tagged GFPs were able to bind to IMAC-Pd(II) matrices and eluted successfully using a low concentration of thiourea solution. The IMAC-Ni(II) system reaches less than 20% recovery of the cysteine-containing tagged GFP from a crude homogenate of recombinant Escherichia coli, meanwhile the IMAC-Pd(II) yields a recovery of 45% with a purification factor of 13. PMID:25277090

  17. Biosorption of Cu(II) ions by cellulose of cabbage waste as biosorbent from agricultural waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heraldy, Eddy; Wireni, Lestari, Witri Wahyu

    2016-02-01

    Biosorption on lignocellulosic wastes has been identified as an appropriate alternative technology to remove heavy metal ions from wastewater. The purpose of this research was to study the ability of cabbage waste biosorbent prepared from agricultural waste on biosorption of Cu(II). Cabbage waste biosorbent was activated with sodium hydroxide at concentration 0.1 M. The biosorption optimum conditions were studied with initial pH (2-8), biosorbent dosage (0.2-1) g/L, contact time (15-90) minutes, and metal ion concentrations (10-100) mg/L by batch method. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of two kinetic models such as pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to describe the biosorption process. The results showed that cabbage biosorbent activated by 0.1 M sodium hydroxide enhanced the biosorption capacity from 9,801 mg/g to 12,26 mg/g. The FTIR spectra have shown a typical absorption of cellulose and typical absorption of lignin decrease after activation process. The kinetic biosorption was determined to be appropriate to the pseudo-second order model with constant rate of 0,091 g/mg.min, and the biosorption equilibrium was described well by the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum biosorption capacity of 37.04 mg/g for Cu(II) at pH 5, biosorption proses was spontaneous in nature with biosorption energy 25.86 kJ/mol at 302 K.

  18. [Effect of manganese (II), cobalt (II), and nickel (II) ions on the growth and production of coumarins in the suspension culture of Angelica archangelica L].

    PubMed

    Siatka, T; Kasparová, M; Sklenárová, H; Solich, P

    2005-01-01

    The plant cell reacts to an increased concentration of metals in the environment by various mechanisms. They include an increase in the formation of heat-shock proteins, metallothioneins, phytochelatins, amino acids (cysteine, histidine), organic acids (citric, malic), or secondary metabolites. The latter mechanism is being investigated for its possible use in explant cultures for the stimulation of secondary metabolism, which is the source of substances of pharmaceutical importance. The study tested manganese (II) (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 mM in the medium), cobalt (II), and nickel (II) ions (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 200, and 500 microM in the medium) as potential elicitors of coumarin production. At the same time, toxicity of these metals for the culture was examined by evaluating their effect on growth (characterized by fresh and dry weight of biomass at the end of a two-week cultivation). Cultures were cultivated in the dark and in the light. It has been found that the growth of cultures is not influenced by manganese in concentrations ranging from 0 to 2 mM, then it slightly decreases, at a concentration of 50 mM it is lower by 20 % when cultivated in the dark and by 30 % when cultivated in the light in comparison with the control. Cobalt in concentrations of 0 to 50 microM does not significantly influence the growth of the culture, higher concentrations decrease the biomass yields, more markedly when cultivated in the light (at 500 microM Co by 60 %, in the dark only by 30 % in comparison with the controls). Nickel in concentrations of 0.1 to 200 microM does not influence growth, and in a concentration of 500 microM decreases it by approximately 30 % in comparison with the control both in the light and dark. Production of coumarins was not stimulated by any metal in comparison with the control cultures, only the removal of manganese from the medium in the culture cultivated in the dark increased production by about 15 % versus the

  19. A Study of the Ion Hose Instability in the DARHT-II Downstream Transport Region

    SciTech Connect

    McCarrick, J F

    2004-11-11

    The second axis of the DARHT flash X-ray facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (''DARHT-II'') is a multiple-pulse, 18.4 MeV, 2 kA induction electron linear accelerator [1]. A train of short ({approx}50 ns) pulses are converted via bremsstrahlung to X-rays, which are then used to make radiographic images at various times (nominally four) during a ''hydrotest'' experiment. The train of pulses is created by carving them out of a two microsecond long macropulse, using a fast switching element called a kicker [2]. The unused portion of the macropulse is absorbed in a beam dump. Thus, upstream of the kicker, two microseconds of beam are transported through a vacuum system roughly sixty meters long. These conditions involve length and, specifically, time scales which are new to the transport of high-current beams. A concern under such conditions are the macroscopic interactions between the electron beam and positive ions created by impact ionization of the residual gas in the vacuum system. Over two microseconds, the ion density can develop to a hundredth or even a tenth of a percent of the beam density--small, to be sure, but large enough to have cumulative effects over such a long transport distance. Two such effects will be considered here: the ion hose instability, where transverse forces conspire to pull the electron beam farther and farther off axis, and background gas focusing, where radial forces (with respect to the beam) change the beam envelope during the course of the macropulse. The former effect can cause beam emittance growth (affecting the ability to focus the beam on the target) and eventually catastrophic beam loss; the latter can cause either serious degradation of the statically tuned final focus on the converter target, or a pinching of the beam on the surface of the main dump to the point where the heat flux causes damage. The beam transport upstream of the kicker has two distinct phases. First, the beam is created and accelerated up to 18.4 Me

  20. EPR study of Cu2+ ion doped orotato(nicotinamid)cobalt(II) single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldırım, İ.; Karabulut, B.; Büyükgüngör, O.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the Cu2+ ion doped orotato(nicotinamid)cobalt(II) complex by using EPR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The single crystal is triclinic with the space group P 1 ‾ . The unit cell dimensions of the crystal are a = 7.2785(4) Å, b = 10.2349(5) Å, c = 12.7372(6) Å, α = 69.297(4)°, β = 74.791(4)° and γ = 76.995(4)°, with Z = 2. We analyzed the EPR spectra of both single crystal and powder of the complex at room temperature. EPR analysis indicates the presence of only one Cu2+ site. We obtained the spin Hamiltonian parameters from the single crystal data for the complex. The spin Hamiltonian parameters are gx = 2.032, gy = 2.116, gz = 2.319, Ax = 28 G, Ay = 66 G, Az = 126 G. These data indicate that the symmetry of paramagnetic center is rhombic. We constructed the ground state wave function of the Cu2+ ion.

  1. EPR study of Cu(2+) ion doped orotato(nicotinamid)cobalt(II) single crystal.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, I; Karabulut, B; Büyükgüngör, O

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the Cu(2+) ion doped orotato(nicotinamid)cobalt(II) complex by using EPR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The single crystal is triclinic with the space group P1‾. The unit cell dimensions of the crystal are a=7.2785(4)Å, b=10.2349(5)Å, c=12.7372(6)Å, α=69.297(4)°, β=74.791(4)° and γ=76.995(4)°, with Z=2. We analyzed the EPR spectra of both single crystal and powder of the complex at room temperature. EPR analysis indicates the presence of only one Cu(2+) site. We obtained the spin Hamiltonian parameters from the single crystal data for the complex. The spin Hamiltonian parameters are gx=2.032, gy=2.116, gz=2.319, Ax=28G, Ay=66G, Az=126G. These data indicate that the symmetry of paramagnetic center is rhombic. We constructed the ground state wave function of the Cu(2+) ion. PMID:25704568

  2. Simultaneous and sensitive analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids by ion-chromatography using on-line complexation with copper(II) ion.

    PubMed

    Kemmei, Tomoko; Kodama, Shuji; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Inoue, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to ion chromatography is proposed to improve the UV detection of aliphatic carboxylic acids separated by anion-exchange chromatography. When copper(II) ion added to the mobile phase, it forms complexes with carboxylic acids that can be detected at 240 nm. The absorbance was found to increase with increasing copper(II) ion concentration. The retention times of α-hydroxy acids were also found to depend on the copper(II) ion concentration. Addition of acetonitrile to the mobile phase improved the separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids. The detection limits of the examined carboxylic acids (formate, glycolate, acetate, lactate, propionate, 3-hydroxypropionate, n-butyrate, isobutyrate, n-valerate, isovalerate, n-caproate) calculated at S/N=3 ranged from 0.06 to 3 μM. The detector signal was linear over three orders of magnitude of carboxylic acid concentration. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze aliphatic carboxylic acids in rainwater and bread. PMID:25523885

  3. Chemical synthesis of lactic acid from cellulose catalysed by lead(II) ions in water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanliang; Deng, Weiping; Wang, Binju; Zhang, Qinghong; Wan, Xiaoyue; Tang, Zhenchen; Wang, Ye; Zhu, Chun; Cao, Zexing; Wang, Guichang; Wan, Huilin

    2013-01-01

    The direct transformation of cellulose, which is the main component of lignocellulosic biomass, into building-block chemicals is the key to establishing biomass-based sustainable chemical processes. Only limited successes have been achieved for such transformations under mild conditions. Here we report the simple and efficient chemocatalytic conversion of cellulose in water in the presence of dilute lead(II) ions, into lactic acid, which is a high-value chemical used for the production of fine chemicals and biodegradable plastics. The lactic acid yield from microcrystalline cellulose and several lignocellulose-based raw biomasses is >60% at 463 K. Both theoretical and experimental studies suggest that lead(II) in combination with water catalyses a series of cascading steps for lactic acid formation, including the isomerization of glucose formed via the hydrolysis of cellulose into fructose, the selective cleavage of the C3-C4 bond of fructose to trioses and the selective conversion of trioses into lactic acid. PMID:23846730

  4. Highly stable water dispersible calix[4]pyrrole octa-hydrazide protected gold nanoparticles as colorimetric and fluorometric chemosensors for selective signaling of Co(II) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Keyur D.; Vyas, Disha J.; Makwana, Bharat A.; Darjee, Savan M.; Jain, Vinod K.

    2014-03-01

    Water dispersible stable gold nanoparticles (AuNps) have been synthesized by using calix[4]pyrrole octa-hydrazide (CPOH) as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent. CPOH-AuNps have been characterized by surface plasmon resonance, particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy. CPOH-AuNps are water dispersible, highly stable for more than 150 days at neutral pH with a size of less than 10 nm and zeta potential of 15 ± 2 MeV. Ion sensing property of CPOH-AuNps has been investigated for various metal ions Pb(II), Cd(II), Mn(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Zn(II), Hg(II), Co(II) and Cu(II) by colorimetry and spectrofluorimetry. Among all the metal ions investigated, only Co(II) ions gives sharp colour change from ruby red to blue and is easily detectable by naked-eye. CPOH-AuNps being fluorescent in nature also shows great sensitivity and selectivity for Co(II) ions. Co(II) ions can be selectively detected at very low concentration level of 1 nM in a facile way of fluorescence quenching.

  5. Synthesis of new oxamide-based ligand and its coordination behavior towards copper(II) ion: spectral and electrochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Krishnapriya, K R; Saravanakumar, D; Arunkumar, P; Kandaswamy, M

    2008-04-01

    A new ligand N,N'-bis{3-(2-formyl-4-methyl-phenol)-6-iminopropyl}oxamide (L) and its mono- and binuclear copper(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized. The ligand shows absorption maxima at 249 and 360 with a weak transition at 455 nm. The ligand was found to be fluorescent and shows an emission maximum at 516 nm on excitation at 360 nm. The electronic spectra of the mono- and binuclear Cu(II) complexes exhibited a d-d transition in the region 520-560 nm characteristic of square planar geometry around Cu(II) ion. The ESR spectrum of the mononuclear complex showed four lines with nuclear hyperfine splitting. The binuclear complex showed a broad ESR spectrum with g=2.10 due to antiferromagnetic interaction between the two Cu(II) ions. The room-temperature magnetic moment values (micro(eff)) for the mono- and binuclear Cu(II) complexes are found to be 1.70 micro(B) and 1.45 micro(B), respectively. The electrochemical studies of the mononuclear Cu(II) complex showed a single irreversible one-electron wave at -0.70 V (E(pc)) and the binuclear Cu(II) complex showed two irreversible one-electron reduction waves at -0.75 V (E(pc)(1)) and -1.27 V (E(pc)(2)) in the cathodic region. PMID:17690008

  6. Synthesis of new oxamide-based ligand and its coordination behavior towards copper(II) ion: Spectral and electrochemical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnapriya, K. R.; Saravanakumar, D.; Arunkumar, P.; Kandaswamy, M.

    2008-04-01

    A new ligand N, N'-bis{3-(2-formyl-4-methyl-phenol)-6-iminopropyl}oxamide ( L) and its mono- and binuclear copper(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized. The ligand shows absorption maxima at 249 and 360 with a weak transition at 455 nm. The ligand was found to be fluorescent and shows an emission maximum at 516 nm on excitation at 360 nm. The electronic spectra of the mono- and binuclear Cu(II) complexes exhibited a d-d transition in the region 520-560 nm characteristic of square planar geometry around Cu(II) ion. The ESR spectrum of the mononuclear complex showed four lines with nuclear hyperfine splitting. The binuclear complex showed a broad ESR spectrum with g = 2.10 due to antiferromagnetic interaction between the two Cu(II) ions. The room-temperature magnetic moment values ( μeff) for the mono- and binuclear Cu(II) complexes are found to be 1.70 μB and 1.45 μB, respectively. The electrochemical studies of the mononuclear Cu(II) complex showed a single irreversible one-electron wave at -0.70 V ( Epc) and the binuclear Cu(II) complex showed two irreversible one-electron reduction waves at -0.75 V ( Epc1) and -1.27 V ( Epc2) in the cathodic region.

  7. Thermochemical study of the processes of complexation of cobalt(II) ions with L-histidine in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorboletova, G. G.; Metlin, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    Thermal effects of the complexation of cobalt(II) ions with L-histidine at 298.15 K and several values of the ionic strength against the background of KNO3 are determined by means of direct calorimetry. The standard thermodynamic characteristics of the reactions of complexation in the aqueous solution have been calculated.

  8. Poly(amidoamine) dendrimers: A new class of high capacity chelating agents for Cu(II) ions

    SciTech Connect

    Diallo, M.S. |; Balogh, L.; Shafagati, A.; Johnson, J.H. Jr.; Goddard, W.A. III; Tomalia, D.A. |

    1999-03-01

    This communication describes preliminary results of an experimental investigation of the binding of Cu(II) ions to poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers in aqueous solutions. Dendrimers are highly branched polymers with controlled composition and architecture consisting of three structural components: a core, interior branch cells, and terminal branch cells. PAMAM dendrimers possess functional nitrogen and amide groups arranged in regular branched upon branched patterns which are displayed in geometrically progressive numbers as a function of generation level. Terminal groups of PAMAM dendrimers may be any organic substituent such as primary amines, carboxylic groups, etc. In aqueous solutions, PAMAM dendrimers can serve as high capacity nanoscale containers for toxic metal ions such as Cu(II). Compared to traditional chelating agents with nitrogen donors, which can typically bind only one Cu(II) ion per molecule, a generation eight (G8) PAMAM dendrimer can bind up 153 {+-} 20 Cu(II) ions per molecule. This clearly illustrates a distinct advantage of dendrimers over traditional chelating agents and macrocycles; that is the covalent attachment of nitrogen ligands to conformationally flexible PAMAM chains enclosed within a nanoscopic structure results in a substantial increase in binding capacity.

  9. Cross-linking of succinate-grafted chitosan and its effect on the capability to adsorb Pb(II) ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masykur, Abu; Juari Santosa, Sri; Jumina, Dwi Siswanta dan

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this research was to improve the adsorption capacity of chitosan by modification of the chitosan using various cross-linking agents and followed by grafting using succinate anhydride. Succinate anhydride was grafted into chitosan that had been cross-linked using ethylene glycol di-glycidyl ether (EGDE), diethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (DEGDE) andbisphenolAdiglycidyl ether (BADGE) on the hydroxyl group of chitosan to yield Chit- EGDE-Suc, Chit-DEGDE-Suc, and Chit-BADGE-Suc, respectively. Modified chitosans were analyzed using FTIR and TG-DTA and then applied as adsorbents for Pb(II) ion. Adsorption was carried out in batch condition with a variation of solution pH, contact time, and concentration of Pb(II) in the solution. Adsorption ofPb(II) ion reached optimum condition at pH 5 and contact time of 120 minutes. Adsorption of Pb(II) ion on all of the adsorbents fit well the pseudo-second order kinetic equation. Adsorption capacities of Pb(II) on Chit-EGDE-Suc, Chit-DEGDE-SucdanChit-BADGE-Suc were 0.333, 0.388 and 0.898 mmolg-1, respectively, which mean that the adsorption of Chit-BADGE-Suc was the highest and followed by Chit- DEGDE-Suc and Chit-EGDE-Suc.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of binary and ternary complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions based on 4-aminotoluene-3-sulfonic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faheim, Abeer A.; Abdou, Safaa N.; Abd El-Wahab, Zeinab H.

    2013-03-01

    Salicylidene (4-aminotoluene-3-sulfonic acid) Schiff base ligand H2L, and its binary and ternary Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes using 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOqu) and 2-aminopyridine (2-Ampy) as secondary ligands have been synthesised and characterized via elemental analysis, spectral data (IR, 1H NMR, mass and solid reflectance), molar conductance, magnetic moment, TG-DSC measurements and XRPD analysis. Correlation of all spectroscopic data suggest that H2L ligand acts as monoanionic terdentate ligand with ONO sites coordinating to the metal ions via deprotonated phenolic-O, azomethine-N and sulfonate-O while 2-Ampy behaves as a neutral monodentate ligand via amino group-N and 8-HOqu behaves as a monoanionic bidentate ligand through the ring-N and deprotonated phenolic-O. The thermal behavior of these complexes shows that the coordinated water molecules were eliminated from the complexes at relatively higher temperatures than the hydrated water and there are two routes in removal of coordinated water molecules. All complexes have mononuclear structure and the tetrahedral, square planar or an octahedral geometry have been proposed. The ligand and its complexes have been screened for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Among the synthesised compounds, the binary and ternary Ni(II) complexes, (2, 8 and 10) and ternary Zn(II) complex, (12) were found to be very effective against Candida albicans and Bacillus subtilis than all other complexes with MICs of 2 and 8 μg/mL, respectively.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of binary and ternary complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions based on 4-aminotoluene-3-sulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Faheim, Abeer A; Abdou, Safaa N; Abd El-Wahab, Zeinab H

    2013-03-15

    Salicylidene (4-aminotoluene-3-sulfonic acid) Schiff base ligand H(2)L, and its binary and ternary Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes using 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOqu) and 2-aminopyridine (2-Ampy) as secondary ligands have been synthesised and characterized via elemental analysis, spectral data (IR, (1)H NMR, mass and solid reflectance), molar conductance, magnetic moment, TG-DSC measurements and XRPD analysis. Correlation of all spectroscopic data suggest that H(2)L ligand acts as monoanionic terdentate ligand with ONO sites coordinating to the metal ions via deprotonated phenolic-O, azomethine-N and sulfonate-O while 2-Ampy behaves as a neutral monodentate ligand via amino group-N and 8-HOqu behaves as a monoanionic bidentate ligand through the ring-N and deprotonated phenolic-O. The thermal behavior of these complexes shows that the coordinated water molecules were eliminated from the complexes at relatively higher temperatures than the hydrated water and there are two routes in removal of coordinated water molecules. All complexes have mononuclear structure and the tetrahedral, square planar or an octahedral geometry have been proposed. The ligand and its complexes have been screened for their antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Among the synthesised compounds, the binary and ternary Ni(II) complexes, (2, 8 and 10) and ternary Zn(II) complex, (12) were found to be very effective against Candida albicans and Bacillus subtilis than all other complexes with MICs of 2 and 8 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:23295217

  12. Efficient electron-induced removal of oxalate ions and formation of copper nanoparticles from copper(II) oxalate precursor layers.

    PubMed

    Rückriem, Kai; Grotheer, Sarah; Vieker, Henning; Penner, Paul; Beyer, André; Gölzhäuser, Armin; Swiderek, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Copper(II) oxalate grown on carboxy-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAM) using a step-by-step approach was used as precursor for the electron-induced synthesis of surface-supported copper nanoparticles. The precursor material was deposited by dipping the surfaces alternately in ethanolic solutions of copper(II) acetate and oxalic acid with intermediate thorough rinsing steps. The deposition of copper(II) oxalate and the efficient electron-induced removal of the oxalate ions was monitored by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). Helium ion microscopy (HIM) reveals the formation of spherical nanoparticles with well-defined size and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms their metallic nature. Continued irradiation after depletion of oxalate does not lead to further particle growth giving evidence that nanoparticle formation is primarily controlled by the available amount of precursor. PMID:27547602

  13. Efficient electron-induced removal of oxalate ions and formation of copper nanoparticles from copper(II) oxalate precursor layers

    PubMed Central

    Rückriem, Kai; Grotheer, Sarah; Vieker, Henning; Penner, Paul; Beyer, André; Gölzhäuser, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Copper(II) oxalate grown on carboxy-terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAM) using a step-by-step approach was used as precursor for the electron-induced synthesis of surface-supported copper nanoparticles. The precursor material was deposited by dipping the surfaces alternately in ethanolic solutions of copper(II) acetate and oxalic acid with intermediate thorough rinsing steps. The deposition of copper(II) oxalate and the efficient electron-induced removal of the oxalate ions was monitored by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). Helium ion microscopy (HIM) reveals the formation of spherical nanoparticles with well-defined size and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms their metallic nature. Continued irradiation after depletion of oxalate does not lead to further particle growth giving evidence that nanoparticle formation is primarily controlled by the available amount of precursor. PMID:27547602

  14. Colorimetric solid-phase extraction method for Cu(II) ion determination using 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde benzoylhydrazone as sensing reagent.

    PubMed

    Espada-Bellido, Estrella; Galindo-Riaño, Maria Dolores; García-Vargas, Manuel; Narayanaswamy, Ramaier

    2014-01-01

    A new sensor based on the use of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde benzoylhydrazone as a colorimetric reagent immobilized onto styrenedivinylbenzene disks has been carried out for the determination of Cu(II) ions within several minutes. The sensor is designed on a rapid and easy two-step procedure: (1) the extraction of Cu(II) ions onto a disk loaded with the copper-selective colorimetric reagent and (2) the determination of the complexed analyte directly on the surface of the disk using diffuse reflectance measurements at 400 nm. The color of the disk changed from white to green in the presence of Cu(II) ions. The work herein details the optimization of the sensing system employing a fractional factorial design 3(3-1) considering three variables (pH, immobilization time, and amount of ligand immobilized onto the disk). The Pareto chart and response surfaces in a spherical domain indicated that the optimum conditions for the sensing of copper ions were pH = 7, with a ligand immobilization time of 10 min and 6.25 mg of reagent loaded onto the disk. Under the optimum conditions, the analytical parameters of the proposed method were determined. The calibration graph was linear over the range of 0 to 2.5 mg L(-1) of Cu(II) with a detection limit of 0.21 mg L(-1). The relative standard deviation for six measurements of 1 mg L(-1) of Cu(II) was found to be 4.87%. The interference from inorganic salts and other metals was found not to be of major concern when monitoring copper ions in water samples. The simplicity and rapidity of this technique make it convenient and amenable for on-site and routine analysis. PMID:24694697

  15. Highly efficient copper(II) ion sorbents obtained by calcium carbonate mineralization on functionalized cross-linked copolymers.

    PubMed

    Mihai, Marcela; Bunia, Ion; Doroftei, Florica; Varganici, Cristian-Dragos; Simionescu, Bogdan C

    2015-03-23

    A new type of Cu(II) ion sorbents is presented. These are obtained by CaCO3 mineralization from supersaturated solutions on gel-like cross-linked polymeric beads as insoluble templates. A divinylbenzene-ethylacrylate-acrylonitrile cross-linked copolymer functionalized with weakly acidic, basic, or amphoteric functional groups has been used, as well as different initial inorganic concentrations and addition procedures for CaCO3 crystal growth. The morphology of the new composites was investigated by SEM and compared to that of the unmodified beads, and the polymorph content was established by X-ray diffraction. The beads, before and after CaCO3 mineralization, were tested as sorbents for Cu(II) ions. The newly formed patterns on the bead surface after Cu(II) sorption were observed by SEM, and the elemental distribution on the composites and the chemical structure of crystals after interaction with Cu(II) were investigated by EDAX elemental mapping and by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, respectively. The sorption capacity increased significantly after CaCO3 crystals growth on the weak anionic bead surface (up to 1041.5 mg Cu(II) /g sample) compared to that of unmodified beads (491.5 mg Cu(II) /g sample). PMID:25675892

  16. A novel voltammetric sensor for sensitive detection of mercury(II) ions using glassy carbon electrode modified with graphene-based ion imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Ghanei-Motlagh, Masoud; Taher, Mohammad Ali; Heydari, Abolfazl; Ghanei-Motlagh, Reza; Gupta, Vinod K

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a novel strategy was proposed to prepare ion-imprinted polymer (IIP) on the surface of reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Polymerization was performed using methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker, 2,2'-((9E,10E)-1,4-dihydroxyanthracene-9,10-diylidene) bis(hydrazine-1-carbothioamide) (DDBHCT) as the chelating agent and ammonium persulfate (APS) as initiator, via surface imprinted technique. The RGO-IIP was characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The electrochemical procedure was based on the accumulation of Hg(II) ions at the surface of a modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with RGO-IIP. The prepared RGO-IIP sensor has higher voltammetric response compared to the non-imprinted polymer (NIP), traditional IIP and RGO. The RGO-IIP modified electrode exhibited a linear relationship toward Hg(II) concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 80 μg L(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 0.02 μg L(-1) (S/N=3), below the guideline value from the World Health Organization (WHO). The applicability of the proposed electrochemical sensor to determination of mercury(II) ions in different water samples was reported. PMID:27040231

  17. A FRET based aptasensor coupled with non-enzymatic signal amplification for mercury (II) ion detection.

    PubMed

    Chu-Mong, Ketsarin; Thammakhet, Chongdee; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Buranachai, Chittanon

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the idea of incorporating a non-enzymatic signal amplification with a regular aptasensor was tested. In this proof of principle, the sensor was designed for the detection of mercury (II) ions (Hg(2+)) based on the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), and the catalyzed hairpin assembly (CHA) technique that was used as the signal amplification method. This sensor comprised a mercury aptamer-catalyst complex (Apt-C) and two types of hairpin DNA: H1 labeled with fluorescein and H2 labeled with tetramethylrhodamine. In the presence of Hg(2+), two facing thymine bases in the mercury aptamer strand were coordinated with one mercury ion. This caused the release of the catalyst for the catalyzed hairpin assembly (CHA) reaction that turned H1 and H2 hairpins into H1-H2 hybrids. FRET was then used to report the hairpin-duplex transformation. The sensor showed excellent specificity towards Hg(2+) over other possible interfering cations present at even a 100 fold greater concentrations. It had a linear range of 10.0-200.0nM, and a good detection limit of 7.03±0.18nM, which is lower than the regulatory mercury limit for drinking water (10nM or 2ppb). The sensor was used to detect spiked Hg(2+) in nine real surface water samples collected from three different areas. Acceptable recoveries and small standard deviations indicated that the sensor was practically applicable, and the proposed idea to incorporate a CHA amplification in a regular aptasensor was not only feasible but beneficial. The same principles can be applied to develop sensors for various different targets. PMID:27216687

  18. Heavy flavor in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and RHIC II

    SciTech Connect

    Frawley, A D; Ullrich, T; Vogt, R

    2008-03-30

    In the initial years of operation, experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) have identified a new form of matter formed in nuclei-nuclei collisions at energy densities more than 100 times that of a cold atomic nucleus. Measurements and comparison with relativistic hydrodynamic models indicate that the matter thermalizes in an unexpectedly short time, has an energy density at least 15 times larger than needed for color deconfinement, has a temperature about twice the critical temperature predicted by lattice QCD, and appears to exhibit collective motion with ideal hydrodynamic properties--a 'perfect liquid' that appears to flow with a near-zero viscosity to entropy ratio--lower than any previously observed fluid and perhaps close to a universal lower bound. However, a fundamental understanding of the medium seen in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC does not yet exist. The most important scientific challenge for the field in the next decade is the quantitative exploration of the new state of nuclear matter. That will require new data that will, in turn, require enhanced capabilities of the RHIC detectors and accelerator. In this report we discuss the scientific opportunities for an upgraded RHIC facility --RHIC II--in conjunction with improved capabilities of the two large RHIC detectors, PHENIX and STAR. We focus solely on heavy flavor probes. Their production rates are calculable using the well-established techniques of perturbative QCD and their sizable interactions with the hot QCD medium provide unique and sensitive measurements of its crucial properties making them one of the key diagnostic tools available to us.

  19. Femtomole level photoelectrochemical aptasensing for mercury ions using quercetin-copper(II) complex as the DNA intercalator.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongbo; Xue, Yan; Wang, Wei

    2014-04-15

    An ultrasensitive and selective photoelectrochemical (PEC) aptasensor for mercury ions was first fabricated based on perylene-3, 4, 9, 10-tetracarboxylic acid/graphene oxide (PTCA/GO) heterojunction using quercetin-copper(II) complex intercalated into the poly(dT)-poly(dA) duplexes. Both the PTCA/GO heterojunction and the quercetin-copper(II) complex are in favor of the sensitivity for the fabricated PEC aptasensor due to band alignment and strong reduction capability, respectively. And they efficiently promote the separation of photoexcited carriers and enhance the photocurrent. The formation of thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine coordination chemistry resulted in the dehybridization of poly(dT)-poly(dA) duplexes and then the intercalator quercetin-copper(II) complex broke away from the surface of the PEC aptasensor. As the concentration of mercury ions increased, the photocurrent gradually decreased. The electrode response for mercury ions detection was in the linear range from 0.01 pmol L(-1) to 1.00 pmol L(-1) with the detection limit of 3.33 fmol L(-1). The label-free PEC aptasensor has excellent performances with ultrasensitivity and good selectivity besides the advantage of economic and facile fabrication. The strategy of quercetin-copper(II) complex as a novel DNA intercalator paves a new way to improve the performances for PEC sensors. PMID:24291750

  20. Electrical conducting bis(oxalato)platinate complex with direct connection of CuII ions.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Chihiro; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Nihei, Masayuki; Shiga, Takuya; Hedo, Masato; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Sawa, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Yasujiro; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Oshio, Hiroki

    2006-12-11

    Reactions of K1.62[Pt(ox)2].2H2O and [Cu(bpy)(H2O)3](NO3)2 yielded partially oxidized one-dimensional (1D) bis(oxalato)platinates of [Cu(bpy)(H2O)n]6[Pt(ox)2]7.7H2O (n = 2, 3, or 4) (1) and [Cu(bpy)(H2O)n]8[Pt(ox)2]10.8H2O (n = 3 or 4) (2). The average oxidation numbers of the platinum ions in 1 and 2 are +2.29 and +2.40, respectively. Complexes 1 and 2 crystallize in the triclinic P and monoclinic C2/c space groups, respectively, and the [Pt(ox)2]n- anions are stacked along the crystallographic b axis with 7-fold periodicity for 1 and 10-fold periodicity for 2. In 1, an oxalato ligand in the platinum chain directly coordinates to a paramagnetic [Cu(bpy)(H2O)3]2+ ion, whereas no such direct coordination was observed for 2. The electrical conductivity of 2 at room temperature along the platinum chain is approximately 3 orders of magnitude smaller (sigma||= 1.3 x 10(-3) S cm(-1)) than that of 1 (sigma|| = 0.9-0.5 S cm(-1)), and the activation energies of 1 and 2 are 29 and 67 meV, respectively. The longest inter-platinum distances in 1 and 2 are 2.762 and 3.0082 A, respectively, and this is responsible for the lower electrical conductivity of 2. An X-ray oscillation photograph taken along the b axis of 1 reveals the 7-fold periodicity in the 1D chain, consistent with the period of the Peierls distortion estimated from the degree of partial oxidation. The semiconducting state of 1 can therefore be regarded as a commensurate Peierls state. The magnetoresistance of 1 at ambient pressure indicates no interaction between conduction electrons in the platinum chain and local spins of the paramagnetic CuII ions. Application of hydrostatic pressures of up to 3 GPa enhances electrical conduction, as is often seen as the usual pressure effect on the electrical conductivity, which is due to enhanced orbital (Pt-5dz2) overlap by pressure application. PMID:17140235

  1. Biosorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions by aqueous solutions of novel alkalophillic Streptomyces VITSVK5 spp. biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurav, Kumar; Kannabiran, Krishnan

    2011-03-01

    Discharge of heavy metals from metal processing industries is known to have adverse effects on the environment. Biosorption of heavy metals by metabolically inactive biomass of microbial organisms is an innovative and alternative technology for removal of these pollutants from aqueous solution. The search of marine actinobacteria with potential heavy metal biosorption ability resulted in the identification of a novel alkalophilic Streptomyces VITSVK5 species. The biosorption property of Streptomyces VITSVK5 spp. was investigated by absorbing heavy metals Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb). Physiochemical characteristics and trace metal concentration analysis of the backwater showed the concentrations of different metals were lead 13±2.1 μg L-1, cadmium 3.1±0.3μg L-1, zinc 8.4±2.6μg L-1 and copper 0.3±0.1μg L-1, whereas mercury was well below the detection limit. The effect of pH and biomass dosage on removal efficiency of heavy metal ions was also investigated. The optimum pH for maximal biosorption was 4.0 for Cd (II) and 5.0 for Pb (II) with 41% and 84% biosorption respectively. The biosorbent dosage was optimized as 3 g L-1 for both the trace metals. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectrum results indicated the chemical interactions of hydrogen atoms in carboxyl (-COOH), hydroxyl (-CHOH) and amine (-NH2) groups of biomass with the metal ions. This could be mainly involved in the biosorption of Cd (II) and Pb (II) onto Streptomyces VITSVK5 spp. The results of our study revealed Streptomyces metabolites could be used to develop a biosorbent for adsorbing metal ions from aqueous environments.

  2. Laboratory Astrophysics at the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Traps: EBIT-I and EBIT-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.; Boyce, K. R.; Kelley, R. L.; Porter, F. S.; Stahle, C. K.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Tillotson, W.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; May, M. J.

    2002-01-01

    In order to provide a complete, accurate set of atomic data for interpreting spectra provided by missions such as XMM-Newton, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and Astro-E2, we have harnessed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's electron beam ion traps EBIT-I. EBIT-II, and Super-EBIT for laboratory astrophysics. In support of this work we have developed a number of unique techniques, including the ability to experimentally simulate a Maxwellian distribution of electron energies and measuring low-energy charge exchange cross sections using the magnetic trapping mode. We have also built and operated a full suite of spectrometers spanning the 1-7000 Angstrom wavelength band, the most recent being a spectrometer based on a spare Astro-E (6 x 6) microcalorimeter array. Results of our efforts include a complete list of wavelengths of the Fe L-shell transitions, measurements of absolute and relative cross sections for direct impact, dielectronic, and resonance excitation, and measurements of low energy charge transfer reactions. A brief overview of the LLNL ebit facility, its capabilities, and some results will be discussed.

  3. Laboratory Astrophysics at the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Traps EBIT I& EBIT II

    SciTech Connect

    Beeriersdorder, P; Chen, H; May, M J; Thorn, D; Brown, G V; Boyce, K R; Kelly, R L; Porter, F S; Stahle, C K; Szymkowiak, A E; Tillotson, W; Behar, E; Gu, M F; Kahn, S M

    2002-06-18

    In order to provide a complete, accurate set of atomic data for interpreting spectra provided by missions such as XMM-Newton, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and Astro-E2, we have harnessed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's electron beam ion traps EBIT-I, EBIT-II, and Super-EBIT for laboratory astrophysics. In support of this work we have developed a number of unique techniques, including the ability to experimentally simulate a Maxwellian distribution of electron energies and measuring low-energy charge exchange cross sections using the ''magnetic trapping mode''. We have also built, and operated a full suite of spectrometers spanning the 1-7000 {angstrom} wavelength band, the most recent, being the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's Astro-E 6 x 6 engineering spare microcalorimeter array. Results of our efforts include a complete list of wavelengths of the Fe L-shell transitions, measurements of absolute and relative cross sections for direct, impact, dielectronic, and resonance excitation, and measurements of low energy charge transfer reactions. A brief overview of the LLNL, ebit facility, its capabilities, and some results will be discussed.

  4. Laboratory Astrophysics at the LLNL Electron Beam Ion Traps EBIT-I and EBIT-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G. V.; Boyce, R.; Kelley, R. L.; Porter, F. S.; Stahle, C. K.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Tillotson, W.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; May, M. J.; Thorn, D.; Behar, E.; Gu, M. F.; Kahn, S. M.

    2002-11-01

    In order to provide a complete, accurate set of atomic data for interpreting spectra provided by XMM-Newton, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and Astro-E2, and to test the accuracy of spectral modeling packages already in use, we have developed an extensive Laboratory Astrophysics program at the LLNL electron beam ion traps ebit-i and ebit-ii.Over the last decade we have developed the ability to reproduce and isolate the radiative processes that occur in a variety of astrophysical plasmas, such as plasmas in coronal equilibrium found in stellar coronae, ionizing plasmas found in supernova remnants, and recombining plasmas found near accretion sources. In support of this work we have built a suite of spectrometers that measure radiation spanning the 1--7000 Å wavelength band, the most recent addition being the spare NASA/GSFC Astro-E 6x6 microcalorimeter array [1]. An overview of some of the results of our measurements of Fe L-shell line emission will be presented, including excitation cross sections as a function of impact electron energy and contributions from dielectronic recombination [2], absolute excitation cross sections [3], transition wavelengths [4], and relative line intensities measured under non-equilibrium conditions. Work by the University of California, LLNL was performed under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48 and supported by NASA SARA P.O. No. S-03958G and NASA High Energy Astrophysics X-ray Astronomy Research and Analysis Grant NAGW- 4185.

  5. Locating the Binding Sites of Pb(II) Ion with Human and Bovine Serum Albumins

    PubMed Central

    Belatik, Ahmed; Hotchandani, Surat; Carpentier, Robert; Tajmir-Riahi, Heidar-Ali

    2012-01-01

    Lead is a potent environmental toxin that has accumulated above its natural level as a result of human activity. Pb cation shows major affinity towards protein complexation and it has been used as modulator of protein-membrane interactions. We located the binding sites of Pb(II) with human serum (HSA) and bovine serum albumins (BSA) at physiological conditions, using constant protein concentration and various Pb contents. FTIR, UV-visible, CD, fluorescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) methods were used to analyse Pb binding sites, the binding constant and the effect of metal ion complexation on HSA and BSA stability and conformations. Structural analysis showed that Pb binds strongly to HSA and BSA via hydrophilic contacts with overall binding constants of KPb-HSA = 8.2 (±0.8)×104 M−1 and KPb-BSA = 7.5 (±0.7)×104 M−1. The number of bound Pb cation per protein is 0.7 per HSA and BSA complexes. XPS located the binding sites of Pb cation with protein N and O atoms. Pb complexation alters protein conformation by a major reduction of α-helix from 57% (free HSA) to 48% (metal-complex) and 63% (free BSA) to 52% (metal-complex) inducing a partial protein destabilization. PMID:22574219

  6. Single-ion magnet behaviour in mononuclear and two-dimensional dicyanamide-containing cobalt(ii) complexes.

    PubMed

    Switlicka-Olszewska, Anna; Palion-Gazda, Joanna; Klemens, Tomasz; Machura, Barbara; Vallejo, Julia; Cano, Joan; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2016-06-21

    Three cobalt(ii) complexes of formulae [Co(dca)2(bim)4] (), [Co(dca)2(bim)2]n () and [Co(dca)2(bmim)2]n () [dca = dicyanamide, bim = 1-benzylimidazole and bmim = 1-benzyl-2-methylimidazole] were prepared and structurally analyzed by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Compound is a mononuclear species where the cobalt(ii) ion is six-coordinate with four bim molecules in the equatorial positions [Co-Nbim = 2.1546(15) and 2.1489(15) Å] and two trans-positioned dca ligands [Co-Ndca = 2.1575(18) Å] in the axial sites of a somewhat distorted octahedral surrounding. The structures of and consist of two-dimensional grids of cobalt(ii) ions where each metal atom is linked to the other four metal centres by single dca bridges exhibiting the μ1,5-dca coordination mode [Co-Ndca = 2.190(3)-2.220(3) () and 2.127(3)-2.153(3) Å ()]. Two trans-coordinated bim ()/bmim () molecules achieve the six-coordination around each cobalt(ii) ion [Co-Nbim = 2.128(3)-2.134(4) Å () and Co-Nbmim = 2.156(3)-2.163(39) Å ()]. The values of the cobalt-cobalt separation through the single dca bridges are 8.927(2) and 8.968(2) Å in and 8.7110(5) and 8.7158(5) Å in . Magnetic susceptibility measurements for in the temperature range of 2.0-300 K reveal that these compounds behave as magnetically isolated high-spin cobalt(ii) ions with a significant orbital contribution to the magnetic moment. Alternating current (ac) magnetic susceptibility measurements for show a frequency dependence of out-of-phase susceptibility under static applied fields in the range of 500-2500 G, a feature which is characteristic of the single-ion magnet behaviour (SIM) of the Co(ii) ion in them. The values of the energy barrier for the magnetic relaxation (Ea) are 5.45-7.74 (), 4.53-9.24 () and 11.48-15.44 cm(-1) (). They compare well with those previously reported for the analogous dca-bridged 2D compound [Co(dca)2(atz)2]n () (Ea = 5.1 cm(-1) under an applied static field of 1000 G), which was the subject of a

  7. Magnetic ion-imprinted and -SH functionalized polymer for selective removal of Pb(II) from aqueous samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bin; Deng, Fang; Zhao, Yu; Luo, Xubiao; Luo, Shenglian; Au, Chaktong

    2014-02-01

    A magnetic ion-imprinted polymer (Fe3O4@SiO2-IIP) functionalized with -SH groups for the selective removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous samples was synthesized by surface imprinting technique combined with a sol-gel process using 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane as monomer, tetraethyl orthosilicate as cross-linking agent, and Pb(II) ion as template. The Fe3O4@SiO2-IIP was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry. Fe3O4@SiO2-IIP showed higher capacity and selectivity than that of Fe3O4@SiO2-NIP. The effects of initial concentration of Pb(II) and pH of medium on adsorption capacity of Fe3O4@SiO2-IIP were studied. The experimental data fits well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The maximum Pb(II)-sorption capacity calculated from Langmuir isotherm is 32.58 mg/g and 16.50 mg/g for Fe3O4@SiO2-IIP and Fe3O4@SiO2-NIP, respectively. Kinetics studies show that the adsorption process obeys a pseudo-second-order kinetic model with high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9982). The separation factor of Fe3O4@SiO2-IIP for Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Zn(II), and Pb(II)/Co(II) are 50.54, 52.14, and 37.39, respectively. The adsorption thermodynamic parameters ΔG, ΔH and ΔS were -4.98 kJ/mol, 3.27 kJ/mol and 28.84 J/mol/K, respectively. In addition, the spent Fe3O4@SiO2-IIP can be refreshed by simple washing with aqueous HCl solution, and there is no significant decrease in adsorption capacity after a test of up to five cycles, demonstrating that the Fe3O4@SiO2-IIP is stable and reusable.

  8. Zinc(II)-Thiosemicarbazone Complexes Are Localized to the Lysosomal Compartment Where They Transmetallate with Copper Ions to Induce Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Stacy, Alexandra E; Palanimuthu, Duraippandi; Bernhardt, Paul V; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Jansson, Patric J; Richardson, Des R

    2016-05-26

    As the di-2-pyridylketone thiosemicarbazone (DpT) and 2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (ApT) series show potent antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo, we synthesized their fluorescent zinc(II) complexes to assess their intracellular distribution. The Zn(II) complexes generally showed significantly greater cytotoxicity than the thiosemicarbazones alone in several tumor cell-types. Notably, specific structure-activity relationships demonstrated the importance of the di-2-pyridyl pharmacophore in their activity. Confocal fluorescence imaging and live cell microscopy showed that the Zn(II) complex of our lead compound, di-2-pyridylketone 4-cyclohexyl-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (DpC), which is scheduled to enter clinical trials, was localized to lysosomes. Under lysosomal conditions, the Zn(II) complexes were shown to transmetallate with copper ions, leading to redox-active copper complexes that induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and cytotoxicity. This is the first study to demonstrate direct lysosomal targeting of our novel Zn(II)-thiosemicarbazone complexes that mediate their activity via transmetalation with copper ions and LMP. PMID:27023111

  9. Assessment and modelling of Ni(II) retention by an ion-imprinted polymer: application in natural samples.

    PubMed

    Lenoble, Véronique; Meouche, Walid; Laatikainen, Katri; Garnier, Cédric; Brisset, Hugues; Margaillan, André; Branger, Catherine

    2015-06-15

    Three novel Ni(II)-Ion-Imprinted Polymer (IIP) were synthesized by precipitation polymerization of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (crosslinker) with a complex of nickel(II) and vinylbenzyl iminodiacetic acid (VbIDA). The three IIPs were prepared with various mixtures of porogen solvents: methanol, methanol/2-methoxyethanol and methanol/acetonitrile (IIP1, IIP2 and IIP3, respectively). Non-Imprinted Polymers (NIP1, NIP2 and NIP3) were prepared as control polymers in similar conditions but with pure VbIDA instead of VbIDA-Ni. These polymers were characterized by FTIR, BET, SEM and tested for their efficiency and selectivity in Ni(II) retention. The most efficient (IIP1, around 12 mg g(-1) of nickel) was then positively checked for Ni(II) retention in presence of some competing species over a wide range of concentration. Finally Ni(II) retention by IIP1 was successfully demonstrated in natural samples. The modelling of the different experiments (Langmuir, Freundlich but also PROSECE and WHAM VII, frequently used in environmental studies) allowed demonstrating the presence of completely different binding sites when considering the ion-imprinted polymer and the non-imprinted one, and therefore led to a better understanding of what the imprinting effect is. PMID:25771289

  10. Hydrodynamic description of an unmagnetized plasma with multiple ion species. II. Two and three ion species plasmas

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Simakov, Andrei Nikolaevich; Molvig, Kim

    2016-03-17

    Paper I [A. N. Simakov and K. Molvig, Phys. Plasmas23, 032115 (2016)] obtained a fluid description for an unmagnetized collisional plasma with multiple ion species. To evaluate collisional plasmatransport fluxes, required for such a description, two linear systems of equations need to be solved to obtain corresponding transport coefficients. In general, this should be done numerically. Herein, the general formalism is used to obtain analytical expressions for such fluxes for several specific cases of interest: a deuterium-tritium plasma; a plasma containing two ion species with strongly disparate masses, which agrees with previously obtained results; and a three ion species plasmamore » made of deuterium, tritium, and gold. We find that these results can be used for understanding the behavior of the aforementioned plasmas, or for verifying a code implementation of the general multi-ion formalism.« less

  11. Hydrodynamic description of an unmagnetized plasma with multiple ion species. II. Two and three ion species plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakov, Andrei N.; Molvig, Kim

    2016-03-01

    Paper I [A. N. Simakov and K. Molvig, Phys. Plasmas 23, 032115 (2016)] obtained a fluid description for an unmagnetized collisional plasma with multiple ion species. To evaluate collisional plasma transport fluxes, required for such a description, two linear systems of equations need to be solved to obtain corresponding transport coefficients. In general, this should be done numerically. Herein, the general formalism is used to obtain analytical expressions for such fluxes for several specific cases of interest: a deuterium-tritium plasma; a plasma containing two ion species with strongly disparate masses, which agrees with previously obtained results; and a three ion species plasma made of deuterium, tritium, and gold. These results can be used for understanding the behavior of the aforementioned plasmas, or for verifying a code implementation of the general multi-ion formalism.

  12. Sensitive electrochemical detection of copper ions based on the copper(II) ion assisted etching of Au@Ag nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tianxiang; Xu, Teng; Ma, Zhanfang

    2015-12-01

    A new sensitive electrochemical sensor for the detection of copper ions based on the copper ion assisted etching of Au@Ag nanoparticles was developed in this work. Since copper ions could greatly catalyze the etching process of the silver shell of Au@Ag nanoparticles in the presence of thiosulfate solutions, leading to an obvious decrease of the linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) signals of silver, the concentration of the copper ions, therefore, can be measured. Under the optimized conditions, the electrochemical sensor exhibited excellent sensitivity and selectivity for Cu(2+), with wide linear ranges of 1 nM to 100 μM, and the detection limit of 0.3 nM. In addition, this method was successfully applied for the analysis of Cu(2+) in river water and exhibited good analytical performance. PMID:26501137

  13. A Colorimetric and Luminescent Dual-Modal Assay for Cu(II) Ion Detection Using an Iridium(III) Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dik-Lung; He, Hong-Zhang; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Wong, Chun-Yuen; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2014-01-01

    A novel iridium(III) complex-based chemosensor bearing the 5,6-bis(salicylideneimino)-1,10-phenanthroline ligand receptor was developed, which exhibited a highly sensitive and selective color change from colorless to yellow and a visible turn-off luminescence response upon the addition of Cu(II) ions. The interactions of this iridium(III) complex with Cu2+ ions and thirteen other cations have been investigated by UV-Vis absorption titration, emission titration, and 1H NMR titration. PMID:24927177

  14. Synthesis and characterization of ion-imprinted resin for selective removal of UO2 (II) ions from aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Monier, M; Alatawi, Raedah A S; Abdel-Latif, D A

    2015-05-01

    In this work, uranyl ion-imprinted resin based on 2-(((4-hydroxyphenyl)amino)methyl)phenol was synthesized by condensation polymerization of its uranyl complex in presence of resorcinol and formaldehyde cross-linkers. Numerous instrumental techniques including elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet, (1) H along with (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed for complete characterization of the synthesized ligand and its uranyl complex. Additionally, the obtained ion-imprinted and non-imprinted resins were investigated using scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effects of various essential parameters such as pH, temperature and contact time on removal of uranyl ions have been examined, and the results indicated that the obtained resin exhibited the optimum activity at pH 5. Furthermore, the adsorption process was spontaneous at all studied temperatures and followed the second-order kinetics model. Also, Langmuir adsorption isotherm exhibited the best fit with the experimental results with maximum adsorption capacity 139.3 mg/g. Moreover, the selectivity studies revealed that the ion-imprinted resin exhibited an obvious affinity toward the uranyl ions in presence of other metal ions compared with the non-imprinted resin. PMID:25753819

  15. A solid phase extraction procedure for the determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in food and water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Daşbaşı, Teslima; Saçmacı, Şerife; Ülgen, Ahmet; Kartal, Şenol

    2015-05-01

    A relatively rapid, accurate and precise solid phase extraction method is presented for the determination of cadmium(II) and lead(II) in various food and water samples. Quantitation is carried out by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The method is based on the retention of the trace metal ions on Dowex Marathon C, a strong acid cation exchange resin. Some important parameters affecting the analytical performance of the method such as pH, flow rate and volume of the sample solution; type, concentration, volume, flow rate of the eluent; and matrix effects on the retention of the metal ions were investigated. Common coexisting ions did not interfere on the separation and determination of the analytes. The detection limits (3 σb) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) were found as 0.13 and 0.18 μg L(-1), respectively, while the limit of quantification values (10 σb) were computed as 0.43 and 0.60 μg L(-1) for the same sequence of the analytes. The precision (as relative standard deviation was lower than 4% at 5 μg L(-1) Cd(II) and 10 μg L(-1) Pb(II) levels, and the preconcentration factor was found to be 250. The accuracy of the proposed procedure was verified by analysing the certified reference materials, SPS-WW2 Batch 108 wastewater level 2 and INCT-TL-1 tea leaves, with the satisfactory results. In addition, for the accuracy of the method the recovery studies (⩾ 95%) were carried out. The method was applied to the determination of the analytes in the various natural waters (lake water, tap water, waste water with boric acid, waste water with H2SO4) and food samples (pomegranate flower, organic pear, radish leaf, lamb meat, etc.), and good results were obtained. While the food samples almost do not contain cadmium, they have included lead at low levels of 0.13-1.12 μg g(-1). PMID:25529724

  16. Investigation of interaction between the Pt(II) ions and aminosilane-modified silica surface in heterogeneous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowicki, Waldemar; Gąsowska, Anna; Kirszensztejn, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    UV-vis spectroscopy measurements confirmed the reaction in heterogeneous system between Pt(II) ions and ethylenediamine type ligand, n-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane, immobilized at the silica surface. The formation of complexes is a consequence of interaction between the amine groups from the ligand grafted onto SiO2 and ions of platinum. A potentiometric titration technique was to determine the stability constants of complexes of Pt(II) with immobilized insoluble ligand (SG-L), on the silica gel. The results show the formation of three surface complexes of the same type (PtHSG-L, Pt(HSG-L)2, PtSG-L) with SG-L ligand, in a wide range of pH for different Debye length. The concentration distribution of the complexes in a heterogeneous system is evaluated.

  17. 4,4'-Bipyridinium bis-(oxalato-κO,O)cuprate(II): an ion-pair complex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lai-Jun; Shen, Xing-Can; Liang, Hong

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, (C(10)H(10)N(2))[Cu(C(2)O(4))(2)] or (4,4'-H(2)bpy)[Cu(ox)(2)] (bpy is 4,4'-bipyridine and ox is oxalate), is an ion-pair complex comprising a protonated 4,4'-bipyridinium dication and a square-planar dioxalatocopper(II) dianion. In the centrosymmetric dianion, the Cu(II) centre is coordinated by four O atoms from the two dicrete oxalate ligands [Cu-O = 1.9245 (19) and 1.9252 (17) Å], while the planar dications are also centrosymmetric. Inter-species N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the cations and anions into one-dimensional chains and, together with weak intra-ion C-H⋯O inter-actions, give a two-dimensional sheet structure. PMID:21578048

  18. Single-ion-magnet behavior in a two-dimensional coordination polymer constructed from Co(II) nodes and a pyridylhydrazone derivative.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangyu; Sun, Lin; Zhou, Huiliang; Cen, Peipei; Jin, Xiaoyong; Xie, Gang; Chen, Sanping; Hu, Qilin

    2015-09-21

    A novel two-dimensional (2D) coordination polymer, [Co(ppad)2]n (1), resulted from the assembly of Co(II) ions based on a versatile ligand termed N(3)-(3-pyridoyl)-3-pyridinecarboxamidrazone. Alternating/direct-current magnetic studies of compound 1 indicate that the spatially separated high-spin Co(II) ions act as single-ion magnets (SIMs). The present work represents the first case of a 2D Co(II)-based SIM composed of a monocomponent organic spacer. PMID:26347189

  19. Hydrogen bond-assisted aggregation-induced emission and application in the detection of the Zn(ii) ion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Li, Shu-Mu; Li, Yu-Fei; Zheng, Xiang-Jun; Jin, Lin-Pei

    2016-05-28

    The compounds of 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxylic acid with K(+) (1) and Zn(2+) (2) were found to be AIE-active. The AIE behaviours could be attributed to the restriction of intramolecular rotation (RIR) and vibration (RIV) via hydrogen bonds, resulting in rigidity enhancement of the molecules. An AIE-based fluorescence turn on chemosensor for the Zn(ii) ion has been developed in aqueous media with high selectivity and sensitivity. PMID:27126357

  20. Adsorptive removal of Zn(II) ion from aqueous solution using rice husk-based activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Mohd F.; Ibrahim, Muhammad H. C.; Shaharun, Maizatul S.; Chong, F. K.

    2012-09-01

    The study of rice husk-based activated carbon as a potential low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Zn(II) ion from aqueous solution was investigated. Rice husk, an agricultural waste, is a good alternative source for cheap precursor of activated carbon due to its abundance and constant availability. In this work, rice husk-based activated carbon was prepared via chemical treatment using NaOH as an activation agent prior the carbonization process. Three samples, i.e. raw rice husk, rice husk treated with NaOH and rice husk-based activated carbon carbonized at 650°C, were analyzed for their morphological characteristics using field-emission scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray (FESEM/EDX). Other analyses were also conducted on these samples using fourier transmitter infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), CHN elemental analyzer and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for characterization study. The porous properties of rice husk-based activated carbon were determined by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, and its surface area and pore volume were found to be 255 m2/g and 0.17 cm2/g, respectively. The adsorption studies for the removal of Zn(II) ion from aqueous solution were carried out as a function of varied contact time at room temperature. The concentration of Zn(II) ion was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results obtained from adsorption studies indicate the potential of rice husk as an economically promising precursor for the preparation of activated carbon for removal of Zn(II) ion from aqueous solution.

  1. Recovery and concentration of metal ions. 4: Uphill transport of Zn(II) in a multimembrane hybrid system

    SciTech Connect

    Wodzki, R.; Sionkowski, G.; Pozniak, G.

    1999-02-01

    A study has been made on the uphill transport of zinc cations across a multimembrane hybrid system (MHS) composed of two ion-exchange membranes (IEM) separated by a bulk liquid membrane (BLM). The fluxes of the Zn(II)/H countertransport were investigated as dependent on the composition and structure of ion-exchange polymer membranes (i), the solvent of a liquid membrane (II), the feed and strip membrane area ratio (iii), and the pH of the feed solution (iv). The IEMs of various ionogenic groups (sulfonic acid, carboxylic acid, quaternized amine) and of various structure (clustered, gelatinous, porous) were examined in the MHS containing the BLM with di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid as a carrier of Zn(II) cations. It has been found that the Zn(II) fluxes are dependent on the properties of both the BLM and polymer membranes, i.e., on the BLM solvent viscosity (i), the nature and concentration of the IEM ion-exchange sites (ii), and the IEM thickness (iii). The best results were obtained when using hexane as the BLM solvent and the Nafion-117 membrane (perfluorinated polymer, sulfonic acid groups) as the cation-exchange membrane (CEM). The influence of the area ratio (feed-to-strip interface) has been checked for A{sub f}/A{sub g} equal to 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3. It was found that the asymmetry of the system leads mainly to some changes in the accumulation of transported species in a liquid membrane phase.

  2. Selective Solid-Phase Extraction of Zinc(II) from Environmental Water Samples Using Ion Imprinted Activated Carbon.

    PubMed

    Moniri, Elham; Panahi, Homayon Ahmad; Aghdam, Khaledeh; Sharif, Amir Abdollah Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    A simple ion imprinted amino-functionalized sorbent was synthesized by coupling activated carbon with iminodiacetic acid, a functional compound for metal chelating, through cyanoric chloride spacer. The resulting sorbent has been characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis and evaluated for the preconcentration and determination of trace Zn(II) in environmental water samples. The optimum pH value for sorption of the metal ion was 6-7.5. The sorption capacity of the functionalized sorbent was 66.6 mg/g. The chelating sorbent can be reused for 10 cycles of sorption-desorption without any significant change in sorption capacity. A recovery of 100% was obtained for the metal ion with 0.5 M nitric acid as the eluent. Compared with nonimprinted polymer particles, the prepared Zn-imprinted sorbent showed high adsorption capacity, significant selectivity, and good site accessibility for Zn(II). Scatchard analysis revealed that the homogeneous binding sites were formed in the polymer. The equilibrium sorption data of Zn(II) by modified resin were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Redlich-Peterson models. Based on equilibrium adsorption data, the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin constants were determined as 0.139, 12.82, and 2.34, respectively, at 25°C. PMID:25857899

  3. Enhancing the Photostability of Arylvinylenebipyridyl Compounds as Fluorescent Indicators for Intracellular Zinc(II) Ions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhao; Younes, Ali H; Allen, John R; Davidson, Michael W; Zhu, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Arylvinylenebipyridyl (AVB) ligands are bright, zinc(II)-sensitive fluoroionophores. The applicability of AVBs as fluorescent indicators for imaging cellular zinc(II), however, is limited by low photostability, partially attributable to the photoisomerization of the vinylene functionality. Two configurationally immobilized (i.e., "locked") AVB analogues are prepared in this work. The zinc(II)-sensitive photophysical properties and zinc(II) affinities of both AVBs and their locked analogues are characterized in organic and aqueous media. The zinc(II) sensitivity of the emission is attributed to the zinc(II)-dependent energies of the charge transfer excited states of these compounds. The configurationally locked ligands have improved photostability, while maintaining the brightness and zinc(II) sensibility of their AVB progenitors. The feasibility of the "locked" AVB analogues with improved photostability for imaging intracellular Zn(II) of eukaryotic cells using laser confocal fluorescence microscopy is demonstrated. PMID:25942357

  4. Enhancing the Photostability of Arylvinylenebipyridyl Compounds as Fluorescent Indicators for Intracellular Zinc(II) Ions

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhao; Younes, Ali H.; Allen, John R.; Davidson, Michael W.; Zhu, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Arylvinylenebipyridyl (AVB) ligands are bright, zinc(II)-sensitive fluoroionophores. The applicability of AVBs as fluorescent indicators for imaging cellular zinc(II), however, is limited by low photostability, partially attributable to the photoisomerization of the vinylene functionality. Two configurationally immobilized (i.e., “locked”) AVB analogues are prepared in this work. The zinc(II)-sensitive photophysical properties and zinc(II) affinities of both AVBs and their locked analogues are characterized in organic and aqueous media. The zinc(II) sensitivity of the emission is attributed to the zinc(II)-dependent energies of the charge transfer excited states of these compounds. The configurationally locked ligands have improved photostability, while maintaining the brightness and zinc(II) sensibility of their AVB progenitors. The feasibility of the “locked” AVB analogues with improved photostability for imaging intracellular Zn(II) of eukaryotic cells using laser confocal fluorescence microscopy is demonstrated. PMID:25942357

  5. A flexible luminescent probe to monitor fast ion losses at the edge of the TJ-II stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez-Rey, D.; Zurro, B.; Guasp, J.; Liniers, M.; Baciero, A.; Fernandez, A.; Fontdecaba, J. M.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Garcia, G.; Rodriguez-Barquero, L.

    2008-09-15

    A mobile luminescent probe has been developed to detect fast ion losses and suprathermal ions escaping from the plasma of the TJ-II stellarator device. The priorities for its design have been flexibility for probe positioning, ease of maintenance, and detector sensitivity. It employs a coherent fiber bundle to relay, to the outside of the vacuum chamber, ionoluminescence images produced by the ions that impinge, after entering the detector head through a pinhole aperture, onto a screen of luminescent material. Ionoluminescence light detection is accomplished by a charge-coupled device camera and by a photomultiplier, both of which are optically coupled to the in-vacuum fiber bundle head by means of a standard optical setup. A detailed description of the detector, and the first results obtained when operated close to the plasma edge, are reported.

  6. Surface functionalized magnetic PVA microspheres for rapid naked-eye recognizing of copper(II) ions in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Zulin; Yang, Bei; Chen, Wei; Bai, Xue; Xu, Quanjun; Gu, Haixin

    2014-10-01

    We proposed a robust method for surface-functionalizing magnetic polyvinyl alcohol microspheres to detect heavy metal ions in aqueous solutions. The prepared chemosensor (PAR-MPVA) was characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). In neutral solutions, PAR-MPVA selectively recognized diatomic heavy metal ions, as indicated with a color change from earth yellow to red; in strong acidic solutions, the chemosensor only selectively detected Cu2+. PAR-MPVA microspheres had a detection limit as low as 0.5 μM by naked-eye and 0.16 μM by UV-vis spectrometer for Cu2+. Moreover, the sensor possessed magnetism for effective recovery, could easily be regenerated by a solution of EDTA, and also displayed perferable stability. The PAR-MPVA microspheres possessed preeminent properties of detecting copper (II) ions in aqueous solutions.

  7. Magnetic Zn (II) ion-imprinted polymer prepared by the surface imprinting technique and its adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui-xin; Dou, Qian; Jin, Xiu-hong; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Ting-ru; Han, Xu; Wang, Dong-dong

    2015-01-01

    A novel magnetic Zn (II) ion-imprinted polymer was prepared by the surface ion-imprinted technique by using magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres as supporter, methacrylic acid and salicylaldoxime as monomers, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinker. The products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, vibrating sample magnetometer and scanning electron microscope. The adsorption experiments showed that the imprinted polymer was employed successfully in comparison with non-imprinted polymer. When the temperature was in a range of 291-297 K, the maximum adsorption was about 52.69 mg g(-1) with an optimal pH 6.0 for an equilibrium time of 40 min. The imprinted polymer possessed high selectivity and specific recognition towards Zn (II). The Langmuir adsorption model was more favourable than the Freundlich or the Temkin adsorption model. Thermodynamic experiment showed that the adsorption was a spontaneous and endothermic process for Zn (II). The mechanism for Zn (II) adsorption on the imprinted polymer was investigated. PMID:25919981

  8. Enhanced selective removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solution by novel polyethylenimine-functionalized ion imprinted hydrogel: Behaviors and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Li, Zhengkui

    2015-12-30

    A novel polyethylenimine-functionalized ion-imprinted hydrogel (Cu(II)-p(PEI/HEA)) was newly synthesized by (60)Co-γ-induced polymerization for the selective removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solution. The adsorption performances including the adsorption capacity and selectivity of the novel hydrogel were much better than those of similar adsorbents reported. The hydrogel was characterized via scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermal gravimetric analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the structure and mechanisms. The adsorption process was pH and temperature sensitive, better fitted to pseudo-second-order equation, and was Langmuir monolayer adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity for Cu(II) was 40.00 mg/g. The selectivity coefficients of ion-imprinted hydrogel for Cu(II)/Pb(II), Cu(II)/Cd(II) and Cu(II)/Ni(II) were 55.09, 107.47 and 63.12, respectively, which were 3.93, 4.25 and 3.53 times greater than those of non-imprinted hydrogel, respectively. Moreover, the adsorption capacity of Cu(II)-p(PEI/HEA) could still keep more than 85% after four adsorption-desorption cycles. Because of such enhanced selective removal performance and excellent regeneration property, Cu(II)-p(PEI/HEA) is a promising adsorbent for the selective removal of copper ions from wastewater. PMID:26151381

  9. New dinuclear copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes for the investigation of sugar-metal ion interactions.

    PubMed

    Bera, Manindranath; Patra, Ayan

    2011-10-18

    We have studied the binding interactions of biologically important carbohydrates (D-glucose, D-xylose and D-mannose) with the newly synthesized five-coordinate dinuclear copper(II) complex, [Cu(2)(hpnbpda)(μ-OAc)] (1) and zinc(II) complex, [Zn(2)(hpnbpda)(μ-OAc)] (2) [H(3)hpnbpda=N,N'-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-2-hydroxy-1,3-propanediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid] in aqueous alkaline solution. The complexes 1 and 2 are fully characterized both in solid and solution using different analytical techniques. A geometrical optimization was made of the ligand H(3)hpnbpda and the complexes 1 and 2 by molecular mechanics (MM+) method in order to establish the stable conformations. All carbohydrates bind to the metal complexes in a 1:1 molar ratio. The binding events have been investigated by a combined approach of FTIR, UV-vis and (13)C NMR spectroscopic techniques. UV-vis spectra indicate a significant blue shift of the absorption maximum of complex 1 during carbohydrate coordination highlighting the sugar binding ability of complex 1. The apparent binding constants of the substrate-bound copper(II) complexes have been determined from the UV-vis titration experiments. The binding ability and mode of binding of these sugar substrates with complex 2 are indicated by their characteristic coordination induced shift (CIS) values in (13)C NMR spectra for carbon atoms C1, C2, and C3 of sugar substrates. PMID:21764045

  10. Transport of cadmium(II) ion through a supported liquid membrane containing a bathocuproine

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Takashi )

    1991-12-01

    The active transport of cadmium ions across a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing a ligand based on a driving force supplied by the concentration gradient of the chloride ion is described. The SLM used is a microporous polypropylene membrane impregnated with a bathocuproine (4,7-diphenyl-2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) solution in dibenzyl ether as a carrier. The characteristics of the cadmium ion transport system are examined under various experimental conditions. The active transport of cadmium ions through an SLM is dependent on the concentrations of the cadmium ion, ligand, and chloride ion. An equation for the permeation velocity of cadmium ions, consisting of three important factors for this transport system, is proposed.

  11. Binding of Kinetically Inert Metal Ions to RNA: The Case of Platinum(II)

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Erich G.; Hostetter, Alethia A.; Osborn, Maire F.; Miller, Amanda L.; DeRose, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter several aspects of Pt(II) are highlighted that focus on the properties of Pt(II)-RNA adducts and the possibility that they influence RNA-based processes in cells. Cellular distribution of Pt(II) complexes results in significant platination of RNA, and localization studies find Pt(II) in the nucleus, nucleolus, and a distribution of other sites in cells. Treatment with Pt(II) compounds disrupts RNA-based processes including enzymatic processing, splicing, and translation, and this disruption may be indicative of structural changes to RNA or RNA-protein complexes. Several RNA-Pt(II) adducts have been characterized in vitro by biochemical and other methods. Evidence for Pt(II) binding in non-helical regions and for Pt(II) cross-linking of internal loops has been found. Although platinated sites have been identified, there currently exists very little in the way of detailed structural characterization of RNA-Pt(II) adducts. Some insight into the details of Pt(II) coordination to RNA, especially RNA helices, can be gained from DNA model systems. Many RNA structures, however, contain complex tertiary folds and common, purine-rich structural elements that present suitable Pt(II) nucleophiles in unique arrangements which may hold the potential for novel types of platinum-RNA adducts. Future research aimed at structural characterization of platinum-RNA adducts may provide further insights into platinum-nucleic acid binding motifs, and perhaps provide a rationale for the observed inhibition by Pt(II) complexes of splicing, translation, and enzymatic processing. PMID:22010278

  12. Copper(II) Ions Increase Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 Dynamics in Key Structural Regions That Govern Stability.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Joel C; Trelle, Morten Beck; McClintock, Carlee S; Qureshi, Tihami; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Peterson, Cynthia B

    2016-08-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) regulates the fibrinolysis pathway by inhibiting the protease activity of plasminogen activators. PAI-1 works in concert with vitronectin (VN), an extracellular protein that aids in localization of active PAI-1 to tissues. The Peterson laboratory demonstrated that Cu(II) and other transition metals modulate the stability of PAI-1, exhibiting effects that are dependent on the presence or absence of the somatomedin B (SMB) domain of VN. The study presented here dissects the changes in molecular dynamics underlying the destabilizing effects of Cu(II) on PAI-1. We utilize backbone amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry to assess PAI-1 dynamics in the presence and absence of Cu(II) ions with and without the SMB domain of VN. We show that Cu(II) produces an increase in dynamics in regions important for the function and overall stability of PAI-1, while the SMB domain elicits virtually the opposite effect. A mutant form of PAI-1 lacking two N-terminal histidine residues at positions 2 and 3 exhibits similar increases in dynamics upon Cu(II) binding compared to that of active wild-type PAI-1, indicating that the observed structural effects are not a result of coordination of Cu(II) to these histidine residues. Finally, addition of Cu(II) results in an acceleration of the local unfolding kinetics of PAI-1 presumed to be on pathway to the latency conversion. The effect of ligands on the dynamics of PAI-1 adds another intriguing dimension to the mechanisms for regulation of PAI-1 stability and function. PMID:27416303

  13. Potential scorpionate antibiotics: targeted hydrolysis of lipid II containing model membranes by vancomycin-TACzyme conjugates and modulation of their antibacterial activity by Zn-ions.

    PubMed

    Bauke Albada, H; Arnusch, Christopher J; Branderhorst, Hilbert M; Verel, Anne-Marie; Janssen, Wouter T M; Breukink, Eefjan; de Kruijff, Ben; Pieters, Roland J; Liskamp, Rob M J

    2009-07-15

    The antibiotic vancomycin-that binds lipid II in the bacterial cell membrane-was conjugated to a mono- and tetravalent mimic of the tris-histidine catalytic triad of metalloenzymes. Targeted hydrolysis by the conjugate was observed using model membranes containing lipid II, and in vitro MIC-values of the targeted mimic constructs could be modulated by Zn-ions. PMID:19524434

  14. Modification and characterization of PET fibers for fast removal of Hg(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) metal ions from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Monier, M; Abdel-Latif, D A

    2013-04-15

    A new chelating fiber (PET-TSC) was prepared with PET for fast removal of Hg(2+), Cu(2+) and Co(2+) from water. Elemental analysis, SEM, BET surface area, (13)C NMR, FTIR and X-ray diffraction spectra were used to characterize PET-TSC. The higher uptake capacity of the studied metal ions was observed at higher pH values. Kinetic study indicated that the adsorption of Hg(2+), Cu(2+) and Co(2+) followed the pseudo-second-order equation, suggesting chemical sorption as the rate-limiting step of the adsorption process. The best interpretation for the equilibrium data was given by Langmuir isotherm, and the maximum adsorption capacities were 120.02, 96.81 and 78.08 mg/g for Hg(2+), Cu(2+) and Co(2+) ions, respectively. 1M HCl or 0.1M EDTA could be used as effective eluant to desorb the Hg(2+), Cu(2+) and Co(2+) adsorbed by PET-TSC, and the adsorption capacity of PET-TSC for the three heavy metal ions could still be maintained at about 90% level at the 5th cycle. Accordingly, it is expected that PET-TSC could be used as a promising adsorbent for fast removal of heavy metal ions from water, and the present work also might provide a simple and effective method to reuse the waste PET fibers. PMID:23435202

  15. Biosorption of Cr(VI) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solution onto the solid biodiesel waste residue: mechanistic, kinetic and thermodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Shanmugaprakash; Venkatachalam, Sivakumar; Jeevamani, Prasana Manikanda Kartick; Rajarathinam, Nandusha

    2014-01-01

    In this present study, the biosorption of Cr(VI) and Zn(II) ions from synthetic aqueous solution on defatted J atropha oil cake (DJOC) was investigated. The effect of various process parameters such as the initial pH, adsorbent dosage, initial metal ion concentration and contact time has been studied in batch-stirred experiments. Maximum removal of Cr(VI) and Zn(II) ions in aqueous solution was observed at pH 2.0 and pH. 5.0, respectively. The removal efficiency of Cr(VI) and Zn(II) ions from the aqueous solution was found to be 72.56 and 79.81%, respectively, for initial metal ion concentration of 500 mg/L at 6 g/L dosage concentration. The biosorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy and zero point charge. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models and the best fit is found to be with the Freundlich isotherm for both Cr(VI) and Zn(II) metal ions. The kinetic data obtained at different metal ion concentration have been analysed using the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models and were found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The values of mass transfer diffusion coefficients (De) were determined by Boyd model and compared with literature values. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°, were analysed using the equilibrium constant values (Ke) obtained from experimental data at different temperatures. The results showed that biosorption of Cr(VI) and Zn(II) ions onto the DJOC system is more spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The results indicate that DJOC was shown to be a promising adsorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solution. PMID:23812789

  16. In Situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Studies of Kinetic Interaction between Platinum(II) Ions and UiO-66 Series Metal–Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Chaoxian; Goh, Tian Wei; Brashler, Kyle; Pei, Yuchen; Guo, Zhiyong; Huang, Wenyu

    2014-09-07

    The interaction of guest Pt(II) ions with UiO-66–X (X = NH2, H, NO2, OMe, F) series metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) in aqueous solution was investigated using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. All of these MOFs were found to be able to coordinate with Pt(II) ions. The Pt(II) ions in UiO-66–X MOFs generally coordinate with 1.6–2.4 Cl and 1.4–2.4 N or O atoms. We also studied the time evolution of the coordination structure and found that Pt(II) maintained a coordination number of 4 throughout the whole process. Furthermore, the kinetic parameters of the interaction of Pt(II) ions with UiO-66–X series MOFs (X = NH2, H, NO2, OMe, F) were determined by combinational linear fitting of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of the samples. The Pt(II) adsorption rate constants were found to be 0.063 h–1 for UiO-66–NH2 and 0.011–0.017 h–1 for other UiO-66–X (X = H, NO2, OMe, F) MOFs, which means that Pt(II) adsorption in UiO-66–NH2 is 4–6 times faster than that in other UiO-66 series MOFs. FTIR studies suggested that the carboxyl groups could be the major host ligands binding with Pt(II) ions in UiO-66 series MOFs, except for UiO-66–NH2, in which amino groups coordinate with Pt(II) ions.

  17. High power heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies in the Wisconsin Tokapole II

    SciTech Connect

    Biddle, A. P.; Sprott, J. C.

    1980-09-01

    Fast wave heating at the second, third, and fourth harmonics of the ion cyclotron resonance, and slow wave heating at the fundamental in a single ion species hydrogen plasma, are found to be in good agreement with warm plasma theory at rf power levels less than or equal to 130 kW. Ion heating is negligible off an eigenmode. Ion body temperatures are more than doubled to 75 eV from the 35 eV ohmically heated case with tails comprising 8% of the plasma at 320 eV. No deleterious effects except a non-disruptive 10% shortening of the discharge length caused by impurity influx are noted. A passive mode tracking technique allows approx. = 40% increase in power deposition in a passing eigenmode over that of a fixed frequency rf source. Ion temperatures are limited by charge exchange due to the < 50 eV central temperature and the small 13 cm radius current channel.

  18. The solvation of ions in acetonitrile and acetone. II. Monte Carlo simulations using polarizable solvent models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, R.; Richardi, J.; Fries, P. H.; Krienke, H.

    2002-11-01

    Structural properties and energies of solvation are simulated for alkali and halide ions. The solvation structure is discussed in terms of various site-site distribution functions, of solvation numbers, and of orientational correlation functions of the solvent molecules around the ions. The solvent polarizability has notable effects which cannot be intuitively predicted. In particular, it is necessary to reproduce the experimental solvation numbers of small ions. The changes of solvation properties are investigated along the alkali and halide series. By comparing the solvation of ions in acetone to that in acetonitrile, it is shown that the spatial correlations among the solvent molecules around an ion result in a strong screening of the ion-solvent direct intermolecular potential and are essential to understand the changes in the solvation structures and energies between different solvents. The solvation properties derived from the simulations are compared to earlier predictions of the hypernetted chain (HNC) approximation of the molecular Ornstein-Zernike (MOZ) theory [J. Richardi, P. H. Fries, and H. Krienke, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 4079 (1998)]. The MOZ(HNC) formalism gives an overall qualitatively correct picture of the solvation and its various unexpected findings are corroborated. For the larger ions, its predictions become quantitative. The MOZ approach allows to calculate solvent-solvent and ion-solvent potentials of mean force, which shed light on the 3D labile molecular and ionic architectures in the solution. These potentials of mean force convey a unique information which is necessary to fully interpret the angle-averaged structural functions computed from the simulations. Finally, simulations of solutions at finite concentrations show that the solvent-solvent and ion-solvent spatial correlations at infinite dilution are marginally altered by the introduction of fair amounts of ions.

  19. Selective solid-phase extraction and analysis of trace-level Cr(III), Fe(III), Pb(II), and Mn(II) Ions in wastewater using diethylenetriamine-functionalized carbon nanotubes dispersed in graphene oxide colloids.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiangbing; Cui, Yuemei; Chang, Xijun; Wang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) were dispersed in graphene oxide (GO) colloids to be further functionalized with diethylenetriamine (DETA), resulting in GO-MCNTs-DETA nanocomposites for the solid-phase extraction and analysis of Cr(III), Fe(III), Pb(II), and Mn(II) ions at the trace levels in wastewater. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) indicates that this new solid-phase sorbent could facilitate the maximum static adsorption capacities of 5.4, 13.8, 6.6 and 9.5 mg g(-1) for Cr(III), Fe(III), Pb(II), and Mn(II) ions, respectively, showing the adsorption capacity up to 95% within about 30 min. Moreover, the detection limits of the GO-MCNTs-DETA-based analysis method were found to be 0.16, 0.50, 0.24 and 0.38 ng mL(-1) for Cr(III), Fe(III), Pb(II), and Mn(II) ions, respectively, with the relative standard deviation of lower than 3.0% (n=5). Importantly, common coexisting ions showed no significant interference on the separation and pre-concentration of these heavy metal ions at pH 4.0. Subsequently, the GO-MCNTs-DETA sorbent was successfully employed for the separation and analysis of trace-level Cr(III), Fe(III), Pb(II), and Mn(II) ions in wastewater samples yielding 75-folds concentration factors. PMID:26695275

  20. Prediction of the copper (II) ions dynamic removal from a medium by using mathematical models with analytical solution.

    PubMed

    Borba, Carlos Eduardo; da Silva, Edson Antônio; Fagundes-Klen, Márcia R; Kroumov, Alexander D; Guirardello, Reginaldo

    2008-03-21

    A copper (II) ions biosorption by Sargassum sp. biomass was studied in a fixed bed column at 30 degrees C and pH 3.5. The experimental curves were obtained for the following feed concentrations -2.08, 4.16, 6.42 and 12.72mmol/L of the copper ions. The mathematical models developed by Thomas and Bohart-Adams were used for description of ions sorption process in the column. The models principle hypothesis is that the mass transfer controlling stage of the process is the adsorption kinetics between sorbate and adsorbent. The phenomena such as intraparticle diffusion, a mass transfer external resistance and axial dispersion effects were out of considerations. Some of the models parameters were experimentally determined (rho(B), epsilon, u(0), C(0)) and the others were evaluated on the bases of the experimental data (k(a1), k(a2)). The unique fitting parameter in all models was the adsorption kinetic constant. The identification procedure was based on the least square statistical method. Simulation results show that the models describe well a copper ions sorption process in a fixed bed column. The used models can be considered as useful tools for adsorption process design and optimization in fixed bed column by using algae biomass of Sargassum sp. as an adsorbent. PMID:17706867

  1. Batch and fixed-bed column studies for biosorption of Zn(II) ions onto pongamia oil cake (Pongamia pinnata) from biodiesel oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Shanmugaprakash, M; Sivakumar, V

    2015-12-01

    The present work, analyzes the potential of defatted pongamia oil cake (DPOC) for the biosorption of Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions in the both batch and column mode. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the optimal pH, effect of adsorbent dosage, initial Zn(II) ions concentration and contact time. The biosorption equilibrium and kinetics data for Zn(II) ions onto the DPOC were studied in detail, using several models, among all it was found to be that, Freundlich and the second-order model explained the equilibrium data well. The calculated thermodynamic parameters had shown that the biosorption of Zn(II) ions was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Batch desorption studies showed that the maximum Zn(II) recovery occurred, using 0.1 M EDTA. The Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) and the Thomas model was successfully employed to evaluate the model parameters in the column mode. The results indicated that the DPOC can be applied as an effective and eco-friendly biosorbent for the removal of Zn(II) ions in polluted wastewater. PMID:26366934

  2. Removal of Lead(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution Using L. Seed Husk Ash as a Biosorbent.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bingfang; Zuo, Weiyuan; Zhang, Jinlei; Tong, Haijuan; Zhao, Jinhe

    2016-05-01

    The removal of heavy metals, especially from wastewater, has attracted significant interest because of their toxicity, tendency to bioaccumulate, and the threat they pose to human life and the environment. Many low-cost sorbents have been investigated for their biosorption capacity toward heavy metals. However, there are no reports available on the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by of L. seed husk ash. In this work, use of seed husk ash for the removal of Pb(II) from wastewater was investigated as a function of contact time and the initial pH of the solution. Kinetics and equilibrium constants were obtained from batch experiments. Our study shows that the adsorption process follows pseudo-second-order kinetics. Moreover, the Langmuir absorption model gave a better fit to the experimental data than the Freundlich equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of the husk ash was 263.10 mg g at 298 K and pH 5.0, and this is higher than the previously reported data obtained using other sorbents. The results obtained confirm that seed husk ash is an effective sorbent for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution. Analysis of infrared spectra of the husk ash after absorption of Pb(II) suggested that OH, C=O, C-O, Si-O-Si, and O-Si-O groups were important for the Pb(II) ion removal. Moreover, practical tests on this biosorbent for Pb(II) removal in real wastewater samples successfully demonstrated that seed husk ash constitutes an efficient and cost-effective technology for the elimination of heavy metals from industrial effluent. PMID:27136166

  3. A Metal-Organic Framework/DNA Hybrid System as a Novel Fluorescent Biosensor for Mercury(II) Ion Detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lan-Lan; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Shu-Na; Meng, Xing; Song, Xue-Zhi; Feng, Jing; Song, Shu-Yan; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2016-01-11

    Mercury(II) ions have emerged as a widespread environmental hazard in recent decades. Despite different kinds of detection methods reported to sense Hg(2+) , it still remains a challenging task to develop new sensing molecules to replenish the fluorescence-based apparatus for Hg(2+) detection. This communication demonstrates a novel fluorescent sensor using UiO-66-NH2 and a T-rich FAM-labeled ssDNA as a hybrid system to detect Hg(2+) sensitively and selectively. To the best of our knowledge, it has rarely been reported that a MOF is utilized as the biosensing platform for Hg(2+) assay. PMID:26555340

  4. Equilibrium and kinetic studies for the biosorption system of copper(II) ion from aqueous solution using Tectona grandis L.f. leaves powder.

    PubMed

    Prasanna Kumar, Y; King, P; Prasad, V S R K

    2006-09-21

    The biosorption of copper(II) ions from aqueous solution by Tectona grandis L.f. was studied in a batch adsorption system as a function of pH, metal ion concentration, adsorbent concentration and adsorbent size. The biosorption capacities and rates of copper(II) ions onto T. grandis L.f. were evaluated. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Temkin adsorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and isotherm constants. Biosorption isothermal data could be well interpreted by the Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 15.43 mg/g of copper(II) ion on T. grandis L.f. leaves powder. The kinetic experimental data properly correlated with the second-order kinetic model. Various thermodynamic parameters such as deltaG(o), deltaH(o), and deltaS(o) were calculated indicating that this system was a spontaneous and exothermic process. PMID:16704905

  5. Structure And Dynamics of the Hydrated Palladium(II) Ion in Aqueous Solution a QMCF MD Simulation And EXAFS Spectroscopic Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hofer, T.S.; Randolf, B.R.; Shah, S.Adnan Ali; Rode, B.M.; Persson, I.

    2009-06-01

    The pharmacologically and industrially important palladium(II) ion is usually characterised as square-planar structure in aqueous solution, similar to the platinum(II) ion. Our investigations by means of the most modern experimental and theoretical methods give clear indications, however, that the hydrated palladium(II) ion is hexa-coordinated, with four ligands arranged in a plane at 2.0 {angstrom} plus two additional ligands in axial positions showing an elongated bond distance of 2.7-2.8 A. The second shell consists in average of 8.0 ligands at a mean distance of 4.4 {angstrom}. This structure provides a new basis for the interpretation of the kinetic properties of palladium(II) complexes.

  6. Substituting Fe for two of the four Mn ions in photosystem II-effects on water-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Semin, Boris K; Seibert, Michael

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the interaction of Fe(II) cations with Ca-depleted PSII membranes (PSII[-Ca,4Mn]) in the dark and found that Fe(II) incubation removes 2 of 4 Mn ions from the tetranuclear Mn cluster of the photosynthetic O2-evolving complex (OEC). The reduction of Mn ions in PSII(-Ca,4Mn) by Fe(II) and the concomitant release of two Mn(II) cations is accompanied by the binding of newly generated Fe(III) in at least one vacated Mn site. Flash-induced chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence yield measurements of this new 2Mn/nFe cluster (PSII[-Ca,2Mn,nFe]) show that charge recombination in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) occurs between Qa (-) and the remaining Mn/Fe cluster (but not YZ (●)) in the OEC, and extraction of 2 Mn occurs uniformly in all PSII complexes. No O2 evolution is observed, but the heteronuclear metal cluster in PSII(-Ca,2Mn,nFe) samples is still able to supply electrons for reduction of the exogenous electron acceptor, 2,6-dichlorophrenolindophenol, by photooxidizing water and producing H2O2 in the absence of an exogenous donor as seen previously with PSII(-Ca,4Mn). Selective extraction of Mn or Fe cations from the 2Mn/nFe heteronuclear cluster demonstrates that the high-affinity Mn-binding site is occupied by one of the iron cations. It is notable that partial water-oxidation function still occurs when only two Mn cations are present in the PSII OEC. PMID:26847716

  7. High-sensitivity assay for Hg (II) and Ag (I) ion detection: A new class of droplet digital PCR logic gates for an intelligent DNA calculator.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Nan; Zhu, Pengyu; Xu, Yuancong; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Yang, Zhansen; Xu, Wentao

    2016-10-15

    The first example of droplet digital PCR logic gates ("YES", "OR" and "AND") for Hg (II) and Ag (I) ion detection has been constructed based on two amplification events triggered by a metal-ion-mediated base mispairing (T-Hg(II)-T and C-Ag(I)-C). In this work, Hg(II) and Ag(I) were used as the input, and the "true" hierarchical colors or "false" green were the output. Through accurate molecular recognition and high sensitivity amplification, positive droplets were generated by droplet digital PCR and viewed as the basis of hierarchical digital signals. Based on this principle, YES gate for Hg(II) (or Ag(I)) detection, OR gate for Hg(II) or Ag(I) detection and AND gate for Hg(II) and Ag(I) detection were developed, and their sensitively and selectivity were reported. The results indicate that the ddPCR logic system developed based on the different indicators for Hg(II) and Ag(I) ions provides a useful strategy for developing advanced detection methods, which are promising for multiplex metal ion analysis and intelligent DNA calculator design applications. PMID:27140307

  8. Modeling FAMA ion beam diagnostics based on the Ptolemy II model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balvanović, R.; Beličev, P.; Radjenović, B.

    2012-10-01

    The previously developed model of ion beam transport control of the FAMA facility is further enhanced by equipping it with the model of ion beam diagnostics. The model of control, executing once, is adjusted so that it executes in iterative mode, where each iteration samples the input beam normally distributed over initial phase space and calculates a single trajectory through the facility beam lines. The model takes into account only the particles that manage to pass through all the beam line apertures, emulating in this way a Faraday cup and a beam profile meter. Generated are also beam phase space distributions and horizontal and vertical beam profiles at the end of the beam transport lines the FAMA facility consists of. By adding the model of ion beam diagnostics to the model of ion beam transport control, the process of determining optimal ion beam control parameters is eased and speeded up, and the understanding of influence of control parameters on the ion beam characteristics is improved.

  9. Adsorption and Desorption of Nickel(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution by a Lignocellulose/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaotao; Wang, Ximing

    2015-01-01

    A new and inexpensive lignocellulose/montmorillonite (LNC/MMT) nanocomposite was prepared by a chemical intercalation of LNC into MMT and was subsequently investigated as an adsorbent in batch systems for the adsorption-desorption of Ni(II) ions in an aqueous solution. The optimum conditions for the Ni(II) ion adsorption capacity of the LNC/MMT nanocomposite were studied in detail by varying parameters such as the initial Ni(II) concentration, the solution pH value, the adsorption temperature and time. The results indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity of Ni(II) reached 94.86 mg/g at an initial Ni(II) concentration of 0.0032 mol/L, a solution pH of 6.8, an adsorption temperature of 70°C, and adsorption time of 40 min. The represented adsorption kinetics model exhibited good agreement between the experimental data and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The Langmuir isotherm equation best fit the experimental data. The structure of the LNC/MMT nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), whereas the adsorption mechanism was discussed in combination with the results obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses (FTIR). The desorption capacity of the LNC/MMT nanocomposite depended on parameters such as HNO3 concentration, desorption temperature, and desorption time. The satisfactory desorption capacity of 81.34 mg/g was obtained at a HNO3 concentration, desorption temperature, and desorption time of 0.2 mol/L, 60 ºC, and 30 min, respectively. The regeneration studies showed that the adsorption capacity of the LNC/MMT nanocomposite was consistent for five cycles without any appreciable loss in the batch process and confirmed that the LNC/MMT nanocomposite was reusable. The overall study revealed that the LNC/MMT nanocomposite functioned as an effective adsorbent in the detoxification of Ni(II

  10. Solid phase extraction of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions based on a novel functionalized Fe3O4@ SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles with the aid of multivariate optimization methodology.

    PubMed

    Tadjarodi, Azadeh; Abbaszadeh, Abolfazl; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Shekari, Nafiseh; Asgharinezhad, Ali Akbar

    2015-04-01

    This work describes novel Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles functionalized with phenyl isothiocyanate and its application in the preconcentration of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions. The parameters affecting the preconcentration procedure were optimized by a Box-Behnken design through response surface methodology. Three variables (extraction time, magnetic sorbent amount, and pH value) were selected as the main factors affecting the sorption step, while four variables (type, volume and concentration of the eluent; and elution time) were selected as effective factors of elution step in the optimization study. Following the sorption and elution, the ions were quantified by FAAS. The limits of detection were 0.05 and 0.9ngmL(-1) for Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions, respectively. The relative standard deviations were less than 6.4%. The sorption capacity (in mg g(-1)) of this new sorbent is 179 for Cd(II) and 156 for Pb(II). Finally, this nanocomposite was successfully applied to the rapid extraction of trace quantities of heavy metal ions from fish, sediment, soil, and water samples and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:25686967

  11. Phase I/II Clinical Trial of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Malignant Gliomas: Combined X-Ray Radiotherapy, Chemotherapy, and Carbon Ion Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mizoe, Jun-Etsu Tsujii, Hirohiko; Hasegawa, Azusa D.D.S.; Yanagi, Tsuyoshi; Takagi, Ryo D.D.S.; Kamada, Tadashi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Takakura, Kintomo

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To report the results of a Phase I/II clinical trial for patients with malignant gliomas, treated with combined X-ray radiotherapy (XRT), chemotherapy, and carbon ion radiotherapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: Between October 1994 and February 2002, 48 patients with histologically confirmed malignant gliomas (16 anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and 32 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) were enrolled in a Phase I/II clinical study. The treatment involved the application of 50 Gy/25 fractions/5 weeks of XRT, followed by CRT at 8 fractions/2 weeks. Nimustine hydrochloride (ACNU) were administered at a dose of 100 mg/m{sup 2} concurrently in weeks 1, 4, or 5 of XRT. The carbon ion dose was increased from 16.8 to 24.8 Gray equivalent (GyE) in 10% incremental steps (16.8, 18.4, 20.0, 22.4, and 24.8 GyE, respectively). Results: There was no Grade 3 or higher acute reaction in the brain. The late reactions included four cases of Grade 2 brain morbidity and four cases of Grade 2 brain reaction among 48 cases. The median survival time (MST) of AA patients was 35 months and that of GBM patients 17 months (p = 0.0035). The median progression-free survival and MST of GBM showed 4 and 7 months for the low-dose group, 7 and 19 months for the middle-dose group, and 14 and 26 months for the high-dose group. Conclusion: The results of combined therapy using XRT, ACNU chemotherapy, and CRT showed the potential efficacy of CRT for malignant gliomas in terms of the improved survival rate in those patients who received higher carbon doses.

  12. Removal of cadmium (II) from simulated wastewater by ion flotation technique

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A separation technique which has recently received a sharp increase in research activities is “ion flotation”. This technique has four important advantages for treating wastewaters: low energy consumption, small space requirements, small volume of sludge and acting selectively. The present study aims to optimize parameters of ion flotation for cadmium removal in simulated wastewater at laboratory scale. It was obtained on the reaction between Cd2+ and sodium dodecylesulfate (SDS) collector followed by flotation with ethanol as frother. Test solution was prepared by combining the required amount of cadmium ion, SDS and necessary frother or sodium sulfate solution. All experiments were carried out in a flotation column at laboratory temperature (27°C), adjusted pH = 4 and 120 minutes. The different parameters (namely: flow rate, cadmium, SDS and frother concentrations and ionic strength) influencing the flotation process were examined. The best removal efficiency obtained at a collector-metal ratio of 3:1 in 60 min with flow rate of 150 mL/min was 84%. The maximum cadmium removal was 92.1% where ethanol was introduced at a concentration 0.4% to flotation column with above conditions. The obtained results were promising, as both cadmium and collector were effectively removed from wastewater. Hence, the application of ion flotation for metal ions removal from effluents seems to be efficient. PMID:23388386

  13. Optical chemosensors for Cu(II) ion based on BODIPY derivatives: an experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Keawwangchai, Tasawan; Wanno, Banchob; Morakot, Nongnit; Keawwangchai, Somchai

    2013-10-01

    Two BODIPY derivatives for Cu(2+) ion chemosensors containing 4-[2-(diethylamino)-2-oxoethoxy]phenyl (BDP1) and 3,4-bis[2-(diethylamino)-2-oxoethoxy]phenyl (BDP2) were synthesized by coupling appropriate N,N-diethyl-2-(4-formylphenoxy)acetamide and 2,4-dimethylpyrrole moieties in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid and anhydrous dichloromethane at room temperature. The binding abilities between these chemosensors and 50 equivalents of Na(+), K(+), Ag(+), Ca(2+), Fe(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) ions were studied using UV-vis and fluorescence spectrophotometry. The results show that, compared to other ions, both the UV-vis absorption and fluorescence emission intensity of BDP2 decreased dramatically when Cu(2+) ion was added. To explain this behavior, ab initio quantum chemical calculations were performed using correlated second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2/LanL2DZ). The calculated orbital energies indicated that the decrease in UV-vis absorption intensity and the quenching of fluorescene emission were due to the single-electron reduction of Cu(2+) to Cu(+) ion. PMID:23748557

  14. Atomic and molecular effects on spherically convergent ion flow. II. Multiple molecular species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmert, Gilbert A.; Santarius, John F.

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical model for the effect of molecular interactions on the flow of molecular ions in spherically convergent geometry where the inner grid (cathode) is at a large negative potential and the outer grid (anode) is grounded has been developed. The model assumes a weakly ionized deuterium plasma composed of D+, D2+, and D3+ ions that interact with the dominant background gas (D2). The interactions included are charge exchange, ionization, and dissociative processes. The formalism developed includes the bouncing motion of the ions in the electrostatic well and sums over all generations of subsequent ions produced by atomic and molecular processes. This leads to a set of two coupled Volterra integral equations, which are solved numerically. From the solution of the Volterra equations, one can obtain quantities of interest, such as the energy spectra of the ions and fast neutral atoms and molecules, and the fusion reaction rate. To provide an experimental test, the model is applied to inertial electrostatic devices and the calculated neutron production rate is compared to previously reported measurements for one University of Wisconsin inertial electrostatic confinement device [D. C. Donovan et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 507 (2009)]. The results show general agreement with the experimental results, but significant differences remain to be resolved.

  15. The impact of functionalized CNT in the network of sodium alginate-based nanocomposite beads on the removal of Co(II) ions from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Karkeh-Abadi, Fatemeh; Saber-Samandari, Samaneh; Saber-Samandari, Saeed

    2016-07-15

    Significant efforts have been made to develop highly efficient adsorbents to remove radioactive Co(II) ion pollutants from medical and industrial wastewaters. In this study, amide group functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT-CONH2) imprinted in the network of sodium alginate containing hydroxyapatite, and new nanocomposite beads were synthesized. Then, they were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The prepared nanocomposite beads were used as an adsorbent of Co(II) ions from an aqueous solution. The presence and distribution of Co(II) ions in the surface of the nanocomposite beads was confirmed using FESEM, EDS and metal mapping analysis. The effect of various experimental conditions such as time, pH, and initial concentration of the adsorbate solution and temperature on the adsorption capacity of the nanocomposite beads were explored. The maximum Co(II) ions adsorption capacity of the prepared nanocomposite beads with the largest surface area of 163.4m(2)g(-1) was 347.8mgg(-1) in the optimized condition. The adsorption mechanism followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Furthermore, the Freundlich appears to produce better fit than the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Finally, thermodynamic studies suggest that endothermic adsorption process of Co(II) ions is spontaneous and thermodynamically favorable. PMID:27037477

  16. A sensitive, selective and rapid determination of lead(II) ions in real-life samples using an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-graphite reinforced carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Hamsawahini, Kunashegaran; Sathishkumar, Palanivel; Ahamad, Rahmalan; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Mohd

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a sensitive and cost-effective electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ErGO) on graphite reinforced carbon (GRC) was developed for the detection of lead (Pb(II)) ions present in the real-life samples. A film of graphene oxide (GO) was drop-casted on GRC and their electrochemical properties were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), amperometry and square wave voltammetry (SWV). Factors influencing the detection of Pb(II) ions, such as grades of GRC, constant applied cathodic potential (CACP), concentration of hydrochloric acid and drop-casting drying time were optimised. GO is irreversibly reduced in the range of -0.7 V to -1.6 V vs Ag/AgCl (3 M) in acidic condition. The results showed that the reduction behaviour of GO contributed to the high sensitivity of Pb(II) ions detection even at nanomolar level. The ErGO-GRC showed the detection limit of 0.5 nM and linear range of 3-15 nM in HCl (1 M). The developed electrode has potential to be a good candidate for the determination of Pb(II) ions in different aqueous system. The proposed method gives a good recovery rate of Pb(II) ions in real-life water samples such as tap water and river water. PMID:26452915

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of different thio-modified cellulose resins for the removal of mercury (II) ion from highly acidic aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Takagai, Yoshitaka; Shibata, Atsushi; Kiyokawa, Shigemi; Takase, Tsugiko

    2011-01-15

    Seven different types of thio- and/or amine-modified cellulose resin materials were synthesized and their mercury (II) ion adsorption properties determined. All seven resins showed good mercury (II) adsorption capability in the more neutral pH regions. However, the o-benzenedithiol- and o-aminothiophenol-modified cellulosic resins were found to be very effective in removing mercury (II) ions from strongly acidic media. For example, 93.5-100% mercury (II) ion recoveries from very acid aqueous solutions (nitric acid concentration ranged from 0.1 to 2.0 mol/L) were obtained using the o-benzenedithiol-modified resin while recoveries ranged from ca. 50% to 60% for the o-aminothiophenol-modified resin. An adsorption capacity of 23 mg (as Hg atoms) per gram of resin was observed for the o-benzenedithiol-modified cellulose in the presence of 1.0 mol/L nitric acid. This same resin shows very good selectivity for mercury (II) as only ruthenium (II) also somewhat adsorbed onto it out of 14 other metal ions studied (Ag(+), Al(3+), As(3+), Co(2+), Cd(2+), Cr(3+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), Pt(2+), Pb(2+), Ru(2+), and Zn(2+)). PMID:20974469

  18. Simulations of ion acceleration at non-relativistic shocks. II. Magnetic field amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Caprioli, D.; Spitkovsky, A.

    2014-10-10

    We use large hybrid simulations to study ion acceleration and generation of magnetic turbulence due to the streaming of particles that are self-consistently accelerated at non-relativistic shocks. When acceleration is efficient, we find that the upstream magnetic field is significantly amplified. The total amplification factor is larger than 10 for shocks with Alfvénic Mach number M = 100, and scales with the square root of M. The spectral energy density of excited magnetic turbulence is determined by the energy distribution of accelerated particles, and for moderately strong shocks (M ≲ 30) agrees well with the prediction of resonant streaming instability, in the framework of quasilinear theory of diffusive shock acceleration. For M ≳ 30, instead, Bell's non-resonant hybrid (NRH) instability is predicted and found to grow faster than resonant instability. NRH modes are excited far upstream by escaping particles, and initially grow without disrupting the current, their typical wavelengths being much shorter than the current ions' gyroradii. Then, in the nonlinear stage, most unstable modes migrate to larger and larger wavelengths, eventually becoming resonant in wavelength with the driving ions, which start diffuse. Ahead of strong shocks we distinguish two regions, separated by the free-escape boundary: the far upstream, where field amplification is provided by the current of escaping ions via NRH instability, and the shock precursor, where energetic particles are effectively magnetized, and field amplification is provided by the current in diffusing ions. The presented scalings of magnetic field amplification enable the inclusion of self-consistent microphysics into phenomenological models of ion acceleration at non-relativistic shocks.

  19. Studies on stannic selenoarsenate. II. Separation of uranium from numerous metal ions

    SciTech Connect

    Nabi, S.A.; Siddiqi, Z.M.; Rao, R.A.K.

    1982-12-01

    Stannic selenoarsenate has been synthesized by adding 0.05 M sodium selenite and 0.05 M sodium arsenate to a 0.05 M solution of stannic chloride in a volume ratio of 1:1:1 at pH 1. A tentative structure has been proposed on the basis of chemical composition, pH titrations, and infrared and thermogravimetric analyses. Distribution coefficients of several metal ions have been studied in hydrochloric acid, citric acid, ammonium citrate-citric acid, and water-dioxane systems. The unusual adsorption behavior or uranium has been utilized for its quantitative separation from several metal ions.

  20. Iron oxide nanostructured electrodes for detection of copper(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Santos, J G M; Souza, J R; Letti, C J; Soler, M A G; Morais, P C; Pereira-da-Silva, M A; Paterno, L G

    2014-09-01

    Iron oxide nanostructured (ION) electrodes were assembled layer-by-layer onto ITO-coated glass substrates and their structure, morphology, and electrochemical properties were investigated, the latter aiming at the development of a chemical sensor for Cu2+. The electrodes were built by immersing the substrate alternately into an aqueous colloidal suspension of positively charged magnetite nanoparticles (np-Fe3O4, 8 nm) and an aqueous solution of anionic sodium sulfonated polystyrene (PSS). The adsorbed amount of both materials was monitored ex-situ by UV-vis spectroscopy and it was found to increase linearly with the number of deposition cycles. The resulting films feature a densely-packed structure of magnetite nanoparticles, as suggested by AFM and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. Cyclic voltammograms of electrodes immersed in acetate buffer (pH 4.6) displayed three electrochemical events that were tentatively ascribed to the reduction of Fe(III) oxy-hydroxide to magnetite, reduction of maghemite to magnetite, and finally oxidation of magnetite to maghemite. The effect of np-Fe3O4/PSS bilayers on the ION electrode performance was to increase the anodic and cathodic currents produced during electrochemical oxidation-reduction of the Fe(CN)(3-/4-) redox couple. With more bilayers, the ION electrode provided higher anodic/cathodic currents. Moreover, the redox couple exhibited a quasi-reversible behavior at the ION electrode as already observed with other working electrode systems. Fitting of voltammetry data provided the apparent electron transfer constants, which were found to be higher in ION electrodes for both redox couples (Fe(CN)(3-/4-) and Cu(2+/0)). By means of differential pulsed anodic stripping voltammetry, the ION electrodes were found to respond linearly to the presence of Cu2+ in aqueous samples in the range between 1.0 and 8.0 x 10(-6) mol x L(-1) and displayed a limit of detection of 0.3 x 10(-8) mol x L(-1). The sensitivity was - 0.6μA/μmol x L

  1. Trapping of muscle relaxant methocarbamol degradation product by complexation with copper(II) ion: spectroscopic and quantum chemical studies.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Ahmed M; Shehab, Ola R

    2014-07-15

    Structural properties of methocarbamol (Mcm) were extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically using FT IR, (1)H NMR, UV-Vis., geometry optimization, Mulliken charge, and molecular electrostatic potential. Stability arises from hyper-conjugative interactions, charge delocalization and H-bonding was analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Mcm was decomposed in ethanol/water mixture at 80°C to guaifenesin [(RS)-3-(2-methoxyphenoxy)propane-1,2-diol] and carbamate ion [NH2COO(-)], where the degradation mechanism was explained by trapping the carbamate ion via the complexation with copper(II) ion. The structure of the isolated complex ([Cu(NH2COO)2(H2O)]⋅4H2O) was elucidated by spectral, thermal, and magnetic tools. Electronic spectra were discussed by TD-DFT and the descriptions of frontier molecular orbitals and the relocations of the electron density were determined. Calculated g-tensor values showed best agreement with experimental values from EPR when carried out using both the B3LYP and B3PW91 functional. PMID:24674917

  2. Trapping of muscle relaxant methocarbamol degradation product by complexation with copper(II) ion: Spectroscopic and quantum chemical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, Ahmed M.; Shehab, Ola R.

    2014-07-01

    Structural properties of methocarbamol (Mcm) were extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically using FT IR, 1H NMR, UV-Vis., geometry optimization, Mulliken charge, and molecular electrostatic potential. Stability arises from hyper-conjugative interactions, charge delocalization and H-bonding was analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Mcm was decomposed in ethanol/water mixture at 80 °C to guaifenesin [(RS)-3-(2-methoxyphenoxy)propane-1,2-diol] and carbamate ion [NH2COO-], where the degradation mechanism was explained by trapping the carbamate ion via the complexation with copper(II) ion. The structure of the isolated complex ([Cu(NH2COO)2(H2O)]ṡ4H2O) was elucidated by spectral, thermal, and magnetic tools. Electronic spectra were discussed by TD-DFT and the descriptions of frontier molecular orbitals and the relocations of the electron density were determined. Calculated g-tensor values showed best agreement with experimental values from EPR when carried out using both the B3LYP and B3PW91 functional.

  3. Avidin-biotin capped mesoporous silica nanoparticles as an ion-responsive release system to determine lead(II).

    PubMed

    Song, Weiling; Li, Jingyu; Li, Qing; Ding, Wenyao; Yang, Xiaoyan

    2015-02-15

    We have developed DNAzyme-functionalized silica nanoparticles for the rapid, sensitive, and selective detection of lead ion (Pb(2+)). The specific binding between avidin and biotinylated DNAzymes was used to cap the pore of dye-trapped silica nanoparticles. In the presence of Pb(2+), DNAzymes were catalytically cleaved to uncap the pore, releasing the dye cargo with detectable enhancements of fluorescence signal. This method enables rapid (15 min) and sensitive (limit of detection=8.0 nM) detection. Moreover, the Pb(2+)-responsive behavior shows high selectivity with other metal ions. The superior properties of the as-designed DNAzyme-functionalized silica nanoparticles can be attributed to the large loading capacity and highly ordered pore structure of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as well as the catalytical cleaving of DNAzymes with Pb(2+). The recoveries obtained by standard Pb(II) addition to real samples-tap water, commercial mineral water, and lake water-were all from 98 to 101%. Our design serves as a new prototype for metal-ion sensing systems, and it also has promising potential for detection of various targets in stimulus-release systems. PMID:25447495

  4. Preparation and characterization of chelating fibers based on natural wool for removal of Hg(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) metal ions from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Monier, M; Nawar, N; Abdel-Latif, D A

    2010-12-15

    The graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) onto natural wool fibers initiated by KMnO(4) and oxalic acid combined redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Moreover, modification of the grafted wool fibers was done by changing the nitrile group (-CN) into cyano-acetic acid α-amino-acrylic-hydrazide through the reaction with hydrazine hydrate followed by ethylcyanoacetate which eventually produce wool-grafted-poly(cyano-acetic acid α-amino-acrylic-hydrazide) (wool-g-PCAH) chelating fibers. The application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Hg(2+), Cu(2+) and Co(2+). The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction. PMID:20810212

  5. Complexation of copper and zinc ions with proteins of a light-harvesting complex (LHC-II) of chloroplast thylakoid membranes studied by FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajmir-Riahi, H. A.; Ahmed, A.

    1993-08-01

    The interaction of Zn(II) and Cu(II) ions with the light-harvesting proteins (LHC-II) of chloroplast thylakoid membranes was studied in aqueous solution with metal ion concentrations of 0.01 to 20mM, using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Analyses of the metal ion binding mode and protein conformational variations were carried out and correlations between spectral changes and metal—protein complexation were established. Infrared difference spectroscopic results revealed the presence of a strong metal—protein interaction at high metal ion concentrations, while at low concentrations complexation was negligible. The binding of Zn and Cu ions was found to be with the protein carbonyl groups at low metal ion concentrations, whereas CO and CN groups were the main coordination sites at higher concentrations. A major conformational variation from α-helix to β-sheet and turn structures was observed in the presence of a concentrated metal ion solution.

  6. San copolymer membranes with ion exchangers for Cu(II) removal from synthetic wastewater by electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Caprarescu, Simona; Corobea, Mihai Cosmin; Purcar, Violeta; Spataru, Catalin Ilie; Ianchis, Raluca; Vasilievici, Gabriel; Vuluga, Zina

    2015-09-01

    Heterogeneous membranes were obtained by using styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN) blends with low content of ion-exchanger particles (5wt.%). The membranes obtained by phase inversion were used for the removal of copper ions from synthetic wastewater solutions by electrodialytic separation. The electrodialysis was conducted in a three cell unit, without electrolyte recirculation. The process, under potentiostatic or galvanostatic control, was followed by pH and conductivity measurements in the solution. The electrodialytic performance, evaluated in terms of extraction removal degree (rd) of copper ions, was better under potentiostatic control then by the galvanostatic one and the highest (over 70%) was attained at 8V. The membrane efficiency at small ion-exchanger load was explained by the migration of resin particles toward the pores surface during the phase inversion. The prepared membranes were characterized by various techniques i.e. optical microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis and contact angle measurements. PMID:26354689

  7. Non-redox metal ions can promote Wacker-type oxidations even better than copper(II): a new opportunity in catalyst design.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shuhao; Dong, Lei; Chen, Zhuqi; Zhang, Sicheng; Yin, Guochuan

    2015-10-28

    In Wacker oxidation and inspired Pd(ii)/Cu(ii)-catalyzed C-H activations, copper(ii) is believed to serve in re-oxidizing of Pd(0) in the catalytic cycle. Herein we report that non-redox metal ions like Sc(iii) can promote Wacker-type oxidations even better than Cu(ii); both Sc(iii) and Cu(ii) can greatly promote Pd(ii)-catalyzed olefin isomerization in which the redox properties of Cu(ii) are not essential, indicating that the Lewis acid properties of Cu(ii) can play a significant role in Pd(ii)-catalyzed C-H activations in addition to its redox properties. Characterization of catalysts using UV-Vis and NMR indicated that adding Sc(OTf)3 to the acetonitrile solution of Pd(OAc)2 generates a new Pd(ii)/Sc(iii) bimetallic complex having a diacetate bridge which serves as the key active species for Wacker-type oxidation and olefin isomerization. Linkage of trivalent Sc(iii) to the Pd(ii) species makes it more electron-deficient, thus facilitating the coordination of olefin to the Pd(ii) cation. Due to the improved electron transfer from olefin to the Pd(ii) cation, it benefits the nucleophilic attack of water on the olefinic double bond, leading to efficient olefin oxidation. The presence of excess Sc(iii) prevents the palladium(0) black formation, which has been rationalized by the formation of the Sc(iii)H-Pd(ii) intermediate. This intermediate inhibits the reductive elimination of the H-Pd(ii) bond, and facilitates the oxygen insertion to form the HOO-Pd(ii) intermediate, and thus avoids the formation of the inactive palladium(0) black. The Lewis acid promoted Wacker-type oxidation and olefin isomerization demonstrated here may open up a new opportunity in catalyst design for versatile C-H activations. PMID:26390300

  8. Calculation of multicomponent ionic diffusion from zero to high concentration: II. Inclusion of associated ion species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Weare, John H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of multicomponent ionic diffusion which is valid to high concentration for systems which show ion association. The development is completely general for species which do not react with the solvent. It is demonstrated that the Onsager phenomenological coefficients for associated ion species can be unambiguously determined only in solutions where the concentration of these species can be independently measured. In all other instances, only combinations of the Onsager coefficients for the bare ions and the ion pairs can be experimentally determined. The results of our formulations are contrasted with those of more simplified models for systems containing Na 2SO 4 and MgSO 4, as well as for multicomponent natural seawater. The differences between our model and simplified models are significant, especially at high concentration. Inconsistencies which may develop with the use of the simplified approaches are demonstrated. Our approach requires considerable data which are not available at temperatures other than 25°C. Therefore, other approaches which are based only on data at infinite dilution are of great interest. We show here that, if chemical potential derivatives are included in the infinite dilution model of Nernst and Hartley which uses only infinite dilution mobilities, the model can be extended to slightly concentrated solutions. This extended Nernst-Hartley model gives good agreement with all of the existing experimental mutual diffusion coefficient data at concentrations below about 0.2 M in the six component system Na-K-Ca-Mg-Cl-SO 4-H 2O. This may be the most reliable way to extend infinite dilution data into more concentrated regions. In the systems we have studied, the inclusion of ion-association species for weakly interacting species does not appear to provide significant improvement over our generalized Nernst-Hartley model.

  9. The transformation of ferrihydrite in the presence of trace Fe(II): The effect of the ammonia, amine and the coordination ions of Fe(III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Yang, Lijuan; Ma, Miaorui; Li, Ping; Wei, Yu

    2010-03-01

    This work examined Fe(II)-induced transformation of ferrihydrite in the presence of ammonia, amine and the coordination ions of Fe(III). Our earlier results showed that ferrihydrite transformed into the mixture of lepidocrocite, goethite and/or hematite in the presence of trace Fe(II) and absence of ammonia and similar species. However, the formation of lepidocrocite was restrained when using ammonia as precipitants. When introducing some amines (e.g. ethanolamine and diethanolamine) and some coordination ions (e.g. F - and CO42- ions) into the reaction system, a similar effect on the transformation of ferrihydrite was found. Probably, the complexes formed between Fe(III) and those additives favor the formation of goethite. At the same time, the introduction of these additives hinders Fe(II) from interacting with ferrihydrite, which makes the catalytic dissolution of ferrihydrite be limited, thus, the formation of lepidocrocite be restrained.

  10. Exogenous acetate ion reaches the type II copper centre in CueO through the water-excretion channel and potentially affects the enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Komori, Hirofumi; Kataoka, Kunishige; Tanaka, Sakiko; Matsuda, Nana; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    The acetate-bound form of the type II copper was found in the X-ray structure of the multicopper oxidase CueO crystallized in acetate buffer in addition to the conventional OH(-)-bound form as the major resting form. The acetate ion was retained bound to the type II copper even after prolonged exposure of a CueO crystal to X-ray radiation, which led to the stepwise reduction of the Cu centres. However, in this study, when CueO was crystallized in citrate buffer the OH(-)-bound form was present exclusively. This fact shows that an exogenous acetate ion reaches the type II Cu centre through the water channel constructed between domains 1 and 3 in the CueO molecule. It was also found that the enzymatic activity of CueO is enhanced in the presence of acetate ions in the solvent water. PMID:27380373

  11. Surface-plasmon-based colorimetric detection of Cu(II) ions using label-free gold nanoparticles in aqueous thiosulfate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Suraj Kumar; Woo, Ju Yeon; Han, Chang-Soo

    2012-08-01

    We report colorimetric, label-free and non-aggregation-based gold nanoparticle (AuNP) probes for the highly selective detection of Cu(II) ions in aqueous environments. This detection scheme relies on the ability of Cu(II) ions to catalyze the leaching of gold at room temperature in the presence of thiosulfate species and ammonia. This simple and cost-effective probe provides rapid detection of Cu(II) ions at concentrations as low as 10 ppm. A similar detection method using AuNPs in ammonia-free thiosulfate solution is also viable at moderate reaction temperature (50 °C). The ammonia-free method also leads to marked damping and red-shifting of the surface plasmon resonance signal of the AuNP dispersion. The two methods clearly differ in the nature of the surface plasmon damping phenomenon, and their working mechanisms are plausibly explained based on the experimental investigations.

  12. Cadmium Sulphide-Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Photoelectrode-Based Photoelectrochemical Sensing Platform for Copper(II) Ions

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, I; Lim, H. N; Huang, N. M; Pandikumar, A

    2016-01-01

    A photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor with excellent sensitivity and detection toward copper (II) ions (Cu2+) was developed using a cadmium sulphide-reduced graphene oxide (CdS-rGO) nanocomposite on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface, with triethanolamine (TEA) used as the sacrificial electron donor. The CdS nanoparticles were initially synthesized via the aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) method using cadmium acetate and thiourea as the precursors to Cd2+ and S2-, respectively. Graphene oxide (GO) was then dip-coated onto the CdS electrode and sintered under an argon gas flow (50 mL/min) for the reduction process. The nanostructured CdS was adhered securely to the ITO by a continuous network of rGO that also acted as an avenue to intensify the transfer of electrons from the conduction band of CdS. The photoelectrochemical results indicated that the ITO/CdS-rGO photoelectrode could facilitate broad UV-visible light absorption, which would lead to a higher and steady-state photocurrent response in the presence of TEA in 0.1 M KCl. The photocurrent decreased with an increase in the concentration of Cu2+ ions. The photoelectrode response for Cu2+ ion detection had a linear range of 0.5–120 μM, with a limit of detection (LoD) of 16 nM. The proposed PEC sensor displayed ultra-sensitivity and good selectivity toward Cu2+ ion detection. PMID:27176635

  13. Cadmium Sulphide-Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Photoelectrode-Based Photoelectrochemical Sensing Platform for Copper(II) Ions.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, I; Lim, H N; Huang, N M; Pandikumar, A

    2016-01-01

    A photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor with excellent sensitivity and detection toward copper (II) ions (Cu2+) was developed using a cadmium sulphide-reduced graphene oxide (CdS-rGO) nanocomposite on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface, with triethanolamine (TEA) used as the sacrificial electron donor. The CdS nanoparticles were initially synthesized via the aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) method using cadmium acetate and thiourea as the precursors to Cd2+ and S2-, respectively. Graphene oxide (GO) was then dip-coated onto the CdS electrode and sintered under an argon gas flow (50 mL/min) for the reduction process. The nanostructured CdS was adhered securely to the ITO by a continuous network of rGO that also acted as an avenue to intensify the transfer of electrons from the conduction band of CdS. The photoelectrochemical results indicated that the ITO/CdS-rGO photoelectrode could facilitate broad UV-visible light absorption, which would lead to a higher and steady-state photocurrent response in the presence of TEA in 0.1 M KCl. The photocurrent decreased with an increase in the concentration of Cu2+ ions. The photoelectrode response for Cu2+ ion detection had a linear range of 0.5-120 μM, with a limit of detection (LoD) of 16 nM. The proposed PEC sensor displayed ultra-sensitivity and good selectivity toward Cu2+ ion detection. PMID:27176635

  14. H4octapa: highly stable complexation of lanthanide(III) ions and copper(II).

    PubMed

    Kálmán, Ferenc Krisztián; Végh, Andrea; Regueiro-Figueroa, Martín; Tóth, Éva; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Tircsó, Gyula

    2015-03-01

    The acyclic ligand octapa(4-) (H4octapa = 6,6'-((ethane-1,2-diylbis((carboxymethyl)azanediyl))bis(methylene))dipicolinic acid) forms stable complexes with the Ln(3+) ions in aqueous solution. The stability constants determined for the complexes with La(3+), Gd(3+), and Lu(3+) using relaxometric methods are log KLaL = 20.13(7), log KGdL = 20.23(4), and log KLuL = 20.49(5) (I = 0.15 M NaCl). High stability constants were also determined for the complexes formed with divalent metal ions such as Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) (log KZnL = 18.91(3) and log KCuL = 22.08(2)). UV-visible and NMR spectroscopic studies and density functional theory (DFT) calculations point to hexadentate binding of the ligand to Zn(2+) and Cu(2+), the donor atoms of the acetate groups of the ligand remaining uncoordinated. The complexes formed with the Ln(3+) ions are nine-coordinated thanks to the octadentate binding of the ligand and the presence of a coordinated water molecule. The stability constants of the complexes formed with the Ln(3+) ions do not change significantly across the lanthanide series. A DFT investigation shows that this is the result of a subtle balance between the increased binding energies across the 4f period, which contribute to an increasing complex stability, and the parallel increase of the absolute values of the hydration free energies of the Ln(3+) ions. In the case of the [Ln(octapa)(H2O)](-) complexes the interaction between the amine nitrogen atoms of the ligand and the Ln(3+) ions is weakened along the lanthanide series, and therefore the increased electrostatic interaction does not overcome the increasing hydration energies. A detailed kinetic study of the dissociation of the [Gd(octapa)(H2O)](-) complex in the presence of Cu(2+) shows that the metal-assisted pathway is the main responsible for complex dissociation at pH 7.4 and physiological [Cu(2+)] concentration (1 μM). PMID:25692564

  15. Equilibrium of field reversed configurations with rotation. II. One space dimension and many ion species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qerushi, Artan; Rostoker, Norman

    2002-07-01

    In a previous paper [N. Rostoker and A. Qerushi, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3057 (2002)] it was shown that a complete description of equilibria of field reversed configurations with rotation can be obtained by solving a generalized Grad-Shafranov equation for the flux function. In this paper we show how to solve this equation in the case of one space dimension and many ion species. The following fusion fuels are considered: D-T, D-He3, and p-B11. Using a Green's function the generalized Grad-Shafranov equation is converted to an equivalent integral equation. The integral equation can be solved by iteration. Approximate analytic solutions for a plasma with many ion species are found. They are used as starting trial functions of the iterations. They turn out to be so close to the true solutions that only a few iterations are needed.

  16. Ion selectivity of colicin E1: II. Permeability to organic cations.

    PubMed

    Bullock, J O; Kolen, E R; Shear, J L

    1992-05-01

    Channels formed by colicin E1 in planar lipid bilayers have large diameters and conduct both cations and anions. The rates at which ions are transported, however, are relatively slow, and the relative anion-to-cation selectivity is modulated over a wide range by the pH of the bathing solutions. We have examined the permeability of these channels to cationic probes having a variety of sizes, shapes, and charge distributions. All of the monovalent probes were found to be permeant, establishing a minimum diameter at the narrowest part of the pore of approximately 9 A. In contrast to this behavior, all of the polyvalent organic cations were shown to be impermeant. This simple exclusionary rule is interpreted as evidence that, when steric restrictions require partial dehydration of an ion, the structure of the channel is able to provide a substitute electrostatic environment for only one charged group at time. PMID:1380089

  17. Highly selective colorimetric sensing of Cu(II) ions in aqueous solution via modulation of intramolecular charge transfer transition of aminonaphthoquinone chemosensor.

    PubMed

    Madhupriya, Selvaraj; Elango, Kuppanagounder P

    2012-11-01

    An aminonaphthoquinone based colorimetric chemosensor has been developed and demonstrated for the highly selective detection of Cu(II) ions in aqueous solution. The intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) transition exits in amine moiety directly attached to the quinone ring is modulated by the d-d transition of a square planar Cu(II)-receptor complex resulting in a change of color from yellow to blue. No significant color change was observed upon addition of other selected metal ions. The sensing property has been investigated using various spectral techniques (UV-Vis, fluorescence) and product analysis (Elemental analysis, magnetic moment, UV-Vis, FT-IR, EPR). PMID:22750343

  18. Hydrothermal self-assembly and supercapacitive behaviors of Co(II) ion-modified graphene aerogels in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Qi; Hui, K.N.; Hui, K.S.; Wang, Yi; Hong, Xiaoting

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • 3D Co(II) ions modified graphene aerogels were prepared by one-step hydrothermal process. • The aerogel electrodes showed hybrid supercapacitor behaviors. • The aerogel electrodes exhibited high rate capability and long-term cycling stability. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) aerogels decorated with divalent cobalt ions were synthesized via a one-pot hydrothermal self-assembly route. The interaction of Co(II) ions with 3D r-GO aerogels was investigated by spectroscopic techniques, including Raman, attenuated total reflectance infrared, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. The excellent electrochemical properties of the aerogels were confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in an acid electrolyte (1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). The Co(II) ion-modified r-GO aerogels can be used as high-performance hybrid supercapacitor materials with a specific capacitance of 387.2 F g{sup –1} at 1 A g{sup –1} current density and a good cycling stability without capacity decay over 1000 cycles. The mechanical integrity enhancement of the hybrid r-GO aerogel framework and the improvement in its unique capacitive performance are attributed to the efficient interconnection produced by electro-active Co(II) ions.

  19. Binding of Cu(II) ions to peptides studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Makowska, Joanna; Żamojć, Krzysztof; Wyrzykowski, Dariusz; Uber, Dorota; Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Wiczk, Wiesław; Chmurzyński, Lech

    2016-01-15

    Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence quenching measurements supported by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) were used to study the interactions of Cu(2+) with four peptides. Two of them were taken from the N-terminal part of the FBP28 protein (formin binding protein) WW domain: Tyr-Lys-Thr-Ala-Asp-Gly-Lys-Thr-Tyr-NH2 (D9) and its mutant Tyr-Lys-Thr-Ala-Asn-Gly-Lys-Thr-Tyr-NH2 (D9_M) as well as two mutated peptides from the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G derived from Streptococcus: Asp-Val-Ala-Thr-Tyr-Thr-NH2 (J1) and Glu-Val-Ala-Thr-Tyr-Thr-NH2 (J2). The measurements were carried out at 298.15K in 20mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer solution with a pH of 6. The fluorescence of all peptides was quenched by Cu(2+) ions. The stoichiometry, conditional stability constants and thermodynamic parameters for the interactions of the Cu(2+) ions with D9 and D9_M were determined from the calorimetric data. The values of the conditional stability constants were additionally determined from fluorescence quenching measurements and compared with those obtained from calorimetric studies. There was a good correlation between data obtained from the two techniques. On the other hand, the studies revealed that J1 and J2 do not exhibit an affinity towards metal ions. The obtained results prove that fluorescence quenching experiments may be successfully used in order to determine stability constants of complexes with fluorescent ligands. Finally, based on the obtained results, the coordinating properties of the peptides towards the Cu(2+) ions are discussed. PMID:26363471

  20. Binding of Cu(II) ions to peptides studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowska, Joanna; Żamojć, Krzysztof; Wyrzykowski, Dariusz; Uber, Dorota; Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Wiczk, Wiesław; Chmurzyński, Lech

    2016-01-01

    Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence quenching measurements supported by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) were used to study the interactions of Cu2 + with four peptides. Two of them were taken from the N-terminal part of the FBP28 protein (formin binding protein) WW domain: Tyr-Lys-Thr-Ala-Asp-Gly-Lys-Thr-Tyr-NH2 (D9) and its mutant Tyr-Lys-Thr-Ala-Asn-Gly-Lys-Thr-Tyr-NH2 (D9_M) as well as two mutated peptides from the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G derived from Streptococcus: Asp-Val-Ala-Thr-Tyr-Thr-NH2 (J1) and Glu-Val-Ala-Thr-Tyr-Thr-NH2 (J2). The measurements were carried out at 298.15 K in 20 mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) buffer solution with a pH of 6. The fluorescence of all peptides was quenched by Cu2 + ions. The stoichiometry, conditional stability constants and thermodynamic parameters for the interactions of the Cu2 + ions with D9 and D9_M were determined from the calorimetric data. The values of the conditional stability constants were additionally determined from fluorescence quenching measurements and compared with those obtained from calorimetric studies. There was a good correlation between data obtained from the two techniques. On the other hand, the studies revealed that J1 and J2 do not exhibit an affinity towards metal ions. The obtained results prove that fluorescence quenching experiments may be successfully used in order to determine stability constants of complexes with fluorescent ligands. Finally, based on the obtained results, the coordinating properties of the peptides towards the Cu2 + ions are discussed.

  1. Bis(N,N′-dimethyl­ethylenediammonium) tris­(oxalato-κ2 O 1,O 2)cobaltate(II) dihydrate: an ion-pair complex

    PubMed Central

    Gaye, Papa Aly; Sy, Adama; Thiam, Ibrahima Elhadj; Gaye, Mohamed; Retailleau, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    The CoII ion in the title complex, (C4H14N2)2[Co(C2O4)3]·2H2O, is coordinated by three oxalate ions, resulting in a distorted octa­hedral geometry. Two uncoordinated water mol­ecules are present in asymmetric unit. Inter­molecular N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the different entities stabilize the crystal structure. PMID:22058871

  2. Transition Ion Strikes Back: Large Magnetic Susceptibility Anisotropy in Cobalt(II) Clathrochelates.

    PubMed

    Novikov, Valentin V; Pavlov, Alexander A; Belov, Alexander S; Vologzhanina, Anna V; Savitsky, Anton; Voloshin, Yan Z

    2014-11-01

    Transition-metal complexes are rarely considered as paramagnetic tags for NMR spectroscopy due to them generally having relatively low magnetic anisotropy. Here we report cobalt(II) cage complexes with the largest (among the transition-metal complexes) axial anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, reaching as high as 12.6 × 10(-32) m(3) at room temperature. This remarkable anisotropy, which results from an unusual trigonal prismatic geometry of the complexes and translates into large negative value of the zero-field splitting energy, is high enough to promote reliable paramagnetic pseudocontact shifts at the distance beyond 2 nm. Our finding paves the way toward the applications of cobalt(II) clathrochelates as future paramagnetic tags. Given the incredible stability and functionalization versatility of clathrochelates, the fine-tuning of the caging ligand may lead to new chemically stable mononuclear single-molecule magnets, for which magnetic anisotropy is of importance. PMID:26278750

  3. Metal ion containing CXCR4 chemokine receptor antagonists: nickel(II) complexes of configurationally restricted macrocycles

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rachel; Huskens, Dana; Daelemans, Dirk; Mewis, Ryan E.; Garcia, Courtney D.; Cain, Amy N.; Carder Freeman, TaRynn N.; Pannecouque, Christophe; De Clercq, Erik; Schols, Dominique; Hubin, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of transition metals provide useful units for incorporating multiple coordination interactions into a single protein binding molecule. They can be designed with available sites for protein interactions with donor atom containing amino acid side chains or have labile ligands such as H2O allowing facile exchange. Three configurationally restricted nickel(II) cyclam complexes with either one or two macrocyclic rings were synthesised and their ability to abrogate the CXCR4 chemokine receptor signalling process was assessed (IC50 = 8320, 194 and 14 nM). Analogues were characterised crystallographically to determine the geometric parameters of acetate binding as a model for aspartate. The most active nickel(II) compound was tested in several anti-HIV assays against representative viral strains showing highly potent EC50 values down to 13 nM against CXCR4 using viruses with no observed cellular cytotoxicity (CC50 > 125 μM). PMID:2289289

  4. Radiative recombination data for tungsten ions: II. W{sup 47+}–W{sup 71+}

    SciTech Connect

    Trzhaskovskaya, M.B.; Nikulin, V.K.

    2014-07-15

    New radiative recombination and photoionization cross sections, radiative recombination rate coefficients, and radiated power loss rate coefficients are presented for 23 tungsten impurity ions in plasmas. We consider ions from W{sup 47+} to W{sup 71+} that are of importance to fusion studies for ITER and for experiments using electron beam ion traps. The calculations are fully relativistic and all significant multipoles of the radiative field are taken into account. The Dirac–Fock method is used to compute the electron wavefunctions. Radiative recombination rates and radiated power loss rates are found using the relativistic Maxwell–Jüttner distribution of the continuum electron velocity. The total radiative recombination cross sections are given in the electron energy range from 1 eV to ∼80keV. Partial cross sections for ground and excited states are approximated by an analytical expression involving five fit parameters. Radiative recombination rates and radiated power loss rates are calculated in the temperature range from 10{sup 4}K to 10{sup 9}K. The total radiative recombination rates are approximated by another analytical expression with four fit parameters.

  5. Engineering Short Preorganized Peptide Sequences for Metal Ion Coordination: Copper(II) a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Lima, L M P; Iranzo, O

    2016-01-01

    Peptides are multidentate chiral ligands capable of coordinating different metal ions. Nowadays, they can be obtained with high yield and purity, thanks to the advances on peptide/protein chemistry as well as in equipment (peptide synthesizers). Based on the identity and length of their amino acid sequences, peptides can present different degrees of flexibility and folding. Although short peptide sequences (<20 amino acids) usually lack structure in solution, different levels of structural preorganization can be induced by introducing conformational constraints, such as β-turn/loop template sequences and backbone cyclization. For all these reasons, and the fact that one is not restricted to use proteinogenic amino acids, small peptidic scaffolds constitute a simple and versatile platform for the development of inorganic systems with tailor-made properties and functions. Here we outline a general approach to the design of short preorganized peptide sequences (10-16 amino acids) for metal ion coordination. Based on our experience, we present a general scheme for the design, synthesis, and characterization of these peptidic scaffolds and provide protocols for the study of their metal ion coordination properties. PMID:27586340

  6. Removal of Pb (II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Cladophora rivularis (Linnaeus) Hoek

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Naser; Senobari, Zoreh

    2012-01-01

    Biosorption of Pb(II) using Cladophora rivularis was examined as a function of initial pH heavy metal concentration and temperature. The optimum pH value for the biosorption of lead was 4.0. The adsorption equilibriums were well described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and it was implied by the results that the C. rivularis biomass is suitable for the development of efficient biosorbent in order to remove Pb(II) from wastewater and to recover it. The high values of correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.984) demonstrate equilibrium data concerning algal biomass, which is well fitted in Freundlich isotherms model equations. The dimensionless parameter RL is found in the range of 0.0639 to 0.1925 (0 < RL < 1), which confirms the favorable biosorption process. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy of C. rivularis was used to reveal the main function groups of biosorption, which were hydroxyl, amine groups, C–H stretching vibrations of –CH3 and –CH2, and complexation with functional groups. All these results suggest that C. rivularis can be used effectively for removal of Pb(II). PMID:22629198

  7. Removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solutions using N-carboxymethyl chitosan.

    PubMed

    Wang, C X; Song, Q P

    2012-01-01

    N-carboxymethyl chitosan (NCMC) was synthesized by reacting chitosan with chloroacetic acid in water under triethylamine (Et(3)N) as catalyst. The chemical structures of NCMC were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy and confirmed that carboxymethylation occurred on the amino groups. Samples of NCMC were used for removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solution. The effects of degree of substitution of NCMC, initial pH value and adsorption kinetics on the adsorption were studied. Adsorption experiments showed that NCMC has a high adsorption speed and high adsorption capacity for remove Cu(II) from aqueous solution. The adsorption kinetics data were best fitted with the pseudo-second-order model. The experimental equilibrium data of Cu(II) on the NCMC were both fitted to the Langmuir model and Freundlich model, which revealed that the maximum capacity for monolayer saturation was 147.93 mg/g. PMID:22925879

  8. Biosorption of Pb(II) ions by modified quebracho tannin resin.

    PubMed

    Yurtsever, Meral; Sengil, I Ayhan

    2009-04-15

    In this study, the effect of temperature, pH and initial metal concentration on Pb(II) biosorption on modified quebracho tannin resin (QTR) was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to investigate QTR structure and morphology. Besides, the specific BET surface area and zeta-potential of the QTR were analysed. Thermodynamic functions, the change of free energy (DeltaG degrees), enthalpy (DeltaH degrees) and entropy (DeltaS degrees) of Pb adsorption on modified tannin resin were calculated as -5.43 kJ mol(-1) (at 296+/-2K), 31.84 kJ mol(-1) and 0.127 J mmol(-1) K(-1), respectively, indicating the spontaneous, endothermic and the increased randomness nature of Pb(2+) adsorption. The kinetic data was tested using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion model. The results suggested that the pseudo-second-order model (R(2)>0.999) was the best choice among all the kinetic models to describe the adsorption behavior of Pb(II) onto QTR. Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin adsorption models were used to represent the equilibrium data. The best interpretation for the experimental data was given by the Langmuir isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacity (86.207 mg g(-1)) of Pb(II) was obtained at pH 5 and 296 K. PMID:18667272

  9. A four-coordinate cobalt(II) single-ion magnet with coercivity and a very high energy barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechkemmer, Yvonne; Breitgoff, Frauke D.; van der Meer, Margarethe; Atanasov, Mihail; Hakl, Michael; Orlita, Milan; Neugebauer, Petr; Neese, Frank; Sarkar, Biprajit; van Slageren, Joris

    2016-02-01

    Single-molecule magnets display magnetic bistability of molecular origin, which may one day be exploited in magnetic data storage devices. Recently it was realised that increasing the magnetic moment of polynuclear molecules does not automatically lead to a substantial increase in magnetic bistability. Attention has thus increasingly focussed on ions with large magnetic anisotropies, especially lanthanides. In spite of large effective energy barriers towards relaxation of the magnetic moment, this has so far not led to a big increase in magnetic bistability. Here we present a comprehensive study of a mononuclear, tetrahedrally coordinated cobalt(II) single-molecule magnet, which has a very high effective energy barrier and displays pronounced magnetic bistability. The combined experimental-theoretical approach enables an in-depth understanding of the origin of these favourable properties, which are shown to arise from a strong ligand field in combination with axial distortion. Our findings allow formulation of clear design principles for improved materials.

  10. A four-coordinate cobalt(II) single-ion magnet with coercivity and a very high energy barrier

    PubMed Central

    Rechkemmer, Yvonne; Breitgoff, Frauke D.; van der Meer, Margarethe; Atanasov, Mihail; Hakl, Michael; Orlita, Milan; Neugebauer, Petr; Sarkar, Biprajit; van Slageren, Joris

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule magnets display magnetic bistability of molecular origin, which may one day be exploited in magnetic data storage devices. Recently it was realised that increasing the magnetic moment of polynuclear molecules does not automatically lead to a substantial increase in magnetic bistability. Attention has thus increasingly focussed on ions with large magnetic anisotropies, especially lanthanides. In spite of large effective energy barriers towards relaxation of the magnetic moment, this has so far not led to a big increase in magnetic bistability. Here we present a comprehensive study of a mononuclear, tetrahedrally coordinated cobalt(II) single-molecule magnet, which has a very high effective energy barrier and displays pronounced magnetic bistability. The combined experimental-theoretical approach enables an in-depth understanding of the origin of these favourable properties, which are shown to arise from a strong ligand field in combination with axial distortion. Our findings allow formulation of clear design principles for improved materials. PMID:26883902

  11. A four-coordinate cobalt(II) single-ion magnet with coercivity and a very high energy barrier.

    PubMed

    Rechkemmer, Yvonne; Breitgoff, Frauke D; van der Meer, Margarethe; Atanasov, Mihail; Hakl, Michael; Orlita, Milan; Neugebauer, Petr; Neese, Frank; Sarkar, Biprajit; van Slageren, Joris

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule magnets display magnetic bistability of molecular origin, which may one day be exploited in magnetic data storage devices. Recently it was realised that increasing the magnetic moment of polynuclear molecules does not automatically lead to a substantial increase in magnetic bistability. Attention has thus increasingly focussed on ions with large magnetic anisotropies, especially lanthanides. In spite of large effective energy barriers towards relaxation of the magnetic moment, this has so far not led to a big increase in magnetic bistability. Here we present a comprehensive study of a mononuclear, tetrahedrally coordinated cobalt(II) single-molecule magnet, which has a very high effective energy barrier and displays pronounced magnetic bistability. The combined experimental-theoretical approach enables an in-depth understanding of the origin of these favourable properties, which are shown to arise from a strong ligand field in combination with axial distortion. Our findings allow formulation of clear design principles for improved materials. PMID:26883902

  12. Effective removal of mercury(II) ions from chlor-alkali industrial wastewater using 2-mercaptobenzamide modified itaconic acid-grafted-magnetite nanocellulose composite.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, T S; Shainy, F

    2015-10-15

    A novel adsorbent, 2-mercaptobenzamide modified itaconic acid-grafted-magnetite nanocellulose composite [P(MB-IA)-g-MNCC] was synthesized for adsorbing mercury(II) [Hg(II)] ions selectively from aqueous solutions. Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric studies were performed to characterize the adsorbent. The optimum pH for Hg(II) adsorption was found to be 8.0, and the adsorption attained equilibrium within 60 min. The kinetic data were found to follow pseudo-second-order which assumes the ion exchange followed by complexation mechanism. The temperature dependence indicates an exothermic process. The well agreement of equilibrium data with Freundlich adsorption model confirms the multilayer coverage of Hg(II) onto P(MB-IA)-g-MNCC. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 240.0 mg/g. Complete removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solution was possible with an adsorbent dosage of 2.0 g/L. Spent adsorbent was effectively degenerated with 0.1M HCl. The present investigation shows that P(MB-IA)g-MNCC is a promising adsorbent for the removal and recovery of Hg(II) ions from aqueous solutions. PMID:26086434

  13. Effects of background electrolytes and ionic strength on enrichment of Cd(II) ions with magnetic graphene oxide-supported sulfanilic acid.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin-jiang; Liu, Yun-guo; Zeng, Guang-ming; You, Shao-hong; Wang, Hui; Hu, Xi; Guo, Yi-ming; Tan, Xiao-fei; Guo, Fang-ying

    2014-12-01

    To elucidate the influence mechanisms of background electrolytes and ionic strength on Cd(II) removal, the adsorption of Cd(II) onto magnetic graphene oxide-supported sulfanilic acid (MGO-SA) in aqueous solutions containing different types and concentrations of background electrolytes was studied. The results indicate that Cd(II) adsorption was strongly dependent on pH and could be strongly affected by background electrolytes and ionic strength. The Cd(II) removal was decreased with the presence of background electrolyte cations (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), and Ni(2+)), and the divalent cations exerted more obvious influences on the Cd(II) uptake than the monovalent cations at pH 6. Both Cl(-) and NO3(-) had negative effects on Cd(II) adsorption because they can form water-soluble metal-anion complexes with Cd(II) ions. The presence of 0.01molL(-1) Na3PO4 reduced the removal percentage of Cd(II) at pH<5 but extremely enhanced the Cd(II) removal when the pH>5. The Cd(II) adsorption was sensitive to changes in the concentration of NaCl, NaNO3, NaClO4, and Na3PO4. Besides, the adsorption isotherm of Cd(II) onto MGO-SA could be well described by the Freundlich model and was also influenced by the type of background electrolyte ions and the ionic strength. PMID:25238326

  14. A novel coumarin Schiff-base as a Ni(II) ion colorimetric sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingyun; Ye, Decheng; Cao, Derong

    2012-05-01

    A novel coumarin Schiff base compound (L) prepared from 7-diethylaminocoumarin-3-aldehyde and 3-amino-7-hydroxycoumarin was synthesized and evaluated as a chemoselective Ni(2+) sensor. Addition of Ni(2+) to CH(3)CN solution of L resulted in a rapid color change from yellow to red together with a large red shift from 465 to 516 nm. Moreover, other common alkali-, alkaline earth-, transition- and rare earth metal ions induced no or minimal spectral changes. Experimental results indicated that L could be used as a potential Ni(2+) colorimetric and naked-eye chemosensor in CH(3)CN solution. PMID:22306449

  15. Ion Exchange Chromatography and Mass Spectrometric Methods for Analysis of Cadmium-Phytochelatin (II) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Merlos Rodrigo, Miguel Angel; Cernei, Natalia; Kominkova, Marketa; Zitka, Ondrej; Beklova, Miroslava; Zehnalek, Josef; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2013-01-01

    In this study, in vitro formed Cd-phytochelatin (PC2) complexes were characterized using ion exchange chromatography (IEC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The ratio of both studied compounds as well as experimental conditions were optimized. The highest yield of the complex was observed under an applied concentration of 100 µg·mL−1 PC2 and 100 µg·mL−1 of CdCl2. The data obtained show that IEC in combination with MALDI-TOF is a reliable and fast method for the determination of these complexes. PMID:23538727

  16. Iron(II)-Catalyzed Intermolecular Aminofluorination of Unfunctionalized Olefins Using Fluoride Ion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Deng-Fu; Zhu, Cheng-Liang; Sears, Jeffrey D; Xu, Hao

    2016-09-01

    We herein report a new catalytic method for intermolecular olefin aminofluorination using earth-abundant iron catalysts and nucleophilic fluoride ion. This method tolerates a broad range of unfunctionalized olefins, especially nonstyrenyl olefins that are incompatible with existing olefin aminofluorination methods. This new iron-catalyzed process directly converts readily available olefins to internal vicinal fluoro carbamates with high regioselectivity (N vs F), many of which are difficult to prepare using known methods. Preliminary mechanistic studies demonstrate that it is possible to exert asymmetric induction using chiral iron catalysts and that both an iron-nitrenoid and carbocation species may be reactive intermediates. PMID:27529196

  17. Removal of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution and industrial effluent using reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Kheriji, Jamel; Tabassi, Dorra; Hamrouni, Béchir

    2015-01-01

    Industrial effluents loaded with cadmium have contributed to the pollution of the environment and health troubles for humans. Therefore, these effluents need treatment to reduce cadmium concentration before releasing them to public sewage. The purpose of the research is to study the major role of reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) processes, which can contribute to the removal of cadmium ions from model water and wastewater from the battery industry. For this reason, two RO and two nanofiltration membranes have been used. The effects of feed pressure, concentration, ionic strength, nature of anion associated with cadmium and pH on the retention of Cd(II) were studied with model solutions. Thereafter, NF and RO membranes were used to reduce cadmium ions and total salinity of battery industry effluent. Among these membranes, there are only three which eliminate more than 95% of cadmium. This was found to depend on operating conditions. It is worth noting that the Spiegler-Kedem model was applied to fit the experimental results. PMID:26398037

  18. Studying the impurity charge and main ion mass dependence of impurity confinement in ECR-heated TJ-II stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurro, B.; Hollmann, E. M.; Baciero, A.; Ochando, M. A.; McCarthy, K. J.; Medina, F.; Velasco, J. L.; Pastor, I.; Baião, D.; de la Cal, E.; Rapisarda, D.; the TJ-II Team

    2014-12-01

    The dependence of impurity confinement time on the charge and mass of the impurity ions injected from various samples (LiF, BN, W) by the laser blow-off method is reported for electron cyclotron heated discharges of the TJ-II heliac. Distinct impurity confinements are distinguished clearly for these injected ions in the plasma core as revealed by soft x-ray analysis and by tomographic reconstruction of bolometer array signals. A dependence of impurity confinement with charge seems to be the most probable explanation, as confirmed by the analysis of spectrally resolved data in the vacuum-ultraviolet range. This is discussed in terms of the dependence of impurity neoclassical transport on the background radial electric field. In addition, the impurity confinement of LiF is studied for a set of discharges in which the hydrogenic isotope mixture (H, D) is known (and evolves along the experiment), revealing a moderate isotope effect that is observed for the first time in particle confinement in a stellarator. This effect is consistent with a similar effect reported in global energy confinement time in the ATF stellarator.

  19. Coordination Environment of Cu(II) Ions Bound to N-Terminal Peptide Fragments of Angiogenin Protein

    PubMed Central

    Magrì, Antonio; Munzone, Alessia; Peana, Massimiliano; Medici, Serenella; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta; Hansson, Orjan; Satriano, Cristina; Rizzarelli, Enrico; La Mendola, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenin (Ang) is a potent angiogenic factor, strongly overexpressed in patients affected by different types of cancers. The specific Ang cellular receptors have not been identified, but it is known that Ang–actin interaction induces changes both in the cell cytoskeleton and in the extracellular matrix. Most in vitro studies use the recombinant form (r-Ang) instead of the form that is normally present in vivo (“wild-type”, wt-Ang). The first residue of r-Ang is a methionine, with a free amino group, whereas wt-Ang has a glutamic acid, whose amino group spontaneously cyclizes in the pyro-glutamate form. The Ang biological activity is influenced by copper ions. To elucidate the role of such a free amino group on the protein–copper binding, we scrutinized the copper(II) complexes with the peptide fragments Ang(1–17) and AcAng(1–17), which encompass the sequence 1–17 of angiogenin (QDNSRYTHFLTQHYDAK-NH2), with free amino and acetylated N-terminus, respectively. Potentiometric, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism (CD) studies demonstrate that the two peptides show a different metal coordination environment. Confocal microscopy imaging of neuroblastoma cells with the actin staining supports the spectroscopic results, with the finding of different responses in the cytoskeleton organization upon the interaction, in the presence or not of copper ions, with the free amino and the acetylated N-terminus peptides. PMID:27490533

  20. The adsorption of lead(II) ions by dynamic high pressure micro-fluidization treated insoluble soybean dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Huang, Tao; Tu, Zong-Cai; Ruan, Chuan-Ying; Lin, Derong

    2016-06-01

    Insoluble dietary fiber from soybean residue (SIDF) was treated with dynamic high-pressure microfluidization (DHPM) and used as adsorbent for Pb(II) ion. The effects of pressure on the Pb(II) adsorption capacity, primary cilia structure and surface topography of SIDF were determined using a gastrointestinal simulated model in vitro. SIDF (at pH 7.0) showed maximum binding capacity (261.42 ± 2.77 μmol/g), which was about 1.13 times higher than that of untreated sample (233.47 ± 1.84 μmol/g), when pressure reached 80 MPa. However, the net adsorption value of SIDF in a simulated small intestine (~ 9 μmol/g) was significantly lower than that in the stomach (~ 48 μmol/g), because of the competitive adsorption of Pb(2+) by pancreatin, cholate and several enzymes in the small intestine. In addition, the adsorption capacity of SIDF exhibited good linear relationship with the physicochemical properties of total negative charges, and the adsorption behavior presumably occurred on the surface area of granules fiber. PMID:27478208

  1. Complexes of Cu(II) Ions and Noncovalent Interactions in Systems with L-Aspartic Acid and Cytidine-5'-Monophosphate

    PubMed Central

    Bregier-Jarzebowska, Romualda; Gasowska, Anna; Lomozik, Lechosław

    2008-01-01

    Interactions between aspartic acid (Asp) and cytidine-5-monophosphate (CMP) in metal-free systems as well as the coordination of Cu(II) ions with the above ligands were studied. The composition and overall stability constants of the species formed in those systems were determined by the potentiometric method, and the interaction centres in the ligands were identified by the spectral methods UV-Vis, EPR, NMR, and IR. In metal-free systems, the formation of adducts, in which each ligand has both positive and negative reaction centres, was established. The main reaction centres in Asp are the oxygen atoms of carboxyl groups and the nitrogen atom of the amine group, while the main reaction centre in CMP at low pH is the N(3) atom. With increasing pH, the efficiency of the phosphate group of the nucleotide in the interactions significantly increases, and the efficiency of carboxyl groups in Asp decreases. The noncovalent reaction centres in the ligands are simultaneously the potential sites of metal-ion coordination. The mode of coordination in the complexes formed in the ternary systems was established. The sites of coordination depend clearly on the solution pH. In the molecular complexes ML⋯L, metallation involves the oxygen atoms of the carboxyl groups of the amino acid, while the protonated nucleotide is in the outer coordination sphere and interacts noncovalently with the anchoring CuHx(Asp) species. The influence of the metal ions on the weak interactions between the biomolecules was established. PMID:18682818

  2. Pumping of helium and hydrogen by sputter-ion pumps. II. Hydrogen pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, K.M.; Pate, D.J.; Todd, R.J. )

    1994-05-01

    The pumping of helium by various forms of sputter-ion pumps (i.e., SIPs) is given in part I [K. M. Welch, D. J. Pate, and R. J. Todd, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A [bold 11], 1607 (1993)]. The pumping of hydrogen in diode and triode SIPs is herein discussed. The type of cathode material used in these pumps is shown to have a significant impact on the effectiveness with which hydrogen is pumped. Examples of this include data for pumps with aluminum, titanium, and titanium-alloy cathodes. Diode pumps with aluminum cathodes are shown to be no more effective in the pumping of hydrogen than in the pumping of helium. The use of titanium anodes and titanium [ital shielding] of a pump body is also shown to impact measurably the speed of a pump at very low pressures. This stems from the fact that hydrogen is [times]10[sup 6] more soluble in titanium than in stainless steel. Hydrogen becomes resident in the anodes because of fast neutral burial. Ions and fast neutrals of hydrogen are also buried in the walls of pump bodies. Outgassing of this hydrogen from the anodes and pump bodies results in a gradual increase in pump base pressure and consequential decrease in hydrogen pump speed at very low base pressures.

  3. A statistical analysis of the low-energy geosynchronous plasma environment. I - Electrons. II - Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, H. B.; Schwank, D. C.; Deforest, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    Data on the geosynchronous plasma environment between approximately 30 eV and 80 keV are analyzed statistically. Nearly 50 days of 10 minute averages of the first four moments of the distribution function from low-energy plasma detectors on the ATS-5 and ATS-6 geosynchronous satellites were used. The data were studied in terms of occurrence frequency, local time variations, and response to geomagnetic activity. These techniques revealed marked differences in the ATS-5 and ATS-6 data bases. When translated into a 2-Maxwellian representation, it was found that (1) the ATS-6 data covered an energy range not covered by ATS-5 (between 1 and 50 eV) and (2) there was a definite change in the ion plasma between the ATS-5 and ATS-6 measurements. Simple expressions are derived to simulate the relationship between the four moments, and a model is presented, which takes into account the ATS-5 and ATS-6 plasma variations. Despite the differences in the ion data, the accuracy of the four-moment representation was found valid for characterizing the geosynchronous electron population.

  4. Modeling of a negative ion source. II. Plasma-gas coupling in the extraction region

    SciTech Connect

    Taccogna, F.; Schneider, R.; Longo, S.; Capitelli, M.

    2008-10-15

    The production, destruction, and transport of H{sup -} in the extraction region of a negative ion source are investigated with a 1D(z)-3V particle-in-cell electrostatic code. The motion of charged particles (e, H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, and H{sup -}) in their self-consistent electric field is coupled with the neutral particles [H(n=1) and H{sub 2}(X{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}, v=0,...,14)] dynamics and vibrational kinetics of H{sub 2}. Neutral influxes into the domain are determined by the simulation of the expansion region. Surface and volumetric processes involving plasma and neutrals have been included by using different Monte Carlo collision methods. Calculations show the influence of the plasma grid bias and of the magnetic filter on the plasma parameter profiles. In particular, a transition from classical to complete reverse sheath is observed using a positively biased plasma grid. The influence of the magnetic filter is small. The importance of the hot-atom mechanism on the surface negative ion production is shown.

  5. Assessment of subsurface damage in polished II-VI semiconductors by ion channeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucca, D. A.; Wetteland, C. J.; Misra, A.; Klopfstein, M. J.; Nastasi, M.; Maggiore, C. J.; Tesmer, J. R.

    2004-06-01

    Surfaces of bulk single crystal CdS, ZnSe and ZnO were prepared by mechanical polishing with 1 and 1/4 μm diamond abrasive slurries and by chemomechanical polishing with sodium hypochlorite:colloidal silica. Etched surfaces, indicative of original crystalline quality were also prepared. Near surface damage was investigated by ion channeling with He ions using incident beam energies of 2 and 5 MeV and detector positions of 75° and 13°. Damage depths were found to be significantly higher for ZnSe when compared to CdS or ZnO. The chemomechanical polishing process was seen to introduce small but measurable subsurface damage in CdS and ZnSe. However, channeling was unable to detect any damage for the chemomechanically polished ZnO surfaces, a result which was supported by cross-section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The presence of damage beyond that identified by the surface peak for the mechanically polished ZnSe surfaces was indicated by the dechanneling behavior below the surface.

  6. Lanthanide--humic substances complexation. II. Calibration of humic ion-binding model V.

    PubMed

    Sonke, Jeroen E

    2006-12-15

    The experimental complexation of the lanthanides (Sc, Y, and rare earth elements) with Suwannee river fulvic acid, Leonardite coal humic acid, and Elliot soil humic acid is described with Humic Ion-Binding Model V. The fitted intrinsic equilibrium constants for metal-proton exchange, pKMHA, for Eu3+ are similar to previously published experimental fits, and linear free energy relationship (LFER) estimated values. The experimentally observed lanthanide contraction effect in REE-humic complex stability is reflected in the gradual decrease in pKMHA from La to Lu. In Model V, a decrease in pKMHA from La to Lu indicates an increase in complex stability. Fitted pKMHA values for heavy REE are lower than those estimated by LFERs. Consequently, REE fractionation by humic substances complexation could be more pronounced than previously thought. Recommended pKMHA values for lanthanide-fulvic and -humic acid complexation are derived by superimposing the fitted trends in pKMHA for all REE, i.e., the decrease in pKMHA from La to Lu, on the average Eu pKMHA value for all literature datasets. These results will allow modeling assessments of organic matter induced REE fractionation in aquatic environments, taking into account changes in pH, ionic strength, and ion competition. A simulation of dissolved REE speciation in an average world river suggests that organic matter outcompetes carbonate complexation, even under alkaline conditions. PMID:17256484

  7. Using L-arginine-functionalized gold nanorods for visible detection of mercury(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jiehao; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2015-04-01

    A rapid and simple approach for visible determination of mercury ions (Hg(2+) ) in aqueous solutions was developed based on surface plasmon resonance phenomenon using L-arginine-functionalized gold nanorods (AuNRs). At pH greater than 9, the deprotonated amine group of L-arginine on the AuNRs bound with Hg(2+) leading to the side-by-side assembly of AuNRs, which was verified by transmission electron microscopy images. Thus, when Hg(2+) was present in the test solution, a blue shift of the typical longitudinal plasmon band of the AuNRs was observed in the ultra violet-visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) spectra, along with a change in the color of the solution, which occurred within 5 min. After carefully optimizing the potential factors affecting the performance, the L-arginine/AuNRs sensing system was found to be highly sensitive to Hg(2+) , with the limit of detection of 5 nM (S/N = 3); it is also very selective and free of interference from 10 other metal ions (Ba(2+) , Ca(2+) , Cd(2+) , Co(2+) , Cs(+) , Cu(2+) , K(+) , Li(+) , Ni(2+) , Pb(2+) ). The result suggests that the L-arginine-functionalized AuNRs can potentially serve as a rapid, sensitive, and easy-to-use colorimetric biosensor useful for determining Hg(2+) in food and environmental samples. PMID:25754066

  8. The XAS Model of the Copper(II)-Imidazole Complex Ion in Liquid Aqueous Solution: A Strongly Solvated Square Pyramid

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Patrick; Benfatto, Maurizio; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O.

    2012-01-01

    Copper K-edge EXAFS and MXAN analyses were combined to evaluate the structure of the copper(II)-imidazole complex ion in liquid aqueous solution. Both methods converged to the same square pyramidal inner coordination sphere [Cu(Im)4Lax]2+, (Lax indeterminate) with four equatorial nitrogens at: EXAFS, 2.02±0.01 Å, and; MXAN, 1.99±0.03 Å. A short axial N/O scatterer, (Lax), was found at 2.12±0.02 (EXAFS) or 2.14±0.06 Å (MXAN). A second but very weak axial Cu-N/O interaction was found at 2.9±0.1 Å (EXAFS) or 3.0±0.1 Å (MXAN). In the MXAN fits, only a square pyramidal structural model successfully reproduced the doubled maximum of the rising K-edge XAS, specifically excluding an octahedral model. Both EXAFS and MXAN also found eight outlying oxygen scatterers at 4.2±0.3 Å that contributed significant intensity over the entire XAS energy range. Two prominent rising K-edge shoulders at 8987.1 eV and 8990.5 eV were found to reflect multiple scattering from the 3.0 Å axial scatterer and the imidazole rings, respectively. In the MXAN fits, the imidazole rings took in-plane rotationally staggered positions about copper. The combined (EXAFS and MXAN) model for the unconstrained cupric-imidazole complex ion in liquid aqueous solution is an axially elongated square pyramidal core, with a weak non-bonded interaction at the second axial coordination position and a solvation shell of eight nearest neighbor water molecules. This core square pyramidal motif has persisted through [Cu(H2O)5]2+, [Cu(NH3)4(NH3,H2O)]2+,1,2 and now [Cu(Im)4Lax)]2+, and appears to be the geometry preferred by unconstrained aqueous-phase Cu(II) complex ions. PMID:22316238

  9. Removal of copper (II) from aqueous solutions by flotation using polyaluminum chloride silicate (PAX-XL60 S) as coagulant and carbonate ion as activator.

    PubMed

    Ghazy, S E; Mahmoud, I A; Ragab, A H

    2006-01-01

    Flotation is a separation technology for removing toxic heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Here a simple and rapid flotation procedure is presented for the removal of copper(II) from aqueous solutions. It is based on the use of polyaluminum chloride silicate (PAX-XL60 S) as coagulant and flocculent, carbonate ion as activator and oleic acid (HOL) as surfactant. Both ion and precipitate flotation are included depending on the solution pH. Ion and precipitate flotation in the aqueous HOL-PAX-XL60 S-Cu2+-CO3(2-) system gave powerful preferential removal of Cu2+ (F -100%) over the HOL-PAX-XL60 S-Cu2+ system containing no CO3(2+) ion (F approximately 86%). The role of CO3(2-) ion is also evident from decreasing the dose of PAX-XL60 S from 700 mg l(-1) to 200 mg l(-1). The other parameters, influencing the flotation process, namely: metal ion, surfactant and PAX-XL60 S concentrations, ionic strength, temperature and foreign ions were examined. Moreover, the procedure was successfully applied to recover Cu2+ ions from different volumes up to 11 and from natural water samples. PMID:16457175

  10. Enhancement of chitosan-graphene oxide SPR sensor with a multi-metallic layers of Au-Ag-Au nanostructure for lead(II) ion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, Nur Hasiba; Bakar, Ahmad Ashrif A.; Yaacob, Mohd Hanif; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Zan, Mohd Saiful Dzulkefly; Shaari, Sahbudin

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the enhancement of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique by implementing a multi-metallic layers of Au-Ag-Au nanostructure in the chitosan-graphene oxide (CS-GO) SPR sensor for lead(II) ion detection. The performance of the sensor is analyzed via SPR measurements, from which the sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio and repeatability are determined. The nanostructure layers are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We showed that the proposed structure has increased the shift in the SPR angle up to 3.5° within the range of 0.1-1 ppm due to the enhanced evanescent field at the sensing layer-analyte interface. This sensor also exhibits great repeatability which benefits from the stable multi-metallic nanostructure. The SNR value of 0.92 for 5 ppm lead(II) ion solution and reasonable linearity range up to that concentration shows that the tri-metallic CS-GO SPR sensor gives a good response towards the lead(II) ion solution. The CS-GO SPR sensor is also sensitive to at least a 10-5 change in the refractive index. The results prove that our proposed tri-metallic CS-GO SPR sensor demonstrates a strong performance and reliability for lead(II) ion detection in accordance with the standardized lead safety level for wastewater.

  11. Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution using water hyacinth root by fixed-bed column and ANN modeling.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Tania; Singha, Biswajit; Bar, Nirjhar; Das, Sudip Kumar

    2014-05-30

    Hyacinth root was used as a biosorbent for generating adsorption data in fixed-bed glass column. The influence of different operating parameters like inlet Pb(II) ion concentration, liquid flow rate and bed height on the breakthrough curves and the performance of the column was studied. The result showed that the adsorption efficiency increased with increase in bed height and decreased with increase in inlet Pb(II) ion concentration and flow rate. Increasing the flow rate resulted in shorter time for bed saturation. The result showed that as the bed height increased the availability of more number of adsorption sites in the bed increased, hence the throughput volume of the aqueous solution also increased. The adsorption kinetics was analyzed using different models. It was observed that maximum adsorption capacity increased with increase in flow rate and initial Pb(II) ion concentration but decreased with increase in bed height. Applicability of artificial neural network (ANN) modeling for the prediction of Pb(II) ion removal was also reported by using multilayer perceptron with backpropagation, Levenberg-Marquardt and scaled conjugate algorithms and four different transfer functions in a hidden layer and a linear output transfer function. PMID:24727010

  12. The transformation of ferrihydrite in the presence of trace Fe(II): The effect of the ammonia, amine and the coordination ions of Fe(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hui; Yang Lijuan; Ma Miaorui; Li Ping; Wei Yu

    2010-03-15

    This work examined Fe(II)-induced transformation of ferrihydrite in the presence of ammonia, amine and the coordination ions of Fe(III). Our earlier results showed that ferrihydrite transformed into the mixture of lepidocrocite, goethite and/or hematite in the presence of trace Fe(II) and absence of ammonia and similar species. However, the formation of lepidocrocite was restrained when using ammonia as precipitants. When introducing some amines (e.g. ethanolamine and diethanolamine) and some coordination ions (e.g. F{sup -} and C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions) into the reaction system, a similar effect on the transformation of ferrihydrite was found. Probably, the complexes formed between Fe(III) and those additives favor the formation of goethite. At the same time, the introduction of these additives hinders Fe(II) from interacting with ferrihydrite, which makes the catalytic dissolution of ferrihydrite be limited, thus, the formation of lepidocrocite be restrained. - Graphical Abstract: Fe(II)-induced transformation of ferrihydrite in the presence of ammonia, amine and coordination ions of Fe(III) was studied. The introduction of the additives favors the formation of goethite.

  13. A simple technique for the facile synthesis of novel crystalline mesoporous ZrO2-Al2O3 hierarchical nanostructures with high lead (II) ion absorption ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xike; Wu, Qiongyu; Wong, Kin Mun; Yang, Chao; Wang, Weiwei; Wu, Xiaoning; Wang, Yanxin; Zhang, Suxin; Lei, Yong

    2013-11-01

    In this study, a simple evaporation-induced self-assembly process for the facile synthesis of crystalline ZrO2-Al2O3 hierarchical nanostructures was reported. The synthesized hierarchical nanostructures display a long ranged ordered mesoporous structure, and demonstrated excellent adsorption properties for Pb (II) ions removal due to its larger surface-to-volume ratio. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis reveal that the as-synthesized nanostructures possess large BET surface area (278 m2 g-1), relatively large pore size (12.99 nm) and high pore volume (0.925 cm3 g-1). The Pb (II) ions adsorption processes conformed to the pseudo-second order kinetics and the Langmuir adsorption isotherm was suitable in describing the lead removal processes where the equilibrium time for the Pb (II) ions adsorption on the ZrO2-Al2O3 nanostructures was 30 min. These crystalline mesoporous ZrO2-Al2O3 hierarchical nanostructures possess a maximum adsorption capacity of 110.49 mg g-1 for Pb (II) and hence are an attractive adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal ion from water. In addition, our synthesized ZrO2-Al2O3 hierarchical nanostructures also display good reusability properties.

  14. Stream interfaces and energetic ions II: Ulysses test of Pioneer results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intriligator, Devrie S.; Siscoe, George L.; Wibberenz, Gerd; Kunow, Horst; Gosling, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Ulysses measurements of energetic and solar wind particles taken near 5 AU between 20 and 30 degrees south latitude during a well-developed recurring corotating interaction region (CIR) show that the CIR's corotating energetic ion population (CEIP) associated with the trailing reverse shock starts within the CIR at the stream interface. This is consistent with an earlier result obtained by Pioneers 10 and 11 in the ecliptic plane between 4 and 6 AU. The Ulysses/Pioneer finding is noteworthy since the stream interface is not magnetically connected to the reverse shock, but lies 12-17 corotation hours from it. Thus, the finding seems to be inconsistent with the basic model that generates CEIP particles at the reverse shock and propagates them along field lines. Eliminating the inconsistency probably entails an extension of the standard model such as cross-field diffusion or a non-shock energization process operating near the stream interface closer to the sun.

  15. Positron production in heavy ion collisions: Current status of the problem - II

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R.; Dunford, R.W.; Last, J.; Kutschera, W.; Rhein, M.D.; Schiffer, J.P.; Wilt, P.; Wuosmaa, A.H.

    1994-08-01

    Narrow peaks have been observed at GSI Darmstadt in the energy spectra of positrons and sum-energy spectra of positron-electron pairs, produced in collisions of very heavy ions. To date, there is no satisfactory explanation of the origin of these lines although many differing models have been proposed. In this contribution, the authors describe the features of a new experiment aimed at the study of the line phenomenon and present the results of their first experiments. The specific goals of their experiment are to clarify the experimental situation regarding the lines through high-resolution, high-statistics data and, by direct measurement of the vector momenta of the peak pairs, to determine their kinematics.

  16. Charge-state-dependent energy loss of slow ions. II. Statistical atom model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Richard A.; Möller, Wolfhard

    2016-05-01

    A model for charge-dependent energy loss of slow ions is developed based on the Thomas-Fermi statistical model of atoms. Using a modified electrostatic potential which takes the ionic charge into account, nuclear and electronic energy transfers are calculated, the latter by an extension of the Firsov model. To evaluate the importance of multiple collisions even in nanometer-thick target materials we use the charge-state-dependent potentials in a Monte Carlo simulation in the binary collision approximation and compare the results to experiment. The Monte Carlo results reproduce the incident charge-state dependence of measured data well [see R. A. Wilhelm et al., Phys. Rev. A 93, 052708 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.052708], even though the experimentally observed charge exchange dependence is not included in the model.

  17. Swift heavy ion irradiation of Pt nanocrystals: II. Structural changes and H desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Giulian, R.; Araujo, L.L.; Kluth, P.; Sprouster, D.J.; Schnohr, C.S.; Byrne, A.P.; Ridgway, M.C.

    2014-09-24

    The structural properties and H desorption from embedded Pt nanocrystals (NCs) following irradiation with swift heavy ions were investigated as a function of energy and fluence. From x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy analysis, Pt-H bonding was identified in NCs annealed in a forming gas (95% N{sub 2} + 5% H{sub 2}) ambient. The H content decreased upon irradiation and the desorption process was NC-size dependent such that larger NCs required a higher fluence to achieve a H-free state. Pt-H bonding and NC dissolution both perturbed the NC structural parameters (coordination number, bond-length and mean-square relative displacement) as determined with extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements.

  18. Shellac-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for removal of cadmium(II) ions from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jilai; Chen, Long; Zeng, Guangming; Long, Fei; Deng, Jiuhua; Niu, Qiuya; He, Xun

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a new effective adsorbent for cadmium removal from aqueous solution synthesized by coating a shellac layer, a natural biodegradable and renewable resin with abundant hydroxyl and carboxylic groups, on the surface of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) imaging showed shellac-coated magnetic nanoparticle (SCMN) adsorbents had a core-shell structure with a core of 20 nm and shell of 5 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic analysis suggested the occurrence of reaction between carboxyl groups on the SCMN adsorbent surface and cadmium ions in aqueous solution. Kinetic data were well described by pseudo second-order model and adsorption isotherms were fitted with both Langmuir and Freundlich models with maximum adsorption capacity of 18.80 mg/g. SCMN adsorbents provided a favorable adsorption capacity under high salinity conditions, and cadmium could easily be desorbed using mild organic acid solutions at low concentration. PMID:23513435

  19. ToF-SIMS and laser-SNMS analysis of Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells with silver nanoparticles using an argon cluster ion beam.

    PubMed

    Nees, Ricarda; Pelster, Andreas; Körsgen, Martin; Jungnickel, Harald; Luch, Andreas; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F

    2016-06-01

    The use of nanoparticles is one of the fastest expanding fields in industrial as well as in medical applications, owing to their remarkable characteristics. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are among the most-commercialized nanoparticles because of their antibacterial effects. Laser postionization secondary neutral mass spectrometry (laser-SNMS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry in combination with argon cluster ion sputtering was used for the first time to investigate the effects of AgNPs on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) II cells. Depth profiles and high-resolution three dimensional (3D) images of nanoparticles and organic compounds from cells were obtained using an Ar cluster ion beam for sputtering and Bi3 (+) primary ions for the analysis. The 3D distribution of AgNPs and other organic compounds in MDCK II cells could be readily detected with very high efficiency, sensitivity, and submicron lateral resolution. The argon cluster ion beam is well suited for the sputtering of biological samples. It enables a high sample removal rate along with low molecular degradation. The outer membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nuclei of the cells could be clearly visualized using the signals PO(+) and C3H8N(+) or CN(+) and C3H8N(+). The laser-SNMS images showed unambiguously that AgNPs are incorporated by MDCK II cells and often form silver aggregates with a diameter of a few micrometers, mainly close to the outside of the cell nuclei. PMID:26671480

  20. Two Magnetic Switching Complexes Based on the Fe(II) Ion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Gao, Chen; Wang, Ye-Xin; Wang, Bing-Wu; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Gao, Song

    2016-08-15

    Two neutral mononuclear iron(II) complexes with different spin-crossover (SCO) properties, Fe(L1)2(SCN)2 (1) and Fe(L2)2(SCN)2 (2) (L1 = 2-(thiophen-3-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline and L2 = 2-(thiophen-2-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline), were solvothermally synthesized. With the different substituted position in 1,10-phenanthroline derivatives, 1 exhibits gradual SCO around room temperature with T1/2 = 280 K, while 2 displays abrupt SCO with 10 K hysteresis at T1/2↓ = 210 K and T1/2↑ = 220 K. PMID:27479289

  1. Theoretical studies of nickel atoms and nickel(II) ions coordinated with CO and BF ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, Sean A. C.; David Buckingham, A.

    2011-11-01

    A computational study of a neutral Ni atom and Ni(II) atoms coordinated with CO and BF ligands was undertaken using density functional theory. Neutral compounds with general formula Ni(CO)x(BF)4-x (x = 0-4) were predicted to have tetrahedral geometries, and cationic Ni(CO)x(BF)4-x2+ square-planar geometries. Sequential replacement of the CO molecules in the well known tetrahedral Ni(CO)4 molecule yields a substantially more stable tetrahedral Ni(BF)4 molecule, and substitution of the CO ligands in the square-planar [Ni(CO)4]2+ cation yields a more stable [Ni(BF)4]2+ analogue. Stable complexes were also obtained by substitution of the OC ligands by FB in the [Ni(OC)4]2+ cation.

  2. Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution by a waste mud from copper mine industry: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study.

    PubMed

    Ozdes, Duygu; Gundogdu, Ali; Kemer, Baris; Duran, Celal; Senturk, Hasan Basri; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-07-30

    The objective of this study was to assess the adsorption potential of a waste mud (WM) for the removal of lead (Pb(II)) ions from aqueous solutions. The WM was activated with NaOH in order to increase its adsorption capacity. Adsorption studies were conducted in a batch system as a function of solution pH, contact time, initial Pb(II) concentration, activated-waste mud (a-WM) concentration, temperature, etc. Optimum pH was specified as 4.0. The adsorption kinetic studies indicated that the overall adsorption process was best described by pseudo-second-order kinetics. The equilibrium adsorption capacity of a-WM was obtained by using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and both models fitted well. Adsorption capacity for Pb(II) was found to be 24.4 mg g(-1) for 10 g L(-1) of a-WM concentration. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy (Delta G degrees), enthalpy (Delta H degrees), and entropy (DeltaS degrees) indicated that the adsorption of Pb(II) ions on the a-WM was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic, at temperature range of 0-40 degrees C. Desorption studies were carried out successfully with diluted HCl solutions. The results indicate that a-WM can be used as an effective and no-cost adsorbent for the treatment of industrial wastewaters contaminated with Pb(II) ions. PMID:19167162

  3. Non-redox metal ion promoted oxidative coupling of indoles with olefins by the palladium(ii) acetate catalyst through dioxygen activation: experimental results with DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sicheng; Chen, Zhuqi; Qin, Shuhao; Lou, Chenlin; Senan, Ahmed M; Liao, Rong-Zhen; Yin, Guochuan

    2016-04-26

    Developing new catalytic technologies through C-H bond activation to synthesize versatile pharmaceuticals has attracted much attention in recent decades. This work introduces a new strategy in catalyst design for Pd(ii)-catalyzed C-H bond activation in which non-redox metal ions serving as Lewis acids play significant roles. In the oxidative coupling of indoles with olefins using dioxygen, it was found that Pd(OAc)2 alone as the catalyst is very sluggish at ambient temperature which provided a low yield of the olefination product, whereas adding non-redox metal ions to Pd(OAc)2 substantially improves its catalytic efficiency. In particular, it provided bis(indolyl)methane derivatives as the dominant product, a category of pharmacological molecules which could not be synthesized by Pd(ii)-catalyzed oxidative coupling previously. Detailed investigations revealed that the reaction proceeds by heterobimetallic Pd(ii)/Sc(iii)-catalyzed oxidative coupling of an indole with an olefin followed by Sc(iii)-catalyzed addition with a second indole molecule. DFT calculations disclosed that the formation of heterobimetallic Pd(ii)/Sc(iii) species substantially decreases the C-H bond activation energy barrier, and shifts the rate determining step from C-H bond activation of indole to the olefination step. This non-redox metal ion promoted Pd(ii)-catalyzed C-H bond activation may offer a new opportunity for catalyst design in organic synthesis, which has not been fully recognized yet. PMID:27075840

  4. Coordination mode of pentadentate ligand derivative of 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol with nickel(II) and copper(II) metal ions: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, molecular modeling and fungicidal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Gautam, Seema; Kumar, Amit; Madan, Molly

    2015-02-01

    Complexes of nickel(II), and copper(II) were synthesized with pantadentate ligand i.e. 3,3‧-thiodipropionicacid-bis(5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol) (L). The ligand was synthesized by the condensation of thiodipropionic acid and 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol in 1:2 ratio, respectively. Synthesized ligand was characterized by elemental analysis, mass, 1H NMR, IR, and molecular modeling. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment, IR, electronic spectra, ESR, and molecular modeling. The newly synthesized complexes possessed general composition [M(L)X2] where M = Ni(II), Cu(II), L = pantadentate ligand and X = Cl-, CH3COO-. The IR spectral data indicated that the ligand behaved as a pantadentate ligand and coordinated to the metal ion through N2S3 donor atoms. The molar conductance value of Ni(II), and Cu(II) complexes in DMSO corresponded to their electrolytic behavior. On the basis of spectral study, octahedral and tetragonal geometry was assigned for Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes, respectively. In vitro fungicidal study of ligand and its complexes was investigated against fungi Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candidia krusei, and Candida tropicalis by means of well diffusion method.

  5. Simultaneous trace-levels determination of Hg(II) and Pb(II) ions in various samples using a modified carbon paste electrode based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes and a new synthesized Schiff base.

    PubMed

    Afkhami, Abbas; Bagheri, Hasan; Khoshsafar, Hosein; Saber-Tehrani, Mohammad; Tabatabaee, Masoumeh; Shirzadmehr, Ali

    2012-10-01

    A modified carbon paste electrode based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and 3-(4-methoxybenzylideneamino)-2-thioxothiazolodin-4-one as a new synthesized Schiff base was constructed for the simultaneous determination of trace amounts of Hg(II) and Pb(II) by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The modified electrode showed an excellent selectivity and stability for Hg(II) and Pb(II) determinations and for accelerated electron transfer between the electrode and the analytes. The electrochemical properties and applications of the modified electrode were studied. Operational parameters such as pH, deposition potential and deposition time were optimized for the purpose of determination of traces of metal ions at pH 3.0. Under optimal conditions the limits of detection, based on three times the background noise, were 9.0×10(-4) and 6.0×10(-4) μmol L(-1) for Hg(II) and Pb(II) with a 90 s preconcentration, respectively. In addition, the modified electrode displayed a good reproducibility and selectivity, making it suitable for the simultaneous determination of Hg(II) and Pb(II) in real samples such as sea water, waste water, tobacco, marine and human teeth samples. PMID:22975186

  6. Germanium-doped carbon dots as a new type of fluorescent probe for visualizing the dynamic invasions of mercury(ii) ions into cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yun Huan; Li, Rong Sheng; Wang, Qiang; Wu, Zhu Lian; Wang, Jian; Liu, Hui; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2015-10-01

    Carbon dots doped with germanium (GeCDs) were firstly prepared by a new simple 15 min carbonation synthesis route, exhibiting excitation-independent photoluminescence (PL), which could avoid autofluorescence in bioimaging applications. The as-prepared GeCDs have low cell toxicity, good biocompatibility, high intracellular delivery efficiency, stability and could be applied for detection of mercury(ii) ions with excellent selectivity in complicated medium. It is to be noted that the as-prepared GeCDs used as a new type of probe for visualization of dynamic invasions of mercury(ii) ions into Hep-2 cells display greatly different properties from most of the previously reported CDs which are regularly responsive to iron ions. All the results suggest that the GeCDs can be employed for visualization and monitoring of the significant physiological changes of living cells induced by Hg2+.Carbon dots doped with germanium (GeCDs) were firstly prepared by a new simple 15 min carbonation synthesis route, exhibiting excitation-independent photoluminescence (PL), which could avoid autofluorescence in bioimaging applications. The as-prepared GeCDs have low cell toxicity, good biocompatibility, high intracellular delivery efficiency, stability and could be applied for detection of mercury(ii) ions with excellent selectivity in complicated medium. It is to be noted that the as-prepared GeCDs used as a new type of probe for visualization of dynamic invasions of mercury(ii) ions into Hep-2 cells display greatly different properties from most of the previously reported CDs which are regularly responsive to iron ions. All the results suggest that the GeCDs can be employed for visualization and monitoring of the significant physiological changes of living cells induced by Hg2+. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and additional figures (Fig. S1-15). See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05326a

  7. Controlled Fabrication of Silk Protein Sericin Mediated Hierarchical Hybrid Flowers and Their Excellent Adsorption Capability of Heavy Metal Ions of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II).

    PubMed

    Koley, Pradyot; Sakurai, Makoto; Aono, Masakazu

    2016-01-27

    Fabrication of protein-inorganic hybrid materials of innumerable hierarchical patterns plays a major role in the development of multifunctional advanced materials with their improved features in synergistic way. However, effective fabrication and applications of the hybrid structures is limited due to the difficulty in control and production cost. Here, we report the controlled fabrication of complex hybrid flowers with hierarchical porosity through a green and facile coprecipitation method by using industrial waste natural silk protein sericin. The large surface areas and porosity of the microsize hybrid flowers enable water purification through adsorption of different heavy metal ions. The high adsorption capacity depends on their morphology, which is changed largely by sericin concentration in their fabrication. Superior adsorption and greater selectivity of the Pb(II) ions have been confirmed by the characteristic growth of needle-shaped nanowires on the hierarchical surface of the hybrid flowers. These hybrid flowers show excellent thermal stability even after complete evaporation of the protein molecules, significantly increasing the porosity of the flower petals. A simple, cost-effective and environmental friendly fabrication method of the porous flowers will lead to a new solution to water pollution required in the modern industrial society. PMID:26736132

  8. Rational design of a novel azoimine appended maleonitrile-based Salen chemosensor for rapid naked-eye detection of copper(II) ion in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Rezaeian, Khatereh; Khanmohammadi, Hamid; Arab, Vajihe

    2015-12-01

    Achieving specific selectivity and high sensitivity for the colorimetric recognition of copper(II) ions in aqueous media over a complex background of potentially competing metal ions is inherently challenging in sensor development. Thus, a novel azo-azomethine receptor (L) based on the combination of 2-amino-3-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylamino)maleonitrile and azo-coupled salicylaldehyde scaffold has been designed and synthesized for the naked-eye and rapid detection of Cu(2+) ion at trace level in a wide pH range. Accordingly, the devised chemosensor distinguished Cu(2+) from other metal ions by distinct color change from light yellow to light brown without any expensive equipment. The binding stoichiometry between Cu(2+) and L has been investigated using Job's plot and MALDI-TOF mass analysis. Remarkably, the current sensor can detect Cu(2+) ions even at 1.07 μM level, which is lower than the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible level (30 μM) in drinking water. Furthermore, sensor L was successfully utilized in the preparation of test strips for the detection of copper(II) ions from aqueous environment. PMID:26184468

  9. A selectively fluorescein-based colorimetric probe for detecting copper(II) ion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xianhong

    2014-12-10

    A novel fluorescein derivative 3-bromo-5-methylsalicylaldehyde fluorescein hydrazone (BMSFH) has been synthesized by reacting fluorescein hydrazide with 3-bromo-5-methylsalicylaldehyde and was developed as a new colorimetric probe for detection of Cu(2+). In the presence of Cu(2+) the BMSFH exhibits a rapid color change from colorless to yellow together with an obvious new band appeared at 502nm in the UV-vis absorption spectra. However, other common alkali-, alkaline earth-, transition- and rare earth metal ions induced no or minimal spectral changes. This change is attributed to BMSFH via coordination with Cu(2+) in a 1:1 stoichiometry and this binding to Cu(2+) is reversible, as indicated by the bleaching of the color when the Cu(2+) is extracted with EDTA. Experimental results indicate that the BMSFH can provide a rapid, selective and sensitive response to Cu(2+) with a linear dynamic range 3.0-330μmol/L and can be used as a potential Cu(2+) colorimetric probe in aqueous solution. PMID:24929315

  10. Lithium-ion batteries for hearing aid applications. II. Pulse discharge and safety tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passerini, S.; Coustier, F.; Owens, B. B.

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries were designed to meet the power requirements of hearing aid devices (HADs). The batteries were designed in a 312-button cell size, compatible with existing hearing aids. The batteries were tested to evaluate the design and the electrochemical performance, as they relate to a typical hearing aid application. The present report covers the pulse capabilities, cycle life and preliminary safety tests. The results are compared with other battery chemistries: secondary lithium-alloy and nickel-metal hydride batteries and primary Zn-air batteries. The cell AC impedance was stable over the frequency range between 1 and 50 kHz, ranging between 5 Ω at the higher frequency and 12 Ω at the lower extreme. Pulse tests were consistent with these values, as the cells were capable of providing a series of 100 mA pulses of 10-s duration. The safety tests suggest that the design is intrinsically safe with respect to the most common types of abuse conditions.

  11. Ultrafiltration by a compacted clay membrane-II. Sodium ion exclusion at various ionic strengths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanshaw, B.B.; Coplen, T.B.

    1973-01-01

    Several recent laboratory studies and field investigations have indicated that shales and compacted clay minerals behave as semipermeable membranes. One of the properties of semipermeable membranes is to retard or prevent the passage of charged ionic species through the membrane pores while allowing relatively free movement of uncharged species. This phenomenon is termed salt filtering, reverse osmosis, or ultrafiltration. This paper shows how one can proceed from the ion exchange capacity of clay minerals and, by means of Donnan membrane equilibrium concept and the Teorell-Meyer-Siever theory, develop a theory to explain why and to what extent ultrafiltration occurs when solutions of known concentration are forced to flow through a clay membrane. Reasonable agreement between theory and laboratory results were found. The concentration of the ultrafiltrate was always greater than predicted because of uncertainty in values of some parameters in the equations. Ultrafiltration phenomena may be responsible for the formation of some subsurface brines and mineral deposits. The effect should also be taken into consideration in any proposal for subsurface waste emplacement in an environment containing large quantities of clay minerals. ?? 1973.

  12. Phase I/II Trial Evaluating Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Salvaging Treatment of Locally Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lin; Hu, Jiyi; Guan, Xiyin; Gao, Jing; Lu, Rong; Lu, Jiade J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Radiation therapy is the mainstay strategy for the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Intensity-modulated X-ray therapy (IMXT) alone is the current standard for stage I and II NPC. For stage III and IV A/B diseases, concurrent chemotherapy should be provided in addition to IMXT. However, optimal treatment for locally recurrent NPC after previous definitive dose of radiotherapy is lacking. Various techniques including brachytherapy, IMXT, stereotactic radiosurgery or radiotherapy (SRS or SBRT) have been used in the management of locally recurrent NPC. Due to the inherent limitation of these techniques, i.e., limited range of irradiation or over-irradiation to surrounding normal tissues, moderate efficacy has been observed at the cost of severe toxicities. Carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) offers potential physical and biological advantages over photon and proton radiotherapy. Due to the inverted dose profile of particle beams and their greater energy deposition within the Bragg peak, precise dose delivery to the target volume(s) without exposing the surrounding organs at risk to extra doses is possible. In addition, CIRT provides an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) as compared to photon and proton radiotherapy. Such advantages may translate to improved outcomes after irradiation in terms of disease control in radio-resistant and previously treated, recurrent malignancies. It is therefore reasonable to postulate that recurrent NPC after high-dose radiotherapy could be more resistant to re-irradiation using photons. Reports on the treatment of radio-resistant malignancies in the head and neck region such as melanoma, sarcoma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) have demonstrated superior local control rates from CIRT as compared to photon irradiation. Thus patients with recurrent NPC are likely to benefit from the enhanced biological effectiveness of carbon ions. As effective retreatment strategy is lacking for locally recurrent NPC

  13. Uniform current density and divergence control in high power extraction ion diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Desjarlais, M.P.; Coats, R.S.; Lockner, T.R.; Pointon, T.D.; Johnson, D.J.; Slutz, S.A.; Lemke, R.W.; Cuneo, M.E.; Melhorn, T.A.

    1996-07-01

    A theory of radial beam uniformity in extraction ion diodes is presented. The theory is based on a locally one dimensional analysis of the diamagnetic compression of magnetic streamlines and the self consistent determination of the virtual cathode location. The radial dependence of the applied magnetic field is used to determine the critical parameters of this locally one dimensional treatment. The theory has been incorporated into the ATHETA magnetic field code to allow the rapid evaluation of realistic magnetic field configurations. Comparisons between the theoretical results, simulations with the QUICKSILVER code, and experiments on the PBFA-X accelerator establish the usefulness of this tool for tuning magnetic fields to improve ion beam uniformity. The consequences of poor beam uniformity on the evolution of ion diode instabilities are discussed with supporting evidence from simulations, theory, and experiments.

  14. Growth, ion homeostasis, photosynthesis and photosystem II efficiency of an obligate halophyte, Salicornia brachiata, under increasing salinity.

    PubMed

    Parida, A K; Hari Kishore, C M; Jha, B

    2010-04-01

    The following article from Plant Biology, "Growth, ion homeostasis, photosynthesis and photosystem II efficiency of an obligate halophyte, Salicornia brachiata, under increasing salinity (p)" by A. K. Parida, C. M. Hari Kishore & B. Jha, published online on 1 April 2010 (DOI: 10.1111/j.1438-8677.2010.00336.x) in Wiley InterScience (http://www.interscience.wiley.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Heinz Rennenberg and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to concern about overlap with the article "Relationship between the photosynthetic activity and the performance of Cakile maritima after long-term salt treatment" by Ahmed Debez, Hans-Werner Koyro, Claude Grignon, Chedly Abdelly, Bernhard Huchzermeyer published in Physiologia Plantarum (2008) vol. 133, 373-385. ABSTRACT: We examined the effects of salinity (0-600 mm NaCl) on growth, photosynthesis, photosystem II (PSII) efficiency, ion relations and photosynthetic pigment content in Salicornia brachiata. Relative growth rate (RGR) was optimum at 200 mm NaCl and was inhibited at higher salt concentrations; however, relative water content (RWC) of shoots was unaffected by salinity. Accumulation of Na(+) increased with the increase in salinity of shoots, with a concomitant decrease of K(+) and Ca(2+) . Despite the large amount of Na(+) accumulated in shoots of salt-treated plants, neither leaf dehydration nor symptoms of severe shoot injury were noticed, indicating no osmotic or toxic effects of salt because of effective compartmentation of salt in vacuoles. Chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations increased at optimal salinity and decreased at extreme salinities. Although reduced in the presence of high salt concentrations, chlorophyll and carotenoid content remained relatively high. Net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g(s) ), intercellular CO(2) concentration (C(i) ), maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (F(v) /F(m) ) and quantum

  15. Zn(II)-coordination modulated ligand photophysical processes – the development of fluorescent indicators for imaging biological Zn(II) ions

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhao; Simmons, J. Tyler; Sreenath, Kesavapillai

    2014-01-01

    Molecular photophysics and metal coordination chemistry are the two fundamental pillars that support the development of fluorescent cation indicators. In this article, we describe how Zn(II)-coordination alters various ligand-centered photophysical processes that are pertinent to developing Zn(II) indicators. The main aim is to show how small organic Zn(II) indicators work under the constraints of specific requirements, including Zn(II) detection range, photophysical requirements such as excitation energy and emission color, temporal and spatial resolutions in a heterogeneous intracellular environment, and fluorescence response selectivity between similar cations such as Zn(II) and Cd(II). In the last section, the biological questions that fluorescent Zn(II) indicators help to answer are described, which have been motivating and challenging this field of research. PMID:25071933

  16. Angiotensin II modulates mouse skeletal muscle resting conductance to chloride and potassium ions and calcium homeostasis via the AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Cozzoli, Anna; Liantonio, Antonella; Conte, Elena; Cannone, Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Giustino, Arcangela; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Pierno, Sabata; Mantuano, Paola; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Camerino, Giulia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays a role in muscle wasting and remodeling; however, little evidence shows its direct effects on specific muscle functions. We presently investigated the acute in vitro effects of ANG II on resting ionic conductance and calcium homeostasis of mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, based on previous findings that in vivo inhibition of ANG II counteracts the impairment of macroscopic ClC-1 chloride channel conductance (gCl) in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. By means of intracellular microelectrode recordings we found that ANG II reduced gCl in the nanomolar range and in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 0.06 μM) meanwhile increasing potassium conductance (gK). Both effects were inhibited by the ANG II receptors type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonist losartan and the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine; no antagonism was observed with the AT2 antagonist PD123,319. The scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) N-acetyl cysteine and the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) inhibitor apocynin also antagonized ANG II effects on resting ionic conductances; the ANG II-dependent gK increase was blocked by iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels. ANG II also lowered the threshold for myofiber and muscle contraction. Both ANG II and the AT1 agonist L162,313 increased the intracellular calcium transients, measured by fura-2, with a two-step pattern. These latter effects were not observed in the presence of losartan and of the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and the in absence of extracellular calcium, disclosing a Gq-mediated calcium entry mechanism. The data show for the first time that the AT1-mediated ANG II pathway, also involving NOX and ROS, directly modulates ion channels and calcium homeostasis in adult myofibers. PMID:25080489

  17. Ligational behaviour of lomefloxacin drug towards Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Th(IV) and UO 2(VI) ions: Synthesis, structural characterization and biological activity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Halim, Hanan F. Abd; Mohamed, Gehad G.; El-Dessouky, Maher M. I.; Mahmoud, Walaa H.

    2011-11-01

    Nine new mononuclear Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Th(IV) and UO 2(VI) complexes of lomefloxacin drug were synthesized. The structures of these complexes were elucidated by elemental analyses, IR, XRD, UV-vis, 1H NMR as well as conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermal analyses. The dissociation constants of lomefloxacin and stability constants of its binary complexes have been determined spectrophotometrically in aqueous solution at 25 ± 1 °C and at 0.1 M KNO 3 ionic strength. The discussion of the outcome data of the prepared complexes indicate that the lomefloxacin ligand behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand through OO coordination sites and coordinated to the metal ions via the carbonyl oxygen and protonated carboxylic oxygen with 1:1 (metal:ligand) stoichiometry for all complexes. The molar conductance measurements proved that the complexes are electrolytes. The powder XRD study reflects the crystalline nature for the investigated ligand and its complexes except Mn(II), Zn(II) and UO 2(II). The geometrical structures of these complexes are found to be octahedral. The thermal behaviour of these chelates is studied where the hydrated complexes lose water molecules of hydration in the first steps followed by decomposition of the anions, coordinated water and ligand molecules in the subsequent steps. The activation thermodynamic parameters are calculated using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. A comparative study of the inhibition zones of the ligand and its metal complexes indicates that metal complexes exhibit higher antibacterial effect against one or more bacterial species than the free LFX ligand. The antifungal and anticancer activities were also tested. The antifungal effect of almost metal complexes is higher than the free ligand. LFX, [Co(LFX)(H 2O) 4]·Cl 2 and [Zn(LFX)(H 2O) 4]·Cl 2 were found to be very active with IC50 values 14, 11.2 and 43.1, respectively. While, other complexes had

  18. Co(II)-mediated effects of plain and plasma immersion ion implanted cobalt-chromium alloys on the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Schröck, Kathleen; Lutz, Johanna; Mändl, Stephan; Hacker, Michael C; Kamprad, Manja; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela

    2015-03-01

    Medical CoCr is one of the main alloys used for metal-on-metal prosthesis in patients with total hip arthroplasty. CoCr surfaces modified by nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) are characterized by improved wear resistance but also showed increased Co(II) ion release under in vitro conditions. For the first time, CoCr modified by nitrogen PIII was evaluated with regard to its effect on the osteogenic differentiation of MSC. The activity of alkaline phosphatase, the expression of the osteogenic genes Runt-related transcription factor 2, osteopontin as well as integrin-binding bone sialoprotein and the production of osteocalcin and hydroxyapatite were determined. The results of our study demonstrate that Co(II) ions released from the alloy affected the osteogenic differentiation of MSC. Distinct differences in differentiation markers were found between pristine and modified alloys for osteocalcin but not for integrin-binding sialoprotein and hydroxyapatite. Interestingly, osteopontin was upregulated in naive and differentiated MSC by Co(II) ions and modified CoCr, likely through the induction of a cellular hypoxic response. The findings of this study contribute to a better understanding of possible risk factors with regard to a clinical applicability of surface modified CoCr implant materials. PMID:25469667

  19. Selective and sensitized spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of Ni(II) ion using α-benzyl dioxime in surfactant media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang

    2007-02-01

    Highly sensitive and interference-free sensitized spectrophotometric method for the determination of Ni(II) ions is described. The method is based on the reaction between Ni(II) ion and benzyl dioxime in micellar media in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The absorbance is linear from 0.1 up to 25.0 μg mL -1 in aqueous solution with repeatability (RSD) of 1.0% at a concentration of 1 μg mL -1 and a detection limit of 0.12 ng mL -1 and molar absorption coefficient of 68,600 L mol -1 cm -1. The influence of reaction variables including type and amount of surfactant, pH, and amount of ligand and complexation time and the effect of interfering ions are investigated. The proposed procedure was applied to the determination of trace amounts of Ni(II) ion in tap water, river water, chocolate and vegetable without separation or organic solvent extraction.

  20. Selective and sensitized spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of Ni(II) ion using alpha-benzyl dioxime in surfactant media.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang

    2007-02-01

    Highly sensitive and interference-free sensitized spectrophotometric method for the determination of Ni(II) ions is described. The method is based on the reaction between Ni(II) ion and benzyl dioxime in micellar media in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The absorbance is linear from 0.1 up to 25.0 microg mL-1 in aqueous solution with repeatability (RSD) of 1.0% at a concentration of 1 microg mL-1 and a detection limit of 0.12 ng mL-1 and molar absorption coefficient of 68,600L mol-1 cm-1. The influence of reaction variables including type and amount of surfactant, pH, and amount of ligand and complexation time and the effect of interfering ions are investigated. The proposed procedure was applied to the determination of trace amounts of Ni(II) ion in tap water, river water, chocolate and vegetable without separation or organic solvent extraction. PMID:16843047

  1. Radiation induced redox reactions and fragmentation of constituent ions in ionic liquids II. Imidazolium cations.

    SciTech Connect

    Shkrob, I. A.; Marin, T. W.; Chemerisov, S. D.; Hatcher, J.; Wishart, J.

    2011-04-14

    In part 1 of this study, radiolytic degradation of constituent anions in ionic liquids (ILs) was examined. The present study continues the themes addressed in part 1 and examines the radiation chemistry of 1,3-dialkyl substituted imidazolium cations, which currently comprise the most practically important and versatile class of ionic liquid cations. For comparison, we also examined 1,3-dimethoxy- and 2-methyl-substituted imidazolium and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium cations. In addition to identification of radicals using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and selective deuterium substitution, we analyzed stable radiolytic products using {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESMS). Our EPR studies reveal rich chemistry initiated through 'ionization of the ions': oxidation and the formation of radical dications in the aliphatic arms of the parent cations (leading to deprotonation and the formation of alkyl radicals in these arms) and reduction of the parent cation, yielding 2-imidazolyl radicals. The subsequent reactions of these radicals depend on the nature of the IL. If the cation is 2-substituted, the resulting 2-imidazolyl radical is relatively stable. If there is no substitution at C(2), the radical then either is protonated or reacts with the parent cation forming a C(2)-C(2) {sigma}{sigma}*-bound dimer radical cation. In addition to these reactions, when methoxy or C{sub {alpha}}-substituted alkyl groups occupy the N(1,3) positions, their elimination is observed. The elimination of methyl groups from N(1,3) was not observed. Product analyses of imidazolium liquids irradiated in the very-high-dose regime (6.7 MGy) reveal several detrimental processes, including volatilization, acidification, and oligomerization. The latter yields a polymer with m/z of 650 {+-} 300 whose radiolytic yield increases with dose (0.23 monomer units per 100 eV for 1-methyl-3-butylimidazolium

  2. Removal of zinc(II) ion by graphene oxide (GO) and functionalized graphene oxide-glycine (GO-G) as adsorbents from aqueous solution: kinetics studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, F.

    2015-05-01

    The main purpose of this study is to explain the absorption of zinc from aqueous solution by grapheme oxide and functionalized grapheme oxide with glycine as the adsorbent surface. For confirmed functionalized graphene oxide, the glycine amino group was added to the surface of graphene oxide. The effects of the initial concentration of Zn(II) ions and contact time were studied. Results showed that with increasing initial concentration of Zn(II) ions, the adsorption capacity increased. The adsorption capacity did not show a large change after 50 min; therefore, for the study of kinetic parameters, the optimal time of 50 min was selected. The chemical structure of graphene oxide was confirmed by using FT-IR analysis. The adsorption process of Zn(II) ions graphene oxide and functionalized graphene oxide-glycine surfaces was fixed at 298 K and pH 6. The pseudo-first-order and the pseudo-second-order (types I, II, III and IV) kinetic models were tested for the adsorption process and the results showed that the kinetic parameters best fit type (I) of the pseudo-second-order model. A high R 2 was used to be the best match.

  3. Hyperfine-changing transitions in {sup 3}He II and other one-electron ions by electron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Bartschat, Klaus; Sadeghpour, H. R. E-mail: hrs@cfa.harvard.edu

    2014-06-10

    We consider the spin-exchange (SE) cross-section in electron scattering from {sup 3}He II, which drives the hyperfine-changing 3.46 cm (8.665 GHz) line transition. Both the analytical quantum defect method—applicable at very low energies—and accurate R-matrix techniques for electron-He{sup +} scattering are employed to obtain SE cross-sections. The quantum defect theory is also applied to electron collisions with other one-electron ions in order to demonstrate the utility of the method and derive scaling relations. At very low energies, the hyperfine-changing cross-sections due to e-He{sup +} scattering are much larger in magnitude than for electron collisions with neutral hydrogen, hinting at large rate constants for equilibration. Specifically, we obtain rate coefficients of K(10 K) = 1.10 × 10{sup –6} cm{sup 3} s{sup –1} and K(100 K) = 3.49 × 10{sup –7} cm{sup 3} s{sup –1}.

  4. Reconstructing lead isotope exposure histories preserved in the growth layers of walrus teeth using the SHRIMP II ion microprobe

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, R.A.; Outridge, P.M.; Davis, W.J.; Stewart, R.E.A.

    1999-05-15

    Development of a microprobe technique to determine Pb isotope ratios within the growth layers of mammal teeth could have widespread applications in Pb toxicology, Pb pollution tracing, and human and animal ecology. Here, the SHRIMP II ion microprobe is shown to possess sufficient sensitivity, accuracy, and precision to satisfactorily determine Pb isotope ratios in the canine tooth cementum of a walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus), with a sampling resolution of 130 {micro}m. The tooth layers were estimated to contain only 1--3 {micro}g/gf Pb. By combining multiple replicates within each annual layer, the {+-}1 SE uncertainty was typically {+-}1% for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {+-}0.5% for {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb. Significant isotopic differences were found between layers deposited at age 10 and ages 2, 27, and 30. This result, together with corroborative data on excised cementum fragments analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry, indicates that the animal migrated into different geological terrains several times during its life. There was no evidence of exchange between the Pb deposited in early growth layers and more recent ambient Pb.

  5. Solid phase extraction of copper(II) ions using C18-silica disks modified by oxime ligands.

    PubMed

    Dindar, M Hami; Fathi, S A M; Yaftian, M R; Noushiranzadeh, N

    2010-07-15

    5-Tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-benzaldehyde oxime (L(1)) and 3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-benzaldehyde oxime (L(2)) are synthesized and characterized by conventional spectroscopic methods. These ligands are used as modifier of octadecyl silica membrane disks for separation and pre-concentration of trace amounts of copper(II) ions, followed by sulfuric or nitric acid elution and flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS) determination. The effect of parameters influencing the extraction efficiency i.e. pH of sample solutions, amount of the oxime, type and volume of eluent, sample solution and eluent flow rates were evaluated. Under optimum experimental conditions, the maximum capacity of the membrane disks modified by 6 mg of L(1) or 4 mg of L(2) was found to be 284.7 (+/-2.8) microg of copper and 382.5 (+/-3.1) microg of copper, respectively. The detection limits of the presented methods are 0.29 ng ml(-1) for L(1) and 0.25 ng ml(-1) for L(2). The enrichment factors are greater than 400 for both cases. These methods were successfully applied to the extraction, recovery and detection of copper in different water samples. PMID:20381963

  6. The effect of Ca2+ ions and ionic strength on Mn(II) oxidation by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. SG-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2013-01-01

    Manganese(IV) oxides, believed to form primarily through microbial activities, are extremely important mineral phases in marine environments where they scavenge a variety of trace elements and thereby control their distributions. The presence of various ions common in seawater are known to influence Mn oxide mineralogy yet little is known about the effect of these ions on the kinetics of bacterial Mn(II) oxidation and Mn oxide formation. We examined factors affecting bacterial Mn(II) oxidation by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1 in natural and artificial seawater of varying ionic conditions. Ca2+ concentration dramatically affected Mn(II) oxidation, while Mg2+, Sr2+, K+, Na+ and NO3- ions had no effect. The rate of Mn(II) oxidation at 10 mM Ca2+ (seawater composition) was four or five times that without Ca2+. The relationship between Ca2+ content and oxidation rate demonstrates that the equilibrium constant is small (on the order of 0.1) and the binding coefficient is 0.5. The pH optimum for Mn(II) oxidation changed depending on the amount of Ca2+ present, suggesting that Ca2+ exerts a direct effect on the enzyme perhaps as a stabilizing bridge between polypeptide components. We also examined the effect of varying concentrations of NaCl or KNO3 (0-2000 mM) on the kinetics of Mn(II) oxidation in solutions containing 10 mM Ca2+. Mn(II) oxidation was unaffected by changes in ionic strength (I) below 0.2, but it was inhibited by increasing salt concentrations above this value. Our results suggest that the critical coagulation concentration is around 200 mM of salt (I = ca. 0.2), and that the ionic strength of seawater (I > 0.2) accelerates the precipitation of Mn oxides around the spores. Under these conditions, the aggregation of Mn oxides reduces the supply of dissolved O2 and/or Mn2+ and inhibits the Mn(II) → Mn(III) step controlling the enzymatic oxidation of Mn(II). Our results suggest that the hardness and ionic strength of the aquatic environment

  7. Preconcentration of Trace Amounts of Pb(II) Ions without Any Chelating Agent by Using Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles prior to ETAAS Determination

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, S. Z.; Shamspur, T.; Karimi, M. A.; Naroui, E.

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates the potential of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles as an adsorbent for separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of lead from water samples prior to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) determination. No chemical modifier is required in graphite furnace. Pb(II) ion was adsorbed on magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the pH range of 5.5–6.5, and then magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were easily separated from the aqueous solution by applying an external magnetic field; so, no filtration or centrifugation was necessary. After extraction and collection of MNPs, the analyte ions were eluted using HNO3 1.0 mol L−1. Several factors that may affect the preconcentration and extraction process, such as pH, type, and volume of eluent, amount of MNPs, sample volume, salting out effect, and interference ions were studied and optimized. Under the best experimental conditions, linearity was maintained between 0.005–0.5 ng mL−1. Detection limits for lead were 0.8 ng L−1 based on 3Sb. The relative standard deviation of seven replicate measurements of 0.05 ng mL−1 of Pb(II) ions was 3.8%. Finally, the method was successfully applied to extraction and determination of lead ions in the water and standard samples. PMID:22649300

  8. Synthesis, characterization and equilibrium studies of some potential antimicrobial and antitumor complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions involving 2-aminomethylbenzimidazole and glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljahdali, M.

    2013-08-01

    The ternary complexes of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II) and Cd(II) with 2-aminomethylbenzimidazole (AMBI) and glycine as a representative example of amino acids have been isolated and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, ESR, UV-vis, magnetic moment, molar conductance and 1H NMR spectra. AMBI behaves as neutral bidentate ligands with coordination through imidazole and amino group nitrogens while the glycine amino acid behaves as a monodenate anion with coordination involving the amino group and carboxylate oxygen after deprotonation. The magnetic and spectral data indicates a square planar geometry for both Cu2+ and Ni2+ complexes and a tetrahedral geometry for both Zn2+ and Cd2+ complexes. The isolated chelates have been screened for their antifungal and antibacterial activities using the disc diffusion method. A cytotoxicity of the compounds against colon (HCT116) and larynx (HEP2) cancer cells have been studied. The stability constants of ternary M-AMBI-Gly complexes were determined potentiometrically in aqueous solution at I = 0.1 mol dm-3 NaCl.

  9. Incorporation of dithiooxamide as a complexing agent into cellulose for the removal and pre-concentration of Cu(II) and Cd(II) ions from natural water samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgetto, A. O.; Silva, R. I. V.; Longo, M. M.; Saeki, M. J.; Padilha, P. M.; Martines, M. A. U.; Rocha, B. P.; Castro, G. R.

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the incorporation of a complexing agent, dithiooxamide, into microcrystalline cellulose for use in the pre-concentration of Cu(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous samples. The FTIR spectrum of the adsorbent exhibited an absorption band in the region of 800 cm-1, which confirmed the binding of the silylating agent to the matrix. Elemental analysis indicated the amount of 0.150 mmol g-1 of the complexing agent. The adsorption data were fit to the modified Langmuir equation, and the maximum amount of metal species extracted from the solution, Ns, was determined to be 0.058 and 0.072 mmol g-1 for Cu(II) and Cd(II), respectively. The covering fraction ϕ, which was 0.39 and 0.48 for Cu(II) and Cd(II), respectively, was used to estimate a 1:2 (metal:ligand) ratio in the formed complex, and a binding model was proposed based on this information. The adsorbent was applied in the pre-concentration of natural water samples and exhibited an enrichment factor of approximately 50-fold for the species studied, which enabled its use in the analysis of trace metals in aqueous samples. The system was validated by the analysis of certified standard (1643e), and the adsorbent was stable for more than 20 cycles, thus enabling its safe reutilization.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposite Poly-o-anisidine Sn(IV) Arsenophosphate: Its Analytical Applications as Pb(II) Ion-Selective Membrane Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Asif Ali; Habiba, Umme; Khan, Anish

    2009-01-01

    Poly-o-anisidine Sn(IV) arsenophosphate is a newly synthesized nanocomposite material and has been characterized on the basis of its chemical composition, ion exchange capacity, TGA-DTA, FTIR, X-RAY, SEM, and TEM studies. On the basis of distribution studies, the exchanger was found to be highly selective for lead that is an environmental pollutant. For the detection of lead in water a heterogeneous precipitate based ion-selective membrane electrode was developed by means of this composite cation exchanger as electroactive material. The membrane electrode is mechanically stable, with a quick response time, and can be operated over a wide pH range. The selectivity coefficients were determined by mixed solution method and revealed that the electrode is sensitive for Pb(II) in presence of interfering cations. The practical utility of this membrane electrode has been established by employing it as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Pb(II). PMID:20140082

  11. A new determining method of copper(II) ions at ng ml(-1) levels based on quenching of the water-soluble nanocrystals fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Bo, Chen; Ping, Zhong

    2005-02-01

    CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) were prepared and modified in aqueous solution by using 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). Compared with previous fluorescent sensors based on organic fluorophores, these NCs have the following merits. First, they are sensitive and the synthetic procedure is simple; second, they have narrow, tunable, symmetric emission spectra and are photochemically stable. The applicability of these NCs to the determination of Cu(II) ions was studied successfully. Maximum fluorescence intensity was produced at pH 7.8, with excitation and emission wavelengths at 365 and 532 nm, respectively. Under optimal conditions, linear relationships were found between the relative fluorescence intensity and the concentration of Cu(II) ions in the range 0-256 ng ml(-1) and the limit of detection was 0.19 ng ml(-1). This method was applied to determine real samples successfully. In addition, the quenching mechanism is also described. PMID:15657705

  12. 4,4′-Bipyridinium bis­(oxalato-κ2 O 1,O 2)cuprate(II): an ion-pair complex

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lai-Jun; Shen, Xing-Can; Liang, Hong

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, (C10H10N2)[Cu(C2O4)2] or (4,4′-H2bpy)[Cu(ox)2] (bpy is 4,4′-bipyridine and ox is oxalate), is an ion-pair complex comprising a protonated 4,4′-bipyridinium dication and a square-planar dioxalatocopper(II) dianion. In the centrosymmetric dianion, the CuII centre is coordinated by four O atoms from the two dicrete oxalate ligands [Cu—O = 1.9245 (19) and 1.9252 (17) Å], while the planar dications are also centrosymmetric. Inter-species N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the cations and anions into one-dimensional chains and, together with weak intra-ion C—H⋯O inter­actions, give a two-dimensional sheet structure. PMID:21578048

  13. Fabrication of hollow metal oxide nanocrystals by etching cuprous oxide with metal(II) ions: approach to the essential driving force.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jong Hwa; Cha, Hyun Gil; Kim, Chang Woo; Kim, Do Kyoung; Kang, Young Soo

    2013-11-21

    Hollow metal oxide nanocrystals were prepared by etching cuprous oxide with metal ions and were applied as photoelectrodes. As a hard template, polyvinylpyrrolidone stabilized cuprous oxide (PVP-Cu2O) and non-stabilized cuprous oxide (nPVP-Cu2O) were synthesized by a precipitation method. Hollow iron oxide and cobalt oxide nanocrystals with a truncated octahedral morphology were fabricated by an etching reaction with transition metal(II) ions (Fe(2+) or Co(2+)). In the etching reaction process, a cationic exchange reaction occurs between the divalent metal ion and Cu(+) due to the higher Lewis acidity. Facet selective etching of cuprous oxide has been observed during the ionic exchange reaction of Cu(+) and O(2-) ions in PVP-Cu2O complexes with transition metal(II) ions (Fe(2+) or Co(2+)) at the surface of a (110) facet. Amorphous states of hollow metal oxide products were annealed to form α-Fe2O3 (hematite) and Co3O4 and their crystal structure was examined with X-ray diffraction and HR-TEM. The optical absorption behavior of semiconductor nanocrystals was measured with UV-vis spectroscopy to define band gap energy. The hollow hematite structure has a 2.08 eV band gap and Co3O4 (Co(II,III) oxide) has a 1.80 eV indirect band gap. Using these hollow nanocrystals, a metal oxide monolayer film was fabricated with a secondary growth approach and was studied for its photocatalytic properties. PMID:24084833

  14. Supramolecular assemblies with calix[6]arenes and copper ions: from dinuclear to trinuclear linear arrangements of hydroxo-Cu(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Izzet, Guillaume; Akdas, Huriye; Hucher, Nicolas; Giorgi, Michel; Prangé, Thierry; Reinaud, Olivia

    2006-02-01

    Complexation of copper(II) by calix[6]arene-based ligands bearing either two or three N-benzylimidazole coordinating arms under basic conditions has been studied. Whereas the tris(imidazole) derivative stabilizes dicationic 5-coordinate aqua complexes in a mononuclear state with an intracavity bound guest, in the presence of hydroxide ions, the latter undergo dimerization. An X-ray structure revealed decoordination of one imidazole arm and formation of a bis(hydroxo) bridged Cu(II) core with a square-planar geometry for both metal centers sandwiched by two empty calixarene cavities. Upon methanolysis, the dinuclear complex underwent an unexpected rearrangement leading to the clean formation of a trinuclear complex. X-ray diffraction analyses of this novel species revealed a trinuclear core constructed around a central Cu(II) ion that is doubly bridged through either methoxide or hydroxide anions to two Cu(II) ions hold by two calixarene units. The same complex could be directly synthesized by reacting the ligand with copper(II) perchlorate in a 2:3 ratio in the presence of base. In solution, the tetrahydroxo Cu(3) complex was characterized by UV-vis and (1)H NMR spectroscopies and displayed an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal only below 100 K that accounts for a S = 1/2 fundamental state. Formation of the same di- and trinuclear species was observed with a calix[6]arene-based bis(imidazole) ligand, which demonstrates the generality of the reaction schemes. All these results emphasize the versatility of the calix[6]arene scaffold for the stabilization of metal complexes with various nuclearities. PMID:16441115

  15. Optimization, isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of Pb(II) ions adsorption onto N-maleated chitosan-immobilized TiO₂ nanoparticles from aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Medhat A; Yakout, Amr A

    2016-02-01

    Chitosan, CS was chemically engineered by maleic anhydride via simple protocol to produce N-maleated chitosan, MCS which immobilized on anatase TiO2 to synthesize novel eco-friendly nanosorbent (51±3.8 nm), MCS@TiO2 for cost-effective and efficient removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous media. The chemical structure, surface properties and morphology of MCS@TiO2 were recognized by FTIR, (1)H NMR, XRD, TEM, DLS and zeta-potential techniques. The relations between %removal of Pb(II) and different analytical parameters such as solution acidity (pH), MCS@TiO2 dosage, time of contact and initial Pb(II) concentration were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and Box-Behnken design (BBD) statistical procedures. The fitting of the experimental data to four different isotherm models at optimized conditions was carried out by various statistical treatments including the correlation coefficient (r), coefficient of determination (r(2)) and non-linear Chi-square (χ(2)) test analyses which all confirm the suitability of Langmuir model to explain the adsorption isotherm data. Also, statistics predicted that the pseudo-second-order model is the optimum kinetic model among four applied kinetic models to closely describe the rate equation of the adsorption process. Thermodynamics viewed the adsorption as endothermic and feasible physical process. EDTA could release the sorbed Pb(II) ions from MCS@TiO2 with a recovery above 92% after three sorption-desorption cycles. The novel synthesized nanosorbent is evidenced to be an excellent solid phase extractor for Pb(II) ions from wastewaters. PMID:26520475

  16. Optimization, isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of Pb(II) ions adsorption onto N-maleated chitosan-immobilized TiO2 nanoparticles from aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaker, Medhat A.; Yakout, Amr A.

    2016-02-01

    Chitosan, CS was chemically engineered by maleic anhydride via simple protocol to produce N-maleated chitosan, MCS which immobilized on anatase TiO2 to synthesize novel eco-friendly nanosorbent (51 ± 3.8 nm), MCS@TiO2 for cost-effective and efficient removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous media. The chemical structure, surface properties and morphology of MCS@TiO2 were recognized by FTIR, 1H NMR, XRD, TEM, DLS and zeta-potential techniques. The relations between %removal of Pb(II) and different analytical parameters such as solution acidity (pH), MCS@TiO2 dosage, time of contact and initial Pb(II) concentration were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and Box-Behnken design (BBD) statistical procedures. The fitting of the experimental data to four different isotherm models at optimized conditions was carried out by various statistical treatments including the correlation coefficient (r), coefficient of determination (r2) and non-linear Chi-square (χ2) test analyses which all confirm the suitability of Langmuir model to explain the adsorption isotherm data. Also, statistics predicted that the pseudo-second-order model is the optimum kinetic model among four applied kinetic models to closely describe the rate equation of the adsorption process. Thermodynamics viewed the adsorption as endothermic and feasible physical process. EDTA could release the sorbed Pb(II) ions from MCS@TiO2 with a recovery above 92% after three sorption-desorption cycles. The novel synthesized nanosorbent is evidenced to be an excellent solid phase extractor for Pb(II) ions from wastewaters.

  17. Effects of oxidation state on metal ion binding by Medicago sativa (alfalfa): Atomic and X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies with Fe(II) and Fe(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Tiemann, K.J.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.; Gamez, G.; Dokken, K.; Cano-Aguilera, I.; Renner, M.W.; Furenlid, L.R.

    2000-02-15

    The authors present here experimental results that investigate the effects of metal-ion binding on iron-ion sorption to and recovery from alfalfa biomass. Fe(II)- and Fe(III)-ion binding were measured in order to ascertain the differences in binding strengths due to changes in oxidation state. Stronger binding was found for iron(III)-biomass as compared to iron(II)-biomass. The optimal pH for iron uptake was determined to be 5. The results of pH binding profile, orion desorption, and temperature-dependent binding experiments as well as X-ray spectroscopic (XAS) measurements all suggest that binding of iron by alfalfa biomass may be occurring through carboxyl ligands. The XAS experiments further demonstrate that the metal binding proceeds without an oxidation state change, and both iron(II) and iron(III) have similar coordination environments. The information presented will assist in understanding the binding of other metals to alfalfa biomass and in developing methods for their recovery.

  18. Post-annealing treatment for Cu-TiO2 nanotubes and their use in photocatalytic methyl orange degradation and Pb(II) heavy metal ions removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekantan, Srimala; Mohd Zaki, Syazwani; Lai, Chin Wei; Tzu, Teoh Wah

    2014-07-01

    TiO2 nanotubes were synthesized via electrochemical anodization of Ti foil at 60 V for 1 h in a bath with electrolytes composed of ethylene glycol containing 5 wt.% of NH4F and 1 vol.% of H2O2. The incorporation of optimum Cu2+ ions (1.30 at.%) into TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by using wet impregnation method to improve their photocatalytic methyl orange degradation and Pb(II) heavy metal removal. The small Cu2+ ions were successfully diffused into lattice of TiO2 nanotubes by conducting post-annealing treatment at 400 °C for 4 h in argon atmosphere after wet impregnation. In this manner, optimum Cu2+ ions played a crucial role in suppressing the recombination of charge carriers by forming inter-band states (mismatch of the band energies) within the lattice of Cu-TiO2. The experimental results showed that a maximum of 80% methyl orange removal and 97.3% Pb(II) heavy metal removal at pH 11 under UV irradiation for 5 h. Besides, it was noticed that photocatalytic Pb(II) heavy metal removal was strong dependence on pH of the solution because of the amphoteric character of Cu-TiO2 in an aqueous medium.

  19. Changes in the energy distribution in mutant thylakoid membranes of pea with modified pigment content. II. Changes due to magnesium ions concentration.

    PubMed

    Stoitchkova, Katerina; Busheva, Mira; Apostolova, Emilia; Andreeva, Atanaska

    2006-04-01

    Low-temperature (77K) steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectra, room temperature fluorescence and light scattering of thylakoid membranes isolated from pea mutants were studied as a function of Mg2+ concentration. The mutants have modified pigment content and altered structural organization of the pigment-protein complexes, distinct surface electric properties and functions. The analysis of the 77K emission spectra revealed that Mg2+-depletion of the medium caused not only an increased energy flow toward photosystem I in all investigated membranes but also changes in the quenching of the fluorescence, most probably by internal conversion. The results indicated that the macroorganization of the photosynthetic apparatus of mutants at supramolecular level (distribution and segregation of two photosystems in thylakoid membranes) and at supermolecular level (stacking of photosystem II supercomplexes) required different Mg ion concentrations. The data confirmed that the segregation of photosystems and the stacking of thylakoid membranes are two distinct phenomena and elucidated some features of their mechanisms. The segregation is initiated by changes in the lateral microorganization of light harvesting complexes II, their migration (repulsion from photosystem I) and subsequent separation of the two photosystems. Most likely 3D aggregation and formation of macrodomains, containing only photosystem II antenna complexes, play a certain precursory role for the increasing degree of the membrane stacking and the energy coupling between the light harvesting complexes II and the core complexes of photosystem II in the frame of photosystem II supercomplexes. PMID:16406551

  20. Application of a DNA-based luminescence switch-on method for the detection of mercury(II) ions in water samples from Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong-Zhang; Leung, Ka-Ho; Fu, Wai-Chung; Shiu-Hin Chan, Daniel; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2012-12-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic environmental contaminant that damages the endocrine and central nervous systems. In view of the contamination of Hong Kong territorial waters with anthropogenic pollutants such as trace heavy metals, we have investigated the application of our recently developed DNA-based luminescence methodology for the rapid and sensitive detection of mercury(II) ions in real water samples. The assay was applied to water samples from Shing Mun River, Nam Sang Wai and Lamma Island sea water, representing natural river, wetland and sea water media, respectively. The results showed that the system could function effectively in real water samples under conditions of low turbidity and low metal ion concentrations. However, high turbidity and high metal ion concentrations increased the background signal and reduced the performance of this assay.

  1. Synthetic, structural, spectroscopic and theoretical study of a Mn(III)-Cu(II) dimer containing a Jahn-Teller compressed Mn ion.

    PubMed

    Berg, Nelly; Hooper, Thomas N; Liu, Junjie; Beedle, Christopher C; Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Rajaraman, Gopalan; Piligkos, Stergios; Hill, Stephen; Brechin, Euan K; Jones, Leigh F

    2013-01-01

    The heterobimetallic complex [Cu(II)Mn(III)(L)(2)(py)(4)](ClO(4))·EtOH (1) built using the pro-ligand 2,2'-biphenol (LH(2)), contains a rare example of a Jahn-Teller compressed Mn(III) centre. Dc magnetic susceptibility measurements on 1 reveal a strong antiferromagnetic exchange between the Cu(II) and Mn(III) ions mediated through the phenolate O-atoms (J = -33.4 cm(-1)), with magnetisation measurements at low temperatures and high fields suggesting significant anisotropy. Simulations of high-field and high frequency powder EPR data suggest a single-ion anisotropy D(Mn(III)) = +4.45 cm(-1). DFT calculations also yield an antiferromagnetic exchange for 1, though the magnitude is overestimated (J(DFT) = -71 cm(-1)). Calculations reveal that the antiferromagnetic interaction essentially stems from the Mn(d(x(2)-y(2)))-Cu(d(x(2)-y(2))) interaction. The computed single-ion anisotropy and cluster anisotropy also correlates well with experiment. A larger cluster anisotropy for the S = 3/2 state compared to the single-ion anisotropy of Mn(III) is rationalised on the basis of orbital mixing and various contributions that arise due to the spin-orbit interaction. PMID:23108057

  2. Highly efficient ultrasonic-assisted removal of Hg(II) ions on graphene oxide modified with 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone: Adsorption isotherms and kinetics studies.

    PubMed

    Tadjarodi, Azadeh; Moazen Ferdowsi, Somayeh; Zare-Dorabei, Rouholah; Barzin, Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    A novel adsorbent, based on modifying graphene oxide (GO) chemically with 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (2-PTSC) as ligand, was designed by facile process for removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solution. Characterization of the adsorbent was performed using various techniques, such as FT-IR, XRD, XPS, SEM and AFM analysis. The adsorption capacity was affected by variables such as adsorbent dosage, pH solution, Hg(2+) initial concentration and sonicating time. These variables were optimized by rotatable central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). The predictive model for Hg(II) adsorption was constructed and applied to find the best conditions at which the responses were maximized. In this conditions, the adsorption capacity of this adsorbent for Hg(2+) ions was calculated to be 309mgg(-1) that was higher than that of GO. Appling the ultrasound power combined with adsorption method was very efficient in shortening the removal time of Hg(2+) ions by enhancing the dispersion of adsorbent and metal ions in solution and effective interactions among them. The adsorption process was well described by second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm model in which the maximum adsorption capacity (Qm) was found to be 555mgg(-1) for adsorption of Hg(2+) ions over the obtained adsorbent. The performance of adsorbent was examined on the real wastewaters and confirmed the applicability of adsorbent for practical applications. PMID:27245963

  3. Catalysts of Cu(II) and Co(II) ions adsorbed in chitosan used in transesterification of soy bean and babassu oils - a new route for biodiesel syntheses.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rondinelly Brandão; Lima Neto, Alcides Fernandes; Soares Dos Santos, Lucas Samuel; de Oliveira Lima, José Renato; Chaves, Mariana Helena; Dos Santos, José Ribeiro; de Lima, Geraldo Magela; de Moura, Edmilson Miranda; de Moura, Carla Verônica Rodarte

    2008-10-01

    Catalysts of Cu(II) and Co(II) adsorbed in chitosan was used in transesterification of soy bean and babassu oils. The catalysts were characterized by infrared, atomic absorption and TG, and biodiesels was characterized by infrared, NMR, CG, TG, physic chemistry analysis. The maximum adsorption values found for copper and cobalt cations were 1.584 and 1.260mgg(-1), respectively, in 180min. However, conversion of oils in biodiesel was better when used Co(II) adsorbed in chitosan. PMID:18440802

  4. Investigation of Cu(II) Binding to Bovine Serum Albumin by Potentiometry with an Ion Selective Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jie Liu

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory project that investigates Cu(II) bind to bovine serum albumin (BSA) in an aqueous solution is developed to assist undergraduate students in gaining better understanding of the interaction of ligands with biological macromolecule. Thus, students are introduced to investigation of Cu(II) binding to BSA by potentiometry with the Cu(II)…

  5. Synthesis and characterization of ultrasound assisted "graphene oxide-magnetite" hybrid, and investigation of its adsorption properties for Sr(II) and Co(II) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayyebi, Ahmad; Outokesh, Mohammad; Moradi, Shahab; Doram, Amir

    2015-10-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles with a size distribution of 15-21 nm were synthesized and decorated onto surface of graphene oxide by ultrasound assisted precipitation. Size and size distribution of the obtained M-GO hybrid were appreciably finer than the hybrids prepared by stirring method. M-GO is a superparamagnetic material with saturation magnetization of 31 emu g-1. The Langevin equation was successfully applied for estimation of size of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in M-GO hybrid, with maximum error of 17.5%. The study put forward a formation mechanism for M-GO, based on instrumental analyses. Adsorption isotherms of Sr2+ and Co2+ ions, which were fitted by Langmuir monolayer model, displayed two-fold higher capacity for Co2+ ions, presumably due to its similarity to Fe2+ (of Fe3O4 component). Uptake of both Co2+ and Sr2+ ions were endothermic, and spontaneous, however the former proceeded through inner-shell complex formation, while the latter took place via ion exchange mechanism. Rate of adsorption of Co2+ was faster, but for both ions, chemical reaction was the rate determining step. Sorption of Sr2+ and Co2+ ions greatly increased at pHs above 5, where (1) surface zeta potential changed its sign, and (2) deprotonating reactions at the surface became complete.

  6. Proton and metal ion binding to natural organic polyelectrolytes-II. Preliminary investigation with a peat and a humic acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marinsky, J.A.; Reddy, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    We summarize here experimental studies of proton and metal ion binding to a peat and a humic acid. Data analysis is based on a unified physico-chemical model for reaction of simple ions with polyelectrolytes employing a modified Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Peat exhibited an apparent intrinsic acid dissociation constant of 10-4.05, and an apparent intrinsic metal ion binding constant of: 400 for cadmium ion; 600 for zinc ion; 4000 for copper ion; 20000 for lead ion. A humic acid was found to have an apparent intrinsic proton binding constant of 10-2.6. Copper ion binding to this humic acid sample occurred at two types of sites. The first site exhibited reaction characteristics which were independent of solution pH and required the interaction of two ligands on the humic acid matrix to simultaneously complex with each copper ion. The second complex species is assumed to be a simple monodentate copper ion-carboxylate species with a stability constant of 18. ?? 1984.

  7. Reactions of the feldspar surface with metal ions: Sorption of Pb(II), U(VI) and Np(V), and surface analytical studies of reaction with Pb(II) and U(VI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chardon, Emmanuelle S.; Bosbach, Dirk; Bryan, Nicholas D.; Lyon, Ian C.; Marquardt, Christian; Römer, Jürgen; Schild, Dieter; Vaughan, David J.; Wincott, Paul L.; Wogelius, Roy A.; Livens, Francis R.

    2008-01-01

    Feldspar minerals are thermodynamically unstable in the near-surface environment and their surfaces are well known to react readily with aqueous solutions, leading to incongruent dissolution at low pH values, but congruent dissolution at neutral and high pH values. Interactions with mineral surfaces are an important control on the environmental transport of trace elements and detrital feldspars are abundant in soils and sediments. However, the interactions of metal ions in solution with the reacting feldspar surface have not been widely explored. The interactions of Pb(II), U(VI) and Np(V) ions with the feldspar surface have therefore been studied. Lead is taken up by the microcline surface at pH 6 and 10, but no uptake could be measured at pH 2. There was measurable uptake of Pb(II) on the plagioclase surface at pH 2, 6 and 10. Uptake always increased with pH. In most conditions, Pb(II) reacts through cation exchange process although, at high pH, a discrete phase, probably hydrocerrusite, is observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to precipitate on the plagioclase surface. Supersaturation with hydrocerrusite in these conditions is expected from thermodynamic calculations. Uptake of uranyl ion (UO22+), generally through surface complex formation, could only be measured at pH 6 and 10. At pH 6 and an initial U(VI) concentration above 21.0 μM, precipitation of becquerelite (Ca[(UO2)3O2(OH)3]2·8H2O), identified by AFM and characterised by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, is observed on plagioclase. The U(VI) concentration range in which becquerelite precipitation begins (dissolved U(VI) 1-5 μM) is consistent with that predicted from thermodynamic modelling. On plagioclase feldspar, secondary ion mass spectrometry showed diffusion of uranium into the altered surface layer. Uptake of the neptunyl ion (Np(V)) was found at pH 6 and 10 for microcline and at pH 2, 6 and 10 for plagioclase, and was generally lower than uptake of

  8. Relativistic calculations of radiative properties and fine structure constant varying sensitivity coefficients in the astrophysically relevant Zn II, Si IV and Ti IV ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandy, D. K.; Sahoo, B. K.

    2015-03-01

    We have carried out calculations of the relativistic sensitivity coefficients, oscillator strengths, transition probabilities, lifetimes and magnetic dipole hyperfine structure constants for a number of low-lying states in the Zn II, Si IV and Ti IV ions which are abundant in the distant quasars and various stellar plasmas. These spectroscopic data will be very useful for probing temporal variation of the fine structure constant (αe) and in the diagnostic processes of some of the astrophysical plasmas. We have employed all-order perturbative methods in the relativistic coupled-cluster framework using the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian to calculate the atomic wavefunctions of the considered ions. Reference states are constructed with the VN-1 and VN+1 potentials and then the electron-electron correlation effects are taken into account by constructing all possible singly and doubly excited configurations, involving both the core and valence electrons, from the respective reference states. We have also determined one electron affinities and ionization potentials of many excited states in these Zn II, Si IV and Ti IV ions. Except for a few states we have attained accuracies within 1 per cent for the energies compared with their experimental values. Our calculated sensitivity coefficients are estimated to have similar accuracies as of the calculated energies. Furthermore, combining our calculated transition matrix elements with the experimental wavelengths we evaluate transition probabilities, oscillator strengths and lifetimes of some of the excited states in these ions. These results are compared with the available data in a few cases and found to be in very good agreement among themselves. Using our reported hyperfine structure constants due to the dominant magnetic dipole interaction, it is possible to determine hyperfine splittings approximately in the above considered ions.

  9. Removal of cadmium(II) ions from aqueous solution using Ni (15 wt.%)-doped α-Fe2O3 nanocrystals: equilibrium, thermodynamic, and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    OuldM'hamed, Mohamed; Khezami, L; Alshammari, Abdulrahman G; Ould-Mame, S M; Ghiloufi, I; Lemine, O M

    2015-01-01

    The present publication investigates the performance of nanocrystalline Ni (15 wt.%)-doped α-Fe2O3 as an effective nanomaterial for the removal of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The nanocrystalline Ni-doped α-Fe2O3 powders were prepared by mechanical alloying, and characterized by X-ray diffraction and a vibrating sample magnetometer. Batch-mode experiments were realized to determine the adsorption equilibrium, kinetics, and thermodynamic parameters of toxic heavy metal ions by Ni (15 wt.%)-doped α-Fe2O3. The adsorption isotherms data were found to be in good agreement with the Langmuir model. The adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion reached a maximum value of about 90.91 mg g(-1) at 328 K and pH 7. The adsorption process kinetics was found to comply with pseudo-second-order rate law. Thermodynamic parameters related to the adsorption reaction, free energy change, enthalpy change and entropy change, were evaluated. The found values of free energy and enthalpy revealed a spontaneous endothermic adsorption-process. Moreover, the positive entropy suggests an increase of randomness during the process of heavy metal removal at the adsorbent-solution interface. PMID:26247760

  10. Removal of nickel(II) ions from aqueous solutions using the natural clinoptilolite and preparation of nano-NiO on the exhausted clinoptilolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajic, Nevenka; Stojakovic, Djordje; Jovanovic, Mina; Logar, Natasa Zabukovec; Mazaj, Matjaz; Kaucic, Venceslav

    2010-12-01

    The natural zeolite tuff (clinoptilolite) from a Serbian deposit has been studied as adsorbent for Ni(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Its sorption capacity at 298 K varies from 1.9 mg Ni g -1 (for the initial solution concentration of 100 mg Ni dm -3) to 3.8 mg Ni g -1 (for C0 = 600 mg Ni dm -3) and it increases 3 times at 338 K. The sorption is best described by the Sips isotherm model. The sorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order model, the activation energies being 7.44, 5.86, 6.62 and 6.63 kJ mol -1 for C0 = 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg Ni dm -3, respectively. The sorption involves a film diffusion, an intra-particle diffusion, and a chemical cation-exchange between the Na + ions of clinoptilolite and the Ni 2+ ions. The sorption is endothermic (Δ H° being 37.9, 33.4, 30.0, 27.7 and 24.3 kJ mol -1 for C0 = 100, 200, 300, 400 and 600 mg Ni dm -3, respectively) and spontaneous in the 298-338 K temperature range. Thermal treatment of the Ni(II)-loaded clinoptilolite results in the formation of spherical nano-NiO particles of approx. 5 nm in diameter which are randomly dispersed in the clinoptilolite lattice.

  11. THE IRON PROJECT AND THE RMAX PROJECT: Radiative and CollisionalProcesses of Iron Ions - Fe I, Fe II, Fe XVI, Fe XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro, Maximiliano; Nahar, Sultana; Pradhan, Anil; Sur, Chiranjib

    2008-05-01

    Results from work in progress under the Iron Project and Rmax Project on electron impact excitation and radiative processes of photo-excitations, photoionization and electron-ion recombination will be reported. Whereas the Iron Project is involved in scattering and radiative atomic processes of iron and iron-peak elements, and the Rmax Project aims particularly at the X-ray spectroscopy of astrophysical objects. We will present (i) collision strengths of Fe II at low energies using an accurate wavefunction needed for spectral analysis of infrared region, (ii) oscillator strengths and radiative decay rates for allowed and forbidden transitions in Fe I and Fe II, (iii) photoionization and electron-ion recombination of ground state of Fe XVI for over a large energy/temperature range up to and including K-shell ionization and core excitations as observed in X-ray spectra, and (iv) photoionization cross sections of large number fine structure levels (n<=10 and 0 <= 10) needed for astrophysical and modeling work. Relativistic approach in the Breit-Pauli approximation is being employed to study these atomic processes.

  12. Coordination Reactions and Noncovalent Interactions of Polyamines with Nucleotides in Binary Systems and with Nucleotides and Copper(II) Ion in Ternary Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lomozik, Lechoslaw; Gasowska, Anna; Krzysko, Grzegorz; Bregier-Jarzebowska, Romualda

    2010-01-01

    Interactions of nucleotides (AMP, CMP) and 1,2-diaminopropane (tn-1) or 2-methyl-1,2-diaminopropane (tn-2) in metal-free systems as well as in the systems including copper(II) ions were studied. The composition and overall stability constants of the complexes formed were determined by the potentiometric method, whereas the interaction centres and coordination sites were identified by spectroscopic methods. It was found that phosphate groups of nucleotides and the protonated amine groups of polyamines are the centres of interaction. The differences in the interactions with the polyamines which act as models of biogenic amines are impacted by the presence of lateral chains (methylene groups) in tn-1 and tn-2. In the ternary systems with Cu(II) ions, the heteroligand complexes are mainly of the ML⋯L' type, in which the protonated polyamine is engaged in noncovalent interactions with the anchoring Cu(II)-nucleotide complex. The complexes formed in the Cu/NMP)/tn-1 system are more stable than those formed in the system with tn-2. The mode of coordination in the complex is realised mainly through the phosphate groups of the nucleotide with involvement of the endocyclic nitrogen atoms in a manner which depends upon the steric conditions and in particular on the number of the methylene groups in the polyamine molecule. PMID:20885917

  13. Application of maghemite nanoparticles as sorbents for the removal of Cu(II), Mn(II) and U(VI) ions from aqueous solution in acid mine drainage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etale, Anita; Tutu, Hlanganani; Drake, Deanne C.

    2014-06-01

    The adsorptive removal of Cu(II), Mn(II) and U(VI) by maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated under acid mine drainage (AMD) conditions to assess NP potential for remediating AMD-contaminated water. The effects of time, NP and metal concentration, as well as manganese and sulphate ions were quantified at pH 3. Adsorption of all three ions was rapid, and equilibrium was attained in 5 min or less. 56 % of Cu, 53 % of Mn and 49 % of U were adsorbed. In addition, adsorption efficiencies were enhanced by ≥10 % in the presence of manganese and sulphate ions, although Cu sorption was reduced in 1:2 Cu-to-Mn solutions. Adsorption also increased with pH: 86 % Cu, 62 % Mn and 77 % U were removed from solution at pH 9 and increasing initial metal concentrations. Increasing NP concentrations did not, however, always increase metal removal. Kinetics data were best described by a pseudo-second-order model, implying chemisorption, while isotherm data were better fitted by the Freundlich model. Metal removal by NPs was then tested in AMD-contaminated surface and ground water. Removal efficiencies of up to 46 % for Cu and 54 % for Mn in surface water and 8 % for Cu and 50 % for Mn in ground water were achieved, confirming that maghemite NPs can be applied for the removal of these ions from AMD-contaminated waters. Notably, whereas sulphates may increase adsorption efficiencies, high Mn concentrations in AMD will likely inhibit Cu sorption.

  14. Application of maghemite nanoparticles as sorbents for the removal of Cu(II), Mn(II) and U(VI) ions from aqueous solution in acid mine drainage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etale, Anita; Tutu, Hlanganani; Drake, Deanne C.

    2016-06-01

    The adsorptive removal of Cu(II), Mn(II) and U(VI) by maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated under acid mine drainage (AMD) conditions to assess NP potential for remediating AMD-contaminated water. The effects of time, NP and metal concentration, as well as manganese and sulphate ions were quantified at pH 3. Adsorption of all three ions was rapid, and equilibrium was attained in 5 min or less. 56 % of Cu, 53 % of Mn and 49 % of U were adsorbed. In addition, adsorption efficiencies were enhanced by ≥10 % in the presence of manganese and sulphate ions, although Cu sorption was reduced in 1:2 Cu-to-Mn solutions. Adsorption also increased with pH: 86 % Cu, 62 % Mn and 77 % U were removed from solution at pH 9 and increasing initial metal concentrations. Increasing NP concentrations did not, however, always increase metal removal. Kinetics data were best described by a pseudo-second-order model, implying chemisorption, while isotherm data were better fitted by the Freundlich model. Metal removal by NPs was then tested in AMD-contaminated surface and ground water. Removal efficiencies of up to 46 % for Cu and 54 % for Mn in surface water and 8 % for Cu and 50 % for Mn in ground water were achieved, confirming that maghemite NPs can be applied for the removal of these ions from AMD-contaminated waters. Notably, whereas sulphates may increase adsorption efficiencies, high Mn concentrations in AMD will likely inhibit Cu sorption.

  15. Gamma irradiation-induced modifications of polymers found in nuclear waste embedding processes Part II: The ion-exchange resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debré, O.; Nsouli, B.; Thomas, J.-P.; Stevenson, I.; Colombini, D.; Romero, M.-A.

    1997-08-01

    Ion exchange resins (IERs) saturated in cesium and borate ions are well representative of low and medium activity nuclear waste to be embedded in an epoxy resin/amine hardener, such a conditioning procedure being under qualification. In order to test these materials in realistic conditions they are externally irradiated (air and water), in mixed beds saturated in fixed ions (cesium and borate) and water. Irradiation effects are evidenced with the HSF-SIMS technique by the variation of the emission characteristic of both the fixed ions, the chemical structure of the IERs and their interrelationship, both from the analysis of the solid material and of the residual or rinsing water. It appears that the fixed ions can be released in surrounding water as a consequence of radiation-induced resin fragments solubility.

  16. Pulsed power driven hohlraum research at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Leeper, R.J.; Alberts, T.E.; Allshouse, G.A.

    1996-06-01

    Three pulsed power driven hohlraum concepts are being investigated at Sandia for application to inertial fusion research. These hohlraums are driven by intense proton and Li ion beams as well as by two different types of z-pinch x-ray sources. Research on these hohlraum systems will continue on Sandia`s PBFA II-Z facility.

  17. Integrated miniature fluorescent probe to leverage the sensing potential of ZnO quantum dots for the detection of copper (II) ions.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sing Muk; Wong, Derrick Sing Nguong; Phung, Jane Hui Chiun; Chin, Suk Fun; Chua, Hong Siang

    2013-11-15

    Quantum dots are fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles that can be utilised for sensing applications. This paper evaluates the ability to leverage their analytical potential using an integrated fluorescent sensing probe that is portable, cost effective and simple to handle. ZnO quantum dots were prepared using the simple sol-gel hydrolysis method at ambient conditions and found to be significantly and specifically quenched by copper (II) ions. This ZnO quantum dots system has been incorporated into an in-house developed miniature fluorescent probe for the detection of copper (II) ions in aqueous medium. The probe was developed using a low power handheld black light as excitation source and three photo-detectors as sensor. The sensing chamber placed between the light source and detectors was made of 4-sided clear quartz windows. The chamber was housed within a dark compartment to avoid stray light interference. The probe was operated using a microcontroller (Arduino Uno Revision 3) that has been programmed with the analytical response and the working algorithm of the electronics. The probe was sourced with a 12 V rechargeable battery pack and the analytical readouts were given directly using a LCD display panel. Analytical optimisations of the ZnO quantum dots system and the probe have been performed and further described. The probe was found to have a linear response range up to 0.45 mM (R(2)=0.9930) towards copper (II) ion with a limit of detection of 7.68×10(-7) M. The probe has high repeatable and reliable performance. PMID:24148438

  18. Mineralization of wastewater from the pharmaceutical industry containing chloride ions by UV photolysis of H2O2/Fe(II) and ultrasonic irradiation.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, J M; Durán, A; San Martín, I

    2014-08-01

    The mineralization of pharmaceutical wastewater containing chloride ions using a UV/H2O2/Fe(II) process was studied. The addition of Fe(II) to the UV/H2O2 system did not improve the degradation efficiency due to inhibition of the photo-Fenton reaction, at acid pH, in the presence of chloride ions in these wastewaters. The increase of pH from 2 to 7 increased the degree of mineralization under UV photolysis of H2O2 because more HO radicals are available by HOCl dissociation reaction. Under the selected operation conditions ([H2O2]o = 11,500 ppm, [Fe(II)] = 0 ppm, [TOC]o = 125 ppm and pH = 7), 100% of TOC removal was attained in 120 min. A significant synergistic effect of combining photolysis (UV/H2O2) and sonolysis was observed. Sonophotolysis (UV/H2O2/ultrasound) technique significantly increased the degree of mineralization (100% TOC removal in 90 min using 6500 ppm H2O2) when compared with each individual process. Sonochemical reaction was favored by the presence of chloride ions since the concentration of contaminants at the gas-liquid interface increased. Free radicals reaction was the controlling mechanism in the UV/H2O2/ultrasound system. HO radicals were the main oxidative intermediate species in the process, although hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) also played a role. The contribution of thermal-pyrolytic reaction (in gas-phase) to sonophotolysis process was negligible. PMID:24768835

  19. Slow magnetic relaxation in octahedral cobalt(II) field-induced single-ion magnet with positive axial and large rhombic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Herchel, Radovan; Váhovská, Lucia; Potočňák, Ivan; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2014-06-16

    Pseudooctahedral mononuclear cobat(II) complex [Co(abpt)2(tcm)2] (1), where abpt = 4-amino-3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole and tcm = tricyanomethanide anion, shows field-induced slow relaxation of magnetization with U = 86.2 K and large axial and rhombic single-ion zero-field-splitting parameters, D = +48(2) cm(-1) and E/D = 0.27(2) (D = +53.7 cm(-1) and E/D = 0.29 from ab initio CASSCF/NEVPT2 calculations), thus presenting a new example of a field-induced single-ion magnet with transversal magnetic anisotropy. PMID:24853769

  20. A new rhodamine-based "off-on" fluorescent chemosensor for Hg (II) ion and its application in imaging Hg (II) in living cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fanyong; Cao, Donglei; Wang, Meng; Yang, Ning; Yu, Qiuhua; Dai, Linfeng; Chen, Li

    2012-09-01

    A novel rhodamine derivative (Rh-C), synthesized by the reaction of rhodamine ethylenediamine and cinnamoyl chloride, was evaluated as a chemoselective Hg(2+) ion sensor. Addition of Hg(2+) to an ethanol aqueous solution of the Rh-C resulted in a color change from colorless to obvious pink color together with distinctive changes in UV-vis absorption spectrum and fluorescence spectrum. However, other common alkali-, alkaline earth-, transition- and rare earth metal ions induced no or minimal spectral changes. The interaction of Hg(2+) and sensor Rh-C was proven to adopt a 1:1 binding stoichiometry and the recognition process is reversible. The chemosensor displayed a linear response to Hg(2+) in the range of 0.4-5 μM with a detection limit of 7.4 × 10(-8) M. The sensor Rh-C was also successfully applied to the imaging of Hg(2+) in HL-7702 cells. PMID:22695925

  1. Effect of coexisting Al(III) ions on Pb(II) sorption on biochars: Role of pH buffer and competition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuxi; Zhang, Weihua; Qiu, Hao; Tsang, Daniel C W; Morel, Jean-Louis; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-10-01

    Biochar is being widely considered as a promising amendment agent for immobilizing heavy metals in contaminated acidic soils, where plenty of soluble Al(III) ions exist. In view of uncertain significance of the effects of coexisting Al(III) on Pb(II) sorption by biochars, this study used kenaf core biochar (KB550; high carbon, low ash) and sewage sludge biochar (SB550; low carbon, high ash) pyrolyzed at 550 °C to elucidate the influence of coexisting Al(III) species and biochars' mineral components on Pb(II) immobilization conducted in aqueous solution with initial pHs of 3.0-4.5. Results showed that Al(III) reduced Pb(II) sorption on KB550 primarily via pH buffering against biochar alkalinity, thus inhibiting lead carbonate formation. In contrast, the reduction on SB550 mainly resulted from direct competition for sorption sites, especially on Fe-rich phengite 2M1 and metakaolinite. Because of Pb-P precipitation and Pb-K interlayer exchange, the residual Pb(II) adsorption capacity resistant to coexisting Al(III) was 3-5 times higher on SB550 than on KB550. The Pb-K interlayer exchange was enhanced by lower pH and coexisting Al(III), while Pb-P precipitation was the dominant Pb(II) sorption mechanism on SB550 resistant to Al(III) buffering and competition at higher pH. Application of these two biochars as amendments confirmed that the mineral-rich SB550 was more suitable for Pb(II) immobilization in acidic soils with high levels of extractable Al(III). PMID:27454898

  2. Plasma Potential Measurements by the Heavy Ion Beam Probe Diagnostic in Fusion Plasmas: Biasing Experiments in the TJ-II Stellarator and T-10 Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Melnikov, A.V.; Hidalgo, C.; Eliseev, L.G.

    2004-09-15

    The effect of edge biasing on plasma potential was investigated in the TJ-II stellarator and the T-10 tokamak. The Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic, a unique tool for studying the core potential directly, was used in both machines. Experiments in TJ-II show that it is possible to modify the global confinement and edge plasma parameters with limiter biasing, illustrating the direct impact of radial electric fields on TJ-II confinement properties. For the first time it was shown that the plasma column in a stellarator can be charged as a whole for a hot, near-reactor-relevant plasma. The plasma potential and electric fields evolve on two different characteristic time scales. Although the experimental conditions in the two machines have many important differences, the basic features of plasma potential behavior have some similarities: The potential response has the same polarity and scale as the biasing voltage, and the fluctuations are suppressed near the electrode/limiter region. However, whereas both edge and core plasma potential are affected by biasing in TJ-II, the potential changes mainly near the biased electrode in T-10.

  3. Poly(methacrylic acid)-grafted chitosan microspheres via surface-initiated ATRP for enhanced removal of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liqiang; Yuan, Shaojun; Lv, Li; Tan, Guangqun; Liang, Bin; Pehkonen, S O

    2013-09-01

    Cross-linked chitosan (CCS) microspheres tethered with pH-sensitive poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) brushes were developed for the efficient removal of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Functional PMAA brushes containing dense and active carboxyl groups (COOH) were grafted onto the CCS microsphere surface via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Batch adsorption results showed that solution pH values had a major impact on cadmium adsorption by the PMAA-grafted CCS microspheres with the optimal removal observed above pH 5. The CCS-g-PMAA microsphere was found to achieve the adsorption equilibrium of Cd(II) within 1 h, much faster than about 7 h on the CCS microsphere. At pH 5 and with an initial concentration 0.089-2.49 mmol dm(-3), the maximum adsorption capacity of Cd(II), derived from the Langmuir fitting on the PMAA-grafted microspheres was around 1.3 mmol g(-1). Desorption and adsorption cycle experimental results revealed that the PMAA-grafted CCS microspheres loaded with Cd(II) can be effectively regenerated in a dilute HNO3 solution, and the adsorption capacity remained almost unchanged upon five cycle reuse. PMID:23755995

  4. Integrating a DNA Strand Displacement Reaction with a Whispering Gallery Mode Sensor for Label-Free Mercury (II) Ion Detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fengchi; Wu, Yuqiang; Niu, Zhongwei; Vollmer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is an extremely toxic chemical pollutant of our environment. It has attracted the world's attention due to its high mobility and the ease with which it accumulates in organisms. Sensitive devices and methods specific for detecting mercury ions are, hence, in great need. Here, we have integrated a DNA strand displacement reaction with a whispering gallery mode (WGM) sensor for demonstrating the detection of Hg(2+) ions. Our approach relies on the displacement of a DNA hairpin structure, which forms after the binding of mercury ions to an aptamer DNA sequence. The strand displacement reaction of the DNA aptamer provides highly specific and quantitative means for determining the mercury ion concentration on a label-free WGM sensor platform. Our approach also shows the possibility for manipulating the kinetics of a strand displacement reaction with specific ionic species. PMID:27483277

  5. Plasma etching of Hf-based high-k thin films. Part II. Ion-enhanced surface reaction mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Ryan M.; Blom, Hans-Olof; Chang, Jane P.

    2009-03-15

    The mechanism for ion-enhanced chemical etching of hafnium aluminate thin films in Cl{sub 2}/BCl{sub 3} plasmas was investigated in this work, specifically how the film composition, ion energy, and plasma chemistry determine their etch rates. Several compositions of Hf{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}O{sub y} thin films ranging from pure HfO{sub 2} to pure Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were etched in BCl{sub 3}/Cl{sub 2} plasmas and their etch rates were found to scale with {radical}(E{sub ion}) in both Cl{sub 2} and BCl{sub 3} plasmas. In Cl{sub 2} plasmas, a transition point was observed around 50 eV, where the etch rate was significantly enhanced while the linear dependence to {radical}(E{sub ion}) was maintained, corresponding to a change in the removal of fully chlorinated to less chlorinated reaction products. In BCl{sub 3} plasma, deposition dominates at ion energies below 50 eV, while etching occurs above that energy with an etch rate of three to seven times that in Cl{sub 2}. The faster etch rate in BCl{sub 3} was attributed to a change in the dominant ion from Cl{sub 2}{sup +} in Cl{sub 2} plasma to BCl{sub 2}{sup +} in BCl{sub 3}, which facilitated the formation of more volatile etch products and their removal. The surface chlorination (0-3 at. %) was enhanced with increasing ion energy while the amount of boron on the surface increases with decreasing ion energy, highlighting the effect of different plasma chemistries on the etch rates, etch product formation, and surface termination.

  6. Negative ion-gas reaction studies using ion guides and accelerator mass spectrometry II: S-, SO- and Cl- with NO2 and N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliades, J. A.; Zhao, X.-L.; Litherland, A. E.; Kieser, W. E.

    2015-10-01

    Currently analysis of 36Cl by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) requires large facilities for separation of the isobar 36S. Previously, it has been shown possible to suppress S- by >6 orders of magnitude at low energies in a prototype radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) instrument by ion reactions in NO2 gas in the injection line of an AMS system. Reaction products for the negative ions S-, SO- and Cl- with NO2, and S- with N2O, have been surveyed in order to understand isobar attenuation plateaus and the losses of analyte ions. Ion energies were at eV levels, but had a large initial energy spread of at least several eV. Under these conditions, the aggregate total S- and SO- cross sections in NO2 were estimated to be 6.6 × 10-15 cm2 and 7.1 × 10-15 cm2 respectively and the major reaction channel observed was electron transfer producing NO2-. Other reaction products observed for S- were SO-, SO2-, NS-, and NSO2-. On the other hand, S-, SO- and NS- were found to be largely unreactive with N2O despite the existence of some highly exothermic reaction channels. When Cl- was injected into NO2, reaction products such as ClO- and NO2- were observed only at low levels suggesting that larger Cl- transmissions should be possible with some RFQ design modifications. The ClO- reaction product had only a small attenuation under the experimental conditions, despite having near resonant electron affinity with NO2.

  7. A unifying mode-coupling theory for transport properties of electrolyte solutions. II. Results for equal-sized ions electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Aburto, Claudio Contreras; Nägele, Gerhard

    2013-10-01

    On the basis of a versatile mode-coupling theory (MCT) method developed in Paper I [C. Contreras Aburto and G. Nägele, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 134109 (2013)], we investigate the concentration dependence of conduction-diffusion linear transport properties for a symmetric binary electrolyte solution. The ions are treated in this method as charged Brownian spheres, and the solvent-mediated ion-ion hydrodynamic interactions are accounted for also in the ion atmosphere relaxation effect. By means of a simplified solution scheme, convenient semi-analytic MCT expressions are derived for the electrophoretic mobilities, and the molar conductivity, of an electrolyte mixture with equal-sized ions. These expressions reduce to the classical Debye-Falkenhagen-Onsager-Fuoss results in the limit of very low ion concentration. The MCT expressions are numerically evaluated for a binary electrolyte, and compared to experimental data and results by another theoretical method. Our analysis encloses, in addition, the electrolyte viscosity. To analyze the dynamic influence of the hydration shell, the significance of mixed slip-stick hydrodynamic surface boundary conditions, and the effect of solvent permeability are explored. For the stick boundary condition employed in the hydrodynamic diffusivity tensors, our theoretical results for the molar conductivity and viscosity of an aqueous 1:1 electrolyte are in good overall agreement with reported experimental data for aqueous NaCl solutions, for concentrations extending even up to two molar. PMID:24116555

  8. A unifying mode-coupling theory for transport properties of electrolyte solutions. II. Results for equal-sized ions electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aburto, Claudio Contreras; Nägele, Gerhard

    2013-10-01

    On the basis of a versatile mode-coupling theory (MCT) method developed in Paper I [C. Contreras Aburto and G. Nägele, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 134109 (2013)], we investigate the concentration dependence of conduction-diffusion linear transport properties for a symmetric binary electrolyte solution. The ions are treated in this method as charged Brownian spheres, and the solvent-mediated ion-ion hydrodynamic interactions are accounted for also in the ion atmosphere relaxation effect. By means of a simplified solution scheme, convenient semi-analytic MCT expressions are derived for the electrophoretic mobilities, and the molar conductivity, of an electrolyte mixture with equal-sized ions. These expressions reduce to the classical Debye-Falkenhagen-Onsager-Fuoss results in the limit of very low ion concentration. The MCT expressions are numerically evaluated for a binary electrolyte, and compared to experimental data and results by another theoretical method. Our analysis encloses, in addition, the electrolyte viscosity. To analyze the dynamic influence of the hydration shell, the significance of mixed slip-stick hydrodynamic surface boundary conditions, and the effect of solvent permeability are explored. For the stick boundary condition employed in the hydrodynamic diffusivity tensors, our theoretical results for the molar conductivity and viscosity of an aqueous 1:1 electrolyte are in good overall agreement with reported experimental data for aqueous NaCl solutions, for concentrations extending even up to two molar.

  9. Hairpin oligonucleotides anchored terbium ion: a fluorescent probe to specifically detect lead(II) at sub-nM levels.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yueteng; Liu, Ru; Wang, Yaling; Zhao, Yuliang; Cai, Zhifang; Gao, Xueyun

    2013-04-21

    A terbium based fluorescent probe was synthesized by coordinating terbium ions with a designed oligonucleotides (5'-ATATGGGGGATAT-3', termed GH5). GH5 improved the fluorescence of terbium ions by four orders of magnitude. The fluorescence enhancement of terbium ions by different oligonucleotides sequences indicated that the polyguanine loop of the hairpin GH5 is key to enhance terbium ion emission. The quantum yield of Tb-GH5 probe was 10.5% and the probe was photo-stable. The result of conductivity titration indicated that the stoichiometry of the probe is 3.5 Tb: 1 GH5, which is confirmed by fluorescence titration. This probe had high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of lead ions. The fluorescence intensity of this probe was linear with respect to lead concentration over a range 0.3-2.1 nM (R(2) = 0.99). The limit of detection for lead ions was 0.1 nM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. PMID:23446487

  10. A novel 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol based chemosensor for Zn(II) ions by ratiometric displacement of Cd(II) ions and its application for cell imaging on human melanoma cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jana, Atanu; Sukul, Pradip K; Mandal, Sushil K; Konar, Saugata; Ray, Sangita; Das, Kinsuk; Golen, James A; Rheingold, Arnold L; Mondal, Sudipa; Mondal, Tapan K; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur R; Kar, Susanta K

    2014-01-21

    A new chelating ligand [4-methyl-2,6-bis-(pyridin-2-yl-hydrazonomethyl)-phenol] (1) was prepared by the condensation of 2-hydrazinylpyridine with 2,6-diformyl-p-cresol. Compound 1 exhibits weak fluorescence due to intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer (PET). The sensor (1) demonstrates Zn(2+)-specific emission enhancement due to the “PET off” process through a 1:1 binding mode with the metal ion. The fluorescence quantum yield of chemosensor 1 is only 0.020, and it increases more than 14-fold (0.280) in the presence of one equivalent of the zinc ion. Interestingly, the introduction of other metal ions causes the fluorescence intensity to remain either unchanged or weakened except for Cd(2+). The new sensor showed ‘naked-eye’ detection of Zn(2+) ions: a color change of the solution from colorless to yellow. Ratiometric displacement of Cd(2+) ions from the complex by Zn(2+) ions supports the formation of a more stable sensor–Zn(2+) complex over the sensor–Cd(2+) complex. The experimental findings have been correlated with theoretical results using the B3LYP functional and 6-31G (d, p), LANL2DZ basis set for Cd(2+) (2) and Zn(2+) (3) complexes, respectively, by the Density Functional Theory (DFT) method. Moreover, the ability of probe 1 to sense Zn(2+) within human melanoma cancer cells has been explored, and the Zn(2+)-probing process in living cells was found to be reversible with zinc chelator solution of N,N,N,N-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) or EDTA. PMID:24223423

  11. A comparative study of caffeine and theophylline binding to Mg(II) and Ca(II) ions: studied by FTIR and UV spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafisi, Shohreh; Shamloo, Delaram Sadraii; Mohajerani, Nasser; Omidi, Akram

    2002-08-01

    The interactions of calcium and magnesium ions with caffeine and theophylline have been investigated in aqueous solution at physiological pH. Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and absorption spectra were used to determine the cation binding mode and the association constants. Our spectroscopic results showed that calcium and magnesium ions do not complex with caffeine strongly and the weak interactions between caffeine and Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ might be via O6 atom. In Ca 2+-theophylline complex, binding between Ca 2+ with CO and N7 is observed, however in Mg 2+-theophylline complex, binding between Mg 2+ and N7 is more likely. The k values of these complexes are as follows: k(caffeine-Ca)=29.8 M -1, k(caffeine-Mg)=22.4 M -1, k(theophylline-Ca)=59.8 M -1 and k(theophylline-Mg)=33.8 M -1. These values are evidence for a weak cation interaction in these metal complexes.

  12. In situ formation of p-n junction: a novel principle for photoelectrochemical sensor and its application for mercury(II) ion detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Li; Liu, Kang-Li; Dong, Yu-Ming; Li, Zai-Jun; Zhang, Chi

    2014-05-27

    The discovery and development of photoelectrochemical sensors with novel principles are of great significance to realize sensitive and low-cost detection. In this paper, a new photoelectrochemial sensor based on the in situ formation of p-n junction was designed and used for the accurate determination of mercury(II) ions. Cysteine-capped ZnS quantum dots (QDs) was assembled on the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode based on the electrostatic interaction between Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and Cys-capped ZnS QDs. The in situ formation of HgS, a p-type semiconductor, on the surface of ZnS facilitated the charge carrier transport and promoted electron-hole separation, triggered an obviously enhanced anodic photocurrent of Cys-capped ZnS QDs. The formation of p-n junction was confirmed by P-N conductive type discriminator measurements and current-voltage (I-V) curves. The photoelectrochemical method was used for the sensing of trace mercuric (II) ions with a linear concentration of 0.01 to 10.0 µM and a detection limit of 4.6×10(-9)mol/L. It is expected that the present study can serve as a foundation to the application of p-n heterojunction to photoelectrochemical sensors and it might be easily extended to more exciting sensing systems by photoelectrochemistry. PMID:24832992

  13. Tuning the chromaticity of the emission color of the copolymers containing Eu(III), Tb(III), Be(II) ions based on colorimetric principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aiqin; Yang, Yamin; Zhai, Guangmei; Jia, Husheng; Xu, Bingshe

    2016-02-01

    In this work, a method of tuning the chromaticity of the emission color of the copolymers containing Eu(III), Tb(III), Be(II) ions based on colorimetric principle was proposed. The technological route from coordination to copolymerization was employed to obtain the white light macromolecular phosphor. The three primary color monomers have been synthesized and their Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates are respectively (0.540, 0.314), (0.231, 0.463), and (0.161, 0.054). The molar feed ratios of the three primary color monomers were calculated from the CIE coordinates based on colorimetric principle. Serial copolymers have been synthesized by free radical copolymerization of the three primary color monomers and methyl methacrylate. The quantum efficiency of the copolymers was higher than that of the complex monomers. The complexes were directly boned to the polymer chain, in which the energy transfer was reduced significantly compared to the doped-polymers. The experimental values of copolymers' CIE coordinates were located in the white light region in good agreement with theoretical values. The results indicate that the chromaticity of the emission color of the copolymers containing Eu(III), Tb(III), Be(II) ions could be tuned by theoretical calculation based on colorimetric principle.

  14. Time-Resolved Transient Optical Absorption Study of Bis(terpyridyl)oligothiophenes and Their Metallo-Supramolecular Polymers with Zn(II) Ion Couplers.

    PubMed

    Rais, David; Menšík, Miroslav; Štenclová-Bláhová, Pavla; Svoboda, Jan; Vohlídal, Jiří; Pfleger, Jiří

    2015-06-18

    α,ω-Bis(terpyridyl)oligothiophenes spontaneously assemble with Zn(II) ions giving conjugated constitutional dynamic polymers (dynamers) of the metallo-supramolecular class, which potentially might be utilized in optoelectronics. Their photophysical properties, which are of great importance in this field of application, are strongly influenced by the dynamic morphology. It was assessed in this study by using ultrafast pump-probe optical absorption spectroscopy. We identified and characterized relaxation processes running in photoexcited molecules of these oligomers and dynamers and show impacts of disturbed coplanarity of adjacent rings (twisting the thiophene-thiophene and thiophene-terpyridyl bonds by attached hexyl side groups) and Zn(II) ion couplers on these processes. Major effects are seen in the time constants of rotational relaxation, intersystem crossing, and de-excitation lifetimes. The photoexcited states formed on different repeating units within the same dynamer chain do not interact with each other even at very high excitation density. The method is presented that allows determining the equilibrium fraction of unbound oligothiophene species in a dynamer solution, from which otherwise hardly accessible values of the average degree of polymerization of constitutionally dynamic chains in solution can be estimated. PMID:25913085

  15. Heterometallic Fe2 (II) -U(V) and Ni2 (II) -U(V) Exchange-Coupled Single-Molecule Magnets: Effect of the 3 d Ion on the Magnetic Properties.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Lucile; Pécaut, Jacques; Tuna, Floriana; Mazzanti, Marinella

    2015-12-01

    Uranium-based compounds have been put forward as ideal candidates for the design of single-molecule magnets (SMMs) with improved properties, but to date, only two examples of exchange-coupled 3d-5f SMM containing uranium have been reported and both are based on the Mn(II) ion. Here we have synthesized the first examples of exchange-coupled uranium SMMs based on Fe(II) and Ni(II) . The SMM behavior of these complexes containing a quasi linear {M-O=U=O-M} core arises from intramolecular Fe-U and Ni-U exchange interactions combined with the high Ising anisotropy of the uranyl(V) moiety. The measured values of the relaxation barrier (53.9±0.9 K in the UFe2 complex and of 27.4±0.5 K in the UNi2 complex) show clearly the dependency on the spin value of the transition metal, providing important new information for the future design of improved uranium-based SMMs. PMID:26464190

  16. Analysis of (TiO II) X(Ta IIO 5) 1-X composite films prepared by radio frequency ion beam sputtering deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chien-Jen; Wu, Yung-Chi; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2006-08-01

    Using two or more materials to deposit a composite film has an advantage to get a film with desired refractive index. Besides, its optical property and mechanical property are better than a film deposited by a single material. In this study, (TiO II) X(Ta IIO 5) 1-X composite films have been prepared by a radio frequency ion beam sputtering deposition (RF-IBSD) where x was determined by the area ratio of titanium to tantalum targets. The optical constants of (TiO II) X(Ta IIO 5) 1-X composite films were calculated from their spectra by using envelope method. The refractive indices ranged from 2.481 to 2.165 at 550nm, and the extinction coefficients were lower than 1x10 -3 for wavelength in the ranges of 400nm to 600nm and lower than 1x10 -4 for wavelength longer than 600nm. The surface roughness of all composite films was about 0.1nm. The stress decreased from -520MPa for pure TiO II film to less than -280MPa for the composite films as measured by a phase-shift Twyman-Green interferometer. When the content of TiO II was less than 79.5%, the composite films were amorphous even post-baked to 400°C as measured by x-ray diffraction. The composite films mixed with TiO II and Ta IIO 5 can improve thermal stability and reduce extinction coefficient and stress. Composite films can replace the conventional high refractive index layer prepared by a single material to fabricate multilayer filters, and it is also suitable for high temperature applications, such as high reflection coating of projector lamps.

  17. Quantification of Outer-Sphere Macrochelate Formation in the Ternary cis-Diammine-Platinum(II)-Bis-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-Monophosphate Complex, cis-(NH(3))(2)Pt(dGMP)(2)(2)(-), and Formation of Quaternary Mixed Metal Ion Species with Magnesium(II), Copper(II), or Zinc(II) in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Song, Bin; Oswald, Gerda; Zhao, Jing; Lippert, Bernhard; Sigel, Helmut

    1998-09-21

    The acid-base properties of cis-(NH(3))(2)Pt(dG)(2)(2)(-), where both dG(2)(-) (=2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-monophosphate) are N7-coordinated to the same Pt(II) [the complex is abbreviated as Pt(dG)(2)(2)(-)], are summarized [on the basis of potentiometric pH titration data from B. Song et al. (Metal-Based Drugs 1996, 3, 131-141)] and a micro acidity constant scheme is developed which allows quantification of the intrinsic acidity of the two P(O)(2)(OH)(-) groups present in this ternary complex (I = 0.1 M, NaNO(3); 25 degrees C). On the basis of comparisons with the corresponding acid-base properties of cis-(NH(3))(2)Pt(dCMP.H-N3)(2) [(dCMP.H)(-) = phosphate-monoprotonated 2'-deoxycytidine 5'-monophosphate] it is concluded that intramolecular, outer-sphere macrochelates form via Pt(NH(3)).O(3)P hydrogen bonds. The formation degree of these macrochelates is quantified; it amounts in aqueous solution in each case (in its lower limit) to about 40% for the various possibilities which exist for the formation of these chelates in the cis-(NH(3))(2)Pt(dG)(2) complexes. The stability constants of the mixed metal ion complexes, M[Pt(H;dG)(dG)](+) and M[Pt(dG)(2)], were also determined via potentiometric pH titrations. On the basis of previous measurements with simple phosphate monoesters and phosphonate derivatives, i.e., R-PO(3)(2)(-) with R being a noncoordinating residue (Sigel, H.; et al., Helv. Chim. Acta 1992, 75, 2634-2656), it is shown that the stability of the two mixed metal ion complexes is largely governed by the basicity of the phosphate groups (as quantified via the mentioned microconstants) indicating that the effect of the N7-bound Pt(II) on the phosphate-metal ion binding properties is relatively small. These results suggest that, e.g., a metal ion bound to a nucleobase residue in a nucleotide or in a nucleic acid affects only slightly the metal ion binding capabilities of its phosphate residue or its phosphate backbone. PMID:11670649

  18. Study of uranium(VI) and radium(II) sorption at trace level on kaolinite using a multisite ion exchange model.

    PubMed

    Reinoso-Maset, Estela; Ly, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    Uranium and the long-lived decay product radium-226 are abundantly present in mine wastes produced during uranium extraction activities. In the case of release to the surrounding environment, these radionuclides are at trace level compared to groundwater solutes, and the presence, content and properties of clay minerals in the host environment influence the extent of radionuclide sorption and, in turn, migration. Since clays are known to have the distinctive property of retaining ions, the aim of this work was to study the sorption of trace U(VI) and Ra(II) on a common phyllosilicate mineral, kaolinite, in the presence of excess K, a common groundwater cation, in order to obtain a thermodynamic database that describes the ion exchange equilibria occurring at the mineral-solution interface. Following a detailed experimental protocol using chemical and radiochemical analytical techniques, batch experiments over a wide pH range (from 2 to 11) and fixed concentration (ca. 10(-9) M), and additional adsorption isotherms at two different solution pH (6.2 and 10.4) over a concentration range (10(-10) to 10(-4) M) were carried out to measure the distribution coefficient (Kd) of U(VI) and Ra(II) sorption on kaolinite. The experimental sorption data was processed according to a general multisite sorbent/multispecies sorbate ion exchange model, which allowed deducing the charge of adsorbed species and the stoichiometry of the associated adsorption equilibria on kaolinite's surface sites. Aqueous speciation calculations predicted Ra(II) as Ra(2+) over the working pH range, and its adsorption curves and isotherms were explained using three sorption sites. Adsorption of U(VI) occurred on four sorption sites and was governed by its solution speciation, with positively charged hydroxylated (UO2(2+) and UO2(OH)(+)) and silicate (UO2(H3SiO4)(+)) species being adsorbed between pH 2 and 6, whereas its negatively charged forms (UO2(OH)3(-) and UO2(OH)4(2-)) dominated U(VI) sorption at

  19. Highly selective removal of Zn(II) ion from hot-dip galvanizing pickling waste with amino-functionalized Fe3O4@SiO2 magnetic nano-adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Bao, Shuangyou; Tang, Lihong; Li, Kai; Ning, Ping; Peng, Jinhui; Guo, Huibin; Zhu, Tingting; Liu, Ye

    2016-01-15

    Amino-functionalized Fe3O4@SiO2 magnetic nano-adsorbent was used as a novel sorbent to highly selective removal of Zn(II) ion from hot-dip galvanizing pickling waste in the presence of Fe(II). These hot-dip galvanizing pickling waste mainly contain ZnCl2 and FeCl2 in aqueous HCl media. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and BET surface area measurements. Various factors influencing the adsorption of Zn(II) ion such as initial concentration of metal ions, the amount of adsorbent, pH value of the solutions, the concentration of coexisting iron ion were investigated by batch experiments. The results indicated that the adsorption equilibrium data obeyed the Freundlich model with maximum adsorption capacities for Zn(II) to 169.5mg/g. The maximum adsorption occurred at pH 5±0.1 and Fe(II) interferences had no obvious influence. This work provides a potential and unique technique for zinc ion removal from hot-dip galvanizing pickling waste. PMID:26458121

  20. 3D chiral and 2D achiral cobalt(ii) compounds constructed from a 4-(benzimidazole-1-yl)benzoic ligand exhibiting field-induced single-ion-magnet-type slow magnetic relaxation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Ling; Chen, Lin; Liu, Cai-Ming; Du, Zi-Yi; Chen, Li-Li; Liu, Qing-Yan

    2016-05-01

    Organizing magnetically isolated 3d transition metal ions, which behave as single-ion magnet (SIM) units, in a coordination network is a promising approach to design novel single-molecule magnets (SMMs). Herein 3D chiral and 2D achiral cobalt(ii) coordination compounds based on single metal nodes with a 4-(benzimidazole-1-yl)benzoic acid (Hbmzbc) ligand, namely, [Co(bmzbc)2(1,2-etdio)]n () (1,2-etdio = 1,2-ethanediol) and [Co(bmzbc)2(Hbmzbc)]n (), have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The 3D chiral structure with 2-fold interpenetrating qtz topological nets consisting of totally achiral components was obtained via spontaneous resolution, while the achiral structure is a 2D (4,4) net. In both structures, individual cobalt(ii) ions are spatially well separated by the long organic ligands in the well-defined networks. Magnetic measurements on and showed field-induced slow magnetic relaxation resulting from single-ion anisotropy of the individual Co(ii) ions. Analysis of the dynamic ac susceptibilities with the Arrhenius law afforded an anisotropy energy barrier of 16.8(3) and 31.3(2) K under a 2 kOe static magnetic field for and , respectively. The distinct coordination environments of the Co(ii) ions in and lead to the different anisotropic energy barriers. PMID:27054774

  1. Metal-ion directed synthesis of N2O2 type chelate complexes of Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II): spectral, thermal and single crystal studies.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Seema; Ahmad, Musheer; Siddiqi, K S

    2012-12-01

    A set of Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of Schiff base have been synthesized by one pot condensation reaction of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone with 1,3-diaminopropane in 1:2:1 molar ratio. They have been characterized by elemental analysis, conductance measurement, thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), FT-IR, (1)H-NMR, EPR spectra, ESI-MS and electronic spectral studies. In order to establish the geometry, a single crystal X-ray structure for [Ni(L)] complex was determined. It crystallizes in monoclinic system having unit cell parameters a=14.015(5)Å, b=13.391(5)Å, c=14.931(5)Å and α=90.000(5)(o), β=112.237(5)(o), γ=90.000(5)(o) with P 2(1)/c space group. No π-π stacking interaction was obtained in molecular packing diagram. A square-planar geometry has been confirmed for Ni(II) complex. Furthermore, on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, UV-visible and EPR data a square-planar geometry for Cu(II) and a distorted octahedral geometry for the Zn(II) complex has been established. In case of Zn(II) complex NO(3)(-) group was found to be coordinated in monodentate fashion. The low molar conductivity values of the complexes measured in chloroform and DMSO suggest their non-ionic nature. PMID:22960327

  2. Metal-ion directed synthesis of N2O2 type chelate complexes of Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II): Spectral, thermal and single crystal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Seema; Ahmad, Musheer; Siddiqi, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    A set of Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of Schiff base have been synthesized by one pot condensation reaction of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone with 1,3-diaminopropane in 1:2:1 molar ratio. They have been characterized by elemental analysis, conductance measurement, thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), FT-IR, 1H-NMR, EPR spectra, ESI-MS and electronic spectral studies. In order to establish the geometry, a single crystal X-ray structure for [Ni(L)] complex was determined. It crystallizes in monoclinic system having unit cell parameters a = 14.015(5) Å, b = 13.391(5) Å, c = 14.931(5) Å and α = 90.000(5)o, β = 112.237(5)o, γ = 90.000(5)o with P 21/c space group. No π-π stacking interaction was obtained in molecular packing diagram. A square-planar geometry has been confirmed for Ni(II) complex. Furthermore, on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, UV-visible and EPR data a square-planar geometry for Cu(II) and a distorted octahedral geometry for the Zn(II) complex has been established. In case of Zn(II) complex NO3- group was found to be coordinated in monodentate fashion. The low molar conductivity values of the complexes measured in chloroform and DMSO suggest their non-ionic nature.

  3. Shear-flow trapped-ion-mode interaction revisited. II. Intermittent transport associated with low-frequency zonal flow dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ghizzo, A.; Palermo, F.

    2015-08-15

    We address the mechanisms underlying low-frequency zonal flow generation in turbulent system and the associated intermittent regime of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) turbulence. This model is in connection with the recent observation of quasi periodic zonal flow oscillation at a frequency close to 2 kHz, at the low-high transition, observed in the ASDEX Upgrade [Conway et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 065001 (2011)] and EAST tokamak [Xu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 107, 125001 (2011)]. Turbulent bursts caused by the coupling of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) driven shear flows with trapped ion modes (TIMs) were investigated by means of reduced gyrokinetic simulations. It was found that ITG turbulence can be regulated by low-frequency meso-scale zonal flows driven by resonant collisionless trapped ion modes (CTIMs), through parametric-type scattering, a process in competition with the usual KH instability.

  4. Shear-flow trapped-ion-mode interaction revisited. II. Intermittent transport associated with low-frequency zonal flow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghizzo, A.; Palermo, F.

    2015-08-01

    We address the mechanisms underlying low-frequency zonal flow generation in turbulent system and the associated intermittent regime of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) turbulence. This model is in connection with the recent observation of quasi periodic zonal flow oscillation at a frequency close to 2 kHz, at the low-high transition, observed in the ASDEX Upgrade [Conway et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 065001 (2011)] and EAST tokamak [Xu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 107, 125001 (2011)]. Turbulent bursts caused by the coupling of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) driven shear flows with trapped ion modes (TIMs) were investigated by means of reduced gyrokinetic simulations. It was found that ITG turbulence can be regulated by low-frequency meso-scale zonal flows driven by resonant collisionless trapped ion modes (CTIMs), through parametric-type scattering, a process in competition with the usual KH instability.

  5. Label-free colorimetric biosensing of copper(II) ions with unimolecular self-cleaving deoxyribozymes and unmodified gold nanoparticle probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Yang, Fan; Yang, Xiurong

    2010-05-01

    Using unimolecular copper(II)-dependent self-cleaving deoxyribozymes (DNAzymes), a label-free colorimetric biosensor for copper(II) ions (Cu2 + ) has been developed based on the sequence-length-dependent adsorption of single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) on unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In the presence of Cu2 + , the Cu2 + -dependent DNAzyme could be self-cleaved into short ssDNA fragments. The cleaved short ssDNA could adsorb rapidly onto the surface of the AuNPs. This enhanced the stability of the AuNPs against salt-induced aggregation, and thus the solution color remained red. In the absence of Cu2 + , however, uncleaved long ssDNA adsorbed relatively slowly onto the AuNPs and upon the addition of salt, the electrostatic repulsion between the AuNPs was screened, resulting in aggregation of the AuNPs which produced a red-to-blue color change. Thus, Cu2 + detection could be realized by monitoring the color change of the AuNPs. The calibration curve showed that the absorption ratio values at 520 and 620 nm increased linearly over the Cu2 + concentration range of 0.625-15 µM, with a limit of detection of 290 nM. The other environmentally relevant metal ions did not interfere with the determination of Cu2 + . Subsequently, the assay was employed to determine Cu2 + in several water samples, and the results were satisfactory. It is expected that the present colorimetric strategy will be possibly extended to the detection of cofactors of other in vitro-selected unimolecular self-cleaving DNAzymes, such as amino acids, nucleic acids, metal ions and small organic molecules.

  6. Removal of mercury(II) ions in aqueous solution using the peel biomass of Pachira aquatica Aubl: kinetics and adsorption equilibrium studies.

    PubMed

    Santana, Andrea J; Dos Santos, Walter N L; Silva, Laiana O B; das Virgens, Cesário F

    2016-05-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic substance that is a health hazard to humans. This study aims to investigate powders obtained from the peel of the fruit of Pachira aquatica Aubl, in its in natura and/or acidified form, as an adsorbent for the removal of mercury ions in aqueous solution. The materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The infrared spectra showed bands corresponding to the axial deformation of carbonyls from carboxylic acids, the most important functional group responsible for fixing the metal species to the adsorbent material. The thermograms displayed mass losses related to the decomposition of three major components, i.e., hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. The adsorption process was evaluated using cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV AFS) and cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS). Three isotherm models were employed. The adsorption isotherm model, Langmuir-Freundlich, best represented the adsorption process, and the maximum adsorption capacity was predicted to be 0.71 and 0.58 mg g(-1) at 25 °C in nature and acidified, respectively. Adsorption efficiencies were further tested on real aqueous wastewater samples, and removal of Hg(II) was recorded as 69.6 % for biomass acidified and 76.3 % for biomass in nature. Results obtained from sorption experiments on real aqueous wastewater samples revealed that recovery of the target metal ions was very satisfactory. The pseudo-second-order model showed the best correlation to the experimental data. The current findings showed that the investigated materials are potential adsorbents for mercury(II) ion removal in aqueous solution, with acidified P. aquatica Aubl being the most efficient adsorbent. PMID:27084802

  7. Kinetics of ions in a neutral gas upon abrupt application of an electric field. II: Various models of interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ender, A. Ya.; Ender, I. A.; Gerasimenko, A. B.

    2010-02-01

    A new method for calculating the matrix elements of the collision integral in the Boltzmann equation is used for studying the behavior of an ion impurity upon an abrupt application of an electric field. For five models of interaction, the behavior of mobility is analyzed and the evolution of the distribution function for various values of the electric field is illustrated. The initial stage of runaway of ions is studied in the case of the Coulomb interaction. Two methods for improving the convergence of the polynomial expansions of the distribution function are considered.

  8. The binding energies of one and two water molecules to the first transition-row metal positive ions. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosi, Marzio; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The present investigation of H2O's binding energy to transition-metal ions proceeds from the D(2h) structure and bends the two water molecules out of plane. The molecule is constrained to have C(2v) symmetry, so that each water molecule and metal ion lies on a plane. The ground states are bent only for Mn(H2O)2(+) and Zn(H2O)2(+), where only 4s4p hybridization is energetically favorable; 4s4p hybridization reduces repulsion.

  9. Carbon-ion radiotherapy for locally advanced or unfavorably located choroidal melanoma: A Phase I/II dose-escalation study

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuji, Hiroshi . E-mail: h_tsuji@nirs.go.jp; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Yanagi, Takeshi; Hirasawa, Naoki; Kamada, Tadashi; Mizoe, Jun-Etsu; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Ohnishi, Yoshitaka

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the applicability of carbon ion beams for the treatment of choroidal melanoma with regard to normal tissue morbidity and local tumor control. Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and February 2006, 59 patients with locally advanced or unfavorably located choroidal melanoma were enrolled in a Phase I/II clinical trial of carbon-ion radiotherapy at the National Institute of Radiologic Sciences. The primary endpoint of this study was normal tissue morbidity, and secondary endpoints were local tumor control and patient survival. Of the 59 subjects enrolled, 57 were followed >6 months and analyzed. Results: Twenty-three patients (40%) developed neovascular glaucoma, and three underwent enucleation for eye pain due to elevated intraocular pressure. Incidence of neovascular glaucoma was dependent on tumor size and site. Five patients had died at analysis, three of distant metastasis and two of concurrent disease. All but one patient, who developed marginal recurrence, were controlled locally. Six patients developed distant metastasis, five in the liver and one in the lung. Three-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control rates were 88.2%, 84.8%, and 97.4%, respectively. No apparent dose-response relationship was observed in either tumor control or normal tissue morbidity at the dose range applied. Conclusion: Carbon-ion radiotherapy can be applied to choroidal melanoma with an acceptable morbidity and sufficient antitumor effect, even with tumors of unfavorable size or site.

  10. Harnessing the bone-seeking ability of Ca(ii)-like metal ions in the treatment of metastatic cancer and resorption disorders.

    PubMed

    Weekes, D M; Orvig, C

    2016-04-21

    Metal ions are naturally retained by skeletal tissues in living systems because of their high affinity for the hydroxyapatite-like mineral matrix that makes up cortical bone. This is particularly true for metal ions that bear a close resemblance to calcium(ii) (such as the lanthanides or alkaline earth metals), and in a few key cases this targeting ability has been exploited in order to develop medicinal agents that are intended to treat bones which have become diseased. In this review, we focus on two areas where this has been particularly effective: first is in the diagnosis and therapy of metastatic bone cancer, in which radioactive metal ions including (99m)Tc, (153)Sm, and (223)Ra are used to image, alleviate, and ablate harmful cancerous legions with good specificity versus healthy tissues; second is the use of trivalent lanthanides to treat osteoporosis, an emerging concept which has gathered significance over the last 15 years, and is now entering preclinical trials with carefully designed systems. PMID:26853513

  11. Positional isomeric tunable two Co(II) 6-connected 3-D frameworks with pentanuclear to binuclear units: structures, ion-exchange and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Han, Min-Le; Duan, Ya-Ping; Li, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Hai-Bin; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Yao-Yu

    2014-11-01

    Two new Co(II) based metal-organic frameworks, namely {[Co5(μ3-OH)2(m-pda)3(bix)4]·2ClO4}n (1) and {[Co2(p-pda)2(bix)2(H2O)]·H2O}n (2), were prepared by hydrothermal reactions of Co(II) salt with two isomeric dicarboxyl tectons 1,3-phenylenediacetic acid (m-pda) and 1,4-phenylenediacetic acid (p-pda), along with 1,3-bis(imidazol-L-ylmethyl)benzene (bix). Both complexes 1 and 2 have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). 1 shows a 6-connected 3-D pcu cationic framework with pentanuclear [Co5(μ3-OH)2(COO)6(bix)2](2+) units, while 2 exhibits a 6-connected 3-D msw net based on [Co2(μ2-H2O)(COO)2](2+) clusters. The results indicate that the different dispositions of the carboxylic groups of dicarboxylates have an important effect on the overall coordination frameworks. Perchlorate anions in 1 can be partly exchanged by thiocyanate and azide anions, however they are unavailable to nitrate anions. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that both 1 and 2 show weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the adjacent Co(II) ions. PMID:25190003

  12. Students' Understanding of External Representations of the Potassium Ion Channel Protein Part II: Structure-Function Relationships and Fragmented Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harle, Marissa; Towns, Marcy H.

    2012-01-01

    Research that has focused on external representations in biochemistry has uncovered student difficulties in comprehending and interpreting external representations. This study focuses on students' understanding of three external representations (ribbon diagram, wireframe, and hydrophobic/hydrophilic) of the potassium ion channel protein. Analysis…

  13. Preservation of the diffusible cations for secondary ion mass spectrometry. II. Artefacts in material embedded in araldite or melamine.

    PubMed

    Mentré, P; Escaig, F

    1992-01-01

    Flotation on hot water (about 60 degrees C) which is frequently employed to stretch semithin sections on substrates for SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry) microscopy, is the cause of numerous artefacts. In the case of epoxy resin-embedded tissue, one observes loss of potassium and sodium and accumulation of calcium. The relative contrast of cell nuclei in the ionic images, is rapidly affected by these ion migrations. After prolonged contact with hot water, tissue becomes uniformly emissive. In the case of hydrosoluble resin-embedded tissue, potassium and sodium do not appear to be affected by the action of water, which suggests that they are covalently bound with chelating sites buried beneath the layer of water bound to the surface of the macromolecules. Calcium accumulates, probably on widely exposed anionic sites. Moreover, the domains observed in hydrosoluble resin-embedded tissue shrink differently according to the proportion of water removed by melamine; this can provide interesting information on the initial equilibrium between water, ion sand macromolecules. Our results seem to support the assumption that bound water should play an important role in the preservation of both macromolecular architecture and ion distributions. PMID:1511241

  14. The Quantitative Resolution of a Mixture of Group II Metal Ions by Thermometric Titration with EDTA. An Analytical Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert L.; Popham, Ronald E.

    1983-01-01

    Presents an experiment in thermometric titration used in an analytic chemistry-chemical instrumentation course, consisting of two titrations, one a mixture of calcium and magnesium, the other of calcium, magnesium, and barium ions. Provides equipment and solutions list/specifications, graphs, and discussion of results. (JM)

  15. Sorption of Cu(II) Ions on Chitosan-Zeolite X Composites: Impact of Gelling and Drying Conditions.

    PubMed

    Djelad, Amal; Morsli, Amine; Robitzer, Mike; Bengueddach, Abdelkader; di Renzo, Francesco; Quignard, Françoise

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan-zeolite Na-X composite beads with open porosity and different zeolite contents were prepared by an encapsulation method. Preparation conditions had to be optimised in order to stabilize the zeolite network during the polysaccharide gelling process. Composites and pure reference components were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD); scanning electron microscopy (SEM); N₂ adsorption-desorption; and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). Cu(II) sorption was investigated at pH 6. The choice of drying method used for the storage of the adsorbent severely affects the textural properties of the composite and the copper sorption effectiveness. The copper sorption capacity of chitosan hydrogel is about 190 mg·g(-1). More than 70% of this capacity is retained when the polysaccharide is stored as an aerogel after supercrititcal CO₂ drying, but nearly 90% of the capacity is lost after evaporative drying to a xerogel. Textural data and Cu(II) sorption data indicate that the properties of the zeolite-polysaccharide composites are not just the sum of the properties of the individual components. Whereas a chitosan coating impairs the accessibility of the microporosity of the zeolite; the presence of the zeolite improves the stability of the dispersion of chitosan upon supercritical drying and increases the affinity of the composites for Cu(II) cations. Chitosan-zeolite aerogels present Cu(II) sorption properties. PMID:26797593

  16. Magnetic and low temperature phonon studies of CoCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} powders doped with Fe(III) and Ni(II) ions

    SciTech Connect

    Ptak, M. Mączka, M.; Pikul, A.; Tomaszewski, P.E.; Hanuza, J.

    2014-04-01

    Extensive temperature-dependent phonon studies and low-temperature magnetic measurements of CoCr{sub 2−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 4} (for x=0.5, 1 and 2) and Co{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 4} polycrystalline powders are presented. The main aim of these studies was to obtain information on phonon and structural properties of these compounds as well as strength of spin–phonon coupling in the magnetically ordered phases. IR and Raman spectra show that doping of CoCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} with Fe(III) ions leads to broadening of bands and appearance of new bands due to the formation of inverted spinel structure. In contrast to this behavior, doping with 10 mol% of Ni(II) ions leads to weak increase of band width only. Magnetization measured as a function of temperature and external magnetic field showed that magnetic properties of Co{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample are similar to those reported for pure CoCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, i.e., partial substitution of Ni(II) for Co(II) leads to slight shift of the ferrimagnetic phase transition at T{sub C} and spiral spin order transition at T{sub S} towards lower values. The change of crystallization preference induced by incorporation of increasing concentration of Fe(III) ions in the spinel lattice causes significant increase of T{sub C} and decrease of T{sub S}. The latter transition disappears completely for higher concentrations of Fe(III). The performed temperature-dependent IR studies revealed interesting anomalous behavior of phonons below T{sub C} for CoCr{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} and Co{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which was attributed to spin–phonon coupling. - Graphical abstract: Visualization of normal spinel-type AB{sub 2}O{sub 4} structure, where blue octahedrons denote BO{sub 6} and red tetrahedrons AO{sub 4} units as well as IR and Raman spectra of Co{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 0.1}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 4} powder. - Highlights: • T{sub C} (T{sub S}) increases (decreases) with increasing Fe(III) concentration.

  17. The influence of H-bonding on the 'ambidentate' coordination behaviour of the thiocyanate ion to Cd(II): a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Hazari, Alokesh; Das, Lakshmi Kanta; Bauzá, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio; Ghosh, Ashutosh

    2014-06-01

    Two new trinuclear hetero-metallic copper(II)-cadmium(II) complexes [(CuL)2Cd(NCS)2] (1) and [(CuL(R))2Cd(SCN)2] (2) have been synthesized using [CuL] and [CuL(R)] as "metalloligands" (where H2L = N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,4-butanediamine and H2L(R) = N,N'-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,4-butanediamine) respectively. Both the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, various spectroscopic methods and single crystal XRD. Complex 1 is an angular trinuclear species, in which two terminal four-coordinate square planar "metalloligands" [CuL] are coordinated to a central Cd(II) through double phenoxido bridges along with two mutually cis nitrogen atoms of terminal thiocyanate ions. In complex 2, which is linear, in addition to the double phenoxido bridge, two SCN(-) coordinate to the trans positions of the central octahedral Cd(II) via S atoms. Theoretical calculations on the energetic difference between the two possible coordination modes of the thiocyanate anion to the Cd atom reveal that N-coordination is preferred over S-coordination in agreement with the much greater abundance of the reported N-bonded structures. In 2, there is a strong N-H···NCS-Cd H-bonding interaction, the binding energy of which is computed to be approximately -9.3 kcal mol(-1), which is sufficient to compensate the 9.0 kcal mol(-1) of energetic cost due to the unusual Cd-SCN coordination mode. PMID:24715108

  18. Ion energy and angular distributions onto polymer surfaces delivered by dielectric barrier discharge filaments in air: II. Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Kushner, Mark J.

    2011-06-01

    Atmospheric pressure streamers intersecting particles are of interest in the context of plasma aided combustion, where the particle may be a fuel aerosol droplet, or in sterilization of air, where the particle may be a bacterium. The ion energy and angular distributions (IEADs) incident on the particles, small curved dielectric surfaces, then in part determine the propensity for activating chemical reactions or, in the case of bacteria, the plasma's sterilization capability. In this paper, we discuss results from a computational investigation of IEADs on small particles (45 µm radius) produced by atmospheric pressure discharge. Streamers intersecting a particle momentarily generate a large sheath potential as the streamer passes by as the particle charges towards the plasma floating potential. During that time, ions of energies up to 3-10 eV can strike the particle. The permittivity of the particle and the streamer polarity in part determine the character of the IEAD.

  19. Ion-selective electrode in determining fluorine in binary fluorides of metals of groups II-V

    SciTech Connect

    Mishchenko, V.T.; Mukomel', V.L.; Polvektov, N.S.; Shilova, L.P.; Tselik, E.I.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed a method of determining fluorine by ion-selective electrode techniques in specimens containing mixtures of the fluorides of magnesium and the rare-earth elements (REE), as well as scandium and bismuth. The specimens after treatment at high temperatures are sparingly soluble at room temperature in water and also in aqueous solutions of acids and bases. The authors found that a mixture of KNaCO/sub 3/ and K/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 8/ with a mass ratio of 2:1 was an effective flux for MgF/sub 2/-MeF/sub 3/ specimens, where Me is an REE ion. The combined method of analyzing binary mixtures of fluorides (Mg and REE, Sc and Bi) which provides satisfactory accuracy and reliability in determining the fluoride and two different metals whose compounds may have various ratios in the samples.

  20. [The coagulation characteristics of human oxyhemoglobin in the presence of a mercury (II) ion in a neutral phosphate buffer].

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, L D; Myshkin, A E

    1990-01-01

    The kinetics of human oxyhemoglobin coagulation in neutral phosphate buffer in the presence of mercury acetate at 20 degrees has been studied using turbidimetric methods. The addition of small amounts of concentrated Hg2+ solution leads to rapid local protein coagulation with subsequent dissolution of the formed coagulate. Coagulation can be inhibited by addition of Tris that binds to mercury ions. The pattern of oxyhemoglobin coagulation is determined by molar Hg2+/protein ration rather than by total Hg2+ concentration. PMID:2362035

  1. Gyrotropic guiding-center fluid theory for the turbulent heating of magnetospheric ions in downward Birkeland current regions. II

    SciTech Connect

    Jasperse, John R.; Basu, Bamandas; Lund, Eric J.; Bouhram, Mehdi

    2006-11-15

    A new fluid theory in the guiding-center and gyrotropic approximation derivable from the ensemble-averaged Vlasov-Maxwell equations that included the effect of wave-particle interactions for weakly turbulent, weakly inhomogeneous, nonuniformly magnetized plasma was recently given by Jasperse, Basu, Lund, and Bouhram [Phys. Plasmas 13, 072903 (2006)]. In that theory, the particles are transported in one spatial dimension (the distance s along the magnetic field) but the turbulence is two-dimensional. In this paper, which is intended as a sequel, the above theory is used for quasisteady conditions to find: (1) a new formula for the perpendicular ion-heating rate per unit volume W{sub iperpendicular}(s), where W{sub iperpendicular}(s) decreases for large s by what we call the 'finite ion gyroradius effect'; and (2) a new formula for the perpendicular ion temperature at low altitudes, T{sub iperpendicular}(s). Parametrized calculations for T{sub iperpendicular}(s) are also given.

  2. Orbit-based analysis of nonlinear energetic ion dynamics in tokamaks. II. Mechanisms for rapid chirping and convective amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierwage, Andreas; Shinohara, Kouji

    2016-04-01

    The nonlinear interactions between shear Alfvén modes and tangentially injected beam ions in the 150-400 keV range are studied numerically in realistic geometry for a JT-60U tokamak scenario. In Paper I, which was reported in the companion paper, the recently developed orbit-based resonance analysis method was used to track the resonant frequency of fast ions during their nonlinear evolution subject to large magnetic and electric drifts. Here, that method is applied to map the wave-particle power transfer from the canonical guiding center phase space into the frequency-radius plane, where it can be directly compared with the evolution of the fluctuation spectra of fast-ion-driven modes. Using this technique, we study the nonlinear dynamics of strongly driven shear Alfvén modes with low toroidal mode numbers n = 1 and n = 3. In the n = 3 case, both chirping and convective amplification can be attributed to the mode following the resonant frequency of the radially displaced particles, i.e., the usual one-dimensional phase locking process. In the n = 1 case, a new chirping mechanism is found, which involves multiple dimensions, namely, wave-particle trapping in the radial direction and phase mixing across velocity coordinates.

  3. Ion exchange equilibria in simultaneous extraction of platinum(II, IV) and rhodium(III) from hydrochloric solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mel'nikov, A. M.; Kononova, O. N.; Pavlenko, N. I.; Krylov, A. S.

    2012-06-01

    Regularities of sorption extraction of platinum(II, IV) and rhodium(III) by anion exchangers of various physical and chemical structure in the presence of hydrochloric media were studied. It is established that AM-2B, Purolite A 500, and Purolite S 985 ionites adsorb complex anions of platinum metals employing mixed mechanism. A high affinity of the studied anionites for the studied complex anions of platinum and rhodium is established.

  4. Change in equilibrium position of misfit dislocations at the GaN/sapphire interface by Si-ion implantation into sapphire. II. Electron energy loss spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sung Bo Han, Heung Nam; Kim, Young-Min

    2015-07-15

    In Part I, we have shown that the addition of Si into sapphire by ion implantationmakes the sapphire substrate elastically softer than for the undoped sapphire. The more compliant layer of the Si-implanted sapphire substrate can absorb the misfit stress at the GaN/sapphire interface, which produces a lower threading-dislocation density in the GaN overlayer. Here in Part II, based on experimental results by electron energy loss spectroscopy and a first-principle molecular orbital calculation in the literature, we suggest that the softening effect of Si results from a reduction of ionic bonding strength in sapphire (α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) with the substitution of Si for Al.

  5. Plasmon enhanced photoelectrochemical sensing of mercury (II) ions in human serum based on Au@Ag nanorods modified TiO2 nanosheets film.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Shoaib, Anwer; Li, Jiaojiao; Ji, Muwei; Liu, Jiajia; Xu, Meng; Tong, Bin; Zhang, Jiatao; Wei, Qin

    2016-05-15

    Taking advantages of the monodisperse TiO2 nanosheets (NSs) with high active crystal face exposure and the tunable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties of Au@Ag nanorods (NRs), this study demonstrated that TiO2 NSs film with trace amount of Au@Ag NRs modification possess a strong enhancement of photocurrent response, which was remarkably inhibited with the addition of mercury (II) ions (Hg(2+)). Based on the selective decrease of photocurrent with the addition of Hg(2+), a simple photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor has been assembled. The PEC sensor exhibits wide linear range (0.01-10nM), low detection limit (2.5pM), satisfying selectivity, reproducibility and acceptable stability for Hg(2+) detection. The feasibility of this method for practical application in human serum has been evaluated and the result was satisfactory. This PEC sensing method would provide a potential application for Hg(2+) detection in clinical diagnosis. PMID:26785311

  6. Complexation of nitrogen and sulphur donor Schiff's base ligand to Cr(III) and Ni(II) metal ions: Synthesis, spectroscopic and antipathogenic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Amit Kumar; Chandra, Sulekh

    2011-01-01

    2,6-Diacetyl pyridine based ligand was synthesized by the reaction of 2,6-diacetyl pyridine with thiocarbohydrazide in presence of acetic acid. The coordination compounds with Cr(III) and Ni(II) metal ions having [Cr(L)X]X 2 and [Ni(L)X]X compositions (where L = ligand and X = NO 3-, Cl - and CH 3COO -) were synthesized and characterized by physicochemical and spectral studies. The studies like elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, UV-Vis, NMR, mass and EPR reveal that the complexes are octahedral. The compounds were examined against the pathogenic fungal and bacterial strains like Alternaria brassicae, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Xanthomonas compestris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A. niger causes the diseases Apergillosis and Otomycosis in humans.

  7. Change in equilibrium position of misfit dislocations at the GaN/sapphire interface by Si-ion implantation into sapphire. II. Electron energy loss spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung Bo; Kim, Young-Min; Han, Heung Nam

    2015-07-01

    In Part I, we have shown that the addition of Si into sapphire by ion implantationmakes the sapphire substrate elastically softer than for the undoped sapphire. The more compliant layer of the Si-implanted sapphire substrate can absorb the misfit stress at the GaN/sapphire interface, which produces a lower threading-dislocation density in the GaN overlayer. Here in Part II, based on experimental results by electron energy loss spectroscopy and a first-principle molecular orbital calculation in the literature, we suggest that the softening effect of Si results from a reduction of ionic bonding strength in sapphire (α-Al2O3) with the substitution of Si for Al.

  8. Copper(II)-mediated thermolysis of alginates: a model kinetic study on the influence of metal ions in the thermochemical processing of macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Rowbotham, J S; Dyer, P W; Greenwell, H C; Selby, D; Theodorou, M K

    2013-02-01

    Thermochemical processing methods such as pyrolysis are of growing interest as a means of converting biomass into fuels and commodity chemicals in a sustainable manner. Macroalgae, or seaweed, represent a novel class of feedstock for pyrolysis that, owing to the nature of the environments in which they grow coupled with their biochemistry, naturally possess high metal contents. Although the impact of metals upon the pyrolysis of terrestrial biomass is well documented, their influence on the thermochemical conversion of marine-derived feeds is largely unknown. Furthermore, these effects are inherently difficult to study, owing to the heterogeneous character of natural seaweed samples. The work described in this paper uses copper(II) alginate, together with alginic acid and sodium alginate as model compounds for exploring the effects of metals upon macroalgae thermolysis. A thermogravimetric analysis-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study revealed that, unusually, Cu(2+) ions promote the onset of pyrolysis in the alginate polymer, with copper(II) alginate initiating rapid devolatilization at 143°C, 14°C lower than alginic acid and 61°C below the equivalent point for sodium alginate. Moreover, this effect was mirrored in a sample of wild Laminaria digitata that had been doped with Cu(2+) ions prior to pyrolysis, thus validating the use of alginates as model compounds with which to study the thermolysis of macroalgae. These observations indicate the varying impact of different metal species on thermochemical behaviour of seaweeds and offer an insight into the pyrolysis of brown macroalgae used in phytoremediation of metal-containing waste streams. PMID:24427515

  9. Copper(II)-mediated thermolysis of alginates: a model kinetic study on the influence of metal ions in the thermochemical processing of macroalgae

    PubMed Central

    Rowbotham, J. S.; Dyer, P. W.; Greenwell, H. C.; Selby, D.; Theodorou, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    Thermochemical processing methods such as pyrolysis are of growing interest as a means of converting biomass into fuels and commodity chemicals in a sustainable manner. Macroalgae, or seaweed, represent a novel class of feedstock for pyrolysis that, owing to the nature of the environments in which they grow coupled with their biochemistry, naturally possess high metal contents. Although the impact of metals upon the pyrolysis of terrestrial biomass is well documented, their influence on the thermochemical conversion of marine-derived feeds is largely unknown. Furthermore, these effects are inherently difficult to study, owing to the heterogeneous character of natural seaweed samples. The work described in this paper uses copper(II) alginate, together with alginic acid and sodium alginate as model compounds for exploring the effects of metals upon macroalgae thermolysis. A thermogravimetric analysis–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study revealed that, unusually, Cu2+ ions promote the onset of pyrolysis in the alginate polymer, with copper(II) alginate initiating rapid devolatilization at 143°C, 14°C lower than alginic acid and 61°C below the equivalent point for sodium alginate. Moreover, this effect was mirrored in a sample of wild Laminaria digitata that had been doped with Cu2+ ions prior to pyrolysis, thus validating the use of alginates as model compounds with which to study the thermolysis of macroalgae. These observations indicate the varying impact of different metal species on thermochemical behaviour of seaweeds and offer an insight into the pyrolysis of brown macroalgae used in phytoremediation of metal-containing waste streams. PMID:24427515

  10. Cavity morphology in a Ni based superalloy under heavy ion irradiation with hot pre-injected helium. II

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, He; Yao, Zhongwen Daymond, Mark R.; Kirk, Marquis A.

    2014-03-14

    In the current investigation, TEM in-situ heavy ion (1 MeV Kr{sup 2+}) irradiation with helium pre-injected at elevated temperature (400 °C) was conducted to simulate in-reactor neutron irradiation induced damage in CANDU spacer material Inconel X-750, in an effort to understand the effects of helium on irradiation induced cavity microstructures. Three different quantities of helium, 400 appm, 1000 appm, and 5000 appm, were pre-injected directly into TEM foils at 400 °C. The samples containing helium were then irradiated in-situ with 1 MeV Kr{sup 2+} at 400 °C to a final dose of 5.4 dpa (displacement per atom). Cavities were formed from the helium injection solely and the cavity density and size increased with increasing helium dosage. In contrast to previous heavy ion irradiations with cold pre-injected helium, heterogeneous nucleation of cavities was observed. During the ensuing heavy ion irradiation, dynamical observation showed noticeable size increase in cavities which nucleated close to the grain boundaries. A “bubble-void” transformation was observed after Kr{sup 2+} irradiation to high dose (5.4 dpa) in samples containing 1000 appm and 5000 appm helium. Cavity distribution was found to be consistent with in-reactor neutron irradiation induced cavity microstructures. This implies that the distribution of helium is greatly dependent on the injection temperature, and helium pre-injection at high temperature is preferred for simulating the migration of the transmutation produced helium.

  11. Adsorption of Cd(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Lalang (Imperata cylindrica)Leaf Powder: Effect of Physicochemical Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megat Hanafiah, M. A. K.; Yahya, M. Z. A.; Zakaria, H.; Ibrahim, S. C.

    The adsorption of cadmium from aqueous solution with a plant waste particularly Lalang or Imperata cylindrica (IC) leaf powder was investigated. The effect of various operating variables mainly adsorbate concentration, adsorbent dose, adsorbent size, temperature and pH was studied. The adsorption of Cd2+ ions increased with increase in pH, temperature, adsorbent dose and decrease in adsorbent size. Adsorption was rapid and occurred within 15 min for cadmium concentration of 1 mg L-1 and 30 min for cadmium concentrations of 2 and 5 mg L-1. The kinetic process of Cd2+ adsorption onto IC leaf powder was found to fit the pseudo-second-order rate equation.

  12. Spectrophotometric determination of some anti-tussive and anti-spasmodic drugs through ion-pair complex formation with thiocyanate and cobalt(II) or molybdenum(V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shiekh, Ragaa; Zahran, Faten; El-Fetouh Gouda, Ayman Abou

    2007-04-01

    Two rapid, simple and sensitive extractive specrophotometric methods has been developed for the determination of anti-tussive drugs, e.g., dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DEX) and pipazethate hydrochloride (PiCl) and anti-spasmodic drugs, e.g., drotaverine hydrochloride (DvCl) and trimebutine maleate (TM) in bulk and in their pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed methods depend upon the reaction of cobalt(II)-thiocyanate (method A) and molybdenum(V)-thiocyanate ions (method B) with the cited drugs to form stable ion-pair complexes which extractable with an n-butnol-dichloromethane solvent mixture (3.5:6.5) and methylene chloride for methods A and B, respectively. The blue and orange red color complexes are determined either colorimetrically at λmax 625 nm (using method A) and 467 or 470 nm for (DEX and PiCl) or (DvCl and TM), respectively (using method B). The concentration range is 20-400 and 2.5-50 μg mL -1 for methods A and B, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of the studied drugs in pure and in pharmaceutical formulations applying the standard additions technique and the results obtained in good agreement well with those obtained by the official method.

  13. Spectrophotometric determination of some anti-tussive and anti-spasmodic drugs through ion-pair complex formation with thiocyanate and cobalt(II) or molybdenum(V).

    PubMed

    El-Shiekh, Ragaa; Zahran, Faten; El-Fetouh Gouda, Ayman Abou

    2007-04-01

    Two rapid, simple and sensitive extractive specrophotometric methods has been developed for the determination of anti-tussive drugs, e.g., dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DEX) and pipazethate hydrochloride (PiCl) and anti-spasmodic drugs, e.g., drotaverine hydrochloride (DvCl) and trimebutine maleate (TM) in bulk and in their pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed methods depend upon the reaction of cobalt(II)-thiocyanate (method A) and molybdenum(V)-thiocyanate ions (method B) with the cited drugs to form stable ion-pair complexes which extractable with an n-butnol-dichloromethane solvent mixture (3.5:6.5) and methylene chloride for methods A and B, respectively. The blue and orange red color complexes are determined either colorimetrically at lambdamax 625 nm (using method A) and 467 or 470 nm for (DEX and PiCl) or (DvCl and TM), respectively (using method B). The concentration range is 20-400 and 2.5-50 microg mL-1 for methods A and B, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of the studied drugs in pure and in pharmaceutical formulations applying the standard additions technique and the results obtained in good agreement well with those obtained by the official method. PMID:17142094

  14. Theory of oxidation/reduction-induced valence transformations of metal ion dopants in oxide crystals mediated by oxide-vacancy diffusion: II. Kinetic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinder, M.; Burshtein, Z.; Pelleg, J.

    2014-04-01

    We consider theoretically valence transformations of doping metal ions in oxide crystals induced by oxidation and reduction obtained by changes in the ambient oxygen partial pressure. Three types of oxygen vacancies are assumed to mediate transformations: neutral, singly ionized, and doubly ionized. In the companion part I paper we provide thermodynamic analyses yielding concentration relations among the oxygen vacancy, metal ions, holes and electrons, as functions of the ambient oxygen pressure. In the present companion part II paper we provide time dependent concentration profiles of the various species and reaction rate profiles. The diffusion exhibits a complex behavior; under some conditions, it may be described by a constant diffusivity, and is symmetric with respect to oxidation and reduction. However, under a wide range of conditions, the ionic state changes are highly asymmetric with respect to oxidation and reduction. For example, in the case of a neutral vacancy, a very narrow reaction front may establish during reduction. In the inverse (oxidation) process, however, the different species' profiles are quite smooth.

  15. The role of anode and cathode plasmas in high power ion diode performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlhorn, T.A.; Bailey, J.E.; Bernard, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    We describe measurements, modeling, and mitigation experiments on the effects of anode and cathode plasmas in applied-B ion diodes. We have performed experiments with electrode conditioning and cleaning techniques including RF discharges, anode heating, cryogenic cathode cooling and anode surface coatings that have been successful in mitigating some of the effects of electrode contamination on ion diode performance on both the SABRE and PBFA accelerators. We are developing sophisticated spectroscopic diagnostic techniques that allow us to measure the electric and magnetic fields in the A-K gap, we compare these measured fields with those predicted by our 3-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of ion diodes, and we measure anode and cathode plasma densities and expansion velocities. We are continuing to develop E-M simulation codes with fluid-PIC hybrid models for dense plasmas, in order to understand the role of electrode plasmas in ion diode performance. Our strategy for improving high power ion diode performance is to employ and expand our capabilities in measuring and modeling A-K gap plasmas and leverage our increased knowledge into an increase in total ion beam brightness to High Yield Facility (HYF) levels.

  16. Carbon nanoparticle for highly sensitive and selective fluorescent detection of mercury(II) ion in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Zhai, Junfeng; Tian, Jingqi; Luo, Yonglan; Sun, Xuping

    2011-08-15

    In this article, carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) were used as a novel fluorescent sensing platform for highly sensitive and selective Hg(2+) detection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of CNPs obtained from candle soot used in this type of sensor. The general concept used in this approach is based on that adsorption of the fluorescently labeled single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probe by CNP via π-π stacking interactions between DNA bases and CNP leads to substantial dye fluorescence quenching; however, in the presence of Hg(2+), T-Hg(2+)-T induced hairpin structure does not adsorb on CNP and thus retains the dye fluorescence. A detection limit as low as 10nM was achieved. The present CNP-based biosensor for Hg(2+) detection exhibits remarkable specificity against other possible metal ions. Furthermore, superior selectivity performance was observed when Hg(2+) detection was carried out in the presence of a large amount of other interference ions. Finally, in order to evaluate its potential practical application, Hg(2+) detection was conducted with the use of lake water other than pure buffer and it is believed that it holds great promise for real sample analysis upon further development. PMID:21719271

  17. Swelling behavior of ion exchange resins incorporated in tri-calcium silicate cement matrix: II. Mechanical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neji, M.; Bary, B.; Le Bescop, P.; Burlion, N.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the second part of a study aiming at modelling the mechanical behavior of composites made up of ion exchange resins (IER) solidified in a tri-calcium silicate cement paste (C3S). Such composites may be subjected to internal pressures due to ion exchange processes between ionic species which are in IER and interstitial solution of the cement paste. The reactive transport model developed in the companion paper is coupled in this study to a multi-scale approach describing the mechanical behavior of the material. It is based on an analogy with thermomechanics for taking in account the IER internal pressures, and on Eshelby-based homogenization techniques to estimate both mechanical and coupling parameters. A laboratory test has been set up to measure the macroscopic strain caused by the swelling phenomenon. The model has been finally implemented in a finite elements software. The simulation of the laboratory tests has been performed and the results have been analyzed and compared to experimental data.

  18. BSA-stabilized Pt nanozyme for peroxidase mimetics and its application on colorimetric detection of mercury(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Haixiang; Sun, Yanhua; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jinli; Fu, Yan

    2015-04-15

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is chosen as the nucleation templates to synthesize Pt-based peroxidase nanomimetics with the average diameter of 2.0nm. The efficient Pt nanozymes consist of 57% Pt(0) and 43% Pt(2+), which possess highly peroxidase-like activity with the Km values of 0.119mM and 41.8mM toward 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), respectively. Interestingly, Hg(2+) is able to down-regulate the enzymatic activity of Pt nanoparticles, mainly through the interactions between Hg(2+) and Pt(0). It is the first report to explore a colorimetric Hg(2+) sensing system on the basis of peroxidase mimicking activities of Pt nanoparticles. One of our most intriguing results is that BSA-stabilized Pt nanozymes demonstrate the ability to sense Hg(2+) ions in aqueous solution without significant interference from other metal ions. The Hg(2+) detection limit of 7.2nM is achieved with a linear response range of 0-120nM, and the developed sensing system is potentially applicable for quantitative determination of Hg(2+) in drinking water. PMID:25437360

  19. Self-assembly of copper(II) ion-mediated nanotube and its supramolecular chiral catalytic behavior.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qingxian; Zhang, Li; Cao, Hai; Wang, Tianyu; Zhu, Xuefeng; Jiang, Jian; Liu, Minghua

    2011-11-15

    Self-assembly of several low-molecular-weight L-glutamic acid-based gelators, which individually formed helical nanotube or nanofiber structures, was investigated in the presence of Cu(2+) ion. It was found that, when Cu(2+) was added into the system, the self-assembly manner changed significantly. Only in the case of bolaamphiphilic glutamic acid, N,N'-hexadecanedioyl-di-L-glutamic acid (L-HDGA), were the hydrogel formation as well as the nanotube structures maintained. The addition of Cu(2+) ion caused a transition from monolayer nanotube of L-HDGA to a multilayer nanotube with the thickness of the tubular wall about 10 nm. For the other amphiphiles, the gel was destroyed and nanofiber structures were mainly formed. The formed Cu(2+)-containing nanostructures can function as an asymmetric catalyst for Diels-Alder cycloaddition between cyclopentadiene and aza-chalcone. In comparison with the other Cu(2+)-containing nanostructures, the Cu(2+)-mediated nanotube structure showed not only accelerated reaction rate, but enhanced enantiomeric selectivity. It was suggested that, through the Cu(2+) mediated nanotube formation, the substrate molecules could be anchored on the nanotube surfaces and produced a stereochemically favored alignment. When adducts reacted with the substrate, both the enantiomeric selectivity and the reaction rate were increased. Since the Cu(2+)-mediated nanotube can be fabricated easily and in large amount, the work opened a new way to perform efficient chiral catalysis through the supramolecular gel. PMID:21978005

  20. Synthesis, phase stability and oxide ion conductivity of Ce(IV)-Cd(II) double substituted bismuth vanadate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beg, Saba; Haneef, Sadaf

    2015-11-01

    Bi4V2O11-δ has been doped with Ce and Cd to study double substitution. The system with various dopant concentrations (0.07 ≤ x ≤ 0.30) was prepared by the standard solid-state reaction method. The correlation between the polymorphism and oxide ion performance was well investigated as a function of temperature and composition with the help of thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and AC impedance spectroscopy. From XRD results it is seen that the high oxide ion conducting tetragonal γ-phase is stabilized for x = 0.17. For the compositions x ≤ 0.10, monoclinic α-phase is retained at room temperature with clear evidence for two successive phase transitions α ↔ β and β ↔ γ. For x = 0.13, β ↔ γ phase transition is seen. However, the existence of order-disorder, γ' ↔ γ transition was confirmed for x = 0.17. It is seen that the highest low-temperature ionic conductivity at 320 °C is 3.19 × 10-4 S cm-1 which was observed for x = 0.17.

  1. Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped carbon dots for highly selective and sensitive detection of Hg (II) ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Libo; Yu, Bin; You, Tianyan

    2015-12-15

    Nitrogen and sulfur co-doped carbon dots (N,S/C-dots) with high fluorescence quantum yields (FLQY, 25%) was successfully synthesized by a one-step microwave-assisted method. In comparison with nitrogen doped C-dots (N/C-dots) prepared using the same method, the resulting N,S/C-dots featured small particle size, uniform surface state, insensitive FL properties to excitation wavelengths and environmental conditions, negligible cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility. Simultaneous doping of N and S effectively promoted electron-transfer and coordination interaction between N,S/C-dots and Hg(2+). Thus, when used as fluorescence probe for Hg(2+) label-free detection, the resulting N,S/C-dots showed good detection sensitivity and ion selectivity. The limit of detection was 2 μM; among 15 metal ions investigated, only Fe(3+) showed interference to the Hg(2+) detection. Fortunately, this interference could be effectively shielded using a chelating agent sodium hexametaphoshpate. The applicability of N,S/C-dots as fluorescence probe for Hg(2+) detection in lake water and tap water was demonstrated. Finally, based on its favorable features of negligible cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility, the N,S/C-dots were successfully applied to probe Hg(2+) in living cells, which broaden its application in biological system. PMID:26143466

  2. Sorption of copper(II) ion from aqueous solution by Tectona grandis l.f. (teak leaves powder).

    PubMed

    King, P; Srinivas, P; Kumar, Y Prasanna; Prasad, V S R K

    2006-08-25

    Studies on a batch sorption system using Tectona grandis l.f. as adsorbent was investigated to remove copper(II) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption experiments were performed under various conditions such as different initial concentrations, pH, adsorbent dosage and adsorbent particle size. The data showed that 0.1 g of Tectona grandis l.f. was found to remove 71.66% of 20 mg/L copper(II) from 30 mL aqueous solution in 180 min. The experimental equilibrium data were adjusted by the adsorption isotherms from Langmuir and Freundlich models and their equilibrium parameters were determined. The best-adjusted model to the experimental equilibrium data for Tectona grandis l.f. was the Langmuir model. Using the Langmuir model equation, the monolayer sorption capacity of Tectona grandis l.f. was evaluated and found to be 95.40 mg/g. The optimum pH value was found to be 5.5. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were used to describe the kinetic data. The dynamic data fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. PMID:16443324

  3. Green rusts synthesis by coprecipitation of Fe II-Fe III ions and mass-balance diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruby, Christian; Aïssa, Rabha; Géhin, Antoine; Cortot, Jérôme; Abdelmoula, Mustapha; Génin, Jean-Marie

    2006-06-01

    A basic solution is progressively added to various mixed Fe II-Fe III solutions. The nature and the relative quantities of the compounds that form can be visualised in a mass-balance diagram. The formation of hydroxysulphate green rust {GR( SO42-)} is preceded by the precipitation of a sulphated ferric basic salt that transforms in a badly ordered ferric oxyhydroxide. Then octahedrally coordinated Fe II species and SO42- anions are adsorbed on the FeOOH surface and GR( SO42-) is formed at the solid/solution interface. By using the same method of preparation, other types of green rust were synthesised, e.g. hydroxycarbonate green rust {GR( CO32-)}. Like other layered double hydroxides, green rusts obey the general chemical formula [ṡ[ṡmHO]x+ with x⩽1/3. Al-substituted hydroxysulphate green rust consists of small hexagonal crystals with a lateral size ˜50 nm, which is significantly smaller than the size of the GR( SO42-) crystals (˜500 nm). To cite this article: C. Ruby et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  4. Nano sponge Mn₂O ₃ as a new adsorbent for the preconcentration of Pd(II) and Rh(III) ions in sea water, wastewater, rock, street sediment and catalytic converter samples prior to FAAS determinations.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Emre; Tokalıoğlu, Serife; Sahan, Halil; Patat, Saban

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a nano sponge Mn2O3 adsorbent was synthesized and was used for the first time. Various parameters affecting the recovery values of Pd(II) and Rh(III) were examined. The tolerance limits (≥ 90 %) for both Pd(II) and Rh(III) ions were found to be 75,000 mg L(-1) Na(I), 75,000 mg L(-1) K(I), 50,000 mg L(-1) Mg(II) and 50,000 mg L(-1) Ca(II). A 30s contact time was enough for both adsorption and elution. A preconcentration factor of 100 was obtained by using 100mg of the nano sponge Mn2O3. The reusability of the adsorbent was 120 times. Adsorption capacities for Pd(II) and Rh(III) were found to be 42 and 6.2 mg g(-1), respectively. The detection limits were 1.0 µg L(-1) for Pd(II) and 0.37 µg L(-1) for Rh(III) and the relative standard deviations (RSD, %) were found to be ≤ 2.5%. The method was validated by analyzing the standard reference material, SRM 2556 (Used Auto Catalyst Pellets) and spiked real samples. The optimized method was applied for the preconcentration of Pd(II) and Rh(III) ions in water (sea water and wastewater), rock, street sediment and catalytic converter samples. PMID:25059126

  5. A Solid-Contact Ion Selective Electrode for Copper(II) Using a Succinimide Derivative as Ionophore

    PubMed Central

    Tutulea-Anastasiu, Mihaela Dana; Wilson, Deivy; del Valle, Manel; Schreiner, Cristina Mihaela; Cretescu, Igor

    2013-01-01

    All-solid-state sensors with polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-based membranes using off-the-shelf N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and succinimide (Succ) ionophores were prepared using DOP (dioctyl phthalate) and NPOE (ortho-nitrophenyloctyl ether) as plasticizers. Good responses were obtained when NHS was used. The potentiometric response of the proposed electrode is independent of pH over the range 2–6. The electrode shows a fast response time of 0.25 s. The electrode exhibits a Super-Nernstian response, with 37.5 mV/decade, with a potentiometric detection limit of 4.4 μM. The proposed sensor revealed good selectivity towards a group of transition metal ions. PMID:23549362

  6. Building a better mousetrap II: using Design of Experiments with unconfounded ions to compare the growth of different microalgae.

    PubMed

    Hallenbeck, Patrick C; Grogger, Melanie; Mraz, Megan; Veverka, Donald

    2015-05-01

    A large number of unconfounded media variations were used with a Scheffe Mix Model to examine in an unambiguous fashion the effects of variations in six important ions; NH4(+), NO3(-), Na(+), K(+), PO4(-), and Cl(-), on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. This allows several novel observations on media components, for example, the inhibitory effects of chloride, to be made. Using a side by side comparison, it is shown that two strains of Chlorella show significant physiological and functional differences brought out by this approach. Testing selected formulations with a diverse set of algae demonstrated different effects on both growth and cellular lipid content, in some cases driving significant lipid production. This suggests that future work using a larger portion of media composition space could lead to the development of novel media supporting maximal biomass production and lipid production. PMID:25465789

  7. Recombination line intensities for hydrogenic ions. II - Case B calculations for C VI, N VII and O VIII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storey, P. J.; Hummer, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    The intensities of recombination lines formed in extended, optically thim, photoionized plasmas such as those found in PN, H II regions, and winds of certain hot stars are an important source of information on chemical abundances and can sometimes provide estimates of electron temperature. In this paper, the intensities of the recombination lines of C VI, N VII, and O VIII are calculated, accounting for both electron and heavy particle collisions and assuming case B of Baker and Menzel. The computational procedure is explained. The intensities of lines formed by transitions n(u) - n(l) are tabulated for n(u) of 50 or less, n(l) of 29 or less, at log N(e) = 4(1)13 and 10 values of electron temperature in the interval 10,000 K to 500,000 K.

  8. Graphenothermal reduction synthesis of 'exfoliated graphene oxide/iron (II) oxide' composite for anode application in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petnikota, Shaikshavali; Marka, Sandeep Kumar; Banerjee, Arkaprabha; Reddy, M. V.; Srikanth, V. V. S. S.; Chowdari, B. V. R.

    2015-10-01

    Graphenothermal Reduction process is used to obtain exfoliated graphene oxide (EG)/iron (II) oxide (FeO) composite prepared at 650 °C for 5 h in argon. Structural and compositional analyses of the sample confirm the formation of EG/FeO composite. This composite shows a reversible capacity of 857 mAh g-1 at a current rate of 50 mA g-1 in the voltage range 0.005-3.0 V versus Li. An excellent capacity retention up to 60 cycles and high coulombic efficiency of 98% are also observed. Characteristic Fe2+/0 redox peaks observed in Cyclic Voltammetry measurement are explained in correlation with lithium storage mechanism. Thermal, electrical and impedance spectroscopy studies of EG/FeO composite are discussed in detail. Comparative electrochemical cycling studies of EG/FeO composite with Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 materials prepared under controlled conditions are also discussed.

  9. Fe(III) and Fe(II) ions different effects on Enterococcus hirae cell growth and membrane-associated ATPase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Vardanyan, Zaruhi; Trchounian, Armen

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sup 3+} stimulates but Fe{sup 2+} suppresses Enterococcus hirae wild-type and atpD mutant growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe ions change oxidation-reduction potential drop during cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} have opposite effects on a membrane-associated ATPase activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These effects are either in the presence of F{sub 0}F{sub 1} inhibitor or non-functional F{sub 0}F{sub 1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe ions decrease protons and coupled potassium ions fluxes across the membrane. -- Abstract: Enterococcus hirae is able to grow under anaerobic conditions during glucose fermentation (pH 8.0) which is accompanied by acidification of the medium and drop in its oxidation-reduction potential (E{sub h}) from positive values to negative ones (down to {approx}-200 mV). In this study, iron (III) ions (Fe{sup 3+}) have been shown to affect bacterial growth in a concentration-dependent manner (within the range of 0.05-2 mM) by decreasing lag phase duration and increasing specific growth rate. While iron(II) ions (Fe{sup 2+}) had opposite effects which were reflected by suppressing bacterial growth. These ions also affected the changes in E{sub h} values during bacterial growth. It was revealed that ATPase activity with and without N,N Prime -dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), an inhibitor of the F{sub 0}F{sub 1}-ATPase, increased in the presence of even low Fe{sup 3+} concentration (0.05 mM) but decreased in the presence of Fe{sup 2+}. It was established that Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+} both significantly inhibited the proton-potassium exchange of bacteria, but stronger effects were in the case of Fe{sup 2+} with DCCD. Such results were observed with both wild-type ATCC9790 and atpD mutant (with defective F{sub 0}F{sub 1}) MS116 strains but they were different with Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+}. It is suggested that the effects of Fe{sup 3+} might be due to

  10. Fine-Tuning of Electronic Structure of Cobalt(II) Ion in Nonplanar Porphyrins and Tracking of a Cross-Hybrid Stage: Implications for the Distortion of Natural Tetrapyrrole Macrocycles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiuhua; Zhang, Xi; Zeng, Wennan; Wang, Jianxiu; Zhou, Zaichun

    2015-11-01

    The core size of the porphyrin macrocycles was closely related to their stability of the different electron structure in the central metal ion. Cobalt(II) ions can undergo a conversion in electron configurations upon N4 core contraction of 0.05 Å in nonplanar porphyrins, and these ions still maintain low spin forms after and before conversion. The structural fine-tuning can induce the appearance of a cross-hybrid stage [d(x(2)-y(2))sp(2) ↔ d(z(2))sp(2)] based on quadrilateral coordination of the planar core. The results indicate that the configuration conversion plays a key role in electron transfer in redox catalysis involving cobalt complexes. The electronic properties of six monostrapped cobalt(II) porphyrins were investigated by spectral, paramagnetic, and electrochemical methods. The macrocyclic deformations and size parameters of Co-containing model compounds were directly obtained from their crystal structures. PMID:26461496

  11. Cobalt(II)-Based Single-Ion Magnets with Distorted Pseudotetrahedral [N2O2] Coordination: Experimental and Theoretical Investigations.

    PubMed

    Ziegenbalg, Sven; Hornig, David; Görls, Helmar; Plass, Winfried

    2016-04-18

    The synthesis and magnetic properties of cobalt(II) complexes with sterically demanding Schiff-base ligands are reported. The compounds [Co(L(Br))2] (1) and [Co(L(Ph))2]·CH2Cl2 (2·CH2Cl2) are obtained by the reaction of cobalt(II) acetate with the ligands HL(Br) and HL(Ph) in a dichloromethane/methanol mixture. 1 and 2 crystallize in the space groups P21212 and P1̅, respectively. X-ray diffraction studies revealed mononuclear constitution of both complexes. For 1, relatively short intermolecular Co-Co distances of 569 pm are observed. In compound 2, a hydrogen-bonded dichloromethane molecule is present, leading to a solvent aggregate with remarkable thermal stability for which desolvation is taking place between 150 and 210 °C. Magnetic measurements were performed to determine the zero-field-splitting (ZFS) parameter D for both complexes. Frequency-dependent susceptibility measurements revealed slow magnetic relaxation behavior with spin-reversal barriers of 36 cm(-1) for 1 and 43 cm(-1) for 2 at an applied external field of 400 Oe. This observation is related to an increasing distortion of the pseudotetrahedral coordination geometry for complex 2. These distortions can be decomposed in two major contributions. One is the elongation effect described by the parameter ϵT, which is the ratio of the averaged obtuse and acute bond angles. The other effect is related to a twisting distortion of the chelate coordination planes at the cobalt center. A comparison with literature examples reveals that the elongation effect seems to govern the overall magnetic behavior in pseudotetrahedral complexes with two bidentate chelate ligands. Ab initio calculations for complexes 1 and 2 using the CASPT2 method show strong splitting of the excited (4)T2 term, which explains the observed strong ZFS. Spin-orbit calculations with the RASSI-SO method confirm the single-molecule-magnet behavior because only small transversal elements are found for the lowest Kramers doublet for both

  12. Modeling solar flare conduction fronts. I - Homogeneous plasmas and ion-acoustic turbulence. II - Inhomogeneous plasmas and ambipolar electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckean, M. E.; Winglee, R. M.; Dulk, G. A.

    1990-01-01

    A one-dimensional, electrostatic, particle-in-cell simulation is used here to model the expansion of a heated electron population in a coronal loop during a solar flare and the characteristics of the associated X-ray emissions. The hot electrons expand outward from the localized region, creating an ambipolar electric field which accelerates a return current of cooler, ambient electrons. Ion-acoustic waves are generated by the return currents as proposed by Brown et al. (1979), but they play little or no role in containing energetic electrons and the conduction front proposed by Brown et al. does not form. The X-ray emission efficiency of the electrons is too low in the corona for them to be the source of hard X-ray bursts. The particle dynamics changes dramatically if the heated plasma is at low altitudes and expands upward into the more tenuous plasma at higher altitudes. Two important applications of this finding are the radio-frequency heating of the corona and the collisional heating of the chromosphere by precipitating energetic electrons. In both cases, the overlying plasma has a density that is too low to supply a balancing return current to the expanding hot electrons. As a result, an ambipolar electric field develops that tends to confine the energetic electrons behind a front that propagate outward at about the speed of sound.

  13. Ultrafiltration by a compacted clay membrane. I - Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic fractionation. II - Sodium ion exclusion at various ionic strengths.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coplen, T. B.; Hanshaw, B. B.

    1973-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to determine the magnitude of the isotopic fractionation of distilled water and of 0.01N NaCl forced to flow at ambient temperature under a hydraulic pressure drop of 100 bars across a montmorillonite disk compacted to a porosity of 35% by a pressure of 330 bars. The ultrafiltrates in both experiments were depleted in D by 2.5% and in O-18 by 0.8% relative to the residual solution. No additional isotopic fractionation due to a salt-filtering mechanism was observed at NaCl concentrations up to 0.01N. Adsorption is most likely the principal mechanism which produces isotopic fractionation, but molecular diffusion may play a minor role. The results suggest that oxygen and hydrogen isotopic fractionation of ground water during passage through compacted clayey sediments should be a common occurrence, in accord with published interpretations of isotopic data from the Illinois and Alberta basins. It is shown how it is possible to proceed from the ion exchange capacity of clay minerals and, by means of the Donnan membrane equilibrium concept and the Teorell-Meyer-Siever theory, develop a theory to explain why and to what extent ultrafiltration occurs when solutions of known concentration are forced to flow through a clay membrane.

  14. ADP-Ribose Pyrophosphatase Reaction in Crystalline State Conducted by Consecutive Binding of Two Manganese(II) Ions as Cofactors.

    PubMed

    Furuike, Yoshihiko; Akita, Yuka; Miyahara, Ikuko; Kamiya, Nobuo

    2016-03-29

    Adenosine diphosphate ribose pyrophosphatase (ADPRase), a member of the Nudix family proteins, catalyzes the metal-induced and concerted general acid-base hydrolysis of ADP ribose (ADPR) into AMP and ribose-5'-phosphate (R5P). The ADPR-hydrolysis reaction of ADPRase from Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TtADPRase) requires divalent metal cations such as Mn(2+), Zn(2+), or Mg(2+) as cofactors. Here, we report the reaction pathway observed in the catalytic center of TtADPRase, based on cryo-trapping X-ray crystallography at atomic resolutions around 1.0 Å using Mn(2+) as the reaction trigger, which was soaked into TtADPRase-ADPR binary complex crystals. Integrating 11 structures along the reaction timeline, five reaction states of TtADPRase were assigned, which were ADPRase alone (E), the ADPRase-ADPR binary complex (ES), two ADPRase-ADPR-Mn(2+) reaction intermediates (ESM, ESMM), and the postreaction state (E'). Two Mn(2+) ions were inserted consecutively into the catalytic center of the ES-state and ligated by Glu86 and Glu82, which are highly conserved among the Nudix family, in the ESM- and ESMM-states. The ADPR-hydrolysis reaction was characterized by electrostatic, proximity, and orientation effects, and by preferential binding for the transition state. A new reaction mechanism is proposed, which differs from previous ones suggested from structure analyses with nonhydrolyzable substrate analogues or point-mutated ADPRases. PMID:26979298

  15. Precision, high dose radiotherapy. II. Helium ion treatment of tumors adjacent to critical central nervous system structures

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, W.M.; Chen, G.T.Y.; Austin-Seymour, M.; Castro, J.R.; Collier, J.M.; Gauger, G.; Gutin, P.; Phillips, T.L.; Pitluck, S.; Walton, R.E.

    1985-07-01

    In this paper, the authors present a technique for treating relatively small, low grade tumors located very close to critical, radiation sensitive central nervous system structures such as the spinal cord and the brain stem. A beam of helium ions is used to irradiate the tumor. The nearby normal tissues are protected by exploiting the superb dose localization properties of this beam, particularly its well defined and controllable range in tissue, the increased dose deposited near the end of this range (i.e., the Bragg peak), the sharp decrease in dose beyond the Bragg peak, and the sharp penumbra of the beam. To illustrate the technique, the authors present a group of 19 patients treated for chordomas, meningiomas and low grade chondrosarcomas in the base of the skull or spinal column. They have been able to deliver high, uniform doses to the target volumes, while keeping the doses to the nearby critical tissues below the threshold for radiation damage. Follow-up on this group of patients is short, averaging 22 months (2 to 75 months). Currently, 15 patients have local control of their tumor. Two major complications, a spinal cord transsection and optic tract damage, are discussed in detail. Their treatment policies have been modified to minimize the risk of these complications in the future, and they are continuing to use this method to treat such patients.

  16. A competitive immunochromatographic assay based on a novel probe for the detection of mercury (II) ions in water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Pan, Fengguang; Li, Yansong; Lu, Shiying; Ren, Honglin; Shen, Qingfeng; Li, Zhaohui; Zhang, Junhui; Chen, Qijun; Liu, Zengshan

    2010-07-15

    Mercury ions (Hg(2+)) are one of the most dangerous pollutants. Even at low concentration, it causes serious environmental and health problems. Current methods for the detection of Hg(2+) in environmental samples are tedious and time consuming because they require sophisticated instrumentation and complicated sample pre-treatment processes. In this work, a novel probe with high selectivity towards Hg(2+) was synthesized and a one step competitive immunochromatographic assay based on the probe for the detection of Hg(2+) was developed and applied for water samples. The detection conjugate was immobilized on one end of the nitrocellulose membrane (detection line) and anti-BSA polyclonal antibody was immobilized on the other end of the membrane (control line). Hg(2+) in samples competed with the probe to bind with immobilized detection conjugate. The visual detection limit of Hg(2+) in spiked water samples was found to be about 1 ppb. The qualitative assay can be performed within 15 min. The advantages of the technique are rapidity, low cost and without the need of any equipment and complicated sample preparation. PMID:20444590

  17. A facile strategy for fabrication of nano-ZnO/yeast composites and their adsorption mechanism towards lead (II) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Meng, Lingyin; Mu, Guiqin; Zhao, Maojun; Zou, Ping; Zhang, Yunsong

    2016-08-01

    Nano-ZnO/yeast composites were successfully fabricated by one-step alkali hydrothermal method, and their adsorption properties for Pb2+ ions were also evaluated. Various influencing parameters of nano-ZnO/yeast composites, such as initial pH, contact time and initial Pb2+ concentration were investigated, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity of nano-ZnO/yeast composites for Pb2+ (31.72 mg g-1) is 2.03 times higher than that of pristine yeast (15.63 mg g-1). The adsorption mechanism of nano-ZnO/yeast composites was studied by a series of techniques. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that nano-ZnO is evenly deposited on yeast surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis exhibited that the yeast surface is rougher than that of pristine yeast. Energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated the existence of nano-ZnO on yeast surface. Additionally, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements further illustrated that alkali hydrothermal method causes not only the generation and anchorage of nano-ZnO on yeast surface but also the exposure of more functional groups (such as amino, carboxyl groups etc.) on yeast surface, both of which could adsorb Pb2+ via synergistic effect.

  18. The calcite/water interface II. Effect of added lattice ions on the charge properties and adsorption of sodium polyacrylate.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Rasmus; Merta, Juha; Rosenholm, Jarl B

    2008-10-15

    The origin of the surface potential of calcium carbonate in aqueous dispersions and the dissolution of calcite in systems containing excess Ca(2+) and CO(3)(2-) have been the subjects of this study. In addition, stabilization of calcite particles with an anionic polyelectrolyte (sodium polyacrylate (NaPA)) and the effect on surface potential and dissolution of calcite have been studied. Preferential dissolution of either Ca(2+) or CO(3)(2-) from the surface, which is governed by the partial pressure of CO(2) in solution and the pH of the solution, mainly determines the surface potential. Both lattice ions (Ca(2+) and CO(3)(2-)) adsorb onto the surface and thus alter the surface potential. NaPA adsorbs strongly onto the calcite surface regardless of background electrolyte concentration, and reverses the surface potential to negative values. Chelation of the surface due to NaPA can be partly prevented by adding Ca(2+) to the dispersion. PMID:18675424

  19. The ontogeny of swimming behavior in the scyphozoan, Aurelia aurita. II. The effects of ions and drugs.

    PubMed

    Schwab, W E

    1977-04-01

    1. The responses of Aurelia medusae to pharmacological agents and ionic variation were classified into four response types: Type I, no response; Type II, inhibition of pacemaker activity; Type III, inhibition of both pacemakers and swimming muscles; and Type IV, increase in pacemaker output. 2. The swimming pacemakers of Aurelia medusae become hyperactive in Mg+2-free solutions (Type IV). This response appears to be general in swimming scyphozoa. 3. The response pattern to pharmacologically-active compounds indicates that the coelenterate neuromuscular system is quite different than those in other phyla. In fact, the response spectrum is not consistent within the Cnidaria. 4. Similarly, the responses of adult medusae to ionic variation show no consistent pattern within various scyphomedusae. 5. Test solutions from each response type established with medusae were selected and tested on the scyphistoma and strobila stages. The comparison of the responses to the test solutions between the medusa, scyphistoma, and strobila showed that the neuromuscular systems are physiologically different. The strobila, specificially the ephyra, is a mixture of both polypoid and medusoid response types. The strobila, therefore, is physiologically an intermediate stage in the development of the adult medusa. PMID:15636

  20. XAS study of mercury(II) ions trapped in mercaptan-functionalized mesostructured silicate with a wormhole framework structure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Chen; McKimmy, Emily J; Pinnavaia, Thomas J; Hayes, Kim F

    2004-09-15

    Directly assembled wormhole mesostructures with high level functionalized mercaptan (MP-HMS) have been shown to be effective mercury(II) (Hg2+) trapping agents. Sorption of Hg2+ onto MP-HMS was investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to identify the structural coordination of the adsorbed Hg. Samples with different fractions of mercaptan functionalized groups (i.e., x = 0.1 and 0.5) with various Hg/S molar ratios ranging from 0.05 to 1.4 were investigated. XAS analysis indicates that adsorbed Hg first coordination shell is best fitted with an Hg-O path and an Hg-S path. The Hg-S atomic distance (R(Hg-S)) remained relatively constant while the Hg-S coordination numbers (CN) decreased as Hg/S loading increased. For the Hg-O path, both the CN and the R(Hg-O) increased with increasing Hg loading. XAS results suggest that at low Hg loadings, adsorbed Hg2+ forms mostly monodentate sulfur complexes (-S-Hg-OH) with the sulfur functional groups on the MP-HMS surfaces. At high Hg loadings, the Hg coordination environment is consistent with the formation of a double-layer structure of Hg attached to sulfur binding sites (-S-Hg-O-Hg-OH). PMID:15487784

  1. Gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric and "turn-on" fluorescent probe for mercury(II) ions in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Yongxiang; Jin, Jianyu; Yang, Ronghua

    2008-12-01

    An approach for visual and fluorescent sensing of Hg2+ in aqueous solution is presented. This method is based on the Hg(2+)-induced conformational change of a thymine (T)-rich single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and the difference in electrostatic affinity between ssDNA and double-stranded (dsDNA) with gold nanoparticles. The dye-tagged ssDNA containing T-T mismatched sequences was chosen as Hg2+ acceptor. At high ionic strength, introduction of the ssDNA to a colloidal solution of the aggregates of gold nanoparticles results in color change, from blue-gray to red of the solution, and the fluorescence quenching of the dye. Binding of Hg2+ with the ssDNA forms the double-stranded structure. This formation of dsDNA reduces the capability to stabilize bare nanoparticles against salt-induced aggregation, remaining a blue-gray in the color of the solution, but fluorescence signal enhancement compared with that without Hg2+. With the optimum conditions described, the system exhibits a dynamic response range for Hg2+ from 9.6 x 10(-8) to 6.4 x 10(-6) M with a detection limit of 4.0 x 10(-8) M. Both the color and fluorescence changes of the system are extremely specific for Hg2+ even in the presence of high concentrations of other heavy and transition metal ions, which meet the selective requirements for biomedical and environmental application. The combined data from transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence anisotropy measurements, and dialysis experiments indicate that both the color and the fluorescence emission changes of the DNA-functioned gold nanoparticles generated by Hg2+ are the results of the metal-induced formation of dsDNA and subsequent formation of nanoparticle aggregates. PMID:19551976

  2. Zonal rate model for stacked membrane chromatography part II: characterizing ion-exchange membrane chromatography under protein retention conditions.

    PubMed

    Francis, Patrick; von Lieres, Eric; Haynes, Charles

    2012-03-01

    The Zonal Rate Model (ZRM) has previously been shown to accurately account for contributions to elution band broadening, including external flow nonidealities and radial concentration gradients, in ion-exchange membrane (IEXM) chromatography systems operated under nonbinding conditions. Here, we extend the ZRM to analyze and model the behavior of retained proteins by introducing terms for intra-column mass transfer resistances and intrinsic binding kinetics. Breakthrough curve (BTC) data from a scaled-down anion-exchange membrane chromatography module using ovalbumin as a model protein were collected at flow rates ranging from 1.5 to 20 mL min(-1). Through its careful accounting of transport nonidealities within and external to the membrane stack, the ZRM is shown to provide a useful framework for characterizing putative protein binding mechanisms and models, for predicting BTCs and complex elution behavior, including the common observation that the dynamic binding capacity can increase with linear velocity in IEXM systems, and for simulating and scaling separations using IEXM chromatography. Global fitting of model parameters is used to evaluate the performance of the Langmuir, bi-Langmuir, steric mass action (SMA), and spreading-type protein binding models in either correlating or fundamentally describing BTC data. When combined with the ZRM, the bi-Langmuir, and SMA models match the chromatography data, but require physically unrealistic regressed model parameters to do so. In contrast, for this system a spreading-type model is shown to accurately predict column performance while also providing a realistic fundamental explanation for observed trends, including an observed increase in dynamic binding capacity with flow rate. PMID:22012741

  3. Multi-unit inertial fusion plants based on HYLIFE-II, with shared heavy-ion RIA driver and target factory, producing electricity and hydrogen fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, G.; Moir, R.; Hoffman, M.

    1994-05-05

    Following is a modification of the IFEFUEL systems code, called IFEFUEL2, to treat specifically the HYLIFE-II target chamber concept. The same improved Recirculating Induction Accelerator (RIA) energy scaling model developed recently by Bieri is used in this survey of the economics of multi-unit IFE plants producing both electricity and hydrogen fuel. Reference cases will assume conventional HI-indirect target gains for a 2 mm spot, and improved HYLIFE-II BoP models as per Hoffman. Credits for improved plant availability and lower operating costs due to HYLIFE-II`s 30-yr target chamber lifetime are included, as well as unit cost reductions suggested by Delene to credit greater {open_quotes}learning curve{close_quotes} benefits for the duplicated portions of a multi-unit plant. To illustrate the potential impact of more advanced assumptions, additional {open_quotes}advanced{close_quotes} cases will consider the possible benefits of an MHD + Steam BoP, where direct MHD conversion of plasma from baseball-size LiH target blanket shells is assumed to be possible in a new (as yet undesigned) liquid Flibe-walled target chamber, together and separately, with advanced, higher-gain heavy-ion targets with Fast Ignitors. These runs may help decide the course of a possible future {open_quotes}HYLIFE-III{close_quotes} IFE study. Beam switchyard and final focusing system costs per target chamber are assumed to be consistent with single-sided illumination, for either {open_quotes}conventional{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}advanced{close_quotes} indirect target gain assumptions. Target costs are scaled according to the model by Woodworth. In all cases, the driver energy and rep rate for each chosen number of target chambers and total plant output will be optimized to minimize the cost of electricity (CoE) and the associated cost of hydrogen (CoH), using a relationship between CoE and CoH to be presented in the next section.

  4. An ion-imprinted silica-supported organic-inorganic hybrid sorbent prepared by a surface imprinting technique combined with a polysaccharide incorporated sol-gel process for selective separation of cadmium(II) from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Jiang, Hongquan; Zhang, Shusheng

    2007-03-15

    Ion-imprinting concept and polysaccharide incorporated sol-gel process were applied to the preparation of a new silica-supported organic-inorganic hybrid sorbent for selective separation of Cd(II) from aqueous solution. In the prepared shell/core composite sorbent, covalently surface coating on the supporting silica gel was achieved by using a Cd(II)-imprinting sol-gel process starting from an inorganic precursor, gamma-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysiloxane (GPTMS), and a functional biopolymer, chitosan (CS). The sorbent was prepared through self-hydrolysis of GPTMS, self-condensation and co-condensation of silanol groups (Si-OH) from siloxane and silica gel surface, in combination with in situ covalent cross-linking of CS with partial amine shielded by Cd(II) complexation. Extraction of the imprinting molecules left a predetermined arrangement of ligands and tailored binding pockets for Cd(II). The prepared sorbent was characterized by using X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Batch experiments were conducted to study the sorption performance by removal of Cd(II) when present singly or in binary system, an aqueous Cd(II) and Zn(II) mixture. The ion-imprinted composite sorbent offered a fast kinetics for the sorption of Cd(II) and the maximum capacity was 1.14mmolg(-1). The uptake capacity of the imprinted sorbent and the selectivity coefficient were much higher than that of the non-imprinted sorbent. The imprinted sorbent exhibited high reusability. The prepared functional sorbent was shown to be promising for the preconcentration of cadmium in environmental and biological samples. PMID:19071480

  5. Catalytic-Oxidative Leaching of Low-Grade Complex Zinc Ore by Cu (II) Ions Produced from Copper Ore in Ammonia-Ammonium Sulfate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi Xiong; Yin, Zhou Lan; Hu, Hui Ping; Chen, Qi Yuan

    2012-10-01

    The catalytic-oxidative leaching of a mixed ore, which consists of low-grade oxide copper ore and oxide zinc ore containing ZnS, was investigated in ammonia-ammonium sulfate solution. The effect of the main parameters, such as mass ratio of copper ore to zinc ore, liquid-to-solid ratio, concentration of lixivant, leaching time, and temperature, was studied. The optimal leaching conditions with a maximum extraction of Cu 92.6 pct and Zn 85.5 pct were determined as follows: the mass ratio of copper ore to zinc ore 4/10 g/g, temperature 323.15 K (50 °C), leaching time 6 hours, stirring speed 500 r/min, liquid-to-solid ratio 3.6/1 cm3/g, concentration of lixivant including ammonia 2.0 mol/dm3, ammonium sulfate 1.0 mol/dm3, and ammonium persulfate 0.3 mol/dm3. It was found that ZnS in the oxide zinc ore could be extracted with Cu(II) ion, which was produced from copper ore and was used as the catalyst in the presence of ammonium persulfate.

  6. Hemin/G-quadruplex-based DNAzyme concatamers for in situ amplified impedimetric sensing of copper(II) ion coupling with DNAzyme-catalyzed precipitation strategy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingdi; Gao, Zhuangqiang; Wei, Qiaohua; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping

    2015-12-15

    A new signal-amplification strategy based on copper(II) (Cu(2+))-dependent DNAzyme was developed for sensitive impedimetric biosensing of Cu(2+) in aqueous solution by coupling with target-induced formation of hemin/G-quadruplex-based DNAzyme and enzymatic catalytic precipitation technique. Initially, the target analyte cleaved the Cu(2+)-specific DNAzyme to generate an initiator strand on the sensor. Thereafter, the initiator strand underwent an unbiased strand-displacement reaction between hairpin probes in turn to construct a nicked double-helix, accompanying the formation of hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzyme on the long duplex DNA. The newly formed DNAzyme could oxidize the 4-chloro-1-naphthol (4-CN) to produce an insoluble precipitation on the sensor, thus resulting in a local alteration of the conductivity. Under the optimal conditions, the resistance increased with the increasing Cu(2+) in the sample, and exhibited a wide dynamic working range from 0.1 pM to 5.0 nM with a detection limit of 60 fM. The methodology also displayed a high selectivity for Cu(2+) relative to other potentially interfering ions owing to the highly specific Cu(2+)-dependent DNAzyme, and was applicable for monitoring Cu(2+) in real river samples. Thus, our strategy has a good potential in the environment surveys. PMID:26093122

  7. Luminescent Behavior of Ru(II) Polypyridyl Morpholine Complexes, Synthesis, Characterization, DNA, Protein Binding, Sensor Effect of Ions/Solvents and Docking Studies.

    PubMed

    Vuradi, Ravi Kumar; Putta, Venkat Reddy; Nancherla, Deepika; Sirasani, Satyanarayana

    2016-03-01

    New three ruthenium (II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(phen)2mpip](2+)(1) {mpip = 2-(4-morpholinophenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline}, (phen = 1,10-Phenanthrolene), [Ru(bpy)2mpip](2+)(2) (bpy = 2,2'bipyridyl), [Ru(dmb)2mpip](2+)(3) (dmb = 4, 4-dimethyl 2, 2'-bipyridine) have been synthesized and characterized by spectral studies IR, UV-vis, (1)H, (13)C-NMR, mass and elemental analysis. The binding properties of these three complexes towards calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) have been investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, different fluorescence methods and viscosity measurements, indicating that all the complexes bind to CT-DNA by means of intercalation, but with different binding affinities. Sensor effect of ions/solvents and BSA (Bovine Serum Albumin) binding studies of these complexes were also studied. Docking studies also reveals that complexes will bind in between base pairs (Intercalate) of DNA and gives information about the binding strength. PMID:26708008

  8. High-molar-mass hyaluronan behavior during testing its radical scavenging capacity in organic and aqueous media: effects of the presence of manganese(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Rapta, Peter; Valachová, Katarína; Gemeiner, Peter; Soltés, Ladislav

    2009-02-01

    This study compares the radical scavenging capacity of high-molar-mass hyaluronan (HA) using standardized methods applying 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and 2,2'-azinobis[3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonate] (ABTS) radical cations as oxidants. Additionally, spin-trapping technique combined with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was used to evaluate the ability of HA to scavenge reactive radicals. The thermal decomposition of K2S2O8 in pure H2O or in a H2O/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) mixture at 333 K was used as a source of reactive paramagnetic species. We found that HA does not exhibit radical-scavenging activity when DPPH radicals or ABTS(.+) radical cations are used as oxidant, but that HA is an effective radical scavenger at low concentrations, if the oxidation reactions are initiated by the decomposition of K2S2O8. At higher HA concentrations, a more complex behavior and prooxidant HA action was observed. The influence of Mn(II) ions on the reaction mechanisms of radical generation and termination in the K2S2O8/H2O/DMSO system in the presence of HA was studied in detail. PMID:19235158

  9. Luminescence properties of [Ru(bpy) 2MDHIP] 2+ modulated by the introduction of DNA, copper(II) ion and EDTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Miaojing; Li, Hong; Li, Qian; Xu, Zhenghe

    2010-05-01

    The luminescence properties of [Ru(bpy) 2MDHIP] 2+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, MDHIP = 2,4-dihydrophenyl-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) in the absence and presence of DNA modulated by the introduction of Cu 2+ ion and EDTA have been investigated. It is found that the ruthenium(II) complex can insert and stack between the base pairs of calf thymus DNA with MDHIP ligand, and the intramolecular hydrogen bond is located inside of the DNA. The presence of DNA can enhance the luminescence intensities of [Ru(bpy) 2MDHIP] 2+ both in buffer solution and on an ITO surface. Moreover, the luminescence intensities of [Ru(bpy) 2MDHIP] 2+ and DNA-bound [Ru(bpy) 2MDHIP] 2+ are quenched by Cu 2+, and next recovered by the addition of EDTA. The repetitive luminescence-modulations have been achieved through the introduction of equimolar Cu 2+ and EDTA, respectively. In addition, it becomes evident that the number of luminescence-modulation cycles for [Ru(bpy) 2MDHIP] 2+ in the absence and presence of DNA is influenced by the cumulative concentrations of CuEDTA, generated successively by the strong coordination of Cu 2+ to EDTA.

  10. A highly selective and simple fluorescent sensor for mercury (II) ion detection based on cysteamine-capped CdTe quantum dots synthesized by the reflux method.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiaojie; Qu, Lingbo; Yang, Ran; Zhou, Yuchen; Li, Jianjun

    2015-06-01

    Cysteamine (CA)-capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) (CA-CdTe QDs) were prepared by the reflux method and utilized as an efficient nano-sized fluorescent sensor to detect mercury (II) ions (Hg(2+) ). Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence quenching effect of CA-CdTe QDs was linear at Hg(2+) concentrations in the range of 6.0-450 nmol/L. The detection limit was calculated to be 4.0 nmol/L according to the 3σ IUPAC criteria. The influence of 10-fold Pb(2+) , Cu(2+) and Ag(+) on the determination of Hg(2+) was < 7% (superior to other reports based on crude QDs). Furthermore, the detection sensitivity and selectivity were much improved relative to a sensor based on the CA-CdTe QDs probe, which was prepared using a one-pot synthetic method. This CA-CdTe QDs sensor system represents a new feasibility to improve the detection performance of a QDs sensor by changing the synthesis method. PMID:25263990

  11. Binding of copper(II) ions to the polyproline II helices of PEVK modules of the giant elastic protein titin as revealed by ESI-MS, CD, and NMR.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kan; Wang, Kuan

    2003-10-01

    Titin, a family of giant elastic proteins, constitutes an elastic sarcomere matrix in striated muscle. In the I-band region of the sarcomere, the titin PEVK segment acts as a molecular spring to generate elasticity as well as sites of adhesion with parallel thin filaments. Previously, we reported that PEVK consists of tandem repeats of 28 residue modules and that the "polyproline II-coil" motif is the fundamental conformational motif of the PEVK module. In order to characterize the factors that may affect and alter the PPII-coil conformational motifs, we have initiated a systematic study of the interaction with divalent cations (Cu2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, and Ni2+) and a conformational profile of PEVK peptides (a representative 28-mer peptide PR: PEPPKEVVPEKKAPVAPPKKPEVPPVKV and its subfragments PR1: kvPEPPKEVVPE, PR2: VPEKKAPVAPPK, PR3: KPEVPPVKV). UV-Vis absorption difference spectra and CD spectra showed that Cu2+ bound to PR1 with high affinity (20 microM), while its binding to PR2 and PR3 as well as the binding of other cations to all four peptides were of lower affinity (>100 microM). Conformational studies by CD revealed that Cu2+ binding to PR1 resulted in a polyproline II to turn transition up to a 1:2 PR1/Cu2+ ratio and a coil to turn transition at higher Cu2+ concentration. ESI-MS provided the stoichiometry of PEVK peptide-Cu2+ complexes at both low and high ion strength, confirming the specific high affinity binding of Cu2+ to PR1 and PR. Furthermore, NMR and ESI-MS/MS fragmentation analysis elucidated the binding sites of the PEVK peptide-Cu2+ complexes at (-2)KVPE2, 8VPE10, 13APV15, and 22EVP24. A potential application of Cu2+ binding in peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry was also revealed. We conclude that Cu2+ binds and bends PEVK peptides to a beta-turn-like structure at specific sites. The specific targeting of Cu2+ towards PPII is likely to be of significant value in elucidating the roles of PPII in titin elasticity as well as in interactions of

  12. Efficient On-Off Ratiometric Fluorescence Probe for Cyanide Ion Based on Perturbation of the Interaction between Gold Nanoclusters and a Copper(II)-Phthalocyanine Complex.

    PubMed

    Shojaeifard, Zahra; Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2016-06-22

    A new ratiometric fluorescent sensor was developed for the sensitive and selective detection of cyanide ion (CN(-)) in aqueous media. The ratiometric sensing system is based on CN(-) modulated recovery of copper(II) phthalocyanine (Cu(PcTs)) fluorescence signal at the expense of diminished fluorescence intensity of gold nanoclusters (AuNCs). Preliminary experiments revealed that the AuNCs and Cu(PcTs) possess a turn-off effect on each other, the interaction of which being verified through studying their interactions by principle component analysis (PCA) and multivariate cure resolution-alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS) methods. In the presence of CN(-) anion, the AuNCs and Cu(PcTs) interaction was perturbed, so that the fluorescence of Cu (PcTs), already quenched by AuNCs, was found to be efficiently recovered, while the fluorescence intensity of AuNCs was quenched via the formation of a stable [Au(CN)2](-) species. The ratiometric variation of AuNCs and Cu(PcTs) fluorescence intensities leads to designing a highly sensitive probe for CN(-) ion detection. Under the optimal conditions, CN(-) anion was detected without needing any etching time, over the concentration range of 100 nM-220 μM, with a detection limit of 75 nM, which is much lower than the allowable level of CN(-) in water permitted by the World Health Organization (WHO). Moreover, the detection of CN(-) was developed based on the CN(-) effects on the blue and red florescent colors of Cu(PcTs) and AuNCs, respectively. The designed probe displays a continuous color change from red to blue by addition of CN(-), which can be clearly observed by the naked eye in the range of 7-350 μM, under UV lamp. The prepared AuNCs/Cu(PcTs) probe was successfully utilized for the selective and sensitive determination of CN(-) anion in two different types of natural water (Rodbal dam and rainwater) and also in blood serum as a biological sample. PMID:27211049

  13. Interactions of Zn(II) Ions with Humic Acids Isolated from Various Type of Soils. Effect of pH, Zn Concentrations and Humic Acids Chemical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Boguta, Patrycja; Sokołowska, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was the analysis of the interaction between humic acids (HAs) from different soils and Zn(II) ions at wide concentration ranges and at two different pHs, 5 and 7, by using fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopy, as well as potentiometric measurements. The presence of a few areas of HAs structures responsible for Zn(II) complexing was revealed. Complexation at α-sites (low humified structures of low-molecular weight and aromatic polycondensation) and β-sites (weakly humified structures) was stronger at pH 7 than 5. This trend was not observed for γ-sites (structures with linearly-condensed aromatic rings, unsaturated bonds and large molecular weight). The amount of metal complexed at pH5 and 7 by α and γ-structures increased with a decrease in humification and aromaticity of HAs, contrary to β-areas where complexation increased with increasing content of carboxylic groups. The stability of complexes was higher at pH 7 and was the highest for γ-structures. At pH 5, stability decreased with C/N increase for α-areas and -COOH content increase for β-sites; stability increased with humification decrease for γ-structures. The stability of complexes at α and β-areas at pH 7 decreased with a drop in HAs humification. FTIR spectra at pH 5 revealed that the most-humified HAs tended to cause bidentate bridging coordination, while in the case of the least-humified HAs, Zn caused bidentate bridging coordination at low Zn additions and bidentate chelation at the highest Zn concentrations. Low Zn doses at pH 7 caused formation of unidentate complexes while higher Zn doses caused bidentate bridging. Such processes were noticed for HAs characterized by high oxidation degree and high oxygen functional group content; where these were low, HAs displayed bidentate bridging or even bidentate chelation. To summarize, the above studies have showed significant impact of Zn concentration, pH and some properties of HAs on complexation reactions of humic

  14. Surfactant-free green synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles capped with 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylcarbamodithioate: stable recyclable magnetic nanoparticles for the rapid and efficient removal of Hg(II) ions from water.

    PubMed

    Venkateswarlu, Sada; Yoon, Minyoung

    2015-11-14

    Mercury is considered one of the most notorious global pollutants due to its high toxicity and widespread use in industry. Although many materials have been developed for the removal of mercury for water purification, most of these materials are difficult to reuse, which may lead to an increase in the mercury handling expense. Therefore, new sustainable materials that can be easily recycled and are highly efficient for the removal of mercury are required. Herein, we report the surfactant-free green synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using a watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) rind extract. The Fe3O4 MNPs were further functionalized with 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylcarbamodithioate (DHPCT) and applied to the removal of Hg(ii). Evaluation of the mercury removal efficiency and the amount adsorbed by DHPCT@Fe3O4 MNPs demonstrated a high Hg(ii) removal efficiency (98%) with a maximum Hg(ii) adsorption capacity of 52.1 mg g(-1). Systematic studies of the adsorption mechanism and selectivity suggest that the soft ligand (DHPCT) can preferentially coordinate with the soft metal ion (Hg(ii)) resulting in selective mercury removal. The developed DHPCT@Fe3O4 MNPs were readily recycled several times using an external magnet by exploiting their ferromagnetic character, without a significant decline in the Hg(ii) removal efficiency. This study provides a new insight into the preparation of a highly efficient adsorbent for Hg(ii) removal by an eco-friendly method. PMID:26436867

  15. Effect of Ni(II) substitution on phase stabilization electrical properties of BICo(III)VOX.20 oxide-ion conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beg, Saba; Al-Areqi, Niyazi A. S.; Ghaleb, Kh. A. S.; Al-Alas, Ahlam; Hafeez, Shehla

    2014-05-01

    The BICO0.20-xNIxVOX solid electrolyte was synthesized by the standard solid-state reaction. The effect of Ni(II) substitution for Co(III) on phase stabilization and oxide-ion performance has been investigated in the compositional range 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.20 using X-ray powder diffraction, differential thermal analysis and AC impedance spectroscopy. The highly conductive γ‧-phase was effectively stabilized at room temperature for compositions with x ≥ 0.13 whose thermal stability increases with Ni content. The complex plane plots of impedance were typically represented at temperatures below 380 °C, suggesting a major contribution of polycrystalline grains to the overall electrical conductivity. The dielectric permittivity measurements revealed the fact that suppression of the ferroelectric transition is compositionally dependent. Interestingly, the maximum ionic conductivity at lower temperatures (~2.56 × 10-4 Scm-1 at 300 °C) was observed for the composition with x = 0.13. The variation of low-temperature conductivity with Ni content was accompanied with a general drop in the corresponding values of ΔELT. However, the local minimum high-temperature conductivity, σ600 °C ~ 2.26 × 10-2 Scm-1 for x = 0.10, coupled with a local maximum value of ΔEHT ~ 0.48 eV was attributed to an increased defect trapping effect correlated with the V(V) → V(IV) reduction at elevated temperatures.

  16. An ion-imprinted amino-functionalized silica gel sorbent prepared by hydrothermal assisted surface imprinting technique for selective removal of cadmium (II) from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hong-Tao; Li, Jing; Li, Zhan-Chao; Sun, Ting

    2012-02-01

    A new ion-imprinted amino-functionalized silica gel sorbent was synthesized by the hydrothermal-assisted surface imprinting technique using Cd2+ as the template, 3-[2-(2-aminoethylamino)ethylamino]propyl-trimethoxysilane (AAAPTS) as the functional monomer, and epichlorohydrin as the cross-linking agent (IIP-AAAPTS/SiO2) for the selective removal of Cd2+ from aqueous solution, and was characterized by FTIR, SEM, nitrogen adsorption and the static adsorption-desorption experiment method. The specific surface area of the IIP-AAAPTS/SiO2 sorbents was found to be 149 m2 g-1. The results showed that the maximum static adsorption capacities of IIP-AAAPTS/SiO2 sorbents by hydrothermal heating method and by the conventional heating method were 57.4 and 31.6 mg g-1, respectively. The IIP-AAAPTS/SiO2 sorbents offered a fast kinetics for the adsorption and desorption of Cd(II). The relative selectivity coefficients of IIP-AAAPTS/SiO2 sorbents for Cd2+/Co2+, Cd2+/Ni2+, Cd2+/Zn2+, Cd2+/Pb2+ and Cd2+/Cu2+ were 30.68, 14.02, 3.00, 3.12 and 6.17, respectively. IIP-AAAPTS/SiO2 sorbents had a substantial binding capacity in the range of pH 4-8 and could be used repeatedly. Equilibrium data fitted perfectly with Langmuir isotherm model compared to Freundlich isotherm model. Kinetic studies indicated that adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order model. Negative values of ΔG° indicated spontaneous adsorption and the degree of spontaneity of the reaction increased with increasing temperature. ΔH° of 26.13 kJ mol-1 due to the adsorption of Cd2+ on the IIP-AAAPTS/SiO2 sorbents indicated that the adsorption was endothermic in the experimental temperature range.

  17. Hybrid Ab initio/EFP approach for calculating d-d absorption spectrum of hexaammineruthenium(II) ion in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurenev, P. V.; Scherbinin, A. V.; Stepanov, N. F.

    Ab initio quantum chemical strategies for quantitatively predicting the lowest (1Ag rarr 1T1g) vertical d-d excitation energy of hexaammineruthenium(II) ion in aqueous solution are discussed. The scalar-relativistic ECP/valence basis set on Ru atom developed by the Stuttgart group in a combination with the state-average CASSCF(d) approach, followed by multiconfigurational quasi-degenerate second-order perturbation theory (MCQDPT2) to account for differential correlation effects is proved to be an adequate tool to reproduce the experimental absorption spectrum of the complex for a variety of AO basis sets on ligand atoms. In addition, different ab initio methodologies are examined in order to predict the ground state geometry which is consistent with the follow-up excitation spectrum calculations. It is observed that the use of the optimized structures of a hypothetical gas-phase complex lead to substantial underestimation of excitation energies. Solvent effects strongly influence the excitation energy though indirectly, mainly by means of changing the ground state geometry of the solvated complex when compared with the vacuum one. In particular, the ground state structure of the complex surrounded by effective fragments simulating water molecules provides the lowest CASSCF/MCQDPT excitation energy estimate to be within 25,500-26,400 cm-1, in a fair agreement with the experimentally measured value of 25,600 cm-1. At the same time, direct incorporation of solvation effects causes only minor change in the estimated transition energies, within several hundred cm-1.

  18. Kinetic Analysis of Oligo(C) Formation from the 5‧-Monophosphorimidazolide of Cytidine with Pb(II) Ion Catalyst at 10 75°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kunio; Maeda, Jun

    2007-04-01

    The temperature dependence of the rate constants for the formation of oligocytidylate (oligo(C)) from the 5‧-monophosphorimidazolide of cytidine (ImpC) in the presence of Pb(II) ion catalyst has been investigated at 10 75°C. The rate constants for the formation of oligo(C) increased in the order of the formation of 2-mer < 3-mer ≤ 4-mer; this trend resembles the trend in the cases of the template-directed and the clay-catalyzed formations of oligonucleotides. While the rate constants of the formation of oligo(C) increased with increasing temperature, the yield of oligo(C) decreased with increasing temperature. This is due to the fact that the relative magnitude of the rate constants of the formation of 2-mer, 3-mer, and 4-mer to that of the hydrolysis of ImpC decreased with increasing temperature. This is probably due to the fact that association between ImpC with the elongating oligo(C) decreases with increasing temperature. The apparent activation energy was 61.9 ± 8.5 kJ mol-1 for the formation of 2-mer, 49.3 ± 2.9 kJ mol-1 for 3-mer, 51.8 kJ mol-1 for 4-mer, and 66.8 ± 4.5 kJ mol-1 for the hydrolysis of ImpC. The significance of the temperature dependence of the formation rate constants of the model prebiotic formation of RNA is discussed.

  19. Assess the key physics that underpins high-hydro coupling-efficiency in NDCX-II experiments and high-gain heavy ion direct drive target designs using proven hydro codes like HYDRA

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J. J.; Hay, M. J.; Logan, B. G.; Ng, S. F.; Perkins, L. J.; Veitzer, S.; Yu, S. S.

    2010-07-01

    The simulations provided in this milestone have solidified the theoretical underpinning of direct drive targets and also the ability to design experiments on NDCX II that will enhance our understanding of ion-beam hydrodynamic coupling, and thus be relevant to IFE. For the case of the IFE targets, we have studied hydro and implosion efficiency using HYDRA in ID, a starting point towards the goal of polar direct drive in geometry compatible with liquid wall chambers. Recent analysis of direct drive fusion energy targets using heavy ion beams has found high coupling efficiency of ion beam energy into implosion energy. However, to obtain optimal coupling, the ion energy must increase during the pulse in order to penetrate the outflowing ablated material, and deposit the energy close enough to the fuel so that the fuel achieves sufficient implosion velocity. We have computationally explored ID (radial) time dependent models of ion driven direct drive capsule implosions using the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) code HYDRA, to help validate the theoretical analysis done so far, particularly exploring the effects of varying the ion energy and ion current over the course of the pulse. On NDCX II, experiments have been proposed to explore issues of ion penetration of the outflowing plasma over the course of the ion pulse. One possibility is to create a first pulse of ions that heats a planar target, and produces an outflow of material. A second pulse, {approx}10 ns after the first, of higher ion energy (and hence larger projected range) will interact with this outflow before reaching and further heating the target. We have investigated whether the change in range can be tailored to match the evolution of the ablation front. We have carried out simulations using the one-dimensional hydrodynamic code DISH and HYDRA to set parameters for this class of experiments. DISH was upgraded with an ion deposition algorithm, and we have carried out ID (planar) simulations. HYDRA was

  20. An NMR study on the 6,6'-(2-(diethylamino)ethylazanediyl)bis(methylene)bis(5-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-4H-pyran-4-one) interaction with Al(III) and Zn(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Peana, Massimiliano; Medici, Serenella; Nurchi, Valeria Marina; Lachowicz, Joanna Izabela; Crisponi, Guido; Crespo-Alonso, Miriam; Santos, Maria Amelia; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta

    2015-07-01

    Here we report about the complex formation among an amine-bearing bis-kojic acid, 6,6'-(2-(diethylamino)ethylazanediyl)bis(methylene)bis(5-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-4H-pyran-4-one) and two metal ions, the trivalent hard and not essential metal ion Al(III) and the borderline and essential divalent metal ion Zn(II). We carried out a thorough NMR study in order to reach the indispensable structural information on the behavior of these complexes in solution. A combination of 1D, 2D total correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear single quantum coherence spectroscopy, nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy and rotating-frame Overhauser effect spectroscopy experiments was used to assign the signals of both free and metal-bound ligand at different pH values. Our results highlighted the different coordination behaviors of the ligand towards the different metal ions, depending on their hard or borderline character. The trivalent metal ion, Al(III), mainly forms dinuclear helicate complexes of M2L3 stoichiometry, and the coordination only involves both hydroxypyrone (O,O)-donor atoms. NMR data are in agreement with the presence of a rigid and symmetric structure of L9-Al(III) complexes up to physiological pH. On the contrary, with the divalent metal ion, NMR data showed the coexistence of several species in solution though Zn(II) forms complexes of ML stoichiometry at physiological pH, where the metal coordination involves the nitrogen atoms of both the linker and the side-chain amine groups together with the oxygen atoms of phenolate groups. The in solution study will be of interest for providing an insight on the ligand bioavailability and on its behavior in the chelation treatments. PMID:25687185

  1. One-pot green synthesis of high quantum yield oxygen-doped, nitrogen-rich, photoluminescent polymer carbon nanoribbons as an effective fluorescent sensing platform for sensitive and selective detection of silver(I) and mercury(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong-Xia; Ding, Shou-Nian

    2014-08-01

    This work reports on a facile, economical, and green preparative strategy toward water-soluble, fluorescent oxygen-doped, nitrogen-rich, photoluminescent polymer carbon nanoribbons (ONPCRs) with a quantum yield of approximately 25.61% by the hydrothermal process using uric acid as a carbon-nitrogen source for the first time. The as-prepared fluorescent ONPCRs showed paddy leaf-like structure with 80-160 nm length and highly efficient fluorescent quenching ability in the presence of mercury(II) (Hg(2+)) or silver (Ag(+)) ions due to the formed nonfluorescent metal complexes via robust Hg(2+)-O or Ag(+)-N interaction with the O and N of fluorescent ONPCRs, which allowed the analysis of Hg(2+) and Ag(+) ions in a very simple method. By employing this sensor, excellent linear relationships existed between the quenching degree of the ONPCRs and the concentrations of Hg(2+) and Ag(+) ions in the range of 2.0 nM to 60 μM and 5.0 nM to 80 μM, respectively. By using ethylenediaminetetraacetate and ammonia as the masking agent of Hg(2+) and Ag(+) ions, respectively, Hg(2+) or Ag(+) ions were exclusively detected in coexistence with Ag(+) or Hg(2+) ions with high sensitivity, and the detection limits as low as 0.68 and 1.73 nM (3σ) were achieved, respectively, which also provided a reusable detection method for Hg(2+) and Ag(+) ions. Therefore, the easily synthesized fluorescent ONPCRs may have great potential applications in the detection of Hg(2+) and Ag(+) ions for biological assay and environmental protection. PMID:24979236

  2. The impact of auxins used in assisted phytoextraction of metals from the contaminated environment on the alterations caused by lead(II) ions in the organization of model lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Sroka, Aleksandra; Jabłońska, Klaudia

    2016-07-01

    Auxins are successfully used to improve phytoextraction efficiency of metal ions from the contaminated environment, however, the mechanism of their activity in this field is not explained. Auxins are known to exert various biochemical alterations in the plant membranes and cells, but their activity involves also direct interactions with lipids leading to changes in membrane organization. Following the suggestion that the auxins-induced modifications in membrane properties alleviate toxic effect of metal ions in this paper we have undertaken the comparative studies on the effect of metal ions and metal ions/auxins mixtures on model membrane systems. The experiments were done on lipid monolayers differing in their composition spread on water subphase and on Pb(2+), Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and Pb(2+)/IAA and Pb(2+)/NAA water solutions. The analysis of the collected data suggests that metal ions and auxins can change fluidity of the lipid systems and weaken the interactions between monolayer components. This manifested in the increase of the mean area per molecule and the excess area per molecule values for the films on Pb(2+), auxins as well as Pb(2+)/auxin solutions as compared to the values on pure water subphase. However, the presence of auxin in the mixture with lead(II) ions makes the alterations induced by sole metal ions weaker. This effect was more pronounced for the membranes of a higher packing. Thus it was proposed that auxins may enhance phytoextraction of metal ions by weakening their destabilizing effect on membrane. PMID:26998874

  3. Modulation of the Structure and Properties of Uranyl Ion Coordination Polymers Derived from 1,3,5-Benzenetriacetate by Incorporation of Ag(I) or Pb(II).

    PubMed

    Thuéry, Pierre; Harrowfield, Jack

    2016-07-01

    Reaction of uranyl nitrate with 1,3,5-benzenetriacetic acid (H3BTA) in the presence of additional species, either organic bases or their conjugate acids or metal cations, has provided 12 new crystalline complexes, all but one obtained under solvo-hydrothermal conditions. The complexes [C(NH2)3][UO2(BTA)]·H2O (1) and [H2NMe2][UO2(BTA)] (2) crystallize as one- or two-dimensional (1D or 2D) assemblies, respectively, both with uranyl tris-chelation by carboxylate groups and hydrogen-bonded counterions but different ligand conformations. One of the bound carboxylate units is replaced by chelating 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) or 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Me4phen) in the complexes [(UO2)3(BTA)2(phen)3]·4H2O (3) and [(UO2)3(BTA)2(Me4phen)3]·NMP·3H2O (4) (NMP = N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone), which are a 2D network with honeycomb topology and a 1D polymer, respectively. With silver(I) cations, [UO2Ag(BTA)] (5), a three-dimensional (3D) framework in which the ligand assumes various chelating/bridging coordination modes, and the aromatic ring is involved in Ag(I) bonding, is obtained. A series of seven heterometallic complexes results when lead(II) cations and N-chelating molecules are both present. The complexes [UO2Pb(BTA)(NO3)(bipy)] (6) and [UO2Pb2(BTA)2(bipy)2]·3H2O (7), where bipy is 2,2'-bipyridine, crystallize from the one solution, as 1D and 2D assemblies, respectively. The two 1D coordination polymers [UO2Pb(BTA)(HCOO)(phen)] (8 and 9), again obtained from the one synthesis, provide an example of coordination isomerism, with the formate anion bound either to lead(II) or to uranyl cations. Another 2D architecture is found in [(UO2)2Pb2(BTA)2(HBTA)(H2O)2(phen)2]·2H2O (10), which provides a possible example of a Pb-oxo(uranyl) "cation-cation" interaction. While [UO2Pb(BTA)(HCOO)0.5(NO3)0.5(Me2phen)] (11), where Me2phen is 5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, is a 1D assembly close to those in 6 and 8, [UO2Pb2(BTA)2(Me4phen)2] (12), obtained together with

  4. Development of a dipodal Schiff base ligand with N-imine and O-naphtholate donors: A potential chelator towards Cu(II) metal ion established through potentiometric and spectrophotometric studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baral, Minati; Gupta, Amit; Kanungo, B. K.

    2015-08-01

    A novel hydroxynaphthaldehyde derived Schiff base ligand N,N'-bis-[2-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)methyleneamino]ethyl]propanediamide (DOTA2HNAP) containing nitrogen and oxygen donor atoms has been developed. The lowest energy molecular structure of DOTA2HNAP and its complexes with Cu (II) metal ion were examined by molecular mechanics using MM+ force which later was re-optimized by semi-empirical method. The theoretical IR and UV spectra of the ligand were obtained using semi empirical/ZINDO/PM3 and were compared with the experimental ones. The coordinating ability of DOTA2HNAP with H+ and Cu(II) ions was investigated in 1:99 (DMSO: water) binary solvent mixture at 25±1°C by potentiometric and spectrophotometric method. The electronic spectra of the ligand show three distinct peaks (253nm, 320nm and 360nm) implicating existence of the Schiff base in quinone form that was well supported by theoretical spectral studies. Out of various complex species forming in solution, all the metal ions show higher stability of complexes when in 1:1 metal-ligand stoichiometry, binding through two N-imine and two O-naphtholate groups.

  5. Development of a dipodal Schiff base ligand with N-imine and O-naphtholate donors: A potential chelator towards Cu(II) metal ion established through potentiometric and spectrophotometric studies

    SciTech Connect

    Baral, Minati Gupta, Amit; Kanungo, B. K.

    2015-08-28

    A novel hydroxynaphthaldehyde derived Schiff base ligand N,N’-bis-[2-[(2-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)methyleneamino]ethyl]propanediamide (DOTA2HNAP) containing nitrogen and oxygen donor atoms has been developed. The lowest energy molecular structure of DOTA2HNAP and its complexes with Cu (II) metal ion were examined by molecular mechanics using MM+ force which later was re-optimized by semi-empirical method. The theoretical IR and UV spectra of the ligand were obtained using semi empirical/ZINDO/PM3 and were compared with the experimental ones. The coordinating ability of DOTA2HNAP with H{sup +} and Cu(II) ions was investigated in 1:99 (DMSO: water) binary solvent mixture at 25±1°C by potentiometric and spectrophotometric method. The electronic spectra of the ligand show three distinct peaks (253nm, 320nm and 360nm) implicating existence of the Schiff base in quinone form that was well supported by theoretical spectral studies. Out of various complex species forming in solution, all the metal ions show higher stability of complexes when in 1:1 metal-ligand stoichiometry, binding through two N-imine and two O-naphtholate groups.

  6. Design and synthesis of a terbium(III) complex-based luminescence probe for time-gated luminescence detection of mercury(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guanfeng; Ye, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Run; Wang, Guilan; Yuan, Jingli

    2012-01-01

    Time-gated luminescence detection technique using lanthanide complexes as luminescent probes is a useful and highly sensitive method. However, the effective application of this technique is limited by the lack of the target-responsive luminescent lanthanide complexes that can specifically recognize various analytes in aqueous solutions. In this work, a dual-functional ligand that can form a stable complex with Tb(3+) and specifically recognize Hg(2+) ions in aqueous solutions, N,N,N(1),N(1)-{[2,6-bis(3'-aminomethyl-1'-pyrazolyl)-4-[N,N-bis(3″,6″-dithiaoctyl)-aminomethyl]- pyridine]} tetrakis(acetic acid) (BBAPTA), has been designed and synthesized. The luminescence of its Tb(3+) complex is weak, but can be effectively enhanced upon reaction with Hg(2+) ions in aqueous solutions. The luminescence response investigations of BBAPTA-Tb(3+) to various metal ions indicate that the complex has a good luminescence sensing selectivity for Hg(2+) ions, but not for other metal ions. Thus a highly sensitive time-gated luminescence detection method for Hg(2+) ions was developed by using BBAPTA-Tb(3+) as a luminescent probe. The dose-dependent luminescence enhancement of the probe shows a good linearity with a detection limit of 17 nM for Hg(2+) ions. These results demonstrated the efficacy and advantages of the new Tb(3+) complex-based luminescence probe for the sensitive and selective detection of Hg(2+) ions. PMID:21853255

  7. ELECTRON HEATING BY THE ION CYCLOTRON INSTABILITY IN COLLISIONLESS ACCRETION FLOWS. II. ELECTRON HEATING EFFICIENCY AS A FUNCTION OF FLOW CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sironi, Lorenzo

    2015-02-20

    In the innermost regions of low-luminosity accretion flows, including Sgr A* at the center of our Galaxy, the frequency of Coulomb collisions is so low that the plasma has two temperatures, with the ions substantially hotter than the electrons. This paradigm assumes that Coulomb collisions are the only channel for transferring the ion energy to the electrons. In this work, the second of a series, we assess the efficiency of electron heating by ion velocity-space instabilities in collisionless accretion flows. The instabilities are seeded by the pressure anisotropy induced by magnetic field amplification, coupled to the adiabatic invariance of the particle magnetic moments. Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we showed in Paper I that if the electron-to-ion temperature ratio is T {sub 0e}/T {sub 0i} ≲ 0.2, the ion cyclotron instability is the dominant mode for ion betas β{sub 0i} ∼ 5-30 (here, β{sub 0i} is the ratio of ion thermal pressure to magnetic pressure), as appropriate for the midplane of low-luminosity accretion flows. In this work, we employ analytical theory and one-dimensional PIC simulations (with the box aligned with the fastest-growing wave vector of the ion cyclotron mode) to fully characterize how the electron heating efficiency during the growth of the ion cyclotron instability depends on the electron-to-proton temperature ratio, the plasma beta, the Alfvén speed, the amplification rate of the mean field (in units of the ion Larmor frequency), and the proton-to-electron mass ratio. Our findings can be incorporated as a physically grounded subgrid model into global fluid simulations of low-luminosity accretion flows, thus helping to assess the validity of the two-temperature assumption.

  8. Ligational behavior of clioquinol antifungal drug towards Ag(I), Hg(II), Cr(III) and Fe(III) metal ions: Synthesis, spectroscopic, thermal, morphological and antimicrobial studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Megharbel, Samy M.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2015-04-01

    This article presents a synthesis, characterization, theoretical and biological (anti-bacterial, and anti-fugal) evaluation studies of Ag(I), Hg(II), Cr(III) and Fe(III) complexes of clioquinol (CQ) drug ligand. Structures of the titled complexes cited herein were discussed using elemental analyses and spectral measurements e.g., IR, 1H NMR, and electronic studies. The results confirmed the formation of the clioquinol complexes by three molar ratios (1:1) for Ag(I), (1:2) for Hg(II) and (1:3) for both Cr(III) and Fe(III) metal ions. The clioquinol reacts as a bidentate chelate bound to all respected metal ions through the oxygen and nitrogen of quinoline-8-ol. The metal(II) ions coordinated to clioquinol ligand through deprotonation of sbnd OH terminal group. Infrared and 1H NMR spectral data confirm that coordination is via the oxygen of phenolic group and nitrogen atom of quinoline moiety. The molar conductance measurements of the CQ complexes in DMSO correspond to be non-electrolyte nature. Thus, these complexes may be formulated as [Ag(CQ)(H2O)2] H2O, [Hg(CQ)2]ṡ2H2O, [Cr(CQ)3] and [Fe(CQ)3]H2O. The Coats-Redfern method, the kinetic thermodynamic parameters like activation energies (E∗), entropies (ΔS∗), enthalpies (ΔH∗), and Gibbs free energies (ΔG∗) of the thermal decomposition reactions have been deduced from thermogravimetric curves (TG) with helpful of differential thermo gravimetric (DTG) curves. The narrow size distribution in nano-scale range for the clioquinol complexes have been discussed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDX) analyzer.

  9. Determination of coumarin anticoagulant rodenticide residues in animal tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography. II. fluorescence detection using ion-pair chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hunter, K

    1983-11-18

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of warfarin, coumatetralyl, bromadiolone, difenacoum and brodifacoum in animal tissues using fluorescence detection. Ion-pair chromatography, with the tetrabutylammmonium ion as counter-ion, was used to take full advantage of their native fluorescence. Detection limits in liver tissue after gel permeation clean-up were 0.002 mg kg-1 for coumatetralyl, difenacoum and bromdifacoum, 0.008 mg kg-1 for bromadiolone, and 0.01 mg kg-1 for warfarin. PMID:6655020

  10. Effect of activated carbon surface oxygen- and/or nitrogen-containing groups on adsorption of copper(II) ions from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Biniak, S.; Pakula, M.; Szymanski, G.S.; Swiatkowski, A.

    1999-08-31

    The adsorption properties of a modified activated carbon with various oxygen-and/or nitrogen-containing surface groups toward copper ions was studied. Previously de-ashed and chemically modified commercial activated carbon D-43/1 (carbo-Tech, Essen, Germany) was used. The chemical properties of the modified carbon surface were estimated by standard neutralization titration with HCl, NaOH, and HaOC{sub 2}{sub 5}. The adsorption of Cu{sup 2+} ions on three modified activated carbons from aqueous CuSO{sub 4} solution of various pH was measured. The carbon samples with adsorbed Cu{sup 2+} ions were analyzed by spectroscopic methods (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). In addition, an electrochemical measurement (cyclic voltammetry) was performed using powdered activated carbon electrodes. While the modification procedures employed alter the surface only slightly, they strongly influence the surface chemical structure. Basic groups are predominant in the heat-treated samples; acidic functional groups are predominant in the oxidized sample. Both the copper cation adsorption studies and the spectral and electrochemical measurements show that adsorbed ions interact with the carbon surface in different ways. The number of adsorbed ions depends on the nature and quantity of surface acid-base functionalities and on the pH equilibrium in the aqueous solution. The possible mechanisms of interactions between metal ions and carbon surface functionalities are summarized and discussed.

  11. Simultaneous Adsorption and Degradation of Cr(VI) and Cd(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution by Silica-Coated Fe0 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongpu; Ren, Bozhi; Li, Tielong

    2013-01-01

    Core-shell silica-coated Fe0 nanoparticles (Fe@SiO2) were prepared in one-step synthesis by aqueous reduction combined with modified Stöber method. The as-prepared Fe@SiO2 were then used for simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution. Batch tests indicated that Fe@SiO2 exhibited high removal capacity toward Cr(VI) and Cd(II). Cr(VI) was removed by Fe@SiO2 through reduction rather than adsorption, while Cd(II) removal was mainly through adsorption. The removal rate increased with increasing initial Fe NPs dose and decreased with increasing initial Cr(VI) and Cd(II) concentrations. Cd(II) adsorption was also strengthened by Cr(VI) reduction with the release of OH−. The removals of Cr(VI) and Cd(II) were weakened in the presence of cations or humic acid, as a result of aggregation and less active site of Fe@SiO2. Overall, the simply prepared Fe@SiO2 were potential material for the heavy metals removed from water. PMID:24455425

  12. Simulated Solvation of Organic Ions II: Study of Linear Alkylated Carboxylate Ions in Water Nanodrops and in Liquid Water. Propensity for Air/Water Interface and Convergence to Bulk Solvation Properties.

    PubMed

    Houriez, Céline; Meot-Ner Mautner, Michael; Masella, Michel

    2015-09-10

    We investigated the solvation of carboxylate ions from formate to hexanoate, in droplets of 50 to 1000 water molecules and neat water, by computations using standard molecular dynamics and sophisticated polarizable models. The carboxylate ions from methanoate to hexanoate show strong propensity for the air/water interface in small droplets. Only the ions larger than propanoate retain propensity for the interface in larger droplets, where their enthalpic stabilization by ion/water dispersion is reduced there by 3 kcal mol(-1) per CH2 group. This is compensated by entropy effects over +3.3 cal mol(-1) K(-1) per CH2 group. On the surface, the anionic headgroups are strongly oriented toward the aqueous core, while the hydrophobic alkyl chains are repelled into air and lose their structure-making effects. These results reproduce the structure-making effects of alkyl groups in solution, and suggest that the hydrocarbon chains of ionic headgroups and alkyl substituents solvate independently. Extrapolation to bulk solution using standard extrapolation schemes yields absolute carboxylate solvation energies. The results for formate and acetate yield a proton solvation enthalpy of about 270 kcal mol(-1), close to the experiment-based value. The largest carboxylate ions yield a value smaller by about 10 kcal mol(-1), which requires studies in much larger droplets. PMID:26287943

  13. Pick-up ions at Comet P/Halley's bow shock - Observations with the IIS spectrometer on Giotto. [Implanted In Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilken, B.; Johnstone, A.; Coates, A.; Amata, E.; Borg, H.

    1987-01-01

    Gaseous material expanding from the nucleus of Comet Halley into space forms the neutral coma around the comet. Ionization in the solar UV radiation removes particles from the coma and injects them into the solar wind plasma. These freshly created ions are accelerated by the interplanetary electric field on cycloidal trajectories with gyrocenters moving with the speed of the magnetic field lines. In the solar wind frame of reference these particles move along the magnetic field lines with a fixed pitch angle. Pitch-angle scattering and energy diffusion reduce quickly the initial energy anisotropy which is associated with the narrow pick-up structures. First observations of heavy cometary pick-up ions (water group ions) at the bow shock are presented. The evolution of the distribution function in the vicinity of the shock and radial density profiles are discussed.

  14. Crystal structure of K0.75[FeII 3.75FeIII 1.25(HPO3)6]·0.5H2O, an open-framework iron phosphite with mixed-valent FeII/FeIII ions

    PubMed Central

    Larrea, Edurne S.; Mesa, José Luis; Legarra, Estibaliz; Aguayo, Andrés Tomás; Arriortua, Maria Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Single crystals of the title compound, potassium hexa­phosphito­penta­ferrate(II,III) hemihydrate, K0.75[FeII 3.75FeIII 1.25(HPO3)6]·0.5H2O, were grown under mild hydro­thermal conditions. The crystal structure is isotypic with Li1.43[FeII 4.43FeIII 0.57(HPO3)6]·1.5H2O and (NH4)2[FeII 5(HPO3)6] and exhibits a [FeII 3.75FeIII 1.25(HPO3)6]0.75− open framework with disordered K+ (occupancy 3/4) as counter-cations. The anionic framework is based on (001) sheets of two [FeO6] octa­hedra (one with point group symmetry 3.. and one with point group symmetry .2.) linked along [001] through [HPO3]2− oxoanions. Each sheet is constructed from 12-membered rings of edge-sharing [FeO6] octa­hedra, giving rise to channels with a radius of ca 3.1 Å where the K+ cations and likewise disordered water mol­ecules (occupancy 1/4) are located. O⋯O contacts between the water mol­ecule and framework O atoms of 2.864 (5) Å indicate hydrogen-bonding inter­actions of medium strength. The infrared spectrum of the compound shows vibrational bands typical for phosphite and water groups. The Mössbauer spectrum is in accordance with the presence of FeII and FeIII ions. PMID:26870587

  15. Effects of prenatal irradiation with an accelerated heavy-ion beam on postnatal development in rats: II. Further study on neurophysiologic alterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, K.; Fujita, K.; Moreno, S. G.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Organogenesis is a highly radiosensitive period, study of prenatal exposure to high LET heavy ion beams on postnatal development is important for clarifying the radiation risk in space and promoting the evidence-based mechanism research. The effects from heavy ion irradiations are not well studied as those for low LET radiations such as X-rays in this field, even the ground-based investigations remain to be addressed. Using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Wistar rats, postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring was investigated following exposure of pregnant rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/μm at a dose range from 0.1 to 2.0 Gy on the 15th day of gestation. The age for appearance of four physiologic markers and attainment of five neonatal reflexes, and gain in body weight were monitored. Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests including open field and hole-board dipping tests. The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison. For most of the endpoints at early age, significant neurophysiological alteration was observed even in offspring receiving 0.1 Gy of accelerated neon ions but not X-rays. All offspring receiving 2.0 Gy of accelerated neon ions died prior to weaning. Offspring prenatally irradiated with neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death, increased preweaning mortality, markedly delayed accomplishment in physiological markers and reflexes, significantly lower body weight and reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight, and altered behavior compared to those exposed to X-rays at doses of 0.1 1.5 Gy. These findings indicate that irradiations with neon ions at 0.1 1.5 Gy on day 15 of gestation caused varied developmental alterations in offspring, and efficient dose leading to the detrimental effects seemed to be lower than that of X-rays.

  16. 2,2‧-[Benzene-1,2-diylbis(iminomethanediyl)]diphenol derivative bearing two amine and hydroxyl groups as fluorescent receptor for Zinc(II) ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayade, Kundan; Sahoo, Suban K.; Patil, Rahul; Singh, Narinder; Attarde, Sanjay; Kuwar, Anil

    A new non-natural receptor 2,2‧-[benzene-1,2-diylbis(iminomethanediyl)]diphenol (4) was synthesized, and it is fluorogenic behaviour toward various metal ions were investigated. Receptor 4 exhibited pronounced fluorescence enhancement in the presence of Zn2+, which can visually be discernible by an orchid fluorescence in compared to other metal ions. The receptor 4 shows high sensitivity and selectivity for Zn2+ through changes in the fluorescence intensity based on chelation-enhanced fluorescence (CHEF). The binding modes of the complexes were investigated by Job’s plot and density functional theory (DFT).

  17. Simultaneous removal of methylene blue and copper(II) ions by photoelectron catalytic oxidation using stannic oxide modified iron(III) oxide composite electrodes.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jinqiu; Li, Xiaochen; Zheng, Hao; Li, Peiqiang; Wang, Huying

    2015-08-15

    Stannic oxide modified Fe(III) oxide composite electrodes (SnO2/Fe2O3) were synthesized for simultaneously removing methylene blue (MB) and Cu(II) from wastewater using photoelectron catalytic oxidation (PEO). The SnO2/Fe2O3 electrodes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photoelectrochemical techniques. The removal of MB and Cu(II) by PEO using the SnO2/Fe2O3 composite electrodes was studied in terms of reaction time, electric current density, and pH of the electrolyte. The kinetics of the reactions were investigated using batch assays. The optimal reaction time, pH, and electric current density of the PEO process were determined to be 30 min, 6.0, and 10 mA/cm(2), respectively. The removal rates of MB from wastewater treated by PEO and electron catalytic oxidation process were 84.87% and 70.64%, respectively, while the recovery rates of Cu(II) were 91.75% and 96.78%, respectively. The results suggest that PEO is an effective method for the simultaneous removal of MB and Cu(II) from wastewater, and the PEO process exhibits a much higher removal rate for MB and Cu(II) compared to the electron catalytic oxidation process. Furthermore, the removal of MB was found to follow the Langmuir-Freundlich-Hinshelwood kinetic model, whereas the removal of Cu(II) fitted well to the first-order reaction model. PMID:25855567

  18. Selective determination of cadmium(II) from divalent metal ions in environmental samples by capillary electrophoresis using in-capillary complexation with a lacunary Keggin-type [PW11O39]7- complex.

    PubMed

    Himeno, Sadayuki; Kitano, Eri; Morishita, Kenta

    2007-08-01

    A novel capillary electrophoretic (CE) method, based on in-capillary complexation with [PW(11)O(39)](7-), was developed for the determination of cadmium(II) in natural water samples. When a sample solution is injected into a capillary containing 0.20 mM [PW(11)O(39)](7-) and 0.10 M malonate buffer (pH 3.0), the ternary Keggin-type complex, [P(Cd(II)W(11))O(39)](5-), which possesses high molar absorbtivities in the UV region, is formed in the capillary, and its migration toward the anode gives a well-defined migration peak in the electropherogram. An advantage of this method is that many divalent metal ions do not interfere. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cd(II) in environmental samples. The detection limits were 1 x 10(-7) and 5 x 10(-7) M for river-water and seawater samples, respectively (signal-to-noise ratio = 3). PMID:17690428

  19. Studies on the effects of gaseous ions on plant growth. II. The construction and operation of an air purification unit for use in studies on the biological effects of gaseous ions.

    PubMed

    KRUEGER, A P; BECKETT, J C; ANDRIESE, P C; KOTAKA, S

    1962-05-01

    Air pollutants seriously interfere with the maintenance of unipolar ionized atmospheres required in experimenting with the biological effects of gaseous ions. The construction and operation of an air purification unit designed to reduce air pollution to tolerable levels are described; it has functioned satisfactorily in conducting experiments with plants and animals. PMID:14459882

  20. Ion collision crosssection measurements in quadrupole ion traps using a time-frequency analysis method.

    PubMed

    He, Muyi; Guo, Dan; Chen, Yu; Xiong, Xingchuang; Fang, Xiang; Xu, Wei

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a method for measuring ion collision crosssections (CCSs) was proposed through time-frequency analysis of ion trajectories in quadrupole ion traps. A linear ion trap with added high-order electric fields was designed and simulated. With the presence of high-order electric fields and ion-neutral collisions, ion secular motion frequency within the quadrupole ion trap will be a function of ion motion amplitude, thus a function of time and ion CCS. A direct relationship was then established between ion CCS and ion motion frequency with respect to time, which could be obtained through time-frequency analysis of ion trajectories (or ion motion induced image currents). To confirm the proposed theory, realistic ion trajectory simulations were performed, where the CCSs of bradykinin, angiotensin I and II, and ubiquitin ions were calculated from simulated ion trajectories. As an example, differentiation of isomeric ubiquitin ions was also demonstrated in the simulations. PMID:25319271