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1

Adult Neuropsychological Performance Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

This population-based retrospective cohort study examined adult performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results of crude and multivariate analyses among 35 exposed and 28 unexposed subjects showed no association between prenatal and early postnatal exposure and decrements on tests that assess abilities in the domains of omnibus intelligence, academic achievement or language. The results were suggestive of an association between prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure and diminished performance on tests that assessed abilities in the domains of visuospatial functioning, learning and memory, motor, attention and mood. Because the sample size was small, most findings were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to further define the neuropsychological consequences of early developmental PCE exposure. PMID:22522125

Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Vieira, Veronica; Aschengrau, Ann

2012-01-01

2

Occurrence of mental illness following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background While many studies of adults with solvent exposure have shown increased risks of anxiety and depressive disorders, there is little information on the impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure on the subsequent risk of mental illness. This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Methods A total of 1,512 subjects born between 1969 and 1983 were studied, including 831 subjects with both prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on mental illnesses, demographic and medical characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure originating from the vinyl-liner of water distribution pipes was assessed using water distribution system modeling software that incorporated a leaching and transport algorithm. Results No meaningful increases in risk ratios (RR) for depression were observed among subjects with prenatal and early childhood exposure (RR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.9-1.4). However, subjects with prenatal and early childhood exposure had a 1.8-fold increased risk of bipolar disorder (N = 36 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.9-1.4), a 1.5-fold increased risk post-traumatic stress disorder (N = 47 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.9-2.5), and a 2.1-fold increased risk of schizophrenia (N = 3 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.2-20.0). Further increases in the risk ratio were observed for bipolar disorder (N = 18 exposed cases, RR; 2.7, 95% CI: 1.3-5.6) and post-traumatic stress disorder (N = 18 exposed cases, RR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.2) among subjects with the highest exposure levels. Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence against an impact of early life exposure to PCE on the risk of depression. In contrast, the results provide support for an impact of early life exposure on the risk of bipolar disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. The number of schizophrenia cases was too small to draw reliable conclusions. These findings should be confirmed in investigations of other similarly exposed populations. PMID:22264316

2012-01-01

3

Prenatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene-Contaminated Drinking Water and the Risk of Adverse Birth Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Prior studies of prenatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) have shown mixed results regarding its effect on birth weight and gestational age. Objectives: In this retrospective cohort study we examined whether PCE contamination of public drinking-water supplies in Massachusetts influenced the birth weight and gestational duration of children whose mothers were exposed before the child's delivery. Methods: The study included

Ann Aschengrau; Janice Weinberg; Sarah Rogers; Lisa Gallagher; Michael Winter; Veronica Vieira; Thomas Webster; David Ozonoff

2008-01-01

4

Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It depends on the condition of the source water and the treatment it receives. Treatment may include ...

5

Drinking Water Problems: Lead  

E-print Network

Lead in drinking water can damage the brain, kidneys, nervous system and red blood cells. This publication explains how lead can enter drinking water, how to have your water tested, and how to eliminate lead from drinking water....

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2004-02-20

6

It's Your Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... drinking water program. Many are available via the Internet. Call the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at (800) ... been meeting drinking water safety standards, on the Internet at: www.epa.gov/safewater/dwinfo.htm DETERMINING ...

7

Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces students to the importance of water to living organisms, including humans. The discussion points out that all organisms contain water, and decribes how water is accumulated and stored. There is also an examination of the water supplies of Winnipeg, Ontario, and Vancouver, British Columbia, and a discussion of the importance of purifying driking water supplies to remove harmful bacteria and microbes.

8

AIRCRAFT DRINKING WATER RULE  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), any interstate carrier conveyance (ICC) that regularly serves drinking water to an average of at least 25 individuals daily, at least 60 days per year, is subject to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). An ICC is a car...

9

Drinking Water FAQ  

MedlinePLUS

... or ground water. Surface water collects in streams, rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. Ground water is water located ... protect drinking water and its sources, which include rivers, lakes, reservoirs, springs, and ground water wells. Top ...

10

Drinking Water Problems: Copper  

E-print Network

management strategy, consider treating your water or seeking an alternative drink- ing-water supply such as bottled water. Treatment options for reducing copper concentrations in water include (1) reverse osmosis, (2) distillation or (3) ion exchange. Reverse... management strategy, consider treating your water or seeking an alternative drink- ing-water supply such as bottled water. Treatment options for reducing copper concentrations in water include (1) reverse osmosis, (2) distillation or (3) ion exchange. Reverse...

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2006-01-25

11

Quality of Drinking Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

Roman, Harry T.

2009-01-01

12

Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides  

E-print Network

Radionuclides in drinking water can cause serious health problems for people. This publication explains what the sources of radionuclides in water are, where high levels have been found in Texas, how they affect health and how to treat water...

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

2006-08-04

13

Drinking Water and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

14

Drinking Water Problems: Nitrates  

E-print Network

High levels of nitrates in drinking water can be harmful for very young infants and susceptible adults. This publication explains how people are exposed to nitrates, what health effects are caused by them in drinking water and how to remove them....

Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-03-28

15

Nanoparticles in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic nanoparticles are increasingly being used in everyday products, but little is known about environmental releases of these materials. Our knowledge of how many natural nanoparticles occur in drinking water is also inadequate. An initial assessment is presented here. Drinking water is clear, and yet it contains millions of particles. Substances are described as particulate - as opposed to dissolved

Ralf Kaegi

16

Drinking water and cancer.  

PubMed Central

Any and all chemicals generated by human activity can and will find their way into water supplies. The types and quantities of carcinogens present in drinking water at the point of consumption will differ depending on whether they result from contamination of the source water, arise as a consequence of treatment processes, or enter as the water is conveyed to the user. Source-water contaminants of concern include arsenic, asbestos, radon, agricultural chemicals, and hazardous waste. Of these, the strongest evidence for a cancer risk involves arsenic, which is linked to cancers of the liver, lung, bladder, and kidney. The use of chlorine for water treatment to reduce the risk of infectious disease may account for a substantial portion of the cancer risk associated with drinking water. The by-products of chlorination are associated with increased risk of bladder and rectal cancer, possibly accounting for 5000 cases of bladder cancer and 8000 cases of rectal cancer per year in the United States. Fluoridation of water has received great scrutiny but appears to pose little or no cancer risk. Further research is needed to identify and quantify risks posed by contaminants from drinking-water distribution pipes, linings, joints, and fixtures and by biologically active micropollutants, such as microbial agents. We need more cost-effective methods for monitoring drinking-water quality and further research on interventions to minimize cancer risks from drinking water. PMID:8741788

Morris, R D

1995-01-01

17

DrinkingWater Newsletter  

Microsoft Academic Search

he purpose of the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR), and the rule's 2007 Short-Term Revisions, is to protect the consumers of public water systems from exposure to lead and copper in drinking water. This article emphasizes the lead public education requirements of the rule since there are no comparable requirements for copper. The LCR requires community and non-transient non- community

2009-01-01

18

Water Fit to Drink.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

Donovan, Edward P.

19

DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Conducted every 4 years, the Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey (DWINS) is an EPA-conducted statistically-based survey of the infrastructure investment needs of the Nation's drinking water systems for the next 20 years....

20

Drinking Water Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the treatment of drinking water to remove harmful or distasteful substances. Topics include the history of treatment and a brief listing of treatment processes. Students can examine a selection of online resources for more detailed information on modern treatment methods and potential contaminants. The lesson includes an activity in which they construct a model treatment plant and treat water that they have 'contaminated' themselves in order to observe firsthand the steps involved in purifying water for human consumption.

Laposata, Matt

21

Campylobacter and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... Pore Sizes Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment & Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Drinking Water Healthy Swimming / Recreational Water Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene Other Uses of Water Water-related Emergencies & ...

22

Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... Pore Sizes Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment & Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Drinking Water Healthy Swimming / Recreational Water Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene Other Uses of Water Water-related Emergencies & ...

23

Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... Pore Sizes Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment & Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Drinking Water Healthy Swimming / Recreational Water Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene Other Uses of Water Water-related Emergencies & ...

24

Widespread PCE Contamination: Characterization and Source Investigation to Protect Municipal Wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fifteen years of groundwater quality monitoring of municipal wells in Reno, Nevada have shown increasing levels of PCE (tetrachloroethylene) beyond the U.S. EPA MCL of 5 ug/L. Eleven of the 28 municipal wells have detectable levels of PCE, with five of those wells requiring wellhead treatment. The Central Truckee Meadows Remediation District (CTMRD) was created to provide wellhead treatment of PCE, and evaluate, characterize, and remediate (if possible) the PCE-contaminated groundwater. The CTMRD's first tasks of wellhead treatment, plume characterization, remediation plan development, and source zone identification has been completed. The CTMRD recently completed investigations into the presence of PCE in sanitary sewer systems and their potential as pathways for contaminant migration throughout the Reno/Sparks metropolitan area. The first phase of the sewer investigation considered the possibility that PCE resides in the sanitary sewer system and that it may be actively discharged to the sewer system as well. Results of this investigation revealed that nine sub-regions contained maximum PCE concentrations of that exceeded 100 ug/L, 20 times the U.S. EPA MCL of 5 ug/L. Eight of these nine subregions were located downgradient from active dry-cleaning facilities. One of the sampling locations had a maximum PCE concentration greater than 36,000 ug/L over a 24-hour period. The second phase of the sewer investigation explored for the sanitary sewer system to allow PCE to act as a conduit for contaminant migration. A phased approach was employed to investigate the sewer line leakage and resultant soil and groundwater impact. The investigation found that groundwater beneath most of the targeted sewer line reaches was contaminated. In particular, PCE was detected in 88% of all passive soil gas samples, 71% of all active soil gas samples, 23% of all soil samples, and 73% of all groundwater samples.

Kropf, C. A.; Benedict, J.; Berg, J. H.

2003-12-01

25

Ensuring safer drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Today's regulatory environment has led to the proliferation of voluntary consensus standards and certification programs that are important to ensuring safety and health in a number of areas. One such area -- the treatment and delivery of potable water -- is addressed by the Drinking Water Additives Program.'' At the request of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this program was developed in the mid-1980s by an independent, voluntary consensus standards organization called NSF International (formerly known as the National Sanitation Foundation). This paper explains the need for and the structure of the Drinking Water Additives Program; the rationale for transferring responsibility for its execution from the EPA to the private sector; and the impact of its standards on users, manufacturers, and state and local regulatory bodies. Understanding the additives program is critically important to industry suppliers because, as it continues to gain greater awareness and acceptance, there are a growing number of manufacturers sourcing materials and products primarily from suppliers whose products meet the program's certification requirements.

Christensen, J. (Advanced Elastomer Systems, St. Louis, MO (United States). Fluid Delivery and Electrical Markets); Higgins, P. (PJ Higgins and Associates Inc., Frederick, MD (United States))

1994-09-01

26

Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... drinking water. If it is not available and river or lake water must be used, avoid sources ... lamblia and Cryptosporidium , which are frequently found in rivers and lakes. These disease-causing organisms are less ...

27

Molecular Ecology of Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

The presentation consists of examples of molecular research: ?Detection and control (removal and/or inactivation) of microbes in drinking source waters ?Changing microbial quality of water during distribution and storage ?Detection and identification of microbial agents, incl...

28

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for  

E-print Network

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also connected to surface waters, and maintains the flow of rivers and streams and the level of wetlands- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water

Saldin, Dilano

29

Drinking Water Problems: Perchlorate  

E-print Network

Perchlorate is a potential contaminate of well water that can have harmful effects on human health. Methods of removing perchlorate from water are described and illustrated. There is information to help well owners select and maintain treatment...

Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Porter, Dana; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2005-11-18

30

Drinking Water Bloopers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These six reminders to younger students are about bad practices that waste or pollute water. These include waiting to fix a leak, using water from the hot water tap when cooking, carelessly discarding motor oil, tossing toxic materials in the trash, watering the lawn in the middle of the day, and using the garbage disposal too much. There is also a link that leads to information about composting.

31

Drinking Water Problems: Corrosion  

E-print Network

. This type of corrosion is not necessarily caused by water chemistry, but by exposure to soil or otherLife Extension Service Soil, Water and Forage Testing Laboratory, test irrigation and/or livestock water measure pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, and total hardness. The LSI

32

DRINKING WATER ARSENIC AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking Water Arsenic and Perinatal Outcomes DT Lobdell, Z Ning, RK Kwok, JL Mumford, ZY Liu, P Mendola Many studies have documented an association between drinking water arsenic (DWA) and cancer, vascular diseases, and dermatological outcomes, but few have investigate...

33

Drinking Water Problems: MTBE  

E-print Network

Methyl tertiary-butyl ether, a gasoline additive commonly known as MTBE, can contaminate ground water and cause health problems for those exposed to it for a long time. However, filtering devices can remove this and other additives from well water...

Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-08-28

34

Drinking Water Standards  

E-print Network

chemical plants and zero other industrial activities D Chloramines (as(Cl 2 ) MRDL=4.0 1 Eye/nose irritation; stomach discomfort, Water additive used to control microbes MRDGL=4 1 anemia OC Chlordane 0.002 Liver or nervous system problems; Residue of banned... termiticide zero increased risk of cancer D Chlorine (as Cl 2 ) MRDL=4.0 1 Eye/nose irritation; stomach discomfort Water additive used to control microbes MRDGL=4 1 D Chlorine dioxide MRDL=0.8 1 Anemia; infants and young children: Water additive used...

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2006-04-26

35

Sodium in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... to be a significant contribution to adverse health effects. This low level of concern is compounded by ... to be a significant contribution to adverse health effects. Top of page How much does water contribute ...

36

Ground Water and Drinking Water: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, presents a list of most frequently asked questions (with answers). Question topics include: drinking water standards, getting information about your tap water and questions about bottled water.

37

DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of water treatment is threefold: 1. To improve the aethetic quality ofwater, 2. to remove toxic or health-hazardous chemicals, 3. to remove and/or inactivate any disease causing microorganisms. These objectives should be accomplished using a reasonable safety factor...

38

Naphthalene: Drinking water health advisory  

SciTech Connect

The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its report on the chemical, naphthalene. Naphthalene is used in the manufacture of phthalic and anthranilic acids and other derivatives, and in making dyes; in the manufacture of resins, celluloid, lampblack and smokeless gunpowder; and as moth repellant, insecticide, anthelmintic, vermicide, and intestinal antiseptic. The report covers the following areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the environment; its environmental fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the human body; and its health effects on humans and animals, including its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. Also included is the quantification of its toxicological effects.

Not Available

1990-03-01

39

Water Treatment: Can You Purify Water for Drinking?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)

Harris, Mary E.

1996-01-01

40

MINI PILOT PLANT FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Supply & Water Resources Division (WSWRD) has constructed 2 mini-pilot plant systems used to conduct drinking water research. These two systems each have 2 parallel trains for comparative research. The mini-pilot plants are small conventional drinking water treatment ...

41

Ensuring the Public's Drinking-Water Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some questions are answered concerning the justification, intent, and purpose of the Safe Drinking Water Act's regulations. Some points, previously misinterpreted, are placed in clear perspective. (BB)

McDermott, James H.

1978-01-01

42

EPA?s Drinking Water Treatability Database: A Tool for All Drinking Water Professionals  

EPA Science Inventory

The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) is being developed by the USEPA Office of Research and Development to allow drinking water professionals and others to access referenced information gathered from thousands of literature sources and assembled on one site. Currently, ...

43

DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANT ADVISOR - USER DOCUMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) Advisor is a software application which has been designed to provide assistance in the evaluation of drinking water treatment plants. Specifically, this program, which is based on the source document Interim Handbook Optimizing Water Trea...

44

Biomonitoring Methods for Drinking Water Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two biomonitoring approaches are being developed to rapidly identify toxicity associated with toxic industrial chemicals in Army drinking water supplies. An aquatic biomonitor continuously monitors water at fixed facilities such as water treatment plants ...

W. H. Schalie, T. R. Shedd, M. W. Widder, T. P. Gargan

2004-01-01

45

DISINFECTION OF WATER: DRINKING WATER, RECREATIONAL WATER, AND WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter describes and categorizes the methodology used for disinfection of drinking water, recreational water and wastewater including wastewater sludges. It largely is a literature summary and references articles covering the years of 1939 through 1999, with a few reference...

46

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2011-07-01

47

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2012-07-01

48

30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71.602...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped...

2014-07-01

49

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2014-07-01

50

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2013-07-01

51

30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601 Mineral Resources...MINES Drinking Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the...

2012-07-01

52

30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601 Mineral Resources...MINES Drinking Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the...

2011-07-01

53

30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601 Mineral Resources...MINES Drinking Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the...

2013-07-01

54

30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601 Mineral...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided...

2014-07-01

55

Drinking Water: A Community Action Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While much of the drinking water in the United States is safe for consumption, protecting its quality and assuring its availability are becoming increasingly difficult. This booklet is written for individuals and groups who are concerned about the drinking water in their communities. It provides a general introduction to the complex issues of…

Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

56

Biological Drinking Water Treatment: Benefiting from Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the use of microbial biomass for the degradation of contaminants, nutrients, and organics has been commonly used in the wastewater field since the early 1900s, the biological treatment of drinking water has been limited, particularly in the United States. However, recent developments in the drinking water treatment field are beginning to broaden the applicability, feasibility, and favorability of biological

Jess C. Brown; Carollo Engineers

57

Radon in private drinking water wells.  

PubMed

At least 10% of inhabitants in the Czech Republic are supplied with water from private sources (private wells, boreholes). With the increasing cost of water, the number of people using their own sources of drinking water will be likely to increase. According to the Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety about the Radiation Protection 307/2002 as amended by Decree 499/2005, the guideline limit for the supplied drinking water ('drinking water for public supply') for radon concentration is 50 Bq·l(-1). This guideline does not apply to private sources of drinking water. Radon in water influences human health by ingestion and also by inhalation when radon is released from water during showering and cooking. This paper presents results of measurements of radon concentrations in water from private wells in more than 300 cases. The gross concentration of alpha-emitting radionuclides and the concentrations of radium and uranium were also determined. PMID:24714110

Otahal, P; Merta, J; Burian, I

2014-07-01

58

OVERVIEW OF RADIONUCLIDES IN DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Invited presentation at the 2007 National Rural Water Association National Conference, Philadelphia, PA, September 23-26, 2007. The presentation reviews the chemistry of radium and uranium in drinking water sources, treatment options, and guidelines for disposal. Presentation giv...

59

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR LEGIONELLA (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has prepared a drinking water criteria document on Legionella. The document includes an extensive review of the following topics: general information and properties, occurrence in drinking water, worldwide distri...

60

Drinking Water Program 1992 annual report  

SciTech Connect

EG&G Idaho, Inc., initiated a monitoring program for drinking water in 1988 for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. EG&G Idaho structured this monitoring program to ensure that they exceeded the minimum regulatory requirements for monitoring drinking water. This program involves tracking the bacteriological, chemical, and radiological parameters that are required for a {open_quotes}community water system{close_quotes} (maximum requirements). This annual report describes the drinking water monitoring activities conducted at the 17 EG&G Idaho operated production wells and 11 distribution systems. It also contains all of the drinking water parameters that were detected and the regulatory limits that were exceeded during 1992. In addition, ground water quality is discussed as it relates to contaminants identified at the wellhead for EG&G Idaho production wells.

Andersen, B.D.; Peterson-Wright, L.J.

1993-08-01

61

Brookhaven National Laboratory Source Water Assessment for Drinking Water  

E-print Network

contamination and potential sources of new contamination, (2) groundwater monitoring, and (3) potable waterBNL 52608 Brookhaven National Laboratory Source Water Assessment for Drinking Water Supply Wells Brookhaven National Laboratory Source Water Assessment for Drinking Water Supply Wells December 27, 2000

62

Investigation of Drinking Water Quality in Kosovo  

PubMed Central

In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water). The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO. PMID:23509472

Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

2013-01-01

63

Investigation of drinking water quality in Kosovo.  

PubMed

In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water). The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO. PMID:23509472

Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

2013-01-01

64

Accuracy of bottled drinking water label content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of the concentration of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), pH, and total dissolved\\u000a solids (TDS) levels mentioned on the labels of the various brands of bottled drinking water available in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.\\u000a Twenty-one different brands of locally produced non-carbonated (still water) bottled drinking water were collected from the\\u000a supermarkets of

Nazeer B. Khan; Arham N. Chohan

2010-01-01

65

Arsenic Occurrence in New Hampshire Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Chemical Society (ACS) provides online access to the article, Arsenic Occurrence in New Hampshire Drinking Water. The article reports that domestic wells rather than municipal wells in New Hampshire are more likely to contain ten times the recommended federal levels of arsenic for drinking water. This is a relevant finding since "arsenic in drinking water is linked to certain types of cancer in humans." The abstract can be viewed in HTML format, while the full-text article is available in both HTML and .pdf format.

66

Sugave Water Scheme Multi-village drinking water scheme analysis  

E-print Network

Sugave Water Scheme Multi-village drinking water scheme analysis September 2011 CENTRE-village drinking water scheme with reference to the technical sustainability of the scheme. Detailed analysis on aspects such as institutional arrangement, paying capacity and water users' association (WUA) have

Sohoni, Milind

67

DRINKING WATER ON EMPTY RINK WATER ON EMPTY STOMACHD  

E-print Network

DRINKING WATER ON EMPTY STOMACH RINK WATER ON EMPTY STOMACHD It is popular in Japan today to drink water immediately after waking up every morning. Furthermore, scientific tests have proven its value.. We publish below a description of use of water for our readers. For old and serious diseases as well

Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

68

THE FATE OF FLUOROSILICATE DRINKING WATER ADDITIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Periodically, the EPA reexamines its information on regulated drinking water contaminants to deterime if further study is required. Fluoride is one such contaminant undergoing review. The chemical literature indicates that some deficiencies exist in our understanding of the spe...

69

Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

This project will enable a systematic approach to characterizing the value of condition assessment of drinking water mains that will provide the basis for better communication among, and decisions by, stakeholders regarding goals and priorities for research, development, and tech...

70

A WATERSHED APPROACH TO DRINKING WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this presentation is to describe emerging technologies and strategies managing watersheds with the goal of protecting drinking water sources. Included are discussions on decentralized wastewater treatment, whole organism biomonitor detection systems, treatment of...

71

Drinking Water: Health Hazards Still Not Resolved  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the suggested link between cancer deaths and drinking obtained from the Mississippi River, New Orleans still treats its water supply in the same manner as before the Environmental Defense Fund's epidemiological study. (BT)

Wade, Nicholas

1977-01-01

72

DRINKING WATER TESTING CLINICS Northern Shenandoah Valley  

E-print Network

DRINKING WATER TESTING CLINICS Northern Shenandoah Valley JUNE 2013 Does your water come from a well, spring, or cistern? Do you want to learn more about the quality of your water? How your household water sample. 2. Collect a sample from your tap at home and complete a short

Liskiewicz, Maciej

73

Ceramic filters for purifying drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramic filters made of A12O3 and TiC for purifying drinking water are described. A study conducted by the ROSA analytic center shows that the filters\\u000a quite efficiently clean drinking water of an elevated content of Fe, Mn, Ba, Ce, Zn, U, and other elements contained in it.\\u000a The filters also reduce the content of dissolved organic carbon and some toxic

Zh. Matcheré; A. G. Mirzhanov; I. P. Borovinskaya; V. N. Prusakov; A. V. Zagnit’ko; N. M. Trotsenko; V. I. Uvarov; A. V. Chamaev; E. S. Lukin

1999-01-01

74

Pollution of drinking water with nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main sources of nitrate in man are food and drinking water. The legislature in West Germany intends to lower the permitted level of nitrate in drinking water from the present 90 mg\\/l to 50 mg\\/l in 1982. The European Community has issued a directive that recommends a level of only 25 mg\\/l, and for babies 10 mg\\/l nitrate should

B. Cabel; R. Kozicki; U. Lahl; A. Podbielshi; B. Stachel; S. Struss

1982-01-01

75

Sustaining Waters: From Hydrology to Drinking Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around the world, disastrous effects of floods and droughts are painful evidence of our continuing struggle between human resource demands and the sustainability of our hydrologic systems. Too much or too little rainfall is often deemed the culprit in these water crises, focussing on water "lacks and needs" instead of exploring the mechanisms of the hydrologic functions and processes that sustain us. Applicable to regions around the world, this unified approach is about our human and environmental qualities with user friendly concepts and how-to guides backed up by real life experiences. From the poorest parts of Africa to Urban France to the wealthest state in the USA, examples from surface to groundwater to marine environments demonstrate how the links between vulerable natural areas, and the basins that they support are integral to the availability, adequacy and accessibility of our drinking water. Watershed management can be an effective means for crisis intervention and pollution control. This project is geared as a reference for groups, individuals and agencies concerned with watershed management, a supplement for interdisciplinary high school through university curriculam, for professional development in technical and field assistance, and for community awareness in the trade-offs and consequences of resource decisions that affect hydrologic systems. This community-based project demonstrates how our human resource demands can be managed within ecological constraints. An inter-disciplinary process is developed that specifically assesses risk to human health from resource use practices, and explores the similarities and interations between our human needs and those of the ecosystems in which we all must live together. Disastrous conditions worldwide have triggered reactions in crisis relief rather than crisis prevention. Through a unified management approach to the preservation of water quality, the flows of water that connect all water users can serve as a basis for the maintenance and protection of our valuable watersheds.

Toch, S.

2003-04-01

76

REMOVAL OF RADIUM FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water...

77

Drinking Water (Environmental Health Student Portal)  

MedlinePLUS

... Why is Safe Water Essential? (National Academy of Sciences) - Information about safe drinking water, global implications, and treatment ... public health. Water Quality Homepage (U.S. Geological Survey) - Information and links to ... of Environmental Health Sciences) - PDF lesson plan for high schoolers to understand ...

78

DETERIORATION OF DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A frequently overlooked fact, but one that is becoming of increasing concern, is the effect that the drinking water delivery system can have on the quality of water received at the tap. Deterioration of aging water supply systems can result in pipeline failures, pressure losses, ...

79

Renal effects of uranium in drinking water.  

PubMed Central

Animal studies and small studies in humans have shown that uranium is nephrotoxic. However, more information about its renal effects in humans following chronic exposure through drinking water is required. We measured uranium concentrations in drinking water and urine in 325 persons who had used drilled wells for drinking water. We measured urine and serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, glucose, albumin, creatinine, and beta-2-microglobulin to evaluate possible renal effects. The median uranium concentration in drinking water was 28 microg/L (interquartile range 6-135, max. 1,920 microg/L) and in urine 13 ng/mmol creatinine (2-75), resulting in the median daily uranium intake of 39 microg (7-224). Uranium concentration in urine was statistically significantly associated with increased fractional excretion of calcium and phosphate. Increase of uranium in urine by 1 microg/mmol creatinine increased fractional excretion of calcium by 1.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-2.3], phosphate by 13% (1.4-25), and glucose excretion by 0.7 micromol/min (-0.4-1.8). Uranium concentrations in drinking water and daily intake of uranium were statistically significantly associated with calcium fractional excretion, but not with phosphate or glucose excretion. Uranium exposure was not associated with creatinine clearance or urinary albumin, which reflect glomerular function. In conclusion, uranium exposure is weakly associated with altered proximal tubulus function without a clear threshold, which suggests that even low uranium concentrations in drinking water can cause nephrotoxic effects. Despite chronic intake of water with high uranium concentration, we observed no effect on glomerular function. The clinical and public health relevance of the findings are not easily established, but our results suggest that the safe concentration of uranium in drinking water may be within the range of the proposed guideline values of 2-30 microg/L. PMID:11940450

Kurttio, Paivi; Auvinen, Anssi; Salonen, Laina; Saha, Heikki; Pekkanen, Juha; Makelainen, Ilona; Vaisanen, Sari B; Penttila, Ilkka M; Komulainen, Hannu

2002-01-01

80

Managing the microbiological risks of drinking water.  

PubMed

The microbiological contamination of drinking water supplies can have serious health consequences for consumers, and this has been dramatically illustrated in recent years by two disease outbreaks in Canada. In this paper, some factors that can influence the microbiological quality of drinking water and its management are examined. Frameworks have been proposed that help to clarify the main elements of health risk assessment and risk management, and, in accordance with these, risks can be logically characterized, evaluated and controlled. A protocol has been developed for microbiological risk assessment and a risk management framework now guides the development of Canada's national guidelines for drinking-water quality. Monitoring of indicator organisms and the application of adequate water treatment are the primary means recommended in the Canadian guidelines to safeguard health from the presence of water-borne pathogens. Understanding the biological characteristics of microbial pathogens is necessary for assessing their impact on community health and appraising the rationale behind drinking-water testing methods and their limitations. Improvements in health surveillance, monitoring, and risk characterization and application of concepts such as multiple barriers (source-to-tap) and total quality management should contribute to better management of the microbiological quality of drinking water. PMID:15371204

Krewski, Daniel; Balbus, John; Butler-Jones, David; Haas, Charles; Isaac-Renton, Judith; Roberts, Kenneth; Sinclair, Martha

81

Evaluating Nanoparticle Breakthrough during Drinking Water Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat. Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs—silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)—into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment. Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2–20%, 3–8%, and 48–99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1–45% for Ag, 0–44% for TiO2, and 36–83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0–2%, 0–4%, and 2–96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions. Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes. Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121:1161–1166;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306574 PMID:23933526

Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Huang, Haiou

2013-01-01

82

Perceived agricultural runoff impact on drinking water.  

PubMed

Agricultural runoff into surface water is a problem in Australia, as it is in arguably all agriculturally active countries. While farm practices and resource management measures are employed to reduce downstream effects, they are often either technically insufficient or practically unsustainable. Therefore, consumers may still be exposed to agrichemicals whenever they turn on the tap. For rural residents surrounded by agriculture, the link between agriculture and water quality is easy to make and thus informed decisions about water consumption are possible. Urban residents, however, are removed from agricultural activity and indeed drinking water sources. Urban and rural residents were interviewed to identify perceptions of agriculture's impact on drinking water. Rural residents thought agriculture could impact their water quality and, in many cases, actively avoided it, often preferring tank to surface water sources. Urban residents generally did not perceive agriculture to pose health risks to their drinking water. Although there are more agricultural contaminants recognised in the latest Australian Drinking Water Guidelines than previously, we argue this is insufficient to enhance consumer protection. Health authorities may better serve the public by improving their proactivity and providing communities and water utilities with the capacity to effectively monitor and address agricultural runoff. PMID:25252352

Crampton, Andrea; Ragusa, Angela T

2014-09-01

83

Acid precipitation and drinking water supplies  

SciTech Connect

Three areas of concern about the effect of acid precipitation on drinking water supplies are evaluated - the increased levels of heavy metals in raw water, biological imbalances in water supplies, and increased corrosivity of delivered water. Although two thirds of the US water supplies are corrosive, the extent to which this corrosivity is related to acid precipitation is unknown. Shallow wells in the Adirondack Mountains that are directly recharged by rainfall are exceptionally corrosive. Potential management practices are suggested.

Reed, J.S.; Henningson, J.C.

1984-03-01

84

Acid precipitation and drinking water supplies  

SciTech Connect

Three areas of concern about the effect of acid precipitation on drinking water supplies are evaluated--the increased levels of heavy metals in raw water, biological imbalances in water supplies, and increased corrosivity of delivered water. Although two thirds of the US water supplies are corrosive, the extent to which this corrosivity is related to acid precipitation is unknown. Shallow wells in the Adirondack Mountains that are directly recharged by rainfall are exceptionally corrosive. Potential management practices are suggested.

Reed, J.S.; Henningson, J.C.

1984-03-01

85

Drinking water health advisory for boron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Health Advisory Program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Water, has issued its report on the element boron: included are the compounds boric acid and borax(sodium tetraborate). It provides information on the health effects, analytical methodology, and treatment technology that would be useful in dealing with the contamination of drinking water. Health Advisories (HAs) describe nonregulatory concentrations

Cantilli

1991-01-01

86

Acid rain and drinking water degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid deposition-induced drinking water degradation is discussed with respect to the geographical extent of and the potential for dealing with possibly adverse human health impacts. Qualitative evidence from the northeastern United States and Sweden strongly suggests the existence of a linkage between these two environmental concerns. It is argued that water treatment and reduction of acid rain as solutions to

Paulette Middleton; Steven L. Rhodes

1984-01-01

87

Drinking-water health advisory for antimony  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Health Advisory Program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Water has issued its report on the metal antimony: included are the compounds potassium antimony tartrate, sodium antimony tartrate, and sodium antimony bis(pyrocatechol)-disulfate. It provides information on the health effects, analytical methodology, and treatment technology that would be useful in dealing with the contamination of drinking water. Health

Cantilli

1991-01-01

88

EPA?s Drinking Water Treatment Research  

EPA Science Inventory

Riverbank filtration has been utilized for decades as a pretreatment for waters that will be used for drinking water. A study investigating the occurrence and potential for removal of suspected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during riverbank filtration at a municipal well...

89

MEMBRANES FOR REMOVING ORGANICS FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Membranes have historically been used to remove salts and other inorganic compounds from water but recently both bench-scale and field studies have shown their effectiveness for removing organic compounds from drinking water. wo different membrane types have been evaluated by the...

90

Stability of florfenicol in drinking water.  

PubMed

Florfenicol, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, is being developed for veterinary application as an oral concentrate intended for dilution with drinking water. When a drug product is dosed via drinking water in a farm setting, a number of variables, including pH, chlorine content, hardness of the water used for dilution, and container material, may affect its stability, leading to a decrease in drug potency. The stability of florfenicol after dilution of Florfenicol Drinking Water Concentrate Oral Solution, 23 mg/mL, with drinking water was studied. A stability-indicating, validated liquid chromatographic method was used to evaluate florfenicol stability at 25 degrees C at 5, 10, and 24 h after dilution. The results indicate that florfenicol is stable under a range of simulated field conditions, including various pipe materials and conditions of hard or soft and chlorinated or nonchlorinated water at low or high pH. Significant degradation (> 10%) was observed only for isolated combinations in galvanized pipes. Analysis indicated that the florfenicol concentration in 8 of the 12 water samples stored in galvanized pipes remained above 90% of the initial concentration (100 mg/L) for 24 h after dilution. PMID:12607736

Hayes, John M; Eichman, Jonathan; Katz, Terry; Gilewicz, Rosalia

2003-01-01

91

Drinking Water Distribution Systems Hydraulics, Leakage, and Water Quality Issues  

E-print Network

water pipes!! #12; It is demonstrated that hydraulic transients in water mains have high potential#12; Drinking Water Distribution Systems Hydraulics, Leakage, and Water Quality Issues Life Cycle Assessment for Different Piping Materials Water Demand Analysis due to Water Meter Installation

Su, Xiao

92

Drinking Water Standards Drinking water from a local public supply must  

E-print Network

of raw sewage and other pollutants into surface waters used for drinking, ice supply, and other domestic other important acts expanded water quality protection. The Montana Water Pollution Control Act of 1955, and control of water pollution. With this landmark legislation, Montana's concept of water quality expanded

Dyer, Bill

93

Mutagens and carcinogens in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is the basic constituent of all living beings; it is, therefore, an essential dietary element and a primary resource.\\u000a The D. Lgs. 31\\/2001 is the Italian standard reference concerning drinking-water issues. The purpose of this article is, firstly,\\u000a to highlight that chlorination, as a water purifying treatment, does not guarantee an absolute absence of risk. On the contrary,\\u000a it

Salvatore Sciacca; Gea Oliveri Conti

2009-01-01

94

Nitrification in Drinking Water Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrification is increasingly a concern in United States potable water distribution systems. This paper reviews research on nitrification as it relates to the ammonia levels and unique environments present in potable water distribution systems. Factors affecting nitrification occurrence, nitrification impacts on water quality and corrosion, and nitrification monitoring and control methods are emphasized. The potential role of nitrogen cycling via

Yan Zhang; Nancy Love; Marc Edwards

2009-01-01

95

Climate change influence on drinking water quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it are quite well known the possible effects of climate changes on surface waters availability and their hydrological risks, their consequences on drinking water quality is not well defined yet. Disinfection agents (as Cl, O, etc.) or multiple combinations of them for water treatment and disinfection purposes are applied by water treatment plants at worldwide level. Unfortunately, besides the benefits of these processes were also highlighted some undesirable effects such as formation of several disinfection by-products (DBPs) after reaction of disinfection agent with natural organic matter (NOM) from water body. DBPs formation in drinking water, suspected to posses adverse health effects to humans are strongly regulated in our days. Thus, throughout this study kinetics experiments both the main physicochemical factors that influencing the quality of drinking waters were evaluated as well how they act through possible warming or the consequences of extreme events. Increasing water temperatures with 1 - 5 °C above its normal value has showed that NOMs are presented in higher amount which led to the need for greater amount of disinfectant agent (5 - 15 %). Increasing the amount of disinfecting agent resulted in the formation of DBPs in significantly higher concentrations (between 5 - 30 %).

Kovacs, Melinda Haydee; Ristoiu, Dumitru; Voica, Cezara; Moldovan, Zaharie

2013-11-01

96

Compliance Monitoring of Drinking Water Supplies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most frequent testing required under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 is for turbidity and coliform. Free chlorine residual testing can be substituted for part of the coliform requirement. Described are chemical procedures for performing this test. References are given. (Author/MA)

Haukebo, Thomas; Bernius, Jean

1977-01-01

97

UPTAKE OF URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The gastrointestinal absorption (G.I.) of uranium in man from drinking water was determined by measuring urinary and fecal excretion of 234U and 238U in eight subjects. In order to establish their normal backgrounds of uranium intake and excretion, the subjects collected 24 hour ...

98

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR CHLORAMINES  

EPA Science Inventory

Critical to establishing a regulatory strategy for drinking water is identifying those contaminants which pose the greatest risk to human health and consequently, what treatments could be developed to address those risks and at what cost. The National Center for Environmental Ass...

99

CHLORINE DIOXIDE FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to comply with the trihalomethane regulation, many drinking water utilities have had to alter their treatment methods. ne option available to these utilities is to use a disinfectant other than chlorine such as chlorine dioxide. ith chlorine dioxide disinfection, trihalo...

100

Aeromonas sobria in chlorinated drinking water supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aeromonas species were recovered from over 27% of 183 chlorinated drinking water samples collected during an 18-month period. Sixteen of 20 isolates tested elicited a cytotoxic response by Y-1 mouse adrenal cells. None of the strains was either enterotoxigenic by the rabbit ligated ileal loop assay, exhibited piliation, or showed significant mannose resistant adherence to human buccal cells. TheAeromonas isolates

M. W. LeChevallier; T. M. Evans; R. J. Seidler; O. P. Daily; B. R. Merrell; D. M. Rollins; S. W. Joseph

1982-01-01

101

Renal Effects of Uranium in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

statistically significantly associated with calcium fractional excretion, but not with phosphate or glucose excretion. Uranium exposure was not associated with creatinine clearance or urinary albu- min, which reflect glomerular function. In conclusion, uranium exposure is weakly associated with altered proximal tubulus function without a clear threshold, which suggests that even low uranium concentrations in drinking water can cause nephrotoxic effects.

Päivi Kurttio; Anssi Auvinen; Laina Salonen; Heikki Saha; Juha Pekkanen; Ilona Mäkeläinen; Sari B. Väisänen; Ilkka M. Penttilä; Hannu Komulainen

2002-01-01

102

Drinking Water. The Food Guide Pyramid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of drinking water. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and phrases helps early readers learn new words. The book…

Frost, Helen

103

Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-µg/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

104

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in drinking water.  

PubMed Central

We analyzed drinking water from seven communities for multiply antibiotic-resistant (MAR) bacteria (bacteria resistant to two or more antibiotics) and screened the MAR bacterial isolates obtained against five antibiotics by replica plating. Overall, 33.9% of 2,653 standard plate count bacteria from treated drinking waters were MAR. Two different raw water supplies for two communities carried MAR standard plate count bacteria at frequencies of 20.4 and 18.6%, whereas 36.7 and 67.8% of the standard plate count populations from sites within the respective distribution systems were MAR. Isolate identification revealed that MAR gram-positive cocci (Staphylococcus) and MAR gram-negative, nonfermentative rods (Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Moraxella-like group M, and Acinetobacter) were more common in drinking waters than in untreated source waters. Site-to-site variations in generic types and differences in the incidences of MAR organisms indicated that shedding of MAR bacteria living in pipelines may have contributed to the MAR populations in tap water. We conclude that the treatment of raw water and its subsequent distribution select for standard plate count bacteria exhibiting the MAR phenotype. PMID:7283426

Armstrong, J L; Shigeno, D S; Calomiris, J J; Seidler, R J

1981-01-01

105

ENDOTOXINS, ALGAE AND 'LIMULUS' AMOEBOCYTE LYSATE TEST IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the distribution of algae and bacteria, and investigate sources of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) in drinking water. The field survey was performed on five drinking water systems located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania ...

106

An Environmental Assessment of United States Drinking Water Watersheds  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography a...

107

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR PENTACHLOROPHENOL (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on pentachlorophenol. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of pentachlorophenol, Toxicokineti...

108

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR HEXACHLOROBENZENE (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on hexachlorobenzene. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of hexachlorobenzene ; Toxicokine...

109

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR EPICHLOROHYDRIN (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on epichlorohydrin. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of epichlorohydrin; Toxicokinetics ...

110

Drinking Water Contaminant Linked to Pregnancy Complications in Study  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drinking Water Contaminant Linked to Pregnancy Complications in Study Women ... Friday, October 3, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Drinking Water Reproductive Hazards FRIDAY, Oct. 3, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

111

Regulatory Considerations to Ensure Clean and Safe Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Federal drinking water regulations are based on risk assessment of human health effects and research conducted on source water, treatment technologies, residuals, and distribution systems. The book chapter summarizes the role that EPA research plays in ensuring pure drinking wat...

112

Drinking water quality concerns and water vending machines  

SciTech Connect

Drinking water quality is a vital public health concern to consumers and regulators alike. This article describes some of the current microbiological, chemical, and radiological concerns about drinking water and the evolution of water vending machines. Also addressed are the typical treatment processes used in water vending machines and their effectiveness, as well as a brief examination of a certification program sponsored by the National Automatic Merchandising Association (NAMA), which provides a uniform standard for the design and construction of food and beverage vending machines. For some consumers, the water dispensed from vending machines is an attractive alternative to residential tap water which may be objectionable for aesthetic or other reasons.

McSwane, D.Z. (Indiana Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs); Oleckno, W.A.; Eils, L.M.

1994-06-01

113

DRINKING WATER AND LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Pneumonia outbreaks caused by Legionella species recently have been epidemiologically linked to potable water distribution systems in hospitals and hotels. Showerheads were confirmed as the immediate source of the Legionella in many of the outbreaks, however, the organism also wa...

114

Drinking Water Health Advisory Antimony.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Health Advisory Program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Water has issued its report on the metal antimony: included are the compounds potassium antimony tartrate, sodium antimony tartrate, and sodium antimony bis(pyrocate...

R. Cantilli

1991-01-01

115

21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.  

...2014-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section 520.2325a...520.2325a Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor. See § 510.600...Conditions of use. It is used in drinking water as follows: (1) Chickens....

2014-04-01

116

The Karjat Drinking Water Project GISE (CSE)-CTARA  

E-print Network

2000-3000mm rainfall, frequent and severe drinking water shortage in many wadis. This year, about 25The Karjat Drinking Water Project GISE (CSE)-CTARA Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni () May% literacy. 175 hamlets, 49 gram-panchayats, 3 towns. () May 24, 2010 2 / 11 #12;Drinking water Though about

Sohoni, Milind

117

30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 Mineral...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of potable...

2014-07-01

118

Drinking water health advisory for boron  

SciTech Connect

The Health Advisory Program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Water, has issued its report on the element boron: included are the compounds boric acid and borax(sodium tetraborate). It provides information on the health effects, analytical methodology, and treatment technology that would be useful in dealing with the contamination of drinking water. Health Advisories (HAs) describe nonregulatory concentrations of drinking water contaminants at which adverse health effects would not be anticipated to occur over specific exposure durations. HAs serve as informal technical guidance to assist Federal, State, and local officials responsible for protecting public health when emergency spills or contamination situations occur. They are not legally enforceable Federal Standards and are subject to change as new information becomes available.

Cantilli, R.

1991-04-01

119

Drinking-water health advisory for antimony  

SciTech Connect

The Health Advisory Program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Water has issued its report on the metal antimony: included are the compounds potassium antimony tartrate, sodium antimony tartrate, and sodium antimony bis(pyrocatechol)-disulfate. It provides information on the health effects, analytical methodology, and treatment technology that would be useful in dealing with the contamination of drinking water. Health Advisories (HAs) describe nonregulatory concentrations of drinking water contaminants at which adverse health effects would not be anticipated to occur over specific exposure durations. HAs serve as informal technical guidance to assist Federal, State, and local officials responsible for protecting public health when emergency spills or contamination situations occur. They are not legally enforceable Federal Standards and are subject to change as new information becomes available.

Cantilli, R.

1991-04-01

120

GLYPHOSATE REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Activated-carbon, oxidation, conventional-treatment, filtration, and membrane studies are conducted to determine which process is best suited to remove the herbicide glyphosate from potable water. Both bench-scale and pilot-scale studies are completed. Computer models are used ...

121

[Actual standards for drinking water quality].  

PubMed

Actual recommendations concerning drinking water quality are presented in WHO "Guidelines for drinking water quality" published in 1992. Regulations which are obligatory in the European Union countries are published in Directive 80/778/EEC. In 1995 a proposal of a new Directive was elaborated. In Poland the regulations given in the disposition of MZiOS (Ministry of Health and Social Welfare)-Dz. U. nr 18 poz. 72 of 1977 with later changes-Dz.U. nr 35 poz. 205 of 1990 are obligatory. At present this disposition is under revision: Comparison of above mentioned regulations of EU and WHO with Polish regulations enables the following conclusions: The highest permissible concentrations of individual constituents dissolved in water listed in the Directive 80/778/EEC are in agreement with those given in the disposition of MZiOS of 1990. Parametric values in the draft project of the new Directive are in good accordance with those presented in the draft project of the disposition of MZiOS, except of the permissible concentrations of nitrites, cyanides, iron, acryloamide and vinyl chloride, which are in accordance with health criteria recommended by WHO. Only permissible lead concentration is in Poland twice greater than proposed by the WHO guidelines for drinking water. In Polish regulation the highest permissible concentrations are defined for greater number of substances including pesticides. In the author's opinion harmonization of the Polish regulations with the project of the new EU Directive should be performed after the EU project comes into force. PMID:9381079

Wichrowska, B

1997-01-01

122

Accuracy of bottled drinking water label content.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of the concentration of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS) levels mentioned on the labels of the various brands of bottled drinking water available in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Twenty-one different brands of locally produced non-carbonated (still water) bottled drinking water were collected from the supermarkets of Riyadh. The concentration of F, Ca, TDS, and pH values were noted from the labels of the bottles. The samples were analyzed for concentrations in the laboratory using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean level of F, Ca, and pH were found as 0.86 ppm, 38.47 ppm, and 7.5, respectively, which were significantly higher than the mean concentration of these elements reported in the labels. Whereas, the mean TDS concentration was found 118.87 ppm, which was significantly lower than the mean reported on the labels. In tropical countries like Saudi Arabia, the appropriate level of F concentration in drinking water as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) should be 0.6-0.7 ppm. Since the level of F was found to be significantly higher than the WHO recommended level, the children exposed to this level could develop objectionable fluorosis. The other findings, like pH value, concentrations of Ca, and TDS, were in the range recommended by the WHO and Saudi standard limits and therefore should have no obvious significant health implications. PMID:19475483

Khan, Nazeer B; Chohan, Arham N

2010-07-01

123

What Water Would You Drink?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a hands-on activity that fosters decision-making skills and emphasizes scientific principles such as objectivity and replication. It is designed to show that pollutants are not always obvious and not all contaminants pose a health risk. Students will learn that some contaminants can be detected by sight, smell, or taste and that others are not detectable except with sophisticated analytical equipment. They will also understand the difference between pollutants that make water unappealing and those that make it unhealthy or unsafe. This activity works well in an informal outdoor setting or in a classroom.

Liukkonen, Barbara

124

Trihalomethane in drinking water supplies and reused water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potable water for drinking purposes and other domestic needs in Muscat Area (Capital area of Sultanate of Oman) is obtained from desalination plant and wells. The desalination plant supplies water to 90% of the population based in the area. The water quality is generally maintained in accordance with the specification laid down in \\

Mohamed I. Badawy

1992-01-01

125

TOXICITY OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is currently being considered as an alternate to chlorine as a disinfectant for public water supplies. Studies were conducted to determine the toxicity of ClO2 (0, 1, 10, 100, 1000 mg/L) and its metabolites, ClO2(-1) and ClO3(-1) (10, 100 mg/L) in drinking...

126

Serogroups of Escherichia coli from Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty seven isolates of thermotolerant E. coli were recovered from 188 drinking water sources, 45 (78.9%) were typable of which 15 (26.3%) were pathogenic serotypes. Pathogenic\\u000a serogroup obtained were 04 (Uropathogenic E. coli, UPEC), 025 (Enterotoxigenic E. coli, ETEC), 086 (Enteropathogenic E. coli, EPEC), 0103 (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, STEC), 0157 (Shiga-toxin producing E. coli, STEC), 08 (Enterotoxigenic E. coli,

P. W. Ramteke; Suman Tewari

2007-01-01

127

WATER alert!: disseminating drinking water quality information to South Africans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drinking water quality, especially in many parts of South Africa, is far below acceptable standards. With an annual estimate of 43,000 deaths from diarrheal diseases, 3 million cases of illness, and treatment costs of over half a billion US dollars, the impact is critical [4]. This research addresses the challenge of reporting complex and critical water quality information in a

Deana S. Brown; Gary Marsden; Melissa Loudon

2011-01-01

128

Water, Water Everywhere, But is it Safe to Drink?  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been associated with adverse human health effects, including bladder cancer, early term miscarriage, and birth defects. While it is vitally important to kill harmful pathogens in water, it is also important to minimize harmful ...

129

Drinking water quality from the aspect of element concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Drinking water in developed countries is usually treated by the water-purification system, while in developing countries untreated\\u000a natural water such as well water, river water, rain water, or pond water are used. On the other hand, many kinds of mineral\\u000a water bottled in plastic containers are sold as drinking water with or without gas in urban areas in many countries.

M. Chiba; A. Shinohara; M. Sekine; S. Hiraishi

2006-01-01

130

Genotoxicity of drinking water from Chao Lake  

SciTech Connect

Genotoxic activity appears to originate primarily from reactions of chlorine with humic substances in the source waters. Comparisons of extracts of settled versus chlorinated water have confirmed that chlorinating during water treatment produces mutagenic activity in the mutagenicity tests. Present work on XAD-2 extracts of raw, chlorinated (treated), and settled water from the Chao Lake region of China has involved a battery of mutagenicity assays for various genetic endpoints: the Salmonella test, the sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) induction in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells, and the micronucleus (MN) induction in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of silver carp. Extracts of raw and treated water but not the settled water are mutagenic in the Salmonella assay. On the other hand, extracts of three water samples show activity in the SCE and MN assays, especially the raw and treated water. These data show that contamination and chlorinating contribute mutagens to drinking water and suggest that the mammalian assays may be more sensitive for detecting mutagenicity in aquatic environment than the Salmonella test.

Liu, Q.; Jiao, Q.C. [Nanjing Univ. (China). Dept. of Biological Science and Technology] [Nanjing Univ. (China). Dept. of Biological Science and Technology; Huang, X.M.; Jiang, J.P.; Cui, S.Q.; Yao, G.H.; Jiang, Z.R.; Zhao, H.K.; Wang, N.Y. [Anhui Antiepidemic Station, Hefei (China)] [Anhui Antiepidemic Station, Hefei (China)

1999-02-01

131

Portable Nanomesh Creates Safer Drinking Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Providing astronauts with clean water is essential to space exploration to ensure the health and well-being of crewmembers away from Earth. For the sake of efficient and safe long-term space travel, NASA constantly seeks to improve the process of filtering and re-using wastewater in closed-loop systems. Because it would be impractical for astronauts to bring months (or years) worth of water with them, reducing the weight and space taken by water storage through recycling and filtering as much water as possible is crucial. Closed-loop systems using nanotechnology allow wastewater to be cleaned and reused while keeping to a minimum the amount of drinking water carried on missions. Current high-speed filtration methods usually require electricity, and methods without electricity usually prove impractical or slow. Known for their superior strength and electrical conductivity, carbon nanotubes measure only a few nanometers in diameter; a nanometer is one billionth of a meter, or roughly one hundred-thousandth the width of a human hair. Nanotubes have improved water filtration by eliminating the need for chemical treatments, significant pressure, and heavy water tanks, which makes the new technology especially appealing for applications where small, efficient, lightweight materials are required, whether on Earth or in space. "NASA will need small volume, effective water purification systems for future long-duration space flight," said Johnson Space Center s Karen Pickering. NASA advances in water filtration with nanotechnology are now also protecting human health in the most remote areas of Earth.

2008-01-01

132

Mycobacterium lentiflavum in drinking water supplies, Australia.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium lentiflavum, a slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacterium, is a rare cause of human disease. It has been isolated from environmental samples worldwide. To assess the clinical significance of M. lentiflavum isolates reported to the Queensland Tuberculosis Control Centre, Australia, during 2001-2008, we explored the genotypic similarity and geographic relationship between isolates from humans and potable water in the Brisbane metropolitan area. A total of 47 isolates from 36 patients were reported; 4 patients had clinically significant disease. M. lentiflavum was cultured from 13 of 206 drinking water sites. These sites overlapped geographically with home addresses of the patients who had clinically significant disease. Automated repetitive sequence-based PCR genotyping showed a dominant environmental clone closely related to clinical strains. This finding suggests potable water as a possible source of M. lentiflavum infection in humans. PMID:21392429

Marshall, Henry M; Carter, Robyn; Torbey, Matthew J; Minion, Sharri; Tolson, Carla; Sidjabat, Hanna E; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan; Thomson, Rachel M

2011-03-01

133

Mycobacterium lentiflavum in Drinking Water Supplies, Australia  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium lentiflavum, a slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacterium, is a rare cause of human disease. It has been isolated from environmental samples worldwide. To assess the clinical significance of M. lentiflavum isolates reported to the Queensland Tuberculosis Control Centre, Australia, during 2001–2008, we explored the genotypic similarity and geographic relationship between isolates from humans and potable water in the Brisbane metropolitan area. A total of 47 isolates from 36 patients were reported; 4 patients had clinically significant disease. M. lentiflavum was cultured from 13 of 206 drinking water sites. These sites overlapped geographically with home addresses of the patients who had clinically significant disease. Automated repetitive sequence–based PCR genotyping showed a dominant environmental clone closely related to clinical strains. This finding suggests potable water as a possible source of M. lentiflavum infection in humans. PMID:21392429

Carter, Robyn; Torbey, Matthew J.; Minion, Sharri; Tolson, Carla; Sidjabat, Hanna E.; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan; Thomson, Rachel M.

2011-01-01

134

DISINFECTANT CHEMISTRY IN DRINKING WATER: OVERVIEW OF IMPACTS ON DRINKING WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemicals commonly considered for use as disinfectants in municipal drinking water treatment are chlorine, chloramines, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. Considerations such as disinfection power, ease of application, and low cost have led in the past to the use of free chlorine as th...

135

DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN IOWA. 2. RADIOACTIVITY IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents a logical epidemiologic exploration into possible associations between exposures to radium-226 in drinking water and incidence rates for cancers of the bladder, breast, colon, lung, prostate, and rectum. The most striking finding is the increasing gradient of ...

136

ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS: MODELING PERSPECTIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this work were to develop experimental approaches and a modeling philosophy to study degradation of organophosphate pesticides as a class under drinking water treatment conditions....

137

Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PURPOSE: Water drinking increases blood pressure in a substantial proportion of patients who have severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. We tested the hypothesis that water drinking can be used as a practical treatment for patients with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, as well as those with orthostatic tachycardia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied the effect of drinking water on seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate in 11 patients who had severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure and in 9 patients who had orthostatic tachycardia due to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. We also tested the effect of water drinking on postprandial hypotension in 7 patients who had autonomic failure. Patients drank 480 mL of tap water at room temperature in less than 5 minutes. RESULTS: In patients with autonomic failure, mean (+/- SD) blood pressure after 1 minute of standing was 83 +/- 6/53 +/- 3.4 mm Hg at baseline, which increased to 114 +/- 30/66 +/- 18 mm Hg (P <0.01) 35 minutes after drinking. After a meal, blood pressure decreased by 43 +/- 36/20 +/- 13 mm Hg without water drinking, compared with 22 +/- 10/12 +/- 5 mm Hg with drinking (P <0.001). In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, water drinking attenuated orthostatic tachycardia (123 +/- 23 beats per minute) at baseline to 108 +/- 21 beats per minute after water drinking ( P <0.001). CONCLUSION: Water drinking elicits a rapid pressor response in patients with autonomic failure and can be used to treat orthostatic and postprandial hypotension. Water drinking moderately reduces orthostatic tachycardia in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. Thus, water drinking may serve as an adjunctive treatment in patients with impaired orthostatic tolerance.

Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Tank, Jens; Robertson, Rose Marie; Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens

2002-01-01

138

Disinfection By-Products: Formation and Occurrence in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the twentieth century. Millions of people worldwide receive quality drinking water every day from their public water systems. However, chemical disinfection has also produced an unintended he...

139

The Next Generation of Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products  

EPA Science Inventory

The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the 20th century. Millions of people worldwide receive quality drinking water every day from their public water systems. However, chemical disinfection has also produced an unintended healt...

140

Visions of the Future in Drinking Water Microbiology.  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking water microbiology will have a tremendous impact on defining a safe drinking water in the future. There will be breakthroughs in realtime testing of process waters for pathogen surrogates with results made available within 1 hour for application to treatment adjustments ...

141

Fuzzy system modelling of drinking water consumption prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to determine the amount of daily drinking water requirement for a person not only for the health of people but also for the planning and management of the water resources. Physical activity, body weight and temperature play significant role in drinking water consumption rates. Human activity variables are most often given in crisp numerical interval classifications for

Zekâi Sen; Abdüsselam Altunkaynak

2009-01-01

142

Minerals leached into drinking water from rubber stoppers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drinking water and its delivery system are potential sources of variation in animal research. Concern arose that rubber stoppers used to cork water bottles might be a source of some nutritionally required minerals which could leach into drinking water. Six types of stoppers, each having different compositions, were cleaned with stainless-steel sipper tubes inserted into them and attached to polypropylene

B. W. Kennedy; T. S. Beal

1991-01-01

143

Melioidosis Caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei in Drinking Water, Thailand, 2012  

PubMed Central

We identified 10 patients in Thailand with culture-confirmed melioidosis who had Burkholderia pseudomallei isolated from their drinking water. The multilocus sequence type of B. pseudomallei from clinical specimens and water samples were identical for 2 patients. This finding suggests that drinking water is a preventable source of B. pseudomallei infection. PMID:24447771

Wongsuvan, Gumphol; Aanensen, David; Ngamwilai, Sujittra; Saiprom, Natnaree; Rongkard, Patpong; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Kanoksil, Manas; Chantratita, Narisara; Day, Nicholas P.J.; Peacock, Sharon J.

2014-01-01

144

RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN DRINKING WATER TECHNOLOGY: A PROGRESS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments (SDWAA) have given EPA an aggressive standard setting agenda. The agenda, if carried out fully, will impact on water utilities in the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division (DWRD) is responsible for evaluating technologies for m...

145

Unsealed tubewells lead to increased fecal contamination of drinking water  

E-print Network

Unsealed tubewells lead to increased fecal contamination of drinking water Peter S. K. Knappett ABSTRACT Bangladesh is underlain by shallow aquifers in which millions of drinking water wells are emplaced the impact of well construction on microbial water quality 35 private tubewells (11 with intact cement

van Geen, Alexander

146

Microbiological quality of drinking water at eight water treatment plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight drinking water treatment plants were sampled monthly during one year to evaluate the removal of bacterial indicators, new indicators and some pathogenic bacteria. Six plants are allocated along the Nile River at Cairo segment and the two others on Ismailia Canal. In this study many parameters were determined; the classical bacterial indicators (total bacterial counts at 22 and 37°C,

Gamila E. El-Taweel; Ahmad M. Shaban

2001-01-01

147

REMOTE MONITORING OF WATER QUALITY IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Water is a precious natural resource that Americans enjoy with little thought to contamination or potential tampering. However, the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, and ensuing threats have increased awareness of the potential for contamination of the nation's drinking w...

148

Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water**  

EPA Science Inventory

Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

149

Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

150

75 FR 48329 - Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...experience necessary to deliver safe water supporting consumer confidence. Certification designates the water system operator as a...experience necessary to deliver safe water supporting consumer confidence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: The Safe Drinking...

2010-08-10

151

Arsenic occurrence in New Hampshire drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic concentrations were measured in 992 drinking water samples collected from New Hampshire households using online hydride generation ICP-MS. These randomly selected household water samples contain much less arsenic than those voluntarily submitted for analysis to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES). Extrapolation of the voluntarily submitted sample set to all New Hampshire residents significantly overestimates arsenic exposure. In randomly selected households, concentrations ranged from <0.0003 to 180 {micro}g/L, with water from domestic wells containing significantly more arsenic than water from municipal sources. Water samples from drilled bedrock wells had the highest arsenic concentrations, while samples from surficial wells had the lowest arsenic concentrations. The authors suggest that much of the groundwater arsenic in New Hampshire is derived from weathering of bedrock materials and not from anthropogenic contamination. The spatial distribution of elevated arsenic concentrations correlates with Late-Devonian Concord-type granitic bedrock. Field observations in the region exhibiting the highest groundwater arsenic concentrations revealed abundant pegmatite dikes associated with nearby granites. Analysis of rock digests indicates arsenic concentrations up to 60 mg/kg in pegmatites, with much lower values in surrounding schists and granites. Weak acid leaches show that approximately half of the total arsenic in the pegmatites is labile and therefore can be mobilized during rock-water interaction.

Peters, S.C.; Blum, J.D.; Klaue, B. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences] [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Karagas, M.R. [Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Community and Family Medicine] [Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Community and Family Medicine

1999-05-01

152

76 FR 8674 - Notice of a Public Meeting: Environmental Justice Considerations for Drinking Water Regulatory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Determinations from the drinking water Contaminant Candidate List 3...intentions to develop drinking water regulatory actions for perchlorate...environmental laws, regulations and policies. EPA is holding this meeting...Division, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water;...

2011-02-15

153

DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN UTAH: A COHORT MORTALITY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The association of drinking water arsenic and mortality outcome was investigated in a cohort of residents from Millard County, Utah. Median drinking water arsenic concentrations for selected study towns ranged from 14 to 166 ppb and were from public and private samples collected ...

154

Natural organic matter removal from drinking water by membrane technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) is a heterogeneous mixture of biopolymers and their degradation products that cause harmful by-products during drinking water production. The great variability in NOM composition makes it difficult to completely remove from drinking water by any single technique. The current paper reviews the NOM removal by micro-, ultra- and nanofiltration and by hybrid processes combining membrane

Sari Metsämuuronen; Mika Sillanpää; Amit Bhatnagar; Mika Mänttäri

2012-01-01

155

ACCUMULATION OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The tendency for iron solid surfaces to adsorb arsenic is well known and has become the basis for several drinking water treatment approaches that remove arsenic. It is reasonable to assume that iron-based solids, such as corrosion deposits present in drinking water distribution ...

156

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR CYANIDES (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on cyanide. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of cyanides; Toxicokinetics and human expos...

157

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR STYRENE (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on styrene. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of styrene, Toxicokinetics and human exposur...

158

Reducing Lead in Drinking Water: A Manual for Minnesota's Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was designed to assist Minnesota's schools in minimizing the consumption of lead in drinking water by students and staff. It offers step-by-step instructions for testing and reducing lead in drinking water. The manual answers: Why is lead a health concern? How are children exposed to lead? Why is lead a special concern for schools? How…

Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul.

159

Arsenic in drinking water Increases mortality from cardiovascular disease  

E-print Network

Arsenic in drinking water Increases mortality from cardiovascular disease Allan H Smith professor, Oakland, California, USA Arsenic has more effects on health than any other toxicant, and the list of inorganic arsenic in drinking water causes cancer of the skin, bladder, lung, liver, and kidney.1 2 Mounting

California at Berkeley, University of

160

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR MERCURY (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on mercury. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of mercury, toxicokinetics and human exposur...

161

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR ENDRIN (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on endrin. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of endrin, Toxicokinetics and human exposure ...

162

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR NICKEL (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on nickel. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of nickel, toxicokinetics and human exposure ...

163

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR ETHYLBENZENE (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on ethylbenzene. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of ethylbenzene; Toxicokinetics and hu...

164

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR LINDANE (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on lindane. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of lindane, Toxicokinetics and human exposu...

165

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR COPPER (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on copper. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of copper; Toxicokinetics and human exposure...

166

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on PCBs. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of PCBs, Toxicokinetics and human exposure to P...

167

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR XYLENES (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking water Criteria Document on xylenes: This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics; Physical and chemical properties of xylenes; Toxicokinetics and human exposu...

168

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR TOLUENE (FINAL DRAFT) 1985  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a drinking water criteria document on toluene. The criteria document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of toluene toxicokinetics and human exposure...

169

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR TOXAPHENE (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on toxaphene. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of toxaphene; Toxicokinetics and human ex...

170

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR ALDICARB (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on aldicarb. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of aldicarb; Toxicokinetics and human expo...

171

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR METHOXYCHLOR (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on methoxychlor. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of methoxychlor, toxicokinetics and hum...

172

HEALTH EFFECTS OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO BARIUM IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The overall objective of this study was to examine by epidemiologic and supportive laboratory studies, the human health effects associated with ingestion of barium in drinking water exceeding the U.S. drinking water standard of 1.0 mg/l. The incidence of cardiovascular mortality ...

173

SELENIUM REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ION EXCHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Strong-base anion exchangers were shown to remove selenate and selenite ions from drinking water. Because selenium species are usually present at low concentrations, the efficiency of removal is controlled by the concentration of the common drinking water anions, the most importa...

174

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Perchlorate in Drinking Water During Pregnancy and Neonatal  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Perchlorate in Drinking Water During Pregnancy and Neonatal Thyroid Hormone Levels associations between maternal drinking water per- chlorate exposure during pregnancy and newborn thyroid. In the 2001­2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), perchlorate was detected

California at Berkeley, University of

175

Safety on Tap: A Citizen's Drinking Water Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This citizen's guide to ensuring a safe supply of drinking water for all provides the information and analysis that individuals need to understand the issues and to participate in local decision making. The sources of drinking water, the types of human activities that results in contamination, and the contaminants that are of most concern are…

Loveland, David Gray; Reichheld, Beth

176

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR ETHYLENE DIBROMIDE (EDB) (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on ethylene dibromide. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of ethylene dibromide, toxicokine...

177

ACCESS TO DRINKING WATER: CASE OF TANKERFED VILLAGES IN THANE  

E-print Network

ACCESS TO DRINKING WATER: CASE OF TANKERFED VILLAGES IN THANE DISTRICT, MAHARASHTRA MTech that the dissertation titled "Access To Drinking Water: Case Of Tankerfed Villages in Thane District, Maharashtra in my own words and where other,,s ideas or words have been included, I have adequately cited

Sohoni, Milind

178

GENOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The information summarized in this review provides substantial evidence for the widespread presence of genotoxins in drinking water. In many, if not most cases, the genotoxic activity can be directly attributed to the chlorination stage of drinking water treatment. The genotoxic ...

179

Augmentation of Rural Piped Water Schemes for Supply of drinking water to tanker fed villages.  

E-print Network

Augmentation of Rural Piped Water Schemes for Supply of drinking water to tanker fed villages-3000mm and biggest reservoirs like Tansa, Vaitarana and Bhatsa for supplying drinking water to Mumbai city. Many solutions have been explored in the past to provide drinking water security to people

Sohoni, Milind

180

59 FR- Drinking Water; National Primary Drinking Water Regulations Sulfate; National Primary Drinking...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fossil fuels are transformed to sulfuric acid in the atmosphere. Through precipitation (i.e., acid rain), sulfuric acid can enter surface waters, lowering the pH and raising sulfate levels. III....

1994-12-20

181

30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.  

(a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet the applicable minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the State or community in which the mine is...

2014-07-01

182

30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

(a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet the applicable minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the State or community in which the mine is...

2012-07-01

183

IMPACT OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT ON ASSIMILABLE ORGANIC CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

Regrowth in the drinking water distribution system is a primary concern for water utilities. he disinfection process, although normally efficient for primary inactivation, is not always enough to discourage microbial regrowth if sufficient substrate is available. Previously, the,...

184

30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements are applicable, water systems and appurtenances...71.402(b).) (b) Water transported to the site shall...constructed of smooth, impervious, heavy gauge, corrosion resistant materials...with the words “Drinking...

2013-07-01

185

30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirements are applicable, water systems and appurtenances...71.402(b).) (b) Water transported to the site shall...constructed of smooth, impervious, heavy gauge, corrosion resistant materials...with the words “Drinking...

2012-07-01

186

30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements are applicable, water systems and appurtenances...71.402(b).) (b) Water transported to the site shall...constructed of smooth, impervious, heavy gauge, corrosion resistant materials...with the words “Drinking...

2011-07-01

187

OVERVIEW OF USEPA MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Microbial Contaminants Control Branch (MCCB) conducts research on microbiological problems related to drinking water treatment, distribution and storage, and has recently become involved in watershed and source water quality issues such as fecal indicator bacteria and fecal p...

188

Arsenic in Drinking Water-A Global Environmental Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information on the worldwide occurrence of groundwater pollution by arsenic, the ensuing health hazards, and the debatable government regulations of arsenic in drinking water, is presented. Diagnostic identification of arsenic, and methods to eliminate it from water are also discussed.

Wang, Joanna Shaofen; Wai, Chien M.

2004-01-01

189

APPLICATION OF USEPA'S DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS TOWARDS RAINWATER CATCHMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Rainwater harvesting is receiving increased attention worldwide as an alternative source of drinking water. Although federal agencies such as the USEPA acknowledge the existence of rainwater collection systems, the monitoring of this water source is still typically carried out b...

190

77 FR 64113 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council: Request for Nominations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council...by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to provide...activities, functions, policies, and regulations required...site at: http://water.epa.gov/drink...workgroups to develop policy recommendations,...

2012-10-18

191

76 FR 61355 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Request for Nominations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council...by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to provide...activities, functions, policies, and regulations required...site at: http://water.epa.gov/drink...workgroups to develop policy recommendations,...

2011-10-04

192

Investigations on boron levels in drinking water sources in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate boron contamination of public drinking water in China, both dissolved and total boron contents in 98 public drinking\\u000a water sources from 49 cities, 42 brands of bottled water samples from supermarkets in several cities, and 58 water samples\\u000a from boron industrial area were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our experimental results\\u000a showed that boron existed in

Ren-ji Xu; Xiao-ru Xing; Qun-fang Zhou; Gui-bin Jiang; Fu-sheng Wei

2010-01-01

193

Statistical Analysis of Drinking Water Treatment Plant Costs, Source Water Quality, and Land Cover Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Revisiting an earlier study conducted by The Trust for Public Land in 2004, this research brings new data and methodologies to offer insight on the impact of the decline of forest cover and the increase of agriculture or urban land cover in a drinking water source drainage area on the water quality for that drinking water source and the drinking

Jade Freeman; Rebecca Madsen; Kelley Hart; Paul Barten; Paul Gregory; David Reckhow; Woody Duncan

194

76 FR 72703 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council-Notice of Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

Notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC or Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The Council will consider various issues associated with drinking water protection and public water systems including actions to assist small water systems and efforts underway to address nutrient pollution of drinking water supplies. The Council......

2011-11-25

195

Making Drinking Water Safer from Bacterial Contamination in Emergency Situations  

E-print Network

or floating matter. 2. Boil the water vigorously for at least 10 minutes. 3. After it cools, the waterMaking Drinking Water Safer from Bacterial Contamination in Emergency Situations Monty C. Dozier, Assistant Professor and Extension Water Resources Specialist Public Water Supplies Health departments

196

Deficiencies in drinking water distribution systems in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapidly growing populations and migration to urban areas in developing countries has resulted in a vital need for the establishment of centralized water systems to disseminate potable water to residents. Protected source water and modern, well-maintained drinking water treatment plants can provide water adequate for human consumption. However, ageing, stressed or poorly maintained distribution systems can cause the quality of

Ellen J. Lee; Kellogg J. Schwab

2005-01-01

197

Time to revisit arsenic regulations: comparing drinking water and rice  

PubMed Central

Background Current arsenic regulations focus on drinking water without due consideration for dietary uptake and thus seem incoherent with respect to the risks arising from rice consumption. Existing arsenic guidelines are a cost-benefit compromise and, as such, they should be periodically re-evaluated. Discussion Literature data was used to compare arsenic exposure from rice consumption relative to exposure arising from drinking water. Standard risk assessment paradigms show that arsenic regulations for drinking water should target a maximum concentration of nearly zero to prevent excessive lung and bladder cancer risks (among others). A feasibility threshold of 3 ?g As l-1 was determined, but a cost-benefit analysis concluded that it would be too expensive to target a threshold below 10 ?g As l-1. Data from the literature was used to compare exposure to arsenic from rice and rice product consumption relative to drinking water consumption. The exposure to arsenic from rice consumption can easily be equivalent to or greater than drinking water exposure that already exceeds standard risks and is based on feasibility and cost-benefit compromises. It must also be emphasized that many may disagree with the implications for their own health given the abnormally high cancer odds expected at the cost-benefit arsenic threshold. Summary Tighter drinking water quality criteria should be implemented to properly protect people from excessive cancer risks. Food safety regulations must be put in place to prevent higher concentrations of arsenic in various drinks than those allowed in drinking water. Arsenic concentrations in rice should be regulated so as to roughly equate the risks and exposure levels observed from drinking water. PMID:24884827

2014-01-01

198

Safe and Affordable Drinking Water for Developing Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safe drinking water remains inaccessible for about 1.2 billion people in the world, and the hourly toll from biological contamination of drinking water is 200 deaths mostly among children under five years of age. This chapter summarizes the need for safe drinking water, the scale of the global problem, and various methods tried to address it. Then it gives the history and current status of an innovation ("UV Waterworks™") developed to address this major public health challenge. It reviews water disinfection technologies applicable to achieve the desired quality of drinking water in developing countries, and specifically, the limitations overcome by one particular invention: UV Waterworks. It then briefly describes the business model and financing option than is accelerating its implementation for affordable access to safe drinking water to the unserved populations in these countries. Thus this chapter describes not only the innovation in design of a UV water disinfection system, but also innovation in the delivery model for safe drinking water, with potential for long term growth and sustainability.

Gadgil, Ashok

2008-09-01

199

Drinking Water Infrastructure and Environmental Disparities: Evidence and Methodological Considerations  

PubMed Central

Potable drinking water is essential to public health; however, few studies have investigated income or racial disparities in water infrastructure or drinking water quality. There were many case reports documenting a lack of piped water or serious water quality problems in low income and minority communities, including tribal lands, Alaskan Native villages, colonias along the United States–Mexico border, and small communities in agricultural areas. Only 3 studies compared the demographic characteristics of communities by the quality of their drinking water, and the results were mixed in these studies. Further assessments were hampered by difficulties linking specific water systems to the sociodemographic characteristics of communities, as well as little information about how well water systems operated and the effectiveness of governmental oversight. PMID:21836110

2011-01-01

200

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF CARCINOGENICITY OF CHLORINATED ORGANICS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Concern has recently been voiced over possible chronic toxicity associated with chlorination of public drinking water supplies in the United States. This paper reviews the available evidence and the studies underway to further evaluate hypothesized associations between cancer ris...

201

Biological Treatment of Drinking Water: Applications, Advantages and Disadvantages  

EPA Science Inventory

The fundamentals of biological treatment are presented to an audience of state drinking water regulators. The presentation covers definitions, applications, the basics of bacterial metabolism, a discussion of treatment options, and the impact that implementation of these options...

202

Monochloramine Cometabolism by Nitrosomonas europaea under Drinking Water Conditions  

EPA Science Inventory

Chloramine use is widespread in United States drinking water systems as a secondary disinfectant. While beneficial from the perspective of controlling disinfectant by-product formation, chloramination may promote the growth of nitrifying bacteria because ammonia is present. At ...

203

EPA Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources  

EPA Science Inventory

In its FY2010 Appropriations Committee Conference Report, Congress directed EPA to study the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using: ? Best available science ? Independent sources of information ? Transparent, peer-reviewed process ? Consultatio...

204

APPLICATION OF MULTIMEDIA EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT TO DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A potentially important exposure route for humans is the ingestion of chemicals via drinking water. If comprehensive exposure assessments are to be completed for either existing or proposed new chemicals and cost effective control strategies develop, then a quantitative understan...

205

Basic Information about Mercury (inorganic) in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

Mercury (Inorganic) at a Glance Maximum Contaminant Level ( MCL ) = 0.002 milligrams per Liter (mg/L) or ... Health Effects Some people who drink water containing mercury well in excess of the MCL over many ...

206

Communicating Research to Small Drinking Water Systems: Dissemination by Researchers  

EPA Science Inventory

This talk discusses the challenges of disseminating research relevant to small systems. The presentation discusses efforts by the U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development to effectively communicating drinking water information. In particular, communication approaches ...

207

PATHOGENS IN DRINKING WATER - ARE THERE ANY NEW ONES?  

EPA Science Inventory

Since 1976 three newly recognized human pathogens have become familiar to the drinking water industry as waterborne disease agents. hese are: the legionnaires disease agent, Legionella pneumophila and related species; and two protozoan pathogens, Giardia lamblia and Cryfltosoprid...

208

MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF DRINKING WATER MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES: A PHYLOGENETIC APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Culture-based methods are traditionally used to determine microbiological quality of drinking water even though these methods are highly selective and tend to underestimate the densities and diversity bacterial populations inhabiting distribution systems. In order to better under...

209

DEVELOPING APPROACHES TO ESTIMATE CUMULATIVE RISKS OF DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Humans are exposed daily to complex mixtures of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) via oral, dermal, and inhalation routes. Some positive epidemiological studies suggest reproductive and developmental effects and cancer are associated with consumption of chlorinated d...

210

ADVANCED CONTAMINANT INACTIVATION SYSTEM FOR DRINKING WATER - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Protection Agency is soliciting innovations for the development of small unit drinking water systems that will inactivate contaminants, including pesticides, organic pollutants, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pathogens. In the U.S., 85% ...

211

Safe Drinking Water Act - Protecting America's Public Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This poster can assist students in understanding how everyday occurrences can affect their drinking water. It highlights risks to drinking water that come in many forms, such as municipal and industrial discharges, recreational activities or simply natural conditions and events. It provides a detailed graphic description of these risks and the barriers in place to help ensure the safety of our drinking water. The full-color poster can be downloaded or ordered in a 24 by 36 inch version in English or Spanish or an 11 by 17 inch version, by mail and at no cost to the classroom teacher. This site also contains ordering information for a free CD-ROM, Consider the Source: An Interactive Guide to Protecting America's Drinking Water.

212

IDENTIFICATION OF NEW DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Due to concern over the potential adverse health effects of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfectants are being explored. Ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are popular alternatives, as they produce low...

213

DRINKING WATER CLINIC MEETINGS Page, Shenandoah, and Warren Counties  

E-print Network

DRINKING WATER CLINIC MEETINGS Page, Shenandoah, and Warren Counties JUNE 2012 Does your water come from a well, spring, or cistern? Do you want to learn more about the quality of your water to collect your household water sample. 2. Collect a sample from your tap at home and complete a short

Liskiewicz, Maciej

214

Storing A Safe Emergency Drinking Water By Sharon Skipton,  

E-print Network

collection and storage. Therefore, it's a good idea to disinfect the water being stored to guarantee, or that might be introduced as the water is collected. Use liquid household chlorine bleach that contains fiveStoring A Safe Emergency Drinking Water Supply By Sharon Skipton, UNL Extension Water Quality

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

215

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 mg\\/liter in drinking water in the period 1958 -1970. Concen- trations have since been reduced to 40 mg\\/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital

Catterina Ferreccio; Vivian Milosavjlevic; Guillermo Marshall; Ana Maria Sancha; Allan H. Smith

2000-01-01

216

Arsenic drinking water regulations in developing countries with extensive exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Public Health Service set an interim standard of 50?g\\/l in 1942, but as early as 1962 the US Public Health Service had identified 10?g\\/l as a goal which later became the World Health Organization Guideline for drinking water in 1992. Epidemiological studies have shown that about one in 10 people drinking water containing 500?g\\/l of arsenic over

Allan H. Smith; Meera M. Hira Smith

2004-01-01

217

Assessment of the school drinking water supply and the water quality in Pingtung County, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a questionnaire survey of school drinking water quality of 42 schools in Pingtung County was conducted according\\u000a to the water sources, treatment facilities, location of school as well as different grade levels. Among them, 45% of schools\\u000a used tap water as the main source of drinking water, and the schools using groundwater and surface water as drinking

Pei-Ling Chung; Chung-Yi Chung; Shao-Wei Liao; Chang-Ling Miaw

2009-01-01

218

Public perception of drinking water from private water supplies: focus group analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Over four million Canadians receive their drinking water from private water supplies, and numerous studies report that these supplies often exceed the minimal acceptable standards for contamination. Canadians in rural areas test their water intermittently, if at all, and treatment of water from private supplies is not common. Understanding the perceptions of drinking water among residents served by private

Andria Q Jones; Catherine E Dewey; Kathryn Doré; Shannon E Majowicz; Scott A McEwen; David Waltner-Toews; Spencer J Henson; Eric Mathews

2005-01-01

219

INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

220

INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

221

Review of Campylobacter spp. in drinking and environmental waters.  

PubMed

Consumption of contaminated drinking water is a significant cause of Campylobacter infections. Drinking water contamination is known to result from septic seepage and wastewater intrusion into non-disinfected sources of groundwater and occasionally from cross-connection into drinking water distribution systems. Wastewater effluents, farm animals and wild birds are the primary sources contributing human-infectious Campylobacters in environmental waters, impacting on recreational activities and drinking water sources. Culturing of Campylobacter entails time-consuming steps that often provide qualitative or semi-quantitative results. Viable but non-culturable forms due to environmental stress are not detected, and thus may result in false-negative assessments of Campylobacter risks from drinking and environmental waters. Molecular methods, especially quantitative PCR applications, are therefore important to use in the detection of environmental Campylobacter spp. Processing large volumes of water may be required to reach the desired sensitivity for either culture or molecular detection methods. In the future, applications of novel molecular techniques such as isothermal amplification and high-throughput sequencing applications are awaited to develop and become more affordable and practical in environmental Campylobacter research. The new technologies may change the knowledge on the prevalence and pathogenicity of the different Campylobacter species in the water environment. PMID:23810971

Pitkänen, Tarja

2013-10-01

222

A review of arsenic presence in China drinking water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chronic endemic arsenicosis areas have been discovered in China since 1960s. Up to 2012, 19 provinces had been found to have As concentration in drinking water exceeding the standard level (0.05 mg/L). Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and Shanxi Province are historical well-known “hotspots” of geogenic As-contaminated drinking water. The goal of this review is to examine, summarize and discuss the information of As in drinking water for all provinces and territories in China. Possible natural As sources for elevating As level in drinking water, were documented. Geogenic As-contaminated drinking water examples were taken to introduce typical environmental conditions where the problems occurred: closed basins in arid or semi-arid areas and reducing aquifers under high pH conditions. Geothermal water or mineral water in mountains areas can be high-As water as well. For undiscovered areas, prediction of potential As-affected groundwater has been carried out by some research groups by use of logistic regression. Modeled maps of probability of geogenic As contamination in groundwater are promising to be used as references to discover unknown areas. Furthermore, anthropogenic As contaminations were summarized and mining, smelters and chemical industries were found to be major sources for As pollution in China.

He, Jing; Charlet, Laurent

2013-06-01

223

Antibiotic resistant coliform and faecal coliform bacteria in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coliform and faccal coliform were isolated from drinking water samples obtained from tap water (TW) and storage tanks (ST) in Baghdad city. All isolates were identified and tested for their resistance to twelve antibiotics. Bacterial identification revealed that Ent. cloacae and Kl. pneumoniae were the predominant organisms from TW and ST water samples, respectively. Overall, 66% of the isolates from

Sameer F. Jazrawi; Zainab A. Al-Doori; Tahreer A. Haddad

1988-01-01

224

MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM AND DRINKING WATER WHAT ARE THE CONNECTIONS?  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Human Mycobacterium avium infections are only known to be acquired from environmental sources such as water and soil. We compared M. avium isolates from clinical and drinking water sources using molecular tools. Methods: M. avium was isolated from water samples colle...

225

Direct drinking water treatment by spiral-wound ultrafiltration membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a research on direct drinking water treatment through an ultrafiltration pilot plant unit using spiral-wound membranes (3500 MWCO). The source of water is the Guarapiranga Reservoir, an eutrophicated water body located in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. The data were collected during a period of almost 3400 h, from August 2005 to

J. C. Mierzwa; I. Hespanhol; M. C. C. da Silva; L. D. B. Rodrigues; C. F. Giorgi

2008-01-01

226

EXPOSURE TO ASBESTOS FROM DRINKING WATER IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Over 1500 asbestos analyses of water supplies in 43 states, Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia were evaluated in order to assess the exposure of the United States population to asbestos in drinking water. It was cocluded that the large majority of U.S. water consumers are n...

227

BIOASSAY PROCEDURE FOR PREDICTING COLIFORM BACTERIAL GROWTH IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality degradation due to the growth of microorganisms Is an area of concern for many water utilities. urrently the nutrient status of drinking water is difficult to measure and can only be defined in relative terms. o date, the procedures developed for determining the amo...

228

Drinking water chlorination and adverse birth outcomes in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorination has been the major strategy for the disinfection of drinking water in Taiwan. The use of chlorinated water has been hypothesized to lead to several adverse birth outcomes, including low birth weight and preterm delivery. We have performed a study to examine the relationship between the use of chlorinated water and adverse birth outcomes in Taiwan. The study areas

Chun-Yuh Yang

2004-01-01

229

Protecting Sources of Drinking Water: Case Studies in Watershed Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Water has released a publication concerning the quality of drinking water in America that supplements the recent 1997 National Public Water System Annual Compliance Report (discussed in the April 28, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). This report documents the experiences of seventeen drinking water suppliers who draw from lakes, reservoirs, and rivers in their efforts to manage and protect their sources. The report covers topics such as creating partnerships, watershed assessment, land use in watersheds, and wastewater management.

Water., United S.

1999-01-01

230

COST AND BENEFITS OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The article develops a framework for evaluating the costs and benefits of environmental control and preventive public health practices and asks the policy question: How do the authors achieve the best mix of protection against infectious disease and toxic chemicals in drinking wa...

231

Emerging contaminants in surface waters and their relevance for the production of drinking water in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing part of drinking water in Europe is prepared from surface water. At the same time, a growing number of emerging contaminants is being discovered in surface water. This review provides an overview of classes of emerging contaminants nowadays detected in the aquatic environment that are of relevance for drinking water production. These comprise e.g. endocrine disrupting compounds, such

Corine J. Houtman

2010-01-01

232

CLIMBING SOUTH AFRICA'S WATER SERVICES LADDER Safe Drinking-Water through Regulatory Governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In almost all South African metropolitan areas, and those areas provided with water from the major water boards, the consumer is provided with high quality drinking-water. However, in the many small cities, towns and villages that fall outside these regions, the situation is very different and in most cases an unacceptably high incidence of poor drinking-water quality occurs. Furthermore, most

GS Mackintosh; A Wensley

233

Influence of various commercial water treatment processes on the electric conductivity of several drinking waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven commercially available devices for water treatment were used on samples of drinking water drawn from four geographically different sources in Austria containing significantly different amounts of dissolved ions. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the influence of these water treatment processes, if any, on the electric conductivity of drinking waters. Within the limits of our experimental precision,

A. Asenbaum; C. Pruner; H. Kabelka; A. Philipp; Emmerich Wilhelm; R. Spendlingwimmer; A. Gebauer; R. Buchner

2011-01-01

234

For Immediate Release --Monday, March 18, 2013 From Glaciers to drinking water: University of Lethbridge  

E-print Network

about the water we drink) - Does pollution affect a fish how glaciers retreat in response to climate change and how that affects water to drinking water: University of Lethbridge Water Resource Experts Available on World

Seldin, Jonathan P.

235

78 FR 68838 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Request for Nominations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...appointment to the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council...established by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to provide practical...the activities, functions, policies, and regulations required by...local agencies concerned with water hygiene and public water...

2013-11-15

236

Drinking-Water Standards and Regulations. Volume 2. Manual for 1982-88  

SciTech Connect

The following 11 important documents are compiled for Drinking Water Standards and Regulations: (1) U.S. Environmental Agency Water Programs, National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations; (2) New Jersey Safe Drinking Water Act; (3) Summary of New Jersey Drinking Water Standards; (4) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Act of 1986 Amendments; (5) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Primary Drinking Water Standards; (6) Canadian National Health and Welfare Drinking Water Quality Guidelines--Maximum Acceptable Concentrations; (7) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Primary Drinking Water Regulations, Filtration and Disinfection Turbidity, Giardia Lamblia, Viruses, Legionella, and Heterotrophic Bacteria; (8) Public Water Supply Manual--Guide to the Safe Drinking Water Program; (9) Public Water Supply Manual--Emergency Response; (10) U.S. EPA Approved Krofta Chemicals; (11) NY-DOH Approved Krofta Chemicals.

Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

1988-04-10

237

Taste and Odor Problems in Clinton Lake Reservoir's Drinking Water  

E-print Network

and other matter that is suspended on the water column to settle to the bottom. When this occurs, more sunlight is able to penetrate the water body and is available to plants and algae on the bottom and in the water column. Nutrients that runoff...Taste and Odor Problems in Clinton Lake Reservoir's Drinking Water Diana L. Restrepo-Osorio (McNair Scholar) Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, INTRODUCTION Water is a requirement for human health and welfare; however...

Restrepo-Osorio, Dianna L.

2012-04-01

238

Occurrence and hygienic relevance of fungi in drinking water.  

PubMed

Fungi, above all filamentous fungi, can occur almost everywhere, even in water. They can grow in such a quantity in water that they can affect the health of the population or have negative effects on food production. There are several reports of fungal growth in water from different countries, but to our knowledge none from Austria so far. The aim of this study was to gain an overview of the spectrum of filamentous fungi and yeasts in drinking water systems. Thirty-eight water samples from drinking water and groundwater were analysed. Fungi were isolated by using membrane filtration and plating method with subsequent cultivation on agar plates. The different taxa of fungi were identified using routine techniques as well as molecular methods. Fungi were isolated in all water samples examined. The mean value for drinking water was 9.1 CFU per 100 ml and for groundwater 5400 CFU per 100 ml. Altogether 32 different taxa of fungi were found. The taxa which occurred most frequently were Cladosporium spp., Basidiomycetes and Penicillium spp. (74.6%, 56.4% and 48.7%, respectively). This study shows that drinking water can be a reservoir for fungi, among them opportunists, which can cause infections in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:18254755

Kanzler, D; Buzina, W; Paulitsch, A; Haas, D; Platzer, S; Marth, E; Mascher, F

2008-03-01

239

Occurrence of organophosphate flame retardants in drinking water from China.  

PubMed

Several organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been identified as known or suspected carcinogens or neurotoxic substances. Given the potential health risks of these compounds, we conducted a comprehensive survey of nine OPFRs in drinking water in China. We found total concentrations of OPFRs in tap water ranging from 85.1 ng/L to 325 ng/L, and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) were the most common components. Similar OPFR concentrations and profiles were observed in water samples processed through six different waterworks in Nanjing, China. However, boiling affected OPFR levels in drinking water by either increasing (e.g., TBEP) or decreasing (e.g., tributyl phosphate, TBP) concentrations depending on the particular compound and the state of the indoor environment. We also found that bottled water contained many of the same major OPFR compounds with concentrations 10-25% lower than those in tap water, although TBEP contamination in bottled water remained a concern. Finally, we concluded that the risk of ingesting OPFRs through drinking water was not a major health concern for either adults or children in China. Nevertheless, drinking water ingestion represents an important exposure pathway for OPFRs. PMID:24556230

Li, Jun; Yu, Nanyang; Zhang, Beibei; Jin, Ling; Li, Meiying; Hu, Mengyang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wei, Si; Yu, Hongxia

2014-05-01

240

INFLUENCE OF CATION LEACHING ON WATER RETENTIVITY OF DRINKING WATER SLUDGE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is important for waste management and sound material-cycle society to clarify the change of the physico-chemical properties of reusable material. In this study, the influence of cation leaching on water retentivity of drinking water sludge was investigated. The column leaching test was executed using drinking water sludge to simulate rainwater percolation, and the water retentivity test of the degraded sludge was executed. As a result, the water retentivity of drinking water sludge decreased after cation leaching. The cation exchangeable capacity of drinking water sludge and its microscopic structure were almost stable during the leaching test. The results indicate a possibility that Al leaching decreases the hydrophilic part of flocculating agent which relates to water retention of drinking water sludge.

Watanabe, Yasutaka; Komine, Hideo; Yasuhara, Kazuya; Murakami, Satoshi; Toyoda, Kazuhiro

241

Remediation Technologies for Arsenic Contaminated Drinking Waters (9 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic is a toxic metalloid element that is now recognised to be an important contaminant of drinking water – particularly, but not exclusively, in poor regions of southern Asia. In effected regions, many millions are at risk of arsenic-induced disease and strategies are required to provide safe water for consumption. The main strategies available are mitigation (the provision of alternative

Hemda Garelick; Agnieszka Dybowska; Eugenia Valsami-Jones; Nicholas D. Priest

2005-01-01

242

USEPA'S RESEARCH EFFORTS IN SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Currently, in the United States there are approximately 50,000 small community and 130,000 non-community systems providing water to over 25 million people. The drinking water treatment systems at these locations are not always adequate to comply with current and pending regulati...

243

NITRATE REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER IN GLENDALE, ARIZONA  

EPA Science Inventory

A 15-month pilot-scale study of nitrate removal from drinking water by ion exchange (IX), reverse osmosis (RO), and electrodialysis (ED) was carried out in Glendale, Arizona, where the raw water contained 18 to 25 mg/L NO3-N. The experiments were carried out using the University ...

244

GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON FOR REMOVING NONTRIHALOMETHANE ORGANICS FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Several large field scale research projects were initiated by the U.S. EPA Drinking Water Research Division, MERL, Cincinnati, OH to evaluate the performance of GAC under varying operating conditions and different source water. Most of this research has been completed at nine loc...

245

NUTRIENTS FOR BACTERIAL GROWTH IN DRINKING WATER: BIOASSAY EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The regrowth of bacteria in drinking water distribution systems can lead to the deterioration of water quality. Pathogenic bacteria are heterotrophs, and heterotrophs are probably the dominant bacteria associated with the regrowth phenomenon. Only a portion of the total organic c...

246

Effect of Drinking Water Iron Concentration on Broiler Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Many parts of the nation have elevated Fe concentrations in drinking water, and poultry producers are uncertain of the effect this will have on broiler performance. Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of Fe concentration on broiler performance. At hatch, Cobb 500 male broiler chicks were placed in Petersime batteries equipped with a nipple watering system. Chicks

B. D. Fairchild; A. B. Batal; C. W. Ritz; P. F. Vendrell

2006-01-01

247

Risk of Internal Cancers from Arsenic in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is under a congressional mandate to revise its current standard for arsenic in drinking water. We present a risk assessment for cancers of the bladder, liver, and lung from exposure to arsenic in water, based on data from 42 villages in an arseniasis- endemic region of Taiwan. We calculate excess lifetime risk estimates for several

Knashawn H. Morales; Louise Ryan; Tsung-Li Kuo; Meei-Maan Wu; Chien-Jen Chen

248

DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION USING A UV/PHOTOCATALYST  

EPA Science Inventory

Worldwide, lack of safe drinking water takes an inestimable toll on human health. The objective of this project is to develop a small-scale sustainable water disinfection technology requiring a minimum of treatment time. The technology to be developed will be simple, sustain...

249

Photocatalytic Coats in Glass Drinking-Water Bottles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to a proposal, the insides of glass bottles used to store drinking water would be coated with films consisting of or containing TiO2. In the presence of ultraviolet light, these films would help to remove bacteria, viruses, and trace organic contaminants from the water.

Andren, Anders W.; Armstrong, David E.; Anderson, Marc A.

2005-01-01

250

SAFE DRINKING WATER FOR THE LITTLE GUY: OPTIONS AND ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and its Amendments sets regulations applicable to all community water systems that have 15 or more service connections and/or serve at least 25 people. t first glance, this may appear most inclusive, but in reality there are numerous private hom...

251

Regional Drinking Water Security Action research, policy and analysis  

E-print Network

Regional Drinking Water Security Action research, policy and analysis Milind Sohoni Centre electricity, household energy use, small-town planning, post-harvest agriculture, water policy analysis program two-year graduate course, one year Masters project 10-week rural stay, policy and practice

Sohoni, Milind

252

Combined heat and power for drinking water production  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABB Kraftwerke AG, of Mannheim, Germany, is presently involved in two huge projects aimed at supplying electric power and drinking water in the Arabian Gulf. To limit fuel consumption as much as possible, electricity and water are produced in CHP plants. These plants are powered either by gas turbines equipped with HRSGs, or by conventional boilers feeding controlled extraction-condensing steam

Chellini

1996-01-01

253

GASTROINTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF SOLUBLE URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The manuscript describes results of an experiment to determine the gastrointestinal absorption of uranium from drinking water in 12 health adults. Most of the uranium ingested was excreted in feces in the first 2 days following ingestion of the water. The absorption was the same ...

254

ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents a long term performance study of two iron removal water treatment plants to remove arsenic from drinking water sources. Performance information was collected from one system located in midwest for one full year and at the second system located in the farwest...

255

EFFECT OF THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM ON DRINKING WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments has focused interest on the factors that cause the deterioration of water between the treatment plant and the consumer. The distribution system itself can contribute to this deterioration. Numerous examples of waterborne disease outb...

256

Cleaning Membranes with Focused Ultrasound Beams for Drinking Water Treatment  

E-print Network

micro pollutants such as harmful organics and cannot meet the demand for high-quality drinking water pollutants, shortens membrane life due to chemical erosion, adds costs of cleanup, handling, and transporting to clean a large membrane area needed for a typical water treatment plant. In this paper, a focused

Lu, Jian-yu

257

Pilot study of drinking water production with ultrafiltration of water from the Songhuajiang River (China)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafiltration (UF) using hollow-fiber membranes is being developed in the field of drinking water purification. In China, surface water is polluted in some regions where an advanced treatment facility should be constructed to produce safe drinking water. However, it is limited because of some problems associated with its direct use, which includes membrane flux decline and insufficient removal of dissolved

Shengji Xia; Xing Li; Ruiping Liu; Guibai Li

2005-01-01

258

SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE ENHANCED SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULES  

EPA Science Inventory

According to FY2003 statistics compiled by the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, the U.S. regulates about 160,000 small drinking water systems that impact close to 70 million people. Small systems (serving transient and non-transient populations of 10,000 people or less...

259

Bacteriological quality of drinking water in Nyala, South Darfur, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the bacterial contaminations in drinking water in Nyala city, South Darfur, Sudan\\u000a with special reference to the internally displaced people camps (IDPs). Two hundred and forty water samples from different\\u000a sites and sources including bore holes, hand pumps, dug wells, water points, water reservoir and household storage containers\\u000a were collected in 2009.

Amira Ahmed Abdelrahman; Yassir Mohammed Eltahir

2011-01-01

260

Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration\\u000a process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to\\u000a these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species\\u000a as a

Mohamed H. Geriesh; Klaus-Dieter Balke; Ahmed E. El-Rayes

2008-01-01

261

Postexercise rehydration: potassium-rich drinks versus water and a sports drink.  

PubMed

Fluid retention, thirst quenching, tolerance, and palatability of different drinks were assessed. On 4 different days, 12 healthy, physically active volunteers (24.4 ± 3.2 years old, 74.75 ± 11.36 kg body mass (mean ± S.D)), were dehydrated to 2.10% ± 0.24% body mass by exercising in an environmental chamber (32.0 ± 0.4 °C dry bulb, 53.8 ± 5.2% relative humidity). Each day they drank 1 of 4 beverages in random order: fresh coconut water (FCW), bottled water (W), sports drink (SD), or potassium-rich drink (NEW); volume was 120% of weight loss. Urine was collected and perceptions self-reported for 3 h. Urine output was higher (p < 0.05) for W (894 ± 178 mL) than SD (605 ± 297 mL) and NEW (599 ± 254 mL). FCW (686 ± 250 mL) was not different from any other drink (p > 0.05). Fluid retention was higher for SD than W (68.2% ± 13.0% vs. 51.3% ± 12.6%, p = 0.013), but not for FCW and NEW (62.5% ± 15.4% and 65.9% ± 15.4%, p > 0.05). All beverages were palatable and well tolerated; none maintained a positive net fluid balance after 3 h, but deficit was greater in W versus SD (p = 0.001). FCW scored higher for sweetness (p = 0.03). Thirst increased immediately after exercise but returned to baseline after drinking a small volume (p < 0.0005). In conclusion, additional potassium in FCW and NEW did not result in additional rehydration benefits over those already found in a conventional sports drink with sodium. PMID:25017113

Pérez-Idárraga, Alexandra; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando

2014-10-01

262

Water, Water Everywhere, But Not a Drop to Drink: Pani Politics (Water Politics) in Rural Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at the nature of water politics (pani politics) in the context of arsenic contamination of drinking water in rural Bangladesh. Pani politics is found to be a product of intersecting similarities and differences among women and men, where water comes to have material and symbolic power that people can exercise, which can lead to conflicts, marginalization and

Farhana Sultana

2007-01-01

263

Pathogens in drinking water: Are there any new ones  

SciTech Connect

Since 1976 three newly recognized human pathogens have become familiar to the drinking water industry as waterborne disease agents. These are: the legionnaires disease agent, Legionella pneumophila and related species; and two protozoan pathogens, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum, both of which form highly disinfectant resistant cysts that are shed in the feces of infected individuals. The question frequently arises - are there other emerging waterborne pathogens that may pose a human health problem that the drinking water industry will have to deal with. The paper will review the current state of knowledge of the occurrence and incidence of pathogens and opportunistic pathogens other than Legionella, Giardia and Cryptosporidium in treated and untreated drinking water. Bacterial agents that will be reviewed include Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Campylobacter, Mycobacterium, Yersinia and Plesiomonas. Aspects of detection of these agents including detection methods and feasibility of monitoring will be addressed.

Reasoner, D.J.

1993-01-01

264

Drinking water disinfection byproducts: review and approach to toxicity evaluation.  

PubMed

There is widespread potential for human exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water because everyone drinks, bathes, cooks, and cleans with water. The need for clean and safe water led the U.S. Congress to pass the Safe Drinking Water Act more than 20 years ago in 1974. In 1976, chloroform, a trihalomethane (THM) and a principal DBP, was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. This prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in 1979 to develop a drinking water rule that would provide guidance on the levels of THMs allowed in drinking water. Further concern was raised by epidemiology studies suggesting a weak association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and the occurrence of bladder, colon, and rectal cancer. In 1992 the U.S. EPA initiated a negotiated rulemaking to evaluate the need for additional controls for microbial pathogens and DBPs. The goal was to develop an approach that would reduce the level of exposure from disinfectants and DBPs without undermining the control of microbial pathogens. The product of these deliberations was a proposed stage 1 DBP rule. It was agreed that additional information was necessary on how to optimize the use of disinfectants while maintaining control of pathogens before further controls to reduce exposure beyond stage 1 were warranted. In response to this need, the U.S. EPA developed a 5-year research plan to support the development of the longer term rules to control microbial pathogens and DBPs. A considerable body of toxicologic data has been developed on DBPs that occur in the drinking water, but the main emphasis has been on THMs. Given the complexity of the problem and the need for additional data to support the drinking water DBP rules, the U.S. EPA, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Army are working together to develop a comprehensive biologic and mechanistic DBP database. Selected DBPs will be tested using 2-year toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in standard rodent models; transgenic mouse models and small fish models; in vitro mechanistic and toxicokinetic studies; and reproductive, immunotoxicity, and developmental studies. The goal is to create a toxicity database that reflects a wide range of DBPs resulting from different disinfection practices. This paper describes the approach developed by these agencies to provide the information needed to make scientifically based regulatory decisions. PMID:10229719

Boorman, G A

1999-02-01

265

40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.  

...Consideration of underground sources of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection...Re-certification Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.53 ...Consideration of underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments that...

2014-07-01

266

78 FR 19261 - Safe Drinking Water Act Sole Source Aquifer Program; Designation of Bainbridge Island, Washington...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of sources which supply drinking water to the designated area, nor is...capable of supplying the drinking water demands for the population served by the aquifer service area. No potential surface water bodies exist to provide a...

2013-03-29

267

76 FR 67187 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Notice of a Public Teleconference Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...consult with EPA regarding potential modifications to the...the National Drinking Water Regulations for Lead...and copper in drinking water supplied by public water systems. EPA consulted with the NDWAC on potential revisions to the...

2011-10-31

268

40 CFR 144.7 - Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...underground source of drinking water if it meets the definition...consider: (i) Current and potential future use of the USDWs to be exempted as drinking water resources; (ii) The...result in degradation of water quality, over the...

2011-07-01

269

40 CFR 144.7 - Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...underground source of drinking water if it meets the definition...consider: (i) Current and potential future use of the USDWs to be exempted as drinking water resources; (ii) The...result in degradation of water quality, over the...

2013-07-01

270

40 CFR 144.7 - Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...underground source of drinking water if it meets the definition...consider: (i) Current and potential future use of the USDWs to be exempted as drinking water resources; (ii) The...result in degradation of water quality, over the...

2012-07-01

271

75 FR 61751 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council: Request for Nominations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...members of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council...established by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to provide practical...the activities, functions, policies, and regulations required by...officials concerned with public water supply and public health...

2010-10-06

272

40 CFR Appendix III to Part 265 - EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards III Appendix III...EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards Parameter Maximum...0.05 Mercury 0.002 Nitrate (as N) 10 Selenium 0...is applicable only to surface water...

2012-07-01

273

40 CFR Appendix III to Part 265 - EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards III Appendix III...EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards Parameter Maximum...0.05 Mercury 0.002 Nitrate (as N) 10 Selenium 0...is applicable only to surface water...

2013-07-01

274

40 CFR Appendix III to Part 265 - EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards III Appendix III...EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards Parameter Maximum...0.05 Mercury 0.002 Nitrate (as N) 10 Selenium 0...is applicable only to surface water...

2010-07-01

275

40 CFR 144.7 - Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers.  

...Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers. 144.7 Section...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION...Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers. (a)...

2014-07-01

276

21 CFR 1240.80 - General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes.  

...2014-04-01 false General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes. 1240...COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.80 General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes....

2014-04-01

277

40 CFR 144.12 - Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking water.  

...fluid into underground sources of drinking water. 144.12 Section 144.12 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION...fluid into underground sources of drinking water. (a) No owner or operator...

2014-07-01

278

40 CFR 144.82 - What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water?  

...protect underground sources of drinking water? 144.82 Section 144.82 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION...protect underground sources of drinking water? If you own or operate any...

2014-07-01

279

CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NEWLY DISCOVERED IODOACID DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Iodoacid drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were recently uncovered in drinking water samples from source water with a high bromide/iodide concentration that was disinfected with chloramines. The purpose of this paper is to report the analytical chemical identification...

280

Drinking water consumption patterns in Canadian communities (2001-2007).  

PubMed

A pooled analysis of seven cross-sectional studies from Newfoundland and Labrador, Waterloo and Hamilton Regions, Ontario and Vancouver, East Kootenay and Northern Interior Regions, British Columbia (2001 to 2007) was performed to investigate the drinking water consumption patterns of Canadians and to identify factors associated with the volume of tap water consumed. The mean volume of tap water consumed was 1.2 L/day, with a large range (0.03 to 9.0 L/day). In-home water treatment and interactions between age and gender and age and bottled water use were significantly associated with the volume of tap water consumed in multivariable analyses. Approximately 25% (2,221/8,916) of participants were classified as bottled water users, meaning that 75% or more of their total daily drinking water intake was bottled. Approximately 48.6% (4,307/8,799) of participants used an in-home treatment method to treat their tap water for drinking purposes. This study provides a broader geographic perspective and more current estimates of Canadian water consumption patterns than previous studies. The identified factors associated with daily water consumption could be beneficial for risk assessors to identify individuals who may be at greater risk of waterborne illness. PMID:22361703

Roche, S M; Jones, A Q; Majowicz, S E; McEwen, S A; Pintar, K D M

2012-03-01

281

EMERGING CONTAMINANTS IN THE DRINKING WATER CYCLE  

EPA Science Inventory

PRESENTATION OUTLINE: I. General overview of the water cycle; II. USEPA and USGS Research; a. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and downstream surface waters; b. Groundwater down gradient from WW lagoon; c. Source and finished water fro...

282

Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water and the Risk of Death from Kidney Cancer: Does Hardness in Drinking Water Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the relationship between total trihalomethanes (TTHM) levels in public water supplies and risk of development of kidney cancer and (2) determine whether hardness levels in drinking water modify the effects of TTHM on risk of kidney cancer induction. A matched case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk

Yen-Hsiung Liao; Chih-Cheng Chen; Chih-Ching Chang; Chiung-Yu Peng; Hui-Fen Chiu; Trong-Neng Wu; Chun-Yuh Yang

2012-01-01

283

Nitrates in Drinking Water and the Risk of Death from Rectal Cancer: Does Hardness in Drinking Water Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the relationship between nitrate levels in public water supplies and increased risk of death from rectal cancer and (2) determine whether calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels in drinking water might modify the effects of nitrate on development of rectal cancer. A matched case-control study was used to investigate the relationship

Chih-Ching Chang; Chih-Cheng Chen; Deng-Chuang Wu; Chun-Yuh Yang

2010-01-01

284

Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water and the Risk of Death From Rectal Cancer: Does Hardness in Drinking Water Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were (1) to examine the relationship between total trihalomethanes (TTHM) levels in public water supplies and risk of rectal cancer development and (2) to determine whether calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels in drinking water might modify the effects of TTHM on risk of developing rectal cancer. A matched cancer case-control study was used to

Hsin-Wei Kuo; Pei-Shih Chen; Shu-Chen Ho; Li-Yu Wang; Chun-Yuh Yang

2010-01-01

285

Nitrates in Drinking Water and The Risk of Death from Brain Cancer: Does Hardness in Drinking Water Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the relationship between nitrate levels in public water supplies and risk of death from brain cancer and (2) determine whether calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels in drinking water might modify the influence of nitrates on development of brain cancer. A matched cancer case-control study was used to investigate the relationship

Chi-Kung Ho; Ya-Hui Yang; Chun-Yuh Yang

2011-01-01

286

Recent advances in drinking water disinfection: successes and challenges.  

PubMed

Drinking water is the most important single source of human exposure to gastroenteric diseases, mainly as a result of the ingestion of microbial contaminated water. Waterborne microbial agents that pose a health risk to humans include enteropathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Therefore, properly assessing whether these hazardous agents enter drinking water supplies, and if they do, whether they are disinfected adequately, are undoubtedly aspects critical to protecting public health. As new pathogens emerge, monitoring for relevant indicator microorganisms (e.g., process microbial indicators, fecal indicators, and index and model organisms) is crucial to ensuring drinking water safety. Another crucially important step to maintaining public health is implementing Water Safety Plans (WSPs), as is recommended by the current WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Good WSPs include creating health-based targets that aim to reduce microbial risks and adverse health effects to which a population is exposed through drinking water. The use of disinfectants to inactivate microbial pathogens in drinking water has played a central role in reducing the incidence of waterborne diseases and is considered to be among the most successful interventions for preserving and promoting public health. Chlorine-based disinfectants are the most commonly used disinfectants and are cheap and easy to use. Free chlorine is an effective disinfectant for bacteria and viruses; however, it is not always effective against C. parvum and G. lamblia. Another limitation of using chlorination is that it produces disinfection by-products (DBPs), which pose potential health risks of their own. Currently, most drinking water regulations aggressively address DBP problems in public water distribution systems. The DBPs of most concern include the trihalomethanes (THMs), the haloacetic acids (HAAs), bromate, and chlorite. However, in the latest edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, it is recommended that water disinfection should never be compromised by attempting to control DBPs. The reason for this is that the risks of human illness and death from pathogens in drinking water are much greater than the risks from exposure to disinfectants and disinfection by-products. Nevertheless, if DBP levels exceed regulatory limits, strategies should focus on eliminating organic impurities that foster their formation, without compromising disinfection. As alternatives to chlorine, disinfectants such as chloramines, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and UV disinfection are gaining popularity. Chlorine and each of these disinfectants have individual advantage and disadvantage in terms of cost, efficacy-stability, ease of application, and nature of disinfectant by-products (DBPs). Based on efficiency, ozone is the most efficient disinfectant for inactivating bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. In contrast, chloramines are the least efficient and are not recommended for use as primary disinfectants. Chloramines are favored for secondary water disinfection, because they react more slowly than chlorine and are more persistent in distribution systems. In addition, chloramines produce lower DBP levels than does chlorine, although microbial activity in the distribution system may produce nitrate from monochloramine, when it is used as a residual disinfectant, Achieving the required levels of water quality, particularly microbial inactivation levels, while minimizing DBP formation requires the application of proper risk and disinfection management protocols. In addition, the failure of conventional treatment processes to eliminate critical waterborne pathogens in drinking water demand that improved and/or new disinfection technologies be developed. Recent research has disclosed that nanotechnology may offer solutions in this area, through the use of nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes, and nanoparticle-enhanced filtration. PMID:22990947

Ngwenya, Nonhlanhla; Ncube, Esper J; Parsons, James

2013-01-01

287

40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. 142...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Primary...

2012-07-01

288

40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. 142...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Primary...

2011-07-01

289

40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...  

...implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. 142...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Primary...

2014-07-01

290

Assessment of the school drinking water supply and the water quality in Pingtung County, Taiwan.  

PubMed

In this study, a questionnaire survey of school drinking water quality of 42 schools in Pingtung County was conducted according to the water sources, treatment facilities, location of school as well as different grade levels. Among them, 45% of schools used tap water as the main source of drinking water, and the schools using groundwater and surface water as drinking water source account for 29% and 26%, respectively. The schools above senior high school level in the city used tap water as drinking water more than underground water, while the schools under junior high school level in the rural area used surface water as their main source of drinking water. The surface water was normally boiled before being provided to their students. The reverse osmosis system is a commonly used water treatment equipment for those schools using tap water or underground water. Drinking fountain or boiled water unit is widely installed in schools above senior high school level. For schools under junior high school level, a pipeline is stretched across the campus. Relative test shows that the unqualified rate of microbe in water is 26.2%. All parameters for physical and chemical properties and metal content had met the domestic standards except that the turbidity of schools under junior high school level using tap water is slightly higher than the standard value. PMID:19011980

Chung, Pei-Ling; Chung, Chung-Yi; Liao, Shao-Wei; Miaw, Chang-Ling

2009-12-01

291

Effect of drinking water temperature on broiler performance.  

PubMed

In the first experiment, higher body weight gain and feed comsumption were attained with water at a temperature of 23.9 degrees C. as compared with 35.0 degrees C. No significant differences in feed efficiency due to water temperature were evident. Livability was significantly reduced during brooding for the birds given warm water (35.0 degree C). A significant interaction for body weight gain was observed between the initial ambient air brooding temperatures and water temperatures during the growing period. In the second experiment six water temperatures during brooding to three weeks of age were studied. Body weight gain and feed comsumption were significantly depressed at a drinking water temperature of 40.6 degrees C. as compared with drinking water temperatures between 17.8 degrees C. and 35.0 degrees C. No differences in livability were noted which was in contrast to the results of the first experiment. A drinking water temperature below ambient air temperature is apparently beneficial to the growth of the broiler chick. The placement of the waterers in relation to the brooder stoves could influence water temperature which would affect the growth of broilers. PMID:1153376

Harris, G C; Nelson, G S; Seay, R L; Dodgen, W H

1975-05-01

292

Burden of Cancer from Chemicals in North Carolina Drinking Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring programs required by the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) currently do not consider potential differences in chemical exposure patterns and human health risks. Rather, U.S. agencies establish monitoring requirements based on the type of water system and the number of people the system serves; within categories of systems, all potentially carcinogenic chemicals must be monitored with equal frequency, regardless of the potential level of risk these chemicals pose. To inform future policies concerning contaminant monitoring under the SDWA, we examined the potential health threats in North Carolina from the 34 carcinogenic chemicals covered under the SDWA. We analyzed reported contaminant concentration data for all community water systems (CWSs) for the years 1998-2011. We employed an attributable fraction approach that uses probabilistic inputs to evaluate the percent of cancer cases that may be attributable to chemical exposure in drinking water. We found that cancer risks are dominated by 3 of the 34 chemicals and chemical classes (total trihalomethanes (TTHMs), arsenic and gross alpha particles); all other chemicals contribute to less than one cancer case per year in the state. We showed that around 840 cases of cancer annually (2% of annual cancer cases) are attributable to contaminated drinking water. The majority cases are due to TTHMs, arsenic and gross alpha particles, which contributed 810 (95% CI 560-1,280), 14 (95% CI 3 -32), and 13 (95% CI 2-48) cases, respectively. Sixty-seven counties had annual cancer rates higher than 1 in 10,000 attributable to community water systems. Annual cancer rate attributable to chemicals found in drinking water that are regulated under the safe drinking water act.

DeFelice, N.

2013-12-01

293

BIOFILM IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Throughout the world there are millions of miles of water distribution pipe lines which provide potable water for use by individuals and industry. Some of these water distribution systems have been in service well over one hundred years. Treated water moving through a distributio...

294

Access to Drinking-water and Arsenicosis in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of arsenic contamination in groundwater has challenged efforts to provide safe drinking- water to households in rural Bangladesh. Two nationally-representative surveys in 2000 and 2002 inves- tigated water-usage patterns, water-testing, knowledge of arsenic poisoning, and behavioural responses to arsenic contamination. Knowledge of arsenicosis rose between the two surveys among women from 42% to 64% but awareness of consequences

Bruce K. Caldwell; Wayne T. Smith; Kamalini Lokuge; Geetha Ranmuthugala; Keith Dear; Abul H. Milton; Malcolm R. Sim; Jack C. Ng; S. N. Mitra

2006-01-01

295

Selective enumeration strategies for Brevundimonas diminuta from drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brevundimonas diminuta is used as a control organism for validating the efficiency of water filtration systems. Since these protocols use nonselective\\u000a growth media, heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPCs) indigenous to the water distribution system may interfere with B. diminuta enumeration, thus leading to inaccurate assessment of the filter’s microbial reduction capability. This could negatively\\u000a impact public health as unsafe drinking water

Robert Scott Donofrio; Lorelle L. Bestervelt; Ratul Saha; Susan T. Bagley

2010-01-01

296

[Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks].  

PubMed

Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in carbonated water. PMID:17037258

Ancasi, E G; Carrillo, L; Benítez Ahrendts, M R

2006-01-01

297

Demineralization of drinking water: Is it prudent?  

PubMed

Water is the elixir of life. The requirement of water for very existence of life and preservation of health has driven man to devise methods for maintaining its purity and wholesomeness. The water can get contaminated, polluted and become a potential hazard to human health. Water in its purest form devoid of natural minerals can also be the other end of spectrum where health could be adversely affected. Limited availability of fresh water and increased requirements has led to an increased usage of personal, domestic and commercial methods of purification of water. Desalination of saline water where fresh water is in limited supply has led to development of the latest technology of reverse osmosis but is it going to be safe to use such demineralized water over a long duration needs to be debated and discussed. PMID:25382914

Verma, K C; Kushwaha, A S

2014-10-01

298

Minerals leached into drinking water from rubber stoppers.  

PubMed

Drinking water and its delivery system are potential sources of variation in animal research. Concern arose that rubber stoppers used to cork water bottles might be a source of some nutritionally required minerals which could leach into drinking water. Six types of stoppers, each having different compositions, were cleaned with stainless-steel sipper tubes inserted into them and attached to polypropylene bottles filled with either deionized water (pH 4.5) or acidified-deionized water (pH 2.5). After six days of contact, water levels of copper, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, chromium, and selenium were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, three of the stopper types were analyzed for mineral content. Minerals were present in both stoppers and drinking water. Acidified-deionized water generally leached minerals from the stoppers than did deionized water. The black stopper which is commonly used in animal facilities contained and leached measurable levels of some minerals, but it still can be recommended for typical animal husbandry uses, although other types of stoppers would be more suitable for specific nutritional and toxicologic studies. PMID:1658460

Kennedy, B W; Beal, T S

1991-06-01

299

Water Research 38 (2004) 19001910 Origins and implications of drinking water odours in  

E-print Network

on odour, taste, and appearance [1,2]. Perceptions of health risks based on aesthetic properties may result of drinking water suppliers. Consumer perception regarding the safety of drinking water is often based, which quantifies human perception using the method of ``just noticeable ARTICLE IN PRESS *Corresponding

Mazumder, Asit

300

Drinking Water Problems: Iron and Manganese  

E-print Network

concentrations of iron and manganese) Oxidizing filter?manganese greensand or zeolite (use with zeolite coated with manganese oxide. These substances adsorb dis- solved iron and manganese. Synthetic zeolite requires less backwash water and softens water as it removes impurities...

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2004-02-20

301

Arsenic Removal Technologies for Drinking Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic contamination as a consequence of human activities such as mining and pesticide use is affecting the water resource quality worldwide. Because of the high risk of arsenic exposure, specific water treatment processes are required to meet the anticipated more severe water quality standards. Better understanding of presently available processes is necessary to develop economic, efficient and effective methods for

Kuan-Seong Ng; Zaini Ujang; Pierre Le-Clech

2004-01-01

302

Nitrate removal from drinking water -- Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate concentrations in surface water and especially in ground water have increased in Canada, the US, Europe, and other areas of the world. This trend has raised concern because nitrates cause methemoglobiinemia in infants. Several treatment processes including ion exchange, biological denitrification, chemical denitrification, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, and catalytic denitrification can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency,

Anoop Kapoor; T. Viraraghavan

1997-01-01

303

Water Everywhere: Is There Enough to Drink?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on water supply issues stemming from population growth and land use. Students can complete histograms on global water usage, create a water usage trivia game or campaign, write a "sinkhole" news article, examine an aquifer system, illustrate a desalination process and more!

Kim Burley (Lindsay Thurber Comprehensive High School;)

2002-05-01

304

Drinking water turbidity and emergency department visits for gastrointestinal illness in Atlanta, 1993–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which drinking water turbidity measurements indicate the risk of gastrointestinal illness is not well understood. Despite major advances in drinking water treatment and delivery, infectious disease can still be transmitted through drinking water in the United States, and it is important to have reliable indicators of microbial water quality to inform public health decisions. The objective of

Sarah C Tinker; Christine L Moe; Mitchel Klein; W Dana Flanders; Jim Uber; Appiah Amirtharajah; Philip Singer; Paige E Tolbert

2010-01-01

305

Data for Drinking Water Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas  

E-print Network

/ 34 #12;Drinking water for Boriwali or for that matter, a savings and micro-lending analysisData for Drinking Water Centre for Technology Alternatives for Rural Areas GISE Lab, CSE IIT Agriculture/Livelihoods ­post-harvest, foods Water sector ­drinking water, policy. Environmental planning

Sohoni, Milind

306

MEETING THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE U.S. SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT: THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The passage of the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974 has had a major impact on the way water is treated and delivered in the United States. The Act established national drinking water regulations for more than 170,000 public drinking water systems serving over 250 mill...

307

76 FR 10899 - Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SERVICES Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention...community water systems adjust the amount of fluoride in drinking water to 0.7 mg/L to...period on the proposed recommendations for fluoride concentration in drinking water for...

2011-02-28

308

Diversity and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas spp. from drinking water.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas spp. are common inhabitants of aquatic environments, including drinking water. Multi-antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa is widely reported and deeply characterized. However, the information regarding other species and environmental isolates of this genus is scant. This study was designed based on the hypothesis that members of the genus Pseudomonas given their high prevalence, wide distribution in waters and genetic plasticity can be important reservoirs of antibiotic resistance in drinking water. With this aim, the diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of Pseudomonas isolated from different drinking water sources were evaluated. The genotypic diversity analyses were based on six housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, rpoD, rpoB, gyrB, recA and ITS) and on pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Susceptibility to 21 antibiotics of eight classes was tested using the ATB PSE EU (08) and disk diffusion methods. Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from 14 of the 32 sampled sites. A total of 55 non-repetitive isolates were affiliated to twenty species. Although the same species were isolated from different sampling sites, identical genotypes were never observed in distinct types of water (water treatment plant/distribution system, tap water, cup fillers, biofilm, and mineral water). In general, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance was low and often the resistance patterns were related with the species and/or the strain genotype. Resistance to ticarcillin, ticarcillin with clavulanic acid, fosfomycin and cotrimoxazol were the most prevalent (69-84%). No resistance to piperacillin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, imipenem or meropenem was observed. This study demonstrates that Pseudomonas spp. are not so widespread in drinking water as commonly assumed. Nevertheless, it suggests that water Pseudomonas can spread acquired antibiotic resistance, preferentially via vertical transmission. PMID:22521167

Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

2012-06-01

309

Gastric cancer mortality and drinking water qualities in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The possible association between the risk of gastric cancer and nitrate and hardness in drinking water from municipal supplies was investigated in a matched case-control study in Taiwan. Data on gastric cancer deaths among eligible residents in Taiwan from 1987 through 1991 (6,766 cases) were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes (6,766 controls) and were matched individually to the cases by sex, year of birth, and year of death. Data on nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and hardness levels in drinking water throughout Taiwan were collected from the Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The municipality of residence for cases and controls was assumed to be the source of the subject's nitrate and hardness exposure via drinking water. There was no difference in gastric cancer rates between the groups with different levels of nitrate. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for death from gastric cancer was 0.95 (0.87-1.03) for the group with water nitrate levels between 0.23 and 0.44 mg/L, and 1.02 (0.93-1.11) for the group with nitrate levels greater than 0.45 mg/L. However, the results show a significant negative relationship between drinking water hardness and gastric cancer mortality. Odds ratios were 1.16 (1.07-1.26) and 1.65 (1.52-1.79), respectively, for exposure to moderately hard water and soft water compared with the use of hard water. This is an important finding for the Taiwan water industry and human health risk. PMID:9353213

Yang, C Y; Chiu, H F; Chiu, J F; Cheng, M F; Kao, W Y

1997-10-01

310

METHODS FOR REMOVING URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The number of water supplies with high uranium levels and the possibility of a national uranium regulation has stimulated greater interest in uranium removal technology. The paper summarizes recent information on the effectiveness of various methods for uranium removal from drink...

311

RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA  

EPA Science Inventory

Residential exposure to drinking water arsenic in Inner Mongolia, China Zhixiong Ning1, Richard K. Kwok2, Zhiyi Liu1, Shiying Zhang1, Chenglong Ma1, Danelle T. Lobdell2, Michael Riediker3 and Judy L. Mumford2 1) Institute of Endemic Disease for Prevention and Treatment in I...

312

Three Drinking Water-Associated Cryptosporidiosis Outbreaks, Northern Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three recent drinking-water-associated cryptosporidiosis out- breaks in Northern Ireland were investigated by using genotyp- ing and subgenotyping tools. One Cryptosporidium parvum outbreak was caused by the bovine genotype, and two were caused by the human genotype. Subgenotyping analyses indi- cate that two predominant subgenotypes were associated with these outbreaks and had been circulating in the community.

Scott Glaberman; John E. Moore; Colm J. Lowery; Rachel M. Chalmers; Irshad Sulaiman; Kristin Elwin; Paul J. Rooney; Beverley C. Millar; James S. G. Dooley; Altaf A. Lal; Lihua Xiao

313

TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR CONTROLLING TRIHALOMETHANES IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

In this volume, the authors attempt to bring together information developed over the past 6 years, on all aspects of trihalomethanes as they relate to drinking water. Section I summarizes with references to the primary literature the discovery of the trihalomethane problem, healt...

314

TECHNIQUES FOR ANALYZING COMPLEX MIXTURES OF DRINKING WATER DBPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Although chlorine has been used to disinfect drinking water for approximately 100 years, there have been concerns raised over its use, due to the formation of potentially hazardous by-products. Trihalomethanes (THMs) were the first disinfection by-products (DBPs) identified and ...

315

PRESCRIBED PROCEDURES FOR MEASUREMENT OF RADIOACTIVITY IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Appropriate radiochemical procedures have been complied in a laboratory manual for use in the analysis of gross alpha activity, gross beta activity, 134/137Cs, 131I, 226/228Ra, 89,90Sr, 3H, uranium, and the actinide elements, in drinking water. These methods possess the necessary...

316

MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. Equations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reation rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. An analytical solution for ...

317

MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. quations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reaction rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. n analytical solution for the...

318

RECOVERY AND DIVERSITY OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA FROM CHLORINATED DRINKING WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Heterotrophic bacteria were enumerated from the Seattle drinking water catchment basins and distribution system. The highest bacterial recoveries were obtained by using a very dilute medium containing 0.01% peptone as the primary carbon source. Other factors favoring high recover...

319

ENUMERATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Various spread-plating enumeration media and procedures have been tested to determine the method of choice for the enumeration of the highest numbers of heterotrophic bacteria from chlorinated drinking waters. Dilute media, including a caseinate peptone starch medium, a dilute pe...

320

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile  

E-print Network

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile Catterina Ferreccio,1,2 Claudia- trations have since been reduced to 40 g/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital controls. The study identified 152 lung

California at Berkeley, University of

321

EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF ORGANIC MICROPOLLUTANTS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiologic studies have been conducted in order to make a quantitative statement about associations between drinking water contaminants and disease. The basic measures of the association are a rate ratio or relative risk and rate difference or attributable risk. The appropriat...

322

URBAN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: A U.S. PERSPECTIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper will examine several case studies that illustrate the critical role drinking water treatment and distribution systems play in protecting public health. It will also present a case study that documents the dramatic impact that the regulations promulgated under the Safe...

323

MODELING CHLORINE RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A mass-transfer-based model is developed for predicting chlorine decay in drinking-water distribution networks. The model considers first-order reactions of chlorine to occur both in the bulk flow and at the pipe wall. The overall rate of the wall reaction is a function of the ...

324

COMPARATIVE RISK DILEMNAS IN DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION [EDITORIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Disinfection of drinking water supplies has been one of the most succesful public health interventions of the twentieth century. It has virtually eliminated outbreaks of serious waterborne infectious diseases, such as cholera and typhoid. there are still, however, an average of...

325

ELEVATED LEVELS OF SODIUM IN COMMUNITY DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparison study of students from towns with differing levels of sodium in drinking water revealed statistically significantly higher blood pressure distributions among the students from the town with high sodium levels. Differences were found in both systolic and diastolic rea...

326

Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle - MCEARD  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-¿g/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

327

EFFECT OF BROMIDE ON CHLORINATION BYPRODUCTS IN FINISHED DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

To investigate the role of bromide ion concentration on formation and speciation of non-THMs chlorination organic byproducts, a two block full factorial matrix was designed to statistically evaluate the influence of various parameters which are relevant to drinking water treatmen...

328

CONTROL OF MICROBES AND DBPS IN DRINKING WATER: AN OVERVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Historically drinking water utilities in the United States (U.S.) have played a major role in protecting public health through the reduction of waterborne disease. These reductions in waterborne disease outbreaks were brought about by the use of sand filtration, disinfection and...

329

Detection of Heavy Metal Ions in Drinking Water Using a  

E-print Network

Detection of Heavy Metal Ions in Drinking Water Using a High-Resolution Differential Surface, and clinical toxicology. A number of techniques have been developed over the years for heavy metal ion analysis-resolution differential surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor for heavy metal ion detection. The sensor surface

Chen, Wilfred

330

NEUROTOXICITY PRODUCED BY DIBROMOACETIC ACID IN DRINKING WATER OF RATS.  

EPA Science Inventory

This manuscript examines the neurotoxic potential of a commonly found disinfection by-product (DBP), dibromoacetic acid (DBA). While the Safe Drinking Water Act requires evaluation of DBPs for noncancer health effects, surprisingly few have been tested for neurotoxicity. Rats e...

331

Infantile Methemoglobinemia: Reexamining the Role of Drinking Water Nitrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ingestion of nitrates in drinking water has long been thought to be a primary cause of acquired infantile methemoglobinemia, often called blue baby syndrome. However, recent research and a review of historical cases offer a more complex picture of the causes of infantile methemoglobinemia. Gastrointestinal infection and inflammation and the ensuing overproduction of nitric oxide may be the cause of

Alexander Austin Avery

332

Geospatial examination of lithium in drinking water and suicide mortality  

PubMed Central

Background Lithium as a substance occurring naturally in food and drinking water may exert positive effects on mental health. In therapeutic doses, which are more than 100 times higher than natural daily intakes, lithium has been proven to be a mood-stabilizer and suicide preventive. This study examined whether natural lithium content in drinking water is regionally associated with lower suicide rates. Methods Previous statistical approaches were challenged by global and local spatial regression models taking spatial autocorrelation as well as non-stationarity into account. A Geographically Weighted Regression model was applied with significant independent variables as indicated by a spatial autoregressive model. Results The association between lithium levels in drinking water and suicide mortality can be confirmed by the global spatial regression model. In addition, the local spatial regression model showed that the association was mainly driven by the eastern parts of Austria. Conclusions According to old anecdotic reports the results of this study support the hypothesis of positive effects of natural lithium intake on mental health. Both, the new methodological approach and the results relevant for health may open new avenues in the collaboration between Geographic Information Science, medicine, and even criminology, such as exploring the spatial association between violent or impulsive crime and lithium content in drinking water. PMID:22695110

2012-01-01

333

PRESENCE-ABSENCE COLIFORM TEST IN MONITORING DRINKING WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Data from four comparative studies were analyzed to compare the recovery of total coliform bacteria from drinking water using the presence-absence test, the multiple fermentation tube procedure and the membrane filter technique. ombined recoveries showed the presence-absence test...

334

Potential Relationships Between Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources  

EPA Science Inventory

The conferees urge the Agency to carry out a study on the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using a credible approach that relies on the best available science, as well as independent sources of information. The conferees expect the study to be conduct...

335

Drinking Water Activities for Students, Teachers, and Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides teachers with materials, information, and classroom activities to enhance any drinking water curriculum. Students can use the activity sheets to further lessons and stimulate thought. Parents can use the guide to develop science projects that will provoke thought, encourage research, and provide a scientific approach to…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

336

MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF DRINKING WATER MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES: A PHYLOGENETIC APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

The microbiological quality of drinking water is assessed using culture-based methods that are highly selective and that tend to underestimate the densities and diversity of microbial populations inhabiting distribution systems. In order to better understand the effect of differe...

337

Metagenomic Analyses of Drinking Water Receiving Different Disinfection Treatments  

EPA Science Inventory

A metagenome-based approach was utilized for assessing the taxonomic affiliation and function potential of microbial populations in free chlorine (CHL) and monochloramine (CHM) treated drinking water (DW). A total of 1,024, 242 (averaging 544 bp) and 849, 349 (averaging 554 bp) ...

338

Decontamination Methods For Drinking Water Treatment And Distribution Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Once contamination has occurred in drinking water systems and the contaminated segment has been isolated from other parts of the system, there will be great urgency to decontaminate the areas as rapidly and cost effectively as possible. This article describes available and deve...

339

DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS AND DURATION OF GESTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent studies of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) suggest high exposure decreases risk of preterm birth. We examined this association with total trihalomethane (TTHM) and five haloacetic acids (HAA5) among 2,041 women in a prospective pregnancy study conducted from...

340

ABSORPTION OF LEAD FROM DRINKING WATER WITH VARYING MINERAL CONTENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Lead (Pb) (200 ppm) was administered via drinking water to rats for nine weeks. In addition, the rats were grouped so that they received 75, 100, 150 and 250% of the minimum daily requirements (MDR) of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), and magnesium (Mg) as required for normal growth. The...

341

Nephrotoxicity of uranium in drinking water from private drilled wells  

SciTech Connect

Objectives: To investigate the association between uranium in drinking water from drilled wells and aspects of kidney function measured by sensitive urine tests. Methods: Three hundred and one of 398 eligible subjects (75.6%) aged 18-74 years with daily drinking water supplies from private drilled wells located in uranium-rich bedrock (exposed group) volunteered to participate along with 153 of 271 local controls (56.4%) who used municipal water. Participants responded to a questionnaire on their water consumption and general health, and provided a morning urine sample and drinking water for analysis. Results: The uranium content of well water samples (n=153) varied considerably (range <0.20-470 {mu}g/l, median 6.7 {mu}g/l, 5% >100 {mu}g/l), while uranium levels in all samples of municipal water (n=14) were below the limit of quantification (0.2 {mu}g/l). Urinary levels of uranium were more than eight times higher in exposed subjects than in controls (geometric means 38 and 4.3 ng/l, respectively; p<0.001), but their mean urine lead levels were not significantly different. There was a strong curvilinear correlation between uranium in drinking water and in urine (r{sup 2}=0.66). Levels of albumin, {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, protein HC as well as kappa and lambda immunoglobulin chains in urine from exposed and controls were similar. The N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity was significantly lower in the exposed group vs. controls, possibly secondary to differential storage duration of samples from the two groups. Even in regression models adjusting for gender, age and smoking no association of uranium in water and the kidney function parameters was observed. Using uranium in urine in the entire study group as a marker of exposure, however, a tendency of exposure-related increases of {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, protein HC and kappa chains were noted. This tendency was enhanced after exclusion of subjects with diabetes mellitus from the analysis. Conclusions: Uranium levels in urine were strongly correlated to levels in drinking water from drilled wells. There were no clear signs of nephrotoxicity from uranium in drinking water at levels recorded in this study, but some indications of an effect were observed using uranium in urine as a measure of overall uranium exposure. The clinical relevance of these findings remains unclear.

Selden, Anders I., E-mail: anders.selden@orebroll.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Orebro University Hospital, SE-701 85 Orebro (Sweden); Lundholm, Cecilia [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Orebro University Hospital, SE-701 85 Orebro (Sweden)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Orebro University Hospital, SE-701 85 Orebro (Sweden); Edlund, Bror [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Orebro University Hospital, SE-701 85 Orebro (Sweden)] [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Orebro University Hospital, SE-701 85 Orebro (Sweden); Hoegdahl, Camilla [Office of Environment and Health, Arjaengs kommun, PO Box 906, SE-672 29 Arjaeng (Sweden)] [Office of Environment and Health, Arjaengs kommun, PO Box 906, SE-672 29 Arjaeng (Sweden); Ek, Britt-Marie [Geological Survey of Sweden, PO Box 670, SE-751 28 Uppsala (Sweden)] [Geological Survey of Sweden, PO Box 670, SE-751 28 Uppsala (Sweden); Bergstroem, Bernt E.; Ohlson, Carl-Goeran [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Orebro University Hospital, SE-701 85 Orebro (Sweden)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Orebro University Hospital, SE-701 85 Orebro (Sweden)

2009-05-15

342

Water Quality Decay and Pathogen Survival in Drinking Water Distribution Systems.  

E-print Network

??The deterioration of drinking-water quality within distribution systems is a serious cause for concern. Extensive water-quality deterioration often results in violations against regulatory standards and… (more)

Biyela, Precious Thabisile

2010-01-01

343

Drinking water arsenic in Utah: A cohort mortality study.  

PubMed Central

The association of drinking water arsenic and mortality outcome was investigated in a cohort of residents from Millard County, Utah. Median drinking water arsenic concentrations for selected study towns ranged from 14 to 166 ppb and were from public and private samples collected and analyzed under the auspices of the State of Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Drinking Water. Cohort members were assembled using historical documents of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Standard mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated. Using residence history and median drinking water arsenic concentration, a matrix for cumulative arsenic exposure was created. Without regard to specific exposure levels, statistically significant findings include increased mortality from hypertensive heart disease [SMR = 2.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.36-3.36], nephritis and nephrosis (SMR = 1.72; CI, 1.13-2.50), and prostate cancer (SMR = 1.45; CI, 1.07-1. 91) among cohort males. Among cohort females, statistically significant increased mortality was found for hypertensive heart disease (SMR = 1.73; CI, 1.11-2.58) and for the category of all other heart disease, which includes pulmonary heart disease, pericarditis, and other diseases of the pericardium (SMR = 1.43; CI, 1.11-1.80). SMR analysis by low, medium, and high arsenic exposure groups hinted at a dose relationship for prostate cancer. Although the SMRs by exposure category were elevated for hypertensive heart disease for both males and females, the increases were not sequential from low to high groups. Because the relationship between health effects and exposure to drinking water arsenic is not well established in U.S. populations, further evaluation of effects in low-exposure populations is warranted. PMID:10210691

Lewis, D R; Southwick, J W; Ouellet-Hellstrom, R; Rench, J; Calderon, R L

1999-01-01

344

78 FR 22540 - Notice of Public Meeting/Webinar: EPA Method Development Update on Drinking Water Testing Methods...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...testing for drinking water contaminants, and in...technical input regarding potential drinking water analytical testing procedures...stakeholders identify potential testing procedures for...analyzed with the drinking water test procedure....

2013-04-16

345

Drinking Water Systems, Hydrology, and Childhood GastrointestinalIllnessinCentralandNorthernWisconsin  

E-print Network

context (urban vs rural). Depending on the hydrology and soil, precipitation events flush pathogensDrinking Water Systems, Hydrology, and Childhood Gastrointestinal, MD, and Jonathan A. Patz, MD Contaminated drinking water is responsible for a widespread disease

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

346

Extreme variability of cyanobacterial blooms in an urban drinking water supply  

E-print Network

, the drinking water supply for Quebec City, Canada, harmful cyanobacterial blooms were first recorded in autumn; Vincent, 2009; Oliver et al., 2012). The development of cyanobacterial blooms in drinking water supplies

Vincent, Warwick F.

347

COMMUNITY HEALTH ASSOCIATED WITH ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER IN MILLARD COUNTY, UTAH  

EPA Science Inventory

This study evaluates the health effects of arsenic in drinking water at levels approximately four times the maximum allowed by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. Physical examinations of 250 people included evaluating dermatological and neurological health, ...

348

A Visual Insight into the Degradation of Metals Used in Drinking Water Distribution Systems Using AFM  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluating the fundamental corrosion and passivation of metallic copper used in drinking water distribution materials is important in understanding the overall mechanism of the corrosion process. Copper pipes are widely used for drinking water distribution systems and although it...

349

Maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal outcomes in Inner Mongolia, China, Journal  

EPA Science Inventory

BACKGROUND: Bayingnormen is a region located in western Inner Mongolia China with a population that is exposed to a wide range of drinking water Arsenic concentrations. This study evaluated the relationship between maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal endpoints ...

350

Arsenic exposure from drinking water and mortality from cardiovascular disease in Bangladesh: prospective cohort  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Arsenic exposure from drinking water and mortality from cardiovascular disease Ahsan, professor of epidemiology3 ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the association between arsenic the association. Design Prospective cohort study with arsenic exposure measured in drinking water from wells

van Geen, Alexander

351

Treatment Technology to Meet the Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations for Inorganics: Part 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the third in a series summarizing existing treatment technology to meet the inorganic National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. This report deals specifically with treatment methods for removing cadmium, lead, and silver from drinking water. (CS)

Sorg, Thomas J.; And Others

1978-01-01

352

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR 1,2-DIBROMO-3-CHLOROPROPANE (DBCP) (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on dibromochloropropane. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of dibromochloropropane; Toxic...

353

GEOCHEMISTRY OF SULFUR IN IRON CORROSION SCALES FOUND IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Iron-sulfur geochemistry is important in many natural and engineered environments, including drinking water systems. In the anaerobic environment beneath scales of corroding iron drinking water distribution system pipes, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) produce sulfide from natu...

354

CHLORINATION OF DRINKING WATER AND SEX RATIO AT BIRTH IN TAIWAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorination has been the major strategy for disinfecting drinking water in Taiwan. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the chlorination of drinking water was associated with abnormal sex ratios, an indicator of exposure to pollutants. A \\

2000-01-01

355

REMOVAL OF BERYLLIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CHEMICAL COAGULATION AND LIME SOFTENING  

EPA Science Inventory

The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. ar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride and lime softening performed ...

356

Isolation of Legionella species from drinking water.  

PubMed Central

Three different species of Legionella were recovered from samples of water taken from chlorinated public water supplies where no coliform bacteria were simultaneously detected. Five of 856 samples yielded Legionella isolates. Three isolates were identified as Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, the fourth was identified as Legionella dumoffii, and the fifth was identified as Legionella jordanis. Studies to determine the survival of L. pneumophila Flint 1 serogroup 1 in tap water at various temperatures and in tap water with added sodium hypochlorite were done. These organisms were found to survive for 299 days in tap water at 24 and 5 degrees C but not at 35 degrees C. A concentration of at least 0.2 mg of residual chlorine per ml was required to eliminate at least 90% of L. pneumophila and Escherichia coli inocula in 2 h. PMID:6508292

Hsu, S C; Martin, R; Wentworth, B B

1984-01-01

357

Nitrate removal from drinking water -- Review  

SciTech Connect

Nitrate concentrations in surface water and especially in ground water have increased in Canada, the US, Europe, and other areas of the world. This trend has raised concern because nitrates cause methemoglobiinemia in infants. Several treatment processes including ion exchange, biological denitrification, chemical denitrification, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, and catalytic denitrification can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that ion exchange and biological denitrification are more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis. Ion exchange is more viable for ground water while biological denitrification is the preferred alternative for surface water. This paper reviews the developments in the field of nitrate removal processes.

Kapoor, A.; Viraraghavan, T. [Univ. of Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada)

1997-04-01

358

Removal of Atrazine From Drinking Water by Ozonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-e-isopropylamino-s-triazine) is a preemergent herbicide found frequently in Midwestern drinking water supplies at concentrations near or exceeding the recently promulgated maximum contaminant level of 3 ?g\\/L. In water treatment plants that use ozone, oxidation breaks atrazine down into several different ozonation by-products. In the research described in this article, the effects of aqueous ozone concentration, pH, total carbonate alkalinity,

Craig D. Adams; Stephen J. Randtke

1992-01-01

359

Reverse osmosis treatment to remove inorganic contaminants from drinking water  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the research project was to determine the removal of inorganic contaminants from drinking water using several state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membrane elements. A small 5-KGPD reverse osmosis system was utilized and five different membrane elements were studied individually with the specific inorganic contaminants added to several natural Florida ground waters. Removal data were also collected on naturally occurring substances.

Huxstep, M.R.; Sorg, T.J.

1987-12-01

360

ASSESSMENT OF DRINKING WATER QUALITY AND DETERMINANTS OF HOUSEHOLD POTABLE WATER CONSUMPTION IN SIMADA  

E-print Network

ASSESSMENT OF DRINKING WATER QUALITY AND DETERMINANTS OF HOUSEHOLD POTABLE WATER CONSUMPTION adequate and quality water. The study was conducted in Simada District, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia of water source quality, and factors determining use. Water quality was determined at 11 selected water

Walter, M.Todd

361

DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN IOWA. 1. TRENDS AND INCIDENCE BY SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER AND SIZE OF MUNICIPALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The available data resources in the State of Iowa were used to investigate the relationships of drinking water contaminants and cancer incidence rates for communities. Age-adjusted, sex-specific cancer incidence rates for the years 1969-1978 were determined for municipalities hav...

362

PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER ? WATTS PREMIER INC. WP-4V DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Watts Premier WP-4V four-stage POU RO system was tested for removal of bacteria and viruses at NSF?s Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory. Five systems were challenged with the bacteriophage viruses fr and MS2, and the bacteria Brevundimonas diminutaEM. The ...

363

Removal of Excess Fluoride from Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Excess fluoride can be removed from potable water supplies by the activated alumina method. However, operating cost and reliability of this process are not well known. A simple modification to the conventional activated alumina treatment process increases...

F. Rubel, R. D. Woosley

1978-01-01

364

Natural radionuclides in drinking waters in Serbia.  

PubMed

Gross alpha and beta activities, (3)H, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activities were measured in bottled mineral water produced in Serbia in order to assess its radiological quality. In 11 samples of tap water and in 1 sample of spring waters gross alpha and beta activity were determined. The natural activity concentration of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides are within the range recommended by World Health Organization. The tritium concentration in bottled mineral waters ranged from 0.023 ± 0.012 to 0.046 ± 0.006 Bq l(-1). The activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were below the minimum detectable activity. In order to evaluate the annual effective dose for different classes of age, a conservative dosimetric calculation was carried out. PMID:23041389

Jankovi?, Marija M; Todorovi?, Dragana J; Todorovi?, Nataša A; Nikolov, Jovana

2012-12-01

365

Arsenic removal from drinking water during coagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of arsenic removal from source waters and artificial freshwaters during coagulation with ferric chloride and alum was examined in bench-scale studies. Arsenic(V) removal by either ferric chloride or alum was relatively insensitive to variations in source water composition below pH 8. At pH 8 and 9, the efficiency of arsenic(V) removal by ferric chloride was decreased in the

Janet G. Hering; Pen-Yuan Chen; Jennifer A. Wilkie; Menachem Elimelech

1997-01-01

366

Sources of Elevated Sodium Levels in Drinking Water...and Recommendations for Reduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sodium enters drinking water by a variety of human activities and by natural means. Evidence suggests elevated levels of sodium in drinking water may adversely affect health. Action should be taken to reduce the level of human exposure to sodium in drinking water. (RE)

Calabrese, Edward J.; Tuthill, Robert W.

1978-01-01

367

Lead in Drinking Water in Schools and Non-Residential Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual demonstrates how drinking water in schools and non-residential buildings can be tested for lead and how contamination problems can be corrected when found. The manual also provides background information concerning the sources and health effects of lead, how lead gets into drinking water, how lead in drinking water is regulated, and…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

368

Contamination levels of human pharmaceutical compounds in French surface and drinking water  

E-print Network

% for drinking water). Psychostimulants, non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs, iodinated contrast mediaContamination levels of human pharmaceutical compounds in French surface and drinking water S therapeutic classes was analysed from resource and drinking water in two catchment basins located in north

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

369

Sector reform impact on rural drinking water schemes -A case study from Raigad district in Maharashtra  

E-print Network

the specific viewpoint of rural drinking water supply. In particular, we look at the mechanics of a Government- Sector reform impact on rural drinking water schemes - A case study from Raigad district of Technology, Bombay Abstract: This paper analyses the ground level impact of the national rural drinking water

Sohoni, Milind

370

77 FR 67361 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...research on the potential impacts of hydraulic...fracturing on drinking water resources. DATES...to understand the potential impacts of hydraulic...fracturing on drinking water resources, if any...research study on the potential impacts of hydraulic...fracturing on drinking water resources....

2012-11-09

371

78 FR 25267 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...research on the potential impacts of hydraulic...fracturing on drinking water resources from April...entitled, Study of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic...Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources: PROGRESS...literature specific to potential impacts of hydraulic...fracturing on drinking water resources....

2013-04-30

372

A Review of Nitrates in Drinking Water: Maternal Exposure and Adverse Reproductive and Developmental Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review we present an update on maternal exposure to nitrates in drinking water in relation to possible adverse reproductive and developmental effects, and also discuss nitrates in drinking water in the United States. The current standard for nitrates in drinking water is based on retrospective studies and approximates a level that protects infants from methemoglobinemia, but no safety

Deana M. Manassaram; Lorraine C. Backer; Deborah M. Moll

2005-01-01

373

ALTERNATIVE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS FROM SUPERFUND SITES: DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL REGISTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes a 'prototype' program initiated by U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division (Cincinnati, Ohio), Region V Drinking Water Program (Chicago, Illinois), and Technology Evaluation Section (Edison, New Jersey) to inventory the types of drinking water related tech...

374

BOOK REVIEW OF "DRINKING WATER REGULATION AND HEALTH"  

EPA Science Inventory

Since the enactment of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974, several amendments and other new regulations have been developed for drinking water. The book, "Drinking Water Regulation and Health", explains these regulations and provides background on why they were developed ...

375

Presence of Enteric Viruses in Source Waters for Drinking Water Production in the Netherlands?  

PubMed Central

The quality of drinking water in the Netherlands has to comply with the Dutch Drinking Water Directive: less than one infection in 10,000 persons per year may occur due to consumption of unboiled drinking water. Since virus concentrations in drinking waters may be below the detection limit but entail a public health risk, the infection risk from drinking water consumption requires the assessment of the virus concentrations in source waters and of the removal efficiency of treatment processes. In this study, samples of source waters were taken during 4 years of regular sampling (1999 to 2002), and enteroviruses, reoviruses, somatic phages, and F-specific phages were detected in 75% (range, 0.0033 to 5.2 PFU/liter), 83% (0.0030 to 5.9 PFU/liter), 100% (1.1 to 114,156 PFU/liter), and 97% (0.12 to 14,403 PFU/liter), respectively, of 75 tested source water samples originating from 10 locations for drinking water production. By endpoint dilution reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), 45% of the tested source water samples were positive for norovirus RNA (0.22 to 177 PCR-detectable units [PDU]/liter), and 48% were positive for rotavirus RNA (0.65 to 2,249 PDU/liter). Multiple viruses were regularly detected in the source water samples. A significant correlation between the concentrations of the two phages and those of the enteroviruses could be demonstrated. The virus concentrations varied greatly between 10 tested locations, and a seasonal effect was observed. Peak concentrations of pathogenic viruses occur in source waters used for drinking water production. If seasonal and short-term fluctuations coincide with less efficient or failing treatment, an unacceptable public health risk from exposure to this drinking water may occur. PMID:20622124

Lodder, W. J.; van den Berg, H. H. J. L.; Rutjes, S. A.; de Roda Husman, A. M.

2010-01-01

376

Establishing a Proficiency Testing Scheme for Drinking Water Radiochemistry  

SciTech Connect

As part of its international water proficiency testing (PT) scheme, 'Aquacheck', the LGC Proficiency Testing Group has established a new water radiochemistry PT scheme. The PT scheme is aimed at laboratories who undertake radiochemical analysis on drinking water samples as part of an environmental monitoring programme. Following a scheme design and feasibility study, the new scheme was established to monitor the laboratory performance of participants undertaking the determination of gross alpha, gross beta and tritium activity. Three rounds of the new water radiochemistry PT scheme are now complete. This paper explains the process of establishing such a scheme, reviews the results so far, and addresses future development of the scheme.

Brookman, Brian [LGC Standards Proficiency Testing, Europa Business Park Barcroft, Street, Bury, Lancashire, BL9 5BT (United Kingdom)

2008-08-14

377

Removing lead in drinking water with activated carbon  

SciTech Connect

A point-of-use (POU) granular activated carbon (GAC) fixed bed adsorber (FBA) was evaluated for reduction of soluble and insoluble lead from drinking water. Some of the factors which affect lead removal by GAC were evaluated, such as carbon type, solution pH, and a limited amount of work on competitive interactions. The design criteria for lead reduction by a POU device are also addressed. Minicolumns were used to evaluate the capacity of carbon for lead under a variety of conditions. The importance of surface chemistry of the carbon and the relationship with the pH of the water for lead reduction was demonstrated. Results indicate that a properly designed POU-GAC-FBA can reduce lead in drinking water to below the EPA action level of 15 ppb while being tested under a variety of conditions as specified under the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) International Standard 53 test protocol. 37 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Taylor, R.M.; Kuennen, R.W. (Amway Corp., Ada, MI (United States))

1994-02-01

378

Microbial contamination of drinking water in Pakistan-a review.  

PubMed

Water pollution with pathogenic microorganisms is one of the serious threats to human health, particularly in developing countries. The main objective of this article is to highlight microbial contamination of drinking water, the major factors responsible for microbial contamination, and the resulting health problems in Pakistan. Furthermore, this study will be helpful for researchers and administrative agencies to initiate relevant studies and develop new policies to protect further deterioration of water supply with pathogenic microbes and ensure clean and safe drinking water to the public in Pakistan. In Pakistan, water at the source, in the distribution network, and at the consumer tap is heavily polluted with coliforms and fecal coliforms all over the country. An overview of more than 7,000 water samples reviewed here reveals that an average of over 71 and 58 % samples in the country was contaminated with total coliforms and fecal coliforms, respectively. Drinking water contamination accounts for 20 to 40 % of all diseases in the country, which causes national income losses of Rs 25-58 billion annually (US$0.25-0.58 billion, approximately 0.6-1.44 % of the country's GDP). Improper disposal of industrial and municipal wastes is the most important factor responsible for water pollution in the country followed by cross-contamination due to old and leaking pipes and lack of water filtration and disinfection facilities. There is an urgent need for emergency steps to stop further deterioration of water quality and improve the existing water quality so as to protect the public from widespread waterborne diseases. PMID:25056753

Nabeela, Farhat; Azizullah, Azizullah; Bibi, Roqaia; Uzma, Syeda; Murad, Waheed; Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Ullah, Waheed; Qasim, Muhammad; Häder, Donat-Peter

2014-12-01

379

Nano-silver in drinking water and drinking water sources: stability and influences on disinfection by-product formation.  

PubMed

Nano-silver is increasingly used in consumer products from washing machines and refrigerators to devices marketed for the disinfection of drinking water or recreational water. The nano-silver in these products may be released, ending up in surface water bodies which may be used as drinking water sources. Little information is available about the stability of the nano-silver in sources of drinking water, its fate during drinking water disinfection processes, and its interaction with disinfection agents and disinfection by-products (DBPs). This study aims to investigate the stability of nano-silver in drinking water sources and in the finished drinking water when chlorine and chloramines are used for disinfection and to observe changes in the composition of DBPs formed when nano-silver is present in the source water. A dispersion of nano-silver particles (10 nm; PVP-coated) was used to spike untreated Ottawa River water, treated Ottawa River water, organic-free water, and a groundwater at concentrations of 5 mg/L. The diluted dispersions were kept under stirred and non-stirred conditions for up to 9 months and analyzed weekly using UV absorption to assess the stability of the nano-silver particles. In a separate experiment, Ottawa River water containing nano-silver particles (at 0.1 and 1 mg/L concentration, respectively) was disinfected by adding sodium hypochlorite (a chlorinating agent) in sufficient amounts to maintain a free chlorine residual of approximately 0.4 mg/L after 24 h. The disinfected drinking water was then quenched with ascorbic acid and analyzed for 34 neutral DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes, 1,1 dichloro-2-propanone, 1,1,1 trichloro-2-propanone, chloropicrin, and cyanogen chloride). The results were compared to the profile of DBPs obtained under the same conditions in the absence of nano-silver and in the presence of an equivalent concentration of Ag(+) ions (as AgNO3). The stability of the nano-silver dispersions in untreated Ottawa River water, with a dissolved organic carbon concentration of 6 mg/L, was significantly higher than the stability of the nano-silver dispersions in distilled, organic-free water. Nano-silver particles suspended in the groundwater agglomerated and were quickly and quantitatively removed from the solution. Our data confirm previous observations that natural dissolved organic matter stabilizes nano-silver particles, while the high-ionic strength of groundwater appears to favor their agglomeration and precipitation. As expected, nano-silver was not stable in Ottawa River water through the chlorination process, but survived for many days when added to the Ottawa River water after treatment with chlorine or chloramines. Stirring appeared to have minimal effect on nano-silver stability in untreated and treated Ottawa River water. The profile of DBPs formed in the presence of nAg differed significantly from the profile of DBPs formed in the absence of nAg only at the 1 mg/L nAg concentration. The differences observed consisted mainly in reduced formation of some brominated DBPs and a small increase in the formation of cyanogen chloride. The reduced formation of brominated congeners may be explained by the decrease in available bromide due to the presence of Ag(+) ions. It should be noted that a concentration of 1 mg/L is significantly higher than nAg concentrations that would be expected to be present in surface waters, but these results could be significant for the disinfection of some wastewaters with comparably high nano-silver concentrations. PMID:24458938

Tugulea, A-M; Bérubé, D; Giddings, M; Lemieux, F; Hnatiw, J; Priem, J; Avramescu, M-L

2014-10-01

380

Enteropathogenic Bacteria Contamination of Unchlorinated Drinking Water in Korea, 2010  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of unchlorinated drinking water in Korea, 2010. One hundred and eighty unchlorinated drinking water samples were collected from various sites in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. Methods To investigate bacterial presence, the pour plate method was used with cultures grown on selective media for total bacteria, total coliforms, and Staphylococcus spp., respectively. Results In the 180 total bacteria investigation, 72 samples from Seoul and 33 samples from Gyeonggi province were of an unacceptable quality (>102 CFU/mL). Of all the samples tested, total coliforms were detected in 28 samples (15.6%) and Staphylococcus spp. in 12 samples (6.7%). Most of the coliform isolates exhibited high-level resistance to cefazolin (88.2%), cefonicid (64.7%) and ceftazidime (20.6%). In addition, Staphylococcus spp. isolates exhibited high-level resistance to mupirocin (42%). Species of Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Cupriavidus, Hafnia, Rahnella, Serratia, and Yersinia were isolated from the water samples. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that consumption of unchlorinated drinking water could represent a notable risk to the health of consumers. As such, there is need for continuous monitoring of these water sources and to establish standards. PMID:22216417

Lee, Si Won; Lee, Do Kyung; An, Hyang Mi; Cha, Min Kyeong; Kim, Kyung Jae

2011-01-01

381

Effects of saline drinking water on early gosling development  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Relatively high levels of saline drinking water may adversely affect the growth, development, and survival of young waterfowl. Saline drinking water was suspect in the low survival rate of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) goslings at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (FSNWR) in western Utah. Hence, we investigated the effects of saline drinking water on the survival and growth of captive, wild-strain goslings from day 1-28 following hatch. We compared survival and growth (as measured by body mass, wing length, and culmen length) between a control group on tap water with a mean specific conductivity of 650 ??S/cm, and 2 saline water treatments: (1) intermediate level (12,000 ??S/cm), and (2) high level (18,000 ??S/cm). Gosling mortality occurred only in the 18,000 ??S/cm treatment group (33%; n = 9). Slopes of regressions of mean body mass, wing length, and culmen length on age were different from each other (P < 0.05), except for culmen length for the intermediate and high treatment levels. We predict that free-ranging wild goslings will experience mortality at even lower salinity levels than captive goslings because of the combined effects of depressed growth and environmental stresses, including hot desert temperatures and variable food quality over summer.

Stolley, D.S.; Bissonette, J.A.; Kadlec, J.A.; Coster, D.

1999-01-01

382

77 FR 61027 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Safe Drinking Water Act at mobile home parks operated by defendants in Pennsylvania...drinking water at a number of its mobile home parks and illegally discharged sewage...environmental audits at each mobile home park, implementing corrective...

2012-10-05

383

Biofouling of membranes for drinking water production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In three pilot plants in the Netherlands the performance of either nanofiltration or reverse osmosis in water treatment was studied. Operational problems observed in these systems, viz. increased normalized pressure drop (NPD) and\\/or declined normalized flux (MTC) values, were attibuted to biofouling. To elucidate the role of biofouling, data were collected about biomass accumulation in the membrane elements applying destructive

H. S. Vrouwenvelder; J. A. M. van Paassen; H. C. Folmer; Jan A. M. H. Hofman; M. M. Nederlof; D. van der Kooij

1998-01-01

384

ANALYZING DRINKING WATER FOR DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

In the mid 19th Century, Chinese workers on the North American transcontinental railroad suffered less illness than other groups. While generally mysterious at the time, today the reason is obvious. The Chinese preference for tea required heating the water, thus killing many path...

385

DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS SURVEY (1999)  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: EPA is conducting the 1999 Needs Survey to meet requirements of the SDWA. Section 1452(h) of the SDWA requires EPA to conduct an assessment every 4 years of capital investments that are needed by public water systems (PWSs). In addition, SDWS sec 1452(i)...

386

Radioactive isotopes in Danish drinking water  

E-print Network

and have been a great help for collecting the many samples. The Danish EPA will hereby thank the water works for their willingness and great help. The project was carried out by Risø National Laboratory Institute of Radiation Hygiene (SIS) Peter Gravesen, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS). Sven

387

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in drinking water of Tehran, Iran  

PubMed Central

Distribution and seasonal variation of sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in the drinking water of Tehran, the capital of Iran. Detected single and total PAHs concentrations were in the range of 2.01-38.96 and 32.45-733.10 ng/L, respectively, which were quite high compared to the values recorded in other areas of the world. The average occurrence of PAHs with high molecular weights was 79.55%; for example, chrysene occurred in 60.6% of the samples, with a maximum concentration of 438.96 ng/L. In addition, mean carcinogen to non-carcinogen PAHs ratio was 63.84. Although the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene, as an indicator of water pollution to PAHs, was lower than the guideline value proposed by World Health Organization (WHO) as well as that of Iranian National Drinking Water Standards for all of the samples, the obtained results indicated that carcinogen PAHs present in the drinking water of Tehran can cause threats to human health. PMID:24499505

2013-01-01

388

Health significance and occurrence of injured bacteria in drinking water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Enteropathogenic and indicator bacteria become injured in drinking water with exposure to sublethal levels of various biological, chemical and physical factors. One manifestation of this injury is the inability to grow and form colonies on selective media containing surfactants. The resulting underestimation of indicator bacteria can lead to a false estimation of water potability. m-T7 medium was developed specifically for the recovery of injured coliforms (both "total" and fecal) in drinking water. The m-T7 method was used to survey operating drinking water treatment and distribution systems for the presence of injured coliforms that were undetected with currently used media. The mean recovery with m-Endo LES medium was less than 1/100 ml while it ranged between 6 and 68/100ml with m-T7 agar. The majority of samples giving positive results with m-T7 medium yielded no detectable coliforms with m-Endo LES agar. Over 95% of the coliform bacteria in these samples were injured. Laboratory experiments were also done to ascribe the virulence of injured waterborne pathogens. Enteropathogens including Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica and Shigella spp. required up to 20 times the chlorine levels to produce the same injury in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and nonpathogenic coliforms. Similar results were seen with Y. enterocolitica exposed to copper. The recovery of ETEC was followed by delayed enterotoxin production, both in vitro and in the gut of experimental animals. This indicates that injured waterborne enteropathogenic bacteria can be virulent.

McFeters, G. A.; LeChevallier, M. W.; Singh, A.; Kippin, J. S.

1986-01-01

389

Monochloramine cometabolism by Nitrosomonas europaea under drinking water conditions.  

PubMed

Chloramine is widely used in United States drinking water systems as a secondary disinfectant, which may promote the growth of nitrifying bacteria because ammonia is present. At the onset of nitrification, both nitrifying bacteria and their products exert a monochloramine demand, decreasing the residual disinfectant concentration in water distribution systems. This work investigated another potentially significant mechanism for residual disinfectant loss: monochloramine cometabolism by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Monochloramine cometabolism was studied with the pure culture AOB Nitrosomonas europaea (ATCC 19718) in batch kinetic experiments under drinking water conditions. Three batch reactors were used in each experiment: a positive control to estimate the ammonia kinetic parameters, a negative control to account for abiotic reactions, and a cometabolism reactor to estimate the cometabolism kinetic constants. Kinetic parameters were estimated in AQUASIM with a simultaneous fit to all experimental data. The cometabolism reactors showed a more rapid monochloramine decay than in the negative controls, demonstrating that cometabolism occurs. Cometabolism kinetics were best described by a pseudo first order model with a reductant term to account for ammonia availability. Monochloramine cometabolism kinetics were similar to those of ammonia metabolism, and monochloramine cometabolism was a significant loss mechanism (30-60% of the observed monochloramine decay). These results suggest that monochloramine cometabolism should occur in practice and may be a significant contribution to monochloramine decay during nitrification episodes in drinking water distribution systems. PMID:23770484

Maestre, Juan P; Wahman, David G; Speitel, Gerald E

2013-09-01

390

Antibiotic Administration in the Drinking Water of Mice  

PubMed Central

Although antibiotics frequently are added to the drinking water of mice, this practice has not been tested to confirm that antibiotics reach therapeutic concentrations in the plasma of treated mice. In the current investigation, we 1) tested the stability of enrofloxacin and doxycycline in the drinking water of adult, female C57BL/6 mice; 2) measured the mice's consumption of water treated with enrofloxacin, doxycycline, amoxicillin, or trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole; and 3) used HPLC to measure plasma antibiotic concentrations in mice that had ingested treated water for 1 wk. Plasma concentrations of antibiotic were measured 1 h after the start of both the light and dark cycle. The main findings of the study were that both enrofloxacin and nonpharmaceutical, chemical-grade doxycycline remained relatively stable in water for 1 wk. In addition, mice consumed similar volumes of antibiotic-treated and untreated water. The highest plasma antibiotic concentrations measured were: enrofloxacin, 140.1 ± 10.4 ng/mL; doxycycline, 56.6 ± 12.5 ng/mL; amoxicillin, 299.2 ± 64.1 ng/mL; and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, 5.9 ± 1.2 ng/mL. Despite the stability of the antibiotics in the water and predictable water consumption by mice, the plasma antibiotic concentrations were well below the concentrations required for efficacy against bacterial pathogens, except for those pathogens that are exquisitely sensitive to the antibiotic. The findings of this investigation prompt questions regarding the rationale of the contemporary practice of adding antibiotics to the drinking water of mice for systemic antibacterial treatments. PMID:24827573

Marx, James O; Vudathala, Daljit; Murphy, Lisa; Rankin, Shelley; Hankenson, F Claire

2014-01-01

391

Mean Residence Time and Emergency Drinking Water Supply.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immediately after securing an endangered population, the first priority of aid workers following a disaster is the distribution of drinking water. Such emergency situations are reported from many parts of the world following regional chemical or nuclear pollution accidents, floods, droughts, rain-induced landslides, tsunami, and other extreme events. It is often difficult to organise a replacement water supply when regular water systems with short residence times are polluted, infiltrated or even flooded by natural or man-made disasters. They are either unusable or their restoration may take months or even years. Groundwater resources, proven safe and protected by the geological environment, with long residence times and the necessary infrastructure for their exploitation, would provide populations with timeous replacement of vulnerable water supply systems and make rescue activities more rapid and effective. Such resources have to be identified and investigated, as a substitute for affected drinking water supplies thereby eliminating or reducing the impact of their failure following catastrophic events. Even in many areas such water resources with long residence times in years or decades are difficult to find it should be known which water supply facilities in the region are matching these requirements to allow in emergency situation the transport of water in tankers to the affected regions to prevent epidemics, importing large quantities of bottled water. One should know the residence time of the water supply to have sufficient time to plan and install new safe water supply facilities. Development of such policy and strategy for human security - both long term and short term - is therefore needed to decrease the vulnerability of populations threatened by extreme events and water supplies with short residence times. Generally: The longer the residence time of groundwater in the aquifer, the lower its vulnerability. The most common and economic methods to estimate Mean Residence Times (MRTs) of the raw water of drinking water supplies is the measurement of the water-isotopes (oxygen-18, hydrogen-2 and tritium (3H)). The traceability and the quality oft he lumped model calculation is based on the quality and the density of input (meteorological) stations in the region with monthly measurements. In addition, noble gas measurements in the groundwater (helium-3, krypton-85) and of industrial tracer gases (chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and sulphurhexaflorid (SF6)) are important tools to estimate the MRTs of the raw water in the aquifers. To exclude the presence of small amounts of very recent waters, which are in cases of accidents some times heavily polluted, the raw water is tested for natural radionuclides (beryllium-7 or sulphur-35) with very short half-life or artificial fluorescence tracers. In addition, the estimate of the MRTs of groundwater is an essential part of the vulnerability assessment of drinking water supplies due to climate change impacts (frequency of droughts and floods in the recharge area) and offers a valuable tool to specify a sustainable water abstraction. The applicability of this approach was tested in several springs and groundwater monitoring wells used for raw water abstraction for drinking water supply in Austria.

Kralik, Martin; Humer, Franko

2013-04-01

392

Detection of microsporidia in drinking water, wastewater and recreational rivers.  

PubMed

Diarrhea is the main health problem caused by human-related microsporidia, and waterborne transmission is one of the main risk factors for intestinal diseases. Recent studies suggest the involvement of water in the epidemiology of human microsporidiosis. However, studies related to the presence of microsporidia in different types of waters from countries where human microsporidiosis has been described are still scarce. Thirty-eight water samples from 8 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), 8 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and 6 recreational river areas (RRAs) from Galicia (NW Spain) have been analyzed. One hundred liters of water from DWTPs and 50 L of water from WWTPs and RRAs were filtered to recover parasites, using the IDEXX Filta-Max® system. Microsporidian spores were identified by Weber's stain and positive samples were analyzed by PCR, using specific primers for Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, and Encephalitozoon hellem. Microsporidia spores were identified by staining protocols in eight samples (21.0%): 2 from DWTPs, 5 from WWTPs, and 1 from an RRA. In the RRA sample, the microsporidia were identified as E. intestinalis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of human-pathogenic microsporidia in water samples from DWTPs, WWTPs and RRAs in Spain. These observations add further evidence to support that new and appropriate control and regulations for drinking, wastewater, and recreational waters should be established to avoid health risks from this pathogen. PMID:21774958

Izquierdo, Fernando; Castro Hermida, José Antonio; Fenoy, Soledad; Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; del Aguila, Carmen

2011-10-15

393

Tracking persistent pharmaceutical residues from municipal sewage to drinking water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In urban areas such as Berlin (Germany) with high municipal sewage water discharges and low surface water flows there is a potential risk of drinking water contamination by polar organic compounds when groundwater recharge is used in drinking water production. Thus, some pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are not eliminated completely in the municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they are discharged as contaminants into the receiving waters. In terms of several monitoring studies carried out in Berlin between 1996 and 2000, PhACs such as clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, propyphenazone, primidone and carbamazepine were detected at individual concentrations up to the ?g/l-level in influent and effluent samples from STPs and in all surface water samples collected downstream from the STPs. Under recharge conditions, several compounds were also found at individual concentrations up to 7.3 ?g/l in samples collected from groundwater aquifers near to contaminated water courses. A few of the PhACs were also identified at the ng/l-level in Berlin tap water samples.

Heberer, Thomas

2002-09-01

394

Effect of home-used water purifier on fluoride concentration of drinking water in southern Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Fluoride in drinking water plays a key role in dental health. Due to the increasing use of water-purifier, the effect of these devices on fluoride concentration of drinking water was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Drinking water samples were collected before and after passing through a home water-purifier, from four different water sources. The fluoride, calcium and magnesium concentration of the samples were measured using the quantitative spectrophotometery technique. Data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon test. P value < 0.1 was considered as significant. Results: The result showed that the concentration of fluoride was 0.05-0.61 ppm before purification and was removed completely afterward. Furthermore, other ions reduced significantly after treatment by the water purifier. Conclusion: This study revealed that this device decreases the fluoride content of water, an issue which should be considered in low and high-fluoridated water sources. PMID:24130584

Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Kheirmand, Mehdi

2013-01-01

395

Infiltration of pesticides in surface water into nearby drinking water supply wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drinking water wells are often placed near streams because streams often overly permeable sediments and the water table is near the surface in valleys, and so pumping costs are reduced. The lowering of the water table by pumping wells can reverse the natural flow from the groundwater to the stream, inducing infiltration of surface water to groundwater and consequently to the drinking water well. Many attenuation processes can take place in the riparian zone, mainly due to mixing, biodegradation and sorption. However, if the water travel time from the surface water to the pumping well is too short, or if the compounds are poorly degradable, contaminants can reach the drinking water well at high concentrations, jeopardizing drinking water quality. Here we developed a reactive transport model to evaluate the risk of contamination of drinking water wells by surface water pollution. The model was validated using data of a tracer experiment in a riparian zone. Three compounds were considered: an older pesticide MCPP (Mecoprop) which is mobile and persistent, glyphosate (Roundup), a new biodegradable and strongly sorbed pesticide, and its degradation product AMPA. Global sensitivity analysis using the method of Morris was employed to identify the dominant model parameters. Results showed that the presence of an aquitard and its characteristics (degree of fracturing and thickness), pollutant properties and well depth are the crucial factors affecting the risk of drinking water well contamination from surface water. Global sensitivity analysis results were compared with rank correlation statistics between pesticide concentrations and geological parameters derived from a comprehensive database of Danish drinking water wells. Aquitard thickness and well depth are the most critical parameters in both the model and observed data.

Malaguerra, F.; Albrechtsen, H.; Binning, P. J.

2010-12-01

396

SIM.QMS2 supplemental: Trace elements in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to address laboratory capability for the determination of trace elements in drinking water and to support corresponding CMC submissions for several SIM members, the exercise SIM.QM-S2 was planned in 2008 and authorized as a supplementary comparison at the April 2010 meeting of the Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of the Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance–Metrology in Chemistry

Scott Willie

2012-01-01

397

DRINKING WATER QUALITY IN THE US-MEXICO BORDER REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of drinking water were collected form over 400 sites throughout northern Mexico, along the US border. Field analysis for positive chlorine residuals were used as indicators for the potential prevention of intestinal diseases, caused by microbial pathogens. Measurable chlorine residuals (>0.05 mgCl2\\/L) were present in 80% of the samples, indicating the addition of chlorine and potential protection against virus

PAUL WESTERHOFF; MARIO ESPARZA-SOTO; PORFIRIO CABALLERO MATA; WILLIAM T. PARRY; WILLIAM P. JOHNSON

398

Biofilm Interactions between Distinct Bacterial Genera Isolated from Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the environment, multiple microorganisms coexist as communities, competing for resources and often associated as biofilms. In this study, single- and dual-species biofilm formation by, and specific activities of, six heterotrophic intergeneric bacteria were determined using 96-well polystyrene plates over a 72-h period. These bacteria were isolated from drinking water and identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A series

Lucia Chaves Simoes; Manuel Simoes; Maria Joao Vieira

2007-01-01

399

Perfluorinated Surfactants in Surface and Drinking Waters (9 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim and Scope  \\u000a In this paper recent results are provided of an investigation on the discovery of 12 perfluorinated surfactants (PS) in different\\u000a surface and drinking waters (Skutlarek et al. 2006 a, Skutlarek et al. 2006 b). In the last years, many studies have reported\\u000a ubiquitous distribution of this group of perfluorinated chemicals, especially perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic

Martin Exner; Harald Färber

2006-01-01

400

Gastric Cancer Mortality and Drinking Water Qualities in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The possible association between the risk of gastric cancer and nitrate and hardness in drinking water from municipal supplies\\u000a was investigated in a matched case-control study in Taiwan. Data on gastric cancer deaths among eligible residents in Taiwan\\u000a from 1987 through 1991 (6,766 cases) were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department\\u000a of Health.

C.-Y. Yang; H.-F. Chiu; J.-F. Chiu; M.-F. Cheng; W.-Y. Kao

1997-01-01

401

Rapid determination of total trihalomethanes index in drinking water.  

PubMed

A method for the rapid determination of total trihalomethanes (THMs) index in drinking water has been developed by using a headspace-mass spectrometry (HS-MS) system and partial least squares (PLS) multivariate regression approach. Due to the presence of residual amounts of chlorine and organic matter in the drinking water, the use of a quenching reagent in order to avoid THM generation during the sample manipulation is necessary. The optimization experiments revealed that ascorbic acid was the best quenching reagent compared with sodium thiosulfate and ammonium sulfate. The use of a classification chemometric technique as soft independent modeling of class analogy before the PLS regression improved the results obtained in the prediction of the total THMs index, lowering the relative standard error of prediction (RSEP) from 11.4% to lower than 6.0%. The results obtained by the proposed HS-MS method were compared with those provided by a conventional chromatographic method after analyzing 20 real drinking water samples. A good agreement in the results was observed and no systematic differences were found, which corroborates the good performance of the proposed method. PMID:17420023

Serrano, A; Gallego, M

2007-06-22

402

USE ONLY WATER THAT HAS BEEN PROPERLY DISINFECTED FOR DRINKING, COOKING, MAKING ANY PREPARED DRINK, OR FOR BRUSHING TEETH  

E-print Network

, OR FOR BRUSHING TEETH 1. Use bottled water that has not been exposed to flood waters if it is available. 2. If you OF DRINKING WATER More information about disinfection In times of crisis, follow advice from local officials additional measures than the information provided here. Look for other sources of potable water in and around

Tullos, Desiree

403

Who is drinking nitrate in their well water?  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated the health risks for a rural northeastern Oregon population which is exposed to high nitrate levels in well water. The study also identified possible sources of nitrate contamination, and investigated measures the resident had taken to reduce their nitrate exposure from well water. Three data sets were used in the study, including a telephone survey of the residents, existing information collected by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality about well water nitrate concentrations, and demographic information from census records. Results revealed that 23% of the surveyed population was drinking well water that contained nitrate in excess of the 10 ppm nitrate-nitrogen maximum contaminant level adopted by the US Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Seventy-two percent of the households with nitrate levels exceeding the 10 ppm level did not use devices that effectively remove nitrates. The population included few women of childbearing age, and was generally older than other nearby urban or rural populations. Resident infants were not exposed to well water nitrate in excess of the 10 ppm level, and were therefore not at apparent risk for methemoglobinemia (blue-baby syndrome). Although the risk of infant methemoglobinemia was low in this area, it is recommended that alternative water sources be explored, and that follow-up monitoring be performed by state and/or local agencies.

Mitchell, T.J.; Harding, A.K. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Public Health

1996-10-01

404

Evaluating the Potential for a Helicobacter pylori Drinking Water Guideline.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori is a microaerophilic, gram-negative bacterium that is linked to adverse health effects including ulcers and gastrointestinal cancers. The goal of this analysis is to develop the necessary inputs for a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) needed to develop a potential guideline for drinking water at the point of ingestion (e.g., a maximum contaminant level, or MCL) that would be protective of human health to an acceptable level of risk while considering sources of uncertainty. Using infection and gastric cancer as two discrete endpoints, and calculating dose-response relationships from experimental data on humans and monkeys, we perform both a forward and reverse risk assessment to determine the risk from current reported surface water concentrations of H. pylori and an acceptable concentration of H. pylori at the point of ingestion. This approach represents a synthesis of available information on human exposure to H. pylori via drinking water. A lifetime risk of cancer model suggests that a MCL be set at <1 organism/L given a 5-log removal treatment because we cannot exclude the possibility that current levels of H. pylori in environmental source waters pose a potential public health risk. Research gaps include pathogen occurrence in source and finished water, treatment removal rates, and determination of H. pylori risks from other water sources such as groundwater and recreational water. PMID:24660760

Ryan, Michael; Hamilton, Kerry; Hamilton, Michael; Haas, Charles N

2014-09-01

405

Concentrations of Natural Radionuclides in Municipal Supply Drinking Water and Evaluation of Radiological Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring radionuclides are always present in groundwater used for drinking and cultivation purposes. Intake of these radionuclides through ingestion of drinking water results in radiation doses to humans, which may cause radiological health hazards. This article presents the results of measured concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides of Ra, Th, and K in municipal supply drinking water in metropolitan Lahore

S. N. A. Tahir; A. S. Alaamer

2009-01-01

406

Drinking water biofilm cohesiveness changes under chlorination or hydrodynamic stress.  

PubMed

Attempts at removal of drinking water biofilms rely on various preventive and curative strategies such as nutrient reduction in drinking water, disinfection or water flushing, which have demonstrated limited efficiency. The main reason for these failures is the cohesiveness of the biofilm driven by the physico-chemical properties of its exopolymeric matrix (EPS). Effective cleaning procedures should break up the matrix and/or change the elastic properties of bacterial biofilms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in the cohesive strength of two-month-old drinking water biofilms under increasing hydrodynamic shear stress ?w (from ?0.2 to ?10 Pa) and shock chlorination (applied concentration at T0: 10 mg Cl2/L; 60 min contact time). Biofilm erosion (cell loss per unit surface area) and cohesiveness (changes in the detachment shear stress and cluster volumes measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM)) were studied. When rapidly increasing the hydrodynamic constraint, biofilm removal was found to be dependent on a dual process of erosion and coalescence of the biofilm clusters. Indeed, 56% of the biofilm cells were removed with, concomitantly, a decrease in the number of the 50-300 ?m(3) clusters and an increase in the number of the smaller (i.e., <50 ?m(3)) and larger (i.e., >600 ?m(3)) ones. Moreover, AFM evidenced the strengthening of the biofilm structure along with the doubling of the number of contact points, NC, per cluster volume unit following the hydrodynamic disturbance. This suggests that the compactness of the biofilm exopolymers increases with hydrodynamic stress. Shock chlorination removed cells (-75%) from the biofilm while reducing the volume of biofilm clusters. Oxidation stress resulted in a decrease in the cohesive strength profile of the remaining drinking water biofilms linked to a reduction in the number of contact points within the biofilm network structure in particular for the largest biofilm cluster volumes (>200 ?m(3)). Changes in the cohesive strength of drinking water biofilms subsequent to cleaning/disinfection operations call into question the effectiveness of cleaning-in-place procedures. The combined alternating use of oxidation and shear stress sequences needs to be investigated as it could be an important adjunct to improving biofilm removal/reduction procedures. PMID:24607313

Mathieu, L; Bertrand, I; Abe, Y; Angel, E; Block, J C; Skali-Lami, S; Francius, G

2014-05-15

407

Adaptive forest management for drinking water protection under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drinking water resources drawn from forested catchment areas are prominent for providing water supply on our planet. Despite the fact that source waters stemming from forested watersheds have generally lower water quality problems than those stemming from agriculturally used watersheds, it has to be guaranteed that the forest stands meet high standards regarding their water protection functionality. For fulfilling these, forest management concepts have to be applied, which are adaptive regarding the specific forest site conditions and also regarding climate change scenarios. In the past century forest management in the alpine area of Austria was mainly based on the cultivation of Norway spruce, by the way neglecting specific forest site conditions, what caused in many cases highly vulnerable mono-species forest stands. The GIS based forest hydrotope model (FoHyM) provides a framework for forest management, which defines the most crucial parameters in a spatial explicit form. FoHyM stratifies the spacious drinking water protection catchments into forest hydrotopes, being operational units for forest management. The primary information layer of FoHyM is the potential natural forest community, which reflects the specific forest site conditions regarding geology, soil types, elevation above sea level, exposition and inclination adequately and hence defines the specific forest hydrotopes. For each forest hydrotope, the adequate tree species composition and forest stand structure for drinking water protection functionality was deduced, based on the plant-sociological information base provided by FoHyM. The most important overall purpose for the related elaboration of adaptive forest management concepts and measures was the improvement of forest stand stability, which can be seen as the crucial parameter for drinking water protection. Only stable forest stands can protect the fragile soil and humus layers and hence prevent erosion process which could endanger the water resources. Forest stands which are formed by a tree species set which conforms to the potential natural forest community are more stable than the currently wide-spread mono-species Norway spruce plantations, especially in times of climate change, where e.g. bark beetle infestations threat spruce with increased intensity. FoHyM also provides the relevant ecological boundary conditions for any estimation of climate change adaptations. The adaptation of the tree species distribution within each forest hydrotope to climate change conditions was fulfilled by the integration of climate change scenarios and the estimation of the eco-physiological characteristics of related tree species. Hence it was possible to define the tree species distribution related to a specific climate change scenario for each forest hydrotope. The silvicultural concepts and measures to accomplish the defined tree species distribution and forest stand structure for each forest hydrotope were defined and elaborated by taking the specific requirements of drinking water protection areas into account, what e.g. comprised the prohibition of the clear cut technique and the application of continuous cover forest management concepts. The overall purpose of these adaptive silvicultural concepts and techniques which were based on the application of FoHyM was the improvement of the water protection functionality of forest stands within drinking water protection zones.

Koeck, R.; Hochbichler, E.

2012-04-01

408

Drinking water quality assessment in Southern Sindh (Pakistan).  

PubMed

The southern Sindh province of Pakistan adjoins the Arabian Sea coast where drinking water quality is deteriorating due to dumping of industrial and urban waste and use of agrochemicals and yet has limited fresh water resources. The study assessed the drinking water quality of canal, shallow pumps, dug wells, and water supply schemes from the administrative districts of Thatta, Badin, and Thar by measuring physical, chemical, and biological (total coliform) quality parameters. All four water bodies (dug wells, shallow pumps canal water, and water supply schemes) exceeded WHO MPL for turbidity (24%, 28%, 96%, 69%), coliform (96%, 77%, 92%, 81%), and electrical conductivity (100%, 99%, 44%, 63%), respectively. However, the turbidity was lower in underground water, i.e., 24% and 28% in dug wells and shallow pumps as compared to open water, i.e., 96% and 69% in canal and water supply schemes, respectively. In dug wells and shallow pumps, limits for TDS, alkalinity, hardness, and sodium exceeded, respectively, by 63% and 33%; 59% and 70%, 40% and 27%, and 78% and 26%. Sodium was major problem in dug wells and shallow pumps of district Thar and considerable percent in shallow pumps of Badin. Iron was major problem in all water bodies of district Badin ranging from 50% to 69% and to some extent in open waters of Thatta. Other parameters as pH, copper, manganese, zinc, and phosphorus were within standard permissible limits of World Health Organization. Some common diseases found in the study area were gastroenteritis, diarrhea and vomiting, kidney, and skin problems. PMID:20658360

Memon, Mehrunisa; Soomro, Mohammed Saleh; Akhtar, Mohammad Saleem; Memon, Kazi Suleman

2011-06-01

409

Analysis of anions in drinking water by capillary ion electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Capillary ion electrophoresis (CIE) (Waters' trade name: Capillary Ion Analysis, CIA) is a capillary electrophoretic technique which is optimized for the rapid analysis of low-molecular-mass inorganic and organic ions. An electroosmotic flow modifier (OFM) was added to the chromate electrolyte and a negative power supply was used. Indirect UV detection at 254 nm was used throughout. Analysis of anions in a variety of drinking water samples was done. Anion analysis using this technique is rapid (less than 5.5 min), with little sample preparation required. Comparison of anion amounts found using CIA and conventional suppressed ion chromatography (IC) was done with good correlation between the two techniques. PMID:8814788

Oehrle, S A

1996-05-10

410

Incidence of fecal contamination within a public drinking water supply in Ratta Amral, Rawalpindi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to monitor microbial water quality and residual chlorine in drinking water supplies at the treatment plant and in the water distribution network of Ratta Amral, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The drinking water quality in the distribution network was performed by collecting samples from water source, over head reservoir and residential taps and for analyzing chemical and

Imran Hashmi; Shaukat Farooq; Sara Qaiser

2009-01-01

411

Drinking and water balance during exercise and heat acclimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interactions between fluid intake and balance, and plasma ion, osmotic, and endocrine responses during dehydration produced by exercise in cool and warm environments during acclimation are explored. Two groups of five male subjects performed 8 days of ergometer exercise in hot and thermoneutral conditions, respectively. The exercise trials lasted 2 hr each. Monitoring was carried out on the PV, osmotic, sodium, and endocrine concentrations, voluntary fluid intake, fluid balances, and fluid deficits. A negative correlation was observed between the plasma sodium and osmolality during acclimation. The presence of hypervolemia during acclimation is suggested as a cause of drinking, while the vasopressin concentration was not found to be a significant factor stimulating drinking. Finally, the predominant mechanism in fluid intake during exercise and heat exposure is concluded to be the renin-angiotensin II system in the presence of reductions in total body water and extracellular plasma volumes.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Brock, P. J.; Keil, L. C.; Morse, J. T.

1983-01-01

412

Selective enumeration strategies for Brevundimonas diminuta from drinking water.  

PubMed

Brevundimonas diminuta is used as a control organism for validating the efficiency of water filtration systems. Since these protocols use nonselective growth media, heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPCs) indigenous to the water distribution system may interfere with B. diminuta enumeration, thus leading to inaccurate assessment of the filter's microbial reduction capability. This could negatively impact public health as unsafe drinking water may be produced. This study was conducted to evaluate different potential routes for selective enumeration of B. diminuta in drinking water. B. diminuta's biochemical and molecular relationships to HPCs recovered from a laboratory drinking-water system were investigated. Of the 24 HPC morphotypes recovered, members of the Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria were most commonly identified. Based on comparisons of catabolic profiles (generated by the Biolog system) using principal component analysis, B. diminuta possessed similar metabolic patterns to several of the Alphaproteobacteria (Sphingomonas and Caulobacter), indicating that development of a selective medium based solely on carbon source was not feasible. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles revealed that the HPCs were least resistant to kanamycin, making it a candidate for future selective applications. Sequence comparisons of partial 16S rRNA sequences did not reveal any distinct similarities. However, basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) alignments of the gyrB and rpoD sequences for B. diminuta did show uniqueness, with the next closest match being to Caulobacter (88% and 79% similarity, respectively). Future investigation will focus on applying molecular assays, such as fluorescent in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and incorporating an antibiotic marker or expressed fluorescent protein into the wild-type strain of B. diminuta for selective enumeration of B. diminuta. PMID:20087629

Donofrio, Robert Scott; Bestervelt, Lorelle L; Saha, Ratul; Bagley, Susan T

2010-04-01

413

Ingestion Exposure to Nitrosamines in Chlorinated Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

Objectives N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and is formed during the chlorination of municipal drinking water. In this study, selected nitrosamines were measured in chlorinated drinking water collected from Chuncheon, Kangwon-do, Republic of Korea, and a risk assessment for NDMA was conducted. Methods Twelve water samples were collected from 2 treatment plants and 10 household taps. Samples were analyzed for 6 nitrosamines via solid-phase extraction cleanup followed by conversion to dansyl derivatives and high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Considering the dietary patterns of Korean people and the concentration change of NDMA by boiling, a carcinogenic risk assessment from ingestion exposure was conducted following the US EPA guidelines. Results NDMA concentrations ranged between 26.1 and 112.0 ng/L. NDMA in water was found to be thermally stable, and thus its concentration at the end of boiling was greater than before thermal treatment owing to the decrease in water volume. The estimated excess lifetime carcinogenic risk exceeded the regulatory baseline risk of 10-5. Conclusions This result suggests that more extensive studies need to be conducted on nitrosamine concentration distributions over the country and the source of relatively high nitrosamine concentrations. PMID:22125764

Han, Kichan

2011-01-01

414

Can we protect everybody from drinking water contaminants?  

PubMed

Dozens of chemicals, both natural and manmade, are often found in drinking water. Some, such as the natural contaminants uranium and arsenic, are well-known toxicants with a large toxicology database. Other chemicals, such as methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) from leaking fuel tanks, we learn about as we go along. For still others, such as the alkyl benzenes, there are very little available data, and few prospects of obtaining more. In some cases, chemicals are purposely added to drinking water for beneficial purposes (e.g., chlorine, fluoride, alum), which may cause a countervailing hazard. Removing all potentially toxic chemicals from the water is virtually impossible and is precluded for beneficial uses and for economic reasons. Determination of safe levels of chemicals in drinking water merges the available toxicity data with exposure and human effect assumptions into detailed hazard assessments. This process should incorporate as much conservatism as is needed to allow for uncertainty in the toxicity and exposure estimates. Possible sensitive subpopulations such as unborn children, infants, the elderly, and those with common diseases such as impaired kidney function must also be considered. However, the range of sensitivity and the variability of toxicity and exposure parameters can never be fully documented. In addition, the validity of the low-dose extrapolations, and whether the toxic effect found in animals occurs at all in humans, is never clear. This publication discusses how these competing needs and uncertainties intersect in the development of Public Health Goals for uranium, fluoride, arsenic, perchlorate, and other highly debated chemicals. PMID:12396685

Howd, Robert A

2002-01-01

415

Water quality deterioration: a study of household drinking water quality in rural Honduras.  

PubMed

There is growing awareness that drinking-water can become contaminated following its collection from communal sources such as wells and tap-stands, as well as during its storage in the home. This study evaluated the post-supply drinking-water quality in three rural Honduran communities using either a protected hand-dug well or borehole supply. Water management practices were documented as a basis for further research to improve household drinking-water quality. Membrane filtration was used to compare thermotolerant coliform levels in samples taken from community wells and household drinking-water storage containers. Over a 2-year period, water quality was examined in 43 households and detailed observation made of typical collection, storage and usage practice. Substantial water quality deterioration occurred between the points of supply and consumption. Deterioration occurred regularly and frequently, and was experienced by the majority of study households. Only source water quality appeared to be a significant factor in determining household water quality. None of the storage factors examined, i.e. covering the container, type of container, the material from which the container was made, and hours stored, made any significant difference to the stored water quality. Observation of household water management shows that there are multiple points during the collection to use sequence where pollution could occur. The commonality of water management practice would be an asset in introducing appropriate intervention measures. PMID:15369992

Trevett, Andrew Francis; Carter, Richard; Tyrrel, Sean

2004-08-01

416

Chronic Ingestion of Uranium in Drinking Water: A Study of Kidney Bioeffects in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted of the chemical effects on the human kidney induced by the chronic ingestion of uranium in drinking water. Subjects were divided into two groups:The low-exposure group,whose drinking water was obtained from a municipal water system and contained <1 ?g uranium\\/L, andthe high-exposure group,whose drinking water was obtained from private drilled wells and contained uranium levels that

M. Limson Zamora; B. L. Tracy; J. M. Zielinski; D. P. Meyerhof; M. A. Mossf

1998-01-01

417

Enteric viruses in New Zealand drinking-water sources.  

PubMed

This study determined whether human pathogenic viruses are present in two New Zealand surface waters that are used as drinking-water sources. Enteric viruses were concentrated using hollow-fibre ultrafiltration and detected using PCR for adenovirus (AdV), and reverse transcription PCR for norovirus (NOV) genogroups I-III, enterovirus, rotavirus (RoV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV). Target viruses were detected in 106/109 (97%) samples, with 67/109 (61%) samples positive for three or more viral types at any one time. AdV, NoV and ROV were detected the most frequently, and HEV the least frequently. Human NoV was not usually associated with animal NOV. Our results suggest that New Zealand would be well served by assessing the ability of drinking-water treatment plants to remove viruses from the source waters, and that this assessment could be based on the viral concentration of AdV-NoV-RoV. The long-term aim of our work is to use this information to estimate the risk of waterborne viral infection. PMID:21866776

Williamson, W M; Ball, A; Wolf, S; Hewitt, J; Lin, S; Scholes, P; Ambrose, V; Robson, B; Greening, G E

2011-01-01

418

Following the Water: A Controlled Study of Drinking Water Storage in Northern Coastal Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Background To design the most appropriate interventions to improve water quality and supply, information is needed to assess water contamination in a variety of community settings, including those that rely primarily on unimproved surface sources of drinking water. Objectives We explored the role of initial source water conditions as well as household factors in determining household water quality, and how levels of contamination of drinking water change over time, in a rural setting in northern coastal Ecuador. Methods We sampled source waters concurrently with water collection by household members and followed this water over time, comparing Escherichia coli and enterococci concentrations in water stored in households with water stored under controlled conditions. Results We observed significant natural attenuation of indicator organisms in control containers and significant, although less pronounced, reductions of indicators between the source of drinking water and its point of use through the third day of sampling. These reductions were followed by recontamination in approximately half of the households. Conclusions Water quality improved after water was transferred from the source to household storage containers, but then declined because of recontamination in the home. Our experimental design allowed us to observe these dynamics by controlling for initial source water quality and following changes in water quality over time. These data, because of our controlled experimental design, may explain why recontamination has been reported in the literature as less prominent in areas or households with highly contaminated source waters. Our results also suggest that efforts to improve source water quality and sanitation remain important. PMID:19057707

Levy, Karen; Nelson, Kara L.; Hubbard, Alan; Eisenberg, Joseph N.S.

2008-01-01

419

Quality of Drinking-water at Source and Point-of-consumption - Drinking Cup As a High Potential Recontamination Risk: A Field Study in Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-house contamination of drinking-water is a persistent problem in developing countries. This study aimed at identifying critical points of contamination and determining the extent of recontamination after water treatment. In total, 81 households were visited, and 347 water samples from their cur- rent sources of water, transport vessels, treated water, and drinking vessels were analyzed. The quality of water was

Simonne Rufener; Daniel Mäusezahl; Hans-Joachim Mosler; Rolf Weingartner

2010-01-01

420

An inflight refill unit for replenishing research animal drinking water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the design process and development approach for a method of maintaining sufficient quantities of water for research animals during a Shuttle mission of long duration. An inflight refill unit (IRU) consisting of two major subsystems, a fluid pumping unit (FPU) and a collapsible water reservoir (CWR), were developed. The FPU provides the system measurement and controls, pump, water lines, and plumbing necessary to collect water coming into the unit from the potable water system and pump it out into the RAHF drinking water tanks. The CWR is a Kevlar (TM) reinforced storage bladder connected to the FPU, which has a capacity of 6 liters in its expanded volume and functions to store the water collected from the potable water system, allowing for transport of the water back to the Spacelab where it is pumped into each of two research animal holding facilities. Additional components of the IRU system include the inlet and outlet fluid hoses, a power cable for providing 29V direct current spacecraft electrical power to the pump within the FPU, a tether system for the unit when in use in Spacelab, and an adapter for mating the unit to the orbiter waste collection system in order to dump excess water after use in Spacelab.

Savage, P. D.; Hines, M. L.; Barnes, R.

1995-01-01

421

Emergency Response Planning to Reduce the Impact of Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters  

EPA Science Inventory

Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water system...

422

Performance of Traditional and Molecular Methods for Detecting Biological Agents in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

USGS Report - To reduce the impact from a possible bioterrorist attack on drinking-water supplies, analytical methods are needed to rapidly detect the presence of biological agents in water. To this end, 13 drinking-water samples were collected at 9 water-treatment plants in Ohio...

423

SCREENING MODELS TO PREDICT PROBABILITY OF CONTAMINATION BY PATHOGENIC VIRUSES IN DRINKING WATER AQUIFERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Safe Drinking Water Act's 1996 Amendments broadened the definition of public water systems (PWS) to include systems which serve drinking water to as few as 25 individuals. Implementation of the proposed Ground Water Rule for Pathogens will place an increased burden on utiliti...

424

Evaluation of Human Enteric Viruses in Surface Water and Drinking Water Resources in Southern Ghana  

PubMed Central

An estimated 884 million people worldwide do not have access to an improved drinking water source, and the microbial quality of these sources is often unknown. In this study, a combined tangential flow, hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF), and real-time PCR method was applied to large volume (100 L) groundwater (N = 4), surface water (N = 9), and finished (i.e., receiving treatment) drinking water (N = 6) samples for the evaluation of human enteric viruses and bacterial indicators. Human enteric viruses including norovirus GI and GII, adenovirus, and polyomavirus were detected in five different samples including one groundwater, three surface water, and one drinking water sample. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli assessed for each sample before and after UF revealed a lack of correlation between bacterial indicators and the presence of human enteric viruses. PMID:21212196

Gibson, Kristen E.; Opryszko, Melissa C.; Schissler, James T.; Guo, Yayi; Schwab, Kellogg J.

2011-01-01

425

Effective drinking water collaborations are not accidental: interagency relationships in the international water utility sector.  

PubMed

The role that deficient institutional relationships have played in aggravating drinking water incidents over the last 30 years has been identified in several inquiries of high profile drinking water safety events, peer-reviewed articles and media reports. These indicate that collaboration between water utilities and public health agencies (PHAs) during normal operations, and in emergencies, needs improvement. Here, critical elements of these interagency collaborations, that can be integrated within the corporate risk management structures of water utilities and PHAs alike, were identified using a grounded theory approach and 51 semi-structured interviews with utility and PHA staff. Core determinants of effective interagency relationships are discussed. Intentionally maintained functional relationships represent a key ingredient in assuring the delivery of safe, high quality drinking water. PMID:24239814

Jalba, D I; Cromar, N J; Pollard, S J T; Charrois, J W; Bradshaw, R; Hrudey, S E

2014-02-01

426

Arsenic in drinking water and congenital heart anomalies in Hungary.  

PubMed

Inorganic arsenic can get easily through the placenta however there are very few human data on congenital anomalies related to arsenic exposure. Objective of our study was to explore the associations between arsenic content of drinking water and prevalence of some congenital anomalies. Four anomalies reported to the Hungarian Congenital Anomalies Registry between 1987 and 2003 were chosen to be analysed in relation to arsenic exposure: congenital anomalies of the circulatory system (n=9734) were considered as cases, while Down syndrome, club foot and multiple congenital malformations were used as controls (n=5880). Arsenic exposure of the mothers during pregnancy was estimated by using archive measurement data for each year and for each settlement where the mothers lived. Analysis of the associations between the prevalence of congenital heart anomalies and arsenic exposure during pregnancy was performed by logistic regression. The child's gender and age of the mother were adjusted for. The associations were evaluated by using the present EU health limit value of 10.0?g/L arsenic concentration as a cut-off point. Regular consumption of drinking water with arsenic concentration above 10?g/L during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of congenital heart anomalies in general (adjusted OR=1.41; 95% C.I.: 1.28-1.56), and especially that of ductus Botalli persistens (adjusted OR=1.81, 95%C.I.: 1.54-2.11) and atrial septal defect (adjusted OR=1.79; 95%C.I.: 1.59-2.01). The presented results showed an increased risk of congenital heart anomalies among infants whose mothers were exposed to drinking water with arsenic content above 10?g/L during pregnancy. Further studies of possible similar effects of concentrations below 10?g/L are warranted. PMID:24916166

Rudnai, Tamás; Sándor, János; Kádár, Mihály; Borsányi, Mátyás; Béres, Judit; Métneki, Júlia; Maráczi, Gabriella; Rudnai, Péter

2014-11-01

427

Risk Factors Associated with the Choice to Drink Bottled Water and Tap Water in Rural Saskatchewan  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional study investigated risk factors associated with choices to drink bottled water and tap water in rural Saskatchewan. Of 7,500 anonymous postal questionnaires mailed out, 2,065 responses were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Those who reported a water advisory (p < 0.001) or living in the area for ?10 years (p = 0.01) were more likely to choose bottled water. Those who reported tap water was not safe to drink were more likely to choose bottled water, an effect greater for those who had no aesthetic complaints (p ? 0.001), while those with aesthetic complaints were more likely to choose bottled water if they believed the water was safe (p < 0.001). Respondents who treated their water and did not use a community supply were more likely to choose bottled water (p < 0.001), while those who did not treat their water were more likely to choose bottled water regardless of whether a community supply was used (p < 0.001). A similar pattern of risk factors was associated with a decreased likelihood of consuming tap water daily; however, the use of a community water supply was not significant. Understanding the factors involved in drinking water choices could inform public health education efforts regarding water management in rural areas. PMID:24487453

McLeod, Lianne; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Waldner, Cheryl

2014-01-01

428

Risk factors associated with the choice to drink bottled water and tap water in rural Saskatchewan.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study investigated risk factors associated with choices to drink bottled water and tap water in rural Saskatchewan. Of 7,500 anonymous postal questionnaires mailed out, 2,065 responses were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Those who reported a water advisory (p < 0.001) or living in the area for £10 years (p = 0.01) were more likely to choose bottled water. Those who reported tap water was not safe to drink were more likely to choose bottled water, an effect greater for those who had no aesthetic complaints (p ? 0.001), while those with aesthetic complaints were more likely to choose bottled water if they believed the water was safe (p < 0.001). Respondents who treated their water and did not use a community supply were more likely to choose bottled water (p < 0.001), while those who did not treat their water were more likely to choose bottled water regardless of whether a community supply was used (p < 0.001). A similar pattern of risk factors was associated with a decreased likelihood of consuming tap water daily; however, the use of a community water supply was not significant. Understanding the factors involved in drinking water choices could inform public health education efforts regarding water management in rural areas. PMID:24487453

McLeod, Lianne; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Waldner, Cheryl

2014-02-01

429

Modeling MIC copper release from drinking water pipes.  

PubMed

Copper is used for household drinking water distribution systems given its physical and chemical properties that make it resistant to corrosion. However, there is evidence that, under certain conditions, it can corrode and release unsafe concentrations of copper to the water. Research on drinking water copper pipes has developed conceptual models that include several physical-chemical mechanisms. Nevertheless, there is still a necessity for the development of mathematical models of this phenomenon, which consider the interaction among physical-chemical processes at different spatial scales. We developed a conceptual and a mathematical model that reproduces the main processes in copper release from copper pipes subject to stagnation and flow cycles, and corrosion is associated with biofilm growth on the surface of the pipes. We discuss the influence of the reactive surface and the copper release curves observed. The modeling and experimental observations indicated that after 10h stagnation, the main concentration of copper is located close to the surface of the pipe. This copper is associated with the reactive surface, which acts as a reservoir of labile copper. Thus, for pipes with the presence of biofilm the complexation of copper with the biomass and the hydrodynamics are the main mechanisms for copper release. PMID:24398414

Pizarro, Gonzalo E; Vargas, Ignacio T; Pastén, Pablo A; Calle, Gustavo R

2014-06-01

430

Microbiological safety of drinking water: United States and global perspectives.  

PubMed Central

Waterborne disease statistics only begin to estimate the global burden of infectious diseases from contaminated drinking water. Diarrheal disease is dramatically underreported and etiologies seldom diagnosed. This review examines available data on waterborne disease incidence both in the United States and globally together with its limitations. The waterborne route of transmission is examined for bacterial, protozoal, and viral pathogens that either are frequently associated with drinking water (e.g., Shigella spp.), or for which there is strong evidence implicating the waterborne route of transmission (e.g., Leptospira spp.). In addition, crucial areas of research are discussed, including risks from selection of treatment-resistant pathogens, importance of environmental reservoirs, and new methodologies for pathogen-specific monitoring. To accurately assess risks from waterborne disease, it is necessary to understand pathogen distribution and survival strategies within water distribution systems and to apply methodologies that can detect not only the presence, but also the viability and infectivity of the pathogen. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10229718

Ford, T E

1999-01-01

431

61 FR 24354 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Monitoring Requirements for Public Drinking Water...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Water Treatment Plant Data and Other Information...establishes monitoring and data reporting requirements for large public water systems (PWSs). This rule is...Also, EPA will collect engineering data on how PWSs...

1996-05-14

432

[How much water do we really need to drink?].  

PubMed

Everywhere around us we see people sipping bottled water. In healthy people, the fluid balance is strictly regulated via osmoregulation by the hormone vasopressin and the kidneys, in combination with the thirst mechanism and drinking. Fluid intake comes from food, metabolism and beverages, including water. People lose fluid via the skin, respiration, faecal fluid and urinary output. The obligatory urine volume is determined by maximal renal concentrating ability and the solute load which must be excreted. Under normal circumstances of diet, exercise and climate the minimal urine output for healthy subjects is about 500 ml/day. Intake of more than 500 ml of fluids per day will result in the excretion of solute-free water. The recommended total daily fluid intake of 3,000 ml for men and of 2,200 ml for women is more than adequate. Higher fluid intake does not have any convincing health benefits, except perhaps in preventing (recurrent) kidney stones. PMID:20356431

Meinders, Arend-Jan; Meinders, Arend E

2010-01-01

433

Contamination of surface, ground, and drinking water from pharmaceutical production.  

PubMed

Low levels of pharmaceuticals are detected in surface, ground, and drinking water worldwide. Usage and incorrect disposal have been considered the major environmental sources of these microcontaminants. Recent publications, however, suggest that wastewater from drug production can potentially be a source of much higher concentrations in certain locations. The present study investigated the environmental fate of active pharmaceutical ingredients in a major production area for the global bulk drug market. Water samples were taken from a common effluent treatment plant near Hyderabad, India, which receives process water from approximately 90 bulk drug manufacturers. Surface water was analyzed from the recipient stream and from two lakes that are not contaminated by the treatment plant. Water samples were also taken from wells in six nearby villages. The samples were analyzed for the presence of 12 pharmaceuticals with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All wells were determined to be contaminated with drugs. Ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, cetirizine, terbinafine, and citalopram were detected at more than 1 microg/L in several wells. Very high concentrations of ciprofloxacin (14 mg/L) and cetirizine (2.1 mg/L) were found in the effluent of the treatment plant, together with high concentrations of seven additional pharmaceuticals. Very high concentrations of ciprofloxacin (up to 6.5 mg/L), cetirizine (up to 1.2 mg/L), norfloxacin (up to 0.52 mg/L), and enoxacin (up to 0.16 mg/L) were also detected in the two lakes, which clearly shows that the investigated area has additional environmental sources of insufficiently treated industrial waste. Thus, insufficient wastewater management in one of the world's largest centers for bulk drug production leads to unprecedented drug contamination of surface, ground, and drinking water. This raises serious concerns regarding the development of antibiotic resistance, and it creates a major challenge for producers and regulatory agencies to improve the situation. PMID:19449981

Fick, Jerker; Söderström, Hanna; Lindberg, Richard H; Phan, Chau; Tysklind, Mats; Larsson, D G Joakim

2009-12-01

434

Sachet drinking water in Ghana's Accra-Tema metropolitan area: past, present, and future  

PubMed Central

Population growth in West Africa has outpaced local efforts to expand potable water services, and private sector sale of packaged drinking water has filled an important gap in household water security. Consumption of drinking water packaged in plastic sachets has soared in West Africa over the last decade, but the long-term implications of these changing consumption patterns remain unclear and unstudied. This paper reviews recent shifts in drinking water, drawing upon data from the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys, and provides an overview of the history, economics, quality, and regulation of sachet water in Ghana’s Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area. Given the pros and cons of sachet water, we suggest that a more holistic understanding of the drinking water landscape is necessary for municipal planning and sustainable drinking water provision. PMID:24294481

Weeks, John R.; Fink, Gunther

2013-01-01

435

Contaminated drinking water and rural health perspectives in Rajasthan, India: an overview of recent case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to safe drinking water is an important issue of health and development at national, regional, and local levels. The\\u000a concept of safe drinking water assumes greater significance in countries like India where the majority of the population lives\\u000a in villages with bare infrastructures and poor sanitation facilities. This review presents an overview of drinking water quality\\u000a in rural habitations

Surindra Suthar

2011-01-01

436

Advanced Oxidation Treatment of Drinking Water: Part II. Turbidity, Particles and Organics Removal from Lake Huron Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-coagulation ozonation has been reported to be effective in drinking water treatment processes. Limited data are available on the impact of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) on Lake Huron water which serves as a primary source of drinking water for many communities around the Great Lakes region. Impact of ozone\\/hydrogen peroxide based AOP on Lake Huron water was studied. The results

M. F. Rahman; S. Y. Jasim; E. K. Yanful; S. Ndiongue; D. Borikar

2010-01-01

437

Nature: "Water, Water, Everywhere, nor Any Drop to Drink"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The difficulties faced by developing countries in obtaining clean water, and its misuse in advanced countries are reported. The new application of zeolites, or molecular synthesis of aluminosilicates in the desalination or purification of water forecasts a brighter future.

Heinhorst, Sabine; Cannon, Gordon

2004-01-01

438

Effect of drinking arsenic-contaminated water in children.  

PubMed

Chronic arsenic toxicity due to drinking of arsenic-contaminated water has been a major environmental health hazard throughout the world including India. Although a lot of information is available on health effects due to chronic arsenic toxicity in adults, knowledge of such effect on children is scanty. A review of the available literature has been made to highlight the problem in children. Scientific publications on health effects of chronic arsenic toxicity in children with special reference to psychological issues are reviewed. The prevalence of skin abnormalities such as pigmentation change and keratosis, the diagnostic signs of chronic arsenic toxicity, vary in various arsenic-exposed children population in different regions of the world. The occurrence of chronic lung disease including pulmonary interstitial fibrosis has been described in arsenic-exposed children in Chile. Affection of intellectual function has also been reported to occur in arsenic-exposed children studied in Thailand, Bangladesh, and India. Methylation patterns of arsenic in children aggregate in families and are correlated in siblings, providing evidence of a genetic basis for the variation in arsenic methylation. Chronic arsenic toxicity due to drinking of arsenic-contaminated water causes significant morbidity in children resulting in skin lesions, lung disease, and defect in intellectual function. PMID:23229215

Majumdar, Kunal K; Guha Mazumder, D N

2012-01-01

439

Quality of Bottled Drinking Water: Case Study in Vientiane, Laos and Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to investigate quality of water sources and bottled water as compared to water quality standards. Sanitation conditions of the factories were also studied. The quality of water sources such as tap water, ground water and tap water mixed with ground water used for producing bottled drinking water were analysed for the physical, chemical and biological

Syvang Xayyavong; Sandhya Babel

2010-01-01

440

Issues of drinking water quality of small scale water services towards climate change.  

PubMed

As climate change could impact water quantity and quality, important concerns are related to water quality degradation in small scale water services (SSWS). SSWS using surface waters resources (rivers and lakes) for drinking water production are particularly vulnerable to short term transient events due to their low adaptation capacity and their lack of support and technical knowledge compared to major centralized systems. Based on weather and water quality databases, a case study was conducted on a SSWS in Brittany (France) pumping from surface water. Results show an important vulnerability in treatment efficiency related to the lowest and highest river flows and provide first assumptions about the impacts of an increase in extreme weather events with climate change on drinking water quality. PMID:21252424

Delpla, I; Baures, E; Jung, A V; Clement, M; Thomas, O

2011-01-01

441

Why Do People Stop Treating Contaminated Drinking Water with Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS)?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS) is a simple method designed to treat microbiologically contaminated drinking water at household level. This article characterizes relapse behavior in comparison with continued SODIS use after a 7-month nonpromotion period. In addition, different subtypes among relapsers and continuers were assumed to diverge mainly…

Tamas, Andrea; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

2011-01-01

442

MTBE in California's Drinking Water: A Comparison of Groundwater Versus Surface Water Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, the fuel oxygenate methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has received widespread attention as a potential threat to water quality, primarily due to leaking underground gasoline storage tanks and watercraft with two-stroke engines. In this article, we examine the annual detection frequency, number of new source detections, and concentration of MTBE detected in California's public drinking water

Pamela R. D. Williams; Laurie Benton; Patrick J. Sheehan

2003-01-01

443

The drinking water response to the Indian Ocean tsunami, including the role of household water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To document the drinking water component of the humanitarian response to the Great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004, including a focus on the promotion of household water treatment (HHWT)\\/safe storage to minimize the spread of diarrhoeal disease. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Firsthand accounts of the response effort, interviews, and literature review. Findings – The combined efforts to mobilize a

Thomas Clasen; Lucy Smith; Jeff Albert; Andrew Bastable; Jean-Francois Fesselet

2006-01-01

444

Relationships between levels of heterotrophic bacteria and water quality parameters in a drinking water distribution system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional plating methods were used to quantify heterotrophic bacteria from a drinking water distribution system. Three media, plate count agar (PCA), R2A agar and sheep blood agar (TSA-SB) were used to determine heterotrophic plate count (HPC) levels. Grab samples were collected weekly during the summer and autumn of 1997 at four locations in a municipal water distribution system. The four

J. T Carter; E. W Rice; S. G Buchberger; Y Lee

2000-01-01

445

Study of reservoir water treatment by ultrafiltration for drinking water production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafiltration (UF) of reservoir water for drinking proposes was performed in a crossflow filtration with frequent membrane backwash. The effects of operating condition and raw water quality on OF behavior were investigated. The membrane flux decreases with increasing turbidity and there is a somehow linear relationship between membrane flux and the log of turbidity. Permeate flux increase with increasing the

Shengji Xia; Xing Li; Ruiping Liu; Guibai Li

2004-01-01

446

Associations between Perceptions of Drinking Water Service Delivery and Measured Drinking Water Quality in Rural Alabama  

PubMed Central

Although small, rural water supplies may present elevated microbial risks to consumers in some settings, characterizing exposures through representative point-of-consumption sampling is logistically challenging. In order to evaluate the usefulness of consumer self-reported data in predicting measured water quality and risk factors for contamination, we compared matched consumer interview data with point-of-survey, household water quality and pressure data for 910 households served by 14 small water systems in rural Alabama. Participating households completed one survey that included detailed feedback on two key areas of water service conditions: delivery conditions (intermittent service and low water pressure) and general aesthetic characteristics (taste, odor and color), providing five condition values. Microbial water samples were taken at the point-of-use (from kitchen faucets) and as-delivered from the distribution network (from outside flame-sterilized taps, if available), where pressure was also measured. Water samples were analyzed for free and total chlorine, pH, turbidity, and presence of total coliforms and Escherichia coli. Of the 910 households surveyed, 35% of participants reported experiencing low water pressure, 15% reported intermittent service, and almost 20% reported aesthetic problems (taste, odor or color). Consumer-reported low pressure was associated with lower gauge-measured pressure at taps. While total coliforms (TC) were detected in 17% of outside tap samples and 12% of samples from kitchen faucets, no reported water service conditions or aesthetic characteristics were associated with presence of TC. We conclude that consumer-reported data were of limited utility in predicting potential microbial risks associated with small water supplies in this setting, although consumer feedback on low pressure—a risk factor for contamination—may be relatively reliable and therefore useful in future monitoring efforts. PMID:25046635

Wedgworth, Jessica C.; Brown, Joe; Johnson, Pauline; Olson, Julie B.; Elliott, Mark; Forehand, Rick; Stauber, Christine E.

2014-01-01

447

The Effect of Oxidant and Redox Potential on Metal Corrosion in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Future drinking water regulatory action may require some water utilities to consider additional and/or alternative oxidation and disinfection practices. There is little known about the effect of oxidant changes on the corrosion of drinking water distribution system materials and ...

448

CHARACTERISATION OF AGED HDPE PIPES FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION: INVESTIGATION OF CRACK DEPTH BY NOL RING  

E-print Network

CHARACTERISATION OF AGED HDPE PIPES FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION: INVESTIGATION OF CRACK DEPTH are used for the transport of drinking water. However, disinfectants in water seem to have a strong impact the ageing effect of the pipe mechanical behaviour. Inspired from the ASTM D 2290-04 standard, Nol Ring tests

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

449

Effects of Subchronic Exposure of Monochloramine in Drinking Water on Male Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subchronic rat study with paired-water control was conducted to resolve the question of whether monochloramine at 200 ppm in drinking water can cause reduced body weight gain and other changes observed in earlier investigations. Male Sprague–Dawley rats (93 ± 5 g) were divided into three groups of 10 rats each: the treatment group was fed drinking water containing 200

Raymond Poon; Pierre Lecavalier; Helen Tryphonas; Genevieve Bondy; Min Chen; Ih Chu; Algis Yagminas; Victor E Valli; Monique D'amour; Barry Thomas

1997-01-01

450

21 CFR 1240.80 - General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01...requirements for water for drinking and culinary...80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...Use of Potable Water § 1240.80...for water for drinking and...

2013-04-01

451

21 CFR 1240.80 - General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01...requirements for water for drinking and culinary...80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...Use of Potable Water § 1240.80...for water for drinking and...

2010-04-01

452

21 CFR 1240.80 - General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01...requirements for water for drinking and culinary...80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...Use of Potable Water § 1240.80...for water for drinking and...

2011-04-01

453

21 CFR 1240.80 - General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01...requirements for water for drinking and culinary...80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...Use of Potable Water § 1240.80...for water for drinking and...

2012-04-01

454

SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF Fe IN DRINKING WATER Background Reading: Harris, 7th  

E-print Network

citrate (if the water is acidic) or 0.1 F H2SO4 (if the solution is basic) dropwise until the indicatorSPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF Fe IN DRINKING WATER Background Reading: Harris, 7th ed., Chap contaminants in drinking water can be determined spectrophotometrically, including iron. Although iron

Weston, Ken

455

Estimating the impact on health of poor reliability of drinking water interventions in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence suggests that many improved drinking water supplies suffer from poor reliability. This study investigates what impact poor reliability may have on achieving health improvement targets. A Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment was conducted of the impact of interruptions in water supplies that forced people to revert to drinking raw water. Data from the literature were used to construct models

Paul R. Hunter; Denis Zmirou-Navier; Philippe Hartemann

2009-01-01

456

Climate change versus urban drinking water supply and management: a case analysis on the coastal  

E-print Network

. The climatic change and scarcity of upstream fresh water supply and increasing of salinity is oneISLAM S N Climate change versus urban drinking water supply and management: a case analysis-mail: shafinoor@yahoo.com; ishafin@yahoo.com) Abstract Clean urban drinking water supply is now a crucial problem

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

457

STANDARD ADDITION METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF1 PHARMACEUTICAL RESIDUES IN DRINKING WATER BY SPE-2  

E-print Network

STANDARD ADDITION METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF1 PHARMACEUTICAL RESIDUES IN DRINKING WATER BY SPE compounds in drinking or waste22 water processes has become very popular in recent years. LC-MS/MS is a powerful23 analytical tool often used to determine pharmaceutical residues at trace level in water.24

Boyer, Edmond

458

The water concept in the self-sufficient house Drinking rainwater and reusing wastewater  

E-print Network

. Using gravity instead of pumps Ultrafiltration literally means the filtration of water throughThe water concept in the self-sufficient house Drinking rainwater and reusing wastewater Decentralized systems for drinking water processing could make a significant contribution to the Millennium

Wehrli, Bernhard

459

Antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas in bottled drinking water.  

PubMed

Eight different bottled drinking waters were tested weekly over an 8-month period to determine the diversity of their Pseudomonas population and their sensitivity to eight antibiotics used in treating Pseudomonas infections. Nine species of Pseudomonas were recovered, with P. stutzeri (24%) and P. diminuta (18.8%) being the most common isolates. Sensitivity patterns of environmental and clinical isolates were shown to differ to some degree. Statistical analyses indicated a significant effect of specific antibiotic on the size of the inhibition zone, a significant difference between species and size of inhibition zone, and a strong species-antibiotic interaction. Distribution of species within the brands of water was also significantly different in 68% of the paired comparisons. PMID:3594309

Hernandez Duquino, H; Rosenberg, F A

1987-04-01

460

GC/MS IDENTIFICATION OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS FROM MILWAUKEE'S NEW OZONATION PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Milwaukee Water Works recently added ozonation disinfection facilities to their municipal drinking water treatment. Coupling ozone treatment with biologically active filtration (BAF) was seen as a logical step to enhance multiple water quality objectives (an effective barrier...

461

A Review of Nitrates in Drinking Water: Maternal Exposure and Adverse Reproductive and Developmental Outcomes  

PubMed Central

In this review we present an update on maternal exposure to nitrates in drinking water in relation to possible adverse reproductive and developmental effects, and also discuss nitrates in drinking water in the United States. The current standard for nitrates in drinking water is based on retrospective studies and approximates a level that protects infants from methemoglobinemia, but no safety factor is built into the standard. The current standard applies only to public water systems. Drinking water source was related to nitrate exposure (i.e., private systems water was more likely than community system water to have nitrate levels above the maximum contaminant limit). Animal studies have found adverse reproductive effects resulting from higher doses of nitrate or nitrite. The epidemiologic evidence of a direct exposure–response relationship between drinking water nitrate level and adverse reproductive effect is still not clear. However, some reports have suggested an association between exposure to nitrates in drinking water and spontaneous abortions, intrauterine growth restriction, and various birth defects. Uncertainties in epidemiologic studies include the lack of individual exposure assessment that would rule out confounding of the exposure with some other cause. Nitrates may be just one of the contaminants in drinking water contributing to adverse outcomes. We conclude that the current literature does not provide sufficient evidence of a causal relationship between exposure to nitrates in drinking water and adverse reproductive effects. Future studies incorporating individual exposure assessment about users of private wells—the population most at risk—should be considered. PMID:16507452

Manassaram, Deana M.; Backer, Lorraine C.; Moll, Deborah M.

2006-01-01

462

Developmental Toxicity of Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products to Embryos of the African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water chlorination is a standard treatment for ensuring the safety of public drinking water. One drawback to this beneficial practice is the generation of drinking water disinfection by-products (DWDB), some of which have been implicated as causing advers...

L. M. Brennan, M. W. Toussaint, D. M. Kumsher, W. E. Dennis, A. B. Rosencrance

2005-01-01

463

Emergency response planning to reduce the impact of contaminated drinking water during natural disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water systems. Prior to an event, utilities and municipalities can use "What if"? scenarios to develop emergency operation, response, and recovery plans designed to reduce the severity of damage and destruction. Government agencies including the EPA are planning ahead to provide temporary supplies of potable water and small drinking water treatment technologies to communities as an integral part of emergency response activities that will ensure clean and safe drinking water.

Patterson, Craig L.; Adams, Jeffrey Q.

2011-12-01

464

Arsenite Sorption by Drinking-Water Treatment Residuals: Redox Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic (As) is a major human carcinogen and could pose a serious human health risk at concentrations as low as 50 ppb in drinking water. Elevated As concentrations in soils currently used for residential purposes (located on former agricultural lands amended with arsenical pesticides) have increased the possibility of human contact with soil-As. Studies have shown that As bioavailability in the environment is primarily a function of its chemical speciation, which depends upon the redox potential. Arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity to living organisms is primarily due to exposure to the reduced species of As - arsenite, i.e., As(III), rather than the oxidized species - arsenate, i.e., As(V); the mobility of As(III) is much higher than As(V). One of the most promising methods to decrease the mobility of arsenite in the soil-water system is promoting its retention onto amorphous Fe/Al hydroxides. Drinking-Water Treatment Residuals (WTRs) are an inexpensive source of such Fe/Al hydroxides, which can be land-applied following the USEPA-regulated biosolids application rules. The WTRs are byproducts of drinking-water purification processes and generally contain sediment, organic carbon, and Al/Fe hydroxides. The hydroxides are typically amorphous and have tremendous affinity for oxyanions (e.g., arsenate). Preliminary work showed that WTRs are characterized by large internal surface area and porosity that partly explains their high affinity for As(V). The current study examines the potential of two WTRs (Fe-based and Al-based) to adsorb arsenite from solution. We hypothesize that As(III) adsorption onto the Fe-based WTR (whose stability is highly redox-sensitive) would be vastly different from the adsorption of As(III) onto the redox-insensitive Al-based WTR. Our main objective is to characterize As(III) sorption by both Fe- and Al-based WTRs by changing critical factors, such as the solid:solution ratio, contact time, and initial As(III) load. Results from this study are expected to identify the optimal conditions for As(III) sorption onto WTRs as a function of solution pH and redox potential. Potential desorption of the retained As will be assessed in batch studies using phosphate as the competing ligand.

Makris, K. C.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.

2005-05-01

465

World Health Organization Discontinues Its Drinking-Water Guideline for Manganese  

PubMed Central

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) released the fourth edition of Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality in July 2011. In this edition, the 400-µg/L drinking-water guideline for manganese (Mn) was discontinued with the assertion that because “this health-based value is well above concentrations of manganese normally found in drinking water, it is not considered necessary to derive a formal guideline value.” Objective: In this commentary, we review the WHO guideline for Mn in drinking water—from its introduction in 1958 through its discontinuation in 2011. Methods: For the primary references, we used the WHO publications that documented the Mn guidelines. We used peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, published conference proceedings, and theses to identify countries with drinking water or potential drinking-water supplies exceeding 400 µg/L Mn and peer-reviewed journal articles to summarize the health effects of Mn. Discussion: Drinking water or potential drinking-water supplies with Mn concentrations > 400 µg/L are found in a substantial number of countries worldwide. The drinking water of many tens of millions of people has Mn concentrations > 400 µg/L. Recent research on the health effects of Mn suggests that the earlier WHO guideline of 400 µg/L may have been too high to adequately protect public health. Conclusions: The toxic effects and geographic distribution of Mn in drinking-water supplies justify a reevaluation by the WHO of its decision to discontinue its drinking-water guideline for Mn. PMID:22334150

Frisbie, Seth H.; Mitchell, Erika J.; Dustin, Hannah; Maynard, Donald M.

2012-01-01

466

Elimination of cadmium trace contaminations from drinking water.  

PubMed

Raw waters polluted with trace heavy metals present serious problems to the part of the Chinese water supply. One of the important contaminants is cadmium. Removal of trace amounts of heavy metals can be achieved by means of selective sorption processes. One of the possibilities is the application of weak base anion exchangers. LEWIS-base/acid interactions lead to an exclusive sorption of heavy metal cations and an equivalent amount of anions of strong acids. The respective elimination of cadmium from pure solutions and spiked natural water and the regeneration of the exhausted exchanger has been investigated. The results demonstrate a very efficient elimination. The standards for drinking water are met for a very large relative volume of treated water. In addition, even a considerable share of dissolved organic matter is adsorbed. Regeneration requires a first step with sulfuric acid to remove the metals and a second one with sodium hydroxide to neutralize the exchanger and to displace the DOC adsorbed. The heavy metals can be concentrated in a small volume which facilitates the discharge of the waste. PMID:11848355

Zhao, Xuan; Höll, Wolfgang H; Yun, Guichun

2002-02-01

467

Association between drinking water disinfection and somatic parameters at birth.  

PubMed Central

We conducted an epidemiological study in Liguria, Italy, on the association between somatic parameters at birth and drinking water disinfection with chlorine dioxide and/or sodium hypochlorite. Over 2 years (1988-1989), 676 births at two public hospitals, one in Genoa (548 cases) and another in Chiavari (128 cases) were examined and data regarding both mother and child were obtained from hospital records. Results indicate a higher frequency of small body length (< or = 49.5 cm) and small cranial circumference (< or = 35 cm) in infants born to mothers who drank water treated with chlorine compounds. In particular, the statistical analysis (by simultaneous variance analysis and Scheffé test) indicated that there may be an association between infants with smaller body length and mothers who drank water treated with chlorine dioxide [adjusted odds radio (OR) = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.2-3.3] or sodium hypoclorite (adjusted OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3-4.2) and between infants with smaller cranial circumference and mothers who drank water treated with chlorine dioxide (adjusted OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.4-3.9) or sodium hypochlorite (adjusted OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 2.1-8.5). The presence of neonatal jaundice is almost twice as likely (adjusted OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.1-3.1) in infants whose mothers drank water treated with chlorine dioxide. Images Figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 3. PMID:8743439

Kanitz, S; Franco, Y; Patrone, V; Caltabellotta, M; Raffo, E; Riggi, C; Timitilli, D; Ravera, G

1996-01-01

468

Biofilm Interactions between Distinct Bacterial Genera Isolated from Drinking Water?  

PubMed Central

In the environment, multiple microorganisms coexist as communities, competing for resources and often associated as biofilms. In this study, single- and dual-species biofilm formation by, and specific activities of, six heterotrophic intergeneric bacteria were determined using 96-well polystyrene plates over a 72-h period. These bacteria were isolated from drinking water and identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A series of planktonic studies was also performed, assessing the bacterial growth rate, motility, and production of quorum-sensing inhibitors (QSI). This constituted an attempt to identify key attributes allowing bacteria to effectively interact and coexist in a drinking-water environment. We observed that in both pure and dual cultures, all of the isolates formed stable biofilms within 72 h, with specific metabolic activity decreasing, in most cases, with an increase in biofilm mass. The largest single- and dual-biofilm amounts were found for Methylobacterium sp. and the combination of Methylobacterium sp. and Mycobacterium mucogenicum, respectively. Evidences of microbial interactions in dual-biofilm formation, associated with appreciable biomass variation in comparison with single biofilms, were found for the following cases: synergy/cooperation between Sphingomonas capsulata and Burkholderia cepacia, S. capsulata and Staphylococcus sp., and B. cepacia and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and antagonism between S. capsulata and M. mucogenicum, S. capsulata and A. calcoaceticus, and M. mucogenicum and Staphylococcus sp. A neutral interaction was found for Methylobacterium sp.-M. mucogenicum, S. capsulata-Staphylococcus sp., M. mucogenicum-A. calcoaceticus, and Methylobacterium sp.-A. calcoaceticus biofilms, since the resultant dual biofilms had a mass and specific metabolic activity similar to the average for each single biofilm. B. cepacia had the highest growth rate and motility and produced QSI. Other bacteria producing QSI were Methylobacterium sp., S. capsulata, and Staphylococcus sp. However, only for S. capsulata-M. mucogenicum, S. capsulata-A. calcoaceticus, and M. mucogenicum-Staphylococcus sp., dual-biofilm formation seems to be regulated by the QSI produced by S. capsulata and Staphylococcus sp. and by the increased growth rate of S. capsulata. The parameters assessed by planktonic studies did not allow prediction and generalization of the exact mechanism regulating dual-species biofilm formation between the drinking-water bacteria. PMID:17675433

Simoes, Lucia Chaves; Simoes, Manuel; Vieira, Maria Joao

2007-01-01

469

Assessing the Risk of Mercury in Drinking Water after UV Lamp Breaks Page 1 Assessing the Risk of Mercury in Drinking Water after UV Lamp Breaks  

E-print Network

energy through temperature and pressure to drive the mercury into a vapor phase. Mercury is a heavy metal factors can emerge with the increased use of mercury vapor lamps (UV lamps) in drinking water treatment

470

Drugs of abuse and tranquilizers in Dutch surface waters, drinking water and wastewater: Results of screening monitoring 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the surface waters of the rivers Rhine and Meuse, twelve drugs that are listed in the Dutch Opium act were detected at low concentrations. They are from the groups amphetamines, tranquilizers (barbiturates and benzodiazepines) opiates and cocaine. During drinking water production, most compounds are removed or concentrations are substantially lowered. In finished drinking water, three barbiturates were still detected

Aa van der N. G. F. M; E. Dijkman; L. Bijlsma; E. Emke; Ven van de B. M; Nuijs van A. L. N; Voogt de P

2011-01-01

471

Reduction in cryptosporidiosis associated with introduction of enhanced filtration of drinking water at Loch Katrine, Scotland.  

PubMed

Previous evidence has suggested an association between cryptosporidiosis and consumption of unfiltered drinking water from Loch Katrine in Scotland. Before September 2007, the water was only micro-strained and chlorinated; however, since that time, coagulation and rapid gravity filtration have been installed. In order to determine risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis, including drinking water, we analysed data on microbiologically confirmed cases of cryptosporidiosis from 2004 to 2010. We identified an association between the incidence of cryptosporidiosis and unfiltered Loch Katrine drinking water supplied to the home (odds ratio 1.86, 95% confidence interval 1.11-3.11, P = 0.019). However, while filtration appears to be associated with initially reduced rates of cryptosporidiosis, evidence suggests it may paradoxically make those consumers more susceptible to other transmission routes in the long-term. These findings support implementation of similar treatment for other unfiltered drinking-water supplies, as a means of reducing cryptosporidiosis associated with drinking water. PMID:23591075

Pollock, K G J; Young, D; Robertson, C; Ahmed, S; Ramsay, C N

2014-01-01

472

Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt*  

PubMed Central

The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06×106 m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6×106 m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application. PMID:18357626

Geriesh, Mohamed H.; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E.

2008-01-01

473

Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt.  

PubMed

The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06x10(6) m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6x10(6) m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application. PMID:18357626

Geriesh, Mohamed H; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E

2008-03-01

474

Biofilm in water pipelines; a potential source for off-flavours in the drinking water.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are identified in natural biofilm established in plastic pipes used at the drinking water supply. Odour potent VOCs such as ectocarpene, dictyopterene A and C', geosmin, beta-ionone, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, menthol and menthone were prominent compounds in biofilm in the distribution network and at raw water test sites, and are associated with algae and cyanobacteria present in the raw water source. PMID:15237627

Skjevrak, I; Lund, V; Ormerod, K; Due, A; Herikstad, H

2004-01-01

475

Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and hormones in drinking water treated from surface waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of a wide variety of pharmaceuticals and hormones, in source and potable-water supplies of French drinking water\\u000a treatment plants, were assessed. In surface waters, 27 of the 51 target compounds were determined at least once. Paracetamol,\\u000a salicylic acid and carbamazepine were quantified in more than 80% of samples. The highest concentration of 71 ng\\/L was observed\\u000a for paracetamol. Twelve other substances

Emmanuelle Vulliet; Cécile Cren-Olivé; Marie-Florence Grenier-Loustalot

2011-01-01

476

Metagenomic Analyses of Drinking Water Receiving Different Disinfection Treatments  

PubMed Central

A metagenome-based approach was used to assess the taxonomic affiliation and function potential of microbial populations in free-chlorine-treated (CHL) and monochloramine-treated (CHM) drinking water (DW). In all, 362,640 (averaging 544 bp) and 155,593 (averaging 554 bp) pyrosequencing reads were analyzed for the CHL and CHM samples, respectively. Most annotated proteins were found to be of bacterial origin, although eukaryotic, archaeal, and viral proteins were also identified. Differences in community structure and function were noted. Most notably, Legionella-like genes were more abundant in the CHL samples while mycobacterial genes were more abundant in CHM samples. Genes associated with multiple disinfectant mechanisms were identified in both communities. Moreover, sequences linked to virulence factors, such as antibiotic resistance mechanisms, were observed in both microbial communities. This study provides new insights into the genetic network and potential biological processes associated with the molecular microbial ecology of DW microbial communities. PMID:22729545

Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Revetta, Randy P.

2012-01-01

477

Kinetics and mechanism of dimethoate chlorination during drinking water treatment.  

PubMed

Dimethoate (DMT), a commonly used organophosphorus pesticide, is of great concern because of its toxicity and potentially harmful effects on water sources. The elimination of DMT as well as the toxicity and persistence of the byproducts formed during DMT degradation is most important for the safety of drinking water. This study first determined the reaction kinetics of DMT with free chlorine (FC) under typical water treatment conditions. The reaction between DMT and FC proceeded rapidly, exhibiting first-order with respect to each reactant. The degradation of DMT by FC was highly pH dependent, and the pseudo-first-order rate constant decreased obviously from 0.13 to 0.02 s(-1) with an increase in pH from 7.0 to 8.3. Bromide ion accelerated the reaction by acting as a catalyst, and the accelerated reaction rate was linearly proportional to the bromide concentration. As a ubiquitous component in natural waters, humic acid also increased the reaction rate. However, the presence of ammonium inhibited the degradation of DMT due to its rapid converting FC to chloramines. Omethoate (OMT) was identified as an important byproduct of DMT chlorination, but only accounted for ca. 28% of the DMT degraded; and other two organic byproducts were also identified. The acute toxicity of DMT solution increased after treatment with FC due to the formation of more toxic byproducts (e.g. OMT). PMID:24377445

Tian, Fang; Liu, Wenjun; Guo, Guang; Qiang, Zhimin; Zhang, Can

2014-05-01

478

Impacts of Substituting Aluminum-Based Coagulants in Drinking Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum-based coagulants in drinking water treatment are widely used across Canada. According to the literature, the presence of aluminum in drinking water poses possible risks to humans. Preliminary studies investigating the use of alterna- tive coagulating agents such as iron-based coagulants, lanthanide salts and organic coagulants have already revealed that their implementation is possible, but require further studies concerning their

Patrick Niquette; Frédéric Monette; Abdelkrim Azzouz; Robert Hausler

2004-01-01

479

CHROMOSOME STUDIES ON HUMAN SUBJECTS EXPOSED TO ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A two-year study was carried out on human subjects of various ages and backgrounds who have been drinking water containing 0.05 mg/l (0.05 ppm) or more arsenic for a period of at least 5 years. A control group that had been exposed to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations l...

480

LACK OF EFFECT OF DRINKING WATER BARIUM ON CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Higher cardiovascular mortality has been associated in a single epidemiological study with higher levels of barium in drinking water. he purpose of this study was to determine whether drinking water barium at levels found in some U.S. communities alters the known risk factors for...

481

Role of epidemiologic studies in deriving drinking water standards for metals.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological investigations are shown to have contributed in a significant way to our understanding of the potential adverse health effects of drinking water with elevated levels of several metals. Particular emphasis is given to an assessment of the epidemiological investigations concerned with characterizing the health effects of exposure to elevated levels of arsenic and sodium in drinking water. PMID:6653543

Calabrese, E J

1983-01-01

482

Increased stray gas abundance in a subset of drinking water wells near Marcellus shale gas extraction  

E-print Network

Increased stray gas abundance in a subset of drinking water wells near Marcellus shale gas to shale gas extraction (4, 11, 13). Working in the Marcellus region of Pennsylvania, we published peer 141 drinking water wells across the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province of northeastern

Jackson, Robert B.

483

PHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER Drinking water boosts food intake rate, body mass increase  

E-print Network

PHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL PAPER Drinking water boosts food intake rate, body mass increase migratory flight in the autumn and has recently been determined to be constrained by availability in which we tested the hypotheses that drinking water increases food use by easing limitations on the birds

Nathan, Ran

484

Methods for the Determination of Chemical Contaminants in Drinking Water. Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual, intended for chemists and technicians with little or no experience in chemical procedures required to monitor drinking water, covers analytical methods for inorganic and organic chemical contaminants listed in the interim primary drinking water regulations. Topics include methods for heavy metals, nitrate, and organic…

Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

485

Outbreak of viral gastroenteritis due to sewage-contaminated drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 1998, a large outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in a Swiss village of 3500 inhabitants whereof more than 50% were affected. A high contamination of drinking water with faecal coliforms revealed a defect in the waste water system. The objective of the present study was to investigate the outbreak in respect of the presence of human pathogenic viruses. Drinking

D Häfliger; Ph Hübner; J Lüthy

2000-01-01

486

A Human Health Risk Assessment of Boron (Boric Acid and Borax) in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A human health risk assessment was conducted to derive an appropriate safe exposure level in drinking water of inorganic boron-containing compounds (boric acid and borax). Several regulatory agencies have set or plan to set drinking water guidelines or standards for boron (B). Recent publication of reproductive and developmental toxicity studies by the National Toxicology Program prompted this risk assessment, along

F. Jay Murray

1995-01-01

487

Case-Control Study of Bladder Cancer and Drinking Water Arsenic in the Western United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous epidemiologic investigations have identified links between high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water and cancer, although the risks at lower exposures are largely unknown. This paper presents the results of a case-control study of arsenic ingestion and bladder cancer in seven counties in the western United States. These counties contain the largest populations historically exposed to drinking water arsenic

Craig Steinmaus; Yan Yuan; Michael N. Bates; Allan H. Smith

488

Direct determination of free cyanide in drinking water by ion chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanide is a regulated contaminant in drinking water in the United States. This paper describes an ion chromatography method with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) that directly determines free cyanide in drinking water. Samples are treated with sodium hydroxide to stabilize cyanide and with a cation-exchange cartridge to remove transition metals. Cyanide is separated by anion-exchange chromatography and detected by PAD

Terri T. Christison; Jeffrey S. Rohrer

2007-01-01

489

Use of arsenic-73 in research supports USEPA's regulatory decisions on inorganic arsenic in drinking water*  

EPA Science Inventory

Inorganic arsenic is a natural contaminant of drinking water in the United States and throughout the world. Long term exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water at elevated levels (>100 ug/L) is associated with development of cancer in several organs, cardiovascular disease,...

490

75 FR 53267 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule; Extension of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA-HQ-OW-2008-0878; FRL-9195-5] RIN 2040-AD94 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform...by 30 days the public comment period for a proposed National Primary Drinking Water Regulation, the Revisions to the Total...

2010-08-31

491

Mass Spectrometry Identification of Toxicologically Important Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products  

EPA Science Inventory

The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the 20th century. Before its widespread use, millions of people died from waterborne diseases. Now, people in developed nations receive quality drinking water every day from their public wate...

492

ARSENIC IN DRINKINGARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: HEALTH EFFECTS ANDWATER: HEALTH EFFECTS AND  

E-print Network

ARSENIC IN DRINKINGARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: HEALTH EFFECTS ANDWATER: HEALTH EFFECTS AND CURRENT HealthUC Berkeley, School of Public Health #12;WORLDWIDE ARSENIC EXPOSURE #12;Why Should You Care? #12;EPA. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Arsenic and Clarification to Compliance and New

493

Lung and kidney cancer mortality associated with arsenic in drinking water in Córdoba Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Studies in Taiwan have found dose-response relations between arsenic ingestion from drinking water and cancers of the skin, bladder, lung, kidney and liver. To investigate these associations in another population, we conducted a study in Córdoba, Argentina, which has a well-documented history of arsenic exposure from drinking water. Methods Mortality from lung, kidney, liver and skin cancers during the

Claudia Hopenhayn-rich; Mary Lou Biggs; Allan H Smith

494

Arsenic in Drinking Water and Skin Lesions: Dose-Response Data from West Bengal, India  

E-print Network

Arsenic in Drinking Water and Skin Lesions: Dose-Response Data from West Bengal, India Reina Haque with naturally occurring arsenic. The key objective of this nested case-control study was to characterize the dose-re- sponse relation between low arsenic concentrations in drinking water and arsenic-induced skin

California at Berkeley, University of

495

APPROACHING THE TOXICITY OF DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER AS A MIXTURE PROBLEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Assessment of human health risk from exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water is of concern because of the wide spread exposure of persons who use disinfected water. Taken as a body of literature, epidemiologic studies on chlorinated drinking ...

496

The Environmental Protection Agency: What They do to Keep Your Drinking Water Safe  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA has been around for 35 years, but it was only in 1974 that they passed the Safe Drinking Water Act. The Act was amended several times in order to improve the minimum drinking water standards. These standards, which are in effect today, are constantly being evaluated and...

497

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR 1,2-DICHLOROPROPANE (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on 1,2-dichloropropane. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of 1,2-dichloropropane, Toxicoki...

498

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR HEPTACHLOR, HEPTACHLOR EPOXIDE AND CHLORDANE (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (WH-550), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on chlordane, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical pro...

499

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on 2,3,7,8-TCDD. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of 2,3,7,8-TCDD; Toxicokinetics and hu...

500

Drinking water turbidity and gastrointestinal illness in the elderly of Philadelphia  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVETo investigate the association between drinking water quality and gastrointestinal illness in the elderly of Philadelphia.DESIGNWithin the general population, children and the elderly are at highest risk for gastrointestinal disease. This study investigates the potential association between daily fluctuations in drinking water turbidity and subsequent hospital admissions for gastrointestinal illness of elderly persons, controlling for time trends, seasonal patterns,

Joel Schwartz; Ronnie Levin; Rebecca Goldstein

2000-01-01