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Sample records for pcb aroclor 1254-induced

  1. Alternatives to Aroclor 1254-induced S9 in in vitro genotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Elliott, B M; Combes, R D; Elcombe, C R; Gatehouse, D G; Gibson, G G; Mackay, J M; Wolf, R C

    1992-05-01

    A working party was set up by the UK Environmental Mutagen Society to consider alternatives to Aroclor 1254 (Aroclor)-induced S9 in in vitro genotoxicity assays, with the aims of considering whether a replacement for Aroclor in its role in general screening assays could be readily identified. The working party concluded that there was sufficient support in the literature to justify the use of an appropriate phenobarbital/beta-naphthoflavone regime as an acceptable alternative to Aroclor. PMID:1602970

  2. Use of Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver homogenate in the assaying of promutagens in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    Seven promutagens belonging to two chemical classes - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkyl nitrosamines - were studied in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Findings of practical importance in the use of Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver homogenate (S9) in the CHO/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) mutation assay were made. Novel findings are (1) the inclusion of CaCl/sub 2/ in the S9 cofactor mixture dramatically decreased the cytotoxicity of S9, and (2) different S9 optimum concentrations were observed for struturally similar promutagens. The inclusion of CaCl/sub 2/ in the S9 cofactor mixture and the testing of each chemical of unknown S9 requirement at several S9 concentrations are therefore recommended for assaying promutagens in the CHO/HGPRT mutation assay.

  3. MS-275 inhibits aroclor 1254-induced SH-SY5Y neuronal cell toxicity by preventing the formation of the HDAC3/REST complex on the synapsin-1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Formisano, Luigi; Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy; Mascolo, Luigi; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Canzoniero, Lorella M T

    2015-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and dementia. Neuronal death elicited by the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 (A1254) has been attributed to an increase in RE-1-silencing transcription factor (REST), which, in turn, correlates with a decrease in the synapsin-1 promoter gene. Although histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are known to be neuroprotective in several neurologic disorders, the core mechanisms governing this effect are not yet understood. Here, to examine how HDAC class I [N-(2-aminophenyl)-4-[N-(pyridin-3-yl-methoxycarbonyl)aminomethyl]-benzamide (MS-275)] and HDAC class II [3-[5-(3-(3-fluorophenyl)-3-oxopropen-1-yl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-N-hydroxy-2-propenamide (MC-1568)] inhibitors prevent A1254-induced neuronal cell death, we exposed SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells to A1254. Exposure to A1254 (30.6 μM) for 24 and 48 hours resulted in a time-dependent cell death. Indeed, after 48 hours, MS-275, but not MC-1568, reverted A1254-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, A1254 significantly increased HDAC3, but not HDAC1 or HDAC2. Interestingly, REST physically interacted with HDAC3 after A1254 exposure. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that MS-275 reverted the increased levels of HDAC3 binding and decreased acetylation of histone H3 within the synapsin-1 promoter region, thus reverting synapsin-1 mRNA reduction. Moreover, REST knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented HDAC3 from binding to the synapsin-1 promoter. Likewise, HDAC3 siRNA significantly reduced A1254-induced cell toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and cortical neurons. Hence, this study demonstrates that inhibition of HDAC class I attenuates A1254-induced neuronal cell death by preventing HDAC3 binding and histone deacetylation within the synapsin-1 promoter region. PMID:25467131

  4. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (AROCLOR 1254) INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY, CHANGES IN FEMUR MORPHOMETRY AND CALCIUM METABOLISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) on calcium metabolism, femur morphometry, and nephrotoxicity. ischer 344 rats Here dosed daily 1G for 5, 10 or 15 weeks with 0, 0.1, 1, 10 or 25 mg PCB/kg body weight. fter 5, 10 and 15 weeks,...

  5. EFFECT OF AROCLOR 1254 ON THE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR CREB AND CELL VIABILITY IN A PRIMARY CULTURE OF IMMATURE CORTICAL CELLS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Considerable work indicates that elevations in Ca2+ levels and kinase activity are sensitive responses to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are developmental neurotoxicants. In cortical cells in vitro the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 (A1254) induces temporally and mechanistica...

  6. Sedimentary Records of Non-Aroclor and Aroclor PCB mixtures in the Great Lakes

    PubMed Central

    HU, DINGFEI; MARTINEZ, ANDRES; HORNBUCKLE, KERI C.

    2012-01-01

    Three sediment cores from Lake Ontario, Lake Erie and Indiana Harbor Ship Canal were collected, segmented and analyzed for Aroclor and non-Aroclor polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs). PCBs associated with the commercially produced Aroclor mixtures 1248 and 1254 dominate the sediment signal and the sum of all congeners (ΣPCB) peaks in concentration and accumulation around 1970 in the Great Lakes. This trend is very similar to Aroclor production history. In the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal, PCBs appear around 1935 and remain at very high levels between 1940 and 1980, probably reflecting the history of use at the nearby steel mill. In contrast, the non-Aroclor PCBs in the Lake Ontario and IHSC sediment cores, including PCB11 and heavily chlorinated congeners PCB206, 207, 208 and 209 reach a peak in the 1950s, decline and peak again in the 1970s or in the early 1980s. All five congeners have been previously measured in commercial paint pigment. PCB11 was found to peak about 5 years later than ΣPCBs, and is probably associated with the production or use history of diarylide yellow pigments. The temporal distribution profiles of these non-Aroclor PCBs are well correlated with the production history of paint pigments and dyes. Although it is well known that the production of Aroclor PCBs is preserved in Great Lakes sediments, this study is the first to show that production of non-Aroclors are also preserved in the sediments as a record of long term trends in environmental exposure. PMID:23538476

  7. Sedimentary Records of Non-Aroclor and Aroclor PCB mixtures in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2011-06-01

    Three sediment cores from Lake Ontario, Lake Erie and Indiana Harbor Ship Canal were collected, segmented and analyzed for Aroclor and non-Aroclor polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs). PCBs associated with the commercially produced Aroclor mixtures 1248 and 1254 dominate the sediment signal and the sum of all congeners (ΣPCB) peaks in concentration and accumulation around 1970 in the Great Lakes. This trend is very similar to Aroclor production history. In the Indiana Harbor Ship Canal, PCBs appear around 1935 and remain at very high levels between 1940 and 1980, probably reflecting the history of use at the nearby steel mill. In contrast, the non-Aroclor PCBs in the Lake Ontario and IHSC sediment cores, including PCB11 and heavily chlorinated congeners PCB206, 207, 208 and 209 reach a peak in the 1950s, decline and peak again in the 1970s or in the early 1980s. All five congeners have been previously measured in commercial paint pigment. PCB11 was found to peak about 5 years later than ΣPCBs, and is probably associated with the production or use history of diarylide yellow pigments. The temporal distribution profiles of these non-Aroclor PCBs are well correlated with the production history of paint pigments and dyes. Although it is well known that the production of Aroclor PCBs is preserved in Great Lakes sediments, this study is the first to show that production of non-Aroclors are also preserved in the sediments as a record of long term trends in environmental exposure. PMID:23538476

  8. Generating the Right PCB Data: Determination of Aroclors Versus PCB Congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Prignano, A.L.; Narquis, C.T.; Hyatt, J.E.

    2008-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a major environmental concern due to their ubiquity and tendency to bio-accumulate, as well as their persistence and toxicity. As the cleanup of waste and contaminated soil progresses at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, the costs for accurate PCB data are increasing. PCBs are actually a broad name for a group of 209 individual compounds known as congeners. PCBs were originally produced in the United States as specific mixtures of congeners known as Aroclors. PCBs can be analyzed and quantified either as Aroclor mixtures or as individual congeners. Aroclor analysis, which is the more common analytical method applied to PCBs, has been in use for decades, and in general, most cleanup regulations are based on total PCB concentrations using Aroclor analyses. Congener analysis is relatively new to environmental cleanup and restoration due to both technical issues and associated cost. The benefits of congener analysis are that it allows a more direct analysis of the risk of the PCBs. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified twelve specific congeners as dioxin-like with toxicity ranging from 0.00003 to 0.1 times the standard 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) toxicity. This paper defines Aroclors and congeners and compares the current application and usefulness of the two analytical methods for environmental restoration and cleanup. A strategy for the best use of the two methods to optimize overall characterization cost is presented. As part of the strategy, a method using the data from Aroclor analyses to calculate 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxicity equivalent concentrations is also presented. (authors)

  9. GENERATING THE RIGHT PCB DATA DETERMINATION OF AROCLORS VERSUS PCB CONGENERS

    SciTech Connect

    NARQUIS CT; PRIGNANO AL

    2007-11-21

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a major environmental concern due to their ubiquity and tendency to bio-accumulate. as well as their persistence and toxicity. As the cleanup of waste and contaminated soil progresses at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, the costs for accurate PCB data are increasing. PCBs are actually a broad name for a group of 209 individual compounds known as congeners. PCBs were originally produced in the United States as specific mixtures of congeners known as Aroclors'. PCBs can be analyzed and quantified either as Aroclor mixtures or as individual congeners. Aroclor analysis, which is the more common analytical method applied to PCBs. has been in use for decades, and in general, most cleanup regulations are based on total PCB concentrations using Aroclor analyses. Congener analysis is relatively new to environmental cleanup and restoration due to both technical issues and associated cost. The benefits of congener analysis are that it allows a more direct analysis of the risk of the PCBs. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified twelve specific congeners as dioxin-like with toxicity ranging from 0.00003 to 0.1 times the standard 2,3,7.8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2.3.7.8-TCDD) toxicity. This paper defines Aroclors and congeners and compares the current application and usefulness of the two analytical methods for environmental restoration and cleanup. A strategy for the best use of the two methods to optimize overall characterization cost is presented. As part of the strategy. a method using the data from Aroclor analyses to calculate 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxicity equivalent concentrations is also presented.

  10. Uptake, retention, and elmination of PCB (Aroclor 1254) by larval striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    SciTech Connect

    Califano, R.J.; O'Conner, J.M.; Peters, L.S.

    1980-03-01

    Research report:Experiments to determine the rates of uptake and clearance of the PCB Aroclor 1254 in larvae of striped bass (Morone saxatilus) from the Hudson River in New York are described. Larval striped bass removed Aroclor 1254 from Hudson River water rapidly and nearly completely. More than 80% of the final Aroclor concentration was attained during the first 12 hr of exposure to contaminated water. However, Aroclor elimination from the fish was slow; less than 1% of the total Aroclor was released after 24 hr. (14 references, 1 table)

  11. L-Theanine alleviates the neuropathological changes induced by PCB (Aroclor 1254) via inhibiting upregulation of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Sumathi, Thangarajan; Asha, Deivasigamani; Nagarajan, Ganesan; Sreenivas, Arivazhagan; Nivedha, Rajendran

    2016-03-01

    The present study is aimed at evaluating the protective role of L-theanine on aroclor 1254-induced oxidative stress in rat brain. Intraperitoneal administration of Aroclor 1254 (2 mg/kg b.wt. for 30 days) caused oxidative stress in rat brain and also caused neurobehavioral changes. Oxidative stress was assessed by determining the levels of lipid peroxide (LPO), protein carbonyl content, and changes in activities of creatine kinase (CK), acetylcholinesterase (AchE), and ATPases in the hippocampus, cerebellum and cerebral cortex of control and experimental rats. Histopathological results showed that PCB caused neuronal loss in all three regions. PCB upregulated the mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines. Oral administration of L-theanine (200 mg/kg b.wt.) increased the status of antioxidants, decreased the levels of LPO, nitric oxide (NO) and increased the activities of CK, AchE and ATPases. L-Theanine restored normal architecture of brain regions and downregulated the expression of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, L-theanine shows a protective role against PCBs-induced oxidative damage in rat brain. PMID:26826962

  12. Effect of PCB (Aroclor 1254) on reproduction, behavior, and survival of Hydra viridis

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.A.; Lawson, W.G.

    1981-10-01

    Survival, behavior, and reproduction of Hydra viridis was studied in animals treated with the polychlorinated biphenyl mixture (PCB), Aroclor 1254. PCB was administered as a component of the culture medium (artificial pond water) in concentrations varying from 0.2 mg/l to 100.0 mg/l PCB. Reagent grade acetone was employed as a carrier for the PCB due to its low solubility in water. Control animals were maintained in a 250.0 mg/l acetone culture medium. Aroclor 1254 was lethally toxic to H. viridis with concentrations of 20.0 mg/l producing 100% mortality after a 24 hour exposure. Sublethal PCB concentrations as low as 2.0 mg/l caused lethargic behavior and decreased feeding. Reproduction was suppressed in concentrations as low as 0.2 mg/l, and morphological abnormalities occurred at PCB levels of 2.0 mg/l or greater.

  13. Formation of toxic PCB congeners and PCB-solvent adducts in a sunlight irradiated cyclohexane solution of aroclor 1254

    SciTech Connect

    Lepine, F.; Milot, S.; Vincent, N. )

    1992-01-01

    Photodegradation by sunlight is an important decomposition mechanism of polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment. Photodegradation of PCBs proceeds through successive dechlorination of the biphenyl nucleus and thus modify the proportions of the various congeners in a PCB mixture. The objectives of this work is to study the effects of sunlight on a typical PCB mixture such as Aroclor 1254, in a congener specific approach in order to observe the variations in the levels of these toxic congeners in the irradiated mixture.

  14. Speciation and quantitation of Aroclors based on PCB congener data: Application to California mussels and white croaker. [Mytilus californianus; Genyonemus lineatus

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, W.M. ); Koszdin, S. )

    1991-08-01

    A procedure for speciation and quantitation of Aroclors in capillary gas-liquid chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD) chromatograms is described. Four pentachlorobiphenyls (IUPAC no. PCB-87, -110, -118, and -105) and three heptachlorobiphenyls (PCB-183, -180, and -170) are used as markers of Aroclor 1254 and Aroclor 1260, respectively. The Aroclor content of samples is estimated by comparing the cogener composition with USEPA Aroclor reference materials. In this study, the selected congener approach to Aroclor determination is applied to both California marine mussels (Mytilus californianus and M. Edulis) and white croaker (Genyonemus lineatus) muscle. Both Aroclor 1254 and Aroclor 1260 were present in these species, and the congener patterns matched the Aroclor reference materials closely. In cases where reporting Aroclors is not appropriate, e.g., highly weathered samples, the method also provides PCB congener data.

  15. Uptake, retention, and elimination of PCB (Aroclor 1254) by larval striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    SciTech Connect

    Califano, R.J.; O'Connor, J.M.; Peters, L.S.

    1980-03-01

    Larval striped bass removed PCB from Hudson River water rapidly and nearly completely. The final whole-body concentration resulting from 48 h exposure to a single dose of /sup 14/C-Aroclor 1254 was 5.9 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ dry weight (HRW) and 5.0 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ dry weight (FHRW). Final concentrations in fish exposed to PCB in HRW and FHRW were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The transfer of PCB from water to fish was at a maximum at 48 h in HRW, at which time the fish had accumulated about 60% of the PCB available in the system (600 ng).

  16. Effects of DDE and PCB (Aroclor 1260) on experimentally poisoned little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus): Lethal brain concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Stafford, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Adult female little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) were collected in a church attic in North East, Cecil County, Md. Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing organochlorine pollutants were fed to the bats as follows: 5 bats were dosed at 480 ppm DDE, 12 at 150 ppm DDE, 5 at 1000 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB; Aroclor 1260), and 12 at 15 ppm PCB. Seven other bats were fed untreated mealworms. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE and PCB to lethality and measure these concentrations. During 40 d of dosage, one DDE-dosed bat and two PCB-dosed bats died after exhibiting the prolonged tremor that characterizes organochlorine poisoning. After dosage, surviving bats were starved to elevate brain levels of toxicants, and three additional DDE-dosed bats had tremors before dying. The mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was estimated as 603 ppm, range 540-670 ppm. This mean is 16-18% higher than means for Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) and common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), and may indicate less sensitivity. Lethal brain concentrations of Aroclor 1260 were 1300 and 1500 ppm. Such values appear to be higher than values (Aroclor 1254) for brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). During starvation, DDE-dosed bats lost weight about 24% faster than controls. If smaller amounts of stored DDE cause increases in metabolic rates of nonfeeding bats, as during hibernation or migration, the result could be premature energy depletion and increased mortality.

  17. Gene expression profiles following exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254: Pathway analysis for possible mode(s) of action

    SciTech Connect

    Royland, Joyce E.; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.

    2008-09-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that low levels of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure can adversely affect neurocognitive development. In animal models, perturbations in calcium signaling, neurotransmitters, and thyroid hormones have been postulated as potential mechanisms for PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity. In order to understand the role of these proposed mechanisms and to identify other mechanisms in PCB-induced neurotoxicity, we have chosen a global approach utilizing oligonucleotide microarrays to examine gene expression profiles in the brain following developmental exposure to Aroclor 1254 (0 or 6 mg/kg/day from gestation day 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21) in Long-Evans rats. Gene expression levels in the cerebellum and hippocampus from PNDs 7 and 14 animals were determined on Affymetrix rat 230A{sub 2}.0 chips. In the cerebellum, 87 transcripts were altered at PND7 compared to 27 transcripts at PND14 by Aroclor 1254 exposure, with only one transcript affected at both ages. In hippocampus, 175 transcripts and 50 transcripts were altered at PND7 and PND14, respectively, by Aroclor 1254 exposure with five genes commonly affected. Functional analysis suggests that pathways related to calcium homeostasis (Gng3, Ryr2, Trdn, Cacna1a), intracellular signaling (Camk2d, Stk17b, Pacsin2, Ryr2, Trio, Fert2, Ptk2b), axonal guidance (Lum, Mxd3, Akap11, Gucy1b3), aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling (Nfia, Col1a2), and transcripts involved in cell proliferation (Gspt2, Cdkn1c, Ptk2b) and differentiation (Ifitm31, Hpca, Zfp260, Igsf4a, Hes5) leading to the development of nervous system were significantly altered by Aroclor 1254 exposure. Of the two brain regions examined, Aroclor 1254-induced genomic changes were greater in the hippocampus than the cerebellum. The genomic data suggests that PCB-induced neurotoxic effects were due to disruption of normal ontogenetic pattern of nervous system growth and development by altering intracellular signaling pathways

  18. Influence of maternal ingestion of Aroclor 1254[reg sign] (PCB) or FireMaster BP-6[reg sign] (PBB) on unstimulated and stimulated corticosterone levels in young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Meserve, L.A.; Murray, B.A.; Landis, J.A. )

    1992-05-01

    The organohalides polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) remain troublesome environmental pollutants. For example, the percentage of the population in which PCB is detectable in adipose tissue remains high. These compounds are of particular interest to residents of the North Central United States, especially in regions surrounding the Great Lakes where contaminated fish may be a regular component of the diet. Additionally, PBB was mistakenly fed to cattle and chickens in Michigan during the early 1970s, products of which were ingested by humans. Among the physiological effects of ingestion of PCB or PBB is the depression of thyroid status, which has been reported in adult humans, in adult experimental animals, and in the offspring of these animals. In adult rats, circulating levels of thyroid hormones are inversely proportional to dose of PCB or PBB in the diet. On the other hand, reports of effects of these organohalides on adrenocortical function remain equivocal, describing both PCB- and PBB-induced depression, and absence of effect in rats and monkeys. Despite the possible consequences of maternal ingestion of PCB or PBB on future generations, little work has been done previously to determine whether consumption of these materials by pregnant and lactating animals confers hypothyroidism on their offspring, and/or influences other mechanisms of endocrine control in the young. Since early studies showed that hypothyroidism induced by feeding pregnant rats the goitrogen thiouracil altered the functional capabilities in their young of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as revealed by circulating corticosterone levels, the present study was done to determine whether ingestion of either PCB (Aroclor 1254[reg sign]) or PBB (FireMaster BP-6[reg sign]) by pregnant and lactating rats resulted in depressed thyroid status and/or modified HPA axis function in their 15 day old young. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. CHANGES IN ENANTIOMERIC FRACTIONS DURING MICROBIAL REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION OF PCB132, PCB149, AND AROCLOR 1254 IN LAKE HARTWELL SEDIMENT MICROCOSMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enantioselectivity of microbial reductive dechlorination of chiral PCBs in sediments from Lake Hartwell, SC, was determined by microcosm studies and enantiomer-specific GC analysis. Sediments from two locations in the vicinity of the highest levels of PCB contamination were used...

  20. Aroclor 1254, a developmental neurotoxicant, alters energy metabolism- and intracellular signaling-associated protein networks in rat cerebellum and hippocampus

    SciTech Connect

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.; Osorio, Cristina; Royland, Joyce E.; Ramabhadran, Ram; Alzate, Oscar

    2011-11-15

    The vast literature on the mode of action of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) indicates that PCBs are a unique model for understanding the mechanisms of toxicity of environmental mixtures of persistent chemicals. PCBs have been shown to adversely affect psychomotor function and learning and memory in humans. Although the molecular mechanisms for PCB effects are unclear, several studies indicate that the disruption of Ca{sup 2+}-mediated signal transduction plays significant roles in PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity. Culminating events in signal transduction pathways include the regulation of gene and protein expression, which affects the growth and function of the nervous system. Our previous studies showed changes in gene expression related to signal transduction and neuronal growth. In this study, protein expression following developmental exposure to PCB is examined. Pregnant rats (Long Evans) were dosed with 0.0 or 6.0 mg/kg/day of Aroclor-1254 from gestation day 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21, and the cerebellum and hippocampus from PND14 animals were analyzed to determine Aroclor 1254-induced differential protein expression. Two proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the cerebellum following PCB exposure while 18 proteins were differentially expressed in the hippocampus. These proteins are related to energy metabolism in mitochondria (ATP synthase, sub unit {beta} (ATP5B), creatine kinase, and malate dehydrogenase), calcium signaling (voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 (VDAC1) and ryanodine receptor type II (RyR2)), and growth of the nervous system (dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 4 (DPYSL4), valosin-containing protein (VCP)). Results suggest that Aroclor 1254-like persistent chemicals may alter energy metabolism and intracellular signaling, which might result in developmental neurotoxicity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We performed brain proteomic analysis of rats exposed to the neurotoxicant

  1. Aroclor 1254

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Aroclor 1254 ; CASRN 11097 - 69 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  2. Aroclor 1016

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Aroclor 1016 ; CASRN 12674 - 11 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  3. Aroclor 1248

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Aroclor 1248 ; CASRN 12672 - 29 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  4. Effects of maternal ingestion of aroclor 1254 (PCB) on the development pattern of oxygen consumption and body temperature in neonatal rats

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, B.W.; Meserve, L.A.

    1995-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an environmental pollutant that has been implicated in depression of reproductive success in Great Lakes gulls, production of congenital deformities in humans, and increased incidence of carcinogenesis in laboratory mice. PCB has also been shown to be a thyrotoxin in both adult and developing animals. Most recently, the hypothyroid effects of PCB exposure have been reported to elicit effects similar to those of hypothyroidism caused by other methods. This study was done to determine the effects of PCB ingestion in pregnant and lactating rats on the development of thermoregulation in neonatal animals. Body temperature and rate of oxygen consumption was evaluated in rat puts on days 4 through 14 after birth. Because the major thermomregulatory hormones are thyroid hormones, thyroid hormone status and thyroid weights were evaluated at the end of the study on postnatal day 15. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. PCB breakdown by anaerobic microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    Recently, altered PCB cogener distribution patterns observed in anaerobic sediment samples from the upper Hudson River are being attributed to biologically mediated reductive dechlorination. The authors report their successful demonstration of biologically mediated reductive dechlorination of an Aroclor mixture. In their investigation, they assessed the ability of microorganisms from PCB-contaminated Hudson River sediments (60-562 ppm PCBs) to dechlorinate Aroclor 1242 under anaerobic conditions by eluting microorganisms from the PCB- contaminated sediments and transferring them to a slurry of reduced anaerobic mineral medium and PCB-free sediments in tightly stoppered bottles. They observed dechlorination to be the most rapid at the highest PCB concentration tried by them.

  6. PCB biohalogenation under anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gauger, W.K.; McCue, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is conducting research on the biodehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) under anoxic conditions. Reductive dechlorination of PCB's has been observed in treatments inoculated with Hudson River sediments. Differences in gas chromatograms between time 0 and 4-month incubations indicate pattern shifts of the PCB homologs that constitute Aroclor 1242 from highly chlorinated to lesser chlorinated congeners. Changes in distribution patterns of PCB homologs were also evident. PCB homologs containing 4, 5, 6, and 7 chlorine atoms were shown to decrease over the incubation period, whereas PCB homologs containing 2 and 3 chlorines increased in concentration. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL MIXTURES (AROCLORS) INHIBIT LPS-INDUCED MURINE SPLENOCYTE PROLIFERATION IN VITRO. (R826687)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The immune system is believed to be a sensitive indicator for adverse polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced health effects. Four commercial PCB mixtures (Aroclors) or six individual PCB congeners were evaluated for their effect on splenocyte viability and lip...

  8. Influence of Aroclor 1242 concentration on polychlorinated biphenyl biotransformations in Hudson River test tube microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, K.M.

    1996-08-01

    PCBs are a family of compounds sold with various levels of chlorination and under different trade names. They have accumulated in soils, sediments, and biota, raising concerns about possible health risks. The upper Hudson River was contaminated with Aroclor 1242. This study examines the influence of Aroclor concentration on PCB biotransformations in the upper Hudson River sediment. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Distribution and sources of PCBs (Aroclor 1268) in the Sapelo Island National estuarine research reserve.

    PubMed

    Wirth, E F; Pennington, P L; Cooksey, C; Schwacke, L; Balthis, L; Hyland, J; Fulton, M H

    2014-12-01

    Aroclor 1268 is a highly chlorinated PCB mixture that was released into the aquatic environment near Brunswick, GA (BR), as a result of decades of local industrial activity. This extensive contamination has led to US EPA Superfund designation in estuarine areas in and around Purvis Creek, GA. Roughly 50 km to the northeast is the Sapelo Island National Estuarine Research Reserve (SI) where previous studies have documented unexpectedly high Aroclor 1268-like PCB levels in blubber and plasma samples of resident bottlenose dolphins. This result led to a collaborative effort to assess the PCB patterns and concentrations in SI sediment and fish (as potential vectors for PCB transfer to SI resident dolphins). Thirty SI randomly assigned stations were sampled for sediment PCB levels. Additionally, fish were collected and analyzed from SI (n = 31) and BR (n = 33). Results were pooled with regional assessments of PCB concentrations from South Carolina and North Carolina in an effort to determine the association of Aroclor 1268 levels in SI samples. Results indicated that PCB levels in sediment and fish are much lower in the SI estuary compared to BR sediment and fish concentrations. However, PCB congener profiles for both sediments and fish were similar between the two locations and consistent with the Aroclor 1268 signature, indicating possible transport from the Brunswick area. A likely source of Aroclor 1268 in dolphins from SI is contaminated fish prey. PMID:25208520

  10. Dechlorination of four commercial polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures (Aroclors) by anaerobic microorganisms from sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Quensen, J.F. III; Boyd, S.A.; Tiedje, J.M. )

    1990-08-01

    The rate, extent, and pattern of dechlorination of four Aroclors by inocula prepared from two polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediments were compared. The four mixtures used, Aroclors 1242, 1248, 1254, and 1260, average approximately three, four, five, and six chlorines, respectively, per biphenyl molecule. All four Aroclors were dechlorinated with the loss of meta plus para chlorines ranging from 15 to 85%. Microorganisms from an Aroclor 1242-contaminated site in the upper Hudson River dechlorinated Aroclor 1242 to a greater extent than did microorganisms from Aroclor 1260-contaminated sediments from Silver Lake, Mass. The Silver Lake inoculum dechlorinated Aroclor 1260 more rapidly than the Hudson River inoculum did and showed a preferential removal of meta chlorines. For each inoculum the rate and extent of dechlorination tended to decrease as the degree of chlorination of the Aroclor increased, especially for Aroclor 1260. The maximal observed dechlorination rates were 0.3, 0.3, and 0.2 {mu}g-atoms of Cl removed per g of sediment per week for Aroclors 1242, 1248, and 1254, respectively. The maximal observed dechlorination rates for Hudson River and Silver Lake organisms for Aroclor 1260 were 0.04 and 0.21 {mu}g-atoms of Cl removed per g of sediment per week, respectively. The dechlorination patterns obtained suggested that the Hudson River microorganisms were more capable than the Silver Lake organisms of removing the last para chlorine.

  11. Human receptor activation by aroclor 1260, a polychlorinated biphenyl mixture.

    PubMed

    Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K Cameron; Clair, Heather B; Al-Eryani, Laila; Prough, Russell A; States, J Christopher; Coslo, Denise M; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Cave, Matthew C

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental toxicants, present in 100% of U.S. adults and dose-dependently associated with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PCBs are predicted to interact with receptors previously implicated in xenobiotic/energy metabolism and NAFLD. These receptors include the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), liver-X-receptor (LXRα), and farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR). This study evaluates Aroclor 1260, a PCB mixture with congener composition mimicking that of human adipose tissue, and selected congeners, as potential ligands for these receptors utilizing human hepatoma-derived (HepG2) and primate-derived (COS-1) cell lines, and primary human hepatocytes. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) activated AhR, and PCB 126, a minor component, was a potent inducer. Aroclor 1260 activated PXR in a simple concentration-dependent manner at concentrations ≥10 μg/ml. Among the congeners tested, PCBs 138, 149, 151, 174, 183, 187, and 196 activated PXR. Aroclor 1260 activated CAR2 and CAR3 variants at lower concentrations and antagonize CAR2 activation by the CAR agonist, CITCO, at higher concentrations (≥20 μg/ml). Additionally, Aroclor 1260 induced CYP2B6 in primary hepatocytes. At subtoxic doses, Aroclor 1260 did not activate LXR or FXR and had no effect on LXR- or FXR-dependent induction by the agonists T0901317 or GW4064, respectively. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) suppressed PPARα activation by the agonist nafenopin, although none of the congeners tested demonstrated significant inhibition. The results suggest that Aroclor 1260 is a human AhR, PXR and CAR3 agonist, a mixed agonist/antagonist for CAR2, and an antagonist for human PPARα. PMID:24812009

  12. Human Receptor Activation by Aroclor 1260, a Polychlorinated Biphenyl Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K. Cameron; Clair, Heather B.; Al-Eryani, Laila; Prough, Russell A.; States, J. Christopher; Coslo, Denise M.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Cave, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental toxicants, present in 100% of U.S. adults and dose-dependently associated with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PCBs are predicted to interact with receptors previously implicated in xenobiotic/energy metabolism and NAFLD. These receptors include the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), liver-X-receptor (LXRα), and farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR). This study evaluates Aroclor 1260, a PCB mixture with congener composition mimicking that of human adipose tissue, and selected congeners, as potential ligands for these receptors utilizing human hepatoma-derived (HepG2) and primate-derived (COS-1) cell lines, and primary human hepatocytes. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) activated AhR, and PCB 126, a minor component, was a potent inducer. Aroclor 1260 activated PXR in a simple concentration-dependent manner at concentrations ≥10 μg/ml. Among the congeners tested, PCBs 138, 149, 151, 174, 183, 187, and 196 activated PXR. Aroclor 1260 activated CAR2 and CAR3 variants at lower concentrations and antagonize CAR2 activation by the CAR agonist, CITCO, at higher concentrations (≥20 μg/ml). Additionally, Aroclor 1260 induced CYP2B6 in primary hepatocytes. At subtoxic doses, Aroclor 1260 did not activate LXR or FXR and had no effect on LXR- or FXR-dependent induction by the agonists T0901317 or GW4064, respectively. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) suppressed PPARα activation by the agonist nafenopin, although none of the congeners tested demonstrated significant inhibition. The results suggest that Aroclor 1260 is a human AhR, PXR and CAR3 agonist, a mixed agonist/antagonist for CAR2, and an antagonist for human PPARα. PMID:24812009

  13. Discovery of Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in sediment from a Lake Michigan waterway and original commercial Aroclors

    PubMed Central

    Marek, Rachel F.; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) were measured in surficial sediment from Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC), East Chicago, IN and five original Monsanto Aroclors. These compounds were measured using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and certified standards that allowed us to identify 65 individual or co-eluting congeners. Concentrations in the sediment ranged from 0.20 to 26 ng/g dry weight. Profiles of most samples were similar and were dominated by mono- to penta-chlorinated OH-PCBs. Interestingly, most of the samples strongly resembled the OH-PCB profiles of Aroclors 1221, 1242, 1248 and 1254, yet 25% of OH-PCBs measured in the sediment were not detected in Aroclors. A strong positive correlation was found between ΣOH-PCB and ΣPCB (p < 0.0001) and also between many individual OH-PCB:PCB pairs (p < 0.05). Analysis of OH-PCB:PCB pairs suggest PCB degradation is unlikely as a source of OH-PCBs in IHSC sediment. We are the first to report levels of OH-PCBs in sediment and Aroclors, and our discovery is significant because it is likely that OH-PCB contamination exists in sediment anywhere that PCB contamination from Aroclors is present. PMID:23862721

  14. Aroclor 1242 and reproductive success of adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haseltine, S.D.; Prouty, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-four pairs of adult mallards were fed a diet containing 0 or 150 ppm of the PCB Aroclor 1242 for 12 weeks during which egg laying was induced. Laying started in both groups an average of 33 days after PCB treatment began. All hens were allowed to lay a 20-egg clutch; 15 eggs from each clutch were artificially incubated. Eleven hens from each group completed the clutch. There was no difference between the two groups in the time taken to lay the clutch, nor was there a difference in fertility, embryo mortality, or hatching success. Eggshell thickness decreased 8.9% with PCB ingestion; eggs from hens fed PCB contained an average of 105 ppm PCB wet wt. No difference in survival or weight gain to 3 weeks of age was observed between young mallards from eggs laid by PCB-treated hens and control hens.

  15. Biological activity associated with noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls after microbial dechlorination of Aroclor 1242{reg_sign} and Aroclor 1254{reg_sign}

    SciTech Connect

    Ganey, P.E.; Quensen, J.F.; Mousa, M.A.; Boyd, S.A.; Wagner, M.A.; Fischer, L.J.

    2000-05-01

    Bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by anaerobic microbial dechlorination occurring naturally in the subsurface and in engineered systems results in mixtures of lower-chlorinated, primarily ortho-substituted biphenyls. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this process of bacterial dechlorination results in a mixture that differs in biological activity from that of the parent PCB mixture. Two biological assays sensitive to the action of ortho-substituted PCBs were employed: insulin release by RINm5F cells, and superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) production by rat neutrophils. The PCB mixtures Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254 were incubated for nine months with microbes from PCB-contaminated sites (Silver Lake, MA, USA, or River Raisin, MI, USA), and the products of dechlorination were then extracted. Exposure of RINm5F cells to dechlorinated Aroclor 1242 or 1254 product mixtures caused an increase in insulin release similar to the hormone release from cells exposed to nondechlorinated Aroclors. When tested alone, several of the major products identified in the dechlorination mixture (i.e., 2,2{prime}, 4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,2{prime}, 4-trichlorobiphenyl [TCB], 2,3{prime}, 4-TCB, 2,3{prime}, 5-TCB, and 2,2{prime}-dichlorobiphenyl) caused an increase in insulin release. In studies using neutrophils isolated from rat peritoneum, the amount of O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} produced on exposure to product mixtures resulting from dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 was not different from the amount produced in nondechlorinated controls. The product mixture resulting from Aroclor 1254 dechlorination by organisms from River Raisin increased generation of O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} relative to the parent Aroclor. Taken together, these results suggest that anaerobic dechlorination of Aroclor mixtures of PCBs does not reduce the biological activities associated with lightly chlorinated and ortho-substituted PCBs. This observation has implications for

  16. Biotransformations of Aroclor 1242 in Hudson River test tube microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, K.M.; Principe, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are relatively unreactive and hydrophobic, are widely used commercially, and have accumulated in soils, sediments, and biota. The researchers partially simulated environmental conditions in the laboratory to examine the fate of Aroclor 1242 in the Upper Hudson River. The test tube microcosms developed both aerobic and anaerobic compartments. This paper reports on the patterns and rates of anaerobic and aerobic PCB transformations for a single set of conditions in static, unamended microosms to model the environmental fate of Aroclor 1242 in river sediments. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (aroclors 1254 and 1016) on fertilization efficiency in Arbacia punctulata

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, R.; Adams, J.A.

    1988-04-01

    This study examined the effect of exposure of the eggs of the purple sea urchin Arbacia punctulata to two of the commonly-occurring commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures, Aroclors 1254 and 1016. Eggs were exposed to PCB's 25 minutes prior to insemination and continuously thereafter. The PCB's were administered as a component of a filtered-sea-water medium (FSW). Since Arbacia eggs cleave synchronously following insemination, the percentage of eggs cleaving at 1.75 hr post-insemination was used to determine the fertilization efficiency. Toxicant concentrations 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/L were employed for both Aroclors. A FSW control and a FSW-acetone control was employed since acetone was used in a 49:1, acetone:PCB ratio, to emulsify the PCB's. Differences in control and PCB exposed groups were tested using Chi square at a 95% level of confidence. Both PCB's affected the fertilization efficiency once the threshold was achieved. The Aroclor 1016 proved to be much more toxic than Aroclor 1254. These results agree with the data previously achieved using Hydraologactis as the experimental organism.

  18. Thermally induced formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans from Aroclor 1254-contaminated mineral oil.

    PubMed Central

    Narang, R S; Swami, K; Stein, V; Smith, R; O'Keefe, P; Aldous, K; Hilker, D; Eadon, G; Vernoy, C; Narang, A S

    1989-01-01

    Numerous laboratory simulations and real-world events have demonstrated the thermal conversion of neat or high concentration of PCBs into the much more toxic PCDFs. Since millions of mineral oil transformers currently in service contain PCB concentrations in the 50 to 5000 ppm range, the thermal behavior of dilute PCB solutions is of practical and regulatory significance. In this work, neat Aroclor 1254 and 5000 ppm Aroclor 1254 in mineral oil were subjected to pyrolysis and combustion under a range of experimental conditions to define parameters resulting in maximal PCDF yields. The dependence of PCDF yield on Aroclor 1254 concentrations was then investigated in the 5000 to 50 ppm range. Combustion experiments demonstrated that PCDF yields expressed as micrograms PCDF/gram PCB were independent of concentration range, confirming that the process is kinetically first order in PCB. Much lower yields of PCDF were observed in the open tube pyrolysis experiments, as compared to combustion experiments and to earlier and concurrent sealed tube experiments. Slightly improved yields were observed in the pyrolysis experiments at lower concentrations, suggesting the existence of a PCB or PCDF destruction process of higher than first order kinetics. In all cases, yields expressed as micrograms PCDF/gram mixture were sharply and monotonically lower as concentrations decreased between neat or 5000 ppm Aroclor 1254 and 50 ppm Aroclor 1254. PMID:2495933

  19. Extensive degradation of aroclors and environmentally transformed polychlorinated biphenyls by Alcaligenes eutrophus H850

    SciTech Connect

    Bedard, D.L.; Wagner, R.E.; Brennan, M.J.; Haberl, M.L.; Brown, J.F. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have isolated and characterized a strain of Alcaligenes eutrophus, designated H850, that rapidly degrades a broad and unusual spectrum of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including many tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls and several hexachlorobiphenyls. This strains, which was isolated from PCB-containing dredge spoils by enrichment on biphenyl, grows well on biphenyl and 2-chlorobiphenyl but poorly on 3- and 4-chlorobiphenyl. Capillary gas-chromatographic analysis showed that biphenyl-grown resting cells of H850 degraded the components of 38 of the 41 largest peaks of Aroclor 1242 and 15 of the 44 largest peaks of Aroclor 1254, resulting in an overall reduction of PCBs by 81% for Aroclor 1242 (10 ppm) and 35% for the Aroclor 1254 (10 ppm) in 2 days. Furthermore, H850 metabolized the predominantly ortho-substituted PCB congeners that the resulted from the environmental transformation of the more highly chlorinated congeners of Aroclor 1242 by the upper Hudson River anaerobic meta-, and para-dechlorination agent system. The congener selectivity patterns indicate that a two-step process consisting of anaerobic dechlorination followed by oxidation by H850 can effectively degrade all to congeners in Aroclor 1242 and possibly all those in Aroclor 1254.

  20. PCB biodegradation: Laboratory studies transitioned into the field

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowicz, D.A.

    1993-12-31

    Two distinct bacterial systems are known to be involved in PCB biotransformations. Both aerobic PCB biodegradation (Oxidative attack) and anaerobic PCB dechlorination (reductive attack) have been demonstrated in the laboratory. These results have been successfully reproducted in recent experiments performed in aquatic sediments. In 1991, GE performed a large scale test of in situ aerobic PCB biodegradation in the Upper Hudson River. The experiments involved six sealed caissons (six feet in diameter) lowered into Aroclor 1242 contaminated sediments that had already undergone extensive anaerobic PCB dechlorination. Stimulation of indigenous PCB-degrading microorganisms resulted in >50% biodegradation over 10 weeks. A large scale stimulation of in situ anaerobic PCB dechlorination in Housatonic River sediments contaminated with untransformed Aroclor 1260 was initiated in 1992. The experiments similarly involve six sealed caissons (six feet in diameter) lowered into contaminated sediments to investigate new methods developed to accelerate PCB dechlorination in the field. Preliminary results from this ongoing field test will be discussed.

  1. Biomagnification of Aroclor 1242 in Decomposing Spartina Litter †

    PubMed Central

    Marinucci, Andrew C.; Bartha, R.

    1982-01-01

    The accumulation of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture (Aroclor 1242) in the process of detritus formation by a shredded marshgrass (Spartina alterniflora) under aerobic conditions was monitored in percolators for 4 months at 20°C. Dissolved PCB in the influent solution was 14 to 16 μg/liter. Parameters monitored in addition to PCB accumulation were CO2 evolution, NH4+ uptake, NO3− production, and total organic nitrogen and carbon in the effluent. An NaN3− poisoned control served to assess nonbiological PCB absorption. Up to 90% of the PCB dissolved in the influent water was removed by the biologically active detritus. Biomagnification resulted in three to four times higher PCB concentrations in the active detritus than in the abiotic control. Evolution of CO2 was slightly depressed by PCB, but the overall quality (C:N ratio) of the detritus was not affected. The results indicate that bioaccumulation of PCB in detritus is an important means of entry for this pollutant into estuarine food webs. PMID:16346096

  2. Exposure to mercury and Aroclor 1268 congeners in least terns (Sternula antillarum) in coastal Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Gabrielle L; Mills, Gary L; Lindell, Angela H; Schweitzer, Sara H; Hernandez, Sonia M

    2015-08-01

    Concentrations of total mercury and the rare PCB mixture Aroclor 1268 in least terns (Sternula antillarum), a colonially-nesting, piscivorous seabird, in the Turtle River estuary and other coastal sites in Georgia, USA, were investigated. The Turtle River estuary is the location of the Linden Chemical Plant (LCP) Superfund site, a site prioritized by USA law for immediate remediation, where industries released effluent containing these contaminants until 1994. Aroclor 1268 is a highly-chlorinated PCB mixture that was used and released exclusively at the LCP site and nowhere else in the south eastern USA. High concentrations of Aroclor 1268 congeners and mercury have been documented in biota local to LCP, but no studies report concentrations in high trophic level, piscivorous birds such as least terns. We collected feathers and feces from chicks, and eggs from adults, at nesting colonies along the Georgia coast to analyze contaminant loads (in dry weight ppb). Mean Aroclor 1268 mixture concentrations in eggs (≤16,329 ppb) were highest at colonies in and just outside LCP, and decreased with increasing distance (up to 110 km) from LCP, but the Aroclor 1268 signature congener mixture was present at all sites. Mercury concentrations in eggs (≤3370 ppb), feathers (≤5950 ppb), and feces (≤417 ppb), were present at all sites, but did not vary significantly among sites. This report confirms the extensive dispersal of Aroclor 1268 congeners (approximately 110 km north and 70 km south of its point source) via bioaccumulation and trophic transfer. PMID:26166752

  3. Increasing PCB Radiolysis Rates in Transformer Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, Bruce Jay

    2002-11-01

    The kinetics of Aroclor 1242 radiolysis in transformer oil, using high-energy electrons, was found to be analogous to that previously measured for individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners irradiated with ó-rays. The plot of the pseudo-first-order rate constant for PCB decomposition versus initial PCB concentration is a power function, with high rate constants for low concentrations. The addition of alkaline isopropanol to transformer oil was found to increase the pseudo-first-order rate constant for PCB decomposition. The rate constant under these conditions is independent of concentration. This may be explained by the establishment of chain reaction dechlorination in the oil.

  4. Increasing PCB radiolysis rates in transformer oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Brey, Richard R.; Rodriguez, René G.; Pristupa, Scott; Ruhter, Aaron

    2002-11-01

    The kinetics of Aroclor 1242 radiolysis in transformer oil, using high-energy electrons, was found to be analogous to that previously measured for individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners irradiated with γ-rays. The plot of the pseudo-first-order rate constant for PCB decomposition versus initial PCB concentration is a power function, with high rate constants for low concentrations. The addition of alkaline isopropanol to transformer oil was found to increase the pseudo-first-order rate constant for PCB decomposition. The rate constant under these conditions is independent of concentration. This may be explained by the establishment of chain reaction dechlorination in the oil.

  5. Effects of Aroclor 1254 on In Vivo Oocyte Maturation in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Liu, ShuZhen; Jiang, LiGang; Meng, XiaoQian; Han, XiaoYing; Cheng, Dong; Zhang, TianLiang; Miao, YiLiang

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are stable, lipophilic compounds that accumulate in the environment and in the food chain. Though some studies provided evidence that PCBs had adverse effects on reproductive function, most of these results were from in vitro models. Therefore we investigated the effect of Aroclor 1254 (a commercial PCBs mixture) treatments on in vivo maturation and developmental potential of mouse oocytes. In the present study, female ICR mice were treated with different doses (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) of Aroclor 1254 (a commercial PCB mixture) once every 72 hours by intraperitoneal injection for 9 days. After three treatments of Aroclor 1254, the mice were superovulated to collect oocytes one day after the last exposure. The effects of Aroclor 1254 on oocyte maturation, fertilization, and preimplantation embryonic development were investigated. Immunofluorescence-stained oocytes were observed under a confocal microscope to assess the effects of Aroclor 1254 on spindle morphology. Parthenogenic activation and the incidence of cumulus apoptosis in cumulus-oocyte complexes were observed as well. Oocytes exposed to different doses of Aroclor 1254 in vivo were associated with a significant decrease in outgrowth potential, abnormal spindle configurations, and the inhibition of parthenogenetic activation of ovulated oocytes. Furthermore, the incidence of apoptosis in cumulus cells was increased after exposed to Aroclor 1254. These results may provide reference for the treatment of reproductive diseases such as infertility or miscarriage caused by environmental contaminants. PMID:25013911

  6. Hyper- and Hypo- Induction of Cytochrome P450 activities with Aroclor 1254 and 3-Methylcholanthrene in Cyp1a2(−/−) mice

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Melissa L.; Hathaway, Laura B.; Arch, Dorinda D.; Westbroek, Mark L.; Kushner, James P.; Phillips, John D.; Franklin, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    The response of hepatic mono-oxygenase activities to Aroclor 1254 or 3-methylcholanthrene was investigated in wild-type and Cyp1a2(−/−) mice. Cytochrome P450 concentrations were similar in naïve Cyp1a2(−/−) and wild-type mice. There was no difference between naïve wild-type and Cyp1a2(−/−) animals in 7-ethoxyresorufin and 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin dealkylase activities, nor was the induction response after 3-methylcholanthrene any different between the two genotypes. However, both activities were induced to a higher extent in Cyp1a2(−/−) mice after Aroclor 1254. In contrast, 7-pentoxyresorufin dealkylation activity was lower in Cyp1a2(−/−) mice and this differential was maintained during induction by both agents. 7-Methoxy- and 7-benzoxyresorufin dealkylation activities were also lower than wild-type in naïve Cyp1a2(−/−) animals and during 3-methylcholanthrene induction, but showed accelerated induction in Cyp1a2(−/−) mice with Aroclor 1254. Bufuralol 1′- and testosterone 6β-hydroxylation activities, and P450 characteristics were evaluated 48 hours after inducer administration. Bufuralol 1′-hydroxylation, a sexual dimorphic activity (female > male) showed no genotype differences in naïve animals. Activity changes varied across gender and genotype, with 3-methylcholanthrene and Aroclor 1254 inducing in male Cyp1a2(−/−), and Aroclor 1254 inducing in female wild-type. Testosterone 6β-hydroxylation activity was 16% higher in Cyp1a2(−/−) mice and neither 3-methylcholanthrene nor Aroclor 1254 elicited induction. After Aroclor 1254, a 24% increase in P450 concentration with a hypsochromic shift in the ferrous-CO maximum characteristic of CYP1A enzymes occurred in wild-type, compared to no change in either parameter in Cyp1a2(−/−) mice. Induction changes with 3-methylcholanthrene were greater in wild-type mice, a 60% increase in concentration and ~2 nm hypsochromic shift versus a 10% increase and ~1 nm hypsochromic

  7. Enzyme induction and histopathology elucidate aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated versus non-aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated effects of Aroclor 1268 in American mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations reported in preferred prey and blubber of bottlenose dolphins from the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (Georgia, USA) suggest the potential for adverse effects. However, PCBs in Turtle-Brunswick River estuary dolphins are primarily derived from Aroclor 1268, and predicting toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 is uncertain because of the mixture's unique composition and associated physiochemical characteristics. These differences suggest that toxicity benchmarks for other PCB mixtures may not be relevant to dolphins exposed to Aroclor 1268. American mink (Neovison vison) were used as a surrogate model for cetaceans to characterize mechanisms of action associated with Aroclor 1268 exposure. Mink share similarities in phylogeny and life history with cetaceans and are characteristically sensitive to PCBs, making them an attractive surrogate species for marine mammals in ecotoxicity studies. Adult female mink and a subsequent F1 generation were exposed to Aroclor 1268 through diet, and effects on enzyme induction, histopathology, thyroid hormone regulation, hematology, organ weights, and body condition index were compared to a negative control and a 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126)-positive control. Aroclor 1268 dietary exposure concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g wet weight to 29 µg/g wet weight. Anemia, hypothyroidism, and hepatomegaly were observed in mink exposed to Aroclor 1268 beyond various dietary thresholds. Cytochrome P450 induction and squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions were low in Aroclor 1268 treatments relative to the positive control. Differences in enzyme induction and the development of squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions between Aroclor 1268 treatments and the positive control, coupled with effects observed in Aroclor 1268 treatments not observed in the positive control, indicate that mechanisms additional to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathway are associated with

  8. "Dehalococcoides" sp. strain CBDB1 extensively dechlorinates the commercial polychlorinated biphenyl mixture aroclor 1260.

    PubMed

    Adrian, Lorenz; Dudková, Vlasta; Demnerová, Katarina; Bedard, Donna L

    2009-07-01

    "Dehalococcoides" sp. strain CBDB1 in pure culture dechlorinates a wide range of PCB congeners with three to eight chlorine substituents. Congener-specific high-resolution gas chromatography revealed that CBDB1 extensively dechlorinated both Aroclor 1248 and Aroclor 1260 after four months of incubation. For example, 16 congeners comprising 67.3% of the total PCBs in Aroclor 1260 were decreased by 64%. We confirmed the dechlorination of 43 different PCB congeners. The most prominent dechlorination products were 2,3',5-chlorinated biphenyl (25-3-CB) and 24-3-CB from Aroclor 1248 and 235-25-CB, 25-25-CB, 24-25-CB, and 235-236-CB from Aroclor 1260. Strain CBDB1 removed flanked para chlorines from 3,4-, 2,4,5-, and 3,4,5-chlorophenyl rings, primarily para chlorines from 2,3,4,5-chlorophenyl rings, primarily meta chlorines from 2,3,4- and 2,3,4,6-chlorophenyl rings, and either meta or para chlorines from 2,3,4,5,6-chlorophenyl rings. The site of attack on the 2,3,4-chorophenyl ring was heavily influenced by the chlorine configuration on the opposite ring. This dechlorination pattern matches PCB Process H dechlorination, which was previously observed in situ both in the Acushnet Estuary (New Bedford, MA) and in parts of the Hudson River (New York). Accordingly, we propose that Dehalococcoides bacteria similar to CBDB1 are potential agents of Process H PCB dechlorination in the environment. This is the first time that a complex naturally occurring PCB dechlorination pattern has been reproduced in the laboratory using a single bacterial strain. PMID:19429555

  9. Uptake and concentration factor af Aroclor 1254 in aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Gooch, J.A.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1983-10-01

    There are several factors that affect PCB bioaccumulation. These include: concentration in the surrounding environment; duration of exposure; temperature; solubility of the pollutant; species age, weight, feeding habits and lipid content; trophic level variations; and adsorption. Bioaccumulation can occur either through ingestion of contaminated food organisms or by direct absorption through the integument. Higher concentrations of PCBs have been found in plankton than in fish, indicating that direct absorption is the primary route of accumulation. This investigation was conducted to follow the uptake and concentration factor (CF) of Aroclor 1254 in selected organisms representing a simple aquatic ecosystem.

  10. Growth and reproductive effects from dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 in mink (Neovison vison), a surrogate model for marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Remington, Richard E; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the commercial mixture Aroclor 1268 were historically released into the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (southeastern Georgia, USA) from industrial operations. Sum PCBs (ΣPCBs) in blubber samples from Turtle-Brunswick River estuary bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have been reported at concentrations more than 10-fold higher than those observed in dolphins from adjacent regional estuaries. Given that toxicity data specific to Aroclor 1268 and applicable to marine mammals are limited, predicting the toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 in dolphins is uncertain, particularly because of its unique congener profile and associated physiochemical characteristics compared with other PCB mixtures. American mink (Neovison vison) were chosen as a surrogate model for cetaceans to develop marine mammalian PCB toxicity benchmarks. Mink are a suitable surrogate species for cetaceans in toxicity studies because of similarities in diet and taxonomic class, and a characteristic sensitivity to PCBs provides a potential safety factor when using mink toxicology data for cross-species extrapolations. Effects of dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 on reproduction, growth, and mortality in mink were compared with both a negative control and a positive control (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl, PCB 126). Aroclor 1268 dietary ΣPCB concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g feed wet weight to 29 µg/g feed wet weight. Whelp success was unaffected by Aroclor 1268 exposure at any level. Treatment mean litter size, kit growth, and kit survival were adversely affected relative to the negative control at dietary ΣPCB concentrations of 10.6 µg/g feed wet weight and greater. PMID:26313468

  11. EFFECTS OF PCB (AROCLORR 1254) ON NON-SPECIFIC IMMUNE PARAMETERS IN RHESUS (MACACA MULATA) MONKEYS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of low level chronic polychlorinated biphenyl - Aroclor 1254 - (PCB) exposure were investigated on nonspecific immune parameters in female rhesus (Macaca mulatta) monkeys. Five groups of monkeys were orally administered PCB at concentrations of 0, 5, 20, 40, or 80 ug/...

  12. YY162 prevents ADHD-like behavioral side effects and cytotoxicity induced by Aroclor1254 via interactive signaling between antioxidant potential, BDNF/TrkB, DAT and NET.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yunsung; Shin, Eun-Joo; Shin, Seung Woo; Lim, Yong Kwang; Jung, Jong Ho; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Ha, Jong Ryul; Chae, Jong Seok; Ko, Sung Kwon; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Jang, Choon-Gon; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2014-03-01

    Methylphenidate (MP) has become the primary drug of choice for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, its psychotropic effects severely hamper long-term clinical use. We evaluated the effects of YY162, which consists of terpenoid-strengthened Ginkgo biloba and ginsenoside Rg3, on the ADHD-like condition induced by Aroclor1254, because both components have been suggested to modulate oxidative stress, dopaminergic neurotransmission, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling, which may be critical targets for understanding the pathogenesis of ADHD. YY162 attenuated the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease in BDNF levels induced by Aroclor1254 in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. YY162 significantly attenuated Aroclor1254-induced ADHD-like behavior and oxidative stress in ICR mice. Furthermore, YY162 attenuated reductions in p-TrkB, BDNF, dopamine transporter (DAT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) expression. These attenuating effects of YY162 were comparable to those of MP. Importantly, K252a, a TrkB antagonist, counteracted the protective effects of YY162. Our results suggest that YY162 possesses significant protective activities against ADHD-like conditions with negligible behavioral side effects, and that interactive signaling between antioxidant potential and BDNF/TrkB receptor for the positive modulation of the DAT and NET is important for YY162-mediated neuroprotective activity. PMID:24394491

  13. Effects of Aroclor 1254 reg sign on hydrocortisone levels in adult Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, J.C.K.; Tryphonas, H.; Jordan, N.; Brien, R.; Karpinski, K.R.; Arnold, D.L. )

    1989-11-01

    Researchers, using female Sprague Dawley rats, reported the effects of chronic (5-7 months) oral dosing with Aroclor 1254{reg sign} (Polychlorinated biphenyls-PCB) on the serum levels of corticosterone, the principle glucocorticoid in rats. Their findings indicated that corticosterone levels were significantly depressed at dose levels of 479 {mu}g/kg bw/day and above. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of PCB on the hydrocortisone levels in Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) serum. In the monkey the controlling hormone is hydrocortisone which is identical to that of humans.

  14. Environmental and health hazards from recycling PCB sources

    SciTech Connect

    Greichus, Y.A.; Dohman, B.A.

    1980-06-01

    Soil, corn plants, foliage, earthworms, and small rodents from areas surrounding two electrical salvage companies involved in reconditioning old transformers had unusually high levels of PCB's. Levels decreased as distance from the factories increased. PCB's were dispersed into the air through incineration of waste oils; water and soil contamination was caused by runoff from the factories. PCB's found to be present in the contaminated areas and in the waste oil closely resembled Aroclor 1260. Soil samples taken from depths of 2-4 in showed degradation of some PCB isomers. PCB concentrations in corn cobs and kernels were 0.05 ppm, whereas leaves contained PCB levels of up to 2.2 ppm. PCB levels in earthworms and small rodents collected near the factories were considerably higher than levels in the same types of animals collected from other areas. (10 references, 2 tables)

  15. Aroclor 1254 residues in birds: Lethal levels and loss rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, W.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Dyrland, R.A.; Hughes, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Lethal residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined experimentally in four species of wild birds (male common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula ), immature female red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus ), adult male brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater ) and immature female starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)) given dietary dosage of 1,500 ppm of Aroclor 1254) until one-half had died, sacrificing the survivors, chemically analyzing the tissues, and comparing results in dead birds and survivors. For all species, residues of 310 ppm or higher in the brain showed increasing likelihood of death from PCB poisoning. Residues in dead birds did not differ among species except for starlings (Sturnus vulgaris ), which averaged slightly lower than the others. However, the species differed in the length of time to 50% mortality and in the levels of PCBs in brains at sacrifice.

  16. Aroclor 1254 disrupts liver glycogen metabolism and enhances acute stressor-mediated glycogenolysis in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Steve; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of short-term exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls on the acute stress response in rainbow trout. Fish were exposed to dietary Aroclor1254 (10mg kg(-1) body mass/day) for 3 days and then subjected to a 3-min handling disturbance and sampled over a 24h recovery after the stressor exposure. In the pre-stress fish, PCB exposure significantly elevated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and cytochrome P4501A1 (Cyp1A1) mRNA abundance and Cyp1A protein expression confirming AhR activation. There was no significant effect of PCB on plasma cortisol and glucose levels, while plasma lactate levels were significantly elevated compared to the sham group. PCB exposure significantly elevated liver glycogen content and hexokinase activity, whereas lactate dehydrogenase activity was depressed. Short-term PCB exposure did not modify the acute stressor-induced plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate responses. Liver glycogen content dropped significantly after stressor exposure in the PCB group but not in the sham group. This was matched by a significantly higher liver LDH activity and a lower HK activity during recovery in the PCB group suggesting enhanced glycolytic capacity to fuel hepatic metabolism. Liver AhR, but not Cyp1A1, transcript levels were significantly reduced during recovery from handling stressor in the Aroclor fed fish. Collectively, this study demonstrates that short-term PCB exposure may impair the liver metabolic performance that is critical to cope with the enhanced energy demand associated with additional stressor exposure in rainbow trout. PMID:21745595

  17. Relative potencies of aroclor mixtures derived from avian in vitro bioassays: comparisons with calculated toxic equivalents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Manning, Gillian E; Farmahin, Reza; Crump, Doug; Zhang, Xiaowei; Kennedy, Sean W

    2013-08-01

    The World Health Organization toxic equivalency factors (WHO-TEFs) for birds were developed to simplify risk assessments of environmental mixtures of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Under this framework, toxic equivalents (TEQs) are used to represent the toxic potency of DLC mixtures as an equivalent concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Recently, a luciferase reporter gene (LRG) assay, measuring aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1)-mediated gene expression, accurately predicted the relative potency of individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in different avian species. The study presented here used the LRG assay to predict the relative potency of Aroclors 1016, 1221, 1242, 1248, 1254, and 1260 on induction of LRG activity in cells transfected with chicken, ring-necked pheasant, or Japanese quail AHR1 constructs. LRG assay results were compared to (1) results of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assays conducted in chicken hepatocytes and (2) calculated TEQs from the literature. The relative potencies of Aroclors were similar between the LRG and EROD assays, and bioassay-derived TEQs for the chicken closely resembled calculated TEQs. However, LRG assay-derived TEQs for the Japanese quail construct were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than calculated TEQs for Aroclors 1254 and 1016. These results suggest that the WHO-TEFs are not representative of relative PCB potency for all avian species. PMID:23815337

  18. Inhalation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Produces Hyperactivity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, John P; Berger, David F; Hunt, Anne; Carpenter, David O

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious behavioral syndrome seen in children, and more common in males than females. There is increasing evidence that prenatal and/or early life exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POP) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is associated with increased risk of ADHD occurrence. While PCB exposure is usually attributed to ingestion of contaminated food, recent reports of elevated PCB concentrations in indoor air, especially in schools, raised concern regarding inhalation as an important route of exposure to PCB with consequent effects on neurobehavior. The effects of exposure to air contaminated with Aroclor 1248 or contaminated sediment (SED) from the St. Lawrence River were examined on operant behavior of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Data showed that relative to controls, vapor-phase inhalation of PCB, whether from blowing air over Aroclor 1248 or from blowing air over sediment contaminated with PCB, resulted in hyperactivity and impatience in rats, more pronounced in males than females. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that inhalation of PCB may contribute to behavioral abnormalities in children. PMID:26398098

  19. Disruption of the Thyroid System by the Thyroid-Disrupting Compound Aroclor 1254 in Juvenile Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yifei; Tian, Hua; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaona; Liu, Jinxiang; Ru, Shaoguo

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of persistent organochlorine compounds that have the potential to disrupt the homeostasis of thyroid hormones (THs) in fish, particularly juveniles. In this study, thyroid histology, plasma TH levels, and iodothyronine deiodinase (IDs, including ID1, ID2, and ID3) gene expression patterns were examined in juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) following 25- and 50- day waterborne exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254 (10, 100, and 1000 ng/L) with two-thirds of the test solutions renewed daily. The results showed that exposure to Aroclor 1254 for 50 d increased follicular cell height, colloid depletion, and hyperplasia. In particular, hypothyroidism, which was induced by the administration of 1000 ng/L Aroclor 1254, significantly decreased plasma TT4, TT3, and FT3 levels. Profiles of the changes in mRNA expression levels of IDs were observed in the liver and kidney after 25 and 50 d PCB exposure, which might be associated with a reduction in plasma THs levels. The expression level of ID2 mRNA in the liver exhibited a dose-dependent increase, indicating that this ID isotype might serve as sensitive and stable indicator for thyroid-disrupting chemical (TDC) exposure. Overall, our study confirmed that environmentally relevant concentrations of Aroclor 1254 cause significant thyroid disruption, with juvenile Japanese flounder being suitable candidates for use in TDC studies. PMID:25090620

  20. Evaluation of Aroclor 1260 exposure in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wahlang, Banrida; Song, Ming; Beier, Juliane I.; Cameron Falkner, K.; Al-Eryani, Laila; Clair, Heather B.; Prough, Russell A.; Osborne, Tanasa S.; Malarkey, David E.; Christopher States, J.; Cave, Matthew C.

    2014-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in epidemiologic studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatic effects of a PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260, whose composition mimics human bioaccumulation patterns, in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed control diet or 42% high fat diet (HFD) and exposed to Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg in corn oil) for 12 weeks. A glucose tolerance test was performed; plasma/tissues were obtained at necropsy for measurements of adipocytokine levels, histology, and gene expression. Aroclor 1260 exposure was associated with decreased body fat in HFD-fed mice but had no effect on blood glucose/lipid levels. Paradoxically, Aroclor 1260 + HFD co-exposed mice demonstrated increased hepatic inflammatory foci at both doses while the degree of steatosis did not change. Serum cytokines, ALT levels and hepatic expression of IL-6 and TNFα were increased only at 20 mg/kg, suggesting an inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production at the 200 mg/kg exposure. Aroclor 1260 induced hepatic expression of cytochrome P450s including Cyp3a11 (Pregnane-Xenobiotic Receptor target) and Cyp2b10 (constitutive androstane receptor target) but Cyp2b10 inducibility was diminished with HFD-feeding. Cyp1a2 (aryl hydrocarbon Receptor target) was induced only at 200 mg/kg. In summary, Aroclor 1260 worsened hepatic and systemic inflammation in DIO. The results indicated a bimodal response of PCB-diet interactions in the context of inflammation which could potentially be explained by xenobiotic receptor activation. Thus, PCB exposure may be a relevant “second hit” in the transformation of steatosis to steatohepatitis. - Highlights: • Aroclor 1260 exposure decreased adiposity in mice fed with high fat diet • Aroclor 1260 exposure induced steatohepatitis in diet-induced obese mice • Aroclor 1260 (20 and 200 mg/kg) induced

  1. Oil and PCB interactions on the uptake and excretion in midges

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P.G.; Rediske, R.R.

    1984-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of sediment oil contamination on the bioaccumulation and excretion of Aroclor 1242 by the chironomid larvae Glyptotendipes barbipes Staeger. This dipteran was chosen as the test organism because it is an important fish food, and also the larva can tolerate a wide range of sediment PCB and oil concentrations. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions where midges were exposed to varying concentrations of Aroclor 1242 and mineral oil mixtures. An artificial substrate was chosen over natural sediment because it could be easily prepared in large quantities and accurately contaminated with both PCB and oil.

  2. Fasting modifies Aroclor 1254 impact on plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate responses to a handling disturbance in Arctic charr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, E.H.; Vijayan, M.M.; Aluru, N.; Maule, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and nutritional status on responses to handling disturbance were investigated in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The fish were orally contaminated with Aroclor 1254 and held either with or without food for 5 months before they were subjected to a 10-min handling disturbance. Food-deprived fish were given 0, 1, 10 or 100 mg PCB kg-1 and the fed fish 0 or 100 mg PCB kg-1. Plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels were measured at 0 (pre-handling), 1, 3, 6 and 23 h after the handling disturbance. Food-deprived control fish had elevated plasma cortisol levels compared with fed fish before handling. These basal cortisol levels were suppressed by PCB in food-deprived fish, and elevated by PCB in fed fish. The immediate cortisol and glucose responses to handling disturbance were suppressed by PCB in a dose-dependent way in food-deprived fish. Although these responses were also lowered by PCB in the fed fish, the effect was much less pronounced than in food-deprived fish. There were only minor effects on plasma lactate responses. Our findings suggest that the stress responses of the Arctic charr are compromised by PCB and that the long-term fasting, typical of high-latitude fish, makes these species particularly sensitive to organochlorines such as PCB. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effects of Individual PCB Congeners on the Soil Bacterial Community Structure and the Abundance of Biphenyl Dioxygenase Genes

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Paola A.; Lin, LianShin; Just, Craig L.; Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C.; Schnoor, Jerald L.; Van Aken, Benoit

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic environmental contaminants that represent a class of 209 congeners characterized by different degree of chlorination and substitution patterns. Most of experimental studies about microbial degradation of PCBs have been conducted on PCB mixtures, even though evidence accumulated in bacteria and other organisms shows that exposure to different congeners may have different biological effects. Microcosm experiments were conducted using aerobic agitated soil slurries individually exposed to PCB congeners with different degrees of chlorination: PCB-3, 15, 28, and 77, and the commercial mixture Aroclor 1242. After four weeks of incubation, PCBs were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) showing different transformation extents: With the exception of PCB-15 that was not significantly transformed (7%), biodegradation rates decreased with the degree of chlorination, from 75% for PCB-3 to 22% for PCB-77 and Aroclor 1242. The bacterial abundance, as measured by colony counting and 16S rDNA quantification by real-time PCR, was lower (of about 40%) in soil microcosms exposed to the higher-chlorinated congeners, PCB-28, PCB-77, and Aroclor 1242, as compared to non-exposed soils and soils exposed to the lower-chlorinated congeners, PCB-3 and PCB-15. The relative abundance of different taxonomic groups, as determined by real-time PCR, revealed an increase of β-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria in all microcosms exposed to PCBs, as compared with non-exposed soil. In addition, exposure to PCB-77 and Aroclor 1242 resulted in a higher abundance of α-Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria. Globally, these results suggest that exposure to PCBs (and especially to higher-chlorinated congeners and Aroclor 1242) selected bacterial groups involving most known PCB degraders, i.e., β-Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria. The quantification of biphenyl dioxygenase (BPH) genes - involved in the aerobic degradation of PCBs - using real

  4. Gene expression profiles in the cerebellum and hippocampus following exposure to a neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254: Developmental effects

    SciTech Connect

    Royland, Joyce E.; Wu, Jinfang; Zawia, Nasser H.; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.

    2008-09-01

    The developmental consequences of exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been widely studied, making PCBs a unique model to understand issues related to environmental mixture of persistent chemicals. PCB exposure in humans adversely affects neurocognitive development, causes psychomotor difficulties, and contributes to attention deficits in children, all of which seem to be associated with altered patterns of neuronal connectivity. In the present study, we examined gene expression profiles in the rat nervous system following PCB developmental exposure. Pregnant rats (Long-Evans) were dosed perinatally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of Aroclor 1254 from gestation day 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21. Gene expression in cerebellum and hippocampus from PND7 and PND14 animals was analyzed with an emphasis on developmental aspects. Changes in gene expression ({>=} 1.5 fold) in control animals identified normal developmental changes. These basal levels of expression were compared to data from Aroclor 1254-treated animals to determine the impact of gestational PCB exposure on developmental parameters. The results indicate that the expression of a number of developmental genes related to cell cycle, synaptic function, cell maintenance, and neurogenesis is significantly altered from PND7 to PND14. Aroclor 1254 treatment appears to dampen the overall growth-related gene expression levels in both regions with the effect being more pronounced in the cerebellum. Functional analysis suggests that Aroclor 1254 delays maturation of the developing nervous system, with the consequences dependent on the ontological state of the brain area and the functional role of the individual gene. Such changes may underlie learning and memory deficits observed in PCB exposed animals and humans.

  5. Accumulation of the polychlorinated biphenyl Aroclor 1242 from contaminated detritus and water by the saltmarsh detritivore, Uca pugnax

    SciTech Connect

    Marinucci, A.C.; Bartha, R.

    1982-09-01

    The uptake of Aroclor 1242 from ingested detritus and in contaminated water is compared in the fiddler crab. Analysis was by gas chromatography. Results show that uptake from water was about one-half that of the uptake from PCB-laden (85 ng/g dry wt) detritus after 34 days. Respiration and egestion rates may not be the only factors controlling accumulation and concentration. The concentration of PCBs in detritus may have a major effect. (JMT)

  6. Aroclor 1254 exposure reduces disease resistance and innate immune responses in fasted arctic charr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, A.G.; Jorgensen, E.H.; Vijayan, M.M.; Killie, J.-E.A.

    2005-01-01

    To examine the immunological impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an environmentally relevant way, we orally contaminated Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) with Aroclor 1254. After contamination, fish were either fed (0 and 100 mg Aroclor 1254 kg-1 fish wt) or fasted (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg kg-1) to mimic cycles of feeding-fasting experienced by Arctic animals. After four months, PCB concentrations in muscle were the same in fasted and fed fish; however, PCBs in kidneys of fed fish were 33 to 50% of those in fasted fish. Arctic charr were exposed to Aeromonas salmonicida, the bacteria responsible for furunculosis, by cohabitation with infected conspecifics. Fasted fish had a significant trend toward lower survival with higher dose of PCBs - from 68% in controls to 48% in treatment involving 100 mg kg-1. Independent of PCB contamination, fed fish had the lowest survival; we attribute this to stress associated with establishing and maintaining feeding hierarchies. A significant decrease in the activity of lysozyme was observed in skin mucus, as was hemagglutination ability of a putative rhamnose lectin in fasted, but not in fed, PCB-treated fish. These results demonstrate the immunosuppressive effects of PCBs on Arctic charr, and they illustrate the importance of considering environmentally relevant nutritional status in ecotoxicological studies.

  7. Evaluation of Aroclor 1260 exposure in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Wahlang, Banrida; Song, Ming; Beier, Juliane I.; Falkner, K. Cameron; Al-Eryani, Laila; Clair, Heather B.; Prough, Russell A.; Osborne, Tanasa S.; Malarkey, David E.; States, J. Christopher; Cave, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in epidemiologic studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatic effects of a PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260, whose composition mimics human bioaccumulation patterns, in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed control diet or 42% high fat diet (HFD) and exposed to Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg in corn oil) for 12 weeks. A glucose tolerance test was performed; plasma/tissues were obtained at necropsy for measurements of adipocytokine levels, histology, and gene expression. Aroclor 1260 exposure was associated with decreased body fat in HFD-fed mice but had no effect on blood glucose/lipid levels. Paradoxically, Aroclor 1260 + HFD co-exposed mice demonstrated increased hepatic inflammatory foci at both doses while the degree of steatosis did not change. Serum cytokines, ALT levels and hepatic expression of IL-6 and TNFα were increased only at 20 mg/kg, suggesting an inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production at the 200 mg/kg exposure. Aroclor 1260 induced hepatic expression of cytochrome P450s including Cyp3a11 (Pregnane-Xenobiotic Receptor target) and Cyp2b10 (constitutive androstane receptor target) but Cyp2b10 inducibility was diminished with HFD-feeding. Cyp1a2 (aryl hydrocarbon Receptor target) was induced only at 200 mg/kg. In summary, Aroclor 1260 worsened hepatic and systemic inflammation in DIO. The results indicated a bimodal response of PCB-diet interactions in the context of inflammation which could potentially be explained by xenobiotic receptor activation. Thus, PCB exposure may be a relevant “second hit” in the transformation of steatosis to steatohepatitis. PMID:24998970

  8. Effects of perinatal PCB exposure on discrimination-reversal learning in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Schantz, S L; Levin, E D; Bowman, R E; Heironimus, M P; Laughlin, N K

    1989-01-01

    Monkeys exposed to PCB mixtures during gestation and lactation were tested on two-choice discrimination-reversal learning (DR). In Experiment 1, offspring of mothers fed 1.0 ppm Aroclor 1248, and offspring born 1.5 years after maternal exposure to 2.5 ppm Aroclor 1248 ended did not differ from controls on spatial, color or shape DR problems. In Experiment 2, offspring of mothers fed 0.25 or 1.0 ppm Aroclor 1016 and offspring born 3 years after maternal exposure to 2.5 ppm Aroclor 1248 ended were tested on the same spatial, color and shape problems, but a spatial problem with color and shape as irrelevant cues was inserted after the initial spatial problem. Performance of the high dose Aroclor 1016 offspring was impaired on the initial spatial problem, and facilitated on the shape problem. Performance of the Aroclor 1248 postexposure offspring was facilitated on the shape problem. This apparently facilitatory effect may represent a failure of PCB-exposed monkeys to learn the irrelevancy of the shape cue when it was initially presented. PMID:2502707

  9. Subchronic Polychlorinated Biphenyl (Aroclor 1254) Exposure Produces Oxidative Damage and Neuronal Death of Ventral Midbrain Dopaminergic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Donna W.; Notter, Sarah A.; Thiruchelvam, Mona; Dever, Daniel P.; Fitzpatrick, Richard; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Opanashuk, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a link between organochlorine and pesticide exposure to an enhanced risk for neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). A common biological phenomenon underlying cell injury associated with both polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and dopaminergic neurodegeneration during aging is oxidative stress (OS). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that oral PCB exposure, via food ingestion, impairs dopamine systems in the adult murine brain. We determined whether PCB exposure was associated with OS in dopaminergic neurons, a population of cells that selectively degenerate in PD. After 4 weeks of oral exposure to the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254, several congeners, mostly ortho substituted, accumulated throughout the brain. Significant increases in locomotor activity were observed within 2 weeks, which persisted after cessation of PCB exposure. Stereologic analyses revealed a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. However, striatal dopamine levels were elevated, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms exist to maintain dopamine homeostasis, which could contribute to the observed increases in locomotor activity following PCB exposure. Biochemical experiments revealed alterations in OS markers, including increases in SOD and HO-1 levels and the presence of oxidatively modified lipids and proteins. These findings were accompanied by elevated iron levels within the striatal and midbrain regions, perhaps due to the observed dysregulation of transferrin receptors and ferritin levels following PCB exposure. In this study, we suggest that both OS and the uncoupling of iron regulation contribute to dopamine neuron degeneration and hyperactivity following PCB exposure. PMID:22094459

  10. Atmospheric PCB congeners across Chicago

    PubMed Central

    HU, DINGFEI; LEHMLER, HANS-JOACHIM; MARTINEZ, ANDRES; WANG, KAI; HORNBUCKLE, KERI C.

    2010-01-01

    We have measured PCBs in 184 air samples collected at 37 sites in the city of Chicago using an innovative system of high-volume air samplers mounted on two health clinic vans. Here we describe results of sampling conducted from November 2006 to November 2007. The samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using a gas chromatograph with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The ΣPCBs (sum of 169 peaks) in Chicago ranged from 75 pg m−3 to 5500 pg m−3 and primarily varied as a function of temperature. The congener patterns are surprisingly similar throughout the city even though the temperature-corrected concentrations vary by more than an order of magnitude. The average profile resembles a mixture of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254, and includes many congeners that have been identified as being aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (dioxin-like) and/or neurotoxins. The toxic equivalence (TEQ) and neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) in air were calculated and investigated for their spatial distribution throughout the urban-industrial complex of Chicago. The NEQ concentrations are linearly correlated with ΣPCBs while the TEQ concentrations are not predictable. The findings of this study suggest that airborne PCBs in Chicago are widely present and elevated in residential communities; there are multiple sources rather than one or a few locations of very high emissions; the emission includes congeners associated with dioxin-like and neurotoxic effects and congeners associated with unidentified sources. PMID:21918637

  11. PCB metabolism by ectomycorrhizal fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, P.K.; Fletcher, J.S.

    1995-04-01

    Since 1976 the use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been banned in the U.S. Prior to this, commercial mixtures (Aroclors) had been used extensively as an industrial lubricant because of their nonflammable, nonreactive properties. These same properties are responsible for their persistent in the environment where they bind to soil particles and resist biodegradation. Decontamination of PCB-laden soil is expensive with excavation followed by either storage or incineration as the primary means of remediation. The use of microorganisms for PCB bioremediation has been gaining popularity in the past few years. Bacteria and/or fungi isolated from environmental samples have been used to degrade PCBs under laboratory conditions, but in field trials they have not been as effective. The most common explanation for the poor performance of PCB-degrading organisms introduced at contaminated sites is that they do not compete well with the existing populations. Plant-ectomycorrhizal systems may overcome this problem. Introduction and cultivation of a known host plant at a contaminated site has the potential of providing a survival advantage for ectomycorrhizal fungi that normally colonize the roots of the introduced plant. Ectomycorrhizal fungi exist naturally in the soil and normally grow in association with the roots of a host plant in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship. Preliminary in vitro examination of this group of fungi for their ability to enzymatically degrade xenobiotics is very promising. In vivo studies have shown that some of these fungi have the ability to degrade chlorinated, aromatic compounds, such as 2,4-D and atrazine. The aspect of ectomycorrhizal metabolism was investigated further in the current study by determining the ability of 21 different fungi to metabolize 19 different PCB congeners with varying chlorine content and substitution patterns. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  12. EVALUATION OF THE IMMUNOTOXICITY OF LOW LEVEL PCB EXPOSURE IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Weanling male Fischer 344 rats were exposed daily by gastric intubation for up to 15 weeks to the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1254 at 0.1, 1, 10, or 25 mg/kg body weight. t 5, 10 and 15 weeks groups of Tats were killed and immune functions were evaluated. he immune par...

  13. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 28, PCB'S (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS) IN OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the experimental design and the results of the validation study for two analytical methods to detect polychlorinated byphenyls in oil. The methods analyzed for four PCB Aroclors (1016, 1242, 1254, and 1260), 2-chlorobiphenyl, and decachlorobiphenyl. The firs...

  14. Development and validation of protocols to differentiate PCB patterns between farmed and wild salmon.

    PubMed

    Yunker, Mark B; Ikonomou, Michael G; Sather, Paula J; Friesen, Erin N; Higgs, Dave A; Dubetz, Cory

    2011-03-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns based on full congener PCB analyses of three farmed and five wild species of salmon from coastal British Columbia, Canada are compared using principal components analysis (PCA) and the best fit linear decomposition of the observed PCB composition in terms of Aroclor 1242, 1254, and 1260 end-members. The two complementary analysis methods are used to investigate congener composition pattern differences between species, trophic levels, feeding preferences, and farmed or wild feeding regimes, with the intent of better understanding PCB processes in both salmon and salmon consumers. PCA supports classification of PCB congeners into nine groups based on a) structure activity groups (SAG) related to the bioaccumulation potential in fish-eating mammals, b) Cl number, and c) the numbers of vicinal meta- and para-H. All three factors are needed to interpret congener distributions since SAGs by themselves do not fully explain PCB distributions. Farmed salmon exhibit very similar congener patterns that overlap the PCA and Aroclor composition of their food, while wild salmon separate into two distinct groups, with chinook and "coastal" coho having higher proportions of the higher chlorinated, Aroclor 1260 type, nonmetabolizable congeners, and chum, pink, sockeye, and "remote" coho having higher proportions of the lower chlorinated, more volatile and metabolizable Aroclor 1242 type, congeners. Wild chinook have the highest PCB and toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations, and the highest proportions of A1254 A1260, and PCB congeners in the most refractory SAG. Because both "coastal" and "remote" coho groups are likely to be consuming prey of similar size and trophic level, the PCB delivery mechanism (e.g., atmosphere vs runoff) apparently has more influence on the salmon PCB profile than biotransformation, suggesting that the wild chinook PCB profile is determined by feeding preference. Overall, wild salmon distributions primarily

  15. PCB's in fish from selected waters of New York State.

    PubMed

    Spagnoli, J J; Skinner, L C

    1977-09-01

    PCB residues in fish from 41 stations throughout New York State were monitored in 1975. Nearly all fish contained PCB's in detectable amounts although the levels of contamination and specific Aroclor varied. The Hudson River contained the highest known PCB concentrations within the United States; levels often exceeded 100 ppm. Other waters and fish which were significantly contaminated include Lake Ontario salmonids and Cayuga Lake lake trout. Onondaga Lake, previously closed to fishing because of mercury contamination, also appears to have abnormally high levels of PCB's approaching in some instances the action level of the Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Samples from marine waters generally have contaminant levels substantially below 5.0 ppm. PMID:414199

  16. Report on the technical review workshop on the reference dose for Aroclor 1016. Held in Washington, DC on May 24-25, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    The report includes information and material from a technical review workshop organized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Risk Assessment Forum for EPA`s Reference Dose/Reference Concentration (RfD/RfC) Work Group. The meeting was held in Washington, DC, at the Barcelo Washington Hotel on May 24-25, 1994. The subject of the technical review was the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) RfD entry for Aroclor 1016, a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). The expert technical review panel was convened to independently evaluate whether the RfD for Aroclor 1016 is based on a scientifically responsible analysis that represents full consideration of the available data and clean articulation of that analysis in the IRIS RfD entry. EPA also requested panel members to consider four broad options for the Aroclor 1016 RfD as potential recommendations to the RfD/RfC Work Group.

  17. Phylogenetically Distinct Bacteria Involve Extensive Dechlorination of Aroclor 1260 in Sediment-Free Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanquan; He, Jianzhong

    2013-01-01

    Microbial reductive dechlorination of the persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is attracting much attention in cleanup of the contaminated environment. Nevertheless, most PCB dechlorinating cultures require presence of sediment or sediment substitutes to maintain their dechlorination activities which hinders subsequent bacterial enrichment and isolation processes. The information on enriching sediment-free PCB dechlorinating cultures is still limited. In this study, 18 microcosms established with soils and sediments were screened for their dechlorination activities on a PCB mixture – Aroclor 1260. After one year of incubation, 10 out of 18 microcosms showed significant PCB dechlorination with distinct dechlorination patterns (e.g., Process H, N and T classified based on profiles of PCB congeners loss and new congeners formation). Through serial transfers in defined medium, six sediment-free PCB dechlorinating cultures (i.e., CW-4, CG-1, CG-3, CG-4, CG-5 and SG-1) were obtained without amending any sediment or sediment-substitutes. PCB dechlorination Process H was the most frequently observed dechlorination pattern, which was found in four sediment-free cultures (CW-4, CG-3, CG-4 and SG-1). Sediment-free culture CG-5 showed the most extensive PCB dechlorination among the six cultures, which was mediated by Process N, resulting in the accumulation of penta- (e.g., 236-24-CB) and tetra-chlorobiphenyls (tetra-CBs) (e.g., 24-24-CB, 24-25-CB, 24-26-CB and 25-26-CB) via dechlorinating 30.44% hepta-CBs and 59.12% hexa-CBs after three months of incubation. For culture CG-1, dechlorinators mainly attacked double flanked meta-chlorines and partially ortho-chlorines, which might represent a novel dechlorination pattern. Phylogenetic analysis showed distinct affiliation of PCB dechlorinators in the microcosms, including Dehalogenimonas and Dehalococcoides species. This study broadens our knowledge in microbial reductive dechlorination of PCBs, and provides essential

  18. Effects of aqueous exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254) on physiology and behavior of smolt development of Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lerner, D.T.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a widespread aquatic contaminant and are present in both wild and hatchery raised Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. The possible sub-lethal alterations in smolt physiology and behavior due to PCB exposure of salmon have not been widely examined. In this study, we examined the effects of the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 on survival and smolt development of Atlantic salmon. In separate experiments, fish were exposed as yolk-sac larvae or as juveniles just prior to the parr-smolt transformation in April to 1 ??g l-1 (PCB-1) or 10 ??g l-1 (PCB-10) aqueous Aroclor 1254 (A1254), or vehicle for 21 days. After exposure, yolk-sac larvae were reared at ambient conditions for 1 year, until the peak of smolting the following May. Juveniles were sampled immediately after exposure. Both groups were assessed for behavioral, osmoregulatory, and endocrine disruption of smolt development at the peak of smolting. PCB-1 and PCB-10 treated yolk-sac larvae exhibited significant increases in the rate of opercular movement after 14 and 21 days of exposure. At the peak of smolting, prior exposure as yolk-sac larvae to PCB-1 did not affect behavior, while PCB-10 dramatically decreased volitional preference for seawater. Neither concentration of A1254 had long-term effects on the osmoregulatory or endocrine parameters measured in animals exposed as yolk-sac larvae. Juvenile fish exposed to PCB-1 or PCB-10 during smolting exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in preference for seawater. Fish treated with the higher dose of A1254 also exhibited a 50% decrease in gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and a 10% decrease in plasma chloride levels in freshwater. In addition, plasma triiodothyronine was reduced 35-50% and plasma cortisol 58% in response to exposure to either concentration; whereas plasma thyroxine, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor I levels were unaffected. These results indicate that the effects of exposure to A1254 may vary according to

  19. Mucinous gastric hyperplasia in a colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) induced by polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254)

    SciTech Connect

    Geistfeld, J.G.; Bond, M.G.; Bullock, B.C.; Varian, M.C.

    1982-02-01

    Since 1971, 45 of 259 male rhesus monkeys housed in a primate building have died of a chronic and progressive disease characterized by diarrhea, dehydration, weakness, gingivitis, emaciation, and alopecia. The principal necropsy finding in these monkeys, and in eight others killed for experimental purposes, was hypertrophic and hyperplastic mucinous gastropathy involving both the mucosa and submucosa. The toxic agent involved was identified as the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), Aroclor 1254. The suspected source of the toxic agent was a concrete sealer used during building construction.

  20. Anaerobic dechlorination of polychlorobiphenyls (Aroclor 1242) by pasteurized and ethanol-treated microorganisms from sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Dingyi Ye; Quensen, J.F. III; Tiedje, J.M.; Boyd, S.A. )

    1992-04-01

    A polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-dechlorinating inoculum eluted from upper Hudson River sediments was treated with either heat or ethanol or both. The treated cultures retained the ability to dechlorinate PCBs (Aroclor 1242) under strictly anaerobic conditions. The dechlorination activity was maintained in serial cultures inoculated with transfers of 1% inoculum when the transferred inoculum was treated each time in the same manner. No methane production was detected in any treated culture, although dechlorination of PCBs in the untreated cultures was always accompanied by methane production. All treated cultures preferentially removed meta chlorines, yielding a dechlorination pattern characterized by accumulation of certain ortho- and para-substituted congeners such as 2-4-chlorobiphenyl (2-4-CB), 2,4-2-CB, and 2,4-4-CB. In contrast, the untreated cultures showed more extensive dechlorination activities, which almost completely removed both meta and para chlorines from Aroclor 1242. These results suggest that microorganisms responsible for the dechlorination of PCBs in the upper Hudson River sediments can be grouped into two populations according to their responses to the heat and ethanol treatments. Microorganisms surviving the heat and ethanol treatments preferentially remove meta chlorines, while microorganisms lost from the enrichment mainly contribute to the para dechlorination activity. These results indicate that anaerobic sporeformers are at least one of the physiological groups responsible for the reductive dechlorination of PCBs.

  1. Developmental Exposure to Aroclor 1254 Alters Migratory Behavior in Juvenile European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Flahr, Leanne M; Michel, Nicole L; Zahara, Alexander R D; Jones, Paul D; Morrissey, Christy A

    2015-05-19

    Birds exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals during development could be susceptible to neurological and other physiological changes affecting migratory behaviors. We investigated the effects of ecologically relevant levels of Aroclor 1254, a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, on moult, fattening, migratory activity, and orientation in juvenile European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Birds were orally administered 0 (control), 0.35 (low), 0.70 (intermediate), or 1.05 (high) μg Aroclor 1254/g-body weight by gavage from 1 through 18 days posthatch and later exposed in captivity to a photoperiod shift simulating an autumn migration. Migratory activity and orientation were examined using Emlen funnel trials. Across treatments, we found significant increases in mass, fat, and moulting and decreasing plasma thyroid hormones over time. We observed a significant increase in activity as photoperiod was shifted from 13L:11D (light:dark) to 12L:12D, demonstrating that migratory condition was induced in captivity. At 12L:12D, control birds oriented to 155.95° (South-Southeast), while high-dosed birds did not. High-dosed birds showed a delayed orientation to 197.48° (South-Southwest) under 10L:14D, concomitant with apparent delays in moult. These findings demonstrate how subtle contaminant-induced alterations during development could lead to longer-scale effects, including changes in migratory activity and orientation, which could potentially result in deleterious effects on fitness and survival. PMID:25893686

  2. Aroclor 1254 inhibits the chemiluminescence response of peritoneal cavity cells from sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo).

    PubMed

    Vazzana, Mirella; Reas, Gabriele; Cammarata, Matteo; Arizza, Vincenzo; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Parrinello, Nicolò

    2014-08-01

    Chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) affect the immune system of fish and could lead to a decreased disease resistance. The effects of Aroclor 1254, PCB mixtures, on the Diplodus puntazzo innate immunity were examined by assaying the zymosan stimulated chemiluminescence response (CL) of peritoneal cavity cells (PCCs) at various times (1, 24, 48 h and 1-4 weeks) from intraperitoneal injection of the xenobiotic (1 mg kg(-1) body weight). Controls were performed by assaying cells from medium-treated fish. Since the kinetic of the chemiluminescence response showed the highest peak at 25 min after the zymosan stimulation of the cells, the values found at that time were considered. The CL enhancement observed at 1 h after the treatment with xenobiotic was followed by a decreased response at 24 h and appeared to be lower at 1-4 weeks when compared to the CL response of the control, suggesting a protracted effect of PCBs on the peritoneal cavity. Since PCCs incubated in vitro for 1 h with 0.05 and 0.1 μg ml(-1) Aroclor showed an enhanced CL, the effect of the xenobiotic could be exerted on the cell responsiveness to zymosan. It is known that fish CL response of PCCs can be imputed to phagocyte (macrophages and neutrophils) activation, these cells and their responsiveness to zymosan can be used in immunotoxicology assay to monitor the fish health in polluted environment. PMID:24945575

  3. Neurobehavioral and somatic effects of perinatal PCB exposure in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Overmann, S.R.; Kostas, J.; Wilson, L.R.; Shain, W.; Bush, B.

    1987-10-01

    Developing rats were exposed to TCBs via provision of diets containing 0.02 (no PCB added), 2.4, 26, or 269 ppm Aroclor 1254 to sperm-positive female rats from mating to weaning of their pups. Provision of the 269 ppm diet decreased the number of impregnated rats that delivered a litter and lowered pup birth weight, and most pups died within 7 days of birth. Preweaning pup growth was reduced in the 26 ppm condition and slightly reduced in the 2.5 ppm condition. The ontogeny of negative geotaxis, auditory startle, and air righting was delayed in pups from the 26 ppm condition. Pups in the 2.5 ppm condition had slightly delayed development of auditory startle. Maximal electroshock seizure tests on postweaning rats showed that perinatal PCB exposure decreased seizure severity of both the 2.5 and 26 ppm groups. PCB exposure increased pup liver weights at birth and dam and pup liver weights at weaning. Spleen and thymus weights were lower in PCB-exposed pups, while brain weights were unaffected. Analytical determination of PCB levels in brain showed greater maternal transfer of PCBs during lactation than during gestation. Elevated PCB levels were detectable in brains of perinatally exposed adult rats.

  4. Temporal and spatial trends in total PCB and PCB congeners in biota in a river-reservoir system

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, R.J.; McNair, J.N.; Hermanson, M.H.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1984, biennial studies of PCBs have been conducted in fishes, crayfish and insects in the Housatonic River, CT., and additional data are available from earlier studies. PCB data quantitated from presumptive Aroclor concentrations overestimated total PCB concentrations ([TPCB]) by about 13%, although the estimates by the 2 methods were very highly correlated. Ages of all fish specimens were determined. Spatial and temporal trends in [TPCB] were analyzed using ANCOVA to adjust for relationships between [TPCB] and age, lipid content, location and sex. Adjusted [TPCB] consistently decreased in the downstream direction. [TPCB] decreased within the years after cessation of direct inputs (around 1978). However, in the 1984--1992 period [TPCB] trends were weak and variable. Concentrations in 1994 were lower than previous years (statistical comparisons showing 1994 to be the lowest year or among a group of years with the lowest concentrations). Between year differences were probably related to temperature, storm flows and other factors affecting availability and accumulation. These variations were greater in riverine sites than in reservoirs. In brown trout, [TPCB] increased rapidly within 1--2 months after stocking. Over longer periods, [TPCB] were more closely related to seasonal cycles in lipid content rather than to time in river. Increases in [TPCB] with age were most evident for long-lived species in reservoirs. Several congeners which are abundant in Aroclors 1254 and 1260 predominated the samples. However, spatial and temporal differences in accumulation of different congeners were evident. Spatial differences in the concentration of some marker congeners reflected enrichment of these congeners from original Aroclor 1254 and 1260 sources, as well as supplemental inputs of Aroclor 1242.

  5. Fasting augments PCB impact on liver metabolism in anadromous arctic char

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vijayan, M.M.; Aluru, N.; Maule, A.G.; Jorgensen, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    Anadromous arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) undertake short feeding migrations to seawater every summer and accumulate lipids, while the rest of the year is spent in fresh water where the accumulated lipid reserves are mobilized. We tested the hypothesis that winter fasting and the associated polychlorinated biphenyls' (PCBs) redistribution from lipid depots to critical tissues impair the liver metabolic capacity in these animals. Char were administered Aroclor 1254 (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg/ kg body mass) orally and maintained for 4 months without feeding to mimic seasonal winter fasting, while fed groups (0 and 100 mg Aroclor 1254/kg) were maintained for comparison. A clear dose-related increase in PCB accumulation and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein content was observed in the livers of fasted fish. This PCB concentration and CYP1A response with the high dose of Aroclor were 1.5-fold and 3-fold greater in the fasted than in the fed fish, respectively. In fed fish, PCB exposure lowered liver glycogen content, whereas none of the other metabolic indicators were significantly affected. In fasted fish, PCB exposure depressed liver glycogen content and activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and elevated 3-hydroxyacylcoA dehydrogenase activity and glucocorticoid receptor protein expression. There were no significant impacts of PCB on heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and hsp90 contents in either fed or fasted fish. Collectively, our study demonstrates that winter emaciation associated with the anadromous lifestyle predisposes arctic char to PCB impact on hepatic metabolism including disruption of the adaptive metabolic responses to extended fasting. ?? 2006 Oxford University Press.

  6. Diadenosine tetraphosphate (AP{sub 4}A) levels in muscle tissue as a potential biomarker of PCB and TCDD exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Nordone, A.; Grant, T.; Saranko, C.; Pivorun, E.

    1995-12-31

    During the past two decades a group of purine nucleotides, the diadenosine polyphosphates, have gained increasing attention. One of these compounds, diadenosine tetraphosphate (AP{sub 4}A), has been demonstrated to modulate a variety of cellular events, including intracellular signaling during adaptive responses to cellular stress. The authors have recently demonstrated that changes in AP{sub 4}A levels in venous and arterial blood are related to periods of major trauma during corrective spinal surgery. Using Deermice (Peromyscus maniculatus) they investigated whether changes in the concentration of AP{sub 4}A in muscle tissue could be used as a biomarker of chemically induced stress. Using intraperitoneal administration, animals were exposed to either a mixture of PCB congeners (Aroclor 1254), a coplanar PCB (PCB 169), a noncoplanar PCB (PCB 153) or TCDD for a period of 11 days. The coplanar PCB and TCDD decreased AP{sub 4}A concentrations in dose-dependent manner, whereas the noncoplanar PCB increased concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Aroclor 1254 reduced AP{sub 4}A concentration to a similar level at all doses. These results indicate that PCBs and TCDD modulate AP{sub 4}A concentrations in muscle tissue in a manner that is both dose and structure dependent. It is possible that AP{sub 4}A could be used as a marker of the level of exposure to PCBs and dioxin and as an indicator of the congeners involved.

  7. Aroclor 1248 exposure leads to immunomodulation, decreased disease resistance and endocrine disruption in the brown bullhead, Ameiurus nebulosus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.; McCormick, S.D.; Van Veld, P.A.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus is a species of the family Ictaluridae commonly used as a sentinel of environmental contamination. While these fish have been utilized for this purpose in areas contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), few controlled, laboratory-based studies have been designed to document the effects of PCB mixtures in this species. Here, brown bullhead were exposed to the PCB mixture, Aroclor 1248, via intraperitoneal injection and the effects on immune function, plasma hormones and disease resistance were evaluated. Exposure to this mixture led to a decrease in bactericidal activity and circulating antibodies to Edwardsiella ictaluri present from a previous exposure to this pathogen. A subsequent E. ictaluri disease challenge led to significantly higher mortality in A1248 treated fish compared to vehicle-control fish. The mitogenic response to the T-cell mitogen, phytohemaglutinin-P, was increased compared to vehicle-control fish. The steroid hormone, cortisol, and the thyroid hormone, T3, were also significantly lower in A1248 exposed fish. In summary, we have validated a number of functional immune assays for application in brown bullhead immunotoxicity studies. Additionally, we have demonstrated that the PCB mixture (A1248) modulates both immune function and endocrine physiology in brown bullhead. Such data may compliment the interpretation of data yielded from applied field studies conducted in PCB contaminated aquatic ecosystems.

  8. Lipoic acid attenuates Aroclor 1260-induced hepatotoxicity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Aly, Hamdy A A; Mansour, Ahmed M; Hassan, Memy H; Abd-Ellah, Mohamed F

    2016-08-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the mechanistic aspect of Aroclor 1260-induced hepatotoxicity and its protection by lipoic acid. The adult male Albino rats were divided into six groups. Group I served as control. Group II received lipoic acid (35 mg/kg/day). Aroclor 1260 was given to rats by oral gavage at doses 20, 40, or 60 mg/kg/day (Groups III, IV, and V, respectively). Group VI was pretreated with lipoic acid (35 mg/kg/day) 24 h before Aroclor 1260 (40 mg/kg/day). Treatment in all groups was continued for further 15 consecutive days. Serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities and total bilirubin, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were significantly increased while total protein, total albumin, and high-density lipoprotein were significantly decreased. Hydrogen peroxide production and lipid peroxidation were significantly increased while superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) content was significantly decreased in liver. Caspase-3 & -9 activities were significantly increased in liver. Lipoic acid pretreatment significantly reverted all these abnormalities toward their normal levels. In conclusion, Aroclor 1260 induced liver dysfunction, at least in part, by induction of oxidative stress. Apoptotic effect of hepatic cells is involved in Aroclor 1260-induced liver injury. Lipoic acid could protect rats against Aroclor 1260-induced hepatotoxicity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 913-922, 2016. PMID:25533183

  9. The PCB mark

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements outlined at 40 CFR 761.40 through 761.45 specify marking requirements for most PCB items (i.e., any PCB Article, PCB Container, PCB Article Container, or PCB Equipment that contains PCBs). Most PCB items require PCB marks, which are defined as a descriptive name, instructions, cautions, or other information applied to PCB Items or other objects subject to these regulations. The marking regulations include requirements for PCB marks on PCB Items, storage areas, and temporary storage areas. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning marking requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  10. The Three-Species Consortium of Genetically Improved Strains Cupriavidus necator RW112, Burkholderia xenovorans RW118, and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes RW120 Grows with Technical Polychlorobiphenyl, Aroclor 1242

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Sánchez, Verónica; Lang, Elke; Wittich, Regina-Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia xenovorans LB400, Cupriavidus necator H850, and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 are bacterial strains able to mineralize biphenyl and to co-oxidize many of its halogenated derivatives (PCBs). Only strain LB400 also mineralizes a few mono- and dichlorobiphenyls, due to the presence of a functioning chlorocatechol pathway. Here, we used a Tn5-based minitransposon shuttle system to chromosomically introduce genes tcbRCDEF, encoding the chlorocatechol pathway into KF707, and genes cbdABC encoding a 2-chlorobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase into KF707 and LB400, as well as transposon Tn4653 from the TOL plasmid, providing genes xylXYZL, encoding a broad-range toluate (methylbenzoate) dioxygenase and its dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, to extend the range for the mineralization of halogenated benzoates in LB400 and in KF707 through co-oxidation of halobenzoates into chlorocatechols. The engineered derivatives of LB400 and KF707 thus gained the ability for the mineralization of all isomeric monochloro- and bromobenzoates of the so-called lower pathway which, consequently, also allowed the mineralization of all monochlorobiphenyls and a number of di- and trichlorobiphenyls, thus preventing the accumulation of halobenzoates and of catabolites thereof. LB400 and KF707 also grow with the two commercial PCB formulations, Aroclor 1221 and Aroclor 1232, as the sole carbon and energy sources, but not with higher halogenated PCB mixtures, similar to the already published strain RW112. Repeated exposition of the modified LB400 to short pulses of UV light, over a prolonged period of time, allowed the isolation of a derivative of LB400, termed RW118, capable of growth with Aroclor 1016 still containing only traces of biphenyl, and in co-culture with modified KF707 termed RW120, and modified H850 (RW112) with Aroclor 1242, the commercial mixture already void of biphenyl and monochlorobiphenyls. PMID:23658554

  11. A Method to Simultaneously Improve PCB Radiolysis Rates in Oil and to Close the Chlorine Mass Balance

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, Bruce Jay; Curry, R. C.; Brey, R.

    2000-06-01

    The addition of alkaline 2-propanol to isooctane and transformer oil solutions of PCBs was found to increase the rate of PCB dechlorination by -radiolysis. Simultaneously, it facilitates the closure of the chlorine mass balance. The chlorine liberated from PCBs irradiated in alkaline 2-propanol-spiked solutions precipitated as an inorganic salt in a stoichiometric amount. This was demonstrated for an individual PCB congener (PCB 155) in isooctane and for Aroclor 1260 in transformer oil. Radiolysis rates are reported in terms of dose constants, d (kGy-1), the exponential rate constant for PCB decomposition with respect to absorbed dose. These are the highest decomposition rates yet reported for the radiolytic treatment of PCB-contaminated transformer oil.

  12. PCB disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis involves brain glucocorticoid receptor downregulation in anadromous Arctic charr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aluru, N.; Jorgensen, E.H.; Maule, A.G.; Vijayan, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    We examined whether brain glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulation by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was involved in the abnormal cortisol response to stress seen in anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Fish treated with Aroclor 1254 (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body mass) were maintained for 5 mo without feeding in the winter to mimic their seasonal fasting cycle, whereas a fed group with 0 and 100 mg/kg Aroclor was maintained for comparison. Fasting elevated plasma cortisol levels and brain GR content but depressed heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) and interrenal cortisol production capacity. Exposure of fasted fish to Aroclor 1254 resulted in a dose-dependent increase in brain total PCB content. This accumulation in fish with high PCB dose was threefold higher in fasted fish compared with fed fish. PCBs depressed plasma cortisol levels but did not affect in vitro interrenal cortisol production capacity in fasted charr. At high PCB dose, the brain GR content was significantly lower in the fasted fish and this corresponded with a lower brain hsp70 and hsp90 content. The elevation of plasma cortisol levels and upregulation of brain GR content may be an important adaptation to extended fasting in anadromous Arctic charr, and this response was disrupted by PCBs. Taken together, the hypothalamus-pituitary- interrenal axis is a target for PCB impact during winter emaciation in anadromous Arctic charr.

  13. Proteomic Strategy for the Analysis of the Polychlorobiphenyl-Degrading Cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1 Exposed to Aroclor 1254

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hangjun; Jiang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Wenfeng; Lu, Liping

    2014-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1, which was originally isolated from polychlorobiphenyl (PCB)-contaminated paddy soils, has capabilities for dechlorinatin and for degrading the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1254. In this study, 25 upregulated proteins were identified using 2D electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). These proteins were involved in (i) PCB degradation (i.e., 3-chlorobenzoate-3,4-dioxygenase); (ii) transport processes [e.g., ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter substrate-binding protein, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, peptide ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, putrescine-binding protein, periplasmic solute-binding protein, branched-chain amino acid uptake periplasmic solute-binding protein, periplasmic phosphate-binding protein, phosphonate ABC transporter substrate-binding protein, and xylose ABC transporter substrate-binding protein]; (iii) energetic metabolism (e.g., methanol/ethanol family pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent dehydrogenase, malate-CoA ligase subunit beta, enolase, ATP synthase β subunit, FOF1 ATP synthase subunit beta, ATP synthase α subunit, and IMP cyclohydrolase); (iv) electron transport (cytochrome b6f complex Fe-S protein); (v) general stress response (e.g., molecular chaperone DnaK, elongation factor G, and translation elongation factor thermostable); (vi) carbon metabolism (methanol dehydrogenase and malate-CoA ligase subunit beta); and (vii) nitrogen reductase (nitrous oxide reductase). The results of real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the genes encoding for dioxygenase, ABC transporters, transmembrane proteins, electron transporter, and energetic metabolism proteins were significantly upregulated during PCB degradation. These genes upregulated by 1.26- to 8.98-fold. These findings reveal the resistance and adaptation of cyanobacterium to the presence of PCBs, shedding light on the

  14. Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Prouty, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppm DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppm Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their contols, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats. DDE and PCB increased in brains of starving bats as carcass fat was metabolized. Because the tremors and/or convulsions characteristic of neurotoxicity were not observed, we think even the maximum brain levels attained (132 ppm DDE, 20 ppm PCB) were sublethal. However, extrapolation of our DDE data predicted lethal brain levels when fat reserves declined sufficiently. PCB-dosed bats were probably in no danger of neurotoxic poisoning. However, PCB can kill by a nonneurotoxic mode, and this could explain the deaths of two bats on PCB dosage.

  15. Evidence for unique and ubiquitous environmental sources of 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11).

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Lisa A; Guo, Jia; Du, Songyan; Cavallo, Gregory J

    2010-04-15

    The non-Aroclor congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11) has been recently detected in air, water, biota, sediment, and suspended sediment. Although it has been known since at least the 1970s that this congener is produced inadvertently during the production of diarylide yellow pigments, this work presents the first evidence that the use of these pigments in consumer goods results in the dispersion of PCB 11 throughout the environment at levels that are problematic in terms of achieving water quality standards for the sum of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this work, PCB 11 is measured at ppb levels in consumer goods that are likely to be discarded in ways that allow them to enter wastewater treatment plants and combined sewer overflows, including newspapers, magazines, cardboard boxes used for food packaging, and plastic bags. Also, using data sets acquired for the purpose of calculating total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) for PCBs, PCB 11 loads to the New York/New Jersey Harbor and Delaware River are calculated. Despite the fact that there are no known manufacturers of diarylide yellow pigments in the Delaware River watershed, the loads of PCB 11 to the Delaware River exceed the TMDL for the sum of PCBs by nearly a factor of 2. The ratio of PCB 11 to a characteristic dechlorination end product, PCB 4 (2,2'-dichlorobiphenyl), in these data sets indicates that dechlorination is not a significant source of PCB 11 in these systems. In the upper Hudson River, where extensive dechlorination of heavy PCB congeners occurs, the ratio is just 0.012. In contrast, downstream in the NY/NJ Harbor as well as in the Delaware River the ratio is much higher and more variable. Pigment use therefore appears to be the main source of PCB 11 in these systems, and this congener is likely to present a significant obstacle to achieving PCB water quality standards throughout the United States. PMID:20384375

  16. Clapper rails as indicators of mercury and PCB bioavailability in a Georgia saltmarsh system.

    PubMed

    Cumbee, J C; Gaines, K F; Mills, G L; Garvin, N; Stephens, W L; Novak, J M; Brisbin, I L

    2008-08-01

    Clapper rails (Rallus longirostris) were used as an indicator species of estuarine marsh habitat quality because of their strong site fidelity and predictable diet consisting of mostly benthic organisms. Mercury (Hg) and the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1268 concentrations were determined for sediments, crabs, as well as clapper rail adults and chicks collected from salt marshes associated with the LCP Superfund site in Brunswick, Georgia. Home ranges were established for adult rails, and sediment and crab samples were taken from each individual's range. The study was designed to minimize the spatial variability associated with trophic transfer studies by choosing an endpoint species with a potentially small home range and specifically sampling its foraging range. The mean home range for clapper rails was 1.2 ha with a median of 0.28 ha. Concentrations of Hg and Aroclor 1268 were shown to increase with each trophic level. Transfer factors between media followed the same pattern for both contaminants with the highest between fiddler crabs and clapper rail liver. Hg and PCB transfer factors were similar between sediment to fiddler crab and fiddler crab to muscle, however the PCB transfer factor from fiddler crabs to liver was over twice as large as for Hg. PCB congener profiles did not significantly differ between media types. PMID:18389370

  17. Comparison of rat liver S-9 activity induced with aroclor-1254 and phenobarbital/{beta}-naphthoflavone in microbial and CHO/HGPRT mutation assays

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.; Pant, K.

    1995-11-01

    There is an intense interest in alternatives to Aroclor-1254 (PCB) for induction of S-9. Manufacturers no longer produce PCB, and are selling PCB, in stock, with a 30% increase in price. One substitute, a combination of phenobarbital (PB) and {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}-NF), has been suggested to be a suitable replacement for PCB. In order to compare the activity of PB/{beta}-NF-induced S-9 with PCB-induced S-9, the two kinds of S-9 were prepared and tested in both Microbial and CHO/HGPRT Mutation Assays. One group of CD rats was treated with PB at 75 mg/kg by I.P. injection for 4 consecutive days and a single dose of {beta}-NF at 80 mg/kg 2 days prior to sacrifice. A second group of CD rats was treated with a single dose of Aroclor-1254 at 500 mg/kg on Day 1 by I.P. injection. All animals were sacrificed on Day 5. A Plate Incorporation Mutation Assay was performed with five Salmonella typhimurium tester strains and one Escherichia coli tester strain. A single dose of 2-Amino-anthracene (2-AA) at 1.25 {mu}g/plate for the five Salmonella typhimurium tester strains and 10 {mu}g/plate for the WP2uvrA tester stain was used as a positive control. DMSO at 0.1 mL/plate was used as a solvent control. In the CHO/HGPRT Gene Mutation Assay, 7, 12-Dimethylbenz ({alpha})anthra-cene (DMBA) was used at 5.0 {mu}g/mL as a positive control. Acetone at 10 {mu}L/mL was used as a solvent control. The results from the Microbial Assay showed that the increase in mean reversion frequency of 2-AA over that of the corresponding solvent control with the PB/{beta}-NF-induced S-9 was greater than the increase from the PCB-induced S-9 for all of the six tester strains. In the CHO/HGPRT Mutation Assay, the results showed that DMBA gave a similar positive response for both the PCB- and PB/{beta}-NF-induced S-9s. The data obtained from these comparative studies supports the suggestion of the authors listed above that PB/{beta}-NF is a suitable substitute for PCB for induction of S-9.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) alters acid-sensitivity of cultured neurons derived from the medulla oblongata.

    PubMed

    Okada, Junichi; Shimokawa, Noriaki; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2005-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known as environmental pollutants that may cause adverse health problems. However, little is known about the effects of PCBs on acid-sensitive neurons of the medulla oblongata, which regulate respiration. Therefore, the present study was designed to examine whether PCB alters acid-sensitivity of cultured neurons derived from the rat medulla oblongata. When extracellular pH was shifted from 7.4 to 7.0, acid-sensitive neurons showed depolarization, which was measured by voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye. Exposure to PCB (Aroclor 1254) decreased the amplitude of depolarization in low pH and increased the resting membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our results indicate that PCB potentially influences acid-sensitivity through alteration of the membrane potential of acid-sensitive neurons, which could affect the regulation of respiration. PMID:15833269

  19. Detailed PCB congener characterization of influent and effluent at New York and New Jersey WPCPs

    SciTech Connect

    Durell, G.S.; Lizotte, R.D. Jr.; Solomon, M.H.; Green, J.W.; Spadone, J.; Pires, L.

    1995-12-31

    The waste streams at 26 New York City and New Jersey water pollution control plants (WPCP) were characterized for PCB. Time-integrated influent and effluent samples were collected during normal and high (storm) flow conditions; high flow influent simulated what may by-pass the plant and be discharged through combined sewer overflows. State-of-the-art congener-specific analytical methods were used to achieve detection limits from 0.05 to 0.3 ng/L. Concentrations of 71 individual PCB congeners that constitute approximately 95% of the total PCB in Aroclors and environmental samples were determined. The PCB concentrations and congener distributions varied notably among plants. Individual congener concentrations were typically well below 1 ng/L in the effluent, with a few congeners being detected at 5 to 10 ng/L levels in some samples. The concentrations were under 1 ng/L in most influent samples, with occasional determinations above 10 ng/L. The average total PCB concentration, defined as the sum of the 71 individual congener concentrations, at the 26 WPCPs were 27, 110, and 160 ng/L for normal flow effluent, normal flow influent, and high flow influent, respectively. The results indicate that PCB levels in New York City and New Jersey WPCP discharges are generally low, with most effluent having total PCB concentrations below 0.05 {micro}g/L. The PCB levels in the influent were commonly under 0.1 {micro}g/L and became slightly elevated at most plants during storms while at some plants the increase in flow appeared to dilute the PCB in the influent. The WPCPs remove, on average, approximately 75% of the PCB received in the influent.

  20. PCB storage requirements

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs, including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements specified at 40 CFR Part 761.65 require most PCB wastes to be stored in a facility that meets the specifications of that section. Additionally, the regulations include rules concerning time limits for PCBs and PCB Items in storage, rules concerning leaking electrical equipment, and rules concerning types of containers used to store PCBs and PCB Items. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning storage requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  1. Electrical Stimulation of Microbial PCB Degradation in Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Chan Lan; Payne, Rayford B.; Sowers, Kevin R.; May, Harold D.

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been precluded in part by the lack of a cost-effective method to stimulate microbial degradation in situ. A common limitation is the lack of an effective method of providing electron donors and acceptors to promote in situ PCB biodegradation. Application of an electric potential to soil/sediment could be an effective means of providing electron-donors/-acceptors to PCB dechlorinating and degrading microorganisms. In this study, electrical stimulation of microbial PCB dechlorination/ degradation was examined in sediment maintained under simulated in situ conditions. Voltage was applied to open microcosms filled with PCB-impacted (Aroclor 1242) freshwater sediment from a Superfund site (Fox River, WI). The effect of applied low voltages (1.5 to 3.0V) on the microbial transformation of PCBs was determined with: 1) spiked PCBs, and 2) indigenous weathered PCBs. The results indicate that both oxidative and reductive microbial transformation of the spiked PCBs was stimulated but oxidation was dominant and most effective with higher voltage. Chlorobenzoates were produced as oxidation metabolites of the spiked PCBs, but increasing voltage enhanced chlorobenzoate consumption, indicating that overall degradation was enhanced. In the case of weathered PCBs, the total concentration decreased 40–60% in microcosms exposed to electric current while no significant decrease of PCB concentration was observed in control reactors (0 V or sterilized). Single congener analysis of the weathered PCBs showed significant loss of di- to penta-chlorinated congeners, indicating that microbial activity was not limited to anaerobic dechlorination of only higher chlorinated congeners. Degradation was most apparent with the application of only 1.5 V where anodic O2 was not generated, indicating a mechanism of degradation independent of electrolytic O2. Low voltage stimulation of the microbial degradation of weathered PCBs observed in this

  2. Enhanced accumulation of PCB congeners by Baltic Sea blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, with increased algae enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Gilek, M.; Bjoerk, M.; Broman, D.; Kautsky, N.; Naef, C.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine if natural variations in the quantity of phytoplankton-derived particulate and dissolved organic carbon influences the accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the tissues of Baltic Sea blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). In a laboratory flow-through experiment the authors exposed M. edulis to the technical PCB mixture Aroclor{reg_sign} 1248 for 21 d at three different enrichments of the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas sp., 0.10, 0.16, and 0.32 mg particulate organic carbon (POC)/L. Tissue and water concentrations were determined for seven PCB congeners and 21-d bioaccumulation factors were calculated against total water concentrations. Contrary to what would be expected, an increase in algae enrichment from 0.10 to 0.32 mg POC/L resulted in an enhanced PCB accumulation by a factor of approx. 2. This increase in PCB accumulation was more pronounced for PCB congeners with lower hydrophobicity. These observations have implications for the design of laboratory accumulation studies and potentially for PCB accumulation and cycling in field populations of suspension-feeding mussels in response to changes in eutrophication status.

  3. Atmospheric dispersion of PCB from a contaminated Lake Michigan harbor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Andres; Spak, Scott N.; Petrich, Nicholas T.; Hu, Dingfei; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2015-12-01

    Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC) in East Chicago is an industrial waterway on Lake Michigan and a source of PCBs to Lake Michigan and the overlying air. We hypothesized that IHSC is an important source of airborne PCBs to surrounding communities. We used AERMOD to model hourly PCB concentrations, utilizing emission fluxes from a prior study and hourly meteorology provided by the State of Indiana. We also assessed dispersion using hourly observed meteorology from a local airport and high resolution profiles simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting model. We found that emissions from IHSC waters contributed about 15% of the observed ∑PCB concentrations close to IHSC when compared on an hourly basis and about 10% of observed annual concentrations at a nearby school. Concentrations at the school due to emissions from IHSC ranged from 0 to 18,000 pg m-3, up to 20 times higher than observed background levels, with an annual geometric mean (GSD) of 19 (31) pg m-3. Our findings indicate that IHSC is an important source of PCBs to East Chicago, but not the only source. Four observed enriched PCB3 samples suggest a nearby non-Aroclor source.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure assessment by multivariate statistical analysis of serum congener profiles in an adult Native American population.

    PubMed

    DeCaprio, Anthony P; Johnson, Glenn W; Tarbell, Alice M; Carpenter, David O; Chiarenzelli, Jeffrey R; Morse, Gayle S; Santiago-Rivera, Azara L; Schymura, Maria J

    2005-07-01

    The major determinants of human polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden include the source and route of exposure and the toxicokinetic processes occurring after uptake. However, the relative importance of each factor for individual subjects cannot currently be determined. The present study characterizes levels and patterns of PCB congeners in a large cohort of adult Akwesasne Mohawks with historical PCB exposure. Total serum PCB ranged from 0.29 to 48.32 ng/g and was higher in adult men than in women (median of 3.81 vs. 2.94 ng/g). The mean serum congener profile for the full cohort was dominated by persistent penta- to hepta-chlorinated biphenyls; several labile congeners were also prominent. In order to provide additional information on individual body burden determinants, multivariate exploratory data analysis techniques were applied to the congener-specific serum PCB data. A self-training receptor model, polytopic vector analysis (PVA), was employed to determine the number, composition, and relative proportions of independent congener patterns that contributed to the overall serum PCB profile for each Mohawk subject. PVA identified five such patterns, each of which was characterized by a unique mix of congeners. One pattern observed in a limited number of Mohawks was similar to those reported for air sampled near contaminated sediment deposits at Akwesasne and for volatilized Aroclor 1248 and is hypothesized to reflect recent inhalation exposure in these subjects. A second pattern was consistent with unaltered Aroclor 1254. A third pattern, resembling Aroclor 1262 but without labile congeners, was correlated with age and is interpreted as representing a lifetime PCB accumulation profile. The final two patterns were dominated by subsets of major persistent congeners and are hypothesized to reflect intermediate bioaccumulation profiles and/or differences in individual toxicokinetics. The results confirm the utility of a multivariate exploratory analysis

  5. PCB recordkeeping and reporting

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on October 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. All generators, disposers, and storers of PCB waste must comply with the recordkeeping and reporting requirements found at 40 CFR 761.180. The regulations include directions for writing and maintaining annual records and annual document logs and for preparing annual reports, exception reports, manifest discrepancy reports, and unmanifested waste reports. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning recordkeeping and reporting requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  6. Tilapia larvae Aroclor 1254 exposure: effects on gonads and circulating thyroid hormones during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, A M; Reis-Henriques, M A

    2007-11-01

    Aroclor 1254 a polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) mixture, when administrated through the diet, was previously found to inhibit adult tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) reproduction. Since fish larvae can be more sensitive to contaminants, the objectives of this study were to evaluate in adults the impact in gonad development and in thyroid function of Aroclor 1254 administrated at larvae stages. Aroclor 1254 exposed tilapia presented both ovary and testicular alterations and a decline in T4 plasma concentration while T3 remained unaltered. This work shows exposure to Aroclor 1254 during tilapia early life stages causes a disruption of the reproductive axis that enables reproduction. PMID:17943219

  7. Proceedings: 1981 PCB seminar

    SciTech Connect

    Addis, G.; Marks, J.

    1982-09-01

    The EPRI PCB seminar, held in Dallas, Texas, on December 1 to 3, 1981, was the first comprehensive seminar covering PCB problems and solutions of interest to the electric utilities. The purpose of the meeting, attended by 300 participants, was to present emerging technologies and ideas for PCB analysis and removal. The major areas covered were: background and history of the problem, analytic techniques, spill cleanup, destruction of askarels, treatment of capacitors, and decontamination of oil. Both EPRI-sponsored and independently developed projects are included. In addition to the ongoing research on new technologies, some presentations cover processes ready or almost ready for commercialization. Supplementing the proceedings, a videotape of author interviews was prepared and is available for purchase from EPRI (415/855-2286).

  8. Dietary exposure to Aroclor 1254 alters gene expression in Xenopus laevis frogs.

    PubMed

    Jelaso, Anna M; DeLong, Cari; Means, Jay; Ide, Charles F

    2005-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that contribute to worldwide health problems. Despite data associating PCBs with adverse health effects, decisions to clean up contaminated sites remain controversial. Cleanup decisions are typically based on risk assessment methods that are not sensitive enough to detect subtle changes in health. We have recently shown that gene expression signatures can serve as sensitive molecular biomarkers of exposure and related health effects. Our initial studies were carried out with developing Xenopus laevis tadpoles that were exposed to the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 (A1254) for 2 days. A1254 was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and added to the aquarium water for rapid loading of PCBs into the tadpole tissue. These studies showed that increases in the expression of specific genes occurred independent of adverse health effects, and decreases in specific genes correlated with the appearance of observable health effects, including decreased survival and gross morphological and behavioral abnormalities. In this report, we extend our previous work to test the use of gene expression signatures as biomarkers in frogs exposed to PCBs through the diet from early tadpole stages through metamorphosis. This work showed that chronic low-dose exposure to A1254 (24 ppm) in food produced tissue levels of 17 ppm and increased gene expression of nerve growth factor and proopiomelanocortin independent of adverse health effects. Exposure to higher doses of A1254 (200 ppm) produced tissue levels of 80 ppm and increased expression of p450 1A1, also, independent of adverse health effects. This work provides further evidence for the use of gene expression changes as biomarkers of exposure to PCBs. PMID:15721885

  9. Stimulatory effects of a microbially dechlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture on rat uterine contraction in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tsuneta, Taeko; Loch-Caruso, Rita; Quensen, John F; Boyd, Stephen A; Hanna, Mona; Grindatti, Carmen

    2008-06-01

    Microbially mediated reductive dechlorination has been advocated as the first part of a two-stage (anaerobic/aerobic) biotreatment process for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments, and is generally viewed as a detoxication process. However, previous studies suggest that microbial dechlorination increases the ability to stimulate uterine contractions compared with the original PCB mixtures. Here, we investigate the composition and uterotonic activity of the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1260 before and after incubation with microorganisms eluted from PCB-contaminated sediment of the Hudson River. Incubation with microorganisms resulted in a partially dechlorinated mixture (HR1260) dominated by ortho-substituted PCBs with four or fewer chlorines per biphenyl. Aroclor 1260 that had not been incubated with microorganisms had no significant effect on contraction frequency of rat uterine strips (gestation day 10) in vitro, whereas HR1260 dramatically increased contraction frequency to 718+/-134% of the basal rate at a total PCB concentration of 70 microM (p<0.05). The microbial dechlorination increased 2,2',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl and one or more of four congeners that co-eluted during chromatography (2,3,3',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,3',4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,2',4,4',6-pentachlorobiphenyl and 2,2',4,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl) to 24 and 8 mol%, respectively. However, the uterotonic activities of the latter congeners were modest when evaluated either solely or in a reconstituted mixture and could not fully account for the uterotonic activity of HR1260. Nonetheless, the relative abundance of congeners with three or fewer chlorines increased to 14 mol% as a group in HR1260, suggesting that these congeners collectively contribute to the uterotonic activity even though the abundance of any one congener in this group was less than 5 mol%. PMID:18359014

  10. Characterization Plan for Establishing a PCB Baseline Inventory in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2000-08-09

    In May 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted meetings to discuss management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hanford tank waste. It was decided that the radioactive waste currently stored in the doubleshell tanks (DSTs) will be managed to comply with the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) (40 CFR 761). As a result, DOE-ORP directed the River Protection Project tank farm contractor to prepare plans for managing the PCB inventory in the DSTs. One component of the PCB management plans is this characterization plan. At this time, available PCB data for Hanford tank waste is limited to thirteen DSTs and one single-shell tank (SST). Only concentration data for some individual Aroclors (i.e., commercial PCB mixtures) are available for these tanks. Total PCB data is needed to establish a baseline inventory of PCBs in the DSTs. Appropriate transfer controls for the tanks will be developed based on the baseline inventory. The controls will be used to ensure PCB levels in the DSTs will not exceed anticipated waste feed acceptance criteria of the Waste Treatment Facility (WTF). Approximately ninety percent of the waste to be received at the DSTs in the future will come from the SSTs (Strode and Boyles 1999). Single-shell tank waste will be retrieved into the DSTs prior to treatment for disposal. Liquids from the SSTs currently are being transferred to the DSTs as part of the interim stabilization effort. In addition, waste sample materials taken from the SSTs have been and will continue to be sent to the DSTs after analysis by the site laboratories. Thus, to properly manage the PCB inventory in the DSTs, baseline characterization data of SST waste is also needed.

  11. Investigation of potential polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination on Hanford site arc-loop roads

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.; Riley, R.G.; Lefkovitz, L.F.; Gilfoil, T.J.

    1997-09-01

    Two roads on the Hanford Site, which had been treated during past Site operations with oil for dust suppression, were analyzed for potential polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination. The general locations of these roads are (1) off Washington State Route 240, north of Horn Rapids Dam, and (2) between the 200 East and 200 West areas, south of the 200 Area fire station. Each road had an intact crust of oil/tar on top of the underlying soil surface. A set of control samples were collected at an untreated soil site near the Prosser Barricade air sampling station. Samples were collected of the oil/tar surface crust, the soil immediately beneath the surface crust (0 - 3 cm below the crust), and a deeper soil sample (13 - 23 cm below the surface crust). Samples were collected at two locations on each road. The PCBs were extracted from the samples using a roller technique with methylene chloride, cleaned using column chromatography and high-pressure liquid chromatography, and analyzed by capillary gas chromatography using electron capture detection. The samples were analyzed for PCBs as the following technical mixtures: Aroclor 1242, Aroclor 1248, Aroclor 1254, and Aroclor 1260. All samples at all locations were less than the following detection limits: surface crust (41 ug/kg dry weight) and soil (2.1 ug/kg dry weight). These concentrations are below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IX preliminary remediation goals for PCBs in residential soil (66 ug/kg) and well below the preliminary remediation goal for PCBs in industrial soil (340 ug/kg).

  12. Immunological and physiological effects of chronic exposure of Peromyscus leucopus to Aroclor 1254 at a concentration similar to that found at contaminated sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Segre, M.; Arena, S.M.; Greeley, E.H.; Melancon, M.J.; Graham, D.A.; French, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental contaminants known to cause adverse health effects to biological systems. Limited data are available on their effects on the immune system of wildlife species. Previously, we found that 4 and 6-week-old white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) born from dams injected with a single dose (300 mg/kg) of Aroclor 1254, had altered immunological, hematological, and biochemical responses. Here, we examined the effect of transplacental lactational and postnatal exposure to Aroclor 1254, at a concentration similar to that found at contaminated sites, on various physiological parameters of 22-week-old white-footed mice. Liver weight and liver somatic index of PCB treated animals were significantly higher, the combined weights of the adrenal glands were significantly lower and EROD and BROD enzyme activity was significantly higher compared to control values. The number of thymocytes of the treated mice was significantly lower than that of the controls; however, thymocytes of treated mice had a higher proliferative response to the mitogen Con A. These alterations were correlated with the PCBs body burdens. Some toxic effects of chronic exposure to PCBs, at levels comparable to exposure found in contaminated sites in the USA, are still evident in adult P. leucopus.

  13. Impacts from PCB accumulation on amphibians inhabiting streams flowing from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant.

    PubMed

    DeGarady, C J; Halbrook, R S

    2003-11-01

    Contamination at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Paducah, Kentucky, has been under evaluation for many years. We studied amphibians in selected outfalls (drainage ditches) flowing from the PGDP to determine if PCBs were accumulating in their tissues and how this might affect local populations. We determined relative amphibian species richness and abundance among seven outfalls and three reference streams by listening to their calls during audio surveys. We also captured amphibians from each study site during the summers of 2000 and 2001 and analyzed their carcasses for PCBs (Aroclor 1260 and 34 congeners) and livers for ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, a biomarker of PCBs and other organic contamination. Ten species were heard across study sites, and abundance and richness at outfalls were similar to those observed at reference sites. However, there were significant differences in abundance (p = 0.001) and richness (p = 0.048) of amphibians between continuously flowing and intermittent outfalls. There were no significant differences in PCB concentrations (p = 0.113) in amphibians captured from study sites, although Aroclor 1260 concentrations tended to be higher in amphibians collected from one outfall (outfall 12) on the east side of the plant (x = 1260 microg/kg) compared with all other study sites (x = 489 microg/kg). EROD activity measured in the liver was not indicative of Aroclor 1260 concentrations in amphibians at the PGDP, and EROD did not differ by study site, species, age class, or gender. PCB concentrations measured in amphibians at the PGDP were similar to concentrations measured at reference sites and did not appear to negatively affect individual amphibians or abundance and richness. PMID:14708669

  14. The Belgian PCB/dioxin incident: analysis of the food chain contamination and health risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Alfred; Broeckaert, Fabrice; De Poorter, Geert; De Cock, Ann; Hermans, Cédric; Saegerman, Claude; Houins, Gilbert

    2002-01-01

    The Belgian PCB incident occurred at the end of January 1999 when a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated with dioxins was accidentally added to a stock of recycled fat used in the production of animal feeds. Although signs of poultry poisoning were noticed by February, 1999, the source and the extent of the contamination were discovered only in May 1999, when it appeared that more than 2500 farms could have been supplied with contaminated feeds. This resulted in a major food crisis, which rapidly extended to the whole country and could be resolved only by the implementation of a large PCB/dioxin food monitoring program. Screening for PCB contamination was based on the determination of the seven PCB markers. When PCB concentrations exceeded the tolerance levels of 0.1 (milk), 0.2 (poultry, bovine, and pig meat), or 1 (animal feed) microg/g fat, dioxins (17 PCDD/Fs congeners) were also determined. At the end of December 1999, the database contained the results of more than 55,000 PCB and 500 dioxin analyses. The study of PCB levels and profiles in contaminated feeds delivered to poultry or pig farms confirmed that the Belgian PCB incident was due to a single source of PCB oil introduced into the food chain at the end of January 1999. This PCB oil had a congeners pattern closely matched to a mixture of Aroclor 1260/1254 in the proportion 75/25. The total amount of PCBs added to recycled fats was estimated at 50 kg (sum of the seven markers) or approximately 150 kg total PCBs, which corresponds to about 100 liters of PCB oil. This PCB mixture contained about 1g TEQ dioxins (more than 90- contributed by PCDFs) and about 2g TEQ dioxin-like PCBs. The proportions of PCB 52 and 101 congeners were fairly constant in animal feeds, excluding the possibility of secondary contamination due to fat recycling from contaminated animals. The highest concentrations of PCBs and dioxins were found in poultry and especially in the reproduction animals (hens and chicks

  15. Record of PCB congeners, sorbents and potential toxicity in core samples in Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2011-10-01

    Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC) is an active navigational system that serves a heavily industrial area of southern Lake Michigan. We have determined the amount of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), congener distributions, sorbent types and potential for dioxin-like PCB toxicity from two IHSC sediment cores. Vertical distributions of ΣPCBs (sum of 161 individual or coeluting congeners) ranged from 410 to 91000 and 1800 to 41000 ng g(-1) dry weight (d.w.) for cores 1 and 2, respectively. Core 1 showed its highest accumulation rate for the year ∼1979 and exhibits a strong Aroclor 1248 signal in sediments accumulating over the last 60 years. It appears that from the late 1930s until the beginning of the 1980s there was a large and constant input of PCBs into this system. This pattern differs from lake cores from the Great Lakes region which commonly exhibit a rapid increase, a peak, followed by a sharp decrease in the PCB accumulation rates. Core 2 also has a strong Aroclor 1248 signal in the top layers, but deeper layers show evidence of mixtures of Aroclors and/or weathering processes. High levels of black carbon as a fraction of total organic carbon were found in both cores (median ∼30%), which reflect the long history of local combustion sources. No strong relationship was found between ΣPCB concentration and sorbents. Both cores contain dioxin-like PCBs that are highest in concentration below the surface. The high levels of PCBs in the deep sediments are of concern because of plans to dredge this system. PMID:21899876

  16. Modeling PCB dechlorination in aquatic sediments by principal component based factor analysis and positive matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, E. R.; Bzdusek, P. A.

    2003-04-01

    Anaerobic PCB dechlorination in aquatic sediments is a naturally occurring process that reduces the dioxin-like PCB toxicity. The PCB biphenyl structure is kept intact but the number of substituted chlorine atoms is reduced, primarily from the para and meta positions. Flanked para and meta chlorine dechlorination, as in process H/H', appears to be more common in-situ than flanked and unflanked para, and meta dechlorination as in process Q. Aroclors that are susceptible to these reactions include 1242, 1248, 1254, and 1260. These dechlorination reactions have recently been modeled by a least squares method for Ashtabula River, Ohio, and Fox River, Wisconsin sediments. Prior to modeling the dechlorination reactions for an ecosystem it is desirable to generate overall PCB source functions. One method to determine source functions is to use loading matrices of a factor analytical model. We have developed such models based both on a principal component approach including nonnegative oblique rotations, and positive matrix factorization (PMF). While the principal component method first requires an eigenvalue analysis of a covariance matrix, the PMF method is based on a direct least squares analysis considering simultaneously the loading and score matrices. Loading matrices obtained from the PMF method are somewhat sensitive to the initial guess of source functions. Preliminary work indicates that a hybrid approach considering first principal components and then PMF may offer an optimum solution. The relationship of PMF to conventional chemical mass balance modeling with or without some prior knowledge of source functions is also discussed.

  17. Accumulation of PCB congeners in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on the Hudson River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, K.R.; Tillitt, D.E.; Nichols, J.W.; Secord, A.L.; McCarty, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were used as a sentinel species to monitor the contamination and bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hudson River watershed. Several tree swallow nest box colonies around and downstream from Hudson Falls, NY, were studied. Tree swallow eggs, adults, and 5-, 10-, and 15-day-old nestlings were collected and analyzed for 103 PCB congeners. Emergent insects collected by net (primarily Odonata) or as a food bolus (primarily Diptera) taken from the mouths of adult tree swallows returning to the nest were analyzed in the same manner. Total PCB concentrations (wet weight) in eggs from two contaminated sites ranged from 9000 to 25 000 ng/g and accumulated to 32 000 and 96 000 ng/g in 15-day-old nestling at two contaminated sites. The congener patterns of PCBs in eggs, nestlings, and adults were compared to those found in emergent insects (Odonata and Diptera) using principal components analysis. The PCB patterns of the biota differed from that of Aroclor technical mixtures. PCB patterns in adult tree swallows were similar to those in eggs, while the patterns in dietary insects were similar to nestling tree swallows. Uptake rate constants were determined for tree swallow nestlings and compared between the two contaminated sites. The estimated PCB congener uptake rate constants were 0.008-0.02 d-1 based on uptake in nestlings until day 15 post-hatch. The rate constants were comparable between the two study areas and may be used to predict nestling contamination at other locations. Our studies confirm the utility of nestling tree swallows to evaluate localized PCB contamination.

  18. Effects of PCB exposure on biochemical and hematological findings in capacitor workers.

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, R W; Ross, M R; Feingold, J; Brown, J F

    1985-01-01

    Certain former operations in capacitor manufacturing resulted in extensive direct contact of the workers with electrical grade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A study group of 194 such individuals, all exposed to Aroclor 1016 and many previously exposed to Aroclors 1242 and/or 1254, was examined before (1976) and after (1979) discontinuance of PCB use in the operations (1977). At the two examinations, the approximate geometric mean serum levels (in ppb) and 5 to 95% ranges were for lower PCBs (LPCB), 363 (57-2270) and 68 (12-392); and for higher PCBs (HPCB), 30 (6-142) and 19 (4-108), respectively. The statistical associations among 42 measured clinical chemical and hematological parameters, five different measures of PCB exposure, and seven confounding variables observed in the two examinations were determined by three regression procedures. Similar regressions were performed with DDE, which was present at background levels. The principal statistical findings were a depression in serum bilirubin and elevations in serum GGTP and lymphocyte levels at the time of the first examination, and only an elevation in monocytes at the second. Appraisal of the results suggested an induction of microsomal enzymes which appeared to be subsiding after the cessation of direct exposure to PCBs. The statistical association between serum levels of PCBs and lipids reported by others was confirmed, but shown to be explained by the partitioning behavior of PCB in the body, rather than to changes in liver function. No evidence for health impairment related to PCBs was found, despite the high serum levels of PCBs in the study population. PMID:2863133

  19. Can polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) signatures and enantiomer fractions be used for source identification and to age date occupational exposure?

    PubMed

    Megson, David; Focant, Jean-Françios; Patterson, Donald G; Robson, Matthew; Lohan, Maeve C; Worsfold, Paul J; Comber, Sean; Kalin, Robert; Reiner, Eric; O'Sullivan, Gwen

    2015-08-01

    Detailed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) signatures and chiral Enantiomer Fractions (EFs) of CB-95, CB-136 and CB-149 were measured for 30 workers at a transformer dismantling plant. This was undertaken to identify sources of exposure and investigate changes to the PCB signature and EFs over different exposure periods. Approximately 1.5 g of serum was extracted and PCB signatures were created through analysis by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) and EFs calculated following analysis by gas chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). A total of 84 PCBs were identified in the serum samples with concentrations of the 7 indicator PCBs ranging from 11-350 ng g(-1) of serum (1.2-39 μg g(-1) lipid). The PCB signatures were interpreted using principal component analysis (PCA) which was able to distinguish workers with background or recent minimal exposure from those with prolonged occupational exposure. Occupationally exposed individuals had a similar PCB profile to Aroclor A1260. However, individuals with prolonged exposure had depleted proportions of several PCB congeners that are susceptible to metabolism (CB-95, CB-101 and CB-151) and elevated proportions of PCBs that are resistant to metabolism (CB-74, CB-153, CB-138 and CB-180). The results also identified a third group of workers with elevated proportions of CB-28, CB-60, CB-66, CB-74, CB-105 and CB-118 who appeared to have been exposed to an additional source of PCBs. The results show near complete removal of the CB-95 E2 enantiomer in some samples, indicating that bioselective metabolism or preferential excretion of one enantiomer occurs in humans. By considering PCB concentrations along with detailed congener specific signatures it was possible to identify different exposure sources, and gain an insight into both the magnitude and duration of exposure. PMID:25916940

  20. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the sera of mothers and children from Michigan farms with PCB-contaminated silos

    SciTech Connect

    Schantz, S.L.; Jacobson, J.L.; Jacobson, S.W.; Humphrey, H.E.B.; Welch, R.; Gasior, D.

    1994-11-01

    Blood samples were collected from 28 mothers and from 38 school-aged children from Michigan farms on which there were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated silos. The samples were analyzed for PCBs and other contaminants, including polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p{prime}-DDT + p,p{prime}-DDE) via packed column gas chromatography. The PCBs were quantified, using the Webb-McCall method, with Aroclors 1016 and 1260 used as reference standards. Approximately 42% of the children had serum PCB levels above the detection limit of 3.0 ng/ml. The values ranged from 3.1 to 23.3 ng/ml, with a mean of 6.8 ng/ml. In contrast, PCBs were detected in 86% of the mothers. The mean serum concentration was somewhat higher for the mothers (9.6 ng/ml), but the range was similar to that found for the children. PBBs were not detected in any of the children, but were present in trace amounts in 25% of the mothers. Conversely, DDT was present in 66% of the children and 93% of the mothers. As with PCBs, DDT concentrations were somewhat higher in the mothers. DDE accounted for 89% of the total DDT in serum. Various potential sources of exposure were evaluated as possible determinants of serum PCB levels, using hierarchical multiple regression. Years of residence on a silo farm and consumption of PCB-contaminated Great Lakes fish both accounted for significant portions of the variance in maternal serum PCB levels. Exposure via breast-feeding explained a large and highly significant proportion of the variance in the children`s serum PCB concentrations, suggesting that breast milk was the primary source of PCB exposure for these children. Years of residence on a silo farm also explained a significant proportion of the variance in children`s serum PCBs. 29 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  1. Chlorinated pesticide and PCB analysis of earthworms for determination of body burden and bioaccumulation factors

    SciTech Connect

    Gouveia, D.A.; Turton, D.; Rury, P.

    1995-12-31

    A study of target chlorinated pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) uptake in Red Wiggler (Eisenia foetida) earthworms for the determination of body burden and bioaccumulation factors was performed to provide site-specific data for an extensive ecological risk assessment. Earthworms and contaminated site soil (both prior to and following earthworm exposure) were analyzed for chlorinated pesticides, PCB Aroclors, and target metals. While the target metal analysis was straightforward, the pesticide and PCB analyses were complicated due to the number and concentration of site contaminants, as well as interferences from the biological matrix. This study provided valuable information on: integration of analytical chemistry in an ecological risk assessment; available options for extraction, cleanup, and analysis; selection of optimum analytical methodologies to meet data quality objectives (DQOs); interpretation of soil and tissue analytical results; and understanding of the potential error and uncertainty in the analyses. By coordinating risk assessment needs and expectations with the analytical laboratory capabilities and by maintaining a flexible analysis program, the study provided analytical data capable of meeting the DQOs and overall risk assessment objectives.

  2. Endocrine Disruption of Brain Sexual Differentiation by Developmental PCB Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Sarah M.; Cunningham, Stephanie L.; Patisaul, Heather B.; Woller, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, sexual differentiation of the hypothalamus occurs during prenatal and early postnatal development due in large part to sex differences in hormones. These early organizational processes are critically important for the attainment and maintenance of adult reproductive functions. We tested the hypothesis that perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that disrupt hormonal pathways would perturb reproductive maturation and the sexually dimorphic development of neuroendocrine systems in the preoptic area (POA). Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected on gestational d 16 and 18 with vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide), Aroclor 1221 (A1221, an estrogenic PCB mix), a reconstituted PCB mixture representing those highest in human body burden (PCBs 138, 153, 180), or estradiol benzoate, an estrogenic control. Male and female pups were monitored for somatic and reproductive development. In adulthood, some rats were perfused and used for immunohistochemistry of estrogen receptor α, kisspeptin, and coexpression of Fos in GnRH neurons. Other rats were used to obtain fresh-frozen POA dissections for use in a PCR-based 48-gene expression array. Pubertal onset was advanced and estrous cyclicity irregular in endocrine-disrupted females. Furthermore, sexual differentiation of female neuroendocrine systems was masculinized/defeminized. Specifically, in the adult female anteroventral periventricular nucleus, estrogen receptor α-cell numbers and kisspeptin fiber density were significantly decreased, as was GnRH-Fos coexpression. PCR analysis identified androgen receptor, IGF-I, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit NR2b, and TGFβ1 mRNAs as significantly down-regulated in endocrine-disrupted female POAs. These data suggest that developmental PCBs profoundly impair the sexual differentiation of the female hypothalamus. PMID:21190954

  3. Cellular but not humoral antibacterial activity of earthworms is inhibited by Aroclor 1254.

    PubMed

    Roch, P; Cooper, E L

    1991-12-01

    Earthworms, Eisenia fetida andrei and Lumbricus terrestris, exposed to Aroclor 1254, followed by infestation with Aeromonas hydrophila, elicited two types of responses. First, in E. fetida, there was no change in the LD50 nor in the in vitro antibacterial growth capacity of cell-free coelomic fluid. Thus, Aroclor exerts no influence on antibacterial proteins nor on the chloragogue cells responsible for their release. Second, in L. terrestris, both a high LD50 value and no antibacterial activity indicate that A. hydrophila was not pathogenic. The 10(4) times higher sensitivity of exposed L. terrestris suggests that Aroclor inhibits leukocyte activity since E. fetida eliminates nonpathogenic bacteria by a cellular mechanism. PMID:1723380

  4. Aroclor 1254 causes atrophy of exocrine pancreas in mice and the mechanism involved.

    PubMed

    Lin, Moudan; Wu, Tian; Sun, Lingbin; Lin, Jackie Jin; Zuo, Zhenghong; Wang, Chonggang

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic pollutants that have been linked to pancreatic disease. However, their role in affecting the exocrine function of pancreas and the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, male C57 mice were treated with Aroclor 1254, a commercially available PCBs mixture, at a dosage of 0.5, 5, 50, or 500 μg kg(-1) every 3 days by oral gavage. Decrease in pancreas/soma index and acinar atrophy were observed in the mice after exposure for 50 days. Aroclor 1254 exposure significantly decreased the PCNA-positive cells in the pancreatic acini in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, western blot analysis showed that PCNA expression was decreased in pancreas in the presence of Aroclor 1254, which suggests that Aroclor 1254 suppresses cell proliferation. TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells as well as the expression of Bcl2, BclXL, BAX, and Bad of exocrine pancreas did not show significant changes in the treated mice, indicating that Aroclor 1254 has no effect on apoptosis. We also found that phosphorylation of ERK1/2, P90RSK1 and Bad was increased in the treated groups; this compensatory activation of phosphorylation in ERK1/2-P90RSK1-Bad signaling cascade could protect cell from apoptosis to maintain the cell numbers and function of exocrine pancreas. Moreover, we found that the expression of Kras and TNFα was increased in the pancreas, indicating that Aroclor 1254 exposure could result in increased risk of inflammation and carcinoma. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 671-678, 2016. PMID:25409620

  5. PCB cycling in marine plankton

    SciTech Connect

    Ashizawa, D.; Brownawell, B.; Fisher, N.

    1995-12-31

    Ecosystem-scale models of contaminant bioaccumulation and toxicity are often sensitive to quantification of uptake and trophic transfer at the base of aquatic food chains. Significant uncertainty remains in assessing the rates and routes of transfer of hydrophobic contaminants by phytoplankton and zooplankton. Using radio-labeled 2,2{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB), the authors have conducted experiments to measure the transfer of PCB from seawater to phytoplankton to copepods. Uptake, equilibration, and release of PCB onto/from algal cells were found to be rapid and not appreciably affected by the algal growth phase. Initial experiments indicate that when PCB-contaminated diatoms were fed to calanoid copepods, the assimilation efficiencies in the grazers ranged from 30--50%. Ongoing experiments are investigating this process further and quantitatively comparing copepod uptake of PCB from food and from the dissolved phase. These parameters of uptake and release are essential in the development and application of contaminant bioaccumulation models for marine and aquatic food chains.

  6. Congener-specific analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the major Chinese technical PCB formulation from a stored Chinese electrical capacitor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Yamauchi, Makoto; Matsumura, Toru; Yamazaki, Norimasa; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Impurity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) formulations has been recognized as a relevant source of PCNs in the environment. Congener-specific analysis of most main PCB formulations has been accomplished previously, excluding the Chinese product. The insulating oil in a stored Chinese electric capacitor containing the major Chinese technical formulation "PCB3" was sampled and tested by isotope dilution technology using high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The detected concentration of PCNs in the Chinese PCB oil sample was 1,307.5 μg/g and therefore significantly higher than that reported in PCB formulations from other countries, as well as that in the transformer oil (ASKAREL Nr 1740) additionally tested in the present study for comparison. Based on the measurement, the total amount of PCNs in Chinese PCB3 oil is estimated to be 7.8 t, which would mean only 0.005 % of global production of PCNs of 150,000 t. The homolog profile is similar to those of PCN in Aroclor 1262 and Clophen A40, where the contributions from hexa-CNs and hepta-CNs are predominant and accounted for similar proportions. The Toxic Equivalent Quantity (TEQ) concentration of dioxin-like PCN congeners is 0.47 μg TEQ/g, with the dominant contributors of CN-73 and CN-66/67. This TEQ content from PCN is higher than that in most other PCB formulations with the exemption of the Russian Sovol formulation. The total TEQ in the historic 6,000 t of the Chinese PCB3 formulation is estimated to be 2.8 kg TEQ. PMID:25391227

  7. 1H NMR metabolomics of earthworm responses to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in soil.

    PubMed

    Whitfield Åslund, Melissa L; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2011-06-01

    (1)H NMR-based metabolomics was used to examine the metabolic profile of D(2)O-buffer extracted tissues of Eisenia fetida earthworms exposed for 2 days to an artificial soil spiked with sub-lethal concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, or 25 mg/kg Aroclor 1254). Univariate statistical analysis of the identified metabolites revealed a significant increase in ATP concentration in earthworms exposed to the highest soil PCB concentration, but detected no significant changes in other metabolites. However, a multivariate approach which considers alterations in multiple metabolites simultaneously, identified a significant linear relationship between earthworm metabolic profiles and PCB concentration (cross-validated PLS-regression with 7 components, R(2)X = 0.99, R(2)Y = 0.77, Q(2)Y = 0.45, P < 0.001). Significant changes in pair-wise metabolic correlations were also detected as PCB concentration increased. For example, lysine and ATP concentrations showed no apparent correlation in control earthworms (r = 0.22, P = 0.54), but were positively correlated in earthworms from the 25 mg/kg treatment (r = 0.87, P = 0.001). Overall, the observed metabolic responses suggest that PCBs disrupted both carbohydrate (energy) metabolism and membrane (osmolytic) function in E. fetida. The ability of (1)H NMR-based metabolomics to detect these responses suggests that this method offers significant potential for direct assessment of sub-lethal PCB toxicity in soil. PMID:21424327

  8. PCB impairs smoltification and seawater performance in anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, E.H.; Aas-Hansen, O.; Maule, A.G.; Strand, J.E.T.; Vijayan, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    The impacts of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure on smoltification and subsequent seawater performance were investigated in hatchery-reared, anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). The fish were subjected to a 2-month summer seawater residence, after which they were orally dosed with 0 (Control, C), 1 (Low Dose, LD) or 100 mg Aroclor 1254 kg-1 body mass (High Dose, HD) in November. They were then held in fresh water, without being fed (to mimic their natural overwintering in freshwater), until they had smolted in June the next year. The smolts were then transferred to seawater and fed to mimic their summer feeding residence in seawater, followed by a period without food in freshwater from August until maturation in October. Compared with C and LD charr, the HD charr had either a transient or a permanent reduction in plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and thyroxin and triiodothyronine titers during the period of smoltification. These hormonal alterations in the HD charr corresponded with impaired hyposmoregulatory ability in May and June, as well as reduced growth rate and survival after transference to seawater. Consequently, fewer fish in the HD group matured in October compared to the other two treatments. The HD fish had a liver PCB concentration ranging between 14 and 42 mg kg-1 wet mass, whereas there were similar, and very low, liver PCB concentrations in LD and C fish throughout the smolting period. Our findings suggest that PCB might compromise mechanisms important for fitness in a fish species living in an extreme environment. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Burial, incineration solve Alaskan PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, J.A. ); Young, D.T. )

    1989-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) remediation at Alaska's Swanson River has excavated more than 80,000 tons of PCB-contaminated soil and isolated it in bermed and lined stock-piles. In addition, incineration of other PCB-contaminated materials has been carried out safely. This article on the site reviews its history and part of its remediation approaches.

  10. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF TWO LOTS OF AROCLOR 1254R: CONGENER ANALYSIS AND NEUROCHEMICAL ENDPOINTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction
    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely used in industry as heat transfer and dielectric fluids for transformers and capacitors1. PCBs were commercially produced as AroclorR mixtures in USA by the chlorination of biphenyl. Although all 209 congeners can be syn...

  11. Reproductive and thyroid effects of low-level polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254) exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.E.; Ostby, J.; Marshall, R.; Andrews, J.

    1993-01-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of subchronic administration of Aroclor 1254 on testicular gamete production and endocrine function. The thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4), which is critical for reproduction and development, was also measured because of the well-documented effects of PCBs on this hormone. Weanling (31-day-old) male Fischer rats were administered 0, 0.1, 1, 10, or 25 mg/kg/day Aroclor 1254 by gavage for 5, 10, or 15 weeks and necropsied. In the high-dose group, body, seminal vesicle, cauda epididymal, and pituitary weights were depressed at 10 and 15 weeks and cauda epididymal sperm numbers were reduced after 15 weeks of dosing. In contrast, testes weights, testicular sperm numbers, sperm motility, and serum and testicular testosterone levels were unaffected, even in the highest dose group (25 mg/kg/day). Aroclor 1254 administration produced histological alterations in the liver and kidney at doses of 1.0 mg/kg/day and above. These results indicate that the testis of the rat is not a specific target organ for Aroclor 1254.

  12. EFFECTS OF AROCLOR (TRADE NAME) 1248 AND 1260 ON THE FATHEAD MINNOW ('PIMEPHALES PROMELAS')

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fathead minnows were exposed to Aroclor(Trademark) 1248 and 1260 in flow-through bioassays to determine the acute (30-d) and chronic (240-d life cycle) effects on the larvae and adults, as well as the bioconcentration of the mixtures of PCBs in the fish. Newly hatched larvae (<8 ...

  13. POTENTIATION OF 2,6-DINITROTOLUENE GENOTOXICITY IN FISCHER-344 RATS BY PRETREATMENT WITH AROCLOR 1254

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pretreatment of Fischer 344 rats for 5 weeks with Aroclor 1254, a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls, potentiated the genotoxicity of 2,6-dinitrotoluene (DNT), a component f an industrial chemical used in the production of polyurethane foams. his interaction resulted...

  14. In Vitro Exposure of Harbor Seal Immune Cells to Aroclor 1260 Alters Phocine Distemper Virus Replication.

    PubMed

    Bogomolni, Andrea; Frasca, Salvatore; Levin, Milton; Matassa, Keith; Nielsen, Ole; Waring, Gordon; De Guise, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    In the last 30 years, several large-scale marine mammal mortality events have occurred, often in close association with highly polluted regions, leading to suspicions that contaminant-induced immunosuppression contributed to these epizootics. Some of these recent events also identified morbillivirus as a cause of or contributor to death. The role of contaminant exposures regarding morbillivirus mortality is still unclear. The results of this study aimed to address the potential for a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), specifically Aroclor 1260, to alter harbor seal T-lymphocyte proliferation and to assess if exposure resulted in increased likelihood of phocine distemper virus (PDV USA 2006) to infect susceptible seals in an in vitro system. Exposure of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to Aroclor 1260 did not significantly alter lymphocyte proliferation (1, 5, 10, and 20 ppm). However, using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), lymphocytes exposed to 20 ppm Aroclor 1260 exhibited a significant decrease in PDV replication at day 7 and a significant increase at day 11 compared with unexposed control cells. Similar and significant differences were apparent on exposure to Aroclor 1260 in monocytes and supernatant. The results here indicate that in harbor seals, Aroclor 1260 exposure results in a decrease in virus early during infection and an increase during late infection. The consequences of this contaminant-induced infection pattern in a highly susceptible host could result in a greater potential for systemic infection with greater viral load, which could explain the correlative findings seen in wild populations exposed to a range of persistent contaminants that suffer from morbillivirus epizootics. PMID:26142119

  15. Bioaccumulation of PCB and the effects of supplemented diets in striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of PCBs (Aroclor 1254) from contaminated water (1.0 0.1 ppB) and Artemia (1.0 0.1 ppB) was studied using striped bass (Morone saxatilis) larvae. After 10 and 20 days exposure, striped bass were transferred to PCB-free environments for depuration examination. Results showed that striped bass can significantly accumulate PCBs in either 10- or 20-day exposures. When fed contaminated water and Artemia together to striped bass resulted higher PCB body burdens than when fed either contaminated water or Artemia. Among these treatments, 1.0 ppB water and 1.0 ppB treated Artemia caused the highest PCB residues, 323.62 ppB and 647.90 ppB, in 10- and 20-day exposures, respectively. A diet containing 0.1 ppB PCB contaminated Artemia accounted for 10--27% of the total body burden in this experiment. The percent body burden due to dietary contaminants increased when striped bass were fed 1.0 ppB contaminated Artemia. This suggests that a higher feeding dose could elevate the percent contribution of the total PCB uptake in aquatic food chains. The percent of PCBs remaining in striped bass when transferred to PCB-free environments is less in the 20-day depuration period than in 10-day period. In an effort to culture this valuable fish species, experiments were conducted by adding protease, attractants and protein hydrolysates to striped bass diet for the purpose of elevating growth and survival of this fish species through feeding trials. No significant difference was found for the growth and survival between protease supplemented diet and basal diet (19.0%). The combination of sucrose, glutamic acid and glycine for the 0.5% supplemented diet produced a final fish weight close to values obtained by feeding the basal diet. Live Artemia nauplii diet fed to the larvae gave the best performance in both growth and survival.

  16. Domestic dogs (Canus familiaris) as sentinels of environmental health hazards: The use of canine bioassays to determine alterations in immune system function following exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl aroclor 1248

    SciTech Connect

    Fadden, M.F.K.

    1994-12-31

    The principle objective of this study was to determine if domestic dogs could be used as human surrogates to monitor the immunotoxic effects of environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Our first objective was to determine if PCBs, which are commonly found as pollutants in the environment, have specific and identifiable effects on the function of immunocompetent cells in the dog. Our second aim was to explore the pathogenesis of any defects and to determine the cellular and molecular basis for observed changes. Our third objective was to compare immune function in normal laboratory beagles to dogs living contiguous to a US EPA Superfund site located near the Mohawk Nation community of Akwesasne and to correlate any observed immunologic abnormalities to plasma levels of specific congeners of PCBs. To elucidate the effects of PCBs on the canine immune system, laboratory beagles were fed 20 ppm (n = 2), 25 ppm (n =9) and 50 ppm (n = 2) PCB Aroclor 1248 in their diet and compared with age/sex matched controls (n = 8). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from all dogs and submitted to in vitro testing. Within 8 weeks, many significant changes were seen in PCB fed dogs including: excessive lacrimation (p < .001), weight loss, decreased serum thyroxine (p < .004), increased serum alkaline phosphatase and increased blood leukocyte count (p < .01). In addition, PCB fed dogs had altered in vitro T and B cell proliferative response (p < .004) and serum immunoglobulin levels (p < .01). Following thyroxine supplementation (wk 8-16) many, but not all, immunologic abnormalities improved. Necropsy examination revealed decreased thymus (p < .02) and lymph node (p < .004) weight; all other organs appeared normal. Many of the immunologic abnormalities documented in PCB fed beagles were similar to those observed in dogs residing in the Mohawk Nation Community of Akwesasne.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations in the breast milk of women in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P; Laliberté, C; Weber, J P; Gingras, S; Nantel, A J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study documented the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) in the breast milk of women from Quebec, Canada, and assessed the impact of various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on these levels. METHODS: From 1988 to 1990, milk samples were obtained from 536 Quebec women and analyzed for seven PCB congeners and p,p'-DDE. Information was obtained on subjects' physical, sociodemographic, and lifestyle characteristics. RESULTS: Mean concentrations were 0.52 mg/kg lipids (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.50, 0.54) and 0.34 mg/kg lipids (95% CI = 0.32, 0.35) for PCBs (Aroclor 1260) and DDE, respectively. Age and history of breast-feeding showed statistically significant correlations with PCB and DDE concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of PCBs and DDE measured in this study are at the lower end of the concentration range recently reported for women living in industrialized countries. The modulating factors identified here should be considered when conducting studies on organochlorine exposure and disease. PMID:8806375

  18. Effects of dietary PCB exposure on reproduction in the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voltura, M.B.; French, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the impact of environmental contaminants on reproduction have typically focused on effects on fertility and subsequent reproductive failure. Contaminants may also impact reproductive output or other aspects of life history through effects on resource acquisition or allocation. We fed successfully breeding female white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyls (2:1 Aroclor 1242:1254) at levels of 0 (n = 10), 10 (n = 12), and 25 (n = 10) ppm (mg polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]/kg food). After 4 months on the diets, female mice were bred with male mice maintained on control food. There was no effect of PCB exposure on litter size at birth or weaning, although fewer female mice on the 25-ppm diet gave birth. There was no effect of PCB dose on maternal metabolic rate at peak lactation or on total food (dry matter) intake during lactation. Female mice on the 10-ppm diet, however, consumed more food per pup during lactation and weaned larger pups, although these differences disappeared after 4 weeks of age. We conclude that although moderate-term exposure to PCBs did decrease the number of litters produced for high-dose female mice, it did not change litter size, pup growth rate, or energetic measures for those female mice that did successfully reproduce.

  19. PCB and PBDE levels in a highly threatened dolphin species from the Southeastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Lavandier, Ricardo; Arêas, Jennifer; Quinete, Natalia; de Moura, Jailson F; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreira, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    In the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State is located the major urban centers of the oil and gas industry of Brazil. The intense urbanization in recent decades caused an increase in human use of the coastal areas, which is constantly impacted by agricultural, industrial and wastewater discharges. Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) is a small cetacean that inhabits coastal regions down to a 30 m depth. This species is considered the most threatened cetacean in the Western South Atlantic Ocean. This study investigated the levels of 52 PCB congeners and 9 PBDE congeners in liver of nine individuals found stranded or accidentally caught between 2011 and 2012 in the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro. PCB mean levels ranged from 208 to 5543 ng g(-1) lw and PBDEs mean concentrations varied between 13.84 and 36.94 ng g(-1) lw. Contamination patterns suggest the previous use of Aroclor 1254, 1260 and penta-BDE mixtures in Brazil. While still few studies have assessed the organic contamination in cetaceans from the Southern Hemisphere, including Brazil, the levels found in this study could represent a health risk to these endangered species. PMID:26552541

  20. Evaluation and interconversion of various indicator PCB schemes for ∑PCB and dioxin-like PCB toxic equivalent levels in fish.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Reiner, Eric J; Chen, Tony; Morse, Dave; Arhonditsis, George B; Drouillard, Ken G

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remain chemicals of concern more than three decades after the ban on their production. Technical mixture-based total PCB measurements are unreliable due to weathering and degradation, while detailed full congener specific measurements can be time-consuming and costly for large studies. Measurements using a subset of indicator PCBs (iPCBs) have been considered appropriate; however, inclusion of different PCB congeners in various iPCB schemes makes it challenging to readily compare data. Here, using an extensive data set, we examine the performance of existing iPCB3 (PCB 138, 153, and 180), iPCB6 (iPCB3 plus 28, 52, and 101) and iPCB7 (iPCB6 plus 118) schemes, and new iPCB schemes in estimating total of PCB congeners (∑PCB) and dioxin-like PCB toxic equivalent (dlPCB-TEQ) concentrations in sport fish fillets and the whole body of juvenile fish. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) for regressions conducted using logarithmically transformed data suggest that inclusion of an increased number of PCBs in an iPCB improves relationship with ∑PCB but not dlPCB-TEQs. Overall, novel iPCB3 (PCB 95, 118, and 153), iPCB4 (iPCB3 plus 138) and iPCB5 (iPCB4 plus 110) presented in this study and existing iPCB6 and iPCB7 are the most optimal indicators, while the current iPCB3 should be avoided. Measurement of ∑PCB based on a more detailed analysis (50+ congeners) is also overall a good approach for assessing PCB contamination and to track PCB origin in fish. Relationships among the existing and new iPCB schemes have been presented to facilitate their interconversion. The iPCB6 equiv levels for the 6.5 and 10 pg/g benchmarks of dlPCB-TEQ05 are about 50 and 120 ng/g ww, respectively, which are lower than the corresponding iPCB6 limits of 125 and 300 ng/g ww set by the European Union. PMID:25488397

  1. Swimming against the PCB tide

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, R.

    1992-02-14

    Although no PCBs have been manufactured in the US and other industrialized countries for years, the chemicals are still very much with us; they are extremely long-lived. And only about 1% of the total PCBs produced have reached the oceans so far. PCBs and related organohalogens that have entered the oceans are making their way through the food chain into marine animals. As a result the animals are becoming more prone to a variety of ailments, including reproductive abnormalities and immune suppression that makes them more susceptible to disease. Unless something is done to prevent further contamination by organohalogens such as PCB, many species of ocean mammals might become extinct and some species of fish inedible. Several scientists officially launched a campaign to solicit funds for a 3-year research project aimed at determining just how serious PCB and other organohalogen problems are in the oceans.

  2. Multiple mechanisms of PCB neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.O.; Stoner, C.T.; Lawrence, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in cancer, but many of the symptoms in humans exposed to PCBs are related to the nervous system and behavior. We demonstrated three different direct mechanisms whereby PCBs are neurotoxic in rats. By using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that the orthosubstituted PCB congener 2,4,4{prime}, but neither TCDD nor the coplanar PCB congener 3,4,5,3{prime},4{prime}, causes rapid death of cerebellar granule cells. The ortho-substituted congener 2,4,4{prime} reduced long-term potentiation, an indicator of cognitive potential, in hippocampal brain slices, but a similar effect was observed for the coplanar congener 3,4,3{prime},4{prime}, indicating that this effect may be caused by both ortho- and coplanar congeners by mechanisms presumably not mediated via the Ah receptor. It was previously shown that some ortho-substituted PCB congeners cause a reduction in levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and we present in vitro and in vivo evidence that this is due to reduction of synthesis of dopamine via inhibition of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. Thus, PCBs have a variety of mechanisms of primary neurotoxicity, and neurotoxicity is a characteristic of ortho-substituted, non-dioxin-like congeners as well as some coplanar congeners. The relative contribution of each of these mechanisms to the loss of cognitive function in humans exposed to PCBs remains to be determined. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) retrofill: Fact or fiction

    SciTech Connect

    Seifert, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    PCB transformers changes form the fire safety engineers friend to the environmental engineers worst nightmare, when it became apparent that PCB filled devices are a source of highly toxic chemicals when they are burned improperly. This concern, combined with new regulations, is prompting engineers worldwide to actively plan and design PCB replacements. The two most commonly used PCB mitigation methods are retrofill and retrofit. This report will address retrofill only and is directed toward environmental concerns, facility interfaces, outage requirements, and application questions. This information is offered to help engineers make informed decisions regarding the best way to replace PCB transformers. This overview also addresses whether PCB retrofill is a viable fact'' or is it fiction'' without merit. 3 figs.

  4. Gestational and lactational exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyl mixture Aroclor 1254 modulates retinoid homeostasis in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Javier; Elabbas, Lubna E; Borg, Daniel; Herlin, Maria; Åkesson, Agneta; Barber, Xavier; Hamscher, Gerd; Nau, Heinz; Bowers, Wayne J; Nakai, Jamie S; Viluksela, Matti; Håkansson, Helen

    2014-08-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) induce a broad spectrum of biochemical and toxic effects in mammals including alterations of the vital retinoid (vitamin A) system. The aim of this study was to characterize alterations of tissue retinoid levels in rat offspring and their dams following gestational and lactational exposure to the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 (A1254) and to assess the interrelationship of these changes with other established sensitive biochemical and toxicological endpoints. Sprague-Dawley rat dams were exposed orally to 0 or 15 mg/kg body weight/day of A1254 from gestational day 1 to postnatal day (PND) 23. Livers, kidneys and serum were collected from the offspring on PNDs 35, 77 and 350. Tissue and serum retinoid levels, hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and serum thyroid hormones were analyzed. A multivariate regression between A1254 treatment, hepatic retinoid levels, hepatic CYP enzymes activities, thyroid hormone levels and body/liver weights was performed using an orthogonal partial least-squares (PLS) analysis. The contribution of dioxin-like (DL) components of A1254 to the observed effects was also estimated using the toxic equivalency (TEQ) concept. In both male and female offspring short-term alterations in tissue retinoid levels occurred at PND35, i.e. decreased levels of hepatic retinol and retinoic acid (RA) metabolite 9-cis-4-oxo-13,14-dihydro-RA with concurrent increases in hepatic and renal all-trans-RA levels. Long-term changes consisted of decreased hepatic retinyl palmitate and increased renal retinol levels that were apparent until PND350. Retinoid system alterations were associated with altered CYP enzyme activities and serum thyroid hormone levels as well as body and liver weights in both offspring and dams. The estimated DL activity was within an order of magnitude of the theoretical TEQ for different endpoints, indicating significant involvement of DL congeners in the observed effects. This study shows that tissue retinoid

  5. PCB Analysis Plan for Tank Archive Samples

    SciTech Connect

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2001-03-22

    This analysis plan specifies laboratory analysis, quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), and data reporting requirements for analyzing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) concentrations in archive samples. Tank waste archive samples that are planned for PCB analysis are identified in Nguyen 2001. The tanks and samples are summarized in Table 1-1. The analytical data will be used to establish a PCB baseline inventory in Hanford tanks.

  6. Different effects of PCB101, PCB118, PCB138 and PCB153 alone or mixed in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Radice, Sonia; Chiesara, Enzo; Fucile, Serena; Marabini, Laura

    2008-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous, persistent environmental contaminants that can be a potential health hazard. In the present study we analyzed the potential estrogenic effect in MCF-7 cells of four biologically relevant PCB congeners, alone or in mixtures, present in dairy products, vegetable oil and fish: PCB101, PCB118, PCB138 and PCB153. The mixture of four PCB was tested at seven different concentrations. We investigated the ability of these PCBs, alone or mixed, to induce cell proliferation, and the level of estrogen-regulated protein pS2, in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. PCB153 (35 microM) stimulated cell proliferation from 48 h up to day 6, PCB118 (40 microM) only at 48 h, but PCB101 (45 microM) and PCB138 (15 microM) applied to the cells for 6 days had no effect. In contrast, the various concentrations of mixtures significantly reduced cell proliferation at different times. No change in pS2 levels was seen after treatment with the PCBs alone or mixed. In exploring the mechanism of these events, we found that PCB153 induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) ERK1/2 at 4, 8 and 12 h, while the antiproliferative effect seemed to be related to an apoptotic action beginning at 12 h and ending at 48 h. These findings indicate that these PCBs alone or mixed have no estrogenic effect in MCF-7 cells, although PCB153 induce an ERK1/2-mediated mitogenic effect. On the contrary the mixture of PCBs induces an antiproliferative effect, ascribable to an apoptotic action. PMID:18508174

  7. Removal of PCB-DNAPL from a rough-walled fracture using alcohol/polymer flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, M.; Kueper, B. H.

    2006-03-01

    Phase behaviour experiments employing PCB (Aroclor 1242)/alcohol/water systems were conducted with ethanol (EtOH) and n-propanol (nPA). Both exhibited an affinity for the aqueous phase within the entire two-phase region. As much as 88% by volume (88% vol.) EtOH and 80% vol. nPA were necessary to achieve full miscibility of the PCB in the aqueous phase. DNAPL-water interfacial tension (IFT) was reduced from 38.9 dyn/cm to 4.7 dyn/cm and 2.4 dyn/cm with 80% vol. EtOH and 76% vol. nPA. The addition of alcohol brought about 41% and 54% reductions in DNAPL viscosity at maximal concentrations of EtOH and nPA. Density of the PCB-DNAPL was relatively unaffected by the presence of alcohol. A series of seven experiments were conducted where successive slugs of nPA and xanthan gum polymer solutions were injected into a fractured shale sample. A 30% vol. nPA solution injected under a hydraulic gradient of 0.36 allowed enhanced PCB removal primarily through reduction of IFT and resulted in 72% DNAPL recovery. Several pore volumes of alcohol solution were necessary to displace all the potentially mobile non-wetting phase since the high-viscosity DNAPL was mobilized at a lower flow rate than the overall fluid velocity, illustrating non-piston displacement. The injection of a 95% vol. nPA alcohol solution, theoretically at a sufficient concentration to produce fully miscible displacement of the residual DNAPL at equilibrium, resulted in non-equilibrium partitioning of the PCB into the flushing solution, likely due to the high fluid velocities in the fracture. The injection of 200 pore volumes of 95% vol. nPA solution resulted in 94% DNAPL recovery. Alcohol floods operated below the miscibility envelope appear to be a valuable source zone remedial alternative where the objective is to reduce DNAPL mobility to zero, but it should be noted that DNAPL mobility is increased during the application of the technology and steps may need to be taken to prevent unwanted vertical mobilization.

  8. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (PCB)-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS AND CYTOTOXICITY CAN BE MITIGATED BY ANTIOXIDANTS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yueming; Kalen, Amanda L.; Li, Ling; Lehmler, Hans-J; Robertson, Larry W.; Goswami, Prabhat C.; Spitz, Douglas R.; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet

    2009-01-01

    PCBs and PCB metabolites have been suggested to cause cytotoxicity by inducing oxidative stress but the effectiveness of antioxidant intervention following exposure is not established. Exponentially growing MCF-10A human breast and RWPE-1 human prostate epithelial cells continuously exposed for 5 days to 3 μM PCBs [Aroclor 1254, PCB153, and the 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone metabolite of PCB3 (4ClBQ)] were found to exhibit growth inhibition and clonogenic cell killing, with 4ClBQ having the most pronounced effects. These PCBs were also found to increase steady-state levels intracellular O2·− and H2O2 (as determined by dihydroethidium, MitoSOX™red and 5-(and-6)-carboxy-2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate oxidation). These PCBs also caused 1.5- to 5.0-fold increases in MnSOD activity in MCF-10A cells and 2.5- to 5-fold increases in CuZnSOD activity in RWPE-1 cells. Measurement of MitoSOX™red oxidation with confocal microscopy coupled with co-localization of MitoTracker green in MCF-10A and RWPE-1 cells, supported the hypothesis that PCBs caused increased steady-state levels of O2·− in mitochondria. Finally, treatment with either N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), or the combination of polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugated CuZnSOD and PEG-catalase added 1 hour after PCBs, significantly protected these cells from PCB toxicity. These results support the hypothesis that exposure of exponentially growing human breast and prostate epithelial cells to PCBs causes increased steady-state levels of intracellular O2·− and H2O2, induction of MnSOD or CuZnSOD activities, as well as clonogenic cell killing that could be inhibited by a clinically relevant thiol antioxidant, NAC, as well as by catalase and superoxide dismutase following PCB exposure. PMID:19796678

  9. Removal of PCB-DNAPL from a rough-walled fracture using alcohol/polymer flooding.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, M; Kueper, B H

    2006-03-01

    Phase behaviour experiments employing PCB (Aroclor 1242)/alcohol/water systems were conducted with ethanol (EtOH) and n-propanol (nPA). Both exhibited an affinity for the aqueous phase within the entire two-phase region. As much as 88% by volume (88% vol.) EtOH and 80% vol. nPA were necessary to achieve full miscibility of the PCB in the aqueous phase. DNAPL-water interfacial tension (IFT) was reduced from 38.9 dyn/cm to 4.7 dyn/cm and 2.4 dyn/cm with 80% vol. EtOH and 76% vol. nPA. The addition of alcohol brought about 41% and 54% reductions in DNAPL viscosity at maximal concentrations of EtOH and nPA. Density of the PCB-DNAPL was relatively unaffected by the presence of alcohol. A series of seven experiments were conducted where successive slugs of nPA and xanthan gum polymer solutions were injected into a fractured shale sample. A 30% vol. nPA solution injected under a hydraulic gradient of 0.36 allowed enhanced PCB removal primarily through reduction of IFT and resulted in 72% DNAPL recovery. Several pore volumes of alcohol solution were necessary to displace all the potentially mobile non-wetting phase since the high-viscosity DNAPL was mobilized at a lower flow rate than the overall fluid velocity, illustrating non-piston displacement. The injection of a 95% vol. nPA alcohol solution, theoretically at a sufficient concentration to produce fully miscible displacement of the residual DNAPL at equilibrium, resulted in non-equilibrium partitioning of the PCB into the flushing solution, likely due to the high fluid velocities in the fracture. The injection of 200 pore volumes of 95% vol. nPA solution resulted in 94% DNAPL recovery. Alcohol floods operated below the miscibility envelope appear to be a valuable source zone remedial alternative where the objective is to reduce DNAPL mobility to zero, but it should be noted that DNAPL mobility is increased during the application of the technology and steps may need to be taken to prevent unwanted vertical mobilization

  10. Dopamine and norepinephrine depletion in ring doves fed DDE, dieldrin, and Aroclor 1254

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hill, E.F.; Contrera, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The levels of dopamine and norepinephrine were measured in one-half of the brain of ring doves fed a control diet or a diet containing 2, 20, or 200 ppm DDE; 1, 4, or 16 ppm dieldrin; or 1, 10, or 100 ppm Aroclor 1254. Levels of DDE, dieldrin, or Aroclor 1254 were determined in the other half of each brain. The intermediate and high levels of each chemical caused depletions in both neurotransmitters, and brain residues of each chemical were negatively correlated with levels of neurotransmitters. The highest concentrations of DDE, dieldrin, and Aroclor 1254 depressed averages of dopamine to 42.4, 41.4, and 45.2% of the control level and norepinephrine to 61.6, 62.0, and 56.9% of controls, respectively. Depletions of dopamine and norepinephrine could result in abnormal behavior of contaminated birds in the wild, and the detection of such depletions could become an important tool in assessing contaminant-induced behavioral aberrations in birds.

  11. ENVIROGARD™ PCB TEST KIT, MILLIPORE, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Envirogard™ polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) immunoassay test kit rapidly analyzes for PCB concentrations in soils. Soils samples are extracted using methanol; extracts and calibration solutions are added to test tubes coated with antibodies that bind PCB molecules. The soil ex...

  12. Management of PCB laboratory wastes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) govern the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including use, storage, and disposal. Under TSCA, PCBs can only be used if the use is authorized under the TSCA regulations in 40 CFR 761; otherwise, the use of PCBs is prohibited and the PCBs must be disposed as PCB waste. 40 CFR 761.30(j) authorizes the use of PCBs in ``small quantities for research and development.`` Research and development activities are defined to include activities associated with laboratory analysis.

  13. Analysis of concentration-dependent effects of copper and PCB on different Chattonella spp. microalgae (raphidophyceae) cultivated in artificial seawater medium.

    PubMed

    Niestroy, Jeanette; Martínez, Alfonso Bárbara; Band-Schmidt, Christine J

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the effect on the chlorophyll a and the total protein content as well as the Chattonella spp. cell viability were examined after concentration-dependent exposure to CuCl2 and Aroclor 1242. The comparison between various raphidophyte strains provides an insight into the different susceptibilities to contaminants of Chattonella subsalsa (CSNAV-1), C. marina var. marina (CMCV-1) and C. marina var. ovata (COPV-2). The microalgae were cultivated in artificial seawater medium. Exponentially growing microalgae (8-10 days in culture) were used for exposure experiments. We observed in all three raphidophyte species cytotoxicity-mediated modifications beginning at concentrations of 150 and 200 µM of the heavy metal copper after 24 hours exposure. But interestingly, the three strains exhibited only slight differences in their susceptibility to CuCl2. C. subsalsa and C. marina var. marina cells were first affected at the chlorophyll a level and in cell viability. The total protein amount was reduced significantly only after exposure to 300 µM of CuCl2. However, C. marina var. ovata microalgae showed similar reduction curves for all three analysed cytotoxicity endpoints after heavy metal exposure. On the other hand, after Aroclor 1242 incubation the cytotoxic modification pattern indicated clearly the different susceptibilities of the three raphidophyte strains. C. subsalsa cells noticeably exhibited a decrease in the analysed pigment amount (30-20 % compared to that of the control) already after 0.007 mg/L PCB exposure. In contrast, cell viability and total protein content were slightly reduced and fell below the 50 % threshold after 0.7 and 3.3 mg/L of Aroclor 1242, respectively. Interestingly, C. marina var. ovata showed almost no cytotoxic modification caused by the PCB mixture. Only the concentration of 0.7 mg/L Aroclor 1242 clearly affected the cell viability. As opposed to that we observed a concentration-dependent decrease of cell viability and

  14. Analysis of concentration-dependent effects of copper and PCB on different Chattonella spp. microalgae (raphidophyceae) cultivated in artificial seawater medium

    PubMed Central

    Niestroy, Jeanette; Martínez, Alfonso Bárbara; Band-Schmidt, Christine J.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the effect on the chlorophyll a and the total protein content as well as the Chattonella spp. cell viability were examined after concentration-dependent exposure to CuCl2 and Aroclor 1242. The comparison between various raphidophyte strains provides an insight into the different susceptibilities to contaminants of Chattonella subsalsa (CSNAV-1), C. marina var. marina (CMCV-1) and C. marina var. ovata (COPV-2). The microalgae were cultivated in artificial seawater medium. Exponentially growing microalgae (8-10 days in culture) were used for exposure experiments. We observed in all three raphidophyte species cytotoxicity-mediated modifications beginning at concentrations of 150 and 200 µM of the heavy metal copper after 24 hours exposure. But interestingly, the three strains exhibited only slight differences in their susceptibility to CuCl2. C. subsalsa and C. marina var. marina cells were first affected at the chlorophyll a level and in cell viability. The total protein amount was reduced significantly only after exposure to 300 µM of CuCl2. However, C. marina var. ovata microalgae showed similar reduction curves for all three analysed cytotoxicity endpoints after heavy metal exposure. On the other hand, after Aroclor 1242 incubation the cytotoxic modification pattern indicated clearly the different susceptibilities of the three raphidophyte strains. C. subsalsa cells noticeably exhibited a decrease in the analysed pigment amount (30-20 % compared to that of the control) already after 0.007 mg/L PCB exposure. In contrast, cell viability and total protein content were slightly reduced and fell below the 50 % threshold after 0.7 and 3.3 mg/L of Aroclor 1242, respectively. Interestingly, C. marina var. ovata showed almost no cytotoxic modification caused by the PCB mixture. Only the concentration of 0.7 mg/L Aroclor 1242 clearly affected the cell viability. As opposed to that we observed a concentration-dependent decrease of cell viability and

  15. DYNAMIC MASS BALANCE OF PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, about 3.7 metric tons of PCB remain in the active sediment and inputs from the Saginaw River and atmospheric deposition contribute about 1.4 kg PCB per day. In 1977 the U.S. E.P.A. initiated a research effort on Saginaw Bay which was chosen because of ...

  16. PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Evans, B.S.

    1993-11-29

    Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy`s, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBS. The onset of dechlorination activity can be accelerated by addition of nutritional amendments and inducers. After 15 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution, dechlorination has been observed under several working conditions. The best results show that the average chlorine content steadily dropped from 4.3 to 3.5 chlorines per biphenyl over a 15-week period.

  17. Development of a Multianalyte Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Permethrin and Aroclors and Its Implementation for Analysis of Soil/Sediment and House Dust ExtractsExtracts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of a multianalyte enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of permethrin and aroclors 1248 or 1254, and implementation of the assay for analysis of soil/sediment samples are described. The feasibility of using the multianalyte ELISA to monitor aroclors ...

  18. Comparative effects of Aroclor 1254 (polychlorinated biphenyls) and phenanthrene on glucose uptake by freshwater microbial populations.

    PubMed Central

    Sayler, G S; Lund, L C; Shiaris, M P; Sherrill, T W; Perkins, R E

    1979-01-01

    The effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and phenanthrene stress on glucose uptake by natural microbial populations were examined by the heterotrophic potential technique. Temporal and spatial distributions in glucose uptake velocities were examined for natural samples as well as PCB- and phenanthrene-stressed samples. Statistical analysis indicated significant variability among the various samples. It was demonstrated that the environmental variables contributed significantly to the variability in uptake kinetics. Although general trends indicated a PCB-induced stimulation in uptake velocities, these trends were in part masked by sample variability. Data analysis indicated no statistically significant PCB or phenanthrene effect on either total glucose uptake velocities or the proportion of 14CO2 evolved, as compared to natural unstressed samples. PMID:114110

  19. Isolation and characterisation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading fungi from a historically contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Tigini, Valeria; Prigione, Valeria; Di Toro, Sara; Fava, Fabio; Varese, Giovanna C

    2009-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread toxic pollutants. Bioremediation might be an effective, cost competitive and environment-friendly solution for remediating environmental matrices contaminated by PCBs but it is still unsatisfactory, mostly for the limited biodegradation potential of bacteria involved in the processes. Very little is known about mitosporic fungi potential in PCB bioremediation and their occurrence in actual site historically contaminated soils. In the present study, we characterised the native mycoflora of an aged dump site soil contaminated by about 0.9 g kg-1 of Aroclor 1260 PCBs and its changing after aerobic biotreatment with a commercial complex source of bacteria and fungi. Fungi isolated from the soil resulting from 120 days of treatment were screened for their ability to adsorb or metabolise 3 target PCBs. Results The original contaminated soil contained low loads of few fungal species mostly belonging to the Scedosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera. The fungal load and biodiversity generally decreased throughout the aerobic treatment. None of the 21 strains isolated from the treated soil were able to grow on biphenyl (200 mg L-1) or a mixture of 2-chlorobiphenyl, 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl and 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (20 mg L-1 each) as sole carbon sources. However, 16 of them grew in a mineral medium containing the same PCBs mixture and glucose (10 g L-1). Five of the 6 isolates, which displayed the faster and more extensive growth under the latter conditions, were found to degrade the 3 PCBs apparently without the involvement of ligninolytic enzymes; they were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium solani. They are the first PCB degrading strains of such species reported so far in the literature. Conclusion The native mycoflora of the actual site aged heavily contaminated soil was mainly constituted by genera often reported as able to biodegrade

  20. Aqueous exposure to Aroclor 1254 modulates the mitogenic response of Atlantic salmon anterior kidney T-cells: Indications of short- and long-term immunomodulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Lerner, D.T.; Blazer, V.S.; McCormick, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exist as persistent organic pollutants in numerous river systems in the United States. Unfortunately, some of these rivers are sites of active Atlantic salmon restoration programs, and polychlorinated biphenyls have been implicated as ancillary factors contributing to failed salmon restoration. Here, we investigate the immediate and chronic effects of intermediate duration aqueous PCB exposure (1 or 10 ??g L-1 Aroclor 1254) on the mitogen-stimulated lymphoproliferative response of Atlantic salmon anterior kidney leukocytes (AKLs). A short-term study was designed to examine immunomodulation in Atlantic salmon smolts immediately following 21 days of aqueous exposure, while a long-term study evaluated chronic impacts in the mitogen response in parr 15 months post-exposure as larvae. The proliferative response of AKLs to the mitogens concanavalin A (CON A), phytohemaglutinnin-P (PHA-P), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and lipopolysaccharide were used as an indice of immunomodulation. The proliferative response to the T-cell mitogens CON A and PHA-P was significantly increased in the 10 ??g L-1 group (n = 10; P = 0.043 and 0.002, respectively) immediately following exposure of smolts. Additionally, The PHA-P response was significantly increased in the 1 ??g L-1 exposure group (n = 10, P = 0.036). In fish treated as larvae and tested 15 months later, the PHA-P sensitive populations exhibited elevated proliferation in the 1 and 10 ??g L-1 groups (n = 12, P < 0.04) relative to the vehicle control while the PWM response was significantly increased (n = 12, P = 0.036) only in the 10 ??g L-1 treated groups. These results demonstrate an immunomodulatory effect of PCBs on T-cell mitogen sensitive populations of lymphocytes in Atlantic salmon as well as long-term immunomodulation in PHA-P and PWM sensitive populations. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Aqueous exposure to Aroclor 1254 modulates the mitogenic response of Atlantic salmon anterior kidney T-cells: indications of short- and long-term immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Lerner, Darren T; Blazer, Vicki S; McCormick, Stephen D

    2005-05-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exist as persistent organic pollutants in numerous river systems in the United States. Unfortunately, some of these rivers are sites of active Atlantic salmon restoration programs, and polychlorinated biphenyls have been implicated as ancillary factors contributing to failed salmon restoration. Here, we investigate the immediate and chronic effects of intermediate duration aqueous PCB exposure (1 or 10 microgL-1 Aroclor 1254) on the mitogen-stimulated lymphoproliferative response of Atlantic salmon anterior kidney leukocytes (AKLs). A short-term study was designed to examine immunomodulation in Atlantic salmon smolts immediately following 21 days of aqueous exposure, while a long-term study evaluated chronic impacts in the mitogen response in parr 15 months post-exposure as larvae. The proliferative response of AKLs to the mitogens concanavalin A (CON A), phytohemaglutinnin-P (PHA-P), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and lipopolysaccharide were used as an indice of immunomodulation. The proliferative response to the T-cell mitogens CON A and PHA-P was significantly increased in the 10 microgL-1 group (n=10; P=0.043 and 0.002, respectively) immediately following exposure of smolts. Additionally, The PHA-P response was significantly increased in the 1 microgL-1 exposure group (n=10, P=0.036). In fish treated as larvae and tested 15 months later, the PHA-P sensitive populations exhibited elevated proliferation in the 1 and 10 microgL-1 groups (n=12, P<0.04) relative to the vehicle control while the PWM response was significantly increased (n=12, P=0.036) only in the 10 microgL-1 treated groups. These results demonstrate an immunomodulatory effect of PCBs on T-cell mitogen sensitive populations of lymphocytes in Atlantic salmon as well as long-term immunomodulation in PHA-P and PWM sensitive populations. PMID:15848250

  2. PCB126 Inhibits Adipogenesis of Human Preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gadupudi, Gopi; Gourronc, Francoise A.; Ludewig, Gabriele; Robertson, Larry W.; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are involved in the development of diabetes. Dysfunctional adipocytes play a significant role in initiating insulin resistance. Preadipocytes make up a large portion of adipose tissue and are necessary for the generation of functional mature adipocytes through adipogenesis. PCB126 is a dioxin-like PCB and a potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist. We hypothesized that PCB126 may be involved in the development of diabetes through disruption of adipogenesis. Using a newly developed human preadipocyte cell line called NPAD (Normal PreADipocytes), we found that exposure of preadipocytes to PCB126 resulted in significant reduction in their subsequent ability to fully differentiate into adipocytes, more so than when the cells were exposed to PCB126 during differentiation. Reduction in differentiation by PCB126 was associated with downregulation of transcript levels of a key adipocyte transcription factor, PPARγ, and late adipocyte differentiation genes. An AhR antagonist, CH223191, blocked this effect. These studies indicate that preadipocytes are particularly sensitive to the effects of PCB126 and suggest that AhR activation inhibits PPARγ transcription and subsequent adipogenesis. Our results validate the NPAD cell line as a useful model for studying the effects of POPs on adipogenesis. PMID:25304490

  3. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and evaluation of hematological and immunological effects of PCB exposure on turtles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuangying; Halbrook, Richard S; Sparling, Donald W

    2012-06-01

    Concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Aroclor 1260, and 26 congeners were measured in liver, fat, and eggs of red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) collected from ponds near or on the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Kentucky, USA. Concentrations of total PCBs (wet mass) ranged from 0.002 to 0.480 mg/kg, 0.028 to 0.839 mg/kg, and 0.001 to 0.011 mg/kg in liver, fat, and eggs, respectively. Concentrations of Arochlor 1260 did not exceed 0.430, 0.419, and 0.007 mg/kg in liver, fat, and eggs, respectively. Exposure to PCBs in red-eared sliders collected from the PGDP is characterized by low concentrations of moderately chlorinated mono-ortho and di-ortho congeners (PCB 153, 180, and 118). Although PCB concentrations measured in the current study were low, chronic exposure to PCBs may have altered hematology and immunity of the turtles examined. Total white blood cell count and number of heterophils were negatively correlated with concentrations of total PCBs and Arochlor 1260, respectively. However, disease and other contaminants in the study area may influence the results. Because little is known regarding the influence of PCBs on hematology and immune function in turtles, additional study is needed to better evaluate results observed in the current study. PMID:22430883

  4. BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENTS OF ADULTS RATS EXPOSED PERINATALLY TO PCB153.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners are more neurotoxic in vitro than are non-ortho-substituted PCB congeners. We selected PCB153, a common ortho-substituted PCB congener, to evaluate the neurobehavioral toxicity of this class of PCBs in vivo. Pregnant fema...

  5. PCB and heavy metal contamination and effects in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) at a superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Arenal, C.A.; Halbrook, R.S.

    1997-02-01

    From 1946-1967 industrial activities at the Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge (CONWR) included the construction of landfills and dumps for disposal of hazardous waste. Heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, mercury, and lead and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a special concern because of transport to biotic communities. During routine monitoring, Hite and King found elevated concentrations of mercury in fish from Crab Orchard Lake, and Kohler et al. reported PCB concentrations greater than FDA safety limits (2 ppm) in 38% of the fish collected in the eastern portion of Crab Orchard Lake. Additionally, livers from hunter harvested white-tailed deer killed on CONWR contained significantly greater concentrations of nickel and lead compared to deer collected off CONWR. In 1984, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added 7 sites within CONWR to the National Priorities List under the Comprehensive Environmental Recovery, Compensation and Liabilities Act. These site contained varying concentrations of PCBs (Aroclor 1254) and heavy metals that were assessed as posing risk to wildlife. Because few studies have been completed on the effects of PCB and heavy metal concentrations on avian species among sites on the refuge, and preliminary studies by McKee indicated possible avian reproductive impairment due to contaminant exposure, additional study to evaluate adverse effects in avian species was initiated. Using the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) as an avian model, this project provided biological and contaminant baseline data for evaluating avian exposure and effects, and provides a benchmark for determining the effectiveness of proposed remedial actions on CONWR. 18 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Energetic response of Chlorella vulgaris to alpha radiation and PCB stress

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    This research project has evaluated the bioenergetic response of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris following acute exposure to either the physical stress of radiation or the chemical stress of PCBs. After exposure, changes in survival or growth, adenylate pools (ATP, ADP, and AMP), CO/sub 2/ fixation and oxygen evolution and uptake were measured. By employing anaerobic conditions, or the electron transport inhibitor DCMU or dark conditions separately and in specific combinations, this study evaluated the response of three separate algal ATP producing mechanisms (respiration, total and cyclic photophosphorylation) to alpha radiation or PCB. The use of the adenylate energy charge ratio as an indicator of stress was also evaluated. The results of the radiation experiments indicated that alpha particle exposure between 25 to 275 rads caused a one-hour latent demand for ATP due to radioinduced DNA repair. In order to compensate for this ATP demand, nonessential utilization of ATP was decreased by slowing the rate of carbon fixation. The results also suggest that use of radiation as a tool to study algal physiology. The data obtained from the PCB experiments again showed each phosphorylation mechanism to be insensitive to 10, 100 and 200 ppm Aroclor 1254 exposures. Data suggest, however, that PCBs caused an increased photosynthetic rate, and total adenylate pool with decreased growth. The use of the adenylate energy charge ratio as a stress indicator was assessed. Because this ratio did not fluctuate at doses of radiation or PCBs that caused reduced survival and growth rates, this study concluded that for Chlorella the adenylate energy charge ration was a poor indicator of sublethal stress.

  7. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CLOR-N-SOIL PCB TEST KIT L2000 PCB/CHLORIDE ANALYZER - DEXSIL CORP.

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEXSIL CORP(Environmental Test Kits)The Dexsil Corporation (Dexsil) produces two test kits that detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in soil: the Dexsil Clor-N-Soil PCB Screening Kit, and the Dexsil L2000 PCB/Chloride Analyzer. The Dexsil Clor-N-Soil PCB Screening Kit extr...

  8. Toxicity and fetotoxicity of TCDD, TCDF and PCB isomers in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    SciTech Connect

    McNulty, W.P.

    1985-05-01

    In rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), consumption of food containing commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures, some pure polychlorobiphenyl congeners, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) caused the same clinical toxic manifestations and histopathologic lesions, although the potencies of the toxicants covered a range of five orders of magnitude. Recovery from poisoning by 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (34TCB) or TCDF was rapid, whereas recovery from poisoning by Aroclor 1242, 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (345HCB), or TCDD was protracted, if it occurred at all. 34TCB did not appreciably accumulate in body fat, but the level of 345HCB in fat rose steadily during ingestion. Among the symmetrical tetra- and hexachlorobiphenyl isomers tested, subacute oral toxicity could be demonstrated only for those without ortho chlorine substitutions. The principal demonstrable histopathological lesions, bone marrow excepted, were metaplasias in some specialized epithelial structures, such as sebaceous glands, nail beds, gastric mucosa, ameloblast, and thymic corpuscles. These changes were interpreted as toxicant-induced, reversible redirection of differentiation. this aberration was wholly reversible. TCDD and 34TCB caused abortions when given in one or a few oral doses early in pregnancy. At the total doses used (1 or 5 g/kg of body weight for TCDD, 3 or 0.6 mg/kg of body weight for 34TCB), maternal toxicity was frequently apparent subsequent to the abortion.

  9. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

  10. BEHAVIORAL EVALUATION OF PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO AROCLOR 1254 IN RATS: FIXED-INTERVAL PERFORMANCE AND REINFORCEMENT-OMISSION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mele et al. (1986) reported exposure to Aroclor 1248 (A1248) in rhesus monkeys produced an increased rate of responding under a fixed-interval (FI) schedule of reinforcement in which 25% of the scheduled reinforcers were omitted. The purpose of this work was to determine whether...

  11. [Toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)--indoor air pollution by PCB-containing durable elastic sealants].

    PubMed

    Ludewig, S; Kruse, H; Wassermann, O

    1993-01-01

    The widespread use of the persistent and lipophilic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) e.g. in electrical engineering, hydraulics and chemistry of the polymers, caused their ubiquitous distribution and accumulation in food chains. Chronic toxicity in humans is known from several incidents of PCB contaminated food. Dose-response experiences, however, remain uncertain due to the technical grade of PCB as a complex mixture of about 150 congeners and many impurities, like polychlorinated dibenzodurans. Some information on the toxicity of a few PCB congeners is available from animal experiments. Large differences in enzyme-inductive efficacy between the PCB congeners rendered the use of toxicity equivalent factors (related to 2,3,7,8-TCDD, "Seveso-Dioxin") necessary. For risk assessment, the use of "sum of PCB", calculated from questionable determinations of 6 minor toxic congeners, is insufficient. Serious problems arise from evaporation of PCB e.g. in technical rooms of telephone companies (in Germany: Telekom) and generally, from sealing materials in buildings. The German Federal Health Administration, BGA, recommends 300 ng total PCB/m3 indoor air as "precautionary value". Since neither the extreme differences in toxicity of the congeners nor bioaccumulation are taken into account, this recommendation of BGA can not be justified any longer. PMID:8219584

  12. PCB trial burn in a modular, movable incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, P. ); Reiter, B.A. )

    1987-01-01

    The authors discuss a trial burn conducted from March 11-13, 1986, in El Dorado, Arkanasas, of an MWP-2000 Modular Incinerations system to destroy PCB liquids, PCB items and PCB-contaminated solids in conformance with TSCA requirements. MWP-2000 has 4 main process modules--Rotary kiln, capable of destroying liquid PCBs and PCB-contaminated dirt; secondary combustor, capable of destroying high-level PCB liquids; heat recovery system, generating steam to drive the system's prime mover; and pollution control system that removes acid gases and fine particulates from the gas stream. The trial burn consisted of 5 separate tests. The first 3 tests were replicate tests. In these tests PCB-contaminated soils, having a PCB content of 1.8%, and PCB-contaminated fuel, having a content of 60%, were burned simultaneously in the secondary combustor. In the fourth test, PCB liquids, having a PCB content of 61%, were burned in the secondary combustor while the kiln was not operated. In the fifth test, pre-shredded capacitors having a PCB content of 18% were fed to the kiln and PCB liquids having a PCB concentration of 64% were fed to the secondary combustor. Trial burn results clearly demonstrate that a DREs of 99.999999% were achieved. HCl removal efficiencies of 99.9% were achieved. Total particulate emissions of 0.01-0.02 gr/DSCF were achieved. PCB contamination in the kiln ash and effluent residuals of <2 ppm were achieved.

  13. Vitamins A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, and E in minks exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1242{reg{underscore}sign}) and copper, via diet based on freshwater or marine fish

    SciTech Connect

    Kaekelae, R.; Kaekelae, A.; Hyvaerinen, H.; Asikainen, J.; Dahl, S.K.

    1999-11-01

    Minks (Mustela vison) fed diets based on either freshwater fish or marine fish were exposed to 1 mg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1242) daily for 28 d. To minks on the freshwater diet, copper was also given with or without PCBs. The marine diet included more vitamin A, and E than the freshwater diet. The authors studied how the exposures affected levels of vitamins A{sub 1}, A{sub 2}, and E in liver and adipose tissues and levels of vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} in plasma. In females and males on the freshwater diet, the hepatic level of vitamin A{sub 2} was decreased because of the PCBs, and in these males the hepatic levels of vitamin E also decreased. Interestingly, with coexposure to PCBs and copper, the vitamin levels were, in general, close to the control values. In adipose tissues also, the PCBs induced significant changes in the concentrations of vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2}. In plasma, vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} were decreased in all patterns of exposure and on both diets. However, plasma thyroxine was slightly increased, a finding opposite to that reported previously in rodent studies. The results suggest that, in mink, diet greatly modulates the responses to PCBs, which may also differ in males and females. Furthermore, vitamins A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} may not be metabolized equally during PCB administration.

  14. Divergent Effects of Dioxin- or Non-Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls on the Apoptosis of Primary Cell Culture from the Mouse Pituitary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Raggi, Francesco; Russo, Dania; Urbani, Claudio; Sardella, Chiara; Manetti, Luca; Cappellani, Daniele; Lupi, Isabella; Tomisti, Luca; Martino, Enio; Marcocci, Claudio; Bogazzi, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can disrupt the endocrine function, promote neoplasms and regulate apoptosis in some tissues; however, it is unknown whether PCBs can affect the apoptosis of pituitary cells. The study evaluated the effect of PCBs on the apoptosis of normal pituitary cells and the underlying mechanisms. Primary cell cultures obtained from mouse pituitary glands were exposed to Aroclor 1254 or selected dioxin-like (PCB 77, PCB 126) or non-dioxin-like (PCB 153, PCB 180) congeners. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V staining, DNA fragmentation, and TUNEL assay. Both the expression and activity of caspases were analyzed. Selective thyroid hormone receptor (TR) or aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) or CYP1A1 antagonist were used to explore the mechanisms underlying PCBs action. Our results showed that Aroclor 1254 induced the apoptosis of pituitary cells as well as the final caspase-3 level and activity through the extrinsic pathway, as shown by the increased caspase-8 level and activity. On the other hand, the intrinsic pathway evaluated by measuring caspase-9 expression was silent. The selected non-dioxin-like congeners either increased (PCB 180) or reduced (PCB 153) pituitary cell apoptosis, affecting the extrinsic pathway (PCB 180), or both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways (PCB 153), respectively. In contrast, the dioxin-like congeners (PCB 77 and PCB 126) did not affect apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic phenotype of PCB 153 was counteracted by a TR or a CYP1A1 antagonist, whereas the pro-apoptotic effect of PCB 180 was counteracted by an AhR antagonist. The induced apoptosis of Aroclor 1254 or PCB 180 was associated with a reduction of cell proliferation, whereas the decreased apoptosis due to PCB 153 increased cell proliferation by 30%. In conclusion, our data suggest that non-dioxin-like PCBs may modulate apoptosis and the proliferation rate of pituitary cells that have either pro- or anti-apoptotic effects depending on the specific congeners

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls PCB 52, PCB 180, and PCB 138 impair the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in cerebellar neurons in culture by different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Llansola, Marta; Montoliu, Carmina; Boix, Jordi; Felipo, Vicente

    2010-04-19

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that accumulate in the food chain and are present in human blood and milk. Children born to mothers exposed to PCBs show cognitive deficits, which are reproduced in rats perinatally exposed to PCBs. It has been proposed that PCB-induced cognitive impairment is due to impairment of the glutamate-nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway. The aim of the present work was to assess whether chronic exposure to the nondioxin-like PCB52, PCB138, or PCB180 alters the function of this pathway in primary cultures of rat cerebellar neurons and to assess whether different PCBs have similar or different mechanisms of action. PCB180 and PCB138 impair the function of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway at nanomolar concentrations, and PCB52 impairs the function of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway at micromolar concentrations. The mechanisms by which different PCBs impair the function of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway are different. Each PCB affects the pathway at more than one step but with different potency and, for some steps, in opposite ways. Exposure to the PCBs alters the basal concentrations of intracellular calcium, NO, and cGMP. The three PCBs increase NO; however, PCB52 and PCB138 increase basal cGMP, while PCB180 decreases it. PCB52 and PCB138 decrease the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase by NO, and PCB180 increases it. Long-term exposure to PCB52, PCB180, or PCB138 reduces the activation of NO synthase and the whole glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway in response to activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. The EC(50) was 300 nM for PCB52 and 2 nM for PCB138 or PCB180. These results show that chronic exposure to nondioxin like PCBs impairs the function of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway in cerebellar neurons by different mechanisms and with different potencies. Impaired function of this pathway would contribute to the cognitive alterations induced by perinatal exposure to PCBs in humans. PMID:20297801

  16. Assessing Adverse Effects of Aroclor 1254 on Perinatally Exposed Rat Offspring.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wei; Cheng, Jin Ping; Yang, Yi Chen; Wang, Wen Hua

    2015-09-01

    To assess the neurotoxic effects and redox responses of Aroclor 1254 (A1254) on perinatally exposed rat offspring, A1254 was administered by gavage from gestational day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PND) 21. Neurobehavioral development, antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), and NO synthase (NOS) levels were analyzed in the offspring. Neurobehavioral development analysis revealed delayed appearance of the righting reflex, negative geotaxis, and cliff drop test responses in A1254 exposed group. Developmental A1254 exposure also caused oxidative stress in the brain of PND 22 offspring via reductions in the activity of SOD and GSH-Px, and by promoting a rise in the levels of NO and NOS. PMID:26464258

  17. Bayesian Monte Carlo updating of Hudson River PCB model using water column PCB measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.; Toll, J.; Cothern, K.

    1995-12-31

    The authors have developed prior probability distributions for model parameters and terms describing physico-chemical processes in sediment and water column models of PCB fate in a segment of the lower Hudson River, and performed importance analyses to identify the key uncertainties affecting the models` predictive power. In this work, the authors employ field measurements of the mean total water column PCB concentration from nearby river segments to refine the prior probability distributions for the important parameters and terms in the water column PCB model, using Bayesian Monte Carlo analysis. The principal objectives of the current work are (1) to implement Bayesian Monte Carlo analysis, to demonstrate the technique and evaluate its potential benefits, and (2) to improve the parameterization of the water column PCB model on the basis of site-specific PCB concentration data. The Bayesian updating procedure resulted in improved estimates of PCB mass loading and re-suspension velocity terms, but posteriors for three other key parameters -- settling velocity and particulate PCB fractions in the water column and surface sediments -- were unaffected by the information extracted from the new field data. In addition, the authors found that some of the high posterior probability parameter vectors, though mathematically plausible, were physically implausible, as a consequence of the unrealistic (but common) Monte Carlo assumption that the model`s parameters are independently distributed. The implications of this and other findings are discussed.

  18. Bare PCB test method based on AI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aihua; Zhou, Huiyang; Wan, Nianhong; Qu, Liangsheng

    1995-08-01

    The shortcomings of conventional methods used for developing test sets on current automated printed circuit board (PCB) test machines consist of overlooking the information from CAD, historical test data, and the experts' knowledge. Thus, the generated test sets and proposed test sequence may be sub-optimal and inefficient. This paper presents a weighting bare PCB test method based on analysis and utilization of the CAD information. AI technique is applied for faults statistics and faults identification. Also, the generation of test sets and the planning of test procedure are discussed. A faster and more efficient test system is achieved.

  19. Cytochrome c adducts with PCB quinoid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Li, Miao; Teesch, Lynn M; Murry, Daryl J; Pope, R Marshal; Li, Yalan; Robertson, Larry W; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of 209 individual congeners widely used as industrial chemicals. PCBs are found as by-products in dye and paint manufacture and are legacy, ubiquitous, and persistent as human and environmental contaminants. PCBs with fewer chlorine atoms may be metabolized to hydroxy- and dihydroxy-metabolites and further oxidized to quinoid metabolites both in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, quinoid metabolites may form adducts on nucleophilic sites within cells. We hypothesized that the PCB-quinones covalently bind to cytochrome c and, thereby, cause defects in the function of cytochrome c. In this study, synthetic PCB quinones, 2-(4'-chlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone (PCB3-pQ), 4-4'-chlorophenyl)-1,2-benzoquinone (PCB3-oQ), 2-(3', 5'-dichlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone, 2-(3',4', 5'-trichlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone, and 2-(4'-chlorophenyl)-3,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone, were incubated with cytochrome c, and adducts were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF). Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was employed to separate the adducted proteins, while trypsin digestion and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were applied to identify the amino acid binding sites on cytochrome c. Conformation change of cytochrome c after binding with PCB3-pQ was investigated by SYBYL-X simulation and cytochrome c function was examined. We found that more than one molecule of PCB-quinone may bind to one molecule of cytochrome c. Lysine and glutamic acid were identified as the predominant binding sites. Software simulation showed conformation changes of adducted cytochrome c. Additionally, cross-linking of cytochrome c was observed on the SDS-PAGE gel. Cytochrome c was found to lose its function as electron acceptor after incubation with PCB quinones. These data provide evidence that the covalent

  20. Printed Circuit Board Design (PCB) with HDL Designer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkert, Thomas K.; LaFourcade, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: PCB design with HDL designer, design process and schematic capture - symbols and diagrams: 1. Motivation: time savings, money savings, simplicity. 2. Approach: use single tool PCB for FPGA design, more FPGA designs than PCB designers. 3. Use HDL designer for schematic capture.

  1. 40 CFR 761.274 - Reporting PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting PCB concentrations in... COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.274 Reporting PCB concentrations in samples. (a) Report all...

  2. 40 CFR 761.274 - Reporting PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting PCB concentrations in... COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.274 Reporting PCB concentrations in samples. (a) Report all...

  3. 40 CFR 761.274 - Reporting PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting PCB concentrations in... COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.274 Reporting PCB concentrations in samples. (a) Report all...

  4. 40 CFR 761.125 - Requirements for PCB spill cleanup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for PCB spill cleanup..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Spill Cleanup Policy § 761.125 Requirements for PCB spill cleanup. (a... minimize reporting burdens on governments as well as the regulated community. (i) Where a spill...

  5. 40 CFR 761.125 - Requirements for PCB spill cleanup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for PCB spill cleanup..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Spill Cleanup Policy § 761.125 Requirements for PCB spill cleanup. (a... minimize reporting burdens on governments as well as the regulated community. (i) Where a spill...

  6. 40 CFR 761.125 - Requirements for PCB spill cleanup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for PCB spill cleanup..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Spill Cleanup Policy § 761.125 Requirements for PCB spill cleanup. (a... minimize reporting burdens on governments as well as the regulated community. (i) Where a spill...

  7. 40 CFR 761.125 - Requirements for PCB spill cleanup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for PCB spill cleanup..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Spill Cleanup Policy § 761.125 Requirements for PCB spill cleanup. (a... minimize reporting burdens on governments as well as the regulated community. (i) Where a spill...

  8. 40 CFR 761.125 - Requirements for PCB spill cleanup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for PCB spill cleanup..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Spill Cleanup Policy § 761.125 Requirements for PCB spill cleanup. (a... minimize reporting burdens on governments as well as the regulated community. (i) Where a spill...

  9. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: ENVIROGARD™ PCB TEST KIT - MILLIPORE, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EnviroGard™ polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) immunoassay test kit rapidly analyzes for PCB concentrations in soils. Soil sample extracts are added to test tubes coated with antibodies that bind PCB molecules. The excess soil extracts are washed out of the tubes after incubat...

  10. In utero exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PCB 153 and PCB 118 disrupts fetal testis development in sheep.

    PubMed

    Krogenæs, Anette K; Ropstad, Erik; Gutleb, Arno C; Hårdnes, Nina; Berg, Vidar; Dahl, Ellen; Fowler, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are environmental pollutants linked to adverse health effects including endocrine disruption and disturbance of reproductive development. This study aimed to determine whether exposure of pregnant sheep to three different mixtures of PCB 153 and PCB 118 affected fetal testis development. Ewes were treated by oral gavage from mating until euthanasia (d 134), producing three groups of fetuses with distinct adipose tissue PCB levels: high PCB 153/low PCB 118 (n = 13), high PCB 118/low PCB 153 (n = 14), and low PCB 153/low PCB 118 (n = 14). Fetal testes and blood samples were collected for investigation of testosterone, testis morphology, and testis proteome. The body weight of the offspring was lower in the high PCB compared to the low PCB group, but there were no significant differences in testis weight between groups when corrected for body weight. PCB exposure did not markedly affect circulating testosterone. There were no significant differences between groups in number of seminiferous tubules, Sertoli cell only tubules, and ratio between relative areas of seminiferous tubules and interstitium. Two-dimensional (2D) gel-based proteomics was used to screen for proteomic alterations in the high exposed groups relative to low PCB 153/low PCB 118 group. Twenty-six significantly altered spots were identified by liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectroscopy (MS)/MS. Changes in protein regulation affected cellular processes as stress response, protein synthesis, and cytoskeleton regulation. The study demonstrates that in utero exposure to different environmental relevant PCB mixtures exerted subtle effects on developing fetal testis proteome but did not significantly disturb testis morphology and testosterone production. PMID:24754397

  11. REMEDIATION OF PCB IN CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale study will be conducted to evaluate the bioremedial techniques of natural attenuation, sequenced anaerobic/aerobic treatment, and addition of a commercially available microbial amendment product for use in treating PCB contaminated soils at Air Force Base sites. Th...

  12. The Belgian PCB and dioxin incident of January-June 1999: exposure data and potential impact on health.

    PubMed Central

    van Larebeke, N; Hens, L; Schepens, P; Covaci, A; Baeyens, J; Everaert, K; Bernheim, J L; Vlietinck, R; De Poorter, G

    2001-01-01

    In January 1999, 500 tons of feed contaminated with approximately 50 kg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1 g of dioxins were distributed to animal farms in Belgium, and to a lesser extent in the Netherlands, France, and Germany. This study was based on 20,491 samples collected in the database of the Belgian federal ministries from animal feed, cattle, pork, poultry, eggs, milk, and various fat-containing food items analyzed for their PCB and/or dioxin content. Dioxin measurements showed a clear predominance of polychlorinated dibenzofuran over polychlorinated dibenzodioxin congeners, a dioxin/PCB ratio of approximately 1:50,000 and a PCB fingerprint resembling that of an Aroclor mixture, thus confirming contamination by transformer oil rather than by other environmental sources. In this case the PCBs contribute significantly more to toxic equivalents (TEQ) than dioxins. The respective means +/- SDs and the maximum concentrations of dioxin (expressed in TEQ) and PCB observed per gram of fat in contaminated food were 170.3 +/- 487.7 pg, 2613.4 pg, 240.7 +/- 2036.9 ng, and 51059.0 ng in chicken; 1.9 +/- 0.8 pg, 4.3 pg, 34.2 +/- 30.5 ng, and 314.0 ng in milk; and 32.0 +/- 104.4 pg, 713.3 pg, 392.7 +/- 2883.5 ng, and 46000.0 ng in eggs. Assuming that as a consequence of this incident between 10 and 15 kg PCBs and from 200 to 300 mg dioxins were ingested by 10 million Belgians, the mean intake per kilogram of body weight is calculated to maximally 25,000 ng PCBs and 500 pg international TEQ dioxins. Estimates of the total number of cancers resulting from this incident range between 40 and 8,000. Neurotoxic and behavioral effects in neonates are also to be expected but cannot be quantified. Because food items differed widely (more than 50-fold) in the ratio of PCBs to dioxins, other significant sources of contamination and a high background contamination are likely to contribute substantially to the exposure of the Belgian population. PMID:11333188

  13. The effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1242) on thyroxine, estradiol, molt, and plumage characteristics in the American kestrel (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, M.J.; French, J.B.; McNabb, F.M.A.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of Aroclor 1242, a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on plumage characteristics and molt in the American kestrel, Falco sparverills. Several characteristics of plumage. including color and molt schedule, are modulated by hormonal signals and hence may be modified by endocrine-active contaminants. If so, the functions of plumage (e.g. communication for mating or territorial defense) may be compromised by exposure to such compounds. Captive American kestrels were fed Aroclor 1242 at 0. 6.0. and 60.0 ppm (n = 6 males and 6 females per treatment) mixed in their normal diet. Concentrations of plasma estradiol and thyroxine were measured weekly from the beginning of treatment. Measured plumage characteristics included width of the black subterminal band on the tail, color (a composite index of hue and saturation), reflectance from 230 to 800 min. pattern of feather loss and regrowth on the tail and wing. and timing of onset and duration of molt. Aroclor 1242 depressed plasma thyroxine. Plasma estradiol levels remained low due to the phase of the breeding cycle. Treatments did not disrupt the measured plumage characteristics. This may be due to timing or dose of exposure or to genetic factors.

  14. Effects of Organic Substrates on Dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 in Anaerobic Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Nies, Loring; Vogel, Timothy M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of different organic substrates on the abilities of anaerobic sediment enrichments to reductively dechlorinate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied. Sediments collected from a site previously contaminated with PCBs were dosed with additional PCBs (Aroclor 1242; approximately 300 ppm [300 μg/g], sediment dry weight) and incubated anaerobically with acetate, acetone, methanol, or glucose. The pattern of dechlorination was similar for each substrate-fed batch; however, the extents and rates of dechlorination were different. Significant dechlorination over time was observed, with the relative rates and extents of dechlorination being greatest for methanol-, glucose-, and acetone-fed batches and least for acetate-fed batches. Dechlorination occurred primarily on the meta- and para- positions of the highly chlorinated congeners, resulting in the accumulation of less-chlorinated, primarily ortho-substituted products. No significant dechlorination was observed in incubation batches receiving no additional organic substrate, even though identical inorganic nutrients were added to all incubation batches. In addition, dechlorination was not observed in autoclaved controls that received substrate and nutrients. PMID:16348270

  15. PCB concentrations of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) vary by sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Ebener, Mark P.; Sepulveda, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 26 female lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and 34 male lake whitefish from northern Lake Huron. In 5 of the 26 female lake whitefish, we also determined PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 60 ng/g and 80 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 34% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Based on the PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 2.5%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain, to any degree, the higher PCB concentrations observed in males compared with females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being only 0.7% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the growth dilution effect contributed very little to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. We conclude that males were higher than females in PCB concentration most likely due to a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate. A higher rate of energy expenditure leads to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, leads to a higher PCB accumulation rate.

  16. Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among US construction workers

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Robert F; Meeker, John D; Hauser, Russ; Altshul, Larisa; Weymouth, George A

    2007-01-01

    Background The presence of PCB in caulking (sealant) material found in masonry buildings has been well-documented in several countries. A recent investigation of 24 buildings in the greater Boston area found that 8 buildings had high PCB levels in caulking materials used around window frames and in joints between masonry blocks. Workers removing caulking material have been shown to have elevated serum PCB levels. Methods This project compared serum PCB levels among male workers who installed and/or removed PCB-containing caulking material from buildings in the greater Boston area with reference serum PCB levels from 358 men from the same area. Serum PCB levels were measured in the same laboratory by liquid-liquid extraction, column chromatography clean-up and dual capillary column GC/microECD analysis. Results When the congener profiles were compared between the reference population and the construction workers, the serum levels of the more volatile, lighter PCBs (di-, tri-and tetrachloro, sum of IUPAC# 6–74) were substantially higher among the construction workers. One of the youngest workers had the lowest total serum PCB levels (sum of 57 congeners) of all 6 workers, but the contribution of more volatile (less chlorinated) PCB congeners (#16, 26,28,33,74,66, and 60) was markedly higher than in other 5 workers and reference men. Only this worker was working on a job that involved removing PCB caulking at the time of the blood sampling. Conclusion While the results of this pilot study are based upon small numbers (6 construction workers who handled PCB caulking), the serum PCB levels among the construction workers exceed the referents. Comparison of the congener profiles suggests that there are substantial differences between the construction workers and the general population samples. These differences, and the similarities of profiles among the construction workers strongly suggest that occupational contact with caulking material can be a major source of PCB

  17. PCB levels in human fluids: Sheboygan cohort study, Sheboygan maternal/infant PCB study

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The PCB problem in the United States today has been raised to national concern with the discovery of PCBs in human breast milk above the highest recommended level for any commercially sold flood. This study, done in Sheboygan, Wisconsin in 1980-81, was to determine if (1) there were high levels of PCBs in mother's serum and breast milk in the vicinity of a PCB spill, (2) if these levels could be linked to the women's consumption of local fish, and (3) if the infants born to these women in the study showed signals of impaired health, growth, and development. Seventy-three women participated in the study, 62 who were breast-feeding their children, and 11 who were bottle-feeding their children. The serum PCB levels for the study population ranged from 1.29 to 14.90 ppb with a mean of 5.76 ppb. The breast milk PCB levels for the women who were breast feeding was 0.29 to 4.04 ppm with a mean of 1.13 ppm. The infants showed signs of impaired health as a result of in utero exposure to PCBs. No negative effects from exposure to breast milk PCB could be discerned up to 4 months postpartum.

  18. PCB's in Suburban Watershed, Reston, Va

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martell, J.M.; Rickert, D.A.; Siegel, F.R.

    1975-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in Lake Anne basin increased from water (<0.05-0.2 ppb), to bed sediment (<2.5-105 ppb), to fish (140-700 ppb) in an average ratio of 1:500:3000. The highest concentrations were observed in the lake, which is 10 years old, and receives no sewage or industrial waste discharges. Evidence indicates that the polvchlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) originate from diffuse sources associated with urban development and living.

  19. Decontamination and disposal of PCB wastes.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, L E

    1985-01-01

    Decontamination and disposal processes for PCB wastes are reviewed. Processes are classed as incineration, chemical reaction or decontamination. Incineration technologies are not limited to the rigorous high temperature but include those where innovations in use of oxident, heat transfer and residue recycle are made. Chemical processes include the sodium processes, radiant energy processes and low temperature oxidations. Typical processing rates and associated costs are provided where possible. PMID:3928363

  20. PCB-Based Break-Out Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Break-out boxes (BOBs) are necessary for all electrical integration/cable checkouts and troubleshooting. Because the price of a BOB is high, and no work can be done without one, often the procedure stops, simply waiting for a BOB. A less expensive BOB would take less time in the integration, testing, and troubleshooting process. The PCB-based BOB works and looks the same as a standard JPL BOB, called Gold Boxes. The only differences between the old BOB and the new PCB-based BOB is that the new one has 80 percent of its circuitry in a printed circuit board. This process reduces the time for fabrication, thus making the BOBs less expensive. Moreover, because of its unique design, the new BOBs can be easily assembled and fixed. About 80 percent of the new PCB-based BOB is in a $22 (at the time of this reporting) custom-designed, yet commercially available PCB. This device has been used successfully to verify that BOB cables were properly made. Also, upon completion, the BOB was beeped out via a multimeter to ensure that all sockets on the connectors were properly connected to the respective banana jack. When compared to the Gold Box BOBs, the new BOB has many advantages. It is much more cost efficient, it delivers equal usability at substantially lower cost of the BOB, and the Gold Box is much heavier when compared to the new BOB. The new BOB is also a bit longer and much more versatile in that connectors are easily changeable and if a banana jack is broken, it can be replaced instead of throwing away an entire BOB.

  1. PCB with fully integrated optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Gregor; Satzinger, Valentin; Schmidt, Volker; Schmid, Gerhard; Leeb, Walter R.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing demand for miniaturization and design flexibility of polymer optical waveguides integrated into electrical printed circuit boards (PCB) calls for new coupling and integration concepts. We report on a method that allows the coupling of optical waveguides to electro-optical components as well as the integration of an entire optical link into the PCB. The electro-optical devices such as lasers and photodiodes are assembled on the PCB and then embedded in an optically transparent material. A focused femtosecond laser beam stimulates a polymerization reaction based on a two-photon absorption effect in the optical material and locally increases the refractive index of the material. In this way waveguide cores can be realized and the embedded components can be connected optically. This approach does not only allow a precise alignment of the waveguide end faces to the components but also offers a truly 3-dimensional routing capability of the waveguides. Using this technology we were able to realize butt-coupling and mirror-coupling interface solutions in several demonstrators. We were also manufacturing demonstrator boards with fully integrated driver and preamplifier chips, which show very low power consumption of down to 10 mW for about 2.5 Gbit/s. Furthermore, demonstrators with interconnects at two different optical layers were realized.

  2. PCB augments LH-induced progesterone synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, G.B.; Knauf, V.; Mueller, W.; Hobson, W.C.

    1980-07-01

    A great deal of attention has been focused on various environmental contaminants and their toxic effects on mammalian systems. Important among the compounds studied are the organochlorine pesticides and the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The accumulation and persistence of these contaminants in the biosphere has accentuated their public health significance and limited their widespread commercial utilization. Changes in reproductive function have proven to be one of the more detrimental effects of chronic exposure to PCB or hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Reports in the literature have implicated potential target tissues such as the ovary, steroid-hydroxylating enzymes in the liver, and hypothalamus. The present experiment was designed to study the effect of acute in-vivo exposure to PCB (Clophen A-30) and HCB on LH-induced progesterone synthesis in-vitro. In order to obtain large amounts of luterin tissue relatively uniform in nature, the PMS-HCG primed immature rat model was utilized. This priming procedure, as described by Parlow (1958), results in a pronounced capacity for progesterone synthesis by the excessive numbers of induced corpora.

  3. Development of toxic equivalency factors for PCB congeners and the assessment of TCDD and PCB mixtures in rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Newsted, J.L.; Giesy, J.P.; Crawford, R.A.; Jones, P.D.; Ankley, G.T.; Tillitt, D.E.; Gooch, J.W.; Denison, M.S.

    1995-05-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between mammalian and piscine 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, based on induction of CYP1A enzyme activity, catalytic protein, and mRNA. Rainbow trout administered a single i.p. injection of TCDD had an average ({+-}SD) ED50 of 0.91 {+-} 0.14 {mu}g TCDD/kg for induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity. Ortho-substituted PCB congeners 2,3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 105), 2,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118), 2,3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 156), and 2,2{prime}3,4,4{prime},5-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 138) did not induce CYP1A activity in rainbow trout. Only three non-ortho-substituted PCBs, i.e., 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77), 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), and 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) induced CYP1A enzyme activity, protein, and mRNA. The ED50s for induction of EROD activity were calculated as 134, 5.82, and 93.7 {mu}g/kg for PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169, respectively. The TCDD-TEFs based on EROD activity were 0.0006, 0.0014, and 0.0003 for PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169, respectively. Binary mixtures of TCDD and three PCBs were also evaluated. Based on EROD activity and CYP1A protein, mixtures of TCDD and PCB 77 were slightly greater than additive. Mixtures of TCDD-PCB 156 and TCDD-PCB 126 were slightly less than additive. Results from these studies indicate that mammal-derived TEFs will underestimate the potency of planar chlorinated hydrocarbon mixtures to induce the CYP1A catalytic activity in rainbow trout. Also, while interactions among PCB congeners and TCDD were somewhat equivocal, they did not greatly differ from predicted additive responses.

  4. Variation in net trophic transfer efficiencies among 21 PCB congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Madenjian, C.P.; Schmidt, L.J.; Chernyak, S.M.; Elliott, R.F.; Desourcie, T.J.; Quintal, R.T.; Begnoche, L.J.; Hesselberg, R.J.

    1999-11-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that the efficiency with which fish retain polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from their food strongly depends on K{sub ow} and degree of chlorination of the congener. The authors used diet information, determinations of concentrations of individual PCB congeners in both coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiencies with which Lake Michigan coho salmon retain various PCB congeners from their food. The retention efficiency for the tetrachloro congeners averaged 38%, whereas retention efficiencies for higher chlorinated congeners ranged from 43 to 56%. Not including tetrachloro congeners, the authors found neither decreasing nor increasing trends in the efficiencies with which the coho salmon retained the PCB congeners from their food with either increasing K{sub ow} or increasing degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners. The authors concluded that (a) for PCB congeners with 5--8 chlorine atoms/molecule, K{sub ow} and degree of chlorination had little influence on the efficiency with which coho salmon retained the various PCB congeners in their food, and (b) the efficiency with which coho salmon retained tetrachloro PCB congeners in their food appeared to be slightly lower than that for higher chlorinated PCB congeners.

  5. Gender difference in walleye PCB concentrations persists following remedial dredging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jude, David J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Noguchi, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Eleven male walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 10 female walleyes from the Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) population were caught during the spawning run at Dow Dam (Midland, Michigan) in the Tittabawassee River during April 1996, and individual whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations were made. Total PCB concentrations averaged 7.95 and 3.17??mg/kg for males and females, respectively. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment remediation process, contaminated sediments from the Saginaw River, the main tributary to Saginaw Bay, were removed during 2000 and 2001. Total PCB concentrations of 10 male and 10 female walleyes caught at Dow Dam during April 2007 averaged 1.58 and 0.55??mg/kg, respectively. Thus, dredging of the Saginaw River appeared to be effective in reducing PCB concentrations of Saginaw Bay adult walleyes, as both males and females decreased in PCB concentration by more than 80% between 1996 and 2007. However, the ratio of male PCB concentration to female PCB concentration did not decline between 1996 and 2007. This persistent gender difference in PCB concentrations was apparently due to a gender difference in habitat utilization coupled with a persistent spatial gradient in prey fish PCB concentrations from the Saginaw River to Lake Huron.

  6. Variation in net trophic transfer efficiencies among 21 PCB congeners

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Schmidt, L.J.; Chernyak, S.M.; Elliott, R.F.; Desorcie, T.J.; Quintal, R.T.; Begnoche, L.J.; Hesselberg, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the efficiency with which fish retain polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from their food strongly depends on Kow and degree of chlorination of the congener. We used diet information, determinations of concentrations of individual PCB congeners in both coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiencies with which Lake Michigan coho salmon retain various PCB congeners from their food. The retention efficiency for the tetrachloro congeners averaged 38%, whereas retention efficiencies for higher chlorinated congeners ranged from 43 to 56%. Not including tetrachloro congeners, we found neither decreasing nor increasing trends in the efficiencies with which the coho salmon retained the PCB congeners from their food with either increasing Kow or increasing degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners. We concluded that (a) for PCB congeners with 5−8 chlorine atoms/molecule, Kow and degree of chlorination had little influence on the efficiency with which coho salmon retained the various PCB congeners in their food, and (b) the efficiency with which coho salmon retained tetrachloro PCB congeners in their food appeared to be slightly lower than that for higher chlorinated PCB congeners.

  7. Estimating whole-body fish PCB concentrations from fillet data

    SciTech Connect

    Rigg, D.; Hohreiter, D.; Strause, K.; Brown, M.; Barnes, C.

    1995-12-31

    A study was designed to assess a potentially cost-effective method for generating both types of data from single fish specimens. The method is based on the testable hypothesis that whole-body PCE concentrations are predictable from fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and whole-body lipid concentrations. The study involved the collection of small-mouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) from several locations in the Kalamazoo River (Michigan) watershed to represent a range in PCB exposure. PCB and lipid concentrations were determined in aliquots of homogenized fillets and remaining carcasses. Wet-weight total PCB concentrations in carp ranged from 0.06 to 17 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.11 to 14 mg/kg for remaining carcass; small-mouth bass ranged from 0.08 to 5.8 mg/kg in fillets, and from 0.21 to 13.2 mg/kg for remaining carcass. Whole-body PCB concentrations predicted using fillet PCB concentrations and fillet and carcass lipid concentrations accounted for 94% and 88% of the variability in measured whole-body small-mouth and whole-body carp concentrations, respectively. Predicted and measured whole-body PCB concentrations had a correlation of 91% for small-mouth bass, and 84% for carp. These results demonstrate that value of the lipid-based model in predicting whole-body PCB concentrations from measured fillet PCB concentrations and lipid concentrations in fillet and remaining carcass.

  8. Gene expression profiles in the cerebellum and hippocampus following exposure to a neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254: Developmental effects.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The developmental consequences of exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been widely studied, making PCBs a unique model to understand issues related to environmental mixture of persistent chemicals. PCB exposure in humans adversely affects neurocognitive developm...

  9. Gene expression profiles following exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254: Pathway analysis for possible mode(s) of action.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies indicate that low levels of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure can adversely affect neurocognitive development. In animal models, perturbations in calcium signaling, neurotransmitters, and thyroid hormones have been postulated as potential mechanisms...

  10. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AROCLOR 1016 OR 1254 DID NOT ALTER BRAIN CATECHOLAMINES NOR DELAYED ALTERNATION PERFORMANCE IN LONG EVANS RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several reports have indicated that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) altered development of biogenic amine systems in the brain, impaired behavioral performances and disrupted maturation of the thyroid axis. The current study examines whether these developmental effects of PCB ar...

  11. Evaluation of phenobarbital/beta-naphthoflavone as an alternative S9-induction regime to Aroclor 1254 in the rat for use in in vitro genotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Callander, R D; Mackay, J M; Clay, P; Elcombe, C R; Elliott, B M

    1995-11-01

    A series of bacterial mutation, mammalian cell (L5178Y) gene mutation and in vitro cytogenetic assays were performed to compare the efficacy of using S9 fractions prepared from rats induced with a combination of phenobarbital (PB) and beta-naphthoflavone (beta NF), with S9 fractions from rats treated with the general enzyme inducer Aroclor 1254. Although some quantitative differences in the magnitudes of the mutagenic/clastogenic effects were observed between the two induction regimes, no qualitative differences were observed. The use of a combined PB/beta NF induction regime using oral dosing is therefore considered to be a suitable substitute for Aroclor 1254. PMID:8596471

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls PCB 153 and PCB 126 impair the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in cerebellar neurons in culture by different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Llansola, Marta; Piedrafita, Blanca; Rodrigo, Regina; Montoliu, Carmina; Felipo, Vicente

    2009-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants present in human blood and milk. Exposure to PCBs during pregnancy and lactation leads to cognitive impairment in children. Perinatal exposure to PCB 153 or PCB 126 impairs the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in cerebellum in vivo and learning ability in adult rats. The aims of this work were: (1) to assess whether long-term exposure of primary cultures of cerebellar neurons to PCB 153 or PCB 126 reproduces the impairment in the function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway found in rat cerebellum in vivo; (2) to provide some insight on the steps of the pathway affected by these PCBs; (3) to assess whether the mechanisms of interference of the pathway are different for PCB 126 and PCB 153. Both PCB 153 and PCB 126 increase basal levels of cGMP by different mechanisms. PCB 126 increases the amount of soluble guanylate cyclase while PCB 153 does not. PCB 153 reduces the amount of calmodulin while PCB 126 does not. Also both PCBs impair the function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway by different mechanisms, PCB 153 impairs nitric oxide-induced activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and increase in cGMP while PCB 126 does not. PCB 126 reduces NMDA-induced increase in calcium while PCB 153 does not. When PCB 153 and PCB 126 exhibit the same effect, PCB 126 was more potent than PCB 153, as occurs in vivo. PMID:19526286

  13. 40 CFR 761.274 - Reporting PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting PCB concentrations in... Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.274 Reporting PCB concentrations in samples. (a) Report all sample concentrations for non-liquid PCBs on a dry weight basis as micrograms of PCBs per gram of sample (ppm by...

  14. 40 CFR 761.274 - Reporting PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting PCB concentrations in... Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.274 Reporting PCB concentrations in samples. (a) Report all sample concentrations for non-liquid PCBs on a dry weight basis as micrograms of PCBs per gram of sample (ppm by...

  15. PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) concentrations in Wilson Reservoir catfish, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Dycus, D.L.; Lowery, D.R.

    1986-09-01

    TVA conducted a study during autumn 1984 to determine concentrations of a variety of contaminants in biota from Wilson and upper Pickwick Reservoirs. Several contaminants were detected, with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels in catfish from Wilson Reservoir of greatest interest. PCB concentrations in twenty-two of 45 catfish from Wilson equaled or exceeded the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tolerance of 2.0 ..mu..g/g and the average of all 45 was 2.6 ..mu..g/g. Contamination was widespread and did not show any geographical relationship to an embayment on Wilson Reservoir (Fleet Hollow) known to have PCBs in the sediments. As a result of these findings, the Northwest Alabama Regional Health Department issued an official notice to retail markets in June 1985 to discontinue selling catfish from Wilson Reservoir. TVA initiated studies to determine if there were other areas on Wilson with PCB contaminated sediments or PCB discharges, and an annual catfish collection was started in autumn 1985 to determine the year-to-year trend in PCB levels. As a follow-up to earlier studies, analyses of catfish collected during autumn 1985 indicated substantial reductions in PCB concentrations. Only 4 of 36 catfish had PCB concentrations which equaled or exceeded 2.0 ..mu..g/g and the overall average was 1.0 ..mu..g/g. Statistical analyses indicated PCB concentrations decreased with increased distance from Fleet Hollow. Further monitoring is recommended for 2 more years.

  16. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  17. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  18. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  19. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  20. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste... with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase... liquid is multi-phasic, separate the phases, and collect and analyze a sample from each liquid...

  1. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... assume that a capacitor manufactured prior to July 2, 1979, whose PCB concentration is not established contains ≥500 ppm PCBs. Any person may assume that a capacitor manufactured after July 2, 1979, is non-PCB (i.e., <50 ppm PCBs). If the date of manufacture is unknown, any person must assume the...

  2. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL Tolerances for Unavoidable Poisonous or Deleterious Substances § 109.30...-contaminated animal feed. In addition, a significant percentage of paper food-packaging materials contain PCB's which may migrate to the packaged food. The source of PCB's in paper food-packaging materials...

  3. Effects of Quercetin on CYP450 and Cytokines in Aroclor 1254 Injured Endometrial Cells of the Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lina; Sun, Liyun; Lu, Liqin; Qin, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread persistent residual environmental pollutants, which affect seriously the growth and reproductive alterations in humans and animals. Aroclor 1254 is a commercial mixture of PCBs. Quercetin is a flavonoid, which acts on estrogen receptors and causes the development of estrogen-related diseases. In this paper, the primary cultured endometrial cells in the pregnant rats were isolated and Aroclor 1254 was used to induce the injured endometrial cells model. The cells were treated with gradient quercetin, the viability of the endometrial cells, the expressions of CYP450, the contents of TNF-α, IL-6, estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P4) were measured. It showed that the viability of the cultured endometrial cells, the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP2B1, and the contents of TNF-α, E2, and IL-6 in the injured endometrial cells increased with the treatment of quercetin. It shows that quercetin has protective effect on the injured endometrial cells in the pregnant rats, this provide a basis on herbal medicine protection for animal reproductive diseases caused by environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:24711995

  4. Developmental exposure to purity-controlled polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCB74 and PCB95) in rats: effects on brainstem auditory evoked potentials and catalepsy.

    PubMed

    Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Korkalainen, Merja; Andersson, Patrik L; Viluksela, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the effects of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) are well described, less is known about non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), including influences on the nervous system and related behavioral effects after developmental exposure. Following the examination of the highly purified NDL congeners PCB52 and PCB180, we report here the results of experiments with PCB74 and PCB95. Rat dams were orally exposed to equimolar doses of either congener (40μmol/kg bw - 11.68mg PCB74/kg bw or 13.06mg PCB95/kg bw) from gestational day (GD) 10 to postnatal day (PND) 7. Control dams were given the vehicle. Adult offspring were tested for cataleptic behavior after induction with haloperidol, a classical neuroleptic drug, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs), using clicks and tone pips of different frequencies for stimulation. Results revealed slight effects on latencies to movement onset in female offspring exposed to PCB74, whereas PCB74 males and offspring exposed to PCB95 were not affected. Pronounced changes were observed in BAEPs at low frequencies in PCB74 offspring, with elevated thresholds in both sexes. PCB95 increased thresholds in males, but not females. Small effects were detected on latency of the late wave IV in both sexes after developmental exposure to PCB74 or PCB95. Compared with the other NDL-PCB congeners tested, PCB74 caused the most pronounced effects on BAEPs. PMID:25449634

  5. PCB remediation in schools: a review.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kathleen W; Minegishi, Taeko; Cummiskey, Cynthia Campisano; Fragala, Matt A; Hartman, Ross; MacIntosh, David L

    2016-02-01

    Growing awareness of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in legacy caulk and other construction materials of schools has created a need for information on best practices to control human exposures and comply with applicable regulations. A concise review of approaches and techniques for management of building-related PCBs is the focus of this paper. Engineering and administrative controls that block pathways of PCB transport, dilute concentrations of PCBs in indoor air or other exposure media, or establish uses of building space that mitigate exposure can be effective initial responses to identification of PCBs in a building. Mitigation measures also provide time for school officials to plan a longer-term remediation strategy and to secure the necessary resources. These longer-term strategies typically involve removal of caulk or other primary sources of PCBs as well as nearby masonry or other materials contaminated with PCBs by the primary sources. The costs of managing PCB-containing building materials from assessment through ultimate disposal can be substantial. Optimizing the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of remediation programs requires aligning a thorough understanding of sources and exposure pathways with the most appropriate mitigation and abatement methods. PMID:25994266

  6. Interim Basis for PCB Sampling and Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING, D.L.

    2001-01-18

    This document was developed as an interim basis for sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and will be used until a formal data quality objective (DQO) document is prepared and approved. On August 31, 2000, the Framework Agreement for Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Hanford Tank Waste was signed by the US. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) (Ecology et al. 2000). This agreement outlines the management of double shell tank (DST) waste as Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) PCB remediation waste based on a risk-based disposal approval option per Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations 761.61 (c). The agreement calls for ''Quantification of PCBs in DSTs, single shell tanks (SSTs), and incoming waste to ensure that the vitrification plant and other ancillary facilities PCB waste acceptance limits and the requirements of the anticipated risk-based disposal approval are met.'' Waste samples will be analyzed for PCBs to satisfy this requirement. This document describes the DQO process undertaken to assure appropriate data will be collected to support management of PCBs and is presented in a DQO format. The DQO process was implemented in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA QAlG4, Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA 1994) and the Data Quality Objectives for Sampling and Analyses, HNF-IP-0842, Rev. 1 A, Vol. IV, Section 4.16 (Banning 1999).

  7. Interim Basis for PCB Sampling and Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING, D.L.

    2001-03-20

    This document was developed as an interim basis for sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and will be used until a formal data quality objective (DQO) document is prepared and approved. On August 31, 2000, the Framework Agreement for Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Hanford Tank Waste was signed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) (Ecology et al. 2000). This agreement outlines the management of double shell tank (DST) waste as Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) PCB remediation waste based on a risk-based disposal approval option per Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations 761.61 (c). The agreement calls for ''Quantification of PCBs in DSTs, single shell tanks (SSTs), and incoming waste to ensure that the vitrification plant and other ancillary facilities PCB waste acceptance limits and the requirements of the anticipated risk-based disposal approval are met.'' Waste samples will be analyzed for PCBs to satisfy this requirement. This document describes the DQO process undertaken to assure appropriate data will be collected to support management of PCBs and is presented in a DQO format. The DQO process was implemented in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA QA/G4, Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA 1994) and the Data Quality Objectives for Sampling and Analyses, HNF-IP-0842, Rev. 1A, Vol. IV, Section 4.16 (Banning 1999).

  8. EMC in power electronics and PCB design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chentian

    This dissertation consists of two parts. Part I is about Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) in power electronics and part II is about the Maximum Radiated Electromagnetic Emissions Calculator (MREMC), which is a software tool for EMC in printed circuit board (PCB) design. Switched-mode power converters can be significant sources of electromagnetic fields that interfere with the proper operation of nearby circuits or distant radio receivers. Part I of this dissertation provides comprehensive and organized information on the latest EMC developments in power converters. It describes and evaluates different technologies to ensure that power converters meet electromagnetic compatibility requirements. Chapters 2 and 3 describe EMC noise sources and coupling mechanisms in power converters. Chapter 4 reviews the measurements used to characterize and troubleshoot EMC problems. Chapters 5 -- 8 cover passive filter solutions, active filter solutions, noise cancellation methods and reduced-noise driving schemes. Part II describes the methods used, calculations made, and implementation details of the MREMC, which is a software tool that allows the user to calculate the maximum possible radiated emissions that could occur due to specific source geometries on a PCB. Chapters 9 -- 13 covers the I/O coupling EMI algorithm, Common-mode EMI algorithm, Power Bus EMI algorithm and Differential-Mode EMI algorithm used in the MREMC.

  9. Predicting and controlling downwind concentrations of PCB from surface impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Angiola, A.J.; Soden, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Over 227,000 kv of PCB were discharged into the Hudson River from two capacitor manufacturing plants at Fort Edward and Hudson Falls, New York. Much of the discharged PCB was absorbed by the bottom sediments of the river and accumulated behind the Fort Edward Dam. A large amount of the contaminated sediments migrated dowstream when the dam was removed. An effort has been made to dredge PCB-contaminated sediments from the Upper Hudson River and to deposit those sediments in a secure containment site. Part of this project was an air quality impact analysis which addressed the effect of PCB volatilization from the proposed containment site on ambient 24-hour concentrations of PCB downwind of the site. An estimate of the volatilization rate was made and a dispersion modeling analysis was performed in order to calculate the potential impact on residences. 4 references, 1 table.

  10. Estrogenicity and androgenicity screening of PCB sulfate monoesters in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Flor, Susanne; He, Xianran; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies identified polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) sulfate esters as a major product of PCB metabolism. Since hydroxy-PCBs (HO-PCBs), the immediate precursors of PCB sulfates and important contributors to PCB toxicity, were shown to have estrogenic activity, we investigated the estrogenicity/androgenicty of a series of PCB sulfate metabolites. We synthesized the five possible structural sulfate monoester metabolites of PCB 3, a congener shown to be biotransformed to sulfates, a sulfate ester of the paint-specific congener PCB 11, and sulfate monoesters of two HO-PCBs reported to interact with sulfotransferases (PCB 39, no ortho chlorines, and PCB 53, 3 ortho chlorines). We tested these PCB sulfates and 4'-HO-PCB 3 as positive control for estrogenic, androgenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic activity in the E- and A-screen with human breast cancer MCF7-derived cells at 100 μM-1 pM concentrations. Only 4'-HO-PCB 3 was highly cytotoxic at 100 μM. We observed structure-activity relationships: compounds with a sulfate group in the chlorine-containing ring of PCB 3 (2PCB 3 and 3PCB 3 sulfate) showed no interaction with the estrogen (ER) and androgen (AR) receptor. The 4'-HO-PCB 3 and its sulfate ester had the highest estrogenic effect, but at 100-fold different concentrations, i.e., 1 and 100 μM, respectively. Four of the PCB sulfates were estrogenic (2'PCB 3, 4'PCB 3, 4'PCB 39, and 4'PCB 53 sulfates; at 100 μM). These sulfates and 3'PCB 3 sulfate also exhibited anti-estrogenic activity, but at nM and pM concentrations. The 4'PCB 3 sulfate (para-para' substituted) had the strongest androgenic activity, followed by 3'PCB 3, 4'PCB 53, 4PCB11, and 4PCB 39 sulfates and the 4'HO-PCB 3. In contrast, anti-androgenicity was only observed with the two compounds that have the sulfate group in ortho- or meta- position in the second ring (2'PCB 3 and 3'PCB 3 sulfate). No dose-response was observed in any screen, but, with exception of estrogenic activity (only seen

  11. REPEATED EXPOSURE TO THE POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL (AROCLOR 1254) ELEVATES THE BASAL SERUM LEVELS OF CORTICOSTERONE BUT DOES NOT AFFECT THE STRESS-INDUCED RISE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminants (Safe, 1984; Safe et al., 1985) resulting in concern over the possible effects to health after long-term low-level exposure. eries of studies with one of these chlorinated hydrocarbons, Aroclor 125...

  12. AN IP3 RECEPTOR-SENSITIVE CALCIUM STORE MEDIATES DISTURBANCES IN INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM UPON EXPOSURE TO AROCLOR 1254 AND ORTHO-SUBSTITUTED PCBS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    An IP3 Receptor-Sensitive Ca2+ Store Mediates Disturbances In Intracellular Ca2+ Upon Exposure To Aroclor 1254 And Ortho-Substituted PCBs JR Inglefield, WR Mundy, and TJ Shafer. Neurotoxicol. Div., NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC. Sponsor: L Birnbaum

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (...

  13. Fetal adrenal development: comparing effects of combined exposures to PCB 118 and PCB 153 in a sheep model.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Karin E; Kraugerud, Marianne; Aleksandersen, Mona; Gutleb, Arno C; Østby, Gunn C; Dahl, Ellen; Berg, Vidar; Skaare, Janneche U; Olsaker, Ingrid; Ropstad, Erik

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to the ubiquitous contaminants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the fetal adrenal cortex and on plasma cortisol using the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) as a model. Pregnant ewes were intendedly subjected to oral treatment with PCB 153 (98 μg/kg bw/day), PCB 118 (49 μg/kg bw/day) or the vehicle corn oil from mating until euthanasia on gestation day 134 (±0.25 SE). However, because of accidental cross-contamination occurring twice causing a mixed exposure scenario in all three groups, the focus of this paper is to compare three distinct groups of fetuses with different adipose tissue PCB levels (PCB 153high, PCB 118high and low, combined groups) rather than comparing animals exposed to single PCB congeners to those of a control group. When comparing endocrine and anatomical parameters from fetuses in the PCB 153high (n = 13) or PCB 118high (n = 14) groups with the low, combined group (n = 14), there was a significant decrease in fetal body weight (P < 0.05), plasma cortisol concentration (P < 0.001) and adrenal cortex thickness (P < 0.001). Furthermore, adrenal weight was decreased and plasma ACTH was increased only in the PCB 118high group. Expression of several genes encoding enzymes and receptors related to steroid hormone synthesis was also affected and mostly down-regulated in fetuses with high PCB tissue levels. In conclusion, we suggest that mono-and di-ortho PCBs were able to interfere with growth, adrenal development and cortisol production in the fetal sheep model. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013. PMID:21544918

  14. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Schrank, Candy S.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Elliott, Robert F.; Quintal, Richard T.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 35 female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and 60 male coho salmon caught in Lake Michigan (Michigan and Wisconsin, United States) during the fall of 1994 and 1995. In addition, we determined PCB concentrations in the skin-on fillets of 26 female and 19 male Lake Michigan coho salmon caught during the fall of 2004 and 2006. All coho salmon were age-2 fish. These fish were caught prior to spawning, and therefore release of eggs could not account for sexual differences in PCB concentrations because female coho salmon spawn only once during their lifetime. To investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, males were 19% higher in PCB concentration than females, based on the 1994–1995 dataset. Similarly, males averaged a 20% higher PCB concentration in their skin-on fillets compared with females. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of adult females was less than 1% higher than adult male GGE. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the 20% higher PCB concentration exhibited by the males. Nonetheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations.

  15. Environmental and food contamination with PCB's in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, K

    1975-09-01

    In Japan "yusho", i.e., poisoning caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with PCB's, broke out in October 1968, and produced more than 1200 officially certified cases. Nevertheless, it was only regarded as a kind of food poisoning and its connection with environmental and biological contamination was only imperfectly taken into consideration. Finally, in the autumn of 1970, two study groups, from the Ehime University and the Kyoto City Hygienic Institute, reported on the PCB contamination of salt water and fresh water fishes in Japan. Subsequently many reports about PCB's as an environmental contaminant have been published by several study groups throughout Japan, and nowadays the PCB polluted state of Japan has become rather clearly recognized. This report will present information on environmental, food and human contamination with PCB's in Japan especially also in some typically contaminated local areas, in addition to summarizing some overall aspects of the PCB problem in Japan (e.g., the production, shipment and use of PCB's). PMID:808853

  16. Spatial patterns in PCB concentrations of Lake Michigan lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Stedman, Ralph M.; Brown, Edward H., Jr.; Eck, Gary W.; Schmidt, Larry J.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

    1999-01-01

    Most of the PCB body burden in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of the Great Lakes is from their food. PCB concentrations were determined in lake trout from three different locations in Lake Michigan during 1994–1995, and lake trout diets were analyzed at all three locations. The PCB concentrations were also determined in alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), bloater (Coregonus hoyi), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), five species of prey fish eaten by lake trout in Lake Michigan, at three nearshore sites in the lake. Despite the lack of significant differences in the PCB concentrations of alewife, rainbow smelt, bloater, slimy sculpin, and deepwater sculpin from the southeastern nearshore site near Saugatuck (Michigan) compared with the corresponding PCB concentrations from the northwestern nearshore site near Sturgeon Bay (Wisconsin), PCB concentrations in lake trout at Saugatuck were significantly higher than those at Sturgeon Bay. The difference in the lake trout PCB concentrations between Saugatuck and Sturgeon Bay could be explained by diet differences. The diet of lake trout at Saugatuck was more concentrated in PCBs than the diet of Sturgeon Bay lake trout, and therefore lake trout at Saugatuck were more contaminated in PCBs than Sturgeon Bay lake trout. These findings were useful in interpreting the long-term monitoring series for contaminants in lake trout at both Saugatuck and the Wisconsin side of the lake.

  17. 40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determining the PCB concentration of..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB...

  18. 40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting the PCB concentrations in... COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for...

  19. 40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determining the PCB concentration of..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB...

  20. 40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determining the PCB concentration of..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB...

  1. 40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting the PCB concentrations in... COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for...

  2. 40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting the PCB concentrations in... COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for...

  3. Laboratory study of PCB transport from primary sources to settled dust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transport of house dust and Arizona Test Dust on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing panels and PCB-free panels was investigated in a 30-m3 stainless steel chamber. The PCB-containing panels were aluminum sheets coated with a PCB-spiked, oil-based primer or two-part polysul...

  4. Pesticide and PCB levels in fish from Alberta (Canada)

    SciTech Connect

    Chovelon, A.; George, L.; Gulayets, C.; Hoyano, Y.; McGuinness, E.; Moore, J.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Singer, P.; Smiley, K.

    1984-01-01

    Pesticide and PCB analyses were completed on fat and muscle samples of 750 fish collected from 11 major lakes and rivers in Alberta. Although phenoxy and organophosphate residues were always below detectable limits, traces of chlorinated pesticides and their derivatives, particularly DDE, DDD and chlordane, were detected in most fat samples. PCB levels exceeded 25 mg/kg in the fat of several species from the North Saskatchewan River but were generally lower in the other systems. Analysis of 160 sediment samples from the North Saskatchewan River revealed no point source of PCB contamination.

  5. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM PCB METHOD: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents information on the demonstration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 Superfund Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) method for determining polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil...

  6. ENANTIOMERIC RATIOS OF CHIRAL PCB ATROPISOMERS IN RADIODATED SEDIMENT CORES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enantiomeric ratios (ERs)) of chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers were quantified in radiodated sediment cores of Lake Hartwell SC, a reservoir heavily impacted by PCBS, to study spatial and temporal changes in chirality. A chiral analysis of cores showed accumulat...

  7. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCB METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents information on the demonstration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 Superfund Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) method for determining polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil...

  8. Effects of PCB exposure on neuropsychological function in children.

    PubMed Central

    Schantz, Susan L; Widholm, John J; Rice, Deborah C

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade advances in the analytic methods for quantification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have resulted in widespread availability of congener-specific analysis procedures, and large amounts of data on PCB congener profiles in soil, air, water, sediments, foodstuffs, and human tissues have become available. These data have revealed that the PCB residues in environmental media and human tissues may not closely resemble any of the commercial PCB mixtures, depending on source of exposure, bioaccumulation through the food chain, and weathering of PCBs in the environment. At the same time, toxicological research has led to a growing awareness that different classes of PCB congeners have different profiles of toxicity. These advances in analytic techniques and toxicological knowledge are beginning to influence the risk assessment process. As the data from ongoing PCB studies assessing the mediators of neurobehavioral outcomes in children are published, the weight of evidence for PCB effects on neurodevelopment is growing. Studies in Taiwan, Michigan (USA), New York (USA), Holland, Germany, and the Faroe Islands have all reported negative associations between prenatal PCB exposure and measures of cognitive functioning in infancy or childhood. The German study also reported a negative association between postnatal PCB exposure and cognitive function in early childhood--a result that had not been found in previous studies. Only one published study in North Carolina (USA) has failed to find an association between PCB exposure and cognitive outcomes. Despite the fact that several more recent studies have used congener-specific analytic techniques, there have been only limited attempts to assess the role of specific PCB congeners or classes of congeners in mediating neurodevelopmental outcomes. From a statistical standpoint, attempts to determine the role of individual congeners in mediating outcomes are hampered by the fact that concentrations of most

  9. LONG-TERM RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AT THE LAKE HARTWELL SUPERFUND SITE: PCB DECHLORINATION. 2. RATES AND EXTENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on extensive polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorination measured in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) sediments. Vertical sediment cores were collected from 18 locations in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) and analyzed in 5-cm increments for PCB congeners...

  10. PCB decomposition and formation in thermal treatment plant equipment.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yukari; Noma, Yukio; Yamamoto, Takashi; Mori, Yoshihito; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2007-04-01

    In this study we investigated both the decomposition and unintentional formation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners during combustion experiments of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) and automobile shredder residue (ASR) at several stages in thermal treatment plant equipment composed of a primary combustion chamber, a secondary combustion chamber, and other equipments for flue gas treatment. In both experiments, the unintentional formation of PCB occurred in the primary combustion chamber at the same time as the decomposition of PCB in input samples. By combusting RDF, non-ortho-PCB predominantly formed, whereas ortho-PCB and symmetric chlorinated biphenyls (e.g., #52/69, #87/108, and #151) tended to be decomposed. ASR formed the higher chlorinated biphenyls more than RDF. These by-products from ASR had no structural relation with ortho-chlorine. Lower chlorinated biphenyls appeared as predominant homologues at the final exit site, while all congeners from lower to higher chlorinated PCB were unintentionally formed as by-products in the primary combustion chamber. This result showed that the flue gas treatment equipments effectively removed higher chlorinated PCB. Input marker congeners of RDF were #11, #39, and #68, while those for ASR were #11, #101, #110/120, and #118. Otherwise, combustion marker congeners of RDF were #13/12, #35, #77, and #126, while those for ASR were #170, #194, #206, and #209. While the concentration of PCB increased significantly in the primary combustion chamber, the value of toxicity equivalency quantity for dioxin-like PCB decreased in the secondary combustion chamber and the flue gas treatment equipments. PMID:17134732

  11. Comparative developmental toxicity of planar PCB congeners by egg injection

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Eisemann, J.D.; Klein, P.N.

    1995-12-31

    The utility of egg injection studies for predicting potential embryotoxicity of PCBs and TCDD compares favorably with feeding studies. The effects of PCB congeners 3,3{prime}4,4{prime}-tetraCB (PCB 77), 2,3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-pentaCB (PCB 105), 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentaCB (PCB 126) and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexaCB (PCB 153) were examined on embryonic development in chickens (Gallus gallus), northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), American kestrels (Falco sparverius), and common terns (Sterna hirundo) through hatching following air cell injections on day 4. The estimated LD{sub 50}s for these congeners in chickens were approximately 0.4 ppb, 2.6 ppb, 3326 ppb, and greater than 14,000 ppb, respectively; low effect levels (10--20% embryonic mortality) were 0.2 ppb, 1.2 ppb, 900 ppb, and 14,000 ppb respectively. The estimated LD{sub 50} for PCB 126 was 48 ppb for bobwhite, 65 ppb for American kestrels, and 104 ppb for common terns. The estimated LD{sub 50} for PCB 77 was 688 ppb for American kestrels. one or more hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450-linked monooxygenases including ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase was assayed for each species. For PCB 126, the order of responsiveness of cytochrome P450 induction was: chicken > common tern > American kestrel > bobwhite, with chicken being approximately 100 times more responsive than common tern. These values are compared to existing Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs) including bioassay-derived ones.

  12. Different carbon sources affect PCB accumulation by marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Laitano, M V; Silva Barni, M F; Costa, P G; Cledón, M; Fillmann, G; Miglioranza, K S B; Panarello, H O

    2016-02-01

    Pampean creeks were evaluated in the present study as potential land-based sources of PCB marine contamination. Different carbon and nitrogen sources from such creeks were analysed as boosters of PCB bioaccumulation by the filter feeder bivalve Brachidontes rodriguezii and grazer limpet Siphonaria lessoni. Carbon of different source than marine and anthropogenic nitrogen assimilated by organisms were estimated through their C and N isotopic composition. PCB concentration in surface sediments and mollusc samples ranged from 2.68 to 6.46 ng g(-1) (wet weight) and from 1074 to 4583 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, reflecting a punctual source of PCB contamination related to a landfill area. Thus, despite the low flow of creeks, they should not be underestimated as contamination vectors to the marine environment. On the other hand, mussels PCB bioaccumulation was related with the carbon source uptake which highlights the importance to consider this factor when studying PCB distribution in organisms of coastal systems. PMID:26606107

  13. A reassessment of the nomenclature of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Maervoet, Johan; Covaci, Adrian; Schepens, Paul; Sandau, Courtney D; Letcher, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a widespread class of persistent organic chemicals that accumulate in the environment and humans and are associated with a broad spectrum of health effects. PCB biotransformation has been shown to lead to two classes of PCB metabolites that are present as contaminant residues in the tissues of selected biota: hydroxylated (HO) and methyl sulfone (MeSO2) PCBs. Although these two types of metabolites are related structures, different rules for abbreviation of both classes have emerged. It is important that a standardized nomenclature for the notation of PCB metabolites be universally agreed upon. We suggest that the full chemical name of the PCB metabolite and a shorthand notation should be adopted using the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's chemical name/original Ballschmiter and Zell number of the parent congener, followed by the assignment of the phenyl ring position number of the MeSO2- or HO-substituent. This nomenclature provides a clear, unequivocal set of rules in naming and abbreviating the PCB metabolite structure. Furthermore, this unified PCB metabolite nomenclature approach can be extended to the naming and abbreviation of potential metabolites of structurally analogous contaminants such as HO-polybrominated biphenyls and HO-polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:14998742

  14. Cell death mechanisms in GT1-7 GnRH cells exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls PCB74, PCB118, and PCB153

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, Sarah M.; Guevara, Esperanza; Woller, Michael J.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2009-06-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes functional deficits in neuroendocrine systems. We used an immortalized hypothalamic GT1-7 cell line, which synthesizes the neuroendocrine peptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), to examine the neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects of PCBs and their mechanisms of action. Cells were treated for 1, 4, 8, or 24 h with a range of doses of a representative PCB from each of three classes: coplanar (2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl: PCB74), dioxin-like coplanar (2',3,4,4',5' pentachlorobiphenyl: PCB118), non-coplanar (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl: PCB153), or their combination. GnRH peptide concentrations, cell viability, apoptotic and necrotic cell death, and caspase activation were quantified. In general, GnRH peptide levels were suppressed by high doses and longer durations of PCBs, and elevated at low doses and shorter timepoints. The suppression of GnRH peptide levels was partially reversed in cultures co-treated with the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. All PCBs reduced viability and increased both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Although the effects for the three classes of PCBs were often similar, subtle differences in responses, together with evidence that the combination of PCBs acted slightly different from individual PCBs, suggest that the three tested PCB compounds may act via slightly different or more than one mechanism. These results provide evidence that PCB congeners have endocrine disrupting and/or neurotoxic effects on the hypothalamic GnRH cell line, a finding that has implications for environmental endocrine disruption in animals.

  15. Recognizing different impacts of human and natural sources on the spatial distribution and temporal trends of PAHs and PCBs (including PCB-11) in sediments of the Nador Lagoon (Morocco).

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Silvia; Piazza, Rossano; El Moumni, Bouchta; Polo, Fabio Paolo; Vecchiato, Marco; Romano, Stefania; Zambon, Stefano; Frignani, Mauro; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    The Nador Lagoon holds a major interest in present-day Moroccan socioeconomic development. This environment is exposed to a number of potential polluting sources, such as mine tailings, urban and industrial dumping, and untreated wastewater inputs from surrounding cities. The aim of this study was to assess concentrations and trends of persistent contaminants such as PCBs and PAHs and to identify their origin. The non-Aroclor PCB-11 was determined for the first time in the lagoon sediments. Chronology and source assessment helped identifying the timing and nature of inputs and post-depositional processes controlling the two classes of contaminants: PAHs present a typical mixed petrogenic signature, with the exception of sediments deposited in the period 1930-1960 near the city of Nador, when pyrogenic inputs prevailed; PCBs show signs of microbial anaerobic degradation from 1950 to 1990, probably linked to changing hydrodynamic conditions in the South-Western part of the lagoon where agricultural inputs are dominant. The presence of PCB-11 is linked to specific productions and might be affected by degradation processes. Presently, different land uses (e.g., urban and agricultural areas) appear to be the key factors in controlling the level and composition of PAHs and PCBs in lagoon sediments. Total PAH and PCB levels are low (from 21.6 to 108 ng g(-1) and from 2.50 to 20.7 ng g(-1), respectively) but recent increasing values and the potential threat to humans and biota require continuous and constant monitoring. PMID:25967480

  16. Assessment of the potential noncancer health hazards of PCBs for inclusion on EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    At present, there are IRIS RfDs for two commercial PCB mixtures: Aroclor 1016 and Aroclor 1254. There is no IRIS RfD for complex PCB mixtures in general; and the RfDs for Aroclor 1016 and Aroclor 1254 were last updated in 1993 and 1994, respectively. The new assessment will integ...

  17. The greening of PCB analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.; Alvarado, J.S.; Aldstadt, J.H.

    1995-12-01

    Green chemistry incorporates waste minimization, pollution prevention and solvent substitution. The primary focus of green chemistry over the past decade has been within the chemical industry; adoption by routine environmental laboratories has been slow because regulatory standard methods must be followed. A related paradigm, microscale chemistry has gained acceptance in undergraduate teaching laboratories, but has not been broadly applied to routine environmental analytical chemistry. We are developing green and microscale techniques for routine polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analyses as an example of the overall potential within the environmental analytical community. Initial work has focused on adaptation of commonly used routine EPA methods for soils and oils. Results of our method development and validation demonstrate that: (1) Solvent substitution can achieve comparable results and eliminate environmentally less-desirable solvents, (2) Microscale extractions can cut the scale of the analysis by at least a factor of ten, (3) We can better match the amount of sample used with the amount needed for the GC determination step, (4) The volume of waste generated can be cut by at least a factor of ten, and (5) Costs are reduced significantly in apparatus, reagent consumption, and labor.

  18. Comparison of the in vitro effects of TCDD, PCB 126 and PCB 153 on thyroid-restricted gene expression and thyroid hormone secretion by the chicken thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Kowalik, Kinga; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) and 2,2'4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153; non-coplanar PCB) on mRNA expression of thyroid-restricted genes, i.e. sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (TG), and thyroid hormone secretion from the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Relative expression levels of NIS, TG and TPO genes and thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) secretion from the thyroidal explants were quantified by the real-time qPCR and RIA methods, respectively. In comparison with the control group, TCDD and PCB 126 significantly increased mRNA expression of TPO and TG genes. TCDD did not affect NIS mRNA levels, but PCB 126 decreased its expression. No effect of PCB 153 on the expression of these genes was observed. TCDD and PCB 126 significantly decreased T4 and T3 secretion. There was no significant effect of PCB 153 on these hormone secretions. In conclusion, the results obtained show that in comparison with non-coplanar PCB 153, TCDD and coplanar PCB 126 can directly affect thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, and in consequence, they may disrupt the endocrine function of the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. PMID:25682001

  19. Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls PCB153 or PCB126 impairs learning ability in young but not in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Piedrafita, Blanca; Erceg, Slaven; Cauli, Omar; Monfort, Pilar; Felipo, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants present in the food chain and in human blood and milk. Exposure to PCBs during pregnancy and lactation leads to cognitive impairment in children. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Some PCBs are endocrine disrupters. The aim of this work was to assess whether exposure of rats to PCB126 (dioxin-like) or PCB153 (non-dioxin-like) during pregnancy and lactation affects the ability of the pups to learn a Y maze conditional discrimination task and/or the function of the glutamate-nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway in brain in vivo when the rats are young (3 months) or adult (7-8 months). After finishing the learning experiments, the function of the pathway was analysed in the same rats by in vivo brain microdialysis. The results obtained show that perinatal exposure to PCB153 or PCB126: (1) impairs learning ability in young but not in adult rats, (2) impairs the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway function in cerebellum in vivo in young but not in adult rats and (3) affect these parameters in males and females similarly. PCB126 is around 10 000-fold more potent than PCB153. In control rats the function of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway and learning ability are lower in adult than in young rats. These age-related differences are not present in rats exposed to PCBs. The impairment of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway function induced at young age by developmental exposure to the PCBs could be one of the mechanisms contributing to the cognitive impairment found in children whose mothers ingested PCB-contaminated food during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:18093177

  20. Determination of Atmospheric PCB Level Variations in Continuously Collected Samples.

    PubMed

    Sakin, Ahmet Egemen; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2016-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in ambient air samples (n = 48) that were collected for a 2- to 3-day period in each season (winter, spring, summer, fall) of 2013. The samples were collected on the Campus of Uludag University, which is in a semirural region. The samples were collected using a high-volume air sampler. The gas and particle phase concentrations of 87 PCB congeners (Σ87PCB) were measured in these samples. The average gas and particle phase concentrations of the Σ87PCB were calculated to be 293 ± 257 and 52 ± 56 ng/m(3), respectively. However, the results of short-term measurements showed that the variation among the measurements in the gas phase was up to 39-fold and up to 84-fold in the particle phase. These results demonstrated that the ambient air PCB concentrations were not stable and changed dramatically on a daily basis. Therefore, it was clear that a small number of samples could not be representative of the entire region. Furthermore, the obtained concentrations showed differences that depended on the meteorological conditions and long distance transportation. The sampling indicated that PCB homologues with 3 or 4 chlorines were dominant. PMID:27290669

  1. Modeling trapping mechanism for PCB adsorption on activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Bjørnar; Kvamme, Bjørn; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Oterhals, A.˚ge

    2012-12-01

    The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (DL-PCB) in fishmeal and fish oil produced for use in feed for salmon is above present European legislation levels in some regions of the world and different decontamination approaches have been proposed [1]. One of these is adsorption on activated carbon. This approach appears to be efficient for adsorption of PCDD/F but less efficient for DL-PCB [2]. Activated carbon consists of slit pores with average sizes of 20 - 50 Ångstroms. One hypothesis [2] for the mechanism of trapping DL-PCB is reduced ability for intramolecular movements of the PCB molecules inside the slit pores. In order to investigate this hypothesis we have used quantum mechanics [3] to characterize two DL-PCB congeners, respectively congener 77 (3,3',4,4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl) and congener 118 (2,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl) and Triolein (18:1) [4] as a major constituent of the solvent fish oil. A model for activated carbon was constructed using a crystal structure of graphite from the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database [5]. The crystal structure used was originally from Wyckoff [6]. A small program had to be written to generate the desired graphite structure as it contains no less than 31232 Carbon atoms. Partial atomic charges were estimated using QM with DFT/B3LYP/6-311+g** and SM6 [7].

  2. Remediation of PCB contaminated soils using iron nano-particles.

    PubMed

    Varanasi, Patanjali; Fullana, Andres; Sidhu, Sukh

    2007-01-01

    In this study, iron nano-particles were used to remediate PCB contaminated soil and an attempt was made to maximize PCB destruction in each treatment step. The results show that nano-particles do aid in the dechlorination process and high PCB destruction efficiencies can be achieved. The destruction efficiency during the preliminary treatment (mixing of soil and iron nano-particles in water) can be increased by increasing the water temperature. The maximum thermal destruction (pyrolysis/combustion of soil after preliminary treatment) of soil-bound PCBs occurs at 300 degrees C in air. A minimum total PCB destruction efficiency of 95% can be achieved by this process. The effect of changing treatment parameters such as type of mixing, time of mixing and mixing conditions and application of other catalysts like iron oxide and V(2)O(5)/TiO(2) was also investigated. It was found that at 300 degrees C in air, iron oxide and V(2)O(5)/TiO(2) are also good catalysts for remediating PCB contaminated soils. PMID:16962632

  3. Lack of data drives uncertainty in PCB health risk assessments.

    PubMed

    Cogliano, Vincent James

    2016-02-01

    Health risk assessments generally involve many extrapolations: for example, from animals to humans or from high doses to lower doses. Health risk assessments for PCBs involve all the usual uncertainties, plus additional uncertainties due to the nature of PCBs as a dynamic, complex mixture. Environmental processes alter PCB mixtures after release into the environment, so that people are exposed to mixtures that might not resemble the mixtures where there are toxicity data. This paper discusses the evolution of understanding in assessments of the cancer and noncancer effects of PCBs. It identifies where a lack of data in the past contributed to significant uncertainty and where new data subsequently altered the prevailing understanding of the toxicity of PCB mixtures, either qualitatively or quantitatively. Finally, the paper identifies some uncertainties remaining for current PCB health assessments, particularly those that result from a lack of data on exposure through nursing or on effects from inhalation of PCBs. PMID:26347413

  4. Temporal trends toward stability of Hudson River PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, R.J.; Simpson, K.W.; Schroeder, R.A.; Barnes, C.R.

    1983-10-01

    PCB was used in the manufacture of electrical equipment at two General Electric Company (GE) facilities located on the upper Hudson River about 1 km apart in Fort Edward and Hudson Falls (Washington Co.) New York. Discharges of PCB from these plants resulted in concentrations in bottom sediments of the Hudson River which now exceed those of other major rivers by about two orders of magnitude and those of small remote streams by more than three orders of magnitude. Intensive monitoring was initiated in 1977 by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) to ascertain the magnitude of and trends in contaminant conditions of biotic and physical strata. The paper summarizes PCB trends from 1977 to 1981 in three major monitoring components - water, multiplate residues and fish.

  5. PCB Drill Path Optimization by Combinatorial Cuckoo Search Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wei Chen Esmonde; Kanagaraj, G.; Ponnambalam, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of drill path can lead to significant reduction in machining time which directly improves productivity of manufacturing systems. In a batch production of a large number of items to be drilled such as printed circuit boards (PCB), the travel time of the drilling device is a significant portion of the overall manufacturing process. To increase PCB manufacturing productivity and to reduce production costs, a good option is to minimize the drill path route using an optimization algorithm. This paper reports a combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm for solving drill path optimization problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested and verified with three case studies from the literature. The computational experience conducted in this research indicates that the proposed algorithm is capable of efficiently finding the optimal path for PCB holes drilling process. PMID:24707198

  6. PCB drill path optimization by combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei Chen Esmonde; Kanagaraj, G; Ponnambalam, S G

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of drill path can lead to significant reduction in machining time which directly improves productivity of manufacturing systems. In a batch production of a large number of items to be drilled such as printed circuit boards (PCB), the travel time of the drilling device is a significant portion of the overall manufacturing process. To increase PCB manufacturing productivity and to reduce production costs, a good option is to minimize the drill path route using an optimization algorithm. This paper reports a combinatorial cuckoo search algorithm for solving drill path optimization problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested and verified with three case studies from the literature. The computational experience conducted in this research indicates that the proposed algorithm is capable of efficiently finding the optimal path for PCB holes drilling process. PMID:24707198

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: IMMUNOASSAY KIT, ENVIROLOGIX, INC., PCB IN SOIL TUBE ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In July 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a demonstration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) field analytical techniques. The purpose of this demonstration was to evaluate field analytical technologies capable of detecting and quantifying PCB's in soi...

  8. Study on the plasma treatment of waste oil containing PCB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H. S.; Lukashov, V. P.; Vashchenko, S. P.; Morozov, S. V.

    2009-12-01

    The paper presents the results of treatment of transformer oil containing less than 2 ppm polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in a plant of high-temperature plasma melting of ash residues after the municipal waste incineration. The content of undecomposed PCBs, dioxins, and other hazardous waste in all secondary products of treatment (off gases; slag; secondary fly ash; process water used for slag granulation) was analyzed by different methods. Performed analytical investigations showed high ecological degree of PCB decomposition in the plant of plasma-thermal treatment of ashes after incinerators.

  9. Immunity of PCB transplacental Yu-Cheng children in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Shou Jen; Yen, Yea Yin; Chen, Eng Rin; Ko, Ying Chin ); Lan, Joung Liang )

    1990-02-01

    Up to now, there has been no studies about the immune status of PCB transplacental Yu-Cheng babies. In an earlier study, Yu-Cheng babies were reported to have a high infant mortality rate. It was reported that these babies would easily catch cold, experience diarrhea and abdominal pains. Recently, it was found that the bronchitis rate of Yu-Cheng babies is higher than in control babies. Because of high risk of infection, it is presumed that these babies might suffer immunosuppression to a certain extent. According to these findings, investigations into the immune functions of PCB transplacental Yu-Cheng babies are needed.

  10. Environmental projects. Volume 1: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) abatement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, L.

    1987-01-01

    Six large parabolic dish antennas are located at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex north of Barstow, California. Some of the ancillary electrical equipment of thes Deep Space Stations, particularly transformers and power capicitors, were filled with stable, fire-retardant, dielectric fluids containing substances called polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). Because the Environmental Protection Agency has determined that PCBs are environmental pollutants toxic to humans, all NASA centers have been asked to participate in a PCB-abatement program. Under the supervision of JPL's Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition, a two-year long PCB-abatement program has eliminated PCBs from the Goldstone Complex.

  11. Altered stress-induced cortisol levels in goats exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 126 and PCB 153) during fetal and postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Karin E; Gutleb, Arno C; Lyche, Jan L; Dahl, Ellen; Oskam, Irma C; Krogenaes, Anette; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Ropstad, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Short-term stress exposure is associated with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and a consequent rise in blood glucocorticoids and catecholamines, from the adrenal cortex and medulla, respectively. The HPA axis is a potential target for some persistent organic pollutants, among which polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were found to be modulators of the mammalian endocrine system. PCB are distributed globally in the environment, in food chains, and are transferred to the fetuses of pregnant animals and via mother's milk to suckling offspring. In the present study it was postulated that intrauterine and lactational exposure to either of two single congeners of PCB (PCB 153 and PCB 126, respectively) might affect basal cortisol concentrations, and also the cortisol response to short-term stress in adulthood. Thus, pregnant goats were orally exposed to one of these PCB congeners from d 60 of gestation until delivery, and their offspring studied. Low-dose exposure to PCB 153 and PCB 126 resulted in significantly lower mean basal cortisol concentrations in goat offspring during certain periods of pubertal development and their first breeding season. Male goat kids exposed to either PCB congener showed a greater and more prolonged rise in plasma cortisol levels than controls when animals were subjected to mild stress at 9 mo of age using frequent blood sampling. Neither the basal maternal cortisol plasma level nor goat kid adrenal masses were affected by PCB exposure. PMID:19184731

  12. An overlooked environmental issue? A review of the inadvertent formation of PCB-11 and other PCB congeners and their occurrence in consumer products and in the environment.

    PubMed

    Vorkamp, Katrin

    2016-01-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are banned from production and use in most countries as they are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of concern for environment and health. Recent research has pointed at a new environment issue resulting from the inadvertent formation of PCBs in certain processes, in particular the pigment production. PCB-11 is a major by-product in these processes, but PCB-28, PCB-52, PCB-77 as well as the nonachlorinated PCBs and PCB-209 have been found in pigments and consumer products as well. In addition to environmental emissions via point sources, in particular related to industrial and municipal wastewater, atmospheric transport seems to be important for the global distribution of PCB-11. Thus, PCB-11 has also been detected in the polar regions. Worldwide air concentrations appear relatively uniform, but maxima have been found in urban and industrialised areas. Data on the uptake and accumulation of PCB-11 in the food chain are still inconclusive: Although food web studies do not show biomagnification, PCB-11 has been detected in humans. The human exposure might originate from the direct contact to consumer products as well as from the omnipresence of PCB-11 in the environment. PMID:26490526

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) analysis report for solid sample from 219S tank 104

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, G.A.

    1998-03-27

    A sample of solids was obtained from tank 104 of 219S via a peristaltic pump equipped with a stainless steel tube and Norprenel tubing (Phthalate free). The sample obtained in a glass jar with Teflon 2 lid, was analyzed for PCBs as Aroclor mixtures. A soxhlet extraction procedure was used to extract the Aroclors from the sample. Analysis was performed using dual column confirmation gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD). The extraction method closely follows SW-846 method 3540C and the analysis follows SW-846 method.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) analysis report for solid sample from 219S tank 101

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, L.A.

    1998-02-04

    One waste sample that was obtained with solids from tank 101 of 219S via a peristaltic pump equipped with a stainless steel tube and Norprene tubing (Phthalate free) was obtained in a glass jar with teflon lid was analyzed (with duplicate, matrix spike, and matrix spike duplicate) for PCBs as Aroclor mixtures by the Inorganic/Organic Chemistry Group. A soxhlet extraction procedure was used for extraction of the Aroclors from the sample. Analysis was performed using dual column confirmation gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD). Results are presented.

  15. Polychlorinate biphenyls (PCB) analysis report for solid sample for 219S tank 102

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, G.A.

    1997-12-05

    One waste sample was analyzed (with duplicate, matrix spike, and matrix spike duplicate) for PCBs as Aroclor mixtures by the Inorganic/Organic Chemistry Group. A soxhlet extraction procedure was used for extraction of the Aroclors from the sample. Analysis was performed using dual column confirmation gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD). Extraction follows closely method 354 C of SW-846, analysis follows SW-846 method 8082. A cross reference of laboratory sample number to the customer identification is given in a table.

  16. Effects of PCB126 and PCB153 on telomerase activity and telomere length in undifferentiated and differentiated HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xing; Senthilkumar, P K; Schnoor, Jerald L; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    PCBs are persistent organic pollutants that are carcinogenic and immunotoxic and have developmental toxicity. This suggests that they may interfere with normal cell maturation. Cancer and stem/progenitor cells have telomerase activity to maintain and protect the chromosome ends, but lose this activity during differentiation. We hypothesized that PCBs interfere with telomerase activity and the telomere complex, thereby disturbing cell differentiation and stem/progenitor cell function. HL-60 cells are cancer cells that can differentiated into granulocytes and monocytes. We exposed HL-60 cells to PCB126 (dioxin-like) and PCB153 (nondioxin-like) 6 days before and during 3 days of differentiation. The differentiated cells showed G0/G1 phase arrest and very low telomerase activity. hTERT and hTR, two telomerase-related genes, were downregulated. The telomere shelterins TRF1, TRF2, and POT1 were upregulated in granulocytes, and TRF2 was upregulated and POT1 downregulated in monocytes. Both PCBs further reduced telomerase activity in differentiated cells, but had only small effects on the differentiation and telomere-related genes. Treatment of undifferentiated HL-60 cells for 30 days with PCB126 produced a downregulation of telomerase activity and a decrease of hTERT, hTR, TRF1, and POT1 gene expression. With PCB153, the effects were less pronounced and some shelterin genes were increased after 30 days of exposure. With each PCB, no differentiation of cells was observed and cells continued to proliferate despite reduced telomerase activity, resulting in shortened telomeres after 30 days of exposure. These results indicate cell-type and PCB congener-specific effects on telomere/telomerase-related genes. Although PCBs do not seem to strongly affect differentiation, they may influence stem or progenitor cells through telomere attrition with potential long-term consequences for health. PMID:26330309

  17. 40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of PCB bulk product waste..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.62 Disposal of PCB bulk product waste. PCB bulk product waste shall be disposed of in accordance with paragraph (a), (b), or (c) of this section....

  18. 40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of PCB bulk product waste..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.62 Disposal of PCB bulk product waste. PCB bulk product waste shall be disposed of in accordance with paragraph (a), (b), or (c) of this section....

  19. 40 CFR 761.62 - Disposal of PCB bulk product waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of PCB bulk product waste..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.62 Disposal of PCB bulk product waste. PCB bulk product waste shall be disposed of in accordance with paragraph (a), (b), or (c) of this section....

  20. 40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decisions based on PCB concentration... Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.298 Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  2. 40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decisions based on PCB concentration... Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.298 Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling. (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 761.295 - Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.295 Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples. (a) Report all...

  4. 40 CFR 761.295 - Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.295 Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples. (a) Report all...

  5. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  6. 40 CFR 761.316 - Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling scheme.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interpreting PCB concentration... § 761.79(b)(3) § 761.316 Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling... composite is 20 µg/100 cm2, then the entire 9.5 square meters has a PCB surface concentration of 20...

  7. 40 CFR 761.295 - Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.295 Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples. (a) Report all...

  8. 40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decisions based on PCB concentration... Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6) § 761.298 Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling. (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal. PCB... to manage municipal or industrial solid waste, or in a facility with an approval to dispose of...

  10. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  11. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  12. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal. PCB... to manage municipal or industrial solid waste, or in a facility with an approval to dispose of...

  13. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal. PCB... to manage municipal or industrial solid waste, or in a facility with an approval to dispose of...

  14. 40 CFR 761.316 - Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling scheme.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interpreting PCB concentration... § 761.79(b)(3) § 761.316 Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling... composite is 20 µg/100 cm2, then the entire 9.5 square meters has a PCB surface concentration of 20...

  15. 40 CFR 761.316 - Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling scheme.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interpreting PCB concentration... § 761.79(b)(3) § 761.316 Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling... composite is 20 µg/100 cm2, then the entire 9.5 square meters has a PCB surface concentration of 20...

  16. 77 FR 11533 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama; Notice of Amended Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... AGENCY Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama; Notice of Amended Settlement... Agency has entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Anniston PCB Superfund Site... available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Anniston PCB by one of the...

  17. 40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.265 Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous...

  18. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal. PCB... to manage municipal or industrial solid waste, or in a facility with an approval to dispose of...

  19. 40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decisions based on PCB concentration....61(a)(6) § 761.298 Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling. (a) For grid samples which are chemically analyzed individually, the PCB concentration applies to the area...

  20. 40 CFR 761.298 - Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decisions based on PCB concentration....61(a)(6) § 761.298 Decisions based on PCB concentration measurements resulting from sampling. (a) For grid samples which are chemically analyzed individually, the PCB concentration applies to the area...

  1. 40 CFR 761.63 - PCB household waste storage and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB household waste storage and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.63 PCB household waste storage and disposal. PCB household waste, as defined at § 761.3, managed in a facility permitted, licensed, or registered by a...

  2. DISTRIBUTION OF PCB 84 ENANTIOMERS IN C57BL/6 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nineteen of the 209 possible PCB congeners exist as pairs of stable rotational isomers that are enantiomeric to each other. A racemic mixture of PCB atropisomers is present in technical PCB mixtures, thus raising concerns about enantioselective distribution, metabolism, and dispo...

  3. FACILITIES EVALUATION OF HIGH EFFICIENCY BOILER DESTRUCTION PCB WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of destruction in two different high-efficiency boilers (as an alternative to landfill disposal) of waste (a rendering plant byproduct, yellow grease) found to be contaminated by PCBs from a transformer leak. (The PCB content--under 500 p...

  4. Polymer multimode waveguide optical and electronic PCB manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selviah, David R.

    2009-02-01

    The paper describes the research in the Â#1.3 million IeMRC Integrated Optical and Electronic Interconnect PCB Manufacturing (OPCB) Flagship Project in which 8 companies and 3 universities carry out collaborative research and which was formed and is technically led by the author. The consortium's research is aimed at investigating a range of fabrication techniques, some established and some novel, for fabricating polymer multimode waveguides from several polymers, some formulations of which are being developed within the project. The challenge is to develop low cost waveguide manufacturing techniques compatible with commercial PCB manufacturing and to reduce their alignment cost. The project aims to take the first steps in making this hybrid optical waveguide and electrical copper track printed circuit board disruptive technology widely available by establishing and incorporating waveguide design rules into commercial PCB layout software and transferring the technology for fabricating such boards to a commercial PCB manufacturer. To focus the research the project is designing an optical waveguide backplane to tight realistic constraints, using commercial layout software with the new optical design rules, for a demonstrator into which 4 daughter cards are plugged, each carrying an aggregate of 80 Gb/s data so that each waveguide carries 10 Gb/s.

  5. Recovery of a PCB-Contaminated Creek Fish Community

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) from the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, South Carolina, USA, were released into the Twelvemile Creek until the early 1990s. PCB concentrations in fish in this creek have remained elevated: levels in six target fish species are still a...

  6. EVALUATION OF PROTOCOLS FOR PESTICIDES AND PCB'S IN RAW WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The general EPA protocol for screening industrial effluents for priority pollutants (Federal Register 38, No. 75, Part II), has been tested for its applicability to the analysis of the priority pollutant pesticides and PCB's in raw wastewater. Raw wastewater from the municipal se...

  7. The Effect of Intrauterine PCB Exposure on Visual Recognition Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Sandra W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Measures of prenatal exposure in 123 infants to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), cord serum PCB level, and maternal report of contaminated fish consumption predicted less preference for a novel stimulus on Fagan's test of visual recognition memory (VRM) at 7 months. Preference for novelty decreased in a dose-dependent fashion and postnatal…

  8. PCB congener accumulation by periphyton, herbivores, and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Hill, W R; Napolitano, G E

    1997-05-01

    The concentrations of 20 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured in periphyton, herbivorous fish (stoneroller minnows, Campostoma anomalum), and omnivorous fish (striped shiners, Luxilus chrysocephalus) in an industrially contaminated stream and a reference stream in eastern Tennessee. The sum of the concentrations of the 20 congeners, normalized by dry mass, was one to two orders of magnitude higher in stonerollers and shiners than in periphyton. Normalizing PCB concentrations by lipid mass reduced concentration differences between periphyton and stonerollers, but PCBs per unit lipid in stonerollers were still 50-350% higher than those in periphyton. Shiners had significantly higher lipid-specific PCB concentrations than did stonerollers, so a trophic hierarchy of primary producer < herbivore < omnivore was evident in lipid-specific PCB concentrations. Differences in lipid type, exposure duration, and exposure sources may account for the trophic-level differences in total PCBs. Congener profiles were roughly similar in periphyton, stonerollers, and shiners: five congeners (IUPAC numbers 101, 110, 138, 153, and 180) constituted >60% of the total mass of PCBs analyzed in all three trophic levels. However, stoneroller and shiner tissue was enriched in congeners 153, 118, and 187 relative to periphyton; congeners 153 and 187 are resistant to metabolic breakdown by monooxygenases found in fish liver. Principal component analysis of congener percentages separated periphyton from fish and distinguished between sampling locations. PMID:9175515

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental PCB and Pesticide Exposure and Risk of Endometriosis

    Germaine M. Buck1, John M. Weiner2, Hebe Greizerstein3, Brian Whitcomb1, Enrique Schisterman1, Paul Kostyniak3, Danelle Lobdell4, Kent Crickard5, and Ralph Sperrazza5

    1Epidemiology Branch, Division o...

  10. 40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB remediation waste. 761.61 Section 761.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.61...

  11. 40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PCB remediation waste. 761.61 Section 761.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.61...

  12. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 109.30 Section 109.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...

  13. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 109.30 Section 109.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL Tolerances...

  14. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... must assume that a capacitor manufactured prior to July 2, 1979, whose PCB concentration is not established contains ≥500 ppm PCBs. Any person may assume that a capacitor manufactured after July 2, 1979, is... capacitor contains ≥500 ppm PCBs. Any person may assume that a capacitor marked at the time of...

  15. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... must assume that a capacitor manufactured prior to July 2, 1979, whose PCB concentration is not established contains ≥500 ppm PCBs. Any person may assume that a capacitor manufactured after July 2, 1979, is... capacitor contains ≥500 ppm PCBs. Any person may assume that a capacitor marked at the time of...

  16. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... must assume that a capacitor manufactured prior to July 2, 1979, whose PCB concentration is not established contains ≥500 ppm PCBs. Any person may assume that a capacitor manufactured after July 2, 1979, is... capacitor contains ≥500 ppm PCBs. Any person may assume that a capacitor marked at the time of...

  17. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... must assume that a capacitor manufactured prior to July 2, 1979, whose PCB concentration is not established contains ≥500 ppm PCBs. Any person may assume that a capacitor manufactured after July 2, 1979, is... capacitor contains ≥500 ppm PCBs. Any person may assume that a capacitor marked at the time of...

  18. THYROID HORMONES AND NERVOUS SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT: SITE-OF-ACTION AND RELEVANCE OF AN ANIMAL MODEL OF DEVELOPMENTAL HYPYOTHYROXINEMIA-INDUCED HEARING LOSS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research demonstrated that perinatal exposure to Aroclor 1254 (A1254) resulted in both hypothyroxinemia (HPX) and a low-frequency ototoxicity (hearing loss). We hypothesized that the ototoxicity resulted from A1254- induced HPX during the postnatal critical period of c...

  19. MUTAGENICITY IN SALMONELLA OF HAZARDOUS WASTES AND URINE FROM RATS FED THESE WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    15 hazardous industrial waste samples were evaluated for mutagenicity in the Salmonella plate-incorporation assay using strains TA98 and TA100 in the presence and absence of Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver S9. Dichloromethane/methanol extracts of the crude wastes were also evaluat...

  20. Fertilization of eggs of Lake Michigan lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in lake water: Effect of PCBs (Aroclor 1254)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, N.R.; Berlin, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Various studies indicate that PCBs appear to have an adverse effect on the viability of fertilized eggs and subsequent early life stages of lake trout and related species. Our tests detected no impairment of fertilization of lake trout eggs in PCB-dosed lake water. The concentration of PCBs in the fertilization medium that we used was more than 20 times as high as estimated ambient levels in southeastern Lake Michigan and it appears unlikley that ambient levels of PCBs in the water at fertilization would contribute significantly to the apparent widespread reproductive failure of lake trout there.

  1. The Transcriptional Effects of PCB118 and PCB153 on the Liver, Adipose Tissue, Muscle and Colon of Mice: Highlighting of Glut4 and Lipin1 as Main Target Genes for PCB Induced Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mesnier, Aurélia; Champion, Serge; Louis, Laurence; Sauzet, Christophe; May, Phealay; Portugal, Henri; Benbrahim, Karim; Abraldes, Joelle; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Amiot-Carlin, Marie-Josephe; Peiretti, Franck; Piccerelle, Philippe; Nalbone, Gilles; Villard, Pierre-Henri

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms involved in the metabolic side-effects of PCB. Our study evaluated the transcriptional effects of a subchronic exposure (gavage at Day 0 and Day 15 with 10 or 100 μmol/Kg bw) to PCB118 (dioxin-like PCB), PCB153 (non-dioxin-like PCB), or an equimolar mixture of PCB118 and PCB153 on various tissues (liver, visceral adipose tissue, muscle, and colon) in mice. Our results showed that a short-term exposure to PCB118 and/or PCB153 enhanced circulating triglyceride levels but did not affect glycemia. Among the studied tissues, we did not observe any modification of the expression of inflammation-related genes, such as cytokines or chemokines. The main transcriptional effects were observed in visceral adipose and liver tissues. We found a downregulation of lipin1 and glut4 expression in these two target organs. In adipose tissue, we also showed a downregulation of Agpat2, Slc25a1, and Fasn. All of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. In muscles, we observed an induction of CnR1 and Foxo3 expression, which may be partly involved in PCB metabolic effects. In summary, our results suggest that lipin1 and glut4, notably in adipose tissue, are the main targeted genes in PCB-induced metabolic disorders, however, further studies are required to fully elucidate the mechanisms involved. PMID:26086818

  2. The Transcriptional Effects of PCB118 and PCB153 on the Liver, Adipose Tissue, Muscle and Colon of Mice: Highlighting of Glut4 and Lipin1 as Main Target Genes for PCB Induced Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mesnier, Aurélia; Champion, Serge; Louis, Laurence; Sauzet, Christophe; May, Phealay; Portugal, Henri; Benbrahim, Karim; Abraldes, Joelle; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Amiot-Carlin, Marie-Josephe; Peiretti, Franck; Piccerelle, Philippe; Nalbone, Gilles; Villard, Pierre-Henri

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms involved in the metabolic side-effects of PCB. Our study evaluated the transcriptional effects of a subchronic exposure (gavage at Day 0 and Day 15 with 10 or 100 μmol/Kg bw) to PCB118 (dioxin-like PCB), PCB153 (non-dioxin-like PCB), or an equimolar mixture of PCB118 and PCB153 on various tissues (liver, visceral adipose tissue, muscle, and colon) in mice. Our results showed that a short-term exposure to PCB118 and/or PCB153 enhanced circulating triglyceride levels but did not affect glycemia. Among the studied tissues, we did not observe any modification of the expression of inflammation-related genes, such as cytokines or chemokines. The main transcriptional effects were observed in visceral adipose and liver tissues. We found a downregulation of lipin1 and glut4 expression in these two target organs. In adipose tissue, we also showed a downregulation of Agpat2, Slc25a1, and Fasn. All of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. In muscles, we observed an induction of CnR1 and Foxo3 expression, which may be partly involved in PCB metabolic effects. In summary, our results suggest that lipin1 and glut4, notably in adipose tissue, are the main targeted genes in PCB-induced metabolic disorders, however, further studies are required to fully elucidate the mechanisms involved. PMID:26086818

  3. The potential of PCB photochemistry at Moccasin Bend

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, M.M.; Beck, M.J.

    1993-03-30

    The TVA/EPRI Tailored Collaborative Project {open_quotes}Biotransformation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBS) in Contaminated Soils{close_quotes}, has as its objective biotransformation of PCB contaminated soils at utility sites (Phase I Report March 1992). However, there is recognition of the existence of other types of nonmetabolic alterations of PCBs in the contaminated soils. Of these nonmetabolic alterations, photoalteration is of special interest to the project. Photoalteration has the potential for enhancing PCB transformation with little intervention and little harm to the microbial community. PCBs have pervaded the environment, and the paucity of knowledge about their chemistry is becoming readily apparent. Although PCBs are quite resistant to degradation, photolysis, which is a chemical decomposition process that is induced by radiant energy, may be important in the environmental chemistry of PCBS. The photochemical degradation of PCBs may affect atmospheric levels of contaminants and photolabile chemicals that reside in water bodies or on surfaces, as for example, on leaves and vegetation. Chemicals present in the environment can undergo direct or indirect phototransformation which includes photosensitized degradation and oxygenation as well as photoinduced degradation. Photoalteration is produced by either artificial light or by light from the sun. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) is known to induce chemical reactions in many chlorinated hydrocarbons under laboratory conditions. To determine whether PCB alterations are the result of light-catalyzed reactions, it is necessary to verify PCB photolysis, to define the products of photolysis, and to explain the conditions and mechanisms necessary to produce such reactions. It is the purpose of this report to review the literature concerning photoalteration of PCBs and the potential role of this mechanism to facilitate PCB remediation at the research site.

  4. Acute hepatotoxicity of ethylene and halogenated ethylenes after PCB pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Conolly, R B; Jaeger, R J

    1977-12-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that ethylene, vinyl fluoride monomer (VFM), vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), and vinyl bromide monomer (VBM) are all acutely hepatotoxic in rats pretreated with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). The time course of hepatic injury development after exposure and several parameters, environmental and chemical, affecting this toxicity were evaluated in the work reported here. Liver injury, as measured by serum alanine-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase (SAKT) or sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), develops progressively over a 24-hr period following a 4-hr inhalation exposure of PCB-pretreated rats to ethylene or VCM. Environmental temperature during exposure to VCM does not affect hepatotoxicity or mortality below 30.3 degrees C. At 33.8 degrees C, however, mortality and SAKT are dramatically increased. Overnight fasting, which depletes hepatic glutathione (GSH) of PCB-pretreated rats before exposure to ethylene or VCM, significantly increases the hepatotoxicity of these compounds as measured by SDH. The combined effects of fasting and of trichloropropane epoxide (TCPE), an inhibitor of epoxide hydrase (EH), were also examined. TCPE treatment of fasted PCB-pretreated rats immediately before exposure was synergistic in increasing the acute toxicity of ethylene and VCM. TCPE increased mortality in fed or fasted rats exposed to VFM, but there was no effect of fasting alone. Both fasting and TCPE increased the sensitivity of PCB-pretreated rats to VBM, but there was not a clearly synergistic effect of fasting plus TCPE. These data suggest that the acute toxicity of these compounds is mediated through epoxide intermediates. PMID:417916

  5. Assessment of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Occurrence in Copper Sulfates and the Influential Role of PCB Levels on Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaomin; Su, Xiaoou

    2015-01-01

    Copper sulfates (CuSO4) are widely used as the primary component of fungicides in the grape industry. The agricultural-grade CuSO4 that we collected from Chinese nationwide markets were found to be contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (Σ19PCBs: 0.32~9.51 ng/g). In the following research, we studied the impact of CuSO4 application on PCB levels in grape products through a field experiment, and conducted a national survey to speculate the role that CuSO4 played on the occurrence of PCB in grapes. In the field experiment, an obvious increase of PCBs in grape leaves (from 174 to 250 pg/g fw) was observed after Bordeaux mixture (the main component of which is CuSO4) application. As to the main PCB congener in CuSO4, the most toxic CB 126 (toxic equivalency factor = 0.1) also increased in grape peels (from 1.66 to 2.93 pg/g fw) after pesticide spray. Both the correlation study and the principal component analysis indicated that environmental factors were dominant PCB contributors to grapes, and grapes from e-waste dismantling area containing the highest PCBs also proved the notion. It is worth noting that this report describes the first research examining PCBs in CuSO4 and its influence on agricultural products to date. PMID:26658158

  6. Assessment of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Occurrence in Copper Sulfates and the Influential Role of PCB Levels on Grapes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Su, Xiaoou

    2015-01-01

    Copper sulfates (CuSO4) are widely used as the primary component of fungicides in the grape industry. The agricultural-grade CuSO4 that we collected from Chinese nationwide markets were found to be contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (Σ19PCBs: 0.32~9.51 ng/g). In the following research, we studied the impact of CuSO4 application on PCB levels in grape products through a field experiment, and conducted a national survey to speculate the role that CuSO4 played on the occurrence of PCB in grapes. In the field experiment, an obvious increase of PCBs in grape leaves (from 174 to 250 pg/g fw) was observed after Bordeaux mixture (the main component of which is CuSO4) application. As to the main PCB congener in CuSO4, the most toxic CB 126 (toxic equivalency factor = 0.1) also increased in grape peels (from 1.66 to 2.93 pg/g fw) after pesticide spray. Both the correlation study and the principal component analysis indicated that environmental factors were dominant PCB contributors to grapes, and grapes from e-waste dismantling area containing the highest PCBs also proved the notion. It is worth noting that this report describes the first research examining PCBs in CuSO4 and its influence on agricultural products to date. PMID:26658158

  7. PCB bioavailability control in Lumbriculus variegatus through different modes of activated carbon addition to sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Xueli Sun; Upal Ghosh

    2007-07-01

    PCB bioavailability to a freshwater oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) was studied using sediments from a PCB-impacted river that was treated with different modes of granular activated carbon (GAC) addition. The GAC used was bituminous coal-based type TOP. For sediment treated with 2.6% GAC and mixed for 2 min prior to L. variegatus addition, the reduction in total PCB biouptake was 70% for 75-300 {mu}m size carbon, and 92% for the 45-180 {mu}m size carbon. For the case where the GAC was placed as a thin layer on top of the sediments without mixing, the reduction in total PCB uptake was 70%. PCB biouptake kinetics study using treated and untreated sediment showed that the maximum PCB uptake in tissue was achieved at 28 days and decreased after that time. Although the absolute uptake of PCB changed over time, the percent reduction in total PCB uptake upon GAC amendment remained constant after the first few days. Our results indicated that PCB bioavailability was reduced upon the addition and little or no mixing of GAC into sediments. PCB aqueous equilibrium concentration and desorption rates were greatly reduced after GAC amendment, indicating reductions in the two primary mechanisms of PCB bioavailability in sediments: chemical activity and chemical accessibility. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Leopard frog PCB levels and evaluation of EROD as a biomarker in Green Bay ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.P.

    1995-12-31

    The induction of mixed function oxidases has been shown to be a promising biomarker in many taxa of wildlife, though not yet tested for amphibians. The three hypotheses tested in this study were (1) activities of hepatic EROD of leopard frog (Rana pipiens) are induced following exposure to planar chlorinated PCBs, (2) tissue PCB residue levels of leopard frogs are positively correlated with their wetland sediment PCB levels, and (3) EROD activities are positively correlated with tissue PCB concentrations and sediment PCB. In the laboratory, EROD was increased 2--3 times seven days after i.p. injection with PCB 126 at doses {ge} 2.3 ppm (wet mass basis). Leopard frogs from seven sites along the Lower Fox River and Green Bay in 1994--1995 were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and total PCB levels in carcasses. Tissue PCB levels ranged from 3 to 152 ppb (including coplanar congeners) and were highest from sites with higher sediment PCB. EROD activity in frogs collected in August--September was not significantly correlated with frog body mass and was similar among sites with one exception. There was no significant correlation between EROD activity and tissue PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB levels compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory. The authors conclude that EROD activity is not a sensitive biomarker of PCB exposure in leopard frogs in this ecosystem.

  9. CEREBROVASCULAR TOXICITY OF PCB153 IS ENHANCED BY BINDING TO SILICA NANOPARTICLES

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bei; Chen, Lei; Choi, Jeong June; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Environmental polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are frequently bound onto nanoparticles (NPs). However, the toxicity and health effects of PCBs assembled onto nanoparticles are unknown. The aim of this study was to study the hypothesis that binding PCBs to silica NPs potentiates PCB-induced cerebrovascular toxicity and brain damage in an experimental stroke model. Mice (C57BL/6, males, 12-week-old) were exposed to PCB153 bound to NPs (PCB153-NPs), PCB153, or vehicle. PCB153 was administered in the amount of 5 ng/g body weight. A group of treated animals was subjected to a 40 min ischemia, followed by a 24 h reperfusion. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, brain infarct volume, expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins, and inflammatory mediators were assessed. As compared to controls, a 24 h exposure to PCB153-NPs injected into cerebral vasculature resulted in significant elevation of the BBB permeability, disruption of TJ protein expression, increased proinflammatory responses, and enhanced monocyte transmigration in mouse brain capillaries. Importantly, exposure to PCB153-NPs increased stroke volume and potentiated brain damage in mice subjected to ischemia/reperfusion. A long-term (30 days) oral exposure to PCB153-NPs resulted in a higher PCB153 content in the abdominal adipose tissue and amplified adhesion of leukocytes to the brain endothelium as compared to treatment with PCB153 alone. This study provides the first evidence that binding to NPs increases cerebrovascular toxicity of environmental toxicants, such as PCB153. PMID:23081707

  10. Study of penetration behavior of PCB-DNAPL in a sand layer by a column experiment.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Nobuyasu; Shimizu, Takaaki; Muratani, Masaru; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2014-11-01

    To better understand the infiltration performances of high concentration PCB oils (KC-300 and KC-1000 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures), representative dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), under both saturated and unsaturated conditions, we conducted experiments on a sand column filled with Toyoura Standard Sand. When PCB oil with the volume comparable to the total porosity in the column was supplied, the residual PCB concentrations under PCB-water conditions were 4.9×10(4)mgkg(-1) in KC-300 and 3.9×10(4)mgkg(-1) in KC-1000. Under PCB-air conditions, residual PCB concentrations were 6.0×10(4)mgkg(-1) and 2.4×10(5)mgkg(-1) in the upper and lower parts for KC-300 and 3.6×10(4)mgkg(-1) and 1.5×10(5)mgkg(-1) in those for KC-1000, respectively, while the rest of the PCBs were infiltrated. On the other hand, when a small amount of PCB oil with the volume far smaller than the total porosity in the column was supplied, the original PCBs were not transported via water permeation. However, lower-chlorinated PCB congeners-e.g., di- or tri-chlorinated biphenyls-preferentially dissolved and were infiltrated from the bottom of the column. These propensities on PCB oil infiltration can be explained in conjunction with the degree of PCB saturation in the sand column. PMID:25113184

  11. Evaluation of the immunological and hematological effects of chronic exposure of adult Peromyscus leucopus to Aroclor 1254 at concentrations equivalent to those at contaminated sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arena, S.R.; Segre, M.; French, J.B., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are known to cause adverse health effects to biological systems; however, limited data is available on their effects on the immune system of wild species. Previous work by our lab found that 4 and 6-week old white-footed mice (Perornyscus leucopus) born from dams injected with a single dose (300 mg/kg) of Aroclor 1254, had altered immunological, hematological, and biochemical responses. The present study examines various immunological parameters of 22-week old white footed mice born from dams chronically exposed to Aroclor 1254 at concentrations equivalent to those at contaminated sites. Females were fed diets containing either Aroclor 1254 in corn oil or corn off only, for 3 months, then bred; pups were maintained on the same diets as their mothers. At 22 weeks of age, 31 of the young Peromyscus were analyzed. Body and organ weights were taken and immune function was evaluated by assessing blood profiles, cellularity of thymus and spleen, antibody response to the antigen DNP-KLH, and the in vitro proliferative response to the T-cell mitogen Conconavalin A (Con A). Liver weights and liver to body weight ratios in the treated mice were significantly higher compared to controls, while the combined weights of the adrenal glands were significantly lower. In addition, the number of thymocytes in the treated mice was significantly lower than that of the controls; however, thymocytes of treated mice had a higher degree of proliferation to Con A. Taken together, these results and those obtained from our previous study, indicate that monitoring of vulnerable immunological parameters in white-footed mice may be a useful indicator of exposure.

  12. Incubation stage and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in an altricial and precocial bird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Thyen, Stefan; Becker, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was compared between non-incubated and embryonated eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and little terns (Sterna albifrons) to determine if measurable changes in PCB congeners occurred during the embryonic period. There was no indication of changes in PCB congener patterns over the incubation period in tree swallows in 1999 and 2000 at a site with very high PCB exposure or a site with more modest PCB exposure. Additionally, congeners known to be either quickly metabolized or conserved based on experimental studies did not generally respond as predicted. Similarly, PCB congener patterns in eggs of little terns from Bottsand, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, did not differ between non-incubated and embryonated eggs. The results from both species suggest that the stage of incubation is not an important consideration when evaluating PCB congener patterns; comparisons and assessments can be made with eggs collected at all stages of incubation.

  13. Incubation stage and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in an altricial and precocial bird species.

    PubMed

    Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Thyen, Stefan; Becker, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    The composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was compared between non-incubated and embryonated eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and little terns (Sterna albifrons) to determine if measurable changes in PCB congeners occurred during the embryonic period. There was no indication of changes in PCB congener patterns over the incubation period in tree swallows in 1999 and 2000 at a site with very high PCB exposure or a site with more modest PCB exposure. Additionally, congeners known to be either quickly metabolized or conserved based on experimental studies did not generally respond as predicted. Similarly, PCB congener patterns in eggs of little terns from Bottsand, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, did not differ between non-incubated and embryonated eggs. The results from both species suggest that the stage of incubation is not an important consideration when evaluating PCB congener patterns; comparisons and assessments can be made with eggs collected at all stages of incubation. PMID:25213805

  14. PCB UPTAKE AND ACCUMULATION BY OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) EXPOSED VIA A CONTAMINATED ALGAL DIET. (R825349)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Reproductively active oysters were fed daily with 0.2 g algal paste containing 0, 0.1, and 1.0 small mu, Greekg polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (1:1:1 mixture of Aroclor 1242, 1...

  15. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 18, METHOD 608 - ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND PCB'S

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the results obtained and data analysis from an interlaboratory evaluation of EPA Method 608 (Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs). The method is designed to analyze for 16 single-compound pesticides, chlordane, toxaphene, and seven Aroclor formulations in wat...

  16. Determinations of PCB within a project to develop cleanup methods for PCB-containing elastic sealant used in outdoor joints between concrete blocks in buildings.

    PubMed

    Sundahl, M; Sikander, E; Ek-Olausson, B; Hjorthage, A; Rosell, L; Tornevall, M

    1999-08-01

    Determinations of PCB were carried out as part of a project aimed at developing cleanup methods for PCB-containing elastic sealant used in outdoor joints between concrete blocks. The goals of the project were to develop methods, which minimise the spread of PCB to the outdoor environment and to indoor air, and which keep the PCB levels as low as reasonably possible in the workplace environment whilst removing the elastic sealant. The following PCB determinations were carried out: (1) concentration in the elastic sealant; (2) concentration in the concrete close to the sealant; (3) concentration in soil; (4) concentration in the indoor air; and (5) concentration in the air in the workplace environment. The cleanup process consisted of a number of different steps: (1) cutting the elastic sealant with an oscillating knife; (2) grinding the concrete with a mechanical machine; (3) sawing the concrete with a mechanical saw and (4) cutting the concrete with a mechanical chisel. In all these different steps a high capacity vacuum cleaner connected to the machines was used. The elastic sealant contained 4.7 to 8.1% total PCB of a technical product with a composition most similar to Clophene A40. The concrete close to the sealant (first 2 mm) contained 0.12 and 1.7% total PCB at two different places. The pattern of the PCB in the concrete resembled that of the sealant. PCB concentrations in the soil from the ground close to the building were 0.1 and 0.3 ppm at two different places before the remedial action. The source of the PCB in the soil is most likely the sealant as the PCB pattern is similar for the two materials. The PCB levels in the workplace air at the beginning of the project, when the techniques were not fully developed, were generally above the occupational exposure limit of 10 micrograms m-3 (up to 120 micrograms m-3). Later when the techniques were optimised to better take care of dust and gases produced during the cutting and grinding etc., the levels were

  17. Total PCBs and PCB congeners in Spanish Imperial Eagle eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, L.M.; Fernandez, M.A.; Gonzalez, M.J. )

    1989-11-01

    The Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila (heliaca) adalberti is the only directly endangered bird of prey in Europe. Lowered reproductive success in numerous bird species has been associated with eggshell thinning and reduced production caused by DDE, the most common organochlorine residue found in wild birds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are usually the second most common organochlorine pollutant found in wild birds. Research to evaluate the incidence of organochlorine pollutants in the Spanish Imperial Eagle has been previously conducted. The authors have now determined the levels of total PCBs and selected PCB congeners in 34 eggs of Spanish Imperial Eagle collected at Donana National Park, Castile Plateau and Nature Park of Monfrague, since this has considerable significance when attempts are made to correlate the embryonic mortality of avian wildlife with PCB residue levels.

  18. PCB congeners in tissues of European otter (Lutra lutra)

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, C.F.; Ratford, J.R. )

    1994-10-01

    Otters (Lutra lutra) have declined over much of their European range during the past forty years and are now absent from large areas of the lowlands of Western Europe. The most likely cause of the decline is the effects of bioaccumulating contaminants, organochlorine pesticides and PCBs having been implicated. There have been several recent studies of organochlorine residues (pesticides and PCBs) in otter tissues and scats have been used to monitor residues in otter populations. However, only from The Netherlands have data on individual PCB congeners in otter tissues and scats been reported; this Dutch otter population is now extirpated. We report a survey of PCB congeners in samples of tissues and scats from several populations of otters. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. PCB concentration in fish in a river system after remediation of contaminated sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Bremle, G.; Larsson, P.

    1998-11-15

    An 1991 investigation of PCB concentrations in water and fish along a river was repeated in 1996 after the completion of a remediation of PCB-containing sediment in a lake within the river system. The PCB concentrations in the lake water decreased significantly, and the concentrations in fish was halved (significantly lower) after remediation. PCB still remaining in littoral sediment was probably the cause for a recorded gradient of PCB concentrations in fish from the lake and downstream. The PCB concentrations in water and fish was lower in 1996 compared to 1991 in all locations studied. The decreased levels of PCB in fish between the years for the two upstream locations, probably results from a decline in background PCB exposure. Monitoring data from 30 years back, recorded in a south Swedish lake, has shown a 5% decline per year in the PCB concentration in pike. The data on PCB concentration in fish from the two upstream locations were recalculated on the basis of this yearly decline and resulted in concentrations close to those measured in 1996. The results indicated, that changes in background exposure must be taken into account when evaluating the success of remedial actions measures carried out over several years.

  20. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Jensen, Olaf P; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P; Vastano, Anthony R; Pothoven, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. PMID:26794728

  1. Differences in energy expenditures and growth dilution explain higher PCB concentrations in male summer flounder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  2. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder

    PubMed Central

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. PMID:26794728

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), thyroid hormones and cytokines in construction workers removing old elastic sealants

    PubMed Central

    Lundholm, Cecilia; Johansson, Niklas; Wingfors, Håkan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the internal PCB level in Swedish workers specialised in PCB abatement in buildings and to measure possible effects of PCB on thyroid function and aspects of the immune system. Methods Thirty six of 40 eligible workers (90%) removing old elastic sealants containing PCB and 33 control construction workers provided blood samples for determination of 19 PCB congeners and some other organochlorine compounds (hexachlorobenzene and p,p′-DDE), thyroid function hormones and a set of cytokines. The PCB exposed group was reinvestigated after 10 months for a trend assessment. Results The sum of 19 PCB congeners in blood plasma from the occupationally PCB-exposed group was twice the level in the controls (geometric mean 580 vs. 260 ng/g lipid; P < 0.001), and there was also some difference in p,p′-DDE between the groups while the lipid-adjusted hexachlorobenzene levels were of the same magnitude. No statistically significant increase in overall PCB levels was observed in the abatement workers at follow-up and some congeners even declined. Thyroid function was not associated with PCB exposure at the current levels and this applied also to the cytokines investigated. Conclusions Swedish workers removing old elastic sealants with PCB have a higher internal PCB load than unexposed colleague construction workers, tentatively secondary to historical exposure. A system of protective measures seemed to be efficient since no further increase was noted after a longish period of additional exposure. There was no evidence of thyroid function or immune system involvement, as expressed by a set of cytokines, at the low PCB levels recorded. PMID:18350309

  4. [Clinical features and pathogenesis of Yusho (PCB poisoning)].

    PubMed

    Asahi, M

    1993-03-01

    The occurrence and progress of Yusho (PCB mass poisoning) is briefly described. Various investigative studies on Yusho are also briefly reviewed. Yusho occurred in the northern district of Kyushu Island in 1968. A specific product of rice oil used for food was accidentally contaminated with PCB during its manufacturing process and consequently, the customers who ate it showed severe intoxication symptoms. Major clinical symptoms of Yusho were acneiform eruptions and circumscribed pigmentation. These skin and mucous membrane eruptions, because of their appearance, caused severe mental suffering for the patients. The government-authorized patients amounted to 1,860. These symptoms have gradually declined with the passing of years and presently the principal clinical problems are only various subjective complaints. At first, it was naturally thought that the causative agent of Yusho was PCB (Kanechlor 400) itself. However, it was found later that the causative rice oil contained PCDF (polychlorodibenzofuran) and PCQ (polychloroquaterphenyl) which were proved to be formed during the heating process used in the deodorization of the oil. PCDFs show, in animal studies, a high toxicity and therefore its role for the pathogenesis of Yusho is seriously evaluated in spite of its rather small contaminating amount. On the other hand, PCQs are recognized as the specific marker of Yusho, since almost no PCQ is a general environmental pollution substance. PMID:8480091

  5. Advanced methods for electromagnetic investigation of PCB/PWB layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codreanu, N. D.; Ionescu, C.; Svasta, P.; Golumbeanu, V.

    2007-05-01

    High Density Interconnect (HDI) technology is a way to condense electronic circuits for ruggedness, radiation hardening, and high performance. HDI minimizes the size and weight of electronic products while maximizing their performances. HDI circuits offer new solutions to signal integrity (SI) and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) concerns, concerns which are expected to grow more and more as rise/fall times continue to drop. Because PCB manufacturers have developed new materials and technological solutions, indispensable at this moment is to perform a deep virtual characterization of structures directly related to HDI. This paper presents investigations and results focused on the main areas of SI and EMC, as noise at PCB level (reflections, and crosstalk), electromagnetic interference (EMI) and on-board interconnection delay. The authors have evaluated various HDI-PCB items and structures using the MoM full-wave electromagnetic simulation method. After modeling and simulation a link to classical circuit simulators was created by extracting RLCG elements and various parameters, which are directly related to the total current along the HDI structures. The paper offers a new way to find the solutions for keeping the integrity of signals and electromagnetic compliance.

  6. Genetic and cell-free studies of PCB biodegradation in pseudomonas putida LB400. Book chapter. [PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls)

    SciTech Connect

    Mondello, F.J.; Bopp, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation into the ability of strains defective in biphenyl metabolism to degrade PCBs, strongly suggests that the same enzymes are used for both substrates. The genes encoding these enzymes have been isolated and are being characterized. The ability of cell-free extracts of P. putida LB400 to degrade PCBs has been examined. Results indicate that the enzymes for PCB metabolism are present in the soluble portion of the extract.

  7. High accumulation of PCDD, PCDF, and PCB congeners in marine mammals from Brazil: a serious PCB problem.

    PubMed

    Dorneles, Paulo R; Sanz, Paloma; Eppe, Gauthier; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Bertozzi, Carolina P; Martínez, María A; Secchi, Eduardo R; Barbosa, Lupércio A; Cremer, Marta; Alonso, Mariana B; Torres, João P M; Lailson-Brito, José; Malm, Olaf; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Das, Krishna

    2013-10-01

    Blubber samples from three delphinid species (false killer whale, Guiana and rough-toothed dolphin), as well as liver samples from franciscana dolphins were analyzed for dioxins and related compounds (DRCs). Samples were collected from 35 cetaceans stranded or incidentally captured in a highly industrialized and urbanized area (Southeast and Southern Brazilian regions). Dioxin-like PCBs accounted for over 83% of the total TEQ for all cetaceans. Non-ortho coplanar PCBs, for franciscanas (82%), and mono-ortho PCBs (up to 80%), for delphinids, constituted the groups of highest contribution to total TEQ. Regarding franciscana dolphins, significant negative correlations were found between total length (TL) and three variables, ΣTEQ-DRCs, ΣTEQ-PCDF and ΣTEQ non-ortho PCB. An increasing efficiency of the detoxifying activity with the growth of the animal may be a plausible explanation for these findings. This hypothesis is reinforced by the significant negative correlation found between TL and PCB126/PCB169 concentration ratio. DRC concentrations (ng/g lipids) varied from 36 to 3006, for franciscana dolphins, as well as from 356 to 30,776, for delphinids. The sum of dioxin-like and indicator PCBs varied from 34,662 to 279,407 ng/g lipids, for Guiana dolphins from Rio de Janeiro state, which are among the highest PCB concentrations ever reported for cetaceans. The high concentrations found in our study raise concern not only on the conservation of Brazilian coastal cetaceans, but also on the possibility of human health problem due to consumption of fish from Brazilian estuaries. PMID:23827355

  8. Thermal dechlorination of heavily PCB-contaminated soils from a sealed site of PCB-containing electrical equipment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xingbao; Ji, Bingjing; Huang, Qifei

    2016-08-01

    A large amount of soils are contaminated by leakage of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from sealed-up PCB-containing electrical equipment in China. Thermal dechlorination of soils contaminated with PCBs at a level of 108 mg g(-1) and PCB77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) as a model isomer in conjunction with calcium oxide was investigated in this study. The PCB dechlorination rate improved with increased temperature and time. The highest dechlorination rate was 85.3 %, and temperature was the main influencing factor. Pentachlorobiphenyl and tetrachlorobiphenyl in soils decreased or disappeared in response to treatment at 350 and 400 °C for 4 h, while monochlorinated biphenyl and biphenyl were detected after the reaction, indicating the presence of a dechlorination/hydrogenation pathway. Discrepancy in chlorine balance was observed after low-temperature thermal dechlorination. The species of dechlorination products were identified as amorphous carbon containing a crystalline graphite plane structure and a carbonyl group-containing polymerized product, demonstrating the existence of a dechlorination/polymerization pathway. The yield of amorphous carbon and high-molecular-weight intermediates increased with heating time. The results showed that the discrepancy in chlorine balance was because of the generation of polymerized products and undetected intermediates. PMID:27126866

  9. Low dose hydroxylated PCB induces c-Jun expression in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Noriaki; Miyazaki, Wataru; Iwasaki, Toshiharu; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2006-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known as environmental pollutants that may cause adverse health problems. Recently, accumulating evidence shows that PCBs express neurotoxicity through alteration of gene expression and signal transduction. On the other hand, c-Jun, a component of AP-1, is likely to coordinate transcription programs in response to various extracellular signals. However, little is known about the effects of PCBs on c-Jun expression. Here we investigated the expression of c-Jun in response to PCB. PC12 cells were incubated with hydroxylated PCB (4(OH)-2',3,3',4',5'-penta chlorobiphenyl, OH-PCB) at a final concentration from 10(-8) to 10(-5)M. The level of c-Jun expression was increased by OH-PCB at relatively low-dose; concentration of OH-PCB at 10(-8)M and 10(-7)M produced a 2.4- and 3.5-fold increase of c-Jun expression in respectively, compared with the values without OH-PCB treatment. Thyroid hormone (T3) did not induce such c-Jun expression, indicating that the effect of OH-PCB is not mediated through thyroid hormone signaling pathway. OH-PCB also enhanced phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases. To determine whether the activation of Ca2+ channel is involved in the OH-PCB-induced c-Jun expression, we examined it using a L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel blocker nimodipine. Nimodipine partially inhibited OH-PCB-induced c-Jun expression by 50%. Moreover, Na+ channel antagonist tetrodotoxin inhibited OH-PCB-induced c-Jun expression completely. Taken together, our results indicate that exposure to OH-PCB induces c-Jun expression, and the response may be triggered by depolarization of a plasma membrane via Na+ influx, followed by Ca2+ influx partially through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. PMID:16300829

  10. Investigations into the effects of PCB congeners on reproduction in lake trout from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Schwartz, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    Eggs of feral lake trout collected in Lake Michigan were reared under laboratory conditions and monitored for egg hatchability, physical abnormalities, and survival of fry. Subsamples of eggs were also analyzed for PCB congeners. A negative correlation was found between egg hatchability and total PCBs but expressing PCB dose as dioxin equivalents did not produce as strong a correlation. No other measure of reproductive success correlated significantly with PCB concentration in the egg.

  11. Effects of PCB contamination on the reproduction of the DAB Limanda limanda L. under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonds, Mark; Casal, Elizabeth; Schweizer, Dominik; Boon, Jan P.; Van der Veer, Henk W.

    The effect of PCB contamination on the reproduction of female dab was studied under laboratory conditions. Females were contaminated during gonad maturation by multiple oral administration of capsules containing the technical PCB mixture Clophen A40. PCB contamination resulted in increased levels in the eggs, with concentrations of selected PCB congeners of 35 to 86 μg·g -1 lipid for PCB-exposed fish, 10 μg·g -1 lipid for eggs from fish fed with mussel meat and fish fed with shrimp. A statistically significant dose-effect relationship was found between the PCB content of the eggs and the PCB dose ingested by the fish. For eggs from the PCB-treated fish the mean fertilization rate was 61% and mean hatching 45%, compared to 67% fertilization and 59% hatching for eggs from untreated fish. Rate of development and survival of the eggs and mortality of the larvae after hatching were mainly related to incubation temperature. No statistically significant differences between untreated and PCB-treated fish could be found in egg production, egg quality, fertilization rate, hatching rate and survival of larvae.

  12. Uptake and depuration of PCB-153 in edible shrimp Palaemonetes varians and human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Grilo, T F; Cardoso, P G; Pato, P; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A

    2014-03-01

    A medium-term mesocosm exposure study was conducted to elucidate bioaccumulation and depuration of polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB-153) in edible shrimp Palaemonetes varians. Over the 15-day exposure period, shrimp under different exposure concentrations exhibited a significant increase in PCB-153 concentration compared with control organisms. Distinct bioaccumulation patterns and uptake rates were observed depending on the exposure concentrations. For low PCB-153 exposure levels (0.25μgL(-1)), accumulation followed a saturation model, reaching an apparent steady state after fifteen days exposure. For intermediate (2.5μgL(-1)) and high PCB-153 levels (25μgL(-1)), accumulation was faster and linear. In addition, the bioaccumulation rate was not proportional to PCB-153 concentration, and the bioaccumulation was higher at intermediate exposure concentrations. Regarding the depuration phase, P. varians lost up to 30% of PCB-153 after 72h and levels continued slowly to decrease until the end of the 30-d experimental period. However, PCB-153 levels in shrimp did not reach background values, and those exposed to moderate and high PCB-153 concentrations presented contamination levels much higher than the regulatory limit for human food consumption (75ngg(-1) ww for Σ6 PCB). PMID:24507133

  13. Habitat-based PCB environmental quality criteria for the protection of endangered killer whales (Orcinus orca).

    PubMed

    Alava, Juan José; Ross, Peter S; Lachmuth, Cara; Ford, John K B; Hickie, Brendan E; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2012-11-20

    The development of an area-based polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) food-web bioaccumulation model enabled a critical evaluation of the efficacy of sediment quality criteria and prey tissue residue guidelines in protecting fish-eating resident killer whales of British Columbia and adjacent waters. Model-predicted and observed PCB concentrations in resident killer whales and Chinook salmon were in good agreement, supporting the model's application for risk assessment and criteria development. Model application shows that PCB concentrations in the sediments from the resident killer whale's Critical Habitats and entire foraging range leads to PCB concentrations in most killer whales that exceed PCB toxicity threshold concentrations reported for marine mammals. Results further indicate that current PCB sediment quality and prey tissue residue criteria for fish-eating wildlife are not protective of killer whales and are not appropriate for assessing risks of PCB-contaminated sediments to high trophic level biota. We present a novel methodology for deriving sediment quality criteria and tissue residue guidelines that protect biota of high trophic levels under various PCB management scenarios. PCB concentrations in sediments and in prey that are deemed protective of resident killer whale health are much lower than current criteria values, underscoring the extreme vulnerability of high trophic level marine mammals to persistent and bioaccumulative contaminants. PMID:23098163

  14. Biostimulation of PCB-degrading bacteria by compounds released from plant roots

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.S.; Hegde, R.S.; Donnelly, P.K.

    1995-12-31

    Flavonoid and coumarin compounds produced by plants supported the growth of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacteria, and the bacteria retained their PCB-degrading properties. Root leachates and washings from mulberry trees also supported the growth of a PCB-degrading bacterium. These results indicate that chemicals released by some plant roots may serve as cometabolites for PCB-degrading bacteria. Identification of the right plant species and development of appropriate cultivation practices promises to lead to an ecologically sound means to achieve sustained in situ degradation of PCBs at contaminated terrestrial sites.

  15. PCB usage at the Grand Junction Area Office Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.E.; Donivan, S.

    1982-06-01

    The development, implementation, and results of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) identification project at the Grand Junction Area Office (GJAO) are summarized. Methodology for the PCB analysis is described, and results are tabulated. Of the 51 transformers and disconnects in use at GJAO, 15 unites were determined to be PCB-contaminated or filled with PCBs. This number falls within EPA's estimate of 25 to 40 percent of all transformers in use being at least contaminated. Approximately 324 gallons of PCBs and 515 gallons of PCB-contaminated fluids are being used currently. No contaminated transformers or disconnects are in a position to contaminate food or feed products at the facility.

  16. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Keir, Michael J.; Whittle, D. Michael; Noguchi, George E.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 61 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 71 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). To estimate the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning, PCB concentrations in gonads and in somatic tissue of lake trout were also determined. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was applied to investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes. Results showed that, on average, males were 22% higher in PCB concentration than females in Lake Ontario. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 3% and 14% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in male lake trout. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of males was about 2% higher than adult female GGE, on average. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher PCB concentrations exhibited by the males. Nevertheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of the lake trout.

  17. In situ stimulation of aerobic PCB biodegradation in Hudson River sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, M.R.; McDermott, J.B.; Abramowicz, D.A.; Salvo, J.J.; Flanagan, W.P.; Stephens, M.L.; Mondello, F.J.; May, R.J.; Lobos, J.H.; Carroll, K.M.; Brennan, M.J.; Bracco, A.A.; Fish, K.M.; Warner, G.L.; Wilson, P.R.; Dietrich, D.K.; Lin, D.T.; Morgan, C.B.; Gately, W.L. )

    1993-01-22

    A 73-day field study of in situ aerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hudson River shows that indigenous aerobic microorganisms can degrade the lightly chlorinated PCBs present in these sediments. Addition of inorganic nutrients, biphenyl, and oxygen enhanced PCB biodegradation, as indicated both by a 37 to 55 percent loss of PCBs and by the production of chlorobenzoates, intermediates in the PCB biodegradation pathway. Repeated inoculation with a purified PCB-degrading bacterium failed to improve biodegradative activity. Biodegradation was also observed under mixed but unamended conditions, which suggests that this process may occur commonly in river sediments, with implications for PCB fate models and risk assessments.

  18. 40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes...

  19. 40 CFR 761.358 - Determining the PCB concentration of samples of waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste...

  20. PCB in the air during landfilling of a contaminated lake sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremle, G.; Larsson, P.

    We studied PCB concentration in the air during the build-up of a landfill of PCB-contaminated sediment. A small lake was remediated and the sediment (150 000 m 3 containing about 400 kg PCB) deposited in a nearby landfill. PCB concentration in the air was elevated during landfilling and the extent was determined by the amount of sediment handled and the temperature. The air was enriched in more volatile PCB congeners compared to the deposited sediment, suggesting volatilization as the major transport process in addition to particle transport. The PCB concentration in air showed an exponential decline with distance from the centre of the landfill, with a one order of magnitude decrease 350 m from the centre. At a distance of 850 m from the centre about 5% of the elevated PCB level remained, which was significantly higher when compared to the reference concentration (15 km from the landfill). The PCB congener pattern changed gradually from the landfill centre to the reference. After the landfill was closed and the contaminated, dewatered sediment covered by uncontaminated soil, PCB levels and pattern were similar to that of the reference.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 101, PCB 153 and PCB 180) alter leptin signaling and lipid metabolism in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrante, Maria C.; Amero, Paola; Santoro, Anna; Monnolo, Anna; Simeoli, Raffaele; Di Guida, Francesca; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Meli, Rosaria

    2014-09-15

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are highly lipophilic environmental contaminants that accumulate in lipid-rich tissues, such as adipose tissue. Here, we reported the effects induced by PCBs 101, 153 and 180, three of the six NDL-PCBs defined as indicators, on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We observed an increase in lipid content, in leptin gene expression and a reduction of leptin receptor expression and signaling, when cells were exposed to PCBs, alone or in combination. These modifications were consistent with the occurrence of “leptin-resistance” in adipose tissue, a typical metabolic alteration related to obesity. Therefore, we investigated how PCBs affect the expression of pivotal proteins involved in the signaling of leptin receptor. We evaluated the PCB effect on the intracellular pathway JAK/STAT, determining the phosphorylation of STAT3, a downstream activator of the transcription of leptin gene targets, and the expression of SOCS3 and PTP1B, two important regulators of leptin resistance. In particular, PCBs 153 and 180 or all PCB combinations induced a significant reduction in pSTAT3/STAT3 ratio and an increase in PTP1B and SOCS3, evidencing an additive effect. The impairment of leptin signaling was associated with the reduction of AMPK/ACC pathway activation, leading to the increase in lipid content. These pollutants were also able to increase the transcription of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα). It is worthy to note that the PCB concentrations used are comparable to levels detectable in human adipose tissue. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that NDL-PCBs may interfere with the lipid metabolism contributing to the development of obesity and related diseases. - Highlights: • NDL-PCBs alter lipid content and metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • Impairment of leptin signaling was induced by NDL-PCBs. • NDL-PCBs reduce AMPK and ACC activation. • NDL-PCBs induce the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokine by

  2. EFFECTS OF PCB 84 ATROPISOMERS ON [3H]-PHORBOL ESTER BINDING IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE CELLS AND 45CA2+-UPTAKE IN RAT CEREBELLUM.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is evidence that Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners with ortho substituents have potential to cause neurotoxicity. Many PCB congeners implicated in these neurotoxic effects are chiral. It is currently unknown if the enantiomers of a chiral PCB congeners have differe...

  3. Procurement and execution of PCB analyses: Customer-analyst interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.

    1993-03-01

    The practical application of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) analyses begins with a request for the analysis and concludes with provision of the requested analysis. The key to successful execution of this iteration is timely, professional communication between the requester and the analyst. Often PCB analyses are not satisfactorily executed, either because the requester failed to give adequate instructions or because the analyst simply ``did what he/she was told.`` The request for and conduct of a PCB analysis represents a contract for the procurement of a product (information about the sample); if both parties recognize and abide by this contractual relationship, the process generally proceeds smoothly. Requesters may be corporate purchasing agents working from a scope of work, a sample management office, a field team leader, a project manager, a physician`s office, or the analyst himself. The analyst with whom the requester communicates may be a laboratory supervisor, a sample-receiving department, a salesperson for the laboratory, or the analyst himself. The analyst conducting the analysis is often a team, with custody of the sample being passed from sample receiving to the extraction laboratory, to the cleanup laboratory, to the gas chromatography (GC) laboratory, to the data reduction person, to the package preparation person, to the quality control (QC) department for verification, to shipping. Where a team of analysts is involved, the requester needs a central point of contact to minimize confusion and frustration. For the requester-analyst interface to work smoothly, it must function as if it is a one-to-one interaction. This article addresses the pitfalls of the requester-analyst interaction and provides suggestions for improving the quality of the analytical product through the requester-analyst interface.

  4. Patterns in stream fish assemblage structure and function associated with a PCB gradient.

    PubMed

    Simon, Thomas P; Morris, Charles C; Sparks, Daniel W

    2013-08-01

    Stream fish assemblage structure and function were examined for significant response along a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) gradient from two PCB-contaminated streams (Clear Creek and Richland Creek watershed) at three locations and a control stream (Little Indian Creek), Indiana, USA. Fish were sampled in the summer months of 1995 and from 1999 to 2002. 51 fish assemblage attributes-including structure (i.e., fish composition) and function (i.e., trophic, reproductive, condition guilds), biomass, and index of biotic integrity (IBI) metric scores-were evaluated for significance according to an increasing PCB gradient. Eight biomass attributes of fish assemblages decreased with increasing PCB concentration: number of species biomass, number of sunfish biomass, percent sunfish biomass, number of sucker biomass, percent sucker biomass, biomass of sensitive species, percent sensitive species biomass, and percent carnivore biomass. Three biomass attributes increased with PCB concentration: percent minnow biomass, percent pioneer species biomass, and percent tolerant species biomass. Seven species composition and relative abundance characters decreased with increasing PCB concentration: number of species; number of darter, madtom, and sculpin; number of darter; number of sunfish; number of sucker; number of sensitive species; and percent individuals as carnivores. Percent individuals as pioneer species increased with increasing PCB concentration. Two IBI metrics, percent individuals as headwater species and number of minnow species, increased as PCB concentrations increased, whereas number of sucker species and percent individuals as pioneer species decreased with increasing PCB concentration class. We observed a direct response between decreased relative abundance and biomass of carnivores and increased relative abundance minnows as the PCB gradient increased. Total IBI score did not detect subtle changes to the fish community that were observed along a PCB gradient

  5. Hudson River PCB reclamation demonstration project, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    An abstract of the final environmental impact statement (EIS) for a demonstration project to dredge Hudson River sediments to remove polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination describes an effort to reduce the 40 hot spots by half. Positive impacts would be the removal of potential health hazards, but there is a risk that the dredging operations will release some contaminants into the surrounding water, leaving PCBs in the water and no longer contained. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 is the legal mandate for the EIS.

  6. PCB-Caulk Replacement Project Johnson Space Center Houston, TX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, William M.; Stanch, Penney M.; Molenda, William

    2011-01-01

    Wet method reduced exposure by minimizing overall respirable particulate release. Dry method didn't introduce delays for primer/caulk application. Removed caulks came in many forms, from dry powdery to tarry sticky. Varying textures were not sampled or packaged differently. During the course of the project, EPA modified recommended practices to include full containment for exterior caulk removal. Changes are ongoing. Initial recommendations were directed to school buildings. EPA is researching risks due to caulk. Exposure guidance lacking except for 2 of 209 PCB congeners. Work was safely completed on schedule and under budget.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) partitioning between adipose tissue and serum

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.F. Jr.; Lawton, R.W.

    1984-09-01

    It has been recently suggested that variabilities in the partitioning of chronically retained lipophilic xenobiotics between adipose tissue and serum may be relatable to variations in the lipid content of the serum. Here, the authors present theoretical considerations and experimental data showing that this is indeed the case for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in humans. At equilibrium, in the absence of active transport, any lipophilic substance must distribute itself among body tissues in such a way that its chemical activity and also its chemical potential are the same at all points. In order to verify the theoretical relationships, three sorts of data relating to serum PCB levels in a human population were examined.

  8. Further studies on the use of enzyme profiles to monitor residue accumulation in wildlife: Plasma enzymes in starlings fed graded concentrations of morsodren, DDE, Aroclor 1254, and malathion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dieter, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    Wild-trapped starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were fed concentrations of Morsodren (2, 4, and 8 ppm), DDE or Aroclor 1254 (5, 25, and 100 ppm), or malathion (8, 35, and 160 ppm) that were found to be sublethal in pen-reared Coturnix quail fed these amounts for 12 weeks. Plasma enzymes had to be measured earlier than planned in starlings fed Morsodren (at three weeks) or the organochlorine compounds (at seven weeks) because of unexpected, subsequent mortality. Variations in enzyme response were greater in wild than in pen-reared birds, but not enough to mask the toxicant-induced changes in enzyme activity. Cholinesterase activities decreased in birds fed Morsodren or malathion, and increased in those fed the organochlorine compounds. Lactate dehydrogenase activities increased two-fold in starlings fed Morsodren and two- to four-fold in those fed the organochlorine compounds, but only 50% in those fed malathion. Further examination of enzyme profiles showed that creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities increased two-to four-fold in birds fed Morsodren or the organochlorine compounds but not at all in those fed malathion. Thus the classes of environmental contaminants fed to starlings could be easily distinguished by these enzymatic parameters. Evaluation of enzymatic profiles appears to be a potentially valuable technique to monitor the presence of toxicants in wild populations, especially if used to complement standard chemical residue analyses. Here the residue analyses showed, after three weeks feeding, that mercury in the carcasses reflected the concentrations fed daily, whereas accumulation in the livers was two- to four-fold greater. After seven weeks feeding, liver residues of either organochlorine compound were about three-fold higher than the concentrations fed daily. However, four times as much DDE as Aroclor 1254 had accumulated in the carcasses.

  9. Evaluation of toxicity to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and to the midge, Chironomus dilutus; and bioaccumulation by the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, with exposure to PCB-contaminated sediments from Anniston, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Steevens, Jeffery A.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Coady, Matthew R.; Farrar, J. Daniel; Lotufo, Guilherme R.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kunz, James L.; Stanley, Jacob K.; Sinclair, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    characterization of samples of whole sediment included analyses of grain size, TOC, and nutrients. Organic chemical characterization of samples of whole sediment included PCB homologs and select (13) PCB congeners, parent and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins; and dibenzofurans. The PCB aroclors analyzed included 1016, 1221, 1232, 1242, 1248, 1254, 1260, 1262 and 1268. Analyses of whole sediment also included total metals, simultaneously extracted metals, and acid volatile sulfide. Chemical characterization of samples of pore water isolated from samples of whole sediment at the start of the sediment toxicity exposures or at the start of the sediment bioaccumulation exposures included metals, major cations, major anions, dissolved organic carbon, and additional water-quality characteristics. Concentrations of metals or PCBs in pore water during the sediment toxicity exposures or during sediment bioaccumulation exposures also were determined using peeper samples (for metals) or solid-phase microextraction (SPME) samplers (for PCBs). The bioavailability and bioaccumulation of PCBs in 14 sediment samples were investigated using SPME passive samplers and the 28-d L. variegatus whole-sediment bioaccumulation exposures In general the accumulation of PCBs consistently was predicted through the use of organic carbon normalization and equilibrium partitioning. In these sediments, PCB homologs were accumulated differently based on bioavailability and potential to accumulate in oligochaetes. As part of this assessment homolog specific biota sediment accumulation factor values were developed that could be applied across the larger site to predict tissue levels of PCBs. The whole-sediment toxicity tests done with H. azteca and C. dilutus met the established ASTM and USEPA test acceptability criteria. The most responsive H. azteca endpoints were day 42 survival normalized young per female and day 28 biomass and

  10. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR PART 761” on the manifests, records, and reports which they shall prepare under this subpart... handling activity and now wishes to engage in another PCB waste activity (e.g., previously only... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste...

  11. 77 FR 13603 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site; Anniston, Calhoun County, AL; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... published on February 27, 2012, 77 FR 11533 (FRL-9637-7), EPA posted a Notice of Amended Settlement concerning the Anniston PCB Superfund Site located in Anniston. The settlement is not an amendment, but a new... AGENCY Anniston PCB Superfund Site; Anniston, Calhoun County, AL; Correction AGENCY:...

  12. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR PART 761” on the manifests, records, and reports which they shall prepare under this subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification...

  13. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR PART 761” on the manifests, records, and reports which they shall prepare under this subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification...

  14. Long-term simulation of PCB export from the Fox River to Green Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Velleux, M.L.; Endicott, Douglas; Steuer, Jeffrey; Patterson, Dale; Jaeger, Steven

    1995-01-01

    A mass balance approach was used to model long-term PCB transport in the Fox River (Wisconsin) from Lake Winnebago to Green Bay. The objectives of this research were to (1) extend the modeling approach for the Fox River to permit realistic long-term simulations of contaminant transport and fate, (2) forecast long-term PCB export from the Fox River to Green Bay, and (3) develop a rational approach for evaluating sediment remediation alternatives. Field data collected as part of the Green Bay Mass Balance Study during 1988-90 and additional data collected by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey during 1992-93 were used to develop the model. A 10-year hindcast was conducted to confirm long-term model predictions. A series of 25-year forecasts were then conducted to explore the potential effects of hydrograph structure, extremely high flows, and sediment remediation on long-term PCB export from the Fox River to Green Bay. PCB export from the Fox River is forecast to decrease, and most (75%) of the PCB reservoir in Fox River sediment is expected to remain in place. However, extremely high flows in future years are forecast to cause significant PCB resuspension and export. Model forecasts suggest that long-term PCB export is only mildly sensitive to changes in hydrograph structure. Sediment remediation is forecast to reduce but not eliminate PCB export.

  15. Relationship of Perinatal PCB Exposure to Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Reply to Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladen, Beth C.; Rogan, Walter J.

    2004-01-01

    D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) examine various technical issues related to six studies of perinatal PCB exposure and neurodevelopment and one study of adult PCB exposure and motor function. They raise questions about possible imperfections of the studies, but many of their assertions are unsupported or frankly…

  16. Much Ado about Something: The Weight of Evidence for PCB Effects on Neuropsychological Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schantz, Susan L.; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Gasior, Donna M.; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Humphrey, Harold E. B.

    2004-01-01

    D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) use six criteria to evaluate the published findings from seven different studies of PCB exposure and neuropsychological function. They point out a number of weaknesses or flaws in each study and conclude that these weaknesses make the overall conclusion that PCB exposure negatively…

  17. 40 CFR 761.205 - Notification of PCB waste activity (EPA Form 7710-53).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR PART 761” on the manifests, records, and reports which they shall prepare under this subpart... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Notification of PCB waste activity..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.205 Notification...

  18. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sources, Emissions, and Environmental Levels in school Buildings (PCB Workshop presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measure PCB emission rates from primary sources in laboratory chambersMeasure transport and sorption by materials and dust in laboratory chambersCharacterize PCBs in school building materialsEstimate PCB emission rates from sources in schoolsExamine congener patterns in sources a...

  19. Chamber study of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from 13 caulk samples were tested in a micro-chamber system. Twelve samples were from PCB-contaminated buildings and one was prepared in the laboratory. Nineteen light ballasts collected from buildings that represent 13 di...

  20. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of walleyes (Sander vitreus) from a pristine lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Hanchin, P.A.; Chernyak, S.M.; Begnoche, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 15 adult female walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 15 adult male walleyes from South Manistique Lake (Michigan, United States), a relatively pristine lake with no point source inputs of PCBs. By measuring PCB concentration in gonads and in somatic tissue of the South Manistique Lake fish, we also estimated the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning for both sexes. To determine whether gross growth efficiency differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, adult males were 34% higher in PCB concentration than adult females in South Manistique Lake. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 1% and 5% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in adult male walleyes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of South Manistique Lake walleyes was attributable, at least in part, to a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE). Adult female GGE was estimated to be up to 17% greater than adult male GGE.

  1. 40 CFR 761.359 - Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting the PCB concentrations in...-Site Disposal, in Accordance With § 761.61 § 761.359 Reporting the PCB concentrations in samples. Report all sample concentrations as ppm by weight on a dry weight basis....

  2. 40 CFR 761.295 - Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... concentrations in samples. 761.295 Section 761.295 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) § 761.295 Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples. (a) Report all sample concentrations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces on a dry weight basis and as micrograms of...

  3. 40 CFR 761.295 - Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concentrations in samples. 761.295 Section 761.295 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) § 761.295 Reporting and recordkeeping of the PCB concentrations in samples. (a) Report all sample concentrations for bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces on a dry weight basis and as micrograms of...

  4. 40 CFR 761.316 - Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling scheme.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interpreting PCB concentration... § 761.79(b)(3) § 761.316 Interpreting PCB concentration measurements resulting from this sampling... concentration measured in that sample. If the sample surface concentration is not equal to or lower than...

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF PCB BIOACCUMULATION IN THE LAKE HARTWELL FOODWEB USING THE AQUATOX MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    PCBs from the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, South Carolina, USA, were released into the Twelvemile Creek arm of Lake Hartwell until the early 1990s. Monitoring data have shown that while PCB concentration in sediments declined since 1995, PCB concentrations in larg...

  6. Microbial community analysis of switchgrass planted and unplanted soil microcosms displaying PCB dechlorination

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yi; Meggo, Richard; Hu, Dingfei; Schnoor, Jerald L.; Mattes, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose potential risks to human and environmental health because they are carcinogenic, persistent and bioaccumulative. In this study we investigated bacterial communities in soil microcosms spiked with PCB 52, 77 and 153. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was employed to improve overall PCB removal and redox cycling (i.e. sequential periods of flooding followed by periods of no flooding) was performed in an effort to promote PCB dechlorination. Lesser chlorinated PCB transformation products were detected in all microcosms, indicating the occurrence of PCB dechlorination. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis showed that PCB spiking, switchgrass planting and redox cycling affected the microbial community structure. Putative organohalide-respiring Chloroflexi populations, which were not found in unflooded microcosms, were enriched after two weeks of flooding in the redox-cycled microcosms. Sequences classified as Geobacter sp. were detected in all microcosms, and were most abundant in the switchgrass-planted microcosm spiked with PCB congeners. The presence of possible organohalide-respiring bacteria in these soil microcosms suggests they play a role in PCB dechlorination therein. PMID:25820643

  7. PCB 77 dechlorination products modulate pro-inflammatory events in vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Eske, Katryn; Newsome, Bradley; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2013-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are associated with detrimental health outcomes including cardiovascular diseases. Remediation of these compounds is a critical component of environmental policy. Although remediation efforts aim to completely remove toxicants, little is known about the effects of potential remediation byproducts. We previously published that Fe/Pd nanoparticles effectively dechlorinate PCB 77 to biphenyl, thus eliminating PCB-induced endothelial dysfunction using primary vascular endothelial cells. Herein, we analyzed the toxic effects of PCB congener mixtures (representative mixtures of commercial PCBs based on previous dechlorination data) produced at multiple time points during the dechlorination of PCB 77 to biphenyl. Compared with pure PCB 77, exposing endothelial cells to lower chlorinated PCB byproducts led to improved cellular viability, decreased superoxide production, and decreased nuclear factor kappa B activation based on duration of remediation. Presence of the parent compound, PCB 77, led to significant increases in mRNA and protein inflammatory marker expression. These data implicate that PCB dechlorination reduces biological toxicity to vascular endothelial cells. PMID:23504249

  8. Emission factors for PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB from open buring of biomass

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants includes in its aims the minimisation of unintentional releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and dioxin like PCB (dl-PCB) to the environment. Development and implementation of policies ...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, PCB DETECTION TECHNOLOGY, HYBRIZYME DELFIA TM ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DELFIA PCB Assay is a solid-phase time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay based on the sequential addition of sample extract and europium-labeled PCB tracer to a monoclonal antibody reagent specific for PCBs. In this assay, the antibody reagent and sample extract are added to a strip...

  10. DISTRIBUTION OF PCB 84 ENANTIOMERS IN C56BL/6 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    At room temperature, nineteen of the 209 possible PCB congeners exist as pairs of stable rotational isomers that are enantiomeric to each other. A racemic mixture of each of these PCB atropisomers is present in technical mixtures, thus raising concerns about enantioselective dis...

  11. TLR4 Signaling Is Involved in Brain Vascular Toxicity of PCB153 Bound to Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bei; Choi, Jeong June; Eum, Sung Yong; Daunert, Sylvia; Toborek, Michal

    2013-01-01

    PCBs bind to environmental particles; however, potential toxicity exhibited by such complexes is not well understood. The aim of the present study is to study the hypothesis that assembling onto nanoparticles can influence the PCB153-induced brain endothelial toxicity via interaction with the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). To address this hypothesis, TLR4-deficient and wild type control mice (males, 10 week old) were exposed to PCB153 (5 ng/g body weight) bound to chemically inert silica nanoparticles (PCB153-NPs), PCB153 alone, silica nanoparticles (NPs; diameter, 20 nm), or vehicle. Selected animals were also subjected to 40 min ischemia, followed by a 24 h reperfusion. As compared to exposure to PCB153 alone, treatment with PCB153-NP potentiated the brain infarct volume in control mice. Importantly, this effect was attenuated in TLR4-deficient mice. Similarly, PCB153-NP-induced proinflammatory responses and disruption of tight junction integrity were less pronounced in TLR4-deficient mice as compared to control animals. Additional in vitro experiments revealed that TLR4 mediates toxicity of PCB153-NP via recruitment of tumor necrosis factor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6). The results of current study indicate that binding to seemingly inert nanoparticles increase cerebrovascular toxicity of PCBs and suggest that targeting the TLR4/TRAF6 signaling may protect against these effects. PMID:23690990

  12. AMBIENT MONITORING FOR PCB NEAR THREE LANDFILLS IN THE BLOOMINGTON, INDIANA AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A monitoring program was conducted to determine PCB levels in ambient air on and in the vicinity of three landfills in the Bloomington, Indiana area. Fixed-height measurements were made at locations on the sites where capacitors containing PCB were exposed (hot spots) and at nomi...

  13. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL Tolerances for Unavoidable Poisonous or Deleterious Substances § 509...-packaging materials contain PCB's which may migrate to the packaged food. The source of PCB's in paper food-packaging materials is primarily of certain types of carbonless copy paper (containing 3 to 5 percent...

  14. Enhanced peak power CO2 laser processing of PCB materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhouse, C. J.; Villarreal, F.; Wendland, J. J.; Baker, H. J.; Hall, D. R.; Hand, D. P.

    2005-06-01

    Laser drilling has become a common processing step in the fabrication of printed circuit boards (PCB's). For this work, a recently developed enhanced peak power CO2 laser (~2.5 kW peak power, 200W average) or ultra-super pulse (USP) laser is used to drill alumina and copper coated dielectric laminate materials. The higher peak power and faster response times (than conventional CO2 lasers) produced by the USP laser are used to produce high speed alumina laser scribing and copper coated laminate microvia drilling processes. Alumina is a common PCB material used for applications, where its resistance to mechanical and thermal stresses is required. Here we present a comprehensive study of the melt eject mechanisms and recast formation to optimise the speed and quality of alumina laser scribing. Scribe speeds of up to 320 mms-1 (1.8 times current scribe rate) have been achieved using novel temporal pulse shapes unique to the USP laser. Also presented is the microvia drilling process of copper dielectric laminates, where the multi-level configuration presents different optical and thermal properties complicating their simultaneous laser ablation. In our experiments the USP laser has been used to drill standard thickness copper films (up to 50 μm thick) in a single shot. This investigation concentrates on understanding the mechanisms that determine the dielectric undercut dimensions.

  15. Aerobic and anaerobic PCB biodegradation in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowicz, D.A.

    1995-06-01

    Studies have identified two distinct biological processes capable of biotransforming polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): aerobic oxidative processes and anaerobic reductive processes. It is now known that these two complementary activities are occurring naturally in the environment. Anaerobic PCB dechlorination, responsible for the conversion of highly chlorinated PCBs to lightly chlorinated ortho-enriched congeners, has been documented extensively in the Hudson River and has been observed at many other sites throughout the world. The products from this anaerobic process are readily degradable by a wide range of aerobic bacteria, and it has now been shown that this process is occurring in surficial sediments in the Hudson River. The widespread anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs that has been observed in many river and marine sediments results in reduction of both the potential risk from and potential exposure to PCBs. The reductions in potential risk include reduced dioxin like toxicity and reduced carcinogenicity. The reduced PCB exposure realized upon dechlorination is manifested by reduced bioaccumulation in the food chain and by the increased anaerobic degradability of these products. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) carcinogenicity with special emphasis on airborne PCBs

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial chemicals used in various applications requiring chemical stabilityand have now become widely dispersed. Their characteristics of persistence, low water/higher lipid solubility, contribute to their ability to bioconcentrate and bioaccumulate. Traditionally PCBs have been regulated as food contaminants and the general population is primarily exposed by that route. PCBs in foodstuffs are generally higher chlorinated, resistant to metabolic breakdown, and elicit toxic changes that are thought to be predominantly receptor/parent PCB-driven. But for certain occupational exposures, and for those persons residing or working in contaminated buildings, and in large cities, an inhalation route of exposure may predominate. Airborne PCBs are, in contrast to foodborne PCBs, lower chlorinated, more volatile, and subject to metabolic attack. In this review, we have explored (geno-) toxic manifestations of PCBs typical of those found in air. Here metabolic conversion of the parent PCB to hydroxylated and other metabolic progeny appear to play a dominant role, especially in genotoxicity. We should be cognizant of the impact of exposures to airborne PCBs for those individuals who are occupationally exposed, for persons living near contaminated sites, for those who work or go to school in contaminated buildings, and especially cognizant of the young, the socio-economically disadvantaged and medically-underserved or nutritionally-deficient populations. PMID:21686028

  17. The Influence of Atmospheric Transport Regimes on Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Concentrations Measured at Zeppelin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubl, S.; Scheringer, M.; Hungerbuehler, K.

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of exclusively anthropogenic origin. PCBs are toxic, bioaccumulative and have a great potential of long-range transport. PCBs have been banned globally under the Stockholm convention on POPs since 2004. We analysed times series of 21 PCB congeners ranging from PCB 18 to PCB 187 that have been measured at Zeppelin (Spitsbergen) since 1993. Although primary PCB emissions have been steadily reduced, a strong decreasing trend is not observed in the PCB concentrations in the Arctic. In order to investigate the influence of atmospheric transport on the PCB concentrations and to identify the potential source regions of the PCBs, we calculated footprints for the Zeppelin measurement site using the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART. Footprints can be interpreted as potential source regions where PCBs may have been picked up. Based on various statistical analyses of the footprints (cluster analysis, k-medoid, silhouette), we identified the prevailing transport regimes for Zeppelin which were represented by 5 different clusters. Cluster 1 and 3 belong to transport regimes with highest residence times over Europe (cluster 1) and North-America (cluster 3); both transport regimes dominantly occur from late fall to early spring. Clusters 2 and 4 represent air masses with surface contact predominantly over the Atlantic Ocean (cluster 2), only occurring during the summer months, and the Arctic Ocean (cluster 4) mainly observed in spring and autumn, but also in summer. Cluster 5 is representative of air originating from the Pacific ocean and eastern Asia; this transport regime occurs mainly in spring and fall. We grouped the PCB concentrations measured at Zeppelin according to the 5 different clusters and calculated the median for each cluster and PCB congener. The median for medium to heavier PCBs is highest for cluster 1 and 3, which represent transport regimes over the continent, suggesting that

  18. Idaho National Laboratory PCB Annual Document Log and Annual Records Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    no name on report

    2014-06-01

    The requirements for the reporting of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-related activities are found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761 Subpart J, "General Records and Reports." The PCB Annual Document Log is a detailed record of the PCB waste handling activities at the facility. The facility must prepare it each year by July 1 and maintain it at the facility for at least 3 years after the facility ceases using or storing PCBs and PCB items. While submittal of the PCB Annual Document Log to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not required by regulation, EPA has verbally requested in telephone conversations that this report be submitted to them on an annual basis. The Annual Document Log section of this report meets the requirements of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(2), as applicable, while the Annual Records section meets the requirement of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(1).

  19. PCB and DDE residues in milk supplies of Ontario, Canada 1985-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, R.; Braun, H.E. )

    1989-05-01

    Concerns on the presence of PCB's in milk have arisen because of spills of these industrial chemicals on roads, around storage sites, and because of their presence in waste oils used to treat gravel roads with up to 25 ppm being allowed up to 1970 and 5 ppm up to 1984. The possibility of the spread of PCB into water supplies of rural areas of the province has been a constant concern and the presence of PCB in bovine milk serves as a reliable indicator of the degree of contamination. Milk supplies in Southern Ontario have been monitored for PCB and DDE since 1970-71. In 1985-86 the monitoring program was extended to include all regions of the province where milk is produced in order to further assess the incidence, levels, and trends of PCB in the provincial milk supply.

  20. A size-based probabilistic assessment of PCB exposure from Lake Michigan fish consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Stow, C.A.; Qian, S.S.

    1998-08-01

    The state of Wisconsin has recently issued a fish consumption advisory that includes suggested consumption rates for Lake Michigan fish, based on fish size and PCB concentration. To evaluate the size-based exposure risk from Lake Michigan fish consumption, the authors estimated PCB exposure probabilities for five Lake Michigan fish species using two Bayesian models. The models confirm that very few individuals of any of the five species are likely to have PCB concentrations low enough to fall into the category in which consumption is unrestricted. Among smaller fish (<50 cm), brown trout have the highest PCB levels, while lake trout are the most contaminated among larger fish (>60 cm). Eating meals from multiple individuals of some species results in a high probability that at least one of the meals will exceed 1.9 mg/kg, the upper PCB concentration recommended for consumption in the advisory.

  1. Distribution pattern and reduction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in bluefish fillets through adipose tissue removal

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, M.; Haynes, B.L.

    1988-11-01

    Bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, a migratory pelagic species of fish usually travel in large groups of like size along the Atlantic coast. Bluefish of all sizes are caught both commercially and recreationally for human consumption. Owing to its predacious nature, bluefish feed throughout the water column on a large variety of smaller fish and invertebrates. Bluefish bioaccumulate contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) into various adipose tissues from the water column and through the marine food chain. Two recent reports concluded that PCB concentrations for all except some of the large bluefish caught along the Atlantic coast fell below the limit of 2 ..mu..g/g set by FDA. The purpose of this study was to observe the distribution pattern of PCB in the various edible tissues. Further, it was to determine if the removal of adipose tissues would result in reduced PCB level and therefore decrease PCB exposure to the consumer.

  2. Transport of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in the Scheldt Estuary simulated with the water quality model WASP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuksanovic, V.; De Smedt, F.; Van Meerbeeck, S.

    1996-01-01

    The main processes that govern the behaviour of the industrial compounds polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in the Scheldt Estuary are reviewed. It appears that tidal hydrodynamics, suspended sediment transport, and hydrophobic sorption regulate the distribution of PCB within the estuary. The water quality model WASP is applied to simulate the present spatial distribution of 12 selected PCB isomers. The simulations are performed under average hydrodynamic and suspended sediment transport regimes. Calculated evolution profiles of the dissolved and sorbed concentrations in the water column indicate a high accumulation of the PCB in the zone of the turbidity maximum. The simulated distributions of the sorbed PCB, suspended sediment and salinity in the water column agree with the observations, but more measurements are needed in order to verify the predictability of the simulations.

  3. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bioaccumulation in Fish: A Look at Michigan's Upper Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, E. C.; Urban, N. R.; Perlinger, J. A.; Khan, T.; Friedman, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Fish consumption is an important economic, social and cultural component of Michigan's UpperPeninsula, where safe fish consumption is threatened due to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)contamination. Despite its predominantly rural nature, the Upper Peninsula has a history of industrialPCB use. PCB congener concentrations in fish vary 50-fold in Upper Peninsula lakes. Several factors maycontribute to this high variability including local point sources, unique watershed and lakecharacteristics, and food web structure. It was hypothesized that the variability in congener distributionscould be used to identify factors controlling concentrations in fish, and then to use those factors topredict PCB contamination in fish from lakes that had not been monitored. Watershed and lakecharacteristics were acquired from several databases for 16 lakes sampled in the State's fishcontaminant survey. Species congener distributions were compared using Principal Component Analysis(PCA) to distinguish between lakes with local vs. regional, atmospheric sources; six lakes were predictedto have local sources and half of those have confirmed local PCB use. For lakes without local PCBsources, PCA indicated that lake size was the primary factor influencing PCB concentrations. The EPA'sbioaccumulation model, BASS, was used to predict PCB contamination in lakes without local sources as afunction of food web characteristics. The model was used to evaluate the hypothesis that deep,oligotrophic lakes have longer food webs and higher PCB concentrations in top predator fish. Based onthese findings, we will develop a mechanistic watershed-lake model to predict PCB concentrations infish as a function of atmospheric PCB concentrations, lake size, and trophic state. Future atmosphericconcentrations, predicted by modeling potential primary and secondary emission scenarios, will be usedto predict the time horizon for safe fish consumption.

  4. Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Yule, Daniel L.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Berglund, Eric K.; Isaac, Edmund J.

    2014-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5–22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (P < 0.0001). Mean PCB concentrations in the ovaries and the somatic tissue of the five females were 135 and 100 ng/g, respectively. Based on these PCB determinations for the ovaries and somatic tissue, we concluded that release of eggs by females at previous spawnings was not a contributing factor to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could explain males being higher than females in PCB concentration by only 3–7%. We concluded that the higher PCB concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure, originating from greater activity and a higher resting metabolic rate. Mean PCB concentration in the cisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior.

  5. A New Player in Environmentally Induced Oxidative Stress: Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congener, 3,3′-Dichlorobiphenyl (PCB11)

    PubMed Central

    Aykin-Burns, Nukhet

    2013-01-01

    Recent analysis of air samples from Chicago and Lake Michigan areas observed a ubiquitous airborne polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB11). Our analysis of serum samples also revealed the existence of hydroxylated metabolites of PCB11 in human blood. Because PCBs and PCB metabolites have been suggested to induce oxidative stress, this study sought to determine whether environmental exposure to PCB11 and its 4-hydroxyl metabolite could induce alterations in steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytotoxicity in immortalized human prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1). This study also examines if antioxidants could protect the cells from PCB11-induced cytotoxicity. Exponentially growing RWPE-1 cells were exposed to PCB11 and its metabolite, 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl-4-ol (4-OH-PCB11), as well as an airborne PCB mixture resembling the Chicago ambient air congener profile, every day for 5 days. Results showed that 4-OH-PCB11 could significantly induce cell growth suppression and decrease the viability and plating efficiency of RWPE-1 cells. 4-OH-PCB11 also significantly increased steady-state levels of intracellular superoxide, O2 •−, as well as hydroperoxides. Finally, treatment with the combination of polyethylene glycol–conjugated CuZn superoxide dismutase and catalase added 1h after 4-OH-PCB11 exposures, significantly protected RWPE-1 cells from PCB toxicity. The results strongly support the hypothesis that exposure to a hydroxylated metabolite of PCB11 can inhibit cell proliferation and cause cytotoxicity by increasing steady-state levels of ROS. Furthermore, antioxidant treatments following PCBs exposure could significantly mitigate the PCB-induced cytotoxicity in exponentially growing human prostate epithelial cells. PMID:23997111

  6. Annotated Bibliography of Selected References on PCB and the Kalamazoo River Superfund Site, Michigan, 1982-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simard, Andreanne

    2003-01-01

    Fifty six publications pertaining to the Kalamazoo River Superfund Site Publications stored in the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality Environmental Response Division site files are summarized. Publications are presented chronologically within four categories: PCB releases, PCB remediation, PCB safety, and PCB testing and cleanup. The text consists of bibliographical information and brief summaries of various published documents pertaining to PCB contamination of the Kalamazoo River. Numerous investigators such as the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Georgia Pacific, and various contractors have demonstrated that multiple and at times continuous releases and re-releases of PCBs have occurred as a result of operations at papermill facilities owned and operated by the 'Potential Responsible Parties'.

  7. 2,2',3,3',6,6'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) is Enantioselectively Oxidized to Hydroxylated Metabolites by Rat Liver Microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xianai; Pramanik, Ananya; Duffel, Michael W.; Hrycay, Eugene G.; Bandiera, Stelvio M.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Kania-Korwel, Izabela

    2011-01-01

    Developmental exposure to multiple-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in laboratory animals and humans by mechanisms involving the sensitization of Ryanodine receptors (RyRs). In the case of PCB 136, the sensitization of RyR is enantiospecific, with only (-)-PCB 136 being active. However, the role of enantioselective metabolism in the developmental neurotoxicity of PCB 136 is poorly understood. The present study employed hepatic microsomes from phenobarbital (PB-), dexamethasone (DEX-) and corn oil (VEH-)treated male Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the hypothesis that PCB 136 atropisomers are enantioselectively metabolized by P450 enzymes to potentially neurotoxic, hydroxylated PCB 136 metabolites. The results demonstrated the time- and isoform-dependent formation of three metabolites, with 5-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol) being the major metabolite. The formation of 5-OH-PCB 136 increased with the activity of P450 2B enzymes in the microsomal preparation, which is consistent with PCB 136 metabolism by rat P450 2B1. The minor metabolite 4-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-4-ol) was produced by a currently unidentified P450 enzymes. An enantiomeric enrichment of (-)-PCB 136 was observed in microsomal incubations due to the preferential metabolism of (+)-PCB 136 to the corresponding 5-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol) atropisomer. 4-OH-PCB 136 displayed an enrichment of the atropisomer formed from (-)-PCB 136; however, the enrichment of this metabolite atropisomer didn't affect the enantiomeric enrichment of the parent PCB because 4-OH-PCB 136 is only a minor metabolite. Although the formation of 5- and 4-OH-PCB 136 atropisomers increased with time, the enantioselective formation of the OH-PCB metabolites resulted in constant enantiomeric enrichment, especially at later incubation times. These observations not only demonstrate that the chiral signatures of

  8. High PCB residues in birds from the Sheboygan River, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Swineford, D.M.; Katsma, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Organochlorine residues were measured in the carcasses and, in some cases, brains and stomach contents of four species of birds collected along the Sheboygan River, Wisconsin during the years 1976 to 1980. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were high in all samples and were the contaminants of greatest concern. Carcass residues ranged from 23 to 218 ppm PCBs on a wet weight basis; these are levels associated with reproductive impairment in laboratory studies with some birds. Food items in the stomachs of collected birds contained from 12 to 58 ppm PCBs, indicating a heavy contamination of food sources. The brain of one bird contained 220 ppm PCBs, a level that is not in the lethal range but is very high. Birds feeding in the contaminated portions of the Sheboygan River may have been harmed by high PCB levels.

  9. Hudson River PCB clean-up to begin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Christie Whitman signed the Record of Decision on 1 February to clean up a stretch of the Hudson River that has been contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The decision calls for dredging 2 million cubic meters of PCB-contaminated sediment from a 64-kilometer stretch of the upper Hudson to remove about 68,000 kilograms of PCBs.The plan follows years of scientific study about whether the PCBs were safely encased in the sediment or posed a continuing hazard, and concern over whether the PCBs can be safely removed without stirring up a larger pollution problem along the river. The EPA found that PCBs in the sediment are not safely buried because erosion and river flows can redistribute river sediment. The agency also found that although PCBs break down naturally over time, this degradation does not render them harmless.

  10. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L.; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Davison, Nicholas J.; Ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D.; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L.; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB “hotspots” for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas.

  11. Metallothionein’s role in PCB126 induced hepatotoxicity and hepatic micronutrient disruption

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, WD; Flor, S; Gibson-Corley, KN; Ludewig, G; Robertson, LW

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), industrial chemicals and persistent environmental pollutants, are found in rural and urban settings. Rodent studies have shown that exposure to PCB126, a dioxin-like PCB, causes a significant disruption of hepatic micronutrient homeostasis and an increase in metallothionein (MT), an antioxidant protein and metal carrier. A MT knockout mouse strain was used to assess metallothionein’s role in micronutrient disruption and overall hepatotoxicity. Twenty four 129S male mice (12 wild type (WT) and 12 MT knockout (MTKO)) were placed on a purified diet (AIN-93G) for 3 weeks to achieve hepatic metal equilibrium. Mice were then given a single IP injection, of either vehicle or 150 umol/kg PCB126 in vehicle. The animals were sacrificed 2 weeks later and organs processed for analysis. Liver histology, hepatic lipids, gene expression, micronutrient and ROS status were investigated. Liver weights, liver lipids, ROS, and hepatocyte vacuolation were increased with PCB126 exposure along with AhR responsive genes. The MTKO animals had more severe histological changes in the liver and elevated liver lipids than their wild type counterparts. Hepatic and renal metals levels (Cu, Zn, Se and Mn) were mostly reduced by PCB126 treatment. Renal micronutrients were more affected by PCB126 treatment in the MTKO animals. This research suggests that MT may not be the sole/primary cause of the metal disruption caused by PCB126 exposure in mice, but may provide protection against overall hepatotoxicity. PMID:26770886

  12. Discovery and epidemiology of PCB poisoning in Taiwan: a four-year followup

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, S.T.; Ma, C.I.; Hsu, S.K.H.; Wu, S.S.; Hsu, N.H.M.; Yeh, C.C.; Wu, S.B.

    1985-02-01

    An outbreak of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning from the consumption of contaminated rice oil, covering four counties in central Taiwan, was investigated. There were 1843 cases by the end of 1980. The highest frequency of incidence occurred during the period from March to July 1979. The severity of clinical manifestations varied. Most patients showed symptoms of mild or moderate severity. The major age group affected was between 11 and 20 years old. Most of the victims were students and factor workers. The amount of PCB intake in each victim was estimated to be 0.7 to 1.84 g and the latent period from the time of intake to the onset of clinical manifestations was approximately 3 to 4 months. The patients blood PCB concentrations ranged from 3 ppb to 1156 ppb; 44.27% of 613 patients had levels of 51 to 100 ppb and 27.6% PCB blood levels over 100 ppb. In the course of 3.5 years, 2061 persons were determined to be PCB poisoning victims. Now, except for a few severe cases, their skin symptoms are very much improved. Thirty-nine babies showing hyperpigmentation were born from PCB-poisoned mothers. The fatality rate was high: eight of them died. Another 24 deaths were reported among the PCB-poisoned group, almost half of them (12) from hepatoma, liver cirrhosis or liver diseases with hepatomegaly.

  13. An assessment of PCB degradation by microogransims including methods for measuring mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Hadden, C.; Edenborn, H.; Osborne, T.; Holdsworth, G.; Revis, N.

    1990-12-31

    These studies sought to isolate and identify organism(s) from PCB contaminated soil and sediment that degrade PCB; to provide information on the potential of organisms in soil samples taken from a PCB-contaminated area to mineralize or dechlorinate PCB congeners; to assess potential enhancement of PCB biodegradation as a result of nutritional amendment of the samples; and to carry out analyses of successive lysimeter samples to determine whether field treatments have had an effect on the capacity of soil microbes to mineralize PCBS. We have expended considerable effort to validate the fractionation procedure used to assess mineralization and conversion of PCB substrates. The assessment relies on the ability to measure [{sup 14}C]-labeled CO{sub 2} in the presence of potentially volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled PCB and degradation products to differentiate between volatile and non-volatile [{sup 14}C]-labeled compounds between water-soluble products of metabolism and a mixture of unchanged substrate and other water-insoluble products and between metabolism and loss or non-extractability of the substrate.

  14. A highly selective and picomolar level photoelectrochemical sensor for PCB 101 detection in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huijie; Zhao, Jinzhi; Wang, Yingling; Zhao, Guohua

    2016-07-15

    A highly selective and sensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor was fabricated for fast and convenient detection of PCB 101 in environmental water samples with a low detection limit of 1.0×10(-14)molL(-1) based on single crystalline TiO2 nanorods (NRs). By integration with molecular imprinting (MI) technique, the PEC sensor's selectivity towards PCB 101 was significantly improved, so that the interference caused by 100-fold excess of PCB 126 and PCB 77 which had similar structure with PCB 101 was below 37%, not to mention other coexisted pollutants. This high selectivity could be attributed to the high-quality expression of the molecular imprinting sites on the rigid and smooth surface of single crystalline TiO2 NRs on which PCB 101 could be selectively and preferentially adsorbed. The oriented and multiple halogen bonds formed between PCB 101 and the molecular imprinting sites played a critical role in improving the recognition ability of the PEC sensor. Meanwhile, the one dimensional nanorods structure of TiO2 was beneficial for the efficient separation of photogenerated electrons and holes, leading to enhanced photocurrent response and further improving the sensitivity of the PEC sensor. PMID:27016911

  15. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters.

    PubMed

    Jepson, Paul D; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A; Davison, Nicholas J; Ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB "hotspots" for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas. PMID:26766430

  16. Outdoor air PCB concentrations in three communities along the Upper Hudson River, New York.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Patrick M; Belanger, Erin E; Wilson, Lloyd R; Hwang, Syni-An A; Narang, Rajinder S; Gomez, Marta I; Cayo, Michael R; Durocher, Lorie A; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2008-04-01

    Outdoor air polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in upstate New York as part of a nonoccupational exposure investigation. The adjacent study communities of Hudson Falls and Fort Edward contain numerous sites of current and former PCB contamination, including two capacitor-manufacturing facilities. Outdoor air PCB concentrations in the study municipalities were significantly higher than in the comparison municipality of Glens Falls. Total PCB concentrations in the study area ranged from 0.102 to 4.011 ng/m(3) (median: 0.711 ng/m(3)). For the comparison area, concentrations ranged from 0.080 to 2.366 ng/m(3) (median: 0.431 ng/m(3)). Although our sampling was not designed to identify point sources, the presence of PCB-contaminated sites in the study area likely contributed to this observed difference in concentration. While elevated relative to the comparison area, total PCB concentrations in the study area are lower than those in other communities with known PCB-contaminated sites, and similar to levels reported in other locations from the northeastern United States. PMID:17879110

  17. An Unrecognized Source of PCB Contamination in Schools and Other Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Robert F.; McClean, Michael D.; Meeker, John D.; Baxter, Lisa K.; Weymouth, George A.

    2004-01-01

    An investigation of 24 buildings in the Greater Boston Area revealed that one-third (8 of 24) contained caulking materials with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content exceeding 50 ppm by weight, which is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) specified limit above which this material is considered to be PCB bulk product waste. These buildings included schools and other public buildings. In a university building where similar levels of PCB were found in caulking material, PCB levels in indoor air ranged from 111 to 393 ng/m3; and in dust taken from the building ventilation system, < 1 ppm to 81 ppm. In this building, the U.S. EPA mandated requirements for the removal and disposal of the PCB bulk product waste as well as for confirmatory sampling to ensure that the interior and exterior of the building were decontaminated. Although U.S. EPA regulations under the Toxic Substances Control Act stipulate procedures by which PCB-contaminated materials must be handled and disposed, the regulations apparently do not require that materials such as caulking be tested to determine its PCB content. This limited investigation strongly suggests that were this testing done, many buildings would be found to contain high levels of PCBs in the building materials and potentially in the building environment. The presence of PCBs in schools is of particular concern given evidence suggesting that PCBs are developmental toxins. PMID:15238275

  18. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters

    PubMed Central

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L.; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Davison, Nicholas J.; ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D.; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L.; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB “hotspots” for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas. PMID:26766430

  19. Coculture degradation of selected PCB congeners by two Acinetobacter sp

    SciTech Connect

    Adriaens, P.

    1989-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been introduced in the environment for nearly six decades and are considered to be refractile to microbial attack, since PCBs have to be degraded via cometabolic processes, which occur in the obligate presence of an alternative growth substrate. However, cometabolism of PCBs has been demonstrated to accumulate chlorobenzoates as the main intermediates. Therefore, the complete mineralization of PCBs can only be obtained by coculturing at least a PCB cometabolizing and a chlorobenzoate utilizing microorganism, or by constructing a recombinant strain harboring the complementary pathways of both strains. Therefore, coculture mineralization of PCBs in suspended culture was obtained by providing biphenyl or 4-chlorobiphenyl as the growth substrate for Acinetobacter sp. strain P6, a PCB cometabolizer, while the chlorobenzoates were used as growth substrates by Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1, which was isolated on 4-chlorobenzoate. 4-Chlorobenzoate (4-CB) was metabolized after hydrolytic dehalogenation to 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-HB) via the protocatechuate pathway. Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1 has the metabolic ability to carry out the degradation of 3,4-DCB. Although this strain does not grow on this compound, it cometabolizes 3,4-DCB to 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate (3-C-4-OHB), which is used as a growth substrate and further metabolized via 4-carboxy-1,2-benzoquinone. This degradation process was termed cryptic cometabolism. 3,4-DCB has shown to be a substrate inhibitor (Ki = 1,840 {mu}M) and an uncompetitive inhibitor for 4-CB metabolism. Additionally, 3-C-4-OHB was a competitive inhibitor (Ki = 12 {mu}M) for the 4-HB monooxygenase, while the quinone uncompetitively inhibited 4-CB metabolism (Ki = 50 {mu}M).

  20. Analysis of PCB congeners related to cognitive functioning in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Newman, Joan; Gallo, Mia V; Schell, Lawrence M; DeCaprio, Anthony P; Denham, Melinda; Deane, Glenn D

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the characteristics of PCBs that are linked to cognitive functioning, those congeners that were concurrently found in 271 Mohawk adolescents were grouped according to structure (dioxin-like or non-dioxin-like) and persistence (persistent or low-persistent). After the effects of the congener groups were orthogonalized, regression analyses (controlling for a number of variables found to be related to the cognitive outcomes) examined the relationship of each congener group to scores on three cognitive tests (the non-verbal Ravens Progressive Matrices, the Test of Memory and Learning, and the Woodcock Johnson-Revised). Five subtests from these cognitive tests were found to be associated with one or more PCB congener groups, most often at a moderate level. Two measures of long-term memory (Delayed Recall and Long Term Retrieval) were associated with all four congener groups. Nevertheless, examination of the role of individual congeners in the significantly related congener groups revealed that almost all congeners associated with cognitive outcomes were non-dioxin-like and ortho-substituted. A notable exception was the Ravens test where scores were associated only with dioxin-like congeners. This finding adds to the limited evidence of neurotoxic effects of dioxin-like congeners. Auditory Processing was related only to the persistent congener group. The association of the non-persistent congener group with three cognitive test scores (Delayed Recall, Long Term Retrieval and Comprehension-Knowledge) suggests that the Mohawk adolescents have experienced continuing or recent environmental exposure to PCBs that is sufficient to result in detectable cognitive decrements. Comparison of our findings with those of other human studies was limited by the relative lack of specificity of both PCB measures and cognitive outcome measures in much previous work. PMID:19465051

  1. ANALYSIS OF PCB CONGENERS RELATED TO COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Joan; Gallo, Mia V.; Schell, Lawrence M.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Denham, Melinda; Deane, Glenn D.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of PCBs that are linked to cognitive functioning, those congeners that were concurrently found in 271 Mohawk adolescents were grouped according to structure (dioxin-like or non-dioxin-like) and persistence (persistent or low-persistent). After the effects of the congener groups were orthogonalized, regression analyses (controlling for a number of variables found to be related to the cognitive outcomes) examined the relationship of each congener group to scores on three cognitive tests (the non-verbal Ravens Progressive Matrices, the Test of Memory and Learning, and the Woodcock Johnson – Revised). Five subtests from these cognitive tests were found to be associated with one or more PCB congener groups, most often at a moderate level. Two measures of long term memory (Delayed Recall and Long Term Retrieval) were associated with all four congener groups. Nevertheless, examination of the role of individual congeners in the significantly related congener groups revealed that almost all congeners associated with cognitive outcomes were non-dioxin-like and ortho-substituted. A notable exception was the Ravens test where scores were associated only with dioxin-like congeners. This finding adds to the limited evidence of neurotoxic effects of dioxin-like congeners. Auditory Processing was related only to the persistent congener group. The association of the non-persistent congener group with three cognitive test scores (Delayed Recall, Long Term Retrieval and Comprehension-knowledge) suggests that the Mohawk adolescents have experienced continuing or recent environmental exposure to PCBs that is sufficient to result in detectable cognitive decrements. Comparison of our findings with those of other human studies was limited by the relative lack of specificity of both PCB measures and cognitive outcome measures in much previous work. PMID:19465051

  2. Influence of cadmium on PCB congener accumulation in quail

    SciTech Connect

    Leonzio, C.; Marsili, L.; Focardi, S. )

    1992-11-01

    Technological development this century has led to an environmental input of synthetic chemical compounds totally extraneous to natural ecosystems such as Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), extensively used in agriculture and industry. These xenobiotics have a high fat/water repartition coefficient, making them easily accumulated by living organisms. Their persistence and low degradability means that they are now present throughout the global ecosystem. Ubiquitous environmental contaminants also include heavy metals like Hg, As, Pb, Cd and Cr, of which Cd, an element causing functional damage to the kidney and liver in which it preferentially accumulates, is of special ecotoxicological importance. The WHO has defined an accumulation of 60 mg/kg (fresh weight), beyond which damage occurs. Cd occurs [open quotes]naturally[close quotes] in high concentrations in certain animal species including molluscs. Birds and marine mammals feeding largely on cephalopods show high levels of this metal. Many monitoring studies have also revealed high concentrations of PCBs in the same animals. The vast majority of studies on contaminants in experimental animals consider the short-, medium- and long-term effects of a single pollutant. However, the presence of synergisms and antagonisms between compounds makes it necessary to adopt a more holistic approach to the problem of environmental pollution. In order to understand if the effect of xenobiotic compounds like PCBs may be potentiated by the natural presence of cadmium in bird population, we sought preliminary information on how the presence of cadmium in the diet may influence the accumulation and metabolization of PCB congeners. The influence of Cd on PCB accumulation was investigated in Japanese quail treated experimentally with Cd and PCBs. Particular attention was paid to final congener accumulation and qualitative differences in congener composition between controls and treated birds. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. HCB, PCB, PCDD and PCDF emissions from ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, D. A.

    Since current estimates of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) from ships are based on a relatively limited and old data set, an update of these emission factors has been outlined as a target towards improved Swedish emission inventories. Consequently, a comprehensive study was undertaken focusing on these emissions from three different ships during December 2003 to March 2004. Analyses were performed on 12 exhaust samples, three fuel oil samples and three lubricating oil samples from a representative selection of diesel engine models, fuel types and during different "real-world" operating conditions. The determined emissions corresponded reasonably well with previous measurements. The data suggest however that previous PCDD/PCDF emission factors are somewhat higher than those measured here. As expected the greatest emissions were observed during main engine start-up periods and for engines using heavier fuel oils. Total emissions for 2002, using revised emission factors, have been calculated based on Swedish sold marine fuels and also for geographical areas of national importance. In terms of their toxic equivalence (WHO-TEQ), the PCDD/PCDF emissions from ships using Swedish fuels are small (0.37-0.85 g TEQ) in comparison to recent estimates for the national total (ca. 45 g TEQ). Emissions from other land-based diesel engines (road vehicles, off-road machinery, military vehicles and locomotives) are estimated to contribute a further 0.18-0.42 g TEQ. Similarly, HCB and PCB emissions from these sources are small compared to 1995 national emission inventories.

  4. PCB 126 toxicity is modulated by cross-talk between caveolae and Nrf2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Newsome, Bradley J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-06-01

    Environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in the promotion of multiple inflammatory disorders including cardiovascular disease, but information regarding mechanisms of toxicity and cross-talk between relevant cell signaling pathways is lacking. To examine the hypothesis that cross-talk between membrane domains called caveolae and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathways alters PCB-induced inflammation, caveolin-1 was silenced in vascular endothelial cells, resulting in a decreased PCB-induced inflammatory response. Cav-1 silencing (siRNA treatment) also increased levels of Nrf2-ARE transcriptional binding, resulting in higher mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes glutathione s-transferase and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated systems. Along with this upregulated antioxidant response, Cav-1 siRNA treated cells exhibited decreased mRNA levels of the Nrf2 inhibitory protein Keap1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated samples. Silencing Cav-1 also decreased protein levels of Nrf2 inhibitory proteins Keap1 and Fyn kinase, especially in PCB-treated cells. Further, endothelial cells from wildtype and Cav-1-/- mice were isolated and treated with PCB to better elucidate the role of functional caveolae in PCB-induced endothelial inflammation. Cav-1-/- endothelial cells were protected from PCB-induced cellular dysfunction as evidenced by decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) protein induction. Compared to wildtype cells, Cav-1-/- endothelial cells also allowed for a more effective antioxidant response, as observed by higher levels of the antioxidant genes. These data demonstrate novel cross-talk mechanisms between Cav-1 and Nrf2 and implicate the reduction of Cav-1 as a protective mechanism for PCB-induced cellular dysfunction and inflammation. PMID:24709675

  5. PCB 126 toxicity is modulated by cross-talk between caveolae and Nrf2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Petriello, Michael C.; Han, Sung Gu; Newsome, Bradley J.; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in the promotion of multiple inflammatory disorders including cardiovascular disease, but information regarding mechanisms of toxicity and cross-talk between relevant cell signaling pathways is lacking. To examine the hypothesis that cross-talk between membrane domains called caveolae and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathways alter PCB-induced inflammation, caveolin-1 was silenced in vascular endothelial cells, resulting in a decreased PCB-induced inflammatory response. Cav-1 silencing (siRNA treatment) also increased levels of Nrf2-ARE transcriptional binding, resulting in higher mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes glutathione s-transferase and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated systems. Along with this upregulated antioxidant response, Cav-1 siRNA treated cells exhibited decreased mRNA levels of the Nrf2 inhibitory protein Keap1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated samples. Silencing Cav-1 also decreased protein levels of Nrf2 inhibitory proteins Keap1 and Fyn kinase, especially in PCB-treated cells. Further, endothelial cells from wildtype and Cav-1−/− mice were isolated and treated with PCB to better elucidate the role of functional caveolae in PCB-induced endothelial inflammation. Cav-1−/− endothelial cells were protected from PCB-induced cellular dysfunction as evidenced by decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) protein induction. Compared to wildtype cells, Cav-1−/− endothelial cells also allowed for a more effective antioxidant response, as observed by higher levels of the antioxidant genes. These data demonstrate novel cross-talk mechanisms between Cav-1 and Nrf2 and implicate the reduction of Cav-1 as a protective mechanism for PCB-induced cellular dysfunction and inflammation. PMID:24709675

  6. Laboratory study of PCB transport from primary sources to settled dust.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Guo, Zhishi; Krebs, Kenneth A; Greenwell, Dale J; Roache, Nancy F; Stinson, Rayford A; Nardin, Joshua A; Pope, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    Dust is an important sink for indoor air pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that were used in building materials and products. In this study, two types of dust, house dust and Arizona Test Dust, were tested in a 30-m(3) stainless steel chamber with two types of panels. The PCB-containing panels were aluminum sheets coated with a PCB-spiked primer or caulk. The PCB-free panels were coated with the same materials but without PCBs. The dust evenly spread on each panel was collected at different times to determine its PCB content. The data from the PCB panels were used to evaluate the PCB migration from the source to the dust through direct contact, and the data from the PCB-free panels were used to evaluate the sorption of PCBs through the dust/air partition. Settled dust can adsorb PCBs from air. The sorption concentration was dependent on the congener concentration in the air and favored less volatile congeners. When the house dust was in direct contact with the PCB-containing panel, PCBs migrated into the dust at a much faster rate than the PCB transfer rate due to the dust/air partition. The dust/source partition was not significantly affected by the congener's volatility. For a given congener, the ratio between its concentration in the dust and in the source was used to estimate the dust/source partition coefficient. The estimated values ranged from 0.04 to 0.16. These values are indicative of the sink strength of the tested house dust being in the middle or lower-middle range. PMID:26849196

  7. A modeling approach to compare ΣPCB concentrations between congener-specific analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibson, Polly P.; Mills, Marc A.; Kraus, Johanna M.; Walters, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in analytical methods over time pose problems for assessing long-term trends in environmental contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Congener-specific analyses vary widely in the number and identity of the 209 distinct PCB chemical configurations (congeners) that are quantified, leading to inconsistencies among summed PCB concentrations (ΣPCB) reported by different studies. Here we present a modeling approach using linear regression to compare ΣPCB concentrations derived from different congener-specific analyses measuring different co-eluting groups. The approach can be used to develop a specific conversion model between any two sets of congener-specific analytical data from similar samples (similar matrix and geographic origin). We demonstrate the method by developing a conversion model for an example data set that includes data from two different analytical methods, a low resolution method quantifying 119 congeners and a high resolution method quantifying all 209 congeners. We used the model to show that the 119-congener set captured most (93%) of the total PCB concentration (i.e., Σ209PCB) in sediment and biological samples. ΣPCB concentrations estimated using the model closely matched measured values (mean relative percent difference = 9.6). General applications of the modeling approach include (a) generating comparable ΣPCB concentrations for samples that were analyzed for different congener sets; and (b) estimating the proportional contribution of different congener sets to ΣPCB. This approach may be especially valuable for enabling comparison of long-term remediation monitoring results even as analytical methods change over time. 

  8. Mercury, DDE, and PCB's in eggs from a Norwegian gannet colony

    SciTech Connect

    Fimreite, N.; Kveseth, N.; Brevik, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Eggs taken from gannet nests in Norway were analyzed for mercury, DDE, and PCB's. Eggs collected in 1972 had mercury levels averaging 0.58 ppM, DDE levels averaging 2.1 ppM, and PCB levels averaging 7.7 ppM. While 1978 egg samples yielded lower DDE and PCB concentrations (0.66 ppM and 3.5 ppM respectively), mercury levels increased to 0.80 ppM. DDE levels were too low to affect eggshell thickness of gannet eggs. (14 references, 1 table)

  9. Development and evaluation of the mallard duck as a model to investigate the immunotoxicity of environmental chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Fowles, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize the mallard duck (Anas platyrhyncos) as a model for evaluating the immunotoxic effects of environmental chemicals. A battery of immunotoxicity tests was validated for the mallard, including natural killer cell (NKC) activity, lymphocyte mitogenesis, antibody titers to sheep erythrocytes, peripheral differential leukocyte counts, macrophage phagocytosis and prostaglandin-E[sub 2] (PGE2) production. To investigate potential hormonal-immune axes, dexamethasone (DEX), methimazole, and thyroxine (T4) were used to study the influence of glucocorticoid excess, hypo-, and hyperthyroidism on immunity, respectively. Subsequently, the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, Aroclor 1254) on immune, endocrine, and hepatic cytochrome-P450 function were evaluated and interpreted using results from the endocrine/immune studies. Results of these studies showed that antibody production was susceptible to suppression by DEX at doses which also caused significant changes in clinical plasma biochemistry values. NKC activity was enhanced by exposure to DEX in vivo, a phenomenon due to the inhibition of PGE2 production by adherent peripheral blood cells by DEX and mimicked in vitro with addition of indomethacin or DEX. Macrophage phagocytosis was significantly suppressed by DEX in vitro. Macrophage production of PGE2 ex vivo was suppressed in birds treated with DEX. In contrast to DEX, T4 or methimazole treatment elicited only slight physiologic changes in plasma albumin and cholesterol levels. No immune/thyroid axis was observed in mallards. Exposure to Aroclor 1254 induced significant hepatic microsomal ethoxy- and pentoxy-resorufin-O-deethylase activities in addition to increasing total cytochrome P450 content, but did not affect immune function, plasma corticosterone, or clinical biochemistry values. Total triiodothyronine, but not T4, was dose-dependently suppressed by PCB treatment.

  10. Exposure to the three structurally different PCB congeners (PCB 118, 153, and 126) results in decreased protein expression and altered steroidogenesis in the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R.

    PubMed

    Tremoen, Nina Hårdnes; Fowler, Paul A; Ropstad, Erik; Verhaegen, Steven; Krogenæs, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), synthetic, persistent organic pollutants (POP), are detected ubiquitously, in water, soil, air, and sediments, as well as in animals and humans. PCB are associated with range of adverse health effects, such as interference with the immune system and nervous system, reproductive abnormalities, fetotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and endocrine disruption. Our objective was to determine the effects of three structurally different PCB congeners, PCB118, PCB 126, and PCB 153, each at two concentrations, on the steroidogenic capacity and proteome of human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line cultures (H295R) . After 48 h of exposure, cell viability was monitored and estradiol, testosterone, cortisol and progesterone secretion measured to quantify steroidogenic capacity of the cells. Two-dimensional (2D) gel-based proteomics was used to screen for proteome alterations in H295R cells in response to the PCB. Exposure to PCB 118 increased estradiol and cortisol secretion, while exposure to PCB 153 elevated estradiol secretion. PCB 126 was the most potent congener, increasing estradiol, cortisol, and progesterone secretion in exposed H295R cells. Seventy-three of the 711 spots analyzed showed a significant difference in normalized spot volumes between controls (vehicle only) and at least one exposure group. Fourteen of these protein spots were identified by liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Exposure to three PCB congeners with different chemical structure perturbed steroidogenesis and protein expression in the H295R in vitro model. This study represents an initial analysis of the effects on proteins and hormones in the H295R cell model, and additional studies are required in order to obtain a more complete understanding of the pathways disturbed by PCB congeners in H295R cells. Overall, alterations in protein regulation and steroid hormone synthesis suggest that exposure to PCB disturbs several cellular processes, including

  11. GUIDELINES FOR THE DISPOSAL OF PCBS (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS) AND PCB ITEMS BY THERMAL DESTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a resource and guidelines document to aid EPA Regional Offices in interpreting and applying polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) regulations to the thermal destruction of PCBs. As background material, the report describes fundamental processes of combustion, thermal destr...

  12. TECHNICAL/ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF SELECTED PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL) DECONTAMINATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eleven emerging alternative treatments for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sediments have been compared and ranked using technical performance, status of development, test and evaluation data needs, and cost as factors. In ranking the processes, weights were assigned ...

  13. A Feasibility Study On Pd/Mg Application In Historically Contaminated Sediments And PCB Spiked Substrates

    EPA Science Inventory

    A vast majority of literature on bimetals deals with aqueous contaminants, very little being on organics strongly adsorbed on sediments and hence very challenging to remediate. Having previously reported materials, mechanistic and parametric aspects of PCB dechlorination with Pd...

  14. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: PCB SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION PROCESS-SELECTION FOR TEST AND EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a report describing the assessment of seven alternative treatment processes that show potential for decontaminating polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediments. The processes are KPEG, MODAR Supercritical Water Oxidation, Bio-Clean, Ultrasonics/UV, C...

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGICAL VERIFICATION REPORT - L2000 PCB/CHLORIDE ANALYZER - DEXSIL CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In July 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a demonstration of Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) field analytical techniques. The purpose of this demonstration was to evaluate field analytical technologies capable of detecting and quantifying PCBs in soil...

  16. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCB METHOD - U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The field analytical screening program (FASP) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) method uses a temperature-programmable gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with an electron capture detector (ECD) to identify and quantify PCBs. Gas chromatography is an EPA-approved method for determi...

  17. CHOL-N-SOIL PCB TEST KIT, DEXSIL CORP. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY Evaluation REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents the evaluation of two field screening technologies for determining polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in soil. The demonstration was conducted by PRC Environmental Management, Inc. (PRC), under contract to the...

  18. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes... hazardous only because they fail the test for the Toxicity Characteristic (Hazardous Waste Codes...

  19. Variability of PCB burden in 5 fish and sharks species of the French Mediterranean continental slope.

    PubMed

    Cresson, Pierre; Fabri, Marie Claire; Miralles, Françoise Marco; Dufour, Jean-Louis; Elleboode, Romain; Sevin, Karine; Mahé, Kelig; Bouchoucha, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Despite being generally located far from contamination sources, deep marine ecosystems are impacted by chemicals like PCB. The PCB contamination in five fish and shark species collected in the continental slope of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean Sea) was measured, with a special focus on intra- and interspecific variability and on the driving factors. Significant differences occurred between species. Higher values were measured in Scyliorhinus canicula, Galeus melastomus and Helicolenus dactylopterus and lower values in Phycis blennoides and Lepidorhombus boscii. These differences might be explained by specific abilities to accumulate and eliminate contaminant, mostly through cytochrome P450 pathway. Interindividual variation was also high and no correlation was observed between contamination and length, age or trophic level. Despite its major importance, actual bioaccumulation of PCB in deep fish is not as documented as in other marine ecosystems, calling for a better assessment of the factors driving individual bioaccumulation mechanisms and originating high variability in PCB contamination. PMID:26874319

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - ENVIROGARD PCB TEST KIT - STRATEGIC DIAGNOSTICS INC

    EPA Science Inventory

    In July 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a demonstration of Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) field analytical techniques. The purpose of this demonstration was to evaluate field analytical technologies capable of detecting and quantifying PCBs in soil...

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - RAPID ASSAY SYSTEM FOR PCB ANALYSIS - STRATEGIC DIAGNOSTICS INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In July 1997, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a demonstration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) field analytical techniques. The demonstration design was subjected to extensive review and comment by EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Envi...

  2. Evaluation of PCB bioaccumulation by Lumbriculus variegatus in field-collected sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) contaminated sediment samples from the Hudson, Grasse, and Fox Rivers Superfund sites with concurrent measurement of PCB concentrations in sediment interstitial water. Th...

  3. Life Cycle Analysis for Treatment and Disposal of PCB Waste at Ashtabula and Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.I.

    2001-01-11

    This report presents the use of the life cycle analysis (LCA) system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Ohio--the Ashtabula Environmental Management Project near Cleveland and the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati--in assessing treatment and disposal options for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste. We will examine, first, how the LCA process works, then look briefly at the LCA system's ''toolbox,'' and finally, see how the process was applied in analyzing the options available in Ohio. As DOE nuclear weapons facilities carry out planned decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities for site closure and progressively package waste streams, remove buildings, and clean up other structures that have served as temporary waste storage locations, it becomes paramount for each waste stream to have a prescribed and proven outlet for disposition. Some of the most problematic waste streams throughout the DOE complex are PCB low-level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid) and PCB low-level Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) liquid and solid wastes. Several DOE Ohio Field Office (OH) sites have PCB disposition needs that could have an impact on the critical path of the decommissioning work of these closure sites. The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), an OH closure site, has an urgent problem with disposition of soils contaminated by PCB and low-level waste at the edge of the site. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), another OH closure site, has difficulties in timely disposition of its PCB-low-level sludges and its PCB low-level RCRA sludges in order to avoid impacting the critical path of its D&D activities. Evaluation of options for these waste streams is the subject of this report. In the past a few alternatives for disposition of PCB low-level waste and PCB low-level RCRA

  4. Local contamination, and not feeding preferences, explains elevated PCB concentrations in Labrador ringed seals (Pusa hispida).

    PubMed

    Brown, Tanya M; Iverson, Sara J; Fisk, Aaron T; Macdonald, Robie W; Helbing, Caren C; Reimer, Ken J

    2015-05-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in high trophic level species typically reflect the contributions of myriad sources, such that source apportionment is rarely possible. The release of PCBs by a military radar station into Saglek Bay, Labrador contaminated the local marine food web. For instance, while heavier (higher chlorinated) PCB profiles in some ringed seals (Pusa hispida) were previously attributed to this local source, differences in feeding preferences among seals could not be ruled out as a contributing factor. Herein, similar fatty acid profiles between those seals with 'local' PCB profiles and those with 'long-range' or background profiles indicate little support for the possibility that differential feeding ecologies underlay the divergent PCB profiles. Ringed seals appeared to feed predominantly on zooplankton (Mysis oculata and Themisto libellula), followed by the dusky snailfish (Liparis gibbus), arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), and shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius). Principal components analysis (PCA) and PCB homolog profiles illustrated the extent of contamination of the Saglek food web, which had very different (and much heavier) PCB profiles than those food web members contaminated by 'long-range' sources. Locally contaminated prey had PCB levels that were higher (2- to 544-fold) than prey contaminated by 'long-range' sources and exceeded wildlife consumption guidelines for PCBs. The application of multivariate analyses to two distinct datasets, including PCB congeners (n=50) and fatty acids (n=65), afforded the opportunity to clearly distinguish the contribution of locally-released PCBs to a ringed seal food web from those delivered via long-ranged transport. Results from the present study strongly suggest that habitat use rather than differences in prey selection is the primary mechanism explaining the divergent PCB patterns in Labrador ringed seals. PMID:25725460

  5. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by upregulating antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the upregulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-Isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited five-fold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both mRNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by AhR and Nrf2 proteins were upregulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126 which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. PMID:24378064

  6. Effects of diazinon on mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) larvae produced from eggs differentially treated with PCB126.

    PubMed

    Couillard, C M; Lebeuf, M; Légaré, B; Trottier, S

    2008-02-01

    During their formation, fish eggs receive a load of contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from their mother and then, after spawning, are exposed to pesticides present in water. This is the first study investigating the interaction between PCBs and organophosphorous pesticides in fish. The effect of diazinon was evaluated in mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) larvae produced from eggs differentially treated with 3,3',4,4',5 pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). A few hours after fertilization, eggs were treated topically with a solution of PCB126 (100 pg/microl) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (Group P), DMSO (Group D), or not treated (Group N). Newly hatched larvae from Groups P and D were exposed to diazinon (125-12,900 ng/L) in saltwater and Group N larvae to saltwater alone. Diazinon caused a dose-responsive inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity at environmentally realistic concentrations (> or =361 ng/L), with up to 85% inhibition at 12,900 ng/L. Body length was also inversely related to diazinon at concentrations > or =361 ng/L and was significantly reduced (by 4%) at 12,900 ng/L compared to controls. Mummichog larvae were highly sensitive to PCB126 with an eightfold induction of the activity of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase at a dose of 710 pg PCB126 or 3.6 pg TCDD-TEQ/g wet weight. Treatment with PCB126 also caused a slight reduction in body length but no effect on ChE activity. This study indicates that the effects of PCB126 and diazinon on body length are cumulative because no significant synergistic or antagonistic interactions were observed. Longer term studies with several doses of PCB126 are needed to fully assess the overall impact of joint exposure to diazinon and PCB126 on growth and survival of fish larvae. PMID:17763880

  7. Methyl sulfone PCB and DDE metabolites in the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) food chain

    SciTech Connect

    Letcher, R.J.; Norstrom, R.J.; Muir, D.C.G.

    1995-12-31

    An important Arctic marine food chain is polar bear, ringed seal (Phoca hispida) and Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida). The Arctic is relatively uncontaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs). However, high levels of CHCs are bioaccumulated through the marine food web. Methyl sulfone (MeSO{sub 2})-PCB and -DDE metabolites are major CHCs in polar bear, although the proportion of MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs derived from PCB metabolism and/or MeSO{sub 2}-PCB bioaccumulation from the diet is unknown. For this reason, the structure and concentration of MeSO{sup 2}-PCB and -DDE metabolites, PCBs and DDE were determined in whole body Arctic cod, the liver, adipose, lung and muscle of ringed seal and ten tissues of polar bear from the Resolute Bay area of the Canadian Arctic. Preliminary analysis of the ratios of MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs in bear fat and liver to their parent PCBs in seal blubber suggested that CB-49 and CB-87 result in a higher proportion of metabolites in bear than the other PCB congeners, assuming that the MeSO{sup 2}-PCBs are not themselves accumulated from the diet. Bio-availability of the precursor PCBs for subsequent metabolism may also be a factor. The absence in bears of MeSO{sub 2}-metabolites of other metabolizable PCBs in seal may indicate that some MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs are not formed or that they are formed and further metabolized. The MeSO{sub 2}-PCB and -DDE levels and congener patterns among seal and bear tissues and the difference in tissue distribution between species will also be compared. In polar bear, the s-MeSO{sub 2}-PCB to S-PCB and s-MeSO{sub 2}-DDE to DDE ratios were highest in liver, indicating preferred storage.

  8. Enantio-alteration of gene transcription associated with bioconcentration in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to chiral PCB149

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Tingting; Cui, Feng; Mu, Pengqian; Yang, Yang; Xu, Nana; Yin, Zhiqiang; Jia, Qi; Yang, Shuming; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Chengju

    2016-01-01

    Enantioselective enrichment of chiral PCB149 (2,2’,3,4’,5’,6-hexachlorobiphenyl) was analysed in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the racemate, (−)-PCB149, and (+)-PCB149. Greater enrichment of (−)-PCB149 compared to (+) PCB149 was observed following 0.5 ng/L exposure; however, as the exposure time and concentration increased, racemic enrichment was observed in adult fish exposed to the racemate. No biotransformation between the two isomers was observed in fish exposed to single enantiomers. When zebrafish were exposed to different forms of chiral PCB149, enantioselective expression of genes associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was observed in brain and liver tissues and enantioselective correlations between bioconcentration and target gene expression levels were observed in brain and liver tissues. The strong positive correlations between expression levels of target genes (alox5a and alox12) and PCB149 bioconcentration suggest that prolonged exposure to the racemate of chiral PCB149 may result in inflammation-associated diseases. Prolonged exposure to (−)-PCB149 may also affect metabolic pathways such as dehydrogenation and methylation in the brain tissues of adult zebrafish. Hepatic expression levels of genes related to the antioxidant system were significantly negatively correlated with bioconcentration following exposure to (+)-PCB149. PMID:26786282

  9. [PCB concentration in hair, blood, tissues and secretions of chronically exposed dairy cows, fattening bulls and calves].

    PubMed

    Klein, U; Nagorny, C; Forschner, E; Johannes, B; Drochner, W

    1994-05-01

    Fattening bulls (n = 8) and cows (n = 10) affected chronically with PCB were kept in barns on PCB-free feeding (silage, straw, concentrates). The cows were dried off. The kinetics of PCB-concentrations in hair, blood and feces were examined. Fattening bulls (mean 460 kg bw, german black and white and interbreeding german black and white and Simmental) with low (320 g) and medium (730 g) daily weight gain for a period of 5 months and 3 bulls with medium (640 g) weight gain within 18 months were examined. A drying off period of 3-5 months was recorded for the cows. The distribution of PCB in the carcass of some animals was registered in addition. The following results are to be emphasized: Reduction of PCB in the studied substrates in the fattening bulls depends on a high degree on daily weight gain. This is important in order to calculate biological half life times of PCB. By standardized weight gain of 10 kg in bulls, fed PCB-free diets for a 5 months period, a reduction of PCB-concentrations from 1 to 3% was found (hair and feces: 1%, blood 3%). Within a period of 18 months and with higher weights, in the examined substrates (blood, hair, feces) mean declines of the PCB-concentrations of 2% were found. On knowledge so far this value is an essential point to estimate biological half life times, because metabolic PCB-elimination is negligible.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8013297

  10. Enantio-alteration of gene transcription associated with bioconcentration in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to chiral PCB149.

    PubMed

    Chai, Tingting; Cui, Feng; Mu, Pengqian; Yang, Yang; Xu, Nana; Yin, Zhiqiang; Jia, Qi; Yang, Shuming; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Chengju

    2016-01-01

    Enantioselective enrichment of chiral PCB149 (2,2',3,4',5',6-hexachlorobiphenyl) was analysed in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the racemate, (-)-PCB149, and (+)-PCB149. Greater enrichment of (-)-PCB149 compared to (+) PCB149 was observed following 0.5 ng/L exposure; however, as the exposure time and concentration increased, racemic enrichment was observed in adult fish exposed to the racemate. No biotransformation between the two isomers was observed in fish exposed to single enantiomers. When zebrafish were exposed to different forms of chiral PCB149, enantioselective expression of genes associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was observed in brain and liver tissues and enantioselective correlations between bioconcentration and target gene expression levels were observed in brain and liver tissues. The strong positive correlations between expression levels of target genes (alox5a and alox12) and PCB149 bioconcentration suggest that prolonged exposure to the racemate of chiral PCB149 may result in inflammation-associated diseases. Prolonged exposure to (-)-PCB149 may also affect metabolic pathways such as dehydrogenation and methylation in the brain tissues of adult zebrafish. Hepatic expression levels of genes related to the antioxidant system were significantly negatively correlated with bioconcentration following exposure to (+)-PCB149. PMID:26786282

  11. Enantio-alteration of gene transcription associated with bioconcentration in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to chiral PCB149

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Tingting; Cui, Feng; Mu, Pengqian; Yang, Yang; Xu, Nana; Yin, Zhiqiang; Jia, Qi; Yang, Shuming; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Chengju

    2016-01-01

    Enantioselective enrichment of chiral PCB149 (2,2’,3,4’,5’,6-hexachlorobiphenyl) was analysed in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the racemate, (-)-PCB149, and (+)-PCB149. Greater enrichment of (-)-PCB149 compared to (+) PCB149 was observed following 0.5 ng/L exposure; however, as the exposure time and concentration increased, racemic enrichment was observed in adult fish exposed to the racemate. No biotransformation between the two isomers was observed in fish exposed to single enantiomers. When zebrafish were exposed to different forms of chiral PCB149, enantioselective expression of genes associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was observed in brain and liver tissues and enantioselective correlations between bioconcentration and target gene expression levels were observed in brain and liver tissues. The strong positive correlations between expression levels of target genes (alox5a and alox12) and PCB149 bioconcentration suggest that prolonged exposure to the racemate of chiral PCB149 may result in inflammation-associated diseases. Prolonged exposure to (-)-PCB149 may also affect metabolic pathways such as dehydrogenation and methylation in the brain tissues of adult zebrafish. Hepatic expression levels of genes related to the antioxidant system were significantly negatively correlated with bioconcentration following exposure to (+)-PCB149.

  12. Dynamics of PCB removal and detoxification in historically contaminated soils amended with activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Vasilyeva, Galina K; Strijakova, Elena R; Nikolaeva, Svetlana N; Lebedev, Albert T; Shea, Patrick J

    2010-03-01

    Activated carbon (AC) can help overcome toxicity of pollutants to microbes and facilitate soil bioremediation. We used this approach to treat a Histosol and an Alluvial soil historically contaminated with PCB (4190 and 1585 mg kg(-1), respectively; primarily tri-, tetra- and pentachlorinated congeners). Results confirmed PCB persistence; reductions in PCB extractable from control and AC-amended soils were mostly due to a decrease in tri- and to some extent tetrachlorinated congeners as well as formation of a bound fraction. Mechanisms of PCB binding by soil and AC were different. In addition to microbial degradation of less chlorinated congeners, we postulate AC catalyzed dechlorination of higher chlorinated congeners. A large decrease in bioavailable PCB in AC-amended soils was demonstrated by greater clover germination and biomass. Phytotoxicity was low in treated soils but remained high in untreated soils for the duration of a 39-month experiment. These observations indicate the utility of AC for remediation of soils historically contaminated with PCB. PMID:19897290

  13. Exercise Attenuates PCB-Induced Changes in the Mouse Gut Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong June; Eum, Sung Yong; Rampersaud, Evadnie; Daunert, Sylvia; Abreu, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The gut microbiome, a dynamic bacterial community that interacts with the host, is integral to human health because it regulates energy metabolism and immune functions. The gut microbiome may also play a role in risks from environmental toxicants. Objectives: We investigated the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and exercise on the composition and structure of the gut microbiome in mice. Methods: After mice exercised voluntarily for 5 weeks, they were treated by oral gavage with a mixture of environmentally relevant PCB congeners (PCB153, PCB138, and PCB180; total PCB dose, 150 µmol/kg) for 2 days. We then assessed the microbiome by determination of 16S rRNA using microarray analysis. Results: Oral exposure to PCBs significantly altered the abundance of the gut microbiome in mice primarily by decreasing the levels of Proteobacteria. The activity level of the mice correlated with a substantial shift in abundance, biodiversity, and composition of the microbiome. Importantly, exercise attenuated PCB-induced changes in the gut microbiome. Conclusions: Our results show that oral exposure to PCBs can induce substantial changes in the gut microbiome, which may then influence their systemic toxicity. These changes can be attenuated by behavioral factors, such as voluntary exercise. PMID:23632211

  14. PCB patterns in herring and pike with special regard to co-planar congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Alsberg, T.; Wit, C. de; Eriksson, U.; Jaernberg, U.; Bignert, A.; Olsson, M.

    1995-12-31

    This study investigates the patterns of PCB in two aquatic organisms, herring and pike. The aim is to establish a basis for a model for estimating the levels of co-planar PCBs from the concentrations of nonplanar congeners. The chosen fish populations reflect differences in species, age, habitat (locations) and time of catch, as well as differences in total PCB concentrations. More stable patterns would be presumed, the more homogeneous the population. Herring were sampled at two locations, one in the Bothnian Bay (Harufjaerden) and one in the Southern Baltic (Utlaengan). Two age classes were sampled at each location, 2- and 6-year olds, respectively at Utlaengan, and 2- and 5-year olds, respectively at Harufjaerden. Pike were sampled from Lake Bolmen in southern Sweden in 1992, and pike from the same location but sampled in 1971 were taken from the specimen bank. Ten individuals per population were analyzed. Thirteen PCB congeners were determined, namely PCBs 28, 52, 77, 101, 105, 118, 126, 1 38, 153, 156, 157, 169, 180, thus including the seven PCBs that are measured in the national monitoring program, in addition to three monoortho and three non-ortho PCBs. Regarding the possibility of creating a model for calculating the concentrations of the planar PCBs from those of the non-planar, the results look promising for PCB-126 and PCB-169, whereas PCB-77 shows a lower correlation to the non-planar congeners.

  15. PCB concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Binder, Thomas R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  16. Idaho National Laboratory PCB Annual Document Log and Annual Records Report for calendar year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, Deborah L.

    2015-06-01

    The requirements for the reporting of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-related activities are found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761 Subpart J, "General Records and Reports." The PCB Annual Document Log is a detailed record of the PCB waste handling activities at the facility. The facility must prepare it each year by July 1 and maintain it at the facility for at least 3 years after the facility ceases using or storing PCBs and PCB items. While submittal of the PCB Annual Document Log to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not required by regulation, EPA has verbally requested in telephone conversations that this report be submitted to them on an annual basis. The Annual Records are not required to be submitted to EPA and are not considered to be part of the Annual Document Log, but are included to provide the complete disposition history or status of all PCB activities during the year. The Annual Document Log section of this report (Section 2.0) meets the requirements of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(2), as applicable, while the Annual Records section (Section 3.0) meets the requirement of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(1).

  17. Exercise protects against PCB-induced inflammation and associated cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Margaret O; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Esser, Karyn; Hennig, Bernhard

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that contribute to the initiation of cardiovascular disease. Exercise has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease; however, whether exercise can modulate PCB-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated cardiovascular risk factors is unknown. We examined the effects of exercise on coplanar PCB-induced cardiovascular risk factors including oxidative stress, inflammation, impaired glucose tolerance, hypercholesteremia, and endothelium-dependent relaxation. Male ApoE(-/-) mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups (voluntary wheel running) over a 12-week period. Half of each group was exposed to vehicle or PCB 77 at weeks 1, 2, 9, and 10. For ex vivo studies, male C57BL/6 mice exercised via voluntary wheel training for 5 weeks and then were administered with vehicle or PCB 77 24 h before vascular reactivity studies were performed. Exposure to coplanar PCB increased risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, including oxidative stress and systemic inflammation, glucose intolerance, and hypercholesteremia. The 12-week exercise intervention significantly reduced these proatherogenic parameters. Exercise also upregulated antioxidant enzymes including phase II detoxification enzymes. Sedentary animals exposed to PCB 77 exhibited endothelial dysfunction as demonstrated by significant impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was prevented by exercise. Lifestyle modifications such as aerobic exercise could be utilized as a therapeutic approach for the prevention of adverse cardiovascular health effects induced by environmental pollutants such as PCBs. PMID:25586614

  18. Response of PCB contamination in stream fish to abatement actions at an industrial site

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, G.R.; Peterson, M.J.; McCarthy, J.F.; Milne, G.

    1995-12-31

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky, used large quantities of PCBs in equipment associated with the great electric power requirements of isotopic enrichment of uranium. Historic losses of PCBs in the 1950s and 1960s have left a legacy of contamination at the site. A biological monitoring program implemented in 1987 found PCBs in PGDP effluents and in fish downstream from facility discharges. As a consequence, a fish consumption advisory was posted on Little Bayou Creek by the Commonwealth of Kentucky in 1987, and regulatory discharge limits for PCBs at PGDP were reduced. Monitoring at multiple locations in receiving streams indicated that PGDP discharges were more important than in stream sediment contamination as sources of PCBs to fish. Environmental management and compliance staff at PGDP led an effort to reduce PCB discharges and monitor the effects of those actions. The active discharge of uncontaminated process water to historically PCB-contaminated drainage systems was found to mobilize PCBs into KPDES (Clean Water Act) regulated effluents. Efforts to locate PCB sources within the plant, coupled with improvements in management practices and remedial actions, appear to have been successful in reducing PCB discharges from these sources. Actions included emplacing passive monitors in the plant drainage system to identify this as a chronic source, and consolidating and re-routing effluents to minimize flow through PCB-contaminated channels. As a consequence, PCB contamination in fish in small streams receiving plant discharges decreased 75% over from 1992--1995.

  19. Mass budget in two high altitude lakes reveals their role as atmospheric PCB sinks.

    PubMed

    Nellier, Yann-Michel; Perga, Marie-Elodie; Cottin, Nathalie; Fanget, Philippe; Malet, Emmanuel; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    A mass budget of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was constructed for two altitude lakes located in the French Alps to (i) quantify inward and outward PCB flux over the entire year of 2012, (ii) hierarchize the dominant pathways of PCB transfers, and (iii) evaluate to what extent these pathways vary between both lakes. The annual PCB inputs were similar, and the glacial runoff and sediment-to-water exchange were negligible sources of PCBs to the water column relative to atmospheric deposition. The annual inputs were primarily introduced by snow deposition and transferred into the lakes during the few weeks of spring thaw. While the dominant deposition pathways were similar, the main processes by which the water column lost pollutants differed between the two lakes. Despite these differences, the mass budget revealed that PCB inputs exceeded outputs for both studied lakes and that the lakes acted as atmospheric PCB sinks for the surrounding mountain environment. The differences in the PCB distribution between the key compartments (sediment and water column) are most likely due to differences in the lacustrine internal processes. PMID:25546458

  20. Foodchain bioaccumulation patterns of pesticides, PCB isomers and dioxin/furan congeners in the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Whittle, D.M.; Kiriluk, R.M.; Carswell, A.; Keir, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    Lake Ontario is one of the most contaminated Great Lakes. A detailed analysis of whole body concentrations of organic contaminants was conducted on a simple 4 compartment coldwater foodchain consisting of 7 species including several invertebrate diet items, prey fish species and the top predator lake trout. Sediment samples from the same site were analyzed for a similar suite of contaminants. Analyses were performed using a combination of HRMS/MS and GC/MS. All concentrations were reported on a whole animal wet weight basis and lipid weight concentrations. Total Toxic Equivalent Factors (TEFS) were calculated for both dioxin and furan isomers and coplanar PCBs. PCB 110 (pentachlorobiphenyl) was the dominant congener in sediment samples as well as samples of benthic invertebrates. On the other hand, PCB 138 and 153 (hexachlorobiphenyls) were found at the highest concentration in the top predator lake trout and a prey species that feeds primarily in the water column. Mysis relicta, a zooplankton species that migrates diurnally through the water column, had similar levels of both PCB 110 and PCB 138/153. PCB 77 was consistently the highest coplanar PCB found in all samples. In all biological samples analyzed 2,3,7,8 substituted tetrachlorodioxin and furan isomers were consistently found at the highest levels. Lipid normalization of all whole body data did not significantly change the bioaccumulation factors calculated using wet weight concentrations.

  1. Can fisheries management make substantial progress towards further reductions in sport fish PCB concentrations?

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    Great Lakes managers continue to be concerned by PCB concentrations in Great Lakes sport fish. A reduction in sport fish consumption advisory levels would heighten public concern and increase pressure on managers to reduce contaminant levels in sport fish. PCB concentrations in Great Lakes sediments remain high and exchange with the water column is significant. Atmospheric inputs help maintain PCB availability in the Great Lakes. However, it is not technically feasible to control sediment and atmospheric inputs. Here the author uses a detailed age-structured simulation model of chinook salmon, alewife and rainbow smelt to examine the potential for fish management actions to make progress towards reducing PCB concentrations of sport fish consumed by humans. Chinook salmon PCB concentrations were found to be more affected by prey PCB concentrations than chinook salmon growth rates. Salmonid predators selectively attack the largest prey, but these prey are likely the oldest and most contaminated. The interaction between size selective predation by chinook salmon and their growth rates suggests that there is an ideal stocking level of sport fish that should keep the average prey fish small, and therefore have relatively low PCE concentrations, but not reduce the age structure of the alewife population to include few reproductive individuals. These results are applicable to other stocked salmonids too, (e.g., lake trout, brown trout, coho salmon, steelhead) because they also exhibit size selective predation and their recruitment is primarily by stocking.

  2. Technical note monitoring native vegetation on a dumpsite of PCB-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Pavlíková, Daniela; Macek, Tomas; Macková, Martina; Pavlík, Milan

    2007-01-01

    Composition of native vegetation on a polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)-contaminated soil dumpsite at Lhenice, South Bohemia (Czech Republic), was determined and species variability in the accumulation of PCBs in plant biomass was investigated. Soil stripping contaminated by PCBs originated at a factory producing electrical transformers that mostly used the commercial PCB mixture Delor 103 and 106. The PCB content of soil in the most contaminated part of the dumpsite reached 153 mg kg(-1) dry soil. Low diversity of plant species was found on the dumpsite. Results showed three grass species, Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Phalaroides arundinacea (L.) Rauschert., and Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., to be the major components of the vegetation and confirmed their high tolerance toward PCB contamination. The highest content of PCB in plant biomass--813.2 microg kg(-1) dry biomass--was determined in Festuca aboveground biomass. For phytoextraction purposes especially, Festuca can be recommended due to its high biomass yield, but its bioconcentration factor was very low (0.006). Tripleurospermum maritimum (L.) Sch. Bip. and Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. grew mainly at the margins of the most contaminated part of the dumpsite. The PCB content determined in their aboveground biomass-278.7 and 289.5 microg kg(-1) dry biomass, respectively--was nonsignificantly lower compared to grass species Phalaroides and Calamagrostis. Salix (Salix viminalis L. and Salix caprea L.) was monitored among plant species composition at this site as a representative of woody species. PMID:18246716

  3. The investigation of electrolytic surface roughening for PCB copper foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shuo-Jen; Liu, Chao-Kai

    2013-10-01

    This study is the application of the principle of electrochemical. The anodic dissolution has no concentration polarization. Hence, electrolyte life is substantially increased. The waste copper is high in ion concentration with a recovery value. As compared with the current PCB chemical pre-treatment method, it may have advantages of cost-saving, improvement of overall efficiency, reduction of production costs and reduction of the amount of waste generated. In the development of the copper foil for electrochemical roughening process, the use of electrolysis reaction affects the copper surface dissolution to form a unique bump coarsening. It will increase in the surface area of the copper foil to improve dry film solder mask and the adhesion between the copper surfaces. Four electrolytes, two neutral salts and two acids, were selected to explore the best of the electrolytic roughening parameters of temperature, time and voltage. The surface roughness and the surface morphology of the copper foil were measured before and after the electrolytic surface roughening. Finally, after repeated experiments, electrolytes A and B copper generates obvious inter-granular corrosion, resulting in a rough surface similar to the chemical pre-treatment. On the other hands, the surface morphology resulted from electrolytes C and D appears more like pitting. Both electrolytic could generate surface roughness of Ra 0.3 um roughened copper surface higher than industrial standard.

  4. Recycling of lead solder dross, Generated from PCB manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucheva, Biserka; Tsonev, Tsonio; Iliev, Peter

    2011-08-01

    The main purpose of this work is to analyze lead solder dross, a waste product from manufacturing of printed circuit boards by wave soldering, and to develop an effective and environmentally sound technology for its recycling. A methodology for determination of the content and chemical composition of the metal and oxide phases of the dross is developed. Two methods for recycling of lead solder dross were examined—carbothermal reduction and recycling using boron-containing substances. The influence of various factors on the metal yield was studied and the optimal parameters of the recycling process are defined. The comparison between them under the same parameters-temperature and retention time, showed that recycling of dross with a mixture of borax and boric acid in a 1:2 ratio provides higher metal yield (93%). The recycling of this hazardous waste under developed technology gets glassy slag and solder, which after correction of the chemical composition can be used again for production of PCB.

  5. Thyroid function in Yusho patients exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)

    SciTech Connect

    Murai, K.; Okamura, K.; Tsuji, H.; Kajiwara, E.; Watanabe, H.; Akagi, K.; Fujishima, M.

    1987-12-01

    Thyroid function was investigated in 123 Yusho patients who were exposed to toxic levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 16 years ago. In Yusho patients, compared with the patients without evidence of Yusho or normal controls, the serum triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) and thyroxine (T/sub 4/) levels were significantly higher, while thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels measured by sensitive assay were normal. There was no difference in serum levels of albumin, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) between the two groups and the prevalence of positive antithyroid autoantibodies was almost the same, suggesting that hyperthyroxinemia in Yusho patients was not due to increased TBG binding or abnormal autoimmune mechanism. Serum free T/sub 4/ levels, however, were not elevated, although T/sub 4//TBG ratio was significantly higher. The thyroid hormone levels were higher than normal value in 4 of 123 Yusho patients but only 1 case had clinical symptoms such as excessive perspiration. Despite higher serum PCBs in Yusho patients, there was no correlation between PCB levels and levels of T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/, or TSH. The present results suggest hyperthyroxinemia without obvious clinical symptoms in Yusho patients long after exposure to PCBs.

  6. Adsorption of DDT and PCB by Nanomaterials from Residual Soil

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Mohd Raihan; Mobasser, Shariat

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study on adsorption of dichlorodiphenythreechloroethen (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on three nanomaterials including Multi walled Carbon Nanotube (MWNT), nano-clay and nano-alumina. DDT and PCBs are of significant concern due their high toxicity and long environmental half-lives. Experiments were conducted using batch adsorption procedures at different DDT and PCBs concentrations, from 10 to 60 mg/L. The amounts of MWNT, nano-clay and Nano-alumina used were 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1%, 2% and 10%. The adsorption of PCBs solution onto the MWNT, nano-clay and nano-alumina was characterized by an initial rapid adsorption which eventually became constant within 22, 20, and 17 hours, respectively. The adsorption of DDT solution onto the MWNT, nano-clay and nano-alumina was also characterized by an initial rapid adsorption which gradually became constant within 22, 22 and 16 hours, respectively. Results of this study indicated that MWNT was a better adsorbent material compared to nano-clay and nano-alumina for both contaminants in this study. While at 10% of MWNT 88.9% and 77% of DDT and PCB were removed by MWNT, respectively. The effect of pH and temperature were also investigated. PMID:26659225

  7. Evaluation of PCB sources and releases for identifying priorities to reduce PCBs in Washington State (USA).

    PubMed

    Davies, Holly; Delistraty, Damon

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously distributed in the environment and produce multiple adverse effects in humans and wildlife. As a result, the purpose of our study was to characterize PCB sources in anthropogenic materials and releases to the environment in Washington State (USA) in order to formulate recommendations to reduce PCB exposures. Methods included review of relevant publications (e.g., open literature, industry studies and reports, federal and state government databases), scaling of PCB sources from national or county estimates to state estimates, and communication with industry associations and private and public utilities. Recognizing high associated uncertainty due to incomplete data, we strived to provide central tendency estimates for PCB sources. In terms of mass (high to low), PCB sources include lamp ballasts, caulk, small capacitors, large capacitors, and transformers. For perspective, these sources (200,000-500,000 kg) overwhelm PCBs estimated to reside in the Puget Sound ecosystem (1500 kg). Annual releases of PCBs to the environment (high to low) are attributed to lamp ballasts (400-1500 kg), inadvertent generation by industrial processes (900 kg), caulk (160 kg), small capacitors (3-150 kg), large capacitors (10-80 kg), pigments and dyes (0.02-31 kg), and transformers (<2 kg). Recommendations to characterize the extent of PCB distribution and decrease exposures include assessment of PCBs in buildings (e.g., schools) and replacement of these materials, development of Best Management Practices (BMPs) to contain PCBs, reduction of inadvertent generation of PCBs in consumer products, expansion of environmental monitoring and public education, and research to identify specific PCB congener profiles in human tissues. PMID:26071980

  8. Chronic treatment with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) during pregnancy and lactation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Cocchi, Daniela; Tulipano, Giovanni; Colciago, Alessandra; Sibilia, Valeria; Pagani, Francesca; Vigano, Daniela; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela; Bonfanti, Patrizia; Colombo, Anita; Celotti, Fabio

    2009-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are pollutants detected in animal tissues and breast milk. The experiments described in the present paper were aimed at evaluating whether the four PCB congeners most abundant in animal tissues (PCB-138, -153, -180 and -126), administered since fetal life till weaning, can induce long-term alterations of GH-axis activity and bone mass in the adult rat. We measured PCB accumulation in rat brain and liver, somatic growth, pituitary GH expression and plasma hormone concentrations at different ages. Finally, we studied hypothalamic somatostatin expression and bone structure in adulthood, following long-term PCB exposure. Dams were treated during pregnancy from GD15 to GD19 and during breast-feeding. A constant reduction of the growth rate in both male and female offspring from weaning to adulthood was observed in exposed animals. Long-lasting alterations on hypothalamic-pituitary GH axis were indeed observed in PCB-exposed rats in adulthood: increased somatostatin expression in hypothalamic periventricular nucleus (both males and females) and lateral arcuate nucleus (males, only) and decreased GH mRNA levels in the pituitary of male rats. Plasma IGF-1 levels were higher in PCB-exposed male and female animals as compared with controls at weaning and tended to be higher at PN60. Plasma testosterone and thyroid hormone concentrations were not significantly affected by exposure to PCBs. In adulthood, PCBs caused a significant reduction of bone mineral content and cortical bone thickness of tibiae in male rat joint to increased width of the epiphyseal cartilage disk. In conclusion, the developmental exposure to the four selected PCB compounds used in the present study induced far-reaching effects in the adult offspring, the male rats appearing more sensitive than females.

  9. Catfish consumption as a contributor to elevated PCB levels in a non-Hispanic black subpopulation.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Max; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2008-07-01

    The human body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) sharply declined after production was banned in the US in 1979. For the 10% of the US population that remains most exposed to PCBs, fish consumption is the primary source. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data indicates that the highest remaining PCB levels exist in a non-Hispanic black subpopulation. Our review suggests that catfish consumption may be a significant PCB source for the one million non-Hispanic black anglers who fish for catfish. In comparison to non-Hispanic white anglers, non-Hispanic black anglers consume more catfish, are more likely to eat the whole fish rather than just the fillets that contain less PCBs, and are more likely to fish in watersheds with high PCB contamination. Efforts to diminish potential racial disparities in PCB exposure are challenged by geographic, economic, cultural, and educational barriers. In response, we propose that a fish consumption survey be performed that identifies the extent of subsistence fishing by non-Hispanic black anglers for catfish in watersheds with PCB contamination, the type and quantity of catfish subsistence fishing provides, and what actions would help moderate PCB exposure due to subsistence fishing for catfish in such areas. Understanding the contamination and consumption factors that contribute to higher PCB body burdens will help identify and offer solutions to racial disparities in exposure to PCBs due to subsistence fishing while providing a model to prevent similar disparities in exposure to toxics ranging from mercury to polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:18407261

  10. Comparison between conventional and laser method of imaging tracks on PCB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbucha, R.; Kocik, M.; Mizeraczyk, J.; Kozioł, G.; Borecki, J.

    2007-02-01

    The increasing demands for miniaturization and better functionality of electronic components and devices have a significant effect on the requirements facing the printed circuit board (PCB) industry. PCB manufactures are driving for producing high density interconnect (HDI) boards at significantly reduced cost and reduced implementation time. The interconnection complexity of the PCB is still growing and today calls for 50/50 μm or 25/25 μm technology are real. Existing technologies are unable to offer acceptable solution. Recently the Laser Direct Imaging (LDI) technology is considered as an answer for these challenges. LDI is a process of imaging electric circuits directly on PCB without the use of a phototool or mask. The exposure of the photo-sensitive resist is carried out using a laser beam that is scanned across photoresist surface and switched on and off by means of a computer control system according to the electrical circuit pattern. Usually the laser used in the LDI generates a UV line, which is suitable to the commonly available photoresists. Our laboratory system for Laser Direct Imaging is designed for tracks and spaces on PCB with minimum width distance of 50/50 μm. In comparison with conventional photolithography method, this technology is much better for 50/50 μm track and spaces. In our research we used photoresist with resolution 50 μm, but in case of using laser photoresists with better resolution (e.g. 25 μm) it will be possible to image tracks in super-fine-line technology (25/25 μm). The comparison between two technology of creating mosaic pattern tracks on PCB proved that laser imaging is promising technology in high density interconnects patterns, which are widely use in multilayered PCB and similar applications.

  11. Remediation of PCB-contaminated sediments, in Lake Jaernsjoen, River Emaan, Sweden -- Monitoring and results

    SciTech Connect

    Troedsson, B.; Helgee, A.

    1995-12-31

    Lake Jaernsjoen is a small lake in the Emaan river system which is considered to be one of the most valuable watercourses in Sweden. River Emaan is known for its high diversity of fish species, more than 25 species, e.g. wels (Siluris glanis). The river and its valley are of national interest from the viewpoints of both nature conservation and cultural history. Remediation implies certain hazards for the environment and substantial environmental monitoring is necessary for managing of the work in order to minimize damage to the environment. The content of PCB in the sediments of Jaernsjoen was estimated at about 400 kg and was the most important source for spreading of PCB in River Emaan. Remediation of the contaminated sediments took place during 1993 and 1994. It was carried out using a horizontal auger suction dredger. During dredging, the area with the most contaminated sediments was closed off by a silt curtain in order to protect River Emaan from release of suspended solids and PCB. The environmental monitoring during remediation included measuring of e.g. PCB, turbidity, suspended solids, TOC, nitrogen and phosphorus. Turbidity was measured automatically and registered continuously while samples for analysis of suspended solids and PCB were collected automatically and combined to form daily (suspended solids) and weekly (PCB) average samples. Turbidity, suspended solids and PCB were measured certify that the claims that were laid in the contract for the work and from authorities were fulfilled. Comparisons between monitoring stations upstream and downstream Lake Jaernsjoen show that the remediation have not influenced the River Emaan negatively.

  12. Electroremediation of PCB contaminated soil combined with iron nanoparticles: Effect of the soil type.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Helena I; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are carcinogenic and persistent organic pollutants that accumulate in soils and sediments. Currently, there is no cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology for these contaminants. In this work, a new combination of electrodialytic remediation and zero valent iron particles in a two-compartment cell is tested and compared to a more conventional combination of electrokinetic remediation and nZVI in a three-compartment cell. In the new two-compartment cell, the soil is suspended and stirred simultaneously with the addition of zero valent iron nanoparticles. Remediation experiments are made with two different historically PCB contaminated soils, which differ in both soil composition and contamination source. Soil 1 is a mix of soils with spills of transformer oils, while Soil 2 is a superficial soil from a decommissioned school where PCB were used as windows sealants. Saponin, a natural surfactant, was also tested to increase the PCB desorption from soils and enhance dechlorination. Remediation of Soil 1 (with highest pH, carbonate content, organic matter and PCB concentrations) obtained the maximum 83% and 60% PCB removal with the two-compartment and the three-compartment cell, respectively. The highest removal with Soil 2 were 58% and 45%, in the two-compartment and the three-compartment cell, respectively, in the experiments without direct current. The pH of the soil suspension in the two-compartment treatment appears to be a determining factor for the PCB dechlorination, and this cell allowed a uniform distribution of the nanoparticles in the soil, while there was iron accumulation in the injection reservoir in the three-compartment cell. PMID:25841071

  13. Simulation of the effects of time and size at stocking on PCB accumulation in lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Carpenter, Stephen R.

    1993-01-01

    Manipulations of size at stocking and timing of stocking have already been used to improve survival of stocked salmonines in the Great Lakes. It should be possible to stock salmonines into the Great Lakes in a way that reduces the rate of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation in these fishes. An individual-based model (IBM) was used to investigate the effects of size at stocking and timing of stocking on PCB accumulation by lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Michigan. The individual-based feature of the model allowed lake trout individuals to encounter prey fish individuals and then consume sufficiently small prey fish. The IBM accurately accounted for the variation in PCB concentrations observed within the Lake Michigan lake trout population. Results of the IBM simulations revealed that increasing the average size at stocking from 110 to 160 mm total length led to an increase in the average PCB concentration in the stocked cohort at age 5, after the fish had spent 4 years in the lake, from 2.33 to 2.65 mg/kg; the percentage of lake trout in the cohort at the end of the simulated time period with PCB concentration of 2 mg/kg or more increased from 62% to 79%. Thus, PCB contamination was reduced when the simulated size at stocking was smallest. An overall stocking strategy for lake trout into Lake Michigan should weigh this advantage regarding PCB contamination against the poor survival of lake trout that may occur if the trout are stocked at too small a size.

  14. Chemical and microbiological characterization of an aged PCB-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Stella, T; Covino, S; Burianová, E; Filipová, A; Křesinová, Z; Voříšková, J; Větrovský, T; Baldrian, P; Cajthaml, T

    2015-11-15

    This study was aimed at complex characterization of three soil samples (bulk soil, topsoil and rhizosphere soil) from a site historically contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The bulk soil was the most highly contaminated, with a PCB concentration of 705.95 mg kg(-1), while the rhizosphere soil was the least contaminated (169.36 mg kg(-1)). PCB degradation intermediates, namely chlorobenzoic acids (CBAs), were detected in all the soil samples, suggesting the occurrence of microbial transformation processes over time. The higher content of organic carbon in the topsoil and rhizosphere soil than in the bulk soil could be linked to the reduced bioaccessibility (bioavailability) of these chlorinated pollutants. However, different proportions of the PCB congener contents and different bioaccessibility of the PCB homologues indicate microbial biotransformation of the compounds. The higher content of organic carbon probably also promoted the growth of microorganisms, as revealed by phospholipid fatty acid (PFLA) quantification. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing analysis showed that the bacterial community structure was significantly similar among the three soils and was predominated by Proteobacteria (44-48%) in all cases. Moreover, analysis at lower taxonomic levels pointed to the presence of genera (Sphingomonas, Bulkholderia, Arthrobacter, Bacillus) including members with reported PCB removal abilities. The fungal community was mostly represented by Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, which accounted for >80% of all the sequences detected in the three soils. Fungal taxa with biodegradation potential (Paxillus, Cryptococcus, Phoma, Mortierella) were also found. These results highlight the potential of the indigenous consortia present at the site as a starting point for PCB bioremediation processes. PMID:26156136

  15. Calibration of PCB-132 Sensors in a Shock Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berridge, Dennis C.; Schneider, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    While PCB-132 sensors have proven useful for measuring second-mode instability waves in many hypersonic wind tunnels, they are currently limited by their calibration. Until now, the factory calibration has been all that was available, which is a single-point calibration at an amplitude three orders of magnitude higher than a second-mode wave. In addition, little information has been available about the frequency response or spatial resolution of the sensors, which is important for measuring high-frequency instability waves. These shortcomings make it difficult to compare measurements at different conditions and between different sensors. If accurate quantitative measurements could be performed, comparisons of the growth and breakdown of instability waves could be made in different facilities, possibly leading to a method of predicting the amplitude at which the waves break down into turbulence, improving transition prediction. A method for calibrating the sensors is proposed using a newly-built shock tube at Purdue University. This shock tube, essentially a half-scale version of the 6-Inch shock tube at the Graduate Aerospace Laboratories at Caltech, has been designed to attain a moderate vacuum in the driven section. Low driven pressures should allow the creation of very weak, yet still relatively thin shock waves. It is expected that static pressure rises within the range of second-mode amplitudes should be possible. The shock tube has been designed to create clean, planar shock waves with a laminar boundary layer to allow for accurate calibrations. Stronger shock waves can be used to identify the frequency response of the sensors out to hundreds of kilohertz.

  16. Stepping backward to improve assessment of PCB congener toxicities.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, L G

    1998-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous global contaminants that have been intensively investigated for three decades. They are broad-acting toxicants occurring in complex mixtures and accurate risk assessment has proven to be elusive. Focusing on a limited set of end points and emphasizing a fixed set of congeners have led to more streamlined data sets that are meant to expedite hazard characterization and risk assessment for the most potent congeners--aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Unfortunately, this has made it impossible to confirm or deny significant contributions from the more prevalent components of the mixtures. PCBs may be only coincidentally present, rather than causal, in some diseases. Still, attempts to determine associations with incomplete residue data may lead to erroneous conclusions and make accurate risk assessment even more elusive. Responses not mediated through the AhR are presented and emphasize large data gaps. Dissimilar analytical reports emphasize that selection of analytes is not consistent. Collectively, these data confirm that AhR-focused objectives unintentionally created the impression that nonplanar PCBs have little if any potential for hazards to humans and wildlife. Near steady-state exposure of healthy adults are probably of minor consequence except for emerging correlations with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; however, pulses of exposure to more labile mixtures may contribute to developmental effects without leaving a residue record. More broadly based criteria are suggested and harmonization of data collection and presentation are desirable. A more comprehensive list of PCB congeners is proposed that would provide more adequate data upon which to base associations with adverse outcomes. PMID:9539012

  17. PCB 126 toxicity is modulated by cross-talk between caveolae and Nrf2 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Petriello, Michael C.; Han, Sung Gu; Newsome, Bradley J.; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-06-01

    Environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in the promotion of multiple inflammatory disorders including cardiovascular disease, but information regarding mechanisms of toxicity and cross-talk between relevant cell signaling pathways is lacking. To examine the hypothesis that cross-talk between membrane domains called caveolae and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathways alters PCB-induced inflammation, caveolin-1 was silenced in vascular endothelial cells, resulting in a decreased PCB-induced inflammatory response. Cav-1 silencing (siRNA treatment) also increased levels of Nrf2-ARE transcriptional binding, resulting in higher mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes glutathione s-transferase and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated systems. Along with this upregulated antioxidant response, Cav-1 siRNA treated cells exhibited decreased mRNA levels of the Nrf2 inhibitory protein Keap1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated samples. Silencing Cav-1 also decreased protein levels of Nrf2 inhibitory proteins Keap1 and Fyn kinase, especially in PCB-treated cells. Further, endothelial cells from wildtype and Cav-1 −/− mice were isolated and treated with PCB to better elucidate the role of functional caveolae in PCB-induced endothelial inflammation. Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells were protected from PCB-induced cellular dysfunction as evidenced by decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) protein induction. Compared to wildtype cells, Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells also allowed for a more effective antioxidant response, as observed by higher levels of the antioxidant genes. These data demonstrate novel cross-talk mechanisms between Cav-1 and Nrf2 and implicate the reduction of Cav-1 as a protective mechanism for PCB-induced cellular dysfunction and inflammation. - Highlights: • Reduction of caveolin-1 protein protects against polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity. • Decreasing

  18. Growth Retardation and Altered Isotope Composition As Delayed Effects of PCB Exposure in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Ek, Caroline; Gerdes, Zandra; Garbaras, Andrius; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Gorokhova, Elena

    2016-08-01

    Trophic magnification factor (TMF) analysis employs stable isotope signatures to derive biomagnification potential for environmental contaminants. This approach relies on species δ(15)N values aligning with their trophic position (TP). This, however, may not always be true, because toxic exposure can alter growth and isotope allocation patterns. Here, effects of PCB exposure (mixture of PCB18, PCB40, PCB128, and PCB209) on δ(15)N and δ(13)C as well as processes driving these effects were explored using the cladoceran Daphnia magna. A two-part experiment assessed effects of toxic exposure during and after exposure; juvenile daphnids were exposed during 3 days (accumulation phase) and then allowed to depurate for 4 days (depuration phase). No effects on survival, growth, carbon and nitrogen content, and stable isotope composition were observed after the accumulation phase, whereas significant changes were detected in adults after the depuration phase. In particular, a significantly lower nitrogen content and a growth inhibition were observed, with a concomitant increase in δ(15)N (+0.1 ‰) and decrease in δ(13)C (-0.1 ‰). Although of low magnitude, these changes followed the predicted direction indicating that sublethal effects of contaminant exposure can lead to overestimation of TP and hence underestimated TMF. PMID:27367056

  19. PCB-pollution problem in the upper Hudson River: From environmental disaster to environmental gridlock

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, J.E. )

    1989-01-01

    The PCB pollution of the upper Hudson River has been traced to two discharge pipes from capacitor-manufacturing plants of the General Electric Company (GE) at Hudson Falls and Fort Edward, located about 40 miles north of Troy, New York. In August 1974, EPA biologists carried out a field investigation upstream of, at, and downstream of the GE discharge pipes. In September 1975, goaded by articles about PCB-contaminated fish from the Hudson Estuary, the Commissioner of the New York State Department of conservation (NYS DEC) commenced an administrative proceeding against GE, alleging violations of several NY State Environmental Conservation Law sections, and seeking cessation of PCB discharges, penalties for past discharges, and rehabilitation of the upper river. One stipulation of the resulting settlement agreement was that New York State sign off with GE over PCB pollution of the Hudson River and, if the Advisory Committee recommended in favor of rehabilitation, it would use its best efforts to find funds from sources other than GE to help pay for rehabilitation. The future of the PCB problem in the upper Hudson River seems likely to be settled by the outcome of a class-action lawsuit that commercial fisherman have filed against GE. In January 1989, a NEW York Appeals Court voted in favor of the ruling that the fishermen were entitled not only to payments for lost income, but to injunctive relief (which implies that GE must clean up the River). 311 refs., 30 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Apocynin Attenuates PCB153-Induced Thyroid Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abliz, Ablikim; Chen, Chen; Deng, Wenhong; Sun, Rongze

    2016-01-01

    PCBs, widespread endocrine disruptors, cause the disturbance of thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis in humans and animals. However, the exact mechanism of thyroid dysfunction caused by PCBs is still unknown. In order to clarify the hypotheses that NADPH oxidase (NOX) and subsequent NF-κB pathway may play roles in thyroid dysfunction, sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, PCB153 treated (PCB) group, received apocynin with PCB153 treatment (APO + PCB) group, and drug control (APO) group. Serum thyroid hormone levels were evaluated. The morphological change of thyroid tissue was analyzed under the light and transmission electron microscopy. NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB expression in the thyroid tissue was evaluated by immune-histochemical staining. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were detected. The following results were reduced after apocynin treatment: (1) serum thyroid hormone, (2) thyroid pathological injuries, (3) thyroid MDA, (4) thyroid ultrastructural change, (5) serum inflammatory cytokines, and (6) thyroid expression of NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB. These results suggested that NOX inhibition attenuates thyroid dysfunction induced by PCB in rats, presumably because of its role in preventing ROS generation and inhibiting the activation of NF-κB pathway. Our findings may provide new therapeutic targets for PCBs induced thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27047545

  1. Bioaccumulation of PCB congeners by blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) deployed in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Bergen, B.J. . Environmental Research Lab., Science Applications International Corp.); Nelson, W.G.; Pruell, R.J. . Environmental Research Lab.)

    1993-09-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were deployed to monitor the levels of bioavailable contaminants during a pilot dredging project in New Bedford Harbor (NBH), Massachusetts. Dissolved and particulate seawater samples also were collected periodically during these deployments. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener concentrations in both mussel tissue and seawater samples were among the quantified contaminants. Large differences in the dissolved and particulate PCB concentrations in seawater and tissue residue concentrations in mussels were observed along a gradient from the upper harbor to Buzzards Bay. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were calculated for six PCB congenors at two stations in NBH and a reference site in Buzzards Bay. Equations were generated relating the log BCF to the log octanol/water partition coefficient (K[sub ow]) for these congeners. A consistent relationship was found between dissolved PCB congener concentrations and tissue concentrations in the mussels. This study demonstrates the utility of the blue mussel as a monitoring organism for quantifying bioavailable contaminants in seawater and for relating PCB tissue residues with seawater concentrations.

  2. Green Tea Catechin, EGCG, Suppresses PCB 102-Induced Proliferation in Estrogen-Sensitive Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kimberly Mantzke; Bauer, Angela C.

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment is of considerable concern since they accumulate in human breast tissue and may stimulate the growth of estrogen-sensitive tumors. Studies have shown that EGCG from green tea can modify estrogenic activity and thus may act as a cancer chemopreventive agent. In the present study, we evaluated the individual and combined effects of PCB 102 and EGCG on cell proliferation using an estrogen-sensitive breast cancer cell line MCF-7/BOS. PCB 102 (1–10 μM) increased cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the proliferative effects of PCB 102 were mediated by ERα and could be abrogated by the selective ERα antagonist MPP. EGCG (10–50 μM) caused a dose-dependent inhibition of PCB 102-induced cell proliferation, with nearly complete inhibition at 25 μM EGCG. The antiproliferative action of EGCG was mediated by ERβ and could be blocked by the ERβ-specific inhibitor PHTPP. In conclusion, EGCG suppressed the proliferation-stimulating activity of the environmental estrogen PCB 102 which may be helpful in the chemoprevention of breast cancer. PMID:26783468

  3. Localization of Pcb antenna complexes in the photosynthetic prokaryote Prochlorothrix hollandica.

    PubMed

    Herbstová, Miroslava; Litvín, Radek; Gardian, Zdenko; Komenda, Josef; Vácha, Frantisek

    2010-01-01

    The freshwater filamentous green oxyphotobacterium Prochlorothrix hollandica is an unusual oxygenic photoautotrophic cyanobacterium differing from most of the others by the presence of light-harvesting Pcb antenna binding both chlorophylls a and b and by the absence of phycobilins. The pigment-protein complexes of P. hollandica SAG 10.89 (CCAP 1490/1) were isolated from dodecylmaltoside solubilized thylakoid membranes on sucrose density gradient and characterized by biochemical, spectroscopic and immunoblotting methods. The Pcb antennae production is suppressed by high light conditions (>200 mumol photons m(-2) s(-1)) in P. hollandica. PcbC protein was found either in higher oligomeric states or coupled to PS I (forming antenna rings around PS I). PcbA and PcbB are most probably only very loosely bound to photosystems; we assume that these pigment-protein complexes function as low light-induced mobile antennae. Further, we have detected alpha-carotene in substantial quantities in P. hollandica thylakoid membranes, indicating the presence of chloroplast-like carotenoid synthetic pathway which is not present in common cyanobacteria. PMID:19761753

  4. Low consumption single-use microvalve for microfluidic PCB-based platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, G.; Aracil, C.; Perdigones, F.; Quero, J. M.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a single-use and unidirectional microvalve with low consumption of energy for PCB-based microfluidic platforms is reported. Its activation is easy because it works as a fuse. The fabrication process of the device is based on PCB technology and a typical SU-8 process, using the PCB as a substrate and SU-8 for the microfluidic channels and chambers. The microvalve is intended to be used to impulse small volumes of fluids and it has been designed to be highly integrable in PCB-based microfluidic platforms. The proposed device has been fabricated, integrated and tested in a general purpose microfluidic circuit, resulting in a low activation time, of about 100 μs, and a low consumption of energy, with a maximum of 27 mJ. These results show a significant improvement because the energy consumption is about 84% lower and the time response is about four orders of magnitude shorter if compared with similar microvalves for impulsion of fluids on PCB-based platforms.

  5. Identification of novel extracellular protein for PCB/biphenyl metabolism in Rhodococcus jostii RHA1.

    PubMed

    Atago, Yuki; Shimodaira, Jun; Araki, Naoto; Bin Othman, Nor'azizi; Zakaria, Zuriati; Fukuda, Masao; Futami, Junichiro; Hara, Hirofumi

    2016-05-01

    Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 (RHA1) degrades polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) via co-metabolism with biphenyl. To identify the novel open reading frames (ORFs) that contribute to PCB/biphenyl metabolism in RHA1, we compared chromatin immunoprecipitation chip and transcriptomic data. Six novel ORFs involved in PCB/biphenyl metabolism were identified. Gene deletion mutants of these 6 ORFs were made and were tested for their ability to grow on biphenyl. Interestingly, only the ro10225 deletion mutant showed deficient growth on biphenyl. Analysis of Ro10225 protein function showed that growth of the ro10225 deletion mutant on biphenyl was recovered when exogenous recombinant Ro10225 protein was added to the culture medium. Although Ro10225 protein has no putative secretion signal sequence, partially degraded Ro10225 protein was detected in conditioned medium from wild-type RHA1 grown on biphenyl. This Ro10225 fragment appeared to form a complex with another PCB/biphenyl oxidation enzyme. These results indicated that Ro10225 protein is essential for the formation of the PCB/biphenyl dioxygenase complex in RHA1. PMID:26828632

  6. Consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish and risk of spontaneous fetal death

    SciTech Connect

    Mendola, P.; Buck, G.M.; Vena, J.E.; Zielezny, M.; Sever, L.E.

    1995-05-01

    Spontaneous fetal death has been observed among various mammalian species after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Our exposure-based cohort study assessed the relationship between consumption of PCB-contaminated Lake Ontario sport fish and spontaneous fetal death using 1820 multigravid fertile women from the 1990-1991 New York State Angler Cohort Study. Fish consumption data were obtained from food frequency questionnaires and history of spontaneous fetal death from live birth certificates. Analyses were stratified by number of prior pregnancies and controlled for smoking and maternal age. No significant increases in risk for fetal death were observed across four measures of exposure: a lifetime estimate of PCB exposure based on species-specific PCB levels; the number of years of fish consumption; kilograms of sport fish consumed in 1990-1991; and a lifetime estimate of kilograms eaten. A slight risk reduction was seen for women with two prior pregnancies at the highest level of PCB exposure (odds ratio = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.14-0.92) and for women with three or more prior pregnancies with increasing years of fish consumption (odds ratio = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99). These findings suggest that consumption of PCB-contaminated sport fish does not increase the risk of spontaneous fetal death. 50 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Coating effects on the glass adsorption of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners.

    PubMed

    Lung, S C; Altshul, L M; Ford, T E; Spengler, J D

    2000-12-01

    The effects of coating materials on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) adsorption in aqueous solution were assessed in an attempt to minimize PCB sorption loss during sampling processes. A coating material, which enhances PCB adsorption and allows adsorbed PCBs to be readily extracted by solvents, can act as a sampling concentrator to reduce PCB losses from both adsorption and evaporation. Several coating materials were evaluated, including paraffin oil, silicone oil, dimethyldichlorosilane (Sylon-CT), Prosil 28 and polydimethylsiloxane (PDS) with viscosity 0.65, 50 (PDS 50), and 500 (PDS 500) cSt. PDS and silicone oil enhanced adsorption for all five congeners examined (IUPAC No. 28, 52, 101, 138, and 180). Sylon-CT, paraffin oil and Prosil 28 had inconsistent effects on adsorption of different congeners. Desorption of adsorbed PCBs onto all coating types was assessed. The recovery efficiency of extracting PCBs with solvents was enhanced greatly with all coatings as opposed to non-coated surfaces, with the exception of paraffin oil. Coating with silicon oil, PDS 50, and 500 resulted in virtually 100% recovery of adsorbed PCBs. It was also found that Teflon containers were poor substitutes for glass containers and failed to minimize PCB losses. Among the materials studied, the best coating that could be used as a sampling concentrator was PDS 500. PMID:11061308

  8. Estimation of PCB content in agricultural soils associated with long-term fertilization with organic waste.

    PubMed

    Antolín-Rodríguez, Juan M; Sánchez-Báscones, Mercedes; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Bravo-Sánchez, Carmen T; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) pollution related to the use of organic waste as fertilizers in agricultural soils is a cause of major concern. In the study presented herein, PCB concentration was studied through a field trial conducted in two agricultural soils in the province of Palencia (Spain) over a 4-year period, assessing the impact of irrigation and of different types of organic waste materials. The amounts of organic waste added to the soil were calculated according to the nitrogen needs of the crop, and the concentration of PCBs was determined before and after the application of the organic waste. The resulting persistence of the total PCB content in the agricultural soils, compared with the PCB concentration in the original soils, ranged from 27% to 90%, with the lowest value corresponding to irrigated soils treated with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and the highest value to non-irrigated soils treated with composted sewage sludge (CSS). An estimate of the PCB content in agricultural soils after the application of organic waste materials until year 2050 was obtained, resulting in a value below 5 ng·g(-1), considered a background value for soils in sites far away from potential pollution sources. PMID:26983809

  9. Final report for Tank 100 Sump sludge (KON332) for polychlorinated biphenyl`s (PCB)

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, R.K.

    1998-07-30

    Final Report for Tank 100 Sump Sludge (KON332) for Polychlorinated Biphenyl`s (PCB) Sample Receipt Sample KON332 was received from Tank 100-Sump (WESF) on May 18, 1998. The laboratory number issued for this sample is S98BOO0207 as shown on the Request for Sample Analysis (RSA) form (Attachment 4). The sample breakdown diagram (Attachment 3) provides a cross-reference of customer sample identification to the laboratory identification number. Attachment 4 provides copies of the Request for Sample Analysis (RSA) and Chain of Custody (COC) forms. The sample was received in the laboratory in a 125-ml polybottle. Breakdown and subsampling was performed on June 6, 1998. PCB analysis was performed on the wet sludge. A discussion of the results is presented in Attachment 2. The 222-S extraction bench sheets are presented in Attachment 5. The PCB raw data are presented in Attachment 6.

  10. PCB tester selection for future systems. Volume 1. Final report, August 1989-June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, W.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes a computer program (to run on an IBM compatible PC) designed to aid in the selection of a PCB tester, given the characteristics of the PC board to be tested. The program contains a limited data base of PCB testers, and others may be added easily. This report also provides a specification for a limited family of PCB testers to fill the gap between what the U.S. Air Force is expected to need and what is expected to be available within the next four to six years. The parameters used in the computer program and the specification are based on a survey of military and commercial PCBs - both those now available and those expected to come on line within the next four to six years. The results of the survey are covered in volume 2 - available from DTIC. Automatic Test Equipment, Technology Forecast, Air Force Avionics.

  11. PCB tester selection for future systems. Volume 2. Final report, August 1989-June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, W.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes a computer program (to run on an IBM compatible PC) designed to aid in the selection of a PCB tester, given the characteristics of the PC board to be tested. The program contains a limited data base of PCB testers, and others may be added easily. This report also provides a specification for a limited family of PCB testers to fill the gap between what the U.S. Air Force is expected to need and what is expected to be available within the next four to six years. The parameters used in the computer program and the specification are based on a survey of military and commercial PCBs - both those now available and those expected to come on line within the next four to six years. The results of the survey are covered in volume 2 - available from DTIC. Automatic Test Equipment, Technology Forecast, Air Force Avionics.

  12. Initial Corrosion Behavior and Mechanism of PCB-HASL in Typical Outdoor Environments in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Kangkang; Xiao, Kui; Dong, Chaofang; Zou, Shiwen; Yi, Pan; Li, Xiaogang

    2015-11-01

    A long-term (1, 3, and 6 months) outdoor exposure test was performed for lead-free hot air solder leveling printed circuit boards (PCB-HASL) in typical environments in China and the corrosion behavior and mechanism of outdoor PCB-HASL were investigated. In a dry environment PCB-HASL corroded slightly, because of the protective effect of surface oxide films. Corrosion spread from places where dust particles were deposited or mold spores were adsorbed. Under the combined effects of humidity and contamination, large amounts of granular corrosion products with a loose structure were generated, greatly reducing the protective effect of the Sn layer. Furthermore, protection of the edges of the plates was poor, and corrosion products from these regions migrated rapidly on the FR-4 board. When a 12 V electrical bias was applied, Sn and Cu migrated simultaneously. In the electrochemical migration process the effect of humidity was much more critical than that of contamination.

  13. Phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediment: a greenhouse feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Smith, K E; Schwab, A P; Banks, M K

    2007-01-01

    Contaminated sediments dredged from navigable waterways often are placed in confined disposal facilities to prevent further spread of the pollutants. Reducing contaminants to acceptable levels would allow for disposal of the sediments and further dredging activity. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate plant treatments and the addition of an organic amendment to decrease the concentration of PCB congeners found in Arochlor 1260. Sediment treated with the amendment and either low transpiring plants or no plants had the greatest removal of the PCB congeners. High-transpiring plants apparently prevented the highly reducing conditions required for reductive dechlorination of highly chlorinated PCBs. Most likely, the amendment provided labile carbon that initiated the reducing conditions needed for dechlorination. The sediment moisture content and moisture-related plant parameters were significant predictors of the PCB loss. Carex aquatalis and Spartina pectinata are predicted to be the most effective plant treatments for phytoremediation of PCBs. PMID:17215232

  14. The effect of size and sex on PCB and PAH concentrations in crab Portunus pelagicus.

    PubMed

    Abdolahpur Monikh, Fazel; Hosseini, Mehdi; Rahmanpour, Shirin

    2014-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the hepatopancreas of blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus) from the north Persian Gulf were measured. In addition, the relationships between crab size (carapace width) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in hepatopancreas were investigated by linear regression analysis. Among the PCBs, congeners 110 and 153 were the most frequent and abundant. The results showed that, except in a few cases, significant relationships between PCB and PAH levels and crab size were positive. Comparison between male and female indicated that the average PCB16, 44, 153, and acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, and anthracene concentrations in hepatopancreas of male crab were found to be significantly higher than those found in the female crab. PMID:24150713

  15. Long-lasting FR-4 surface hydrophilisation towards commercial PCB passive microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilakis, Nikolaos; Moschou, Despina; Carta, Daniela; Morgan, Hywel; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2016-04-01

    Printed circuit boards (PCB) technologies are an attractive system for simple sensing and microfluidic systems. Controlling the surface properties of PCB material is an important part of this technology and to date there has been no study on long-term hydrophilisation stability of these materials. In this work, the effect of different oxygen plasma input power and treatment duration times on the wetting properties of FR-4 surfaces was investigated by sessile droplet contact angle measurements. Super and weakly hydrophilic behaviour was achieved and the retention time of these properties was studied, with the hydrophilic nature being retained for at least 26 days. To demonstrate the applicability of this treatment method, a commercially manufactured microfluidic structure made from a multilayer PCB (3-layer FR-4 stack) was exposed to oxygen plasma at the optimum conditions. The structures could be filled with deionised (DI) water under capillary flow unlike the virgin devices.

  16. Fetal PCB syndrome: clinical features, intrauterine growth retardation and possible alteration in calcium metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, F.; Hayashi, M.

    1985-02-01

    Pregnant mothers with Yusho in Fukuoka, Nagasaki and Kochi Prefectures delivered babies with a peculiar clinical manifestation which will be called fetal PCB syndrome (FPS). The birth rate incidences were 3.6% (Fukuoka Prefecture), 4% (Nagasaki Prefecture), 2.9% (Kochi Prefecture) and 3.9% (total). The manifestations consisted of dark brown pigmentation of the skin and the mucous membrane, gingival hyperplasia, exophthalmic edematous eye, dentition at birth, abnormal calcification of the skull as demonstrated by X-ray, rocker bottom heel and high incidence of light for date (low birth weight) babies. The authors suggest that there may be a possible alteration in calcium metabolism in these babies, related to the fragile egg shells observed in PCB-contaminated birds and to the female hormone-enhancing effect of PCB. The high incidence of low birth weight among these newborns and two other similar studies indicated that PCBs suppress fetal growth.

  17. Serum PCB and DDE levels of frequent Great Lakes sport fish consumers -- A first look

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, L.P.; Falk, C.; Anderson, H.A.; Draheim, L.; Olson, J.; Kanarek, M.S.

    1999-02-01

    Great Lakes (GL) sport fish consumption is a potential human exposure route for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE). Because of fish tissue contamination, frequent consumers of Great Lakes sport caught fish (GLSCF) may be at risk for PCB and DDE accumulation. To examine this problem, the Health Departments of Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Michigan formed a health assessment consortium. Participants were contacted by telephone to complete a detailed demographic and fish consumption survey. Frequent and infrequent GLSCF consumers were identified, and a participant subset was then asked to donate blood for PCB and DDE analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was done to study exposure group mean differences, while correlation and regression analyses were performed to examine relationships between demographic characteristics, GLSCF consumption, PCB, and DDE body burdens.

  18. Acute alteration of cardiac ECG, action potential, I{sub Kr} and the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K{sup +} channel by PCB 126 and PCB 77

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Mi-Hyeong; Park, Won Sun; Jo, Su-Hyun

    2012-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been known as serious persistent organic pollutants (POPs), causing developmental delays and motor dysfunction. We have investigated the effects of two PCB congeners, 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) on ECG, action potential, and the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K{sup +} current (I{sub Kr}) of guinea pigs' hearts, and hERG K{sup +} current expressed in Xenopus oocytes. PCB 126 shortened the corrected QT interval (QTc) of ECG and decreased the action potential duration at 90% (APD{sub 90}), and 50% of repolarization (APD{sub 50}) (P < 0.05) without changing the action potential duration at 20% (APD{sub 20}). PCB 77 decreased APD{sub 20} (P < 0.05) without affecting QTc, APD{sub 90}, and APD{sub 50}. The PCB 126 increased the I{sub Kr} in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes held at 36 °C and hERG K{sup +} current amplitude at the end of the voltage steps in voltage-dependent mode (P < 0.05); however, PCB 77 did not change the hERG K{sup +} current amplitude. The PCB 77 increased the diastolic Ca{sup 2+} and decreased Ca{sup 2+} transient amplitude (P < 0.05), however PCB 126 did not change. The results suggest that PCB 126 shortened the QTc and decreased the APD{sub 90} possibly by increasing I{sub Kr}, while PCB 77 decreased the APD{sub 20} possibly by other modulation related with intracellular Ca{sup 2+}. The present data indicate that the environmental toxicants, PCBs, can acutely affect cardiac electrophysiology including ECG, action potential, intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, and channel activity, resulting in toxic effects on the cardiac function in view of the possible accumulation of the PCBs in human body. -- Highlights: ► PCBs are known as serious environmental pollutants and developmental disruptors. ► PCB 126 shortened QT interval of ECG and action potential duration. ► PCB 126 increased human ether-a-go-go-related K{sup +} current and I{sub Kr}. ► PCB

  19. Examination of the estrogenicity of 2,4,6,2',6'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 104), its hydroxylated metabolite 2,4,6,2',6'-pentachloro-4-biphenylol (HO-PCB 104), and a further chlorinated derivative, 2,4,6,2',4',6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 155).

    PubMed Central

    Fielden, M R; Chen, I; Chittim, B; Safe, S H; Zacharewski, T R

    1997-01-01

    Several studies have reported that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exhibit estrogenic activity; however, it is not clear if these responses are associated with the polychlorinated hydrocarbon or its hydroxylated metabolite. In order to further test this hypothesis, a battery of in vitro and in vivo assays were used to investigate the estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of 2,4,6,2',6'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 104), its para-hydroxylated derivative 2,4,6,2',6'-pentachloro-4-biphenylol (HO-PCB 104), and its para-chlorinated derivative 2,4,6,2',4',6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 155). PCB 104 was found to 1) compete with tritiated 17beta-estradiol (E2) for binding to the mouse uterine estrogen receptor (ER); 2) induce gene expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells transiently transfected with the Gal4-human ER chimeric construct (Gal4-HEGO) and the Gal4-regulated luciferase reporter gene (17m5-G-Luc); and 3) increase MCF-7 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. HO-PCB 104 exhibited greater estrogenic activity than PCB 104 in the in vitro assays examined. However, gas chromatographic-mass spectrophotometric analysis of extracts prepared from MCF-7 cells incubated with PCB 104 failed to detect the presence of the expected major metabolite HO-PCB 104. The estrogenic activity of the para-chlorinated derivative, PCB 155, was minimal compared to PCB 104 and HO-PCB 104, but it did exhibit significant antiestrogenic activity following co-treatment with 1 nM E2. Co-treatment of PCB 104 with 1 nM E2 had no effect on reporter gene expression compared to E2 alone, while 10 microM HO-PCB 104 exhibited additivity with 1 nM E2. At a dose of 202 mg/kg,PCB 104 increased uterine wet weight in ovariectomized CD-1 mice and induced vaginal epithelial cell cornification at 202, 16, and 1.7 mg/kg in a dose-dependent manner. These studies demonstrate that in addition to the hydroxylated metabolites, selected parent PCB congeners may also exhibit estrogenic and antiestrogenic

  20. A dynamic and mechanistic model of PCB bioaccumulation in the European hake ( Merluccius merluccius)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodiguel, Xavier; Maury, Olivier; Mellon-Duval, Capucine; Roupsard, François; Le Guellec, Anne-Marie; Loizeau, Véronique

    2009-08-01

    Bioaccumulation is difficult to document because responses differ among chemical compounds, with environmental conditions, and physiological processes characteristic of each species. We use a mechanistic model, based on the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory, to take into account this complexity and study factors impacting accumulation of organic pollutants in fish through ontogeny. The bioaccumulation model proposed is a comprehensive approach that relates evolution of hake PCB contamination to physiological information about the fish, such as diet, metabolism, reserve and reproduction status. The species studied is the European hake ( Merluccius merluccius, L. 1758). The model is applied to study the total concentration and the lipid normalised concentration of 4 PCB congeners in male and female hakes from the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean sea) and the Bay of Biscay (NE Atlantic ocean). Outputs of the model compare consistently to measurements over the life span of fish. Simulation results clearly demonstrate the relative effects of food contamination, growth and reproduction on the PCB bioaccumulation in hake. The same species living in different habitats and exposed to different PCB prey concentrations exhibit marked difference in the body accumulation of PCBs. At the adult stage, female hakes have a lower PCB concentration compared to males for a given length. We successfully simulated these sex-specific PCB concentrations by considering two mechanisms: a higher energy allocation to growth for females and a transfer of PCBs from the female to its eggs when allocating lipids from reserve to eggs. Finally, by its mechanistic description of physiological processes, the model is relevant for other species and sets the stage for a mechanistic understanding of toxicity and ecological effects of organic contaminants in marine organisms.