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Sample records for pcbs pcdds pcdfs

  1. PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in food of animal origin (Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Chovancová, Jana; Kocan, Anton; Jursa, Stanislav

    2005-12-01

    The levels of 17 toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 12 non-ortho and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 73 foodstuff samples of animal origin collected from shops and small farms in selected districts of Slovak Republic are presented in this paper. The concentrations expressed as WHO-TEQ in analysed samples ranged for PCDDs/PCDFs from 0.25 pg/g fat in pork to 75 pg/g fat in cod liver. The TEQ concentrations of non-ortho PCBs were between 0.007 and 181 pg/g fat and mono-ortho PCBs between 0.0083 and 66.5 pg/g fat. The mean concentrations in freshwater fish and imported species of marine fish were 0.089 pg TEQ/g fresh weight for PCDDs/PCDFs, 0.17 pg TEQ/g fresh weight for non-ortho PCBs and 0.034 pg TEQ/g fresh weight for mono-ortho PCBs. The mean total concentration of PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in samples of infant milk formula imported from EU countries was 0.98 pg TEQ/g fat. PMID:16291405

  2. The biomagnification of PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs in a simplified laboratory food chain

    SciTech Connect

    Taplin, B.; Pruell, R.; McGovern, D.; McKinney, R.

    1995-12-31

    The trophic transfer and biomagnification potential of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), were investigated in a simplified marine benthic food chain. Polychaetes, Nereis virens were exposed to contaminated sediment and fed to juvenile lobsters, Homarus americanus exposed to the same sediment for 112 days. Time series uptake and depuration measurements were made for lobster muscle and hepatopancreas. A nonlinear model (BIOFAC) was used to calculate uptake and depuration rate constants, bioaccumulation factors, and steady state concentrations for PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Biomagnification factors (BMFs), on a lipid weight basis, were calculated for both tissues. Lobsters accumulated PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs from contaminated sediment and food (polychaetes). Of the two tissues, lobster hepatopancreas, showed the highest concentrations for all compounds analyzed. Of the PCDDs and PCDFs studied, only 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran, 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, and 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran were detected in lobster muscle and hepatopancreas tissues. Of the PCB congeners studied, 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime} hexachlorobiphenyl reached the highest concentration in lobster muscle and hepatopancreas. Lobsters also accumulated non-ortho substituted PCBs in both tissues.

  3. PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs co-occurrence in TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ctistis, Georgios; Schön, Peter; Bakker, Wouter; Luthe, Gregor

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we report on the co-occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) adsorbed on nanoparticular titanium dioxide (TiO2). We report on the finding of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the surface of commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles, being formed during the fabrication process of the TiO2. Thereby, the samples comprise PCBs with higher congener numbers or, in the absence of PCBs, a high concentration of PCDDs and PCDFs. This new class of POPs on an active catalytic surface and the great range of applications of nanoparticular TiO2, such as in color pigments, cosmetics, and inks, give rise to great concern due to their potential toxicity. PMID:26545886

  4. Unintentional formed PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs as impurities in Chinese pentachloronitrobenzene products.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Gao, Jie; Yu, Gang; Yamazaki, Norimasa; Deng, Shubo; Wang, Bin; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) products have been reported to contain relatively high levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) as impurities. No data was available for Chinese PCNB products which are still produced and used in China. Therefore, we analysed Chinese PCNB products, including two raw pesticides and three formulations available on the market. In all samples, PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were detected at levels exceeding Japanese regulation limits. The concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs (0.16 to 0.93 ng TEQ g(-1)) were lower than the PCNB formulations measured from the Australian market (3.9 ng TEQ g(-1)). However, the Toxic Equivalent (TEQ) contribution from DL-PCBs (0.7 to 2.5 ng TEQ g(-1)) to total TEQ was higher compared to PCDDs and PCDFs. This discovery demonstrated that it is necessary to consider the DL-PCBs impurity in organochlorine pesticides and other organochlorine chemicals in particular chlorinated aromatic compounds for adequate risk assessment. In addition to DL-PCBs, other unintentionally POPs-hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (3.7 to 52 ng g(-1)) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) (0.04 to 0.3 ng g(-1)) which are listed in the Stockholm Convention-were detected in the PCNB samples. The PCNB production steps were assessed for their unintentional POPs formation potential. Thermolysis of the aromatic compounds using iron chloride (FeCl3) as catalyst is suggested as relevant production step for (DL-)PCBs formation. Since the levels in the formulated PCNB recalculated to active ingredient were higher compared to the raw pesticide, the formulation process (e.g., milling) may also have had an influence on additional PCDD/Fs and PCBs formation. PMID:25167828

  5. COMPARING PCDDS, PCDFS, AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS IN FARM-RAISED AND WILD-CAUGHT CATFISH FROM SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) [hereafter referred to as ¿dioxin-like compounds¿] are persistent environmental contaminants that have been found to be ubiquitous in environmental media and bio...

  6. The biomagnification of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs in a simplified laboratory food chain

    SciTech Connect

    Taplin, B.; Pruell, R.; McGovern, D.; McKinney, R.

    1995-12-31

    Polychaetes Nereis virens were exposed to contaminated sediment and fed to juvenile lobsters, Homarus americanus exposed to the same sediment for 112 days. Time series uptake and deputation measurements were made for lobster muscle and hepatopancreas. A nonlinear model (BIOFAC) was used to calculate uptake and deputation rate constants, bioaccumulation factors, and steady state concentrations for PCBS, PCDDS, and PCDFS. Biomagnification factors (BMFs), on a lipid weight basis, were calculated for both tissues. Lobsters accumulated PCDDS, PCDFS, and PCBs from contaminated sediment and food (polychaetes). Of the two tissues, lobster hepatopancreas showed the highest concentrations for all compounds analyzed. Of the PCDDs and PCDFs studied, only 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, and 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran were detected in lobster muscle and hepatopancreas tissues. Of the PCB congeners studied, 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime} hexachlorobiphenyl (UPAC No. 153) reached the highest concentration in lobster muscle and hepatopancreas. Lobsters also accumulated non-ortho substituted PCBs in both tissues. Biomagnification factors (BMFS) were calculated for lobster muscle and hepatopancreas on a lipid weight basis using steady-state concentrations. BMFs for lobster hepatopancreas were generally higher than those for muscle. Of the PCDDs and PCDFs studied, only 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDF were biomagnified in lobster hepatopancreas and muscle compared with levels in the polychaetes. Selected PCB congeners were also biomagnified in both tissues. PCB congeners with log{sub 10} K{sub ow} values > 6.5 had higher BMFs for hepatopancreas tissue than compounds with lower K{sub ow`s}. No trend was evident regarding log{sub 10} K{sub ow} of PCBs and BMFs for lobster muscle.

  7. Determination of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in California peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) and their eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, W.M.; Burns, S.A. ); Chang, R.R.; Stephens, R.D. ); Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M. ); Linthicum, J. )

    1993-01-01

    Levels of organochlorine compounds; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including nonortho congeners; polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs); and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in seven California peregrine falcon eggs (Falco peregrinus) collected form five sites between the years 1983 to 1988; one immature falcon was analyzed for PCDDs and PCDGs only. All of the identified PCDDs and PCDFs were 2,3,7,8-substituted. The major PCDD and PCDF congeners identified in the eggs were 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,7,8-PnCDD) at a geometric mean value of 11 ng/kg, 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD) at a mean value of 11 ng/kg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) at a mean value of 6.2 ng/kg, and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PnCDF) at a level of 6.5 ng/kg. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was present at a mean value of 5.7 ng/kg. Values of p,p[prime]-DDE in the eggs ranged from 7,100 to 26,000 [mu]g/kg, with a mean value of 12,000 [mu]g/kg. [Sigma]PCB levels ranged from 1,400 to 13,000 [mu]g/kg, with a mean value of 4,800 [mu]g/kg. The mean values of the non-ortho congeners 3,4,4[prime]-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 37); 3,3[prime]4, 4[prime]-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77); 3,3[prime]4, 4[prime]5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126); and 3,3[prime]4, 4[prime],5,5[prime]-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) were 0.18, 0.93, 1.0, and 0.14 [mu]g/kg, respectively. TCDD equivalents (TEQs) were calculated for the mean values of PCDDs, PCDFs, and non-ortho-PCBs in the eggs. Total TEQs in the eggs was 120 ng/kg; PCB 126 accounted for 83% of the TEQs.

  8. Levels of toxic PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs in biotic and abiotic samples from Galveston Bay, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Gardinali, P.; Wade, T.

    1995-12-31

    Concentrations of di-, mono-, non-ortho PCB congeners as well as the seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) were measured in American oyster, blue crab, hardhead catfish liver and sediment samples collected from five sites in the Galveston Bay System. In general, when measuring sediments and sentinel organisms, a geographical gradient of contaminant load is observed between the heavily industrialized and the open bay sites. Although sediment concentrations are relatively low at most stations, toxic PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs are strongly bioconcentrated in all three organisms analyzed. Levels of 2,3,7,8-TCDD ranged from 1.15 to 16.4 pg/g in the oysters, 1.10 to 138 pg/g in the blue crabs and, 11.0 to 101 pg/g in the catfish livers. 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentrations in sediments ranged from non-detected to 4.44 pg/g. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDF ranged from 2.31 to 50.6 pg/g in the oysters, 5.77 to 385 pg/g in the blue crabs and, 5.57 to 8.04 pg/g in the catfish livers, while sediment concentrations were between 0.65 to 7.46 pg/g. When the toxicity equivalent factor (TEF) approach was used to estimate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs), the non-ortho PCB congeners were the major TEQ contributors for the all organisms (29 to 74%). In contrast, the TEQ for the sediment samples were largely dominated by the contribution from PCDDs and PCDFs. The results also suggest that oysters, in spite of their lower concentrations, are more valuable for biomonitoring the availability of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants.

  9. Hydrodechlorination/detoxification of PCDDs, PCDFs, and co-PCBs in fly ash by using calcium polysulfide.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Masaaki; Ghaffar, Abdul; Shono, Akifumi; Notomi, Keiichi

    2013-02-01

    Dioxins like polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCSDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are mainly emitted from waste incinerators (WIs) and have become an international research focus because of its serious concerns over the adverse health effects. The detoxification of PCCDs/Fs and PCBs is very difficult because of their stable chemical structure. A significant hydrodechlorination/detoxification of polychlorinated 1-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were achieved in fly ash by using an aqueous mixture of calcium hydroxide and sulfur. Two different fly ashes were studied: originating from municipal waste incinerator (FA1) and industrial waste incinerator (FA2). They were heated with the aqueous mixture at 150°C for 30 or 60 min with agitation. Higher decomposition (87%) and detoxification (87.7%) of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were achieved at 150°C with two runs; every run was for 30 min, compared to one run for 60 min. FA2 gave higher decomposition and detoxification as compared to FA1, which might be due to higher metal content that played a catalytic role to decompose and detoxify the PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs. The decomposition and detoxification of PCDFs in fly ash was higher than PCDDs and was augmented with increasing number of chlorides on aromatic compounds. As the highly significant decomposition and detoxification of higher concentration of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were achieved in 1 hour without additive catalyst and at low temperature of 150°C, therefore, the developed method is cost effective and most suitable to apply on commercial/industrial level. The detail results of hydrodechlorination/detoxification of PCDD, PCDFs at different conditions are described and its mechanism is discussed. PMID:23200792

  10. TOXIC EQUIVALENCY FACTORS (TEFS) FOR PCBS, PCDDS, PCDFS FOR HUMANS AND WILDLIFE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An expert meeting was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and held ih Stockholm on 15-18 June 1997. The objective of this meeting was to derive cohsensus toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polychlorinated didbenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dio...

  11. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den, Berg, M.; Birnbaum, L.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Brunstrom, B.; Cook, P.; Feeley, M.; Giesy, J.P.; Hanberg, A.; Hasegawa, R.; Kennedy, S.W.; Kubiak, T.; Larsen, J.C.; Van Leeuwen, F. X. R.; Liem, A.K.D.; Nolt, C.; Peterson, R.E.; Poellinger, L.; Safe, S.; Schrenk, D.; Tillitt, D.; Tysklind, M.; Younes, M.; Waern, F.; Zacharewski, T.

    1998-01-01

    An expert meeting was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and held in Stockholm on 15-18 June 1997. The objective of this meeting was to derive consensus toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for both human, fish, and wildlife risk assessment. Based on existing literature data, TEFs were (re)evaluated and either revised (mammals) or established (fish and birds). A few mammalian WHO-TEFs were revised, including 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated DD, octachlorinated DD, occachlorinated DF, and PCB 77. These mammalian TEFs are also considered applicable for humans and wild mammalian species. Furthermore, it was concluded that there was insufficient in vivo evidence to continue the use of TEFs for some di-ortho PCBs, as suggested earlier by Ahlborg et al. In addition, TEFs for fish and birds were determined. The WHO working group attempted to harmonize TEFs across different taxa to the extent possible. However, total synchronization of TEFs was not feasible, as there were orders of a magnitude difference in TEFs between taxa for some compounds. In this respect, the absent or very low response of fish to mono-ortho PCBs is most noticeable compared to mammals and birds. Uncertainties that could compromise the TEF concept were also reviewed, including nonadditive interactions, differences in shape of the dose-response curve, and species responsiveness. In spite of these uncertainties, it was concluded that the TEF concept is still the most plausible and feasible approach for risk assessment of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons with dioxinlike properties.

  12. PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and OCPs in sediments from selected areas in the Slovak Republic.

    PubMed

    Čonka, Kamil; Chovancová, Jana; Stachová Sejáková, Zuzana; Dömötörová, Milena; Fabišiková, Anna; Drobná, Beáta; Kočan, Anton

    2014-03-01

    Within our research project, 34 river bottom sediments were collected in 2006-2007 at five areas across Slovakia with industrial sources of persistent organic pollutants (Košice, Krompachy, Nemecká, Šala, Nováky) and one background area (Starina). Sediments were analyzed for seven 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and 10 dibenzofurans (PCDFs), 12 dioxin-like and 6 indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and 1,1,1,-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) with 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE). Analytical procedure based on accelerated solvent extraction followed by a semi-automated clean-up and fractionation was used. Determination of target compounds was performed by HRGC-HRMS analysis. Total WHO toxic equivalent WHO1998-PCDD/F/dl-PCB-TEQ concentrations ranged from 0.26 to 559 pg TEQ g(-1) dry matter (dm), with a median 2.2 pg TEQ g(-1) dm. The sums of six indicator PCBs were in the range 0.56-1014 ng g(-1) dm, with a median 11.8 ng g(-1) dm. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides HCB and p,p'-DDE/DDT varied from 0.15 to 34.8 ng g(-1) dm, with a median 0.91 ng g(-1) dm and 0.46-34.1 ng g(-1)dm, with a median 6.7 ng g(-1)dm, respectively. The most abundant congeners in all sediment samples among dioxins, furans and PCBs were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, PCB-118 and PCB-153. PMID:24210452

  13. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife.

    PubMed Central

    Van den Berg, M; Birnbaum, L; Bosveld, A T; Brunström, B; Cook, P; Feeley, M; Giesy, J P; Hanberg, A; Hasegawa, R; Kennedy, S W; Kubiak, T; Larsen, J C; van Leeuwen, F X; Liem, A K; Nolt, C; Peterson, R E; Poellinger, L; Safe, S; Schrenk, D; Tillitt, D; Tysklind, M; Younes, M; Waern, F; Zacharewski, T

    1998-01-01

    An expert meeting was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and held in Stockholm on 15-18 June 1997. The objective of this meeting was to derive consensus toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for both human, fish, and wildlife risk assessment. Based on existing literature data, TEFs were (re)evaluated and either revised (mammals) or established (fish and birds). A few mammalian WHO-TEFs were revised, including 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated DD, octachlorinated DD, octachlorinated DF, and PCB 77. These mammalian TEFs are also considered applicable for humans and wild mammalian species. Furthermore, it was concluded that there was insufficient in vivo evidence to continue the use of TEFs for some di-ortho PCBs, as suggested earlier by Ahlborg et al. [Chemosphere 28:1049-1067 (1994)]. In addition, TEFs for fish and birds were determined. The WHO working group attempted to harmonize TEFs across different taxa to the extent possible. However, total synchronization of TEFs was not feasible, as there were orders of a magnitude difference in TEFs between taxa for some compounds. In this respect, the absent or very low response of fish to mono-ortho PCBs is most noticeable compared to mammals and birds. Uncertainties that could compromise the TEF concept were also reviewed, including nonadditive interactions, differences in shape of the dose-response curve, and species responsiveness. In spite of these uncertainties, it was concluded that the TEF concept is still the most plausible and feasible approach for risk assessment of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons with dioxinlike properties. PMID:9831538

  14. Determination of PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs in insulating oil samples from stored Chinese electrical capacitors by HRGC/HRMS.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Matsumura, Toru; Yu, Gang; Deng, Shubo; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yamazaki, Norimasa; Weber, Roland

    2011-09-01

    Homologue and congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in commercial PCBs formulations are key information for the source identification of PCBs contamination as well as for the risk assessment caused by potential exposure. The isotope dilution technology in combination with high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) has made the accurate determination of such profiles possible. So far, various commercial PCB formulations except Chinese products have been successfully determined. Two PCBs containing insulating oil samples from stored Chinese electrical capacitors have been determined with the same methodology for comparability. The total concentration PCBs in two oil samples were 790,000 μg g(-1) and 720,000 μg g(-1), respectively. TriCBs, TetraCBs, and DiCBs were found to be most abundant. Concentration of dioxins contamination in two samples is 650-670 ng TEQ g(-1), of which 69-71ngTEQg(-1) from PCDD/Fs with the predominant congeners of 1,2,7,8-TeCDF; 2,3,7,8-TeCDF; 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF. The contributions of DL-PCBs in total TEQ in both samples were more than 85%. The dioxin-like toxicity in insulating oils contained in electrical capacitors could be considered receive attention as an important dioxins source if such wastes are not managed in an environmentally sound manner. PMID:21741068

  15. PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs in farmed fish produced in Greece: Levels and human population exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Leondiadis, Leondios

    2016-03-01

    Fish is among the essential components of Mediterranean diet and has beneficial effects on human health. Farmed fish is an affordable alternative to wild fish and a significant food export product for Greece. Published studies worldwide have reported significant levels of environmental pollutants in fish tissues. Especially for PCDDs/Fs and PCBs, the studies suggest that the most important contribution to human dietary intake is from fish and seafood. In the present study, we investigate the levels of PCDDs/Fs, dioxin-like and non dioxin-like PCBs in the most common farmed fish species produced in Greece i.e. sea bass, sea bream and rainbow trout. These species are widely consumed in Greece and are also exported to many countries worldwide. The mean levels found were WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ: 0.22 pg g(-1) wet weight (w.w.), WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ: 0.88 pg g(-1) w.w. for sea bream, WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ: 0.13 pg g(-1) w.w., WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ: 0.68 pg g(-1) w.w. for sea bass and WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ: 0.10 pg g(-1) w.w., WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ: 0.43 pg g(-1) w.w. for rainbow trout. For non dioxin-like PCBs, mean sum values found were 8.02 ng g(-1) w.w. for sea bream, 5.24 ng g(-1) w.w. for sea bass and 2.90 ng g(-1) w.w. for rainbow trout. All concentrations found were far below maximum levels set by the European Union and in the same range as wild-caught fish also presented for comparison. Daily intake from the consumption of farmed fish species examined is calculated at 1.3 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) b.w., which is at the lowest end of TDI values proposed by the WHO. PMID:26745380

  16. Monitoring of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs in the Fraser River, British Columbia using SPMD

    SciTech Connect

    Ikonomou, M.G.; Fraser, T.L.; Rogers, I.H.; Rantalainen, A.L.

    1995-12-31

    Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) are sampling devices comprised of thin wall polyethylene tubing that encloses a thin film of lipid, triolein. SPMDs have been used successfully to monitor non-polar industrial pollutants from air, water, and sediments. Chemical contaminants dissolved in water dialyze into the lipid mimicking bioconcentration mechanisms in aquatic organisms. The authors have deployed SPMDs at several sites in the water column of the lower Fraser River and the Harisson River, a control site, to assess bioavailability and to determine sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF), and mono-ortho and non-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). SPMD sampling was performed during similar time periods in the summers of 1992 and 1994. PCDDs/Fs and PCBs were extracted from the lipid of the SPMDs using in-house developed methodology and extracts were analyzed and quantitated by HRGC/HRMS. The analytical data were inter-compared for characteristic congener distribution patterns and concentration differences of prominent PCDD/Fs and PCBs congeners between sites and sampling years. River flow rates, as calculated from the IOS Ages/Woollard Fraser River model, were considered for the inter-site comparisons. Relative congener composition from each sample was similar from site to site within a sampling year. Overall levels of prominent contaminants, TCDF and PCB 118 and 105, dropped significantly from 1992 to 1994. Comparisons between the reference site and the Fraser river data differentiate between atmospheric and point source contamination of the river. PCDD/Fs and PCBs were detected in the tissues of two species of Fraser River resident fish, their relation to the SPMD data will be discussed.

  17. Effects of oxygen, catalyst and PVC on the formation of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in pyrolysis products of automobile residues.

    PubMed

    Joung, Hyun-Tae; Seo, Yong-Chil; Kim, Ki-Heon; Seo, Yong-Chan

    2006-11-01

    End-of-life vehicles are dismantled to recover reusable parts and then sent to a shredding facility for steel material recovery. The residue generated from the shredding process, so-called automobile shredder residue, is now being mostly disposed in landfill, however landfill will be prohibited in the near future. More recycling and energy recovery must be made by the regulation. The most appropriate method is the thermal treatment that will produce various forms of fuels and less volume of vitrified residue. In this research, an automobile shredder residue was simulated with considering the residue from a shredding factory based on the new vehicle and thermally treated by pyrolysis or gasification to observe the yields of gas, oil and char. In the temperature range of 400-800 degrees C, the yields of gas, oil, and char were 38.7-45.8%, 12.3-18.2%, and 36.0-49.0%, respectively. The optimum pyrolyzing temperature for more oil production was around 600 degrees C. Emission characteristics of the byproducts, PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs were studied at the temperature of 600 degrees C. The analysis on the concentration and distribution of the isomers in various forms of the products were completed with and without oxygen, PVC, and catalytic metals, in order to observe how the existence of oxygen, PVC, and catalytic metals affect the formation of PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs from pyrolysis or gasification process. Without PVC, no PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs were found in any products. PCDFs were predominant in any conditions. Catalyst and oxygen were found to affect to form more PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs. Effects of catalyst and oxygen on the byproduct formation seemed to be similar in oil and gas while that was different in char. PMID:16740293

  18. Annual and seasonal variations in atmospheric PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs levels in satellite cities of Seoul, Korea during 2003-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Yoonki; Lee, Meehye; Kim, Donggi; Heo, Jongwon

    2013-10-01

    Long-term measurements of atmospheric polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were conducted in six satellite cities of Seoul, the capital of South Korea, from January 2003 to December 2009. Of the six sites, three were located in residential areas (Suwon, Anyang, and Seongnam) and the other three were in industrial areas (Ansan, Bucheon, and Siheung). For the 7 years, the average concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs and dl-PCBs were higher at industrial sites than those at residential sites, and their lowest and highest concentrations were 0.113 ± 0.073 pg international toxicity equivalency quantity (I-TEQ) m-3 and 0.0071 ± 0.0040 pg World Health Organization (WHO)-TEQ m-3 at Seongnam and 0.625 ± 0.597 pg I-TEQ m-3 and 0.0376 ± 0.0285 pg WHO-TEQ m-3 at Ansan, respectively. The annual averages of these compounds tended to decrease from 2003 to 2009, with the most apparent change in 2006 when the regulation of dioxin emission standard was reinforced for flue gas from incineration facilities. Complying with the reinforced standard, the concentrations of PCDFs were reduced more effectively than those of PCDDs, leading to increase in ratios of PCDDs to PCDFs since 2006. Additionally, a seasonal tendency was observed for PCDDs/PCDFs with higher concentrations in winter than summer, which was opposite for dl-PCBs. This seasonal difference suggests their sources such as combustion processes and volatilization and the influence of synoptic-scale circulation. The congener profiles indicated that 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, OCDF, OCDD, and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD were the most abundant, comprising 65.0% of the 17 toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/PCDFs mass. The three congeners of 2,3‧,4,4‧,5-PeCB, 2,3,3‧,4,4‧-PeCB, and 3,3‧,4,4‧-TeCB comprised 75.9% of the 12 dl-PCBs.

  19. Birth weight and sex of children and the correlation to the body burden of PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs of the mother.

    PubMed Central

    Vartiainen, T; Jaakkola, J J; Saarikoski, S; Tuomisto, J

    1998-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed in 167 random human milk samples from urban and rural areas in Finland. Dietary habits and background information on each mother and child were gathered by questionnaire. Body mass indexes (BMI) before pregnancy and delivery in the rural area were 5-10% higher than in the urban area, but fat content of mother's milk was about 10% higher in the urban area. The mean weights of children (+/- standard deviation) were similar in the rural and urban areas among primiparae, 3,500 +/- 597 g and 3,505 +/- 454 g, respectively, although dioxin international toxic equivalents (I-TEQs) were significantly higher in the urban area. The mother's level of education did not affect the weight of the child, but concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs (I-TEQ, 2,3,4,7,8-Cl5 dibenzofuran,1,2, 3,7,8-Cl5 dibenzodioxin) and PCBs [sum of PCBs (sumPCB), PCB-TEQ, and most PCB congeners] increased with advanced education. This is considered to be due to differences in the mother's consumption of fish. The birth weight, especially of boys, slightly decreased with increasing concentrations of I-TEQ, 2,3,4,7,8-Cl5 dibenzofuran, 1,2,3, 7,8-Cl5 dibenzodioxin, and 2,3,7,8-Cl4 dibenzodioxin; however, when the analysis was restricted to primiparae, there was no statistically significant correlation between birth weight and the concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs. No correlation was found between the weight of the child and PCBs, PCB-TEQs, or individual PCB congeners in the whole material or among primiparae, or among boys or girls. The concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs inhuman milk were modeled for primiparae by weighing fish consumption, age of mother, milk fat content, and BMI before pregnancy. The linear regression resulted in values of R = 0.67 and 0.30 for the modeled dioxin I-TEQs in the urban and rural areas, respectively, and the corresponding values for sumPCBs of R = 0

  20. Dietary intake of PCDDs/PCDFs and coplanar PCBs among the Japanese population estimated by duplicate portion analysis: a low proportion of adults exceed the tolerable daily intake.

    PubMed

    Arisawa, Kokichi; Uemura, Hirokazu; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Satoh, Hiroshi; Sumiyoshi, Yoshio; Morinaga, Kenji; Kodama, Kazunori; Suzuki, Taka-ichiro; Nagai, Masaki; Suzuki, Tsuguyoshi

    2008-10-01

    Dietary intake of dioxins was estimated by duplicate portion analysis of consecutive 3-day food samples among 86 men and 288 women (aged 17-72 years), who were living in 75 different areas of 25 prefectures in Japan. The mean (median) intake of PCDDs+PCDFs, coplanar PCBs (co-PCBs), and total dioxins, expressed on the basis of toxicity equivalents (TEQ), was 0.46 (0.34), 0.59 (0.39), and 1.06 (0.79)pg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Dietary intake was highest in fishing areas, followed by farming and urban areas. In multiple regression analysis, TEQs of PCDDs+PCDFs, co-PCBs, and total dioxins were positively associated with age and intake amount of fish and shellfish, and milk and dairy products, and negatively associated with survey year. There were significant positive correlations between dietary intake and blood levels for TEQs of PCDDs+PCDFs, co-PCBs, and total dioxins (Pearson r=0.35-0.36). The proportion of those whose dietary intake exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI), set by the World Health Organization (4pg TEQ/kg/day) and European Union (2pg TEQ/kg/day), was estimated at 2.1% and 10.4%, respectively. However, these proportions were considered to be overestimated because of the effect of day-to-day within-person variation. Therefore, the ratio of within- and between-person variance was estimated by applying random effects one-way analysis of variance to repeated measurements for another group of 35 persons. When the effect of within-person variation of dietary intake was accounted for, the proportion of subjects whose long-term intake exceeded the TDI of WHO and EU decreased to 0.06% and 2.9%, respectively. PMID:18692182

  1. Calcium-promoted catalytic degradation of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs under a mild wet process.

    PubMed

    Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Tasaka, Norie; Takase, Maki; Masuda, Taizo; Tashiro, Hideki; Egashira, Naoyoshi; Oki, Takashi

    2006-03-15

    The authors achieved highly efficient degradation of polychlorinated aromatic compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like compounds such as coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (co-PCBs), which are known as persistent organic pollutants. Degradation was accomplished in 24 h through a simple stirring operation using safe and high workability metallic calcium, which acts as both a scavenger and a reducing agent, and Rh/C catalyst in an alcohol solution under mild conditions in a sealed tube at 25 degrees C without a temperature increase within 0.15 MPa of increasing internal pressure during the reaction. In this system, reductive dechlorination by metallic calcium and catalytic reduction by Rh/C and generated hydrogen gas, without any external addition of hydrogen, exert a synergistic effect on the degradation of chlorinated compounds. Alcohol was used as a proton source and hydrogen, which was generated by a side reaction, causes an increase in the activity of Rh/C catalyst. Through the degradation of 4-chloroanisole in ethyl alcohol, anisole and cyclohexyl methyl ether were obtained in good conversions. Using ethyl alcohol as a solvent, treatment of dioxins and co-PCBs in a solution was markedly effective for degradation to reduce 2806 pg TEQ/ml of initial concentration to 31.8 pg TEQ/ml; its yield was 98.5%. Moreover, degradation in methyl alcohol took place in a 99.3% yield. That concentration ultimately reached 20.3 pg TEQ/ml under a mild wet process. All congeners of dioxins and co-PCBs were degraded in high conversions. In this degradation, lower aliphatic alcohol, such as methyl alcohol, is effective for making a new calcium surface as compared to alcohol with more methylene chains. In addition, it seemed that a higher pressure of hydrogen was easily generated in methyl alcohol, and then catalytic degradation was effectivley influenced. PMID:16570607

  2. Artificial-turf playing fields: contents of metals, PAHs, PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs, inhalation exposure to PAHs and related preliminary risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Menichini, Edoardo; Abate, Vittorio; Attias, Leonello; De Luca, Silvia; di Domenico, Alessandro; Fochi, Igor; Forte, Giovanni; Iacovella, Nicola; Iamiceli, Anna Laura; Izzo, Paolo; Merli, Franco; Bocca, Beatrice

    2011-11-01

    The artificial-turf granulates made from recycled rubber waste are of health concern due the possible exposure of users to dangerous substances present in the rubber, and especially to PAHs. In this work, we determined the contents of PAHs, metals, non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), PCDDs and PCDFs in granulates, and PAH concentrations in air during the use of the field. The purposes were to identify some potential chemical risks and to roughly assess the risk associated with inhalation exposure to PAHs. Rubber granulates were collected from 13 Italian fields and analysed for 25 metals and nine PAHs. One further granulate was analysed for NDL-PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs and 13 PAHs. Air samples were collected on filter at two fields, using respectively a high volume static sampler close to the athletes and personal samplers worn by the athletes, and at background locations outside the fields. In the absence of specific quality standards, we evaluated the measured contents with respect to the Italian standards for soils to be reclaimed as green areas. Zn concentrations (1 to 19 g/kg) and BaP concentrations (0.02 to 11 mg/kg) in granulates largely exceeded the pertinent standards, up to two orders of magnitude. No association between the origin of the recycled rubber and the contents of PAHs and metals was observed. The sums of NDL-PCBs and WHO-TE PCDDs+PCDFs were, respectively, 0.18 and 0.67×10(-5) mg/kg. The increased BaP concentrations in air, due to the use of the field, varied approximately from <0.01 to 0.4 ng/m(3), the latter referring to worst-case conditions as to the release of particle-bound PAHs. Based on the 0.4 ng/m(3) concentration, an excess lifetime cancer risk of 1×10(-6) was calculated for an intense 30-year activity. PMID:21907387

  3. PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, OC pesticides and mercury in fish and osprey eggs from Willamette River, Oregon (1993, 2001 and 2006) with calculated biomagnification factors.

    PubMed

    Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L; Grove, Robert A

    2009-02-01

    The osprey (Pandion haliaetus) population nesting along the main stem Willamette River and lower Santiam River was first studied to evaluate contaminants and reproductive rates in 1993 when 78 occupied nests were present. By 2001, the population increased to 234 occupied nests, a 13.7% annual rate of population increase. A sample egg was collected from each of a series of nests along the Upper River (river mile 55-187) in 1993, 2001 and 2006 to evaluate trends of persistent contaminants (organochlorine [OC] pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs], and polychlorinated dibenzofurans [PCDFs]). Nearly all OC pesticide residues decreased significantly, e.g., p, p'-DDE (DDE) from 2,350 to 1,353 to 210 microg/kg wet weight (ww). PCBs followed a similar pattern over time, e.g., SigmaPCBs 688 to 245 to 182 microg/kg ww, while PCDDs and PCDFs showed a more precipitous decline (often 85-95%) between 1993 and 2001, with no egg analyses warranted in 2006. During 2001-2002, sample osprey eggs were also collected from nests at three Headwater Reservoirs and two lower reaches (Newberg Pool and Tidal Portland) of the Willamette River, as well as the lower portion of the Santiam River to evaluate spatial residue patterns. Significant differences were seldom detected among the different sampling areas for OC pesticides (probably due to small sample sizes), although higher concentrations were often seen in the lower reaches, e.g., DDE 901 microg/kg ww (Headwater Reservoirs), 1,353 (Upper River), 1,384 (Newberg Pool) and 2,676 (Tidal Portland). PCB congener concentrations in eggs were usually higher in the Tidal Portland reach than at other locations and often significantly higher than at the Headwater Reservoirs or Upper River. Mercury (first analyzed in eggs in 2001), PCDDs and PCDFs were extremely low in 2001/2002 with no significant spatial patterns. Whole fish composite samples of largescale sucker (Catastomus macrocheilus) and

  4. PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, OC pesticides and mercury in fish and osprey eggs from Willamette River, Oregon (1993, 2001 and 2006) with calculated biomagnification factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Kaiser, J.L.; Grove, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    The osprey (Pandion haliaetus) population nesting along the main stem Willamette River and lower Santiam River was first studied to evaluate contaminants and reproductive rates in 1993 when 78 occupied nests were present. By 2001, the population increased to 234 occupied nests, a 13.7% annual rate of population increase. A sample egg was collected from each of a series of nests along the Upper River (river mile 55-187) in 1993, 2001 and 2006 to evaluate trends of persistent contaminants (organochlorine [OC] pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs], and polychlorinated dibenzofurans [PCDFs]). Nearly all OC pesticide residues decreased significantly, e.g., p, p?-DDE (DDE) from 2,350 to 1,353 to 210 ??g/kg wet weight (ww). PCBs followed a similar pattern over time, e.g., ???PCBs 688 to 245 to 182 ??g/kg ww, while PCDDs and PCDFs showed a more precipitous decline (often 85-95%) between 1993 and 2001, with no egg analyses warranted in 2006. During 2001-2002, sample osprey eggs were also collected from nests at three Headwater Reservoirs and two lower reaches (Newberg Pool and Tidal Portland) of the Willamette River, as well as the lower portion of the Santiam River to evaluate spatial residue patterns. Significant differences were seldom detected among the different sampling areas for OC pesticides (probably due to small sample sizes), although higher concentrations were often seen in the lower reaches, e.g., DDE 901 ??g/kg ww (Headwater Reservoirs), 1,353 (Upper River), 1,384 (Newberg Pool) and 2,676 (Tidal Portland). PCB congener concentrations in eggs were usually higher in the Tidal Portland reach than at other locations and often significantly higher than at the Headwater Reservoirs or Upper River. Mercury (first analyzed in eggs in 2001), PCDDs and PCDFs were extremely low in 2001/2002 with no significant spatial patterns. Whole fish composite samples of largescale sucker (Catastomus macrocheilus) and northern

  5. Contamination status and accumulation features of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from Korean coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Hee-Gu; An, Yong-Rock; Park, Kyum Joon; Choi, Seok-Gwan; Moon, Dae-Yeon; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2010-11-15

    Data on the concentrations and accumulation profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in cetaceans are scarce. In this study, concentrations and accumulation profiles of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were measured in the blubber of finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) collected from Korean coastal waters. Total dioxin-like toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations (6.5-31 pg/g lipid weight) in finless porpoises were lower than those reported for cetaceans and pinnipeds from other countries. Significant gender-specific differences were found in the concentrations and accumulation profiles of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs and this difference was associated with maternal and lactation transfer of contaminants from mature females to their fetus. All of the PCDD/F homologue groups were detected in all of the samples and the proportions of PCDFs were higher than those of PCDDs. The dominant congeners found in finless porpoise blubber were 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF and OCDD for PCDD/Fs and PCB 118 for DL-PCBs. The accumulation profiles of PCDD/Fs in finless porpoise in our study were different from those found for cetaceans from other countries. Total TEQ levels in finless porpoises in Korea were below the suggested threshold values for adverse health effects in marine mammals. PMID:20724068

  6. Biomagnification factors (fish to osprey eggs from Willamette River, Oregon, U.S.A.) for PCDDS, PCDFS, PCBS, and OC pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, Charles J.; Kaiser, James L.; Grove, Robert A.; Bentley, V.R.; Elliot, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    A migratory population of 78 pairs of Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting along the Willamette River in westernOregon was studied in 1993. The study was designed to determinecontaminant concentrations in eggs, contaminant concentrationsin fish species predominant in the Ospreys diet, andBiomagnification Factors (BMFs) of contaminants from fish specieseaten to Osprey eggs. Ten Osprey eggs and 25 composite samplesof fish (3 species) were used to evaluate organochlorine (OC)pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinateddibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans(PCDFs). Mercury was also analyzed in fish. Geometric meanresidues in Osprey eggs were judged low, e.g., DDE 2.3 g g-1 wet weight (ww), PCBs 0.69 g g-1, 2,3,7,8-TCDD 2.3 ng kg-1, and generally well below known threshold values for adverse effects on productivity, and the population was increasing. Osprey egg residue data presentedby River Mile (RM) are discussed, e.g., higher PCDDs were generally found immediately downstream of paper mills and eggsfrom the Willamette River had significantly elevated PCBs and PCDDs compared to reference eggs collected nearby in the CascadeMountains. Prey remains at nest sites indicated that the Largescale Sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) and NorthernPikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) accounted for an estimated 90.1% of the biomass in the Osprey diet, and composite samples of these two species were collected from different sampling sites throughout the study area for contaminant analyses. With the large percentage of the fishbiomass in the Osprey diet sampled for contaminants (and fisheaten by Ospreys similar in size to those chemically analyzed),and fish contaminant concentrations weighted by biomass intake, a mean BMF was estimated from fish to Osprey eggs for the largeseries of contaminants. BMFs ranged from no biomagnification(0.42) for 2,3,7,8-TCDF to 174 for OCDD. Our findings for themigratory Osprey were compared to BMFs for the resident

  7. Biomagnification factors (fish to Osprey eggs from Willamette River, Oregon, U.S.A.) for PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and OC pesticides.

    PubMed

    Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L; Grove, Robert A; Bentley, V Raymond; Elliott, John E

    2003-06-01

    A migratory population of 78 pairs of Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting along the Willamette River in western Oregon was studied in 1993. The study was designed to determine contaminant concentrations in eggs, contaminant concentrations in fish species predominant in the Ospreys diet, and Biomagnification Factors (BMFs) of contaminants from fish species eaten to Osprey eggs. Ten Osprey eggs and 25 composite samples of fish (3 species) were used to evaluate organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Mercury was also analyzed in fish. Geometric mean residues in Osprey eggs were judged low, e.g., DDE 2.3 microg g(-1) wet weight (ww), sigma PCBs 0.69 microg g(-1), 2,3,7,8-TCDD 2.3 ng kg(-1), and generally well below known threshold values for adverse effects on productivity, and the population was increasing. Osprey egg residue data presented by River Mile (RM) are discussed, e.g., higher PCDDs were generally found immediately downstream of paper mills and eggs from the Willamette River had significantly elevated PCBs and PCDDs compared to reference eggs collected nearby in the Cascade Mountains. Prey remains at nest sites indicated that the Largescale Sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) and Northern Pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) accounted for an estimated 90.1% of the biomass in the Osprey diet, and composite samples of these two species were collected from different sampling sites throughout the study area for contaminant analyses. With the large percentage of the fish biomass in the Osprey diet sampled for contaminants (and fish eaten by Ospreys similar in size to those chemically analyzed), and fish contaminant concentrations weighted by biomass intake, a mean BMF was estimated from fish to Osprey eggs for the large series of contaminants. BMFs ranged from no biomagnification (0.42) for 2,3,7,8-TCDF to 174 for OCDD. Our findings for the migratory

  8. Ambient air concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, coplanar PCBs, and PAHs at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge, Jackson County, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Hardy, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the levels of selected airborne contaminants in ambient air at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge, Mississippi, that might be affecting the health of endangered cranes living there. Two high-volume air samplers were operated at separate locations on the Refuge during May?September 1991. The sampling media were micro-quartz filters in combination with polyurethane foam plugs. Composite bimonthly samples from each station were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Overall, residue concentrations were low. The toxic PCDD isomer 2,3,7,8-tetra-CDD was not detected, nor was penta-CDD. There was no difference (P>0.05) in residue concentrations between stations or over time and meteorological parameters were not correlated with residue concentrations. Because contaminant levels and patterns may differ seasonally, we recommend that air samples collected during winter months also be analyzed for these same chemical groups.

  9. Levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in raw cow's milk collected in France in 2006.

    PubMed

    Durand, Benoit; Dufour, Barbara; Fraisse, Daniel; Defour, Stéphanie; Duhem, Koenraad; Le-Barillec, Karine

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread environmental contaminants. A French national survey was carried out in April 2006 to assess the concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) in raw cow's milk. A random sampling scheme stratified by region was applied to collect 239 raw milk samples from 93 plants belonging to 17 dairy companies. Compared to a previous survey led in 1998 analyzing half-skimmed drinking milk in France, the PCDD/Fs level was cut by half, with an average concentration of 0.33 pg toxic equivalent (TEQ)/g fat in 2006. The mean DL-PCBs concentration was 0.57 pg TEQ/g fat and subsequently the sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs was 0.90 pg/g fat, values below the thresholds defined by the European Union regulations. PMID:17707881

  10. Relative potency based on hepatic enzyme induction predicts immunosuppressive effects of a mixture of PCDDS/PCDFS and PCBS

    SciTech Connect

    Smialowicz, R.J.; DeVito, M.J. Williams, W.C.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    2008-03-15

    The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach was employed to compare immunotoxic potency of mixtures containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), using the antibody response to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). Mixture-1 (MIX-1) contained TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (PeCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (1-PeCDF), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4-PeCDF), and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF). Mixture-2 (MIX-2) contained MIX-1 and the following PCBs, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC No. 77), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (126), 3,3',4,4',5,5N-hexachlorobiphenyl (169), 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (105), 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (118), and 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl (156). The mixture compositions were based on relative chemical concentrations in food and human tissues. TCDD equivalents (TEQ) of the mixture were estimated using relative potency factors from hepatic enzyme induction in mice [DeVito, M.J., Diliberto, J.J., Ross, D.G., Menache, M.G., Birnbaum, L.S., 1997. Dose-response relationships for polyhalogenated dioxins and dibenzofurans following subchronic treatment in mice. I .CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzyme activity in liver, lung and skin. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 130, 197-208; DeVito, M.J., Menache, G., Diliberto, J.J., Ross, D.G., Birnbaum L.S., 2000. Dose-response relationships for induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzyme activity in liver, lung, and skin in female mice following subchronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 167, 157-172] Female mice received 0, 1.5, 15, 150 or 450 ng TCDD/kg/day or approximately 0, 1.5, 15, 150 or 450 ng TEQ/kg/day of MIX-1 or MIX-2 by gavage 5 days per week for 13 weeks. Mice were immunized 3 days after the last exposure and 4 days later, body, spleen, thymus, and liver weights were measured

  11. Atmospheric concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs in Southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, G.T.; Maisel, B.E. )

    1992-05-01

    A comprehensive air toxics measurements program designed to establish baseline concentrations of atmospheric polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) in the South Coast Air Basin has been completed. The program utilized state-of-the-art sampling and laboratory analysis techniques (HRGC/HRMS) to quantify the fifteen 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/PCDFs congeners of primary toxicological significance. This study, which included nine discrete sampling sessions between December 1987 and March 1989, provides the first systematic assessment of ambient PCDDs/PCDFs concentrations in the state of California. The highest PCDDs/PCDFs concentrations noted during this study occurred in December 1987. This period was dominated by off-shore air flows, suggesting a regional air mass and transport phenomena. Concentrations of the PCDDs/PCDFs were diminished markedly in subsequent sampling sessions where air flow patterns were primarily of on-shore or of coastal origin. Typical of combustion source profiles, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD was the predominant 2,3,7,8-substituted species and most prevalent PCDD after OCDD. The congener of highest toxicological significance, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, was reported below the 10-20 fg/m{sup 3} detection limit for most of the ambient air samples selected for analysis.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL) TRANSFORMER/CAPACITOR FLUIDS AND CORRELATION WITH PCDDS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS) AND PCDFS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS) IN SOOT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dielectric fluids in transformers and capacitors often contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or chlorobenzenes. These substances may generate polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) under certain conditions of combustion/pyrolysis. W...

  13. Exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through the consumption of prepared meals in Italy.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Stefania P; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Dellatte, Elena; Corrado, Federica; Esposito, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Diet is a relevant source of exposure to environmental pollutants. Dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by the Italian population was assessed through a duplicate diet study on prepared meals. Baby food composite representative of the diet of toddlers aged 9-12 months and school canteen servings from four towns in Italy representing the diet of children aged 4-9 years were collected on a 5-day basis. Similarly, 5-day lunches from an office canteen, 7-day lunches from a hotel-school, three fast food meals, and eight duplicate 1-day meals of individuals (one vegetarian) were selected to represent the diet of adults aged above 18 years. Servings from each diet were then pooled to form a composite and analysed. Dietary intake was estimated from the resulting contaminant levels in composites combined with age-related food consumption data from national survey. The mean upper bound (UB) intakes for cumulative PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs were 0.67, 0.63-0.92, and 0.27-0.63 pg WHO2005-TE kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for toddlers, children and adults, respectively. BDE-47 (UB) ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) estimates were 2.75 in toddlers, 0.08-0.16 in children and 0.03-0.09 in adults. Similarly, for BDE-99 higher UB intakes (ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) resulted in toddlers (1.26), than those in children (0.06-0.08) and adults (0.03-0.10), respectively. The above estimates fall below the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) (14 WHO2005-TE kg(-1) bw day(-1)) established by the European Union Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. The margin of exposure (MOE = 3) of toddlers to BDE-99 clearly indicates this age group as target for a risk-oriented approach. This study is proposed as a first cost-effective screening in PCDD, PCDF, DL-PCB and PBDE intake assessment, with a focus also on time trends. PMID:24645918

  14. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: impact of the 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Iona S; Anderson, Wayne A; Crowley, Dominique; Daly, Sean F; Evans, Rhodri I; Fernandes, Alwyn R; Fitzgerald, Margaret; Geary, Michael P; Keane, Declan P; Malisch, Rainer; McBride, John; Morrison, John J; Reilly, Alan; Tlustos, Christina

    2012-08-01

    The 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland resulted in elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Irish pork and pork products, due to the consumption of contaminated animal feed by pigs. In order to investigate any resulting impact on the Irish population, these contaminants were measured in pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers, collected in 2010. A comparison of the results with similar data from 2002 revealed generally lower concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the 2010 samples, confirming the declining trend reported by many authors. Contaminant concentration levels for both 2002 and 2010 were generally slightly lower than those reported internationally, with a mean combined PCDD/F and PCB WHO-TEQ of 9.66pgg(-1)fat, for an overall pooled sample of milk from 2010. An apparent slight increase in PCDFs was observed between 2002 and 2010 (from 2.73pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat to 3.21pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat), with the main contributory congener being 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF. While it cannot be totally discounted that the slight increase in 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF and in the overall PCDF WHO-TEQ in breast milk could be attributable to consumption of Irish pork during the 2008 incident, we consider that it is more likely that this was due to other factors, including the predominantly urban/industrial sampling locations for the 2010 samples, compared to 2002. PMID:22560976

  15. Relationships between dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PCBs) congener concentrations in aquatic organisms from Sydney Estuary, Australia and physiology, spatial, seasonality, trophodynamic and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Sezmis, Aysha Laila; Birch, Gavin; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-08-15

    Over the past few decades, there has been considerable interest in hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and their accumulative properties in aquatic organisms. Several factors, such as environmental concentrations (i.e. in sediment) and physiological characteristics of organisms determine species-specific accumulation patterns of POPs in marine animal tissue. The present study investigated factors that govern species-specific accumulation patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in a food web from Sydney Estuary (Australia). The results indicated that physiological characteristics, i.e. lipid %, spatial, i.e. distance from Homebush Bay (point source of POPs) and life history characteristics of the organisms, such as diet and home range, influence PCDD/F and dl-PCB tissue concentrations to a varying degree. For example, PCDD/F tissue concentrations increased with the presence of detritivorous diet, species with limited home range and close proximity to Homebush Bay. On the other hand, lipid %, piscivorous diet and close proximity to Homebush Bay were the main predictors causing increases in dl-PCB tissue levels. Distance from Homebush Bay was the only predictor affecting both PCDD/F and dl-PCB tissue levels at a similar rate, i.e. decreasing tissue concentrations as the distance increases from Homebush Bay. PMID:24840280

  16. RELATIVE POTENCY BASED ON HEPATIC ENZYME INDUCTION PREDICTS IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE EFFECT OF A MIXTURE OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS (PCDDS), DIBENZOFURANS (PCDFS) AND BIPHENYLS (PCBS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    ). Mixture (MIX)-1 contained TCDD , 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (1-PeCDF), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4-PeCDF), and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF). MIX-2 was prepared by adding PCBs to MIX-1, the P...

  17. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF PCDDS AND PCDFS IN STATIONARY SOURCE EMISSION AIR SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) are two classes of extremely toxic compounds produced and emitted into the environment as a result of combustion processes. lthough no standard method for sampling or analysis of PCDDs and PCDFs ...

  18. Enrichment of PCDDs/PCDFs in peripheral utilities of the municipal solid waste incineration facility.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sam-Cwan; Song, Geum-Ju; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Ko, Yun-Hwa; Hunsinger, Hans

    2013-05-01

    This study was performed to suggest the improvements through measuring the amounts of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), re-synthesized in peripheral utilities (PUs) of a commercial-scale municipal solid waste incineration facility (MSWIF) where a few research results existed. The PUs examined in this study consisted of air pre-heaters (APHs) and gas/gas re-heater (GGRH) and kerosene-fired duct burner for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process. PCDDs/PCDFs in flue gas were simultaneously measured at the inlet and outlet of PUs. Flue gas was cooled down from 380 °C to 249 °C by exchanging the heat with fresh air in APHs, and then heated up to 383 °C by GGRH and duct burner from 164 °C at the outlet of bag filter. The results showed that PCDDs/PCDFs were 3-4 times higher within this temperature range of PUs. In comparison of PCDDs/PCDFs concentrations at the inlet with those at the outlet of PUs, particulate-phase PCDDs/PCDFs were about 9.5-10 times enriched while gaseous-phase ones were decreased by about 33-41%. The PCDDs/PCDFs re-synthesized in the PUs, where PCDDs were relatively higher than PCDFs, showed somewhat different patterns compared to those formed at incinerators and emitted at stack. Through the investigations for PUs, we conclude that the PUs used in MSWIFs was a potential source for de novo synthesis of PCDDs/PCDFs. PMID:23415710

  19. Removal of PCDDs/DFs and dl-PCBs in MWI fly ash by heating under vacuum.

    PubMed

    Misaka, Youhei; Yamanaka, Kazushi; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko; Sawabe, Kyoichi; Shobatake, Kosuke

    2006-07-01

    Temperature dependence of PCDD/DF and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCB) concentrations in fly ash from a municipal waste incinerator (MWI) heated under vacuum has been investigated as a function of sample temperature ranging from T(s)=425 to 800 K to find out if PCDDs/DFs in fly ash evaporate and are trapped in a liquid nitrogen-cooled trap. The results show that more than 99.98% of PCDDs/DFs in TEQ is removed from fly ash by vacuum heat treatment at T(s)>650 K for 4 h. Almost no PCDDs/DFs were detected in the liquid nitrogen-cooled trap. Homologue distributions indicate that dechlorination/hydrogenation (DCH) reactions proceed in fly ash at T(s)>450 K. Arrhenius rate parameters for the DCH reactions have been determined for each homologue assuming that only DCH reactions occur. The fly ash heated under vacuum at 650 or 800 K was reheated at 573 K (300 degrees C) in a stream of dry or humid air to see how much PCDDs/DFs and dl-PCBs are regenerated. We have found that (1) PCDDs/DFs are regenerated in both 650 K and 800 K treated fly ash, whereas dl-PCBs are regenerated in 650 K treated fly ash, (2) formation of PCDFs predominates over that of PCDDs or dl-PCBs, and (3) less chlorinated homologues are abundant for PCDDs/DFs and dl-PCBs. PMID:16384596

  20. Congener specific biotransformation and bioaccumulation of PCDDs and PCDFs from fly ash in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Sijm, D.T.H.M.; Opperhuizen, A. . Research Inst. of Toxicology, Environmental Chemistry Group); Wever, H. . Dept. of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry)

    1993-10-01

    Biotransformation may be responsible for the lack of bioaccumulation of a number of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Goldfish (Carassius auratus) that were exposed to PCDDs and PCDFs, and piperonylbutoxide (PBO) in water bioconcentrated significantly more congeners than goldfish exposed to PCDDs and PCDFs only. Monooxygenase activity, which is responsible for the oxidation of specific PCDD and PCDF congeners in untreated fish, was inhibited by fish treated with PBO. In the PBO-treated group and in the control group, congeners with all lateral positions substituted were found. Congeners that lack chlorine substitution on one or more of the lateral positions substituted were found. Congeners that lack chlorine substitution on one or more of the lateral (2,3,7,8) positions and congeners that have all lateral positions chlorinated were found only in PBO-treated fish. Congeners that have at least one free lateral position were therefore assumed to be biotransformed. There was no relationship between the octanol/water partition coefficient and biotransformed. There was no relationship between the octanol/water partition coefficient and biotransformation of the PCDDs and PCDFs. No limitation of uptake for higher chlorinated PCDD and PCDF congeners was found.

  1. A pilot and field investigation on mobility of PCDDs/PCDFs in landfill site with municipal solid waste incineration residue.

    PubMed

    Osako, Masahiro; Kim, Yong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Hoon

    2002-09-01

    A field investigation by boring was carried out in a landfill site primarily with municipal solid waste incineration residue. From the collected core samples, vertical profiles of homologous content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) in the landfill layer were traced and the behavior of PCDDs/PCDFs was examined. In addition, a pilot-scale study was conducted on the PCDDs/PCDFs leached from incineration fly ash and the treated one using large landfill simulation columns (lysimeters) and the leaching behavior of PCDDs/PCDFs was examined. As a result, it was found that the coexistence of dissolved coloring constituents (DCCs), which might be composed of constituents like dissolved humic matters having strong affinity for hydrophobic organic pollutants, could enhance the leachability of PCDDs/PCDFs, thus contributing to the vertical movement and leaching behavior of PCDDs/PCDFs in the landfill layers of the incineration residue. Moreover, it is highly probable that DCCs derive from the unburned carbon in the bottom ash mixed and buried with the fly ash containing a high content of PCDDs/PCDFs. PMID:12222779

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A REFINED DATABASE OF RELATIVE POTENCY ESTIMATES TO FACILITATE BETTER CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIABILITY AND UNCERTAINTY IN THE CURRENT MAMMALIAN TEFS FOR PCDDS, PCDFS, AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach has been widely accepted as the most feasible and plausible method presently available for evaluating potential health risks associated with exposure to mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofuran...

  3. PCDDs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins) and PCDFs (polychlorinated dibenzofurans) in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, S.E. ); Erickson, M.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Numerous instances of human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p- dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been documented. Following the development of sufficiently specific and sensitive analytical methods during the past few years, many reports have appeared on PCDD and PCDF levels in human blood and adipose tissues. Studies have examined the PCDD and PCDF levels resulting from accidental and occupational exposures of various groups, including chemical plant workers, forestry and tannery workers, and Niet Nam veterans who had handled Agent Orange. The general background levels in the US, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and Sweden were also determined. The results of these studies indicate that a background level of PCDDs and PCDFs is present in the overall population. In some cases, individuals exposed to specific PCDDs or PCDFs exhibit higher levels than the general population. Isomer distribution patterns are relatively consistent and indicative of sources and metabolism. This paper reviews the available data on human PCDD and PCDF levels in exposed and general populations. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Method validation program for the long duration sampling of PCDDs/PCDFs in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Maisel, B.E.; Hunt, G.T.; Hoyt, M.P.; Rowe, N.; Scarfo, L.

    1994-12-31

    A method validation program was completed to assess the technical viability of extended, long duration sampling periods (15- and 30-day) for the collection of PCDDs/PCDFs in ambient air in lieu of the 48-hour sampling periods typically employed. This long duration approach, if successful, would provide measurements data more representative of average ambient PCDDs/PCDFs levels on an annual basis, and hence provide enhanced support of the 1.0 pg/m{sup 3} annual ambient standard for PCDDs/PCDFs (expressed at 1987 EPA toxic equivalents) required by Connecticut regulation. The method validation program utilized nine collocated PUF samplers which were operated for 15-day and 30-day periods during each of two seasonal monitoring campaigns (winter and summer). Samples were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) based on EPA Method 8290. Each PUF cartridge consisted of two foam halves; the top half PUF and filter were analyzed as a single sample separately from the bottom half PUF section. This approach provided an assessment of analyte breakthrough using the sampling system for large sample volumes of approximately 4,000 m{sup 3} and 8,000 m{sup 3} for the 15-day and respectively.

  5. Assessment of health effects in New York City firefighters after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs): the Staten Island Transformer Fire Health Surveillance Project.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kerry J; Connelly, Edmond; Reinhold, Gustave A; Byrne, Mike; Prezant, David J

    2002-01-01

    Following an electrical transformer fire in Staten Island, New York, a health surveillance program was established for 60 New York City firefighters and emergency medical technicians exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Exposure potential was documented after high levels of PCBs and PCDFs were found on transformer and firefighters' uniforms. Personnel received comprehensive medical examinations, and the results were compared with preexposure values. Serum was analyzed for PCBs, PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Follow-up was conducted 9 mo later. Thirty-two of 58 (55%) firefighters reported initial symptoms, and 3 firefighters required brief medical leave. Pulmonary functions, exercise performance, serum liver functions, and serum lipid profiles were normal or unchanged from preexposure baselines. Serum PCBs averaged 2.92 +/- 1.96 ppb (range = 1.9-11.0 ppb). Five (8%) had serum PCBs that were greater than or equal to 6 ppb. Eight (73%) had a significant decrease (p = .05) in serum PCB level at the time of follow-up. Serum toxic equivalency (TEQ [1998 World Health Organization]) for total PCDDs and PCDFs averaged 39.0 +/- 21.5 (n = 48). Eighteen (38%) had elevated TEQs (i.e., > 40). All firefighters had no short-term heath effects. Modern firefighting uniforms are not meant to replace HAZMAT suits, but these uniforms provide protection from this chemical exposure for most firefighters. PMID:12530594

  6. Determination of body burdens for polychlorinated dibenzo-'p'-dioxins (PCDDS) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFS) in california residents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, J.S.; Bauer, K.M.; Turman, K.; Boggess, K.; Cramer, P.

    1989-10-26

    Determination of body burden levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) in residents of California was conducted based on a stratified survey design. Stratification factors included two geographical locations (San Francisco and Los Angeles), three age groups (12 to 34, 35 to 49, and 50 plus years), and sex. A total of 57 adipose tissue specimens were collected across the 12 specific strata. Analysis for the specific 2,3,7,8-substituted isomers was achieved based on high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Detectable levels of PCDDs and PCDFs were measured in all samples with isomer patterns consistent with findings in other studies conducted within the United States, Canada, and Europe. A questionnaire focused on the lifestyles of participants in the program was conducted to determine residual and occupational information and possible exposure routes to PCDDs and PCDFs. The data base provides a reference for comparison in future human monitoring programs.

  7. Spatial and temporal trends of PCDDs and PCDFs in bivalve mollusc coming from Galicia (2000-2005). Possible relationship between biometric parameters and PCDDs and PCDFs levels.

    PubMed

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Mouteira, A

    2008-08-01

    Levels and specific profiles of PCDD/F congeners were determined in bivalve mollusc coming from several Rías (estuarine bays) in Galicia (Spanish northwest Atlantic coast). Three species of bivalve mollusc, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Cerstoderma edulis and Ostrea edulis, from several points of littoral collected in the period from 2000 to 2005 were analysed. WHO-TEQ concentrations ranged from 0.08 to 1.62 pg g(-1) wet weight, values below the maximum concentration established by the EU. The PCDD/PCDF congeners profile in the studied samples was dominated by 2,3,7,8-TCDF and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF. The possible influence between biometric parameters (fat and condition index) and the culture type of mussel (wild or raft) on PCDDs and PCDFs levels were studied using statistical analysis. The coefficients of Pearson product-moment correlation indicated the existence of positive significant relationship between 2,3,7,8-TCDF and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF levels and fat content. There was not correlation between condition index and PCDD/Fs content. ANOVA also revealed there were significant differences between SigmaPCDD/Fs, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF levels in raft and wild mussels. Spatial and temporal trends were supported by patterns in ANOVA, using a general linear model (GLM) showing a clear separation in the composition of these compounds in more and less contaminated Rías and a decrease of PCDD/FS levels along the years. PMID:18602662

  8. Levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in human milk from populations in Madrid and Paris

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.J.; Hernandez, L.M.; Jimenez, B.

    1996-02-01

    Human breast milk represents a good substrate to examine the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) background contamination of a population and also supplies important information about the exposure risk for nursing infants. Although adipose tissue and blood samples are commonly studied in the literature milk Dioxin levels are more specifically of concern because of the facility of sampling and also the potential health damage which may be caused to the breastfed babies by those highly toxic synthetic chemicals. The occurrence of dioxins in mother milk among the general population in all countries studied until now, has confirmed a widespread pollution and intake of those compounds. Dietary and other sources such as contaminated chemicals, industrial activity, waste combustion and leaded car gasoline may be responsible for such a contamination, and also for the differences among levels found in different countries. Human contamination by PCDDs and PCDFs from the environment is clearly a multisource problem. Human milk as well as other human fluids studies up to know have only found the presence of 2,3,7,8 substituted PCDD or PCDF congeners present. The reason for this congener specific retention is usually explained by the metabolic conversion on the 2,3,7, and 8 lateral positions in combination with high binding affinities for the cytosolic receptor proteins.

  9. Specific congener profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in blue mussel in Osaka Bay in Japan: Aqueous solubilities of PCDDs and PCDFs

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Hideaki; Takayama, Koji; Mimura, Mayumi; Kashimoto, Takashi ); Fukushima, Shigehiko )

    1989-09-01

    The authors have monitored polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the coastal waters of Japan by using blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) as a biological indicator. The levels of both chemicals were surmised to closely relate to the number of municipal incinerators and the population densities in the cities adjoining the sampling location. The main contamination source in Osaka Bay, which is heavy polluted with PCDDs and PCDFs, was determined to be the fly ash from municipal waste incinerators based upon analytical results of blue mussel from Osaka Bay sediments, sediments from Osaka Bay, and sediments from a river, which is located near a typical urban municipal waste incinerator. However, there was a remarkable difference in congener profiles of PCDDs and PCDFs between the blue mussel and the fly ash, that is, the mussel mainly contained tetraCDDs and tetraCDFs with congener ratios of 56 {plus minus} 9.7% and 62 {plus minus} 6.0%, respectively, whereas the fly ash contained the higher chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs as major congeners. In this study, the specific congener profiles of PCDDs and PCDFs in blue mussel were investigated from the point of view of their water solubilities.

  10. Identification, Quantification, and Toxicity of PCDDs and PCDFs in Soils from Industrial Areas in the Central and Eastern Regions of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; El-Saeid, Mohamed H; Usman, Adel R A; Al-Turki, Ali M; Ahmad, Mahtab; Hassanin, Ashraf S; El-Naggar, Ahmed H; Alenazi, Khaled K H

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify and quantify polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in soil samples collected from selected industrial areas in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. All the investigated compounds of PCDDs/PCDFs were identified in the studied locations. The average concentrations of PCDDs (sum of seven congeners measured) ranged from 11.5 to 59.6 pg g(-1), with a maximum concentration of 125.7 pg g(-1) at an oil refinery station followed by 100.9 pg g(-1) at a cement factory. The average concentrations of PCDFs (sum of 10 congeners measured) accounted for 11.68-19.35 pg g(-1), with a maximum concentration of 38.67 pg g(-1) at the cement factory. It was generally observed that the soil samples collected from industrial areas have substantially high toxicity equivalence (TEQ) values of PCDDs/PCDFs compared to soils of remote areas. Principal component analysis revealed that the cement factories and oil refineries were the primary sources of PCDDs and PCDFs. PMID:27010396

  11. Bioavailability of PCDDs and PCDFs of fly ash after semi-chronic oral ingestion by guinea pig and Syrian golden hamster

    SciTech Connect

    van den Bery, M.; de Vroom, E.; Olie, K.; Hutzinger, O.

    1986-01-01

    Groups of guinea pigs and syrian golden hamster were fed 2.5% HCl pre-treated fly ash from the electrostatic precipitator of a municipal incinerator during one, two, and three months, respectively, in the diet. The livers were analyzed for tetra-, penta-, and hexa-chlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxines (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). In the livers of the hamsters 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs were the major isomers retained. In the livers of the guinea pigs 2,3,7,8 substituted PCDDs and PCDF congeners were retained, but also a number of otherwise substituted PCDFs. The PCDF congener which had the highest retention in the livers of guinea pigs was 1,2,3,7,8-PnCDF, 11.3% after 95 days. In the livers of the hamsters highest retention was found for 2,3,4,7,8-PnCDF, 8.4% after 95 days. For most 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs the retention in the livers of the guinea pigs and hamsters was not significantly different during the whole period, which could indicate a bioconcentration approaching a linear relationship to the administered dose. Constant relative concentrations in the livers were found for the 2,3,7,8-substituted penta- and hexa-chlorinated PCDDs and PCDF in both species during the three time periods.

  12. Passerine Exposure to Primarily PCDFs and PCDDs in the River Floodplains Near Midland, Michigan, USA

    PubMed Central

    Zwiernik, Matthew J.; Seston, Rita M.; Coefield, Sarah J.; Plautz, Stephanie C.; Tazelaar, Dustin L.; Shotwell, Melissa S.; Bradley, Patrick W.; Kay, Denise P.; Giesy, John P.

    2009-01-01

    House wren (Troglodytes aedon), tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), and eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) tissues collected in study areas (SAs) downstream of Midland, Michigan (USA) contained concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) greater than in upstream reference areas (RAs) in the region. The sum of concentrations of PCDD/DFs (ΣPCDD/DFs) in eggs of house wrens and eastern bluebirds from SAs were 4- to 22-fold greater compared to those from RAs, whereas concentrations in tree swallow eggs were similar among areas. Mean concentrations of ΣPCDD/DFs and sum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (ΣTEQsWHO-Avian), based on 1998 WHO avian toxic equivalency factors, in house wren and eastern bluebird eggs ranged from 860 (430) to 1500 (910) ng/kg wet weight (ww) and 470 (150) to 1100 (510) ng/kg ww, respectively, at the most contaminated study areas along the Tittabawassee River, whereas mean concentrations in tree swallow eggs ranged from 280 (100) to 760 (280) ng/kg ww among all locations. Concentrations of ΣPCDD/DFs in nestlings of all studied species at SAs were 3- to 50-fold greater compared to RAs. Mean house wren, tree swallow, and eastern bluebird nestling concentrations of ΣPCDD/DFs and ΣTEQsWHO-Avian ranged from 350 (140) to 610 (300) ng/kg ww, 360 (240) to 1100 (860) ng/kg ww, and 330 (100) to 1200 (690) ng/kg ww, respectively, at SAs along the Tittabawassee River. Concentrations of ΣTEQsWHO-Avian were positively correlated with ΣPCDD/DF concentrations in both eggs and nestlings of all species studied. Profiles of relative concentrations of individual congeners were dominated by furan congeners (69–84%), primarily 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, for all species at SAs on the Tittabawassee and Saginaw rivers but were dominated by dioxin congeners at upstream RAs. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10

  13. UPTAKE AND DEPURATION STUDIES OF PCDDS AND PCDFS IN FRESHWATER FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioavailability of PCDD/PCDFs from municipal incinerator fly ash and sediment to freshwater fish has been studied. A preference to selectively bioaccumulate PCDD/PCDF isomers substituted in the 2,3,7, and 8 positions was observed. The depuration half life of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from...

  14. ON-ROAD EMISSIONS OF PCDDS AND PCDFS FROM HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work characterized emission factors, homologue profiles, and isomer patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) from on-road sampling of three heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDVS) under various conditions of city and highway drivi...

  15. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in surface sediment and bivalve from the Changjiang Estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Sheng; Hui, Yang; Yang, Fangxing; Liu, Zhengtao; Xu, Ying

    2008-02-01

    Surface sediments and bivalves were collected from the Changjiang Estuary in December 2003 and November 2004, respectively. Polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in these samples were measured with high-resolution chromatography (HRGC)/High Resolution Mass Spectrometer (HRMS). The concentrations of total PCDD/Fs and toxic equivalent (TEQ) were 169.83±119.63 and 0.81±0.36 pg/g dry weight (dw) in sediments, and 580.33±240.17 and 7.24±3.65 pg/g dw in bivalves. The homolog compositions of PCDD/Fs were similar among samples, the most abundant congener was octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and then octa-chlorinated dibenzofuran (OCDF) and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-hepta-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (HpCDD). The herbicide pentachlorophenol (PCP) and sodium pentachlorophenol (Na-PCP) were proved the main source of PCDD/Fs in this area.

  16. On-road emissions of PCDDs and PCDFs from heavy duty diesel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Gullett, Brian K; Ryan, Jeffrey V

    2002-07-01

    This work characterized emission factors of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) from on-road sampling of three heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) under experimental conditions of city and highway driving; idling operation; high (>400 ppm) and low (<5 ppm) sulfur (S) fuels; and high mileage and rebuilt engine testing. Emission factors, homologue profiles, and isomer patterns were compared to determine whether the experimental conditions had an impact on PCDD/F emissions, or whether these conditions were uninfluential in determining a fleet-representative emission factor. For a single HDDV tested under conditions of a high mileage engine, a newly rebuilt engine, and the newly rebuilt engine with low S diesel fuel, emission factors were 0.023 (+/- 0.022), 0.008 (+/- 0.002), and 0.016 (+/- 0.013) ng toxic equivalency (TEQ)/km, respectively. These results may infer some limited condition-specific differences in PCDD/F emissions, but these differences do not appear to have a significant effect on the HDDV emission factor. An older HDDV with mechanical fuel controls resulted in a single test value of 0.164 ng TEQ/km, significantly higher than all other results. Observed differences in emission factors, homologue profiles, and TEQ-related isomer patterns from this on-vehicle sampling and others' tunnel sampling suggest limitations in our present characterization of fleet PCDD/F emissions. PMID:12144283

  17. FRAMEWORK FOR THE APPLICATION OF THE TOXICITY EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIOXINS, FURANS, AND PCBS IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent contaminants found widely in the environment. Several of these compounds bioaccumulate in the tissues of fish, birds, and mammals, and have been demonstrated to cause mortality a...

  18. Disposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in two Norwegian epibenthic marine food webs.

    PubMed

    Ruus, Anders; Berge, John Arthur; Bergstad, Odd Aksel; Knutsen, Jan Atle; Hylland, Ketil

    2006-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are a group of halogenated hydrocarbons, comprising 210 different, theoretically possible congeners. They are relatively hydrophobic and persistent to biodegradation, thereby rendering them subject to bioaccumulation. This study was conducted in Frierfjord and Eidangerfjord in the Grenland fjord system, Norway, heavily polluted by PCDD/PCDF discharges from the 16,600,859 magnesium production at Herøya from 1951 to 2001. Pooled samples of surface-sediments and the following organisms were collected for the Frierfjord and Eidangerfjord study areas: common shrimp (Crangon crangon), polychaetes (mainly Nereis diversicolor), shore crab (Carcinus maenas), cod (Gadus morhua), flounder (Platichthys flesus), trout (Salmo trutta), herring (Clupea harengus), benthic amphipods and zooplankton. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs were quantified in pooled samples for all species. The relative abundances of stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta(15)N) were evaluated in the organisms as a measure of chemically-derived trophic level. Contrary to earlier studies on other persistent organochlorines, it was found that the concentrations of PCDD/Fs declined with increasing trophic level. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) also showed differences between species in the pattern of PCDD/Fs. Higher chlorinated congeners constituted lower percentages of the PCDD/F-concentrations higher in the food chain as compared to lower trophic levels. In general, congener patterns did not differ between fjords. Infauna (polychaetes) and zooplankton had congener patterns most similar to the pollution source. The results indicate lower accumulation of higher chlorinated congeners in species at higher trophic levels (fish), presumably due to low membrane permeability (high molecular size) and possibly slow transport through intestinal aqueous phases because of low aqueous solubility. PMID:16169571

  19. Multiple Lines of Evidence Risk Assessment of Terrestrial Passerines Exposed to PCDFs and PCDDs in the Tittabawassee River Floodplain, Midland, Michigan, USA

    PubMed Central

    Fredricks, Timothy B.; Giesy, John P.; Coefield, Sarah J.; Seston, Rita M.; Tazelaar, Dustin L.; Roark, Shaun A.; Kay, Denise P.; Newsted, John L.; Zwiernik, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    A site-specific multiple lines of evidence risk assessment was conducted for house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) and eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) along the Tittabawassee River downstream of Midland, Michigan, where concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in flood-plain soils and sediments are greater compared to upstream areas and some of the greatest anywhere in the world. Lines of evidence supporting the population-level assessment endpoints included site-specific dietary- and tissue-based exposure assessments and population productivity measurements during breeding seasons 2005–2007. While a hazard assessment based on site-specific diets suggested that populations residing in the downstream floodplain had the potential to be affected, concentrations in eggs compared to appropriate toxicity reference values (TRVs) did not predict a potential for population-level effects. There were no significant effects on reproductive success of either species. The most probable cause of the apparent difference between the dietary- and tissue-based exposure assessments was that the dietary-based TRVs were overly conservative based on intraperitoneal injections in the ring-necked pheasant. Agreement between the risk assessment based on concentrations of PCDFs and PCDDs in eggs and reproductive performance in both species supports the conclusion of a small potential for population-level effects at this site. PMID:21804755

  20. PCDDs, PCDFs and PCNs in products of microwave-assisted pyrolysis of woody biomass--Distribution among solid, liquid and gaseous phases and effects of material composition.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiuju; Budarin, Vitaliy L; Cieplik, Mariusz; Gronnow, Mark; Jansson, Stina

    2016-02-01

    Microwave-assisted pyrolysis (MAP) of lignocellulosic biomass is a technique that could potentially be used to produce and upgrade renewable energy carriers. However, there is no available information about the formation of dioxins and other organic pollutants in MAP treatment of woody biomass. In this study, MAP experiments were conducted in lab-scale using virgin softwood, bark, and impregnated wood as feedstocks. The non-condensable gas, liquid (fractionated into aqueous and oil phases), and char fractions generated during pyrolysis were collected and analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and naphthalenes (PCNs). The concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCNs in the pyrolysis products ranged from 0.52 to 43.7 ng kg(-1). All investigated compound groups were most abundant in the oil fraction, accounting for up to 68% (w/w) of the total concentrations. The highest PCDD, PCDF and PCN concentrations were found from the pyrolysis of bark, which has relatively high contents of chlorine and mineral matter, followed by impregnated wood, which contains organic and metal-based preservatives. The homologue profiles of all three compound groups were dominated by the less chlorinated homologues. The homologue abundance decreased as the degree of chlorination increased. This trend was observed for all three feedstocks. PMID:26688256

  1. ASSESSMENT OF PCDDS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXINS) AND PCDFS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS) FROM PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL'S) TRANSFORMER AND CAPACITOR FIRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA, under the Toxic Substances Control Act, has been mandated to develop appropriate regulations for the control of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In light of this responsibility the EPA Office of Toxic Substances recently issued an Advance Notice of Proposed ...

  2. Thermal desorption of PCBs from contaminated soil with copper dichloride.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Qi, Zhifu; Li, Xiaodong; Chen, Tong; Buekens, Alfons; Yan, Jianhua; Ni, Mingjiang

    2015-12-01

    Copper dichloride is an important catalyst both in the dechlorination of chlorinated aromatic compounds and the formation of PCDD/Fs. The effect of copper dichloride on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) was studied in treated soil and off gas after thermal desorption of PCB-contaminated soil at 300, 400, 500, 600 °C. The presence of copper dichloride clearly enhances thermal desorption by promoting PCBs removal, destruction, and dechlorination. After thermal treatment at 600 °C for 1 h, the removal efficiency and destruction efficiency for PCBs reached 98.1 and 93.9%, respectively. Compared with the positive influence on PCBs, copper dichloride catalyzed large amount of PCDFs formation at 300 °C, with the concentration ratio of 2.35. The effect of CuCl2 on PCDFs formation weakened with the rising temperature since PCDFs destruction became dominant under higher temperature. Different from PCDFs, PCDDs concentration in treated soil and off gas decreased continuously with the increasing temperature. PMID:26233752

  3. Congener Profiles and Source-Wise Phase Partitioning Analysis of PCDDs/Fs and PCBs in Gyeonggi-Do Ambient Air, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jongwon; Kim, Donggi; Lee, Gangwoong

    2014-01-01

    The atmospheric concentrations and gas–particle partitioning of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated at two sites (Suwon and Ansan) in Gyeonggi-do, a heavily industrialized area of Korea, during the year 2010. The sum level (Σ17) of PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in the ambient air at Suwon and Ansan ranged from 0.04 to 0.30 pg-TEQ·m−3 (geometric mean: 0.09 pg-TEQ·m−3) and 0.17 to 0.63 pg-TEQ·m−3 (geometric mean: 0.36 pg-TEQ·m−3), respectively. Moreover, the geometric mean concentrations of Σ180 PCBs at Suwon and Ansan were 233.6 pg·m−3 and 274.2 pg·m−3, respectively, and di-chlorinated biphenyls and tri-chlorinated biphenyls were the predominant homologs. Among the PCB congeners, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB-11) was the dominant species at both sites during all sampling periods, comprising up to 15.1% of Σ180 PCBs at Ansan and 24.6% at Suwon. We evaluated their gas-to-particle equilibriums by conducting regression between the particle–gas partition coefficient Kp (m3·ug−1) and the corresponding subcooled liquid vapor pressure (PL°). The slope (m) values for log–log plots of Kp vs. PL° were steeper in industrial areas owing to local source proximity. Moreover, owing to enhanced emissions from combustion-related sources at low temperatures, PCDD/Fs exhibited the largest deviation from the regression line of the particle–gas partition coefficient. Incinerators were found to be the primary emission source of atmospheric PCDDs/Fs, whereas re-evaporation from pre-existing environmental loads (e.g., storage areas or spilled soil and water bodies) was the dominant source for PCBs. PMID:25347194

  4. Journal Article: Atmospheric Measurements of CDDs, CDFs, and Coplanar PCBs in Rural and Remote Locations of the U.S. for the Years 1998-2001 from the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to determine background air concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and cp-PCBs in rural and remote areas of the United States. Background is defined as average ambient air concentrations inferred from long-term a...

  5. Multiple lines of evidence risk assessment of American robins exposed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFS) and polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins (PCDDS) in the Tittabawassee River floodplain, Midland, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Tazelaar, Dustin L; Fredricks, Timothy B; Seston, Rita M; Coefield, Sarah J; Bradley, Patrick W; Roark, Shaun A; Kay, Denise P; Newsted, John L; Giesy, John P; Bursian, Steven J; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2013-06-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in Tittabawassee River floodplain soils and biota downstream of Midland, Michigan, USA, are greater than regional background concentrations. From 2005 to 2008, a multiple lines of evidence approach was utilized to evaluate the potential for effects of PCDD/DFs on American robins (Turdus migratorius) breeding in the floodplains. A dietary-based assessment indicated there was potential for adverse effects for American robins predicted to have the greatest exposures. Conversely, a tissue-based risk assessment based on site-specific PCDD/DF concentrations in American robin eggs indicated minimal potential for adverse effects. An assessment based on reproductive endpoints indicated that measures of hatch success in study areas were significantly less than those of reference areas. However, there was no dose-response relationship between that endpoint and concentrations of PCDD/DF. Although dietary-based exposure and reproductive endpoint assessments predicted potential for adverse effects to resident American robins, the tissue-based assessment indicates minimal to no potential for adverse effects, which is reinforced by the fact the response was not dose related. It is likely that the dietary assessment is overly conservative given the inherent uncertainties of estimating dietary exposure relative to direct tissue-based assessment measures. Based on the available data, it can be concluded that exposure to PCDD/DFs in the Tittabawassee River floodplain would not likely result in adverse population-level effects to American robins. PMID:23424046

  6. Accumulation and temporal changes of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in finless porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis) from Korean coastal waters: Tracking the effectiveness of regulation.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yunsun; Kim, Sang-Jo; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Hwang, Seung Yong; An, Yong-Rock; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2016-04-15

    Temporal trend studies are useful to evaluate the effectiveness of regulations on local pollutants. The emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been regulated by the Korean government in accordance with the Stockholm Convention. The accumulation and temporal trends of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs were investigated in finless porpoises (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis) collected in Korean waters. Median concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs were 1.0, 1.1, 0.1, and 1.8pgTEQ/g lipid weight, respectively, which were lower than threshold values for marine mammals. Age- and sex-dependent accumulation patterns were found for PCDFs and DL-PCBs. Temporal trends in finless porpoises collected between 2003 and 2010 showed significant reduction rates of 57%, 54%, 69%, and 60% for PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs, respectively. Our results suggest that the regulations on dioxin-like contaminants have been effective for marine mammals in Korea. PMID:26971816

  7. Spatial patterns of chemical contamination (metals, PAHs, PCBs, PCDDs/PCDFS) in sediments of a non-industrialized but densely populated coral atoll/small island state (Bermuda).

    PubMed

    Jones, Ross J

    2011-06-01

    There is a recognized dearth of standard environmental quality data in the wider Caribbean area, especially on coral atolls/small island states. Extensive surveys of sediment contamination (n=109 samples) in Bermuda revealed a wide spectrum of environmental quality. Zinc and especially copper levels were elevated at some locations, associated with boating (antifouling paints and boatyard discharges). Mercury contamination was surprisingly prevalent, with total levels as high as 12mg kg(-1)DW, although methyl mercury levels were quite low. PAH, PCB and PCDD/PCDF contamination was detected a several hotspots associated with road run-off, a marine landfill, and a former US Naval annexe. NOAA sediment quality guidelines were exceeded at several locations, indicating biological effects are possible, or at some locations probable. Overall, and despite lack of industrialization, anthropogenic chemicals in sediments of the atoll presented a risk to benthic biodiversity at a number of hotspots suggesting a need for sediment management strategies. PMID:21549399

  8. Dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs in surface sediments near the shore of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Omwoma, Solomon; Lalah, Joseph O; Virani, Munir; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Henkelmann, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria is considered to be contaminated with toxic chemicals emanating from anthropogenic activities, especially near large industrial towns such as Kisumu. This has recently caused concerns about its water quality and impact on aquatic organisms and human beings. This study was justified by the need to generate baseline concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in surface sediment from selected sites in the lake and determine the influence of activities on their concentrations and potential risks to fish-eating birds living near the lake. Surface sediments (<30cm) from three different fish landing beaches, located 200m from the shore of Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria near Kisumu city, Homa Bay and Mbita (control) towns, were analysed. The total mean concentrations (in pgg(-1)drywt) were found to range from 17.4-812 (Σdl-PCBs), 36.6-813 (ΣPCDDs) and 1.45-46.4 (ΣPCDFs). The calculated Toxic Equivalents (TEQWHO(2005)) ranged from 0.001-0.43 (Σdl-PCBs) and 0.09-31 (ΣPCDD/Fs). The fish landing beaches at Kisumu city were found to be contaminated with respect to dl-PCBs and dioxins, followed by Homa Bay and Mbita. The relatively high levels of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF) influenced the TEQ and the ΣPCDFs/ΣPCDDs ratios indicated chemical processes as partial sources of the dioxins. The levels of contaminants obtained in this study showed potential exposure to aquatic organisms and fish eating birds through food chain transfer. PMID:25150826

  9. Comparative ability of various PCBs, PCDFs, and TCDD to induce cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1A2 activity following 4 weeks of treatment (short communication)

    SciTech Connect

    De Vito, M.J.; Maier, W.E.; Diliberto, J.J.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1993-01-01

    The toxic equivalency factors (TEF) have been proposed for dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The proposed TEFs, which are presently being evaluated in the authors' laboratory are currently used to estimate the potential health risk associated with exposure to complex mixtures containing these chemicals. Hepatic cytochrome P-450 1A1 and 1A2 activities were determined for all chemicals tested and compared to those from TCDD treated mice. These initial studies indicate that the interim TEFs for the dibenzofurans adequately predict the relative induction potency for these compounds. However, the TEFs proposed for the dioxin-like PCBs overestimate the potency of these compounds by factors of 10-10,000. The present study indicates that more experimental data is required before TEFs for PCBs are used in regulatory decision making.

  10. Partial removal of PCDD/Fs, coplanar PCBS, and PCBS from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by a column flotation process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Takaoka, Masaki; Takeda, Nobuo; Oshita, Kazuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash has recently attracted much attention because of its large quantity and enrichment of high toxic combustion generating organohalogen contaminants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Since the organohalogen contaminants in MSWI fly ash are known to be enriched in the unburnt carbon (UC) fraction, the organohalogen contaminants can therefore be removed by the removal of UC. In this research, we used a modified column flotation technique to remove the organic contaminants from MSWI fly ash. UC was removed for 27.7% under the flotation condition without chemical flotation aids. The removal efficiencies of UC, PCDD/Fs, coplanar PCBs, and PCBs are further improved by adding flotation aids during the flotation process. UC was removed for 49.0% by adding a collector assistant with a HLB value of 13.5 and a concentration in the kerosene of 3% during the flotation process. In addition,the UC removal efficiencies are increased with the decrease of the diameter of the micropores in the gas spargers. By optimizing the flotation condition, 41.9% total PCDD/Fs, 40.8% coplanar PCBs, and 44.1% PCBs with 64.0% UC have been successfully removed from MSWI fly ash. The total toxic equivalent (TEQ) of the fly ash was decreased from 6.2 ng/g to 4.2 ng/g in the residue. PMID:17265956

  11. National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn) Report of the Results of Atmospheric Measurements of Pcdds, Pcdfs, and Dioxin-Like PCBs in Rural and Remote Areas of the U.S. from June 1998 Through November 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the EPA Dioxin-like Compounds 2013 Final Report In 1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) established the Nation...

  12. Levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food samples on the Greek market.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Athanasios; Vassiliadou, Irene; Costopoulou, Danae; Papanicolaou, Christina; Leondiadis, Leondios

    2004-11-01

    Food intake is the main source of exposure to dioxin-like compounds for humans. The results of a surveillance programme on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (co-PCBs) in 77 food samples from the Greek market and producers are presented. The study included the analyses of milk and dairy products, meat and meat products, fish, vegetable oil, eggs, fruit, vegetable and rice collected between August and December 2002. After extraction, extracts were cleaned up on a series of carbon column chromatography, silica gel, alumina chromatography, and then analysed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. All samples had a dioxin content far below the EC Regulation (2375/2001/EC) limits. PMID:15331268

  13. High levels of PCBs in breast milk of Inuit women from arctic Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Dewailly, E. ); Nantel, A.; Weber, J.P. ); Meyer, F. )

    1989-11-01

    In the last twenty years polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been identified as major contaminants of the natural environment. More recently, the presence of such toxic compounds was described in arctic regions. In this regions, PCBs have been found in water, snow, ice and air. The level of PCB contamination was significantly lower than that found at midlatitudes. PCB levels are often monitored because they could also reflect exposure to several other chemical contaminants such as other organochlorines. Other highly toxic compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were found in the blubber from arctic ringed seals caught near the west coast of Spitzbergen. Since the closest known sources of PCDD and PCDF were several thousands of kilometers away, these results were surprising. The consumption of fish and marine mammals by the Inuit people is markedly higher than in the rest of the Canadian population and in some communities, sea mammals represent a significant part of the diet. It is possible that Inuit are exposed to an undesirably high of PCBs and other organochlorinated compounds. Levels of PCBs in the Inuit diet were assessed in Broughton Island, North West Territories, Canada. The present study was designed to assess the PCB levels in the breast milk of lactating Inuit women from the Hudson Bay region of Northern Quebec and of women from Southern Quebec.

  14. Monitoring of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs and seasonal variations in mussels from the Mar Grande and the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Di Leo, Antonella; Annicchiarico, Cristina; Cardellicchio, Nicola; Giandomenico, Santina; Conversano, Michele; Castellano, Giacomo; Basile, Fabrizio; Martinelli, Walter; Scortichini, Giampiero; Spada, Lucia

    2014-12-01

    The levels and specific profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Mar Grande and the Mar Piccolo of Taranto were determined during the extensive monitoring plan of Local Health Authority to assess PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs contamination in food and farm products, within 20 km from the industrial areas of Taranto, between March and December 2011. The average Total Toxicity Equivalence (TEQ) values for the sum of PCDD/F and DL-PCBs ranged from 1.61 to 5.63 pg WHO2005-TEQ g(-1) wet weight basis, with the highest in the first inlet of the Mar Piccolo. In particular, DL-PCBs were the dominant chemicals in all samples, followed by PCDFs and PCDDs. Congener patterns in mussels were similar, indicating a homogeneous behavior in studied areas and, probably, the same type of source. The seasonal concentrations trend showed a relevant increase of dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs TEQs during the summer months, exceeding the limits set by the European Community for food and foodstuff. Reducing PCDD/Fs and PCBs is necessary to decrease contamination levels in order to safeguard marine ecosystem and human health in the Taranto area. PMID:24443048

  15. Evaluation of the release of dioxins and PCBs during kiln-firing of ball clay.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Kendra; Meeker, John D; Luksemburg, William; Maier, Martha; Garabrant, David; Demond, Avery; Franzblau, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Ball clay is known to be naturally contaminated with high levels of polychlorinated di-benzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). This study evaluated the potential for PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) release during the kiln firing of ball clay in an art studio. Toxic equivalence (TEQ) were calculated using World Health Organization (WHO) 2005 toxic equivalence factors (TEF) and congener concentrations. Ten bags of commercial ball clay were found to have an average TEQ of 1,370 nanograms/kilogram (ng kg(-1)) dry weight (dw), almost exclusively due to PCDDs (99.98% of TEQ). After firing, none of the 29 dioxin-like analytes was measured above the limits of detection (LOD) in the clay samples. Air samples were taken during firings using both low-flow and high-flow air samplers. Few low-flow air samples contained measurable levels of dioxin congeners above the LOD. The mean TEQ in the high volume air samples ranged from 0.07 pg m(-3) to 0.21 pg m(-3) when firing ball clay, and was 0.11 pg m(-3) when no clay was fired. These concentrations are within the range measured in typical residences and well-controlled industrial settings. The congener profiles in the high-flow air samples differed from the unfired clay; the air samples had a considerable contribution to the TEQ from PCDFs and PCBs. Given that the TEQs of all air samples were very low and the profiles differed from the unfired clay, it is likely that the PCDDs in dry ball clay were destroyed during kiln firing. These results suggest that inhalation of volatilized dioxins during kiln firing of dry ball clay is an unlikely source of exposure for vocational and art ceramicists. PMID:24083905

  16. Experimental evaluation of PCDD/Fs and PCBs release and mass balance of a WTE plant.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Mario; Biganzoli, Laura; Rigamonti, Lucia; Cernuschi, Stefano; Giugliano, Michele; Poluzzi, Vanes; Biancolini, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    The behaviour of waste incineration plants with respect to organic toxic trace contaminants such as PCDDs, PCDFs and, to a minor extent, PCBs, is still a matter of concern for the public opinion and the decision makers. It is therefore very important, first, to evaluate the release of these organic toxic trace contaminants in the environment during waste incineration, not only through the stack gas emission but also with the solid and liquid residues, and then to compare the total release with the input through the treated waste in order to assess the plant behaviour as a "sink" rather than a "source" of organic toxic trace contaminants. The experimental investigation carried out on an Italian full scale incineration plant has shown a total 17 PCDD/Fs and 12 dioxin-like PCBs release of 5.5-27 μg WHO-TEQ per tonne of treated waste and an input flux of 1.6-44 μg WHO-TEQ per tonne of waste, with the difference between the input and the output fluxes rather small and the plant behaviour toward organic trace toxic contaminants in average neutral. Results are compared with similar evaluations conducted in the last decade on a number of waste-to-energy (WTE) plants operating in Italy. PMID:22094053

  17. Study on PCBs, PCDD/Fs, organochlorine pesticides, heavy metals and arsenic content in freshwater fish species from the River Turia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Bordajandi, L R; Gómez, G; Fernández, M A; Abad, E; Rivera, J; González, M J

    2003-10-01

    In this study samples of common trout, European eel and barbel have been analysed for the levels of heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and the metalloid arsenic (As). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including three non-ortho substituted PCBs, 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and DDT and its two main metabolites were also analysed in some selected samples, in order to evaluate the extent of contamination of the River Turia basin. All samples presented detectable levels of the elements analysed, presenting zinc the highest concentrations. European eel was the species found to highly accumulate these contaminants. Regarding organochlorinated compounds, seven samples exhibited detectable levels of the most toxic PCDD/Fs congener, the 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Non-ortho PCBs were not detected or not quantified in almost all samples and the sum of the individual PCB congeners determined were low compared to other aquatic ecosystems with similar fish species. PMID:12892679

  18. Organochlorine pesticides, chlorinated dioxins and furans, and PCBs in peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus eggs from the Kola peninsula, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Ganusevich, S.A.; Ward, F.P.; Schwartz, T.R.

    1994-01-01

    Nesting of a bog-associated population of mlgfatory Peregrine Falcons, Falco peregrinus, along the Ponoy River depression, Kola Peninsula, Russia, has been studied since 1977. In 1987 91 production rates averaged 1.94 young per active nest and the number of breeding pairs increased from 4 to 10. In 1991, most eyrie sites were visited during the egg stage and a 'sample' egg was collected for contaminant analysis. Eight Peregrine Falcon eggs contained relatively low concentrations of p,p' -DOE (DOE) (geometric mean 3.5 g/g) and of other organochlorine pesticides. These DOE concentrations are similar to those reported in Peregrine Falcon eggs from an Alaskan population that had also showed a recent population increase. Eggshell thinning (11.4%) was similar to that found in Alaska. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were higher than DOE concentrations, comparable to the contamination profile shown by Peregrine Falcon populations in Fennoscandia, and were higher than those found in Alaskan birds. Before this study, no Peregrine Falcon eggs from Russia had 'been analyzed for PCB congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs), or pol ychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCD Fs). Conversions of analytical concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), other PCDDs, PCDFs and PCB congeners based on relative aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction potencies allowed the estimation of total 2,3,7,8- TCDD equivalents (TEQs). The TEQs are in the range that is associated with embryonic mortality in other species. Even though the Peregrine Falcon population now seems to be released from decades of a DOT problem, exposure to other contaminant continues. There is an obvious need to assess further the sources and longer-term trends of the PCBs. We also report residue concentrations from one White-tailed Eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla, egg.

  19. Pyrolysis products of PCBs.

    PubMed Central

    Paasivirta, J; Herzschuh, R; Humppi, T; Kantolahti, E; Knuutinen, J; Lahtiperä, M; Laitinen, R; Salovaara, J; Tarhanen, J; Virkki, L

    1985-01-01

    Model compound studies which were previously done for impurities and environmental residues of chlorophenols and for wastes of chlorination processes were extended to the impurities and pyrolysis products of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Model compounds were commercial products or synthesized and their structures proven by spectroscopic methods. These models were used as analytical reference substances in GC/ECD and GC/MS studies of the pyrolyzed PCB samples. In addition to previously known neutral components like polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), chlorophenolic substances, especially polychlorophenols (PCPs) and polychlorinated biphenylols (PCB-OHs) were observed as major pyrolysis products of PCBs. Capacitor fires are suggested to produce in many cases chlorophenols which are major toxic hazards to people. PMID:3928353

  20. Occurrence of chlorinated and brominated dioxins/furans, PCBs, and brominated flame retardants in blood of German adults.

    PubMed

    Fromme, Hermann; Hilger, Bettina; Albrecht, Michael; Gries, Wolfgang; Leng, Gabriele; Völkel, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants are widespread in the environment, and are associated with a particular health and ecological concern. The human body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylether (PBDEs), and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) was determined. Blood samples were collected in Germany, originating from 42 randomly selected subjects between 20 and 68 years old. The median (95th percentile) concentrations, expressed as WHO2005-TEQ for PCDD/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs, were 6.2 (19.1) pg/g l.w. and 4.1 (8.8) pg/g l.w., respectively. PBDDs/Fs were found with a median of 2.8 pgTEQ/g l.w. and a 95th percentile of 8.7 pgTEQ/g l.w. (using similar interim TEF values as for PCDDs/Fs) On a median basis, the contribution of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs, and PBDDs/Fs to total TEQ were 47%, 31%, and 21%, respectively. The sum of the 6 non-dioxin-like PCBs exhibited a median of 267ng/g l.w. and a 95th percentile of 834ng/g l.w. The median value for the sum of six tetra- to hepta-PBDE congeners was 1.7ng/g l.w. (95th percentile: 4.9ng/g l.w.). BDE 209 was the most abundant congener with a median of 1.8ng/g l.w. HBCDs were only found in some samples, and concentrations ranged between the limit of detection (5ng/g l.w.) and the limit of quantification (16ng/g l.w.). Results for PBDEs and HBCDs are comparable to other European studies. Our study demonstrated that the body burden of PCDD/Fs and PCBs declined continously since the last three decades, but exposure may exceed precautionary guideline levels. PMID:27067547

  1. Symptoms, signs and findings in humans exposed to PCBs and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Reggiani, G; Bruppacher, R

    1985-05-01

    The records of the health effects caused by some accidental exposure and findings from medical examination in cases exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) as well as to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and their derivatives polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and dibenzodioxins (PCDD) have provided some information for the recognition and classification of their toxicity in humans. The most impressive clinical features have been presented by the yusho episode of exposure. Dermatologic signs are the most persistent indicator of a considerable uptake. Neurological symptoms, respiratory findings and impairment of liver function are further aspects of the contamination. Skin manifestations have been observed also in the newborn infants from mothers exposed to high levels of the substances. However, the available data make it still hard to assess the clinical picture of the effects on humans in cases of acute exposure and even more the effects on reproduction and long-term effects. Furthermore it would still be arbitrary to draw a line between the symptoms which can be referred to PCBs and PBBs alone and those which can be related qualitatively and quantitatively to PCB derivatives (PCDFs, PCDDs, PCQs). PMID:2992922

  2. Dioxins/furans and PCBs in bivalves and sediments from NOAA national status and trends program

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, T.; Gardinali, P.; Jackson, T.; Sericano, J.; Chambers, L.

    1995-12-31

    As part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Status and Trends (NS and T) Mussel Watch Program 55 bivalves and 7 sediment samples were analyzed for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF) and planar PCBs. Bivalve samples were collected from selected US East Gulf and West coast sites, while the sediment samples were all from the Gulf coast. Sediment concentrations for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (TCDD and TCDF) ranged from 0.35 to 25 pg/g and 0.42 to 140 pg/g, respectively. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDF represent only a small percentage of the total PCDD and PCDF in the sediments which is the case for most sediment. The concentration of TCDD and TCDF in bivalves ranged from not detected (ND) to 25 pg/g and ND to 140 pg/g, respectively. Most bivalve samples, in contrast to the sediment contained low proportions of the higher molecular weight PCDDs and PCDFs. The relative toxicological importance of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and dioxin-like PCB to the bivalves from different locations will be compared based on toxicity equivalency factors.

  3. Environmental variation of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in two tropical Andean Colombian cities using passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Cortés, J; Cobo, M; González, C M; Gómez, C D; Abalos, M; Aristizábal, B H

    2016-10-15

    Passive air-sampling data of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) taken in Manizales (a medium-sized city) and Bogotá (a megacity), Colombia, were analyzed in order to identify potential sources of pollution and the possible influence of meteorological variables like temperature and precipitation. The results indicate important differences in levels of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs between Bogotá and Manizales, attributed to differences in site characteristics and potential local/regional sources. Higher PCDD/Fs concentrations were observed in Bogotá (373fg/m(3)) compared to those observed in Manizales, with mean levels ranging from 64fg/m(3) in a residential zone to 151fg/m(3) around a vehicular-influenced area. Higher dl-PCBs concentrations were observed in the industrial area of Manizales compared to those observed in Bogotá, with mean levels of 6668fg/m(3) and 4388fg/m(3) respectively. In terms of PCDD/Fs congener distribution, there was a predominance of octachlorodibenzodioxin (OCDD) followed by 1,2,3,4,6,7.8-heptachlorodibenzofuran (HpCDF) congeners, with both cities showing higher levels in zones of high vehicular activity. Industrial influence was most evident in dl-PCB levels. In comparison to the mean levels of dl-PCB congeners obtained in the vehicular zones of Bogotá and Manizales, the industrially influenced sampling stations showed higher concentrations of dl-PCB congeners. Passive sampling results suggested that congener concentration profiles are characteristic of their different emission sources, and can be used to distinguish between their industrial or vehicular origins. PMID:26953138

  4. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like PCBs in commercialized food products from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pemberthy, D; Quintero, A; Martrat, M G; Parera, J; Ábalos, M; Abad, E; Villa, A L

    2016-10-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) are commonly known as dioxins and are the most toxic members of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) because present a variety of health effects especially as promoting agent of growing and transformation of cancer cells. They are bio-accumulate in humans primarily via the diet, specifically by ingestion of foods that have high lipid content which are generally associated with foods of animal origin such as oils and fats and with fishery and dairy products. In Colombia the Ministry of Health and Social Protection which is the entity responsible for surveillance food conditions, has established maximum levels for dioxins and dl-PCBs in oils from animal and vegetable origins. Oils of vegetable and animal origin represent an appreciable intake in the country thus the presence of dioxins and dl-PCBs in these materials is a matter of concern because they can bioaccumulate in fat. In this contribution the levels of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in olive, soybean, fish oil, butter and shrimp consumed in Colombia were determined using HRGC-HRMS and were compared with the maximum levels permitted in oil samples according to both the Colombian and European regulations. WHO-TEQ concentrations for PCDD/Fs and dioxin like PCBs ranged from 0.24 to 1.710pgWHO-TEQ PCDD/Fg(-1) of fat and from 0.050 to 3.000pgWHO-TEQ PCBg(-1) of fat, respectively. As expected, fish oils and shrimp present the highest WHO-TEQ PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs values followed by butter and soybean oil sample, while the olive oil shows the lowest levels. In general, the vegetable oils show levels below the limits established by both the Colombian and European regulations. The levels from soybean oil found in this study were slightly higher than the threshold established both by the Commission Regulation European Union (EU) and the Colombian legislation, while fish oils showed concentrations

  5. Occurrence and destruction of PAHs, PCBs, CIPhs, CIBzs, and PCDD/Fs in ash from gasification of straw.

    PubMed

    Asikainen, Arja H; Kuusisto, Mikko P; Hiltunen, Matti A; Ruuskanent, Juhani

    2002-05-15

    Two experiments were performed with an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed gasifier (ACFBG), the first with pelletized straw and the second with loose straw, to investigate the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorophenols (CIPhs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated benzenes (ClBzs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the bottom ash and fly ash formed during gasification. Only PAHs were present in large amounts, and only in the fly ash, ranging from 300 to 555 mg/kg ash in the tests with pelletized straw and from 73 to 118 mg/kg ash in those with loose straw. These amounts are so high that environmentally safe disposal or reuse of the ash would be difficult, so the development of a technique to handle the problem was included in the project. The method investigated was to burn the fly ash in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler in order to destroy the PAHs. This worked surprisingly well, eliminating 99% of the PAHs, without any further formation of the other harmful organic compounds analyzed. Thus, this method could actually be useful in practice. Especially the fact that the formation of PCDD/Fs was minimal during gasification and further treatment of the ash in the CFB boiler makes the gasification technique highly competitive relative to conventional combustion methods. PMID:12038829

  6. Assessment of risk of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in marine and freshwater fish in Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, X; Leung, K S; Wong, M H; Giesy, J; Cai, Z W; Wong, Chris K C

    2011-01-01

    Fish consumption is known to be beneficial to human health. However since the age of industrialization, the released/disposed chemical pollutants into water systems make fish a source of various environmental toxicants to humans. In oceanic cities with heavy industrial activities, fish products contribute the greatest proportion of exposure to pollutants. In this study, risks and potential effects of dioxins to health of coastal populations in the Pearl River Delta were assessed. Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in common fish species purchased at local markets. Concentrations of total dioxins in fish ranged from 0.481 to 9.05 pg TEQ/g wet weight were similar to the lesser concentrations reported for fish from other countries. The greatest concentrations of dioxins were measured in mandarin fish, a carnivorous freshwater fish. Exposure of murine primary leydig and ovarian cells to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (2,3,7,8-TCDD) reduced the synthesis of progesterone, testosterone and/or estrogen. The reductions were probably via inhibitory effects on the expression of the steroidogenic enzymes, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc). Based on these reproductive parameters, the concentrations of dioxins and dioxin-like residues represent a moderate health risk due to consumption of fish. PMID:21392810

  7. Origin of PCDDs in ball clay assessed with compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis and radiocarbon dating.

    PubMed

    Holmstrand, Henry; Gadomski, Damien; Mandalakis, Manolis; Tysklind, Mats; Irvine, Robert; Andersson, Per; Gustafsson, Orjan

    2006-06-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) of high concentrations in a ball clay deposit from the Mississippi Embayment were found to be consistent with a natural abiotic and non-pyrogenic origin by investigation with bulk radiocarbon analysis, compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis (CSIA-delta37Cl) of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), and black carbon (BC) analysis. The conventional radiocarbon date of total organic carbon from a depth of approximately 10 m in three parallel cores ranged from 14 700 years to >48 000 years, indicating that the strata with elevated levels of PCDDs have remained isolated from recent anthropogenic input in these >40 Ma old clay sediments. The CSIA-delta37Cl of OCDD yielded a delta37Cl of -0.2 per thousandth, which is significantly higher than the postulated range for biotic chlorination by chloroperoxidase enzymes, -11 to -10 per thousandth, and falls within the known range for abiotic organochlorines, -6 to +3 per thousandth. The absence of correlations between concentrations of PCDDs and corresponding pyrogenic black carbon (BC), together with estimations of BC sorptive loadings and the absence of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), suggest that vegetation fires did not form these ball-clay PCDDs. Results from this study indicate that the high levels of the toxic and carcinogenic PCDDs found in kaolinite-bearing clays may result from natural abiotic formation via in situ surface-promoted reactions on the clay mineral, including a so-far unknown organic precursor, rather than being the result of anthropogenic contamination. PMID:16830534

  8. Dioxins and PCBs in game animals: Interspecies comparison and related consumer exposure.

    PubMed

    Warenik-Bany, Malgorzata; Strucinski, Pawel; Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCB) and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCB) are ubiquitous, persistent toxic compounds that are highly bioaccumulative in nature. Wild-living animals are vulnerable to the negative impacts of human activity. Dioxins and PCBs enter the animal organisms through foraging. Due to the toxicological threat, much attention is paid to these compounds worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the dioxin contamination status of three game animal species (red deer, roe deer, and wild boar) and compare the PCDD/F and PCB congener bioaccumulation in the muscles, abdominal fat and liver. The chemical analysis was performed by the isotope dilution technique (IDMS) with high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Dioxins and PCBs were found in specimens collected from all studied species, suggesting the presence of the test compounds in the environment of the animals. The highest concentrations were found in the livers of all animals. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels in the muscles, adipose tissue and liver were in the order red deer > roe deer > wild boar. PCDD/Fs were the dominant congeners in TEQ value. For all tested species, the dominant contributors to the total WHO-TEQ were PCB-126, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD. Among the PCDD/F congeners in the deer tissues, OCDD, OCDF and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF were dominant, while in wild boar, OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCF occurred in the highest amounts. Among PCBs, PCB-105, 118, 156, 138, 153 and 180 were dominant in all species, but with different levels. The regular consumption of muscle meat from game animals should not cause unacceptable dioxin intake above the Tolerable Weekly Intake (TWI) value for children and adults. However, liver consumption should be avoided, especially by children and pregnant or lactating

  9. An assessment of PCBs and OC pesticides in eggs of double-crested (Phalacrocorax auritus) and Pelagic (P. pelagicus) cormorants from the west coast of Canada, 1970 to 2002.

    PubMed

    Harris, Megan L; Wilson, Laurie K; Elliott, John E

    2005-08-01

    Eggs of double-crested and pelagic cormorants were collected between 1970 and 2002 from colonies in the Strait of Georgia, BC, Canada, and assayed for concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Double-crested cormorant eggs from the early 1970's contained up to 4.1 mg kg-1 p,p'-DDE and 12.5 mg kg-1 sigmaPCBs. Corresponding values for pelagic cormorant eggs were 1.5 mg kg-1 p,p'-DDE and 3.9 mg kg-1 sigmaPCBs. Egg tissue concentrations of the dominant OC pesticides and sigmaPCBs dropped mainly during the 1970's, with minor declines thereafter. The data suggest that contaminant levels in cormorants have now stabilized at low levels throughout the resident population. Small but significant latitudinal gradients in several OC pesticides and PCBs indicated that areas of the southern strait were more contaminated than areas of the less populated northern strait. Interspecific differences in contamination may indicate that pelagic cormorants have a reduced capacity to metabolize chlordanes, DDT and PCBs compared to double-crested cormorants. Alternatively, the two species may have more divergent prey bases than previously thought. During the 1980's, TCDD toxic equivalents, largely contributed by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), were correlated with physiological and biochemical alterations. Also, from 1989 to 1990, four deformed cormorant chicks (two of each species) were found during nest visits; none were found between 1991 and 1995. The relative rates of deformed chicks were 6 per 10,000 for double-crested and 16 per 10,000 for pelagic cormorants. The findings of deformed chicks were coincident with the period of highest PCDD and PCDF contamination; however, the sample sizes were too low to derive a substantive connection. Colony-wide productivity of double-crested cormorants was poorer in the southern colonies where PCBs in particular were elevated. While of concern, these lines of evidence

  10. PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs in zooplankton in the Baltic Sea - spatial and temporal shifts in the congener-specific concentrations.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Heikki; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Korhonen, Markku; Kiviranta, Hannu; Flinkman, Juha; Verta, Matti

    2014-11-01

    In the marine food-webs, zooplankton is a key element in the transfer of persistent organic pollutants to higher trophic levels. We determined the congener-specific concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in offshore zooplankton (size from 0.2 to 20mm) collected in 2001, 2002 and 2010 in the northern and central Baltic Sea. Of the PCDD/Fs, the concentrations of 2378-TCDF were from 18 to 47 and of 23478-PeCDF from 7.9 to 29 pg g(-1)fat and showed little temporal differences. However, 1234678-HpCDF and OCDF were abundant in 2001-2002 especially in the eastern Gulf of Finland (average concentrations 50 and 89 pg g(-1)fat, respectively). In 2010 the concentrations of these two congeners were lower, 29 and 30 pg g(-1)fat, respectively, but still substantially higher than in the other surveyed areas. The principal components analysis (PCA) supported that area-specific patterns in pollution strongly contributed to the congener profiles particularly in surface sediment and in sediment trap material, but even in zooplankton. The concentrations of the PCBs were highest in the Gulf of Finland and in the Bothnian Bay. The concentrations of most PCBs were somewhat lower in 2010 than in 2001-2002. Of the dioxin-like PCBs, the concentrations of PCB-77 were highest (271-572 pg g(-1)fat) but PCB-126 (32-113 pg g(-1)fat) contributed from 85% to 91% of the total toxicity of PCBs due to its higher toxic potency. Of the PBDEs, the BDE47 and BDE99 were the most abundant (concentrations from 1.2 to 4.6 and from 0.4 to 3.3 ng g(-1) fat, respectively). The concentrations of most PBDEs were lower in 2010 than in 2001/2002 except in the eastern Gulf of Finland. PMID:25113199

  11. High levels of dioxin-like PCBs found in organic-farmed eggs caused by coating materials of asbestos-cement fiber plates: A case study.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Jörg

    2015-07-01

    During a regional monitoring project of organic-farmed, free-range and cage-free eggs, high levels of dioxin-like compounds were detected in organic-farmed eggs, using the dioxin responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX®) bioassay. Further evaluations performed with GC-HRMS (gas chromatography in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry) revealed elevated amounts of non-dioxin-like (non-dl) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) dominated by most lipophilic congeners like PCB 138, 153 and 180 and of dioxin-like (dl) PCBs, with a congener pattern in the descending order of PCB 118, 156, 167, 105, 189, 157, 105, 126 and PCB 77. Contaminations with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) appeared of minor priority, with only hepta- and octa-substituted dioxins above their limits of quantification (LOQs). The pattern of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) was dominated by low amounts of tetra- and penta-chlorinated congeners. To identify the source of contamination, several samples of organic-farmed eggs, soil, laying hens, feedstuff, corrugated asbestos-cement cover plates (ACPs), stable dust and debris collected in the gutter of the stable, were analyzed. Comparing PCB congener-pattern of individual samples, the source was traced back to the coating of ACPs, which covered roof and sidewalls of the stable. Because coating materials probably have been used for roofing and cladding in many countries worldwide, there is a high probability that the presented case report is not a local incident but rather describes a new source of PCB contamination, yet widely unknown or underestimated. PMID:25898153

  12. Meeting the European Commission performance criteria for the use of triple quadrupole GC-MS/MS as a confirmatory method for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in food and feed samples.

    PubMed

    Ábalos, Manuela; Cojocariu, Cristian I; Silcock, Paul; Roberts, Dominic; Pemberthy, Diana M; Sauló, Jordi; Abad, Esteban

    2016-05-01

    Until recently, European Union (EU) legislation required the use of high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) based on magnetic sector analyzers as a standard approach for confirmatory analysis of dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs) in feed and food. However, recent technological advances in MS instruments enabled other alternative analytical techniques to meet the same analytical criteria as those requested for HRGC-HRMS. In this sense, triple quadrupoles (GC-MS/MS) can be a realistic alternative for the analysis of dioxins. In this work, the performance of GC-MS/MS technology was evaluated against the criteria demanded by the EU for confirmatory analysis of dioxins and PCBs in food and feed. Thus, the study comprises a number of parameters including chromatographic separation, limit of quantification, linearity, repeatability, and ion ratio precision. Analyses of solvent standards as well as sample extracts (inter-calibration extracts and certified reference materials) were also considered within the scope of this study. Additionally, direct comparisons of the results obtained by GC-MS/MS with those from GC-HRMS were made. The results of this work suggested that GC-MS/MS was highly sensitive and selective for confirmatory analysis of PCDD/Fs and related compounds in food and feed samples and meets all the criteria requested by the European Commission. PMID:26922340

  13. Framework for Application of the Toxicity Equivalence Methodology for Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans and Biphenyls in Ecological Risk Assessment (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent contaminants found widely in the environment. Several of these compounds bioaccumulate in the tissues of fish, birds, and mammals, where they have been demonstrated to cause mortality and adverse...

  14. GEOCHEMICAL STUDY OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION IN NEW BEDFORD HARBOR, MASSACHUSETTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical analyses of sediment samples collected along a transect in New Bedford harbor revealed a gradient of increasing concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydro...

  15. A PERFORMANCE HISTORY OF THE BASE CATALYZED DECOMPOSITION (BCD) PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of halogenated organic compounds--such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)--poses a challenge because these compounds are resistant to microbial attack and to degradation by many com...

  16. AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR ESTABLISHING TEFS FOR DIXON-LIKE COMPOUNDS. PART 2. DEVELOPMENT OF AN APPROACH TO QUANTITATIVELY WEIGHT THE UNDERLYING POTENCY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current approach for evaluating potential health risks associated with exposure to mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dixoins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) [hereafter referred to as "dioxin-like compoun...

  17. FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF POLYHALOGENATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS AND HUMAN INFANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A scientific evaluation was made of functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. ersistent neurobehavioral, reproductive, and endocrine alteration...

  18. An integrative risk assessment approach for persistent chemicals: a case study on dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in France.

    PubMed

    Béchaux, Camille; Zeilmaker, Marco; Merlo, Mathilde; Bokkers, Bas; Crépet, Amélie

    2014-10-01

    For persistent chemicals slowly eliminated from the body, the accumulated concentration (body burden), rather than the daily exposure, is considered the proper starting point for the risk assessment. This work introduces an integrative approach for persistent chemical risk assessment by means of a dynamic body burden approach. To reach this goal a Kinetic Dietary Exposure Model (KDEM) was extended with the long term time trend in the exposure (historic exposure) and the comparison of bioaccumulation with body burden references for toxicity. The usefulness of the model was illustrated on the dietary exposure to PolyChlorinatedDibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), PolyChlorinatedDibenzoFurans (PCDFs) and PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in France. Firstly the dietary exposure to these compounds was determined in 2009 and combined with its long term time trend. In order to take differences between the kinetics of PCDD/F and dl-PCBs into account, three groups of congeners were considered i.e. PCDD/Fs, PCB 126 and remaining dl-PCBs. The body burden was compared with reference body burdens corresponding to reproductive, hepatic and thyroid toxicity. In the case of thyroid toxicity this comparison indicated that in 2009 the probability of the body burden to exceed its reference ranged from 2.8% (95% CI: 1.5-4.9%) up to 3.9% (95% CI: 2.7-7.1%) (18-29 vs. 60-79year olds). Notwithstanding the decreasing long-term time trend of the dietary dioxin exposure in France, this probability still is expected to be 1.5% (95% CI: 0.3-2.5%) in 2030 in 60-79 olds. In the case of reproductive toxicity the probability of the 2009 body burden to exceed its reference ranged from 3.1% (95% CI: 1.4-5.0%) (18-29year olds) to 3.5% (95% CI: 2.2-5.2%) (30-44year olds). In 2030 this probability is negligible in 18-29year olds, however small though significant in 30-44year olds (0.7%, 95% CI: 0-1.6%). In the case of hepatic toxicity the probability in 2009 even in 60-79year olds already was negligible. In

  19. Effects of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on thyroid function in infants born in Japan--the second report from research on environmental health.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, N; Uchiyama, T; Tada, H; Nakamura, Y; Kondo, N; Morita, M; Fukushi, M

    2001-12-01

    Dioxins (PCDD + PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) are potentially hazardous compounds and have structural similarity to thyroid hormones. Our research group on "Dioxins and PCB in Human Milk" was organized in 1997 and has been active for the past three years. We collected breast milk from 80 mothers living in Tokyo, Saitama, Ishikawa and Osaka Prefecture in Japan at 5, 30, 150, 300 postpartum days and measured PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs during 1998-1999. We added another 20 prefectures and cities during 1999-2000. Breast milk was obtained from 415 mothers at 30 postpartum days (breast-feeding group). Blood was taken from infants who were breast-fed at the age of 1 year for evaluation of thyroid and immune functions. Blood was also taken from 53 infants who were bottle-fed (bottle-feeding group) as a control. Serum T4, T3, FT4 and TSH levels in the breast-feeding (n = 337) and bottle-feeding (n = 53) groups were within normal ranges and were not significantly different between the two groups. Although there were a large geographic differences of dioxins and co-PCB content in breast milk, there were no differences in serum T4, T3, FT4, TSH levels and no significant correlation between the mean serum levels of TSH and TEQ in breast milk. There was a significant correlation between serum TSH at 1 year of age and that from blood on dried filter paper TSH at 5 days of age. We concluded that dioxin intake from breast milk in Japanese infants did not impair thyroid function. However, long-term effects remain to be evaluated. PMID:11695630

  20. PCBs in various Schools

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterize primary and secondary sources of PCBs in school buildings Characterize levels of PCBs in air, dust, soil and on surfaces; investigate relationships between sources and environmental levels Apply an exposure model for estimating children’s exposures to PCBs in schools...

  1. Assessment of seasonality in exposure to dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs by using long-term food-consumption data.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, M; Soler, L; Contenot, S; Verger, P

    2011-04-01

    According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) guidance related to uncertainties in dietary exposure assessment, exposure assessment based on short-term food-consumption surveys, such as 24-h recalls or 2-day records, tend to overestimate long-term exposure because of the assumption that the dietary pattern will be similar day after day over a lifetime. The aim of this study was to make an assessment of dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), also called 'dioxins' and 'dioxin-like PCBs', using long-term household purchase and consumption survey data collected by TNS-Secodip. Weekly purchases of the major dioxins and dl-PCB vector products of these contaminants were collected for 328 single-person households, who participated at TNS-Secodip consumption surveys from 2003 to 2005 and who were single-person households in order to estimate better their consumption. These data were combined with average contamination levels of food products. Weekly gross average exposure was estimated at 10.2 pg toxic equivalent (WHO TEQ) kg(-1) bw week(-1) (95% confidence interval [9.6, 10.9]). According to the typical shape of the distribution of individual weekly exposures, it is sensible to fit an exponential law to these data. The mean was therefore 12.1 pg WHO TEQ kg(-1) bw week(-1). This value is higher than the arithmetic mean because it better takes into account inter-individual variability. It was estimated that about 20% of persons in this sample were exceeding the current health-based guidance value mainly due to high consumption of seafood and/or dairy products. Thanks to long survey duration (3 years) and the weekly recording of food consumption, it was possible to demonstrate the actual seasonality of dietary exposure to dioxins and dl-PCBs with a maximum between March and September; similar seasonality is observable for fish consumption. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were

  2. Concentrations of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs in spent foundry sands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 10 million tons of spent foundry sand (SFS) are generated in the U.S. each year, and their beneficial use in agricultural and horticultural applications is being considered. Other studies have demonstrated that trace elements are low enough in sands from iron, steel, and aluminum foun...

  3. Polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in soils of Moscow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelepchikov, A. A.; Brodskii, E. S.; Feshin, D. B.; Zhil'Nikov, V. G.; Mir-Kadyrova, E. Ya.; Balashova, S. P.

    2011-03-01

    The contents of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) in the soils of Moscow were estimated. The concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs mainly vary in the range of 0.27-16.1 ng WHO-TEQ/kg with single points of very high contamination up to 57.3 ng WHO-TEQ/kg; the concentrations of PCBs are in the range of 2.1-50.8 ng/g with sites of high contamination up to 4020 ng/g. The contribution of dioxin-like PCBs to the total dioxin toxic equivalent is very high: from 16 to 85%. The high levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in the soils indicate the strong contamination of the atmospheric air. The main source of these compounds is apparently motor transport.

  4. PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs in European catfish from a northern Italian lake: the contribution of an alien species to human exposure.

    PubMed

    Squadrone, S; Prearo, M; Nespoli, R; Scanzio, T; Abete, M C

    2016-03-01

    PCDDs/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs are environmentally persistent substances that have been associated with adverse effects on human health. Humans are mainly exposed to these pollutants through ingestion of contaminated fish and fishery products; the consumption of fatty fish such as European catfish can contribute considerably to the intake of dioxins and PCBs. Samples of fish muscle of the top-of-the-food-chain predator Silurus glanis from the northern Italian Lake Varese were analyzed to detect the levels of 17 PCDD/F and 18 PCB congeners. All samples presented detectable levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs, with concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 1.310pgg(-1) wet weight (w.w.) for Σ PCDD/Fs, 0.031 to 21.000pgg(-1) w. w. for Σ DL-PCBs, and 0.397 to 117.910ngg(-1) w. w. for Σ NDL-PCBs. One sample exceeded the maximum levels of 6.5pgg(-1) w. w. for the sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs set by European regulations for fish (1259/2011 EU), while other samples exceeded the action levels of 0.75pgg(-1) w. w. for the sum of PCDD/Fs, and 2pgg(-1) w. w. for the sum of DL-PCBs (277/2012 EU). Consuming contaminated catfish may pose a risk for human health, especially for the subpopulation traditionally accustomed to eating this fish, as well as sensitive individuals, such as children and pregnant women. PMID:26702715

  5. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxins during combustion, electrical equipment fires and PCB incineration.

    PubMed Central

    Hutzinger, O; Choudhry, G G; Chittim, B G; Johnston, L E

    1985-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are likely formed by thermal synthesis of a variety of primary precursors. Highest levels of these compounds are expected, however, when the starting material requires only one or two reaction steps for their formation, as is the case with chlorophenols, chlorobenzenes and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Laboratory pyrolyses have indeed shown that PCBs give significant yields of PCDFs, and chlorobenzenes give both PCDFs and PCDDs. In addition, a variety of other chloroaromatic compounds are formed. From these experiments and from accidents involving PCB fires, it is known that PCDFs are the most important toxic compounds associated with PCBs. Most commercial PCBs contain PCDFs in the low ppm range. PCDF concentration does not increase during normal operation in electrical equipment. Accidents (fires and explosions) involving PCBs can give PCDF levels in soot of up to 1000 ppm and higher. Effective thermal destruction of PCB is possible in modern incineration units, provided high temperatures, excess air and sufficient residence times are used. Exact figures for minimum temperature and residence time cannot be given, since feedstock and incinerator construction greatly influence destruction efficiency. Effluents from EPA-licensed incinerators used for PCB destruction contain only very low levels of PCDDs and PCDFs. PMID:3928357

  6. Excessive fear of PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    Abelson, P.H.

    1991-07-26

    When mentioned by the media, the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are described as cancer-causing chemicals. A more precise statement would be that huge daily lifelong doses of some of the PCBs are cancer-causing in rats. Many industrial workers were exposed to substantial amounts of PCBs during the 1950s, '60s, and early '70s. Some of the workers respired a total of 15 grams or more. But the industrial exposure led to no known cases of cancer. Nevertheless, as much as $100 billion could ultimately be spent trying to remove PCBs from the environment. Various experiments on the carcinogenicity of PCBs have been conducted at different laboratories using different strains of rats and different criteria in the pathologic examinations. The Institute for Evaluating Health Risks (IEHR) has just completed a project in which the pathological diagnoses in five key rat PCB studies were reassessed by a panel of expert pathologists. They reaffirmed the carcinogenicity of the 60% chlorinated PCBs, and that chronic exposure to a PCB formulation that was 54% chlorinated did not yield a statistically significant increase of either benign or malignant tumors. Their examination of the relevant pathologic slides revealed that rats chronically exposed to a PCB formulation that was 42% chlorinated did not develop any increase in malignant tumors or a statistically significant increase in benign tumors. These reassessment results indicate that the following two traditional EPA policy positions be reconsidered: an assumption that all PCB formulations are probable human carcinogens; and the assumption that all PCB formulations have the same quantitative potency to cause cancer.

  7. Formation of dioxins (PCDDs/PCDFs) by dioxin-free fly ash as a catalyst and relation with several chlorine-sources.

    PubMed

    Takasuga, T; Makino, T; Tsubota, K; Takeda, N

    2000-01-01

    Simplified thermal formation experiments have been conducted using dioxin-free fly ash as a catalyst with many kinds of combustible samples such as newspaper, kerosene, paraffin, PE (polyethylene), PP (polypropylene) and PVC. Chlorine sources were PVC, NaCl and HCl. The combustion of samples containing chlorine in the absence of dioxin-free fly ash produced dioxins at a low level although HCl was present in the gas stream. On the other hand, the combustion of samples without chlorine with dioxin-free fly ash increased dioxins formation to a level around 10 times higher than that upon heating dioxin-free fly ash alone. This result is considered to be due to the presence of metal chloride in the fly ash and hydrocarbons in the gas stream. The combustion of samples containing either an organic or inorganic chlorine source or using a HCl stream with dioxin-free fly ash increased dioxin level dramatically. PMID:10739038

  8. Pilot Survey of Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-P-Dioxins (Pcdds), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (Pcdfs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) and Mercury in Rural Soils of the U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Pilot Survey Soil Report EPA has released a final report entitled, Pilot Survey of Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychl...

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs ) ; CASRN 1336 - 36 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  10. Solubility enhancement of dioxins and PCBs by surfactant monomers and micelles quantified with polymer depletion techniques.

    PubMed

    Schacht, Veronika J; Grant, Sharon C; Escher, Beate I; Hawker, Darryl W; Gaus, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    Partitioning of super-hydrophobic organic contaminants (SHOCs) to dissolved or colloidal materials such as surfactants can alter their behaviour by enhancing apparent aqueous solubility. Relevant partition constants are, however, challenging to quantify with reasonable accuracy. Partition constants to colloidal surfactants can be measured by introducing a polymer (PDMS) as third phase with known PDMS-water partition constant in combination with the mass balance approach. We quantified partition constants of PCBs and PCDDs (log KOW 5.8-8.3) between water and sodium dodecyl sulphate monomers (KMO) and micelles (KMI). A refined, recently introduced swelling-based polymer loading technique allowed highly precise (4.5-10% RSD) and fast (<24 h) loading of SHOCs into PDMS, and due to the miniaturisation of batch systems equilibrium was reached in <5 days for KMI and <3 weeks for KMO. SHOC losses to experimental surfaces were substantial (8-26%) in monomer solutions, but had a low impact on KMO (0.10-0.16 log units). Log KMO for PCDDs (4.0-5.2) were approximately 2.6 log units lower than respective log KMI, which ranged from 5.2 to 7.0 for PCDDs and 6.6-7.5 for PCBs. The linear relationship between log KMI and log KOW was consistent with more polar and moderately hydrophobic compounds. Apparent solubility increased with increasing hydrophobicity and was highest in micelle solutions. However, this solubility enhancement was also considerable in monomer solutions, up to 200 times for OCDD. Given the pervasive presence of surfactant monomers in typical field scenarios, these data suggest that low surfactant concentrations may be effective long-term facilitators for subsurface transport of SHOCs. PMID:26966808

  11. Sources and fate of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and related compounds in human environments.

    PubMed Central

    Tiernan, T O; Taylor, M L; Garrett, J H; VanNess, G F; Solch, J G; Wagel, D J; Ferguson, G L; Schecter, A

    1985-01-01

    Several of the major incidents resulting in potential human exposures to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and/or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds which have occurred in the U.S. in recent periods have resulted from improper disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Prominent examples of such environmental contamination episodes are the Love Canal, into which ton quantities of chlorinated organic compounds containing substantial concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were deposited; numerous sites in the State of Missouri which were contaminated by the dumping of chlorinated organic wastes containing various PCDDs and possibly PCDFs, and PCBs; and the environs of a 2,4-D/2,4,5-T manufacturing plant site in Arkansas, which were contaminated with PCDDs. Environmental assessments of such sites have revealed extensive contamination of soils, waterways, fish and other biological species with these toxic compounds, which in turn could lead to human exposures. Other recently identified sources of PCDDs, PCDFs and related compounds in human environments include stack effluents from municipal refuse incineration, and fires and explosions involving electrical devices containing PCBs and polychlorinated benzenes. Data obtained in assessments of such incidents are presented, and the implications of these findings with respect to the distribution and persistence of PCDDs, PCDFs and related chemicals in the environment and possible effects on humans are discussed. PMID:3921357

  12. Sources and fate of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and related compounds in human environments.

    PubMed

    Tiernan, T O; Taylor, M L; Garrett, J H; VanNess, G F; Solch, J G; Wagel, D J; Ferguson, G L; Schecter, A

    1985-02-01

    Several of the major incidents resulting in potential human exposures to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and/or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds which have occurred in the U.S. in recent periods have resulted from improper disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Prominent examples of such environmental contamination episodes are the Love Canal, into which ton quantities of chlorinated organic compounds containing substantial concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were deposited; numerous sites in the State of Missouri which were contaminated by the dumping of chlorinated organic wastes containing various PCDDs and possibly PCDFs, and PCBs; and the environs of a 2,4-D/2,4,5-T manufacturing plant site in Arkansas, which were contaminated with PCDDs. Environmental assessments of such sites have revealed extensive contamination of soils, waterways, fish and other biological species with these toxic compounds, which in turn could lead to human exposures. Other recently identified sources of PCDDs, PCDFs and related compounds in human environments include stack effluents from municipal refuse incineration, and fires and explosions involving electrical devices containing PCBs and polychlorinated benzenes. Data obtained in assessments of such incidents are presented, and the implications of these findings with respect to the distribution and persistence of PCDDs, PCDFs and related chemicals in the environment and possible effects on humans are discussed. PMID:3921357

  13. Sources and fate of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and related compounds in human environments

    SciTech Connect

    Tiernan, T.O.; Taylor, M.L.; Garrett, J.H.; VanNess, G.F.; Solch, J.G.; Wagel, D.J.; Ferguson, G.L.; Schecter, A.

    1985-02-01

    Several of the major incidents resulting in potential human exposures to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and/or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds which have occurred in the U.S. in recent periods have resulted from improper disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Prominent examples of such environmental contamination episodes are the Love Canal, into which ton quantities of chlorinated organic compounds containing substantial concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were deposited; numerous sites in the State of Missouri which were contaminated by the dumping of chlorinated organic wastes containing various PCDDs and possibly PCDFs, and PCBs; and the environs of a 2,4-D/2,4,5-T manufacturing plant site in Arkansas, which were contaminated with PCDDs. Environmental assessments of such sites have revealed extensive contamination of soils, waterways, fish and other biological species with these toxic compounds, which in turn could lead to human exposures. Other recently identified sources of PCDDs, PCDFs and related compounds in human environments include stack effluents from municipal refuse incineration, and fires and explosions involving electrical devices containing PCBs and polychlorinated benzenes. Data obtained in assessments of such incidents are presented, and the implications of these findings with respect to the distribution and persistence of PCDDs, PCDFs and related chemicals in the environment and possible effects on humans are discussed.

  14. Biodegradation of PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    Kopec, R.I.

    1992-01-01

    PCBs were examined for biodegradability by a strain of Pseudomonas sp. designated E1, by a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa designated E2, and by a strain of Pseudomonas putida designated E3. The PCBs included Aroclor mixes from Aroclor 1221 to Aroclor 1268, and pure congeners ranging from monochlorobiphenyl to decachlorobiphenyl. These congeners represented all structural classes. Pure culture studies revealed that cells of E1 grew well on all structural classes of PCB congeners up to heptachlorobiphenyl, and all Aroclor mixes up to Aroclor 1260. Gas chromotographic analysis revealed that biphenyl/acetate grown resting cells of E1 degraded congeners up to octachlorobiphenyl. The degradative patterns for E2 and E3 were assessed using gas chromatographic techniques. E2 was found to be markedly inferior to E1, degrading only the mono-, di-, and tri-chlorobiphenyl tested. Pseudomonas putida strain E3 could not degrade any PCB congener. Mutations in both E2 and E3 that enabled them to utilize more highly chlorinated congeners of PCBs were obtained in nutritionally depleted environments. Such mutants could not be obtained by direct selection using minimal media and appear to be [open quotes]Cairnsian[close quotes] mutations. The Pseudomonas sp. strain E1 was tested in 15 prior or current National Priority List soil microcosms to assess its biodegradative ability in situ. E1 was able to completely degrade the 2,3,4,2[prime],3[prime],4[prime]-2,4,5,2[prime],4[prime],5[prime]-hexachlorobiphenyl congener in seven of the microcosms within two months as well.

  15. Dioxins, dioxin-like compounds, and PBDEs in the U.S. domestic meat supply: trends and levels 2003 to 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the mid-1990s, 2002-2003, 2007-2008, and again in 2012-2013 the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducted statistical surveys for dioxin and dioxin-like compound (PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs) residues in domestic meat and poultry. The surveys were conducted to determine background levels of diox...

  16. FRAMEWORK FOR APPLICATION OF THE TOXICITY EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIOXINS, FURANS, AND BIPHENYLS IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenols (PCBs) commonly occur as complex mixtures in the environment, including in animal tissues. For more than a decade the USEPA and other organizations have estimated the combined risks that such mixtures...

  17. Prediction for thermodynamic function of dioxins for gas phase using semi-empirical molecular orbital method with PM3 Hamiltonian.

    PubMed

    Saito, N; Fuwa, A

    2000-01-01

    In this investigation, respective thermodynamic parameters of heats of formation, standard entropy and specific heat capacity at constant pressure for PCDDs, PCDFs, Co-PCB and PCBs as well as polychlorinated-benzenes and polychlorinated-phenols have been evaluated by quantum chemical calculation using a semi-empirical molecular orbital method with the PM3 Hamiltonian and statistical thermodynamic correlation. PMID:10665426

  18. Dioxin, furan, PCB, and PBDE levels in U.S. foods: Survey trends and consumer exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) and Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) have conducted statistical surveys for dioxins (PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers every 5 years since the mid-1990s (mid-1990s, 2002-3, 2007-8). I...

  19. EVALUATION OF THE FULL-SCALE BASE CATALYZED DECOMPOSITION PROCESS (BCDP) UNIT LOCATED IN GUAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes performance data collected in February 1997 on the removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from soil fed to a first-stage rotary kiln reactor of the Base Catalyzed Dec...

  20. Framework for Application of the Toxicity Equivalence Methodology for Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans, and Biphenyls in Ecological Risk Assessment (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent contaminants found widely in the environment. Several of these compounds bioaccumulate in the tissues of fish, birds, and mammals and have been shown to cause mortality and adver...

  1. Framework for Application of the Toxicity Equivalence Methodology for Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans, and Biphenyls in Ecological Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) are commonly found as contaminants in complex mixtures in the environment. Several of these compounds bioaccumulate in the tissues of fish, birds, and mammals and have been shown to cause mo...

  2. PCBs and the Family Physician

    PubMed Central

    Cappon, I.D.

    1986-01-01

    Pcbs are widespread environmental contaminants present in virtually every mammal on earth. Great controversy and debate has been evoked over the past two decades concerning their potential toxicity. They, along with other organochlorine compounds such as DDT, have been reasonably well studied in field and experimental situations. In general, PCBs are not very toxic, especially in concentrations to which most people are exposed, even those who work in the industrial setting or who eat contaminated fish. In terms of environmental hazards to health, PCBs should be considered as relatively low on the list. The public cannot depend on media information as a source of objective knowledge on controversial compounds like PCBs. The family physician should be able to provide to concerned individuals objective information on the definition, sources and relative toxicity of PCBs. PMID:21267326

  3. SITE DEMONSTRATION OF MINERGY GLASS FURNACE TREATMENT OF PCBS, PCDDS/FS, AND METALS IN RIVER SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program selected the Glass Furnace Technology (GFT) treatment process for evaluation. The GFT was developed by Minergy Corporation (Minergy) as an ex situ remediation technolog...

  4. Dioxin-like compound compositional profiles of furnace bottom ashes from household combustion in Poland and their possible associations with contamination status of agricultural soil and pine needles.

    PubMed

    Wyrzykowska, Barbara; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Orlikowska, Anna; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2009-06-01

    A compositional profile of PCDDs, PCDFs, non- and mono-ortho PCBs, and PCNs of several type furnace bottom ashes obtained after the heating muffle stove for domestic use combustion of hard coal, coke, wood, and solid domestic waste mixture have been examined as possible contributors to environmental diffusion with these compounds in Poland. The uppermost concentration of dioxin-like compounds with 2.0 ng TEQ kg(-1) dry weight found for wood ash was dominated by PCDDs and PCDFs, while for other types of ashes were in the range from 0.052 ng TEQ kg(-1) to 0.67 ng TEQ kg(-1) dry weight. The multivariate statistical analysis displayed some compositional similarity of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCNs between the ashes and environmental pine needle or agricultural soil matrices collected in Poland. PMID:19356784

  5. PCBs and the environment: Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Waid, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    This book discusses: Differences Between Yusho and Other Kinds of Poisoning Involving Only PCBs. PCB Poisoning from Toxic Rice-Bran Oil. PCBs in Human Populations. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Workplace. Disposal and Destruction of Waste PCBs. Great Lakes Ecosystem Modeling of the Fate of PCBs. PCB in the Baltic Environment. Mediterranean Marine Ecosystem Case Study: The Australian Ecosystem.

  6. PCBs in the Harlem River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2012-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent, toxic and bioaccumulated contaminants of great environmental concern. PCB is a tracer of wastewater, stormwater and CSOs inputs; PCBs contamination of fish is a main environmental concern for the Harlem River. PCBs in the Harlem River are from combined sewer overflows (CSOs), stormwater runoff, wastewater, as well as upper Hudson GE (General Electric at Fort Edward)'s release. PCBs affect human health mostly from contaminated fish consumption. Many research focused on PCBs in the Hudson River and New York/New Jersey Harbor. However, PCBs source, transport and environmental impact in the Harlem River-a natural straight that connects the Hudson River and the East River, had not been well studied. In this research, water sample were collected from the Harlem River and analyzed PCBs by HR GC/MS (High resolution gas chromatography mass spectrophotometer). Preliminary results showed that certain PCBs congeners in the water column. Results also indicated that nutrients (phosphorus and ammonia) as well as bacteria levels exceeded EPA standards: Total phosphorus-10μg/L, total nitrogen-0.38mg/L; E.Coli-126 MPN/100ml, Enterococcus- 104MPN/100ml, Fecal Coliform-200 MPN/100ml. This research is under process, and more results could give further detail in near future. This research will help improve water quality of the Harlem River, improve environmental health and raise environmental awareness.SO tank Nutrient and bacterial levels of selected sites in the Harlem RiverCSO: Combined Sewer OverflowWWTP: Waste Water Treatment Plant

  7. VARIABLES AFFECTING EMISSIONS OF PCDDS/FS FROM UNCONTROLLED COMBUSTION OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE IN BARRELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The uncontrolled burning of household waste in barrels has recently been implicated as a major source of airborne emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs). Based on the need to generate a more accurate emission factor for burn ba...

  8. Serum concentrations of TCDD and other dioxin-like compounds in US Air Force veterans of Operation Ranch Hand.

    PubMed

    Pavuk, Marian; Patterson, Donald G; Turner, Wayman E

    2014-05-01

    We measured serum concentrations of seven dibenzo-p-dioxin congeners (PCDDs), ten dibenzofurans (PCDFs), four non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (noPCBs) and six mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (moPCBs) in 1950 veterans of the Vietnam War. The veterans were participants in the Air Force Health Study (AFHS) who attended the final medical examination in 2002. Blood samples were collected from 777 Ranch Hands involved in the aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam and a comparison group of 1173 veterans ("Comparisons") who served in Southeast Asia during the same time period. Results for moPCBs were based on a random subsample of 800 veterans. The median 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) concentrations in 2002 were 5.0 pg g(-1) lipid in Ranch Hands and 2.2 pg g(-1) lipid in Comparisons. No substantial differences were found in measured concentrations of other PCDDs, PCDFs, and noPCBs. Similarly, no substantial differences were found for moPCBs in the subsample. The median total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ) in Ranch Hands was 18.7 pg g(-1) lipid for PCDDs, 3.4 pg g(-1) lipid for PCDFs, and 3.2 pg g(-1) lipid for noPCBs. Median TEQs in Comparisons were 14.4 pg g(-1) lipid for PCDDs, 3.5 pg g(-1) lipid for PCDFs, and 3.3 pg g(-1) lipid for noPCBs. These TEQs, with the exception of PCDD TEQ in Ranch Hands (primarily due to elevated TCDD), were similar to or lower than those reported for similar age and gender groups in the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). These findings support the assumption that the Ranch Hand veterans were not more highly exposed to dioxin-like compounds other than TCDD than were Comparison veterans or the general US population. PMID:24377449

  9. PCBs: Recent environmental and analytical advances

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of 209 discrete chemical compounds, called congeners, in which one to ten chlorine atoms are attached to biphenyl. This article reviews the properties, environmental occurrence, and analysis of PCBs. This review is intended to provide the environmental professional with a general background on PCBs.

  10. Vertical distribution of AhR-activating compounds in sediments contaminated by modernized pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Ratia, H; Oikari, A

    2014-03-01

    Increased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity is a sensitive biomarker of exposure to the chemicals which activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and induce the cytochrome P450 system, such as many polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Pulp bleaching was one of the main sources of PCDDs and PCDFs until elemental chlorine free (ECF) and total chlorine free bleaching processes since 1990s have remarkably decreased but not completely eliminate discharges of these chemicals. In addition, historically contaminated sediments may act as a source of these persistent contaminants. In this study, the contamination history and recovery of a watercourse heavily loaded by the chemical wood industry were studied by analyzing PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs from vertical sediment samples and by measuring hepatic EROD activity from rainbow trout intraperitoneally dosed with the sediment extracts. No PCDDs or PCDFs were found above the chromatographic limit of detection from the study area and only small amounts of PCB congeners 101, 138, 153, and 180 were present. No increased EROD activity was observed in fish indicating the absence of any AhR-activating compounds in the surface sediment, to about 15 cm depth, representing about the last 20 years when kraft pulping and ECF bleaching with activated wastewater treatment have been used. It can be concluded that nowadays organochlorines and other AhR-ligands do not harm the previously heavily polluted watercourse. PMID:24361517

  11. Formation, occurrence and analysis of polychlorinated dibenzofurans, dioxins and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Buser, H.R.

    1985-05-01

    In several accidents (fires, explosions) involving electrical systems containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or benzenes (PCBZs), the formation of polychlorinated tricyclic aromatic compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and biphenylenes (PCBPs) was observed. These findings were not surprising in light of our previous studies on the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs from the thermolysis (500-750C in presence of air) of PCBs or PCBZs. In these experiments we identified three main and a fourth minor reaction pathway leading to PCDFs from PCBs. The three main reactions involved the loss of ortho-Cl2, and the losses of ortho-HCl with and without a 2,3-chlorine shift. The fourth, minor reaction route found with some PCBs, involved the loss of ortho-H2. These reaction pathways were intramolecular cyclizations via oxidation to phenolic compounds. Thermolysis of commercial PCBs (Aroclor 1254 and 1260) yielded the same PCDF isomers as expected from the main PCB components via these four reaction pathways; the isomers formed included the toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted tetra-, penta- and hexa-CDFs. Thermolysis of PCBZs involved complex condensation reactions with multiple rearrangements leading to PCDFs as well as PCDDs. Again oxidation to phenolic products was involved but the reaction routes are not yet fully elucidated. The results of samples from transformer and capacitor accident sites showed very complex PCDF mixtures with 2,3,7,8-substituted isomers as main components and originating from the PCBs in the transformer liquid. The unusual presence of PCDDs in samples from the Binghamton accident originates from PCBZs present in transformer fluid of that specific installation, thus confirming our previous thermolysis findings.

  12. Destruction kinetic of PCDDs/Fs in MSWI fly ash using microwave peroxide oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Min; Fang, Wen-Bin; Tsai, Kuo-Sheng; Kao, Jimmy C M; Lin, Kae-Long; Chen, Ching-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Microwave peroxide oxidation is a less greenhouse gas emission and energy-efficient technology to destroy toxic organic compounds in hazardous waste. The research novelty is to adopt the innovative microwave peroxide oxidation in H2SO4/HNO3 solution to efficiently destroy the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/Fs in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. The major objective of this paper is to study dynamic destruction of PCDDs/Fs using the microwave peroxide oxidation. Almost all PCDDs/Fs in the raw fly ash can be destructed in 120 min at a temperature of 423 K using the microwave peroxide oxidation treatment. It was found that the microwave peroxide oxidation provides the potential to destruct the PCDDs/Fs content in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash to a low level as a function of treatment time. A useful kinetic correlation between destruction efficiency and treatment conditions is proposed on the basis of the experimental data obtained in this study. The significance of this work in terms of practical engineering applications is that the necessary minimum treatment time can be solved using a proposed graphic illustration method, by which the minimum treatment time is obtained if the desired destruction efficiency and treatment temperature are known. Because of inorganic salt dissolution, the temperature would be a critical factor facilitating the parts of fly ash dissolution. Material loss problem caused by the microwave peroxide oxidation and the effects of treatment time and temperature are also discussed in this paper. PMID:25176128

  13. Plant uptake of sludge-borne PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, G.A.; Kiehl, D.; Eiceman, G.A.; Ryan, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Plant uptake of sludge-borne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (similar to Aroclor 1248) was evaluated in a greenhouse study with two food-chain crops and a grass species. Polychlorinated biphenyl loading to two soils was varied in one experiment by adding different rates of a municipal sewage sludge heavily contaminated (52 mg/kg) with PCBs. In a second experiment, Aroclor 1248 was spiked into unamended soils or soils amended with another sludge containing <1mg/kg PCBs. Analysis of PCBs was by GC/MS with a reliable detection limit in plants of 20 microg/kg for individual chlorinated classes (tri, tetra-, and pentachlorobiphenyls) and total PCBs. Only carrots (Daucus carota) were contaminated with PCBs, and contamination was restricted to carrot peels. Current USEPA guidelines for land application of sludges based on sludge PCB content are shown to be extremely conservative.

  14. Gender-related decrease in raven`s progressive matrices scores in children prenatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and related contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.L.; Lai, T.J.; Chen, S.J.; Hsu, C.C.

    1995-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and industrial mixtures that have been widely used throughout the world. PCBs have long environmental half lives and bioconcentrate, therefore contaminating soil, water, wild life, and human tissues. Typical human exposures come from environmental contamination of food supply, especially fresh water fish and meat, and occupational exposures. In certain uses, PCBs can partially oxidize and themselves become contaminated by extremely toxic compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Two episodes of intoxication with heat-degraded PCBs have occurred, in Japan and Taiwan respectively. In 1979, over 2000 persons in Taiwan were intoxicated by heat-degraded PCBs that had contaminated their cooking oil. Kaneclor 500 (a Japanese PCB mixture) contained in the heating pipe was used as the heat transmitter. Leakage of the pipe introduced PCBs and heat-degraded products such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated quaterphenyls (PCQs) into the rice oil. Exposed victims developed chloracne, hyperpigmentation, peripheral neuropathy, and other signs and symptoms which were later called Yu-Cheng ({open_quotes}oil disease{close_quotes}) in Taiwan. These symptoms were caused not only by PCBs but by their heat degraded products, PCDFs. PCBs, PCDFs and PCDDs also can cross the placenta to affect the fetus and cause significant neurodevelopmental toxicity. Raven`s Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Standarized Progressive Matrices (SPM) test spatial rather than verbal capabilities in children. These test are useful for determining whether prenatal exposure to PCBs/PCDFs cause differential effects on boys and girls. This paper reports results of CPM and SPM from age six to nine year in Yu-Cheng children and their matched controls. Cognative deficits up to 9 years of age were detected n children with prenatal exposure to PCBs and PCDFs, and boys were more affected than girls. 26 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Toxic potential of non-ortho and mono-ortho coplanar PCBs in commercial PCB preparations: 2,3,7,8-T/sub 4/ CDD Toxicity Equivalence Factors Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kannan, N.; Tanabe, S.; Tatsukawa, R.

    1988-08-01

    Identification of highly toxic polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in commercial PCBs has contributed to the belief that they play a major role in the PCB toxicity. However, Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies have indicated that PCB congeners with chlorine substitution at both para and two or more meta positions resemble 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (T/sub 4/CDD) in their biologic and toxic effects due to their coplanarity. The relative toxic potential of these PCB isomers in wild animals such as Forster's tern, marine mammals and Snapping turtle has been emphasized. Some members of these toxic congeners were also identified and quantitated in commercial PCBs. However, there is no serious effort to evaluate the toxic potential of these PCB congeners in commercial PCB mixtures. Hence an isomer-specific toxic evaluation was attempted in those mixtures to understand the chemical factors behind their toxicity.

  16. Serum dioxin levels in Vietnamese men more than 40 years after herbicide spraying.

    PubMed

    Manh, Ho Dung; Kido, Teruhiko; Okamoto, Rie; Xianliang, Sun; Anh, Le Thai; Supratman, Supratman; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Honma, Seijiro; Nakano, Takeshi; Takasuga, Takumi; Nhu, Dang Duc; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke

    2014-03-18

    Recent studies have found elevated dioxin levels inside some U.S. military former air bases in Vietnam, known as hotspots. Many studies of Agent Orange have been done in U.S. veterans; however, there is little known about Vietnamese men. In 2010, we collected blood samples from 97 men in a hotspot and 85 men in an unsprayed area in Northern Vietnam. Serum concentrations of not only TCDD but also other dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs), and nonortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were significantly higher in the hotspot than in the unsprayed area. In the hotspot, three subareas were demarcated, based on their proximity to the air base. The total toxic equivalents (TEQ) of PCDDs/PCDFs+PCBs was 41.7 pg/g lipid in the area closest to the air base, while it was around 29 pg/g lipid in the other two subareas. In the unsprayed area, the dioxin levels were no different between men who went to the South during the Vietnam War and those who remained in the North, with TEQs PCDDs/PCDFs+PCBs of around 13.6 pg/g lipid. Our findings suggested that people living close to the former U.S. air bases might have been exposed to both Agent Orange and other sources of dioxin-like compounds. PMID:24552243

  17. Evaluation of planar halogenated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in estuarine sediments using ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase induction of H4IIE cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, R.W.; Long, E.R.; Schwartz, T.R.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and planar halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fractionated sediment extracts from the Hudson-Raritan estuary and Newark Bay, New Jersey, USA, as part of a comprehensive risk assessment. Contributions of PCDDs/PCDFs, PCBs, and PAHs to the total toxic equivalents (TEQs) were measured using an H4IIE bioassay and calculated from instrumentally determined concentrations using international toxic equivalency factors. The H4IIE TEQs of whole and fractionated extracts were compared to calculated TEQs to investigate the applicability of the bioassay approach for evaluating 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylease induction by PHHs and PAHs present together in complex mixtures. Although 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin contributed from 41 to 79% of the calculated TEQs from PCDDs/PCDFs and planar PCBs in all sediments sampled, the PAH-containing fractions accounted for >80% of the total TEQs determined either instrumentally or by bioassay. Calculated TEQs from PAHs, based on reported toxic equivalency factors for only seven PAHs, were severalfold greater than the bioassay-derived TEQs of PAH-only fractions of the sediment extracts. Significant correlations were observed between bioassay and instrumentally determined toxic equivalents in the more purified fractions but not in fractions only purified by size-exclusion or argentate chromatographies alone.

  18. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins in subsurface soil, superficial dust, and air extracts from a contaminated landfill.

    PubMed

    Hansen, L G; O'Keefe, P W

    1996-08-01

    Extracts of soil, dust and air from a National Priorities List Landfill have been found to contain distinct profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The different extracts show subtle differences in toxicities and the soil extract has been shown to cause both Ah receptor mediated effects and Ah receptor independent effects in immature female rats. Evidence of open burning at the site dictated quantitation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) for a more accurate tabulation of dioxin equivalencies. High volume air sampling on XAD-2 resin cartridges captured trace amounts of PCDFs and no detectable PCDDs. Acetone:Hexane (1:1) extracts of soil and dust contained 762 microg/ml and 250 microg/ml PCDFs, respectively, and less than 10% as much PCDD. Subsequent benzene:methylene chloride (1:1) extracts were enriched in coplanar compounds relative to total PCBs. PCDF:PCB ratios in all extracts were higher than in the rice oils contaminated with heated PCBs in the Yusho and Yu-Cheng incidents. No 2,3,7,8-TCDD was detected, and total PCB+PCDD+PCDF toxic equivalencies were dominated by the high proportions of PCDFs. PMID:8785012

  19. INVESTIGATION OF THE PATHWAYS TO PCDDS/FS FROM AN ETHYLENE DIFFUSION FLAME: FORMATION FROM FLAME SOOT AND AROMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, PCDDs/Fs, occur in the combustion of a wide variety of fuels, and is related to poor combustion conditions. This study looks at the importance of flame soot, including associated adsorbed and condensed aeromati...

  20. INVESTIGATION OF THE PATHWAYS TO PCDDS/FS FROM AN ETHYLENE DIFFUSION FLAME: FORMATION FROM SOOT AND AROMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) has been shown to occur from the combustion products of fuels as complex as municipal solid waste and as relatively simple as a methane flame. PCDD/F emissions from flame carbon in th...

  1. Predictability of physicochemical properties of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) based on single-molecular descriptor models.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minhee; Li, Loretta Y; Grace, John R

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) are of global concern due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity. Although the fate of PCDDs in the environment is determined by their physical-chemical properties, such as aqueous solubility, vapor pressure, octanol/water-, air/water-, and octanol/water-partition coefficients, experimental property data on the entire set of 75 PCDD congeners are limited. The quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach is applied to predict the properties of all PCDD congeners. Experimental property data available from the literature are correlated against 16 molecular descriptors of five types. Reported and newly developed QSPR models for PCDDs are presented and reviewed. The values calculated by the best QSPRs are further adjusted to satisfy fundamental thermodynamic relationships. Although the single-descriptor models with chlorine number, molar volume, solvent accessible surface area and polarizability are based on good statistical results, these models cannot distinguish among PCDDs having the same chlorine number. The QSPR model based on the hyper-Wiener index of quantum-chemical descriptor gives useful statistical results and is able to distinguish among congeners with the same chlorine number, as well as satisfying thermodynamic relationships. The resulting consistent properties of the 75 PCDD congeners can be used for environmental modeling. PMID:26878604

  2. Dioxinlike components in incinerator fly ash: a comparison between chemical analysis data and results from a cell culture bioassay.

    PubMed Central

    Till, M; Behnisch, P; Hagenmaier, H; Bock, K W; Schrenk, D

    1997-01-01

    Potent polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most relevant toxic emissions from incinerators. Induction of cytochrome P450 1A1-catalyzed 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in mammalian cell culture (EROD bioassay) is thought to be a selective and sensitive parameter used for the quantification of dioxinlike compounds. Fly ash extracts from municipal waste incinerators (MWI), a crematorium, wood combustors, and a noble metal recycling facility were analyzed in the EROD bioassay using rat hepatocytes in primary culture. Fractions containing 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/PCDFs, dioxinlike PCBs, and 16 major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were isolated from the extract and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and by the EROD bioassay. It was found that with MWI samples the bioassay of the extract resulted in a two- to fivefold higher estimate of TCDD equivalents (TEQ) than the chemical analysis of PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs. However, the outcome of both methods was significantly correlated, making the bioassay useful as a rough estimate for the sum of potent PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxinlike PCBs in extracts from MWI fly ash samples and in a fly ash sample from a crematorium. In noble metal recycling facility and wood combustor samples, higher amounts of PAHs were found, contributing to more pronounced differences between the results of both methods. The remaining unexplained inducing potency in fly ash samples probably results from additional dioxinlike components including certain PAHs not analyzed in this study.The hypothesis that emissions from MWI of hitherto unidentified dioxinlike compounds are higher by orders of magnitude than emissions of potent PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxinlike PCBs could not be confirmed. We found no indication for a marked synergistic interaction of dioxinlike fly ash components in the bioassay. Images Figure 1. Figure

  3. PCBs and DDE in commercial fish feeds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Nicholson, L.W.; McCauley, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Three commercial fish feeds were analyzed for PCBs and p,p' DDE and were reported in dry weight concentrations. In various sizes of Oregon Moist Pellets, concentrations of PCBs ranged from less than 0.10 to 0.30 I?g/g and those of p,p' DDE from less than 0.01 to 0.47 I?g/g. In Silver Cup, concentrations of PCBs were 0.06 to 0.07 I?g/g, and p,p' DDE, 0.01 to 0.06 I?g/g. Nauplii of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) contained 0.14 I?g/g PCB and 0.03 I?g/g p,p' DDE.

  4. Assessing the cancer risk from environmental PCBs.

    PubMed Central

    Cogliano, V J

    1998-01-01

    A new approach to assessing the cancer risk from environmental polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) considers both toxicity and environmental processes to make distinctions among environmental mixtures. New toxicity information from a 1996 cancer study of four commercial mixtures strengthens the case that all PCB mixtures can cause cancer, although different mixtures have different potencies. Environmental processes alter PCB mixtures through partitioning, chemical transformation, and preferential bioaccumulation; these processes can increase or decrease toxicity considerably. Bioaccumulated PCBs are of greatest concern because they appear to be more toxic than commercial PCBs and more persistent in the body. The new approach uses toxicity studies of commercial mixtures to develop a range of cancer potency estimates and then considers the effect of environmental processes to choose appropriate values for representative classes of environmental mixtures. Guidance is given for assessing risks from different exposure pathways, less-than-lifetime and early-life exposures, and mixtures containing dioxinlike compounds. PMID:9618347

  5. Anaerobic dechlorination and the bioremediation of PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    Quensen, J.F. III; Boyd, S.A.; Tiedje, J.M. )

    1990-01-01

    The recently discovered process of biologically mediated reductive dechlorination of PCBs promises to overcome some of the limitations of aerobic PCB biodegradation. This process, first suspected from the altered chromatographic pattern observed for Hudson River sediment samples, has been duplicated in the laboratory. The process removes meta and para chlorines, resulting in a PCB mixture that is both less toxic and more aerobically degradable. It is active at higher PCB concentrations (at least 5,000 ppm), and does not require induction by biphenyl or a monochlorinated biphenyl. The literature on the aerobic biodegradation of PCBs is briefly reviewed for the purpose of pointing out the limitations of aerobic PCB degradation that an anaerobic pretreatment can be expected to overcome, and the results of our own research on the reductive dechlorination of PCBs is summarized.

  6. Metabolism and metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, FA; Hu, D; Kania-Korwel, I; Lehmler, HJ; Ludewig, G; Hornbuckle, KC; Duffel, MW; Bergman, A; Robertson, LW

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is complex and has an impact on toxicity and thereby assessment of PCB risks. A large number of reactive and stable metabolites are formed in the processes of biotransformation in biota in general and in humans in particular. The aim of this document is to provide an overview of PCB metabolism and to identify metabolites of concern and their occurrence. Emphasis is given to mammalian metabolism of PCBs and their hydroxyl, methylsulfonyl, and sulfated metabolites, especially those that persist in human blood. Potential intracellular targets and health risks are also discussed. PMID:25629923

  7. A cross-sectional analysis of dioxins and health effects in municipal and private waste incinerator workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenya; Kudo, Mitsuhiro; Arito, Heihachiro; Ogawa, Yasutaka; Takata, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was intended to examine health effects of 678 male workers employed during an 8-yr period from 2000 to 2007 at 36 municipal and private waste incineration plants in Japan. Blood samples were obtained for analysis of concentrations of dioxins including coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) and evaluation of health effects. Health effects including diabetes were surveyed via a physician's interview or clinical data from blood samples. There was a certain difference in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) between the incinerator workers and Japanese general population, although no differences in the concentrations of total dioxins or polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) were found between the two groups. A few positive correlations between serum levels of PCDDs and PCDFs and the results of laboratory and physiological tests were found, but coplanar PCBs showed significant relations with 14 parameters of the tests. The background serum levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and total dioxins were significantly associated with the prevalence of diabetes. No essential differences in serum concentrations of total dioxins and in prevalence of diabetes between our subjects and the general population suggested that the incinerator workers were marginally exposed to dioxins in the workplace without any recognizable adverse health effects. PMID:26212412

  8. Isomer pattern and elimination of dioxins in workers exposed at a municipal waste incineration plant

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, Kenya; KUDO, Mitsuhiro; ARITO, Heihachiro; OGAWA, Yasutaka; TAKATA, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify patterns of serum concentrations of dioxins in the employees of a waste incineration plant and to estimate elimination rates and half-lives of serum dioxin isomers, and the maximum serum concentrations of dioxin isomers at the time of plant shutdown. Sixteen subjects participating 3 times or more in annual health examinations during an 8-yr period from 2000 to 2007 were recruited for this study. Serum concentrations of dioxins expressed as TEQ/g lipid decreased gradually after plant shutdown with the highest decrease observed in polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) followed by polychlorinated deibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and then coplanar PCBs. The serum toxic equivalency (TEQ) concentrations of PCDF and PCDD congeners in the employees were higher than those in the general population survey by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, whereas the serum concentrations of coplanar PCBs were similar to those in the general population. The estimated half-lives and elimination rates of PCDDs and PCDFs in the highly exposed workers increased compared with the moderately exposed workers. The estimated geometric mean serum concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs and total dioxins at the time of plant shutdown were 35, 53 and 107 pg TEQ/g lipid, respectively. PMID:26118856

  9. A cross-sectional analysis of dioxins and health effects in municipal and private waste incinerator workers in Japan

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, Kenya; KUDO, Mitsuhiro; ARITO, Heihachiro; OGAWA, Yasutaka; TAKATA, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was intended to examine health effects of 678 male workers employed during an 8-yr period from 2000 to 2007 at 36 municipal and private waste incineration plants in Japan. Blood samples were obtained for analysis of concentrations of dioxins including coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) and evaluation of health effects. Health effects including diabetes were surveyed via a physician’s interview or clinical data from blood samples. There was a certain difference in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) between the incinerator workers and Japanese general population, although no differences in the concentrations of total dioxins or polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) were found between the two groups. A few positive correlations between serum levels of PCDDs and PCDFs and the results of laboratory and physiological tests were found, but coplanar PCBs showed significant relations with 14 parameters of the tests. The background serum levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and total dioxins were significantly associated with the prevalence of diabetes. No essential differences in serum concentrations of total dioxins and in prevalence of diabetes between our subjects and the general population suggested that the incinerator workers were marginally exposed to dioxins in the workplace without any recognizable adverse health effects. PMID:26212412

  10. A CASE STUDY OF CANCER DATA SET COMBINATIONS FOR PCBs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of several animal bioassays have demonstrated the carcinogenic potential of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures. Although PCBs are no longer manufactured, cancer risk assessment for PCBs remains an important issue because of continued potential human exposure from man...

  11. PCBs and OH-PCBs in Serum from Children and Mothers in Urban and Rural U.S. Communities

    PubMed Central

    Marek, Rachel F.; Thorne, Peter S.; Wang, Kai; DeWall, Jeanne; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2013-01-01

    East Chicago, Indiana is a heavily-industrialized community bisected by the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal, which volatilizes ~7.5 kg/yr polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In contrast, the rural Columbus Junction, Iowa area has no known current or past PCB industrial sources. Blood from children and their mothers from these communities were collected April 2008-January 2009 (n=177). Sera were analyzed for all 209 PCBs and 4 hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs). Sum PCBs ranged from non-detect to 658 ng/g lw (median = 33.5 ng/g lw). Sum OH-PCBs ranged from non-detect to 1.2 ng/g fw (median = 0.07 ng/g fw). These concentrations are similar to those reported in other populations without high dietary PCB intake. Differences between the two communities were subtle. PCBs were detected in more East Chicago mothers and children than Columbus Junction mothers and children, and children from East Chicago were enriched in lower-molecular weight PCBs. East Chicago and Columbus Junction residents had similar levels of total and individual PCBs and OH-PCBs in their blood. Concentrations of parent PCBs correlated with concentrations of OH-PCBs. This is the first temporally- and methodologically-consistent study to evaluate all 209 PCBs and major metabolites in two generations of people living in urban and rural areas of the United States. PMID:23452180

  12. Distribution and depth profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment collected from offshore waters of Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tri, Tran Manh; Anh, Hoang Quoc; Tham, Trinh Thi; Van Quy, Tran; Long, Nguyen Quang; Nhung, Dao Thi; Nakamura, Masafumi; Nishida, Masayo; Maeda, Yasuaki; Van Boi, Luu; Minh, Tu Binh

    2016-05-15

    Concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were measured in 35 surface sediment samples collected from offshore waters of Central Vietnam. The mean concentrations of PCBs, HCHs, and DDTs in surface sediments were 86.5, 37.0, and 44.5pgg(-1), respectively. Additionally, nine PCDDs, eleven PCDFs, and twelve dl-PCBs were also examined in 19 sediment core samples collected from five locations. Concentration of PCDDs, PCDFs, and dl-PCBs ranged from 200 to 460, 0.39 to 2.9, and 1.6 to 22pgg(-1), respectively. OCDD was detected at the highest concentration, ranged from 100 to 300pgg(-1). Generally, the concentrations of PCDD/Fs at shallower depths were higher, meanwhile the depth profiles of dl-PCBs in sediment cores were different than the depth profiles of PCDD/Fs. The results suggest that the pollution of PCBs might be from many different sources leading to the variation between depths. PMID:26994835

  13. Workshop on perinatal exposure to dioxin-like compounds. III. Endocrine effects

    SciTech Connect

    Feeley, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    Studies involving endocrine effects in humans and experimental animals resulting from the exposure to dioxin-like (non-ortho-substituted PCBs, PCDDs/PCDFs) and nondioxin-like (PCBs, OC pesticides) compounds (DLCs and NDLCs) were presented. A variety of reproductive and hormonal parameters, including androgen status, sexual differentiation, and thyroid functionality, were discussed. As in utero and lactational exposure of the human fetus/neonate to these environmental contaminants is inevitable, continued research to identify sensitive biomarkers of effect and susceptibility as well as to define dose-response relationships is required. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Hydroxy-PCBs as endocrine disruptors

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, K.; Mustain, M.; Moore, M.; Daniel, K.; Ramamoorthy, K.; Safe, S.; Gillesby, B.; Joyeux, A.; Zacharewski, T.; Balaguer, P.

    1995-12-31

    Hydroxy-PCBs have been identified in seal and human serum and their persistence may be related to binding to transthyretin. Initial studies with the major hydroxy-PCBs identified in human serum showed that these compounds exhibited minimal binding to the estrogen receptor (ER) and no ER agonist activity in 17B-estradiol (E{sub 2})-responsive human cancer cell lines. Structure-activity relationships were also determined with a series of hydroxy PCBs containing a 4-hydroxyl and a 3- or 2-chloro substituent on one ring and variable chloro substitution on the second ring (i.e., 2{prime}, 3{prime}, 4{prime}, 5{prime}-trichloro-, 2{prime}, 3{prime}, 4{prime}, 6{prime}-tetrachloro-, 2{prime}, 3{prime}, 4{prime}, 5{prime}-tetrachloro, and 2{prime}, 3{prime}, 5{prime}, 6{prime}-tetrachloro). All the hydroxy-PCB congeners were weak ER agonists and exhibited antiestrogenic activity in E{sub 2}-responsive human cancer cell lines. In the immature mouse and rat uteru, the antiestrogenic activities of the hydroxy-PCBs were structure- and species-dependent. Current studies are evaluating specific congeners as antiestrogens in rodent mammary tumor models.

  15. COMPARING ENVIRONMENTALLY RELEVANT PCBS TO TCDD

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARING ENVIRONMENTALLY RELEVANT PCBS TO TCDD. D E Burgin1, J J Diliberto2 and L S Birnbaum3.1UNC, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, ETD, RTP, NC, USA

    Environmental exposures to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) always occur as part of a complex mixture. ...

  16. PLANT UPTAKE OF SLUDGE-BORNE PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plant uptake of sludge-borne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (similar to Aroclor 1248) was evaluated in a greenhouse study with two food-chain crops and a grass species. olychlorinated biphenyl loading to two soils was varied in one experiment by adding different rates of a muni...

  17. Comparison of organochlorine contaminants among sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations in California and Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, C.E.; Jarman, W.M.; Estes, J.A.; Simon, M.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1999-03-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-ortho PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in sea otter liver tissue from California, southeast Alaska, and the western Aleutian archipelago collected between 1988 and 1992. Average total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane concentrations for California otters were over 20 times higher than in Aleutian otters and over 800 times higher than otters from southeast Alaska. Levels for total PCBs in Aleutian otters were 1.7 times higher than levels in California otters and 38 times higher than otters from southeast Alaska. Levels for PCDD and PCDF were extremely low in all otter populations. Levels of PCBs in Aleutian and Californian otters are abnormally high when compared with southeast Alaskan otters. The source of PCBs to the Aleutian Islands remains unclear and vital to understanding the potential impacts to sea otters.

  18. Bioremediation of PCBs. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Abramowicz, D.A.

    1996-06-01

    The Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was signed between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and General Electric Company (GE) on August 12, 1991. The objective was a collaborative venture between researchers at GE and ORNL to develop bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The work was conducted over three years, and this report summarizes ORNL`s effort. It was found that the total concentration of PCBs decreased by 70% for sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment compared with a 67% decrease for aerobic treatment alone. The sequential treatment resulted in PCB products with fewer chlorines and shorter halflives in humans compared with either anaerobic or aerobic treatment alone. The study was expected to lead to a technology applicable to a field experiment that would be performed on a DOE contaminated site.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Davis, J A; Hetzel, F; Oram, J J; McKee, L J

    2007-09-01

    San Francisco Bay is facing a legacy of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spread widely across the land surface of the watershed, mixed deep into the sediment of the Bay, and contaminating the Bay food web to a degree that poses health risks to humans and wildlife. In response to this persistent problem, water quality managers are establishing a PCB total maximum daily load (TMDL) and implementation plan to accelerate the recovery of the Bay from decades of PCB contamination. This article provides a review of progress made over the past 15 years in managing PCBs and understanding their sources, pathways, fate, and effects in the Bay, and highlights remaining information needs that should be addressed in the next 10 years. The phaseout of PCBs during the 1970s and the 1979 federal ban on sale and production led to gradual declines from the 1970s to the present. However, 25 years after the ban, PCB concentrations in some Bay sport fish today are still more than ten times higher than the threshold of concern for human health. Without further management action it appears that the general recovery of the Bay from PCB contamination will take many more decades. PCB concentrations in sport fish were, along with mercury, a primary cause of a consumption advisory for the Bay and the consequent classification of the Bay as an impaired water body. Several sources of information indicate that PCB concentrations in the Bay may also be high enough to adversely affect wildlife, including rare and endangered species. The greater than 90% reduction in food web contamination needed to meet the targets for protection of human health would likely also generally eliminate risks to wildlife. PCB contamination in the Bay is primarily associated with industrial areas along the shoreline and in local watersheds. Strong spatial gradients in PCB concentrations persist decades after the release of these chemicals to Bay Area waterways. Through the TMDL process, attention is being more sharply

  20. Predictors of PCP, OH-PCBs, PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in a general female Norwegian population.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Charlotta; Lund, Eiliv; Frøyland, Livar; Sandanger, Torkjel M

    2012-08-01

    The aims of the current study were to assess plasma concentrations and predictors of halogenated phenolic compounds (HPCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides in a representative group of postmenopausal Norwegian women (n=311, mean age: 56 years). In addition to delivering a blood sample, the participants had also filled out a detailed questionnaire regarding their current health status, use of medication and dietary habits, etc. The association between a large number of dietary variables, lifestyle factors and plasma concentration of organic pollutants were investigated using multivariate statistics. Within the current study group, p,p'-DDE (median: 903 ng/L w.w.) and pentachlorophenol (PCP, median: 711 ng/L w.w.) were the dominating compounds on a wet weight basis and were present in considerable higher concentrations than the PCBs, the hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) and the remaining chlorinated pesticides. Of the PCBs, PCB 153 was detected in highest concentrations, whereas 4-OH-PCB187 was present in highest concentration of the selected OH-PCBs. The ratio of ΣOH-PCB to ΣPCB varied between 0.06 and 0.77 ng/L and were significantly lower in individuals with higher ΣPCB concentration. PCP did not co-vary with the other contaminants, indicating a different route of exposure. No clear food cluster was positively associated with PCP exposure; however intake of marine food was negatively linked to PCP concentration and age and being a non-smoker were positive predictors of PCP. The other investigated contaminants co-varied and were positively associated with age, plasma concentrations of marine derived omega-3 fatty acids and a traditional Norwegian fish and bread based diet. The difference in contaminant concentration between high, medium and low consumers of total marine food were however marginal for the dominating PCBs and chlorinated pesticides. The current results indicate however that marine food in itself could be a source of some of

  1. Earthworm contamination by PCBs and heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Diercxsens, P.; de Weck, D.; Borsinger, N.; Rosset, B.; Tarradellas, J.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison is made of soil and earthworm contamination by PCBs and heavy metals between a nature reserve and two sites conditioned by the addition of sewage sludge and compost. The tissues and gut content of the earthworms shows a higher PCB concentration than that of the surrounding soil and also a difference in the fingerprint of some single PCB compounds. Earthworms display a selective accumulation of cadmium and zinc in their tissues and gut content.

  2. Effect of MSW source-classified collection on the emission of PCDDs/Fs and heavy metals from incineration in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, De-Zhi; Wu, Wei-Xiang; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Chen, Tong; Huang, Hui-Liang; Chen, Ying-Xu; Yan, Jian-Hua

    2008-05-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) source-classified collection represents a change in MSW management in China and other developing countries. Comparative experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of a newly established MSW source-classified collection system on the emission of PCDDs/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) and heavy metals (HMs) from a full-scale incinerator in China. As a result of presorting and dewatering, the chlorine level, heavy metal and water content were lower, but heat value was higher in the source-classified MSW (classified MSW) as compared with the conventionally mixed collected MSW (mixed MSW). The generation of PCDDs/Fs in flue gas from the classified MSW incineration was 9.28 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3), only 69.4% of that from the mixed MSW incineration, and the final emission of PCDDs/Fs was only 0.12 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3), although activated carbon injection was reduced by 20%. The level of PCDDs/Fs in fly ash from the bag filter was 0.27 ng I-TEQ/g. These results indicated that the source-classified collection with pretreatment could improve the characteristics of MSW for incineration, and significantly decrease formation of PCDDs/Fs in MSW incineration. Furthermore, distributions of HMs such as Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, As, Ni, Hg in bottom ash and fly ash were investigated to assess the need for treatment of residual ash. PMID:17936503

  3. Some technical issues in managing PCBs.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhifu; Buekens, Alfons; Liu, Jie; Chen, Tong; Lu, Shengyong; Li, Xiaodong; Cen, Kefa

    2014-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were important industrial chemicals featuring high thermal and chemical stability and low flammability. They were widely used as dielectric and thermal fluid in closed electro-technical applications (transformers, capacitors…) and also in numerous dispersive uses, ranking from auto-copying paper to sealant or coatings. During the 1960s, severe environmental consequences started becoming apparent. The stability of PCBs contributed to their persistence in the environment, their lipophilic character to bio-magnification. Fish-eating species seemed threatened in their existence. In Japan and in Taiwan, thousands of people consumed PCB-contaminated oil. The production of PCBs stopped completely during the 1980s. Usage could continue in closed applications only. In this paper, particular attention is given to two issues: the cleaning of PCB electric transformers and the potential impact of PCB-containing building materials. Other contributions will cover the management and treatment of PCB-contaminated soil, sludge or fly ash. The complete survey is being prepared by request of the Knowledge Center for Engineers and Professionals. PMID:23812787

  4. Dietary uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carline, Robert F.; Barry, Patrick M.; Ketola, H. George

    2004-01-01

    The presence of detectable levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in commercially produced fish feed has raised a concern about the degree of biomagnification of these contaminants in hatchery-reared trout. Our objectives were to (1) define the relationship between concentrations of PCBs in fish feed and in fish tissue and (2) estimate the relative contributions of feed and hatchery supply water to PCB concentrations in fish. We conducted a 6-month feeding trial with fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fed commercial diets with four concentrations of PCBs: a low-PCB diet (69 ng/g); a typical commercial diet (126 ng/g); and the typical diet spiked with PCBs at two levels (220 and 280 ng/g). The concentrations of PCBs in fillets after 1 month were commensurate with those in the feeds and remained relatively stable for the next 5 months; mean PCB concentrations in fillets ranged from 54 to 94 ng/g. Low levels of PCBs were detected in the hatchery supply water. We used the concentrations of PCBs in the feeds, absorption rates of PCBs, and two different rates of PCB depuration to estimate the potential uptake of PCBs from supply water. When we used a low depuration rate (half-life = 219 d), the computed body burdens of PCBs could be entirely attributed to the feeds. When a high depuration rate (half-life = 66 d) was used, some uptake of PCBs from the supply water was likely, but most of the total body burden originated from the feeds. We concluded that rainbow trout fed a diet with 126 ng/g PCBs would have a PCB concentration of about 60 ng/g in their fillets, which is high enough to warrant issuance of a consumption advisory (no more than one meal of fish per week) under a protocol adopted by some Great Lakes states.

  5. Biomarkers for Great Lakes priority contaminants: halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed Central

    Feeley, M M

    1995-01-01

    One of the major goals of the Great Lakes Action Plan is to actively accumulate and assess toxicological information on persistent toxic substances found in the Great Lakes basin. As part of Health Canada's commitment to this plan, a review of biomarkers for the environmental contaminants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) was conducted. In general, while food consumption was identified as the major source of human exposure to both contaminant groups, certain commodities, such as fish, milk and dairy products, and meat, were found to predominate. Due to the ubiquitous nature of these environmental contaminants and their propensity to bioaccumulate, all humans will have detectable body burdens, which in certain cases can be positively associated with the consumption of particular foods (i.e., PCBs and freshwater fish from the Great Lakes). When dealing with environmental exposure only, relating specific effect biomarkers to contaminant exposure or tissue levels was difficult, due in part to the complex nature of the exposure and the nonspecific nature of the effect. For PCBs, the most likely biomarkers of effect included some form of alteration in lipid metabolism (serum triglyceride/cholesterol levels) and elevation of hepatic-related enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT). Cross-species extrapolation also indicates the potential for neurotoxicologic effects to occur in humans. For PCDDs/PCDFs, dermatologic lesions (chloracne) and indications of hepatic enzyme induction have been documented, but primarily due to occupational or high acute accidental exposures. Recent evidence suggests that neonates may represent a potential at-risk population due to relatively high exposure to PCDDs/PCDFs, as with PCBs, during breast feeding as compared to standard adult dietary intake. Future areas of potential benefit for biomarker development include immunologic and endocrine

  6. Base catalyzed decomposition of toxic and hazardous chemicals. [Final report, September 4, 1990--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.J.; Kornel, A.; Sparks, H.L.

    1991-12-31

    There are vast amounts of toxic and hazardous chemicals, which have pervaded our environment during the past fifty years, leaving us with serious, crucial problems of remediation and disposal. The accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), ``dioxins`` and pesticides in soil sediments and living systems is a serious problem that is receiving considerable attention concerning the cancer-causing nature of these synthetic compounds.US EPA scientists developed in 1989 and 1990 two novel chemical Processes to effect the dehalogenation of chlorinated solvents, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, PCP and other pollutants in soil, sludge, sediment and liquids. This improved technology employs hydrogen as a nucleophile to replace halogens on halogenated compounds. Hydrogen as nucleophile is not influenced by steric hinderance as with other nucleophile where complete dehalogenation of organohalogens can be achieved. This report discusses catalyzed decomposition of toxic and hazardous chemicals.

  7. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins and other chlorinated contaminants in cow milk from various locations in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Rappe, C.; Nygren, M.; Lindstroem, G.; Buser, H.R.; Blaser, O.; Wuethrich, C.

    1987-10-01

    Six samples of cow milk from various locations in Switzerland were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and other chlorinated contaminants. Sub parts per trillion levels of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDFs and PCDDs were found in all samples. The levels were higher in samples collected in the vicinity of incinerators. Non-2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs were not found in the milk samples.

  8. 75 FR 34076 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Reassessment of Use Authorizations; Extension of Comment Period...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 761 RIN 2070-AJ38 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Reassessment of Use Authorizations..., Hazardous substances, Labeling, Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Reporting and recordkeeping requirements..., 2010, concerning the reassessment of the use authorizations for PCBs. This document extends the...

  9. 40 CFR 761.187 - Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. 761.187 Section 761.187 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs... Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. In addition...

  10. PCBs and ADHD in Mohawk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Newman, Joan; Behforooz, Bita; Khuzwayo, Amy G; Gallo, Mia V; Schell, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between the levels of persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in adolescents' blood serum and concurrent measures of their ADHD-like behavior derived from ratings provided by parents and teachers. Two measures with demonstrated diagnostic validity, the Conners and ADDES scales, are used. The study was conducted in partnership with the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne where the St. Lawrence River and surrounding waterways have been contaminated with PCBs that have entered the food chain. This study examines a subset of the data derived from the Mohawk Adolescent Well-Being Study (MAWBS), which was designed to investigate psychosocial and health related outcomes of 271 adolescents aged 10 years to 17 years and whose mothers were likely to have consumed PCB-contaminated fish and wild game before and during their pregnancy. No evidence of negative effects of adolescent blood PCB levels on ADHD-like behavior was found, and indeed occasional findings were in the unexpected direction. The possibility of negative confounding by SES and breastfeeding history was examined but dismissed. PMID:24462617

  11. PCBs and ADHD in Mohawk adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Joan; Behforooz, Bita; Khuzwayo, Amy G.; Gallo, Mia V.; Schell, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between the levels of persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in adolescents’ blood serum and concurrent measures of their ADHD-like behavior derived from ratings provided by parents and teachers. Two measures with demonstrated diagnostic validity, the Conners and ADDES scales, are used. The study was conducted in partnership with the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne where the St. Lawrence River and surrounding waterways have been contaminated with PCBs that have entered the food chain. This study examines a subset of the data derived from the Mohawk Adolescent Well-Being Study (MAWBS), which was designed to investigate psychosocial and health related outcomes of 271 adolescents aged 10 years to 17 years and whose mothers were likely to have consumed PCB-contaminated fish and wild game before and during their pregnancy. No evidence of negative effects of adolescent blood PCB levels on ADHD-like behavior was found, and indeed occasional findings were in the unexpected direction. The possibility of negative confounding by SES and breast-feeding history was examined but dismissed. PMID:24462617

  12. Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions & answers

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This {open_quotes}Management of PCBs Questions and Answers{close_quotes} has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith`s presentation, and (3) the question and answer session.

  13. DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) (FINAL DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on PCBs. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of PCBs, Toxicokinetics and human exposure to P...

  14. INTRAUTERINE EXPOSURE OF HUMANS TO PCBS (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS): NEWBORN EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of low-level chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from consumption of Lake Michigan fish was assessed in pregnant women and their newborn offspring. Low levels of PCBs remain in the human body for some time, and caused, in this sample, decreases in birt...

  15. Uptake and bioaccumulation of three PCBs by Chlorella fusca

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K.; Rott, B.; Korte, F.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reports the bioaccumulation of three PCBs (2,4'-dichlorobiphenyl, 2,4,6,2'-tetrachlorobiphenyl and 2,4,6,2',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl) by the green alga Chlorella fusca under various conditions. A probable pattern of the bioconcentration mechanism is suggested. No metabolites were extracted from algae or water 6 days after incubation with PCBs.

  16. PBDDs/Fs and PCDDs/Fs in the raw and clean flue gas during steady state and transient operation of a municipal waste combustor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (PBDDs/Fs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) were determined in the pre- and post- air pollution control system (APCS) flue gas of a municipal waste combustor (MWC). Operationa...

  17. THE ISOMER DISTRIBUTION AND CONGENER PROFILE OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS (PCDDS) IN BALL CLAY FROM THE MISSISSIPPI EMBAYMENT (SLEDGE, MISSISSIPPI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several recent studies have found elevated levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in chickens and farm raised catfish grown in the United States resulting from the use of contaminated animal feed. The dioxins were discovered to have originated from the ball clay use...

  18. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in sediments and biota of the Saguenay Fjord and the St. Lawrence Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Brochu, C.; Moore, S.; Pelletier, E.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment samples and marine organisms were collected in the Saguenay Fjord and at two selected sites of the St. Lawrence Estuary in 1991. Total PCDDs and total PCDFs ranged from 22 to 352 ng kg{sup {minus}1} and 29 to 188 ng kg{sup {minus}1}, respectively in Saguenay sediments, while total PCDFs reached, 287 ng kg{sup {minus}1} in Baie des Anglais, a small and deep bay of the St. Lawrence Estuary impacted by PCBs during the 1970s. All biological samples contained detectable amounts of chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, apart from the North Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The highest concentrations (up to 59.7 ng kg{sup {minus}1} total PCDFs and 2.54 ng kg{sup {minus}1} 2,3,7,8T4CDD Equivalent (TCDD TEQ)) were observed in crab (Chionoecetes opilio) caught in Saguenay Fjord and in crab and whelk (Buccinwn undatwn) collected in Baie des Anglais. Nordic shrimp (Pandalus borealis) is less contaminated with a maximum total PCDDs and PCDFs concentration of 14.0 ng kg{sup {minus}1} and TCDD TEQ never exceeding 0.7 ng kg{sup {minus}1}. Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) caught in the Saguenay Fjord contained only 2,3,7,8 substituted congeners in their tissues leading to a low average TCDD TEQ of 1.66 ng kg{sup {minus}1}. Based upon this first series of results, benthic organisms and fish from the Saguenay Fjord and the north shore of the St. Lawrence Estuary are exposed to low levels of PCDDs and PCDFs, and carry tissue concentrations well below international guidelines for fisheries products.

  19. Exposure of northern leopard frogs in the Green Bay ecosystem to polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans is measured by direct chemistry but not hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.A.; Jefcoate, C.R.

    1999-10-01

    The authors measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in northern leopard frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem and explored the catalytic activity of hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase (P450 enzyme) as a biomarker for exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. The two hypotheses tested were PCH concentrations in northern leopard frogs would be positively correlated with sediment polychlorinated hydrocarbon (PCH) levels in wetland habitats along a contamination gradient and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity of northern leopard frogs, which is presumably mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), would be positively correlated with PCH concentrations in frog carcasses from different collection sites. In 1994 and 1995, frogs from seven sites along the lower Fox River and Green Bay, USA, were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and whole carcass concentrations of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Tissue total PCB concentrations ranging from 3 to 154 ng/g were significantly correlated with sediment PCB levels. Only one PCDD and two PCDFs at concentrations of 6 to 8 pg/g were found in the frogs collected with frog body weight and was similar among sites except for Peter's Marsh. No significant correlation was found between EROD activity and carcass PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB concentrations compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory.

  20. Effects of regional differences in waste composition on the thermal formation of polychlorinated aromatics during incineration.

    PubMed

    Phan, Duong Ngoc Chau; Jansson, Stina; Marklund, Stellan

    2013-11-01

    Two artificial wastes (A and B) whose contents reflect regional differences in municipal solid waste composition, were used to investigate the thermal formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), and naphthalenes (PCNs) during incineration. Flue gas samples were simultaneously collected at three ports in the post-combustion zone corresponding to flue gas temperatures of 400, 300, and 200 °C. The combustion of Waste B, which had a higher chlorine and metal content than Waste A, produced greater levels of highly-chlorinated homologues, as demonstrated by a higher degree of chlorination. The total concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, and PCNs formed in the combustion of both wastes increased as temperature decreased along the convector. There were no significant differences in total concentrations between Waste A and Waste B combustion at specific temperatures, with exception of PCDFs at 400 °C. Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) modeling, used to evaluate the data for all compound groups, suggest that during flue gas quenching at temperatures of 400 °C low-chlorinated homologues are preferentially formed in the presence of copper, which is known to be a very active catalyst for this process. At 300 and 200 °C, the formation of highly-chlorinated homologues is favored. PMID:24007615

  1. PCBs in fish and their cestode parasites in Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Oluoch-Otiego, John; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Kiptoo, Kipkorir Koross Godfrey; Chemoiwa, Emily J; Ngugi, Charles C; Simiyu, Gelas; Omutange, Elijah S; Ngure, Veronica; Opiyo, Mary A

    2016-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) regulated by the Stockholm Convention (2001). Although their production and use was stopped almost three decades ago, PCBs are environmental persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulate in biota. We assessed the levels of 7 PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) in sediment and fish (Oreochromis niloticus, Lates niloticus, and Rastrineobola argentea) and evaluated the potential of cestode fish endoparasite (Monobothrioides sp., Proteocephalaus sp., and Ligula intestinalis) as biomonitors of PCBs in Lake Victoria, Kenya. The median concentration of Σ7PCBs in sediments and fish were 2.2-96.3 μg/kg dw and 300-3,000 μg/kg lw, respectively. At all the sampling sites, CB138, CB153, and CB180 were the dominant PCB congeners in sediment and fish samples. Compared to the muscle of the piscine host, Proteocephalaus sp. (infecting L. niloticus) biomagnified PCBs ×6-14 while Monobothrioides sp. (infecting O. niloticus) biomagnified PCBs ×4-8. Meanwhile, L. intestinalis (infecting R. argentea) biomagnified PCBs ×8-16 compared to the muscle of unparasitized fish. We demonstrate the occurrence of moderate to high levels of PCB in sediments and fish in Lake Victoria. We also provide evidence that fish parasites bioaccumulate higher levels of PCBs than their piscine hosts and therefore provide a promising biomonitor of PCBs. We urge further a long-term study to validate the use of the above cestode fish parasites as biomonitoring tools for PCBs. PMID:27456696

  2. Photochemical degradation of PCBs in snow.

    PubMed

    Matykiewiczová, Nina; Klánová, Jana; Klán, Petr

    2007-12-15

    This work represents the first laboratory study known to the authors describing photochemical behavior of persistent organic pollutants in snow at environmentally relevant concentrations. The snow samples were prepared by shock freezing of the corresponding aqueous solutions in liquid nitrogen and were UV-irradiated in a photochemical cold chamber reactor at -25 degrees C, in which simultaneous monitoring of snow-air exchange processeswas also possible. The main photodegradation pathway of two model snow contaminants, PCB-7 and PCB-153 (c approximately 100 ng kg(-1)), was found to be reductive dehalogenation. Possible involvement of the water molecules of snow in this reaction has been excluded by performing the photolyses in D2O snow. Instead, trace amounts of volatile organic compounds have been proposed to be the major source of hydrogen atom in the reduction, and this hypothesis was confirmed by the experiments with deuterated organic cocontaminants, such as d6-ethanol or d8-tetrahydrofuran. It is argued that bimolecular photoreduction of PCBs was more efficient or feasible than any other phototransformations under the experimental conditions used, including the coupling reactions. The photodegradation of PCBs, however, competed with a desorption process responsible for the pollutant loss from the snow samples, especially in case of lower molecular-mass congeners. Organic compounds, apparently largely located or photoproduced on the surface of snow crystals, had a predisposition to be released to the air but, at the same time, to react with other species in the gas phase. It is concluded that physicochemical properties of the contaminants and trace co-contaminants, their location and local concentrations in the matrix, and the wavelength and intensity of radiation are the most important factors in the evaluation of organic contaminants' lifetime in snow. Based on the results, it has been estimated that the average lifetime of PCBs in surface snow, connected

  3. Gamma-ray decomposition of PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, B.J.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Arbon, R.E.; Murphy, R.J.

    1991-12-01

    This program is the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) component of a joint collaborative effort with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of this effort is to demonstrate a viable process for breaking down hazardous halogenated organic wastes to simpler, non-hazardous wastes using high energy ionizing radiation. The INEL effort focuses on the use of spent reactor fuel gamma radiation sources to decompose complex wastes such as PCBs. At LLNL, halogenated solvents such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene are being studied using accelerator radiation sources. The INEL irradiation experiments concentrated on a single PCB congener so that a limited set of decomposition reactions could be studied. The congener 2, 2{prime}, 3, 3{prime}, 4, 5{prime}, 6, 6{prime}-octachlorobiphenyl was examined following exposure to various gamma doses at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) spent fuel pool. The decomposition rates and products in several solvents. are discussed. 7 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Gamma-ray decomposition of PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, B.J.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Arbon, R.E.; Murphy, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This program is the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) component of a joint collaborative effort with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of this effort is to demonstrate a viable process for breaking down hazardous halogenated organic wastes to simpler, non-hazardous wastes using high energy ionizing radiation. The INEL effort focuses on the use of spent reactor fuel gamma radiation sources to decompose complex wastes such as PCBs. At LLNL, halogenated solvents such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene are being studied using accelerator radiation sources. The INEL irradiation experiments concentrated on a single PCB congener so that a limited set of decomposition reactions could be studied. The congener 2, 2{prime}, 3, 3{prime}, 4, 5{prime}, 6, 6{prime}-octachlorobiphenyl was examined following exposure to various gamma doses at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) spent fuel pool. The decomposition rates and products in several solvents. are discussed. 7 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Biological data on PCBs in animals other than man

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1972-01-01

    SUMMARY: Polychlorinated biphenyls have become ubiquitous in the world ecosystem in quantities similar to those of DDE. Experimental studies have shown that PCBs have a toxicity to mallards, pheasants, bobwhite quail, coturnix quail, red-winged blackbirds, starlings, cowbirds, and grackles that is of the same order as the toxicity of DDE to these species. Overt signs of poisoning also are similar to those caused by compounds of the DDT group. Toxic effects of DDE and Aroclor 1254 to coturnix chicks were additive, but not synergistic. PCBs containing higher percentages of chlorine are more toxic to birds than those containing lower percentages. PCBs of foreign manufacture contained contaminants to an extent that greatly increased their toxicity. Residues of PCBs in the brains of birds killed by these compounds measure in the hundreds of parts per million. PCBs may have contributed to mortality of some birds in the field. Toxicity to insects of PCBs of different degrees of chlorination is the reverse of the pattern in birds: the lower chlorinations are more toxic to insects. PCBs enhanced the toxicity of dieldrin and DDT to insects. Shrimp are very sensitive to PCBs and most will die as a result of 20-day exposure to a concentration of 5 ppb. PCBs also inhibit shell growth of oysters. Crabs are less sensitive; all accumulate residues to many times the concentrations in the water, and a test with crabs showed that they lost the residues very slowly. Growth of certain species of marine diatoms was experimentally inhibited by PCBs, but algae were not affected. The small marine crustacean, Gammarus, is sensitive to PCBs in concentrations of thousandths to tenths of a part per billion. Exposure to 5 ppb of Aroclor 1254 caused mortality of two species of fish in 14-45 days. Onset of death was delayed and was accompanied by fungus-like lesions. Rainbow trout were quickly killed by terphenyls at 10 ppb under normal oxygen conditions and at 2 ppb with reduced oxygen

  6. PCBs levels and indicator congeners in children's and adolescents' hair.

    PubMed

    Liang, Baocui; Liu, Xinhui; Hou, Jing; Liang, Gang; Gong, Wenwen; Xu, Diandou; Zhang, Li

    2014-02-01

    Thirty polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in the hair samples collected from children (4-12) and adolescents (13-18) of Changchun city, Northeastern China. The mean concentrations of total PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in the adolescents' hair samples were 161.0 ng g(-1) and 61.7 ng g(-1), which were relatively higher than 43.7 ng g(-1) and 14.6 ng g(-1) in the children's ones. Considering gender difference, the mean concentrations in the girls' hair samples were approximately two times higher than those in the boys' ones for most PCB congeners. The pentachlorinated biphenyl was the dominant homologue. It was found that the levels of total PCBs and dl-PCBs were highly correlated with PCB 118 level in the children's hair samples, and with PCB 114 level in the adolescents' ones. The result demonstrated that the two PCB congeners could be applied as the indicators to evaluate the concentrations of total PCBs and dl-PCBs in children's and adolescents' hair, respectively. PMID:24212066

  7. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) carcinogenicity with special emphasis on airborne PCBs

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial chemicals used in various applications requiring chemical stabilityand have now become widely dispersed. Their characteristics of persistence, low water/higher lipid solubility, contribute to their ability to bioconcentrate and bioaccumulate. Traditionally PCBs have been regulated as food contaminants and the general population is primarily exposed by that route. PCBs in foodstuffs are generally higher chlorinated, resistant to metabolic breakdown, and elicit toxic changes that are thought to be predominantly receptor/parent PCB-driven. But for certain occupational exposures, and for those persons residing or working in contaminated buildings, and in large cities, an inhalation route of exposure may predominate. Airborne PCBs are, in contrast to foodborne PCBs, lower chlorinated, more volatile, and subject to metabolic attack. In this review, we have explored (geno-) toxic manifestations of PCBs typical of those found in air. Here metabolic conversion of the parent PCB to hydroxylated and other metabolic progeny appear to play a dominant role, especially in genotoxicity. We should be cognizant of the impact of exposures to airborne PCBs for those individuals who are occupationally exposed, for persons living near contaminated sites, for those who work or go to school in contaminated buildings, and especially cognizant of the young, the socio-economically disadvantaged and medically-underserved or nutritionally-deficient populations. PMID:21686028

  8. Remediation plan for fluorescent light fixtures containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    SciTech Connect

    1992-04-30

    This report describes the remedial action to achieve compliance with 29 CFR 1910 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements of fluorescent light fixtures containing PCBs at K-25 site. This remedial action is called the Remediation Plan for Fluorescent Light Fixtures Containing PCBs at the K-25 Site (The Plan). The Plan specifically discusses (1) conditions of non-compliance, (2) alternative solutions, (3) recommended solution, (4) remediation plan costs, (5) corrective action, (6) disposal of PCB waste, (7) training, and (8) plan conclusions. The results from inspections by Energy Systems personnel in 2 buildings at K-25 site and statistical extension of this data to 91 selected buildings at the K-25 site indicates that there are approximately 28,000 fluorescent light fixtures containing 47,036 ballasts. Approximately 38,531 contain PCBs and 2,799 of the 38,531 ballasts are leaking PCBs. Review of reportable occurrences at K-25 for the 12 month period of September 1990 through August 1991 shows that Energy Systems personnel reported 69 ballasts leaking PCBs. Each leaking ballast is in non-compliance with 29 CFR 1910 - Table Z-1-A. The age of the K-25 facilities indicate a continued and potential increase in ballasts leaking PCBs. This report considers 4 alternative solutions for dealing with the ballasts leaking PCBs. The advantages and disadvantages of each alternative solution are discussed and ranked using cost of remediation, reduction of health risks, and compliance with OSHA as criteria.

  9. Distribution and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, and p,p'-DDE in tissues of bald eagles from the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Giesy, John P; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2002-07-01

    Liver, muscle, fat, kidney, and gall bladder of eight bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) found dead in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan during 2000 were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (including coplanar PCBs), p,p'-DDE, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Necropsy results showed that the birds suffered from peritonitis, bacterial infection, or trauma. Concentrations of PCDD/DFs in livers ranged from 23 to 4500 pg/g on a wet weight basis (wet wt), whereas the least concentrations were found in blood plasma of bald eagle nestlings (2.3-49 pg/g, wet wt). A maximum total PCB concentration of 280,000 ng/g, wet wt, was found in the liver of a dead bald eagle affected by peritonitis. The greatest concentrations of p,p'-DDE and HCB in eagle livers were 17,000 and 120 ng/g, wet wt, respectively. Eagles with elevated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or total PCB concentrations tended to have great TCDD/TCDF or PCB126/PCB77 ratios, hypothesized to be due to induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and subsequent metabolism of TCDF and PCB77. Concentrations of TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs) in the tissues of bald eagles exceeded the thresholds for toxicity in a few avian species. Non-ortho coplanar PCBs accounted for 68-88% of the total TEQs in bald eagle tissues. PCDDs and PCDFs collectively accounted for, on average, 17% of the total TEQs. On the basis of the analysis of a single gall bladder with bile, biliary excretion rates of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs were estimated as 0.015-0.02% per day. PMID:12144248

  10. Levels and trends of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in ivory gull eggs from the Canadian Arctic, 1976 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L; Grant Gilchrist, H; Letcher, Robert J; Drouillard, Ken G

    2007-06-01

    The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is a circumpolar marine bird which has recently been listed as an endangered species in Canada. To determine whether contaminants may be playing a role in the population decline of this species, ivory gull eggs collected in 1976, 1987 and 2004 from Seymour Island in the Canadian Arctic were analyzed for organochlorines, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho PCBs. This study also provides the first account of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in ivory gulls. The most quantitatively abundant legacy organochlorines found in the ivory gull eggs were p,p'-DDE, SigmaPCB and oxychlordane. Concentrations of the organochlorines analyzed either decreased or showed little change between 1976 and 2004. Concentrations of SigmaPCDD in ivory gull eggs were greater than SigmaPCDF, and the non-ortho PCBs (primarily PCB-126) contributed the largest fraction to the total TEQ value in all years sampled. Concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs and SigmaTEQ decreased from 1976 to 2004. In contrast, concentrations of the PBDEs steadily increased between 1976 and 2004 driven primarily by increases in BDE-47. Although concentrations of the persistent chlorinated compounds (i.e. organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs) reported in this study were below published toxicological threshold values for eggs of wild birds, we cannot rule out the possibility of synergistic/additive, sublethal effects. Very few studies have been carried out to evaluate the exposure-effect relationship of the persistent brominated compounds in avian species. Given the scarcity of information on toxicity threshold levels for PBBs and PBDEs in avian species, coupled with the trend toward increasing concentrations in ivory gulls, continued monitoring and further toxicological studies of these compounds are warranted. PMID:17412396

  11. Guidance on the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of synthetic organic chemicals including 209 known isomers, each with from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms on a biphenyl ring. PCBs have a number of desirable properties for industrial applications including thermal stability, flame retardance, and low vapor pressure. Because of these properties, PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluid in electrical equipment such as utility transformers and capacitors. PCBs were also extensively used in hydraulic fluid and heat transfer fluid, in gaskets, as additives in cutting oils and lubricant, and in a variety of other uses. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 in response to emerging information about the adverse health effects of PCBs and their persistence in the environment. In addition, TSCA directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prescribe methods for disposal of PCBS, require marking of PCBs with warning labels, and control their use. The TSCA regulations allow continued use of PCBs provided that the use is totally enclosed and does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. However, at the end of their useful life, all PCB materials must be disposed of according to the TSCA regulations. This guidance document uses graphics and flow charts where possible to present the TSCA regulations according to management activities such as use, storage, disposal, and spill cleanup. The document is designed to be read on an as-needed basis; that is, each chapter can stand alone or may be read in combination with others to help the reader determine the regulations relevant to his or her individual situation and needs. Every attempt has been made to include the requirements of other statutes and regulations that apply to PCB materials and provide references for the reader to consult for additional information.

  12. Contamination of Russian Baltic fish by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Shelepchikov, Andrey A; Shenderyuk, Vladimir V; Brodsky, Efim S; Feshin, Denis; Baholdina, Lidia P; Gorogankin, S K

    2008-03-01

    Nineteen species of fish products caught and produced in the Russian economic zone of the Baltic region in 2002-2005 were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like biphenyls (WHO-PCBs). Freshwater fish had significantly lower PCDD/PCDFs levels than most saltwater fish, except cod's fillet for which TEQ was comparable. In some cases pollutant levels of sea fish tissues essentially exceeded current regulatory values. Concentration of WHO(PCDD/F)-TEQ ranged from 0.06 to 0.57pg/g f.w. for freshwater fish, and from 0.16 to 17.83pg/g f.w. for sea fish. The special concern is caused by the high concentration of dioxin-like PCBs, whose contribution to the WHO-TEQ(PCDD/F,PCB) considerably exceeded that of PCDDs and PCDFs. Concentration of WHO(PCB)-TEQ ranged from 2.56 to 124.40pg/g f.w. Profiles of PCDD/Fs congeners in fish were rather similar: in our opinion, the most probable sources of pollution were chlorine bleaching and outflow of PCBs. There is no real reason to assume that fish contamination was affected by the fungicide Ky-5 or similar chlorophenols mixtures. Relative contributions of each dioxin-like PCBs congener to total TEQ in fish tissue are presented in Fig. 2. Profiles of dioxin-like PCBs in general are close to Aroclor 1254, though in some cases there are essential differences. PMID:21783849

  13. Decomposition of PCBs in oils using gamma radiolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, B.J.; Arbon, R.E.; Schwendiman, G.L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper investigates the radiolysis of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in several oil matrices. The results of mechanism and kinetic studies in isooctane are presented. The decomposition of PCBs in isooctane is shown to occur by reductive dechlorination due to electron capture and to proceed with pseudo-first-order kinetics. The rate is dependent on the initial PCB concentration. Electron capture detection gas chromatograms confirm that dechlorination also occurs with commercial Aroclor PCBs in irradiated transformer and hydraulic oils. The results of a demonstration experiment involving PCB contaminated waste hydraulic oils are presented.

  14. Transplanted Lichen Pseudovernia furfuracea as a Multi-Tracer Monitoring Tool Near a Solid Waste Incinerator in Italy: Assessment of Airborne Incinerator-Related Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Protano, Carmela; Owczarek, Malgorzata; Fantozzi, Luca; Guidotti, Maurizio; Vitali, Matteo

    2015-11-01

    The ability of a transplanted lichen, Pseudovernia (P.) furfuracea, to act as a multi-tracer biomonitoring tool for As, Cd, Ni, Pb, 12 PAHs, 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 27 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was evaluated at six areas of varying risk (high, medium, negligible) of pollutant fallout from a municipal waste incinerator in central Italy. Transplanted P. furfuracea proved to be an useful tool to biomonitor PCDDs/Fs and PCBs. Concentrations of As, heavy metals, PAHs, PCDDs/Fs resulted similar for all monitored stations. Small differences in total PCBs (4378 and 4631 pg/g dw vs 3298, 4123, 3676 and 4022 pg/g dw) and dioxin-like PCBs (1235 and 1265 pg/g dw vs 794, 1069, 1106 and 1188 pg/g dw) were observed. Air concentrations of monitored compounds appear to be more related to general air pollution than point emissions from the incinerator. PMID:26205231

  15. 2,3,7,8,-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in tissues of birds at Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.; Giesy, J.P.; Newsted, J.L.; Verbrugge, D.A.; Beaver, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The environment has become contaminated with complex mixtures of planar, chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and structurally similar compounds. Because the potencies of individual congeners to cause the same adverse effects vary greatly and the relative as well as absolute concentrations of individual PCH vary among samples from different locations, it is difficult to assess the toxic effects of these mixtures on wildlife. These compounds can cause a number of adverse effects, however, because the toxic effects which occur at ecologically-relevant concentrations such as embryo-lethality and birth defects appear to be mediated through the same mechanism.

  16. Effects of sewage sludges contaminated with chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons on sludge-treated areas (soils and sediments).

    PubMed

    Eljarrat, Ethel

    2002-06-22

    The fate of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in sewage sludges after different management techniques--such as agricultural application, land restoration, and marine disposal--was studied. Changes observed in the concentrations, in the ratio between PCDD and PCDF levels, and in the isomeric distribution suggest the influence of the sewage sludge on the sludge-treated areas (soils and sediments). Whereas land application techniques seem to produce no serious environmental consequences, marine disposal practices produce considerable increases in the levels of contamination in marine sediments. PMID:12806166

  17. Detection and measurement of the agonistic activities of PCBs and mono-hydroxylated PCBs to the constitutive androstane receptor using a recombinant yeast assay.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Ryo; Shiraishi, Fujio; Kageyama, Shiho; Nakajima, Daisuke

    2015-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are thought to exert their toxicities mainly by binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and by stimulating transcription of various genes, notably metabolizing enzymes including the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1 family. However, PCBs and their metabolites could have potential to activate other nuclear receptors and subsequent events. We focused on the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) inducing CYP2B and measured the agonistic activity of PCBs and mono-hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) to the CAR using yeast cells transduced with the human CAR and its response pathway. Twenty-nine of 34 tested PCBs and 72 of 91 OH-PCBs exhibited CAR agonistic effects. Of 41 OH-PCBs that had the same chlorination patterns as the tested PCBs, 9 had activities more than twice those of their non-hydroxylated analogs. In particular, 2',4',6'-trichlorobiphenyl-4-ol and 2,2',4',6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl-4-ol were 332- and 22-fold more potent than their analogs and were 15 times and 2.8 times, respectively, as active as a reference substance, 4-tert-octylphenol. The activities of 17 of the OH-PCBs were reduced to less than half those of their non-hydroxylated analogs. Four OH-PCBs derived from 3 active PCBs were inactive. However, a consistent relationship between hydroxyl substituent position and activity could not be discerned. Comprehensive evaluation of the toxic potential of PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites and their concentrations in the environment are required. PMID:26231822

  18. LITERATURE REVIEW OF REMEDIATION METHODS FOR PCBS IN BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This literature review contains a description and analysis of existing methods for management of PCBs in construction materials. Information on the strengths and limitations, efficacy, cost, and byproducts of each remediation method is presented, where available. The report is ba...

  19. Effects of DDT, DDE, and PCBs on mitochondrial respiration. [Cockroaches

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, H.M.; Cutkomp, L.K.

    1982-11-01

    Data dealing with the action of DDT, its metabolite DDE and other related chlorinated compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are presented in this study. Results show that both DDT and DDE effectively reduce oxidative phosphorylation as determined from cockroach muscle mitochondria. DDT is more effective as was also determined for inhibition of oligomycin-sensitive Mg/sup 2 +/ATPase. The PCBs tested were uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. (JMT)

  20. Potency of PCDD, PCDF, PCB mixture to produce salmonid developmental mortality compared to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.K.; Zabel, E.W.; Peterson, R.E.; Butterworth, B.C.; Cook, P.M.

    1994-12-31

    The combined presence of TCDD-like polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) in feral fish eggs can be expressed as TCDD equivalents (TEQs), assuming congeners interact additively. To test this assumption, early life stage (ELS) mortality was assessed following exposure of lake trout and rainbow trout eggs to control, 7 graded doses of TCDD, or 14 graded doses of a mixture containing 11 TCDD-like PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, and 3 nonTCDD-like PCBs, mimicking congener ratios in Lake Michigan lake trout eggs. Lake trout eggs were exposed to waterborne TCDD or mixture and egg congener concentrations determined by GC/MS. Rainbow trout eggs were injected with a known dose of TCDD or mixture. Egg TEQs were calculated as the sum of egg congener concentration multiplied by fish-specific toxic equivalency factors. For both species, dose response curves for ELS mortality versus egg TCDD dose and egg TEQ dose were parallel. However, the mixture dose-response curve was shifted to the right of that for TCDD by 1.5--1.8 fold. LD{sub 50}S for lake trout were 200 pg TCDD/g and 362 pg TEQ/g. Based on TEQs, developmental toxicity of the PCDD, PCDF, PCB mixture was less than additive.

  1. Environmental transport and fate of PCBs in stream systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.; Birge, W.; Price, D.

    1995-12-31

    Transport and distribution of PCBs were studied in three Kentucky stream systems varying in size from second to fifth order. Point source releases of PCBs in each system have resulted in issuance of fish consumption advisories by state agencies. Water, sediment, floodplain soil and fish-tissues were analyzed for PCBs. Several species were analyzed, including longear sunfish, green sunfish, stonerollers and banded sculpins, which represent different trophic levels and feeding habits. Relatively rapid disappearance of PCBs was noted in green sunfish and may provide a better indication of the current PCB bioavailability in each system. In one stream system, PCBs were detected in water, sediments and floodplain soils sixty-five miles from the known source. Although contaminated groundwater may contribute substantial PCB loading to streams near sources, sequential resuspension of PCB-contaminated sediment is considered to be the main long-range transport mechanism. Contaminant data were incorporated into a GIS system to evaluate potential distribution in the floodplains. Relationships between various tissue concentrations are being examined. These results indicate the potential for persistence, continued sublethal effects and ecological risk of PCBs in lotic systems.

  2. The trophodynamics of PCBs in the Lake Ontario food web

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, T.L.; Metcalfe, C.D.

    1995-12-31

    Samples of water, sediment, invertebrates, fish, and herring gull eggs were collected in north-central Lake Ontario and were analyzed to determine the concentrations of PCBs, including non-ortho substituted PCB congeners, in the benthic and pelagic components of the Lake Ontario food web. There was biomagnification of PCBs in the food web from benthic and planktonic invertebrates through to lake trout and gulls. However, all of the fish species had about the same lipid-normalized concentrations of PCBs. The relative proportions of the PCB congeners changed as they passed through the food web. An index of metabolism for each PCB congener was calculated by comparing the concentrations of PCB congeners in various predator/prey groupings within the food web. These data indicate that invertebrates, fish and gulls have different capabilities in metabolizing and eliminating specific PCB congeners. While tri and tetrachlorinated congeners with no chlorine substitution at meta-para carbons on the biphenyl ring were readily metabolized by all taxa, only gulls appeared to be capable of metabolizing the PCBs with no chlorine substitution at ortho-meta positions. The trophodynamics of nonortho substituted (coplanar) PCBs did not differ from other PCB congeners of similar chlorine number, which indicates that non-ortho congeners are not any more persistent in biota than other PCBs.

  3. A Novel Method for Remediation of PCBs in Weathered Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Kathleen B.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Clausen, Christian A.; Geiger, Cherie L.; Aitken, Brian S.; Captain, James; Devor, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of synthetic aromatic compounds with the general formula C 12H1oCl that were historically used in industrial paints, caulking material and adhesives, as their properties enhanced structural integrity, reduced flammability and boosted antifungal properties. Although the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has banned the manufacture of PCBs since 1979, they have been found in at least 500 of the 1,598 National Priorities List (Superfund) sites identified by the USEPA. Prior to the USEPA's ban on PCB production, PCBs were commonly used as additives in paints and asphalt-based adhesives that were subsequently applied to a variety of structures. Government facilities constructed as early as 1930 utilized PCB-containing binders or PCB-containing paints, which are now leaching into the environment and posing ecological and worker health concerns. To date, no definitive in situ, non-destructive method is available for the removal of PCBs found in weathered coatings or on painted structures/equipment. The research described in this paper involves the laboratory development and field-scale deployment of a new and innovative solution for the removal and destruction of PCBs found in painted structures or within the binding or caulking material on structures. The technology incorporates a Bimetallic Treatment System (BTS) that extracts and degrades only the PCBs found on the facilities, leaving the structure virtually unaltered.

  4. Persistent organic pollutants in breast milk of mothers residing around an open dumping site in Kolkata, India: specific dioxin-like PCB levels and fish as a potential source.

    PubMed

    Someya, Masayuki; Ohtake, Masako; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Subramanian, Annamalai; Takahashi, Shin; Chakraborty, Paromita; Ramachandran, Ramesh; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were measured in human breast milk collected from mothers residing near an open dumping site and a reference site in Kolkata, India during 2004-2005. POPs were detected in all the human milk samples analyzed, suggesting that residents of Kolkata are widely exposed to these contaminants. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in the samples from the dumping site were significantly higher than in the reference site samples, whereas no such difference was found for PCDDs and PCDFs. In addition, significantly higher concentrations of total PCBs were also observed in the samples from the dumping site than the reference site. Interestingly, concentrations of total and dioxin-like PCBs in the breast milk of mothers from the dumping site significantly increased with the number of years of residence near the dumping site. These results indicate that significant pollution sources of PCBs are present in the dumping site of Kolkata and the residents living around are exposed to relatively higher levels of PCBs. When the residue levels of dioxins and related compounds in fish collected from ponds near the Kolkata dumping site and the reference site were measured, it was found that dioxin-like PCB and TEQ levels in fish from the dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site. This result indicates that fish is a potential source of PCBs for residents living near the Kolkata dumping site. PMID:19854513

  5. Analysis of hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs (OH-PCBs) and other chlorinated phenolic compounds in whole blood from Canadian inuit.

    PubMed Central

    Sandau, C D; Ayotte, P; Dewailly, E; Duffe, J; Norstrom, R J

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we identified the main hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) and other chlorinated phenolic compounds and we determined their relative concentrations in whole blood from 13 male and 17 female Inuit from northern Quebec, Canada, and from a pooled whole blood sample from southern Quebec. We also determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Total OH-PCB concentrations were variable among the Inuit samples, ranging over 2 orders of magnitude (0.117-11.6 ng/g whole blood wet weight). These concentrations were equal to and up to 70 times those found for the southern Quebec pooled whole blood sample. Geometric mean concentrations of total OH-PCBs were 1.73 and 1.01 ng/g whole blood for Inuit men and women, respectively, and 0.161 ng/g whole blood for the southern population pool. There are limited data available for comparison, but the levels of OH-PCBs in Inuit are higher than those previously reported in the literature for other populations. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.005) between OH-PCBs and PCBs (r = 0.84) and both correlated significantly (p < 0.005) with age (r = 0.68 and 0.78, respectively). The ratio of OH-PCBs to PCBs was lower in Inuit (0.11) than in the southern Quebec pool (0.33). There is no apparent explanation for the difference. There was considerable variability in the congener pattern of the identified OH-PCBs. The main metabolite, 4-OH-CB109 (4-OH-2,3,3',4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl), constituted 12-62% of the total OH-PCBs in the samples. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was the dominant phenolic compound in blood, constituting 46% (geometric mean) of the total quantitated chlorinated phenolic compounds. PCP concentrations in Inuit blood ranged from 0.558 to 7.77 ng/g on a wet weight basis. All but two Inuit samples had lower concentrations than the southern Quebec pool (6.29 ng/g). The possible role of OH-PCBs in mediating PCB-induced adverse effects needs to be investigated further. Images Figure 1

  6. Degradation mechanism of PCDDs initiated by OH radical in Photo-Fenton oxidation technology: quantum chemistry and quantitative structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaomin; Sun, Tingli; Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Wenxing

    2008-08-25

    A detailed understanding of the degradation mechanism of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) is of great necessity. In wastewater treatment, an important degradation process of PCDDs ascribes to its reaction with the photo-Fenton reagent. In this paper, the reaction of 2,3,7,8-TeCDD with OH radicals has been studied using high level molecular orbital theory. The profile of the potential energy surface is constructed. A complete description of the possible degradation mechanism in solution is provided. Two degradation mechanisms are proposed: ring-opening and adducting mechanism, adducting and ring-opening mechanism. The main products obtained are 4,5-dichlorinate-o-dihydroxybenzene and 4,5-dichlorinate-o-quinone. The study on the quantitative structure-activity relationship of these PCDDs is performed. The structure-activity model has been constructed, in which three structural parameters, RO5-C12, RO5-C13 and QC14, are found to be positively correlated to the degradation activities. PMID:18554686

  7. Waste disposal technologies for polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

    1985-01-01

    Improper practices in the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes by land burial, chemical means and incineration distribute these chemicals and related compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) throughout the environment. The complete range of methods for disposal that have been proposed and are in use are examined and analyzed, with emphasis given to the two most commonly used methods: land burial and incineration. The understanding of aquifer contamination caused by migration of PCBs from subsurface burial sites requires a description of the physical, chemical and biological processes governing transport in unsaturated and saturated soils. For this purpose, a model is developed and solved for different soil conditions and external driving functions. The model couples together the fundamental transport phenomena for heat, mass, and moisture flow within the soil. To rehabilitate a contaminated aquifer, contaminated groundwaters are withdrawn through drainage wells, PCBs are extracted with solvents or activated carbon and treated by chemical, photochemical or thermal methods. The chemical and photochemical methods are reviewed, but primary emphasis is devoted to the use of incineration as the preferred method of disposal. After discussing the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs during combustion from chloroaromatic, chloroaliphatic, as well as organic and inorganic chloride precursors, performance characteristics of different thermal destructors are presented and analyzed. To understand how this information can be used, basic design equations are developed from governing heat and mass balances that can be applied to the construction of incinerators capable of more than 99.99% destruction with minimal to nondetectable levels of PCDFs and PCDDs. PMID:3921358

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transit system electrical equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-05-01

    The legislative history and current regulatory requirements concerning the continued use of PolyChlorinated Biphenyls PCBs in transit system electrical equipment are presented. The recent rule-making by the EPA is presented in summary form to aid the reader in following the chronology of requirements affecting the continued operation, servicing, marking, and disposal of transit system electrical equipment which contains PCB materials. Types of transit system electrical equipment regulated by the EPA are identified and future regulatory requirements concerning allowable PCB concentration levels of specific electrical equipment are outlined. Transit system procedures for the handling of electrical equipment containing PCBs are presented and recommendations to assist transit systems in eliminating PCBs from electrical equipment are provided.

  9. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) AS INITIATING AGENTS IN HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    Ludewig, Gabriele; Robertson, Larry W.

    2013-01-01

    PCBs are carcinogens, but for many decades it was assumed that PCBs may not possess initiating activity. Initiation is a process that involves changes in the DNA sequence, often, but not exclusively produced through DNA adduction by a reactive compound or reactive oxygen species (ROS). DNA adducts can be detected by 32P-postlabeling, a method that Dr. Ramesh Gupta co-developed and refined. Today these types of assays together with other mechanistic studies provide convincing evidence that specific PCB congeners can be biotransformed to genotoxic and therefore potentially initiating metabolites. This review will provide an overview of our current knowledge of PCBs genotoxic potential and mechanism of action, emphasizing the contributions of Dr. Ramesh Gupta during his tenures at the Universities of Kentucky and Louisville. PMID:23211541

  10. Transport, fate and bioremediation of PCBs in freshwater systems

    SciTech Connect

    Birge, W.J.; Price, D.; Robison, A. |

    1995-12-31

    PCB monitoring studies were conducted on four riverine systems that varied in order, gradient, and substrate composition. Accumulation of PCBs was greater in fine-grained sediments with organic carbon content of 1 percent or more. Due to the short residence time of PCBs in water, downstream transport occurred mostly via erosion, suspension and resuspension of sediments and floodplain soils. Residues of PCBs in fish were lowest in the green sunfish and other species, higher in black bass, and highest in bottom feeders, (e.g., channel catfish, carp). Carp and catfish were the poorest indicators of real-time contamination but more useful in assessing historical conditions. Differences in PCB half-life in fish correlated with lipid content. Sunfish were the best indicators of current levels of contamination. PCB body burden in these species decreased markedly after curtailment of PCB outfall. Residues at or above 2 mg/Kg in sunfish decreased to 0.5 mg/Kg or less within 12 to 18 months. Percent tissue lipid was a major factor affecting the rate of metabolic degradation of PCBs in fish. High lipid content may prolong the biological half-life of PCBS, whereas low content may correlate with more rapid degradation, depending on the species. Sunfish, due to their localized range, lower lipid content, and ability to metabolize PCBs may be useful tools in the bioremediation of freshwater systems. They feed largely on primary consumers (e.g. detritivores, herbivores); are adaptable to a wide variety of warm water habitats; and management practices have been well established.

  11. Biodegradation of PAHs and PCBs in soils and sludges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, L.; Tindall, J.A.; Friedel, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Results from a multi-year, pilot-scale land treatment project for PAHs and PCBs biodegradation were evaluated. A mathematical model, capable of describing sorption, sequestration, and biodegradation in soil/water systems, is applied to interpret the efficacy of a sequential active-passive biotreatment process of organic chemicals on remediation sites. To account for the recalcitrance of PAHs and PCBs in soils and sludges during long-term biotreatment, this model comprises a kinetic equation for organic chemical intraparticle sequestration process. Model responses were verified by comparison to measurements of biodegradation of PAHs and PCBs in land treatment units; a favorable match was found between them. Model simulations were performed to predict on-going biodegradation behavior of PAHs and PCBs in land treatment units. Simulation results indicate that complete biostabilization will be achieved when the concentration of reversibly sorbed chemical (S RA) reduces to undetectable levels, with a certain amount of irreversibly sequestrated residual chemical (S IA) remaining within the soil particle solid phase. The residual fraction (S IA) tends to lose its original chemical and biological activity, and hence, is much less available, toxic, and mobile than the "free" compounds. Therefore, little or no PAHs and PCBs will leach from the treatment site and constitutes no threat to human health or the environment. Biotreatment of PAHs and PCBs can be terminated accordingly. Results from the pilot-scale testing data and model calculations also suggest that a significant fraction (10-30%) of high-molecular-weight PAHs and PCBs could be sequestrated and become unavailable for biodegradation. Bioavailability (large K d , i.e., slow desorption rate) is the key factor limiting the PAHs degradation. However, both bioavailability and bioactivity (K in Monod kinetics, i.e., number of microbes, nutrients, and electron acceptor, etc.) regulate PCBs biodegradation. The sequential

  12. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using palladized iron

    SciTech Connect

    West, O.R.; Liang, L.; Holden, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    Contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a persistent problem within the Department of Energy complex, as well as in numerous industrial sites around the US. To date, commercially available technologies for destroying these highly stable compounds involve degradation at elevated temperatures either through incineration or base-catalyzed dehalogenation at 300{degrees}C. Since the heating required with these processes substantially increases the costs for treatment of PCB-contaminated wastes, there is a need for finding an alternative approach where PCB can be degraded at ambient temperatures. This report describes the degradation of PCB`s utilizing the bimetallic substrate of iron/palladium.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) depress allogeneic natural cytotoxicity by earthworm coelomocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, M.M.; Cooper, E.L.; Eyambe, G.S.; Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Venables, B.J. |

    1995-10-01

    Coelomocytes of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris caused significant spontaneous allogeneic cytotoxicity in a 24-h trypan blue assay, but not in an assay using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Allogeneic cytotoxicity assays using cells from worms exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) suggest that PCBs can suppress a natural killing (NK-like) reaction. The implications of this work are twofold: understanding the evolution of natural killing (NK-like) activity and providing preliminary information on how spontaneous killing, a component of cellular immunity, may be compromised by pollutants.

  14. The uptake and bioaccumulation of PCBs by phytoplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Swackhamer, D.L.; Skoglund, R.S.; Stange, K. )

    1990-01-01

    Phytoplankton play a major role in the fate and transport of hydrophobic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) due to their large biomass, their high lipid content, and their place as the primary step in the aquatic food web. Phytoplankton accumulate PCBs in the water column most likely as a result of water-lipid partitioning, and can pass the contaminants up through the food web by consumers or transport them to bottom waters by sedimentation. The process of PCB uptake and bioaccumulation by phytoplankton has been the focus of our study.

  15. DISTRIBUTION OF CHIRAL PCBS IN SELECTED TISSUES IN THE LABORATORY RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were manufactured for a large number of technical applications including for use in transformers and capacitors. The widespread commercial utilization of PCBs and their persistence in the environment have resulted in their worldwide distribution. ...

  16. Dioxin, furan and PCB serum levels in a South African Tswana population: comparing the polluting effects of using different cooking and heating fuels.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Rialet; Focant, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    In South Africa, 26-50% of households use solid fuel for cooking food and heating houses. When used as fuel, wood and chlorinated waste are known sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Here, we compare PCDD/F, dioxin-like PCB (DL-PCB), and non-DL-PCB (NDL-PCB) levels in serum of 693 Tswana individuals in the North West province, who either burn solid biofuels or have access to electricity, gas, and paraffin. This is the first South African study on dioxin levels in humans with more than 100 participants. Serum was pooled according to fuel use, as well as to confounding factors such as gender and age. Solid-phase extraction was used to remove the target analytes from serum, after which the extracts were further refined automatically using a combination of multilayer sorbents. Compound concentrations were determined by high-resolution mass spectrometry after high-resolution gas chromatography. Mean serum lipid content was determined enzymatically to be 5.91 ± 0.42 g/L. The PCDD/F and DL-PCB levels were similar to global concentrations reported for non-exposed adults. The mean of the total Toxic Equivalencies (ΣTEQ) was 6.9 ± 3.3 pg/g lipid and the mean NDL-PCB was 70.1 ± 42.8 ng/g lipid. The mean concentrations of the PCDDs, PCDFs and the corresponding World Health Organization-TEQ (WHO-TEQ) of the population using electricity, gas, and paraffin were greater than of those reliant on solid biomass (p = 0), whereas the DL-PCBs, their corresponding WHO-TEQ, and NDL-PCBs were greater for the population who use biofuels but not significantly so. The females had higher serum levels of the PCDDs (p = 0) and PCDFs (not significant) whereas the PCBs were higher for the males (p = 0). Breastfeeding women presented lower levels of all compound classes than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p=0) and older subjects manifested greater pollutant loads than the younger generation (p = 0

  17. Radiation induced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollutants in paint scrapings.

    PubMed

    Singh, R K; Khandal, R K; Singh, Gurdeep

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic organic chemicals which have been commercially used worldwide in many specialty applications. In paints, PCBs were used because of their unique properties such as thermal stability, flame-resistance and low volatility. However, due to their adverse effects on human health and environment, the use of PCBs has now been banned. PCBs are today considered widespread pollutants in the global system . PCBs sources still exist in various products and in waste streams such as oil, paints, rubbers etc. Various remedial technologies have been developed in the world to detoxify PCBs. In the present study, radiolysis has been investigated as a safe means to reduce or destroy PCBs. Under this study, detoxification of PCBs in paint scrapings by gamma radiation using Cobalt 60 source has been investigated. The experimental results demonstrate that the gamma radiations can be an alternative environment- friendly technology for destroying PCBs. Gamma radiations also have the potential of being a preferred tool in comparison to the most widely used incineration method for destroying PCBs. The method used was found highly effective and destruction efficiency was as high as 91%. The degradation efficiency of PCBs was dependent on absorbed radiation dose, the type of PCBs and also on the source of paint scrapings. PMID:21114157

  18. Are PCBs the major neurotoxicant in Great Lakes salmon?

    SciTech Connect

    Seegal, R.F. |

    1999-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between consumption, by women, of contaminated Great Lakes salmon and deficits in cognitive performance in the children of these women. Although significant statistical associations between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burdens and these negative outcomes suggest that PCBs may be responsible, the fetus and neonate are also exposed to other fish-borne neurotoxicants. In this manuscript the authors present data from two developmental studies that support the hypothesis that PCBs may serve either as a marker for other contaminants that are responsible for the observed effects, or that other contaminants present in the fish interact synergistically with the PCBs to produce the observed neurotoxicity. In the first study the authors demonstrated that exposure of rates to diets containing lyophilized Great Lakes salmon, resulting in exposure to as little as 13.9 {micro}g/(kg {center_dot} day) of total PCBs, induced significant reductions in regional brain dopamine (DA) concentrations. In the second study, they demonstrated that exposure of rats to the ortho-substituted PCB congener (2,4,2{prime},4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl) at 1, 10 or 20 mg/(kg {center_dot} day) also induced significant reductions in DA concentrations in the same brain regions although only at the two highest doses--levels at least 100-fold higher than seen in the first study.

  19. Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Implications for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Pediatric exposure to polychlorinated biphynels (PCBs) is a national health concern with significant implications for school psychologists. According to the healthcare collaboration model, the school psychologist plays a key role in the provision of services to children affected by environmental teratogens. To effectively function as healthcare…

  20. NANO-SCALE PALLADIUM DOPED MAGNESIUM BIMETALLICS FOR DECHLORINATING PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic and recalcitrant pollutants found in rivers; coastal waters and in 500 of the nation's 1598 Superfund waste sites. According to an EPA estimate, the existing 525 million tons of PCB wastes will cost $394 billion to be incinerated, curren...

  1. Continuous catalytic hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil.

    PubMed

    Veriansyah, Bambang; Choi, Hye-Min; Lee, Youn-Woo; Kang, Jeong Won; Kim, Jae-Duck; Kim, Jaehoon

    2009-12-01

    Continuous catalytic hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the presence of transformer oils was carried out in a fixed bed reactor using a 57.6 wt% Ni on silicon oxide-aluminum oxide (SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)) catalyst. Reaction temperatures ranging 150-300 degrees C, PCBs concentrations ranging 50-200 ppm, and reaction times ranging 1-8 h were tested. At a higher reaction temperature or at a lower PCBs concentration, catalytic activity was higher and complete dechlorination of PCBs resulted even at long reaction time. Catalyst regeneration using hexane and 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was effective to restore the catalytic activity. Fresh, spent and regenerated catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. XRD analysis revealed growth of Ni crystallite size of the spent and the regenerated catalysts. XPS analysis showed that a considerable amount of chlorine and carbon species were deposited on the surface of the spent catalyst, which may play a role in the catalysts deactivation. PMID:20183511

  2. LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE STUDY: PROGNOSIS FOR PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study was conducted to measure and model nutrients, atrazine, PCBs, trans-nonachlor, and mercury to gain a better understanding of the transport and fate of these substances within the system and to aid managers in the environmental decision-making ...

  3. Environmental contamination of ready meals by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed

    Adenugba, Adeola A; McMartin, Dena W; Beck, Angus

    2012-01-01

    The level of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in ready meals was investigated to determine exposure compared to other foodstuffs. Chilled ready meals from nine categories (ambient, Chinese, Indian, Traditional UK, Italian, American Tex-Mex, Vegetarian and Organic), and three samples within each category were Soxhlet extracted in triplicate with hexane for 24 h, followed by a clean-up on deactivated silica gel. The cleaned extracts were concentrated to 1 ml under N(2) gas and analyzed on gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for 7 target PCBs (congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 138, and 180). Individual congener concentrations ranged from non-detectable to 0.40 ng g(-1) (wet weight). The cumulative concentration of all congeners (ΣPCBs) ranged between 0.20 and 1.00 ng g(-1) (wet weight). These values translate into exposure levels of less than 1 μg kg(-1)day(-1) for reference men and women of 70 and 57 kg, respectively. This preliminary study demonstrates that ready meals, like many other foods, are contaminated by PCBs and may represent an important route of human exposure given contemporary changes in consumer food choice. Even though low levels of contamination were observed, long-term exposure for population groups consuming a high volume of ready meals may have cause for concern regarding chronic health risks. PMID:22934994

  4. Modeling Tribal Exposures to PCBs from Fish Consumption

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have shown that U.S. population continues to be exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), despite the ban ~40 years ago. Fish intake is a major pathway, especially, for high fish-consumption groups. Exposure assessment and risk management considerations for tribal fish...

  5. Hudson River PCBs Site EPA Phase 1 Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    In February 2002, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, or EPA) issued a Record of Decision (ROD) (USEPA, 2002) for the Hudson River PCBs Superfund Site (Site). The ROD called for environmental dredging targeting approximately 2.65 million cubic yards (CY) ...

  6. PCBs and OH-PCBs in polar bear mother-cub pairs: a comparative study based on plasma levels in 1998 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Bytingsvik, Jenny; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Derocher, Andrew E; Wiig, Øystein; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2012-02-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the plasma concentrations and prevalence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hydroxylated PCB-metabolites (OH-PCBs) in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) mothers (n=26) and their 4 months old cubs-of-the-year (n=38) from Svalbard to gain insight into the mother-cub transfer, biotransformation and to evaluate the health risk associated with the exposure to these contaminants. As samplings were performed in 1997/1998 and 2008, we further investigated the differences in levels and pattern of PCBs between the two sampling years. The plasma concentrations of Σ(21)PCBs (1997/1998: 5710 ± 3090 ng/g lipid weight [lw], 2008: 2560 ± 1500 ng/g lw) and Σ(6)OH-PCBs (1997/1998: 228 ± 60 ng/g wet weight [ww], 2008: 80 ± 38 ng/g ww) in mothers were significantly lower in 2008 compared to in 1997/1998. In cubs, the plasma concentrations of Σ(21)PCBs (1997/1998: 14680 ± 5350 ng/g lw, 2008: 6070 ± 2590 ng/g lw) and Σ(6)OH-PCBs (1997/1998: 98 ± 23 ng/g ww, 2008: 49 ± 21 ng/g ww) were also significantly lower in 2008 than in 1997/1998. Σ(21)PCBs in cubs was 2.7 ± 0.7 times higher than in their mothers. This is due to a significant maternal transfer of these contaminants. In contrast, Σ(6)OH-PCBs in cubs were approximately 0.53 ± 0.16 times the concentration in their mothers. This indicates a lower maternal transfer of OH-PCBs compared to PCBs. The majority of the metabolite/precursor-ratios were lower in cubs compared to mothers. This may indicate that cubs have a lower endogenous capacity to biotransform PCBs to OH-PCBs than polar bear mothers. Exposure to PCBs and OH-PCBs is a potential health risk for polar bears, and the levels of PCBs and OH-PCBs in cubs from 2008 were still above levels associated with health effects in humans and wildlife. PMID:22264925

  7. Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, A; Moon, T W; Kennedy, S W; Glen, G A

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10064546

  8. Contaminant-induced immunosuppression and mass mortalities among harbor seals.

    PubMed

    Van Loveren, H; Ross, P S; Osterhaus, A D; Vos, J G

    2000-03-15

    Virus-associated mass mortalities among seals inhabiting northwestern Europe have generated an interest in immunotoxicology in this species. A morbillivirus has been isolated from victims, but a contribution of immunotoxic contaminants to the severity of the outbreaks could not be ruled out. Fish-eating seals occupy high trophic levels in the aquatic food chain, and accumulate high levels of contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Such chemicals have been found to be immunotoxic at low doses in studies of laboratory animals. We carried out an immunotoxicological study, in which captive harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) were fed herring from either relatively uncontaminated sites of the Atlantic Ocean, or from the highly contaminated Baltic Sea. In this report we summarize the contaminant-related immunosuppression observed in the captive group of seals fed herring from the Baltic Sea. In addition, we describe two parallel studies, in which laboratory rats are exposed as adults or perinatally to the contaminants in the Baltic Sea herring, exhibiting immunotoxicity. On the basis of these studies we conclude that complex mixtures of environmental contaminants including PCBs, PCDFs, and PCDDs may represent a real immunotoxic risk to free-ranging seals. PMID:10720747

  9. Changes in contaminant distributions with trophic level in a marine food chain study

    SciTech Connect

    Pruell, R.J.; Johnson, M.W.; Taplin, B.K.; McGovern, D.G.; Montmarquet, B.T.

    1994-12-31

    A laboratory study was designed to investigate the transfer of chlorinated organic contaminants from sediments to marine biota in a simplified marine food chain. Sediments collected from the Passaic River, NJ, which contained high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), PCBs and chlorinated pesticides, were used as the contamination source. Polychaete worms (Nereis virens) were exposed to Passaic River sediment for 70 days to allow steady-state concentrations to be achieved and then these organisms were fed to a crustacean, the American lobster (Homarus americanus). Contaminant distributions were altered significantly as they passed from sediments to polychaetes and then to the lobster. PCDDs and PCDFs containing four or five chlorines were accumulated by the polychaetes and lobster; however, the highly chlorinated congeners were not accumulated. PCB patterns in lobsters indicated that these organisms metabolized many PCB congeners. Coplanar PCBs did not appear to be metabolized and therefore became enriched relative to total PCB levels in the lobsters. Lobsters also greatly altered the ratios of chlordane and DDT series compounds relative to those in the sediments and polychaetes.

  10. Contaminants in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from the upper Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, D.D.; Ikonomou, M.G.; Rantalaine, A.L.; Rogers, I.H.; Sutherland, D.; Oostdam, J. Van

    1997-03-01

    Four white sturgeon were collected from the upper Fraser River near Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, in the fall of 199a and 1992. Two additional fish were taken from the Fraser River near Williams Lake, some 250 km downstream of Prince George. Samples of white muscle, red muscle, liver, and roe were analyzed for metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), non-ortho and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorophenols to determine whether the tissues of this species were acceptable for human consumption. The concentrations of mercury in the white muscle and liver of several fish from the upper Fraser River exceeded the provincial tissue residue criteria for people who consumed low quantities of fish. The concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs (expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents) in red muscle and liver of these fish exceeded the Health Canada working guidelines for the protection of human health. By comparison, white sturgeon collected in the lower Fraser River had much lower concentrations of metals and organic contaminants. The differences in contaminant burdens in fish from the two widely separated reaches of the river reflect their proximity to or distance from known contaminant sources.

  11. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in wild boars from Calabria (Italy).

    PubMed

    Naccari, F; Giofrè, F; Licata, P; Martino, D; Calò, M; Parisi, N

    2004-01-01

    At present, there are no specific studies on the evaluation of environmental toxicological risks in Calabria (south of Italy) and on the presence of contaminants in the fauna of this region. The aim of the present research was to investigate the levels of contamination by OC pesticides and PCBs in some organs and tissues of wild boars (utilized as 'biological indicator') from various areas of Calabria. Quantitative determinations of organochlorines were carried out using GC-ECD and confirmed with GC-MS in 154 samples from wild boars (heart, liver, lung, kidney, muscle tissue and spleen) during the hunting season from 2000 to 2002. The results indicate the low residual levels of DDE in 8 samples and DDT in 4 samples and PCBs residues (Aroclor 1232) below the detection limits were found. Therefore, these results show that the Calabria region is not at contamination risk from organochlorines and moreover is free from health problems for the consumer of boar meat. PMID:15327158

  12. Total PCBs and PCB congeners in Spanish Imperial Eagle eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, L.M.; Fernandez, M.A.; Gonzalez, M.J. )

    1989-11-01

    The Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila (heliaca) adalberti is the only directly endangered bird of prey in Europe. Lowered reproductive success in numerous bird species has been associated with eggshell thinning and reduced production caused by DDE, the most common organochlorine residue found in wild birds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are usually the second most common organochlorine pollutant found in wild birds. Research to evaluate the incidence of organochlorine pollutants in the Spanish Imperial Eagle has been previously conducted. The authors have now determined the levels of total PCBs and selected PCB congeners in 34 eggs of Spanish Imperial Eagle collected at Donana National Park, Castile Plateau and Nature Park of Monfrague, since this has considerable significance when attempts are made to correlate the embryonic mortality of avian wildlife with PCB residue levels.

  13. Daphnia response to biotic stress is modified by PCBs.

    PubMed

    Bernatowicz, Piotr; Pijanowska, Joanna

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of xenobiotics (PCBs) on the responses of Daphnia to biotic factors such as the presence of a predator (fish kairomone) or filamentous cyanobacteria. Both behaviour (depth selection) and life history (body size at first reproduction and fecundity) were affected by these stressors. Though there was no direct effect of PCBs, their influence resulted in disruption of the "natural" reaction to the presence of fish or cyanobacteria, leading to inadequate responses of Daphnia to these biotic threats. Examined clones of Daphnia showed significant diversity in their reaction to these stress factors, which was greater than that between Daphnia clones exposed to different environmental conditions. PCB pollution may change the frequency of Daphnia clones in favour of those whose responses to biotic stress are similar in both the absence and presence of these toxic chemicals. PMID:21095006

  14. Bioremediation of PCBs. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the microbes and microbial processes capable of reducing the toxicity of, or destroying, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls). Techniques include treatments used in above-ground reactors or in situ detoxification of contaminated soil or water. The citations examine conditions which facilitate decomposition, such as use of the most effective microorganisms, and factors which can accelerate or inhibit the degradation.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottom sediments: identification of sources.

    PubMed

    Wolska, Lidia; Mechlińska, Agata; Rogowska, Justyna; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can enter the environment from various sources. They are synthetic chemicals and as such are present in the environment mainly as mixtures containing various amounts of PCB congeners. It is therefore difficult to pinpoint the source of PCB emissions into the environment and the pathways along which they migrate there. The situation is different where locating the emission sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is concerned. There is much information in the literature on the molecular markers that can be used to identify the sources of PAH emissions into the environment. Environmental samples like soil or bottom sediments are usually analysed for their contents of both groups of compounds. Therefore, with data on the origins of PAHs to hand, and seeking and comparing mutual correlations, one can attempt to define the probable sources of emission of PCBs. The purpose of this work was to identify the probable PCBs emission sources in bottom sediments using available data, that is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diagnostic ratios. The numerical ratios of pairs of compounds such as fluoranthene/pyrene, phenanthrene/anthracene, fluoranthene/(fluoranthene+pyrene) and chrysene/benzo[a]anthracene are generally used as a tool for identifying and assessing pollution emission sources. PMID:24997912

  16. PCBs in the fish assemblage of a southern European estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Joana; Pato, Pedro; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C.; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2013-02-01

    The Mondego estuary fish assemblage was studied for the accumulation of PCBs. Three sampling stations were visited along an estuarine salinity gradient, and, in total, 15 species were collected. Analysis of PCBs revealed no significant differences among the sampling stations, although differences were observed among the fish assemblages. Fish assemblages could be divided into three groups. The first group comprised those with higher concentration (more than 10 ng g- 1, dw), included the species Gobius niger, Sardina pilchardus, Anguilla anguilla, Pomatoschistus microps, Chelidonichthys lucerna and Liza ramada; the second group with medium concentration (5-10 ng g- 1, dw), included the species Pomatoschistus minutus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Atherina presbyter, Chelon labrosus, Diplodus vulgaris, Platichthys flesus and Cilata mustela; and a third group with low concentration (less than 5 ng g- 1, dw), included the species Solea solea and Callionymus lyra. A positive correlation was found between lipid content and PCB concentrations. To evaluate the influence of the residence time of species on the accumulation of PCBs, species were divided into two groups: species that spend more than 3 years in the estuary, and species that spend less than 3 years in the estuary. Species that spend more than 3 years in the estuary presented higher concentrations than species that spend less than 3 years in the estuary. CBs 138 and 153 had higher concentration, and tended to increase with time spent in the estuary.

  17. Persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk from Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kunisue, Tatsuya

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we concisely reviewed the contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in human breast milk collected from Asian countries such as Japan, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, and Indonesia during 1999-2003. Dioxins, PCBs, CHLs in Japanese, and DDTs in Vietnamese, Chinese, Cambodian, Malaysian, and HCHs in Chinese, Indian, and HCB in Chinese breast milk were predominant. In India, levels of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in the mothers living around the open dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site and other Asian developing countries, indicating that significant pollution sources of DRCs are present in the dumping site of India and the residents there have been exposed to relatively higher levels of these contaminants possibly via bovine milk. PMID:16949712

  18. Monitoring biological effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in great blue heron chicks (Ardea herodias) in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, J T; Elliott, J E; Norstrom, R J; Whitehead, P E; Hart, L E; Cheng, K M; Bellward, G D

    1994-04-01

    The Canadian Wildlife Service monitors levels of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs in British Columbia as indicators of environmental contamination. The present project assessed the temporal effects of environmental contamination with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) on hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities and several morphological parameters in heron hatchlings. Between 1990 and 1992, eggs were collected from two great blue heron colonies in British Columbia that had elevated levels of contamination in 1988: Vancouver in 1990 and 1992, and Crofton in 1991. Biological parameters in the hatchlings and chemical contaminant levels in matched eggs from the same clutch were measured and compared with the findings from the same colonies studied in 1988. Levels of TCDD and other PCDDs and PCDFs had decreased significantly in both colonies since 1988. A concomitant decrease in EROD activity and incidence of chick edema, increase in body weight, and improvement of the reproductive success of the Crofton colony was observed. Body, yolk-free body, stomach, and intestine weights, tibia wet, dry, and ash weights, and tibia length regressed negatively on TCDD level (p < .01; n = 54). Hepatic EROD activity regressed positively on TCDD level (r2 = .49; p = .00005; n = 54). Regression of these parameters on the sum of TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ) resulted in similar relationships. The reduction in severity of the effects observed in the contaminated colonies in the recent collections, accompanied by the declines in levels of PCDDs and PCDFs, was consistent with the dose-response relationships determined in 1988. PMID:8145284

  19. Accumulation of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) and implications for PCBs metabolic capacities in three porpoise species.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Mari; Nomiyama, Kei; Isobe, Tomohiko; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Yamada, Tadasu K; Tajima, Yuko; Matsuishi, Takashi; Amano, Masao; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-08-01

    The present study investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs (OH-PCBs) in blood from three porpoise species: finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides), harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), and Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli). The porpoises were found stranded or were bycaught along the Japanese coast. Concentrations of OH-PCB were the highest in Dall's porpoises (58pgg(-1) wet wt), second highest in finless porpoises (20pgg(-1) wet wt), and lowest in harbor porpoises (8.3pgg(-1) wet wt). The concentrations in Dall's porpoises were significantly higher than the concentrations in finless porpoises and harbor porpoises (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). There was a positive correlation between PCB and OH-PCB concentrations (r=0.67, p<0.001), suggesting the possible concentration-dependent induction of CYP enzymes. The three porpoise species may have exceptionally low metabolic capacities compared with other marine and terrestrial mammals, because low OH-PCB/PCB concentration ratios were found, which were 0.0016 for Dall's porpoises, 0.0013 for harbor porpoises, and 0.00058 for finless porpoises. Distinct differences in the OH-PCB congener patterns were observed for the three species, even though they are taxonomically closely related. PMID:23725750

  20. Communicating risks after exposure has ended: former workers' perspectives on PCBs.

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Mobley, Amy; Lehman, Everett

    2013-01-01

    While the importance of worker notification has been widely recognized, little attention has been paid to social and psychological contexts in which worker notification occurs, especially after the exposure has ended. This study explores workers' perspectives on exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a toxic material whose manufacture in the United States ended in 1977. Four focus groups were conducted with former workers (n = 29) who were exposed to PCBs. Verbatim transcriptions were analyzed. Participants considered living in the PCB-contaminated community more dangerous than handling PCBs on the job. While they firmly believed that PCBs in the environment caused serious health problems, participants expressed doubts about the toxicity of PCBs in the workplace. Both beliefs undermined the value of worker notification about occupational exposure to PCBs. A long-term relationship between workers and researchers would provide opportunities to cultivate better understanding of the hazard and facilitate the process of worker notification. PMID:23896076

  1. COMMUNICATING RISKS AFTER EXPOSURE HAS ENDED: FORMER WORKERS’ PERSPECTIVES ON PCBs

    PubMed Central

    FUJISHIRO, KAORI; MOBLEY, AMY; LEHMAN, EVERETT

    2015-01-01

    While the importance of worker notification has been widely recognized, little attention has been paid to social and psychological contexts in which worker notification occurs, especially after the exposure has ended. This study explores workers’ perspectives on exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a toxic material whose manufacture in the United States ended in 1977. Four focus groups were conducted with former workers (n = 29) who were exposed to PCBs. Verbatim transcriptions were analyzed. Participants considered living in the PCB-contaminated community more dangerous than handling PCBs on the job. While they firmly believed that PCBs in the environment caused serious health problems, participants expressed doubts about the toxicity of PCBs in the workplace. Both beliefs undermined the value of worker notification about occupational exposure to PCBs. A long-term relationship between workers and researchers would provide opportunities to cultivate better understanding of the hazard and facilitate the process of worker notification. PMID:23896076

  2. Levels of PCBs in Oysters Coming from Galicia Coast: Comparison to Mussels from the Same Region.

    PubMed

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Mouteira, A

    2016-05-01

    PCBs were analyzed in two species of oyster (Crassostrea gigas and Ostrea edulis) cultured in intertidal beds and rafts coming from the Galician Rías during the period 2011-2014. PCBs were also analyzed in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected in the same Rías during 2011. The main objective of this work is to investigate the distribution of PCBs in Galician oysters and to study their suitability as bioindicator in comparison to mussels. The levels of ΣPCBs (ten congeners) ranged from 5.58 to 179.49 ng g(-1) d.w. The effect of biological parameters (shell length, lipid content and condition index) on bioaccumulation of PCBs was also evaluated. ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference between species for higher chlorinated biphenyls (CBs 153 and 138). The spatial patterns were investigated. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed differences between geographical areas (Rías Altas, Centrales and Baixas) in the distribution of PCBs. PMID:26988224

  3. Effects of parental and dietary PCBs on survival, growth, and body burdens of larval striped bass

    SciTech Connect

    Westin, D.T.; Olney, C.E.; Rogers, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    The relative contribution of parental and dietary sources of PCBs on the effects on survival and growth of striped bass larvae during their first month of life was investigated. Larvae of known PCBs body burden were fed for 20 days on ARTEMIA diets containing high and low concentrations of PCBs. The inherited and dietary concentrations had no effect on survival and growth after yolk absorption. Residue analysis of eggs and larvae showed a consistent reduction of PCBs concentration over time regardless of the PCBs level in the diet. The reduction in total PCBs reflects dilution of PCB from paretal sources by the accretion of relatively uncontaminated tissue during the period of rapid larval growth. (JMT)

  4. Temporal and geographic variation of organochlorine residues in eggs of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) (1981-1991) and comparisons to trends in the herring gull (Larus argentatus) in the Great Lakes basin in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bishop, C A; Ng, P; Norstrom, R J; Brooks, R J; Pettit, K E

    1996-11-01

    Common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) eggs from five sites within the Great Lakes basin, and from a reference site in north-central Ontario were collected during 1981-1991 and analyzed for four organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including six non-ortho PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The pattern of geographic variation was consistent over time in eggs with Cootes Paradise/ Hamilton Harbour and Lynde Creek eggs on Lake Ontario containing the highest concentrations and most PCDD and PCDF congeners among all sites. Eggs from Cranberry Marsh on Lake Ontario contained organochlorine concentrations similar to those from Big Creek Marsh and Rondeau Provincial Park on Lake Erie except PCDDs and PCDFs which occurred at higher concentrations and more congeners were detectable in Cranberry Marsh eggs. Concentrations of most contaminants in turtle eggs from Algonquin Park, the reference site, have significantly decreased in the past decade. Dieldrin concentrations, however, increased in Algonquin Park eggs from 1981 to 1989. Significant decreases in concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, mirex and PCBs occurred between turtle eggs collected in 1981/84 and 1989 at Big Creek Marsh and Rondeau Provincial Park, whereas there was no significant change in concentrations of p,p'-DDE and dieldrin. In Lake Ontario eggs, concentrations of PCBs, p,p'-DDE and dieldrin increased significantly between 1984 and 1991. Differences were also found in patterns of temporal variation in contamination between herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and snapping turtles which were attributed to differences in diet. Elevated and continued contamination in turtle eggs from Lake. Ontario is probably due to a combination of local sources of chemicals and consumption of large migratory fish that spawn in wetlands inhabited by these turtles. PMID:8975824

  5. Adsorption characteristics of PCBs to resins, whole cells, cell and tissue components, and biomolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, R.L.; Conrad, J.; Akin, C.

    1990-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been designated hazardous chemicals by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Although PCBs and PCB-containing oils have not been in use since 1977, they persist in the environment. They are known to be absorbed by various aquatic organisms, birds, and mammals. The nature of these affinities is not known. In this study, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) compared the adsorption phenomenon of PCBs on commercial resins, whole bacterial cells, cell and tissue component, and various biomolecules. Adsorption and desorption of PCBs to biomolecules and resins in both aqueous and nonaqueous conditions were examined. 9 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Toxicity of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) using the bioluminescent assay Microtox(®).

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Renu; Tehrani, Rouzbeh; Van Aken, Benoit

    2016-09-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) are toxic contaminants which are produced in the environment by biological or abiotic oxidation of PCBs. The toxicity of a suite of 23 mono-hydroxylated derivatives of PCBs and 12 parent PCBs was determined using the bacterial bioluminescent assay Microtox(®). All HO-PCBs tested exhibited higher toxicity than the corresponding parent PCB, with effect concentration 50 % (EC50) ranging from 0.07 to 133 mg L(-1). The highest toxicities were recorded with 4-hydroxylated derivatives of di-chlorinated biphenyls (EC50 = 0.07-0.36 mg L(-1)) and 2-hydroxylated derivatives of tri-chlorinated biphenyls carrying a chlorine substituent on the phenolic ring (EC50 = 0.34-0.48 mg L(-1)). The toxicity of HO-PCBs generally decreased when the degree of chlorination increased. Consistently with this observation, a significant positive correlation was measured between toxicity (measured by EC50) and octanol-water partition coefficient (pK ow) for the HO-PCBs under study (Pearson's correlation coefficient, r = 0.74), which may be explained by the lower solubility and bioavailability generally associated with higher hydrophobicity. This study is the first one which assessed the toxicity of a suite of PCBs and HO-PCBs using the bioluminescent assay Microtox(®), showing an inverse correlation between toxicity and hydrophobicity. PMID:27411941

  7. PCBs contamination in seafood species at the Eastern Coast of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Jaikanlaya, Chate; Settachan, Daam; Denison, Michael S.; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; van den Berg, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a large group of persistent organic substances spread throughout the world. The most toxic PCBs are those that are dioxin-like (dl-PCBs). Environmental studies on PCBs in Thailand are limited, especially with regards to dl-PCBs. This study is one of the first in this country that demonstrates contamination of seafood with PCBs and determines the levels of PCBs and total dioxin like activity in mussels, oysters and shrimp, from the Eastern Coast of Thailand. Sixty pooled samples of mussels and twenty-seven pooled samples of oysters were collected from cultivation farms and twenty-one pooled samples of shrimp were collected from fisherman piers. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of 49 PCB congeners was obtained by HRGC-ECD analysis and total dioxin-like activity using the CAFLUX bioassay. Total PCB concentrations varied between three species, ranging between 19 and 1100 ng g−1 lipid adjusted weight, and the levels of PCBs in shrimp was three time higher than that in mussels and oysters. With respected to the pattern of PCB congeners, it implied that the source of PCBs exposure in this area could be from the regional contamination. The calculated CAFLUX bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs) values ranged between 0.8 and 18 pg BEQ g−1 lipid adjusted weight, and showed a good relationship with the chemical-derived TEQs. Therefore, the CAFLUX bioassay can be used for effective screening of dioxin-like activity in marine species effectively. PMID:19375780

  8. Desorption, partitioning, and dechlorination characteristics of PCBs in sediments in interaction with reactive activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeok; Lawal, Wasiu; Al-Abed, Souhail R

    2015-04-28

    Sediment (WHS) in Waukegan Harbor, Illinois, heavily contaminated and aged with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was treated with reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with palladized iron nanoparticles. Lab test proceeded in a direct mixing configuration of RAC and WHS. A compartment configuration, where RAC was physically separated from WHS, was also designed to trace the sequential transport and fate of PCBs, including desorption, adsorption, dechlorination, and re-partitioning. PCBs, once desorbed from WHS, were immediately sequestrated to RAC and subject to dechlorination. Direct mixing of WHS with RAC was one-order of magnitude more effective for dechlorination than compartment configuration. Compared to their desorption-followed by-adsorption route, direct physical contact of RAC with PCBs bound to WHS exhibited negligible contribution to the availability of PCBs for dechlorination reaction. Addition of RAC even in compartment configuration facilitated PCBs desorption from WHS. However, slow desorption of PCBs limited overall performance, resulting in a five-order of magnitude lower dechlorination yield when compared with treatment of purely aqueous PCBs. The low dechlorination yield reflected real world complexities in treating 3.19% organic carbon-containing WHS aged with PCBs for 40 years. These observations were further supported when compared with results on clean Cesar Creek sediment spiked with 2-chlorinated biphenyls. PMID:25636140

  9. Contrasting retinoid and thyroid hormone status in differentially-contaminated northern fulmar colonies from the Canadian Arctic, Svalbard and the Faroe Islands.

    PubMed

    Verreault, Jonathan; Helgason, Lisa B; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Dam, Maria; Braune, Birgit M

    2013-02-01

    The northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) has previously been shown to accumulate a wide range, and occasionally high concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) (e.g., PCBs, chlorobenzenes, DDT- and chlordane-related compounds, dioxins and furans). The present study aimed to investigate, using a meta-analysis approach, the variations in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A-like enzyme induction based on ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity (EROD) and selected physiological variables (retinoids and thyroid hormones) in northern fulmar breeding in three differentially OC-exposed populations: Nunavut (Canadian Arctic), Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic) and the Faroe Islands. Substantially higher (roughly two-fold) OC levels were uncovered in the liver of this long-lived fulmarine petrel breeding in the Faroe Islands relative to Svalbard and Nunavut. Liver levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and non-ortho PCBs in Faroe Islands fulmars were amongst the highest reported thus far in any seabirds from the northern regions. Positive correlations were depicted in combined fulmars (all three populations) between hepatic EROD activity and concentrations of OCs, in which strongest associations were found for dioxin-like compound (PCDFs and PCDDs) and TEQ concentrations. Moreover, moderate to strong positive correlations were found between liver OC concentrations and plasma total thyroxin (TT(4)) levels and TT(4)/total triiodothyronine (TT(3)) level ratios, as well as strong negative correlations between the same suite of OCs and plasma TT(3) levels. Hepatic OC concentrations (PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, HCB, p,p'-DDE and oxychlordane) also were positively correlated with hepatic retinyl palmitate levels which, in turn, were associated with a significant decrease in plasma retinol levels and somewhat unchanged liver retinol levels. The present meta-analysis investigation on northern fulmar breeding in three geographically-distant sites illustrated that OC exposure (mainly PCBs and dioxins/furans) may be associated with

  10. Effects of PCBs on mourning dove courtship behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Tori, G.M.; Peterle, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of PCBs on the Mourning sove courtship behavior and subsequent reproductive effects were studied. The behavior has been divided into the courtship phase (pair bond formation and courting) and the nesting phase (nestbuilding, egglaying, and incubation). Twenty four pairs of doves were fed 0, 10, or 40 ppm Aroclor 1254 for 42 days. The courtship phases were significantly prolonged at the higher dose. Both doses had effects on the nesting phase; at 10 ppm the initial nest building was about 7 days longer than that of controls. Clutch size and eggshell thickness did not significantly differ from controls. (JMT)

  11. Effects of PCBs on mourning dove courtship behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Tori, G.M.; Peterle, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of PCBs on the Mourning sove courtship behavior and subsequent reproductive effects were studied. The behavior has been divided into the courtship phase (pair bond formation and courting) and the nesting phase (nestbuilding, egglaying, and incubation). Twenty four pairs of doves were fed 0, 10, or 40 ppm Aroclor 1254 for 42 days. The courtship phases were significantly prolonged at the higher dose. Both doses had effects on the nesting phase; at 10 ppm the initial nest building was about 7 days longer than that of controls. Clutch size and eggshell thickness did not significantly differ form controls. (JMT)

  12. Gamma radiation process for destruction of toxic polychlorinated biphenyls (Pcbs) in transformer oils.

    PubMed

    Singh, R K; Nayak, Poonam; Niyogi, U K; Khandal, R K; Singh, Gurdeep

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic organic chemicals commercially used worldwide in many applications. PCBs were used in oils because of their excellent properties such as good thermal stability, flame resistance, dielectric constant, high break down voltage, high boiling point and low volatility. However, because of their adverse affects on environment and human health, the use of PCBs has been banned now. PCBs are today considered among the widespread pollutants in the global system. PCBs sources still exist in various industrial products and in waste streams such as capacitor oils, lubricating oils, transformer oils, hydraulic oils, paints, rubbers, cables, etc. Several such materials containing PCBs emanating from various sources need to be detoxified before their reuse or before going to landfill for final disposal. Various remedial technologies have been developed in the world to destroy toxic PCBs. The radiolysis has been investigated as an environment-friendly process for waste oil treatment contaminated with PCBs, which may be a better alternative to the globally most widely accepted incineration method. A study was undertaken to detoxify PCBs in transformer oil by gamma radiation using Cobalt 60 source. Analysis of PCBs in transformer oils before and after radiation was carried out by GC-MS instrument. The effect of radiation dose and destruction of PCBs in transformer oils are discussed in details in the present paper. The method used was found to be highly effective and destruction was as high as 79 %. Further, the transformer oil samples were also evaluated before and after radiation to check their quality. The properties of oils were not significantly altered by gamma radiation treatment as evident from the results given in the paper. PMID:17913201

  13. Origin attribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in sediment and soil from a Japanese freshwater lake area through congener-specific data analysis.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, T; Suzuki, N; Masunaga, S; Nakanishi, J

    1998-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) in sediment and soil from a freshwater lake area were congener-specifically determined. The obtained data were examined to estimate the major origins of these compounds, with the aid of principal component analysis (PCA). Four major principal components (PCs) were obtained, and three of them were attributed to PCDDs/PCDFs in the atmosphere, in a diphenyl ether herbicide and in pentachlorophenol, based on congener-specific comparisons with references. One PC remained unattributed. These four were interpreted as the major origins of PCDDs/PCDFs in the area. The relative influence of the origins was also investigated. PMID:9828338

  14. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in human adipose tissues in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K. )

    1994-03-01

    Most of the persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides, excluding lindane, were banned in Poland in 1975/76. The first restrictions concerning the use and marketing of lindane (gamma-HCH) became effective in 1980 and were gradually extended until it's agricultural use was ultimately banned in 1989. Unfortunately, there are no detailed data on the use and release of PCBs to the environment in Poland. The former studies showed that in the late seventies the concentrations of OC pesticides and their metabolites in men reached considerable high levels. Despite of the restrictions or bans of these pesticides in most of the countries of the temperate climate, they still circulate in various food chains and eventually concentrate in man. Many authors claim an uneven distribution of the OC compounds in the population and report different levels in men and women and also some relations between OC compounds levels in fat tissues and age. Environmental contamination also plays an important role in the magnitude of OC compounds levels in man. The aim of this paper is to present the actual concentrations of HCB, p,p[prime]-DDT, p,p[prime]-DDE, isomers of HCH (alpha, beta, gamma), and PCBs in human adipose tissues particularly regarding age and sex as possible factors influencing the levels of these compounds and to contribute to the general discussion on the distribution patterns of the organochlorine compounds in the population. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Leeches as Sensor-bioindicators of River Contamination by PCBs

    PubMed Central

    Macova, Stanislava; Harustiakova, Danka; Kolarova, Jitka; Machova, Jana; Zlabek, Vladimir; Vykusova, Blanka; Randak, Tomas; Velisek, Josef; Poleszczuk, Gorzyslaw; Hajslova, Jana; Pulkrabova, Jana; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of leeches of the genus Erpobdella as a means of assessing polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of watercourses. The River Skalice, heavily contaminated with PCBs, was selected as a model. The source of contamination was a road gravel processing factory in Rožmitál pod Třemšínem from which an estimated 1 metric ton of PCBs leaked in 1986. Levels of PCB were measured in leeches collected between 1992 to 2003 from 11 sites covering about 50 km of the river (the first sampling site upstream to the source of contamination and 10 sites downstream). The PCB indicator congeners IUPA no. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180 were measured. Levels were highest at the four sampling sites nearest the source of pollution. The highest values of PCB congeners were found in 1992. PCB content decreased from 1992 to 2003 and with distance from the source. The study indicated that leeches of the genus Erpobdella are a suitable bioindicator of contamination in the surface layer of river sediments. PMID:22573988

  16. Enhanced thermal desorption -- Facile removal of PCBs from contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Krabbenhoft, H.O.; Webb, J.L.; Gascoyne, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    The use of certain organic and inorganic materials, when admixed with soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), greatly facilitates the removal of the PCBs by means of an ex situ thermal desorption process. Thus, for example, heating a soil (with an initial PCB concentration of {approximately}700 ppm A-1260) from 25 C to 300 C over a 30-minute period provided remediated soil with a residual PCB level of 53 ppm (92.4% PCB removal). When the experiment was repeated using a sweep of steam (corresponding to a water delivery rate of 1.0 mL/min), the residual PCB level was 10 ppm (98.6% PCB removal). And when steam was passed through the soil admixed with 5% sodium formate, the residual PCB level was only 0.9 ppm (99.9% PCB removal). Several other additives (such as sodium acetate, ammonium carbamate, formic acid) have been shown to be efficacious for enhanced PCB removal via thermal desorption. A design of experiments study was carried out to optimize the process parameters of temperature, time, additive level, and steam flow. A logarithmic transformation of the data afforded a mathematical model (correlation coefficient 0.96) that allows one to employ the enhanced thermal desorption process in a cost-effective manner to remediate contaminated soil (with an initial PCB level of {approximately}8,000 ppm A-1260) such that residual PCB levels of {<=}2 ppm (99.98% PCB removal) are routinely achieved.

  17. Synergistic interactions between PBDEs and PCBs in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Pellacani, C; Tagliaferri, S; Caglieri, A; Goldoni, M; Giordano, G; Mutti, A; Costa, L G

    2014-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. Exposure to these chemicals has been associated with developmental neurotoxicity, endocrine dysfunction, and reproductive disorders. Humans and wildlife are generally exposed to a mixture of these environmental pollutants, highlighting the need to evaluate the potential effects of combined exposures. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of the combined exposure to two PBDEs and two PCBs in a human neuronal cell line. 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether, 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether, PCB-126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl; a dioxin-like PCB), and PCB-153 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl; a non-dioxin-like PCB) were chosen, because their concentrations are among the highest in human tissues and the environment. The results suggest that the nature of interactions is related to the PCB structure. Mixtures of PCB-153 and both PBDEs had a prevalently synergistic effect. In contrast, mixtures of each PBDE congener with PCB-126 showed additive effects at threshold concentrations, and synergistic effects at higher concentrations. These results emphasize the concept that the toxicity of xenobiotics may be affected by possible interactions, which may be of significance given the common coexposures to multiple contaminants. PMID:22434561

  18. DESTRUCTION OF PCBS USING SULFATE RADICAL-BASED ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of 209 congeners that were extensively used in industrial applications during 1929 to early 1970s, The presence of PCBs in the environment poses long-term risk to public health and wildlife due to their persistent and toxic nature. Adv...

  19. Commentary on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Toxins, and Neuropsychological Deficits: Good Science is the Antidote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebben, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The seven cohort studies of the relation between prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to cognitive, neuropsychological and behavioral development have suggested that exposure to PCBs can cause persistent changes in cognitive functioning. D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) apply six scientific…

  20. PCBs in Fish: A Problem? Student Guide and Teacher Guide. OEAGLS Investigation 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Victor J.; And Others

    In this secondary school unit, students investigate the health effects and methods for controlling polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The teacher's manual contains a materials list, objectives, teaching strategies, supplementary information on PCBs, and answers to questions included in the accompanying student workbook. Activities presented include…

  1. DIETARY ACCUMULATION OF PCBS FROM A CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT SOURCE BY A DEMERSAL FISH ('LEIOSTOMUS XANTHURUS')

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accumulation and dietary transfer of PCBs from contaminated harbor sediments were studied in a laboratory food chain. Results demonstrate that contaminated sediments serve as a source of PCBs for uptake and trophic transfer in marine systems. Fish exposed to PCB-contaminated sedi...

  2. MONITORING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) BIODEGRADATION USING CONTINUOUS-FLOW ISOTOPE RATIO MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in some cases can be removed from the environment by biodegradation. Aerobic and anaerobic biological processes have been determined in previous research to be capable of degrading PCBs. During the aerobic and anaerobic d...

  3. NET ATMOSPHERIC INPUTS OF PCBS TO THE ICE COVER ON LAKE HURON

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the first measurements of the net atmospheric deposition of PCBs to the ice cover of a body of water. The net deposition of PCBs includes the wet, dry, and vapor deposition, less any evaporation. The measurements were made on ice cores collected from the fro...

  4. Chlorinated hydrocarbon and mercury levels in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) found dead in British Columbia, 1988--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.E.; Wilson, L.K.; Norstrom, R.J.; Langelier, K.M.

    1994-12-31

    Liver samples from 70 bald eagles found dead or dying in British Columbia between 1988 and 1993 were analyzed for organochlorine and mercury levels. A subset of 11 eagles found around the Strait of Georgia, an area of known pulp mill pollution, in summer (and therefore presumably resident birds) were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDS) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Levels of DDE and PCBs ranged from less than 1 mg/kg to 190 and 65 mg/kg respectively. Levels of other organochlorines were generally less than 1 mg/kg, with the exception of some chlordane-related compounds which were occasionally over 2 mg/kg. All birds analyzed for PCDDs/PCDFs contained detectable levels of the major 2,378-substituted isomers. Some birds had extremely high levels, one eagle collected near a kraft pulp mill site contained: 400 ng/kg 2378-TCDD, 1400 ng/kg 12378-PnCDD and 4400 ng/kg 123678-HxCDD. All but two eagles had > 1 mg/kg dry wt. of mercury in liver; most contained less than 1 0 mg/kg d.w. but one bird had 130 mg/kg, a level of toxicological concern. All carcasses were autopsied and cause of death determined wherever possible. The relationship between cause of death and sublethal exposure to OCs and Hg is analyzed and discussed.

  5. Organohalogen concentrations and feeding status in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) of the Baltic Sea during the spawning run.

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Pekka J; Kiviranta, Hannu; Koistinen, Jaana; Pöyhönen, Outi; Ikonen, Erkki; Keinänen, Marja

    2014-01-15

    Changes in the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Baltic salmon muscle were studied during the spawning migration from the southern Baltic Sea to rivers flowing into the northern Gulf of Bothnia and during the spawning period. The aim was to obtain information to facilitate the arrangement of salmon fisheries such that the human dioxin intake is taken into account. The EC maximum allowable total toxic equivalent concentration (WHO-TEQPCDD/F+PCB) was exceeded in the muscle of the majority of the migrating salmon, except in the Baltic Proper. The fresh-weight-based concentrations of all toxicant groups in salmon tended to be the lowest in the Baltic Proper and the Northern Quark, and all toxicant concentrations, except PCDDs and PCDFs, were significantly higher in the spawning salmon than in the salmon caught during the spawning run. The fat content of the salmon muscle decreased by 60% during the spawning run, and the lipid-based total toxicant concentrations were consequently 4.2-6.2 times higher during the spawning period than during the spawning migration. However, the toxicants were concentrated just before spawning, and thus there is no essential difference related to whether the salmon are caught in the sea or the recreational river fishery. PMID:24056447

  6. Immunotoxicity of environmentally relevant mixtures of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons with methyl mercury on rat lymphocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Omara, F.O.; Brochu, C.; Flipo, D.; Denizeau, F.; Fournier, M.

    1997-03-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of methyl mercury (MHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are well established at higher exposure levels but unclear at low exposure levels. The authors exposed Fischer 344 rat splenocytes, thymocytes, and peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro for 72 h to MHg of three PCDDs and two PCDFs PCB mixtures, or combinations of MHg/PCB/PCDD/PCDF mixtures Mitogenic responses of lymphocytes to concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, or lipopolysaccharide/dextran sulfate were determined by {sup 3}H-thymidine uptake; cytotoxicity and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} were determined by flow cytometry. Methylmercury mixtures with 2 {micro}g/ml MHg decreased the viability of splenocytes to 57 and 40% at 4 and 24 h, respectively. Basal intracellular calcium ion levels were unaffected by the treatments. Methylmercury suppressed the responses of lymphocytes to T and B cell mitogens. All combinations of MHg/PCB/PCDD/PCDF mixtures decreased mitogenic responses to levels similar to those to MHg alone. In contrast, PCB and PCDD/PCDF mixtures did not suppress but augmented responses of splenocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes to T cell mitogens. Overall, no interactive toxicity was observed with MHg/PCB/PCDD/PCDF mixtures on cytotoxicity and lymphocyte mitogenic responses. Therefore, MHg may pose a greater threat than organochlorines to the mammalian immune system.

  7. Highly chlorinated PCBs inhibit the human xenobiotic response mediated by the steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR).

    PubMed Central

    Tabb, Michelle M; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Grün, Felix; Zhou, Changcheng; Welsh, William J; Blumberg, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of persistent organic contaminants suspected to cause adverse effects in wildlife and humans. In rodents, PCBs bind to the aryl hydrocarbon (AhR) and pregnane X receptors (PXR) inducing the expression of catabolic cytochrome p450 enzymes of the CYP1A and 3A families. We found that certain highly chlorinated PCBs are potent activators of rodent PXR but antagonize its human ortholog, the steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), inhibiting target gene induction. Thus, exposure to PCBs may blunt the human xenobiotic response, inhibiting the detoxification of steroids, bioactive dietary compounds, and xenobiotics normally mediated by SXR. The antagonistic PCBs are among the most stable and abundant in human tissues. These findings have important implications for understanding the biologic effects of PCB exposure and the use of animal models to predict the attendant risk. PMID:14754570

  8. Zero-valent iron-promoted dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Fei-Wen; Larson, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    Zero-valent iron promoted the dechlorination of PCBs (Aroclors 1221 and 1254) at elevated temperatures in an oxygen-limited environment. At temperatures higher than 300{degrees}C, dechlorination of Aroclor 1221 began to occur; at 400{degrees}C, the major reaction product, biphenyl, was observed in highest yield. (At this temperature most of the PCBs were dechlorinated to biphenyl within 10 min.) At temperatures of 500{degrees}C or higher, dechlorination and other reactions of PCBs took place. At 600{degrees}C, almost all PCBs were destroyed by reactions other than hydrogenolytic dechlorination. Similar reactions were observed with the more highly chlorinated Aroclor 1254. Water or other impurities associated with the iron surface may donate protons or hydrogen atoms to the PCBs and take part in other reactions.

  9. Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Their Hydroxylated Metabolites (OH-PCBs) in Pregnant Women from Eastern Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Park, June-Soo; Linderholm, Linda; Charles, M. Judith; Athanasiadou, Maria; Petrik, Jan; Kocan, Anton; Drobna, Beata; Trnovec, Tomas; Bergman, Åke; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2007-01-01

    Objective Our aim in the present study was to characterize and quantify the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and specific polychlorobiphenylol (OH-PCB) metabolites in maternal sera from women delivering in eastern Slovakia. Design During 2002–2004, blood samples were collected from women delivering in two Slovak locations: Michalovce district, where PCBs were formerly manufactured, and Svidnik and Stropkov districts, about 70 km north. Participants A total of 762 and 341 pregnant women were sampled from Michalovce and Svidnik/Stropkov, respectively, and OH-PCBs were measured in 131 and 31. Evaluation/Measurements We analyzed PCBs using gas chromatography (GC)/electron capture detection. OH-PCBs and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were determined as methyl derivatives using GC-electron capture negative ionization/mass spectrometry. We characterized distributions in the full cohort using inverse sampling weights. Results The concentrations of both PCBs and OH-PCB metabolites of Michalovce mothers were about two times higher than those of the Svidnik/Stropkov mothers (p < 0.001). The median weighted maternal serum levels of the sum of PCBs (∑PCBs) were 5.73 ng/g wet weight (Michalovce) and 2.82 ng/g wet weight (Svidnik/Stropkov). The median sum of OH-PCBs (∑OH-PCBs) was 0.55 ng/g wet weight in Michalovce mothers and 0.32 ng/g wet weight in Svidnik/Stropkov mothers. 4-OH-2,2′ ,3,4′ ,5,5′ ,6-Heptachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-CB187) was a primary metabolite, followed by 4-OH-2,2′ ,3,4′ ,5,5′ -hexachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-CB146). Only four PCB congeners—CBs 153, 138, 180, and 170—had higher concentrations than 4-OH-CB187 and 4-OH-CB146 (p < 0.001). The median ratio of the ∑OH-PCBs to the ∑PCBs was 0.10. Conclusions Mothers residing in eastern Slovakia are still highly exposed to PCBs, and their body burdens of these pollutants and OH-PCB metabolites may pose a risk for adverse effects on health for themselves and their children. PMID:17366814

  10. Organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs in human milk in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Czaja, K.; Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K.; Strucinski, P.

    1997-05-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds were used in agriculture and industry for years. Their ability to accumulate in organisms constituting links of the food chain and a unique chemical stability made them a hazardous environmental contaminants. The metabolism and excretion of chlorinated hydrocarbons is a very slow process. One of the most important means of elimination such compounds from the woman`s body is lactation. Consequently, human milk has occasionally a significant concentration of organochlorine compounds. Such compounds are identified in women`s milk all over the world. The objective of this study was to identify organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs concentrations in human milk in Poland by comparing more and less industrialized regions. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Enabling technologies for the rapid dechlorination of polychloroarenes and PCBs.

    PubMed

    Cravotto, Giancarlo; Garella, Davide; Beltramo, Lara; Carnaroglio, Diego; Mantegna, Stefano; Roggero, Carlo Maria

    2013-07-01

    Dielectric heating and acoustic cavitation (ultrasound or high-performance disperser) may all dramatically enhance conversion rates and yields in heterogeneous metal-assisted organic reactions even when low reagent excesses are used. These so called "enabling technologies" bring with them process intensification, safer protocols, cost reduction and energy savings. We herein describe a series of rapid polychlorinated aromatic and PCBs dechlorinations (15min) carried out in a moderate excess of metallic sodium and using non-conventional techniques. We compared the results with those obtained for reactions carried out under conventional heating and with those performed with less reactive metals such as magnesium and zinc. In this comparison, high-intensity ultrasound stands out as the technique of choice. PMID:23601125

  12. Bioaccumulation of PCBs by algae: Kinetics versus equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Swackhamer, D.L.; Skoglund, R.S. )

    1993-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) by phytoplankton is correlated to the compound's octanol/water partition coefficient (K[sub ow]) in a predictive relationship in laboratory experiments, and to confirm these findings with field observations. In laboratory experiments the authors measured the uptake of 40 representative polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners over time under conditions that inhibited and allowed phytoplankton growth. Results indicated that the bioaccumulation process is consistent with partitioning from water into cell lipids but is slower than previously thought. The uptake of PCBs was slow relative to growth of phytoplankton, preventing the chemical from reaching thermodynamic equilibrium in algal cells under conditions promoting growth (nonwinter). Thus under non-winter field conditions, many PCB congeners never reach equilibrium concentrations. Food-chain models that assume equilibrium between HOCs and the primary trophic level could be inaccurate and may need to use a kinetic framework.

  13. Unexpected high PCB and total DDT levels in the breeding population of red kite (Milvus milvus) from Doñana National Park, south-western Spain.

    PubMed

    Gómara, Belén; González, María José; Baos, Raquel; Hiraldo, Fernando; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep; Jiménez, Begoña

    2008-01-01

    This study provides information on the current status of contamination by organochlorines (DDTs, PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs) in the declining red kite (Milvus milvus L.) population breeding in the Doñana National Park (DNP), south-western Spain. Analyses were performed in addled eggs collected between 1999 and 2001. DDE concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 33.5 microg/g ww, representing more than 86% of the total DDTs. Of the samples studied, 50% showed DDE levels above those associated with reproductive impairment in other raptor species. Concentrations of ortho PCBs (average 36.8 microg/g ww+/-37.7) in 50% of the eggs were much higher than levels reported to cause reduced hatching success, embryo mortality, and deformities in birds (>20 microg/g ww). It is remarkable that average ortho PCB and DDE concentrations showed an increase of one order of magnitude compared to previous data for the species during the 80s. Total PCDD/Fs showed levels in the low pg/g range (7.2-42 pg/g ww), having PCDDs and PCDFs similar contributions in most samples. Total mean TEQs were 238 pg/g (ww), being the range 7.02-667 pg/g (ww). Spatial variation within DNP was observed for PCBs, DDTs, as well as for TEQs. Since some eggs exceeded the NOEL (67%) and LOEL (33%) reported for other raptor species, we would expect the red kite to experience detrimental effects to dioxin-like toxicity. Our results suggest that organochlorine contaminants should be regarded as an element of concern in the population under study, in addition to other conservation problems already reported. Further investigations should be undertaken to identify potential sources of these chemicals in DNP, and to find out if organochlorine contamination is present in other predator species in the area, as well as their potential health effects on individuals and/or populations. PMID:17727950

  14. Critical evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity in terrestrial and marine mammals: increasing impact of non-ortho and mono-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls from land to ocean.

    PubMed

    Kannan, N; Tanabe, S; Ono, M; Tatsukawa, R

    1989-11-01

    Residues of potentially toxic non-ortho chlorine substituted coplanar 3,3',4,4'-tetra-,3,3',4,4',5-penta-, 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and their mono- and di-ortho analogs 2,3',4,4',5-penta, 2,3,3',4,4'-penta-, 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexa- and 2,2',3,3',4,4'-hexa-, 2,2',3,4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl) were determined in humans, dogs, cats (terrestrial), a finless porpoise (Neophocoena phocoenoides--coastal), Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli, dalli), Baird's beaked whales (Berardius bairdii) and killer whales (Orcinus orca--open ocean). Among the coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, the concentration of the di-ortho congeners was the highest and the non-ortho congeners was the lowest. However, all three coplanar PCBs occurred at significantly higher levels than toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The relative bioconcentration and metabolic capacity of terrestrial and marine mammals to these chemicals, suggest that the toxic threat of coplanar PCBs increases from land to ocean, but the reverse is true for PCDDs and PCDFs. The toxic threat of coplanar PCBs to higher aquatic predators such as cetaceans was principally assessed by 2,3,7,8-T4CDD Toxic Equivalent Analysis which is based on the induction of arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD). Analysis indicates, in particular, that the bioaccumulation of toxic 3,3',4,4',5-penta- and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyls in carnivorous marine mammals is a cause for considerable concern. PMID:2515809

  15. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs (including dl-PCBs) in human milk samples collected from multiparae from Croatia and comparison with primiparae.

    PubMed

    Klinčić, D; Herceg Romanić, S; Brčić Karačonji, I; Matek Sarić, M; Grzunov Letinić, J; Brajenović, N

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the levels of 20 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including toxic dioxin-like PCBs and 7 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 33 human milk samples collected in 2011 from multiparae living in Zadar, Croatia. Concentrations of ∑PCBs, ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs and HCB in samples ranged from 11.7 to 146.3, 8.7 to 89.2, 0.9 to 28.4, and PCBs, the congeners -118, -105 and -156 equally contributed to the mono-ortho PCB fraction. TEQs for dl-PCBs ranged between 0 and 13.3pgg(-1) milk fat. The calculated estimated daily intakes for all compound groups were below the tolerable daily intake indicating no risk for breastfed infants. A comparison of our results with our previous study on primiparae revealed that the concentrations of the main contaminant groups are lower in the milk of multiparae, with the exception of toxic mono-ortho PCBs whose concentrations and TEQ remained similar among the groups, and HCB whose concentrations were found to be higher in multiparae. Concentrations of PCBs and OCPs found in the samples from this study did not exceed those from other parts of the world. This study revealed that there are differences in contaminant concentrations depending on the mothers' parity and that this fact should be taken into account when risk assessment studies are conducted. PMID:27262989

  16. Intervention to reduce PCBs: learnings from a controlled study of Anniston residents.

    PubMed

    Jandacek, Ronald J

    2016-02-01

    Nonabsorbable dietary lipid reduces the absorption of dietary PCBs and increases the excretion of previously absorbed stored PCBs. Absorption of all PCB congeners will presumably be interrupted by nonabsorbable lipid; however excretion will be enhanced only for PCBs that have not been metabolized and also for their lipophilic metabolites. Our study with the nonabsorbable lipid, olestra, in a controlled trial in Anniston residents with elevated PCB levels demonstrated that it is possible to enhance removal of PCBs from the body in the clinically meaningful time frame of 1 year. The rate of disappearance of PCBs in participants who ate 15 g/day of olestra was significantly faster than the rate determined during the 5 years prior to intervention. The rate of disappearance was not changed from the pretrial rate in participants who ingested vegetable oil. Consideration of the role of body weight and fat is an important factor in the design of intervention trials of this kind, and the results of this trial suggest that the level of body fat in individuals will influence the rate of removal from the body. Previously reported data from animals and from a case report indicate that weight loss combined with nonabsorbable dietary lipid will maximize removal of PCBs and presumably other stored organochlorine compounds. The design of future intervention trials should include a focus on body fat levels and changes. Future trials should also include the testing of dietary compounds other than olestra that have affinity for PCBs, such as plant-derived polyphenols. PMID:25721531

  17. Study of PCBs and PBDEs in King George Island, Antarctica, using PUF passive air sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingming; Geng, Dawei; Liu, Fubin; Wang, Thanh; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2012-05-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF)-disk based passive air samplers were deployed in King George Island, Antarctica, during the austral summer of 2009-2010, to investigate levels, distributions and potential sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Antarctic air. The atmospheric levels of ∑ indicator PCBs and ∑14 PBDEs ranged from 1.66 to 6.50 pg m-3 and from 0.67 to 2.98 pg m-3, respectively. PCBs homologue profiles were dominated by di-PCBs, tri-PCBs and tetra-PCBs, whereas BDE-17 and BDE-28 were the predominant congeners of PBDEs, which could be explained by long-range atmospheric transport processes. However, the sampling sites close to the Antarctic research stations showed higher atmospheric concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs than the other sites, reflecting potential local sources from the Antarctic research stations. The non-Aroclor congener PCB-11 was found in all the air samples, with air concentrations of 3.60-31.4 pg m-3 (average 15.2 pg m-3). Comparison between the results derived from PUF-disk passive air sampling and high-volume air sampling validates the feasibility of using the passive air samplers in Antarctic air. To our knowledge, this study is the first employment of PUF-disk based passive air samplers in Antarctic atmosphere.

  18. Levels of coplanar PCBs in human breast milk at different times of lactation

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.J.; Ramos, L.; Hernandez, L.M.

    1995-03-01

    PCBs are a highly lipophilic group of global pollutants, consisting of 209 congeners which exhibit wide differences in their toxic and biological effects. The coplanar PCB (non-, mono- and di-ortho Chlorine substituted) congeners, the most toxic ones, induce similar toxic effects as 2,3,7,8 TCDD. Thus for risk assessment of exposure to PCBs, the analysis of these coplanar congeners is required. The PCB levels in human breast milk are of specific concern because of the potential health damage which may be caused to the nursing baby. The PCB levels in this sample come from previously accumulated quantities in body fat whose principal source is food, and pass directly to the nursing baby who accumulates the PCBs in adipose tissue. The amount of total PCBs and other organochlorine compounds (OCC) in human milk at different time intervals after birth was reported earlier, but data concerning individual and coplanar PCBs are sparse in the literature. The results from some studies showed a gradual decrease of residual levels in milk and milk fat. However, other research has shown differences in this respect. We present our first result concerning the concentration of 14 individual PCBs (13 coplanars) in breast milk from the same mother, during weeks 8 to 12 of lactation. We related the different concentration variations observed among the individual PCBs to their molecular structure and % fat in human breast milk. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Watershed land use is strongly linked to PCBs in white perch in Chesapeake Bay subestuaries.

    PubMed

    King, Ryan S; Beaman, Joseph R; Whigham, Dennis F; Hines, Anson H; Baker, Matthew E; Weller, Donald E

    2004-12-15

    We related total PCBs (t-PCBs) in white perch (Morone americana), an abundant estuarine resident that supports a valuable recreational and commercial fishery in the mid-Atlantic region, to the amount and spatial arrangement of developed land in watersheds that discharge into 14 subestuaries of Chesapeake Bay. We considered the intensity of development in watersheds using four developed land-use measures (% impervious surface, % total developed land, % high-intensity residential + commercial [%high-res/comm], and % commercial) to represent potential source areas of PCBs to the subestuaries. We further evaluated the importance of source proximity by calculating three inverse-distance weighted (IDW) metrics of development, an approach that weighted developed land near the shoreline more heavily than developed land farther away. Unweighted percentages of each of the four measures of developed land explained 51-69% of the variance in t-PCBs. However, IDWs markedly improved the relationships between % developed land measures and t-PCBs. Percent commercial land, weighted by its simple inverse distance, explained 99% of the variance in t-PCBs, whereas the other three measures explained as much as 93-97%. PCBs historically produced or used in commercial and residential areas are apparently persisting in the environment atthe scale of the watersheds and subestuaries examined in this study, and developed land close to the subestuary has the greatest unit effect on t-PCBs in fish. These findings provide compelling evidence for a strikingly strong linkage between watershed land use and t-PCBs in white perch, and this relationship may prove useful for identifying unsampled subestuaries with a high risk of PCB contamination. PMID:15669311

  20. Persistency of highly toxic coplanar PCBs in aquatic ecosystems: uptake and release kinetics of coplanar PCBs in green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Kannan, N; Tanabe, S; Tatsukawa, R; Phillips, D J

    1989-01-01

    The bioaccumulation potential of three highly toxic coplanar PCB isomers [3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (T(4)CB); 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (P(5)CB); and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (H(6)CB)] was investigated using green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis Linnaeus) as a bioindicator, through a transplantation experiment at two locations in Hong Kong waters. By contrast to the relatively rapid uptake and release of many other PCB isomers, the non-ortho chlorine substituted coplanar PCB congeners exhibited slow uptake and clearance. The kinetic parameters of coplanar PCBs based on lipid weight-related data, and the degree of bioaccumulation based on the proportion of coplanar PCBs in total PCBs in mussels, clearly indicate that coplanar PCBs are highly bioaccumulative in lower organisms. On the assumption that mussels are unlikely to be particularly unusual with respect to their bioaccumulation of coplanar PCBs, it appears most likely that these highly toxic and persistent PCB congeners are concentrated by all aquatic organisms, and may reach higher consumers (including humans) in quantities of toxicological concern. PMID:15092492

  1. AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR ESTABLISHING TEFS FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS. PART 1. EVALUATION OF DECISION ANALYSIS METHODS FOR USE IN WEIGHTING RELATIVE POTENCY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of investigators have recently examined the utility of applying probabilistic techniques in the derivation of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (...

  2. IMMUNOCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF DIOXINS IN SEDIMENT SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are considered highly toxic contaminants with the environmental monitoring of these compounds being of great importance. Immunoassay procedures such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIS...

  3. IMMUNOCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF DIOXINS IN SEDIMENT AND SERUM SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are considered highly toxic contaminants and the environmental and biological monitoring of these compounds is of great concern. Immunoassays may be used as screening methods to satisfy the gro...

  4. ROLE OF SULFUR IN REDUCING PCDD AND PCDF FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past research has suggested that the presence of sulfur (S) in municipal waste combustors (MWCs) can decrease downstream formation of chlorinated organic compounds, particularly polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Thus, co-firing a...

  5. PCDD and PCDF Emissions from Simulated Sugarcane Field Burning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emissions from simulated sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass densit...

  6. Degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624.

    PubMed Central

    Takada, S; Nakamura, M; Matsueda, T; Kondo, R; Sakai, K

    1996-01-01

    A method for the degradation of dioxins by white rot fungi was developed. Degradation of a mixture of 10 kinds of tetra- to octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs]) and tetra- to octachlorodibenzofurans (polychlorinated dibenzofurans [PCDFs]), which were chlorinated at 2-, 3-, 7-, and 8-positions of the molecules, by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 was studied in a stationary low-nitrogen medium. The percent degradation values of PCDDs and PCDFs were approximately 40 (tetra-chloro-) to 76% (hexachloro-) and 45 (tetrachloro-) to 70% (hexachloro-), respectively. Metabolites of 2,3,7,8-tetra- and octaCDD formed by P. sordida YK-624 included 4,5-dichlorocatechol and tetrachlorocatechol, respectively. These results suggest that white rot fungus is able to substantially degrade both PCDDs and PCDFs. This is the first report of the degradation of highly chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs by a microorganism. PMID:8953705

  7. PCDD AND PCDF EMISSIONS FROM SIMULATED SUGARCANE FIELD BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions from simulated sugarcane field burns were sampled and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs). Sugarcane leaves from Hawaii and Florida were burned in a manner simulating the natural physical dimensions and biomass density fou...

  8. Concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soils from Korea.

    PubMed

    Im, Sook Hyeon; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Giesy, John P; Matsuda, Muneaki; Wakimoto, Tadaaki

    2002-09-01

    Soil samples were collected from Changwon and Masan Cities, Korea, and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/DFs). Nearly all tetra- through octachlorinated PCDDs/DFs including the 17 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/DFs were detected in all samples. Total concentrations of PCDDs/DFs and of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TeCDD) equivalents (TEGs) in soils ranged from 35 to 121,400 pg/g, dry weight, and from 0.2 to 3720 pg of I-TEQ/g, respectively. On the basis of guidelines for TEQ concentrations established in Germany and the United States, 9 of 23 soil samples (39% of the total samples analyzed) could not be expected to pose human health hazards. The rest of 61% of soils need measures such as investigations of source identification, soil decontamination, and/or soil removal. Total concentrations of PCDDs/DFs were greater at or near four industrial sites, which are concerned with the steel industry, petrochemical-related industry, and industrial waste incineration, than other areas. This indicates the presence of potential source areas. Soil collected from a site 50 m from an open-burning industrial waste incinerator in an industrial complex was heavily contaminated, containing a total concentration of PCDDs/DFs of 121,400 pg/g, dry weight. PCDDs/DFs were also detected in soils from the top of a 200 m mountain indicating a wide dispersal of PCDDs/DFs by atmospheric transport from point source areas. The congener pattern and relative proportions of PCDFs in soils suggest that commercial PCB preparations such as Kanechlors may be one of the sources. The wide range of PCDD/DF isomers detected in soils from many locations also suggests a multitude of sources, in addition to commercial PCBs, such as incineration of industrial wastes such as car tires, scrap wires, plastics, papers, and emission of automobile exhaust. PMID:12322740

  9. Levels of non-ortho-substituted (coplanar), mono- and di-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans in human serum and adipose tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, D G; Todd, G D; Turner, W E; Maggio, V; Alexander, L R; Needham, L L

    1994-01-01

    We have measured non-ortho-substituted (coplanar) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels as well as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in human adipose tissue and serum collected in Atlanta, Georgia. The results show that the concentrations of the coplanar PCBs can be more than an order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Our measurements in pooled serum collected in 1982, 1988, and 1989 show a decrease in coplanar PCB levels from 1982 to 1989. We found that the pattern of relative amounts of coplanar PCBs in adipose tissue varied greatly from person to person unlike the PCDD and PCDF patterns, which were more nearly the same. Age was significantly correlated with the concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD,3,3'4,4'-PCB, 3,3',4,4',5-PCB, and 3,3'4,4',5,5'-PCB in adipose tissue. We also measured levels of the mono- and di-ortho chlorine-substituted PCBs in human serum. The levels for some of these PCB congeners were three orders of magnitude higher than the coplanar PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. We used the international toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCDDs and PCDFs and the TEFs proposed by Safe for PCBs to calculate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents. Four PCBs (3,3',4,4',5-; 2,3',4,4',5-;2,3,3',4,4'-;2,3,3',4,4',5-) make a larger contribution than 2,3,7,8-TCDD, while four other PCBs (3,3',4,4'5,5'-; 2,2',3,4,4',5'-;2,2',4,4',5,5'-;2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-) make nearly the same contribution as 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The mono-ortho-chlorine-substituted 2,3',4,4',5-PCB, however, is the major contributor to the total 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents in general population samples from the United States, Sweden, and Japan.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8187709

  10. TREATMENT OF PAHS AND PCBS USING SULFATE RADICAL-BASED OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic systems pose serious threat to public health due to their toxicity and potential carcinogenicity [1]. Sulfate radical-based oxidation processes can be effectively used for degradation of these...

  11. Effects of PCBs on liver ultrastructure and monooxygenase activities in Japanese quail

    SciTech Connect

    Stouvenakers, N.; Kremers, P.

    1996-05-01

    The effect of environmental pollutants such as PCBs and DDT on avian species is well documented. It is proven that chronic high level PCB intoxication perturbs calcium metabolism in birds, affecting eggshell thickness. PCBs have an impact on the liver. which accumulates high levels of toxicants. These induce drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in quail (Coturnix coturnix), herring gull (larus argentatus), and partridge (Prdix perdix). As these enzymes can degrade endogeneous molecules such as steroids, xenobiotics like PCBs can severely hinder birds` reproductive performance. PCBs induce damage such as regression of the testes, decreased sperm concentration, and altered embryonic development resulting in death or malformation of chicks. More ever, ultrastructural alterations linked with induction of these enzymes have been observed in the livers of PCB-contaminated chickens and ducks. This study examines the effects of Aroclor 1254 on liver morphology and glycogen content in quail, and related morphological modification to liver monoxygenase activities. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. GUIDELINES FOR THE DISPOSAL OF PCBS (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS) AND PCB ITEMS BY THERMAL DESTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a resource and guidelines document to aid EPA Regional Offices in interpreting and applying polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) regulations to the thermal destruction of PCBs. As background material, the report describes fundamental processes of combustion, thermal destr...

  13. Developmental Exposure to PCBs Differentially Alters Sensitivity to Audiogenic and Kindling-Induced Seizures in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously we reported an increased incidence of audiogenic seizures in offspring of pregnant rats exposed to an environmental mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This study compares the proconvulsant properties of PCB exposure in audiogenic and electrical kindling seizu...

  14. PCBS: CANCER DOSE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENT AND APPLICATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL MIXTURES (1996)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report updates the cancer dose-response assessment for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and shows how information on toxicity, disposition, and environmental processes can be considered together to evaluate health risks from PCB mixtures in the environment. Processes that ch...

  15. THE EFFECT OF PCBS ON GLYCOGEN RESERVES IN THE EASTERN OYSTER CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA. (R825349)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent declines in Chesapeake Bay oyster populations have been attributed to disease, and reduced water quality from pollution. The stress associated with pollutant exposure may reduce energy available for growth and reproduction. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are lipophilic c...

  16. Development and Application of Immunoaffinity Chromatography for Coplanar PCBs in Soil and Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    An immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) column was developed as a simple cleanup procedure for preparing environmental samples for analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Soil and sediment samples were prepared using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), followed by the IAC c...

  17. Effects of Feeding Rate and Loading Density on Bioaccumulation of PCBs in Oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment tests with aquatic organisms can provide valuable information about potential toxicity and the bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the organisms. The USEPA 28-day Lumbriculus variegatus bioaccumulation test for sediments when successfully perfor...

  18. IRON-PEROXYMONOSULFATE: A NOVEL SULFATE RADICAL BASED ADVANCED OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY FOR DEGRADATION OF PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigates the degradation of recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) using sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation technologies. Sulfate radicals are generated through coupling of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) with iron (Fe(II), Fe(III)). Sulfate radicals have very ...

  19. 77 FR 74006 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics From Shredder Residue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... AGENCY Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics From Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental... plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue, relying principally on the regulatory provisions for excluded...

  20. 78 FR 20640 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... Residue (77 FR 74006). Additional background information on recycling activities that would be affected by... AGENCY Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental... will generally allow for the recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the...

  1. USING STABLE ISOTOPES TO TRACK BIOMAGNIFICATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) THROUGH STREAM FOOD WEBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most studies of biomagnification are from lentic systems, which are characterized by organic matter and sediment retention. However, biomagnification studies in streams are rare. This is surprising because PCBs and other persistent organic pollutants are known to biomagnify in ...

  2. The geography of mercury and PCBs in North Carolina's local seafood.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Amy; Sohn, Nari; Hooper, Mark; Rittschof, Dan

    2012-07-01

    Mercury and PCBs are used by non-governmental organizations and federal agencies to inform seafood safety recommendations. Pollution dynamics suggest recommendations on the national scale may be too large to be accurate. We tested softshell and hardshell blue crab, white and pink shrimp, oysters, clams, spot, and mullet from fishers in each of the three North Carolina fishery districts. We measured mercury using EPA method 7473 and PCBs using a commercially available ELISA kit. Over 97% of samples were below the Environmental Protection Agency levels of concern for both mercury and PCBs. Mercury and PCBs have different spatial dynamics, but both differ significantly by water body, suggesting that seafood safety recommendations should occur by water body instead of at the national scale. This finding supports previous research suggesting that differences in water chemistry, terrestrial influence, and flushing time in a particular water body control the contaminant load in locally resident species. PMID:22658912

  3. A model for simulating the grinding and classification cyclic system of waste PCBs recycling production line.

    PubMed

    Yang, Deming; Xu, Zhenming

    2011-09-15

    Crushing and separating technology is widely used in waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) recycling process. A set of automatic line without negative impact to environment for recycling waste PCBs was applied in industry scale. Crushed waste PCBs particles grinding and classification cyclic system is the most important part of the automatic production line, and it decides the efficiency of the whole production line. In this paper, a model for computing the process of the system was established, and matrix analysis method was adopted. The result showed that good agreement can be achieved between the simulation model and the actual production line, and the system is anti-jamming. This model possibly provides a basis for the automatic process control of waste PCBs production line. With this model, many engineering problems can be reduced, such as metals and nonmetals insufficient dissociation, particles over-pulverizing, incomplete comminuting, material plugging and equipment fever. PMID:21764511

  4. Simulation of Observed PCBs and Pesticides in the Water Column during the North Atlantic Bloom Experiment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Thibodeaux, Louis; Jones, Lee; Lohmann, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of persistent organic pollutants in the oceans are not well constrained, in particular during a bloom formation and collapse. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and some pesticides were measured in air, water, and zooplankton tracking the North Atlantic Bloom in May 2008. Lower weight PCBs were entering the water column from the atmosphere during the main bloom period but reached equilibrium after the bloom collapsed. The PCBs in the lipids of zooplankton Calanus were in equilibrium with those in the dissolved phase. A Lagrangian box model was developed to simulate the dissolved phase PCBs and pesticides by including the following processes: air-water exchange, reversible sorption to POC, changes in mixed layer depth, removal by sinking particles, and degradation. Results suggest that sorption to (sinking) POC was the dominant removal process for hydrophobic pollutants from seawater. Statistical test suggested simulated results were not significantly different from observed values for hydrophobic pollutants (p,p'-DDE). PMID:26053897

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF SULFATE RADICAL-BASED CHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESSES FOR TREATMENT OF PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigates transition metal based activation of peroxymonosulfate for generation of highly reactive sulfate radicals to degrade Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in contaminated aqueous and sediment systems. Environmental friendly transition metal iron (Fe (II), Fe (I...

  6. Assessment of gold and silver in assorted mobile phone printed circuit boards (PCBs): Original article.

    PubMed

    Vats, M C; Singh, S K

    2015-11-01

    Demand for gold and silver has been escalating with increasing usage of electronic equipment globally. Around 267.3 MT of gold and 7275 MT of silver are being consumed annually for manufacturing mobile phones, laptops and other electronic equipment. However, only 15% is recuperated from these equipment; the remainder lies in the storage yards or landfills. The waste comprise glass, plastics, wires, batteries, PCBs, metal casing, etc. The PCB is composed of precious metals, which creates immense purpose for recycling and recovery. This paper characterises and assesses the recoverable metallic fraction of gold and silver from PCBs of mobile phones. The methodology is based on dismantling of the mobile handset and subjecting the PCBs to roasting and acid digestion. The digested samples were analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy and the content of gold and silver in the PCBs was to be found in the range of 0.009-0.017% and 0.25-0.79% by weight respectively. PMID:26112260

  7. The biological pathway and effect of PCBs on common terns in Lake Michigan.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael P; Jablonski, Cindi; Semel, Brad; Soucek, David

    2010-11-01

    Poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been recognized as a significant contaminant in the Great Lakes ecosystem. Although PCBs are implicated in the reduced survival and reproductive success of several piscivorous bird species, the biological pathway in which PCBs bioaccumulate remains largely unknown. This study investigates the two most likely biological pathways, suggested via research on Great Lakes sport fish, by which PCBs would be acquired by common terns (Sterna hirundo), a piscivorous species of conservation concern. The first proposed pathway is through atmospheric deposition of PCBs which are subsequently acquired by filter-feeding fish (e.g., alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus). An alternative pathway is via the biodeposits of zebra mussels which are consumed by shallow water fish (e.g., round gobies, Neogobius melanostromus). Because common terns breed in near-shore sites where concentrations of zebra mussels are found, as well as forage in more pelagic environments it is possible that either or both pathways may be contributing to their PCB exposure. Field experiments and stable isotope analyses suggest the most likely pathway by which terns are exposed to PCBs is via alewives, similar to how apex predators such as lake trout acquire PCBs. Biodeposits from zebra mussels do not appear to be a significant factor in PCB accumulation in terns. We quantified extremely poor parental attentiveness during incubation. Although we cannot determine whether poor parental attentiveness alone or in combination with PCB contamination led to low hatching success, accumulation of PCBs appears to have significant impacts on the overall reproductive success of common terns. PMID:20725777

  8. Reduction of the body burden of PCBs and DDE by dietary intervention in a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Jandacek, Ronald J; Heubi, James E; Buckley, Donna D; Khoury, Jane C; Turner, Wayman E; Sjödin, Andreas; Olson, James R; Shelton, Christie; Helms, Kim; Bailey, Tina D; Carter, Shirley; Tso, Patrick; Pavuk, Marian

    2014-04-01

    Serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Anniston, AL, residents have been associated with hypertension and diabetes. There have been no systematic interventions to reduce PCB body burdens in Anniston or other populations. Our objective was to determine the efficacy of 15 g/day of dietary olestra to reduce PCBs in Anniston residents. Blood PCBs and 1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene were measured at baseline and 4-month intervals in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 1-year trial. Participants with elevated serum PCBs were randomized into two groups of 14 and received potato crisps made with olestra or vegetable oil (VO). Elimination rates during the study period were compared with 5-year prestudy rates. Eleven participants in the olestra group and 12 in the VO group completed the study. Except for one participant in the VO group, reasons for dropout were unrelated to treatments. The elimination rate of 37 non-coplanar PCB congeners during the 1-year trial was faster during olestra consumption compared to the pretrial period (-0.0829 ± 0.0357 and -0.00864 ± 0.0116 year(-1), respectively; P=.04), but not during VO consumption (-0.0413 ± 0.0408 and -0.0283 ± 0.0096 year(-1), respectively; P=.27). The concentration of PCBs in two olestra group participants decreased by 27% and 25% during the trial. There was no significant time by group interaction in change from baseline. However, group main effects for total PCBs and PCB 153 were of borderline significance. This pilot study has demonstrated that olestra can safely reduce body burdens of PCBs and supports a larger intervention trial that may also determine whether reduction in PCBs will reduce the risk of hypertension and diabetes. PMID:24629911

  9. Non-dioxin-like PCBs in ten different fish species from the Danube river in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Janković, Saša; Curčić, Marijana; Radičević, Tatjana; Stefanović, Srđan; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Durgo, Ksenija; Antonijević, Biljana

    2011-10-01

    This work has been developed to examine the level of non-dioxin-like (ndl) PCBs (28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) in (a) ten different freshwater fish species from the Danube river, (b) two sampling points: up and downstream of the industrial zone of the city of Pancevo (ecological hot spot in Serbia) and (c) two time points i.e., in 2001 and 2006. Obtained results would serve to analyse spatial, temporal and congener profile characteristics of ndl PCBs cumulated in fish tissues due to environmental pollution. Sixty-four samples of the following species were collected: wels (Silirus glanus), pike (Esox lucius), bream (Abramis brama), crucian carp (Carassius carassius), pike pearch (Stizostedion lucioperca), barbel (Barbus barbus), tench (Tinca tinca), sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L.), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis). Gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector was used for analysis of ndl PCBs. Total ndl PCBs content in upstream samples ranged from 2.7 to 98.1 ng/g and from 4.9 to 68.3 ng/g in 2001 and 2006, respectively. During the 5 years, ndl PCBs content increased significantly in downstream samples i.e., ndl PCBs varied from 13.7 to 46.1 ng/g and from 14.4 to 107.2 ng/g in 2001 and 2006, respectively. PCBs 138 and 180 were predominant congeners in 2001, while in 2006 the most abundant PCB congeners were 138 and 153. In 2006, the presence of PCB 28 and PCB 52 has indicated a recent contamination event. Data on continual monitoring of PCBs in all relevant environmental compartments together with appropriate biomonitoring data are expected to give comprehensive insight into the fate and behaviour profile of these contaminants. PMID:21161586

  10. Toxicological effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on freshwater turtles in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ming-Ch'eng Adams, Clare Isabel; Baker, Joel E; Kjellerup, Birthe V

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of vertebrate health effects originating from persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has remained a challenge for decades thus making the identification of bioindicators difficult. POPs are predominantly present in soil and sediment, where they adhere to particles due to their hydrophobic characteristics. Animals inhabiting soil and sediment can be exposed to PCBs via dermal exposure while others may obtain PCBs through contaminated trophic interaction. Freshwater turtles can serve as bioindicators due to their strong site fidelity, longevity and varied diet. Previous research observed the health effects of PCBs on turtles such as decreased bone mass, changed sexual development and decreased immune responses through studying both contaminated sites along with laboratory experimentation. Higher deformity rates in juveniles, increased mortality and slower growth have also been observed. Toxicological effects of PCBs vary between species of freshwater turtles and depend on the concertation and configuration of PCB congeners. Evaluation of ecotoxicological effects of PCBs in non-endangered turtles could provide important knowledge about the health effects of endangered turtle species thus inform the design of remediation strategies. In this review, the PCB presence in freshwater turtle habitats and the ecotoxicological effects were investigated with the aim of utilizing the health status to identify areas of focus for freshwater turtle conservation. PMID:27043381

  11. Occurrence, bioaccumulation and risk assessment of dioxin-like PCBs along the Chenab river, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Mehmood, Adeel; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Zhang, Gan

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the occurrence, distribution and dietary risks of seven dl-PCBs (dioxin-like PCBs) in eleven collected fish species from Chenab river, Pakistan. ∑7dl-PCBs (ng g(-1), wet weight) burden was species-specific and the maximum average concentrations were found in Mastacembelus armatus (5.43), and Rita rita (5.1). Correlation of each dl-PCBs with δ(15)N%, indicated a food chain accumulation process of these chemicals into Chenab river, Pakistan. Species-specific toxicity of each dl-PCBs (WHO-PCBs TEQ) was calculated and higher values were found in three carnivore fish species i.e., M. armatus (2.5 pg TEQ g(-1)), R. rita (2.47 pg TEQ g(-1)), Securicola gora (2.98 pg TEQ g(-1)) and herbivore fish species i.e., Cirrhinus mrigala (2.44 pg TEQ g(-1)). The EDI (Estimated Daily Intake) values in most cases exceeded the WHO benchmark (4 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw d(-1)) evidencing a potential health risk for consumers via fish consumption from Chenab river. PMID:26342456

  12. Studies of transformer repair workers exposed to PCBs. II. Results of clinical laboratory investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Emmett, E.A.; Maroni, M.; Jefferys, J.; Schmith, J.; Levin, B.K.; Alvares, A.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-eight transformer repairmen currently exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 17 former transformer repairmen, and 56 comparison workers not known to be exposed to PCBs were studied. Measurements were made of serum liver function tests, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lipid profile, thyroid function tests, and other serum biochemistry; hemoglobin; white cell count; 24-hour excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid, porphyrins, 17-hydroxycorticosteriods and 17-ketosteroids; sperm count; spirometry; and antipyrine half-life to evaluate microsomal mixed function oxidase induction. The total exposed group differed significantly from the comparison group in albumin, LDH, T4, T4-RT3 index, and actual/predicted FEV1. Significant differences among all three exposure groups were seen for albumin, T4, T4-RT3 index, and 17-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion. Differences in FEV1 were attributable to smoking. Significant correlations between serum PCBs and serum lipids were removed by adjustment for confounding variables. After adjustment for confounding variables, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between serum PCBs and GGT and a negative correlation between adipose PCBs and 17-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion. These may reflect subtle metabolic effects of PCBs.

  13. Oculodermatological findings in workers with occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed Central

    Fischbein, A; Rizzo, J N; Solomon, S J; Wolff, M S

    1985-01-01

    Oculodermatological findings, such as hypersecretion of the Meibomian glands, swelling of the upper eyelids and hyperpigmentation of the conjunctivae are considered typical of "PCB poisoning." They were common clinical manifestations of yusho and yu-cheng, two epidemics in Japan and Taiwan caused by the ingestion of rice cooking oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. To investigate the prevalence of such abnormalities in a population with long term occupational exposure to PCBs, a group of 326 workers employed in two capacitor manufacturing facilities were investigated in 1976, and 195 of these again in 1979. The median blood values of lower homologues of PCBs were 63 ppb (in plasma) in 1976 and 49 ppb (in serum) in 1979, and of the higher homologues 18 ppb and 17 X 5 ppb respectively. The prevalence of oculodermatological findings potentially related to the effects of PCBs were 9 X 4% and 13 X 3% at the two examinations. There was no significant association between such abnormalities and blood plasma/serum concentrations of PCBs. The observations in this work population exposed to PCBs differ from the yusho and yu-cheng experiences in that fewer clinical abnormalities were found. Suggestions are made that it may be inappropriate to extrapolate findings from the well known PCB poisoning episodes to exposures in occupational settings and that attention should be paid to the importance of polychlorinated dibenzofurans as an aetiological factor in human PCB poisoning. PMID:3924093

  14. Health Effects of PCBs in Residences and Schools (HESPERUS): PCB – health Cohort Profile

    PubMed Central

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Frederiksen, Marie; Specht, Ina Olmer; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Ebbehøj, Niels; Bailey, Janice; Giwercman, Aleksander; Steenland, Kyle; Longnecker, Matthew Paul; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated-biphenyls (PCBs) were introduced in the late 1920s and used until the 1970s when they were banned in most countries due to evidence of environmental build-up and possible adverse health effects. However they still persist in the environment, indoors and in humans. Indoor air in contaminated buildings may confer airborne exposure markedly above background regional PCB levels. To date, no epidemiological studies have assessed the health effects from exposure to semi-volatile PCBs in the indoor environment. Indoor air PCBs are generally less chlorinated than PCBs that are absorbed via the diet, or via past occupational exposure; therefore their health effects require separate risk assessment. Two separate cohorts of individuals who have either attended schools (n = 66,769; 26% exposed) or lived in apartment buildings (n = 37,185; 19% exposed), where indoor air PCB concentrations have been measured were created. An individual estimate of long-term airborne PCB exposure was assigned based on measurements. The cohorts will be linked to eight different national data sources on mortality, school records, residential history, socioeconomic status, and chronic disease and reproductive outcomes. The linking of indoor air exposures with health outcomes provides a dataset unprecedented worldwide. We describe a project, called HESPERUS (Health Effects of PCBs in Residences and Schools), which will be the first study of the long term health effects of the lower-chlorinated, semi-volatile PCBs in the indoor environment. PMID:27090775

  15. Re-visiting projections of PCBs in Lower Hudson River fish using model emulation.

    PubMed

    Field, L Jay; Kern, John W; Rosman, Lisa B

    2016-07-01

    Remedial decision making at large contaminated sediment sites with bioaccumulative contaminants often relies on complex mechanistic models to forecast future concentrations and compare remedial alternatives. Remedial decision-making for the Hudson River PCBs Superfund site involved predictions of future levels of PCBs in Upper Hudson River (UHR) and Lower Hudson River (LHR) fish. This study applied model emulation to evaluate the impact of updated sediment concentrations on the original mechanistic model projections of time to reach risk-based target thresholds in fish in the LHR under Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) and the selected dredging remedy. The model emulation approach used a combination of nonlinear and linear regression models to estimate UHR water PCBs as a function of UHR sediment PCBs and to estimate fish concentrations in the LHR as a function of UHR water PCBs, respectively. Model emulation captured temporal changes in sediment, water, and fish PCBs predicted by the mechanistic model over the emulation period. The emulated model, using updated sediment concentrations and a revised estimate of recovery rate, matched the trend in annual monitoring data for white perch and largemouth bass in the LHR between 1997 and 2014. Our best predictions based on the emulated model indicate that the projected time to reach fish tissue risk-based thresholds in the LHR will take decades longer than the original mechanistic model projections. PMID:27017079

  16. Health Effects of PCBs in Residences and Schools (HESPERUS): PCB - health Cohort Profile.

    PubMed

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Frederiksen, Marie; Specht, Ina Olmer; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Ebbehøj, Niels; Bailey, Janice; Giwercman, Aleksander; Steenland, Kyle; Longnecker, Matthew Paul; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated-biphenyls (PCBs) were introduced in the late 1920s and used until the 1970s when they were banned in most countries due to evidence of environmental build-up and possible adverse health effects. However they still persist in the environment, indoors and in humans. Indoor air in contaminated buildings may confer airborne exposure markedly above background regional PCB levels. To date, no epidemiological studies have assessed the health effects from exposure to semi-volatile PCBs in the indoor environment. Indoor air PCBs are generally less chlorinated than PCBs that are absorbed via the diet, or via past occupational exposure; therefore their health effects require separate risk assessment. Two separate cohorts of individuals who have either attended schools (n = 66,769; 26% exposed) or lived in apartment buildings (n = 37,185; 19% exposed), where indoor air PCB concentrations have been measured were created. An individual estimate of long-term airborne PCB exposure was assigned based on measurements. The cohorts will be linked to eight different national data sources on mortality, school records, residential history, socioeconomic status, and chronic disease and reproductive outcomes. The linking of indoor air exposures with health outcomes provides a dataset unprecedented worldwide. We describe a project, called HESPERUS (Health Effects of PCBs in Residences and Schools), which will be the first study of the long term health effects of the lower-chlorinated, semi-volatile PCBs in the indoor environment. PMID:27090775

  17. Influence of PCBs in water on uptake and elimination of DDT and DDE by lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hesselberg, Robert J.; Nicholson, Lawrence W.

    1981-01-01

    Researchers predicted that several hundred years would be required before DDT (1,1,1 trichloro-2,2-bis [P-chlorophyl] ethane) and its metabolites were likely to decrease to nondetectable levels in Lake Michigan. But following the ban on DDT in 1970, residues of total DDT in Lake Michigan lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) declined rapidly from 10.5µg/g in 1970 to 5.7 µg/g in 1976. During this period, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were being detected in lake trout tissues at about 20 µg/g. It was hypothesized that the high level of PCBs being accumulated by fish may have influenced uptake and elimination of DDT and DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis [p-chlorophenyl] ethylene) by fish. To test this hyphophesis, fingeriing lake trout were exposed to various combinations of DDT, DDE (100 ng/liter), and PCBs (100 and 500 ng/liter) in water for 12 weeks. After DDT and DDe exposures were completed, exposure to PCBs was continued for an additional 16 weeks to measure any effect PCBs may have on the elimination of DDT and DDE by fish. Accumulation and elimination rates of DDT and DDE were compared. It was found that PCBs did not influence the accumulation or elimination rates of DDT or DDE in lake trout and therefore should not have had a major influence on the decline of DDT in lake trout.

  18. Uptake of PCBs contained in marine sediments by the green macroalga Ulva rigida.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Donald; Rajic, Ljiljana; Sly, Elizabeth; Meric, Dogus; Sheahan, Thomas

    2014-11-15

    The uptake of PCBs contained in marine sediments by the green macroalga Ulva rigida was investigated in both laboratory and field experiments. Under laboratory conditions, total PCBs (tPCBs) uptake was significantly greater in live vs dead plants. The concentration of tPCB taken up in live plants was greatest in the first 24h (1580 μg kg(-1) dry weight), and then increased at a lower rate from day 2 to 14. Dead plants had a significantly lower tPCB concentration after 24h (609 μg kg(-1) dry weight) and lower uptake rate through day 14. Lesser chlorinated PCB congeners (below 123) made up the majority of PCBs taken up. Congener composition in both laboratory and field experiments was correlated to congener logKow value and sediment content. Field experiments showed that Ulva plants could concentrate PCBs to 3.9 mg kg(-1) in 24h. Thus, U. rigida is capable of removing PCBs in sediments at a rapid rate. PMID:25261178

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the marine environment, particularly in the Mediterranean

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, H.; Freitag, D.; Korte, F.

    1984-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) possess a low water solubility, a high n-octanol/water partition coefficient, and a high persistence, particularly those which are highly chlorinated. Because of these properties they are bioaccumulated in many organisms in the environment. PCBs are still manufactured industrially and used in the Mediterranean countries (e.g., Italy, Spain, and France). Production figures for these countries and for the FRG, the United Kingdom, and the United States between 1973 and 1979 are given. The concentrations of PCBs in marine air, water, sediments, microplankton , algae, mussels, fish, and other marine organisms including seabirds from the Mediterranean area are reviewed and compared with PCB concentrations in marine samples from non-Mediterranean regions. Levels of PCBs in seawater are highest in the western and central Mediterranean. The data for mussels and fish give a clear indication that the PCB levels are higher in the Northwest and the Tyrrhenian Sea than in the eastern Mediterranean. The FDA in June 1979 set 2 mg/kg as the temporary maximum concentration for PCBs in fish and shellfish. The PCB residues in some fish from the northwestern Mediterranean and Tyrrhenian Sea and in some mussels from the Adriatic Sea are higher than this limit. The amount of PCBs ingested via food by the Mediterranean population is unknown.

  20. Pollution of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in tidal flat of Hangzhou Bay 2009-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng; Gong, Wenjie; Mao, Guohua; Li, Jige; Xu, Fenfen; Shi, Jiawei

    2016-05-01

    The concentration and distribution of three persistent organic pollutants (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) was assessed in tidal flat sediments collected from the south bank of Hangzhou Bay, China from 2009 to 2013. Gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was used for analysis, based on United States Environmental Protection Agency methods EPA8080A, EPA8081B, and EPA3550B. The results showed that the levels of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs decreased in the order of DDTs < HCHs < PCBs, and their mass fractions ranged from 0.29-32.91, 0.09-13.19 and 0.16-4.10 μg/kg (dry mass), respectively. The levels of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs decreased slowly from 2009 to 2013, with considerably greater concentrations in winter than in spring and summer. In this study area, the concentrations of DDTs and HCHs decreased gradually towards the mouth of Hangzhou Bay, while the concentrations of PCBs were related to changes in the local economy. In addition, the sources of HCHs and DDTs were identified as atmospheric precipitation and historical residues. Finally, we predicted that PCBs pollution primarily originated from Aroclor 1254(Lot A4), which might root in the illegal demolition and stacking of abandoned paint, transformer or electronic equipment in the south bank of Hangzhou Bay.

  1. Mechanism of biosynthesis of methylsulfones from PCBs and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mio, T.; Sumino, K.

    1985-02-01

    Mercapto-, methylthio-, methylsulfinyl- and methylsulfonyl metabolites of PCBs 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene and some other chlorobenzenes were identified in adipose tissues of mice, rats and guinea pigs by using GC/MS/COM systems. By means of administration of CD/sub 3/-methionine, it was confirmed that the methyl group in methylthio metabolites was derived from the methionine. Moreover, after pretreatment with either esterification of urinary metabolites in guinea pigs with 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene and 1,3-dichlorobenzene or N-acetylation after esterification, it was confirmed that cysteinylglycine, cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, cysteamine, mercaptopyruvate, mercaptolactate, mercaptacetate, thiol and disulfide conjugates were detected as a serial modified derivatives of glutathione moiety. These results are summarized as a metabolic proposed pathway of halogenated aromatic compounds. Three routes in pathway correspond to oxygenation (initial route), glutathione thioether disposition (intermediate route) and sulfoxydation (final route) in connection with both reactive intermediates of epoxide and thiol. Methylation of the thiol by S-adenosylmethionine may be important in inhibiting covalent binding of reactive intermediates with biocomponents, similar to the glutathione conjugation for the detoxification of epoxide.

  2. PCBs in school-persistent chemicals, persistent problems.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Robert F

    2010-01-01

    The issue of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) exposures resulting from occupancy of PCB-contaminated buildings is not new, but the contribution of building materials to that contamination is largely unrecognized. A rapidly emerging base of evidence shows that PCBs can be widely found in caulking and paint in masonry buildings constructed or renovated from about 1950 to the late 1970s. These materials can cause extensive PCB contamination of the building interiors and surrounding soil, and people who teach, live, or attend school in these buildings can have elevated serum PCB levels. The potential risk associated with this source of PCB exposure is not known; however, it is worth noting that the specific PCB congeners found at high levels in the building environments, and in biological samples from the occupants, include some that are suspected of being potent neurotoxins. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is moving to address this issue in schools; however, the costs of remediating contaminated buildings will pose a formidable obstacle to most school districts. PMID:20359995

  3. PCBs in schools--where communities and science come together.

    PubMed

    Osterberg, David; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2016-02-01

    A novel aspect of the 8th International PCB Workshop at Woods Hole, MA, was the interaction between scientists and activists. While earlier workshops in this series had mentioned policy making, this Workshop focused on the problem of PCBs in schools. Focus on a problem brought an activist to give a plenary talk and facilitated a 1-day registration for other non-scientists to attend. The workshop was cohosted by the Superfund Research Programs at University of Iowa and Boston University and included active participation of each Program's Research Translation and Community Engagement Cores. A mandate of each National Institute of Environmental Health Science (NIEHS)-funded Superfund Research Program is bidirectional communication between scientists and community groups. The authors describe the events leading up to community involvement in the Workshop and the substance of the community engagement aspects of the workshop, in particular the participation by a parent-teacher group, Malibu Unites. The authors also discuss the value of such communication in terms of making important research accessible to those who are most affected by the results and poised to use it and the value of making scientists aware of the important role they play in society in addressing difficult questions that originate in community settings. PMID:26194237

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Africa: a review of environmental levels.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Rosalinda; Akindele, Abidemi James; Adebusoye, Sunday Adekunle; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Buekens, Alfons; Sasco, Annie J

    2014-05-01

    Several studies have shown an increase in PCB sources in Africa due to leakage and wrongly disposed transformers, continuing import of e-waste from countries of the North, shipwreck, and biomass burning. Techniques used in the recycling of waste such as melting and open burning to recover precious metals make PCBs contained in waste and other semivolatile organic substances prone to volatilization, which has resulted in an increase of PCB levels in air, blood, breast milk, and fish in several regions of Africa. Consequences for workers performing these activities without adequate measures of protection could result in adverse human health effects. Recent biodegradation studies in Africa have revealed the existence of exotic bacterial strains exhibiting unique and unusual PCB metabolic capability in terms of array of congeners that can serve as carbon source and diversity of congeners attacked, marking considerable progress in the development of effective bioremediation strategies for PCB-contaminated matrices such as sediments and soils in tropical regions. Action must be taken to find and deal with the major African sources of these pollutants. The precise sources of the PCB plume should be pinned down and used to complete the pollutant inventories of African countries. These nations must then be helped to safely dispose of the potentially dangerous chemicals. PMID:23636593

  5. Serum screening for oncogene proteins in workers exposed to PCBs.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt-Rauf, P W; Niman, H L

    1988-01-01

    A cohort of 16 municipal workers engaged in cleaning oil from old transformers was examined for possible health effects from exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In addition to the evaluation of routine clinical parameters (history, physical examination, liver function tests, serum triglycerides, serum PCB values), a new screening technique for the presence of oncogene proteins in serum using monoclonal antibodies was used to ascertain the potential carcinogenic risk from exposure in these workers. Except for one individual, serum PCB concentrations were found to be relatively low in this cohort, probably due to the observance of appropriate protective precautions. The results of liver function test were within normal limits and serum triglyceride concentrations showed no consistent relation to PCB concentrations. Six individuals, all of whom were smokers, showed abnormal banding patterns for fes oncogene related proteins. The individual with the highest serum PCB concentration also exhibited significantly raised levels of the H-ras oncogene related P21 protein in his serum. These oncogene protein findings may be indicative of an increased risk for the development of malignant disease in these individuals. Images PMID:3143397

  6. Development of a portable field monitor for PCBs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Denton, M.S.; Dinsmore, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    With the advent of recent regulations and those yet pending concerning allowable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), personnel in all aspects of the electric power industry, analytical support personnel, and those in the regulatory functions themselves have realized that the PCB problem, as well as these associated regulations, has far surpassed available monitoring capability. In short, detailed, stringent regulations are being set for contamination levels where no accepted ASTM procedure or instrumentation exists. The largest PCB problems occur in the form of PCB-contaminated oil in field transformers and storage containers, and pure askarel in transformers and capacitors. The most immediate need for a portable field instrument would be for use under PCB spill conditions. Portable monitors based on the principles of photoionization detection (PID) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) have been adapted and evaluated for this purpose. The latter includes both flow cell and horizontal multiple internal reflectance (HMIR) sampling configurations. Extensive work has also been performed on solvent-solvent and solvent-soil extractions, as well as PCB adsorption on packings, for use under spill conditions.

  7. Interactions between methylsulfonyl PCBs and the glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, M; Nilsson, S; Lund, B O

    1998-01-01

    Persistent polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) metabolites were studied with respect to their interaction with the human glucocorticoid receptor (GR). 3-Methylsulphonyl-2,5,6,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (3-MeSO2-CB149) was shown to compete with 3H-dexamethasone for binding to the GR, with an IC50 (concentration that inhibits 50%) of approximately 1 microM. Using GRAF cells expressing human GR, glucocorticoid responsive element, and a reporter enzyme, we demonstrated that 3-MeSO2-CB149 functionally acts as an antagonist at the GR (IC50 = 2.7 microM). In accordance with the receptor binding, the antagonism mainly appeared to be of a competitive nature. When studying the competitive binding of 24 methylsulfonyl PCBs (relative to dexamethasone) to GR from mouse liver cytosol, seven compounds had a higher affinity to GR than 3-MeSO2-CB149. Structure-activity relationship studies indicated that the presence of three chlorine atoms in the ortho-position and chlorine and methyl sulfone groups on either end of the molecule (4 and 4'-position) increased the affinity to GR. The relevance of this finding for human health is not known, but PCB methyl sulfones are ubiquitous pollutants present in mother's milk. The results stress the need for studying endocrine disruptors that affect hormonal systems other than sex and thyroidogenic hormones. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9831536

  8. Mechanism of biosynthesis of methylsulfones from PCBs and related compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Mio, T; Sumino, K

    1985-01-01

    Mercapto-, methylthio-, methylsulfinyl- and methysulfonyl metabolites of PCBs 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene and some other chlorobenzenes were identified in adipose tissues of mice, rats and guinea pigs by using GC/MS/COM systems. By means of administration of CD3-methionine, it was confirmed that the methyl group in methylthio metabolites was derived from the methionine. Moreover, after pretreatment with either esterification of urinary metabolites in guinea pigs with 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene and 1,3-dichlorobenzene or N-acetylation after esterification, it was confirmed that cysteinylglycine, cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, cysteamine, mercaptopyruvate, mercaptolactate, mercaptacetate, thiol and disulfide conjugates were detected as a serial modified derivatives of glutathione moiety. These results are summarized as a metabolic proposed pathway of halogenated aromatic compounds. Three routes in pathway correspond to oxygenation (initial route), glutathione thioether disposition (intermediate route) and sulfoxydation (final route) in connection with both reactive intermediates of epoxide and thiol. Methylation of the thiol by S-adenosylmethionine may be important in inhibiting covalent binding of reactive intermediates with biocomponents, similar to the glutathione conjugation for the detoxification of epoxide. PMID:3921355

  9. Analysis of industrial contaminants in indoor air: part 1. Volatile organic compounds, carbonyl compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Barro, Ruth; Regueiro, Jorge; Llompart, María; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2009-01-16

    This article reviews recent literature on the analysis of industrial contaminants in indoor air in the framework of the REACH project, which is mainly intended to improve protection of human health and the environment from the risks of more than 34 millions of chemical substances. Industrial pollutants that can be found in indoor air may be of very different types and origin, belonging to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) categories. Several compounds have been classified into the priority organic pollutants (POPs) class such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/PCDFs) and related polychlorinated compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many of these compounds are partially associated to the air gas phase, but also to the suspended particulate matter. Furthermore, settled dust can act as a concentrator for the less volatile pollutants and has become a matrix of great concern for indoors contamination. Main literature considered in this review are papers from the last 10 years reporting analytical developments and applications regarding VOCs, aldehydes and other carbonyls, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, and PAHs in the indoor environment. Sample collection and pretreatment, analyte extraction, clean-up procedures, determination techniques, performance results, as well as compound concentrations in indoor samples, are summarized and discussed. Emergent contaminants and pesticides related to the industrial development that can be found in indoor air are reviewed in a second part in this volume. PMID:19019381

  10. Serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in participants of the Anniston Community Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Pavuk, M; Olson, J R; Sjödin, A; Wolff, P; Turner, W E; Shelton, C; Dutton, N D; Bartell, S

    2014-03-01

    Serum concentrations of 35 ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) were measured in 765 adults from Anniston, Alabama, where PCBs were manufactured between 1929 and 1971. As part of the Anniston Community Health Survey (ACHS), demographic data, questionnaire information, and blood samples were collected from participants in 2005-2007. Forty-six percent of study participants were African-American, 70% were female, and the median age was 56 years. The median concentration of the sum of 35 PCB congeners (ΣPCBs) was 528 ng/g lipid, with a 90th percentile of 2,600 ng/g lipid, minimum of 17.0 ng/g lipid, and maximum of 27,337 ng/g lipid. The least square geometric mean ΣPCBs was more than 2.5 times higher for African-American participants than for White participants (866 ng/g lipid vs. 331 ng/g lipid); this difference did not change materially after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and current smoking. In spite of large differences in absolute PCB levels, relative contributions of individual congeners to ΣPCBs were quite similar between race groups. Nevertheless, while percent contributions to ΣPCBs for most of the most abundant penta- to heptachlorobiphenyls were higher among African-Americans, the percentages were higher in Whites for the lower-chlorinated PCBs 28 and 74 and for octa- to decachlorinated PCBs. No major differences were observed in geometric mean ΣPCBs between women and men when adjusted for age, race, BMI and current smoking (516 ng/g lipid vs. 526 ng/g lipid). Principal component analysis revealed groups of co-varying congeners that appear to be determined by chlorine substitution patterns. These congener groupings were similar between ACHS participants and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-04 sample of the general United States population, despite ACHS participants having serum concentrations of ΣPCBs two to three times higher than those in comparable age and race groups from

  11. PCBs and OCPs on a east-to-west transect: the importance of major currents and net volatilization for PCBs in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Rainer; Klanova, Jana; Kukucka, Petr; Yonis, Shifra; Bollinger, Kevyn

    2012-10-01

    Air-water exchange gradients of selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners across a large section of the tropical Atlantic suggested net volatilization of PCBs to the atmosphere. Only for the higher chlorinated PCB 153 and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were gradients near equilibrium detected. The use of passive samplers also enabled the detection of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its transformation products across the tropical Atlantic, indicating net deposition. There were clear differences between the southern and northern hemisphere apparent in terms of atmospheric concentrations: Once the ship moved from the southern into the northern hemisphere air, concentrations of HCB and other organochlorine pesticides increased several-fold. For large swaths of the tropical Atlantic Ocean, neither PCB nor organochlorine pesticide dissolved concentrations varied much longitudinally, probably due to efficient mixing by ocean currents. In selected samples, dissolved concentrations reflected the influence of river plumes and major ocean currents far away from the continents. Dissolved concentrations of PCBs 28, 52, 101, 118, and HCB increased in the Amazon plume and the Gulf Stream. While the Amazon plume flushed only a few kg of PCBs and HCB, the Gulf Stream is potentially delivering tons of PCBs into the North Atlantic annually. PMID:22303957

  12. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Some Actions of POPs on Female Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Gregoraszczuk, Ewa L.; Ptak, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated ethers (PBDEs), chloronaftalens (PCNs), and bisphenol A (BPA), are stable, lipophilic pollutants that affect fertility and cause serious reproductive problems, including ovotoxic action, lack of ovulation, premature ovarian failure (POF), or polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Most of the representatives of POPs influence the activation of transcription factors, not only activation of aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), but also the steroid hormone receptors. This minireview will focus on a variety of PAH activities in oocyte, ovary, placenta, and mammary gland. The complexity and diversity of factors belonging to POPs and disorders of the reproductive function of women indicate that the impact of environmental pollution as an important determinant factor in fertility should not be minimize. PMID:23762054

  13. Environmental contaminants in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Rice, C.P.; Hoffman, D.J.; Gee, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    Our objectives were to determine if concentrations of environmental pollutants and microbial contamination in nonviable eggs of the endangered Mississippi sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pulla) contributed to egg failure. Six eggs collected in 1990 and four in 1991 contained only background levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and tests for microbial contamination were all negative. Two eggs contained late dead embryos, but neither revealed obvious abnormalities. Three eggs contained potentially harmful concentrations (23, 39, 146 pg/g, wet mass) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) for combined compounds. Because of the scarcity of material suitable for laboratory examination and the endangered status of the crane, we recommend that nonviable eggs continue to be monitored for toxic pollutants.

  14. Organochlorine contaminants in common tern (Sterna hirundo) eggs and young from the river Rhine area (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, L. ); Thybaud, E. ); Caquet, T.; Ramade, F. )

    1994-11-01

    Common terns (Sterna hirundo) exhibit a remarkable range of variation in reproductive success. Several factors are known to contribute to reproductive failure either before hatching or between the time of hatching and fledging : predation pressure, food availability, flooding, competition for nesting sites, and toxic chemicals. Contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), mercury and selenium were proved to significantly impair tern reproduction. During the reproductive period of 1988, an important mortality of common terns was observed in french colonies around the river Rhine. Approximately 50% of the young died a few days after hatching. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the intoxication by chlorinated compounds could have been responsible for the observed reproductive failure. 25 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Chlorine-Free Red-Burning Pyrotechnics.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, Jesse J; Koch, Ernst-Christian; Poret, Jay C; Moretti, Jared D; Harbol, Seth M

    2015-09-01

    The development of a red, chlorine-free pyrotechnic illuminant of high luminosity and spectral purity was investigated. Red-light emission based solely on transient SrOH(g) has been achieved by using either 5-amino-1H-tetrazole or hexamine to deoxidize the combustion flame of a Mg/Sr(NO3 )2 /Epon-binder composition and reduce the amount of both condensed and gaseous SrO, which emits undesirable orange-red light. The new formulations were found to possess high thermal onset temperatures. Avoiding chlorine in these formulations eliminates the risk of the formation of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. This finding, hence, will have a great impact on both military pyrotechnics and commercial firework sectors. PMID:26333055

  16. Methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), hydroxylated PBDEs (HO-PBDEs) and hydroxylated PCBs (HO-PCBs) in the liver of harbor seals from the northwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Weijs, Liesbeth; Shaw, Susan D; Berger, Michelle L; Neels, Hugo; Blust, Ronny; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-09-15

    Metabolites of PCBs and PBDEs are shown to influence the thyroid hormone homeostasis and therefore, could have an influence on the growth of newborn or young animals. We have investigated the occurrence of hydroxylated PCBs (HO-PCBs), hydroxylated PBDEs (HO-PBDEs), and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) in the liver (48 pups; 6 adults) and blubber (4 pups; 1 adult) of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina concolor) from the northwest Atlantic. The sum of HO-PCBs in the liver ranged from 90 to 22,450 pg/g wet weight (ww) for pups and from 410 to 5290 pg/g ww for adults. Congener 4-HO-CB 107 was predominant in almost all samples regardless of age or gender, except in one adult male. Sum HO-PCB concentrations were highly correlated with the sum of precursor PCBs in the liver of harbor seals (r(2) = 0.79; p<0.0001). Concentrations of sum HO-PBDEs in the liver ranged from 70 to 1850 pg/g ww for pups and from 90 to 230 pg/g ww for adults. HO-PBDEs were also correlated with PBDEs (r(2) = 0.58; p<0.0001). Sum MeO-PBDE concentrations in the liver ranged from 20 to 1460 pg/g ww in pups and from 10 to 270 pg/g ww in adults. HO-PCBs and HO-PBDEs were not detected in the blubber. Levels of MeO-PBDEs in the blubber ranged from 1500 to 4400 pg/g ww. In all blubber samples, 6-MeO-BDE 47 was the predominant MeO-PBDE congener, followed by 2'-MeO-BDE 68 and 5-MeO-BDE 47, respectively. The presence of HO-metabolites in pup liver suggests that young harbor seals may have some, yet limited, metabolic capacity for PCBs and PBDEs, which can lead to an excessive accumulation of these chemicals in the body. Moreover, the presence of HO-PCB and HO-PBDE metabolites may pose an additional stress for young harbor seals due to their influence on the thyroid hormone system and could have consequences for the entire population. PMID:24982026

  17. NDL-PCBs in muscle of the European catfish (Silurus glanis): an alert from Italian rivers.

    PubMed

    Squadrone, S; Favaro, L; Prearo, M; Vivaldi, B; Brizio, P; Abete, M C

    2013-09-01

    The non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) highly contribute to the PCB dietary intake of total PCBs. Most of the NDL-PCBs are assumed through ingestion of contaminated fish and fishery products. Therefore, it is important to quantify their presence in aquatic organisms to evaluate human risks associated with fish consumption. The European catfish is a top food-chain predator and is considered a reliable bio-monitoring tool reflecting the state of the environmental organic pollution. From 2006 to 2009, 54 European catfish were captured in four sites covering the area of the Po River (North Italy), and their muscles were analysed to determine the levels of 18 PCBs congeners. All samples presented detectable levels of 18 congeners and, on average, results showed an important presence of NDL-PCBs. The sum of the six congeners (28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180 IUPAC) was used as indicator of the total PCBs concentration. The 33% of the samples analysed exceeded the maximum levels of 125 ng g(-1) set by European regulations in fish. The values measured ranged from 19.7 to 1015.4 ng g(-1) (mean 135.6 ± 149.8 ng g(-1)). The concentrations of NDL-PCBs were not related to fish weight or sex, while a significant variability was found among sites (p<0.05), according to the geographical location of many industrial activities in the catchment area of the Po River. PCB 153 and 138 were present in higher concentrations (40% and 30% respectively). We hypothesise that this is due to their high resistance to metabolic degradation. PMID:23871595

  18. Predictors of plasma concentrations of DDE and PCBs in a group of U.S. women.

    PubMed Central

    Laden, F; Neas, L M; Spiegelman, D; Hankinson, S E; Willett, W C; Ireland, K; Wolff, M S; Hunter, D J

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated predictors of plasma concentrations of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a group of 240 women, controls from a breast cancer case-control study nested in the Nurses' Health Study. We considered personal attributes such as age, serum cholesterol, region of residence, adiposity, lactation, and dietary intake. DDE levels increased 0.17 ppb/year of age (p = 0.0003), and PCBs increased 0.08 ppb (p = 0.0001). DDE and PCBs increased 0.20 (p = 0.02) and 0.13 ppb (p = 0.001), respectively, per 10 mg/dl serum cholesterol. Women living in the western United States had higher levels of DDE (mean = 11.0 ppb; p = 0.003), and women in the Northeast and Midwest had higher levels of PCBs (mean = 5.6 ppb; p = 0.0002) as compared to women from other parts of the country (mean DDE = 6.3; mean PCBs = 4. 5 ppb). Levels of DDE could not be predicted from consumption of meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and grains. There was a positive association between fish consumption and PCB concentrations among women in the Northeast and Midwest. Using data from the cases in the nested case-control study to assess the predictive ability of the models, we confirmed that the most reliable predictors of DDE were age and serum cholesterol, and the most important predictors of PCBs were age, serum cholesterol, and residence in the Midwest or Northeast. The null results for the majority of the food variables suggest that specific dietary factors, other than fish, are not currently a substantial contributor to human exposure to DDE and PCBs. PMID:9872720

  19. Chemical contaminants in fish feeds used in federal salmonid hatcheries in the USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maule, A.G.; Gannam, A.L.; Davis, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that fish feeds contain significant concentrations of contaminants, many of which can bioaccumulate and bioconcentrate in fish. Organochlorine (OC) contaminants are present in the fish oils and fish meals used in feed manufacture, and some researchers speculate that all fish feeds contain measurable levels of some contaminants. To determine the concentration of contaminants in feeds used in US Fish and Wildlife Service's National Fish Hatcheries, we systematically collected samples of feed from 11 cold-water fish hatcheries. All samples (collected from October 2001 to October 2003) contained at least one polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, or dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolite. Of the 55 samples in which they were analyzed 39 contained PCDDs, 24 contained PCDFs and 24 contained DDT or its metabolites. There were 10- to 150-fold differences in concentrations of total PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs and DDT. Although PCBs were the most commonly detected contaminant in our study, concentrations (range: 0.07-10.46 ng g-1 wet weight) were low compared to those reported previously. In general, we also found lower levels of OCs than reported previously in fish feed. Perhaps most notable was the near absence of OC pesticides - except for DDT or its metabolites, and two samples containing hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). While contaminant concentrations were generally low, the ecological impacts can not be determined without a measure of the bioaccumulation of these compounds in the fish and the fate of these compounds after the fish are released. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of dietary exposure to some persistent organic pollutants in the Republic of Karakalpakstan of Uzbekistan.

    PubMed Central

    Muntean, Nigina; Jermini, Marco; Small, Ian; Falzon, Dennis; Fürst, Peter; Migliorati, Giacomo; Scortichini, Giampiero; Forti, Anna Francesca; Anklam, Elke; von Holst, Christoph; Niyazmatov, Bakhtier; Bahkridinov, Shakub; Aertgeerts, Roger; Bertollini, Roberto; Tirado, Cristina; Kolb, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    A 1999 study heightened long-standing concerns over persistent organic pollutant contamination in the Aral Sea area, detecting elevated levels in breast milk and cord blood of women in Karakalpakstan (western Uzbekistan). These findings prompted a collaborative research study aimed at linking such human findings with evidence of food chain contamination in the area. An international team carried out analyses of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) on samples of 12 foods commonly produced and consumed in Karakalpakstan. Analysis consistently detected long-lasting organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites in all foods of animal origin and in some vegetables such as onions and carrots--two low-cost components of many traditional dishes. Levels of PCBs were relatively low in all samples except fish. Analyses revealed high levels of PCDDs and PCDFs (together often termed "dioxins") in sheep fat, dairy cream, eggs, and edible cottonseed oil, among other foodstuffs. These findings indicate that food traditionally grown, sold, and consumed in Karakalpakstan is a major route of human exposure to several persistent toxic contaminants, including the most toxic of dioxins, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD). Intake estimations demonstrate that consumption of even small amounts of locally grown food may expose consumers to dioxin levels that considerably exceed the monthly tolerable dioxin intake levels set by the World Health Organization. Data presented in this study allow a first assessment of the risk associated with the consumption of certain food products in Karakalpakstan and highlight a critical public health situation. PMID:12896851

  1. Environmental contaminants in male river otters from Oregon and Washington, USA, 1994-1999.

    PubMed

    Grove, Robert A; Henny, Charles J

    2008-10-01

    This study reports hepatic concentrations and distribution patterns of select metals, organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in 180 male river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from Oregon and Washington, 1994-1999. Seven regional locations of western Oregon and Washington were delineated based on associations with major population centers, industry or agriculture. Cadmium (Cd) was not found above 0.5 microg g(-1), dry weight (dw) in juveniles, but increased with age in adults though concentrations were generally low (nd-1.18 microg g(-1), dw). Regional geometric means for total mercury (THg) ranged from 3.63 to 8.05 microg g(-1), dw in juveniles and 3.46-12.6 microg g(-1) (dw) in adults. The highest THg concentration was 148 microg g(-1), dw from an apparently healthy adult male from the Olympic Peninsula of Washington. Although THg increased with age in adult otters, the occurrence of the more toxic form methylmercury (MeHg) was not evaluated. Mean OC and PCB concentrations reported in this study declined dramatically from those reported in 1978-1979 from the lower Columbia River. Organochlorine pesticide and metabolite means for both juvenile and adult river otter males were all below 100 microg kg(-1), wet weight (ww), with only DDE, DDD and HCB having individual concentrations exceeding 500 microg kg(-1), ww. Mean SigmaPCB concentrations in both juvenile and adult male otters were below 1 microg g(-1) for all regional locations. Mean juvenile and adult concentrations of non-ortho substituted PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs were in the low ng kg(-1) for all locations studied. PMID:18058253

  2. Assessment of dietary exposure to some persistent organic pollutants in the Republic of Karakalpakstan of Uzbekistan.

    PubMed

    Muntean, Nigina; Jermini, Marco; Small, Ian; Falzon, Dennis; Fürst, Peter; Migliorati, Giacomo; Scortichini, Giampiero; Forti, Anna Francesca; Anklam, Elke; von Holst, Christoph; Niyazmatov, Bakhtier; Bahkridinov, Shakub; Aertgeerts, Roger; Bertollini, Roberto; Tirado, Cristina; Kolb, Anthony

    2003-08-01

    A 1999 study heightened long-standing concerns over persistent organic pollutant contamination in the Aral Sea area, detecting elevated levels in breast milk and cord blood of women in Karakalpakstan (western Uzbekistan). These findings prompted a collaborative research study aimed at linking such human findings with evidence of food chain contamination in the area. An international team carried out analyses of organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) on samples of 12 foods commonly produced and consumed in Karakalpakstan. Analysis consistently detected long-lasting organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites in all foods of animal origin and in some vegetables such as onions and carrots--two low-cost components of many traditional dishes. Levels of PCBs were relatively low in all samples except fish. Analyses revealed high levels of PCDDs and PCDFs (together often termed "dioxins") in sheep fat, dairy cream, eggs, and edible cottonseed oil, among other foodstuffs. These findings indicate that food traditionally grown, sold, and consumed in Karakalpakstan is a major route of human exposure to several persistent toxic contaminants, including the most toxic of dioxins, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD). Intake estimations demonstrate that consumption of even small amounts of locally grown food may expose consumers to dioxin levels that considerably exceed the monthly tolerable dioxin intake levels set by the World Health Organization. Data presented in this study allow a first assessment of the risk associated with the consumption of certain food products in Karakalpakstan and highlight a critical public health situation. PMID:12896851

  3. Diabetes in Native Americans: elevated risk as a result of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed

    Aminov, Zafar; Haase, Richard; Carpenter, David O

    2016-03-01

    We have studied rates of diabetes in 601 members of the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne, ages 18-84 years, in relation to serum concentrations of 101 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and three chlorinated pesticides [dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and mirex]. Diabetes was determined from either a diagnosis by a physician or by having a fasting glucose concentration of >125 mg/dL. Rates of diabetes are high in this community. Three models were used. In the first model rate ratios (RR) were determined for quartiles of total PCBs after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and total serum lipids. For total PCBs RR=2.21 (1.2-4.2), while for total pesticides RR=3.75 (1.3-10.7). When the total PCB results were also adjusted for total pesticides and the total pesticide results were also adjusted for total PCBs (Model 2) the RRs were somewhat reduced. In Model 3 we considered subgroups of PCBs based on numbers of chlorines on the molecule (tri-/tetra, penta-/hexa, hepta plus) and numbers of ortho chlorines (non-/mono; di-, tri-/tetra-), and considered each of the pesticides individually after adjustment for all other contaminants as well as age, sex, BMI and serum lipids. We found a highly significant association between diabetes and PCBs with only three or four chlorines (RR=5.02), but no significant association with those with greater chlorination. When evaluating PCBs based on numbers of ortho chlorines only, those with no or one ortho chlorine showed significant associations. As mono-ortho PCBs include some with dioxin-like activity, we compared those with and without a TEF, and found that the association with diabetes was exclusively with the non-dioxin-like congeners. Of the pesticides only hexachlorobenzene showed a small but significant association with diabetes. Because lower chlorinated PCBs are more volatile and do not greatly accumulate in fish, these results suggest that inhalation is the major route of exposure to

  4. Destruction and formation of dioxin-like PCBs in dedicated full scale waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Van Caneghem, Jo; Block, Chantal; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Destruction and formation of dioxin-like PCBs in full scale waste incinerators is studied by analysing input waste streams and boiler and fly ash of a grate furnace incinerator (GFI) incinerating MSW, of a Fluidised Bed Combustor (FBC) incinerating a mix of 50% sludge, 25% refuse derived fuel (RDF) and 25% automotive shredder residue (ASR) and of a rotary kiln incinerator (RKI) incinerating hazardous waste. The dioxin-like PCB fingerprints of the waste inputs show that PCB oils Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254 late are the major dioxin-like PCB contamination source of sludge, RDF and ASR. The dioxin-like PCB fingerprints of the waste inputs are clearly different from the fingerprints of the outputs, i.e. boiler and fly ash, indicating that in full scale waste incinerators dioxin-like PCBs in the input waste are destroyed and other dioxin-like PCBs are newly formed in the post combustion zone. The dioxin-like PCB fingerprint of boiler and fly ash of all three incinerators corresponds well to the fly ash fingerprint obtained in lab scale de novo synthesis experiments, indicating that dioxin-like PCBs are mainly formed through this mechanism. The high PCB concentration in the input waste mix of the RKI does not promote the formation of dioxin-like PCBs through precursor condensation. PMID:24120013

  5. Total PCBs, TCDD-EQs in eggs: Reproductive hazards to north Pacific albatrosses

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, J.P.; Auman, H.J.; Summer, C.L.; Giesy, J.P.; Sanderson, J.T.; DeDoes, J.M.; Verbrugge, D.A.; Jones, P.

    1995-12-31

    Freshly laid eggs of Laysan and black-footed Albatrosses (Diomedea immutabilis and D. nigripes) were collected at Midway Atoll 1992 through 1994 and subsequently analyzed for chlorinated contaminants including OC pesticides, PCBs, dioxins and furans. TCDD-EQs in eggs were calculated from congener-specific data. Total PCBs ranged from 1.1 to 3.8 mglkg ww. Calculated TCDD-EQs ranged from 52--124 pg/g. A substantial portion (30--35%) of the TCDD-EQs in eggs were owing to dioxins and furans, and the balance to PCBs. PCBs in albatross eggs were much less potent than PCBs from waterbirds` eggs of the Great Lakes and other continental inland waters. Hazard indices based on calculated TCDD-EQs suggested that Laysan eggs were at the LOAEL for embryonic effects, but black-footed eggs were well above avian LOAELS. Egg death during natural incubation was 2--3% greater in black-footed than Laysan nests, and 5% fewer black-footed albatross chicks were fledged in 1994. A low incidence of deformities in hatchlings was noted in 1994 and 1995. Crossed-bill hatchlings were not reported in these populations until the late 1970s in spite of intensive studies 1957--1972, but occurred at rates of 1 in 14,000 hatchlings, and 1 in 300 dead eggs 1993--1995. Reproductive effects owing to contaminant exposures in these most pelagic seabirds are confirmed.

  6. Photocatalytic removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using carbon-modified titanium oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaban, Yasser A.; El Sayed, Mohamed A.; El Maradny, Amr A.; Al Farawati, Radwan Kh.; Al Zobidi, Mosa I.; Khan, Shahed U. M.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the sonicated sol-gel method was used for synthesizing carbon-modified titanium oxide nanoparticles. Carbon incorporation was achieved by using titanium (IV) isopropoxide as a titanium and carbon-containing precursor. The photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized photocatalyst was assessed by examining the photocatalytic removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from aqueous solution. For comparison, unmodified (regular) titanium dioxide (n-TiO2) was used as a reference catalyst. To confirm the carbon incorporation in CM-n-TiO2 nanoparticles, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was used. Significantly, the bandgap energy was found to be reduced from 2.99 eV for n-TiO2 to 1.8 eV for CM-n-TiO2, which in turn improved the performance of CM-n-TiO2 toward the photocatalytic removal of PCBs. The effects of CM-n-TiO2 loading, PCBs concentration, and pH of the solution on the photodegradation rate of PCBs were investigated. The highest removal rate was found to be at pH 5 and CM-n-TiO2 loading of 0.5 g L-1. According to Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, the photodegradation of PCBs using CM-n-TiO2 followed a pseudo-first order reaction kinetics.

  7. Lead and PCBs as Risk Factors for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Eubig, Paul A.; Aguiar, Andréa; Schantz, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequently diagnosed neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, yet its etiology is not well understood. In this review we present evidence that environmental chemicals, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lead, are associated with deficits in many neurobehavioral functions that are also impaired in ADHD. Data sources Human and animal studies of developmental PCB or lead exposures that assessed specific functional domains shown to be impaired in ADHD children were identified via searches of PubMed using “lead” or “PCB exposure” in combination with key words, including “attention,” “working memory,” “response inhibition,” “executive function,” “cognitive function,” “behavior,” and “ADHD.” Data synthesis Children and laboratory animals exposed to lead or PCBs show deficits in many aspects of attention and executive function that have been shown to be impaired in children diagnosed with ADHD, including tests of working memory, response inhibition, vigilance, and alertness. Studies conducted to date suggest that lead may reduce both attention and response inhibition, whereas PCBs may impair response inhibition to a greater degree than attention. Low-level lead exposure has been associated with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD in several recent studies. Similar studies of PCBs have not been conducted. Conclusions We speculate that exposures to environmental contaminants, including lead and PCBs, may increase the prevalence of ADHD. PMID:20829149

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the western Adriatic Sea: Sources, historical trends and inventories.

    PubMed

    Combi, Tatiane; Miserocchi, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Guerra, Roberta

    2016-08-15

    Sources, historical trends and inventories of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in sediments collected in five transects along the north-south axis of the western Adriatic Sea. The concentration of total PCBs (∑28 PCBs) ranged from PCBs in the western Adriatic Sea. This is further corroborated by the estimated inventories of PCBs, which were ~4-7 times higher in the Po River prodelta (256ngcm(-2)) in comparison to the middle and southern Adriatic, respectively, and about 100 times higher than the in the deep Adriatic Sea. PMID:27110972

  9. Prenatal PCBs disrupt early neuroendocrine development of the rat hypothalamus

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, Sarah M.; Cunningham, Stephanie L.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2011-04-01

    Neonatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can interfere with hormone-sensitive developmental processes, including brain sexual differentiation. We hypothesized that disruption of these processes by gestational PCB exposure would be detectable as early as the day after birth (postnatal day (P) 1) through alterations in hypothalamic gene and protein expression. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected twice, once each on gestational days 16 and 18, with one of the following: DMSO vehicle; the industrial PCB mixture Aroclor 1221 (A1221); a reconstituted mixture of the three most prevalent congeners found in humans, PCB138, PCB153, and PCB180; or estradiol benzoate (EB). On P1, litter composition, anogenital distance (AGD), and body weight were assessed. Pups were euthanized for immunohistochemistry of estrogen receptor {alpha} (ER{alpha}) or TUNEL labeling of apoptotic cells or quantitative PCR of 48 selected genes in the preoptic area (POA). We found that treatment with EB or A1221 had a sex-specific effect on developmental apoptosis in the neonatal anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), a sexually dimorphic hypothalamic region involved in the regulation of reproductive neuroendocrine function. In this region, exposed females had increased numbers of apoptotic nuclei, whereas there was no effect of treatment in males. For ER{alpha}, EB treatment increased immunoreactive cell numbers and density in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) of both males and females, while A1221 and the PCB mixture had no effect. PCR analysis of gene expression in the POA identified nine genes that were significantly altered by prenatal EDC exposure, in a manner that varied by sex and treatment. These genes included brain-derived neurotrophic factor, GABA{sub B} receptors-1 and -2, IGF-1, kisspeptin receptor, NMDA receptor subunits NR2b and NR2c, prodynorphin, and TGF{alpha}. Collectively, these results suggest that the

  10. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic degradation of indigenous PCBs in a contaminated soil matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Reeves, M.E.; Evans, B.S.; Dudley, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy`s, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges; however, a practicable remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. A biological treatment technology is likely to consist of an anaerobic fermentation step in which PCB dechlorination takes place producing PCBs with fewer chlorines. These products are then more susceptible to aerobic mineralization. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River and Woods Pond have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs in soil slurry reactors. The anaerobic dechlorination was followed by qualitative estimation of the effect of aerobic fermentation of the dechlorination products based on literature data. The sequential anaerobic-(simulated) aerobic treatment constituted an improvement compared anaerobic treatment alone.

  11. Endocrine-disrupting actions of PCBs on brain development and social and reproductive behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Margaret R

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are among the most well-studied endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) for their neurobehavioral effects, especially neurodevelopment and cognitive performance. In addition, past research has demonstrated effects of PCBs on circulating hormones and associated changes in reproductive behaviors. This article will focus on recent advances that have been made in characterizing developmental PCB effects on reproductive function, broader social and affective behaviors, and the neuroendocrine mechanisms behind such changes. In general, PCBs seem to inhibit reproductive function by suppressing multiple aspects of the associated hypothalamic circuitry. Additionally, PCBs may also reduce motivation for social behaviors and induce depressive-like symptoms via overall reductions in dopaminergic and glutamatergic functions in the limbic system. However, more work with human-relevant exposure paradigms is needed to fully support these conclusions. PMID:25310366

  12. In Situ Treatment of PCBs by Anaerobic Microbial Dechlorination in Aquatic Sediment: Are We There Yet?

    PubMed Central

    Sowers, Kevin R.; May, Harold D.

    2012-01-01

    The remediation of PCBs in soils and sediments remains a particularly difficult problem to solve. The possibility of in situ degradation by microorganisms has been pursued for many years since this approach has the potential to provide a cost-effective and environmentally sustainable alternative to dredging for treatment of PCB impacted sites. Because PCBs are hydrophobic and partition into organic material they accumulate in anoxic environments well poised to support anaerobic dechlorination of highly chlorinated commercial PCBs to congeners that are susceptible to complete aerobic degradation. Laboratory research over the past 25 years is now leading to new microbial technologies that could soon be tested for treatment of PCB impacted soils and sediments in the field. PMID:23102490

  13. Evaluation of PCB sources and releases for identifying priorities to reduce PCBs in Washington State (USA).

    PubMed

    Davies, Holly; Delistraty, Damon

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously distributed in the environment and produce multiple adverse effects in humans and wildlife. As a result, the purpose of our study was to characterize PCB sources in anthropogenic materials and releases to the environment in Washington State (USA) in order to formulate recommendations to reduce PCB exposures. Methods included review of relevant publications (e.g., open literature, industry studies and reports, federal and state government databases), scaling of PCB sources from national or county estimates to state estimates, and communication with industry associations and private and public utilities. Recognizing high associated uncertainty due to incomplete data, we strived to provide central tendency estimates for PCB sources. In terms of mass (high to low), PCB sources include lamp ballasts, caulk, small capacitors, large capacitors, and transformers. For perspective, these sources (200,000-500,000 kg) overwhelm PCBs estimated to reside in the Puget Sound ecosystem (1500 kg). Annual releases of PCBs to the environment (high to low) are attributed to lamp ballasts (400-1500 kg), inadvertent generation by industrial processes (900 kg), caulk (160 kg), small capacitors (3-150 kg), large capacitors (10-80 kg), pigments and dyes (0.02-31 kg), and transformers (<2 kg). Recommendations to characterize the extent of PCB distribution and decrease exposures include assessment of PCBs in buildings (e.g., schools) and replacement of these materials, development of Best Management Practices (BMPs) to contain PCBs, reduction of inadvertent generation of PCBs in consumer products, expansion of environmental monitoring and public education, and research to identify specific PCB congener profiles in human tissues. PMID:26071980

  14. Release of PCBs from Silvretta glacier (Switzerland) investigated in lake sediments and meltwater.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, P A; Zennegg, M; Anselmetti, F S; Schmid, P; Bogdal, C; Steinlin, C; Jäggi, M; Schwikowski, M

    2016-06-01

    This study is part of our investigations about the release of persistent organic pollutants from melting Alpine glaciers and the relevance of the glaciers as secondary sources of legacy pollutants. Here, we studied the melt-related release of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in proglacial lakes and glacier streams of the catchment of the Silvretta glacier, located in the Swiss Alps. To explore a spatial and temporal distribution of chemicals in glacier melt, we combined two approaches: (1) analysing a sediment record as an archive of past remobilization and (2) passive water sampling to capture the current release of PCBs during melt period. In addition, we determined PCBs in a non-glacier-fed stream as a reference for the background pollutant level in the area. The PCBs in the sediment core from the Silvretta lake generally complied with trends of PCB emissions into the environment. Elevated concentrations during the most recent ten years, comparable in level with times of the highest atmospheric input, were attributed to accelerated melting of the glacier. This interpretation is supported by the detected PCB fractionation pattern towards heavier, less volatile congeners, and by increased activity concentrations of the radioactive tracer (137)Cs in this part of the sediment core. In contrast, PCB concentrations were not elevated in the stream water, since no significant difference between pollutant concentrations in the glacier-fed and the non-glacier-fed streams was detected. In stream water, no current decrease of the PCBs with distance from the glacier was observed. Thus, according to our data, an influence of PCBs release due to accelerated glacier melt was only detected in the proglacial lake, but not in the other compartments of the Silvretta catchment. PMID:26638969

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in marine fishes from China: levels, distribution and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chonghuan; Lam, James C W; Wu, Xiaoguo; Xie, Zhouqing; Lam, Paul K S

    2012-11-01

    Muscle tissues of large yellow croakers (Pseudosciaena crocea) and sliver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) from nine coastal cities of East China including Dalian, Tianjin, Qingdao, Shanghai, Zhoushan, Wenzhou, Fuzhou, Quanzhou and Xiamen were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations. Thirty-six PCB congeners were quantified in the fishes, of which 11 congeners were dioxin-like PCBs. The total PCB concentrations of the present study were at the low end of the global range, which may be related to the smaller usage and shorter consumption history of PCBs in China. PCBs 18, 29, 52, 66, 101, 104, 138, 153, 180 and 194 were the major constituents found in the fish samples. Regression analysis showed a strong positive correlation (R(2)=0.800; p<0.001) between total dioxin-like PCBs and total PCB concentrations, and that total PCB concentrations explain 80% of the variability in total dioxin-like PCB concentrations. Among the species investigated, significantly higher concentrations of total PCBs were found in croakers than in pomfrets, which may be attributed to their different feeding and living habits. No significant difference in total PCB concentrations among the cities was observed; principal component analysis (PCA) of PCB profiles indicated that PCB pollution came from similar sources in the sampling areas and that there may be other PCB sources in Dalian and Wenzhou. The calculated carcinogenic risks (CRs) from the two species based on a low consumption group and high consumption group were all greater than 10(-6), suggesting that daily exposure to dioxin-like PCBs via fish consumption results in a lifetime cancer risk of greater than one in one million. In contrast, the hazard quotients (HQs) of noncancer risks were all less than unity. PMID:22863061

  16. Method development and implementation for co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed

    Riley, C E

    2001-01-01

    The Emission Measurement Center (EMC) in the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards was directed to conduct an emissions test program at a sewage sludge incinerator in support of a Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standard. One pollutant category of concern at these facilities was polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs. An objective of the test program was to measure co-planar PCBs in the incinerator emissions, the sewage sludge introduced to the incinerator, and the scrubber water effluent used in controlling the incinerator emissions. Co-planar PCB congeners are those having four or more chlorine atoms with only a few substitutions in the ortho positions, i.e. positions designated 2, 2', 6, and 6'. Thirteen PCB compounds are sometimes referred to as the "WHO PCBs," because the World Health Organization (WHO) has derived toxic equivalency factors for these congeners. Studies have shown that these dioxin-like compounds can react with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. This same reaction is believed to initiate adverse health effects for dioxin and furan congeners. In order to conduct the co-planer PCB testing, the EMC had to develop analytical methods that could measure the 13 co-planar PCBs. The purpose of the test program was to develop, evaluate, and implement analytical test methods capable of measuring co-planar PCBs in three matrices: incinerator stack gases, sewage sludge, and scrubber water effluents. The paper summarizes the initial development work that was performed in preparation of analytical test protocols that could measure co-planar PCBs in air, water, and sludge matrices. Following the method development, a MACT emissions test program was conducted at a sewage sludge facility in July 1999 and these data are also summarized in the paper. PMID:11280988

  17. Electrokinetic delivery of persulfate to remediate PCBs polluted soils: effect of injection spot.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guangping; Cang, Long; Fang, Guodong; Qin, Wenxiu; Ge, Liqiang; Zhou, Dongmei

    2014-12-01

    Persulfate-based in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a promising technique for the remediation of organic compounds contaminated soils. Electrokinetics (EK) provides an alternative method to deliver oxidants into the target zones especially in low permeable-soil. In this study, the flexibility of delivering persulfate by EK to remediate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) polluted soil was investigated. 20% (w/w) of persulfate was injected at the anode, cathode and both electrodes to examine its transport behaviors under electrical field, and the effect of field inversion process was also evaluated. The results showed that high dosage of persulfate could be delivered into S4 section (near cathode) by electroosmosis when persulfate was injected from anode, 30.8% of PCBs was removed from the soil, and the formed hydroxyl precipitation near the cathode during EK process impeded the transportation of persulfate. In contrast, only 18.9% of PCBs was removed with the injection of persulfate from cathode, although the breakthrough of persulfate into the anode reservoir was observed. These results indicated that the electroosmotic flow is more effective for the transportation of persulfate into soil. The addition of persulfate from both electrodes did not significantly facilitate the PCBs oxidation as well as the treatment of electrical field reversion, the reinforced negative depolarization function occurring in the cathode at high current consumed most of the oxidant. Furthermore, it was found that strong acid condition near the anode favored the oxidation of PCBs by persulfate and the degradation of PCBs was in consistent with the oxidation of Soil TOC in EK/persulfate system. PMID:25193794

  18. Regional environmental fate, transport and risk of PCBs in lotic ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.; Birge, W.; Price, D.

    1995-12-31

    Investigations were conducted on the regional transport, fate and distribution of PCBs in three Kentucky stream systems. The streams (Town Branch/Mud River, Drakes Creek, Little Bayou Creek) varied in size from second to fifth order. Point source discharges of PCBs to each system has resulted in issuance of fish consumption advisories by state agencies. Water, sediments, floodplain soils and fish-tissues were analyzed for PCB residues. Fish species representing different trophic levels and feeding habits were also analyzed including longear sunfish, green sunfish, stonerollers and banded sculpins. Relatively rapid disappearance of PCBs was noted in green sunfish and may provide a better indication of the current bioavailability of PCBs in these systems. In one stream system, PCBs were detected in the water column, sediments and floodplain soils sixty-five miles from the known source. Mean concentrations of Aroclor 1248 in sediment samples decreased from 280 mg/kg near the source to 0.09--0.12mg/kg about 100 mi. downstream. Sequential resuspension of PCB-contaminated sediment is considered to be the main long-range transport mechanism. Contaminated groundwater can contribute substantial PCB loading to streams and flood events may have distributed PCBS over 20,000 acres of floodplain soil, possibly affecting background concentrations in these areas. Digital elevation models were coupled with point location contaminant data and used to evaluate potential distribution in the floodplains. About 50 percent of the fish collected from the Mud River contained residues greater than the 2.0 ppm FDA action level in edible portions. Fish collected within 4 mi. of the source contained PCB concentration ranging from 9.4 to 33.3 mg/kg. Estimated PCB bioconcentration factors were up to 300.000 based on water and fish-tissue concentrations.

  19. Survey of persistent organochlorine contaminants (PCDD, PCDF, and PCB) in fish collected from the Polish Baltic fishing areas.

    PubMed

    Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Jadwiga; Maszewski, Sebastian; Warenik-Bany, Malgorzata; Mikolajczyk, Szczepan; Goraj, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations and congener-specific profiles of PCDDs, PCDFs, dl-PCBs, and ndl-PCBs were determined in five species of edible fish from the Baltic Sea (ICES 24-27): salmon (Salmo salar), Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras), sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus), sea trout (Salmo trutta m.trutta), and cod (Gadus morhua callarias). Marker PCBs were the dominant compounds (0.07-60.84 ng/g w.w.), followed by dl-PCBs (0.64-6.07 pg WHO-TEQ/g w.w.) and PCDD/PCDFs (0.22-5.67 pg WHO-TEQ w.w). The concentration levels of contaminants varied between species. Salmon possessed the highest concentrations (up to 14.11 ± 2.36 pg WHO-TEQ/g w.w.) and cod the lowest ones (0.84 ± 0.14 pg WHO-TEQ/g w.w.). Congener profile in the fish tested had similar pattern. The largest contribution to the dioxin toxicity was caused successively by PCB 126, 118, 156, furans (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and 2,3,7,8-TCDF), and two dioxins: 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Although the dietary consumption of fish from southwest region of the Baltic Sea did not represent a risk for human health (because of very low consumption of marine fish), the excessive eating of some of them may be of significance importance for health of various subgroups of consumers (fishermen). PMID:22593715

  20. Survey of Persistent Organochlorine Contaminants (PCDD, PCDF, and PCB) in Fish Collected from the Polish Baltic Fishing Areas

    PubMed Central

    Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Jadwiga; Maszewski, Sebastian; Warenik-Bany, Malgorzata; Mikolajczyk, Szczepan; Goraj, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations and congener-specific profiles of PCDDs, PCDFs, dl-PCBs, and ndl-PCBs were determined in five species of edible fish from the Baltic Sea (ICES 24–27): salmon (Salmo salar), Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras), sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus), sea trout (Salmo trutta m.trutta), and cod (Gadus morhua callarias). Marker PCBs were the dominant compounds (0.07–60.84 ng/g  w.w.), followed by dl-PCBs (0.64–6.07 pg WHO-TEQ/g w.w.) and PCDD/PCDFs (0.22–5.67 pg WHO-TEQ w.w). The concentration levels of contaminants varied between species. Salmon possessed the highest concentrations (up to 14.11 ± 2.36 pg WHO-TEQ/g  w.w.) and cod the lowest ones (0.84 ± 0.14 pg WHO-TEQ/g  w.w.). Congener profile in the fish tested had similar pattern. The largest contribution to the dioxin toxicity was caused successively by PCB 126, 118, 156, furans (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and 2,3,7,8-TCDF), and two dioxins: 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Although the dietary consumption of fish from southwest region of the Baltic Sea did not represent a risk for human health (because of very low consumption of marine fish), the excessive eating of some of them may be of significance importance for health of various subgroups of consumers (fishermen). PMID:22593715

  1. PCBs in tissue of fish from the Spokane River, Washington, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCoy, Dorene E.

    2001-01-01

    Several studies over the past 6 years have indicated that elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Spokane River, Washington, are a potential hazard to human and aquatic health. To help address these concerns, fish were collected from the Spokane River in 1999 and analyzed for PCBs for a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program) and the Washington State Department of Ecology. This Fact Sheet summarizes comparisons of PCB concentrations in fish tissue recommended by national criteria with concentrations in fish tissue analyzed for this 1999 cooperative study and for previous studies.

  2. PCBs as environmental estrogens: Turtle sex determination as a biomarker of environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, J.M.; Crews, D. ); McLachlan, J.A. )

    1994-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread, low-level environmental pollutants associated with adverse health effects such as immune suppression and teratogenicity. There is increasing evidence that some PCB compounds are capable of disrupting reproductive and endocrine function in fish, birds, and mammals, including humans, particularly during development. Research on the mechanism through which these compounds act to alter reproductive function indicates estrogenic activity, whereby the compounds may be altering sexual differentiation. Here we demonstrate the estrogenic effect of some PCBs by reversing gonadal sex in a reptile species that exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Assessment of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels in soil samples near an electric capacitor manufacturing industry in Morelos, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Perez-Maldonado, Ivan N; Salazar, Rogelio Costilla; Ilizaliturri-Hernandez, Cesar A; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Perez-Vazquez, Francisco J; Fernandez-Macias, Juan C

    2014-09-19

    In Mexico, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were principally used as heat transfer chemicals in electric transformers and capacitors as well as hydraulic fluids and lubricants in heavy electrical equipment since the early 1940s. However, although PCBs have been banned in Mexico, their past and present improper disposal has resulted in environmental contamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the PCBs levels in soil samples in the immediate area of an electric capacitor manufacturing industry, which was established several years ago in Alpuyeca, Morelos, Mexico. To confirm the presence of PCBs, surface soil samples (1-5 cm in depth) were collected from the vicinity of the industry. We determined the concentrations of 40 PCB congeners in soil samples using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total PCBs levels in the soil samples ranged from 6.2 to 108460.6 μg kg(-1). Moreover, when we analyzed the results of the congeners (non-dioxin-like PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs), the levels of non-dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 5.7 to 103469 μg kg(-1) and the levels of dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 0.5 to 4992 μg kg(-1). Considering that soil is an important pathway of exposure in humans, analysis of PCBs levels in blood (as a biomarker of exposure) is necessary in individuals living in Alpuyeca, Morelos. PMID:24967557

  4. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY-PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN BLOOD ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pesticides and PCBs in Blood data set contains analytical results for measurements of up to 11 pesticides and up to 36 PCBs in 86 blood samples over 86 households. Each sample was collected as a venous sample from the primary respondent within each household. The samples co...

  5. SULFATE RADICAL-BASED FERROUS-PEROXYMONOSULFATE OXIDATIVE SYSTEM FOR PCBs DEGRADATION IN AQUEOUS AND SEDIMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment pose long-term risk to public health because of their persistent and toxic nature. This study investigates the degradation of PCBs using sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes (SR-AOPs). These processes are based o...

  6. A Research Study to Investigate PCBs in School Buildings: Final Research Plan. EPA 600/R-10/074

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemicals that were manufactured in the United States between about 1930 and 1977 for use in various industrial and commercial applications because of their nonflammability, chemical stability, high boiling point, and electrical insulation properties (ATSDR, 2000). PCBs were used in numerous products…

  7. A temporal comparison of PBDEs, OH-PBDEs, PCBs, and OH-PCBs in the serum of second trimester pregnant women recruited from San Francisco General Hospital, California

    PubMed Central

    Zota, Ami R.; Linderholm, Linda; Park, June-Soo; Petreas, Myrto; Guo, Tan; Privalsky, Martin L.; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) can harm neurodevelopment in humans and animals. In 2003–2004, PentaBDE and OctaBDE were banned in California and phased-out of US production; resulting impacts on human exposures are unknown. We previously reported that median serum concentrations of PBDEs and their metabolites (OH-PBDEs) among second trimester pregnant women recruited from San Francisco General Hospital (2008–2009; n=25) were the highest among pregnant women worldwide. We recruited another cohort from the same clinic in 2011–2012 (n=36) and now compare serum concentrations of PBDEs, OH-PBDEs, polychlorinated biphenyl ethers (PCBs) (structurally similar compounds banned in 1979), and OH-PCBs between two demographically similar cohorts. Between 2008–2009 and 2011–2012, adjusted least square geometric mean (LSGM) concentrations of ΣPBDEs decreased 65% (95% CI: 18, 130) from 90.0 ng/g lipid (95% CI: 64.7,125.2) to 54.6 ng/g lipid (95% CI: 39.2, 76.2) (p=0.004); Σ OH-PBDEs decreased six-fold (p<0.0001); and BDE-47, -99, and -100 declined more than BDE-153. There was a modest, non-significant (p=0.13) decline in LSGM concentrations of ΣPCBs and minimal differences in ΣOH-PCBs between 2008–2009 and 2011–2012. PBDE exposures are likely declining due to regulatory action, but the relative stability in PCB exposures suggests PBDE exposures may eventually plateau and persist for decades. PMID:24066858

  8. A worldwide survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and related contaminants in butter.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jana; Päpke, Olaf; Bergman, Ake

    2005-12-01

    The main source of human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is, in general, food. In this study, 64 butter samples from 37 countries were analyzed to assess the global contamination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) together with its major metabolites. The objectives of the study were to assess the presence of major organohalogen contaminants in butter, to trace geographical differences, and to determine toxic equivalents (TEQs) of PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in butter. The highest PCDD/F concentrations were found in butter from Korea with an average of 1.4 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid weight (l.w.). from PCDD/F and an additional contribution from the non- and mono-ortho-PCBs of 0.55 pg TEQ g(-1) l.w. Belgian butter showed average levels of 0.53 and 1.2 pg TEQ g(-1) l.w. for PCDDs/Fs and PCBs, respectively, but one sample of Belgium butter had a total TEQ level as high as 4.0 pg TEQ g(-1) l.w. Three out of five butter samples from Portugal showed similarly high PCDD/F TEQ levels. The sigmaPCB levels in European butter appeared to be somewhat higher than in the samples from the rest of the world. The average contribution of CB-153 to the total PCB concentration was 22% (SD 6.4, coefficient of variation 29%). Generally, the PCBs contributed around 60% of the total TEQ value, with CB-126 contributing approximately half of this value. This shows the important TEQ contribution from dioxinlike PCBs to the total TEQs. The highest HCB levels were found in butter samples from Russia, Ukraine, Belgium, and Slovenia. Low levels of HCB in butter were generally found in the Southern Hemisphere. Butter samples from countries from Eastern Europe had elevated sigmaDDT concentrations, with a particularly high concentration in Ukraine butter, followed by some Russian samples, Brazil, and the U.S. PMID:16521833

  9. Implications of Fe/Pd Bimetallic Nanoparticles Immobilized on Adsorptive Activated Carbon for the Remediation of Groundwater and Sediment Contaminated with PCBs

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to respond to the current limitations and challenges in remediating groundwater and sediment contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we have recently developed a new strategy, integration of the physical adsorption of PCBs with their electrochemical dechlori...

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls removal from weathered municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by collector-assisted column flotation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Takaoka, Masaki; Takeda, Nobuo; Oshita, Kazuyuki

    2003-06-27

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are highly toxic micropollutants emitted from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), in particular, concentrated in the unburned carbon (UC) of MSWI fly ash. Because of concerns over their adverse health effects, a number of countries have classified MSWI fly ash as hazardous material and required further treatment before its final disposal in landfills. The technologies for removing the toxic chlorinated micropollutants in the MSWI fly ash have been studied, however, until now no mature technique has been obtained in this purpose. In this research, we used a technique of collector-assisted column flotation to remove PCBs-enriched UC from MSWI fly ash. We found that 36.9% PCBs could be removed from fresh MSWI fly ash with 61.7% UC removal efficiency, whereas only 21.7% PCBs could be removed from weathered MSWI fly ash with a low UC removal efficiency of 33.7%. By adding a mixture of two kinds of surfactants: sorbitan mono-oleate and polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan mono-oleate to the weathered fly ash slurry as the collector assistant, 39.3% PCBs was removed at the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) value of 13.5, while the UC removal efficiency increased to 49.0%. The results showed that the collector assistant could enhance PCBs and UC removal efficiencies during the column flotation process, and the mechanism has been discussed in detail. Higher PCBs and UC removal efficiencies could be expected by further optimizing the conditions of collector-assisted column flotation. PMID:12835027

  11. Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena; Barone, Grazia; Giacominelli-Stuffler, Roberto; Marcotrigiano, Giuseppe Onofrio

    2012-09-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including dioxin-like PCBs (non-ortho, PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169 and mono-ortho, PCB 105, PCB 118, and PCB 156) were measured in different organs and tissues (melon, blubber, liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea). The mean highest levels were in blubber and melon, followed by liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue. PCB profiles were similar in all tissues and organs being dominated by the higher chlorinated homologues (hexa-CBs, 55.8-62.1%; penta-CBs, 15.4-20.0%; and hepta-CB PCB 180, 12.7-16.5%). Major PCBs in all tissues were congeners 138 and 153 collectively accounting for 50.6-58.3% of the total PCB concentrations, followed by PCB 101, 105, 118, and 180 constituting from 27.0% to 31.0%. PCB levels were higher in adult males than in adult females. The estimated 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs were much higher than the threshold level above which adverse effects have been observed in other marine mammals species, suggesting that striped dolphins in this region are at risk for toxic effects. PMID:21960363

  12. DISTRIBUTION OF DIOXINS, FURANS, AND COPLANAR PCBS IN DIFFERENT FAT MATRICES IN CATTLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) recently collaborated on a statistically-based, national survey of dioxin-like compounds, including dioxins, furans, and coplanar PCBs, in the back fat from slaughtered ...

  13. Trophic Magnification of PCBs and Its Relationship to the Octanol−Water Partition Coefficient

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation relative to octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) and organism trophic position (TP) at the Lake Hartwell Superfund (South Carolina, USA). We measured PCBs (127 congeners) and stable isotopes (δ15...

  14. PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere: determining important driving forces using a global atmospheric transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, C. L.; Selin, N. E.

    2015-11-01

    We present a spatially and temporally resolved global atmospheric PCB model, driven by meteorological data, that is skilled at simulating mean atmospheric PCB concentrations and seasonal cycles in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and mean Arctic concentrations. However, the model does not capture the observed Arctic summer maximum in atmospheric PCBs. We use the model to estimate global budgets for the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 7 PCBs, and demonstrate that congeners that deposit more readily show lower potential for long-range transport, consistent with a recently-described "differential removal hypothesis" regarding the hemispheric transport of PCBs. Using sensitivity simulations to assess processes within, outside, or transport to the Arctic, we examine the influence of climate- and emissions-driven processes on Arctic concentrations and their effect on improving the simulated Arctic seasonal cycle. We find evidence that processes occurring outside the Arctic have a greater influence on Arctic atmospheric PCB levels than processes that occur within the Arctic. Our simulations suggest that re-emissions from sea ice melting or from the Arctic Ocean during summer would have to be unrealistically high in order to capture observed temporal trends of PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere. We conclude that mid-latitude processes are likely to have a greater effect on the Arctic under global change scenarios than re-emissions within the Arctic.

  15. 75 FR 82007 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; PCBs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... are persons who currently possess polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) items, PCB-contaminated equipment, or other PCB waste. Title: PCBs, Consolidated Reporting and Record Keeping Requirements. ICR numbers: EPA... PCB regulations. The information collected by these requirements will update the Agency's knowledge...

  16. PCBS: CANCER DOSE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENT AND APPLICATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL MIXTURES (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cancer dose-response assessment is developed for PCBS, considering toxicity, disposition, and environmental processes to evaluate human cancer risk. ow-dose linear models are applied to animal cancer studies of commercial mixtures to develop a range of potency estimates, then i...

  17. The Use of Enhanced Bioremediation at the Savannah River Site to Remediate Pesticides and PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    Beul, R.

    2003-09-30

    Enhanced bioremediation is quickly developing into an economical and viable technology for the remediation of contaminated soils. Until recently, chlorinated organic compounds have proven difficult to bioremediate. This article reviews the ongoing remediation occurring at the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits using windrow turners to facilitate microbial degradation of certain pesticides and PCBs.

  18. A toxic equivalency factor scale for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in chicken hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Tysklind, M.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Sinnige, T.; Berg, M. van den

    1995-12-31

    The relative potencies of 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied in a chicken embryo hepatocyte system. The 20 congeners were selected according to a full 2{sup 4}-factorial design based on the principal properties of all 154 tetra- through heptachlorinated PCBs. The principal properties were obtained using principal component analysis (PCA) on a multitude of different physico-chemical properties of the PCBs. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) were determined for seven out of the twenty PCB congeners, viz. PCB{number_sign}41, PCB{number_sign}60, PCB{number_sign}78, PCB{number_sign}126, PCB{number_sign}169, PCB{number_sign}190, and PCB{number_sign}193, which elicit measurable catalytic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in the chicken hepatocytes. A multivariate quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) was developed by using partial least-squares to latent variables (PLS) in order to model the relationship between the set of physico-chemical descriptors of the PCBs and their TEF-values. The model showed good correlations between observed and predicted TEF-values for this training set of congeners. From the QSAR, TEF-values were predicted for a large number PCB congeners not yet tested regarding EROD activity in chicken hepatocytes. The predicted TEF-values were validated by TEF-values reported in the literature.

  19. Laboratory study of PCBs transport from primary sources to building materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber servin...

  20. Laboratory study of the PCBs transport from primary sources to building materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber servin...

  1. Environmental PCBs in Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico: implications for community health.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naresh; Ramirez-Ortiz, Daisy; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Treaster, Joseph B; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Toborek, Michal; Deo, Sapna; Klaus, Jim; Bachas, Leonidas G; Whitall, David; Daunert, Sylvia; Szapocznik, Jose

    2016-02-01

    Guánica Bay, located in southwestern Puerto Rico, has suffered oil spills and other pollution discharges since the 1960s. Previous research showed elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coral reef and sediment. This research examined PCB concentrations in sediment and fish. Sediment and fish sampling in the bay was facilitated by community members. This study identified the second highest reported PCB level (129,300 ng/g) in sediment in the USA. Fish samples also showed elevated concentrations (1623 to 3768 ng/g), which were higher than the thresholds of safe levels of PCBs in fish for human consumption. The alarmingly high concentration of PCBs calls for proactive community engagement to bring awareness about contamination of the bay and more extensive sampling to test for the concentration of PCBs in seafood and the people of Guánica. This study also underscores the value of the involvement of local communities during sampling design aimed at identifying hot spots of contaminants. PMID:26122576

  2. SINGLE-LABORATORY EVALUATION OF METHOD 8080 -ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND PCBS (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design, execution and results of the improvement and single-laboratory evaluation of SW-846 Method 8080, 'Organochlorine Pesticides and PCBs', are described. In the study, the application of the method to the analysis of aqueous and solid samples for organochlorine pesticides...

  3. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS). (R826694C633)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments with commercial askarals (Aroclors 1221, 1248 and 1254) have confirmed the feasibility of catalytic steam reforming as a method for destroying polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Rhodium, platinum and nickel supported on Spatial distribution and source apportionment of PCBs in sediments around İzmit industrial complexes, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gedik, Kadir; Demircioğlu, Filiz; Imamoğlu, Ipek

    2010-11-01

    The spatial distribution, degree of pollution and major sources of PCBs were evaluated in surficial sediments within the heavily urbanized and industrialized İzmit Bay and its main freshwater inputs. ΣPCB concentrations range from 2.90 to 85.4ngg(-1) in marine sediments and from ND to 47.7ngg(-1) in freshwater sediments. Results suggest that high concentrations of ΣPCBs were localized around a chlor-alkali plant and an industry that handles bulk liquid, dry and drummed chemicals, and petroleum products in the Bay. Using a chemical mass balance receptor model (CMB), major sources of PCBs in the region were investigated. The CMB model identified Aroclor 1254 and 1260 to be the major PCB sources in marine sediments and the less chlorinated Aroclor 1248 and 1242 as the major PCB sources in freshwater sediments. The potential sources for the PCBs were briefly discussed in terms of their use in various industrial applications. PMID:20889182

  4. PCBS IN LAKE HARTWELL, SC, HEADWATERS OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination due to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) was discovered in the mid-1970s in the fish and sediments of Lake Hartwell, a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers reservoir on the border of South Carolina and Georgia that was formed from the Seneca and Tugaloo Rivers. Research by...

  5. Transformation of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a stream food web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dang, V.D.; Walters, D.M.; Lee, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The enantiomeric composition of chiral PCB congeners was determined in Twelvemile Creek (Clemson, SC) to examine potential mechanisms of biotransformation in a stream food web. We measured enantiomeric fractions (EFs) of six PCB atropisomers (PCBs 84, 91, 95, 136, 149, and 174) in surface sediment, fine benthic organic matter (FBOM), coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM), periphyton, Asian clam, mayflies, yellowfin shiner, and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using gas chromatography (GC-ECD). Nonracemic EFs of PCBs 91, 95, 136, and 149 were measured in almost all samples. Enantiomeric compositions of PCBs 84 and 174 were infrequently detected with racemic EFs measured in samples except for a nonracemic EF of PCB 84 in clams. Nonracemic EFs of PCBs 91, 136, and 149 in SPMDs may be due to desorption of nonracemic residues from FBOM. EFs for some atropisomers were significantly different among FBOM, CPOM, and periphyton, suggesting that their microbial communities have different biotransformation processes. Nonracemic EFs in clams and fish suggest both in vivo biotransformation and uptake of nonracemic residues from their food sources. Longitudinal variability in EFs was generally low among congeners observed in matrices. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  6. MASS BALANCE MODELLING OF PCBS IN THE FOX RIVER/GREEN BAY COMPLEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Office of Research and Development developed and applies a multimedia, mass balance modeling approach to the Fox River/Green Bay complex to aid managers with remedial decision-making. The suite of models were applied to PCBs due to the long history of contamination and ...

  7. Effects of Feeding and Organism Loading Rate on the Bioaccumulation of PCBs in Oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the aquatic world, most environmental contaminants like PCBs eventually accumulate in the sediments.Thus sediment-associated contamination can introduce significant level of contaminants into the food chain. The oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, was approved as one o...

  8. Inventory of PCBs in Chicago and Opportunities for Reduction in Airborne Emissions and Human Exposure.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Caitlin E; Spak, Scott N; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2015-12-01

    Urban areas are important regional sources of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and population-scale airborne exposure, yet a comprehensive bottom-up source inventory of PCB emissions has never been quantified at urban scales in the United States. Here we report a comprehensive parcel level inventory of PCB stocks and emissions for Chicago, Illinois, developed with a transferable method from publicly available data. Chicago's legacy stocks hold 276 ± 147 tonnes ∑PCBs, with 0.2 tonnes added annually. Transformers and building sealants represent the largest legacy categories at 250 and 20 tonnes, respectively. From these stocks, annual emissions rates of 203 kg for ∑PCBs and 3 kg for PCB 11 explain observed concentrations in Chicago air. Sewage sludge drying contributes 25% to emissions, soils 31%, and transformers 21%. Known contaminated sites account for <1% of stocks and 17% of emissions to air. Paint is responsible for 0.00001% of stocks but up to 7% of ∑PCBs emissions. Stocks and emissions are highly concentrated and not correlated with population density or demographics at the neighborhood scale. Results suggest that strategies to further reduce exposure and ecosystem deposition must focus on the largest emissions sources rather than the most contaminated sites or the largest closed source legacy stocks. PMID:26440379

  9. Distribution of OCPs and PCBs in Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Marmara Sea Coastal Sites.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Şafak; Özden, Özkan; Päpke, Olaf

    2016-08-01

    Mussel samples were collected monthly between October-2010 and October-2011 from four stations (Bosphorus, Bandırma, Gelibolu, Tekirdağ) in the Marmara Sea. Two consecutive months' samples were homogenized and combined as a single group for analysis. Mussel samples were analyzed for Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); (total-DDT, total-HCH, Endrin, α-Endosulfan, β-Endosulfan, Heptachlor) and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); (PCB 28, PCB 52, PCB 138, PCB 153, and PCB 180). All analyses were done according to Eurofins house method in ERGO Laboratory in Germany. Concentrations of α-endosulfan and heptachlor in mussel tissues were below method detection limits. The annual average OCPs concentrations among the stations ranged between 0.02 and 1.45 ng/g (wet weight), 1.9-99.75 ng/g (lipid weight) whereas the annual average PCBs concentrations among the stations ranged between 0.03 and 0.40 ng/g (wet weight), 1.71-26.48 ng/g (lipid weight), respectively. There was no relation between fat content of mussels and residues of the contaminants. PCB 138 and PCB 153 were the most predominant PCBs, while total-DDT and total-HCH were the most predominant OCPs in the mussels. Total-DDT concentrations were higher compared to total-HCH and PCBs isomers. Measured levels were below the national and international committees' and institutions' limits for human consumption and protection of aquatic biota. PMID:27329111

  10. PCBs in the Last Frontier: A Case Study on the Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessmer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are compounds that were once used as insulators in electrical transmission lines and in the production of polymers. Each PCB differs by the quantity and location of the chlorine atoms. PCB production was halted in 1977 due to their potential toxicity, but the chemicals are still found in the environment due to…

  11. PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in wild mink and river otters from Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Gregory, S.V.; Stafford, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lutra canadensis) collected during the 1978-1979 trapping season in Oregon were analyzed for organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues. PCB residues were most frequently encountered in both species from the Lower Columbia River. PCB residues in 6 of 9 Columbia River mink livers were as high as those reported in livers of experimental female mink that experienced total reproductive failure after eating a PCB-contaminated diet of 0.64 ppm for 160 days. Also, some fish from the Columbia River contained PCBs (range 0.24-2.8 ppm) equivalent to or higher than the dietary dosage given in the same laboratory study. River otter livers from the same area contained even higher levels of PCBs [(M) geometric mean 9.3 ppm, (F) geometric mean 3.5 ppm], but the relative sensitivity of the 2 species to these contaminants is unknown. The river otter harvest along the Lower Columbia River has declined in the last 3 decades, whereas the statewide harvest trend is upward. PCBs were generally low or not detected in the remainder of the Oregon locations studied. Lower Columbia River collections also showed the highest organochlorine pesticides (mainly DDE) in both species. We are less concerned about the DDE residues reported, particularly in mink, because mink are less sensitive to DDT than to PCBs. Population declines of both mink and otters resulting from PCB contamination may have occurred, and may still be occurring, along the Lower Columbia River.

  12. ENHANCED CORRISION-BASED PD/MG BIMETALLIC SYSTEMS FOR DECHLORINATION OF PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic pollutants notorious for their aquatic and sedimentary prevalence and recalcitrant nature. Bimetallic systems like Pd/Fe have been widely studied for degrading them. Mg, with oxidation potential higher than Fe, has been reported to dechl...

  13. PCBS AND OTHER CHLORINATED ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN TISSUES OF JUVENILE KEMP'S RIDLEY TURTLES (LEPIDOCHELYS KEMPI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and chlorinated pesticides were measured in liver and body fat samples of juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempi). hese turtles were killed in the fall or early winter by rapid seasonal temperature drops and were ...

  14. LAND TREATMENT OF MILWAUKEE HARBOR SEDIMENTS CONTAMINATED WITH PAHS AND PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediments dredged in the maintenance of navigation channels often contain concentrations of PCBs and PAHs that necessitate placement in confined disposal facilities (CDFs). For the Great Lakes especially, the majority of CDFs were constructed in the 1970s or early 1980s and have ...

  15. Solid state dehalogenation of PCBs in contaminated soil using NaBH{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Aresta, M.; Caramuscio, P.; De Stefano, L.; Pastore, T

    2003-07-01

    In this work we present the results of an experimental study on the abatement of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) in contaminated soil using a high energy milling technique, that promotes a reaction only by impact between milling bodies. A sample of soil from a controlled landfill was treated with powdered NaBH{sub 4} using two different hydride/soil ratios (5 and 2.5% w/w). The efficiency of the dehalogenation/hydrogenation reaction was studied as a function of the milling time (3.5 up to 30 h). After each run, the total PCBs content and the production of inorganic chloride were measured. The complete abatement was obtained with a starting PCBs concentration of about 2600 mg/kg. The residual PCBs concentration resulted to be <0.2 mg/kg. The final products of the treatment were biphenyl and NaCl. Other toxic or hazardous organic by-products were not generated. Boron was found as boric acid.

  16. Solid state dehalogenation of PCBs in contaminated soil using NaBH4.

    PubMed

    Aresta, M; Caramuscio, P; De Stefano, L; Pastore, T

    2003-01-01

    In this work we present the results of an experimental study on the abatement of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) in contaminated soil using a high energy milling technique, that promotes a reaction only by impact between milling bodies. A sample of soil from a controlled landfill was treated with powdered NaBH(4) using two different hydride/soil ratios (5 and 2.5% w/w). The efficiency of the dehalogenation/hydrogenation reaction was studied as a function of the milling time (3.5 up to 30 h). After each run, the total PCBs content and the production of inorganic chloride were measured. The complete abatement was obtained with a starting PCBs concentration of about 2600 mg/kg. The residual PCBs concentration resulted to be <0.2 mg/kg. The final products of the treatment were biphenyl and NaCl. Other toxic or hazardous organic by-products were not generated. Boron was found as boric acid. PMID:12781219

  17. COMPARING ENVIRONMENTALLY RELEVANT PCBS TO TCDD IN CYP1A2 NULL AND WILDTYPE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory


    The role of CYP1A2 on the interactions of TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, dioxin), dioxin-like (DL) and non-dioxin-like (NDL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was compared in multiple responses of different laboratory-defined mixtures, based on mass ratios found in...

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residues in milk from an agroindustrial zone of Tuxpan, Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pérez, J Jesús; León, Salvador Vega Y; Gutiérrez, Rey; López, Yanet; Faure, Roberto; Escobar, Arturo

    2012-10-01

    The coasts of the Gulf of Mexico are zones exposed to the exploration and exploitation of petroleum sources, and the products generated in agricultural zones may become contaminated by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence of polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) in milk from dairy production units near sources of environmental pollutants. It was confirmed that the seven congeners of nondioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) are present in milk where compounds PCB101, PCB118, PCB153 and PCB180 appear in 100% of the samples analyzed, the rank of concentration for the sum of the seven congeners fluctuating between 2.6 and 26 ng g(-1) with a median of 6 ng g(-1). None of the samples surpassed the provisional value established by the EU of 40 ng g(-1) of milk fat for the sum of the seven congeners, indicator that was not affected by the season of the year (p<0.05), whose median of 8.6 ng g(-1) and 6.3 ng g(-1) for rain and drought respectively. The concentrations of NDL-PCBs found in milk do not represent a problem for human health; however, they alert the existence of spontaneously generated, uncontrolled sources that may represent a potential danger for human and animal health. PMID:22739542

  19. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Fish Tissue in U.S. Fresh Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    As of 2015 the U.S. EPA has conducted probabilistic, nationally-representative assessments of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish tissue in U.S. lakes (2000-2003), twice in rivers 5th order and greater (2008-2009 and 2013-2014) as part of National Rivers and Streams Assessme...

  1. FOODWEB MODELING FOR PCBS IN THE TWELVEMILE CREEK ARM OF LAKE HARTWELL, GA/SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA is conducting a series of studies on the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, SC, to examine the pollution of the Twelvemile Creek arm of Lake Hartwell by PCBs that were released from the site until the early 1990s. Monitoring data have shown that while PCB c...

  2. A METHOD FOR THE SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed for the sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air. An easily constructed, high-volume sampling system is employed with porous polyurethane foam as the collection medium. The sample is collected at the rate of 0.6 to 1.0 cu m per minut...

  3. GREAT LAKES ECOSYSTEM - MODELING OF THE FATE OF PCBS (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report defines the Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) problem in the Great Lakes, describes how they got there, describes models of: (1) physical/chemical fate generally; and, (2) specifically, fate of PCBs in aquatic ecosystems. Theory, data and model results are given. Also add...

  4. BASE-CATALYZED DESTRUCTION OF PCBS-NEW DONORS, NEW TRANSFER AGENTS/CATALYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of hydrogen transfer agents and catalysts to improve the base-catalyzed decomposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated. The reaction proceeded only in the presence of base, but the rate of PCB disappearance increased with increasing amount of hydrogen ...

  5. DESTRUCTION OF PAHS AND PCBS IN WATER USING SULFATE RADICAL-BASED CATALYTIC ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new class of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) based on sulfate radicals is being tested for the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aqueous solution. These AOPs are based on the generation of sulfate radicals through...

  6. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of soil PCBs in crickets: Comparison of laboratory and field studies

    SciTech Connect

    Paine, J.M.; McKee, M.J.; Ryan, M.E. . Cooperative Wildlife Research Lab. and Dept. of Zoology)

    1993-11-01

    Laboratory and field studies were used to investigate toxicity and bioaccumulation of PCBs in crickets exposed to contaminated soil. A 14-d laboratory soil bioassay with the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) yielded an LC50 of 1,200 ppm Aroclor 1254. Mean whole-body concentrations of Aroclor 1254 in exposed crickets were 11, 48, 92, 149, and 144 ppm for soil test concentrations of 100, 250, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 ppm, respectively. A whole-body concentration of about 150 ppm appears to be a threshold concentration above which acute mortality will be observed. House crickets placed in cages on a PCB-contaminated landfill accumulated 1.6 and 0.9 ppm of PCBs after 3 and 7 d of exposure, respectively. Although this represents a rapid uptake of PCBs, whole-body concentrations remained considerably below levels expected to cause acute mortality. Abundance of another species, the field cricket (Gryllus pennsylvanicus), was investigated using pitfall traps placed at the PCB-contaminated landfill and a reference site. No adverse effect on abundance was observed at the contaminated site, nor was pitfall trap success correlated to soil PCB concentration. These data indicate that PCBs in soil can rapidly move into epigeic fauna but that the likelihood of acquiring sufficient body burdens to cause acute mortality is low.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the British environment: sinks, sources and temporal trends.

    PubMed

    Harrad, S J; Sewart, A P; Alcock, R; Boumphrey, R; Burnett, V; Duarte-Davidson, R; Halsall, C; Sanders, G; Waterhouse, K; Wild, S R; Jones, K C

    1994-01-01

    This paper estimates the present UK environmental loading of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Of the estimated approximately 40,000 t SigmaPCB sold in the UK since 1954, only an estimated 1% (400 t) are now present in the UK environment. Comparisons of estimated production and current environmental loadings of congeners 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180 suggest that PCB persistence broadly increases with increasing chlorination. Those PCBs that are not now present in the UK environment are considered to have been destroyed--by natural or anthropogenic mechanisms, to be still in use, to reside in landfills or to have undergone atmospheric and/or pelagic transport from the UK. The dramatic fall in PCB levels in archived UK soils and vegetation between the mid-1960s and the present is evidence that the latter mechanism is the most important and that a significant proportion of PCBs released into the UK environment in the 1960s have subsequently undergone environmental transport away from the UK. The bulk (93.1%) of the estimated contemporary UK environmental burden of SigmaPCBs is associated with soils, with the rest found in seawater (3.5%) and marine sediments (2.1%). Freshwater sediments, vegetation, humans and sewage sludge combined account for 1.4% of the present burden, whilst PCB loadings in air and freshwater are insignificant. Although consideration of individual congeners does not reveal any major deviations from the relative partitioning of Sigma PCBs, the importance of sinks other than soils is enhanced for individual congeners, particularly 138 and 180. In particular, around 2% of the total UK burden of congener 180 is present in humans, implying that biodata as a whole may constitute an important sink for the higher chlorinated congeners. The contemporary flux of SigmaPCBs to the UK surface is estimated at 19 t yr(-1), compared with an estimated annual flux to the atmosphere of 44-46 t. This implies that the major sources of PCBs to the UK atmosphere have

  8. The Ability of AMSTAR Dechlorination Solution to Remove and Degrade PCBs from Contaminated Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline E.

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of synthetic aromatic compounds with the general formula C12H(10-x)Cl(-x) that were historically used in industrial paints, caulking material and adhesives, as their properties enhanced structural integrity, reduced flammability and boosted antifungal properties. Although the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has banned the manufacture of PCBs since 1979, they have been found in at least 500 of the 1,598 National Priorities List (Superfund) sites identified by the USEPA. Prior to the US EPA's ban on PCB production, PCBs were commonly used as additives in paints and asphalt-based adhesives that were subsequently applied to a variety of structures. Government facilities constructed as early as 1930 utilized PCB-containing binders or PCB-containing paints, which are now leaching into the environment and posing ecological and worker health concerns. In 2006, a commercially available product known as AMSTAR Dechlorination Solution was tested at NASA's Kennedy Space Center for its ability to remove and degrade PCBs from structural materials. This evaluation was requested by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) evaluating the ability of NASA's Bimetallic Treatment System (BTS) to remove and degrade PCBs from structural materials. The results of the laboratory testing are to be used to determine if a side-by-side field-scale test comparing BTS to AMSTAR was warranted. A recommended sampling and analysis testing program was submitted to ESTCP that included triplicate screening of AMSTAR's PCB dechlorination capabilities on a variety of surfaces including glass, bare metal, and painted metal coupons. The test procedures, analytical techniques and results obtained are presented in this interim report to ESTCP.

  9. Effects of Standard Humic Materials on Relative Bioavailability of NDL-PCBs in Juvenile Swine

    PubMed Central

    Delannoy, Matthieu; Schwarz, Jessica; Fournier, Agnès; Rychen, Guido; Feidt, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    Young children with their hand-to-mouth activity may be exposed to contaminated soils. However few studies assessing exposure of organic compounds sequestrated in soil were realized. The present study explores the impact of different organic matters on retention of NDL-PCBs during digestive processes using commercial humic substances in a close digestive model of children: the piglet. Six artificial soils were used. One standard soil, devoid of organic matter, and five amended versions of this standard soil with either fulvic acid, humic acid, Sphagnum peat, activated carbon or a mix of Sphagnum peat and activated carbon (95∶5) (SPAC) were prepared. In order to compare the different treatments, we use spiked oil and negative control animals. Forty male piglets were randomly distributed in 7 contaminated and one control groups (n  = 5 for each group). During 10 days, the piglets were fed artificial soil or a corn oil spiked with 19 200 ng of Aroclor 1254 per g of dry matter (6 000 ng.g−1 of NDL-PCBs) to achieve an exposure dose of 1 200 ng NDL-PCBs.Kg−1 of body weight per day. NDL-PCBs in adipose tissue were analyzed by GC-MS. Fulvic acid reduced slightly the bioavailability of NDL-PCBs compared to oil. Humic acid and Sphagnum peat reduced it significantly higher whereas activated carbon reduced the most. Piglets exposed to soil containing both activated carbon and Shagnum peat exhibited a lower reduction than soil with only activated carbon. Therefore, treatment groups are ordered by decreasing value of relative bioavailability as following: oil ≥ fulvic acid>Sphagnum peat ≥ Sphagnum peat and activated carbon ≥ Humic acid>>activated carbon. This suggests competition between Sphagnum peat and activated carbon. The present study highlights that quality of organic matter does have a significant effect on bioavailability of sequestrated organic compounds. PMID:25549096

  10. Relationship between carbonaceous materials and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the sediments of the Danshui River and adjacent coastal areas, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Jiann, Kuo-Tung; Yeager, Kevin M; Santschi, Peter H; Wade, Terry L; Sericano, Jose L; Hsieh, Hwey-Lian

    2006-11-01

    Persistent organic pollutants, POPs (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls) can seriously and deleteriously affect environmental quality and human health. These organic pollutants are exhibiting high affinities to solid phases and thus, quickly end up in sediments. To better understand the role of carbonaceous materials in the transport and distributions of POPs in terrestrial and near-shore environments, concentrations of PCBs and carbonaceous materials (including total organic carbon, black carbon and total carbohydrates), were determined in surface sediments of the Danshui River and nearby coastal areas, Taiwan. Total concentrations of PCBs in the sediments ranged from non-detectable to 83.9 ngg(-1), dry weight, with the maximum value detected near the discharge point of the marine outfall from the Pali Sewage Treatment Plant. These results suggest that the sewage treatment plant has discharged PCBs in the past and the concentrations are still high due to their persistence; alternatively, PCBs are still being discharged in the estuarine and near-shore environment of the Danshui River. Organic carbon and black carbon concentrations correlated well with those of total PCBs in the sediments, suggesting that both organic carbon and black carbon significantly affect the distribution of trace organic pollutants through either post-depositional adsorption, or by co-transport of similar source materials. The field results demonstrate that black carbon and plays an important role in the general distribution of PCBs, while concentrations of some specific PCBs are affected by both black carbon and organic carbon concentrations. PMID:16757014

  11. Association of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with live algae and total lipids in rivers - A field-based approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzgerald, S.A.; Steuer, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    The association of PCBs and live algal cells in rivers was studied at four locations during four seasons in two Wisconsin rivers. Positive relations between particle-associated PCBs and both chlorophyll-a and algal carbon concentrations indicated that live algal cells were a significant sorption phase for dissolved PCBs. Large Pennate diatoms (Navicula, Synedra, Pinnularia, Diatoma, and Cocconeis), or more rarely, Euglenoids (Trachelomonas sp.), dominated most sample assemblages on an algal carbon basis. These assemblages made up the highest percentage of total SOC during spring (average=50%) and lowest during summer (average=15%). At the three impounded sites, most individual PCB congeners were relatively enriched in samples characterized by: (1) high concentrations of algal carbon (as a percent of SOC), (2) algal assemblages dominated (or co-dominated) by Euglenoids, and (3) high concentrations of total lipids. Despite relatively higher masses of sorbed PCBs in the most lipid-rich samples, there was no robust correlation between total lipid content and particle-associated PCBs when aggregating all samples from the study. A possible explanation is that PCBs are associated with other structural components in live algae and (or) departure from chemical equilibrium in the river due to algal growth kinetics. A kinetic uptake model was used to calculate the mass of PCBs associated with the total organic carbon content of live algae. Based on this model, PCBs were enriched in algal cells during bloom seasons (spring and fall) compared to non-bloom seasons (summer and winter). Further, although individual PCB congener partition coefficients (log) to live algal cells (range=5.3-6.4) overlapped to those for detritus (range=3.6-7.4), PCBs tended to be enriched in detrital carbon pools during non-bloom conditions. The larger range of estimated PCB partition coefficients for detritus likely reflects the more heterogeneous nature of this material compared to live algal cells.

  12. Subtask 1.20 - Development of Methods to Determine the Environmental Availability of PAHs, PCBs, and Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Hawthorne

    2007-06-30

    Three methods to determine the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were modified and developed for application to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Water/XAD desorption and selective supercritical fluid extraction methods were developed to determine the rapidly-released fraction of PCBs from contaminated soils and sediments. A method to determine PCBs in sediment pore water based on solid-phase microextraction was also developed that is capable of determining low pg/mL concentrations with water samples as small as 1.5 mL.

  13. Fertilization of eggs of Lake Michigan lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in lake water: Effect of PCBs (Aroclor 1254)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, N.R.; Berlin, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Various studies indicate that PCBs appear to have an adverse effect on the viability of fertilized eggs and subsequent early life stages of lake trout and related species. Our tests detected no impairment of fertilization of lake trout eggs in PCB-dosed lake water. The concentration of PCBs in the fertilization medium that we used was more than 20 times as high as estimated ambient levels in southeastern Lake Michigan and it appears unlikley that ambient levels of PCBs in the water at fertilization would contribute significantly to the apparent widespread reproductive failure of lake trout there.

  14. Occurrence of NDL-PCBs, DL-PCBs, PCDD/Fs, lead and cadmium in feed and in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farmed in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Teresa; Fasano, Evelina; Esposito, Francesco; Amorena, Michele; Amodio Cocchieri, Renata

    2014-01-01

    The safety of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is correlated with the quality of the production process. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and furans - PCDD/Fs), and heavy metals such as lead and cadmium were investigated because they can represent a risk for the consumer. The levels of these compounds in water, feed and specimens of trout farmed with two different feeds (A and B) were assessed. Their accumulation in muscle of A and B trout was evaluated and their dependence on the levels of feed contamination was considered. The results showed a widespread contamination in feed and in the examined trout, although lower than the European Union limits. For all compounds, concentrations in the farming waters were always < LOQs. Mean concentrations of NDL-PCBs in the A feed were significantly higher than in the B feed, except for PCBs 52 and 28. DL-PCB and PCDD/F concentrations were significantly higher in A feed. Lead and cadmium mean concentrations in A feed were 0.26 ± 0.01 and 0.1013 ± 0.0009 µg g(-1), respectively; and in B feed were 0.10 ± 0.01 and 0.0855 ± 0.0078 µg g(-1), respectively. The results showed that intakes for ∑DL-PCB + ∑PCDD/F ranged from 4.4% to 12% of the TDI, and for Pb and Cd from 1.9% to 2.7% and from 0.3% to 0.4% of the TDI, respectively. PMID:24289454

  15. Analytical methods for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in environmental monitoring and surveillance: a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Sverko, Ed

    2006-01-01

    Analytical methods for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are widely available and are the result of a vast amount of environmental analytical method development and research on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over the past 30–40 years. This review summarizes procedures and examines new approaches for extraction, isolation, identification and quantification of individual congeners/isomers of the PCBs and OCPs. Critical to the successful application of this methodology is the collection, preparation, and storage of samples, as well as specific quality control and reporting criteria, and therefore these are also discussed. With the signing of the Stockholm convention on POPs and the development of global monitoring programs, there is an increased need for laboratories in developing countries to determine PCBs and OCPs. Thus, while this review attempts to summarize the current best practices for analysis of PCBs and OCPs, a major focus is the need for low-cost methods that can be easily implemented in developing countries. A “performance based” process is described whereby individual laboratories can adapt methods best suited to their situations. Access to modern capillary gas chromatography (GC) equipment with either electron capture or low-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) detection to separate and quantify OCP/PCBs is essential. However, screening of samples, especially in areas of known use of OCPs or PCBs, could be accomplished with bioanalytical methods such as specific commercially available enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays and thus this topic is also reviewed. New analytical techniques such two-dimensional GC (2D-GC) and “fast GC” using GC–ECD may be well-suited for broader use in routine PCB/OCP analysis in the near future given their relatively low costs and ability to provide high-resolution separations of PCB/OCPs. Procedures with low environmental impact (SPME, microscale, low

  16. Relationships between PCBs and thyroid hormones and retinol in female and male polar bears.

    PubMed Central

    Braathen, Marte; Derocher, Andrew E; Wiig, Øystein; Sørmo, Eugen G; Lie, Elisabeth; Skaare, Janneche U; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2004-01-01

    We studied the relationships between polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and thyroid hormones (THs) and retinol within two groups of female polar bears (Ursus maritimus), females with cubs of the year (FWCOY) and females without cubs of the year (FWOCOY), and within a group of males. Concentrations of five of the six quantified PCB congeners, i.e., PCB-99, PCB-153, PCB-156, PCB-180, PCB-194 (sigma PCB5), correlated with each other, whereas the concentrations of PCB-118 did not correlate with the other congeners. sigma PCB5 and PCB-118 did not differ between the three different groups of polar bears, and the plasma levels ranged from 16.7 to 203.2 ng/g wet weight (ww) for sigma PCB5 and from 0.09 to 0.93 ng/g ww for PCB-118. PCBs did not affect the retinol status in any of the three groups. In FWCOY, we found negative correlations between sigma PCB5 and the three TH variables free thyroxin (FT4) (r2 = 0.35), free triiodothyronine (FT3) (r2 = 0.30), and the total T4:total T3 ratio (TT4:TT3) (r2 = 0.92). In FWOCOY, sigma PCB5 was negatively correlated to TT4 (r2 = 0.14) and positively correlated to TT3:FT3 (r2 = 0.31), whereas PCB-118 was positively correlated to FT3 (r2 = 0.21) and negatively correlated to TT3:FT3 (r2 = 0.26). In males, sigma PCB5 was negatively correlated to FT3 (r2 = 0.56) and positively correlated to FT4:FT3 (r2 = 0.78), whereas PCB-118 was negatively correlated to FT4:FT3 (r2 = 0.53). Thus, PCBs affected five TH variables in the female polar bears (TT4, FT4, FT3, TT3:FT3, TT4:TT3), but PCBs affected only two TH variables in males (FT3, FT4:FT3). Female polar bears could be more susceptible to TH-related effects of PCBs than are males. PCBs also affected T3 to a larger degree than T4. PMID:15175168

  17. Associations between congenital cryptorchidism in newborn boys and levels of dioxins and PCBs in placenta

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, H E; Koskenniemi, J J; Sundqvist, E; Main, K M; Kiviranta, H; Tuomisto, J T; Tuomisto, J; Viluksela, M; Vartiainen, T; Skakkebaek, N E; Toppari, J

    2012-01-01

    In animal studies, exposure to dioxins has been associated with disrupted development of the male reproductive system, including testicular maldescent. Some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have also dioxin-like effects. In addition, one previous case–control study has reported an association between congenital cryptorchidism and colostrum PCB levels. We performed a case–control study to evaluate whether congenital cryptorchidism in boys was associated with increased levels of dioxins or PCBs in placenta reflecting foetal exposure. In addition, associations between placenta levels of these chemicals and reproductive hormone levels in boys at 3 months were studied. Placentas were collected in a Danish–Finnish joint prospective cohort study on cryptorchidism (1997–2001). The boys were examined for cryptorchidism at birth and at 3 months. Altogether, 280 placentas [112 Finnish (56 cases, 56 controls) and 168 Danish (39 cases, 129 controls)] were analysed for 17 toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and 37 PCBs (including 12 dioxin-like PCBs). Infant serum samples taken at 3 months were analysed for reproductive hormones. No significant differences between cases and controls were observed in either country in dioxin WHO-TEq levels (median 9.78 vs. 8.47 pg/g fat, respectively, in Finland, and 11.75 vs. 10.88 pg/g fat in Denmark) or PCB WHO-TEq levels (median 2.12 vs. 2.15 pg/g fat in Finland, 2.34 vs. 2.10 pg/g fat in Denmark) or total-TEq levels (median 11.66 vs. 10.58 pg/g fat in Finland, 13.94 vs. 13.00 pg/g fat in Denmark). Placenta WHO-TEq levels of dioxins were not associated with infant reproductive hormone levels at 3 months. In Finland, PCB WHO-TEq levels in placenta associated positively with infant LH levels. WHO-TEq levels of dioxins and PCBs and total-TEq levels were higher in Danish than Finnish samples. In conclusion, no association between placenta levels of dioxins or PCBs and congenital cryptorchidism was found

  18. Dioxins and furans in breast milk: a case study of mothers from southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco; Moreira, Maria de Fátima Ramos

    2015-05-01

    A study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) was conducted in a pooled sample of breast milk from 27 primiparous mothers living in 12 locations in the meso-region industrial area of southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between August 2012 and July 2013. Questionnaires with questions regarding food habits, social and economic conditions and places of dwelling were applied. Milk was collected between four and six weeks after delivery from mothers were breast-feeding only one infant. The toxic equivalency (TEQ) of PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs were 10.6, 4.77, 6.96 TEQ pg/g, respectively. The understanding and identification of pollution sources may be helpful for applying better counter measures against breast milk dioxin contamination. It is important for pregnant women to have a diet that is as free as possible from chemical contaminants. Further research must be undertaken in the context of epidemiological investigations to more accurately assess the effects of these compounds. The background contamination by PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs in mothers living at industrial area in Rio de Janeiro is lower than that generally found in industrialized countries. PMID:26083184

  19. AVAILABILITY OF PCBS (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS) AND PAHS (POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS) TO 'MYTILUJ EDULIS' FROM ARTIFICIALLY RESUSPENDED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine sediment containing high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was resuspended into a flowing seawater system. Analysis of the dissolved and particulate phases in the exposure tank indicated a release of some low molecula...

  20. Adsorption And Simultaneous Dechlorination Of PCBs On GAC/Fe/Pd: Mechanistic Aspects And Reactive Capping Barrier Concept

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are many concerns and challenges in current remediation strategies for sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Our efforts have been geared toward the development of granular activated carbon (GAC) impregnated with reactive iron/palladium (Fe/Pd) bime...

  1. 40 CFR 761.185 - Certification program and retention of records by importers and persons generating PCBs in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... information: (i) Theoretical analysis. Manufacturers records must include: the reaction or reactions believed... records must include: the reaction or reactions believed to be generating PCBs and the levels of...

  2. Lipophilicity of PCBs and fatty acids determines their mobilisation from blubber of weaned northern elephant seal pups.

    PubMed

    Louis, Caroline; Covaci, Adrian; Crocker, Daniel E; Debier, Cathy

    2016-01-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exhibit lipophilic properties that lead to their bioaccumulation in adipose tissue. Following PCB exposition, northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) concentrate high amounts of these pollutants in their large adipose tissue stores. During lipolytic periods such as the post-weaning fast, fatty acids (FAs), which form triglycerides, and PCBs are both mobilised from adipose tissue. Our results showed that the degree of lipophilicity of FAs and PCBs impacted their release: the more lipophilic FAs and PCBs tended to be more conserved in blubber over the fast than the less lipophilic ones. This led to an enrichment of more lipophilic compounds within adipocytes with the progression of the fast. Life history patterns that include fasting may thus influence the profile of blubber lipids and contaminants. PMID:26439651

  3. Accumulation of PCBs by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): an individual-based model approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Eck, Gary W.; Miller, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    To explain the variation in growth and in concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) among individual fish, an individual-based model (IBM) was applied to the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Michigan. The IBM accurately represented the variation in growth exhibited by the different age classes of lake trout. Uncertainty analysis of the IBM revealed that mean PCB concentration for the lake trout population was most sensitive to PCB concentration in their prey. The variability in PCB concentration among lake trout individuals was not adequately explained by the IBM, unless variation in prey fish PCBs was included in the model. To accomplish this, the simulated lake trout population was divided into subsets subjected to different levels of PCB concentration in the prey fish. Thus, model results indicated that variability in prey fish PCB concentration was an important component of the variation in PCB concnetration observed among individual lake trout comprising the Lake Michigan population.

  4. Net trophic transfer efficiency of PCBs to Lake Michigan coho salmon from their prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Elliott, Robert F.; Schmidt, Larry J.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Quintal, Richard T.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Bouchard, Patrick M.; Holey, Mark E.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden accumulated by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from the Laurentian Great Lakes is from their food. We used diet information, PCB determinations in both coho salmon and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiency with which Lake Michigan coho salmon retain PCBs from their food. Our estimate was the most reliable estimate to date because (a) the coho salmon and prey fish sampled during our study were sampled in spring, summer, and fall from various locations throughout the lake, (b) detailed measurements were made on the PCB concentrations of both coho salmon and prey fish over wide ranges in fish size, and (c) coho salmon diet was analyzed in detail from April through November over a wide range of salmon size from numerous locations throughout the lake. We estimated that coho salmon from Lake Michigan retain 50% of the PCBs that are contained within their food.

  5. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in air of southern Mexico (2002-2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alegria, Henry A.; Wong, Fiona; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Figueroa, Miguel Salvador; Bouchot, Gerardo Gold; Moreno, Victor Ceja; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

    Air samples were collected in southern Mexico in 2002-2004 to determine the extent of contamination with organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The ΣDDTs ranged from 239 to 2360 pg m -3. Other prominent OC pesticides were endosulfans, toxaphene and lindane. Pesticides detected in lower concentrations include chlordanes, dieldrin, and heptachlor. Proportions of DDT compounds suggested fresh use of DDT in some locations and a mix of fresh and aged residues at others. Ratios of trans-chlordane/ cis-chlordane were consistent with fresh chlordane usage or emission of residues from former termiticide applications. The ΣPCBs was relatively low at all sites. Concentrations of OC pesticides measured with passive samplers agreed well with those measured using high-volume samplers. Air back trajectory analysis suggests a complex pattern of regional atmospheric transport.

  6. PCBs in striped bass collected from the Hudson River, New York, during Fall, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.J.; Kim, H.T.; Kim, J.S.

    1985-06-01

    Previous results have been based on the use of the standard filet (edible portion), and levels of PCBs were determined by pattern matching, which estimates individual Aroclor mixtures. Concentrations are determined by assigning unique PCB congeners to the individual Aroclor mixtures. It has been established that many PCBs are not retained by a living organism; thus, reported levels may be high due to pattern matching. This study reports levels quantified on a peak to peak basis. The objectives of the present study were to determine the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in striped bass, to compare these with levels estimated by pattern matching, to determine any association of concentration to length, and to investigate the effects on measured levels of trimming and edible portion.

  7. Characterization of the deformation behaviour of PCBs under dynamic loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, P. F.; Major, Z.; Lang, R. W.

    2009-08-01

    Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are frequently exposed to a complex combination of external and internal thermo-mechanical loads (static, cyclic and impact loads superimposed by local and global temperature effects). In this study, instrumented impact tests of the PCBs were performed and characterized. In addition to the acceleration measurement of the impact, the deformation behaviour was analyzed using a high speed camera and strain gauges. To reduce the testing effort for future PCB design the oscillation behavior of the PCB after impact was simulated using a finite element (FE)-software. Dynamic mechanical analysis experiments were performed and a linear viscoelastic material model was defined. Furthermore, the results of the simulation were compared to the measured values. In spite of the difference in the measured and simulated frequency values over the time, the viscoelastic effects including the damping behaviour were reflected accurately in the simulation.

  8. Pesticides and PCBs in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and O. kisutch) from Puget Sound, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, S.M.; West, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife initiated a long-term study to monitor levels of contaminants in two species of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and O. kisutch) and other marine fishes of Puget Sound. The study is one component of the Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program (PSAMP), a multi-agency effort to assess the environmental health of Puget Sound. Here the authors summarize results from their ongoing study of O. tshawytscha and O. kisutch. Samples of muscle tissue were collected for chemical analyses from adult salmon that were purchased from licensed fish buyers or treaty tribal fisherman. From 1992 through 1994, both salmon species were sampled at seven fishing areas in marine waters and river mouths of Puget Sound. 4,4-DDE and 4,4-DDD, metabolites of the pesticide DDT, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) were consistently detected in both species and were consistently higher in O. tshawytscha. Low to moderate concentrations of DDT metabolites (3 to 59 ug/kg wet weight) were detected in the salmon samples but were seldom detected in other fish species sampled by PSAMP. Total PCBs concentrations (Arochlor 1254 + 1260) ranged from 10 to 211 ug/kg wet weight in 0. tshawytscha, with many samples containing PCBs concentrations similar to those detected in benthic flatfish, (Pleuronectes vetulus), sampled from urbanized embayments. A stepwise linear regression model was used to identify parameters correlated with accumulation of PCBs and DDT metabolites in salmon. In addition to species differences, factors such as fish age, percent lipids and sampling location may affect the accumulation of these contaminants. Results of this study are contrasted with contaminant levels previously reported for Canadian and Alaskan Pacific salmon. Possible sources of contaminants are outlined.

  9. Biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by the novel identified cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hangjun; Jiang, Xiaojun; Lu, Liping; Xiao, Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a class of hazardous pollutants, are difficult to dissipate in the natural environment. In this study, a cyanobacterial strain Anabaena PD-1 showed good resistance against PCB congeners. Compared to a control group, chlorophyll a content decreased 3.7% and 11.7% when Anabaena PD-1 was exposed to 2 and 5 mg/L PCBs for 7 d. This cyanobacterial strain was capable of decomposing PCB congeners which was conclusively proved by determination of chloride ion concentrations in chlorine-free medium. After 7 d, the chloride ion concentrations in PCB-treated groups (1, 2, 5 mg/L) were 3.55, 3.05, and 2.25 mg/L, respectively. The genetic information of strain PD-1 was obtained through 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. The GenBank accession number of 16S rRNA of Anabaena PD-1 was KF201693.1. Phylogenetic tree analysis clearly indicated that Anabaena PD-1 belonged to the genus Anabaena. The degradation half-life of Aroclor 1254 by Anabaena PD-1 was 11.36 d; the total degradation rate for Aroclor 1254 was 84.4% after 25 d. Less chlorinated PCB congeners were more likely to be degraded by Anabaena PD-1 in comparison with highly chlorinated congeners. Meta- and para-chlorines in trichlorodiphenyls and tetrachlorobiphenyls were more susceptible to dechlorination than ortho-chlorines during the PCB-degradation process by Anabaena PD-1. Furthermore, Anabaena PD-1 can decompose dioxin-like PCBs. The percent biodegradation of 12 dioxin-like PCBs by strain PD-1 ranged from 37.4% to 68.4% after 25 days. Results above demonstrate that Anabaena PD-1 is a PCB-degrader with great potential for the in situ bioremediation of PCB-contaminated paddy soils. PMID:26177203

  10. PBDEs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides distribution in edible fish from Negro River basin, Argentinean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Ondarza, P M; Gonzalez, M; Fillmann, G; Miglioranza, K S B

    2014-01-01

    DDTs, endosulfans, HCHs, chlordanes, PCBs and PBDEs levels were determined in different tissues of patagonian silverside (Odontesthes hatcheri) from the Upper (UV), Middle (MV) and Lower (LV) valleys of the Negro River, Argentina. Results showed a direct relation between pollutant levels in fish and land uses along the basin. All tissues showed decreasing levels from headwaters (UV) to downstream (LV). A significant predominance of organochlorine pesticides (306-3,449 ng g(-1) lipid) followed by ΣPCBs (65-3,102 ng g(-1) lipid) and ΣPBDEs (22-870 ng g(-1) lipid) was observed in all tissues and valleys, suggesting agriculture as the main source of pollutants in this basin. Pesticides were dominated by DDTs (90% pp'-DDE) followed by endosulfan (α->β->sulfate), γ-HCH and γ-chlordane showing the prevalence of legacy compounds. Endosulfan levels point out the current use of technical endosulfan in the surrounding areas. The highest PCBs and PBDEs concentrations observed in fish from UV were associated to hydroelectric power plants and industries established upstream. PCB fingerprint presented a prevailing contribution of hexa-CBs (66 ± 7%) and penta-CBs (27 ± 9%), with a similar composition to Aroclor 1254-1260. The predominance of BDE-47 (69 ± 17%) among PBDEs, followed by BDE-100 and BDE-99, suggests possible debromination processes. These results were similar to worldwide trends found in fishes and environmental compartments. PCBs levels in silverside muscles along the Negro River exceeded the maximum limits for safe consumption, suggesting a possible human health risk related to silverside ingest. Therefore, a continued long-term monitoring of organic contaminants in fishes is needed in order to assess the potential risk for human health. PMID:24144466

  11. Relationships between indoor and outdoor air pollution by carcinogenic PAHs and PCBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menichini, E.; Iacovella, N.; Monfredini, F.; Turrio-Baldassarri, L.

    PAHs and PCBs were collected simultaneously indoors and outdoors at eight non-smoking homes located in four buildings in high-traffic areas of Rome. The purpose was to evaluate the relevance of indoor air in contributing to the overall exposure of the urban population. The vertical distribution was also investigated by collecting outdoor samples at both road and roof level, and indoor samples in both a high and a low floor flat of each building. At one coal-heated building, samples were collected during both the heating and the non-heating season. No evident PAH source was present indoors. Indoor and outdoor daily concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) ranged, respectively, 0.1-4.6 ng m -3 and 0.7-2.3 ng m -3. With the heating on, indoor PAH concentrations equalled or exceeded those outdoors, with BaP indoor/outdoor ratios up to 4; during the warm season, ratios decreased to 0.2-0.6. Indoor PAHs at the low floors exceeded the high-floor ones when the heating was off (vehicle exhausts being the dominant source), while being equal or lower with the heating on; the vertical gradient of indoor PAHs between different floors was within a factor of 2. Outdoor PAHs at roof level were 20-70% of those at road level, which in turn exceeded those at the medium-traffic station up to a factor of 4. The outdoor concentrations of Σ6 indicator PCBs ranged 0.1-1.6 ng m -3. Indoor PCB concentrations exceeded those outdoors by an approximate factor of 2-50. No vertical gradient was observed. The results indicated that indoor air may contribute to the overall exposure to PAHs and PCBs more than the urban air. They were also consistent with recent findings suggesting that indoor air can be a relevant source of PCBs for outdoor air.

  12. Heterogeneous dehalogenation of PCBs with iron/toluene or iron/quicklime.

    PubMed

    Aristov, N; Habekost, A

    2010-06-01

    A flow tube reactor containing common commercial grade iron powder in a nitrogen atmosphere is capable of >99% reductive dehalogenation of organochlorides at 500 degrees C. The reactor was tested with a series of organochlorides, including various PCBs and DDT, using toluene or Ca(OH)(2), as proton donors, the latter formed from quicklime and water. The products of dehalogenation are benzene, biphenyl, hydrocarbons and metal chloride, as detected by GC/GC-MS and wet chemical analytical methods. PMID:20434751

  13. Gene expression patterns predict exposure to PCBs in developing Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    PubMed

    Jelaso, Anna M; Lehigh-Shirey, Elisabeth; Means, Jay; Ide, Charles F

    2003-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that pose global ecological and human health problems. Although it is well established that PCBs are associated with a variety of adverse health effects in wildlife and in humans, it is often difficult to determine direct cause-and-effect relationships between exposure and specific health outcomes. In this study, gene expression signatures were used to relate exposure to PCBs with altered physiological responses and/or specific health effects. Real-time PCR was used to measure gene expression levels for 10 genes in Xenopus laevis tadpoles (18 days postfertilization, PF) after acute exposure (2 days) to the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254. Specific gene expression signatures correlated with exposure and were predictive of adverse health effects. Exposure to low levels of Aroclor 1254 (5-50 ppb) significantly increased expression of six genes, independent of any health effects; exposure to midlevel concentrations (300-400 ppb) significantly decreased expression levels of two genes, NGF and beta-actin, prior to the onset of observable health effects; exposure to higher doses (500-700 ppb) significantly decreased NGF and beta-actin expression concomitant with the appearance of gross morphological abnormalities, behavioral deficits, and a statistically significant decrease in survival. This study expands upon our previous work that demonstrated an age-dependent susceptibility to Aroclor 1254 in Xenopus laevis tadpoles and that defined specific gene expression signatures as useful bioindicators of exposure and as predictors of overt or impending health effects. PMID:12874807

  14. PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere: determining important driving forces using a global atmospheric transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Carey L.; Selin, Noelle E.

    2016-03-01

    We present a spatially and temporally resolved global atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) model, driven by meteorological data, that is skilled at simulating mean atmospheric PCB concentrations and seasonal cycles in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and mean Arctic concentrations. However, the model does not capture the observed Arctic summer maximum in atmospheric PCBs. We use the model to estimate global budgets for seven PCB congeners, and we demonstrate that congeners that deposit more readily show lower potential for long-range transport, consistent with a recently described "differential removal hypothesis" regarding the hemispheric transport of PCBs. Using sensitivity simulations to assess processes within, outside, or transport to the Arctic, we examine the influence of climate- and emissions-driven processes on Arctic concentrations and their effect on improving the simulated Arctic seasonal cycle. We find evidence that processes occurring outside the Arctic have a greater influence on Arctic atmospheric PCB levels than processes that occur within the Arctic. Our simulations suggest that re-emissions from sea ice melting or from the Arctic Ocean during summer would have to be unrealistically high in order to capture observed temporal trends of PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere. We conclude that midlatitude processes are likely to have a greater effect on the Arctic under global change scenarios than re-emissions within the Arctic.

  15. Estimate of net trophic transfer efficiency of PCBs to Lake Michigan lake trout from their prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Schmidt, Larry J.; Stedman, Ralph M.; Quintal, Richard T.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden accumulated by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Laurentian Great Lakes is from their food. We used diet information, PCB determinations in both lake trout and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiency with which Lake Michigan lake trout retain PCBs from their food. Our estimates were the most reliable estimates to date because (a) the lake trout and prey fish sampled during our study were all from the same vicinity of the lake, (b) detailed measurements were made on the PCB concentrations of both lake trout and prey fish over wide ranges in fish size, and (c) lake trout diet was analyzed in detail over a wide range of lake trout size. Our estimates of net trophic transfer efficiency of PCBs to lake trout from their prey averaged from 0.73 to 0.89 for lake trout between the ages of 5 and 10 years old. There was no evidence of an upward or downward trend in our estimates of net trophic transfer efficiency for lake trout between the ages of 5 and 10 years old, and therefore this efficiency appeared to be constant over the duration of the lake trout's adult life in the lake. On the basis of our estimtes, lake trout retained 80% of the PCBs that are contained within their food.

  16. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dang, Viet D.; Walters, David; Lee, Cindy M.

    2016-01-01

    Conifers are often used as an “air passive sampler”, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former Sangamo-Weston (S-W) plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010, and winter and spring 2011. PCBs were detected in the collected leaves suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990, 2850, and 931 pg m-3 in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former S-W plant. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra- and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene (PE) passive samplers deployed in the water column suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves.

  17. Integrating structural and thermodynamic mechanisms for sorption of PCBs by montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cun; Gu, Cheng; Yu, Kai; Li, Hui; Teppen, Brian J; Johnston, Cliff T; Boyd, Stephen A; Zhou, Dongmei

    2015-03-01

    Strong sorption of planar nonionic organic chemicals by clay minerals has been observed for important classes of organic contaminants including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxins, and such affinity was hypothesized to relate to the interlayer hydrophobicity of smectite clays. In batch sorption experiments of two trichlorobiphenyls on homoionic Na-, K-, Cs-montmorillonites, considerably greater sorption coefficient (Kw) was observed for coplanar 3,3',5-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 36); log Kw for Na-, K-, and Cs-montmorillonite were 3.69, 3.72, and 4.53 for coplanar PCB 36 vs 1.21, 1.46, and 0.87 for the nonplanar 2,2',6-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 19). MD simulations were conducted utilizing X-ray diffraction determined clay interlayer distances (d-spacing). The trajectory, density distribution, and radial distribution function of interlayer cation, water, and PCBs collectively indicated that the hydrophobic nature of the interlayer regions was determined by the hydration status of exchangeable cations and the associated d-spacing. The sorption free energies calculated for both coplanar and nonplanar PCB molecules by adaptive biasing force (ABF) method with an extended interlayer-micropore two-phase model consisting of cleaved clay hydrates and "bulk water" are consistent with the Gibbs free energies derived from the measured log Kw, manifesting enhanced sorption of coplanar PCBs was attributed to shape selectivity and hydrophobic interactions. PMID:25629399

  18. Spatial and temporal trends of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) in mussel from Galician coast (1998-2008).

    PubMed

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Mouteira, A

    2010-11-01

    PCBs were determined in wild mussel samples collected in several points from Galician Rías (Rías de Ferrol, A Coruña, Muros, Vigo and Arousa), Spain, during the period 1998-2008. The concentration levels of ΣPCBs ranged from 0.62 to 107.5 ng g(-1), w.w. The isomer concentrations in the Mytilus galloprovincialis were in the order hexachlorobiphenyls>pentachlorobiphenyls>tetrachlorbiphenyls>trichlorobiphenyls. CBs 153, 138 and 101 congeners were the most abundant in these samples. Two biological parameters, fat content and condition index (CI), have also been investigated for these mussel samples. Univariate techniques confirm that levels of some compounds, CBs 28, 52, 138, 153, and 180, presented significant relation (p<0.05) with biological parameters. Multivariate techniques of data exploration such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that spatial trends of PCB levels appeared in the studied samples. Rias de Ferrol and A Coruña presented the highest levels of PCBs and Ría de Arousa the lowest levels of these compounds. In general, temporal trends (linear regressions) showed a decrease of PCB levels along the period 1998-2008. PMID:20471089

  19. The combined effects of DEHP and PCBs on phospholipase in the livers of mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi; Min, Lingli; Huang, Qiansheng; Chen, Yajie; Fang, Chao; Sun, Xia; Dong, Sijun

    2015-02-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are two widely distributed pollutants that are of great concern due to their adverse health effects. However, few studies have investigated the combined effects of DEHP and PCBs. In this study, adult mice were continuously exposed to mixtures of DEHP (15 mg/kg bodyweight/day) and Aroclor 1254 (7.5 mg/kg bodyweight/day) for 12 days to investigate the combined effects of these compounds. The results showed that the ratio of the liver weight to the body weight was higher in the treated group than that in the control group. The effects of combined exposure on three important receptors, the proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), estrogen receptor (ER), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), were investigated. The mRNA level of PPARγ was significantly up-regulated after exposure. The expression level of ERα was decreased in the male treated group. In contrast, the expression levels of AHR and related genes (cyp1a1 and cyp1b1) were not markedly affected. The expression level of phospholipase A (PLA) was significantly down-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels in male mice after combined treatment. In all, our study demonstrated the combined effects of DEHP and PCBs on the expression levels of key receptors in mice. The combined exposure led to a decrease in phospholipase in male mice. PMID:23804495

  20. Decomposition of PCBs in oils using gamma radiolysis: A treatability study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mincher, B.J.; Arbon, R.E.

    1996-04-01

    This report presents the results of a treatability study of radiologically and PCB contaminated waste hydraulic oils at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The goal of the study was to demonstrate that PCBs could be selectively removed from the contaminated oils. The PCBs were selectively decomposed in an in-situ fashion via gamma-ray radiolysis. The gamma-ray source was spent nuclear fuel at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) canal at the Test Reactor Area (TRA), of the INEL. Exposure to gamma-rays does not induce radioactivity in the exposed solutions. The treatability study was the culmination of five years of research concerning PCB radiolysis conducted at INEL which investigated the mechanism and kinetics of the reaction in several solvents. The major findings of this research are summarized here. Based upon these findings three INEL waste streams were selected for testing of the process. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) treatment standard of 2 mg/kg was successfully achieved in all waste streams. The interference of contaminants other than PCBs is discussed.

  1. Long-term trends in DDT, PCBs, and chlordane in mussels from California

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, M.D.; Tjeerdema, R.S.

    1994-12-31

    Many contaminant programs have been established to study the geographical distributions and long-term trends of potential pollutants, but unfortunately, many have been short-lived because of economic cutbacks, providing limited information on long-term trends. The California State Mussel Watch program, however, has been continuously funded for the past 15 years. Several sites have been evaluated and were sampled often enough to obtain statistical resolution. Chlordane was evaluated at 29 stations, with 48% showing significant decreases over time; DDT was evaluated at 35 sites, with 43% showing significant declines; and PCBs were evaluated at 47 sites, with 21% showing significant drops over time. Both DDT and PCBs showed declines, corresponding to decreases in their concentrations in the effluent, at sites located in the vicinity of the Los Angeles County municipal sewage outfall. This long-term investigation indicates that, contrary to public opinion, the banning of DDT, chlordane, and PCBs by the USEPA has led to overall improvement in water quality.

  2. Dioxins and dl-PCBs in gull eggs from Spanish Natural Parks (2010-2013).

    PubMed

    Morales, Laura; Gene'rosa Martrat, Ma; Parera, Jordi; Bertolero, Albert; Ábalos, Manuela; Santos, Francisco Javier; Lacorte, Silvia; Abad, Esteban

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs), concretely those so-called as dioxin-like PCBs, in yellow-legged gull eggs (Larus michahellis) collected from five Natural Parks (some of them National Parks) in Spain during the period 2010-2013. PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were detected in all the samples. Due to the proximity to important urban and industrial areas higher concentrations were determined in colonies located in the Northern Mediterranean coast than those found in the Southern Mediterranean or Atlantic colonies where a softer anthropogenic impact occurs. Mean ∑PCDD/F concentrations ranged from 49 to 223pg/g lipid weight (lw) and ∑dl-PCB concentrations varied from 146 to 911ng/g lw. In the Natural Park of the Ebro Delta (Northern Mediterranean coast) two gull species share habitat: yellow-legged and Audouin gull (Larus audouinii). Eggs from both species were collected and PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels compared. The species that feeds exclusively on pelagic fish (L. audouinii) had significantly higher PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels than the scavenger L. michahellis, pointing out the diet-dependent differences in the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants between similar cohabitant breeding species. Finally, mean TEQ values were in general below those considered as critical for toxicological effects in birds. PMID:26808402

  3. Associations between dioxins/furans and dioxin-like PCBs in estuarine sediment and blue crab

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liebens, J.; Mohrherr, C.J.; Karouna-Renier, N. K.; Snyder, R.A.; Rao, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationships between the quantity, toxicity, and compositional profile of dioxin/furan compounds (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in estuarine sediment and in the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). Sediment and blue crab samples were collected in three small urban estuaries that are in relatively close proximity to each other. Results show that differences between PCDD/F and DL-PCB mass concentrations and total toxic equivalents (TEQ) toxicity in sediments of the three estuaries are reflected in those of the blue crab. TEQs are higher in the hepatopancreas of the crabs than in the sediment, but the concentration factor is inversely proportional to the TEQ in the sediments. Congener profiles in the crabs are systematically different from those in the sediments, and the difference is more pronounced for PCDD/Fs than for DL-PCBs, possibly due to differences in metabolization rates. Compared with sediment profiles, more lesser-chlorinated PCDD/Fs that have higher TEFs accumulate in crab hepatopancreas. This selective bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs results in a TEQ augmentation in crab hepatopancreas compared with sediments. The bioaccumulation in the blue crab is also selective for PCDD/Fs over DL-PCBs. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in some Brazilian municipal solid waste compost.

    PubMed

    Lourencetti, Carolina; Favoreto, Rodrigo; Marchi, Mary R R; Ribeiro, Maria L

    2007-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), listed as per the Stockholm Convention (alpha -HCH, beta -HCH, gamma -HCH, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, PCBs 28, 52, 118, 138, 153, and 180), were analyzed in municipal solid waste (MSW) compost samples from three different Brazilian composting plants located in three São Paulo State cities: Araras, Araraquara and São Paulo (Vila Leopoldinha). Quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out using gas chromatography electron capture detection (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (Ion Trap, electron impact ionization), respectively. The samples were analyzed in triplicate and the target POPs were not detected by GC-ECD. Twelve pollutants were identified in two samples when qualitative analysis (GC-MS) was used (beta -HCH, gamma -HCH, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDE, PCBs 28, 118, 138, 153 and 180). The composting process has advantages such as urban solid waste reduction and landfill life-span increase, however the MSW compost quality, which can be utilized for agricultural purposes, should be evaluated and be controlled. This kind of study is the first step in making available information to answer questions regarding MSW compost for sustainable agricultural use, such as the pollutants accumulation in soil and in groundwater, and plants uptake. PMID:17701705

  5. The effects of prenatal PCBs on adult female paced mating reproductive behaviors in rats

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Rebecca M.; Juenger, Thomas E.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of toxicants that persist in measurable quantities in human and wildlife tissues, despite their ban in production in 1977. Some PCB mixtures can act as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by mimicking or antagonizing the actions of hormones in the brain and periphery. When exposure to hormonally active substances such as PCBs occurs during vulnerable developmental periods, particularly prenatally or in early postnatal life, they can disrupt sex-specific patterning of the brain, inducing permanent changes that can later be manifested as improper sexual behaviors. Here, we investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to the PCB mixture Aroclor (A) 1221 on adult female reproductive behaviors in a dose-response model in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Using a paced mating paradigm that permits the female to set the timing of mating and control contact with the male during copulation, we were able to uncover significant differences in female-typical sexual activities in A1221-exposed females. Specifically, A1221 causes significant effects on mating trial pacing, vocalizations, ambulation and the female’s likelihood to mate. The results further demonstrate that the intermediate treatment group has the greatest number of disrupted endpoints, suggestive of non-linear dose responses to A1221. These data demonstrate that the behavioral phenotype in adulthood is disrupted by low, ecologically relevant exposures to PCBs, and the results have implications for reproductive success and health in wildlife and women. PMID:17274994

  6. DPOAEs in infants developmentally exposed to PCBs show two differently time spaced exposure sensitive windows.

    PubMed

    Koštiaková, Vladimíra; Moleti, Arturo; Wimmerová, Soňa; Jusko, Todd A; Palkovičová Murínová, Ľubica; Sisto, Renata; Richterová, Denisa; Kováč, Ján; Čonka, Kamil; Patayová, Henrieta; Tihányi, Juraj; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2016-10-01

    The study aim was to identify the timing of sensitive windows for ototoxicity related to perinatal exposure to PCBs. A total of 351 and 214 children from a birth cohort in eastern Slovakia underwent otoacoustic testing at 45 and 72 months, respectively, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) at 11 frequencies were recorded. Cord and child 6-, 16-, 45-, and 72- month blood samples were analyzed for PCB 153 concentration. The PCB 153 concentration-time profiles were approximated with a system model to calculate area under the PCB*time curves (AUCs) for specific time intervals (3 and 6 months for 45 and 72 months data, respectively). DPOAE amplitudes were correlated (Spearman) with cord serum PCB and AUCs, markers of prenatal and postnatal exposure, respectively. Two exposure critical windows were identified in infants, the first related to prenatal and early postnatal and the second to postnatal exposure to PCBs. Our data have shown tonotopicity, sexual dimorphism, and asymmetry in ototoxicity of PCBs. PMID:27470944

  7. Killer whales (Orcinus orca) face protracted health risks associated with lifetime exposure to PCBs.

    PubMed

    Hickie, Brendan E; Ross, Peter S; Macdonald, Robie W; Ford, John K B

    2007-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations declined rapidly in environmental compartments and most biota following implementation of regulations in the 1970s. However, the metabolic recalcitrance of PCBs may delay responses to such declines in large, long-lived species, such as the endangered and highly PCB-contaminated resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. To investigate the influence of life history on PCB-related health risks, we developed models to estimate PCB concentrations in killer whales during the period from 1930 forward to 2030, both within a lifetime (approximately 50 years) and across generations, and then evaluated these in the context of health effects thresholds established for marine mammals. Modeled PCB concentrations in killer whales responded slowly to changes in loadings to the environment as evidenced by slower accumulation and lower magnitude increases in PCB concentrations relative to prey, and a delayed decline that was particularly evident in adult males. Since PCBs attained peak levels well above the effects threshold (17 mg/kg lipid) in approximately 1969, estimated concentrations in both the northern and the more contaminated southern resident populations have declined gradually. Projections suggest that the northern resident population could largely fall below the threshold concentration by 2030 while the endangered southern residents may not do so until at least 2063. Long-lived aquatic mammals are therefore not protected from PCBs by current dietary residue guidelines. PMID:17948816

  8. The distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in the River Thames Catchment under the scenarios of climate change.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiong; Johnson, Andrew C; Jürgens, Monika D; Sweetman, Andy; Jin, Li; Whitehead, Paul

    2015-11-15

    Measurements have shown low levels of PCBs in water but relatively high concentrations in the resident fish of the River Thames (UK). To better understand the distribution and behaviour of PCBs in the Thames river basin and their potential risks, a level III fugacity model was applied to selected PCB congeners (PCB 52, PCB 118 and PCB 153). The modelling results indicated that fish and sediments represent environmental compartments with the highest PCB concentrations; but the greatest mass of PCBs (over 70%) is likely to remain in the soil. As emissions decline, soil could then act as a significant secondary source of PCBs with the river bed-sediment functioning as a long-term reservoir of PCBs. The predicted changes in temperature and rainfall forecast in the UK Climate Projections 2009 (UKCP09) over the next 80 years had only a modest influence on PCB fate in the model. The most significant result was a tendency for climate change to enhance the evaporation of PCBs from soil to air in the Thames catchment. PMID:26156137

  9. Potential release of PCBs from plastic scientific gear to fringing coral reef sediments in the Gulf of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Gi Hoon; Kim, Chang Joon; Yeemin, Thamasak; Siringan, Fernando P.; Zhang, Jing; Lee, Hyun Mi; Choi, Ki Young; Yang, Dong Beom; Ahn, Yu Whan; Ryu, Joo Hyung

    2013-11-01

    A status on environmental contamination of the coral reefs on the islands of Samui and Katen of the western part of the Gulf of Thailand was investigated with a preliminarily analysis of bottom sediment samples. Coral reef bed sediments were characterized as relatively uncontaminated by human activities in terms of selected metals and PCBs. Potential release of PCBs to the ambient seawater from scientific equipment made of plastic materials placed into the coral reef waters for an extended period was investigated because the sedimentary PCBs concentrations were very low in the region. Eight plastics - acrylic, mono cast nylon, polycarbonate, polyethylene, polypropylene, ivory and grey-colored polyvinyl chloride, and Teflon® - were subjected to leaching in seawater after being thoroughly washed with laboratory detergent and distilled water. All plastics were found to release PCBs at highly variable rates to seawater in the initial 60 days. Grey-colored PVC, Teflon, and polycarbonate after rinsing with n-hexane were found to release less than 50ng PCBs/kg of plastics and they could therefore be used to make scientific equipment to be deployed on the relatively PCBs-free coral reef beds.

  10. A total diet study to estimate PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs intake from food in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ming-Sheng; Hsu, Kuang-Yi; Wang, Shih-Min; Chou, Ukai; Chen, Shih-Yun; Huang, Nai-Chun; Liao, Chia-Yi; Yu, Tsae-Pyng; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2007-04-01

    Concentrations of 17 dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were measured in total diet study samples of 14 food groups of animal origin from 11 locations in Taiwan, collected in 2003. Pork meat possessed the lowest background concentration level of 0.058 pg WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs+dl-PCBs)/g fresh weight. The dl-PCBs contribution were 31%, 59%, 36%, 46%, and 13% for meat and meat products, muscle meat of fish, milk and dairy products, fat and oil, and egg, respectively. The estimated monthly intake (EMI) was 44.7 and 39.5 pg WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs+dl-PCBs)/kg b.w./month for a male and female adult weighing 64.8 kg and 56.3 kg, respectively. Muscle meat of fish contributes 46% to the mean EMI. Factors affecting the EMI, in order of increasing importance are analytical method uncertainty, sample compositional difference, and food consumption data. In addition to the continuous efforts to identify and reduce the source of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs releases into the environment and the food-chain, the practice of a healthy dietary habit, i.e., eating foods of lower TEQ levels, was suggested to effectively reduce human exposure to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. PMID:17215025

  11. Historical sediment record and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from tidal flats of Haizhou Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Tiancheng; Yan, Hongqiang; Shao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Tong, Hebing

    2014-12-15

    The spatial and temporal variations and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment of tidal flat from Haizhou Bay, China were investigated. PCBs concentrations in surface sediments ranged from 1.33 to 6.27ngg(-1) dry weight. Low-chlorinated PCBs, dominated by the tri-PCB homologs, were identified as the prevalent contaminate of surface sediments. These results were in agreement with the fact that tri-PCB homologs are the dominant contaminants in China. In surface sediment, the highest level appeared in the estuary, and it decreased with distance from the Linhong River estuary. PCBs concentrations started to rise from the mid-1950s, and reached a maximum in 2005. PCBs in sediment might originate from surface runoff and discharges of local source as well as slight atmospheric deposition, based on PCA. Additionally, the PCBs levels in the sediments were considered to rarely pose hazard to the aquatic and human health, based on Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs). PMID:25256297

  12. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and evaluation of hematological and immunological effects of PCB exposure on turtles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuangying; Halbrook, Richard S; Sparling, Donald W

    2012-06-01

    Concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Aroclor 1260, and 26 congeners were measured in liver, fat, and eggs of red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) collected from ponds near or on the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Kentucky, USA. Concentrations of total PCBs (wet mass) ranged from 0.002 to 0.480 mg/kg, 0.028 to 0.839 mg/kg, and 0.001 to 0.011 mg/kg in liver, fat, and eggs, respectively. Concentrations of Arochlor 1260 did not exceed 0.430, 0.419, and 0.007 mg/kg in liver, fat, and eggs, respectively. Exposure to PCBs in red-eared sliders collected from the PGDP is characterized by low concentrations of moderately chlorinated mono-ortho and di-ortho congeners (PCB 153, 180, and 118). Although PCB concentrations measured in the current study were low, chronic exposure to PCBs may have altered hematology and immunity of the turtles examined. Total white blood cell count and number of heterophils were negatively correlated with concentrations of total PCBs and Arochlor 1260, respectively. However, disease and other contaminants in the study area may influence the results. Because little is known regarding the influence of PCBs on hematology and immune function in turtles, additional study is needed to better evaluate results observed in the current study. PMID:22430883

  13. Highly purified hexachlorobenzene induces cytochrome P4501A in primary cultures of chicken embryo hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mundy, Lukas J.; Jones, Stephanie P.; Crump, Doug; Herve, Jessica C.; Konstantinov, Alex; Utley, Fiona; Potter, David; Kennedy, Sean W.

    2010-11-01

    Some uncertainty exists regarding the purity of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) used in past toxicity studies. It has been suggested that reported toxic and biochemical effects initially attributed to HCB exposure may have actually been elicited by contamination of HCB by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Herein, primary cultures of chicken embryo hepatocytes (CEH) were used to compare the potencies of two lots of reagent-grade hexachlorobenzene (HCB-old [HCB-O] and HCB-new [HCB-N]), highly purified HCB (HCB-P) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as inducers of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, cytochrome P4501A4 (CYP1A4) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and CYP1A5 mRNA. The study also compared the EROD- and CYP1A4/5 mRNA-inducing potencies of HCB to the potencies of two mono-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 105) and 2,3'4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118). HCB-O, HCB-N and HCB-P all induced EROD activity and up-regulated CYP1A4 and CYP1A5 mRNAs. Induction was not caused by contamination of HCB with PCDDs or PCDFs. Based upon a comparison of the EC{sub 50} and EC{sub threshold} values for EROD and CYP1A4/5 mRNA concentration-response curves, the potency of HCB relative to the potency of TCDD was 0.0001, and was similar to that of PCB 105 and PCB 118. The maximal EROD activity and CYP1A4/5 mRNA expression differed greatly between HCB and TCDD, and may contribute to an overestimation of the ReP value calculated for highly purified HCB.

  14. Comparison of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to gas chromatography (GC) - measurement of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in selected US fish extracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zajicek, J.L.; Tillitt, D.E.; Schwartz, T.R.; Schmitt, C.J.; Harrison, R.O.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of PCBs in fish tissues by immunoassay methods was evaluated using fish collected from a US monitoring program, the National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program of the US Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. Selected composite whole fish samples, which represented widely varying concentrations and sources of PCBs, were extracted and subjected to congener PCB analysis by gas chromatography (GC) and total PCB analysis using an ELISA (ePCBs) calibrated against technical Aroclor 1248. PCB congener patterns in these fishes were different from the patterns found in commercial Aroclors or their combinations as demonstrated by principal component analysis of normalized GC congener data. The sum of the PCB congeners measured by GC (total-PCBs) ranged from 37 to 4600 ng/g (wet weight). Concentrations of PCBs as determined by the ELISA method were positively correlated with total-PCBs and the ePCBs/total-PCBs ratios for individual samples ranged from 1 to 6. Ratios of ePCBs/total-PCBs for dilutions of Aroclors 1242, 1254, and 1260 and for matrix spikes range from 0.6 for 1242 to 2.5 for 1254 and 1260. These results suggest that higher chlorinated PCB congeners have higher affinity for the anti-PCB antibodies. Partial least squares with latent variable analysis of GC and ELISA data of selected Aroclors and fish samples also support the conclusion that ELISA derived PCB concentrations are dependent on the degree on chlorination.

  15. Cat serum contamination by phthalates, PCBs, and PBDEs versus food and indoor air.

    PubMed

    Braouezec, Clélie; Enriquez, Brigitte; Blanchard, Martine; Chevreuil, Marc; Teil, Marie-Jeanne

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) with semi-volatile properties are emitted to indoor air and, thus, humans might get exposed to these compounds. Pet cats spend the major part of their lifetime at home and might integrate indoor contamination so that they could mirror the human exposure. Three classes of EDCs, polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and phthalates (PAEs), were simultaneously considered and quantified in the serum of cats (Felis silvestris catus) living in the Paris area (France). The main compound concentrations by decreasing importance order were as follows: for PAEs, di-n-butyl phthalate (79,900 ng L(-1)) next di-iso-butyl phthalate (53,200 ng L(-1)), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (43,800 ng L(-1)), and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (32,830 ng L(-1)); for PCBs, CB153 (1378 ng L(-1)) next CB52 (509 ng L(-1)), CB101 (355 ng L(-1)), CB110 (264 ng L(-1)), and CB118 (165 ng L(-1)); and for PBDEs, BDE 153/154 (35 ng L(-1)) next BDE47 (10.7 ng L(-1)). Total serum concentrations as mean ± standard deviation were 107 ± 98 μg L(-1) for ∑9PAEs, 2799 ± 944 ng L(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 56 ± 21 ng L(-1) for ∑9BDEs. The three chemical groups were found in cat food: 0.088 ng g(-1) for ∑9BDEs, 1.7 ng g(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 2292 ng g(-1) for ∑9PAEs and in indoor air: 0.063 ng m(-3) for ∑9BDEs, 1.5 ng m(-3) for ∑19PCBs, and 848 ng m(-3) for ∑9PAEs. Contaminant intake by food ingestion was approximately 100-fold higher than that by indoor air inhalation. PMID:26841781

  16. Key parameters for de novo formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Evalena; Ryan, Shawn; Touati, Abderrahmane; Gullet, Brian K

    2003-05-01

    De novo formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) was investigated in an Entrained Flow Reactor (EFR) to simulate combustion conditions. The parameters investigated were carbon content and nature in fly ash; type of gas-phase environment (oxidative versus reducing conditions) influence of combustion gases such as water, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide; amount of gas-phase chlorine; reaction temperature (250-600 degrees C); and reaction time (minutes vs hours). The comprehensive data set was further evaluated with principal component analysis (PCA) to statistically determine the role and importance of each parameter for de novo formation of PCDDs and PCDFs. Results revealed that an initial fast de novo formation occurs within the first minutes with a formation rate in the orders of hundreds of pmol per minutes; however, the reactivity of the ash was found to decline with time. An average formation rate as low as 3 pmol/min was measured after 6 h. The slower de novo formation of PCDDs and PCDFs was found to be through different reaction mechanisms and, thus, controlled by different parameters. The amount of Cl2 in the gas phase was observed to be an important parameter for PCDFs formation; meanwhile the levels of O2 were not found to be a PCDF rate controlling parameter. The formation rate of PCDDs was significantly lower than the PCDFs, and two mechanisms appear to be controlling the formation, one depending on the amount of O2 and one on the amount of Cl2 present in the gas phase. Overall the most significant parameter for the rate of formation for both PCDDs and PCDFs was revealed to be the reaction temperature. A maximum rate of formation was observed between 300-400 degrees C for the PCDDs and 400-500 degrees C for the PCDFs. PMID:12775072

  17. Serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in participants of the Anniston Community Health Survey☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Pavuk, M.; Olson, J.R.; Sjödin, A.; Wolff, P.; Turner, W.E.; Shelton, C.; Dutton, N.D.; Bartell, S.

    2015-01-01

    Serum concentrations of 35 ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) were measured in 765 adults from Anniston, Alabama, where PCBs were manufactured between 1929 and 1971. As part of the Anniston Community Health Survey (ACHS), demographic data, questionnaire information, and blood samples were collected from participants in 2005–2007. Forty-six percent of study participants were African-American, 70% were female, and the median age was 56 years. The median concentration of the sum of 35 PCB congeners (ΣPCBs) was 528 ng/g lipid, with a 90th percentile of 2600 ng/g lipid, minimum of 17.0 ng/g lipid, and maximum of 27,337 ng/g lipid. The least square geometric mean ΣPCBs was more than 2.5 times higher for African-American participants than for White participants (866 ng/g lipid vs. 331 ng/g lipid); this difference did not change materially after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and current smoking. In spite of large differences in absolute PCB levels, relative contributions of individual congeners to ΣPCBs were quite similar between race groups. Nevertheless, while percent contributions to ΣPCBs for most of the most abundant penta- to heptachlorobiphenyls were higher among African-Americans, the percentages were higher in Whites for the lower-chlorinated PCBs 28 and 74 and for octa- to decachlorinated PCBs. No major differences were observed in geometric mean ΣPCBs between women and men when adjusted for age, race, BMI and current smoking (516 ng/g lipid vs. 526 ng/g lipid). Principal component analysis revealed groups of co-varying congeners that appear to be determined by chlorine substitution patterns. These congener groupings were similar between ACHS participants and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–04 sample of the general United States population, despite ACHS participants having serum concentrations of ΣPCBs two to three times higher than those in comparable age and race groups from

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in the blood of toothed and baleen whales stranded along Japanese coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Nomiyama, Kei; Murata, Satoko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Yamada, Tadasu K; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-05-15

    In this study, we determined the residue levels and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) in the blood from eight species of toothed whales and three species of baleen whales stranded along the Japanese coast during 1999-2007. Penta- through hepta-chlorinated PCB congeners were the dominant homologue groups in all cetaceans. In contrast, specific differences in the distribution of dominant OH-PCB isomers and homologues were found among the cetacean species. In five species of toothed whales (melon-headed whale, Stejneger's beaked whale, Pacific white-sided dolphin, Blainville's beaked whale, and killer whale), the predominant homologues were OH-penta-PCBs followed by OH-tetra-PCBs and OH-tri-PCBs. The predominant homologues of finless porpoise and beluga whale were OH-penta-PCBs followed by OH-hexa-PCBs and OH-tri-PCBs. The predominant OH-PCB isomers were para-OH-PCBs such as 4OH-CB26, 4'OH-CB25/4'OH-CB26/4OH-CB31, 4OH-CB70, 4'OH-CB72, 4'OH-CB97, 4'OH-CB101/4'OH-CB120, and 4OH-CB107/4'OH-CB108 in toothed whales. In three baleen whales (common minke whale, Bryde's whale, and humpback whale) and in sperm whale (which is a toothed whale), OH-octa-PCB (4OH-CB202) was the predominant homologue group accounting for 40-80% of the total OH-PCB concentrations. The differences in concentrations and profiles of OH-PCBs may suggest species-specific diets, metabolic capability, and the transthyretin (TTR) binding specificity. These results reveal that the accumulation profiles of OH-PCBs in cetacean blood are entirely different from the profiles found in pinnipeds, polar bear, and humans. PMID:20426459

  19. Tracing the biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in common carp (Cryprinus carpio): Enantiomeric fraction and compound-specific stable carbon isotope analyses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Sun, Run-Xia; Chen, Hua-Shan; Li, Zong-Rui; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-09-01

    Metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish are difficult to detect in vivo due to the complexity of biometabolism. In the present study, atropisomeric fraction analysis of chiral PCB congeners and compound-specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) were applied to trace the biotransformation of PCBs in fish by exposure of common carp (Cryprinus carpio) to the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1242. Stereoselective elimination of the chiral PCB congeners 91, 95, and 136 was observed, indicating a stereoselective biotransformation process. The δ(13)C values of PCBs 5/8, 18, and 20/33 in fish were increased compared with those in the spiked food, while PCBs 47/48 and 49 showed significant heavy isotope depletion. These results suggested a significant biotransformation of the corresponding individual PCB congeners although the potential PCB metabolites, hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) and methylsulfone PCBs (MeSO2-PCBs), were not detected in the fish tissue samples throughout this experiment. The results of the present study demonstrated that a combination of chiral analysis and CSIA is a promising new approach for investigating the biotransformation of PCBs in biota. PMID:27341148

  20. [Associations of exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls with diabetes: based on epidemiological findings].

    PubMed

    Uemura, Hirokazu

    2012-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a group of chemical substances that have the common properties of resistance to biodegradation, wide-range transportation, high lipophilicity, bioaccumulation in fat, and biomagnification in the food chain. POPs are persistent in the environment worldwide and have potential adverse impacts on human health and the environment. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are well known chemicals that are considered as POPs. The association between high-level exposure to dioxins and type 2 diabetes among U.S. Air Force veterans who had been exposed to Agent Orange contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during the Vietnam War was reported in the late 1990s. This association has been supported by similar epidemiologic studies, whose subjects were exposed to high doses of dioxins in their places of work involving phenoxyacid herbicide production and spraying, and in the industrial accident in Seveso, Italy. Recently, low-level exposure to dioxins and PCBs has been reported to be linked to type 2 diabetes. Cross-sectional studies in the U.S. general population and Japanese general population showed that body burden levels of some dioxins and PCBs were strongly associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Very recently, following these cross-sectional studies, several prospective studies have suggested that low-level exposure to some PCBs predicted the future risk of type 2 diabetes in the general population. Environmental exposure to some dioxins and PCBs, which mainly accumulate in adipose tissue, may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22781010

  1. Toward ecosystem-based sediment quality guidelines for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed

    Arblaster, Jennifer; Ikonomou, Michael G; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2015-10-01

    To investigate whether Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Canada and British Columbia achieve their objective of protecting ecosystems, we measured and compiled concentrations of PCB congeners in sediments, bivalves, crustaceans, fish, and marine mammals from 3 areas off the Pacific coast of British Columbia, Canada. The concentration data showed that whereas PCB concentrations in sediments were predominantly below the SQG of 20 µg/kg dry weight, large fractions of the PCB concentrations in fish and shellfish species exceeded the tissue residue guideline for the consumption of fish and shellfish by wildlife (i.e., 50 µg/kg wet weight [ww]) but were below the tissue residue guideline for the consumption of fish and shellfish by human populations (i.e., 2000 µg/kg ww). Also, PCB concentrations in marine mammals exceeded toxicity reference concentrations. The concentration data were used to develop species- and location-specific Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors (BSAF = Cbiota /Csediment ), that were used to estimate PCB concentrations in wildlife species that may exist if the PCB concentration in sediments are equal to the SQGs. The results show that if the PCB concentration is equal to the SQGs, then PCB concentrations in most wildlife species can be expected to exceed the tissue residue guideline for the consumption of fish and shellfish by wildlife species and by humans, as well as toxicity reference concentrations for marine mammals. A methodology for developing SQGs for PCBs that are protective of the health of different wildlife species and human consumers of fish and shellfish from general Canadian and coastal First Nations populations was developed and applied. The proposed guidelines may provide useful guidance to establish SQGs for PCBs that can account for the ecological diversity in coastal environments and that better achieve the intent of the guidelines to protect ecosystems. The proposed methodology for

  2. Occurrence and distribution of PAHs, PCBs, and chlorinated pesticides in Tunisian soil irrigated with treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Haddaoui, Imen; Mahjoub, Olfa; Mahjoub, Borhane; Boujelben, Abdelhamid; Di Bella, Giuseppa

    2016-03-01

    Treated wastewater (TWW) is a well recognized source of organic pollutants (OPs) that may accumulate during irrigation. For the first time, data on the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs) and organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) in wastewater irrigated soil in Nabeul (Tunisia) are reported. 13 PAHs, 18 PCBs and 16 OCPs were analyzed in soil samples collected at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depth before each and every irrigation and after the irrigation period expanding from June to October. Soil was extracted with an accelerated solvent extractor and analyzed by a tandem gas chromatograph in selected reaction monitoring mode (GC/MS/MS/SRM). OPs residues were detected before irrigation and accumulated at the end of the season for some of them. The total concentration of PAHs varied between 120.01 and 365.18 μg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) at 0-10 cm depth before and at the end of irrigation, respectively. The total concentration of PCBs varied between 11.26 and 21.89 μg kg(-1) dw at 0-10 cm, being higher than those reported for 10-20 cm. The six indicator PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180) were predominant. OCPs concentrations ranged between 12.49 and 21.81 μg kg(-1) at 0-10 cm and between 74.03 and 310.54 μg kg(-1) at 10-20 cm depth. DDT was predominant accounting for more than 94% of the total OCPs. In view of the present results, OPs are relevant to the agricultural environment, calling for more research on their persistence and potential transfer to plants and/or groundwater while taking into account farmers' practices. PMID:26716883

  3. Decomposition of PCBs in Oils Using Gamma Radiolysis A Treatability Study - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    B. J. Mincher; R. E. Arbon

    1996-08-01

    Several legacy hydraulic oil waste streams contaminated with Aroclor 1260 and small amounts of Cesium-137 have been in storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) due to the lack of appropriate treatment facilities. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) could be selectively decomposed in the oils. Removal of the PCB component to less than the 2 mg/L treatment standard should result in a waste oil that is not regulated by the Toxic Substances Control Act. Irradiation of the oils with high gamma-ray doses produces free electrons in the solution that react with PCBs. The reaction results in dechlorination of the PCBs to produce biphenyl. The gamma-ray source was spent reactor fuel stored in the Advanced Test Reactor canal at the INEL. A dry tube extends into the canal which allowed for positioning of samples in the proximity of the fuel. The gamma-ray dose rates at the samples varied from 10 to 30 kGy/h. This was measured using commercially available FWT-60 dosimeters. Irradiation of samples in a series of progressively increasing absorbed doses allowed the generation of rate constants used to predict absorbed doses necessary to meet the 2 mg/kg treatment standard. Three separate irradiation experiments were performed. The first irradiation used a maximum absorbed dose of 183 kGy. This experiment demonstrated that the PCB concentration decreased and allowed calculation of preliminary rate constants. The second irradiation used a maximum absorbed dose of 760 kGy. From this experiment, accurate rate constants were calculated, and the necessary absorbed dose to achieve the treatment standard was calculated. In the third irradiation of 2,242 kGy, all three waste streams were adequately decontaminated.

  4. Energetic cost of dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) for white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voltura, M.B.; French, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    Contaminant exposure is an environmental factor often overlooked in ecological studies. Yet exposure to toxicants is likely to be metabolically expensive, and result in a trade-off between energy spent to detoxify an excrete contaminants, and energy allocated to growth or reproduction. To quantify the energetic cost of PCB exposure, we fed mice diets containing 0, 0.1, 10 and 25 ppm PCBs (mg PCBs/kg food). After 6 wks, there were no differences in food intake or body mass related to the level of dietary PCBs. We continued to feed mice the PCB diets for one year, and then measured food intake and resting metabolic rate. After one year, all mice had gained mass, but mice on the 25 ppm diet were significantly heavier than mice in the other groups. Mice on the 25 ppm diet also showed an increase in both food intake (p=0.06) and metabolic rate (p=0.01), after correction for differences in body mass. Food intake averaged 4.1 g/d for mice on the 25 ppm diet, compared to 3.7 gld for control mice. Oxygen consumption at 30°C averaged 40.1 ml O2/h for mice on the 25 ppm diet, compared to 36.6 ml O2/h for control mice. These results show that for white-footed mice, there is an energetic cost to contaminant exposure that when combined with other environmental stresses, will influence patterns of energy acquisition and allocation.

  5. Discovery of Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in sediment from a Lake Michigan waterway and original commercial Aroclors

    PubMed Central

    Marek, Rachel F.; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) were measured in surficial sediment from Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC), East Chicago, IN and five original Monsanto Aroclors. These compounds were measured using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and certified standards that allowed us to identify 65 individual or co-eluting congeners. Concentrations in the sediment ranged from 0.20 to 26 ng/g dry weight. Profiles of most samples were similar and were dominated by mono- to penta-chlorinated OH-PCBs. Interestingly, most of the samples strongly resembled the OH-PCB profiles of Aroclors 1221, 1242, 1248 and 1254, yet 25% of OH-PCBs measured in the sediment were not detected in Aroclors. A strong positive correlation was found between ΣOH-PCB and ΣPCB (p < 0.0001) and also between many individual OH-PCB:PCB pairs (p < 0.05). Analysis of OH-PCB:PCB pairs suggest PCB degradation is unlikely as a source of OH-PCBs in IHSC sediment. We are the first to report levels of OH-PCBs in sediment and Aroclors, and our discovery is significant because it is likely that OH-PCB contamination exists in sediment anywhere that PCB contamination from Aroclors is present. PMID:23862721

  6. Preliminary survey of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic habitats and Great Blue Herons on the Hanford Site. [Ardea herodias

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.G.; Bean, R.M.; Fitzner, R.E.; Neitzel, D.A.; Rickard, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), constituents of insulating fluids used in electrical transformers and capacitors, were identified during a preliminary survey of waters, sediments, and fish from five locations on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State: Gable Mountain Pond, B Pond, West Pond, White Bluffs Slough on the Columbia River, and a pond on the Wahluke Slope. These aquatic areas are all within the foraging range of great blue herons (Ardea herodias) that nest on the Hanford Site. Of those waters that contained PCBs, concentrations were found to be somewhat over 1 ng/L, but less than 20 ng/L, and equal to or less than concentrations reported for other freshwater regions of the United States. The PCBs in sediments and fish closely resembled the chromatographic profile of Aroclor 1260, a commercial PCB mixture produced in the United States by the Monsanto Company. Concentrations of PCBs detected in the sediments were 10 to 100 times lower than those found in soils and sediments from other areas of the nation. Concentrations of PCBs in fat from Hanford great blue herons ranged from 3.6 to 10.6 ppM, while PCB concentrations in herons from other areas of the Pacific Northwest ranged from 0.6 to 15.6 ppM. Great blue herons at Hanford contained PCB isomer distributions closely matching that of Aroclor 1260; great blue herons from other locations contained isomer distributions indicating the presence of a mixture of aroclors. 21 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. HIGH SERUM PCBs ARE ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATION OF SERUM LIPIDS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN A NATIVE AMERICAN POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Goncharov, Alexey; Haase, Richard F.; Santiago-Rivera, Azara; Morse, Gayle; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Rej, Robert; Carpenter, David O.

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the relationships among the concentration of total serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), various PCB congener groupings, and three pesticides to total serum lipids in humans with and without self-reported cardiovascular disease. Blood samples were obtained from 335 adult Akwesasne Mohawks, and were analyzed for 101 PCB congeners, mirex, DDE, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), as well as serum triglycerides and cholesterol. Structural equation modeling, following the definition of latent variables by means of confirmatory factor analysis, was used to analyze the relationships between serum lipids with PCBs and heart disease. There were significant associations among PCBs, lipids, age, and body mass index (BMI), a fact which justified the application of the structural equation model. Gender of the participant was unrelated to any of the remaining study variables. The results of this study are consistent with a model in which age is considered as both an exogenous explanatory variable and a biological driving mechanism for the acquisition of PCBs. Moreover, the results of this study are consistent with the conclusion that PCBs, acting through P450 enzymes, are directly responsible for increased synthesis of cholesterol and triglycerides, substances known to be major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:18054906

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the equatorial Indian Ocean: temporal trend, continental outflow and air-water exchange.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yumei; Li, Jun; Xu, Yue; Xu, Weihai; Cheng, Zhineng; Liu, Junwen; Wang, Yan; Tian, Chongguo; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Gan

    2014-03-15

    Nineteen pairs of air and seawater samples collected from the equatorial Indian Ocean onboard the Shiyan I from 4/2011 to 5/2011 were analyzed for PCBs and HCB. Gaseous concentrations of ∑(ICES)PCBs (ICES: International Council for the Exploration of the Seas) and HCB were lower than previous data over the study area. Air samples collected near the coast had higher levels of PCBs relative to those collected in the open ocean, which may be influenced by proximity to source regions and air mass origins. Dissolved concentrations of ∑(ICES)PCBs and HCB were 1.4-14 pg L⁻¹ and 0.94-13 pg L⁻¹, with the highest concentrations in the sample collected from Strait of Malacca. Fugacity fractions suggest volatilization of PCBs and HCB from the seawater to air during the cruise, with fluxes of 0.45-34 ng m⁻² d⁻¹ and 0.36-18 ng m⁻² d⁻¹, respectively. PMID:24462236

  9. Calculation of passive sampling rates from both native PCBs and depuration compounds in indoor and outdoor environments.

    PubMed

    Persoon, Carolyn; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2009-02-01

    Passive sampling has become a practical way of sampling persistent organic pollutants over large spatial and remote areas; however, its ease in use is also coupled with some uncertainty in calculating air concentrations from accumulated mass. Here we report a comparison study of polyurethane-foam-based passive samplers (PUF-PAS) for quantitatively determining the sampling rates of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from air. We measured both uptake of native PCBs and loss of depuration compounds and determined the sampling rates (R-values) for multiple samplers harvested at three different time periods. The uptake of native PCBs in the linear phase was similar to the loss of depuration compounds for indoor air and behaved as predicted. A single R-value of 2.6m(3)d(-1) was calculated from the mean of 12 samplers deployed indoors from three harvest dates with a range of 2.0-3.4m(3)d(-1) for both uptake of native PCBs and loss of depuration compounds. Loss of depuration compounds in outdoor air also followed the predicted linear behavior with a range of calculated R-value of 4.4-8.4m(3)d(-1). Uptake of native PCBs behavior was extremely variable, probably due to changes in ambient air concentrations and resulted in R-values of 1.6-11.5m(3)d(-1) with greater variation seen in higher chlorinated homolog groups. PMID:19068264

  10. Cancer risk assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in former agricultural soils of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Man, Yu Bon; Lopez, Brenda Natalia; Wang, Hong Sheng; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Chow, Ka Lai; Wong, Ming H

    2011-11-15

    The major objective of this study was to evaluate the carcinogenic risk posed to humans through PBDEs and PCBs of changing agricultural land use for recycling of e-waste and open burning of municipal waste. Nine locations were selected to represent 6 different types of land use such as e-waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)) and e-waste open burning site (EW (OBS)). The total concentrations for PBDEs and PCBs, and the bioaccessibility of PCBs were determined using Soxhlet extraction and in vitro simulated gastric solution, respectively. Both total and bioaccessible concentrations were subsequently used to establish the cancer risk probabilities in humans via ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation of soil particles. It was found that very low cancer risk in all 6 types of different land use was caused by BDE-209. Nevertheless, at the 95th centile, the concentration of PCBs in EW (DW) and EW (OBS) indicate a low cancer risk to humans of 40 and 2.1 in a million, respectively, while the same was also observed for the bioaccessible PCBs in EW (DW) of 1.71 ± 2.96 in a million. PMID:21871716

  11. Hepatic biotransformation in the buzzard (Buteo buteo) and the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix): effect of PCBs.

    PubMed

    Rivière, J L; Grolleau, G; Bach, J

    1985-01-01

    Hepatic biotransformation was studied in microsomal (cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase activities) and cytosolic (glutathione S-transferase activities) fractions from Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix) and buzzard (Buteo buteo). Monooxygenase activities were not very different apart from a high 7-ethoxycoumarin de-ethylase activity in quail as compared to buzzard. Glutathione S-transferase activities were higher in quail than in buzzard. DP5 (a commercial mixture of PCBs containing 50% chlorine) produced a marked increase in monooxygenase activity from quail liver. In contrast, no induction was found in buzzard under the same conditions. Glutathione S-transferase activities were not modified in both species. PMID:2866918

  12. Levels and sources of planar and non-planar PCBs in pine needles across Poland.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Orlikowska, Anna; Jarzyńska, Grażyna; Bochentin, Ilona; Wyrzykowska, Barbara; Drewnowska, Małgorzata; Hanari, Nobuyashi; Horii, Yuichi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Under a small project, one-year-old Scots Pine needles collected from 25 spatially distant sites were examined in monitoring the extent of environmental diffusion and possible sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in ambient air, their depositions and uptake by plants in Poland. The congener-specific determination of planar and non-planar chlorobiphenyls was achieved by isotope dilution HRGC-HRMS method after a highly refined extraction on multi-layer column of silica gel and alumina layer and clean-up, and fractionations, followed by Hypercarb-HPLC and PYE-HPLC sub-fractionation steps. Contents of 117 chlorobiphenyls determined in pine needles varied for the 25 sites studied and is between 2.7 and 49 ng/g wet weight. The PCBs pollution and congener-specific composition of pine needles to some degree varied according to the site or region surveyed depending on population density and industrialization. Many of the country-side areas showed lower concentrations between 2.7 and 8.9 ng/g ww. Pine needles in areas close to well populated and industrial regions of Opole, Kutno, Włocławek and Dębica showed the highest PCB pollution with concentrations varying between 30 and 49 ng/g ww. The Kutno site showed the highest pollution and this fact probably can be explained by possible emission from transformer manufactures located at some distance west of the Kutno area. Factor analysis (FA) and depending on the site revealed on relationship of PCBs composition of pine needles both with highly chlorinated PCB constituents of the mixtures such as Chlorofen, Aroclor 1254, Aroclor 1268 and Sovol but also of lower chlorinated PCB constituents of Aroclor 1242, Aroclor 1248, Clophen A40 or Delor 103. Thermal processes were considered a less significant source of PCBs in ambient air over Poland compared to evaporative sources related to technical PCB formulations. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of

  13. Global pollution monitoring of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Ueno, D; Takahashi, S; Tanaka, H; Subramanian, A N; Fillmann, G; Nakata, H; Lam, P K S; Zheng, J; Muchtar, M; Prudente, M; Chung, K H; Tanabe, S

    2003-10-01

    Concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) representing persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were determined in the liver of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters of various regions in the world (offshore waters around Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the North Pacific Ocean). OCs were detected in livers of all of the skipjack tuna collected from the locations surveyed, supporting the thesis that there is widespread contamination of persistent OCs in the marine environment. Within a location, no significant relationship between growth-stage (body length and weight) and OC concentrations (lipid weight basis) was observed, and the OC residue levels were rather uniform among the individuals. Interestingly, the distribution of OC concentrations in skipjack tuna was similar to those in surface seawaters from which they were taken. These results suggest that OC concentrations in skipjack tuna could reflect the pollution levels in seawater from which they are collected and that this species is a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the global distribution of OCs in offshore waters and the open ocean. Concentrations of PCBs and CHLs in skipjack tuna were higher in offshore waters around Japan (up to 1100 and 250 ng/g lipid wt, respectively), suggesting the presence of sources of PCBs and CHLs in Japan. High concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were observed in samples from the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, and the Bay of Bengal (up to 1300 and 22 ng/g lipid wt, respectively). This result suggests recent use of technical DDT and HCH for agricultural and/or public health purposes in Russia, China, India, and some other

  14. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls: A kinetic study of removal of PCBs from mineral oils

    SciTech Connect

    Filippis, P. de; Scarsella, M.; Pochetti, F.

    1999-02-01

    A kinetic study was done of the dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) eliminated from contaminated dielectric oils by using the potassium poly(ethylene glycolate) (KPEG) process. Experimental runs at laboratory scale showed that the kinetics of the removal reaction was first-order for each PCB present and first-order with respect to the KPEG concentration. The PCB elimination grade was also affected by the KOH/PEG ratio. An exponential correlation was found between the kinetic constant for each congener and its respective gas chromatographic relative retention time.

  15. Distribution pattern and the risks of OPCs, PHAs and PCBs in aged refuses from landfill.

    PubMed

    Lou, Ziyang; Li, Anding; Tai, Jun; Yuan, Wenxiang; Zhu, Nanwen; Zhao, Youcai

    2016-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are the urgent risk for landfill, and should be considered before the landfill reclamation and resource. In this work, the distribution pattern of selected POPs in landfill and their ecological risks were investigated and assessed. The Σ20OCPs, Σ16PAHs and Σ19PCBs were around 157.4-329.2, 4103-19,190, and 79.1-340.3μgkg(-1) in aged refuses, with the mean value of 206.6, 8645.4, and 155.1μgkg(-1). While those in soil covers were only 6.3-75.4, 125.5-515.3 and 2.6-43.4μgkg(-1), with the mean value of 33.7, 257.7, and 24.0μgkg(-1), respectively. The maximum OPCs, PHAs and PCBs were in aged refuse with 13, 7, 10 disposal years. Whereas, the corresponding top content in soil covers were in 10, 13 and 16years, meaning that aged refuses were not the direct source for soil covers. Among 20 OCPs measured, α-HCH, δ-HCH, Dieldrin, and Endrin were presented in all aged refuses, with the mean concentration of 93.6, 52.1, 3.9 and 4.7μgkg(-1), respectively. For PAHs, PHE, FLU and PYR were the main composition, and reached to 1535, 1224, 1187μgkg(-1). The Σ7CarPAHs occupied around 33.3-49.9% of total Σ16PAHs tested, and could be used as the indictor for PAHs pollutant in landfill. PCB-5 content was around 40.7-263.3μgkg(-1) in aged refuses, and occupied around 51.5-81.8% of Σ19PCBs measured. The HCHs and DDTs in aged refuses were below the national standard GB15618-1995, and the corresponding Σ19PCBs concentrations met the standard of GB 13015-91, suggesting that aged refuse are accepted for the further utilization process. PMID:26994555

  16. Long-term sampling of dioxin-like substances from a clinker kiln stack using alternative fuels.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Austrui, J; Martinez, K; Marco-Almagro, L; Abalos, M; Abad, E

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize atmospheric emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) from a cement production plant where the existing clinker production line was completely replaced by a new state-of-the-art installation. The project started in April 2008 with the installation of a long-term sampling system in the stack of the clinker kiln that used petroleum coke as fuel; PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB emissions were then evaluated for a two year period. To carry out the second part of the study, in 2010 the sampling system was moved to the new installation in which, apart from conventional fuel, recovered derived fuel (RDF) and WWTP sludge were used as alternative fuels. For both the old and new clinker kilns, PCDD/PCDF emission values were well below the limit established by the European Waste Incineration Directive 2000/76/CE (EWID) of 100 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3); values ranged from 0.43 to 2.02 and from 0.07 to 3.31 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3), respectively. dl-PCBs accounted for approximately 25% of the WHO-TEQ toxicity. These results prove that the installation is capable of reducing PCDD/PCDF and dl-PCB emissions when alternative fuels are integrated into the process. In the case of PCDDs/PCDFs, the major contributions to total TEQ were usually from 2,3,7,8-TCDD (owing to its relative abundance) and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF (due to its high I-TEF of 0.5); while for dl-PCBs, the major contribution was from PCB-126. The slight shift in the congener profile between the old and new installations was characterized and a regression model was proposed for dl-PCB emissions depending on the RDF flow rate in the clinker. PMID:24742561

  17. The bioaccessibility of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in cooked plant and animal origin foods.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haitao; Starr, James; Han, Jianlong; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Dasheng; Guan, Rongfa; Xu, Xiaomin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Jingguang; Li, Weiwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Wu, Yongning

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we compared the effect of boiling and frying food preparation methods in determining the bioaccessibility of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in rice, cabbage, milk powder, eggs, beef, and fresh water fish. We then used these data to calculate a toxic equivalent (TEQ) for risk assessment and compared it to published values that did not account for bioaccessibility. When the foods were prepared by boiling, the mean bioaccessibility (%) in rice (PCBs: 16.5±1.0, PCDD/Fs: 4.9±0.3) and cabbage (PCBs: 4.2±0.9, PCDD/Fs: 1.9±0.7) were lower than in animal origin foods (beef, PCBs: 49.0±3.3, PCDD/Fs: 7.8±0.9; egg, PCBs: 29.7±3.1, PCDD/Fs: 8.6±1.3; fish, PCBs: 26.9±2.5, PCDD/Fs: 7.9±1.3; milk powder, PCBs: 72.3±1.6, PCDD/Fs: 28.4±1.2). When fried in cooking oil, the bioaccessibilities of all analytes in all foods increased, but the increase in plant based foods (rice, PCBs: 3.4×, PCDD/Fs: 3.6×; cabbage, PCBs: 10.3×, PCDD/Fs: 7.9×) was greater than that of animal origin foods (beef, PCBs: 1.6×, PCDD/Fs: 3.4×; egg, PCBs: 2.1×, PCDD/Fs: 1.8×; fish, PCBs: 2.8, PCDD/Fs: 3.2×). Comparison of PCBs/PCDD/Fs bioaccessibility in rice and cabbage showed that bioaccessibility was greater in the low fat, high carbohydrate/protein content food (rice) than in the low carbohydrate/protein, low fat content food (cabbage), regardless of the method used to prepare the food. Adjusting for bioaccessibility reduced the gross estimated daily intake (EDI) of 112pgWHO-TEQ/day, by 88% and 63% respectively for foods prepared by boiling and frying. Our results indicate that: 1) The method used for cooking is an important determinant of PCBs/PCDD/Fs bioaccessibility, especially for plant origin foods, 2) there might be a joint fat, carbohydrate and protein effect that influences the bioaccessibilities of PCBs/PCDD/Fs in foods, and 3) use of bioaccessibility estimates would reduce the uncertainty in TEQ calculations

  18. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Partitioning of PCBs in Dissolver Solution After Neutralization/Precipitation (Caustic Adjustment)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Hoppe, E.W.; Mong, G.M.; Silvers, K.L.; Slate, S.O.

    1999-01-04

    The purpose of the work described in this report was to gain a better understanding of how PCB congeners present in a simulated K Basin sludge dissolver solution will partition upon neutralization and precipitation (i.e., caustic adjustment). In a previous study (Mong et al. 1998),the entire series of sludge conditioning steps (acid dissolution, filtration, and caustic adjustment) were examined during integrated testing. In the work described here, the caustic adjustment step was isolated to examine the fate of PCBs in more detail within this processing step. For this testing, solutions of dissolver simulant (containing no solids) with a known initial concentration of PCB congeners were neutralized with caustic to generate a clarified supernatant and a settled sludge phase. PCBs were quantified in each phase (including the PCBs associated with the test vessel rinsates), and material balance information was collected.

  19. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on in vitro biosynthesis of testosterone and cell viability in mouse Leydig cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, B.

    1989-01-01

    Some PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) show a tendency to accumulate in steroid-producing organs such as the adrenals, testes and ovaries. Moreover, some hexachlorobiphenyls are accumulated in the interstitial part of the testis, where the steroid-producing cells are located (Brandt 1977). In an earlier study (Johansson 1987) the authors investigated the in vivo effects of PCBs on mice. They could not find any evidence for effects of Clophen A50 and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl on plasma testosterone levels or on the ability of the Leydig cells to respond to luteinizing hormone (LH). Despite these results they wanted to determine whether PCBs have any effect on testosterone synthesis when administered to Leydig cells in vitro, since it has been shown earlier that a substance having no effects on testosterone synthesis when given in vivo can have drastic effects when administered in vitro.

  20. Assessment of prenatal exposure to PCBs from maternal consumption of Great Lakes fish: An analysis of PCB pattern and concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, P.; Darvill, T.; Lonky, E.; Reihman, J.; Pagano, J.; Bush, B.

    1999-02-01

    The current study was designed to assess the pattern and concentration of prenatal PCB exposure in the newborns of women who consumed Great Lakes fish. The authors compared the pattern and concentration of umbilical cord blood PCBs of 145 women who reported never having consumed Great Lakes fish to 134 women who reported consuming at least 40 PCB-equivalent fish lbs of Great Lakes fish in their lifetime. Although the average levels of total PCBs in cord blood were exceedingly low (approximately 1.0 ppb), the data clearly indicated that both the proportion and the absolute concentration of the most heavily chlorinated and persistent PCB homologues (homologues C17-C19) were markedly elevated in the cord blood of fish eaters. This effect grew markedly as a function of the total PCBs detected in the sample. Moreover, the concentration of the most heavily chlorinated PCB homologues was significantly dependent on how recently the fish were consumed relative to pregnancy.

  1. Non-dioxin-like PCBs interact with benzo[a]pyrene-induced p53-responses and inhibit apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Anati, Lauy Hoegberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla

    2010-12-01

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants often co-existing in contaminated environments. However, there are few studies on the effects of co-exposure, in particular on effects of pure NDL-PCB congeners and PAHs. We have evaluated the effects of some highly purified NDL-PCBs and benzo[a]pyrene (BP) on BP-induced Raf, Erk, Mdm2, p53 signaling and on BP-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. PCBs (1 {mu}M) were added to HepG2 cells 1 h prior to BP and the incubation was stopped at 24 h. Employing Western blotting we found that NDL-PCBs (28, 101 and 153) amplified the BP-induced inactivating phosphorylation of Raf (pRaf Ser 259) and decreased levels of pErk Tyr 204. This treatment also resulted in the attenuation of BP-induced Mdm2 phosphorylation at Ser166 and amplification of the p53 Ser15 response. These effects were associated with an unexpected inhibition of BP-induced apoptosis. A dioxin-like PCB (DL-PCB 126) was used as reference and gave results that were predictable from previous studies, i.e. it attenuated BP-induced p53 response and apoptosis. In an effort to explain why the NDL-PCB-induced amplification of the p53 response was associated with a decreased apoptotic response we analyzed FoxO3a, which may translocate p53 to the cytoplasm. We found that NDL-PCBs reduced the level of phosphorylated FoxO3a at Thr32. This phosphorylation promotes a cytoplasmic translocation of FoxO3a and p53 and our data suggest that NDL-PCBs may inhibit BP-induced apoptosis by preventing a FoxO3a-dependent translocation of p53 to the cytoplasm.

  2. Effects of perinatal exposure to PCBs and dioxins on play behavior in Dutch children at school age.

    PubMed Central

    Vreugdenhil, Hestien J I; Slijper, Froukje M E; Mulder, Paul G H; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke

    2002-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins are known as neurotoxic compounds that may modulate sex steroid hormones. Steroid hormones play a mediating role in brain development and may influence behaviors that show sex differences, such as childhood play behavior. In this study we evaluated the effects of perinatal exposure to environmental levels of PCBs and dioxins on childhood play behavior and whether the effects showed sex differences. As part of the follow-up to the Dutch PCB/dioxin study at school age, we used the Pre-School Activity Inventory (PSAI) to assess play behavior in the Rotterdam cohort (n = 207). The PSAI assesses masculine or feminine play behavior scored on three subscales: masculine, feminine, and composite. Prenatal exposure to PCBs was defined as the sum of PCB 118, 138, 153, and 180 in maternal and cord plasma and breast milk. For breast milk we measured additional PCBs as well as 17 dioxins. Respondents returned 160 questionnaires (age 7.5 years +/- 0.4). Effects of prenatal exposure to PCBs, measured in maternal and cord plasma, on the masculine and composite scales were different for boys and girls (p <.05). In boys, higher prenatal PCB levels were related with less masculinized play, assessed by the masculine scale (p(maternal) =.042; p(cord) =.001) and composite scale (p(cord) =.011), whereas in girls higher PCB levels were associated with more masculinized play, assessed by the composite scale (p(PCBmilk) =.028). Higher prenatal dioxin levels were associated with more feminized play in boys as well as girls, assessed by the feminine scale (p =.048). These effects suggest prenatal steroid hormone imbalances caused by prenatal exposure to environmental levels of PCBs, dioxins, and other related organochlorine compounds. PMID:12361940

  3. Enormous PCBs increase in oysters from the coast of Guangdong, China.

    PubMed

    Gan, Ju-Li; Jia, Xiao-Ping; Jia, Ting; Lin, Qin; Cai, Wen-Gui

    2011-06-01

    PCBs equivalent to Aroclor 1242 and 1254 in soft tissues of oysters Crassostrea rivularis from the Guangdong coast, China, were measured using a GC-ECD. PCB concentrations (ng g(-1)d.w.) ranged from 30 to 2040 with an average of 315 in 2003-2007, and 0.35-1.43 with an average of 0.56 in 1989-1991. Annual averages were 0.61, 0.65, 313, 290 and 342ng g(-1), respectively in 1989, 1991, 2003, 2006 and 2007. In east Guangdong, the Pearl River Estuary, and west Guangdong, regional means were 444, 273, 194ng g(-1), respectively in 2003-2007, and 0.43, 0.78, 0.38ng g(-1), respectively in 1989-1991, indicating PCB levels in oysters have risen greatly by ratios of 350-1032 compared with earlier data. PCB sources may derive from older transformers, printing materials and pressworks. Fortunately, current residual PCBs in the oysters were 0.004-0.253mg kg(-1) (w.w.), still below hygienic criteria of China and developed countries. PMID:21507432

  4. PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs and Pesticides in Cold-Pressed Vegetable Oils.

    PubMed

    Roszko, M; Szterk, A; Szymczyk, K; Waszkiewicz-Robak, B

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (marker and dioxin-like congeners), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA 15 + 1), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (14 predominant congeners) and pesticides (74 compounds) in various cold-pressed vegetable oils. Poppy seed oil, rapeseed oil, sesame seed oil, pumpkinseed oil, hempseed oil, linaire oil, borage oil and evening star oil were investigated. Results of this study revealed that concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs and PAHs were low in majority of the investigated samples. However, high concentrations of organophosphorus insecticides were found. Chlorpyrifos methyl and pirimiphos methyl were the pesticide residues most commonly found in the studied oils. Concentration of 15 + 1 EPA PAHs was within the 17.85-37.16 μg kg(-1) range, concentration of (marker) PCBs varied from 127 to 24,882 pg g(-1), dioxin-like TEQ values were below 0.1 pg TEQ g(-1). Concentration of PBDEs was below LOQ in most cases. PMID:22389518

  5. Levels of PCBs and trace metals in Crab Orchard Lake sediment, benthos, zooplankton, and fish

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, C.C.; Heidinger, R.C.; Call, T.

    1990-02-01

    Concentrations of trace metals and PCBs in six species of fish, zooplankton, macrobenthos, sediment, and water were studied in Crab Orchard Lake, Williamson County, Illinois. Eleven sites were chosen throughout the lake, including one site (site 10) near an abandoned dumpsite of a former electrical transformer manufacturing facility. PCB levels in the selected components from site 10 were considerably higher than the other sites. Thirty-eight percent (17/45) of fish fillets from various species at this site exceeded the 2.00 mg/kg FDA guideline for PCBs. PCB concentrations in fish were variable, and little relationship existed between age or size and PCB concentrations in most species. Common carp and channel catfish had higher PCB levels than the other species examined. Trace metals were low in fish and other components analyzed and were comparable to literature values for the midwestern United States. Mercury was the only trace metal to exhibit a significant positive relationship with age or size of fish. Mercury was also the only trace metal to exhibit biomagnification.

  6. CFD modeling of incinerator to increase PCBs removal from outlet gas.

    PubMed

    Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Jaafarzadeh, Nematallah; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Dastforoushan, Golbarg; Jaafari, Jalil

    2015-01-01

    Incineration of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is an important alternative way for disposal of this type of hazardous waste. PCBs are very stable compounds and do not decompose readily. Individuals can be exposed to PCBs through several ways and damaged by their effects. A well design of a waste incinerator will convert these components to unharmfull materials. In this paper we have studied the design parameters of an incinerator with numerical approaches. The CFD software Fluent 6.3 is used for modelling of an incinerator. The effects of several baffles inside the incinerator on flow distribution and heat is investigated. The results show that baffles can reduce eddy flows, increase retaining times, and efficiencies. The baffles reduced cool areas and increased efficiencies of heat as maximum temperature in two and three baffle embedded incinerator were 100 and 200 °C higher than the non-baffle case, respectively. Also the gas emission leaves the incinerator with a lower speed across a longer path and the turbulent flow in the incinerator is stronger. PMID:26269746

  7. Tracing the sources of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in Lake Baikal

    SciTech Connect

    Mamontov, A.A.; Mamontova, E.A.; Tarasova, E.N.; McLachlan, M.S.

    2000-03-01

    Lake Baikal is a unique freshwater ecosystem that has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It contains high levels of PCBs, and Baikal seal were recently found to have PCDD/F concentrations comparable to those in the Baltic Sea. In this work fish and soil were analyzed to trace the sources of these compounds to the lake. The fish samples indicated that the PCDD/F and PCB contamination of Lake Baikal does not originate from background inputs and that the contamination increases from north to south. The soil inventory was determined at 34 sites around Lake Baikal and in the Angara River valley. For the PCDD/Fs and most PCBs, the soil inventory is a good approximation of the cumulative atmospheric deposition. It varied over a factor of 1,000, with the highest levels in Usol'ye Sibirskoe, a city 110 km north of the southwestern tip of the lake in the highly industrialized Angara River valley, and the lowest values in the pristine areas to the northeast of the lake. A continuous decrease in the soil inventory was observed moving from Usol'ye S. up the Angara River valley to Lake Baikal and from there northeastward along the lake.

  8. Current and historical deposition of PBDEs, pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs to Rocky Mountain National Park.

    PubMed

    Usenko, Sascha; Landers, Dixon H; Appleby, Peter G; Simonich, Staci L

    2007-11-01

    An analytical method was developed for the trace analysis of 98 semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) in remote, high-elevation lake sediment. Sediment cores from Lone Pine Lake (west of the Continental Divide) and Mills Lake (east of the Continental Divide) in Rocky Mountain National Park, CO, were dated using 210Pb and 137Cs and analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides, phosphorothioate pesticides, thiocarbamate pesticides, amide herbicides, triazine herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using this method. SOC deposition profiles were reconstructed, and deposition half-lives and doubling times were calculated, for U.S. historic-use pesticides (HUPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) as well as PBDEs, PCBs, and PAHs. Sediment records indicate that the deposition of CUPs has increased in recent years, while the deposition of HUPs has decreased since U.S. restriction, but has not been eliminated. This is likely due to the revolatilization of HUPs from regional soils, atmospheric transport, and deposition. Differences in the magnitude of SOC sediment fluxes, flux profiles, time trends within those profiles, and isomeric ratios suggest that SOC deposition in high-elevation ecosystems is dependent on regional upslope wind directions and site location with respect to regional sources and topographic barriers. PMID:18044494

  9. Removal of PCDD/Fs and PCBs from flue gas using a pilot gas cleaning system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoqing; Jin, Yuqi; Wu, Hailong; Chen, Tong; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Jiang, Xuguang; Yan, Jianhua

    2013-09-01

    A 100 Nm3/hr capacity pilot scale dual bag filter (DBF) system was tested on the flue gas from an actual hazardous waste incinerator (HWI), the removal efficiency of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was also studied. The first filter collected most of the fly ash and associated chlorinated organic; then activated carbon (AC) was injected and used to collect phase chlorinated organic from the gas. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs after the DBF system were 0.07 and 0.01 ng TEQ/Nm3, respectively, which were both far below the national emission standard. Comparing with the original single bag filter system, the PCDD/Fs concentration dropped a lot from 0.36 to 0.07 ng TEQ/Nm3. Increasing AC feeding rate enhanced their collection efficiency, yet reduced the AC utilization efficiency, and it still needs further study to select an appropriate feeding rate in the system. These results will be useful for industrial application and assist in controlling emissions of PCDD/Fs and other persistent organic pollutions from stationary sources in China. PMID:24520726

  10. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in aquatic biota from a tidal freshwater marsh ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Crimmins, B S; Brown, P Doelling; Kelso, D P; Foster, G D

    2002-05-01

    Water, sediments, and aquatic biota were sampled in a tidal river-marsh on the Potomac River near Washington, DC (USA) to assess baseline concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and bioaccumulation in finish species. The mean sediment total-PCB concentration in the wetland was 50 ng/g dry weight, and mean concentrations in biota ranged from 150 ng/g to 450 ng/g wet weight. The highest PCB concentrations were observed in channel catfish. The median biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) estimated in all finfish species for total-PCBs was 2.9. However, some of the individual and co-eluting PCB congeners had median BSAFs that were substantially greater (e.g., congener numbers 42, 74, 182/187/128, and 171) or lower (e.g., congener numbers 18/15, 45, 185, and 208) than the total-PCB average. Apparent bioaccumulation factors (biota/water PCB concentration ratios) for PCB congeners showed a parabolic relation with n-octanol/water partition coefficients, confirming some previous investigations. There was no clear trend between apparent bioaccumulation factors and trophic level. Organic-carbon-normalized sediment distribution constants (sediment/water PCB concentration ratios) were linearly related to the apparent bioaccumulation factors for all the finfish species investigated. PMID:11994779

  11. Influence of sex and age on PCBs accumulation in the commercial fish Chelon labrosus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Joana; Pato, Pedro; Tavares, Sílvia; Duarte, Armando C.; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2013-05-01

    Thicklip grey mullet, Chelon labrosus, is an important commercial fish species and has been studied worldwide. However, no recent studies have been made regarding polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in wild C. labrosus. Due to that, the concentration of 13 PCBs congeners was measured in muscles and livers, of males and females, of C. labrosus of different ages, allowing the estimation of PCB bioaccumulation throughout the species lifespan, in the Mondego estuary, a southern European temperate estuary. Male muscle sample concentrations ranged from 32 to 96 ng g- 1 (lipid wt.) and in females from 32 to 62 ng g- 1 (lipid wt.). In male liver sample concentrations ranged from 106 to 158 ng g- 1 (lipid wt.), while female concentrations ranged from 88 to 129 ng g- 1 (lipid wt.). The most abundant congeners presenting higher percentages in all samples were CB 138, 153 and 180. No significant differences were found between the concentrations in both sexes, but muscle and liver PCB concentrations in males tended to increase with age whereas in females concentrations remained stable throughout the species lifespan. Significant differences were found between concentrations in muscle and liver.

  12. Primary source regions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubl, Sandy; Scheringer, Martin; Stohl, Andreas; Burkhart, John F.; Hungerbuhler, Konrad

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the source regions of the three polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) 28, 101, and 180 measured at the Arctic stations Alert and Zeppelin, and at Birkenes, which is located in southern Norway. Although the Arctic is remote from the main use areas of these chemicals, PCBs have been found in Arctic air, seawater and biota, which has caused concerns for human and environmental health. We used 20-day backward calculations of the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART to identify the origin of air masses associated with the 20% highest and lowest measured PCB concentrations. At Birkenes, high concentrations are clearly associated with air masses arriving from known source regions (primarily in Europe and Russia), whereas low concentrations are correlated with atmospheric transport from regions with low primary emissions. At Zeppelin, the influence from known source regions is also enhanced when high PCB-28 and PCB-101 concentrations were measured. At Alert, in contrast, there is no clear link between high/low PCB concentrations and atmospheric transport from source/non-source regions. Additionally, we combined the atmospheric transport patterns with PCB emission data to identify important source regions and their seasonal variability. For the Arctic stations, Western Russia is the dominant source region for PCB-28 and PCB-101. Central Europe is the most important source region for PCB-180, but sources in the US contribute up to 15% to PCB-180 measured at Alert.

  13. Electrochemical peroxidation of PCBs and VOCs in superfund site water and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Scrudato, R.J.; Chiarenzelli, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    An electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) process has been developed and used to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and volatile organic compounds (VOC)-contaminated water, sludge, and sediments at a New York State Federal and State Superfund Site. The process involves passing an oscillating low-amperage (<10 amps) current through steel electrodes immersed in an acidified water or sediment slurry into which hydrogen peroxide (<1,000 ppm) is added. The generated free radicals attack organic compounds, including organo-metallic complexes and refractory compounds including PCBs. PCB degradation ranged from about 30% to 80% in experiments involving Federal Superfund Site sediments; total PCBs were reduced by {approximately}97% to 68%, respectively, in water and slurry collected from a State Superfund subsurface storage tank. VOC bench-scale experiments involved chloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and acetone and after a 3-min ECP treatment, degradation ranged from >94% to about 99.9%. Results indicate the ECP is a viable process to degrade organic contaminants in water and sediment suspensions. Because the treated water suspensions are acidified, select trace metal sorbed to the particulates is solubilized and therefore can be segregated from the particulates, offering a process that simultaneously degrades organic contaminants and separates trace metals. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. Disposition of low and high environmental concentrations of PCBs in snapping turtle tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, A.M.; Olafsson, P.G.; Stone, W.B.

    1987-06-01

    Snapping turtles, as a result of their ability to store high concentrations of PCBs in their fat, provide an excellent screen for the detection of trace toxic substances in water. Snapping turtles may also be of value in the monitoring of the disposition of environmental pollutants in the tissues of organisms living in a particular ecosystem. Many organochlorine compounds are only slowly metabolized by animals and consequently the parent compounds tend to persist in the tissues. Differences in the degree of dissolution of various polychlorinated hydrocarbons in blood may be attributed to differences in the relative solubility of these compounds in one or more of the blood components. It has been shown that binding of individual organochlorine compounds by lipoproteins and albumin involves slowly reversible hydrophobic interactions with a quasi steady state between adipose tissue, blood and remaining tissues. If such a dynamic equilibrium is involved, it might be anticipated that, under the impact of a multi-component pollutant such as an Aroclor, the biological system would respond in the same manner over a wide range of concentrations provided that the binding of each the congeners involved reversible interactions with the quasi steady state. The net result would be that the order of quantitative disposition of PCBs in the various tissues would be maintained as the concentration in each site increased. It is the objective of this study to determine if such a pharmacodynamic equilibrium is operative in snapping turtles subjected to widely differing degrees of PCB environment contamination.

  15. Impact of soil characteristics on relative bioavailability of NDL-PCBs in piglets.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Matthieu; Fournier, Agnès; Tankari Dan-Badjo, Abdourahamane; Schwarz, Jessica; Lerch, Sylvain; Rychen, Guido; Feidt, Cyril

    2015-11-01

    Children may be orally exposed to organic pollutants through involuntary soil ingestion. This study was aimed at determining the impact of the characteristics (organic carbon (OC), black carbon (BC), clay contents and pH) of ten contaminated soils on the bioavailability of non-dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (NDL-PCBs). Five juvenile male piglets were exposed to increasing amounts of each of the soils. These soil-fed groups were compared by a relative bioavailability approach (RBA) to a reference group fed with corn oil spiked with increasing doses of Aroclor 1254. After 10days of oral exposure, the animals were sacrificed and NDL-PCB concentrations were determined by GC-MS in the adipose tissue. The relative bioavailability (RBA) factors were calculated for PCB 101, 138, 153 and 180. Despite high variations in the amount of black carbon (0.50gkg(-1)-6.0gkg(-1)d.w.) and organic matter (12gkg(-1)-180gkg(-1)d.w.), only 3 soils exhibited a significantly lower RBA for all NDL-PCBs, compared to the oil-group. High levels of OC (>100gkg(-1)) and BC content (3.0gkg(-1)) were related to a significant reduction in RBA. Overall, RBA was higher than 45% independently of the soil and the PCB congener. PMID:26210188

  16. Hydrocarbons, PCBs and DDT in the NW Mediterranean deep-sea fish Mora moro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solé, Montserrat; Porte, Cinta; Albaigés, Joan

    2001-02-01

    Data on aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs in the deep-sea fish Mora moro are reported in relation to the animal's weight/size and tissues (muscle, liver, digestive tube and gills). Fish samples were collected in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) at an approximate depth of 1000 m. The concentrations of these organic pollutants followed the trend musclePCBs, and 4-6-ringed PAHs, was found in the deep-sea fish.

  17. Organochlorine concentrations (PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB and MIREX) in delphinids stranded at the northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos-Neto, Elitieri B; Azevedo-Silva, Claudio Eduardo; Bisi, Tatiana L; Santos, Jessica; Meirelles, Ana Carolina O; Carvalho, Vitor L; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Guimarães, José Eugênio; Lailson-Brito, José

    2014-02-15

    Organochlorine compounds are highly persistent in the environment, causing bioaccumulation and biomagnification through the marine food chain. To verify the bioaccumulation pattern of DDT and its metabolites, as well as PCBs, Mirex, HCHs and HCB, samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue from 25 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis), two Fraser's dolphins (Lagenodelphis hosei), two spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris), one spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis), and one striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) were analyzed. The collected specimens were found stranded in northeastern Brazil between 2005 and 2011. The concentrations were reported in μg·g(-1) lip, varying from 0.02 to 17.3 for ΣPCB, from 0.003 to 5.19 for ΣDDT, from 0.005 to 0.16 for ΣHCH, from 0.002 to 0.16 for HCB, and from 0.02 to 2.38 for Mirex. The PCBs dominated the bioaccumulation pattern for both the Guiana and spinner dolphins; for the other species, DDT was the major compound. A discriminant function analysis revealed the differences in the organochlorine accumulation patterns between the Guiana dolphin (S. guianensis) and the continental shelf/oceanic dolphins (S. frontalis and S. longirostris). The results also show that the concentrations of organochlorine compounds found in the delphinids in northeastern Brazil were lower than the delphinids found in other regions of Brazil, as well as other locations worldwide with intense agroindustrial development and/or a larger population. PMID:24291562

  18. What can we learn from monitoring PCBs in the European eel? A Belgian experience.

    PubMed

    Belpaire, Claude; Geeraerts, Caroline; Roosens, Laurence; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2011-02-01

    Between 2000 and 2007 pooled muscle tissue samples of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from 48 sites in Flanders (Belgium) were analysed for 30 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. There was a large variation between individual sites (range 11-7752 ng/g wet weight (ww) for the sum of the ICES 7 PCBs), eels from the River Meuse basin (mean 1545 ng/g ww) being considerably more polluted than those from the River Scheldt (615) and IJzer (61) basins. Overall, PCB 153, PCB 138 and PCB 180 were the most prominent congeners, however PCB patterns varied between the monitored locations. Analysis of the weight percentage of congeners demonstrates obvious differences in PCB composition between sites, indicating differential sources of pollution. Due to the variation in patterns, atmospheric fallout does not seem to be the main source of the PCB spread, but instead both local and upstream sources linked to industrial activities seem to be the main cause for PCB presence in Flanders. Considering the levels of the Sum 7 PCBs, eels are not compliant with the Belgian legal limits for consumption (75 ng/g ww) in 71% of the sites. Regular consumption of eels from polluted sites leads to a considerable excess of the WHO Acceptable Daily Intake value. Consumption of wild eels should by all means be prevented, as it presents risks for human health, especially for local anglers consuming their catch. PMID:21075450

  19. Monitoring for PCBs at the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.F.; O`Neill, H.J.; Cohut, V.J.; Hayes, D.C.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-07-01

    The US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground has been a test site for a variety of munitions, including chemical warfare agents. The Pilot Plant Complex (PPC) at Aberdeen was the site of the development, manufacture, storage, and disposal of a number of chemical warfare agents. The objective of this study was to determine if there is polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in the PPC. The results of screening done by Argonne indicate that PCBs in the air of the PPC are well below acceptable levels. The total PCB burden of the surfaces in the PPC appears to be well below the 50-ppM regulatory level. However, the study identified contaminated floor surfaces that exceed the acceptable level of 10 {mu}g/100 cm{sup 2} for a workplace. Areas in Building E5618 exceed 1,000 {mu}g/100 cm{sup 2}, with a high reading of 21,100 {mu}g/100 cm{sup 2} in room C103. Building E5625 has several areas where PCBs exceed 100 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}.

  20. Body burden levels of dioxin, furans, and PCBs among frequent consumers of Great Lakes sport fish

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, C.; Hanrahan, L.; Anderson, H.A.; Draheim, L.; Kanarek, M.S.; Needham, L.; Patterson, D. Jr.

    1999-02-01

    Dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic, persist in the environment, and bioaccumulate to concentrations that can be harmful to humans. The Health Departments of five GL states, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana, formed a consortium to study body burden levels of chemical residues in fish consumers of Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie. In Fall 1993, a telephone survey was administered to sport angler households to obtain fish consumption habits and demographics. A blood sample was obtained from a portion of the study subjects. One hundred serum samples were analyzed for 8 dioxin, 10 furan, and 4 coplanar PCB congeners. Multiple linear regression was conducted to assess the predictability of the following covariates: GL sport fish species, age, BMI, gender, years sport fish consumed, and lake. Median total dioxin toxic equivalents (TEq), total furan TEq, and total coplanar PCB TEq were higher among all men than all women (P = 0.0001). Lake trout, salmon, age, BMI, and gender were significant regression predictors of log (total coplanar PCBs). Lake trout, age, gender, and lake were significant regression predictors of log (total furans). Age was the only significant predictor of total dioxin levels.