Science.gov

Sample records for pce-contaminated drinking water

  1. Adult Neuropsychological Performance Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Vieira, Veronica; Aschengrau, Ann

    2012-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined adult performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results of crude and multivariate analyses among 35 exposed and 28 unexposed subjects showed no association between prenatal and early postnatal exposure and decrements on tests that assess abilities in the domains of omnibus intelligence, academic achievement or language. The results were suggestive of an association between prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure and diminished performance on tests that assessed abilities in the domains of visuospatial functioning, learning and memory, motor, attention and mood. Because the sample size was small, most findings were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to further define the neuropsychological consequences of early developmental PCE exposure. PMID:22522125

  2. Adult neuropsychological performance following prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Vieira, Veronica; Aschengrau, Ann

    2012-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined adult performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results of crude and multivariate analyses among 35 exposed and 28 unexposed subjects showed no association between prenatal and early postnatal exposure and decrements on tests that assess abilities in the domains of omnibus intelligence, academic achievement or language. The results were suggestive of an association between prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure and diminished performance on tests that assessed abilities in the domains of visuospatial functioning, learning and memory, motor, attention and mood. Because the sample size was small, most findings were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to further define the neuropsychological consequences of early developmental PCE exposure. PMID:22522125

  3. Affinity for risky behaviors following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many studies of adults with acute and chronic solvent exposure have shown adverse effects on cognition, behavior and mood. No prior study has investigated the long-term impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure to the solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE) on the affinity for risky behaviors, defined as smoking, drinking or drug use as a teen or adult. Objectives This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Methods Eight hundred and thirty-one subjects with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects were studied. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on risky behaviors as a teenager and young adult, demographic characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure was estimated using the U.S. EPA's water distribution system modeling software (EPANET) that was modified to incorporate a leaching and transport model to estimate PCE exposures from pipe linings. Results Individuals who were highly exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water during gestation and early childhood experienced 50-60% increases in the risk of using two or more major illicit drugs as a teenager or as an adult (Relative Risk (RR) for teen use = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2; and RR for adult use = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9). Specific drugs for which increased risks were observed included crack/cocaine, psychedelics/hallucinogens, club/designer drugs, Ritalin without a prescription, and heroin (RRs:1.4-2.1). Thirty to 60% increases in the risk of certain smoking and drinking behaviors were also seen among highly exposed subjects. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that risky behaviors, particularly drug use, are more frequent among adults with high PCE exposure levels during gestation and early childhood. These findings should be confirmed in follow-up investigations of other exposed populations. PMID:22136431

  4. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an Adult Cohort Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; Killiany, Ronald J; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Aschengrau, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and Geographic Information System (GIS) methodology. Brain imaging was performed on 26 exposed and 16 unexposed subjects. Scans were acquired on a Philips 3T whole body scanner using the ADNI T1-weighted MP-RAGE scan. The scans were processed by FreeSurfer version 4.3.1 software to obtain measurements of specific brain regions. There were no statistically significant differences between exposed and unexposed subjects on measures of white matter hypointensities (β: 127.5 mm3, 95% CI: −259.1, 1514.0), white matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral white matter: β: 21230.0 mm3, 95% CI: −4512.6, 46971.7) or gray matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral gray matter: β: 11976.0 mm3, 95% CI: −13657.2, 37609.3). The results of this study suggest that exposure to PCE during gestation and early childhood, at the levels observed in this population, is not associated with alterations in the brain structures studied. PMID:23571160

  5. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an adult cohort following prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; Killiany, Ronald J; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Aschengrau, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and Geographic Information System (GIS) methodology. Brain imaging was performed on 26 exposed and 16 unexposed subjects. Scans were acquired on a Philips 3T whole body scanner using the ADNI T1-weighted MP-RAGE scan. The scans were processed by FreeSurfer version 4.3.1 software to obtain measurements of specific brain regions. There were no statistically significant differences between exposed and unexposed subjects on the measures of white matter hypointensities (?: 127.5mm(3), 95% CI: -259.1, 1514.0), white matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral white matter: ?: 21230.0mm(3), 95% CI: -4512.6, 46971.7) or gray matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral gray matter: ?: 11976.0mm(3), 95% CI: -13657.2, 37609.3). The results of this study suggest that exposure to PCE during gestation and early childhood, at the levels observed in this population, is not associated with alterations in the brain structures studied. PMID:23571160

  6. Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It depends on the condition of the source water and the treatment it receives. Treatment ... annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came ...

  7. WATER, DRINKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary object of the microbiology of drinking water is to prevent waterborne disease. A drinking-water system can minimize waterborne disease by employing proper treatment and cntrol practices, and by monitoring the effectiveness of these practices. Here, these issues are ad...

  8. Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  9. [Drinking water].

    PubMed

    Dartois, A M; Casamitjana, F

    1991-01-01

    Water is essential for life. Thirst is a pressing need which always has to be satisfied. Infants need 3 times more water than adults if the requirements is calculated according to body weight. A correct balance in the sensory, physical, chemical and bacteriological qualities of water make it drinkable. Two laws have been passed recently concerning drinking water in France: one deals with water for human consumption (January 3 1989 decree), and the other deals with drinkable bottled mineral water (June 3 1989 decree). Tap water and bottled water are under strict vigilance. For babies under 4 months of age, it is better to use bottled water with a low mineral content (nitrates less than 15 mg/l). Hard water is safe; water softeners are useful only for hot water. Fluorination supplies of water is good for dental health at a concentration of 1 mg/l. Plastic bottles are as safe as glass ones. PMID:1662352

  10. Sodium in Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) and Regulatory Determination Share ... Drinking Water Standards Regulating Public Water Systems Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) and Regulatory Determination About ...

  11. AIRCRAFT DRINKING WATER RULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), any interstate carrier conveyance (ICC) that regularly serves drinking water to an average of at least 25 individuals daily, at least 60 days per year, is subject to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). An ICC is a car...

  12. Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene-Contaminated Drinking Water and the Risk of Pregnancy Loss

    PubMed Central

    Aschengrau, Ann; Weinberg, Janice M.; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Winter, Michael R.; Vieira, Veronica M.; Webster, Thomas F.; Ozonoff, David M.

    2010-01-01

    There is little information on the impact of solvent-contaminated drinking water on pregnancy outcomes. This retrospective cohort study examined whether maternal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE) - contaminated drinking water in the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts influenced the risk of clinically recognized pregnancy loss. The study identified exposed (n=959) and unexposed (1,087) women who completed a questionnaire on their residential and pregnancy histories, and confounding variables. Exposure was estimated using water distribution system modeling software. No meaningful associations were seen between PCE exposure level and the risk of clinically recognized pregnancy loss at the exposure levels experienced by the study population. Because PCE remains a common water contaminant, it is important to continue monitoring its impact on women and their pregnancies. PMID:20613966

  13. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also

  14. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  15. Safe drinking water act

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Gilbert, C.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers drinking water regulations such as disinfectant by-products, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, microbiological contaminants, volatile organic chemicals, radionuclides, fluoride, toxicological approaches to setting new national drinking water regulations, and trihalomethanes. Gives organic and inorganic compounds scheduled to be regulated in 1989 and candidates for the 1990s regulations.

  16. Drinking Water and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of

  17. Drinking Water FAQ

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your well Who should test your well Drinking Water FAQ Frequently Asked Questions General Where does my ... CDC's Private Wells page. Top of Page Public Water Systems What type of health issues can be ...

  18. Radon in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Cothern, R.; Rebers, P.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers most aspects of radionuclides in drinking water. The authors present occurrence, mechanisms resulting in human exposure, health effects, quantitative risk assessment, analytical chemistry methodology, treatment technology, and enforcement aspects. With new regulations for radionuclides in drinking water, this volume will be valuable for understanding where radionuclides come from, how their presence is determined, where humans come in contact with them, health effects consequences (both for individuals and communities), removal from water, disposal problems and cost implications.

  19. REGULATED CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water is critical to protecting human health. More than 260 million Americans rely on the safety of tap water provided by water systems that comply with national drinking water standards. EPA's strategy for ensuring safe drinking water includes four key elements, ...

  20. Water Fit to Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a

  1. DRINKING WATER ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to recent reports by the California Department of Health Services, the State of Maine, and the United State Geological Survey (USGS); the fuel oxygenate methyl teri-butyl ether (MTBE) is present in 5 to 20 percent of the drinking water sources in California and the nort...

  2. Water Fit to Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  3. DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conducted every 4 years, the Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey (DWINS) is an EPA-conducted statistically-based survey of the infrastructure investment needs of the Nation's drinking water systems for the next 20 years.

  4. Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Water Treatment Drinking Water FAQ Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... Submit" /> Healthy Water Home Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  5. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Water Treatment Drinking Water FAQ Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... Submit" /> Healthy Water Home Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  6. Ensuring safer drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, J. . Fluid Delivery and Electrical Markets); Higgins, P. )

    1994-09-01

    Today's regulatory environment has led to the proliferation of voluntary consensus standards and certification programs that are important to ensuring safety and health in a number of areas. One such area -- the treatment and delivery of potable water -- is addressed by the Drinking Water Additives Program.'' At the request of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this program was developed in the mid-1980s by an independent, voluntary consensus standards organization called NSF International (formerly known as the National Sanitation Foundation). This paper explains the need for and the structure of the Drinking Water Additives Program; the rationale for transferring responsibility for its execution from the EPA to the private sector; and the impact of its standards on users, manufacturers, and state and local regulatory bodies. Understanding the additives program is critically important to industry suppliers because, as it continues to gain greater awareness and acceptance, there are a growing number of manufacturers sourcing materials and products primarily from suppliers whose products meet the program's certification requirements.

  7. Lead in School Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    Lead levels in school drinking water merit special concern because children are more at risk than adults from exposure to lead. This manual provides ways in which school officials can minimize this risk. It assists administrators by providing: (1) general information on the significance of lead in school drinking water and its effects on children;…

  8. Drinking Water Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, ShaTerea R.

    2004-01-01

    This summer I had the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) under the Chemical Sampling and Analysis Team or CS&AT. This team s mission is to support Glenn Research Center (GRC) and EM0 by providing chemical sampling and analysis services and expert consulting. Services include sampling and chemical analysis of water, soil, fbels, oils, paint, insulation materials, etc. One of this team s major projects is the Drinking Water Project. This is a project that is done on Glenn s water coolers and ten percent of its sink every two years. For the past two summers an intern had been putting together a database for this team to record the test they had perform. She had successfully created a database but hadn't worked out all the quirks. So this summer William Wilder (an intern from Cleveland State University) and I worked together to perfect her database. We began be finding out exactly what every member of the team thought about the database and what they would change if any. After collecting this data we both had to take some courses in Microsoft Access in order to fix the problems. Next we began looking at what exactly how the database worked from the outside inward. Then we began trying to change the database but we quickly found out that this would be virtually impossible.

  9. Molecular Ecology of Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation consists of examples of molecular research: Detection and control (removal and/or inactivation) of microbes in drinking source waters Changing microbial quality of water during distribution and storage Detection and identification of microbial agents, incl...

  10. Drinking Water Contaminants -- Standards and Regulations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Drinking Water Contaminants – Standards and Regulations The Environmental Protection Agency ( ... states, tribes, and many other partners. Regulated Drinking Water Contaminants National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs) - table ...

  11. Drinking water and liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Cui-Cai; Chen, Yan-Hua; Zhang, Zhen-Quan

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To study the relationship between the mutagenicity of drinking water and incidence of liver cancer in high liver cancer incidence areas in Guangxi. METHODS: A relationship between the mutagenicity of drinking water and incidence of liver cancer was studied in Fusui County, a high liver cancer incidence area in China. Thirty-two samples of different kinds of drinking water (13 samples of pond water, 3 samples of well water near the ponds, 5 samples of well water, 6 samples of river water and 5 samples of tap water) were tested with a micronuclear technique in the root tips of Vicia faba. RESULTS: Among the 32 samples of different kinds of drinking water, 12 samples of pond water and 2 samples of well water near the ponds induced micronucleus frequencies on the root tips of Vicia faba to increase (P < 0.01), with the average micronucleus rate being 15.8% and 11.7%, respectively, while there was no difference between the micronucleus frequencies on the root tips of Vicia faba induced by well water (4.3%), river water (3.9%) or tap water (4.2%) and that on the control group (P > 0.05). Micronuclear effects on the root tips of Vicia faba in different kinds of drinking water were positively related to the incidence of liver cancer (r = 0.86, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: There were substances that caused chromosomal aberrations in the drinking pond water in high liver cancer incidence areas of Guangxi. Different kinds of drinking water were closely related to the incidence of liver cancer. Chemical mutagens in the water may be an important factor in the high incidence of human liver cancer. PMID:27006586

  12. Drinking Water (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home Water Pollution Drinking Water Print this Page Air Pollution Air ...

  13. DRINKING WATER AND CANCER MORTALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The problem of understanding the possible adverse health effects of organic chemical contaminants in drinking water is not new, but national concern has intensified in recent years. Despite this concern and regulatory efforts, no definitive relationship has been established betwe...

  14. EPA's Drinking Water Treatment Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research conducted since EPA inception Research conducted by several EPA organizations in Cincinnati ORD NRMRL NERL NCEA NHSRC OGWDW TSC WSD USEPA drinking water research facilities in Cincinnati Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center (AWBERC) Test and E...

  15. The risks of drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, Tony

    1984-04-01

    Three researchers from the Energy and Environmental Policy Center at Harvard University have come up with a new method of calculating the risk from contaminants in drinking water, one that they believe takes into account some of the uncertainties in pronouncing water safe or dangerous to drink. The new method concentrates on the risk of cancer, which authors Edmund Crouch, Richard Wilson, and Lauren Zeise believe has not been properly considered in establishing drinking water standards.Writing in the December 1983 issue of Water Resources Research, the authors state that “current [drinking water] standards for a given chemical or class of chemicals do not account for the presence of other pollutants” that could combine to create dangerous substances. According to Wilson, “Over a hundred industrial pollutants and chlorination byproducts have been found in various samples of drinking water, some of which are known carcinogens, others suspected carcinogens.” The same chlorine that solves one major health problem—the threat of bacterial disease—can thus contribute to another, according to the authors, by increasing the long-term risk of cancer. The largest risks are due to halomethanes such as chloroform and bromoform, produced as chlorine reacts with organic matter in drinking water.

  16. Risk-based economic decision analysis of remediation options at a PCE-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Lemming, Gitte; Friis-Hansen, Peter; Bjerg, Poul L

    2010-05-01

    Remediation methods for contaminated sites cover a wide range of technical solutions with different remedial efficiencies and costs. Additionally, they may vary in their secondary impacts on the environment i.e. the potential impacts generated due to emissions and resource use caused by the remediation activities. More attention is increasingly being given to these secondary environmental impacts when evaluating remediation options. This paper presents a methodology for an integrated economic decision analysis which combines assessments of remediation costs, health risk costs and potential environmental costs. The health risks costs are associated with the residual contamination left at the site and its migration to groundwater used for drinking water. A probabilistic exposure model using first- and second-order reliability methods (FORM/SORM) is used to estimate the contaminant concentrations at a downstream groundwater well. Potential environmental impacts on the local, regional and global scales due to the site remediation activities are evaluated using life cycle assessments (LCA). The potential impacts on health and environment are converted to monetary units using a simplified cost model. A case study based upon the developed methodology is presented in which the following remediation scenarios are analyzed and compared: (a) no action, (b) excavation and off-site treatment of soil, (c) soil vapor extraction and (d) thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction by electrical heating of the soil. Ultimately, the developed methodology facilitates societal cost estimations of remediation scenarios which can be used for internal ranking of the analyzed options. Despite the inherent uncertainties of placing a value on health and environmental impacts, the presented methodology is believed to be valuable in supporting decisions on remedial interventions. PMID:20117877

  17. Drinking water for the future.

    PubMed Central

    Okun, D A

    1976-01-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 represents an important step in improving the quality of public water supply in the United States. However, it fails to address two important problems: (1) The 1970 Public Health Service Community Water Supply Survey revealed that small public water supply systems often deliver poor quality water. The Act does not assure that these supplies will now receive appropriate attention; furthermore, the Act does not address the needs of the 50 million people not now served by public water systems; (2) About one-third of our population draws its drinking waters from polluted sources. The decisions to use these low cost sources were made generations ago when consumers could be protected from water-borne infectious disease. A new problem has now arisen--the presence of numerous synthetic organic chemicals of uncertain health consequence, not removed by conventional water treatment. The Act does not address this problem. Regionalization and the integration of water resource and water pollution control authorities are proposed as a reasonable solution to these problems. The development of dual water supply systems in order to conserve scarce pure water sources for human consumption appears to be a feasible way to avoid using polluted waters for drinking. The development of dual supplies would be enhanced by regionalization and integration of water authorities. PMID:937609

  18. DRINKING WATER MULTI-YEAR PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996 direct EPA to conduct research to strengthen the scientific foundation for standards that limit public exposure to drinking water contaminants. The Amendments contain specific requirements for research on waterborne pathogens, such a...

  19. Drinking water safely during cancer treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A guide to drinking water treatment technologies for household use. http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/travel/household_water_treatment.html. Accessed May 7, 2014.

  20. Drinking More Water May Help Your Diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157636.html Drinking More Water May Help Your Diet Sugar, salt and overall ... March 7, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Plain old tap water might be the best diet drink around, scientists ...

  1. DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of water treatment is threefold: 1. To improve the aethetic quality ofwater, 2. to remove toxic or health-hazardous chemicals, 3. to remove and/or inactivate any disease causing microorganisms. These objectives should be accomplished using a reasonable safety factor...

  2. THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Conference Paper)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

  3. THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Slides)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  9. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    SciTech Connect

    Manke, Kristin L.

    2007-08-01

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge youve just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water, said Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues.

  10. Naphthalene: Drinking water health advisory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its report on the chemical, naphthalene. Naphthalene is used in the manufacture of phthalic and anthranilic acids and other derivatives, and in making dyes; in the manufacture of resins, celluloid, lampblack and smokeless gunpowder; and as moth repellant, insecticide, anthelmintic, vermicide, and intestinal antiseptic. The report covers the following areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the environment; its environmental fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the human body; and its health effects on humans and animals, including its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. Also included is the quantification of its toxicological effects.

  11. Fungi contamination of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Al-Gabr, Hamid Mohammad; Zheng, Tianling; Yu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic fungi commonly infest various aqueous environments and play potentially crucial roles in nutrient and carbon cycling. Aquatic fungi also interact with other organisms to influence food web dynamics. In recent decades, numerous studies have been conducted to address the problem of microorganism contamination of water. The major concern has been potential effects on human health from exposure to certain bacteria, viruses, and protozoa that inhabit water and the microbial metabolites,pigments, and odors which are produced in the water, and their effects on human health and animals. Fungi are potentially important contaminants because they produce certain toxic metabolites that can cause severe health hazards to humans and animals. Despite the potential hazard posed by fungi, relatively few studies on them as contaminants have been reported for some countries.A wide variety of fungi species have been isolated from drinking water, and some of them are known to be strongly allergenic and to cause skin irritation, or immunosuppression in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant patients). Mycotoxins are naturally produced as secondary metabolites by some fungi species, and exposure of humans or animals to them can cause health problems. Such exposure is likely to occur from dietary intake of either food,water or beverages made with water. However, mycotoxins, as residues in water,may be aerosolized when showering or when being sprayed for various purposes and then be subject to inhalation. Mycotoxins, or at least some of them, are regarded to be carcinogenic. There is also some concern that toxic mycotoxins or other secondary metabolites of fungi could be used by terrorists as a biochemical weapon by adding amounts of them to drinking water or non drinking water. Therefore, actions to prevent mycotoxin contaminated water from affecting either humans or animals are important and are needed. Water treatment plants may serve to partially accomplish this, by first filtering the water and finally by adding disinfection treatments adequate to remove or mitigate fungi or their toxic metabolites. PMID:24162095

  12. Water Treatment: Can You Purify Water for Drinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)

  13. MINI PILOT PLANT FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Supply & Water Resources Division (WSWRD) has constructed 2 mini-pilot plant systems used to conduct drinking water research. These two systems each have 2 parallel trains for comparative research. The mini-pilot plants are small conventional drinking water treatment ...

  14. Chemical Contamination of California Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Hanafi H.; Jackson, Richard J.; Spath, David P.; Book, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Drinking water contamination by toxic chemicals has become widely recognized as a public health concern since the discovery of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in California's Central Valley in 1979. Increased monitoring since then has shown that other pesticides and industrial chemicals are present in drinking water. Contaminants of drinking water also include naturally occurring substances such as asbestos and even the by-products of water chlorination. Public water systems, commercially bottled and vended water and mineral water are regulated, and California is also taking measures to prevent water pollution by chemicals through various new laws and programs. PMID:3321714

  15. Ensuring the Public's Drinking-Water Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, James H.

    1978-01-01

    Some questions are answered concerning the justification, intent, and purpose of the Safe Drinking Water Act's regulations. Some points, previously misinterpreted, are placed in clear perspective. (BB)

  16. DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANT ADVISOR - USER DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) Advisor is a software application which has been designed to provide assistance in the evaluation of drinking water treatment plants. Specifically, this program, which is based on the source document Interim Handbook Optimizing Water Trea...

  17. EPAs Drinking Water Treatability Database: A Tool for All Drinking Water Professionals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) is being developed by the USEPA Office of Research and Development to allow drinking water professionals and others to access referenced information gathered from thousands of literature sources and assembled on one site. Currently, ...

  18. EPA’s Drinking Water Treatability Database: A Tool for All Drinking Water Professionals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) is being developed by the USEPA Office of Research and Development to allow drinking water professionals and others to access referenced information gathered from thousands of literature sources and assembled on one site. Currently, ...

  19. DISINFECTION OF WATER: DRINKING WATER, RECREATIONAL WATER, AND WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes and categorizes the methodology used for disinfection of drinking water, recreational water and wastewater including wastewater sludges. It largely is a literature summary and references articles covering the years of 1939 through 1999, with a few reference...

  20. The fluoride content of bottled drinking waters.

    PubMed

    Toumba, K J; Levy, S; Curzon, M E

    1994-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking waters in the United Kingdom have tripled over the last 5 years. The fluoride content of 12 bottled waters purchased from two Leeds supermarkets was determined by both the direct and acid diffusion methods and found to vary from 0.10-0.80 mg/l fluoride (ie ppm fluoride). This article shows that bottled drinking waters contain differing concentrations of fluoride. There is no apparent difference between the direct and acid diffusion methods for the determination of fluoride concentrations of drinking waters. The manufacturers' labelling of fluoride concentrations are mainly inaccurate. Dentists should be aware of the fluoride concentrations of the drinking water of their child patients, be they municipal or bottled drinking water, when prescribing fluoride supplements. Also, some parents are using bottled waters to prepare baby milk formulations which themselves may contain high levels of fluoride and subject their children to the risk of dental fluorosis. PMID:8186036

  1. ARSENIC COMPLIANCE DATABASE FOR DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:Section 1412(b)(12)(A) of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (42 U.S.C. ? 300f-300j), as amended in 1996, required EPA to propose a National Primary Drinking Water Regulation for arsenic by January 1, 2000, and to issue a final regulation by January 1, 20...

  2. Monitoring of Microbes in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Internationally there is a move towards managing the provision of safe drinking water by direct assessment of the performance of key pathogen barriers (critical control points), rather than end point testing (i.e. in drinking water). For fecal pathogens that breakthrough the vari...

  3. Drinking Water: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    While much of the drinking water in the United States is safe for consumption, protecting its quality and assuring its availability are becoming increasingly difficult. This booklet is written for individuals and groups who are concerned about the drinking water in their communities. It provides a general introduction to the complex issues of

  4. Drinking Water: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    While much of the drinking water in the United States is safe for consumption, protecting its quality and assuring its availability are becoming increasingly difficult. This booklet is written for individuals and groups who are concerned about the drinking water in their communities. It provides a general introduction to the complex issues of…

  5. DRINKING WATER ARSENIC AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking Water Arsenic and Perinatal Outcomes
    DT Lobdell, Z Ning, RK Kwok, JL Mumford, ZY Liu, P Mendola

    Many studies have documented an association between drinking water arsenic (DWA) and cancer, vascular diseases, and dermatological outcomes, but few have investigate...

  6. GENOTOXICITY STUDIES OF DRINKING WATER MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigations into the mutagenicity and mutational mechanisms of single chemicals within drinking water as well as of organic extracts of drinking water are being pursued using the Salmonella (Ames) mutagenicity assay as well as in human samples. For example, the semi-volatile ...

  7. OVERVIEW OF RADIONUCLIDES IN DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invited presentation at the 2007 National Rural Water Association National Conference, Philadelphia, PA, September 23-26, 2007. The presentation reviews the chemistry of radium and uranium in drinking water sources, treatment options, and guidelines for disposal. Presentation giv...

  8. THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS OF DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory



    A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distrib...

  9. Drinking Water Program 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, B.D.; Peterson-Wright, L.J.

    1993-08-01

    EG&G Idaho, Inc., initiated a monitoring program for drinking water in 1988 for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. EG&G Idaho structured this monitoring program to ensure that they exceeded the minimum regulatory requirements for monitoring drinking water. This program involves tracking the bacteriological, chemical, and radiological parameters that are required for a {open_quotes}community water system{close_quotes} (maximum requirements). This annual report describes the drinking water monitoring activities conducted at the 17 EG&G Idaho operated production wells and 11 distribution systems. It also contains all of the drinking water parameters that were detected and the regulatory limits that were exceeded during 1992. In addition, ground water quality is discussed as it relates to contaminants identified at the wellhead for EG&G Idaho production wells.

  10. Investigation of Drinking Water Quality in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water). The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO. PMID:23509472

  11. Investigation of drinking water quality in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water). The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO. PMID:23509472

  12. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  13. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  14. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  15. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  16. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  17. Within-day drinking water consumption patterns: Results from a drinking water consumption survey

    PubMed Central

    BARRAJ, LEILA; SCRAFFORD, CAROLYN; LANTZ, JENNIFER; DANIELS, CARRIE; MIHLAN, GARY

    2010-01-01

    Data currently available on drinking water intakes do not support dietary exposure estimates for contaminants that have acute effects lasting less than 24 h. Realistic exposure estimates for these types of contaminants in drinking water require detailed information on amounts and time of consumption for each drinking occasion during a day. A nationwide water consumption survey was conducted to address how often, when, and how much water is consumed at specific times during the day. The survey was conducted in two waves, to represent two seasons, and the survey instrument consisted of 7-day water consumption diaries. Data on total daily amounts consumed, number of drinking occasions per day, amounts consumed per drinking occasion, and intervals between drinking occasions show larger between-subjects variation than within-subject variation. Statistically significant associations were also observed between drinking water consumption patterns and participants ages and sex and geographical regions in which these participants live. The number of drinking occasions on a given day varied from 0 to 19, with the majority of respondents reporting 6 or less drinking occasions per day. The average interval between drinking occasions varied from 1 to 17 h, with 57% of the person-days reporting average intervals at least 3 h apart. The mean amount consumed per drinking occasion showed little association with the number of drinking occasions and fluctuated between 8 and 10 oz. To our knowledge, this survey is the only source of information on within-day patterns (i.e., when and how much) of drinking water consumption for a nationally representative sample of the US population. The detailed water consumption data from this survey can be used to support less than 24-h dietary exposure estimates for contaminants in drinking water. PMID:18478045

  18. Smart Water: Energy-Water Optimization in Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform – Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...

  19. Smart Water: Energy-Water Optimization in Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...

  20. Risk management for assuring safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hrudey, Steve E; Hrudey, Elizabeth J; Pollard, Simon J T

    2006-12-01

    Millions of people die every year around the world from diarrheal diseases much of which is caused by contaminated drinking water. By contrast, drinking water safety is largely taken for granted by many citizens of affluent nations. The ability to drink water that is delivered into households without fear of becoming ill may be one of the key defining characteristics of developed nations in relation to the majority of the world. Yet there is well-documented evidence that disease outbreaks remain a risk that could be better managed and prevented even in affluent nations. A detailed retrospective analysis of more than 70 case studies of disease outbreaks in 15 affluent nations over the past 30 years provides the basis for much of our discussion [Hrudey, S.E. and Hrudey, E.J. Safe Drinking Water--Lessons from Recent Outbreaks in Affluent Nations. London, UK: IWA Publishing; 2004.]. The insights provided can assist in developing a better understanding within the water industry of the causes of drinking water disease outbreaks, so that more effective preventive measures can be adopted by water systems that are vulnerable. This preventive feature lies at the core of risk management for the provision of safe drinking water. PMID:16839605

  1. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  2. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  3. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  4. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  5. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  6. THE FATE OF FLUOROSILICATE DRINKING WATER ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periodically, the EPA reexamines its information on regulated drinking water contaminants to deterime if further study is required. Fluoride is one such contaminant undergoing review. The chemical literature indicates that some deficiencies exist in our understanding of the spe...

  7. Drinking Water Plant Lecture-Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vestling, Martha M.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a simple way to demonstrate the principles involved in a drinking water plant. This demonstration developed for a general public lecture can be used in chemistry and biology courses for an ecological and environmental emphasis. (HM)

  8. TRIHALOMETHANES IN DRINKING WATER AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A limited number of epidemiological studies have evaluated the potential association between exposure to DBPs in drinking water and adverse reproductive outcomes. Reproductive effects that have been studied include, for example, spontaneous abortions, congenital defects, low birt...

  9. Drinking Water: Health Hazards Still Not Resolved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Nicholas

    1977-01-01

    Despite the suggested link between cancer deaths and drinking obtained from the Mississippi River, New Orleans still treats its water supply in the same manner as before the Environmental Defense Fund's epidemiological study. (BT)

  10. A WATERSHED APPROACH TO DRINKING WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe emerging technologies and strategies managing watersheds with the goal of protecting drinking water sources. Included are discussions on decentralized wastewater treatment, whole organism biomonitor detection systems, treatment of...

  11. ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a one-year study at Jefferson Parish, Louisiana the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects of using the major drinking water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. ests were performed on samples collected from various treatm...

  12. Sustaining Waters: From Hydrology to Drinking Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toch, S.

    2003-04-01

    Around the world, disastrous effects of floods and droughts are painful evidence of our continuing struggle between human resource demands and the sustainability of our hydrologic systems. Too much or too little rainfall is often deemed the culprit in these water crises, focussing on water "lacks and needs" instead of exploring the mechanisms of the hydrologic functions and processes that sustain us. Applicable to regions around the world, this unified approach is about our human and environmental qualities with user friendly concepts and how-to guides backed up by real life experiences. From the poorest parts of Africa to Urban France to the wealthest state in the USA, examples from surface to groundwater to marine environments demonstrate how the links between vulerable natural areas, and the basins that they support are integral to the availability, adequacy and accessibility of our drinking water. Watershed management can be an effective means for crisis intervention and pollution control. This project is geared as a reference for groups, individuals and agencies concerned with watershed management, a supplement for interdisciplinary high school through university curriculam, for professional development in technical and field assistance, and for community awareness in the trade-offs and consequences of resource decisions that affect hydrologic systems. This community-based project demonstrates how our human resource demands can be managed within ecological constraints. An inter-disciplinary process is developed that specifically assesses risk to human health from resource use practices, and explores the similarities and interations between our human needs and those of the ecosystems in which we all must live together. Disastrous conditions worldwide have triggered reactions in crisis relief rather than crisis prevention. Through a unified management approach to the preservation of water quality, the flows of water that connect all water users can serve as a basis for the maintenance and protection of our valuable watersheds.

  13. Drinking water quality monitoring using trend analysis.

    PubMed

    Tomperi, Jani; Juuso, Esko; Eteläniemi, Mira; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2014-06-01

    One of the common quality parameters for drinking water is residual aluminium. High doses of residual aluminium in drinking water or water used in the food industry have been proved to be at least a minor health risk or even to increase the risk of more serious health effects, and cause economic losses to the water treatment plant. In this study, the trend index is developed from scaled measurement data to detect a warning of changes in residual aluminium level in drinking water. The scaling is based on monotonously increasing, non-linear functions, which are generated with generalized norms and moments. Triangular episodes are classified with the trend index and its derivative. The severity of the situations is evaluated by deviation indices. The trend episodes and the deviation indices provide good tools for detecting changes in water quality and for process control. PMID:24937217

  14. INVESTIGATION OF 'LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA' IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    An investigation of Legionella pneumophila in drinking water systems and home plumbing appurtenances was done. In Phase 1, 68 water samples were collected from kitchen sink faucets in homes on 17 community water systems. No. L. pneumophila organisms were isolated. In Phase 1A, th...

  15. DETERIORATION OF DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A frequently overlooked fact, but one that is becoming of increasing concern, is the effect that the drinking water delivery system can have on the quality of water received at the tap. Deterioration of aging water supply systems can result in pipeline failures, pressure losses, ...

  16. REMOVAL OF RADIUM FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water...

  17. REMOVAL OF ALACHLOR FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alachlor (Lasso) is a pre-emergent herbicide used in the production of corn and soybeans. U.S. EPA has studied control of alachlor in drinking water treatment processes to define treatability before setting maximum contaminant levels and to assist water utilities in selecting con...

  18. MEMBRANES FOR REMOVING ORGANICS FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Membranes have historically been used to remove salts and other inorganic compounds from water but recently both bench-scale and field studies have shown their effectiveness for removing organic compounds from drinking water. wo different membrane types have been evaluated by the...

  19. ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance evaluations of laboratories testing for asbestos in drinking water according to USEPA Test Method 100.1 or 100.2 are complicated by the difficulty of providing stable sample dispersions of asbestos in water. Reference samples of a graduated series of chrysotile asbest...

  20. SAFE DRINKING WATER INFORMATION SYSTEM (STATE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The Safe Drinking Water Information System (STATE) (SDWIS/STATE) is an information system OGWDW is developing for states and EPA regions to manage their water industry. SDWIS/STATE is not an information system for which EPA HQ is using to store or retrie...

  1. EPAs Drinking Water Treatment Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riverbank filtration has been utilized for decades as a pretreatment for waters that will be used for drinking water. A study investigating the occurrence and potential for removal of suspected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during riverbank filtration at a municipal well...

  2. ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance evaluations of laboratories testing for asbestos in drinking water according to USEPA Test Method 100.1 or 100.2 are complicated by the difficulty of providing stable sample dispersions of asbestos in water. Reference samples of a graduated series of chrysotile asbes...

  3. Drinking water regulations under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The fact sheet describes the requirements covered under the 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Levels of various contaminants (including radio nuclides) are explained. Also discussed are the Surface Water Treatment Rule and the Total Coliforms Rule.

  4. Stability of florfenicol in drinking water.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Hayes JM; Eichman J; Katz T; Gilewicz R

    2003-01-01

    Florfenicol, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, is being developed for veterinary application as an oral concentrate intended for dilution with drinking water. When a drug product is dosed via drinking water in a farm setting, a number of variables, including pH, chlorine content, hardness of the water used for dilution, and container material, may affect its stability, leading to a decrease in drug potency. The stability of florfenicol after dilution of Florfenicol Drinking Water Concentrate Oral Solution, 23 mg/mL, with drinking water was studied. A stability-indicating, validated liquid chromatographic method was used to evaluate florfenicol stability at 25 degrees C at 5, 10, and 24 h after dilution. The results indicate that florfenicol is stable under a range of simulated field conditions, including various pipe materials and conditions of hard or soft and chlorinated or nonchlorinated water at low or high pH. Significant degradation (> 10%) was observed only for isolated combinations in galvanized pipes. Analysis indicated that the florfenicol concentration in 8 of the 12 water samples stored in galvanized pipes remained above 90% of the initial concentration (100 mg/L) for 24 h after dilution.

  5. Stability of florfenicol in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John M; Eichman, Jonathan; Katz, Terry; Gilewicz, Rosalia

    2003-01-01

    Florfenicol, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, is being developed for veterinary application as an oral concentrate intended for dilution with drinking water. When a drug product is dosed via drinking water in a farm setting, a number of variables, including pH, chlorine content, hardness of the water used for dilution, and container material, may affect its stability, leading to a decrease in drug potency. The stability of florfenicol after dilution of Florfenicol Drinking Water Concentrate Oral Solution, 23 mg/mL, with drinking water was studied. A stability-indicating, validated liquid chromatographic method was used to evaluate florfenicol stability at 25 degrees C at 5, 10, and 24 h after dilution. The results indicate that florfenicol is stable under a range of simulated field conditions, including various pipe materials and conditions of hard or soft and chlorinated or nonchlorinated water at low or high pH. Significant degradation (> 10%) was observed only for isolated combinations in galvanized pipes. Analysis indicated that the florfenicol concentration in 8 of the 12 water samples stored in galvanized pipes remained above 90% of the initial concentration (100 mg/L) for 24 h after dilution. PMID:12607736

  6. Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to find other sources of water by melting ice cubes or draining your hot water tank or pipes. You should not use water from toilet flush tanks or bowls, radiators, waterbeds, swimming pools, or spas. You can also use river or lake water. It is generally better to use flowing ...

  7. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in sanitary containers. Water systems and appurtenances thereto shall be constructed and maintained in accordance...

  8. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in sanitary containers. Water systems and appurtenances thereto shall be constructed and maintained in accordance...

  9. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in sanitary containers. Water systems and appurtenances thereto shall be constructed and maintained in accordance...

  10. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in sanitary containers. Water systems and appurtenances thereto shall be constructed and maintained in accordance...

  11. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in sanitary containers. Water systems and appurtenances thereto shall be constructed and maintained in accordance...

  12. Private drinking water quality in rural Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Knobeloch, Lynda; Gorski, Patrick; Christenson, Megan; Anderson, Henry

    2013-03-01

    Between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, Wisconsin health departments tested nearly 4,000 rural drinking water supplies for coliform bacteria, nitrate, fluoride, and 13 metals as part of a state-funded program that provides assistance to low-income families. The authors' review of laboratory findings found that 47% of these wells had an exceedance of one or more health-based water quality standards. Test results for iron and coliform bacteria exceeded safe limits in 21% and 18% of these wells, respectively. In addition, 10% of the water samples from these wells were high in nitrate and 11% had an elevated result for aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, or strontium. The high percentage of unsafe test results emphasizes the importance of water quality monitoring to the health of nearly one million families including 300,000 Wisconsin children whose drinking water comes from a privately owned well. PMID:23505770

  13. Climate change influence on drinking water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Melinda Haydee; Ristoiu, Dumitru; Voica, Cezara; Moldovan, Zaharie

    2013-11-01

    Although it are quite well known the possible effects of climate changes on surface waters availability and their hydrological risks, their consequences on drinking water quality is not well defined yet. Disinfection agents (as Cl2, O3, etc.) or multiple combinations of them for water treatment and disinfection purposes are applied by water treatment plants at worldwide level. Unfortunately, besides the benefits of these processes were also highlighted some undesirable effects such as formation of several disinfection by-products (DBPs) after reaction of disinfection agent with natural organic matter (NOM) from water body. DBPs formation in drinking water, suspected to posses adverse health effects to humans are strongly regulated in our days. Thus, throughout this study kinetics experiments both the main physicochemical factors that influencing the quality of drinking waters were evaluated as well how they act through possible warming or the consequences of extreme events. Increasing water temperatures with 1 - 5 °C above its normal value has showed that NOMs are presented in higher amount which led to the need for greater amount of disinfectant agent (5 - 15 %). Increasing the amount of disinfecting agent resulted in the formation of DBPs in significantly higher concentrations (between 5 - 30 %).

  14. Decision support system for drinking water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janža, M.

    2012-04-01

    The problems in drinking water management are complex and often solutions must be reached under strict time constrains. This is especially distinct in case of environmental accidents in the catchment areas of the wells that are used for drinking water supply. The beneficial tools that can help decision makers and make program of activities more efficient are decision support systems (DSS). In general they are defined as computer-based support systems that help decision makers utilize data and models to solve unstructured problems. The presented DSS was developed in the frame of INCOME project which is focused on the long-term stable and safe drinking water supply in Ljubljana. The two main water resources Ljubljana polje and Barje alluvial aquifers are characterized by a strong interconnection of surface and groundwater, high vulnerability, high velocities of groundwater flow and pollutant transport. In case of sudden pollution, reactions should be very fast to avoid serious impact to the water supply. In the area high pressures arising from urbanization, industry, traffic, agriculture and old environmental burdens. The aim of the developed DSS is to optimize the activities in cases of emergency water management and to optimize the administrative work regarding the activities that can improve groundwater quality status. The DSS is an interactive computer system that utilizes data base, hydrological modelling, and experts' and stakeholders' knowledge. It consists of three components, tackling the different abovementioned issues in water management. The first one utilizes the work on identification, cleaning up and restoration of illegal dumpsites that are a serious threat to the qualitative status of groundwater. The other two components utilize the predictive capability of the hydrological model and scenario analysis. The user interacts with the system by a graphical interface that guides the user step-by-step to the recommended remedial measures. Consequently, the acquisition of information to support the water management's decisions is simplified and faster, thus contributing to more efficient water management and a safer supply of drinking water.

  15. Drinking Water. The Food Guide Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Helen

    This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of drinking water. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and phrases helps early readers learn new words. The book…

  16. Compliance Monitoring of Drinking Water Supplies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haukebo, Thomas; Bernius, Jean

    1977-01-01

    The most frequent testing required under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 is for turbidity and coliform. Free chlorine residual testing can be substituted for part of the coliform requirement. Described are chemical procedures for performing this test. References are given. (Author/MA)

  17. DRINKING WATER FROM AGRICULTURALLY CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sharp increases in fertilizer and pesticide use throughout the 1960s and 1970s along with generally less attachment to soil particles may result in more widespread contamination of drinking water supplies. he purpose of this study was to highlight the use of agricultural chemical...

  18. DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR CHLORAMINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Critical to establishing a regulatory strategy for drinking water is identifying those contaminants which pose the greatest risk to human health and consequently, what treatments could be developed to address those risks and at what cost. The National Center for Environmental Ass...

  19. Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-?g/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  20. MUTAGENICITY OF DRINKING WATER FOLLOWING DISINFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many drinking water utilities in the USA are considering alternatives to chlorine for disinfection in order to comply with federal regulations regarding disinfection by-products. An evaluation is thus needed of the potential risks associated with the use of alternative disinfecta...

  1. Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article provides a concise and abbreviated summary of AWWA Manual of Practice M53, Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water, to serve as a quick point of reference. For convenience, the article’s organization matches that of M53, as follows: • wate...

  2. CONTROL OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    For over a century, the process of providing hygienically safe drinking water has focused on utilizing treatment processes to provide barriers to the passage of infectious disease-causing organisms to humans. This concept is often considered the cornerstone of sanitary engineerin...

  3. DRINKING WATER SUPPLY MANAGEMENT: AN INTERACTIVE APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In February 1977, a massive discharge of carbon tetrachloride into the Kanawha River in West Virginia threatened much of the Ohio River Valley with contaminated drinking water potentially affecting over one million consumers. The episode heightened the awareness of consumers and ...

  4. Lead in the School's Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    The purpose of this manual is to assist school officials by providing information on the effects of lead in school drinking water on children, how to detect the presence of lead, how to reduce the lead, and how to provide training for sampling and remedial programs. A protocol is provided for procedures to determine the location and source of lead…

  5. Treatment Strategies for Lead in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead pipes are capable of lasting hundreds of years. Conservatively, there are over 12 million, still serving drinking water in the US. Probably, this is a substantial underestimate. Leaded solder joining copper pipe abounds. Leaded brasses have dominated the materials used for...

  6. REMOVAL OF ORGANICS FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic contamination of drinking water is basically caused by two general classes of organics; man-made synthetic organics and disinfection of naturally occurring organics (disinfection by-products). Many volatile and non-volatile synthetic organics at trace concentrations are b...

  7. Drinking Water. The Food Guide Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Helen

    This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of drinking water. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and phrases helps early readers learn new words. The book

  8. UPTAKE OF URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The gastrointestinal absorption (G.I.) of uranium in man from drinking water was determined by measuring urinary and fecal excretion of 234U and 238U in eight subjects. In order to establish their normal backgrounds of uranium intake and excretion, the subjects collected 24 hour ...

  9. CHLORINE DIOXIDE FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to comply with the trihalomethane regulation, many drinking water utilities have had to alter their treatment methods. ne option available to these utilities is to use a disinfectant other than chlorine such as chlorine dioxide. ith chlorine dioxide disinfection, trihalo...

  10. TREATABILITY DATABASE FOR DRINKING WATER CHEMICALS (CCL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Treatability Data Base will assemble referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It will be an interactive data base, housed in an EPA, web-accessible site. It may be used for many purposes, including: identifying an effective treatment process or a se...

  11. Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-g/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  12. Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article provides a concise and abbreviated summary of AWWA Manual of Practice M53, Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water, to serve as a quick point of reference. For convenience, the articles organization matches that of M53, as follows: wate...

  13. Evaluating Nanoparticle Breakthrough during Drinking Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Huang, Haiou

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat. Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs—silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)—into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment. Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2–20%, 3–8%, and 48–99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1–45% for Ag, 0–44% for TiO2, and 36–83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0–2%, 0–4%, and 2–96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions. Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes. Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121:1161–1166; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306574 PMID:23933526

  14. OCCURRENCE AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY TESTING OF PARTICULATES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The analyses of over 2000 drinking water samples from many parts of the United States suggest that most water consumers do not drink water containing large numbers of elongated mineral particles which have lengths three times the diameter. Some drinking waters do contain high amo...

  15. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, J L; Shigeno, D S; Calomiris, J J; Seidler, R J

    1981-01-01

    We analyzed drinking water from seven communities for multiply antibiotic-resistant (MAR) bacteria (bacteria resistant to two or more antibiotics) and screened the MAR bacterial isolates obtained against five antibiotics by replica plating. Overall, 33.9% of 2,653 standard plate count bacteria from treated drinking waters were MAR. Two different raw water supplies for two communities carried MAR standard plate count bacteria at frequencies of 20.4 and 18.6%, whereas 36.7 and 67.8% of the standard plate count populations from sites within the respective distribution systems were MAR. Isolate identification revealed that MAR gram-positive cocci (Staphylococcus) and MAR gram-negative, nonfermentative rods (Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Moraxella-like group M, and Acinetobacter) were more common in drinking waters than in untreated source waters. Site-to-site variations in generic types and differences in the incidences of MAR organisms indicated that shedding of MAR bacteria living in pipelines may have contributed to the MAR populations in tap water. We conclude that the treatment of raw water and its subsequent distribution select for standard plate count bacteria exhibiting the MAR phenotype. PMID:7283426

  16. Physicochemical speciation of lead in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R M; Laxen, D P

    1980-08-21

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of drinking water as a route of human exposure to lead. Whilst there are ample data on lead concentrations in drinking water, little is known of its physical and chemical forms (physicochemical speciation). Such information is important as the speciation of ingested lead influences the efficiency of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. Knowledge of speciation should also provide a fuller understanding of the factors controlling the solubility of lead in potable waters and hence assist in devising the most cost-effective means of plumbosolvency control. We have determined experimentally the speciation of lead in three different tapwaters and report here diverse forms of dissolved and particle-associated lead, dependent primarily on the chemical matrix of the raw water. PMID:7402352

  17. A Drop to Drink. . .A Report on the Quality of Our Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Jack

    Basic information about the quality of our nation's drinking water is contained in this brochure. Written for the general public to familiarize them with the situation, it will also help them evaluate the state of the nation's drinking water as well as that of their own communities. The need to assure reliable sources of healthful drinking water…

  18. An Environmental Assessment of United States Drinking Water Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography a...

  19. ENDOTOXINS, ALGAE AND 'LIMULUS' AMOEBOCYTE LYSATE TEST IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the distribution of algae and bacteria, and investigate sources of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) in drinking water. The field survey was performed on five drinking water systems located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania ...

  20. Regulatory Considerations to Ensure Clean and Safe Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Federal drinking water regulations are based on risk assessment of human health effects and research conducted on source water, treatment technologies, residuals, and distribution systems. The book chapter summarizes the role that EPA research plays in ensuring pure drinking wat...

  1. RESPONDING TO THREATS AND INCIDENTS OF INTENTIONAL DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    All drinking water systems have some degree of vulnerability to contamination, and analysis shows that it is possible to contaminate drinking water at levels causing varying degrees of harm. Furthermore, experience indicates that the threat of contamination, overt or circumstant...

  2. DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to concerns over trihalomethanes (THMs) and other halogenated by-products that can be formed during chlorination of drinking water, alternative disinfectants are being explored. Several drinking water treatment plants in the United States have altered their treatment methods...

  3. EPA's Drinking Water Treatability Database and Treatment Cost Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA Drinking Water Treatability Database and Drinking Water Treatment Cost Models are valuable tools for determining the effectiveness and cost of treatment for contaminants of emerging concern. The models will be introduced, explained, and demonstrated.

  4. CHARACTERIZING TOXICOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to concerns over trihalomethanes (THMs) and other halogenated by-products that can be formed during chlorination of drinking water, alternative disinfectants are being explored. Several drinking water treatment plants in the United States have altered their treatment methods...

  5. Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  6. DRINKING WATER AND LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pneumonia outbreaks caused by Legionella species recently have been epidemiologically linked to potable water distribution systems in hospitals and hotels. Showerheads were confirmed as the immediate source of the Legionella in many of the outbreaks, however, the organism also wa...

  7. Improving Drinking Water Quality by Remineralisation.

    PubMed

    Luptkov, Anna; Derco, Jn

    2015-01-01

    The reason of low mineral content in source water is its origin in poorly soluble mineral geological structures. There are many areas with very soft low-mineralised water around the world. All people involved in drinking water treatment as well as some public health experts and producers of chemicals used for water treatment may be interested in the study. Enrichment of drinking water by minerals including calcium and magnesium is very important particularly in regions where drinking water is prepared by desalination. The aim of this work was to study and intensify the recarbonization process. Half-calcined dolomite in combination with carbon dioxide constitutes the chemistry of the applied method. Advantages of using a fluidised bed reactor contributed also significantly to the process efficiency enhancement. Continuous input of carbon dioxide into the fluidised bed recarbonization reactor resulted in an increase in the recarbonization rate by about one order of magnitude compared with the process in without carbon dioxide addition. Very good fit of experimental data for hydrodynamic characteristics of fluidised bed was obtained using simple model based on the Richardson and Zaki expansion equation. The first order model describes kinetic data from the recarbonization process with a good accuracy. Higher recarbonization rates were observed with smaller particles of half-calcined dolomite. PMID:26680713

  8. Drinking water health advisory for boron

    SciTech Connect

    Cantilli, R.

    1991-04-01

    The Health Advisory Program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Water, has issued its report on the element boron: included are the compounds boric acid and borax(sodium tetraborate). It provides information on the health effects, analytical methodology, and treatment technology that would be useful in dealing with the contamination of drinking water. Health Advisories (HAs) describe nonregulatory concentrations of drinking water contaminants at which adverse health effects would not be anticipated to occur over specific exposure durations. HAs serve as informal technical guidance to assist Federal, State, and local officials responsible for protecting public health when emergency spills or contamination situations occur. They are not legally enforceable Federal Standards and are subject to change as new information becomes available.

  9. SMALL DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are 159,796 Community Water Systems (CWSs) in the United States. Ninety-three percent of CWSs are considered very small to medium-sized systems that serve roughly 19% of the CWS population. In contrast, large to very large systems comprise just 7% of CWSs, but serve 81% of ...

  10. GLYPHOSATE REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activated-carbon, oxidation, conventional-treatment, filtration, and membrane studies are conducted to determine which process is best suited to remove the herbicide glyphosate from potable water. Both bench-scale and pilot-scale studies are completed. Computer models are used ...

  11. BOOK REVIEW OF "DRINKING WATER REGULATION AND HEALTH"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the enactment of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974, several amendments and other new regulations have been developed for drinking water. The book, "Drinking Water Regulation and Health", explains these regulations and provides background on why they were developed ...

  12. SAFE DRINKING WATER INFORMATION SYSTEM/FEDERAL COMPONENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) gives EPA the authority to regulate public drinking water supplies. Using its authority under law, EPA has set health-based standards for contaminants that may be found in drinking water. EPA regulates over 80 contaminant...

  13. 21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section... Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor. See § 510.600(c) of this chapter for identification of the sponsors... tolerances. See § 556.685 of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. It is used in drinking water as follows:...

  14. 21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section... Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor. See § 510.600(c) of this chapter for identification of the sponsors... tolerances. See § 556.685 of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. It is used in drinking water as follows:...

  15. 21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section... Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor. See § 510.600(c) of this chapter for identification of the sponsors... tolerances. See § 556.685 of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. It is used in drinking water as follows:...

  16. 21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section... Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor. See § 510.600(c) of this chapter for identification of the sponsors... tolerances. See § 556.685 of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. It is used in drinking water as follows:...

  17. Accuracy of bottled drinking water label content.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nazeer B; Chohan, Arham N

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of the concentration of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS) levels mentioned on the labels of the various brands of bottled drinking water available in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Twenty-one different brands of locally produced non-carbonated (still water) bottled drinking water were collected from the supermarkets of Riyadh. The concentration of F, Ca, TDS, and pH values were noted from the labels of the bottles. The samples were analyzed for concentrations in the laboratory using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean level of F, Ca, and pH were found as 0.86 ppm, 38.47 ppm, and 7.5, respectively, which were significantly higher than the mean concentration of these elements reported in the labels. Whereas, the mean TDS concentration was found 118.87 ppm, which was significantly lower than the mean reported on the labels. In tropical countries like Saudi Arabia, the appropriate level of F concentration in drinking water as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) should be 0.6-0.7 ppm. Since the level of F was found to be significantly higher than the WHO recommended level, the children exposed to this level could develop objectionable fluorosis. The other findings, like pH value, concentrations of Ca, and TDS, were in the range recommended by the WHO and Saudi standard limits and therefore should have no obvious significant health implications. PMID:19475483

  18. [Human exposure to trihalomethanes in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Tominaga, M Y; Midio, A F

    1999-08-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbon compounds, some of them recognized as carcinogenic to different animal species can be found in drinking water. Chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform are the most important trihalomethanes found in potable water. They are produced in natural waters during chlorinated desinfection by the halogenation of precursors, specially humic and fulvic compounds. The review, in the MEDLINE covers the period from 1974 to 1998, presents the general aspects of the formation of trihalomethanes, sources of human exposure and their toxicological meaning for exposed organisms: toxicokinetic disposition and spectrum of toxic effects (carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic). PMID:10542476

  19. TOXICITY OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is currently being considered as an alternate to chlorine as a disinfectant for public water supplies. Studies were conducted to determine the toxicity of ClO2 (0, 1, 10, 100, 1000 mg/L) and its metabolites, ClO2(-1) and ClO3(-1) (10, 100 mg/L) in drinking...

  20. Acidic deposition and cistern drinking water supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Olem, H.; Berthouex, P.M.

    1989-03-01

    The water quality characteristics, including the trace elements Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, in rainwater cistern supplies representing an area receiving acidic deposition were compared to cistern water chemistry in a control area that does not receive a significant input of acidic deposition. Mean volume-weighted pH for bulk deposition was two pH units higher and SO/sub 4/ was 50% lower in the control region. Rainwater was neutralized upon contact with cistern masonry in both regions, as indicated by a 1.5-unit increase in pH and an increase in calcium and alkalinity. While there seemed to be a clear difference in water quality for the two study region, any difference in trace metals was marginal. Metal concentrations were below current drinking water limits in all but a few samples. Cistern water that remained in the home plumbing system overnight exceeded the proposed drinking water standard of 5 ..mu..g/L for lead in 18 homes in the region receiving acidic deposition and 10 homes in the control region. No relation between metal concentrations and roofing material, plumbing materials, or water stability indices could be found.

  1. AIDS Action campaigns for drinking water safety.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    AIDS Action Council is sponsoring the Municipal Water Education Project, a program which functions to inform people about water safety and contaminants such as cryptosporidium. People with compromised immune systems are vulnerable to infection from the parasite cryptosporidium in the water supply. Currently, there is no effective treatment for the condition. On June 15, 1995, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published guidelines to inform people how to avoid infection with cryptosporidium. The Council publicly supports these guidelines about home filtration, boiling water, and bottled water. In addition, the Council is pushing for a stronger Safe Drinking Water Act, which will be up for reauthorization this year. PMID:11367402

  2. Protecting health from metal exposures in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    2016-03-01

    Drinking water is essential to us as human beings. According to the World Health Organization "The quality of drinking-water is a powerful environmental determinant of health" (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/en/), but clean drinking water is a precious commodity not always readily available. Surface and ground water are the major sources of drinking water. Both can be contaminated, surface water with bacteria while ground water frequently contains salts of metals that occur naturally or are introduced by human activity. This paper will briefly review the metallic salts found in drinking water in areas around the world, as well as list some of the methods used to reduce or remove them. It will then discuss our research on reducing the risk of pollution of drinking water by removal of metal ions from wastewater. PMID:26953706

  3. Removal of organics from drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Lykins, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    Organic contamination of drinking water is basically caused by two general classes of organics; man-made synthetic organics and disinfection of naturally occurring organics (disinfection by-products). Many volatile and non-volatile synthetic organics at trace concentrations are being detected in surface and ground waters. Contaminated ground water usually contains two or more predominant organic compounds and several other identifiable ones at lesser concentrations. Surface waters, such as rivers, generally contain many organic compounds in low concentrations. The document summarizes the treatment technologies that EPA's Drinking Water Research Division (DWRD) is evaluating for removal of VOCs, SOCs, and disinfection by-products from water supplies. Carbon adsorption is effective for removing both VOCs and SOCs. Packed-tower and diffused aeration are best suited for removing VOCs. Of the technologies that show promise and are being tested at the bench and pilot scales, conventional treatment with powdered activated carbon (PAC) is effective for removing a few of the SOCs, ozone oxidation is effective for removing certain classes of VOCs and SOCs, and certain reverse osmosis membranes and ultraviolet treatment are also potentially effective against VOCs and SOCs.

  4. Water, Water Everywhere, But is it Safe to Drink?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been associated with adverse human health effects, including bladder cancer, early term miscarriage, and birth defects. While it is vitally important to kill harmful pathogens in water, it is also important to minimize harmful ...

  5. [Quality standards and hygienic problems of bottled drinking-water].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Shu, Weiqun; Gao, Jingsheng

    2004-05-01

    The consumption of bottled drinking-water increases worldwide and relevant regulation for inspection and supervision work of bottled drinking-water were established in many countries. However, regulation mentioned above is lower than that for tap water. The hygienic problems of bottled drinking-water is emphasized, especially on microbial contamination. In this paper, some issues in regards were reviewed and discussed. PMID:15211822

  6. Safe drinking water: a public health challenge.

    PubMed

    Wigle, D T

    1998-01-01

    Disinfection of drinking water through processes including filtration and chlorination was one of the major achievements of public health, beginning in the late 1800s and the early 1900s. Chloroform and other chlorination disinfection by-products (CBPs) in drinking water were first reported in 1974. Chloroform and several other CBPs are known to cause cancer in experimental animals, and there is growing epidemiologic evidence of a causal role for CBPs in human cancer, particularly for bladder cancer. It has been estimated that 14 16% of bladder cancers in Ontario may be attributable to drinking water containing relatively high levels of CBPs; the US Environmental Protection Agency has estimated the attributable risk to be 2 17%. These estimates are based on the assumption that the associations observed between bladder cancer and CBP exposure reflect a cause-effect relation. An expert working group (see Workshop Report in this issue) concluded that it was possible (60% of the group) to probable (40% of the group) that CBPs pose a significant cancer risk, particularly of bladder cancer. The group concluded that the risk of bladder and possibly other types of cancer is a moderately important public health problem. There is an urgent need to resolve this and to consider actions based on the body of evidence which, at a minimum, suggests that lowering of CBP levels would prevent a significant fraction of bladder cancers. In fact, given the widespread and prolonged exposure to CBPs and the epidemiologic evidence of associations with several cancer sites, future research may establish CBPs as the most important environmental carcinogens in terms of the number of attributable cancers per year. PMID:9820833

  7. ATRAZOME CHLORINATION TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS UNDER DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorination is a commonly-used disinfectant step in drinking water treatment. Should free chlorine be added to water used as a drinking water source, it is widely understood that many biological species in the water, along with dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals, will rea...

  8. Contaminants in the Glacial Aquifer Drinking Water System

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Approximately one-sixth of the United States population, or 41 million people, relied on the glacial aquifer system for drinking water in 2005. However, untreated water from one in five drinking water wells in this aquifer, sampled as part of the USGS National Water Quality Assessment Program, excee...

  9. 30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided...

  10. 75 FR 48329 - Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... AGENCY Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Water Operator Certification Program, effective October 1, 2010. The program enables qualified drinking water operators at public water systems in Indian country to be recognized as certified operators by...

  11. 30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided...

  12. 30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided...

  13. Why Drinking Water Is the Way to Go

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Why Drinking Water Is the Way to Go KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Drinking Water Is the Way to Go Print A A ... have in common? Give up? You all need water. All living things must have water to survive, ...

  14. 30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided...

  15. 30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided...

  16. 75 FR 54871 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting... Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The.... Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Water Security Division (Mail...

  17. Lithium in Drinking Water and Thyroid Function

    PubMed Central

    Broberg, Karin; Concha, Gabriela; Engstrm, Karin; Lindvall, Magnus; Grandr, Margareta; Vahter, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Background High concentrations of lithium in drinking water were previously discovered in the Argentinean Andes Mountains. Lithium is used worldwide for treatment of bipolar disorder and treatment-resistant depression. One known side effect is altered thyroid function. Objectives We assessed associations between exposure to lithium from drinking water and other environmental sources and thyroid function. Methods Women (n = 202) were recruited in four Andean villages in northern Argentina. Lithium exposure was assessed based on concentrations in spot urine samples, measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Thyroid function was evaluated by plasma free thyroxine (T4) and pituitary gland thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), analyzed by routine immunometric methods. Results The median urinary lithium concentration was 3,910 ?g/L (5th, 95th percentiles, 270 ?g/L, 10,400 ?g/L). Median plasma concentrations (5th, 95th percentiles) of T4 and TSH were 17 pmol/L (13 pmol/L, 21 pmol/L) and 1.9 mIU/L, (0.68 mIU/L, 4.9 mIU/L), respectively. Urine lithium was inversely associated with T4 [? for a 1,000-?g/L increase = ?0.19; 95% confidence interval (CI), ?0.31 to ?0.068; p = 0.002] and positively associated with TSH (? = 0.096; 95% CI, 0.033 to 0.16; p = 0.003). Both associations persisted after adjustment (for T4, ? = ?0.17; 95% CI, ?0.32 to ?0.015; p = 0.032; for TSH: ? = 0.089; 95% CI, 0.024 to 0.15; p = 0.007). Urine selenium was positively associated with T4 (adjusted T4 for a 1 ?g/L increase: ? = 0.041; 95% CI, 0.012 to 0.071; p = 0.006). Conclusions Exposure to lithium via drinking water and other environmental sources may affect thyroid function, consistent with known side effects of medical treatment with lithium. This stresses the need to screen for lithium in all drinking water sources. PMID:21252007

  18. Genotoxicity of drinking water from Chao Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Q.; Jiao, Q.C.; Huang, X.M.; Jiang, J.P.; Cui, S.Q.; Yao, G.H.; Jiang, Z.R.; Zhao, H.K.; Wang, N.Y.

    1999-02-01

    Genotoxic activity appears to originate primarily from reactions of chlorine with humic substances in the source waters. Comparisons of extracts of settled versus chlorinated water have confirmed that chlorinating during water treatment produces mutagenic activity in the mutagenicity tests. Present work on XAD-2 extracts of raw, chlorinated (treated), and settled water from the Chao Lake region of China has involved a battery of mutagenicity assays for various genetic endpoints: the Salmonella test, the sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) induction in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells, and the micronucleus (MN) induction in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of silver carp. Extracts of raw and treated water but not the settled water are mutagenic in the Salmonella assay. On the other hand, extracts of three water samples show activity in the SCE and MN assays, especially the raw and treated water. These data show that contamination and chlorinating contribute mutagens to drinking water and suggest that the mammalian assays may be more sensitive for detecting mutagenicity in aquatic environment than the Salmonella test.

  19. Cancer risks from arsenic in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, A H; Hopenhayn-Rich, C; Bates, M N; Goeden, H M; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Duggan, H M; Wood, R; Kosnett, M J; Smith, M T

    1992-01-01

    Ingestion of arsenic, both from water supplies and medicinal preparations, is known to cause skin cancer. The evidence assessed here indicates that arsenic can also cause liver, lung, kidney, and bladder cancer and that the population cancer risks due to arsenic in U.S. water supplies may be comparable to those from environmental tobacco smoke and radon in homes. Large population studies in an area of Taiwan with high arsenic levels in well water (170-800 micrograms/L) were used to establish dose-response relationships between cancer risks and the concentration of inorganic arsenic naturally present in water supplies. It was estimated that at the current EPA standard of 50 micrograms/L, the lifetime risk of dying from cancer of the liver, lung, kidney, or bladder from drinking 1 L/day of water could be as high as 13 per 1000 persons. It has been estimated that more than 350,000 people in the United States may be supplied with water containing more than 50 micrograms/L arsenic, and more than 2.5 million people may be supplied with water with levels above 25 micrograms/L. For average arsenic levels and water consumption patterns in the United States, the risk estimate was around 1/1000. Although further research is needed to validate these findings, measures to reduce arsenic levels in water supplies should be considered. PMID:1396465

  20. Portable Nanomesh Creates Safer Drinking Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Providing astronauts with clean water is essential to space exploration to ensure the health and well-being of crewmembers away from Earth. For the sake of efficient and safe long-term space travel, NASA constantly seeks to improve the process of filtering and re-using wastewater in closed-loop systems. Because it would be impractical for astronauts to bring months (or years) worth of water with them, reducing the weight and space taken by water storage through recycling and filtering as much water as possible is crucial. Closed-loop systems using nanotechnology allow wastewater to be cleaned and reused while keeping to a minimum the amount of drinking water carried on missions. Current high-speed filtration methods usually require electricity, and methods without electricity usually prove impractical or slow. Known for their superior strength and electrical conductivity, carbon nanotubes measure only a few nanometers in diameter; a nanometer is one billionth of a meter, or roughly one hundred-thousandth the width of a human hair. Nanotubes have improved water filtration by eliminating the need for chemical treatments, significant pressure, and heavy water tanks, which makes the new technology especially appealing for applications where small, efficient, lightweight materials are required, whether on Earth or in space. "NASA will need small volume, effective water purification systems for future long-duration space flight," said Johnson Space Center s Karen Pickering. NASA advances in water filtration with nanotechnology are now also protecting human health in the most remote areas of Earth.

  1. [Heavy metals in water of drinking fountains].

    PubMed

    Segura-Muoz, Susana I; Trevilato, Tnia M; Takayanagui, Angela M; Hering, Sylvia E; Cupo, Palmira

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), aluminum (Al), zinc (Zn), cooper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) in the water of drinking fountains distributed in the Campus of the University of So Paulo. Ribeiro Preto, Brazil. Thirty random samples were collected in different parts of the Campus that were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. According to WHO's Drinking Water Guidelines; lead, cadmium and zinc were found in concentrations higher than those recommended in 40%, 20% and 13% of the samples, respectively. The results were analyzed considering nutritional and toxicological aspects related to the presence of essential and toxic elements for the human being. Reviewing the regulatory limits established in ten countries of America, authors focus in the necessity to find a consensus in the establishment of the higher levels of heavy metals in potable water. The tolerable daily intake, have to be the basis to assure the prevention of diseases associated with a long-term ingestion of these elements through foods. PMID:12942873

  2. Mycobacterium lentiflavum in Drinking Water Supplies, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Robyn; Torbey, Matthew J.; Minion, Sharri; Tolson, Carla; Sidjabat, Hanna E.; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan; Thomson, Rachel M.

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium lentiflavum, a slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacterium, is a rare cause of human disease. It has been isolated from environmental samples worldwide. To assess the clinical significance of M. lentiflavum isolates reported to the Queensland Tuberculosis Control Centre, Australia, during 20012008, we explored the genotypic similarity and geographic relationship between isolates from humans and potable water in the Brisbane metropolitan area. A total of 47 isolates from 36 patients were reported; 4 patients had clinically significant disease. M. lentiflavum was cultured from 13 of 206 drinking water sites. These sites overlapped geographically with home addresses of the patients who had clinically significant disease. Automated repetitive sequencebased PCR genotyping showed a dominant environmental clone closely related to clinical strains. This finding suggests potable water as a possible source of M. lentiflavum infection in humans. PMID:21392429

  3. DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN IOWA. 2. RADIOACTIVITY IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a logical epidemiologic exploration into possible associations between exposures to radium-226 in drinking water and incidence rates for cancers of the bladder, breast, colon, lung, prostate, and rectum. The most striking finding is the increasing gradient of ...

  4. Assessment of Drinking Water Quality from Bottled Water Coolers

    PubMed Central

    FARHADKHANI, Marzieh; NIKAEEN, Mahnaz; AKBARI ADERGANI, Behrouz; HATAMZADEH, Maryam; NABAVI, Bibi Fatemeh; HASSANZADEH, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Drinking water quality can be deteriorated by microbial and toxic chemicals during transport, storage and handling before using by the consumer. This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial and physicochemical quality of drinking water from bottled water coolers. Methods A total of 64 water samples, over a 5-month period in 2012-2013, were collected from free standing bottled water coolers and water taps in Isfahan. Water samples were analyzed for heterotrophic plate count (HPC), temperature, pH, residual chlorine, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC) and total organic carbon (TOC). Identification of predominant bacteria was also performed by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. Results The mean HPC of water coolers was determined at 38864 CFU/ml which exceeded the acceptable level for drinking water in 62% of analyzed samples. The HPC from the water coolers was also found to be significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of the tap waters. The statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the values of pH, EC, turbidity and TOC in water coolers and tap waters. According to sequence analysis eleven species of bacteria were identified. Conclusion A high HPC is indicative of microbial water quality deterioration in water coolers. The presence of some opportunistic pathogens in water coolers, furthermore, is a concern from a public health point of view. The results highlight the importance of a periodic disinfection procedure and monitoring system for water coolers in order to keep the level of microbial contamination under control. PMID:26060769

  5. Defluoridation of drinking water using adsorption processes.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kandasamy, Jaya; Naidu, Ravi

    2013-03-15

    Excessive intake of fluoride (F), mainly through drinking water, is a serious health hazard affecting humans worldwide. There are several methods used for the defluoridation of drinking water, of which adsorption processes are generally considered attractive because of their effectiveness, convenience, ease of operation, simplicity of design, and for economic and environmental reasons. In this paper, we present a comprehensive and a critical literature review on various adsorbents used for defluoridation, their relative effectiveness, mechanisms and thermodynamics of adsorption, and suggestions are made on choice of adsorbents for various circumstances. Effects of pH, temperature, kinetics and co-existing anions on F adsorption are also reviewed. Because the adsorption is very weak in extremely low or high pHs, depending on the adsorbent, acids or alkalis are used to desorb F and regenerate the adsorbents. However, adsorption capacity generally decreases with repeated use of the regenerated adsorbent. Future research needs to explore highly efficient, low cost adsorbents that can be easily regenerated for reuse over several cycles of operations without significant loss of adsorptive capacity and which have good hydraulic conductivity to prevent filter clogging during the fixed-bed treatment process. PMID:23352905

  6. Manganese deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Gerke, Tammie L; Little, Brenda J; Barry Maynard, J

    2016-01-15

    This study provides a physicochemical assessment of manganese deposits on brass and lead components from two fully operational drinking water distributions systems. One of the systems was maintained with chlorine; the other, with secondary chloramine disinfection. Synchrotron-based in-situ micro X-ray adsorption near edge structure was used to assess the mineralogy. In-situ micro X-ray fluorescence mapping was used to demonstrate the spatial relationships between manganese and potentially toxic adsorbed metal ions. The Mn deposits ranged in thickness from 0.01 to 400 μm. They were composed primarily of Mn oxides/oxhydroxides, birnessite (Mn(3+) and Mn(4+)) and hollandite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), and a Mn silicate, braunite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), in varying proportions. Iron, chromium, and strontium, in addition to the alloying elements lead and copper, were co-located within manganese deposits. With the exception of iron, all are related to specific health issues and are of concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The specific properties of Mn deposits, i.e., adsorption of metals ions, oxidation of metal ions and resuspension are discussed with respect to their influence on drinking water quality. PMID:26409148

  7. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  8. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  9. Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Tank, Jens; Robertson, Rose Marie; Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Water drinking increases blood pressure in a substantial proportion of patients who have severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. We tested the hypothesis that water drinking can be used as a practical treatment for patients with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, as well as those with orthostatic tachycardia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied the effect of drinking water on seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate in 11 patients who had severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure and in 9 patients who had orthostatic tachycardia due to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. We also tested the effect of water drinking on postprandial hypotension in 7 patients who had autonomic failure. Patients drank 480 mL of tap water at room temperature in less than 5 minutes. RESULTS: In patients with autonomic failure, mean (+/- SD) blood pressure after 1 minute of standing was 83 +/- 6/53 +/- 3.4 mm Hg at baseline, which increased to 114 +/- 30/66 +/- 18 mm Hg (P <0.01) 35 minutes after drinking. After a meal, blood pressure decreased by 43 +/- 36/20 +/- 13 mm Hg without water drinking, compared with 22 +/- 10/12 +/- 5 mm Hg with drinking (P <0.001). In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, water drinking attenuated orthostatic tachycardia (123 +/- 23 beats per minute) at baseline to 108 +/- 21 beats per minute after water drinking ( P <0.001). CONCLUSION: Water drinking elicits a rapid pressor response in patients with autonomic failure and can be used to treat orthostatic and postprandial hypotension. Water drinking moderately reduces orthostatic tachycardia in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. Thus, water drinking may serve as an adjunctive treatment in patients with impaired orthostatic tolerance.

  10. DETERMINATION OF NINE HALOACETIC ACIDS IN FINISHED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Whenever natural water or humic substances are chlorinated significant concentrations of haloacetic acids (HAAS) are produced. he presence of HAAs in drinking water are suspected to have an adverse health effect on humans. o control HAAs in drinking water, analytical techniques s...

  11. MODELING CONTAMINANT PROPAGATION IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments (SDWAA) will pose a massive challenge for the drinking-water industry in the United States. As the SDWAA regulations reach implementation, increasing effort will be devoted to understanding the factors causing deterioration of water ...

  12. The Next Generation of Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the 20th century. Millions of people worldwide receive quality drinking water every day from their public water systems. However, chemical disinfection has also produced an unintended healt...

  13. Visions of the Future in Drinking Water Microbiology.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water microbiology will have a tremendous impact on defining a safe drinking water in the future. There will be breakthroughs in realtime testing of process waters for pathogen surrogates with results made available within 1 hour for application to treatment adjustments ...

  14. Melioidosis Caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei in Drinking Water, Thailand, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Wongsuvan, Gumphol; Aanensen, David; Ngamwilai, Sujittra; Saiprom, Natnaree; Rongkard, Patpong; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Kanoksil, Manas; Chantratita, Narisara; Day, Nicholas P.J.; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2014-01-01

    We identified 10 patients in Thailand with culture-confirmed melioidosis who had Burkholderia pseudomallei isolated from their drinking water. The multilocus sequence type of B. pseudomallei from clinical specimens and water samples were identical for 2 patients. This finding suggests that drinking water is a preventable source of B. pseudomallei infection. PMID:24447771

  15. Disinfection By-Products: Formation and Occurrence in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the twentieth century. Millions of people worldwide receive quality drinking water every day from their public water systems. However, chemical disinfection has also produced an unintended he...

  16. The Safe Drinking Water Act First 180 Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Jay H.

    1975-01-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act protects our drinking and ground water resources. The Water Advisory Council interprets and implements the law. Implementation principles include high priorities for public health, cost considerations, state and local participation, environmental impact, decentralized decision making, and use of federal and state

  17. RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN DRINKING WATER TECHNOLOGY: A PROGRESS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments (SDWAA) have given EPA an aggressive standard setting agenda. The agenda, if carried out fully, will impact on water utilities in the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division (DWRD) is responsible for evaluating technologies for m...

  18. ADVANCES IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States drinking water public health protection goal is to provide water that meets all health-based standards to ninety-five percent of the population served by public drinking water supplies by 2005. In 2002, the level of compliance with some eighty-five health-based ...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  4. Drinking water denitrification using a membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ergas, Sarina J; Rheinheimer, David E

    2004-01-01

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated for denitrification of nitrate (NO3(-)) contaminated drinking water. In the MBR, NO3(-) contaminated water flows through the lumen of tubular microporous membranes and NO3(-) diffuses through the membrane pores. Denitrification takes place on the shell side of the membranes, creating a driving force for mass transfer. The microporous membranes provide a high NO3(-) permeability, while separating the treated water from the microbial process, reducing carryover of organic carbon and sloughed biomass to the product water. Specific objectives of this research were to develop a model for NO3(-) mass transfer in the MBR, investigate the effect of shell and lumen velocity on NO3(-) mass transfer and investigate the effects of NO3(-) and organic carbon loading on denitrification rate and product water quality. A mathematical model of NO3(-) mass transfer was developed, which fit abiotic mass transfer data well. Correlations of dimensionless parameters were found to underestimate the overall NO3(-) mass transfer coefficient by 30-45%. The MBR achieved over 99% NO3(-) removal at an influent concentration of 200 mg NO3(-)-NL(-1). The average NO3- flux to the biomass was 6.1g NO3(-)-Nm(-2)d(-1). Low effluent turbidity was achieved; however, approximately 8% of the added methanol partitioned into the product water. PMID:15276738

  5. Arsenic occurrence in New Hampshire drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, S.C.; Blum, J.D.; Klaue, B.; Karagas, M.R.

    1999-05-01

    Arsenic concentrations were measured in 992 drinking water samples collected from New Hampshire households using online hydride generation ICP-MS. These randomly selected household water samples contain much less arsenic than those voluntarily submitted for analysis to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES). Extrapolation of the voluntarily submitted sample set to all New Hampshire residents significantly overestimates arsenic exposure. In randomly selected households, concentrations ranged from <0.0003 to 180 {micro}g/L, with water from domestic wells containing significantly more arsenic than water from municipal sources. Water samples from drilled bedrock wells had the highest arsenic concentrations, while samples from surficial wells had the lowest arsenic concentrations. The authors suggest that much of the groundwater arsenic in New Hampshire is derived from weathering of bedrock materials and not from anthropogenic contamination. The spatial distribution of elevated arsenic concentrations correlates with Late-Devonian Concord-type granitic bedrock. Field observations in the region exhibiting the highest groundwater arsenic concentrations revealed abundant pegmatite dikes associated with nearby granites. Analysis of rock digests indicates arsenic concentrations up to 60 mg/kg in pegmatites, with much lower values in surrounding schists and granites. Weak acid leaches show that approximately half of the total arsenic in the pegmatites is labile and therefore can be mobilized during rock-water interaction.

  6. [Hydraulic fracturing - a hazard for drinking water?].

    PubMed

    Ewers, U; Gordalla, B; Frimmel, F

    2013-11-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is a technique used to release and promote the extraction of natural gas (including shale gas, tight gas, and coal bed methane) from deep natural gas deposits. Among the German public there is great concern with regard to the potential environmental impacts of fracking including the contamination of ground water, the most important source of drinking water in Germany. In the present article the risks of ground water contamination through fracking are discussed. Due to the present safety requirements and the obligatory geological and hydrogeological scrutiny of the underground, which has to be performed prior to fracking, the risk of ground water contamination by fracking can be regarded as very low. The toxicity of chemical additives of fracking fluids is discussed. It is recommended that in the future environmental impact assessment and approval of fracs should be performed by the mining authorities in close cooperation with the water authorities. Furthermore, it is recommended that hydraulic fracturing in the future should be accompanied by obligatory ground water monitoring. PMID:24285158

  7. TREATMENT OF DRINKING WATER CONTAINING TRICHLOROETHYLENE AND RELATED INDUSTRIAL SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volatile chlorinated and non-chlorinated compounds occur in both untreated and treated drinking water. Because volatilization is restricted, ground waters rather than surface waters are more likely to have high concentrations of these compounds. This document reviews properties, ...

  8. TREATMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volatile chlorinated and non-chlorinated compounds occur in both untreated and treated drinking water. Because volatilization is restricted, ground waters rather than surface waters are more likely to have high concentrations of these compounds. This document reviews properties, ...

  9. Fluoride concentration of bottled drinking waters.

    PubMed

    Ayo-Yusuf, O A; Kroon, J; Ayo-Yusuf, I J

    2001-06-01

    The use of bottled water and beverages may be a significant source of systemic fluoride and can therefore be considered as a risk factor for dental fluorosis in young children. The aim of this study was to determine the fluoride content of commercially available bottled drinking waters and to report on the accuracy of the labelling of fluoride concentration. Thirty brands of bottled water, classified as either spring (N = 19) or mineral (N = 11) water were evaluated. A fluoride ions-elective and a fluoride reference electrode were used to measure the fluoride concentrations. The average reading for each brand was compared with the fluoride content printed on the label. Only 56.7% (N = 17) of brands tested mention the fluoride concentration on the label, but 73.3% (N = 22) had a tested fluoride concentration of less than 0.3 ppm. Of the 8 brands testing higher than 0.3 ppm fluoride, 1 did not have the fluoride concentration labelled, while for another the tested fluoride concentration was much higher than the concentration printed on the label. When prescribing fluoride supplements, dentists should be aware of the fluoride content of bottled waters used by child patients, especially brands with a concentration higher than 0.3 ppm. PMID:11494801

  10. SELENIUM REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ION EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Strong-base anion exchangers were shown to remove selenate and selenite ions from drinking water. Because selenium species are usually present at low concentrations, the efficiency of removal is controlled by the concentration of the common drinking water anions, the most importa...

  11. NEUROXOTOXICITY PRODUCED BY DIBROMOACETIC ACID IN DRINKING WATER OF RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act requires that EPA consider noncancer endpoints for the assessment of adverse human health effects of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Dibromoacetic acid (DBA) is one of many DBPs produced by the chlorination of drinking water. Its chlorinated analog, ...

  12. DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR COPPER (FINAL DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on copper. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of copper; Toxicokinetics and human exposure...

  13. ACCUMULATION OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The tendency for iron solid surfaces to adsorb arsenic is well known and has become the basis for several drinking water treatment approaches that remove arsenic. It is reasonable to assume that iron-based solids, such as corrosion deposits present in drinking water distribution ...

  14. Reducing Lead in Drinking Water: A Manual for Minnesota's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul.

    This manual was designed to assist Minnesota's schools in minimizing the consumption of lead in drinking water by students and staff. It offers step-by-step instructions for testing and reducing lead in drinking water. The manual answers: Why is lead a health concern? How are children exposed to lead? Why is lead a special concern for schools? How…

  15. Reducing Lead in School Drinking Water: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odell, Lee

    1991-01-01

    The Seattle School District began a program in 1990 to identify lead levels in the district's drinking water and to implement measures to lower any high lead levels. Recounts each of the seven steps of the program, discusses what the district found, and explains how it lowered lead levels in the drinking water. (MLF)

  16. HEALTH EFFECTS OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO BARIUM IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this study was to examine by epidemiologic and supportive laboratory studies, the human health effects associated with ingestion of barium in drinking water exceeding the U.S. drinking water standard of 1.0 mg/l. The incidence of cardiovascular mortality ...

  17. 9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements..., and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.115 Food and drinking water... commerce must be offered food as often as necessary and appropriate for the species involved or...

  18. 9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements..., and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.115 Food and drinking water... commerce must be offered food as often as necessary and appropriate for the species involved or...

  19. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: CONTROL OF LEAD AND COPPER IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication presents subjects relating to the control of lead and copper in drinking water systems. t is of interest to system owners, operators, managers, and local decision makers, such as town officials, regarding drinking water treatment requirements and the treatment te...

  20. TREATMENT OF ARSENIC RESIDUALS FROM DRINKING WATER REMOVAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking water MCL was recently lowered from 0.05 mg/L to 0.01 mg/L. One concern was that reduction in the TCLP arsenic limit in response to the drinking water MCL could be problematic with regard to disposal of solid residuals generated at arsenic removal facilities. This pr...

  1. AFM Structural Characterization of Drinking Water Biofilm under Physiological Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to the complexity of mixed culture drinking water biofilm, direct visual observation under in situ conditions has been challenging. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the three dimensional morphology and arrangement of drinking water relevant biofilm in air...

  2. 21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section 520.2325a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS 520.2325a Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor. See...

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF NEW BROMINATED ACIDS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since chloroform was identified as the first disinfection by-product (DBP) in drinking water, there has been more than 25 years of research on DBPs. Despite these efforts, more than 50% of the total organic halide (TOX) formed in chlorinated drinking water remains unknown. Ther...

  4. GENOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The information summarized in this review provides substantial evidence for the widespread presence of genotoxins in drinking water. In many, if not most cases, the genotoxic activity can be directly attributed to the chlorination stage of drinking water treatment. The genotoxic ...

  5. DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR ETHYLBENZENE (FINAL DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on ethylbenzene. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of ethylbenzene; Toxicokinetics and hu...

  6. DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) (FINAL DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on PCBs. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of PCBs, Toxicokinetics and human exposure to P...

  7. DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN UTAH: A COHORT MORTALITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The association of drinking water arsenic and mortality outcome was investigated in a cohort of residents from Millard County, Utah. Median drinking water arsenic concentrations for selected study towns ranged from 14 to 166 ppb and were from public and private samples collected ...

  8. U.S. DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS: TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES AND COST.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments have imposed a large number of new regulations on the U.S. drinking water industry. A major set of regulations currently under consideration will control disinfectants and disinfection by-products. Included in the development of th...

  9. Removal of dibromochloropropane from drinking water: laboratory and field experiences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dibromochloropropane (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane or DBCP) is regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations to a maximum of 0.2 g/L (0.2 ppb) in drinking water. DBCP was primarily used as an unclassified nematicide for vegetables and per...

  10. Studies on Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, Colleen E.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water is disinfected with chemicals to remove pathogens, such as Giardia and Cryptosproridium, and prevent waterborne diseases such as cholera and typhoid. During disinfection, by-products are formed at trace concentrations. Because some of these by-products are suspected carcinogens, drinking water utilities must maintain the effectiveness of the disinfection process while minimizing the formation of by-products.

  11. Safety on Tap: A Citizen's Drinking Water Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, David Gray; Reichheld, Beth

    This citizen's guide to ensuring a safe supply of drinking water for all provides the information and analysis that individuals need to understand the issues and to participate in local decision making. The sources of drinking water, the types of human activities that results in contamination, and the contaminants that are of most concern are

  12. Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the 20th century. Before its widespread use, millions of people died from waterborne diseases. Now, people in developed nations receive quality drinking water every day from their public wa...

  13. EJ SMALL GRANT: SAFE DRINKING WATER FOR LOW INCOME COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Legal Aid Services of Oregon (LASO) has determined that both EPA Region 10 and the Oregon Health Division have identified regulatory defects in the Safe Drinking Water Act with respect to migrant farmworker drinking water sources. Lack of mandatory testing, lack of enforcement a...

  14. Schools Offering Drinking Water May Have Slightly Slimmer Students

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the result of kids choosing water over other drinks, such as milk or sugary sodas or juices they may bring ... easy, convenient access to cold water and they drink more of it," he added. ... and is certainly true when milk is chosen instead of soda. But this study ...

  15. 9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements..., and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards 3.115 Food and drinking water... commerce must be offered food as often as necessary and appropriate for the species involved or...

  16. Safety on Tap: A Citizen's Drinking Water Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, David Gray; Reichheld, Beth

    This citizen's guide to ensuring a safe supply of drinking water for all provides the information and analysis that individuals need to understand the issues and to participate in local decision making. The sources of drinking water, the types of human activities that results in contamination, and the contaminants that are of most concern are…

  17. RESEARCH AND GUIDANCE ON DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANT MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate assessment of potential human health risk(s) from multiple-route exposures to multiple chemicals in drinking water is needed because of widespread daily exposure to this complex mixture. Hundreds of chemicals have been identified in drinking water with the mix of chemic...

  18. U.S. DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS: TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES AND COST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA is responsible for implementing and enforcing the Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended in 1986. n carrying out its responsibility, the EPA promulgates regulations which are designed to control the quality of public drinking water. he 1986 Amendments have imposed a lar...

  19. Bilogical Treatment for Ammonia Oxidation in Drinking Water Facilities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonia is an unregulated compound, but is naturally occurring in many drinking water sources. It is also used by some treatment facilities to produce chloramines for disinfection purposes. Because ammonia is non-toxic, its presence in drinking water is often disregarded. Thro...

  20. ARSENIC IN WATER USED FOR DRINKING - AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In October 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a new federal standard for concentrations of arsenic found in drinking water. The new standard was to be 10 parts-per-million (ppm). This new standard will be required by the Safe Drinking Water Act in...

  1. 21 CFR 520.2240a - Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. 520.2240a Section 520.2240a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. (a) Chemical name. N′-(6-Ethoxy-3-pyridazinyl) sulfanilamide. (b)...

  2. 21 CFR 520.2240a - Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. 520.2240a Section 520.2240a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. (a) Chemical name. N′-(6-Ethoxy-3-pyridazinyl) sulfanilamide. (b)...

  3. 21 CFR 520.2240a - Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. 520.2240a Section 520.2240a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. (a) Chemical name. N′-(6-Ethoxy-3-pyridazinyl) sulfanilamide. (b)...

  4. 21 CFR 520.2240a - Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. 520.2240a Section 520.2240a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. (a) Chemical name. N′-(6-Ethoxy-3-pyridazinyl) sulfanilamide. (b)...

  5. APPLICATION OF USEPA'S DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS TOWARDS RAINWATER CATCHMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainwater harvesting is receiving increased attention worldwide as an alternative source of drinking water. Although federal agencies such as the USEPA acknowledge the existence of rainwater collection systems, the monitoring of this water source is still typically carried out b...

  6. OVERVIEW OF USEPA MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Microbial Contaminants Control Branch (MCCB) conducts research on microbiological problems related to drinking water treatment, distribution and storage, and has recently become involved in watershed and source water quality issues such as fecal indicator bacteria and fecal p...

  7. Arsenic in Drinking Water-A Global Environmental Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Joanna Shaofen; Wai, Chien M.

    2004-01-01

    Information on the worldwide occurrence of groundwater pollution by arsenic, the ensuing health hazards, and the debatable government regulations of arsenic in drinking water, is presented. Diagnostic identification of arsenic, and methods to eliminate it from water are also discussed.

  8. PROTOZOAN SOURCES OF SPONTANEOUS COLIFORM OCCURRENCE IN CHLORINATED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spontaneous occurrence of coliforms in chlorinated drinking waters has resulted in concern over their potential source and mechanism(s) of introduction into water delivery systems. Previous observations related to protozoal resistance to chlorine coupled with the ingestion of...

  9. 75 FR 61751 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council: Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council: Request for Nominations AGENCY: Environmental Protection... National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council). This 15-member Council was established by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to provide practical and independent advice, consultation and recommendations...

  10. Basic Information about E. Coli 0157:H7 in Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Drinking Water Contaminants Standards and Regulations The Environmental Protection Agency ( ... states, tribes, and many other partners. Regulated Drinking Water Contaminants National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs) - table ...

  11. Occurrence of uranium in Swiss drinking water.

    PubMed

    Stalder, E; Blanc, A; Haldimann, M; Dudler, V

    2012-02-01

    The results of a nationwide survey of uranium in Swiss drinking water are reported. Elevated concentrations of uranium in groundwater are found mainly in the alpine regions and can be traced back to the geology of the bedrock. Water sources were systematically surveyed and analysed for the presence of Li, B, Si, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Tl, Pb and U and the results were analysed to determine if any correlation with uranium concentration was apparent. No correlation was found. The results are interpreted in relation to the current WHO guideline and those of other countries with a view to determining which areas would be affected if a maximum value were to be adopted and which areas require further investigation. Uranium content varied considerably, from below the limit of detection to almost 100 ?g L(-1). Of the 5548 data samples, 98% are below the 2004 WHO provisional guideline value of 15 ?g L(-1) and 99.7% below the revised (2011) value of 30 ?g L(-1). PMID:22154002

  12. Public perception about drinking jar water and its bacteriological analysis.

    PubMed

    Subedi, M; Aryal, M

    2010-06-01

    The consumption of jar water has been increasing consistently in these days. To improve such water quality and supply, information is needed to assess water contamination in a variety of community, including those that rely primarily on unimproved distributed sources of drinking water. This study was done to assess the public perception on drinking jar water and assessment of drinking jar water distributed in Kathmandu Valley which was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Amrit Science Campus, Thamel, Kathmandu during the period of Aug 2009 to Dec 2009. A total 57 water samples of different drinking jar water having different brand names were proceed using standard protocols and analyzed for the presence of total coliforms and fecal coliforms. All identified fecal coliforms isolates from different water samples were subjected to in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility test by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. In order to know the perception of people in drinking jar water, semi structured questionnaires were made and purposively selected for the study in 525 populations who were using jar water for drinking purpose. Most population rated their drinking jar water good but found to be highly concerned with the quality. Among total water samples, 91.2% (n=52) were found contaminated with total coliforms and 59.6% were with fecal coliforms. During the study, 117 isolates of enteric bacteria were isolated, of which 33.3% (n=39) were Escherichia coli followed by other gram negative bacteria. Similarly, out of 58 fecal coliforms isolates, 43.1%, 39.6%, 12.2% were E. coli, Klebsiella spp, and Enterobacter aerogens. Of those fecal coliforms, all were sensitive to antibiotic ciprofloxacin and resistant to ampicilin. The finding indicates that jar water is not safe for drinking purpose without treatment. PMID:21222409

  13. 9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements. 3.115 Section 3.115 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE..., and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards 3.115 Food and drinking...

  14. 76 FR 72703 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council-Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ...Notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC or Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The Council will consider various issues associated with drinking water protection and public water systems including actions to assist small water systems and efforts underway to address nutrient pollution of drinking water supplies. The......

  15. An assessment of drinking-water quality post-Haiyan

    PubMed Central

    Anarna, Maria Sonabel; Fernando, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Access to safe drinking-water is one of the most important public health concerns in an emergency setting. This descriptive study reports on an assessment of water quality in drinking-water supply systems in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan immediately following and 10 months after the typhoon. Methods Water quality testing and risk assessments of the drinking-water systems were conducted three weeks and 10 months post-Haiyan. Portable test kits were used to determine the presence of Escherichia coli and the level of residual chlorine in water samples. The level of risk was fed back to the water operators for their action. Results Of the 121 water samples collected three weeks post-Haiyan, 44% were contaminated, while 65% (244/373) of samples were found positive for E. coli 10 months post-Haiyan. For the three components of drinking-water systems – source, storage and distribution – the proportions of contaminated systems were 70%, 67% and 57%, respectively, 10 months after Haiyan. Discussion Vulnerability to faecal contamination was attributed to weak water safety programmes in the drinking-water supply systems. Poor water quality can be prevented or reduced by developing and implementing a water safety plan for the systems. This, in turn, will help prevent waterborne disease outbreaks caused by contaminated water post-disaster. PMID:26767136

  16. Diversity and significance of mold species in Norwegian drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hageskal, Gunhild; Knutsen, Ann Kristin; Gaustad, Peter; de Hoog, G Sybren; Skaar, Ida

    2006-12-01

    In order to determine the occurrence, distribution, and significance of mold species in groundwater- and surface water-derived drinking water in Norway, molds isolated from 273 water samples were identified. Samples of raw water, treated water, and water from private homes and hospital installations were analyzed by incubation of 100-ml membrane-filtered samples on dichloran-18% glycerol agar. The total count (number of CFU per 100 ml) of fungal species and the species diversity within each sample were determined. The identification of mold species was based on morphological and molecular methods. In total, 94 mold species belonging to 30 genera were identified. The mycobiota was dominated by species of Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Aspergillus, with some of them occurring throughout the drinking water system. Several of the same species as isolated from water may have the potential to cause allergic reactions or disease in humans. Other species are common contaminants of food and beverages, and some may cause unwanted changes in the taste or smell of water. The present results indicate that the mycobiota of water should be considered when the microbiological safety and quality of drinking water are assessed. In fact, molds in drinking water should possibly be included in the Norwegian water supply and drinking water regulations. PMID:17028226

  17. The psychology of drinking water quality: An exploratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syme, Geoffrey J.; Williams, Katrina D.

    1993-12-01

    Perceptions of drinking water quality were measured for residents at four locations in Western Australia. The total dissolved solid levels for the locations varied. Four scales of drinking water satisfaction were measured: acceptability of water quality; water quality risk judgment; perception of neighborhood water quality; and attitudes toward fluoride as an additive. Responses to each of these scales did not appear to be highly related to total dissolved solids. The relationship between attitudes toward water quality and a variety of psychological, attitudinal, experiential, and demographic variables was investigated. It was found that responses to the acceptability of water quality and water quality risk judgment scales related to perceived credibility of societal institutions and feelings of control over water quality and environmental problems. For the remaining two scales few significant correlations were found. The results support those who advocate localized information and involvement campaigns on drinking water quality issues.

  18. Infantile methemoglobinemia: reexamining the role of drinking water nitrates.

    PubMed Central

    Avery, A A

    1999-01-01

    Ingestion of nitrates in drinking water has long been thought to be a primary cause of acquired infantile methemoglobinemia, often called blue baby syndrome. However, recent research and a review of historical cases offer a more complex picture of the causes of infantile methemoglobinemia. Gastrointestinal infection and inflammation and the ensuing overproduction of nitric oxide may be the cause of many cases of infantile methemoglobinemia previously attributed to drinking water nitrates. If so, current limits on allowable levels of nitrates in drinking water, which are based solely on the health threat of infantile methemoglobinemia, may be unnecessarily strict. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10379005

  19. Time to revisit arsenic regulations: comparing drinking water and rice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Current arsenic regulations focus on drinking water without due consideration for dietary uptake and thus seem incoherent with respect to the risks arising from rice consumption. Existing arsenic guidelines are a cost-benefit compromise and, as such, they should be periodically re-evaluated. Discussion Literature data was used to compare arsenic exposure from rice consumption relative to exposure arising from drinking water. Standard risk assessment paradigms show that arsenic regulations for drinking water should target a maximum concentration of nearly zero to prevent excessive lung and bladder cancer risks (among others). A feasibility threshold of 3 μg As l-1 was determined, but a cost-benefit analysis concluded that it would be too expensive to target a threshold below 10 μg As l-1. Data from the literature was used to compare exposure to arsenic from rice and rice product consumption relative to drinking water consumption. The exposure to arsenic from rice consumption can easily be equivalent to or greater than drinking water exposure that already exceeds standard risks and is based on feasibility and cost-benefit compromises. It must also be emphasized that many may disagree with the implications for their own health given the abnormally high cancer odds expected at the cost-benefit arsenic threshold. Summary Tighter drinking water quality criteria should be implemented to properly protect people from excessive cancer risks. Food safety regulations must be put in place to prevent higher concentrations of arsenic in various drinks than those allowed in drinking water. Arsenic concentrations in rice should be regulated so as to roughly equate the risks and exposure levels observed from drinking water. PMID:24884827

  20. Organochlorine pesticides residues in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Daz, Gilberto; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Vega, Salvador; Gutirrez, Rey

    2009-06-01

    This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers, heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p'-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization. The concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides were within drinking water standards (0.01 ng/mL) except for beta-HCH of BW 3, 5, and 6 samples with values of 0.121, 0.136, and 0.192 ng/mL, respectively. It is important monitoring drinking bottled water for protecting human health. PMID:19294327

  1. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order to maintain good drinking water microbial quality up to consumer’s tap. A new definition and methodological approach for biological stability is proposed. PMID:26870010

  2. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Prest, Emmanuelle I; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order to maintain good drinking water microbial quality up to consumer's tap. A new definition and methodological approach for biological stability is proposed. PMID:26870010

  3. Safe and Affordable Drinking Water for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2008-09-01

    Safe drinking water remains inaccessible for about 1.2 billion people in the world, and the hourly toll from biological contamination of drinking water is 200 deaths mostly among children under five years of age. This chapter summarizes the need for safe drinking water, the scale of the global problem, and various methods tried to address it. Then it gives the history and current status of an innovation ("UV Waterworks™") developed to address this major public health challenge. It reviews water disinfection technologies applicable to achieve the desired quality of drinking water in developing countries, and specifically, the limitations overcome by one particular invention: UV Waterworks. It then briefly describes the business model and financing option than is accelerating its implementation for affordable access to safe drinking water to the unserved populations in these countries. Thus this chapter describes not only the innovation in design of a UV water disinfection system, but also innovation in the delivery model for safe drinking water, with potential for long term growth and sustainability.

  4. The U.S. Geological Survey Drinking Water Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1997-01-01

    Safe drinking-water supplies are critical to maintaining and preserving public health. Although the Nation's drinking water is generally safe, natural and introduced contaminants in water supplies throughout the country have adversely affected human health. This new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiative will provide information on the vulnerability of water supplies to be used by water-supply and regulatory agencies who must balance water-supply protection with the wise use of public funds. Using the results of the initiative, they will be better able to focus on the supplies most at risk and the variability of contaminants of most concern, and so address the mandates of the Safe Drinking Water Act. With its store of geologic, hydrologic, and land use and land cover data and its network of information in every State, the USGS can help to identify potential sources of contamination, delineate source areas, determine the vulnerability of waters to potential contamination, and evaluate strategies being used to protect source waters in light of the scientific information available. Many recent and ongoing studies by the USGS concern drinking-water issues. This fact sheet highlights four particular studies begun under the Drinking Water Initiative.

  5. Communicating Research to Small Drinking Water Systems: Dissemination by Researchers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk discusses the challenges of disseminating research relevant to small systems. The presentation discusses efforts by the U.S. EPAs Office of Research and Development to effectively communicating drinking water information. In particular, communication approaches ...

  6. PATHOGENS IN DRINKING WATER - ARE THERE ANY NEW ONES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1976 three newly recognized human pathogens have become familiar to the drinking water industry as waterborne disease agents. hese are: the legionnaires disease agent, Legionella pneumophila and related species; and two protozoan pathogens, Giardia lamblia and Cryfltosoprid...

  7. Monochloramine Cometabolism by Nitrosomonas europaea under Drinking Water Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chloramine use is widespread in United States drinking water systems as a secondary disinfectant. While beneficial from the perspective of controlling disinfectant by-product formation, chloramination may promote the growth of nitrifying bacteria because ammonia is present. At ...

  8. INTERACTIONS OF SILICA PARTICLES IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Identifier: U915331
    Title: Interactions of Silica Particles in Drinking Water Treatment Processes
    Fellow (Principal Investigator): Christina L. Clarkson
    Institution: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
    EPA GRANT R...

  9. Overview of EPA Research on Drinking Water Distribution System Nitrification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results from USEPA research investigating drinking water distribution system nitrification will be presented. The two research areas include: (1) monochloramine disinfection kinetics of Nitrosomonas europaea using Propidium Monoazide Quantitative Real-time PCR (PMA-qPCR) and (2...

  10. EPA Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    In its FY2010 Appropriations Committee Conference Report, Congress directed EPA to study the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using: Best available science Independent sources of information Transparent, peer-reviewed process Consultatio...

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF NEW DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to concern over the potential adverse health effects of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfectants are being explored. Ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are popular alternatives, as they produce low...

  12. REDUCING ARSENIC LEVELS IN DRINKING WATER DURING IRON REMOVAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides an overview of iron removal technology for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. The presentation is divided into several topic topics: Arsenic Chemistry, Treatment Selection, Treatment Options, Case Studies and Iron Removal Processes. Each topic i...

  13. Biological Treatment of Drinking Water: Applications, Advantages and Disadvantages

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fundamentals of biological treatment are presented to an audience of state drinking water regulators. The presentation covers definitions, applications, the basics of bacterial metabolism, a discussion of treatment options, and the impact that implementation of these options...

  14. Impact of Plumbing Age on Copper Levels in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Theory and limited practical experiences suggest that higher copper levels in drinking water tap samples are typically associated with newer plumbing systems, and levels decrease with increasing plumbing age. Past researchers have developed a conceptual model to explain the agin...

  15. Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Technologies Topics include: Introduction to Rad Chemistry, Summary of the Rad, Regulations Treatment Technology, and Disposal. The introductions cover atoms, ions, radium and uranium and the removal of radioac...

  16. Impact of disinfection on drinking water biofilm bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Mi, Zilong; Dai, Yu; Xie, Shuguang; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2015-11-01

    Disinfectants are commonly applied to control the growth of microorganisms in drinking water distribution systems. However, the effect of disinfection on drinking water microbial community remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the impacts of different disinfectants (chlorine and chloramine) and dosages on biofilm bacterial community in bench-scale pipe section reactors. Illumina MiSeq sequencing illustrated that disinfection strategy could affect both bacterial diversity and community structure of drinking water biofilm. Proteobacteria tended to predominate in chloraminated drinking water biofilms, while Firmicutes in chlorinated and unchlorinated biofilms. The major proteobacterial groups were influenced by both disinfectant type and dosage. In addition, chloramination had a more profound impact on bacterial community than chlorination. PMID:26574105

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF TI02/UV DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to concern over the presence of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated byproducts in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfection methods are being explored. One of the alternative treatment methods currently being evaluated for potential use with small systems ...

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF CARCINOGENICITY OF CHLORINATED ORGANICS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern has recently been voiced over possible chronic toxicity associated with chlorination of public drinking water supplies in the United States. This paper reviews the available evidence and the studies underway to further evaluate hypothesized associations between cancer ris...

  19. Scientific and Regulatory Challenges of Controlling Lead in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe Drinking Water Act 1986 Amendments Corrections when necessary, mandatory review every 6 years Lead and Copper Rule section of SDWA Proposed 1988 Proposal revised and promulgated 1991 Many minor revisions, primarily administrative clarifications Major admin. revisions and te...

  20. EPA Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    In its FY2010 Appropriations Committee Conference Report, Congress directed EPA to study the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using: • Best available science • Independent sources of information • Transparent, peer-reviewed process • Consultatio...

  1. Chloramination of Organophosphorus Pesticides Found in Drinking Water Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The degradation of commonly detected organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, in drinking water sources, was investigated under simulated chloramination conditions. Due to monochloramine autodecomposition, it is difficult to observe the direct reaction of monochloramine with each OP pe...

  2. DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS: WHAT IS KNOWN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are currently the major disinfectants being used to disinfect drinking water. Although the alternative disinfectants (ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine) are increasing in popularity in the United States, chlorine is still us...

  3. MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF DRINKING WATER MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES: A PHYLOGENETIC APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Culture-based methods are traditionally used to determine microbiological quality of drinking water even though these methods are highly selective and tend to underestimate the densities and diversity bacterial populations inhabiting distribution systems. In order to better under...

  4. DEVELOPING APPROACHES TO ESTIMATE CUMULATIVE RISKS OF DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are exposed daily to complex mixtures of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) via oral, dermal, and inhalation routes. Some positive epidemiological studies suggest reproductive and developmental effects and cancer are associated with consumption of chlorinated d...

  5. Fate of High Priority Pesticides During Drinking Water Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides in the presence of chlorinated oxidants was investigated under drinking water treatment conditions. In the presence of aqueous chlorine, intrinsic rate coefficients were found for the reaction of hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion ...

  6. Communicating Research to Small Drinking Water Systems: Dissemination by Researchers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk discusses the challenges of disseminating research relevant to small systems. The presentation discusses efforts by the U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development to effectively communicating drinking water information. In particular, communication approaches ...

  7. REMOVING TRIHALOMETHANES FROM DRINKING WATER - AN OVERVIEW OF TREATMENT TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1974 trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) were discovered to be formed during the disinfection step of drinking water if free chlorine was the disinfectant. This, coupled with the perceived hazard to the consumer's health, led...

  8. REMOVAL OF URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA currently does not regulate uranium in drinking water but will be revising the radionuclide regulations during 1989 and will propose a maximum contaminant level for uranium. The paper presents treatment technology information on the effectiveness of conventional method...

  9. Optimal drinking water composition for caries control in populations.

    PubMed

    Bruvo, M; Ekstrand, K; Arvin, E; Spliid, H; Moe, D; Kirkeby, S; Bardow, A

    2008-04-01

    Apart from the well-documented effect of fluoride in drinking water on dental caries, little is known about other chemical effects. Since other ions in drinking water may also theoretically influence caries, as well as binding of fluoride in the oral environment, we hypothesized that the effect of drinking water on caries may not be limited to fluoride only. Among 22 standard chemical variables, including 15 ions and trace elements as well as gases, organic compounds, and physical measures, iterative search and testing identified that calcium and fluoride together explained 45% of the variations in the numbers of decayed, filled, and missing tooth surfaces (DMF-S) among 52,057 15-year-old schoolchildren in 249 Danish municipalities. Both ions had reducing effects on DMF-S independently of each other, and could be used in combination for the design of optimal drinking water for caries control in populations. PMID:18362315

  10. INEXPENSIVE DRINKING WATER CHLORINATION UNIT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 250 drinking water systems exist for small communities in Puerto Rico that serve 25-500 individuals. These water systems fall outside of Puerto Rico Aquaduct and Sewer Authority and, thus, have no or insufficient water treatment systems. Water sources for these communit...

  11. INEXPENSIVE DRINKING WATER CHLORINATION UNIT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    More than 250 drinking water systems exist for small communities in Puerto Rico that serve between 25 and 500 individuals. These water systems fall outside of the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority and, thus, have insufficient water treatment systems or no water treatmen...

  12. TOXIC SCREENING MODELS FOR DRINKING WATER UTILITY MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act begin a new period of water quality management for water utilities. Of particular concern to water utilities depending upon surface sources are amendments that regulate more contaminants, define treatment techniques for each cont...

  13. Determination of fluoride in the bottled drinking waters in iran.

    PubMed

    Amanlou, Massoud; Hosseinpour, Maedeh; Azizian, Homa; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Navabpoor, Mojtaba; Souri, Effat

    2010-01-01

    Fluoride is recognized as an effective agent for dental caries prevention. Generally, the main source of fluoride intake is drinking water. In this study, fluoride content in 18 commercial brands of bottled waters was investigated. Six samples from each batch of 18 Iranian commercial brands of bottled waters were supplied. The fluoride content of samples was analyzed by Fluoride Ion Selective Electrode. The mean SD fluoride content of the bottled waters was 0.202 0.00152 mg/L with a range from 0.039 to 0.628 mg/L which was lower than the accepted limits for fluoride content of drinking water (1 mg/L). This finding suggested that in the region which water has high fluoride content, drinking bottled water is preferred to drinking tap water, as it could lower the risk of fluorosis. However, the risk of dental caries increases in people who mainly drink bottled waters; thus, they should use fluoride supplements. PMID:24363704

  14. INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  15. INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  16. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER — PALL/KINETICO PUREFECTA DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pall/Kinetico Purefecta™ POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The Purefecta™ employs several compon...

  17. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER PALL/KINETICO PUREFECTA DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pall/Kinetico Purefecta POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The Purefecta employs several compon...

  18. Water Quality of Drinking Water Supplies in Socorro, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandvold, L. A.

    2002-12-01

    Socorro, a small town with a population of about 8,000, is located in central New Mexico along the Rio Grande within the Rio Grande rift, at the edge of an extensive volcanic field. Socorro has six sources of supply for drinking water. Two of these sources are thermal springs and four are wells ranging in depth from 97-500 ft. The water is not blended into one source for distribution, but rather each source serves as drinking water for those in the immediate area surrounding the well or spring. Each source was sampled and analyzed monthly over a 2-year period. The following parameters were determined and compared; temperature, pH, conductivity, TDS, hardness, alkalinity, Cl, SO4, F, Br, NO3, Na, K, Ca, Mg, SiO2 As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Sr, Ag, Th, U, and Zn. The monthly water usage from each source was also determined. High levels of arsenic (up to 42 ppb) and uranium (up to 55 ppb) occur naturally in the water sources, but not together in the same sources. Based on water quality parameters, the water may be grouped into three types with two sources in each type. Type 1. Low hardness (~70 ppm), low TDS (~240 ppm), no Fe (<5 ppb), no Mn (<5 ppb), very low U (3 ppb), and high As (~40 ppb). Type 2. High TDS (~700 ppm), high hardness (~260 ppm), high Fe (~100 ppb), high Mn (~650 ppb), low U (~6 ppb), and mid-level As (~24 ppb). Type 3. High TDS (~430 ppm), high hardness (~200 ppm), mid-level Fe (~50 ppb), mid-level Mn (~10 ppb), high U (25-55 ppb), and low As (~8 ppb). Considering the arsenic and uranium values, type 2 water appears to be a dilution of type 1 and type 3. This does not appear to be the case when comparing Fe, Mn, hardness, and TDS. Type 2 contains the highest Fe, Mn, TDS, and hardness. One possible explanation is that as type 1 and type 3 groundwater mixes and flows toward the river, some of it flows through areas higher in calcium carbonate and Fe and Mn mineralization producing the type 2 water which results in higher Fe, Mn, TDS, and hardness. Interestingly, the sources with the lowest TDS or the best quality water contain the highest arsenic levels. Four of the six sources contain arsenic above the USEPA's new MCL of 10 ppb.

  19. A review of arsenic presence in China drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jing; Charlet, Laurent

    2013-06-01

    Chronic endemic arsenicosis areas have been discovered in China since 1960s. Up to 2012, 19 provinces had been found to have As concentration in drinking water exceeding the standard level (0.05 mg/L). Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and Shanxi Province are historical well-known “hotspots” of geogenic As-contaminated drinking water. The goal of this review is to examine, summarize and discuss the information of As in drinking water for all provinces and territories in China. Possible natural As sources for elevating As level in drinking water, were documented. Geogenic As-contaminated drinking water examples were taken to introduce typical environmental conditions where the problems occurred: closed basins in arid or semi-arid areas and reducing aquifers under high pH conditions. Geothermal water or mineral water in mountains areas can be high-As water as well. For undiscovered areas, prediction of potential As-affected groundwater has been carried out by some research groups by use of logistic regression. Modeled maps of probability of geogenic As contamination in groundwater are promising to be used as references to discover unknown areas. Furthermore, anthropogenic As contaminations were summarized and mining, smelters and chemical industries were found to be major sources for As pollution in China.

  20. Review of Campylobacter spp. in drinking and environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Tarja

    2013-10-01

    Consumption of contaminated drinking water is a significant cause of Campylobacter infections. Drinking water contamination is known to result from septic seepage and wastewater intrusion into non-disinfected sources of groundwater and occasionally from cross-connection into drinking water distribution systems. Wastewater effluents, farm animals and wild birds are the primary sources contributing human-infectious Campylobacters in environmental waters, impacting on recreational activities and drinking water sources. Culturing of Campylobacter entails time-consuming steps that often provide qualitative or semi-quantitative results. Viable but non-culturable forms due to environmental stress are not detected, and thus may result in false-negative assessments of Campylobacter risks from drinking and environmental waters. Molecular methods, especially quantitative PCR applications, are therefore important to use in the detection of environmental Campylobacter spp. Processing large volumes of water may be required to reach the desired sensitivity for either culture or molecular detection methods. In the future, applications of novel molecular techniques such as isothermal amplification and high-throughput sequencing applications are awaited to develop and become more affordable and practical in environmental Campylobacter research. The new technologies may change the knowledge on the prevalence and pathogenicity of the different Campylobacter species in the water environment. PMID:23810971

  1. REDUCING ARSENIC LEVELS IN DRINKING WATER: APPROACHES AND CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. It has been projected that the State of Ohio will have nearly 140 community and non-community non-transient water systems in violation of the Rule. This ...

  2. Drinking water treatment residuals: A Review of recent uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coagulants such as alum [Al2(SO4)3•14H2O], FeCl3, or Fe2(SO4)3 are commonly used to remove particulate and dissolved constituents from water supplies in the production of drinking water. The resulting waste product, called water-treatment residuals (WTR), contains precipitated Al and Fe oxyhydroxide...

  3. DETECTION OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN TREATED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of viruses in conventionally treated drinking water derived from a heavily polluted source was evaluated by collecting and analyzing 38 large volume (65 to 756 liter) samples of water from a 9m3/sec (205 mgd) water treatment plant. Samples of raw, clarified, filter...

  4. Drinking water consumption patterns of residents in a Canadian community.

    PubMed

    Jones, A Q; Dewey, C E; Dor, K; Majowicz, S E; McEwen, S A; Waltner-Toews, D

    2006-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey using computer-assisted telephone interviewing was performed to assess the drinking water consumption patterns in a Canadian community, and to examine the associations between these patterns and various demographic characteristics. The median amount of water consumed daily was four 250 ml servings (1.01), although responses were highly variable (0 to 8.01). Bottled water consumption was common, and represented the primary source of drinking water for approximately 27% of respondents. Approximately 49% of households used water treatment devices to treat their tap water. The observed associations between some demographic characteristics and drinking water consumption patterns indicated potential differences in risk of exposure to waterborne hazards in the population. Our results lend support to the federal review of the bottled water regulations currently in progress in Canada. Additionally, they may lend support to a provincial/territorial government review of bottled water regulations, and both federal and provincial/territorial level reviews of the water treatment device industry. Further investigation of the use of alternative water sources and the perceptions of drinking water in Canada is also needed to better understand, and subsequently address, concerns among Canadians. PMID:16604844

  5. Microbiological quality of drinking water from mobile food vendors.

    PubMed

    McDerment, F; Hall, Y; Hunter, P R

    2002-12-01

    A survey of the microbiological quality of drinking water from mobile food vendors in Cheshire found that 50% of the samples were unsatisfactory according to current regulations for bottled water. There was an inverse correlation between total viable counts and frequency with which the water container was cleaned. PMID:12564244

  6. Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Transmission and Distribution Mains

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project seeks to improve the capability to characterize the condition of water infrastructure. The integrity of buried drinking water mains is critical, as it influences water quality, losses, pressure and cost. This research complements the U.S. Environmental Protection A...

  7. Particulate Arsenic Release in a Drinking Water Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace contaminants, such as arsenic, have been shown to accumulate in solids found in drinking water distribution systems. The obvious concern is that the contaminants in these solids could be released back into the water resulting in elevated levels in a consumers tap water. Th...

  8. BIOASSAY PROCEDURE FOR PREDICTING COLIFORM BACTERIAL GROWTH IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality degradation due to the growth of microorganisms Is an area of concern for many water utilities. urrently the nutrient status of drinking water is difficult to measure and can only be defined in relative terms. o date, the procedures developed for determining the amo...

  9. EXPOSURE TO ASBESTOS FROM DRINKING WATER IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 1500 asbestos analyses of water supplies in 43 states, Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia were evaluated in order to assess the exposure of the United States population to asbestos in drinking water. It was cocluded that the large majority of U.S. water consumers are n...

  10. MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM AND DRINKING WATER WHAT ARE THE CONNECTIONS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Human Mycobacterium avium infections are only known to be acquired from environmental sources such as water and soil. We compared M. avium isolates from clinical and drinking water sources using molecular tools. Methods: M. avium was isolated from water samples colle...

  11. COST AND BENEFITS OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article develops a framework for evaluating the costs and benefits of environmental control and preventive public health practices and asks the policy question: How do the authors achieve the best mix of protection against infectious disease and toxic chemicals in drinking wa...

  12. Aluminium content of drinking waters, fruit juices and soft drinks: contribution to dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Lpez, Francisco F; Cabrera, Carmen; Lorenzo, M Luisa; Lpez, M Carmen

    2002-06-26

    Concentrations of aluminium in drinking waters (tap water, still mineral water and sparkling mineral water), fruit juices and soft drinks were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) of samples processed with a HNO3-V205 acid digestion pre-treatment. In water samples, aluminium was determined directly. We verified the sensitivity, accuracy and precision of the method and ruled out matrix interferences. In analysed samples, aluminium values ranged from 4.2 to 165.3 microg/l in drinking water (n=41), from 49.3 to 1,144.6 microg/l in fruit juices (n=47), and from 44.6 to 1053.3 microg/l in soft drinks (n=88). According to the type of container (glass or can) statistically significant differences (P<0.01) have been demonstrated. Considering the mean daily individual consumption of these beverages in Spain, the daily dietary intake of Al supplied by this source is estimated as 156 microg/person/day. This study contributes new data on the Al content of a variety of foods and beverages in Spain and to estimate reliably the total dietary intake of aluminium. PMID:12146520

  13. Corrosiveness of drinking water and cardiovascular disease mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Haring, B.J.A.; Zoeteman, B.C.J.

    1980-10-01

    Hard drinking water is statistically correlated with low mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Possible explanations for this association are: (1)calcium and/or magnesium intake by consumption of hard water diminishes a deficiency of these essential elements in the total diet and suppresses the toxic effect of some heavy metals/ or (2)heavy metals in soft drinking water, released from the piping as a result of a supposedly higher corrosiveness of the softer waters during distribution, have toxic effects. Further investigation is recommended to determine the actual cause(s) of this statistical association. (10 references, 4 tables)

  14. Microbiological Contamination of Drinking Water Associated with Subsequent Child Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Luby, Stephen P; Halder, Amal K; Huda, Tarique Md; Unicomb, Leanne; Islam, M Sirajul; Arnold, Benjamin F; Johnston, Richard B

    2015-11-01

    We used a prospective, longitudinal cohort enrolled as part of a program evaluation to assess the relationship between drinking water microbiological quality and child diarrhea. We included 50 villages across rural Bangladesh. Within each village field-workers enrolled a systematic random sample of 10 households with a child under the age of 3 years. Community monitors visited households monthly and recorded whether children under the age of 5 years had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days. Every 3 months, a research assistant visited the household and requested a water sample from the source or container used to provide drinking water to the child. Laboratory technicians measured the concentration of Escherichia coli in the water samples using membrane filtration. Of drinking water samples, 59% (2,273/3,833) were contaminated with E. coli. Of 12,192 monthly follow-up visits over 2 years, mothers reported that their child had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days in 1,156 (9.5%) visits. In a multivariable general linear model, the log10 of E. coli contamination of the preceding drinking water sample was associated with an increased prevalence of child diarrhea (prevalence ratio = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.23). These data provide further evidence of the health benefits of improved microbiological quality of drinking water. PMID:26438031

  15. Microbiological Contamination of Drinking Water Associated with Subsequent Child Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Luby, Stephen P.; Halder, Amal K.; Huda, Tarique Md.; Unicomb, Leanne; Sirajul Islam, M.; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Johnston, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    We used a prospective, longitudinal cohort enrolled as part of a program evaluation to assess the relationship between drinking water microbiological quality and child diarrhea. We included 50 villages across rural Bangladesh. Within each village field-workers enrolled a systematic random sample of 10 households with a child under the age of 3 years. Community monitors visited households monthly and recorded whether children under the age of 5 years had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days. Every 3 months, a research assistant visited the household and requested a water sample from the source or container used to provide drinking water to the child. Laboratory technicians measured the concentration of Escherichia coli in the water samples using membrane filtration. Of drinking water samples, 59% (2,273/3,833) were contaminated with E. coli. Of 12,192 monthly follow-up visits over 2 years, mothers reported that their child had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days in 1,156 (9.5%) visits. In a multivariable general linear model, the log10 of E. coli contamination of the preceding drinking water sample was associated with an increased prevalence of child diarrhea (prevalence ratio = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.23). These data provide further evidence of the health benefits of improved microbiological quality of drinking water. PMID:26438031

  16. Investigations on boron levels in drinking water sources in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ren-ji; Xing, Xiao-ru; Zhou, Qun-fang; Jiang, Gui-bin; Wei, Fu-sheng

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate boron contamination of public drinking water in China, both dissolved and total boron contents in 98 public drinking water sources from 49 cities, 42 brands of bottled water samples from supermarkets in several cities, and 58 water samples from boron industrial area were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our experimental results showed that boron existed in public drinking water sources mainly in dissolved status with total concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 0.337 mg/L (mean = 0.046 mg/L). The mean boron concentrations in mineral and pure bottled water were 0.052 and 0.028 mg/L, respectively. The results obtained in this work showed that there was no health risk on view of boron in public drinking water sources and bottled water. In boron industrial area, boron concentrations in surface water and ground water were 1.28 mg/L (range = 0.007-3.8 mg/L) and 18.3 mg/L (range = 0.015-140 mg/L), respectively, which indicated that boron industry caused boron pollution in local water system. PMID:19444639

  17. Survey of barium in Italian drinking water supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Lanciotti, E.; Comodo, N.; Gambassini, L.; Cerbai, E. ); Vallone, G.; Griffini, E. ); Mugelli, A. )

    1989-12-01

    Trace metal contamination in public water supplies may be detrimental to human health. In recent years there has been increasing attention paid to the presence of barium in public water supplies and to its possible effects on human health. Recently the maximum allowed level for barium in drinking water in Europe has been reduced from 1 mg/L to 0.1 mg/L. The toxic effects following acute ingestion of soluble barium salts are well characterized. Elevated barium levels in drinking water have been associated with higher mortality rates due to cardiovascular or heart diseases. The present survey was undertaken to evaluate the extent of exposure of the Tuscany population to barium. Levels of barium were measured in drinking water supplies.

  18. Magnesium and calcium in drinking water and cardiovascular mortality.

    PubMed

    Rylander, R; Bonevik, H; Rubenowitz, E

    1991-04-01

    Data on the hardness of drinking water were collected from 27 municipalities in Sweden where the drinking water quality had remained unchanged for more than 20 years. Analyses were made of the levels of lead, cadmium, calcium, and magnesium. These water-quality data were compared with the age-adjusted mortality rate from ischemic heart and cerebrovascular disease for the period 1969-1978. Lead and cadmium were not present in detectable amounts except in one water sample. A statistically significant inverse relationship was present between hardness and mortality from cardiovascular disease for both sexes. Mortality caused by ischemic heart disease was inversely related to the magnesium content, particularly for the men (P less than 0.01). The rather small set of data supports results from previous studies suggesting that a high magnesium level in drinking water reduces the risk for death from ischemic heart disease, especially among men, although the possible importance of confounding factors needs further evaluation. PMID:2047817

  19. 75 FR 1380 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting... Agency (EPA or Agency) is announcing the second in-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The purpose of...

  20. 75 FR 35458 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting... Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) is announcing the fourth in-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The purpose of...

  1. 75 FR 20352 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting... Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) is announcing the third in-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The purpose of...

  2. Chlorine stress mediates microbial surface attachment in drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Le, Yang; Jin, Juliang; Zhou, Yuliang; Chen, Guowei

    2015-03-01

    Microbial attachment to drinking water pipe surfaces facilitates pathogen survival and deteriorates disinfection performance, directly threatening the safety of drinking water. Notwithstanding that the formation of biofilm has been studied for decades, the underlying mechanisms for the origins of microbial surface attachment in biofilm development in drinking water pipelines remain largely elusive. We combined experimental and mathematical methods to investigate the role of environmental stress-mediated cell motility on microbial surface attachment in chlorination-stressed drinking water distribution systems. Results show that at low levels of disinfectant (0.0-1.0 mg/L), the presence of chlorine promotes initiation of microbial surface attachment, while higher amounts of disinfectant (>1.0 mg/L) inhibit microbial attachment. The proposed mathematical model further demonstrates that chlorination stress (0.0-5.0 mg/L)-mediated microbial cell motility regulates the frequency of cell-wall collision and thereby controls initial microbial surface attachment. The results reveal that transport processes and decay patterns of chlorine in drinking water pipelines regulate microbial cell motility and, thus, control initial surface cell attachment. It provides a mechanistic understanding of microbial attachment shaped by environmental disinfection stress and leads to new insights into microbial safety protocols in water distribution systems. PMID:25359474

  3. New perspectives in monitoring drinking water microbial quality.

    PubMed

    Figueras, M Jos; Borrego, Juan J

    2010-12-01

    The safety of drinking water is evaluated by the results obtained from faecal indicators during the stipulated controls fixed by the legislation. However, drinking-water related illness outbreaks are still occurring worldwide. The failures that lead to these outbreaks are relatively common and typically involve preceding heavy rain and inadequate disinfection processes. The role that classical faecal indicators have played in the protection of public health is reviewed and the turning points expected for the future explored. The legislation for protecting the quality of drinking water in Europe is under revision, and the planned modifications include an update of current indicators and methods as well as the introduction of Water Safety Plans (WSPs), in line with WHO recommendations. The principles of the WSP approach and the advances signified by the introduction of these preventive measures in the future improvement of drinking water quality are presented. The expected impact that climate change will have in the quality of drinking water is also critically evaluated. PMID:21318002

  4. Drinking-Water Standards and Regulations. Volume 2. Manual for 1982-88

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

    1988-04-10

    The following 11 important documents are compiled for Drinking Water Standards and Regulations: (1) U.S. Environmental Agency Water Programs, National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations; (2) New Jersey Safe Drinking Water Act; (3) Summary of New Jersey Drinking Water Standards; (4) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Act of 1986 Amendments; (5) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Primary Drinking Water Standards; (6) Canadian National Health and Welfare Drinking Water Quality Guidelines--Maximum Acceptable Concentrations; (7) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Primary Drinking Water Regulations, Filtration and Disinfection Turbidity, Giardia Lamblia, Viruses, Legionella, and Heterotrophic Bacteria; (8) Public Water Supply Manual--Guide to the Safe Drinking Water Program; (9) Public Water Supply Manual--Emergency Response; (10) U.S. EPA Approved Krofta Chemicals; (11) NY-DOH Approved Krofta Chemicals.

  5. Are endocrine disrupting compounds a health risk in drinking water?

    PubMed

    Falconer, Ian R

    2006-06-01

    There has been a great deal of international discussion on the nature and relevance of endocrine disrupting compounds in the environment. Changes in reproductive organs of fish and mollusks have been demonstrated in rivers downstream of sewage discharges in Europe and in North America, which have been attributed to estrogenic compounds in the effluent. The anatomical and physiological changes in the fauna are illustrated by feminization of male gonads. The compounds of greatest hormonal activity in sewage effluent are the natural estrogens 17Beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol and the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol. Androgens are also widely present in wastewaters. Investigations of anthropogenic chemical contaminants in freshwaters and wastewaters have shown a wide variety of organic compounds, many of which have low levels of estrogenic activity. In many highly populated countries the drinking water is sourced from the same rivers and lakes that are the recipients of sewage and industrial discharge. The River Thames which flows through London, England, has overall passed through drinking water and sewage discharge 5 times from source to mouth of the river. Under these types of circumstance, any accumulation of endocrine disrupting compounds from sewage or industry potentially affects the quality of drinking water. Neither basic wastewater treatment nor basic drinking water treatment will eliminate the estrogens, androgens or detergent breakdown products from water, due to the chemical stability of the structures. Hence a potential risk to health exists; however present data indicate that estrogenic contamination of drinking water is very unlikely to result in physiologically detectable effects in consumers. Pesticide, detergent and industrial contamination remain issues of concern. As a result of this concern, increased attention is being given to enhanced wastewater treatment in locations where the effluent is directly or indirectly in use for drinking water. In some places at which heavy anthropogenic contamination of drinking water sources occurs, advanced drinking water treatment is increasingly being implemented. This treatment employs particle removal, ozone oxidation of organic material and activated charcoal adsorption of the oxidation products. Such processes will remove industrial organic chemicals, pesticides, detergents, pharmaceutical products and hormones. Populations for which only basic wastewater and drinking water treatment are available remain vulnerable. PMID:16823090

  6. Survey of the occurrence of residues of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in Dutch drinking water sources and drinking water.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Pepijn; Versteegh, Ans F M; de Korte, Gert A L; Hoogerbrugge, Ronald; Mooibroek, Dennis; Bannink, André; Hogendoorn, Elbert A

    2003-12-01

    An indicative survey has been carried out in The Netherlands investigating the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in drinking water and the corresponding sources. In total, 71 different sites used for the preparation of drinking water in The Netherlands were sampled in two successive seasons in 2001 involving the analysis of 156 samples. (ground water (n = 88), surface water (n = 17), bank filtrate water (n = 6) and drinking water (n = 45)). To combine high sample throughput with high selectivity and sensitivity, off-line purge and trap for sampling and gas chromatography mass spectrometry equipped with an automated thermal desorption sampler (TDS-GC-MS) was selected as the preferred analytical methodology. The developed procedure enabled the analysis of at least 40 samples per day and provided a limit of quantification of 2 ng l(-1). In the first period 63 samples of raw water were analyzed. Concentrations ranged between < 10 ng l(-1) and 420 ng l(-1) with a median concentration below 10 ng l(-1). The second period was focused at the re-sampling of positive locations (MTBE > 10 ng l(-1)) and a few additional drinking water utilities of which both the raw and drinking water of the utilities were analyzed. The median concentration of MTBE in the selected set of drinking water samples was 20 ng l(-1) (n = 45). At one location MTBE was found at a level of 2900 ng l(-1) caused by point source contamination of the ground water (11 900 ng l(-1)). Special attention has been paid to the quality of the results by analyzing all samples in duplicate and the analysis of control samples during each series of analyses. PMID:14710927

  7. Occurrence of organophosphate flame retardants in drinking water from China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Yu, Nanyang; Zhang, Beibei; Jin, Ling; Li, Meiying; Hu, Mengyang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wei, Si; Yu, Hongxia

    2014-05-01

    Several organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been identified as known or suspected carcinogens or neurotoxic substances. Given the potential health risks of these compounds, we conducted a comprehensive survey of nine OPFRs in drinking water in China. We found total concentrations of OPFRs in tap water ranging from 85.1ng/L to 325ng/L, and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) were the most common components. Similar OPFR concentrations and profiles were observed in water samples processed through six different waterworks in Nanjing, China. However, boiling affected OPFR levels in drinking water by either increasing (e.g., TBEP) or decreasing (e.g., tributyl phosphate, TBP) concentrations depending on the particular compound and the state of the indoor environment. We also found that bottled water contained many of the same major OPFR compounds with concentrations 10-25% lower than those in tap water, although TBEP contamination in bottled water remained a concern. Finally, we concluded that the risk of ingesting OPFRs through drinking water was not a major health concern for either adults or children in China. Nevertheless, drinking water ingestion represents an important exposure pathway for OPFRs. PMID:24556230

  8. Occurrence and hygienic relevance of fungi in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kanzler, D; Buzina, W; Paulitsch, A; Haas, D; Platzer, S; Marth, E; Mascher, F

    2008-03-01

    Fungi, above all filamentous fungi, can occur almost everywhere, even in water. They can grow in such a quantity in water that they can affect the health of the population or have negative effects on food production. There are several reports of fungal growth in water from different countries, but to our knowledge none from Austria so far. The aim of this study was to gain an overview of the spectrum of filamentous fungi and yeasts in drinking water systems. Thirty-eight water samples from drinking water and groundwater were analysed. Fungi were isolated by using membrane filtration and plating method with subsequent cultivation on agar plates. The different taxa of fungi were identified using routine techniques as well as molecular methods. Fungi were isolated in all water samples examined. The mean value for drinking water was 9.1 CFU per 100 ml and for groundwater 5400 CFU per 100 ml. Altogether 32 different taxa of fungi were found. The taxa which occurred most frequently were Cladosporium spp., Basidiomycetes and Penicillium spp. (74.6%, 56.4% and 48.7%, respectively). This study shows that drinking water can be a reservoir for fungi, among them opportunists, which can cause infections in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:18254755

  9. National primary drinking water regulation for nitrate and nitrite

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Taylor, M. )

    1989-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations on December 24, 1975. These regulations included an interim maximum contaminant level (MCL) for nitrate of 10 mg/L as nitrogen. EPA has reviewed the current literature and concluded that an MCLG for nitrate of 10 mg/L is protective of the most sensitive members of the population (i.e., infants). This report will overview the basis for the proposed drinking water standards for nitrate and nitrite. Health basis, occurrence in US water supplies, treatment technologies and costs, and proposed analytical methods and compliance monitoring requirements will be presented.

  10. Removal of uranium from drinking water by conventional treatment methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sorg, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The USEPA currently does not regulate uranium in drinking water but will be revising the radionuclide regulations during 1989 and will propose a maximum contaminant level for uranium. This paper presents treatment technology information on the effectiveness of conventional methods to removal uranium from drinking water. Treatment information based primarily on laboratory and pilot plant studies is presented on conventional coagulation/filtration, ion exchange, lime softening, and reverse osmosis. Ion-exchange treatment has been applied successfully on ground waters by small systems.

  11. Health risks due to radon in drinking water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopke, P.K.; Borak, T.B.; Doull, J.; Cleaver, J.E.; Eckerman, K.F.; Gundersen, L.C.S.; Harley, N.H.; Hess, C.T.; Kinner, N.E.; Kopecky, K.J.; Mckone, T.E.; Sextro, R.G.; Simon, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for 222Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient 222Rn concentration and the increment of 222Rn to the indoor- air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air- producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such 'multimedia mitigation programs' were explored.

  12. Health risks due to radon in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K. Borak, T.B.; Doull, J.

    2000-03-15

    Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for {sup 222}Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient {sup 222}Rn concentration and the increment of {sup 222}Rn to the indoor-air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air-producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such multimedia mitigation programs were explored.

  13. INFLUENCE OF CATION LEACHING ON WATER RETENTIVITY OF DRINKING WATER SLUDGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yasutaka; Komine, Hideo; Yasuhara, Kazuya; Murakami, Satoshi; Toyoda, Kazuhiro

    It is important for waste management and sound material-cycle society to clarify the change of the physico-chemical properties of reusable material. In this study, the influence of cation leaching on water retentivity of drinking water sludge was investigated. The column leaching test was executed using drinking water sludge to simulate rainwater percolation, and the water retentivity test of the degraded sludge was executed. As a result, the water retentivity of drinking water sludge decreased after cation leaching. The cation exchangeable capacity of drinking water sludge and its microscopic structure were almost stable during the leaching test. The results indicate a possibility that Al leaching decreases the hydrophilic part of flocculating agent which relates to water retention of drinking water sludge.

  14. Wastewater to Drinking Water: Are Emerging Contaminants Making it Through?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake Mead serves as the primary drinking water source for Las Vegas, Nevada and surrounding communities. Besides snow-melt from the Rockies water levels in the lake are supplemented by the inflow of treated wastewater from communities along the Colorado River, including Las Vegas...

  15. GASTROINTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF SOLUBLE URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manuscript describes results of an experiment to determine the gastrointestinal absorption of uranium from drinking water in 12 health adults. Most of the uranium ingested was excreted in feces in the first 2 days following ingestion of the water. The absorption was the same ...

  16. LABORATORY ANALYSIS FOR ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has established maximum contaminant levels ( MCLs ), for many inorganic contaminants found in drinking water, to protect the health of consumers. Some of these chemicals occur naturally in source waters while some are the result o...

  17. USEPA'S RESEARCH EFFORTS IN SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, in the United States there are approximately 50,000 small community and 130,000 non-community systems providing water to over 25 million people. The drinking water treatment systems at these locations are not always adequate to comply with current and pending regulati...

  18. SAFE DRINKING WATER FOR THE LITTLE GUY: OPTIONS AND ALTERNATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and its Amendments sets regulations applicable to all community water systems that have 15 or more service connections and/or serve at least 25 people. t first glance, this may appear most inclusive, but in reality there are numerous private hom...

  19. The Accumulation of Radioactive Contaminants in Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution systems has been documented and the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of particular concern because of their known health eff...

  20. PRELIMINARY DESIGN FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESS SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computer model has been developed for use in estimating the performance and associated costs of proposed and existing water supply systems. Design procedures and cost-estimating relationships for 25 unit processes that can be used for drinking water treatment are contained with...

  1. Photocatalytic Coats in Glass Drinking-Water Bottles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andren, Anders W.; Armstrong, David E.; Anderson, Marc A.

    2005-01-01

    According to a proposal, the insides of glass bottles used to store drinking water would be coated with films consisting of or containing TiO2. In the presence of ultraviolet light, these films would help to remove bacteria, viruses, and trace organic contaminants from the water.

  2. NITRATE REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER IN GLENDALE, ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 15-month pilot-scale study of nitrate removal from drinking water by ion exchange (IX), reverse osmosis (RO), and electrodialysis (ED) was carried out in Glendale, Arizona, where the raw water contained 18 to 25 mg/L NO3-N. The experiments were carried out using the University ...

  3. DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION USING A UV/PHOTOCATALYST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Worldwide, lack of safe drinking water takes an inestimable toll on human health. The objective of this project is to develop a small-scale sustainable water disinfection technology requiring a minimum of treatment time. The technology to be developed will be simple, sustain...

  4. UNREGULATED DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANTS AND INNOVATIVE APPROACHES FOR DETERMINING NEUROTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Office of Water (OW) is concerned about potential neurotoxicity of monomethyl, dimethyl, monobutyl, and dibutyl organotins that can leach into drinking water from PVC pipe. NTDs evaluation of these organotins indicated that they were not likely to be a significant risk at ...

  5. GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON FOR REMOVING NONTRIHALOMETHANE ORGANICS FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several large field scale research projects were initiated by the U.S. EPA Drinking Water Research Division, MERL, Cincinnati, OH to evaluate the performance of GAC under varying operating conditions and different source water. Most of this research has been completed at nine loc...

  6. THE FETOTOXIC POTENTIAL OF MUNICIPAL DRINKING WATER IN THE MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mice (CD-1 strain) were placed on diets containing either municipal drinking water (Durham, North Carolina) or water that had been distilled and passed through cartridges to reduce organics and remove inorganics. After a two-week acclimation period, animals were bred and pregnanc...

  7. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents a long term performance study of two iron removal water treatment plants to remove arsenic from drinking water sources. Performance information was collected from one system located in midwest for one full year and at the second system located in the farwest...

  8. NUTRIENTS FOR BACTERIAL GROWTH IN DRINKING WATER: BIOASSAY EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The regrowth of bacteria in drinking water distribution systems can lead to the deterioration of water quality. Pathogenic bacteria are heterotrophs, and heterotrophs are probably the dominant bacteria associated with the regrowth phenomenon. Only a portion of the total organic c...

  9. TREATMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR CONTROLLING CHLORINATED ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot plant study was conducted by the City of Thornton, Colorado, to evaluate techniques for controlling chlorinated organic compounds formed in drinking water as a result of breakpoint, or free, chlorination. The pilot plant was operated for 46 months using the raw water sour...

  10. SAFE DRINKING WATER FROM SMALL SYSTEMS: TREATMENT OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bringing small water systems into compliance with the ever-increasing number of regulations will require flexibility in terms of technology application and institional procedures. his article looks at the means by which small systems can provide safe drinking water, focusing on t...

  11. EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR EDC REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of the chemicals identified as potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be present in surface or ground waters used as drinking water sources, due to their disposal via domestic and industrial sewage treatment systems and wet-weather runoff. In order to decrease t...

  12. Fungal flora in groundwater-derived public drinking water.

    PubMed

    Gttlich, Elke; van der Lubbe, Wendy; Lange, Bernd; Fiedler, Steffi; Melchert, Ines; Reifenrath, Michael; Flemming, Hans-Curt; de Hoog, Sybren

    2002-05-01

    In order to assess the dissemination of hygienically relevant fungi via the public drinking water distribution system, a 12-month survey was performed on groundwater-derived drinking water from 29 water supplies in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Frequencies of contaminated water samples, and the prevalent species and patterns of occurrence in raw water, waterworks, the network and house installations were studied on the basis of 2657 water samples. Results were obtained by long-term incubation of 1 ml aliquots of water samples on agar-based culture media, following bacteriological procedures documented in the German drinking water regulations (Anon, 1990). No correlation with standard hygiene indicators, such as E. coli or other coliform bacteria was observed. Common opportunistic and allergenic Aspergillus species were encountered only rarely. The fungal flora was dominated by a limited number of species of Acremonium, Exophiala, Penicillium and particularly Phialophora; some of them occurred throughout the entire drinking water system and are thought to constitute a resident fungal flora. Phialophora sp. nov., to be described as a new species elsewhere, was ubiquitous; it was found in 26.6% of the samples positive for fungi (7.5% of 2657). Fungal diversity in the network itself was significantly lower than in raw water and house installations, indicating that not all fungi gaining access to the system are capable of surviving for longer periods. For species such as Verticillium lecanii, found exclusively after the introduction of newly buried pipes and remaining localized at those sites, introduction via arthropod vectors is likely. The resident species of Phialophora, Exophiala and Acremonium are particularly significant as they are shown to be disseminated efficiently by public drinking water. PMID:12068746

  13. SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE ENHANCED SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to FY2003 statistics compiled by the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, the U.S. regulates about 160,000 small drinking water systems that impact close to 70 million people. Small systems (serving transient and non-transient populations of 10,000 people or less...

  14. Energy-efficient drinking water disinfection for greenhouse gas mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, A.J.; Greene, D.M.; Rosenfeld, A.

    1998-07-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that approximately one billion people worldwide use cookstoves to boil their drinking water. About half of this population is in China. Some populations (e.g. Jakarta) spend 1% of their GDP on boiling drinking water. Impoverished and/or ignorant populations not yet boiling their drinking water will do so when they can both afford it and understand the risks of unsafe drinking water. A recently developed water disinfection technology (UV Waterworks) can produce safe drinking water while earning tradable carbon credits (or credit as a clean development mechanism) when implemented as part of national energy, health, and carbon emissions trading policy, UV Waterworks uses approximately 6,000 times less energy than boiling over a biomass cookstove. Each unit that replaces boiling may save up to 175 or 300 tons/year of carbon-equivalent GHG emissions, depending on if it replaces sustainably harvested biomass (SHB) or non-SHB. For the approximately 500M Chinese boiling their drinking water over biomass (assumed SHB), this suggests a technical potential (that is, potential under the limiting case of 100% market adoption) of saving 87M tons/year of carbon-equivalent non-CO{sub 2} GHG emissions. The energy savings and corresponding emissions reductions will vary with cookstove fuels and stove efficiency: non-SHB and kerosene represent the most and least GHG-producing cookstove fuels, respectively, among those readily available to the populations of interest. The authors bracket the global technical potential for carbon emission reductions resulting from implementation of UV Waterworks, and estimate the value of tradable carbon credits earned from these reductions.

  15. Effects of chlorinated drinking water on human lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Wones, R.G.; Glueck, C.J.

    1986-11-01

    Atherosclerosis with its complications is the most important health problem affecting American adults. The levels of serum cholesterol, of high and low density lipoproteins, and of apolipoproteins A1, A2, and B are major risk factors for the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Animals studies suggest that chlorinated drinking water may elevate the serum cholesterol. Studies are too limited to confirm or refute this effect in humans. Since millions of humans have had daily exposure to chlorinated drinking water, it is essential to study the effects of such exposure on human lipid metabolism. The authors have begun a protocol to discover whether consuming chlorinated drinking water elevates serum cholesterol and the other lipid components of blood known to be associated with atherosclerosis. This protocol has been designed to improve the change of observing an effect while preserving the ability to generalize the data.

  16. Pathogens in drinking water: Are there any new ones

    SciTech Connect

    Reasoner, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1976 three newly recognized human pathogens have become familiar to the drinking water industry as waterborne disease agents. These are: the legionnaires disease agent, Legionella pneumophila and related species; and two protozoan pathogens, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum, both of which form highly disinfectant resistant cysts that are shed in the feces of infected individuals. The question frequently arises - are there other emerging waterborne pathogens that may pose a human health problem that the drinking water industry will have to deal with. The paper will review the current state of knowledge of the occurrence and incidence of pathogens and opportunistic pathogens other than Legionella, Giardia and Cryptosporidium in treated and untreated drinking water. Bacterial agents that will be reviewed include Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Campylobacter, Mycobacterium, Yersinia and Plesiomonas. Aspects of detection of these agents including detection methods and feasibility of monitoring will be addressed.

  17. Postexercise rehydration: potassium-rich drinks versus water and a sports drink.

    PubMed

    Prez-Idrraga, Alexandra; Aragn-Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Fluid retention, thirst quenching, tolerance, and palatability of different drinks were assessed. On 4 different days, 12 healthy, physically active volunteers (24.4 3.2 years old, 74.75 11.36 kg body mass (mean S.D)), were dehydrated to 2.10% 0.24% body mass by exercising in an environmental chamber (32.0 0.4 C dry bulb, 53.8 5.2% relative humidity). Each day they drank 1 of 4 beverages in random order: fresh coconut water (FCW), bottled water (W), sports drink (SD), or potassium-rich drink (NEW); volume was 120% of weight loss. Urine was collected and perceptions self-reported for 3 h. Urine output was higher (p < 0.05) for W (894 178 mL) than SD (605 297 mL) and NEW (599 254 mL). FCW (686 250 mL) was not different from any other drink (p > 0.05). Fluid retention was higher for SD than W (68.2% 13.0% vs. 51.3% 12.6%, p = 0.013), but not for FCW and NEW (62.5% 15.4% and 65.9% 15.4%, p > 0.05). All beverages were palatable and well tolerated; none maintained a positive net fluid balance after 3 h, but deficit was greater in W versus SD (p = 0.001). FCW scored higher for sweetness (p = 0.03). Thirst increased immediately after exercise but returned to baseline after drinking a small volume (p < 0.0005). In conclusion, additional potassium in FCW and NEW did not result in additional rehydration benefits over those already found in a conventional sports drink with sodium. PMID:25017113

  18. Use of activated carbon to remove radon from drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.E.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.

    1991-09-01

    The project studied the feasibility of using granular activated carbon (GAC) as a point-of-entry treatment method to remove radon from individual drinking water supplies. The project included an experimental determination of the removal fraction for radon from drinking water by GAC. The experimental design consisted of flowing radon laden water through a GAC column, measuring the inlet and outlet concentrations of radon in the water, and measuring the activity of 210 Pb in slices of GAC from the column. The results of the work indicated a removal fraction of radon from drinking water of approximately 0.95. The results also indicated that nearly 100% of the 210 Pb produced from the decay of the radon was retained on the GAC. It appears that GAC systems could be used to remove radon from most individual North Carolina water supplies without the GAC being classified as low-level radioactive waste (based on a criterion of 2,000 pCi/g) if the GAC occasionally is replaced. More restrictive requirements on the disposal of solid waste containing natural radionuclides would limit the feasibility of using GAC to remove radon from drinking water.

  19. [On the rating of Helicobacter pylori in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Fedichkina, T P; Solenova, L G; Zykova, I E

    2014-01-01

    There are considered the issues related to the possibility to rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) content in drinking water. There is described the mechanism of of biofilm formation. The description refers to the biofilm formation mechanism in water supply systems and the existence of H. pylori in those systems. The objective premises of the definition of H. pylori as a potential limiting factor for assessing the quality of drinking water have been validated as follows: H. pylori is an etiologic factor associated to the development of chronic antral gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, and gastric cancer either, in the Russian population the rate of infection with H. pylori falls within range of 56 - 90%, water supply pathway now can be considered as a source of infection of the population with H. pylori, the existence of WHO regulatory documents considering H. pylori as a candidate for standardization of the quality of the drinking water quite common occurrence of biocorrosion, the reduction of sanitary water network reliability, that creates the possibility of concentrating H. pylori in some areas of the water system and its delivery to the consumer of drinking water, and causes the necessity of the prevention of H. pylori-associated gastric pathology of the population. A comprehensive and harmonized approach to H. pylori is required to consider it as a candidate to its rating in drinking water. Bearing in mind the large economic losses due to, on the one hand, the prevalence of disease caused by H. pylori, and, on the other hand, the biocorrosion of water supply system, the problem is both relevant in terms of communal hygiene and economy. PMID:25950045

  20. Is There Lead in My Drinking Water?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the proper functioning of the Earth's ecosystems. Water pollution has a serious impact on all living creatures, ... or treatment to remove them. Managing Stormwater Regulating Pollution Septic Systems Funding Water Infrastructure Top of Page Water Bodies Learn about ...

  1. The epidemiology of chemical contaminants of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Calderon, R L

    2000-01-01

    A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distribution materials and the drinking water treatment process. Chemical contaminants for which epidemiologic studies have reported associations include the following: aluminium, arsenic, disinfection by-products, fluoride, lead, pesticides and radon. Health effects reported have included various cancers, adverse reproductive outcomes, cardiovascular disease and neurological disease. In evaluating epidemiologic studies for risk assessment, considering whether the study design was qualitative (hypothesis generating) or quantitative (hypothesis testing) is important and whether sufficient epidemiologic data of a quantitative nature exists to determine the dose-response curve. Each of the chemical contaminants mentioned are summarized by study designs (qualitative and quantitative) and whether a dose-response curve based on epidemiologic data has been proposed. Environmental epidemiology studies are driven by environmental exposures of interest. For drinking water contaminants, the design of epidemiologic studies and their interpretation should consider the following exposure issues: the source of the contaminant; other sources of the contaminant; the route of exposure; the frequency, duration and magnitude of exposure; the ability to document an actual internal dose; and the ability to document the dose to the target organ. Health effects of concern have other risk factors that must be measured in the conduct of these studies. In evaluating epidemiologic studies, potential errors and biases that may occur must be considered given the very low magnitude of associations (less than 2.0 for either odds ratio or risk ratio). Given the issues, the next generation of drinking water epidemiologic studies should include a multidisciplinary team beyond traditional epidemiologists and statisticians. Study teams will require toxicologists, chemists, engineers and exposure assessors. Arsenic is briefly discussed as an example of the importance of susceptible populations. Disinfection by-products are discussed as an example of epidemiologic studies of mixtures. PMID:10717366

  2. Development of EPA Method 525.3 for the Analysis of Semivolatiles in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (OGWDW) collects nationwide occurrence data on contaminants in drinking water using the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulations (UCMRs). The unregulated contaminants, which ar...

  3. PREDICTING CHLORINE RESIDUAL DECAY IN DRINKING WATER: A SECOND ORDER MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major objective of drinking water treatment is to provide water that is both microbiologically and chemically safe for human consumption. Drinking water chlorination, therefore, poses a dilemma. Chemical disinfection reduces the risk of infectious disease but the interaction be...

  4. The Occurrence and Comparative Toxicity of Haloacetaldehyde Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The introduction of drinking water disinfection greatly reduced the incidence of waterborne diseases. However, the reaction between disinfectants and natural organic matter in the source water can lead to an unintended consequence, which is the formation of drinking water disinfe...

  5. New Perspectives in Monitoring Drinking Water Microbial Quality

    PubMed Central

    Figueras, Ma José; Borrego, Juan J.

    2010-01-01

    The safety of drinking water is evaluated by the results obtained from faecal indicators during the stipulated controls fixed by the legislation. However, drinking-water related illness outbreaks are still occurring worldwide. The failures that lead to these outbreaks are relatively common and typically involve preceding heavy rain and inadequate disinfection processes. The role that classical faecal indicators have played in the protection of public health is reviewed and the turning points expected for the future explored. The legislation for protecting the quality of drinking water in Europe is under revision, and the planned modifications include an update of current indicators and methods as well as the introduction of Water Safety Plans (WSPs), in line with WHO recommendations. The principles of the WSP approach and the advances signified by the introduction of these preventive measures in the future improvement of dinking water quality are presented. The expected impact that climate change will have in the quality of drinking water is also critically evaluated. PMID:21318002

  6. BIOFILM IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the world there are millions of miles of water distribution pipe lines which provide potable water for use by individuals and industry. Some of these water distribution systems have been in service well over one hundred years. Treated water moving through a distributio...

  7. Recent advances in drinking water disinfection: successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ngwenya, Nonhlanhla; Ncube, Esper J; Parsons, James

    2013-01-01

    Drinking water is the most important single source of human exposure to gastroenteric diseases, mainly as a result of the ingestion of microbial contaminated water. Waterborne microbial agents that pose a health risk to humans include enteropathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Therefore, properly assessing whether these hazardous agents enter drinking water supplies, and if they do, whether they are disinfected adequately, are undoubtedly aspects critical to protecting public health. As new pathogens emerge, monitoring for relevant indicator microorganisms (e.g., process microbial indicators, fecal indicators, and index and model organisms) is crucial to ensuring drinking water safety. Another crucially important step to maintaining public health is implementing Water Safety Plans (WSPs), as is recommended by the current WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Good WSPs include creating health-based targets that aim to reduce microbial risks and adverse health effects to which a population is exposed through drinking water. The use of disinfectants to inactivate microbial pathogens in drinking water has played a central role in reducing the incidence of waterborne diseases and is considered to be among the most successful interventions for preserving and promoting public health. Chlorine-based disinfectants are the most commonly used disinfectants and are cheap and easy to use. Free chlorine is an effective disinfectant for bacteria and viruses; however, it is not always effective against C. parvum and G. lamblia. Another limitation of using chlorination is that it produces disinfection by-products (DBPs), which pose potential health risks of their own. Currently, most drinking water regulations aggressively address DBP problems in public water distribution systems. The DBPs of most concern include the trihalomethanes (THMs), the haloacetic acids (HAAs), bromate, and chlorite. However, in the latest edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, it is recommended that water disinfection should never be compromised by attempting to control DBPs. The reason for this is that the risks of human illness and death from pathogens in drinking water are much greater than the risks from exposure to disinfectants and disinfection by-products. Nevertheless, if DBP levels exceed regulatory limits, strategies should focus on eliminating organic impurities that foster their formation, without compromising disinfection. As alternatives to chlorine, disinfectants such as chloramines, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and UV disinfection are gaining popularity. Chlorine and each of these disinfectants have individual advantage and disadvantage in terms of cost, efficacy-stability, ease of application, and nature of disinfectant by-products (DBPs). Based on efficiency, ozone is the most efficient disinfectant for inactivating bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. In contrast, chloramines are the least efficient and are not recommended for use as primary disinfectants. Chloramines are favored for secondary water disinfection, because they react more slowly than chlorine and are more persistent in distribution systems. In addition, chloramines produce lower DBP levels than does chlorine, although microbial activity in the distribution system may produce nitrate from monochloramine, when it is used as a residual disinfectant, Achieving the required levels of water quality, particularly microbial inactivation levels, while minimizing DBP formation requires the application of proper risk and disinfection management protocols. In addition, the failure of conventional treatment processes to eliminate critical waterborne pathogens in drinking water demand that improved and/or new disinfection technologies be developed. Recent research has disclosed that nanotechnology may offer solutions in this area, through the use of nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes, and nanoparticle-enhanced filtration. PMID:22990947

  8. Evaluation of ATP measurements to detect microbial ingress by wastewater and surface water in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Vang, luva K; Corfitzen, Charlotte B; Smith, Christian; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jrgen

    2014-11-01

    Fast and reliable methods are required for monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was investigated as a potential real-time parameter for detecting microbial ingress in drinking water contaminated with wastewater or surface water. To investigate the ability of the ATP assay in detecting different contamination types, the contaminant was diluted with non-chlorinated drinking water. Wastewater, diluted at 10(4) in drinking water, was detected with the ATP assay, as well as 10(2) to 10(3) times diluted surface water. To improve the performance of the ATP assay in detecting microbial ingress in drinking water, different approaches were investigated, i.e. quantifying microbial ATP or applying reagents of different sensitivities to reduce measurement variations; however, none of these approaches contributed significantly in this respect. Compared to traditional microbiological methods, the ATP assay could detect wastewater and surface water in drinking water to a higher degree than total direct counts (TDCs), while both heterotrophic plate counts (HPC 22C and HPC 37C) and Colilert-18 (Escherichia coli and coliforms) were more sensitive than the ATP measurements, though with much longer response times. Continuous sampling combined with ATP measurements displays definite monitoring potential for microbial drinking water quality, since microbial ingress in drinking water can be detected in real-time with ATP measurements. The ability of the ATP assay to detect microbial ingress is influenced by both the ATP load from the contaminant itself and the ATP concentration in the specific drinking water. Consequently, a low ATP concentration of the specific drinking water facilitates a better detection of a potential contamination of the water supply with the ATP assay. PMID:25086698

  9. Assessing the Microbial Quality of Improved Drinking Water Sources: Results from the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Rachel; Kayser, Georgia; Stauber, Christine; Sobsey, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Millennium Development Goal Target 7c (to halve between 1990 and 2015 the proportion of the global population without sustainable access to safe drinking water), was celebrated as achieved in 2012. However, new studies show that we may be prematurely celebrating. Access to safe drinking water may be overestimated if microbial water quality is considered. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between microbial drinking water quality and drinking water source in the Puerto Plata region of the Dominican Republic. This study analyzed microbial drinking water quality data from 409 households in 33 communities. Results showed that 47% of improved drinking water sources were of high to very-high risk water quality, and therefore unsafe for drinking. This study provides evidence that the current estimate of safe water access may be overly optimistic, and microbial water quality data are needed to reliably assess the safety of drinking water. PMID:24218411

  10. Demineralization of drinking water: Is it prudent?

    PubMed Central

    Verma, K.C.; Kushwaha, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Water is the elixir of life. The requirement of water for very existence of life and preservation of health has driven man to devise methods for maintaining its purity and wholesomeness. The water can get contaminated, polluted and become a potential hazard to human health. Water in its purest form devoid of natural minerals can also be the other end of spectrum where health could be adversely affected. Limited availability of fresh water and increased requirements has led to an increased usage of personal, domestic and commercial methods of purification of water. Desalination of saline water where fresh water is in limited supply has led to development of the latest technology of reverse osmosis but is it going to be safe to use such demineralized water over a long duration needs to be debated and discussed. PMID:25382914

  11. Demineralization of drinking water: Is it prudent?

    PubMed

    Verma, K C; Kushwaha, A S

    2014-10-01

    Water is the elixir of life. The requirement of water for very existence of life and preservation of health has driven man to devise methods for maintaining its purity and wholesomeness. The water can get contaminated, polluted and become a potential hazard to human health. Water in its purest form devoid of natural minerals can also be the other end of spectrum where health could be adversely affected. Limited availability of fresh water and increased requirements has led to an increased usage of personal, domestic and commercial methods of purification of water. Desalination of saline water where fresh water is in limited supply has led to development of the latest technology of reverse osmosis but is it going to be safe to use such demineralized water over a long duration needs to be debated and discussed. PMID:25382914

  12. [Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks].

    PubMed

    Ancasi, E G; Carrillo, L; Bentez Ahrendts, M R

    2006-01-01

    Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Dak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in carbonated water. PMID:17037258

  13. Tastes associated with products in contact with drinking water.

    PubMed

    Marchesan, M; Morran, J

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 9 years the Australian Water Quality Centre (AWQC) has conducted testing in accordance with Australian and New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4020--"Products for use in contact with drinking water" (1999). A test included as part of this standard is taste of water extracts. This test assesses the ability of products to impart discernible taste to drinking water using panellists trained in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater--Flavour Profile Analysis 2170 B (1999). Over 1000 products from companies worldwide, have been assessed at the AWQC in accordance with AS/NZS 4020 including pipes, valves, tap fittings and numerous other products used in contact with water. The products must not impart any discernible taste to obtain compliance and be deemed suitable for use in contact with drinking water. This study compiles the products assessed and the types of tastes obtained from both chlorinated and non-chlorinated extracts. In particular the study focuses on taste associated with polyethylene pipes, coatings and valves, which in some instances have been problematic. Analysis revealed that most taste problems occur when chlorinated water has been used in extraction experiments and this is in line with consumer complaints regarding taste imparted by plumbing products. The collation of this data provides a valuable assessment for manufacturers, the water industry and consumers. PMID:15237629

  14. Arsenic exposure to drinking water in the Mekong Delta.

    PubMed

    Merola, R B; Hien, T T; Quyen, D T T; Vengosh, A

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater drinking sources was investigated in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam in order to assess the occurrence of As in the groundwater, and the magnitude of As exposure of local residents through measurements of As in toenails of residents consuming groundwater as their major drinking water source. Groundwater (n=68) and toenail (n=62) samples were collected in Dong Thap Province, adjacent to the Mekong River, in southern Vietnam. Fifty-three percent (n=36) of the wells tested had As content above the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommended limit of 10 ppb. Samples were divided into Northern (mean As=4.0 ppb) and Southern (329.0 ppb) groups; wells from the Southern group were located closer to the Mekong River. Elevated As contents were associated with depth (<200 m), salinity (low salinity), and redox state (reducing conditions) of the study groundwater. In 79% of the wells, As was primarily composed of the reduced As(III) species. Arsenic content in nails collected from local residents was significantly correlated to As in drinking water (r=0.49, p<0.001), and the relationship improved for pairs in which As in drinking water was higher than 1 ppb (r=0.56, p<0.001). Survey data show that the ratio of As in nail to As in water varied among residents, reflecting differential As bioaccumulation in specific exposed sub-populations. The data show that water filtration and diet, particularly increased consumption of animal protein and dairy, and reduced consumption of seafood, were associated with lower ratios of As in nail to As in water and thus could play important roles in mitigating As exposure in areas where As-rich groundwater is the primary drinking water source. PMID:25585157

  15. EMERGING CONTAMINANTS IN THE DRINKING WATER CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    PRESENTATION OUTLINE: I. General overview of the water cycle;

    II. USEPA and USGS Research;

    a. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and downstream surface waters;

    b. Groundwater down gradient from WW lagoon;

    c. Source and finished water fro...

  16. Trihalomethane hydrolysis in drinking water at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Lu; Yang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Karanfil, Tanju; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2015-07-01

    Hydrolysis could contribute to the loss of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the drinking water at elevated temperatures. This study was aimed at investigating THM hydrolysis pertaining to the storage of hot boiled water in enclosed containers. The water pH value was in the range of 6.1-8.2 and the water temperature was varied from 65 to 95 °C. The effects of halide ions, natural organic matter, and drinking water matrix were investigated. Results showed that the hydrolysis rates declined in the order following CHBrCl2 > CHBr2Cl > CHBr3 > CHCl3. THM hydrolysis was primarily through the alkaline pathway, except for CHCl3 in water at relatively low pH value. The activation energies for the alkaline hydrolysis of CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 were 109, 113, 115 and 116 kJ/mol, respectively. No hydrolysis intermediates could accumulate in the water. The natural organic matter, and probably other constituents, in drinking water could substantially decrease THM hydrolysis rates by more than 50%. When a drinking water was at 90 °C or above, the first order rate constants for THM hydrolysis were in the magnitude of 10(-2)‒10(-1) 1/h. When the boiled real tap water was stored in an enclosed container, THMs continued increasing during the first few hours and then kept decreasing later on due to the competition between hydrolysis and further formation. The removal of THMs, especially brominated THMs, by hydrolysis would greatly reduce one's exposure to disinfection by-products by consuming the boiled water stored in enclosed containers. PMID:25898249

  17. Arsenic in drinking water in bangladesh: factors affecting child health.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Sonia N; Aziz, Khwaja M S; Boyle, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people's individuals' time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children's health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  18. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting peoples individuals time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for childrens health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  19. 77 FR 61027 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act On... Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act at mobile home parks operated by defendants in Pennsylvania, Delaware and Virginia. The defendants treat sewage and provide drinking water at a number of its...

  20. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water. PMID:22649292

  1. Removal of alkanes from drinking water using membrane technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fronk, C.A.

    1995-10-01

    Increasingly, the public is concerned about the quality of its drinking water. The chlorinated alkanes are saturated, aliphatic, synthetic organic compounds (SOC`s). When hydrocarbon feedstocks are chlorinated, a wide variety of chlorocarbons and chlorohydrocarbons are produced that are used as industrial solvents, degreasers and intermediaries. Because compounds such as Carbon Tetrachloride and 1,2-Dichloroethane are widely used, they often find their way into drinking water, particularly groundwaters. Surface waters are somewhat less affected bemuse of the high volatility of many chlorinated alkanes. The Drinking Water Research Division is responsible for evaluating various membrane technologies that may be feasible for meeting Maximum Contaminant Levels. Several membrane processes are under investigation to determine their effectiveness in removing SOC`s from drinking water. One study addressed the removal of a variety of alkanes from spiked groundwater by six reverse osmosis membranes: a cellulose acetate, a polyamide (hollow fiber), and four different types of thin-film composite membranes. Progressive chlorination of methanes, ethanes and propanes produces compounds that exhibit differing physicochemical properties. The differences in compound properties have an effect on the removal of these compounds by reverse osmosis membranes. For example only 25% of the methylene chloride (Dichloromethane) was removed by one thin-film composite versus 90% removal of the carbon tetrachloride. In addition, the various membranes are made of different polymeric materials and showed a wide range of removals. Generally, the thin-film composite membranes out performed the other membranes and the more highly chlorinated the compound the better the removal. Pervaporation is yet another membrane process that may prove effective in removal of alkanes and future studies will address its usefulness as a drinking water.

  2. MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. Equations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reation rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. An analytical solution for ...

  3. COMPARATIVE RISK DILEMNAS IN DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION [EDITORIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disinfection of drinking water supplies has been one of the most succesful public health interventions of the twentieth century. It has virtually eliminated outbreaks of serious waterborne infectious diseases, such as cholera and typhoid. there are still, however, an average of...

  4. Drinking Water Activities for Students, Teachers, and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This guide provides teachers with materials, information, and classroom activities to enhance any drinking water curriculum. Students can use the activity sheets to further lessons and stimulate thought. Parents can use the guide to develop science projects that will provoke thought, encourage research, and provide a scientific approach to…

  5. TECHNIQUES FOR ANALYZING COMPLEX MIXTURES OF DRINKING WATER DBPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although chlorine has been used to disinfect drinking water for approximately 100 years, there have been concerns raised over its use, due to the formation of potentially hazardous by-products. Trihalomethanes (THMs) were the first disinfection by-products (DBPs) identified and ...

  6. ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 requires that all tolerances for pesticide chemical residuals in or on food be considered for anticipated exposure. Drinking water is considered a potential pathway for dietary exposure and there is reliable monitoring data for the ...

  7. MODELING CHLORINE RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mass-transfer-based model is developed for predicting chlorine decay in drinking-water distribution networks. The model considers first-order reactions of chlorine to occur both in the bulk flow and at the pipe wall. The overall rate of the wall reaction is a function of the ...

  8. Dimethylamine biodegradation by mixed culture enriched from drinking water biofilter.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaobin; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Jingxu; Dai, Yu; Zhang, Xiaojian; Xie, Shuguang

    2015-01-01

    Dimethylamine (DMA) is one of the important precursors of drinking water disinfection by-product N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Reduction of DMA to minimize the formation of carcinogenic NDMA in drinking water is of practical importance. Biodegradation plays a major role in elimination of DMA pollution in the environment, yet information on DMA removal by drinking water biofilter is still lacking. In this study, microcosms with different treatments were constructed to investigate the potential of DMA removal by a mixed culture enriched from a drinking water biofilter and the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources. DMA could be quickly mineralized by the enrichment culture. Amendment of a carbon source, instead of a nitrogen source, had a profound impact on DMA removal. A shift in bacterial community structure was observed with DMA biodegradation, affected by carbon and nitrogen sources. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum group in DMA-degrading microcosms. Microorganisms from a variety of bacterial genera might be responsible for the rapid DMA mineralization. PMID:25280176

  9. ESTIMATION OF RISK FROM CARCINOGENS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study aimed at developing a means for estimating cancer mortality as a function of carcinogen concentration in drinking water. Cancer risk data for cigarette smokers was treated by the method of standard additions to provide an estimate of ambient ca...

  10. ABSORPTION OF LEAD FROM DRINKING WATER WITH VARYING MINERAL CONTENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead (Pb) (200 ppm) was administered via drinking water to rats for nine weeks. In addition, the rats were grouped so that they received 75, 100, 150 and 250% of the minimum daily requirements (MDR) of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), and magnesium (Mg) as required for normal growth. The...

  11. Arsenic in Drinking Water--The Silent Killer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wajrak, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Natural arsenic salts are present in all waters, with natural concentrations of less than 10 parts per billion (ppb). Unfortunately, there is an increasing number of countries where toxic arsenic compounds in groundwater, which is used for drinking and irrigation, have been detected at concentrations above the World Health Organization's

  12. PRESCRIBED PROCEDURES FOR MEASUREMENT OF RADIOACTIVITY IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appropriate radiochemical procedures have been complied in a laboratory manual for use in the analysis of gross alpha activity, gross beta activity, 134/137Cs, 131I, 226/228Ra, 89,90Sr, 3H, uranium, and the actinide elements, in drinking water. These methods possess the necessary...

  13. REMOVING ESOTERIC CONTAMINANTS FROM DRINKING WATERS: IMPACTS OF TREATMENT IMPLEMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    At first blush, the production and distribution of drinking water seems to be a very straight forward process. There is a need to remove microbial agents and any anthropogenic or autochthonous contaminants that may be of health concern. Finally, a disinfectant is usually added to...

  14. Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle - MCEARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-g/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  15. REAL-TIME REMOTE MONITORING OF DRINKING WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past eight years, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) has funded the testing and evaluation of various online "real-time" technologies for monitoring drinking water quality. The events of 9/11 and subsequent threats t...

  16. Role of detection limits in drinking water regulation.

    PubMed

    Calder, Ryan S D; Schmitt, Ketra A

    2010-11-01

    Some commentators on environmental science and policy have claimed that advances in analytical chemistry, reflected by an ability to detect contaminants at ever-decreasing concentrations, lead to regulations stricter than justified by available toxicological data. We evaluate this claim in the context of drinking water regulation, with respect to contaminants regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). We examine the relationships between historical and present maximum contaminant levels and goals in the greater context of detection capability and evaluate the extent to which different aspects of the regulatory apparatus (i.e., analytical capability, cost-benefit analysis, analysis of competing risks, and available toxicological data) influence the regulatory process. Our findings do not support the claim that decreases in detection limit lead to more stringent regulation in the context of drinking water regulation in the United States. Further, based on our analysis of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulation and existing United States Environmental Protection Agency approaches to establishing the practical quantifiable level, we conclude that in the absence of changes to the underlying toxicological model, regulatory revision is unlikely. PMID:20925425

  17. RECOVERY AND DIVERSITY OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA FROM CHLORINATED DRINKING WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heterotrophic bacteria were enumerated from the Seattle drinking water catchment basins and distribution system. The highest bacterial recoveries were obtained by using a very dilute medium containing 0.01% peptone as the primary carbon source. Other factors favoring high recover...

  18. Mineralogical Evidence of Galvanic Corrosion in Domestic, Drinking Water Pipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water distribution system (DWDS) piping contains numerous examples of galvanically-coupled metals (e.g., soldered copper pipe joints, copper-lead pipes joined during partial replacements of lead service lines). The possible role of galvanic corrosion in the release of l...

  19. FETOTOXIC EFFECTS OF NICKEL IN DRINKING WATER IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nickel chloride was administered in drinking water to pregnant mice from the 2nd through the 17th day of gestation at nickel doses of 0, 500, or 1000 ppm. Fetal or maternal toxicity was not seen after administration of 500 ppm of nickel. However, the higher dose caused spontaneou...

  20. ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorpyrifos (CP) was used as a model compound to develop experimental methods and prototype modeling tools to forecast the fate of organophosphate (OP) pesticides under drinking water treatment conditions. CP was found to rapidly oxidize to chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) in the presen...

  1. COMPUTER ASSISTED PRELIMINARY DESIGN FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESS SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study was to develop an interactive computer program to aid the design engineer in evaluating the performance and cost for any proposed drinking water treatment system consisting of individual unit processes. The 25 unit process models currently in the program ...

  2. EVALUATION OF 'BACTEROIDES' AS INDICATOR BACTERIA IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research project is concerned with the development of more rapid and sensitive procedures to determine the quality of drinking water. The specific objective of the project was to evaluate the use of a new group of indicator bacteria for assessing fecal contamination of drinki...

  3. RESEARCH FOR THE TREATMENT OF ORGANICS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Drinking Water Research Division uses a three tiered approach to research. The first step is bench-scale, where the chemical behavior of the organic contaminant can be investigated in a closely controlled environment. The next level, pilot...

  4. Potential Relationships Between Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The conferees urge the Agency to carry out a study on the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using a credible approach that relies on the best available science, as well as independent sources of information. The conferees expect the study to be conduct...

  5. TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR CONTROLLING TRIHALOMETHANES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this volume, the authors attempt to bring together information developed over the past 6 years, on all aspects of trihalomethanes as they relate to drinking water. Section I summarizes with references to the primary literature the discovery of the trihalomethane problem, healt...

  6. ELEVATED LEVELS OF SODIUM IN COMMUNITY DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comparison study of students from towns with differing levels of sodium in drinking water revealed statistically significantly higher blood pressure distributions among the students from the town with high sodium levels. Differences were found in both systolic and diastolic rea...

  7. REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM DRINKING WATER BY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NIPDWR) established the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic at 0.05 mg/L in 1977. everal years ago the USEPA began to re-examine the arsenic health effects information and has indicated that the MCL could be s...

  8. DBP CONTROL IN DRINKING WATER: COST AND PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) is:currently attempting to balance the complex tradeoff in chemical and microbial risk associated with controlling disinfection and disinfection by-products (D/DBP) in drinking water. n attempting to achieve this balance, the U.S...

  9. Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle - MCEARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-?g/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  10. URBAN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: A U.S. PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will examine several case studies that illustrate the critical role drinking water treatment and distribution systems play in protecting public health. It will also present a case study that documents the dramatic impact that the regulations promulgated under the Safe...

  11. USING WATERSHED ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR PROTECTING DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first manuscript describes the application of watershed ERA principles to the development of a strategic watershed management plan for Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, where the primary focus was on the protection of drinking water quality, a concern typically addressed by...

  12. NEUROTOXICITY PRODUCED BY DIBROMOACETIC ACID IN DRINKING WATER OF RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript examines the neurotoxic potential of a commonly found disinfection by-product (DBP), dibromoacetic acid (DBA). While the Safe Drinking Water Act requires evaluation of DBPs for noncancer health effects, surprisingly few have been tested for neurotoxicity. Rats e...

  13. Metagenomic Analyses of Drinking Water Receiving Different Disinfection Treatments

    EPA Science Inventory

    A metagenome-based approach was utilized for assessing the taxonomic affiliation and function potential of microbial populations in free chlorine (CHL) and monochloramine (CHM) treated drinking water (DW). A total of 1,024, 242 (averaging 544 bp) and 849, 349 (averaging 554 bp) ...

  14. METHODS FOR REMOVING URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The number of water supplies with high uranium levels and the possibility of a national uranium regulation has stimulated greater interest in uranium removal technology. The paper summarizes recent information on the effectiveness of various methods for uranium removal from drink...

  15. MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF DRINKING WATER MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES: A PHYLOGENETIC APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbiological quality of drinking water is assessed using culture-based methods that are highly selective and that tend to underestimate the densities and diversity of microbial populations inhabiting distribution systems. In order to better understand the effect of differe...

  16. RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential exposure to drinking water arsenic in Inner Mongolia, China
    Zhixiong Ning1, Richard K. Kwok2, Zhiyi Liu1, Shiying Zhang1, Chenglong Ma1, Danelle T. Lobdell2, Michael Riediker3 and Judy L. Mumford2
    1) Institute of Endemic Disease for Prevention and Treatment in I...

  17. ELECTRO-REGENERATED ION-EXCHANGE DEIONIZATION OF DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the development of a device for removal of inorganic salts from drinking water to facilitate the subsequent concentration of organic solutes for bioassay. Prior attempts to concentrate the organic solutes by reverse osmosis (RO) resulted in precipitation of t...

  18. EFFECT OF BROMIDE ON CHLORINATION BYPRODUCTS IN FINISHED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    To investigate the role of bromide ion concentration on formation and speciation of non-THMs chlorination organic byproducts, a two block full factorial matrix was designed to statistically evaluate the influence of various parameters which are relevant to drinking water treatmen...

  19. EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF ORGANIC MICROPOLLUTANTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have been conducted in order to make a quantitative statement about associations between drinking water contaminants and disease. The basic measures of the association are a rate ratio or relative risk and rate difference or attributable risk. The appropriat...

  20. DBP CONTROL IN DRINKING WATER: COST AND PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is currently attempting to balance the complex trade-offs in chemical and microbial risks associated with controlling disinfection and disinfection byproducts (D/DBP) in drinking water. In attempting to achieve this balance, the...

  1. FATE OF PESTICIDES AND TOXIC CHEMICALS DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulations require that all relevant routes of human consumption be considered in risk assessments for anthropogenic chemicals. A large percentage of the U.S. population consumes drinking water (DW) that is treated. Limited studies show that some pesticides and toxics occurrin...

  2. MODELING CHLORINE RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mass transfer-based model is developed for predicting chlorine decay in drinking water distribution networks. he model considers first order reactions of chlorine to occur both in the bulk flow and at the pipe wall. he overall rate of the wall reaction is a function of the rate...

  3. Decontamination Methods For Drinking Water Treatment And Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Once contamination has occurred in drinking water systems and the contaminated segment has been isolated from other parts of the system, there will be great urgency to decontaminate the areas as rapidly and cost effectively as possible. This article describes available and deve...

  4. Environmental health perspectives. Volume 46. Drinking water disinfectants - December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lucier, G.W.; Hook, G.E.R.

    1982-01-01

    Among subjects considered are chlorine dioxide, N-chloramines, mutagenic activity by disinfectant reaction products, trihalomethane and behavioral toxicity, and carcinogenic risk estimation. There are 27 papers on these and related topics. The volume stems from a symposium on drinking water disinfectants and disinfectant by-products.

  5. 9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements. 3.115 Section 3.115 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Marine...

  6. CONTROL OF MICROBES AND DBPS IN DRINKING WATER: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historically drinking water utilities in the United States (U.S.) have played a major role in protecting public health through the reduction of waterborne disease. These reductions in waterborne disease outbreaks were brought about by the use of sand filtration, disinfection and...

  7. Arsenic in Drinking Water--The Silent Killer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wajrak, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Natural arsenic salts are present in all waters, with natural concentrations of less than 10 parts per billion (ppb). Unfortunately, there is an increasing number of countries where toxic arsenic compounds in groundwater, which is used for drinking and irrigation, have been detected at concentrations above the World Health Organization's…

  8. Impact of Plumbing Age on Copper Levels in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Theory and limited practical experiences suggest that higher copper levels in drinking water tap samples are typically associated with newer plumbing systems, and levels decrease with increasing plumbing age. Past researchers have developed a conceptual model to explain the “agin...

  9. DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS AND DURATION OF GESTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) suggest high exposure decreases risk of preterm birth. We examined this association with total trihalomethane (TTHM) and five haloacetic acids (HAA5) among 2,041 women in a prospective pregnancy study conducted from...

  10. MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. quations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reaction rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. n analytical solution for the...

  11. ENUMERATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various spread-plating enumeration media and procedures have been tested to determine the method of choice for the enumeration of the highest numbers of heterotrophic bacteria from chlorinated drinking waters. Dilute media, including a caseinate peptone starch medium, a dilute pe...

  12. Nephrotoxicity of uranium in drinking water from private drilled wells

    SciTech Connect

    Selden, Anders I.; Lundholm, Cecilia; Edlund, Bror; Hoegdahl, Camilla; Ek, Britt-Marie; Bergstroem, Bernt E.; Ohlson, Carl-Goeran

    2009-05-15

    Objectives: To investigate the association between uranium in drinking water from drilled wells and aspects of kidney function measured by sensitive urine tests. Methods: Three hundred and one of 398 eligible subjects (75.6%) aged 18-74 years with daily drinking water supplies from private drilled wells located in uranium-rich bedrock (exposed group) volunteered to participate along with 153 of 271 local controls (56.4%) who used municipal water. Participants responded to a questionnaire on their water consumption and general health, and provided a morning urine sample and drinking water for analysis. Results: The uranium content of well water samples (n=153) varied considerably (range <0.20-470 {mu}g/l, median 6.7 {mu}g/l, 5% >100 {mu}g/l), while uranium levels in all samples of municipal water (n=14) were below the limit of quantification (0.2 {mu}g/l). Urinary levels of uranium were more than eight times higher in exposed subjects than in controls (geometric means 38 and 4.3 ng/l, respectively; p<0.001), but their mean urine lead levels were not significantly different. There was a strong curvilinear correlation between uranium in drinking water and in urine (r{sup 2}=0.66). Levels of albumin, {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, protein HC as well as kappa and lambda immunoglobulin chains in urine from exposed and controls were similar. The N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity was significantly lower in the exposed group vs. controls, possibly secondary to differential storage duration of samples from the two groups. Even in regression models adjusting for gender, age and smoking no association of uranium in water and the kidney function parameters was observed. Using uranium in urine in the entire study group as a marker of exposure, however, a tendency of exposure-related increases of {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, protein HC and kappa chains were noted. This tendency was enhanced after exclusion of subjects with diabetes mellitus from the analysis. Conclusions: Uranium levels in urine were strongly correlated to levels in drinking water from drilled wells. There were no clear signs of nephrotoxicity from uranium in drinking water at levels recorded in this study, but some indications of an effect were observed using uranium in urine as a measure of overall uranium exposure. The clinical relevance of these findings remains unclear.

  13. MEETING THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE U.S. SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT: THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The passage of the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974 has had a major impact on the way water is treated and delivered in the United States. The Act established national drinking water regulations for more than 170,000 public drinking water systems serving over 250 mill...

  14. 78 FR 73206 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act On November 23, 2013 the... requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act and the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (``NPDWRs...-142-F. The action concerns the public water system the defendant, Bryan Pownall (``Defendant'')...

  15. Safe Drinking Water for Alaska: Curriculum for Grades 1-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South East Regional Resource Center, Juneau, AK.

    Presented is a set of 10 lessons on safe drinking water in Alaska for use by elementary school teachers. The aim is to provide students with an understanding of the sources of the water they drink, how drinking water can be made safe, and the health threat that unsafe water represents. Although this curriculum relates primarily to science, health,

  16. Transparent exopolymer particle removal in different drinking water production centers.

    PubMed

    Van Nevel, Sam; Hennebel, Tom; De Beuf, Kristof; Du Laing, Gijs; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2012-07-01

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have recently gained interest in relation to membrane fouling. These sticky, gel-like particles consist of acidic polysaccharides excreted by bacteria and algae. The concentrations, expressed as xanthan gum equivalents L⁻¹ (μg X(eq) L⁻¹), usually reach hundred up to thousands μg X(eq) L⁻¹ in natural waters. However, very few research was performed on the occurrence and fate of TEP in drinking water, this far. This study examined three different drinking water production centers, taking in effluent of a sewage treatment plant (STP), surface water and groundwater, respectively. Each treatment step was evaluated on TEP removal and on 13 other chemical and biological parameters. An assessment on TEP removal efficiency of a diverse range of water treatment methods and on correlations between TEP and other parameters was performed. Significant correlations between particulate TEP (>0.4 μm) and viable cell concentrations were found, as well as between colloidal TEP (0.05-0.4 μm) and total COD, TOC, total cell or viable cell concentrations. TEP concentrations were very dependent on the raw water source; no TEP was detected in groundwater but the STP effluent contained 1572 μg X(eq) L⁻¹ and the surface water 699 μg X(eq) L⁻¹. Over 94% of total TEP in both plants was colloidal TEP, a fraction neglected in nearly every other TEP study. The combination of coagulation and sand filtration was effective to decrease the TEP levels by 67%, while the combination of ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis provided a total TEP removal. Finally, in none of the installations TEP reached the final drinking water distribution system at significant concentrations. Overall, this study described the presence and removal of TEP in drinking water systems. PMID:22537844

  17. ACIDIC DEPOSITION AND CISTERN DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water quality charecteristics, including the trace element Cd, cu, Pb, and Zn, in rainwater cistern supplies representing an area receiving acidic deposition were compared to cistern water chemistry in a control area that does not receive a significant input of acidic deposit...

  18. Nitrate removal from drinking water -- Review

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, A.; Viraraghavan, T.

    1997-04-01

    Nitrate concentrations in surface water and especially in ground water have increased in Canada, the US, Europe, and other areas of the world. This trend has raised concern because nitrates cause methemoglobiinemia in infants. Several treatment processes including ion exchange, biological denitrification, chemical denitrification, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, and catalytic denitrification can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that ion exchange and biological denitrification are more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis. Ion exchange is more viable for ground water while biological denitrification is the preferred alternative for surface water. This paper reviews the developments in the field of nitrate removal processes.

  19. Human Health Relevance of Pharmaceutically Active Compounds in Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Khan, Usman; Nicell, Jim

    2015-05-01

    In Canada, as many as 20 pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been detected in samples of treated drinking water. The presence of these PhACs in drinking water raises important questions as to the human health risk posed by their potential appearance in drinking water supplies and the extent to which they indicate that other PhACs are present but have not been detected using current analytical methods. Therefore, the goal of the current investigation was to conduct a screening-level assessment of the human health risks posed by the aquatic release of an evaluation set of 335 selected PhACs. Predicted and measured concentrations were used to estimate the exposure of Canadians to each PhAC in the evaluation set. Risk evaluations based on measurements could only be performed for 17 PhACs and, of these, all were found to pose a negligible risk to human health when considered individually. The same approach to risk evaluation, but based on predicted rather than measured environmental concentrations, suggested that 322 PhACs of the evaluation set, when considered individually, are expected to pose a negligible risk to human health due to their potential presence in drinking waters. However, the following 14 PhACs should beprioritized for further study: triiodothyronine, thyroxine, ramipril and its metabolite ramiprilat, candesartan, lisinopril, atorvastatin, lorazepam, fentanyl, atenolol, metformin, enalaprilat, morphine, and irbesartan. Finally, the currently available monitoring data for PhACs in Canadian surface and drinking waters was found to be lacking, irrespective of whether their suitability was assessed based on risk posed, predicted exposure concentrations, or potency. PMID:25739816

  20. Drinking water arsenic in Utah: A cohort mortality study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D R; Southwick, J W; Ouellet-Hellstrom, R; Rench, J; Calderon, R L

    1999-05-01

    The association of drinking water arsenic and mortality outcome was investigated in a cohort of residents from Millard County, Utah. Median drinking water arsenic concentrations for selected study towns ranged from 14 to 166 ppb and were from public and private samples collected and analyzed under the auspices of the State of Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Drinking Water. Cohort members were assembled using historical documents of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Standard mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated. Using residence history and median drinking water arsenic concentration, a matrix for cumulative arsenic exposure was created. Without regard to specific exposure levels, statistically significant findings include increased mortality from hypertensive heart disease [SMR = 2.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.36-3.36], nephritis and nephrosis (SMR = 1.72; CI, 1.13-2.50), and prostate cancer (SMR = 1.45; CI, 1.07-1. 91) among cohort males. Among cohort females, statistically significant increased mortality was found for hypertensive heart disease (SMR = 1.73; CI, 1.11-2.58) and for the category of all other heart disease, which includes pulmonary heart disease, pericarditis, and other diseases of the pericardium (SMR = 1.43; CI, 1.11-1.80). SMR analysis by low, medium, and high arsenic exposure groups hinted at a dose relationship for prostate cancer. Although the SMRs by exposure category were elevated for hypertensive heart disease for both males and females, the increases were not sequential from low to high groups. Because the relationship between health effects and exposure to drinking water arsenic is not well established in U.S. populations, further evaluation of effects in low-exposure populations is warranted. PMID:10210691

  1. Tirane, Albania: survey on drinking water quality and facilities.

    PubMed

    Palombi, L; Villa, L; Divizia, M; Cenko, F; Siniari, V; Rotigliano, G; Buonomo, E

    2001-01-01

    To develop a realistic model of the situation, a study was carried out in four different socioeconomic and hygienic areas of Tirane, namely in the modern and historical centre as well as in the intermediate and peripheral areas. In each area interviewers from the city's Public Health Directorate, contacted randomly, door-to-door, the residents, submitting a questionnaire and collecting water samples at the same time. Our data show relevant differences regarding distribution and quality of drinking water between the centre and peripheral areas. One third of water samples revealed the presence of microorganisms, whereas one fifth had no residual chlorine. Altogether more than 200,000 people in the peripheral areas of Tirane live under low level hygienic conditions. The recent outbreaks of cholera, poliomyelitis and the hyperendemic hepatitis A disease are the dramatic results of the low quality drinking water. PMID:11464774

  2. Purification of drinking water by low cost method in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abatneh, Yasabie; Sahu, Omprakash; Yimer, Seid

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, water treatment is a big issue in rural areas especially in African country. Due to lack of facilities available in those areas and the treatment are expensive. In this regard's an attempt has been made to find alternative natural way to treat the rural drinking water. The experiment trials were undertaken on the most promising plant extracts, namely: Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Guar gum. The extracts were used to treat contaminated water obtained from a number of wells. The results showed that the addition of M. oleifera can considerably improve the quality of drinking water. A 100 % improvement both in turbidity and reduction in Escherichia coli was noted for a number of the samples, together with significant improvements in colour.

  3. Safe drinking water projects integrated information system for rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xue-ling; Zhao, Ying-bao; Liu, Chao-ying; Song, Zhe-ying

    2009-07-01

    According to the water supply characteristics in rural areas, it designs a safe drinking water project in this paper. The whole system includes three parts. Those are communication part, automatic control and test part and video surveillance part. Communication part mainly realizes the data transfer between PLC controlled equipment, branch pipeline monitoring and control equipment in the water plant. Automatic control and test part adopts hierarchical, distributed, decentralized structure to remote control and dynamic detect the data on-site. Video Surveillance part can monitor the personnel and equipment condition to guarantee the safe of the whole system. The system takes Visual Studio .NET as the development platform and it entirely bases on the public network B/S structure. From the application, it can be seen that the whole system has the characters of using and maintaining easily, interface simple and friend and it can improve the drinking water condition in rural areas greatly.

  4. Assessment of asbestos in drinking water in alexandria, egypt.

    PubMed

    Hosny, Gihan; Akel, Mekkawy

    2006-01-01

    Over the past several years, the presence of fibrous asbestos particulates has been observed in a number of municipal water supplies throughout the USA, Canada, and several other regions all over the world. The possible health hazards which these fibers present have spurred a great deal of interest in the problems of detection and removal of the submicroscopic particulates in water. Asbestos is a group of fibrous metamorphic silicate minerals that is ubiquitous in the environment as a result of its extensive industrial use and the dissemination of fibers from natural sources. The health hazards associated with inhalation of asbestos in the occupational environment have long been recognized including asbestosis, bronchial carcinoma, malignant mesothelioma of the pleura and peritoneum, and possibly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract and larynx. It is introduced into water by the dissolution of asbestos-containing minerals and ores, and from industrial effluents, atmospheric pollution and erosion of asbestos-cement (A/C) pipes in the distribution systems of drinking water. In Alexandria, most of the pipes in the distribution systems of drinking water are asbestos-cement (A/C) pipe system. Drinking water samples (1 liter each) were collected in glass containers from different regions in Alexandria and filtered in cellulose filters (mixed cellulose ester type filters of pore size 0.2 mum) within less than 48 hours. Filters were allowed to dry, gold plated and scanned microscopically. Asbestos fibers were detected in all water samples collected from regions having A/C pipe drainage system. No fibers detected in regions, where the pipe distribution system was poly venyl pipe system or changed from A/C pipe to cast iron pipe system. The determination of asbestos fibers in drinking water of Alexandria should have particular concern because of the health hazards that might be associated with their presence. PMID:17382060

  5. Pesticides in Drinking Water – The Brazilian Monitoring Program

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Auria M. C.; Solano, Marize de L. M.; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de A.

    2015-01-01

    Brazil is the world largest pesticide consumer; therefore, it is important to monitor the levels of these chemicals in the water used by population. The Ministry of Health coordinates the National Drinking Water Quality Surveillance Program (Vigiagua) with the objective to monitor water quality. Water quality data are introduced in the program by state and municipal health secretariats using a database called Sisagua (Information System of Water Quality Monitoring). Brazilian drinking water norm (Ordinance 2914/2011 from Ministry of Health) includes 27 pesticide active ingredients that need to be monitored every 6 months. This number represents <10% of current active ingredients approved for use in the country. In this work, we analyzed data compiled in Sisagua database in a qualitative and quantitative way. From 2007 to 2010, approximately 169,000 pesticide analytical results were prepared and evaluated, although approximately 980,000 would be expected if all municipalities registered their analyses. This shows that only 9–17% of municipalities registered their data in Sisagua. In this dataset, we observed non-compliance with the minimum sampling number required by the norm, lack of information about detection and quantification limits, insufficient standardization in expression of results, and several inconsistencies, leading to low credibility of pesticide data provided by the system. Therefore, it is not possible to evaluate exposure of total Brazilian population to pesticides via drinking water using the current national database system Sisagua. Lessons learned from this study could provide insights into the monitoring and reporting of pesticide residues in drinking water worldwide. PMID:26581345

  6. Pentachlorophenol Contamination of Private Drinking Water From Treated Utility Poles

    PubMed Central

    Cragin, Lori; Center, Gail; Giguere, Cary; Comstock, Jeff; Boccuzzo, Linda; Sumner, Austin

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, after resident calls regarding an odor, the Vermont Department of Health and state partners responded to 2 scenarios of private drinking water contamination from utility poles treated with pentachlorophenol (PCP), an organochlorine wood preservative used in the United States. Public health professionals should consider PCP contamination of private water if they receive calls about a chemical or gasoline-like odor with concurrent history of nearby utility pole replacement. PMID:23237185

  7. Reverse osmosis treatment to remove inorganic contaminants from drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Huxstep, M.R.; Sorg, T.J.

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of the research project was to determine the removal of inorganic contaminants from drinking water using several state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membrane elements. A small 5-KGPD reverse osmosis system was utilized and five different membrane elements were studied individually with the specific inorganic contaminants added to several natural Florida ground waters. Removal data were also collected on naturally occurring substances.

  8. Pesticides in Drinking Water - The Brazilian Monitoring Program.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Auria M C; Solano, Marize de L M; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de A

    2015-01-01

    Brazil is the world largest pesticide consumer; therefore, it is important to monitor the levels of these chemicals in the water used by population. The Ministry of Health coordinates the National Drinking Water Quality Surveillance Program (Vigiagua) with the objective to monitor water quality. Water quality data are introduced in the program by state and municipal health secretariats using a database called Sisagua (Information System of Water Quality Monitoring). Brazilian drinking water norm (Ordinance 2914/2011 from Ministry of Health) includes 27 pesticide active ingredients that need to be monitored every 6?months. This number represents <10% of current active ingredients approved for use in the country. In this work, we analyzed data compiled in Sisagua database in a qualitative and quantitative way. From 2007 to 2010, approximately 169,000 pesticide analytical results were prepared and evaluated, although approximately 980,000 would be expected if all municipalities registered their analyses. This shows that only 9-17% of municipalities registered their data in Sisagua. In this dataset, we observed non-compliance with the minimum sampling number required by the norm, lack of information about detection and quantification limits, insufficient standardization in expression of results, and several inconsistencies, leading to low credibility of pesticide data provided by the system. Therefore, it is not possible to evaluate exposure of total Brazilian population to pesticides via drinking water using the current national database system Sisagua. Lessons learned from this study could provide insights into the monitoring and reporting of pesticide residues in drinking water worldwide. PMID:26581345

  9. 76 FR 8674 - Notice of a Public Meeting: Environmental Justice Considerations for Drinking Water Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... the drinking water Contaminant Candidate List 3. EPA recently announced its intentions to develop.../index.cfm . For additional information about the drinking water contaminant candidate list and the... . For additional information about perchlorate, please visit:...

  10. A Visual Insight into the Degradation of Metals Used in Drinking Water Distribution Systems Using AFM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating the fundamental corrosion and passivation of metallic copper used in drinking water distribution materials is important in understanding the overall mechanism of the corrosion process. Copper pipes are widely used for drinking water distribution systems and although it...

  11. TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY TO MEET THE INTERIM PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS FOR INORGANICS: PART 5

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fifth in a series summarizing existing treatment technology to meet the inorganic National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations, this report describes current methods for removing barium and radionuclides from drinking water.

  12. Treatment Technology to Meet the Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations for Inorganics: Part 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorg, Thomas J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This article is the third in a series summarizing existing treatment technology to meet the inorganic National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. This report deals specifically with treatment methods for removing cadmium, lead, and silver from drinking water. (CS)

  13. COMMUNITY HEALTH ASSOCIATED WITH ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER IN MILLARD COUNTY, UTAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluates the health effects of arsenic in drinking water at levels approximately four times the maximum allowed by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. Physical examinations of 250 people included evaluating dermatological and neurological health, ...

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS FROM OZONE, CHLORINE DIOXIDE, CHLORAMINE, AND CHLORINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many drinking water treatment plants are currently using alternative disinfectants to treat drinking water, with ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine being the most popular. However, compared to chlorine, which has been much more widely studied, there is little information abo...

  15. REMOVAL OF BERYLLIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CHEMICAL COAGULATION AND LIME SOFTENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. ar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride and lime softening performed ...

  16. Maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal outcomes in Inner Mongolia, China, Journal

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Bayingnormen is a region located in western Inner Mongolia China with a population that is exposed to a wide range of drinking water Arsenic concentrations. This study evaluated the relationship between maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal endpoints ...

  17. Roadmap for Interdisciplinary Research on Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    Slide presentation on interdisciplinary research on drinking water disinfection by-products which summarized important issues with drinking water disinfection by-products and focused on emerging, unregulated DBPs.

  18. GEOCHEMISTRY OF SULFUR IN IRON CORROSION SCALES FOUND IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iron-sulfur geochemistry is important in many natural and engineered environments, including drinking water systems. In the anaerobic environment beneath scales of corroding iron drinking water distribution system pipes, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) produce sulfide from natu...

  19. Nitrogen from Fertilizers Poses Long-Term Threat to Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... From Fertilizers Poses Long-Term Threat to Drinking Water: Study Signs of contamination detected 8 inches underground ... contaminating rivers and lakes and getting into drinking water wells for more than 80 years, the researchers ...

  20. Don't drink the water.

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, G. W., Jr.; Chemistry

    1999-01-01

    If water exists in permanently shadowed terrain on the moon as suggested by a number of investigators (Watson et al., 1961; Arnold, 1979; Hodges, 1980; Nozette et al., 1996; Duke and Whittaker, 1997) and strongly supported by the Lunar Prospector neutron flux measurements (Feldman et al., 1998), the results of studies on another volatile, namely mercury (Hg), are quite relevant. Whereas water has not been positively found, a large number of studies has established the presence of Hg in lunar samples. Its presence and volatile behavior are important when considering water as probably the most important in situ lunar resource. Here we show that the amount of Hg in lunar cold traps may be comparable to the amounts of water.

  1. THE REMOVAL OF GLYPHOSATE FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of granulated activated carbon (GAC), packed activated carbon (PAC), conventional treatment, membranes, and oxidation for removing glyphosate from natural waters is evaluated. Results indicate that GAC and PAC are not effective in removing glyphosate, while oxid...

  2. Drinking Water Contaminants -- Standards and Regulations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  3. PREVENTING HALOFORM FORMATION IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Huron, South Dakota, water distribution system was monitored for trihalomethanes at several locations. Deposits from within the distribution system were evaluated as potential precursor material and were found to be precursors for the haloform reaction. Field tests designed t...

  4. DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR PSEUDOMONAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents the occurrence, health effects and effects of water treatment on the bacterium. The document was developed in support of the unregulated contaminants and the Total Coliform Rule.

  5. ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTION FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a one-yr study at Jefferson Parish, La., the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects os using the major drinkgin water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. Tests were performed on samples collected from various treatment s...

  6. DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN IOWA. 1. TRENDS AND INCIDENCE BY SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER AND SIZE OF MUNICIPALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The available data resources in the State of Iowa were used to investigate the relationships of drinking water contaminants and cancer incidence rates for communities. Age-adjusted, sex-specific cancer incidence rates for the years 1969-1978 were determined for municipalities hav...

  7. PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER – WATTS PREMIER INC. WP-4V DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watts Premier WP-4V four-stage POU RO system was tested for removal of bacteria and viruses at NSF’s Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory. Five systems were challenged with the bacteriophage viruses fr and MS2, and the bacteria Brevundimonas diminutaEM. The ...

  8. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER – WATTS PREMIER INC. WP-4V DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watts Premier WP-4V POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The WP-4V employs a reverse osmosis (RO) m...

  9. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER WATTS PREMIER INC. WP-4V DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watts Premier WP-4V POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The WP-4V employs a reverse osmosis (RO) m...

  10. PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER WATTS PREMIER INC. WP-4V DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watts Premier WP-4V four-stage POU RO system was tested for removal of bacteria and viruses at NSFs Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory. Five systems were challenged with the bacteriophage viruses fr and MS2, and the bacteria Brevundimonas diminutaEM. The ...

  11. Evaluation of semidecentralized emergency drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Eloidin, Ocane; Dorea, Caetano C

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential for a novel semidecentralized approach that uses coagulant disinfectant products (CDPs) for humanitarian water treatment, by testing two commercially available products (CDP-W and CDP-T). Their performances were evaluated against the relevant water quality treatment objectives (The Sphere Project) under laboratory conditions, using a standardized testing protocol with both synthetic and natural surface test waters. Tests indicated a satisfactory performance by one of the products (CDP-W) with respect to humanitarian water quality objectives, (i.e., free chlorine residual, pH, and turbidity) that was dependent on initial water quality characteristics. Adequate bacterial inactivation (final thermotolerant coliform concentration of < 1 cfu/100 mL) was always attained and log reductions of up to 5 were achieved. The other product (CDP-T) did not exhibit any measurable coagulation and disinfection properties, indicating the variability of product quality and the need to conduct evaluations such as the ones presented in this study. Such results are of relevance to relief agencies delivering water supply interventions. PMID:26121019

  12. Impact of environmental factors on legionella populations in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Schwake, David Otto; Alum, Absar; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of environmental factors on Legionella in drinking water distribution systems, the growth and survival of Legionella under various conditions was studied. When incubated in tap water at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 32 °C, L. pneumophila survival trends varied amongst the temperatures, with the stable populations maintained for months at 25 °C and 32 °C demonstrating that survival is possible at these temperatures for extended periods in oligotrophic conditions. After inoculating coupons of PVC, copper, brass, and cast iron, L. pneumophila colonized biofilms formed on each within days to a similar extent, with the exception of cast iron, which contained 1-log less Legionella after 90 days. L. pneumophila spiked in a model drinking water distribution system colonized the system within days. Chlorination of the system had a greater effect on biofilm-associated Legionella concentrations, with populations returning to pre-chlorination levels within six weeks. Biofilms sampled from drinking water meters collected from two areas within central Arizona were analyzed via PCR for the presence of Legionella. Occurrence in only one area indicates that environmental differences in water distribution systems may have an impact on the survival of Legionella. These results document the impact of different environmental conditions on the survival of Legionella in water. PMID:25996405

  13. Fluoride in drinking water: A survey of expert opinions.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, R; Tobin, G

    1991-03-01

    In recent years, public debate over the standard setting process related to fluoride in drinking water and the fiuoridation of water supplies has been steeped in much controversy. Discussion of such issues has been con strained by the limited consideration of options relevant to particular problems. To examine the responses to specific issues, we presented an analysis of the problem of excessive fluoride in drinking water to a group of 120 experts. Ninety-seven of the 120 responded to a detailed mail questionnaire distributed as part of a larger exploratory survey. Definite patterns in preferences were noted with certain aspects of the problem, although in some cases significant differences were found due to such factors as the institutional affiliation, residential status, and the length of professional experience of the participants. In general, our experts preferred immediate corrective action over extensive further research into the reduction of scientific uncertainties; were willing to take personal action to obtain fluoride-free water rather than wait for official action; preferred the supplier to fluoridate the supplies, if needed; and favoured a strong local control of such issues with consumers of public water systems and private well owners shouldering much of the financial responsibility. Preliminary results from such exploratory surveys can lead to insightful research hypotheses for further testing. Verification of such hypotheses by consumers, from areas with excessive fluoride in drinking water, is a valuable area for future research. PMID:24202724

  14. Impact of Environmental Factors on Legionella Populations in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Schwake, David Otto; Alum, Absar; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of environmental factors on Legionella in drinking water distribution systems, the growth and survival of Legionella under various conditions was studied. When incubated in tap water at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 32 °C, L. pneumophila survival trends varied amongst the temperatures, with the stable populations maintained for months at 25 °C and 32 °C demonstrating that survival is possible at these temperatures for extended periods in oligotrophic conditions. After inoculating coupons of PVC, copper, brass, and cast iron, L. pneumophila colonized biofilms formed on each within days to a similar extent, with the exception of cast iron, which contained 1-log less Legionella after 90 days. L. pneumophila spiked in a model drinking water distribution system colonized the system within days. Chlorination of the system had a greater effect on biofilm-associated Legionella concentrations, with populations returning to pre-chlorination levels within six weeks. Biofilms sampled from drinking water meters collected from two areas within central Arizona were analyzed via PCR for the presence of Legionella. Occurrence in only one area indicates that environmental differences in water distribution systems may have an impact on the survival of Legionella. These results document the impact of different environmental conditions on the survival of Legionella in water. PMID:25996405

  15. Chlorination of drinking water and cancer mortality in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, C Y; Chiu, H F; Cheng, M F; Tsai, S S

    1998-07-01

    Chlorination has been the major strategy for disinfection of drinking water in Taiwan. An ecologic epidemiological study design was used to examine whether chlorination of drinking water was associated with cancer risks. A "chlorinating municipality" (CHM) was defined as one in which more than 90% of the municipality population was served by the chlorinated water while an "nonchlorinating municipality" (NCHM) was one in which less than 5% of the municipality population was served by chlorinated water. Age-adjusted mortality rates for cancer during 1982-1991 among the 14 CHMs were compared to rates among the 14 matched NCHMs with similar urbanization level and sociodemographic characteristics. The results of this study suggest a positive association between consumption of chlorinating drinking water and cancer of the rectum, lung, bladder, and kidney. Although these findings must be interpreted with caution because of limitations in the ecological study design, their public health significance should not be disregarded because chlorination of water is so widely practiced in Taiwan. PMID:9630438

  16. Differences in dissolved organic matter between reclaimed water source and drinking water source.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hong-Ying; Du, Ye; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Zhao, Xin; Tang, Xin; Chen, Zhuo

    2016-05-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) significantly affects the quality of reclaimed water and drinking water. Reclaimed water potable reuse is an effective way to augment drinking water source and de facto reuse exists worldwide. Hence, when reclaimed water source (namely secondary effluent) is blended with drinking water source, understanding the difference in DOM between drinking water source (dDOM) and reclaimed water source (rDOM) is essential. In this study, composition, transformation, and potential risk of dDOM from drinking water source and rDOM from secondary effluent were compared. Generally, the DOC concentration of rDOM and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) content in reclaimed water source were higher but rDOM exhibited a lower aromaticity. Besides, rDOM comprises a higher proportion of hydrophilic fractions and more low-molecular weight compounds, which are difficult to be removed during coagulation. Although dDOM exhibited higher specific disinfection byproducts formation potential (SDBPFP), rDOM formed more total disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination including halomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) due to high DOC concentration. Likewise, in consideration of DOC basis, rDOM contained more absolute assimilable organic carbon (AOC) despite showing a lower specific AOC (normalized AOC per unit of DOC). Besides, rDOM exhibited higher biotoxicity including genotoxicity and endocrine disruption. Therefore, rDOM presents a greater potential risk than dDOM does. Reclaimed water source needs to be treated carefully when it is blended with drinking water source. PMID:26874770

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF WATER SUPPLY TECHNOLOGY TO MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT OF 1996: TRENDS AND PROSPECTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The passage of the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974 has had a major impact on the way water is treated and delivered in the U.S. The Act established national drinking water regulations for more than 170,000 public drinking water systems serving over 250 million people ...

  18. Presence of Enteric Viruses in Source Waters for Drinking Water Production in the Netherlands▿

    PubMed Central

    Lodder, W. J.; van den Berg, H. H. J. L.; Rutjes, S. A.; de Roda Husman, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The quality of drinking water in the Netherlands has to comply with the Dutch Drinking Water Directive: less than one infection in 10,000 persons per year may occur due to consumption of unboiled drinking water. Since virus concentrations in drinking waters may be below the detection limit but entail a public health risk, the infection risk from drinking water consumption requires the assessment of the virus concentrations in source waters and of the removal efficiency of treatment processes. In this study, samples of source waters were taken during 4 years of regular sampling (1999 to 2002), and enteroviruses, reoviruses, somatic phages, and F-specific phages were detected in 75% (range, 0.0033 to 5.2 PFU/liter), 83% (0.0030 to 5.9 PFU/liter), 100% (1.1 to 114,156 PFU/liter), and 97% (0.12 to 14,403 PFU/liter), respectively, of 75 tested source water samples originating from 10 locations for drinking water production. By endpoint dilution reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), 45% of the tested source water samples were positive for norovirus RNA (0.22 to 177 PCR-detectable units [PDU]/liter), and 48% were positive for rotavirus RNA (0.65 to 2,249 PDU/liter). Multiple viruses were regularly detected in the source water samples. A significant correlation between the concentrations of the two phages and those of the enteroviruses could be demonstrated. The virus concentrations varied greatly between 10 tested locations, and a seasonal effect was observed. Peak concentrations of pathogenic viruses occur in source waters used for drinking water production. If seasonal and short-term fluctuations coincide with less efficient or failing treatment, an unacceptable public health risk from exposure to this drinking water may occur. PMID:20622124

  19. Establishing a Proficiency Testing Scheme for Drinking Water Radiochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brookman, Brian

    2008-08-14

    As part of its international water proficiency testing (PT) scheme, 'Aquacheck', the LGC Proficiency Testing Group has established a new water radiochemistry PT scheme. The PT scheme is aimed at laboratories who undertake radiochemical analysis on drinking water samples as part of an environmental monitoring programme. Following a scheme design and feasibility study, the new scheme was established to monitor the laboratory performance of participants undertaking the determination of gross alpha, gross beta and tritium activity. Three rounds of the new water radiochemistry PT scheme are now complete. This paper explains the process of establishing such a scheme, reviews the results so far, and addresses future development of the scheme.

  20. Detection of Salmonella bacterium in drinking water using microring resonator.

    PubMed

    Bahadoran, Mahdi; Noorden, Ahmad Fakhrurrazi Ahmad; Mohajer, Faeze Sadat; Abd Mubin, Mohamad Helmi; Chaudhary, Kashif; Jalil, Muhammad Arif; Ali, Jalil; Yupapin, Preecha

    2016-02-01

    A new microring resonator system is proposed for the detection of the Salmonella bacterium in drinking water, which is made up of SiO2-TiO2 waveguide embedded inside thin film layer of the flagellin. The change in refractive index due to the binding of the Salmonella bacterium with flagellin layer causes a shift in the output signal wavelength and the variation in through and drop port's intensities, which leads to the detection of Salmonella bacterium in drinking water. The sensitivity of proposed sensor for detecting of Salmonella bacterium in water solution is 149 nm/RIU and the limit of detection is 7 × 10(- 4)RIU. PMID:25133457

  1. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Increasingly Important Pathogens in Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Falkinham, Joseph O; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens are responsible for a significant number of infections whose origin has been traced to drinking water. These opportunistic pathogens represent an emerging water borne disease problem with a major economic cost of at least $1 billion annually. The common features of this group of waterborne pathogens include: disinfectant-resistance, pipe surface adherence and biofilm formation, growth in amoebae, growth on low organic concentrations, and growth at low oxygen levels. Their emergence is due to the fact that conditions resulting from drinking water treatment select for them. As such, there is a need for novel approaches to reduce exposure to these pathogens. In addition to much-needed research, controls to reduce numbers and human exposure can be instituted independently by utilities and homeowners and hospital- and building-operators. PMID:26066311

  2. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Increasingly Important Pathogens in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Falkinham, Joseph O.; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens are responsible for a significant number of infections whose origin has been traced to drinking water. These opportunistic pathogens represent an emerging water borne disease problem with a major economic cost of at least $1 billion annually. The common features of this group of waterborne pathogens include: disinfectant-resistance, pipe surface adherence and biofilm formation, growth in amoebae, growth on low organic concentrations, and growth at low oxygen levels. Their emergence is due to the fact that conditions resulting from drinking water treatment select for them. As such, there is a need for novel approaches to reduce exposure to these pathogens. In addition to much-needed research, controls to reduce numbers and human exposure can be instituted independently by utilities and homeowners and hospital- and building-operators. PMID:26066311

  3. Removing lead in drinking water with activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.M.; Kuennen, R.W. )

    1994-02-01

    A point-of-use (POU) granular activated carbon (GAC) fixed bed adsorber (FBA) was evaluated for reduction of soluble and insoluble lead from drinking water. Some of the factors which affect lead removal by GAC were evaluated, such as carbon type, solution pH, and a limited amount of work on competitive interactions. The design criteria for lead reduction by a POU device are also addressed. Minicolumns were used to evaluate the capacity of carbon for lead under a variety of conditions. The importance of surface chemistry of the carbon and the relationship with the pH of the water for lead reduction was demonstrated. Results indicate that a properly designed POU-GAC-FBA can reduce lead in drinking water to below the EPA action level of 15 ppb while being tested under a variety of conditions as specified under the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) International Standard 53 test protocol. 37 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Microbial contamination of drinking water in Pakistan--a review.

    PubMed

    Nabeela, Farhat; Azizullah, Azizullah; Bibi, Roqaia; Uzma, Syeda; Murad, Waheed; Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Ullah, Waheed; Qasim, Muhammad; Hder, Donat-Peter

    2014-12-01

    Water pollution with pathogenic microorganisms is one of the serious threats to human health, particularly in developing countries. The main objective of this article is to highlight microbial contamination of drinking water, the major factors responsible for microbial contamination, and the resulting health problems in Pakistan. Furthermore, this study will be helpful for researchers and administrative agencies to initiate relevant studies and develop new policies to protect further deterioration of water supply with pathogenic microbes and ensure clean and safe drinking water to the public in Pakistan. In Pakistan, water at the source, in the distribution network, and at the consumer tap is heavily polluted with coliforms and fecal coliforms all over the country. An overview of more than 7,000 water samples reviewed here reveals that an average of over 71 and 58 % samples in the country was contaminated with total coliforms and fecal coliforms, respectively. Drinking water contamination accounts for 20 to 40 % of all diseases in the country, which causes national income losses of Rs 25-58 billion annually (US$0.25-0.58 billion, approximately 0.6-1.44 % of the country's GDP). Improper disposal of industrial and municipal wastes is the most important factor responsible for water pollution in the country followed by cross-contamination due to old and leaking pipes and lack of water filtration and disinfection facilities. There is an urgent need for emergency steps to stop further deterioration of water quality and improve the existing water quality so as to protect the public from widespread waterborne diseases. PMID:25056753

  5. DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS SURVEY (1999)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:EPA is conducting the 1999 Needs Survey to meet requirements of the SDWA. Section 1452(h) of the SDWA requires EPA to conduct an assessment every 4 years of capital investments that are needed by public water systems (PWSs). In addition, SDWS sec 1452(i)...

  6. REMEDIATION OF DRINKING WATER FOR RURAL POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrate is the most common nitrogen contaminant in raw water supplies. In rural areas agricultural activities that involve the use of fertilizers and animal manures are major sources of nitrate contamination. Several processes are currently available that can effectively remove nitrate from raw wa...

  7. BIOFILMS IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtually anywhere a surface comes into contact with the water in a distribution system, one can find biofilms. Biofilms are formed in distribution system pipelines when microbial cells attach to pipe surfaces and multiply to form a film or slime layer on the pipe. Probably withi...

  8. ANALYZING DRINKING WATER FOR DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the mid 19th Century, Chinese workers on the North American transcontinental railroad suffered less illness than other groups. While generally mysterious at the time, today the reason is obvious. The Chinese preference for tea required heating the water, thus killing many path...

  9. Ultraviolet (UV) Disinfection for Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    UV disinfection is an effective process for inactivating many microbial pathogens in water with potential to serve as stand-alone treatment or in combination with other disinfectants. USEPA provided guidance on the validation of UV reactors nearly a decade ago. Since then, lesson...

  10. Enhanced drinking water supply through harvested rainwater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naddeo, Vincenzo; Scannapieco, Davide; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

    2013-08-01

    Decentralized drinking water systems represent an important element in the process of achieving the Millennium Development Goals, as centralized systems are often inefficient or nonexistent in developing countries. In those countries, most water quality related problems are due to hygiene factors and pathogens. A potential solution might include decentralized systems, which might rely on thermal and/or UV disinfection methods as well as physical and chemical treatments to provide drinking water from rainwater. For application in developing countries, decentralized systems major constraints include low cost, ease of use, environmental sustainability, reduced maintenance and independence from energy sources. This work focuses on an innovative decentralized system that can be used to collect and treat rainwater for potable use (drinking and cooking purposes) of a single household, or a small community. The experimented treatment system combines in one compact unit a Filtration process with an adsorption step on GAC and a UV disinfection phase in an innovative design (FAD - Filtration Adsorption Disinfection). All tests have been carried out using a full scale FAD treatment unit. The efficiency of FAD technology has been discussed in terms of pH, turbidity, COD, TOC, DOC, Escherichia coli and Total coliforms. FAD technology is attractive since it provides a total barrier for pathogens and organic contaminants, and reduces turbidity, thus increasing the overall quality of the water. The FAD unit costs are low, especially if compared to other water treatment technologies and could become a viable option for developing countries.

  11. Enteropathogenic Bacteria Contamination of Unchlorinated Drinking Water in Korea, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Si Won; Lee, Do Kyung; An, Hyang Mi; Cha, Min Kyeong; Kim, Kyung Jae

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of unchlorinated drinking water in Korea, 2010. One hundred and eighty unchlorinated drinking water samples were collected from various sites in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. Methods To investigate bacterial presence, the pour plate method was used with cultures grown on selective media for total bacteria, total coliforms, and Staphylococcus spp., respectively. Results In the 180 total bacteria investigation, 72 samples from Seoul and 33 samples from Gyeonggi province were of an unacceptable quality (>102 CFU/mL). Of all the samples tested, total coliforms were detected in 28 samples (15.6%) and Staphylococcus spp. in 12 samples (6.7%). Most of the coliform isolates exhibited high-level resistance to cefazolin (88.2%), cefonicid (64.7%) and ceftazidime (20.6%). In addition, Staphylococcus spp. isolates exhibited high-level resistance to mupirocin (42%). Species of Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Cupriavidus, Hafnia, Rahnella, Serratia, and Yersinia were isolated from the water samples. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that consumption of unchlorinated drinking water could represent a notable risk to the health of consumers. As such, there is need for continuous monitoring of these water sources and to establish standards. PMID:22216417

  12. Effects of saline drinking water on early gosling development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolley, D.S.; Bissonette, J.A.; Kadlec, J.A.; Coster, D.

    1999-01-01

    Relatively high levels of saline drinking water may adversely affect the growth, development, and survival of young waterfowl. Saline drinking water was suspect in the low survival rate of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) goslings at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (FSNWR) in western Utah. Hence, we investigated the effects of saline drinking water on the survival and growth of captive, wild-strain goslings from day 1-28 following hatch. We compared survival and growth (as measured by body mass, wing length, and culmen length) between a control group on tap water with a mean specific conductivity of 650 ??S/cm, and 2 saline water treatments: (1) intermediate level (12,000 ??S/cm), and (2) high level (18,000 ??S/cm). Gosling mortality occurred only in the 18,000 ??S/cm treatment group (33%; n = 9). Slopes of regressions of mean body mass, wing length, and culmen length on age were different from each other (P < 0.05), except for culmen length for the intermediate and high treatment levels. We predict that free-ranging wild goslings will experience mortality at even lower salinity levels than captive goslings because of the combined effects of depressed growth and environmental stresses, including hot desert temperatures and variable food quality over summer.

  13. Nano-silver in drinking water and drinking water sources: stability and influences on disinfection by-product formation.

    PubMed

    Tugulea, A-M; Brub, D; Giddings, M; Lemieux, F; Hnatiw, J; Priem, J; Avramescu, M-L

    2014-10-01

    Nano-silver is increasingly used in consumer products from washing machines and refrigerators to devices marketed for the disinfection of drinking water or recreational water. The nano-silver in these products may be released, ending up in surface water bodies which may be used as drinking water sources. Little information is available about the stability of the nano-silver in sources of drinking water, its fate during drinking water disinfection processes, and its interaction with disinfection agents and disinfection by-products (DBPs). This study aims to investigate the stability of nano-silver in drinking water sources and in the finished drinking water when chlorine and chloramines are used for disinfection and to observe changes in the composition of DBPs formed when nano-silver is present in the source water. A dispersion of nano-silver particles (10 nm; PVP-coated) was used to spike untreated Ottawa River water, treated Ottawa River water, organic-free water, and a groundwater at concentrations of 5 mg/L. The diluted dispersions were kept under stirred and non-stirred conditions for up to 9 months and analyzed weekly using UV absorption to assess the stability of the nano-silver particles. In a separate experiment, Ottawa River water containing nano-silver particles (at 0.1 and 1 mg/L concentration, respectively) was disinfected by adding sodium hypochlorite (a chlorinating agent) in sufficient amounts to maintain a free chlorine residual of approximately 0.4 mg/L after 24 h. The disinfected drinking water was then quenched with ascorbic acid and analyzed for 34 neutral DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes, 1,1 dichloro-2-propanone, 1,1,1 trichloro-2-propanone, chloropicrin, and cyanogen chloride). The results were compared to the profile of DBPs obtained under the same conditions in the absence of nano-silver and in the presence of an equivalent concentration of Ag(+) ions (as AgNO3). The stability of the nano-silver dispersions in untreated Ottawa River water, with a dissolved organic carbon concentration of 6 mg/L, was significantly higher than the stability of the nano-silver dispersions in distilled, organic-free water. Nano-silver particles suspended in the groundwater agglomerated and were quickly and quantitatively removed from the solution. Our data confirm previous observations that natural dissolved organic matter stabilizes nano-silver particles, while the high-ionic strength of groundwater appears to favor their agglomeration and precipitation. As expected, nano-silver was not stable in Ottawa River water through the chlorination process, but survived for many days when added to the Ottawa River water after treatment with chlorine or chloramines. Stirring appeared to have minimal effect on nano-silver stability in untreated and treated Ottawa River water. The profile of DBPs formed in the presence of nAg differed significantly from the profile of DBPs formed in the absence of nAg only at the 1 mg/L nAg concentration. The differences observed consisted mainly in reduced formation of some brominated DBPs and a small increase in the formation of cyanogen chloride. The reduced formation of brominated congeners may be explained by the decrease in available bromide due to the presence of Ag(+) ions. It should be noted that a concentration of 1 mg/L is significantly higher than nAg concentrations that would be expected to be present in surface waters, but these results could be significant for the disinfection of some wastewaters with comparably high nano-silver concentrations. PMID:24458938

  14. 76 FR 38158 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... AGENCY Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY... Federal Advisory Committee Act,'' notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 300f et...

  15. 76 FR 61355 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Request for Nominations AGENCY: Environmental Protection... of qualified candidates to be considered for a three-year appointment to the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council). The 15 member Council was established by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)...

  16. 76 FR 67187 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Notice of a Public Teleconference Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Water Regulations for Lead and Copper. DATES: The public teleconference will be held on November 18...: http://water.epa.gov/drink/ndwac/ . National Drinking Water Regulations for Lead and Copper: EPA is developing proposed revisions to the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR), which is the National Primary Drinking...

  17. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment...

  18. 77 FR 40382 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is hereby given that on June 29... the Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), 42 U.S.C. 300f through 300j-26, including violations of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (``NPDWRs''), at Lincoln Road RV Park, Inc.'s...

  19. 40 CFR 144.82 - What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sources of drinking water? 144.82 Section 144.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... protect underground sources of drinking water? If you own or operate any type of Class V well, the... USDWs, if the presence of that contaminant may cause a violation of the primary drinking water...

  20. Sources of Elevated Sodium Levels in Drinking Water...and Recommendations for Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Edward J.; Tuthill, Robert W.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium enters drinking water by a variety of human activities and by natural means. Evidence suggests elevated levels of sodium in drinking water may adversely affect health. Action should be taken to reduce the level of human exposure to sodium in drinking water. (RE)