Sample records for pce-contaminated drinking water

  1. Adult Neuropsychological Performance Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Vieira, Veronica; Aschengrau, Ann

    2012-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined adult performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results of crude and multivariate analyses among 35 exposed and 28 unexposed subjects showed no association between prenatal and early postnatal exposure and decrements on tests that assess abilities in the domains of omnibus intelligence, academic achievement or language. The results were suggestive of an association between prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure and diminished performance on tests that assessed abilities in the domains of visuospatial functioning, learning and memory, motor, attention and mood. Because the sample size was small, most findings were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to further define the neuropsychological consequences of early developmental PCE exposure. PMID:22522125

  2. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an Adult Cohort Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; Killiany, Ronald J; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Aschengrau, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and Geographic Information System (GIS) methodology. Brain imaging was performed on 26 exposed and 16 unexposed subjects. Scans were acquired on a Philips 3T whole body scanner using the ADNI T1-weighted MP-RAGE scan. The scans were processed by FreeSurfer version 4.3.1 software to obtain measurements of specific brain regions. There were no statistically significant differences between exposed and unexposed subjects on measures of white matter hypointensities (?: 127.5 mm3, 95% CI: ?259.1, 1514.0), white matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral white matter: ?: 21230.0 mm3, 95% CI: ?4512.6, 46971.7) or gray matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral gray matter: ?: 11976.0 mm3, 95% CI: ?13657.2, 37609.3). The results of this study suggest that exposure to PCE during gestation and early childhood, at the levels observed in this population, is not associated with alterations in the brain structures studied. PMID:23571160

  3. Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

  4. Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  5. National Drinking Water Clearinghouse

    MedlinePLUS

    Drinking Water Read On Tap Latest Issue The National Drinking Water Clearinghouse (NDWC) is a public service organization dedicated ... developing, and providing timely information relevant to drinking water issues. We provide free and low-cost publications, ...

  6. Prenatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water and the risk of congenital anomalies: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Prior animal and human studies of prenatal exposure to solvents including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) have shown increases in the risk of certain congenital anomalies among exposed offspring. Objectives This retrospective cohort study examined whether PCE contamination of public drinking water supplies in Massachusetts influenced the occurrence of congenital anomalies among children whose mothers were exposed around the time of conception. Methods The study included 1,658 children whose mothers were exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water and a comparable group of 2,999 children of unexposed mothers. Mothers completed a self-administered questionnaire to gather information on all of their prior births, including the presence of anomalies, residential histories and confounding variables. PCE exposure was estimated using EPANET water distribution system modeling software that incorporated a fate and transport model. Results Children whose mothers had high exposure levels around the time of conception had an increased risk of congenital anomalies. The adjusted odds ratio of all anomalies combined among children with prenatal exposure in the uppermost quartile was 1.5 (95% CI: 0.9, 2.5). No meaningful increases in the risk were seen for lower exposure levels. Increases were also observed in the risk of neural tube defects (OR: 3.5, 95% CI: 0.8, 14.0) and oral clefts (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 0.7, 15.0) among offspring with any prenatal exposure. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the risk of certain congenital anomalies is increased among the offspring of women who were exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water around the time of conception. Because these results are limited by the small number of children with congenital anomalies that were based on maternal reports, a follow-up investigation should be conducted with a larger number of affected children who are identified by independent records. PMID:19778411

  7. Local Drinking Water Information

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a short report (consumer confidence report, or drinking water quality report) from your water supplier that tells where ... what's in it: see if your annual drinking water quality report is posted on-line , read some frequent ...

  8. Drinking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This tutorial introduces students to the importance of water to living organisms, including humans. The discussion points out that all organisms contain water, and decribes how water is accumulated and stored. There is also an examination of the water supplies of Winnipeg, Ontario, and Vancouver, British Columbia, and a discussion of the importance of purifying driking water supplies to remove harmful bacteria and microbes.

  9. AIRCRAFT DRINKING WATER RULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), any interstate carrier conveyance (ICC) that regularly serves drinking water to an average of at least 25 individuals daily, at least 60 days per year, is subject to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). An ICC is a car...

  10. Drinking Water Standards 

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2006-04-26

    This publication explains the federal safety standards for drinking water provided by public water supply systems. It discusses the legal requirements for public water supplies, the maximum level allowed for contaminants in the water...

  11. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  12. DRINKING WATER FOR ALL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anumakonda Jagadeesh

    2006-01-01

    Impure water is the root cause for many diseases es pecially in developing countries. Millions of people become sick each year from drink ing contaminated water. In many regions of the world, sunshine is abundantly availa ble which can be effectively utilized to provide safe drinking water to the millions of p eople. A portable, low-cost, and low- maintenance solar

  13. Drinking Water and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

  14. Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    Use only water that has been properly disinfected for drinking, cooking, making any prepared drink, or for brushing teeth. Downloads & Translations ... for brushing teeth. 7 Steps to Emergency Drinking Water Disinfection Only use water that has been properly ...

  15. Drinking Water FAQ

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your well Who should test your well Drinking Water FAQ Frequently Asked Questions General Where does my ... CDC's Private Wells page. Top of Page Public Water Systems What type of health issues can be ...

  16. Drinking Water Problems: Arsenic 

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

    2005-12-02

    High levels of arsenic in drinking water can poison and even kill people. This publication explains the symptoms of arsenic poisoning and common treatment methods for removing arsenic from your water supply....

  17. [Drinking water in infants].

    PubMed

    Vitoria Miñana, I

    2004-02-01

    We review types of public drinking water and bottled water and provide recommendations on the composition of water for infants. Water used with any of the commercial infant formulas in Spain should contain less than 25 mg/l of sodium. Drinking water must be boiled for a maximum of one minute (at sea level) to avoid excessive salt concentration. Bottled water need not be boiled. Fluoride content in drinking water should be less than 0.3 mg/l in first year of life to prevent dental fluorosis. Nitrate content in water should be less than 25 mg/l to prevent methemoglobinemia. Water with a calcium concentration of between 50 and 100 mg/l is a dietary source of calcium since it provides 24-56 % of the required daily intake in infancy. PMID:14757021

  18. It's Your Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... they can meet the specific needs of their citizens while maintaining a national level of public health. ... of public drinking water. States have also established citizen advisory committees to help develop their programs, and ...

  19. Drinking Water and Ground Water: Kids' Stuff

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Kids' Home Games & Activities Other Kids' ... to you. Submit Your Artwork from Thirstin's Wacky Water Adventure Activity Book Here Area Navigation Water Home ...

  20. Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides 

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

    2006-08-04

    R adionuclides are types of atoms that are radioactive. The most common radionu- clides in drinking water are radium, radon and uranium. Most of the radionuclides in drinking water occur nat- urally at very low levels and are not considered a pub... sources. Naturally occurring radionuclides are created in the upper atmosphere and are found in the Earth?s crust. They are found in certain types of rocks that contain trace amounts of the radioactive iso- topes (forms) of uranium, thorium and/or actinium...

  1. Drinking Water Problems: MTBE 

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-08-28

    and nervous system. Evi- dence of human cancer or nervous system effects from consuming or bathing in MTBE-contaminated water remains inconclusive. The EPA has not yet established a national drink- ing water standard for MTBE. In 2005, the additive... Director-Agriculture and Natural Resources; Professor, Associate Department Head and Exten- sion Program Leader for Biological and Agricultural Engineering; The Texas A&M System MTBE in water about five times more often, and at higher concentrations...

  2. Water Fit to Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  3. DRINKING WATER ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to recent reports by the California Department of Health Services, the State of Maine, and the United State Geological Survey (USGS); the fuel oxygenate methyl teri-butyl ether (MTBE) is present in 5 to 20 percent of the drinking water sources in California and the nort...

  4. Arsenic in Your Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... swimming pool. FOR MORE INFORMATION Arsenic in drinking water http://www.epa.gov/safewater/arsenic Arsenic health ... http://www.epa.gov/safewater/privatewells Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1-800-426-4791 JUST THE FACTS ...

  5. Drinking Water Problems: MTBE

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-08-28

    a valid estimate of the cost of installation Activated carbon Activated carbon Activated carbon H o t C o l d Non-household uses Water meter Activated carbon Figure 3. Four types of activated carbon filtration units are, from left: A) pour.... Rapid City, SD. Kocher, J., B. Dvorak, and S. Skipton. NebGuide publi- cation G1489, Drinking Water Treatment: Activated Carbon Filtration. 2003. Lincoln, NE. Parrott, K. B. Ross, and J. Woodard. Viriginia Coopera- tive Extension publication 356...

  6. Drinking Water Treatment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matt Laposata

    This lesson provides an introduction to the treatment of drinking water to remove harmful or distasteful substances. Topics include the history of treatment and a brief listing of treatment processes. Students can examine a selection of online resources for more detailed information on modern treatment methods and potential contaminants. The lesson includes an activity in which they construct a model treatment plant and treat water that they have 'contaminated' themselves in order to observe firsthand the steps involved in purifying water for human consumption.

  7. Monitoring lead in drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Urbinato

    2009-01-01

    According to the latest round of monitoring completed at the end of 1992, more than 10 percent of all large and medium-sized public water systems in the United States provide drinking water that contains lead levels exceeding the action level'' of 15 parts per billion established by EPA under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Those systems that exceed the action

  8. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lead from my drinking water? Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is lead? Lead is ... Where and how does lead get into drinking water? Lead rarely occurs naturally in water; it usually ...

  9. Drinking Water Treatability Database (Database)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...

  10. Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Giardia from my drinking water? Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is giardiasis? Giardiasis (GEE- ... Where and how does Giardia get into drinking water? Millions of Giardia parasites can be released in ...

  11. Campylobacter and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Campylobacter from my drinking water? Campylobacter and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is campylobacteriosis? Campylobacteriosis (CAMP- ... Where and how does Campylobacter get into drinking water? Campylobacter is found in every part of the ...

  12. Drinking Water Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, ShaTerea R.

    2004-01-01

    This summer I had the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) under the Chemical Sampling and Analysis Team or CS&AT. This team s mission is to support Glenn Research Center (GRC) and EM0 by providing chemical sampling and analysis services and expert consulting. Services include sampling and chemical analysis of water, soil, fbels, oils, paint, insulation materials, etc. One of this team s major projects is the Drinking Water Project. This is a project that is done on Glenn s water coolers and ten percent of its sink every two years. For the past two summers an intern had been putting together a database for this team to record the test they had perform. She had successfully created a database but hadn't worked out all the quirks. So this summer William Wilder (an intern from Cleveland State University) and I worked together to perfect her database. We began be finding out exactly what every member of the team thought about the database and what they would change if any. After collecting this data we both had to take some courses in Microsoft Access in order to fix the problems. Next we began looking at what exactly how the database worked from the outside inward. Then we began trying to change the database but we quickly found out that this would be virtually impossible.

  13. INJURED COLIFORMS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coliforms were enumerated by using m-Endo agar LES and m-T7 agar in 102 routine samples of drinking water from three New England community water systems to investigate the occurrence and significance of injured coliforms. Samples included water collected immediately after convent...

  14. Risk-based economic decision analysis of remediation options at a PCE-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Lemming, Gitte; Friis-Hansen, Peter; Bjerg, Poul L

    2010-05-01

    Remediation methods for contaminated sites cover a wide range of technical solutions with different remedial efficiencies and costs. Additionally, they may vary in their secondary impacts on the environment i.e. the potential impacts generated due to emissions and resource use caused by the remediation activities. More attention is increasingly being given to these secondary environmental impacts when evaluating remediation options. This paper presents a methodology for an integrated economic decision analysis which combines assessments of remediation costs, health risk costs and potential environmental costs. The health risks costs are associated with the residual contamination left at the site and its migration to groundwater used for drinking water. A probabilistic exposure model using first- and second-order reliability methods (FORM/SORM) is used to estimate the contaminant concentrations at a downstream groundwater well. Potential environmental impacts on the local, regional and global scales due to the site remediation activities are evaluated using life cycle assessments (LCA). The potential impacts on health and environment are converted to monetary units using a simplified cost model. A case study based upon the developed methodology is presented in which the following remediation scenarios are analyzed and compared: (a) no action, (b) excavation and off-site treatment of soil, (c) soil vapor extraction and (d) thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction by electrical heating of the soil. Ultimately, the developed methodology facilitates societal cost estimations of remediation scenarios which can be used for internal ranking of the analyzed options. Despite the inherent uncertainties of placing a value on health and environmental impacts, the presented methodology is believed to be valuable in supporting decisions on remedial interventions. PMID:20117877

  15. Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also connected to surface waters, and maintains the flow of rivers and streams and the level of wetlands- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water

  16. Sodium in Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? For more information. ... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? It is not ...

  17. Safe Water Drinking Act Basic Information

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to protect drinking water and its sources: rivers, lakes, reservoirs, springs, and ground water wells. (SDWA does ... these standards are met. Millions of Americans receive high quality drinking water every day from their public ...

  18. Private Drinking Water Wells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency, contains information from the on testing and protecting private water sources. The site can be helpful for persons having a private well or simply those interested in water science.

  19. Drinking Water Problems: Benzene

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2009-04-16

    -household uses Water meter Activated carbon Figure 3. Four types of activated carbon filtration units are, from left: A) pour-through; B) faucet-mounted; C) high-volume and D) point-of-entry. (adapted from Dvorak, 2003). To household plumbing A. B. C. D... their water. Activated charcoal or granular activated carbon Cellulose fibers Unfiltered water inlet Filtered water outlet Carbon granules Cellulose fibers Cellulose fibers Figure 2: Granular activated carbon (GAC) filter (adapted from Parrott et al...

  20. Drinking Water Helps Prevent Kidney Stones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_151715.html Drinking Water Helps Prevent Kidney Stones Researchers find eight or ... March 27, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Drinking plenty of water will lower your risk of kidney stones, researchers ...

  1. Drinking water safely during cancer treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disease Control and Prevention. A guide to drinking water treatment technologies for household use. http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/travel/household_water_treatment.html. Accessed May 7, 2014.

  2. DRINKING WATER MULTI-YEAR PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996 direct EPA to conduct research to strengthen the scientific foundation for standards that limit public exposure to drinking water contaminants. The Amendments contain specific requirements for research on waterborne pathogens, such a...

  3. Tadwadi Morewadi Piped Drinking Water Scheme

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    Tadwadi ­ Morewadi Piped Drinking Water Scheme A Failure Analysis CENTRE FOR TECHNOLOGY of this work includes a failure analysis of the Tadwadi-Morewadi single village drinking water scheme from......................................................................................13 3 Failure Analysis

  4. DRINKING WATER ARSENIC AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking Water Arsenic and Perinatal Outcomes DT Lobdell, Z Ning, RK Kwok, JL Mumford, ZY Liu, P Mendola Many studies have documented an association between drinking water arsenic (DWA) and cancer, vascular diseases, and dermatological outcomes, but few have investigate...

  5. USEPA Drinking Water Laboratory Certification Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Ann Feige; Caroline Madding; Edward M. Glick

    1993-01-01

    The Drinking Water Laboratory Certification Program has been in existence since 1943 and was adopted by the Drinking Water Program in 1978 under the authority given the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Both USEPA and the states are looking for ways to make the program efficient in the face of dwindling resources. Recent

  6. Radioactive isotopes in Danish drinking water

    E-print Network

    Radioactive isotopes in Danish drinking water Sven P. Nielsen Risø National Laboratory Working OF INVESTIGATION 11 3 DESCRIPTION OF INVESTIGATION 12 4 RADIOACTIVITY IN DRINKING WATER 13 5 SAMPLING 15 6 27 #12;4 #12;5 Preface This project for investigation of radioactivity in drinking water shall

  7. Ground Water and Drinking Water: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, from the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, presents a list of most frequently asked questions (with answers). Question topics include: drinking water standards, getting information about your tap water and questions about bottled water.

  8. Drinking Water Problems: Nitrates 

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-03-28

    three treatment methods for remov- ing nitrates/nitrites: ion exchange, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis. Reverse osmosis The most common treatment method for nitrate in a water supply is reverse osmosis (RO). This method is cost effective for a home... by passing the distilled water through a post filter. Most units will treat 5 to 11 gal- lons of water a day. Figure 4. Reverse osmosis treatment unit (Adapted from Kneen et al., 1995 and USEPA, 2003). The disadvantage of an RO unit is the small amount...

  9. Drinking Water Problems: Benzene 

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2009-04-16

    on their property, live within a half-mile of a gasoline station or petroleum storage or refining facility, or notice a sweet, chemical smell in their water should have their water wells tested for benzene. Benzene attacks the central nervous system; acute ex...; Professor, Associate Department Head and Extension Program Leader for Biological and Agricultural Engineering; The Texas A&M System Benzene released into soil will volatize quickly or leach into groundwater. A report from the Texas Com- mission...

  10. Drinking Water Problems: Perchlorate 

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Porter, Dana; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2005-11-18

    to be without risk of adverse health effects to an individual during that individual?s lifespan. The perchlorate RfD was derived from a study in which a maximum daily perchlorate dose of 0.007 mg/kg/day given to human volunteers did not inhib- it iodide uptake... liters of water per day could consume water containing up to 24.5 micro- grams/L (ppb) of perchlorate without adverse effects. Texas? perchlorate advisory level was revised in 2005 to 17 ppb, although the prior advisory level of 4 ppb still is being used...

  11. DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of water treatment is threefold: 1. To improve the aethetic quality ofwater, 2. to remove toxic or health-hazardous chemicals, 3. to remove and/or inactivate any disease causing microorganisms. These objectives should be accomplished using a reasonable safety factor...

  12. Water Treatment: Can You Purify Water for Drinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)

  13. EPA?s Drinking Water Treatability Database: A Tool for All Drinking Water Professionals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) is being developed by the USEPA Office of Research and Development to allow drinking water professionals and others to access referenced information gathered from thousands of literature sources and assembled on one site. Currently, ...

  14. Analysis of Drinking Water for Trace Organics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Koester; R. E. Clement

    1993-01-01

    The protection of drinking water quality is one of the most important mandates of government environment departments. During the past 2 decades, more and more attention has been spent on the trace organic chemical pollutants that may be present in potable water. Consequently, the detection, identification, and quantitation of trace organics in drinking water has been the subject of considerable

  15. Delta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment Costs

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    Delta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment Costs Technical Appendix H Wei-Hsiang Chen Kristine-San Joaquin Delta, prepared by a team of researchers from the Center for Watershed Sciences (University Acknowledgments v Acronyms vi Introduction 1 1. WATER QUALITY IN AND NEAR DELTA 2 Delta Drinking Water Intakes 2

  16. DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANT ADVISOR - USER DOCUMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) Advisor is a software application which has been designed to provide assistance in the evaluation of drinking water treatment plants. Specifically, this program, which is based on the source document Interim Handbook Optimizing Water Trea...

  17. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

  18. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

  19. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

  20. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

  1. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

  2. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601 Mineral Resources...MINES Drinking Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the...

  3. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601 Mineral Resources...MINES Drinking Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the...

  4. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601 Mineral Resources...MINES Drinking Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the...

  5. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601 Mineral Resources...MINES Drinking Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the...

  6. 75 FR 48329 - Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ...AGENCY [FRL-9186-8] Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program AGENCY...details of EPA's voluntary Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program, effective...The program enables qualified drinking water operators at public water systems in...

  7. DISINFECTION OF WATER: DRINKING WATER, RECREATIONAL WATER, AND WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes and categorizes the methodology used for disinfection of drinking water, recreational water and wastewater including wastewater sludges. It largely is a literature summary and references articles covering the years of 1939 through 1999, with a few reference...

  8. GENOTOXICITY STUDIES OF DRINKING WATER MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigations into the mutagenicity and mutational mechanisms of single chemicals within drinking water as well as of organic extracts of drinking water are being pursued using the Salmonella (Ames) mutagenicity assay as well as in human samples. For example, the semi-volatile ...

  9. TECHNICAL NOTES ON DRINKING WATER METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document, Technical Notes on Drinking Water Methods, describes method modifications that were developed after an approved method had been published. ost of the modifications were formerly footnoted in the drinking water regulations, or were described in a proposed rule (58 F...

  10. Drinking Water: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    While much of the drinking water in the United States is safe for consumption, protecting its quality and assuring its availability are becoming increasingly difficult. This booklet is written for individuals and groups who are concerned about the drinking water in their communities. It provides a general introduction to the complex issues of…

  11. Human factors fostering sustainable safe drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Sughrue Etter

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation, Human Factors Fostering Sustainable Safe Drinking Water, examines from a humanities perspective, scientific and cultural data to assess the relationship and impact of drinking water challenges on the human condition in eight different communities: Mystic, CT, New London, CT, Bar Harbor, ME, South Portland, ME, Orleans, MA, Falmouth, MA, Jamestown, RI, and Newport, RI. Specifically measured is the

  12. THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS OF DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distrib...

  13. Drinking Water in Schools and Child Care Facilities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Drinking Water in Schools & Child Care Facilities Drinking Water in Schools & Child Care Facilities This one-stop EPA site provides information about drinking water quality in schools and child care facilities. Ensuring ...

  14. EPA List of Drinking Water Contaminants and MCLs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    US Environmental Protection Agency

    This site contains listings of drinking water contaminants and the EPA regulatory limit for each contaminant. Tables include the national primary drinking water regulations, the national secondary drinking water regulations, and unregulated contaminants.

  15. OVERVIEW OF RADIONUCLIDES IN DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invited presentation at the 2007 National Rural Water Association National Conference, Philadelphia, PA, September 23-26, 2007. The presentation reviews the chemistry of radium and uranium in drinking water sources, treatment options, and guidelines for disposal. Presentation giv...

  16. Levels of exposure from drinking water.

    PubMed

    van Dijk-Looijaard, A M; van Genderen, J

    2000-01-01

    The relative exposure from drinking water is generally small, although there is a lack of information on total daily intake of individual organic micropollutants. There are, however, a few exceptions. Materials used in domestic distribution systems (lead, copper and plastics) may cause a deterioration of the water quality, especially in stagnant water. The relative exposure to the related compounds may increase considerably. Monitoring data from the tap (with defined sampling techniques) are needed. Also, disinfection/oxidation by-products (bromate, trihalomethanes) can be present in drinking water in considerable amounts and the relative exposure from drinking water may even approach 100%. Especially for volatile organic micropollutants, exposure routes from drinking water other than ingestion must be taken into account (inhalation, percutaneous uptake). When there is a need for detection of substances at very low levels it is important that the measurements are reliable. International interlaboratory comparisons for organic micropollutants are lacking at the moment. PMID:10717369

  17. Drinking Water Program 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, B.D.; Peterson-Wright, L.J.

    1993-08-01

    EG&G Idaho, Inc., initiated a monitoring program for drinking water in 1988 for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. EG&G Idaho structured this monitoring program to ensure that they exceeded the minimum regulatory requirements for monitoring drinking water. This program involves tracking the bacteriological, chemical, and radiological parameters that are required for a {open_quotes}community water system{close_quotes} (maximum requirements). This annual report describes the drinking water monitoring activities conducted at the 17 EG&G Idaho operated production wells and 11 distribution systems. It also contains all of the drinking water parameters that were detected and the regulatory limits that were exceeded during 1992. In addition, ground water quality is discussed as it relates to contaminants identified at the wellhead for EG&G Idaho production wells.

  18. Investigation of Drinking Water Quality in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water). The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO. PMID:23509472

  19. Arsenic Occurrence in New Hampshire Drinking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The American Chemical Society (ACS) provides online access to the article, Arsenic Occurrence in New Hampshire Drinking Water. The article reports that domestic wells rather than municipal wells in New Hampshire are more likely to contain ten times the recommended federal levels of arsenic for drinking water. This is a relevant finding since "arsenic in drinking water is linked to certain types of cancer in humans." The abstract can be viewed in HTML format, while the full-text article is available in both HTML and .pdf format.

  20. Chemical quality of drinking water in Bahrain.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, A O; Khunji, Z A

    1990-06-01

    Chemical quality of five types of water used for drinking purposes in Bahrain were studied. There are three main sources of drinking water: tap, private treated, and bottled waters. The findings revealed that tap water had highest level of all chemicals studies (except silica) compared to other waters. Sodium level in tap water ranged from 100 to 545.9 mg/l, with an average of 309.4 mg/l. This average exceeds the drinking water standard as recommended by WHO (200 mg/l), making this water unsuitable for hypertensive people. Average level of fluoride ranged from 0.28 in carbonated mineral water to 0.85 mg/l in tap water. The high usage of bottled mineral water for drinking purposes may deprive the public, especially the children, from one of the protective elements (fluoride) for dental caries. This disease is highly prevalent in Bahrain. A programme to control chemical quality of drinking water in the country is highly recommended. PMID:2114483

  1. DRINKING WATER ON EMPTY RINK WATER ON EMPTY STOMACHD

    E-print Network

    Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    DRINKING WATER ON EMPTY STOMACH RINK WATER ON EMPTY STOMACHD It is popular in Japan today to drink water immediately after waking up every morning. Furthermore, scientific tests have proven its value.. We publish below a description of use of water for our readers. For old and serious diseases as well

  2. Brookhaven National Laboratory Source Water Assessment for Drinking Water

    E-print Network

    BNL 52608 Brookhaven National Laboratory Source Water Assessment for Drinking Water Supply Wells Brookhaven National Laboratory Source Water Assessment for Drinking Water Supply Wells December 27, 2000, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein

  3. A WATERSHED APPROACH TO DRINKING WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe emerging technologies and strategies managing watersheds with the goal of protecting drinking water sources. Included are discussions on decentralized wastewater treatment, whole organism biomonitor detection systems, treatment of...

  4. THE FATE OF FLUOROSILICATE DRINKING WATER ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periodically, the EPA reexamines its information on regulated drinking water contaminants to deterime if further study is required. Fluoride is one such contaminant undergoing review. The chemical literature indicates that some deficiencies exist in our understanding of the spe...

  5. TRIHALOMETHANES IN DRINKING WATER AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A limited number of epidemiological studies have evaluated the potential association between exposure to DBPs in drinking water and adverse reproductive outcomes. Reproductive effects that have been studied include, for example, spontaneous abortions, congenital defects, low birt...

  6. Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will enable a systematic approach to characterizing the value of condition assessment of drinking water mains that will provide the basis for better communication among, and decisions by, stakeholders regarding goals and priorities for research, development, and tech...

  7. Drinking Water: Health Hazards Still Not Resolved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Nicholas

    1977-01-01

    Despite the suggested link between cancer deaths and drinking obtained from the Mississippi River, New Orleans still treats its water supply in the same manner as before the Environmental Defense Fund's epidemiological study. (BT)

  8. Physicochemical speciation of lead in drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy M. Harrison; Duncan P. H. Laxen

    1980-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of drinking water as a route of human exposure to lead1,2. Whilst there are ample data on lead concentrations in drinking water3, little is known of its physical and chemical forms (physicochemical speciation)4. Such information is important as the speciation of ingested lead influences the efficiency of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract5. Knowledge of

  9. Public Health Issues Associated with Small Drinking Water Systems

    E-print Network

    Mountains. The lodge had a private drinking water system that was too small to be regulated under the SDWAPublic Health Issues Associated with Small Drinking Water Systems Not Regulated by the Safe Drinking Water Act From: Nonfederally Regulated Drinking Water Systems: State and Local Public Health

  10. The epidemiology of chemical contaminants of drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Calderon

    2000-01-01

    A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distribution materials and the drinking water treatment process. Chemical contaminants for which epidemiologic studies have reported associations include the following: aluminium, arsenic, disinfection by-products, fluoride, lead,

  11. Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE): Drinking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    MTBE, a gasoline oxygenater additive, has been detected in ground water sources throughout different parts of the country. These ground water sources are often the source of drinking water, and the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether in even minute quantities can make the water undrinkable. Research to date has not conclusively identified any quantitative level at which serious health risks may occur. This site provides information on behalf of the Environmental Protection Agency on the concerns and occurence of MTBE in drinking water.

  12. Levels of exposure from drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M van Dijk-Looijaard; J van Genderen

    2000-01-01

    The relative exposure from drinking water is generally small, although there is a lack of information on total daily intake of individual organic micropollutants. There are, however, a few exceptions. Materials used in domestic distribution systems (lead, copper and plastics) may cause a deterioration of the water quality, especially in stagnant water. The relative exposure to the related compounds may

  13. Removal of radium from drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauch

    1992-01-01

    The report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water. Calcium cation exchange removes radium and can be used when hardness removal is not

  14. DETERIORATION OF DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A frequently overlooked fact, but one that is becoming of increasing concern, is the effect that the drinking water delivery system can have on the quality of water received at the tap. Deterioration of aging water supply systems can result in pipeline failures, pressure losses, ...

  15. REMOVAL OF RADIUM FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water...

  16. Most terrestrial vertebrates are able to replace water lost to the environment by drinking water. In amniotes, drinking is

    E-print Network

    Behe, Michael J.

    Most terrestrial vertebrates are able to replace water lost to the environment by drinking water, not drinking, because water, unlike food, is physically uniform (at least between 1 and 99 °C). Modifications the frequent need to regain lost water, drinking is secondary to feeding. Furthermore, if drinking is achieved

  17. Evaluating Nanoparticle Breakthrough during Drinking Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Huang, Haiou

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat. Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs—silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)—into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment. Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2–20%, 3–8%, and 48–99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1–45% for Ag, 0–44% for TiO2, and 36–83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0–2%, 0–4%, and 2–96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions. Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes. Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121:1161–1166;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306574 PMID:23933526

  18. Safer sips: removing arsenic from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Breslin, K

    1998-11-01

    U.S. researchers are developing technologies that may someday protect millions of people worldwide whose drinking water is tainted with arsenic. Arsenic is released into water from soil and rock erosion, and is also a by-product of industrial processes including semiconductor manufacturing, petroleum refining, and mining and smelting operations. PMID:9799197

  19. REMOVAL OF ALACHLOR FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alachlor (Lasso) is a pre-emergent herbicide used in the production of corn and soybeans. U.S. EPA has studied control of alachlor in drinking water treatment processes to define treatability before setting maximum contaminant levels and to assist water utilities in selecting con...

  20. Uses of ozone in drinking water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rip G. Rice; C. Michael Robson; G. Wade Miller; Archibald G. Hill

    1981-01-01

    Ozone has been used continuously for the treatment of drinking water since 1906, when it was first installed in the city of Nice, France, for disinfection purposes. Although many water treatment plants throughout the world still utilize ozone primarily for disinfection, most modern plants rely on ozone to perform one or more oxidation functions. Applications for ozonation now include oxidation

  1. Biofilm accumulation in drinking water distribution systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Block; K. Haudidier; J. L. Paquin; J. Miazga; Y. Levi

    1993-01-01

    In order to classify the relative importance of the parameters governing the accumulation of biofilm in drinking water distribution systems, a study has been carried out, using an industrial pilot plant fed with finished waters, with three main objectives, viz. (i) determination of biofilm density on pipe surfaces (PVC or cement lined cast iron) as a function of the distance

  2. Drinking water quality and chronic disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernest Angino; Bobby G. Wixson; Ivan Smith

    1977-01-01

    A series of drinking water samples from several major U.S. cities was analyzed last year and found to contain possible disease-causing agents. With the discovery of these potentially dangerous substances came the question of the relationship between many chronic diseases and the chemical composition of treated water. This question was discussed at a workshop held under the auspices of the

  3. MEMBRANES FOR REMOVING ORGANICS FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Membranes have historically been used to remove salts and other inorganic compounds from water but recently both bench-scale and field studies have shown their effectiveness for removing organic compounds from drinking water. wo different membrane types have been evaluated by the...

  4. Application of membrane technology for drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wentie Ma; Zhicai Sun; Zhongxiang Wang; Yu Bi Feng; Tong Chun Wang; Chan Hong Miu; Shucai Zhu

    1998-01-01

    In order to provide high-quality drinking water to the residents, Daqing City started the High-Quality Water Supply Project in 1994. In the first phase, seven polishing water treatment systems consisting of preozonation, microfiltration (MF), activated carbon (AC) adsorption, ultrafiltration (UF) or reverse osmosis (RO) and postozonation were installed in various residential districts. The existing low-quality tap water is used as

  5. DRINKING WATER HEALTH EFFECTS RESEARCH AT EPA: AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: The Environmental Protection Agency is required under the Safe Drinking Water Act to promulgate National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for contaminants in public water systems when certain regulatory criteria are met. Once a contaminant is regu...

  6. Drinking water consumption patterns in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Westrell, Therese; Andersson, Yvonne; Stenström, Thor Axel

    2006-12-01

    Estimates on drinking water consumption are necessary in risk assessments on microbial hazards in drinking water. Large differences in consumption habits between countries have been reported. In order to establish estimates for the Swedish population, water consumption data from a waterborne outbreak investigation (157 people), a small water consumption study (75 people) and a large study on health and environmental factors (10,957 people) were analysed. A lognormal distribution for the daily direct/cold water intake in litres with mu = - 0.299 and sigma = 0.570 was fitted to the quantitative data, representing the general population. The average daily consumption of tap water as plain drinking water and as heated tap water, e.g. in coffee and tea, was 0.86 +/- 0.48 l and 0.94 +/- 0.69 l, respectively. Women consumed more cold tap water than did men, while men appeared to have a higher consumption of heated tap water. Cold tap water intake was highest in the oldest age group, (> or =70 years). The consumption of bottled water was very low (mean 0.06 l/d) when compared to other countries. PMID:17176821

  7. A Drop to Drink. . .A Report on the Quality of Our Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Jack

    Basic information about the quality of our nation's drinking water is contained in this brochure. Written for the general public to familiarize them with the situation, it will also help them evaluate the state of the nation's drinking water as well as that of their own communities. The need to assure reliable sources of healthful drinking water

  8. Climate change influence on drinking water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Melinda Haydee; Ristoiu, Dumitru; Voica, Cezara; Moldovan, Zaharie

    2013-11-01

    Although it are quite well known the possible effects of climate changes on surface waters availability and their hydrological risks, their consequences on drinking water quality is not well defined yet. Disinfection agents (as Cl2, O3, etc.) or multiple combinations of them for water treatment and disinfection purposes are applied by water treatment plants at worldwide level. Unfortunately, besides the benefits of these processes were also highlighted some undesirable effects such as formation of several disinfection by-products (DBPs) after reaction of disinfection agent with natural organic matter (NOM) from water body. DBPs formation in drinking water, suspected to posses adverse health effects to humans are strongly regulated in our days. Thus, throughout this study kinetics experiments both the main physicochemical factors that influencing the quality of drinking waters were evaluated as well how they act through possible warming or the consequences of extreme events. Increasing water temperatures with 1 - 5 °C above its normal value has showed that NOMs are presented in higher amount which led to the need for greater amount of disinfectant agent (5 - 15 %). Increasing the amount of disinfecting agent resulted in the formation of DBPs in significantly higher concentrations (between 5 - 30 %).

  9. Decision support system for drinking water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janža, M.

    2012-04-01

    The problems in drinking water management are complex and often solutions must be reached under strict time constrains. This is especially distinct in case of environmental accidents in the catchment areas of the wells that are used for drinking water supply. The beneficial tools that can help decision makers and make program of activities more efficient are decision support systems (DSS). In general they are defined as computer-based support systems that help decision makers utilize data and models to solve unstructured problems. The presented DSS was developed in the frame of INCOME project which is focused on the long-term stable and safe drinking water supply in Ljubljana. The two main water resources Ljubljana polje and Barje alluvial aquifers are characterized by a strong interconnection of surface and groundwater, high vulnerability, high velocities of groundwater flow and pollutant transport. In case of sudden pollution, reactions should be very fast to avoid serious impact to the water supply. In the area high pressures arising from urbanization, industry, traffic, agriculture and old environmental burdens. The aim of the developed DSS is to optimize the activities in cases of emergency water management and to optimize the administrative work regarding the activities that can improve groundwater quality status. The DSS is an interactive computer system that utilizes data base, hydrological modelling, and experts' and stakeholders' knowledge. It consists of three components, tackling the different abovementioned issues in water management. The first one utilizes the work on identification, cleaning up and restoration of illegal dumpsites that are a serious threat to the qualitative status of groundwater. The other two components utilize the predictive capability of the hydrological model and scenario analysis. The user interacts with the system by a graphical interface that guides the user step-by-step to the recommended remedial measures. Consequently, the acquisition of information to support the water management's decisions is simplified and faster, thus contributing to more efficient water management and a safer supply of drinking water.

  10. CONTROL OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    For over a century, the process of providing hygienically safe drinking water has focused on utilizing treatment processes to provide barriers to the passage of infectious disease-causing organisms to humans. This concept is often considered the cornerstone of sanitary engineerin...

  11. CHLORINE DIOXIDE FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to comply with the trihalomethane regulation, many drinking water utilities have had to alter their treatment methods. ne option available to these utilities is to use a disinfectant other than chlorine such as chlorine dioxide. ith chlorine dioxide disinfection, trihalo...

  12. REMOVAL OF ORGANICS FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic contamination of drinking water is basically caused by two general classes of organics; man-made synthetic organics and disinfection of naturally occurring organics (disinfection by-products). Many volatile and non-volatile synthetic organics at trace concentrations are b...

  13. DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR CHLORAMINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Critical to establishing a regulatory strategy for drinking water is identifying those contaminants which pose the greatest risk to human health and consequently, what treatments could be developed to address those risks and at what cost. The National Center for Environmental Ass...

  14. Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-¿g/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  15. Treatment Strategies for Lead in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead pipes are capable of lasting hundreds of years. Conservatively, there are over 12 million, still serving drinking water in the US. Probably, this is a substantial underestimate. Leaded solder joining copper pipe abounds. Leaded brasses have dominated the materials used for...

  16. UPTAKE OF URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The gastrointestinal absorption (G.I.) of uranium in man from drinking water was determined by measuring urinary and fecal excretion of 234U and 238U in eight subjects. In order to establish their normal backgrounds of uranium intake and excretion, the subjects collected 24 hour ...

  17. Renal Effects of Uranium in Drinking Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Päivi Kurttio; Anssi Auvinen; Laina Salonen; Heikki Saha; Juha Pekkanen; Ilona Mäkeläinen; Sari B. Väisänen; Ilkka M. Penttilä; Hannu Komulainen

    2002-01-01

    statistically significantly associated with calcium fractional excretion, but not with phosphate or glucose excretion. Uranium exposure was not associated with creatinine clearance or urinary albu- min, which reflect glomerular function. In conclusion, uranium exposure is weakly associated with altered proximal tubulus function without a clear threshold, which suggests that even low uranium concentrations in drinking water can cause nephrotoxic effects.

  18. Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article provides a concise and abbreviated summary of AWWA Manual of Practice M53, Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water, to serve as a quick point of reference. For convenience, the article?s organization matches that of M53, as follows: ? wate...

  19. Research of Drinking Water Disinfection Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongwei Hu; Penghui Shi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the mechanism of chlorine disinfection, chlorine dioxide disinfection, ozone disinfection, ultraviolet disinfection and membrane process disinfection technology are analyzed in detail. And the production of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) is introduced. The advantages and disadvantages of these disinfection technologies are compared. At last, what do the researchers should do on drinking water disinfection technology is put forward.

  20. Drinking Water. The Food Guide Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Helen

    This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of drinking water. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and phrases helps early readers learn new words. The book…

  1. DEFLUORIDATION OF DRINKING WATER IN SMALL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the results of a study of defluoridation of drinking water in small communities using either central or point-of-use treatment. The ten sites used for project data collection had natural fluoride in their groundwater supplies in excess of the Maximum Contamin...

  2. SMALL DRINKING WATER SYSTEM PEER REVIEW PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United South and Eastern Tribes, Inc., which is made up of twenty-four (24) tribes, ranging in location, geographically, from Maine to Texas, AND three (3) states, Mississippi, Kentucky, and Georgia, participated in a program, "The Small Drinking Water System Peer Review Prog...

  3. Nitrification in Drinking Water Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Zhang; Nancy Love; Marc Edwards

    2009-01-01

    Nitrification is increasingly a concern in United States potable water distribution systems. This paper reviews research on nitrification as it relates to the ammonia levels and unique environments present in potable water distribution systems. Factors affecting nitrification occurrence, nitrification impacts on water quality and corrosion, and nitrification monitoring and control methods are emphasized. The potential role of nitrogen cycling via

  4. Regulatory Considerations to Ensure Clean and Safe Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Federal drinking water regulations are based on risk assessment of human health effects and research conducted on source water, treatment technologies, residuals, and distribution systems. The book chapter summarizes the role that EPA research plays in ensuring pure drinking wat...

  5. RESPONDING TO THREATS AND INCIDENTS OF INTENTIONAL DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    All drinking water systems have some degree of vulnerability to contamination, and analysis shows that it is possible to contaminate drinking water at levels causing varying degrees of harm. Furthermore, experience indicates that the threat of contamination, overt or circumstant...

  6. Basic Information about Mercury (inorganic) in Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2 ppb Health Effects Some people who drink water containing mercury well in excess of the MCL over many years could experience kidney damage. Drinking Water Health Advisories provide more information on health effects ...

  7. An environmental assessment of United States drinking water watersheds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. WickhamTimothy; Timothy G. Wade; Kurt H. Riitters

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking\\u000a water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of 5,265 drinking water watersheds\\u000a using data on land cover, hydrography and conservation status. Approximately 78% of the conterminous United States lies within\\u000a a drinking water watershed. The typical drinking water watershed had

  8. Mycobacterium xenopi and Drinking Water Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Dailloux, M.; Albert, M.; Laurain, C.; Andolfatto, S.; Lozniewski, A.; Hartemann, P.; Mathieu, L.

    2003-01-01

    The ability of Mycobacterium xenopi to colonize an experimental drinking water distribution system (a Propella reactor) was investigated. M. xenopi was present in the biofilm within an hour following its introduction. After 9 weeks, it was always present in the outlet water (1 to 10 CFU 100 ml?1) and inside the biofilm (102 to 103 CFU cm?2). Biofilms may be considered reservoirs for the survival of M. xenopi. PMID:14602661

  9. CASE FOR DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study was to present a tool useful to water utilities that not only could analyze historical distribution system reliability data, but also provide a flexible and expandable mechanism for record-keeping enabling overall management of water work's facilities and...

  10. Behavior of organic polymers in drinking water purification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiunn-Fwu Lee; Pao-Mei Liao; Dyi-Hwa seng; Pi-Tsui Wen

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic organic polymers used to purify drinking water are severely limited in that their impurities and by-products harm human health. In this study, the undesired effects resulted from chlorination and the enhanced attenuation of toxic organic compounds in drinking water from using synthetic organic polymer cogulants were investigated.In the simulated drinking water purification processes, synthetic organic polymers were used as

  11. DRINKING WATER AND LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pneumonia outbreaks caused by Legionella species recently have been epidemiologically linked to potable water distribution systems in hospitals and hotels. Showerheads were confirmed as the immediate source of the Legionella in many of the outbreaks, however, the organism also wa...

  12. Drinking water health advisory for boron

    SciTech Connect

    Cantilli, R.

    1991-04-01

    The Health Advisory Program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Water, has issued its report on the element boron: included are the compounds boric acid and borax(sodium tetraborate). It provides information on the health effects, analytical methodology, and treatment technology that would be useful in dealing with the contamination of drinking water. Health Advisories (HAs) describe nonregulatory concentrations of drinking water contaminants at which adverse health effects would not be anticipated to occur over specific exposure durations. HAs serve as informal technical guidance to assist Federal, State, and local officials responsible for protecting public health when emergency spills or contamination situations occur. They are not legally enforceable Federal Standards and are subject to change as new information becomes available.

  13. SMALL DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are 159,796 Community Water Systems (CWSs) in the United States. Ninety-three percent of CWSs are considered very small to medium-sized systems that serve roughly 19% of the CWS population. In contrast, large to very large systems comprise just 7% of CWSs, but serve 81% of ...

  14. GLYPHOSATE REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activated-carbon, oxidation, conventional-treatment, filtration, and membrane studies are conducted to determine which process is best suited to remove the herbicide glyphosate from potable water. Both bench-scale and pilot-scale studies are completed. Computer models are used ...

  15. SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT COST IMPACTS ON SELECTED WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detailed site visits were made to eight U.S. water utilities to assess the capital and O and M costs of meeting the requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). New treatment facilities were constructed at each of the utilities to correct water quality problems which are c...

  16. What Water Would You Drink?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Liukkonen

    This is a hands-on activity that fosters decision-making skills and emphasizes scientific principles such as objectivity and replication. It is designed to show that pollutants are not always obvious and not all contaminants pose a health risk. Students will learn that some contaminants can be detected by sight, smell, or taste and that others are not detectable except with sophisticated analytical equipment. They will also understand the difference between pollutants that make water unappealing and those that make it unhealthy or unsafe. This activity works well in an informal outdoor setting or in a classroom.

  17. Assessment of Drinking Water Quality from Bottled Water Coolers

    PubMed Central

    FARHADKHANI, Marzieh; NIKAEEN, Mahnaz; AKBARI ADERGANI, Behrouz; HATAMZADEH, Maryam; NABAVI, Bibi Fatemeh; HASSANZADEH, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Drinking water quality can be deteriorated by microbial and toxic chemicals during transport, storage and handling before using by the consumer. This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial and physicochemical quality of drinking water from bottled water coolers. Methods A total of 64 water samples, over a 5-month period in 2012-2013, were collected from free standing bottled water coolers and water taps in Isfahan. Water samples were analyzed for heterotrophic plate count (HPC), temperature, pH, residual chlorine, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC) and total organic carbon (TOC). Identification of predominant bacteria was also performed by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. Results The mean HPC of water coolers was determined at 38864 CFU/ml which exceeded the acceptable level for drinking water in 62% of analyzed samples. The HPC from the water coolers was also found to be significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of the tap waters. The statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the values of pH, EC, turbidity and TOC in water coolers and tap waters. According to sequence analysis eleven species of bacteria were identified. Conclusion A high HPC is indicative of microbial water quality deterioration in water coolers. The presence of some opportunistic pathogens in water coolers, furthermore, is a concern from a public health point of view. The results highlight the importance of a periodic disinfection procedure and monitoring system for water coolers in order to keep the level of microbial contamination under control.

  18. Removal of organics from drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Lykins, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    Organic contamination of drinking water is basically caused by two general classes of organics; man-made synthetic organics and disinfection of naturally occurring organics (disinfection by-products). Many volatile and non-volatile synthetic organics at trace concentrations are being detected in surface and ground waters. Contaminated ground water usually contains two or more predominant organic compounds and several other identifiable ones at lesser concentrations. Surface waters, such as rivers, generally contain many organic compounds in low concentrations. The document summarizes the treatment technologies that EPA's Drinking Water Research Division (DWRD) is evaluating for removal of VOCs, SOCs, and disinfection by-products from water supplies. Carbon adsorption is effective for removing both VOCs and SOCs. Packed-tower and diffused aeration are best suited for removing VOCs. Of the technologies that show promise and are being tested at the bench and pilot scales, conventional treatment with powdered activated carbon (PAC) is effective for removing a few of the SOCs, ozone oxidation is effective for removing certain classes of VOCs and SOCs, and certain reverse osmosis membranes and ultraviolet treatment are also potentially effective against VOCs and SOCs.

  19. Water, Water Everywhere, But is it Safe to Drink?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been associated with adverse human health effects, including bladder cancer, early term miscarriage, and birth defects. While it is vitally important to kill harmful pathogens in water, it is also important to minimize harmful ...

  20. Factors Affecting Lead Concentrations in Drinking Water: Solder and Sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa M. Stimpfel; Catherine E. Volin; Daniel W. Rosenberg; Edward L. Gershey

    1991-01-01

    The lead content of the drinking water on a 15-acre urban campus was evaluated by a method employing graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Water samples were collected from supply mains, distribution lines, and drinking water fixtures in 14 buildings that range in age up to 80 years. Despite the age of many installations, the majority of the fixtures delivered water

  1. SUSTAINABLE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY IN PUNE METROPOLITAN REGION: ALTERNATIVE POLICIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay RODE

    2009-01-01

    The demand of drinking water is continuously increasing in the Pune Metropolitan Region. Growth of rapid urbanization, population, commercial units, institutions, IT and BT and township planning are the major factors. Supply of drinking water is planned according to the growth of population but the coverage and equitable distribution of water is low. Water loss during transmission and distribution is

  2. Towards Rural Drinking Water Security: A Perspective of Regional Planning

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    ;Place of Planning Demand side elements Assets Pipe water supply scheme, dugwells, borewells, MI drinking water security Started with Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme in 1972-73 ­ supply driven Drinking Water Programme adopted demand driven approach in 2009 #12;Regional planning Demand driven v

  3. Genotoxicity of drinking water from Chao Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Q.; Jiao, Q.C. [Nanjing Univ. (China). Dept. of Biological Science and Technology] [Nanjing Univ. (China). Dept. of Biological Science and Technology; Huang, X.M.; Jiang, J.P.; Cui, S.Q.; Yao, G.H.; Jiang, Z.R.; Zhao, H.K.; Wang, N.Y. [Anhui Antiepidemic Station, Hefei (China)] [Anhui Antiepidemic Station, Hefei (China)

    1999-02-01

    Genotoxic activity appears to originate primarily from reactions of chlorine with humic substances in the source waters. Comparisons of extracts of settled versus chlorinated water have confirmed that chlorinating during water treatment produces mutagenic activity in the mutagenicity tests. Present work on XAD-2 extracts of raw, chlorinated (treated), and settled water from the Chao Lake region of China has involved a battery of mutagenicity assays for various genetic endpoints: the Salmonella test, the sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) induction in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells, and the micronucleus (MN) induction in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of silver carp. Extracts of raw and treated water but not the settled water are mutagenic in the Salmonella assay. On the other hand, extracts of three water samples show activity in the SCE and MN assays, especially the raw and treated water. These data show that contamination and chlorinating contribute mutagens to drinking water and suggest that the mammalian assays may be more sensitive for detecting mutagenicity in aquatic environment than the Salmonella test.

  4. Mycobacterium lentiflavum in drinking water supplies, Australia.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Henry M; Carter, Robyn; Torbey, Matthew J; Minion, Sharri; Tolson, Carla; Sidjabat, Hanna E; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan; Thomson, Rachel M

    2011-03-01

    Mycobacterium lentiflavum, a slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacterium, is a rare cause of human disease. It has been isolated from environmental samples worldwide. To assess the clinical significance of M. lentiflavum isolates reported to the Queensland Tuberculosis Control Centre, Australia, during 2001-2008, we explored the genotypic similarity and geographic relationship between isolates from humans and potable water in the Brisbane metropolitan area. A total of 47 isolates from 36 patients were reported; 4 patients had clinically significant disease. M. lentiflavum was cultured from 13 of 206 drinking water sites. These sites overlapped geographically with home addresses of the patients who had clinically significant disease. Automated repetitive sequence-based PCR genotyping showed a dominant environmental clone closely related to clinical strains. This finding suggests potable water as a possible source of M. lentiflavum infection in humans. PMID:21392429

  5. 59 FR- Drinking Water; National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Disinfectants and Disinfection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-07-29

    ...general sanitation and control of bacterial odors in the food industry. Chlorine is a highly...chlorine dosage is limited by taste and odor constraints and for systems needing to...in drinking water to control taste and odor problems, limit the formation of...

  6. DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN IOWA. 2. RADIOACTIVITY IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a logical epidemiologic exploration into possible associations between exposures to radium-226 in drinking water and incidence rates for cancers of the bladder, breast, colon, lung, prostate, and rectum. The most striking finding is the increasing gradient of ...

  7. Nitrate in sources of drinking water? Dutch drinking water companies aim at prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. T. A. Joosten; S. T. Buijze; D. M. Jansen

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands 65% of the drinking water is extracted from groundwater. A quarter of the groundwater wells, in particular those on the sandy soils in the east and the south of the country, face rising levels of nitrate, mainly of agricultural origin. In 1998 the Dutch Government launched a policy (MINAS) which aims at a drastic reduction in nitrate

  8. Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Tank, Jens; Robertson, Rose Marie; Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Water drinking increases blood pressure in a substantial proportion of patients who have severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. We tested the hypothesis that water drinking can be used as a practical treatment for patients with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, as well as those with orthostatic tachycardia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied the effect of drinking water on seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate in 11 patients who had severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure and in 9 patients who had orthostatic tachycardia due to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. We also tested the effect of water drinking on postprandial hypotension in 7 patients who had autonomic failure. Patients drank 480 mL of tap water at room temperature in less than 5 minutes. RESULTS: In patients with autonomic failure, mean (+/- SD) blood pressure after 1 minute of standing was 83 +/- 6/53 +/- 3.4 mm Hg at baseline, which increased to 114 +/- 30/66 +/- 18 mm Hg (P <0.01) 35 minutes after drinking. After a meal, blood pressure decreased by 43 +/- 36/20 +/- 13 mm Hg without water drinking, compared with 22 +/- 10/12 +/- 5 mm Hg with drinking (P <0.001). In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, water drinking attenuated orthostatic tachycardia (123 +/- 23 beats per minute) at baseline to 108 +/- 21 beats per minute after water drinking ( P <0.001). CONCLUSION: Water drinking elicits a rapid pressor response in patients with autonomic failure and can be used to treat orthostatic and postprandial hypotension. Water drinking moderately reduces orthostatic tachycardia in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. Thus, water drinking may serve as an adjunctive treatment in patients with impaired orthostatic tolerance.

  9. 76 FR 7762 - Drinking Water: Regulatory Determination on Perchlorate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ...FRL-9262-8] RIN 2040-AF08 Drinking Water: Regulatory Determination on Perchlorate...perchlorate in accordance with the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Specifically, EPA has determined...likelihood that perchlorate will occur in public water systems with a frequency and at...

  10. Visions of the Future in Drinking Water Microbiology.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water microbiology will have a tremendous impact on defining a safe drinking water in the future. There will be breakthroughs in realtime testing of process waters for pathogen surrogates with results made available within 1 hour for application to treatment adjustments ...

  11. Disinfection By-Products: Formation and Occurrence in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the twentieth century. Millions of people worldwide receive quality drinking water every day from their public water systems. However, chemical disinfection has also produced an unintended he...

  12. The Next Generation of Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the 20th century. Millions of people worldwide receive quality drinking water every day from their public water systems. However, chemical disinfection has also produced an unintended healt...

  13. Modeling contaminant propagation in drinking-water distribution systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M. Clark; Walter M. Grayman; Richard M. Males; Alan F. Hess

    1993-01-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments (SDWAA) will pose a massive challenge for the drinking-water industry in the United States. As the SDWAA regulations reach implementation, increasing effort will be devoted to understanding the factors causing deterioration of water quality between treatment and consumption. A cooperative study involving the U.S. EPA, the University of Michigan, and the South

  14. Heavy metals in drinking water and human health, Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eman A. E. Badr; Asmaa A. E. Agrama; Safaa A. E. Badr

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This study seeks to find out if chronic exposure via drinking water to high doses of a mixture of metals found as contaminants in tap and bottled water sources can alter the systemic physiology of residents. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A case control study was designed, 18 subjects drinking mainly tap water as main group (group I) and 15 subjects

  15. ADVANCES IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States drinking water public health protection goal is to provide water that meets all health-based standards to ninety-five percent of the population served by public drinking water supplies by 2005. In 2002, the level of compliance with some eighty-five health-based ...

  16. RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN DRINKING WATER TECHNOLOGY: A PROGRESS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments (SDWAA) have given EPA an aggressive standard setting agenda. The agenda, if carried out fully, will impact on water utilities in the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division (DWRD) is responsible for evaluating technologies for m...

  17. Excessive barium and radium 226 in Illinois drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calabrese

    1977-01-01

    The Illinois EPA has found 16 cities with drinking water containing barium concentrations exceeding the current state and federal drinking water standard of 1 mg\\/l. In addition, the presence of varying amounts of alpha activity reveal traces of radium-226 in many Illinois water wells. Increased levels of radium and barium are concurrent with a rise in cancer rates in the

  18. Cleaning membranes with focused ultrasound beams for drinking water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-yu Lu; Xi Du; Glenn Lipscomb

    2009-01-01

    Traditional methods for water treatment are not effective to remove micro pollutants such as harmful organics and cannot meet the demand for high-quality drinking water. Membrane technologies are known to produce drinking water of the highest quality. However, membrane fouling is a significant problem, which limits a widespread use of these technologies. Currently, chemical cleaning is used to control fouling,

  19. From: "Cheryl Beecroft" Subject: Drinking Water Results-ITB

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Michael

    From: "Cheryl Beecroft" Subject: Drinking Water Results-ITB Date: Fri, 1 Oct 2010 15:54:56 -0400 To: Please see the table below for lead content in water samples collected at ITB. The results were below the allowable level of 10ug/L for lead in drinking water

  20. [Hydraulic fracturing - a hazard for drinking water?].

    PubMed

    Ewers, U; Gordalla, B; Frimmel, F

    2013-11-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is a technique used to release and promote the extraction of natural gas (including shale gas, tight gas, and coal bed methane) from deep natural gas deposits. Among the German public there is great concern with regard to the potential environmental impacts of fracking including the contamination of ground water, the most important source of drinking water in Germany. In the present article the risks of ground water contamination through fracking are discussed. Due to the present safety requirements and the obligatory geological and hydrogeological scrutiny of the underground, which has to be performed prior to fracking, the risk of ground water contamination by fracking can be regarded as very low. The toxicity of chemical additives of fracking fluids is discussed. It is recommended that in the future environmental impact assessment and approval of fracs should be performed by the mining authorities in close cooperation with the water authorities. Furthermore, it is recommended that hydraulic fracturing in the future should be accompanied by obligatory ground water monitoring. PMID:24285158

  1. GENOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The information summarized in this review provides substantial evidence for the widespread presence of genotoxins in drinking water. In many, if not most cases, the genotoxic activity can be directly attributed to the chlorination stage of drinking water treatment. The genotoxic ...

  2. EJ SMALL GRANT: SAFE DRINKING WATER FOR LOW INCOME COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Legal Aid Services of Oregon (LASO) has determined that both EPA Region 10 and the Oregon Health Division have identified regulatory defects in the Safe Drinking Water Act with respect to migrant farmworker drinking water sources. Lack of mandatory testing, lack of enforcement a...

  3. HEALTH EFFECTS OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO BARIUM IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this study was to examine by epidemiologic and supportive laboratory studies, the human health effects associated with ingestion of barium in drinking water exceeding the U.S. drinking water standard of 1.0 mg/l. The incidence of cardiovascular mortality ...

  4. Certification of local laboratories analyzing drinking water in nonprimacy states

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certification procedures for certifying local laboratories analyzing drinking water for compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act. A local laboratory is defined as a nonprincipal state laboratory and may include state, county, municipal, federal, or commercial laboratories. The EPA certification program has recently been updated and clarified in the 1983 edition

  5. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: CONTROL OF LEAD AND COPPER IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication presents subjects relating to the control of lead and copper in drinking water systems. t is of interest to system owners, operators, managers, and local decision makers, such as town officials, regarding drinking water treatment requirements and the treatment te...

  6. TREATMENT OF ARSENIC RESIDUALS FROM DRINKING WATER REMOVAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking water MCL was recently lowered from 0.05 mg/L to 0.01 mg/L. One concern was that reduction in the TCLP arsenic limit in response to the drinking water MCL could be problematic with regard to disposal of solid residuals generated at arsenic removal facilities. This pr...

  7. DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR ETHYLBENZENE (FINAL DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on ethylbenzene. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of ethylbenzene; Toxicokinetics and hu...

  8. The photocatalytic removal of bacterial pollutants from drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. M. Dunlop; J. A. Byrne; N. Manga; B. R. Eggins

    2002-01-01

    Pathogens in drinking water supplies can be removed by sand filtration followed by chlorine or ozone disinfection. These processes reduce the possibility of any pathogens entering the drinking water distribution network. However, there is doubt about the ability of these methods to remove chlorine resistant microorganisms including protozoan oocysts. Concern has also been raised about the production of disinfection by-products

  9. Nitrate Levels in Drinking Water in Rural New York State

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kitty H. Gelberg; Lou Church; Gabrielle Casey; Matthew London; D. Sue Roerig; Jane Boyd; Marylee Hill

    1999-01-01

    To obtain an indication of the nitrate–nitrogen levels in drinking water in rural areas of upstate New York and the number of infants at risk for methemoglobinemia, 419 wells supplying drinking water to farms were tested. Farmers were identified through two programs run by the New York State Department of Health. The farmers were asked to complete a short questionnaire

  10. Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the 20th century. Before its widespread use, millions of people died from waterborne diseases. Now, people in developed nations receive quality drinking water every day from their public wa...

  11. Correlations of Water Quality Parameters with Mutagenicity of Chlorinated Drinking Water Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen M. Schenck; Mano Sivaganesan; Glenn E. Rice

    2009-01-01

    Adverse health effects that may result from chronic exposure to mixtures of disinfection by-products (DBPs) present in drinking waters may be linked to both the types and concentrations of DBPs present. Depending on the characteristics of the source water and treatment processes used, both types and concentrations of DBPs found in drinking waters vary substantially. The composition of a drinking-water

  12. 76 FR 2383 - Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ...for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental Caries AGENCY...U.S. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards related to recommendations for fluoride concentrations in drinking water. The U.S. Public Health Service...

  13. 75 FR 15499 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement of the Results of EPA's Review of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ...National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement of the Results of EPA's Review of Existing Drinking Water Standards and Request for Public Comment...RIN 2040-AE90 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement of the...

  14. 77 FR 40382 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ...Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is hereby...violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA...the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (``NPDWRs...with the NPDWRs in the future, to pay a civil...

  15. 77 FR 14425 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ...Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is hereby...penalties under the Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA...the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (``NPDWRs...with the NPDWRs in the future, to pay a civil...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet the applicable minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the State or community in which the mine is...

  17. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 71.600 shall meet the applicable minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the State or community in which the mine is...

  18. PROTOZOAN SOURCES OF SPONTANEOUS COLIFORM OCCURRENCE IN CHLORINATED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spontaneous occurrence of coliforms in chlorinated drinking waters has resulted in concern over their potential source and mechanism(s) of introduction into water delivery systems. Previous observations related to protozoal resistance to chlorine coupled with the ingestion of...

  19. APPLICATION OF USEPA'S DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS TOWARDS RAINWATER CATCHMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainwater harvesting is receiving increased attention worldwide as an alternative source of drinking water. Although federal agencies such as the USEPA acknowledge the existence of rainwater collection systems, the monitoring of this water source is still typically carried out b...

  20. OVERVIEW OF USEPA MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Microbial Contaminants Control Branch (MCCB) conducts research on microbiological problems related to drinking water treatment, distribution and storage, and has recently become involved in watershed and source water quality issues such as fecal indicator bacteria and fecal p...

  1. IMPACT OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT ON ASSIMILABLE ORGANIC CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regrowth in the drinking water distribution system is a primary concern for water utilities. he disinfection process, although normally efficient for primary inactivation, is not always enough to discourage microbial regrowth if sufficient substrate is available. Previously, the,...

  2. CO2 Releases from Deep Storage Formations into Drinking Water Aquifers - Assessment of Impacts on Drinking Water Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T. Pabalan; S. L. Painter; G. R. Walter; F. P. Bertetti

    2008-01-01

    Geological storage of supercritical CO2 is envisioned as a means of mitigating the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. However, the potential exists for CO2 to migrate from the deep geologic formations to overlying aquifers that serve as sources of drinking water, which could lead to geochemical alterations that have detrimental effects on drinking water quality. For example, elevated

  3. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 265 - EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards III Appendix...CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM...OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL...Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 265 - EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards III Appendix...CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM...OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL...Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 265 - EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards III Appendix...CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM...OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL...Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards...

  6. 76 FR 72703 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council-Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    Notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC or Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The Council will consider various issues associated with drinking water protection and public water systems including actions to assist small water systems and efforts underway to address nutrient pollution of drinking water supplies. The Council......

  7. Drinking water quality in household supply infrastructure—A survey of the current situation in Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Völker; Christiane Schreiber; Thomas Kistemann

    2010-01-01

    As a result of the amendment to the German Drinking Water Ordinance in 2001, local public health authorities are obliged to monitor the water supply in installations providing water for public use (Section 18 German Drinking Water Ordinance). With a systematic and nationwide survey of locally available data relating to hygienic drinking water quality and the existing drinking water infrastructure

  8. Statistical Analysis of Drinking Water Treatment Plant Costs, Source Water Quality, and Land Cover Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jade Freeman; Rebecca Madsen; Kelley Hart; Paul Barten; Paul Gregory; David Reckhow; Woody Duncan

    Revisiting an earlier study conducted by The Trust for Public Land in 2004, this research brings new data and methodologies to offer insight on the impact of the decline of forest cover and the increase of agriculture or urban land cover in a drinking water source drainage area on the water quality for that drinking water source and the drinking

  9. Investigation on optimization of conventional drinking water treatment plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Piri; I. Homayoonnezhad; P. Amirian

    2010-01-01

    Conventional drinking water treatment plant consists of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration and disinfection units. Depending on water quality influent, each unit can be optimized to achieve the desired water quality effluent, both in design and operation stages. A typical water treatment plant has the combination of processes needed to treat the contaminants in the source water treated by the

  10. Drinking Water Gary S. Silverman, Bowling Green State University

    E-print Network

    governing municipal water supplies. Private supplies, however, largely remain under the purview of localDrinking Water Gary S. Silverman, Bowling Green State University Key Concepts Preventing water-borne disease is necessary to maintain good health. Protecting water sources is key to providing safe water

  11. Deficiencies in drinking water distribution systems in developing countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen J. Lee; Kellogg J. Schwab

    2005-01-01

    Rapidly growing populations and migration to urban areas in developing countries has resulted in a vital need for the establishment of centralized water systems to disseminate potable water to residents. Protected source water and modern, well-maintained drinking water treatment plants can provide water adequate for human consumption. However, ageing, stressed or poorly maintained distribution systems can cause the quality of

  12. Diversity and Significance of Mold Species in Norwegian Drinking Water?

    PubMed Central

    Hageskal, Gunhild; Knutsen, Ann Kristin; Gaustad, Peter; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Skaar, Ida

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine the occurrence, distribution, and significance of mold species in groundwater- and surface water-derived drinking water in Norway, molds isolated from 273 water samples were identified. Samples of raw water, treated water, and water from private homes and hospital installations were analyzed by incubation of 100-ml membrane-filtered samples on dichloran-18% glycerol agar. The total count (number of CFU per 100 ml) of fungal species and the species diversity within each sample were determined. The identification of mold species was based on morphological and molecular methods. In total, 94 mold species belonging to 30 genera were identified. The mycobiota was dominated by species of Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Aspergillus, with some of them occurring throughout the drinking water system. Several of the same species as isolated from water may have the potential to cause allergic reactions or disease in humans. Other species are common contaminants of food and beverages, and some may cause unwanted changes in the taste or smell of water. The present results indicate that the mycobiota of water should be considered when the microbiological safety and quality of drinking water are assessed. In fact, molds in drinking water should possibly be included in the Norwegian water supply and drinking water regulations. PMID:17028226

  13. RAPID METHOD FOR DETERMINING NATURAL RADIONUCLIDES IN DRINKING WATER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Landstetter; Christian Katzlberger

    Radionuclides from the natural decay series are ubiquitous in Earth's crust, and because of direct recoil, diffusion, migration, and dissolution, these radionuclides infiltrate drinking water through the water cycle. Extensive data exists on 222Rn and 226Ra in drinking water in Austria; however, little is known about the 232Th decay products like 228Ra, the 222Rn progenies 210Pb and 210Po, and uranium.

  14. USE ONLY WATER THAT HAS BEEN PROPERLY DISINFECTED FOR DRINKING, COOKING, MAKING ANY PREPARED DRINK, OR FOR BRUSHING TEETH

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    , OR FOR BRUSHING TEETH 1. Use bottled water that has not been exposed to flood waters if it is available. 2. If you don't have bottled water, you should boil water to make it safe. Boiling water will kill most typesUSE ONLY WATER THAT HAS BEEN PROPERLY DISINFECTED FOR DRINKING, COOKING, MAKING ANY PREPARED DRINK

  15. Time to revisit arsenic regulations: comparing drinking water and rice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Current arsenic regulations focus on drinking water without due consideration for dietary uptake and thus seem incoherent with respect to the risks arising from rice consumption. Existing arsenic guidelines are a cost-benefit compromise and, as such, they should be periodically re-evaluated. Discussion Literature data was used to compare arsenic exposure from rice consumption relative to exposure arising from drinking water. Standard risk assessment paradigms show that arsenic regulations for drinking water should target a maximum concentration of nearly zero to prevent excessive lung and bladder cancer risks (among others). A feasibility threshold of 3 ?g As l-1 was determined, but a cost-benefit analysis concluded that it would be too expensive to target a threshold below 10 ?g As l-1. Data from the literature was used to compare exposure to arsenic from rice and rice product consumption relative to drinking water consumption. The exposure to arsenic from rice consumption can easily be equivalent to or greater than drinking water exposure that already exceeds standard risks and is based on feasibility and cost-benefit compromises. It must also be emphasized that many may disagree with the implications for their own health given the abnormally high cancer odds expected at the cost-benefit arsenic threshold. Summary Tighter drinking water quality criteria should be implemented to properly protect people from excessive cancer risks. Food safety regulations must be put in place to prevent higher concentrations of arsenic in various drinks than those allowed in drinking water. Arsenic concentrations in rice should be regulated so as to roughly equate the risks and exposure levels observed from drinking water. PMID:24884827

  16. Microbiological quality of drinking water at eight water treatment plants.

    PubMed

    El-Taweel, G E; Shaban, A M

    2001-11-01

    Eight drinking water treatment plants were sampled monthly during one year to evaluate the removal of bacterial indicators, new indicators and some pathogenic bacteria. Six plants are allocated along the Nile River at Cairo segment and the two others on Ismailia Canal. In this study many parameters were determined; the classical bacterial indicators (total bacterial counts at 22 and 37 degrees C, total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci) show the same trend in all plant intakes except faecal streptococci parameter. The numbers of faecal streptococci in plant intakes on the main stream of Nile River ranged from 8 to 250 MPN/100 ml, but the others ranged from 80 to 2700 MPN/100 ml. With regard to new indicators; total yeasts, Candida albicans, Aeromonas hydrophlia and total staphylococci ranged from 10(1) to 10(5), 10(2) to 10(5), 10(2) to 10(5) and 10(2) to 10(3) cfu/100 ml, respectively. In case of pathogens, salmonellae ranged between 10(2) and 10(3) cfu/100 ml, total vibrios varied between 10(2) and 10(4) and the Listeria group ranged from 10(2) to 10(5) cfu/100 ml from the intake samples. All tested samples from the outlet of water treatment plants, which produce drinking water, were free of classical bacterial indicators. So the produced water has a good quality from the bacteriological point, according to national and international regulations. On the other hand, the drinking water from some tested plants had one or more positive parameters of new indicators and pathogenic bacteria. PMID:11798415

  17. Further formation of trihalomethanes in drinking water during heating.

    PubMed

    Li, X Z; Sun, J M

    2001-11-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the further formation of trihalomethanes (THM) in drinking water when it is being heated at home. Experimental results confirmed that there could be a further significant formation during heating drinking water. Overall variation of THM concentration in water during the heating depended on its formation rate and volatilisation rate. The rate of THM formation was mainly affected by not only both the concentrations of THM precursors, such as humic substances and residual chlorine, but also temperature and reaction time. The rate of THM volatilisation depended on water temperature and the extent of water agitation in the water heaters. It was concluded that the THM residuals in drinking water could be effectively eliminated to a very low level, if the boiling of water was kept in the open for few minutes after water boiling. PMID:11798422

  18. 78 FR 25267 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...FRL-9807-7] Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking...research on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources...research to examine the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water...

  19. 77 FR 67361 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ...FRL-9750-8] Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking...research on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources...research to examine the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water...

  20. Microbial quality of drinking water from microfiltered water dispensers.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, R; De Luca, G; Dormi, A; Guberti, E; Zanetti, F

    2014-03-01

    A comparison was made between the microbial quality of drinking water obtained from Microfiltered Water Dispensers (MWDs) and that of municipal tap water. A total of 233 water samples were analyzed. Escherichia coli (EC), enterococci (ENT), total coliforms (TC), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) at 22 °C and 37 °C were enumerated. In addition, information was collected about the principal structural and functional characteristics of each MWD in order to study the various factors that might influence the microbial quality of the water. EC and ENT were not detected in any of the samples. TC were never detected in the tap water but were found in 5 samples taken from 5 different MWDs. S. aureus was found in a single sample of microfiltered water. P. aeruginosa was found more frequently and at higher concentrations in the samples collected from MWDs. The mean HPCs at 22 °C and 37 °C were significantly higher in microfiltered water samples compared to those of the tap water. In conclusion, the use of MWDs may increase the number of bacteria originally present in tap water. It is therefore important to monitor the quality of the dispensed water over time, especially if it is destined for vulnerable users. PMID:23838062

  1. DRINKING WATER AS A SOURCE OF MINERAL NUTRITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contributions of drinking water to the mineral nutrition of individuals are functions of the mineral contents of that water and the rate of water consumption of those individuals. The mineral contents of water supplies vary considerably, and many are processed to remove minerals. In fact, the pr...

  2. INEXPENSIVE DRINKING WATER CHLORINATION UNIT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 250 drinking water systems exist for small communities in Puerto Rico that serve 25-500 individuals. These water systems fall outside of Puerto Rico Aquaduct and Sewer Authority and, thus, have no or insufficient water treatment systems. Water sources for these communit...

  3. REMOVAL OF URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA currently does not regulate uranium in drinking water but will be revising the radionuclide regulations during 1989 and will propose a maximum contaminant level for uranium. The paper presents treatment technology information on the effectiveness of conventional method...

  4. INTERACTIONS OF SILICA PARTICLES IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Identifier: U915331 Title: Interactions of Silica Particles in Drinking Water Treatment Processes Fellow (Principal Investigator): Christina L. Clarkson Institution: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University EPA GRANT R...

  5. PATHOGENS IN DRINKING WATER - ARE THERE ANY NEW ONES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 1976 three newly recognized human pathogens have become familiar to the drinking water industry as waterborne disease agents. hese are: the legionnaires disease agent, Legionella pneumophila and related species; and two protozoan pathogens, Giardia lamblia and Cryfltosoprid...

  6. REMOVING TRIHALOMETHANES FROM DRINKING WATER - AN OVERVIEW OF TREATMENT TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1974 trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) were discovered to be formed during the disinfection step of drinking water if free chlorine was the disinfectant. This, coupled with the perceived hazard to the consumer's health, led...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES: DRINKING WATER TREATMENT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides information for small system owners, operators, managers, and local decision makers, such as town officials, regarding drinking water treatment requirements and the treatment technologies suitable for small systems. t is not intended to be a comprehensive m...

  8. APPLICATION OF MULTIMEDIA EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT TO DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A potentially important exposure route for humans is the ingestion of chemicals via drinking water. If comprehensive exposure assessments are to be completed for either existing or proposed new chemicals and cost effective control strategies develop, then a quantitative understan...

  9. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF CARCINOGENICITY OF CHLORINATED ORGANICS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concern has recently been voiced over possible chronic toxicity associated with chlorination of public drinking water supplies in the United States. This paper reviews the available evidence and the studies underway to further evaluate hypothesized associations between cancer ris...

  10. ADVANCED CONTAMINANT INACTIVATION SYSTEM FOR DRINKING WATER - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency is soliciting innovations for the development of small unit drinking water systems that will inactivate contaminants, including pesticides, organic pollutants, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pathogens. In the U.S., 85% ...

  11. Safe Drinking Water Act - Protecting America's Public Health

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This poster can assist students in understanding how everyday occurrences can affect their drinking water. It highlights risks to drinking water that come in many forms, such as municipal and industrial discharges, recreational activities or simply natural conditions and events. It provides a detailed graphic description of these risks and the barriers in place to help ensure the safety of our drinking water. The full-color poster can be downloaded or ordered in a 24 by 36 inch version in English or Spanish or an 11 by 17 inch version, by mail and at no cost to the classroom teacher. This site also contains ordering information for a free CD-ROM, Consider the Source: An Interactive Guide to Protecting America's Drinking Water.

  12. DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS: WHAT IS KNOWN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are currently the major disinfectants being used to disinfect drinking water. Although the alternative disinfectants (ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine) are increasing in popularity in the United States, chlorine is still us...

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF NEW DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to concern over the potential adverse health effects of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfectants are being explored. Ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are popular alternatives, as they produce low...

  14. DEVELOPING APPROACHES TO ESTIMATE CUMULATIVE RISKS OF DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are exposed daily to complex mixtures of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) via oral, dermal, and inhalation routes. Some positive epidemiological studies suggest reproductive and developmental effects and cancer are associated with consumption of chlorinated d...

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF TI02/UV DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to concern over the presence of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated byproducts in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfection methods are being explored. One of the alternative treatment methods currently being evaluated for potential use with small systems ...

  16. MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF DRINKING WATER MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES: A PHYLOGENETIC APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Culture-based methods are traditionally used to determine microbiological quality of drinking water even though these methods are highly selective and tend to underestimate the densities and diversity bacterial populations inhabiting distribution systems. In order to better under...

  17. Impact of Plumbing Age on Copper Levels in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Theory and limited practical experiences suggest that higher copper levels in drinking water tap samples are typically associated with newer plumbing systems, and levels decrease with increasing plumbing age. Past researchers have developed a conceptual model to explain the ?agin...

  18. Communicating Research to Small Drinking Water Systems: Dissemination by Researchers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk discusses the challenges of disseminating research relevant to small systems. The presentation discusses efforts by the U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development to effectively communicating drinking water information. In particular, communication approaches ...

  19. Arsenic drinking water regulations in developing countries with extensive exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan H. Smith; Meera M. Hira Smith

    2004-01-01

    The United States Public Health Service set an interim standard of 50?g\\/l in 1942, but as early as 1962 the US Public Health Service had identified 10?g\\/l as a goal which later became the World Health Organization Guideline for drinking water in 1992. Epidemiological studies have shown that about one in 10 people drinking water containing 500?g\\/l of arsenic over

  20. Your Actions Can Help Protect Our Drinking Water 

    E-print Network

    Harris, Janie

    2004-06-29

    Department of Agriculture. Edward G. Smith, Interim Director, Texas Cooperative Extension, The Texas A&M University System. L-5056, Household Hazardous Waste Management, a publication produced by the Texas Agricultural Extension Service. It is available... private supply, it is up to you to make sure that your drinking water is safe. Protecting our drinking water is everyone?s responsibility. Individuals, businesses, agricultural enterprises, citizens organizations, and local and state governmental...

  1. Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catterina Ferreccio; Vivian Milosavjlevic; Guillermo Marshall; Ana Maria Sancha; Allan H. Smith

    2000-01-01

    Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 mg\\/liter in drinking water in the period 1958 -1970. Concen- trations have since been reduced to 40 mg\\/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital

  2. 75 FR 39935 - Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as Group(s)-Notice of Web Dialogue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    On March 22, 2010, Administrator Lisa P. Jackson announced the Drinking Water Strategy, a new vision to expand public health protection for drinking water by going beyond the traditional framework. The Drinking Water Strategy includes the following four principles: Addressing some contaminants as group(s) rather than one at a time so that enhancement of drinking water protection can be achieved......

  3. INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  4. INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  5. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER ? PALL/KINETICO PUREFECTA DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pall/Kinetico Purefecta? POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The Purefecta? employs several compon...

  6. Interrelationship of photooxidation and microfiltration in drinking water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Malek; J. L. Harris; F. A. Roddick

    2006-01-01

    Photooxidation by vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV, 254+185nm) was investigated as a pretreatment to break down the natural organic matter (NOM) in surface water and thus reduce fouling in microfiltration systems for drinking water treatment. The behaviour of variously treated waters, namely raw water, VUV-treated water and water with aluminium chlorohydrate as coagulant, were compared in a stirred cell using 0.22?m

  7. Biological Instability in a Chlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Network

    PubMed Central

    Nescerecka, Alina; Rubulis, Janis; Vital, Marius; Juhna, Talis; Hammes, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of a drinking water distribution system is to deliver drinking water to the consumer, preferably with the same quality as when it left the treatment plant. In this context, the maintenance of good microbiological quality is often referred to as biological stability, and the addition of sufficient chlorine residuals is regarded as one way to achieve this. The full-scale drinking water distribution system of Riga (Latvia) was investigated with respect to biological stability in chlorinated drinking water. Flow cytometric (FCM) intact cell concentrations, intracellular adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), heterotrophic plate counts and residual chlorine measurements were performed to evaluate the drinking water quality and stability at 49 sampling points throughout the distribution network. Cell viability methods were compared and the importance of extracellular ATP measurements was examined as well. FCM intact cell concentrations varied from 5×103 cells mL?1 to 4.66×105 cells mL?1 in the network. While this parameter did not exceed 2.1×104 cells mL?1 in the effluent from any water treatment plant, 50% of all the network samples contained more than 1.06×105 cells mL?1. This indisputably demonstrates biological instability in this particular drinking water distribution system, which was ascribed to a loss of disinfectant residuals and concomitant bacterial growth. The study highlights the potential of using cultivation-independent methods for the assessment of chlorinated water samples. In addition, it underlines the complexity of full-scale drinking water distribution systems, and the resulting challenges to establish the causes of biological instability. PMID:24796923

  8. A review of arsenic presence in China drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jing; Charlet, Laurent

    2013-06-01

    Chronic endemic arsenicosis areas have been discovered in China since 1960s. Up to 2012, 19 provinces had been found to have As concentration in drinking water exceeding the standard level (0.05 mg/L). Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and Shanxi Province are historical well-known “hotspots” of geogenic As-contaminated drinking water. The goal of this review is to examine, summarize and discuss the information of As in drinking water for all provinces and territories in China. Possible natural As sources for elevating As level in drinking water, were documented. Geogenic As-contaminated drinking water examples were taken to introduce typical environmental conditions where the problems occurred: closed basins in arid or semi-arid areas and reducing aquifers under high pH conditions. Geothermal water or mineral water in mountains areas can be high-As water as well. For undiscovered areas, prediction of potential As-affected groundwater has been carried out by some research groups by use of logistic regression. Modeled maps of probability of geogenic As contamination in groundwater are promising to be used as references to discover unknown areas. Furthermore, anthropogenic As contaminations were summarized and mining, smelters and chemical industries were found to be major sources for As pollution in China.

  9. Direct drinking water treatment by spiral-wound ultrafiltration membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Mierzwa; I. Hespanhol; M. C. C. da Silva; L. D. B. Rodrigues; C. F. Giorgi

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research on direct drinking water treatment through an ultrafiltration pilot plant unit using spiral-wound membranes (3500 MWCO). The source of water is the Guarapiranga Reservoir, an eutrophicated water body located in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. The data were collected during a period of almost 3400 h, from August 2005 to

  10. EXPOSURE TO ASBESTOS FROM DRINKING WATER IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 1500 asbestos analyses of water supplies in 43 states, Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia were evaluated in order to assess the exposure of the United States population to asbestos in drinking water. It was cocluded that the large majority of U.S. water consumers are n...

  11. Drinking water treatment residuals: A Review of recent uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coagulants such as alum [Al2(SO4)3•14H2O], FeCl3, or Fe2(SO4)3 are commonly used to remove particulate and dissolved constituents from water supplies in the production of drinking water. The resulting waste product, called water-treatment residuals (WTR), contains precipitated Al and Fe oxyhydroxide...

  12. A Review of Chlorine Dioxide in Drinking Water Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Marco Aieta; James D. Berg

    1986-01-01

    There is increased interest in using chlorine dioxide to treat drinking water for trihalomethane control, taste and odor control, oxidation of iron and manganese, and oxidant-enhanced coagulation-sedimentation. This article reviews the physical, chemical, and biological properties of chlorine dioxide as they relate to water treatment. The generation reactions as well as the reactions likely to occur in treated water are

  13. Drinking Water Contamination Due To Lead-based Solder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Garcia; E. Bartelt; K. E. Cuff

    2004-01-01

    The presence of lead in drinking water creates many health hazards. Exposure to lead-contaminated water can affect the brain, the central nervous system, blood cells, and kidneys, causing such problems as mental retardation, kidney disease, heart disease, stroke, and death. One way in which lead can contaminate our water supply is through the use of lead solder to join pipes.

  14. Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Transmission and Distribution Mains

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project seeks to improve the capability to characterize the condition of water infrastructure. The integrity of buried drinking water mains is critical, as it influences water quality, losses, pressure and cost. This research complements the U.S. Environmental Protection A...

  15. DETECTION OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN TREATED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of viruses in conventionally treated drinking water derived from a heavily polluted source was evaluated by collecting and analyzing 38 large volume (65 to 756 liter) samples of water from a 9m3/sec (205 mgd) water treatment plant. Samples of raw, clarified, filter...

  16. Making Drinking Water Safer from Bacterial Contamination in Emergency Situations

    E-print Network

    pollution. If possible, surface water should be obtained upstream from an inhabited area and dipped from was funded by the Rio Grande Basin Initiative administered by the Texas Water Resources Institute of TexasMaking Drinking Water Safer from Bacterial Contamination in Emergency Situations Monty C. Dozier

  17. Estrogen-related receptor ? disruption of source water and drinking water treatment processes extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Na Li; Weiwei Jiang; Kaifeng Rao; Mei Ma; Zijian Wang; Satyanarayanan Senthik Kumaran

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals in drinking water can impact human health through nuclear receptors. Additionally, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are vulnerable to endocrine-disrupting effects. To date, however, ERR disruption of drinking water potency has not been reported. We used ERR? two-hybrid yeast assay to screen ERR? disrupting activities in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) located in north China and in source water

  18. Emerging contaminants in surface waters and their relevance for the production of drinking water in Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corine J. Houtman

    2010-01-01

    An increasing part of drinking water in Europe is prepared from surface water. At the same time, a growing number of emerging contaminants is being discovered in surface water. This review provides an overview of classes of emerging contaminants nowadays detected in the aquatic environment that are of relevance for drinking water production. These comprise e.g. endocrine disrupting compounds, such

  19. DRINKING WATER QUALITY DETERIORATION IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: COLORED WATER FORMATION AND ITS CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The release of iron from drinking water distribution systems is a common source of drinking water distribution system consumer complaints. Suspended iron particles result in colored (red) water and metallic tasting water. Iron release results from both physical and chemical mec...

  20. Artificial sweetener sucralose in U.S. drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Mawhinney, Douglas B; Young, Robert B; Vanderford, Brett J; Borch, Thomas; Snyder, Shane A

    2011-10-15

    The artificial sweetener sucralose has recently been shown to be a widespread of contaminant of wastewater, surface water, and groundwater. In order to understand its occurrence in drinking water systems, water samples from 19 United States (U.S.) drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) serving more than 28 million people were analyzed for sucralose using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sucralose was found to be present in source water of 15 out of 19 DWTPs (47-2900 ng/L), finished water of 13 out of 17 DWTPs (49-2400 ng/L) and distribution system water of 8 out of the 12 DWTPs (48-2400 ng/L) tested. Sucralose was only found to be present in source waters with known wastewater influence and/or recreational usage, and displayed low removal (12% average) in the DWTPs where finished water was sampled. Further, in the subset of DWTPs with distribution system water sampled, the compound was found to persist regardless of the presence of residual chlorine or chloramines. In order to understand intra-DWTP consistency, sucralose was monitored at one drinking water treatment plant over an 11 month period from March 2010 through January 2011, and averaged 440 ng/L in the source water and 350 ng/L in the finished water. The results of this study confirm that sucralose will function well as an indicator compound for anthropogenic influence on source, finished drinking and distribution system (i.e., tap) water, as well as an indicator compound for the presence of other recalcitrant compounds in finished drinking water in the U.S. PMID:21879743

  1. COST AND BENEFITS OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article develops a framework for evaluating the costs and benefits of environmental control and preventive public health practices and asks the policy question: How do the authors achieve the best mix of protection against infectious disease and toxic chemicals in drinking wa...

  2. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM HOUSEHOLD DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Yuan; Jiang Yong Hu; Say Leong Ong; Qi Fang Luo; Wern Jun Ng

    2002-01-01

    Geogenic inorganic arsenic contamination in drinking water has been raising public health concern especially in developing countries. Cost-effective and stopgap arsenic removal method for household use (cooking and drinking) is very urgent. Several iron treated natural materials such as Fe-treated activated carbon (FeAC), Fe-treated gel beads (FeGB) and iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS), were investigated in this study for arsenic removal

  3. The 1991 Lead\\/Copper Drinking Water Rule and the 1995 Decision Not to Revise the Arsenic Drinking Water Rule: Two Case Studies in EPA's Use of Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark R. Powell

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses EPA's acquisition and use of science in two decisions under the Safe Drinking Water Act: the 1991 revision of the lead drinking water regulations and the 1995 decision to pursue additional research instead of revising the arsenic in drinking water standard. In the first case, a committed band of policy entrepreneurs within EPA mobilized and supplemented scientific

  4. Occurrence and hygienic relevance of fungi in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kanzler, D; Buzina, W; Paulitsch, A; Haas, D; Platzer, S; Marth, E; Mascher, F

    2008-03-01

    Fungi, above all filamentous fungi, can occur almost everywhere, even in water. They can grow in such a quantity in water that they can affect the health of the population or have negative effects on food production. There are several reports of fungal growth in water from different countries, but to our knowledge none from Austria so far. The aim of this study was to gain an overview of the spectrum of filamentous fungi and yeasts in drinking water systems. Thirty-eight water samples from drinking water and groundwater were analysed. Fungi were isolated by using membrane filtration and plating method with subsequent cultivation on agar plates. The different taxa of fungi were identified using routine techniques as well as molecular methods. Fungi were isolated in all water samples examined. The mean value for drinking water was 9.1 CFU per 100 ml and for groundwater 5400 CFU per 100 ml. Altogether 32 different taxa of fungi were found. The taxa which occurred most frequently were Cladosporium spp., Basidiomycetes and Penicillium spp. (74.6%, 56.4% and 48.7%, respectively). This study shows that drinking water can be a reservoir for fungi, among them opportunists, which can cause infections in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:18254755

  5. Occurrence of organophosphate flame retardants in drinking water from China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Yu, Nanyang; Zhang, Beibei; Jin, Ling; Li, Meiying; Hu, Mengyang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wei, Si; Yu, Hongxia

    2014-05-01

    Several organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been identified as known or suspected carcinogens or neurotoxic substances. Given the potential health risks of these compounds, we conducted a comprehensive survey of nine OPFRs in drinking water in China. We found total concentrations of OPFRs in tap water ranging from 85.1 ng/L to 325 ng/L, and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) were the most common components. Similar OPFR concentrations and profiles were observed in water samples processed through six different waterworks in Nanjing, China. However, boiling affected OPFR levels in drinking water by either increasing (e.g., TBEP) or decreasing (e.g., tributyl phosphate, TBP) concentrations depending on the particular compound and the state of the indoor environment. We also found that bottled water contained many of the same major OPFR compounds with concentrations 10-25% lower than those in tap water, although TBEP contamination in bottled water remained a concern. Finally, we concluded that the risk of ingesting OPFRs through drinking water was not a major health concern for either adults or children in China. Nevertheless, drinking water ingestion represents an important exposure pathway for OPFRs. PMID:24556230

  6. INFLUENCE OF CATION LEACHING ON WATER RETENTIVITY OF DRINKING WATER SLUDGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yasutaka; Komine, Hideo; Yasuhara, Kazuya; Murakami, Satoshi; Toyoda, Kazuhiro

    It is important for waste management and sound material-cycle society to clarify the change of the physico-chemical properties of reusable material. In this study, the influence of cation leaching on water retentivity of drinking water sludge was investigated. The column leaching test was executed using drinking water sludge to simulate rainwater percolation, and the water retentivity test of the degraded sludge was executed. As a result, the water retentivity of drinking water sludge decreased after cation leaching. The cation exchangeable capacity of drinking water sludge and its microscopic structure were almost stable during the leaching test. The results indicate a possibility that Al leaching decreases the hydrophilic part of flocculating agent which relates to water retention of drinking water sludge.

  7. Health risks due to radon in drinking water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopke, P.K.; Borak, T.B.; Doull, J.; Cleaver, J.E.; Eckerman, K.F.; Gundersen, L.C.S.; Harley, N.H.; Hess, C.T.; Kinner, N.E.; Kopecky, K.J.; Mckone, T.E.; Sextro, R.G.; Simon, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for 222Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient 222Rn concentration and the increment of 222Rn to the indoor- air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air- producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such 'multimedia mitigation programs' were explored.

  8. German drinking water regulations, pesticides, and axiom of concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieter, Hermann H.

    1992-01-01

    The limit value of 0.1 µg/liter for “substances used in plant treatment and pest control including their main toxic degradation products” (PBSM) established in the German Drinking Water Regulations (Trinkwasserverordnung) serves comprehensively to protect drinking water from unexpected toxicological risks and thus corresponds to the axiom of concern (Besorgnisgrundsatz) contained in §11,2 of the Federal Communicable Disease Control Act (Bundesseuchengesetz), which is an essential cornerstone of the Drinking Water Regulations. Furthermore, precautionary values that are specific to the particular substance and near the valid limit can be found for about 10% of all registered active substances. The goal of the PBSM Recommendations of the Federal Health Office (BGA) issued in July 1989 is to preserve and restore groundwater and drinking water through measures to be taken by the causal party, while reducing consumer health risks to the greatest extent possible. The EC commission's drawbacks on these recommendations and the imminent EC-wide directive for the uniform registration of pesticides being based solely on Article 43 of the European Treaty would seriously endanger this goal. Therefore, a situation threatens in Europe similar to that in the United States, where at least 18 active ingredients have been detected in groundwater in concentrations of up to 1000 times the toxicologically established limits for drinking water.

  9. TREATMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR CONTROLLING CHLORINATED ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot plant study was conducted by the City of Thornton, Colorado, to evaluate techniques for controlling chlorinated organic compounds formed in drinking water as a result of breakpoint, or free, chlorination. The pilot plant was operated for 46 months using the raw water sour...

  10. The Accumulation of Radioactive Contaminants in Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution systems has been documented and the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of particular concern because of their known health eff...

  11. USEPA'S RESEARCH EFFORTS IN SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, in the United States there are approximately 50,000 small community and 130,000 non-community systems providing water to over 25 million people. The drinking water treatment systems at these locations are not always adequate to comply with current and pending regulati...

  12. SAFE DRINKING WATER FROM SMALL SYSTEMS: TREATMENT OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bringing small water systems into compliance with the ever-increasing number of regulations will require flexibility in terms of technology application and institional procedures. his article looks at the means by which small systems can provide safe drinking water, focusing on t...

  13. Drinking water treatment processes for removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Q. Betancourt; Joan B. Rose

    2004-01-01

    Major waterborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis outbreaks associated with contaminated drinking water have been linked to evidence of suboptimal treatment. Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts are particularly more resistant than Giardia lamblia cysts to removal and inactivation by conventional water treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and chlorine disinfection); therefore, extensive research has been focused on the optimization of treatment processes and application of new

  14. ARSENIC REMOVAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR DRINKING WATER IN VIETNAM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pham Hung Viet; Tran Hong Con; Nguyen Van Tin; Michael Berg; Walter Giger; Roland Schertenleib

    Severe and widespread contamination by arsenic in groundwater and drinking water has been recently revealed in rural and sub-urban areas of the Vietnamese capital of Hanoi with similar magnitudes as observed in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. This fact has prompted the need to develop simple, rapid and low-cost techniques for lowering arsenic concentrations in supplied water. In the present

  15. Field-testing UV disinfection of drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gadgil; A. Drescher; D. Greene; P. Miller; C. Motau; F. Stevens

    1997-01-01

    A recently invented device, ``UV Waterworks,`` uses ultraviolet (UV) light to disinfect drinking water. Its novel features are: low cost, robust design, rapid disinfection, low electricity use, low maintenance, high flow rate and ability to work with unpressurized water sources. The device could service a community of 1,000 persons, at an annual total cost of less than 10 US cents

  16. Use of horizontal flow roughing filtration in drinking water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Jafari Dastanaie; G. R. Nabi Bidhendi; T. Nasrabadi; R. Habibi; H. Hoveidi

    In order to evaluate the feasibility of implementation of horizontal-flow roughing filtration for drinking water treatment a pilot was designed and run at the bank of Zayandehroud river near the village of Chamkhalifeh. Pilot running was performed in summer 2003 (July, August and September), when the quality of river water was in relatively worst condition. The filter is comprised from

  17. Remediation Technologies for Arsenic Contaminated Drinking Waters (9 pp)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hemda Garelick; Agnieszka Dybowska; Eugenia Valsami-Jones; Nicholas D. Priest

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid element that is now recognised to be an important contaminant of drinking water – particularly, but not exclusively, in poor regions of southern Asia. In effected regions, many millions are at risk of arsenic-induced disease and strategies are required to provide safe water for consumption. The main strategies available are mitigation (the provision of alternative

  18. Photocatalytic Coats in Glass Drinking-Water Bottles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andren, Anders W.; Armstrong, David E.; Anderson, Marc A.

    2005-01-01

    According to a proposal, the insides of glass bottles used to store drinking water would be coated with films consisting of or containing TiO2. In the presence of ultraviolet light, these films would help to remove bacteria, viruses, and trace organic contaminants from the water.

  19. Risk of Internal Cancers from Arsenic in Drinking Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Knashawn H. Morales; Louise Ryan; Tsung-Li Kuo; Meei-Maan Wu; Chien-Jen Chen

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is under a congressional mandate to revise its current standard for arsenic in drinking water. We present a risk assessment for cancers of the bladder, liver, and lung from exposure to arsenic in water, based on data from 42 villages in an arseniasis- endemic region of Taiwan. We calculate excess lifetime risk estimates for several

  20. GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON FOR REMOVING NONTRIHALOMETHANE ORGANICS FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several large field scale research projects were initiated by the U.S. EPA Drinking Water Research Division, MERL, Cincinnati, OH to evaluate the performance of GAC under varying operating conditions and different source water. Most of this research has been completed at nine loc...

  1. Wastewater to Drinking Water: Are Emerging Contaminants Making it Through?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake Mead serves as the primary drinking water source for Las Vegas, Nevada and surrounding communities. Besides snow-melt from the Rockies water levels in the lake are supplemented by the inflow of treated wastewater from communities along the Colorado River, including Las Vegas...

  2. Drinking Water Implications of Cyanobacteria on the Kansas River to

    E-print Network

    Page 1 Drinking Water Implications of Cyanobacteria on the Kansas River to WaterOne and other on the Kansas River City of Topeka, population 127,473 City of Lawrence, population 87,643 City of Olathe Lake Tuttle Creek Lake Perry Lake Clinton LakeKansas River Missouri River #12;Page 4 Background Taste

  3. EFFECT OF THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM ON DRINKING WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments has focused interest on the factors that cause the deterioration of water between the treatment plant and the consumer. The distribution system itself can contribute to this deterioration. Numerous examples of waterborne disease outb...

  4. GASTROINTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF SOLUBLE URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manuscript describes results of an experiment to determine the gastrointestinal absorption of uranium from drinking water in 12 health adults. Most of the uranium ingested was excreted in feces in the first 2 days following ingestion of the water. The absorption was the same ...

  5. SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE ENHANCED SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to FY2003 statistics compiled by the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, the U.S. regulates about 160,000 small drinking water systems that impact close to 70 million people. Small systems (serving transient and non-transient populations of 10,000 people or less...

  6. DEVELOPING WATER: THE SOCIOP OLITICAL CONSTRAINTS TO PROVIDING CLEAN DRINKING WATER IN RURAL INDIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WHITMAN DIRECT ACTION; Daniel Bachhuber; Jessica Conrad; Timothy Shadix

    Providing access to safe drinking water is one of the preeminent issues faced by the developing world today. Globally, 1.1 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water, with 669 of those people residing in Asia (Asian Water Watch, 2006). Despite repeated efforts by private and governmental organizations to address this serious worldwide problem, populations in developing countries

  7. Energy-efficient drinking water disinfection for greenhouse gas mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, A.J.; Greene, D.M.; Rosenfeld, A.

    1998-07-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that approximately one billion people worldwide use cookstoves to boil their drinking water. About half of this population is in China. Some populations (e.g. Jakarta) spend 1% of their GDP on boiling drinking water. Impoverished and/or ignorant populations not yet boiling their drinking water will do so when they can both afford it and understand the risks of unsafe drinking water. A recently developed water disinfection technology (UV Waterworks) can produce safe drinking water while earning tradable carbon credits (or credit as a clean development mechanism) when implemented as part of national energy, health, and carbon emissions trading policy, UV Waterworks uses approximately 6,000 times less energy than boiling over a biomass cookstove. Each unit that replaces boiling may save up to 175 or 300 tons/year of carbon-equivalent GHG emissions, depending on if it replaces sustainably harvested biomass (SHB) or non-SHB. For the approximately 500M Chinese boiling their drinking water over biomass (assumed SHB), this suggests a technical potential (that is, potential under the limiting case of 100% market adoption) of saving 87M tons/year of carbon-equivalent non-CO{sub 2} GHG emissions. The energy savings and corresponding emissions reductions will vary with cookstove fuels and stove efficiency: non-SHB and kerosene represent the most and least GHG-producing cookstove fuels, respectively, among those readily available to the populations of interest. The authors bracket the global technical potential for carbon emission reductions resulting from implementation of UV Waterworks, and estimate the value of tradable carbon credits earned from these reductions.

  8. 75 FR 40925 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ...Parts 141 and 142 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform...RIN 2040-AD94 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform...g., Public Notification and Ground Water Rules). These proposed revisions...

  9. PREDICTING CHLORINE RESIDUAL DECAY IN DRINKING WATER: A SECOND ORDER MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major objective of drinking water treatment is to provide water that is both microbiologically and chemically safe for human consumption. Drinking water chlorination, therefore, poses a dilemma. Chemical disinfection reduces the risk of infectious disease but the interaction be...

  10. Development of EPA Method 525.3 for the Analysis of Semivolatiles in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (OGWDW) collects nationwide occurrence data on contaminants in drinking water using the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulations (UCMRs). The unregulated contaminants, which ar...

  11. September 3, 1999 Characterization of Arsenic Occurrence in US Drinking Water Treatment

    E-print Network

    amendments to the US Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) mandate revision of current maxi­ mum contaminant levels Office of Ground Water anSeptember 3, 1999 Characterization of Arsenic Occurrence in US Drinking Water Treatment Facility

  12. 67 FR 1812 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-01-14

    ...occurrence in finished drinking water. Cryptosporidium, however...health, occurrence, and water treatment control data regarding...address the health risk of high densities of pathogens in poorer quality source waters than the SWTR addressed...

  13. Water, Water Everywhere, But Not a Drop to Drink: Pani Politics (Water Politics) in Rural Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farhana Sultana

    2007-01-01

    This article looks at the nature of water politics (pani politics) in the context of arsenic contamination of drinking water in rural Bangladesh. Pani politics is found to be a product of intersecting similarities and differences among women and men, where water comes to have material and symbolic power that people can exercise, which can lead to conflicts, marginalization and

  14. Postexercise rehydration: potassium-rich drinks versus water and a sports drink.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Idárraga, Alexandra; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Fluid retention, thirst quenching, tolerance, and palatability of different drinks were assessed. On 4 different days, 12 healthy, physically active volunteers (24.4 ± 3.2 years old, 74.75 ± 11.36 kg body mass (mean ± S.D)), were dehydrated to 2.10% ± 0.24% body mass by exercising in an environmental chamber (32.0 ± 0.4 °C dry bulb, 53.8 ± 5.2% relative humidity). Each day they drank 1 of 4 beverages in random order: fresh coconut water (FCW), bottled water (W), sports drink (SD), or potassium-rich drink (NEW); volume was 120% of weight loss. Urine was collected and perceptions self-reported for 3 h. Urine output was higher (p < 0.05) for W (894 ± 178 mL) than SD (605 ± 297 mL) and NEW (599 ± 254 mL). FCW (686 ± 250 mL) was not different from any other drink (p > 0.05). Fluid retention was higher for SD than W (68.2% ± 13.0% vs. 51.3% ± 12.6%, p = 0.013), but not for FCW and NEW (62.5% ± 15.4% and 65.9% ± 15.4%, p > 0.05). All beverages were palatable and well tolerated; none maintained a positive net fluid balance after 3 h, but deficit was greater in W versus SD (p = 0.001). FCW scored higher for sweetness (p = 0.03). Thirst increased immediately after exercise but returned to baseline after drinking a small volume (p < 0.0005). In conclusion, additional potassium in FCW and NEW did not result in additional rehydration benefits over those already found in a conventional sports drink with sodium. PMID:25017113

  15. Natural organic matter removal by coagulation during drinking water treatment: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anu Matilainen; Mikko Vepsäläinen; Mika Sillanpää

    2010-01-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is found in all surface, ground and soil waters. An increase in the amount of NOM has been observed over the past 10–20years in raw water supplies in several areas, which has a significant effect on drinking water treatment. The presence of NOM causes many problems in drinking water and drinking water treatment processes, including (i)

  16. Pathogens in drinking water: Are there any new ones

    SciTech Connect

    Reasoner, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1976 three newly recognized human pathogens have become familiar to the drinking water industry as waterborne disease agents. These are: the legionnaires disease agent, Legionella pneumophila and related species; and two protozoan pathogens, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum, both of which form highly disinfectant resistant cysts that are shed in the feces of infected individuals. The question frequently arises - are there other emerging waterborne pathogens that may pose a human health problem that the drinking water industry will have to deal with. The paper will review the current state of knowledge of the occurrence and incidence of pathogens and opportunistic pathogens other than Legionella, Giardia and Cryptosporidium in treated and untreated drinking water. Bacterial agents that will be reviewed include Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Campylobacter, Mycobacterium, Yersinia and Plesiomonas. Aspects of detection of these agents including detection methods and feasibility of monitoring will be addressed.

  17. 74 FR 53590 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Drinking Water Regulations for Aircraft Public Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-10-19

    ...of total coliforms in water samples collected from aircraft water systems; a determination of total coliform density is not required. In...collected from aircraft water systems; a determination of total coliform density would not be...

  18. 73 FR 19320 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Drinking Water Regulations for Aircraft Public Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-04-09

    ...total coliforms in water samples collected from aircraft water systems; a determination of total coliform density would not be required...of aircraft public water systems under this...determination of total coliform density is not...

  19. Drinking water disinfection byproducts: review and approach to toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Boorman, G A

    1999-01-01

    There is widespread potential for human exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water because everyone drinks, bathes, cooks, and cleans with water. The need for clean and safe water led the U.S. Congress to pass the Safe Drinking Water Act more than 20 years ago in 1974. In 1976, chloroform, a trihalomethane (THM) and a principal DBP, was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. This prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in 1979 to develop a drinking water rule that would provide guidance on the levels of THMs allowed in drinking water. Further concern was raised by epidemiology studies suggesting a weak association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and the occurrence of bladder, colon, and rectal cancer. In 1992 the U.S. EPA initiated a negotiated rulemaking to evaluate the need for additional controls for microbial pathogens and DBPs. The goal was to develop an approach that would reduce the level of exposure from disinfectants and DBPs without undermining the control of microbial pathogens. The product of these deliberations was a proposed stage 1 DBP rule. It was agreed that additional information was necessary on how to optimize the use of disinfectants while maintaining control of pathogens before further controls to reduce exposure beyond stage 1 were warranted. In response to this need, the U.S. EPA developed a 5-year research plan to support the development of the longer term rules to control microbial pathogens and DBPs. A considerable body of toxicologic data has been developed on DBPs that occur in the drinking water, but the main emphasis has been on THMs. Given the complexity of the problem and the need for additional data to support the drinking water DBP rules, the U.S. EPA, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Army are working together to develop a comprehensive biologic and mechanistic DBP database. Selected DBPs will be tested using 2-year toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in standard rodent models; transgenic mouse models and small fish models; in vitro mechanistic and toxicokinetic studies; and reproductive, immunotoxicity, and developmental studies. The goal is to create a toxicity database that reflects a wide range of DBPs resulting from different disinfection practices. This paper describes the approach developed by these agencies to provide the information needed to make scientifically based regulatory decisions. Images Figure 3 PMID:10229719

  20. 40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. 142...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Primary...

  1. 40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. 142...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Primary...

  2. 40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. 142...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Primary...

  3. Assessing the microbial quality of improved drinking water sources: results from the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Baum, Rachel; Kayser, Georgia; Stauber, Christine; Sobsey, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Millennium Development Goal Target 7c (to halve between 1990 and 2015 the proportion of the global population without sustainable access to safe drinking water), was celebrated as achieved in 2012. However, new studies show that we may be prematurely celebrating. Access to safe drinking water may be overestimated if microbial water quality is considered. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between microbial drinking water quality and drinking water source in the Puerto Plata region of the Dominican Republic. This study analyzed microbial drinking water quality data from 409 households in 33 communities. Results showed that 47% of improved drinking water sources were of high to very-high risk water quality, and therefore unsafe for drinking. This study provides evidence that the current estimate of safe water access may be overly optimistic, and microbial water quality data are needed to reliably assess the safety of drinking water. PMID:24218411

  4. Assessing the Microbial Quality of Improved Drinking Water Sources: Results from the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Rachel; Kayser, Georgia; Stauber, Christine; Sobsey, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Millennium Development Goal Target 7c (to halve between 1990 and 2015 the proportion of the global population without sustainable access to safe drinking water), was celebrated as achieved in 2012. However, new studies show that we may be prematurely celebrating. Access to safe drinking water may be overestimated if microbial water quality is considered. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between microbial drinking water quality and drinking water source in the Puerto Plata region of the Dominican Republic. This study analyzed microbial drinking water quality data from 409 households in 33 communities. Results showed that 47% of improved drinking water sources were of high to very-high risk water quality, and therefore unsafe for drinking. This study provides evidence that the current estimate of safe water access may be overly optimistic, and microbial water quality data are needed to reliably assess the safety of drinking water. PMID:24218411

  5. Introduction Global demand for drinking water

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    perceptions and an important coping strategy, bottled water consumption, of Phoenix Downtown Market vendors assess how socio-demographic factors influence respondent's water quality index and bottled water% use bottled water Demographics, Immigration, and Tap Water Quality Perceptions in the Phoenix

  6. Is There Lead in My Drinking Water?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Additional Information How Does Lead Get Into My Water? Lead enters the water (“leaches”) through contact with ... should I do if I suspect that my water contains high lead levels? If you want to ...

  7. EMERGING CONTAMINANTS IN THE DRINKING WATER CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    PRESENTATION OUTLINE: I. General overview of the water cycle; II. USEPA and USGS Research; a. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and downstream surface waters; b. Groundwater down gradient from WW lagoon; c. Source and finished water fro...

  8. Evaluation of ATP measurements to detect microbial ingress by wastewater and surface water in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Vang, Óluva K; Corfitzen, Charlotte B; Smith, Christian; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-11-01

    Fast and reliable methods are required for monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was investigated as a potential real-time parameter for detecting microbial ingress in drinking water contaminated with wastewater or surface water. To investigate the ability of the ATP assay in detecting different contamination types, the contaminant was diluted with non-chlorinated drinking water. Wastewater, diluted at 10(4) in drinking water, was detected with the ATP assay, as well as 10(2) to 10(3) times diluted surface water. To improve the performance of the ATP assay in detecting microbial ingress in drinking water, different approaches were investigated, i.e. quantifying microbial ATP or applying reagents of different sensitivities to reduce measurement variations; however, none of these approaches contributed significantly in this respect. Compared to traditional microbiological methods, the ATP assay could detect wastewater and surface water in drinking water to a higher degree than total direct counts (TDCs), while both heterotrophic plate counts (HPC 22 °C and HPC 37 °C) and Colilert-18 (Escherichia coli and coliforms) were more sensitive than the ATP measurements, though with much longer response times. Continuous sampling combined with ATP measurements displays definite monitoring potential for microbial drinking water quality, since microbial ingress in drinking water can be detected in real-time with ATP measurements. The ability of the ATP assay to detect microbial ingress is influenced by both the ATP load from the contaminant itself and the ATP concentration in the specific drinking water. Consequently, a low ATP concentration of the specific drinking water facilitates a better detection of a potential contamination of the water supply with the ATP assay. PMID:25086698

  9. Burden of Cancer from Chemicals in North Carolina Drinking Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFelice, N.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring programs required by the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) currently do not consider potential differences in chemical exposure patterns and human health risks. Rather, U.S. agencies establish monitoring requirements based on the type of water system and the number of people the system serves; within categories of systems, all potentially carcinogenic chemicals must be monitored with equal frequency, regardless of the potential level of risk these chemicals pose. To inform future policies concerning contaminant monitoring under the SDWA, we examined the potential health threats in North Carolina from the 34 carcinogenic chemicals covered under the SDWA. We analyzed reported contaminant concentration data for all community water systems (CWSs) for the years 1998-2011. We employed an attributable fraction approach that uses probabilistic inputs to evaluate the percent of cancer cases that may be attributable to chemical exposure in drinking water. We found that cancer risks are dominated by 3 of the 34 chemicals and chemical classes (total trihalomethanes (TTHMs), arsenic and gross alpha particles); all other chemicals contribute to less than one cancer case per year in the state. We showed that around 840 cases of cancer annually (2% of annual cancer cases) are attributable to contaminated drinking water. The majority cases are due to TTHMs, arsenic and gross alpha particles, which contributed 810 (95% CI 560-1,280), 14 (95% CI 3 -32), and 13 (95% CI 2-48) cases, respectively. Sixty-seven counties had annual cancer rates higher than 1 in 10,000 attributable to community water systems. Annual cancer rate attributable to chemicals found in drinking water that are regulated under the safe drinking water act.

  10. PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND MYCOLOGICAL QUALITY OF A DRINKING WATER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Obire; W. N. Barade; R. Putheti

    A total of 98 drinking water samples were collected during a seven-month investigation from Omuihuechi stream near Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The water samples were analyzed for physicochemical parameters and mycoflora to determine the water quality. The mean values of temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and biological oxygen demand (BOD5), transparency, total organic carbon, chloride, sulphate and phosphate were 25.2°C, 5.1,

  11. Selective enumeration strategies for Brevundimonas diminuta from drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Scott Donofrio; Lorelle L. Bestervelt; Ratul Saha; Susan T. Bagley

    2010-01-01

    Brevundimonas diminuta is used as a control organism for validating the efficiency of water filtration systems. Since these protocols use nonselective\\u000a growth media, heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPCs) indigenous to the water distribution system may interfere with B. diminuta enumeration, thus leading to inaccurate assessment of the filter’s microbial reduction capability. This could negatively\\u000a impact public health as unsafe drinking water

  12. BIOFILM IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the world there are millions of miles of water distribution pipe lines which provide potable water for use by individuals and industry. Some of these water distribution systems have been in service well over one hundred years. Treated water moving through a distributio...

  13. [Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks].

    PubMed

    Ancasi, E G; Carrillo, L; Benítez Ahrendts, M R

    2006-01-01

    Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in carbonated water. PMID:17037258

  14. Arsenic exposure to drinking water in the Mekong Delta.

    PubMed

    Merola, R B; Hien, T T; Quyen, D T T; Vengosh, A

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater drinking sources was investigated in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam in order to assess the occurrence of As in the groundwater, and the magnitude of As exposure of local residents through measurements of As in toenails of residents consuming groundwater as their major drinking water source. Groundwater (n=68) and toenail (n=62) samples were collected in Dong Thap Province, adjacent to the Mekong River, in southern Vietnam. Fifty-three percent (n=36) of the wells tested had As content above the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommended limit of 10 ppb. Samples were divided into Northern (mean As=4.0 ppb) and Southern (329.0 ppb) groups; wells from the Southern group were located closer to the Mekong River. Elevated As contents were associated with depth (<200 m), salinity (low salinity), and redox state (reducing conditions) of the study groundwater. In 79% of the wells, As was primarily composed of the reduced As(III) species. Arsenic content in nails collected from local residents was significantly correlated to As in drinking water (r=0.49, p<0.001), and the relationship improved for pairs in which As in drinking water was higher than 1 ppb (r=0.56, p<0.001). Survey data show that the ratio of As in nail to As in water varied among residents, reflecting differential As bioaccumulation in specific exposed sub-populations. The data show that water filtration and diet, particularly increased consumption of animal protein and dairy, and reduced consumption of seafood, were associated with lower ratios of As in nail to As in water and thus could play important roles in mitigating As exposure in areas where As-rich groundwater is the primary drinking water source. PMID:25585157

  15. COPPER LEVELS IN DRINKING WATER FROM PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD WELLS IN MAJOR PROVINCES OF GEORGIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Sonon; D. Kissel; P. Vendrell; R. Hitchcock

    Copper is an essential element in human diet. However, too much copper in drinking water can cause flavor changes and health hazards. Thus, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set drinking water standards to regulate copper levels in the drinking water supply. Water test results obtained by the Agricultural and Environmental Services Laboratories (AESL) indicated that about 5.6% of

  16. MEETING THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE U.S. SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT: THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The passage of the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974 has had a major impact on the way water is treated and delivered in the United States. The Act established national drinking water regulations for more than 170,000 public drinking water systems serving over 250 mill...

  17. 76 FR 10899 - Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ...SERVICES Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention...community water systems adjust the amount of fluoride in drinking water to 0.7 mg/L to...period on the proposed recommendations for fluoride concentration in drinking water for...

  18. Trihalomethane hydrolysis in drinking water at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Lu; Yang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Karanfil, Tanju; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2015-07-01

    Hydrolysis could contribute to the loss of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the drinking water at elevated temperatures. This study was aimed at investigating THM hydrolysis pertaining to the storage of hot boiled water in enclosed containers. The water pH value was in the range of 6.1-8.2 and the water temperature was varied from 65 to 95 °C. The effects of halide ions, natural organic matter, and drinking water matrix were investigated. Results showed that the hydrolysis rates declined in the order following CHBrCl2 > CHBr2Cl > CHBr3 > CHCl3. THM hydrolysis was primarily through the alkaline pathway, except for CHCl3 in water at relatively low pH value. The activation energies for the alkaline hydrolysis of CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 were 109, 113, 115 and 116 kJ/mol, respectively. No hydrolysis intermediates could accumulate in the water. The natural organic matter, and probably other constituents, in drinking water could substantially decrease THM hydrolysis rates by more than 50%. When a drinking water was at 90 °C or above, the first order rate constants for THM hydrolysis were in the magnitude of 10(-2)?10(-1) 1/h. When the boiled real tap water was stored in an enclosed container, THMs continued increasing during the first few hours and then kept decreasing later on due to the competition between hydrolysis and further formation. The removal of THMs, especially brominated THMs, by hydrolysis would greatly reduce one's exposure to disinfection by-products by consuming the boiled water stored in enclosed containers. PMID:25898249

  19. Multiple regression models: A methodology for evaluating trihalomethane concentrations in drinking water from raw water characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Spyros K. Golfinopoulos; George B. Arhonditsis

    2002-01-01

    The presence of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water has attracted the attention of both researchers and professionals, because of the harmful effects of these substances on human health. A multiple regression model was developed to estimate THM concentrations in finished drinking water, using data from the Menidi Treatment Plant of Athens. A number of routinely measured characteristics––including chlorine dose, chlorophyll

  20. Arsenic in drinking water in bangladesh: factors affecting child health.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Sonia N; Aziz, Khwaja M S; Boyle, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people's individuals' time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children's health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  1. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  2. REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM DRINKING WATER BY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NIPDWR) established the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic at 0.05 mg/L in 1977. everal years ago the USEPA began to re-examine the arsenic health effects information and has indicated that the MCL could be s...

  3. EFFECT OF BROMIDE ON CHLORINATION BYPRODUCTS IN FINISHED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    To investigate the role of bromide ion concentration on formation and speciation of non-THMs chlorination organic byproducts, a two block full factorial matrix was designed to statistically evaluate the influence of various parameters which are relevant to drinking water treatmen...

  4. Strategies for implementation of drinking water supplies in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Crelis Rammelt

    2002-01-01

    To value some of the fundamental principles of the programme presented in this paper it is important to introduce certain basic perceptions of current paradigms. This valuation becomes a strong reference point because of the way the problem at hand - arsenic contaminated drinking water supply in Bangladesh - is currently being dealt with by various organisations. In this light

  5. Drinking Water From Private Wells and Risks to Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter J. Rogan; Michael T. Brady

    Drinking water for approximately one sixth of US households is obtained from private wells. These wells can become contaminated by pollutant chemicals or pathogenic organisms, leading to significant illness. Although the US Environmen- tal Protection Agency and all states offer guidance for construction, maintenance, and testing of private wells, there is little regulation, and with few exceptions, well owners are

  6. Analysis of physical and chemical parameters of bottled drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakesh Kumar Mahajan; T. P. S. Walia; B. S. Lark; Sumanjit

    2006-01-01

    Seventeen different brands of bottled drinking water, collected from different retail shops in Amritsar, were analyzed for different physical and chemical parameters to ascertain their compliability with the prescribed\\/recommended limits of the World Heath Organization (WHO) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). It was found that the majority of the brands tested were over-treated. Lower values of hardness,

  7. MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. Equations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reation rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. An analytical solution for ...

  8. MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. quations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reaction rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. n analytical solution for the...

  9. RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residential exposure to drinking water arsenic in Inner Mongolia, China Zhixiong Ning1, Richard K. Kwok2, Zhiyi Liu1, Shiying Zhang1, Chenglong Ma1, Danelle T. Lobdell2, Michael Riediker3 and Judy L. Mumford2 1) Institute of Endemic Disease for Prevention and Treatment in I...

  10. EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF ORGANIC MICROPOLLUTANTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have been conducted in order to make a quantitative statement about associations between drinking water contaminants and disease. The basic measures of the association are a rate ratio or relative risk and rate difference or attributable risk. The appropriat...

  11. ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorpyrifos (CP) was used as a model compound to develop experimental methods and prototype modeling tools to forecast the fate of organophosphate (OP) pesticides under drinking water treatment conditions. CP was found to rapidly oxidize to chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) in the presen...

  12. ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 requires that all tolerances for pesticide chemical residuals in or on food be considered for anticipated exposure. Drinking water is considered a potential pathway for dietary exposure and there is reliable monitoring data for the ...

  13. Drinking Water Activities for Students, Teachers, and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This guide provides teachers with materials, information, and classroom activities to enhance any drinking water curriculum. Students can use the activity sheets to further lessons and stimulate thought. Parents can use the guide to develop science projects that will provoke thought, encourage research, and provide a scientific approach to…

  14. Potential Relationships Between Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The conferees urge the Agency to carry out a study on the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using a credible approach that relies on the best available science, as well as independent sources of information. The conferees expect the study to be conduct...

  15. Procedures for preservation of lead in drinking water. Memorandum report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feldmann

    1990-01-01

    Jeanne Briskin's March 27, 1989, memo to Gary McKee, Deputy Director, EMSL, requested that information be provided, which would answer several questions concerning the preservation of drinking water samples for lead analysis. It was decided to: Do a literature search for relevant information. Two papers were found. One identified the problem of rapid loss of lead into the walls of

  16. Procedure for Preserving Lead in Drinking Water Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles R. Feldmann; James B. Walasek; Larry B. Lobring

    1992-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's requirement that drinking water samples collected for lead analysis be acidified at the time of collection poses two problems: (1) restrictions on mailing nitric acid and (2) safety concerns associated with the possible handling of nitric acid by nontechnical persons. A study was undertaken that showed that acidification could be delayed up to 14 days

  17. BACTERIA ATTACHED TO GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory and field studies were undertaken to answer basic questions about the influence of granular activated carbon (GAC) on the bacteriological quality of drinking water. A sampling apparatus consisting of a 47-mm Swinnex/and a 16-layer filter was developed to trap filter fi...

  18. METHODS FOR REMOVING URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The number of water supplies with high uranium levels and the possibility of a national uranium regulation has stimulated greater interest in uranium removal technology. The paper summarizes recent information on the effectiveness of various methods for uranium removal from drink...

  19. Drinking water denitrification by a membrane bio-reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alper Nuhoglu; Turgay Pekdemir; Ergun Yildiz; Bulent Keskinler; Galip Akay

    2002-01-01

    Drinking water denitrification performance of a bench scale membrane bio-reactor (MBR) was investigated as function of hydraulic and biological parameters. The reactor was a stirred tank and operated both in batch and continuous mode. The mixed denitrifying culture used in the batch mode tests was derived from the mixed liquor of a wastewater treatment plant in Erzincan province in Turkey.

  20. Decontamination Methods For Drinking Water Treatment And Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Once contamination has occurred in drinking water systems and the contaminated segment has been isolated from other parts of the system, there will be great urgency to decontaminate the areas as rapidly and cost effectively as possible. This article describes available and deve...

  1. Relation between arsenic in drinking water and skin cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Astolfi; A. Maccagno; J. C. García Fernández; R. Vaccaro; R. Stímola

    1981-01-01

    From observations in the Republic of Argentina it is concluded that the regular intake of drinking water containing more than\\u000a 0.1 ppm of arsenic leads to clearly recognizable signs of intoxication and ultimately in some cases to skin cancer

  2. Alternative methods for membrane filtration of arsenic from drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Brandhuber; Gary Amy

    1998-01-01

    The Maximum Contaminate Level (MCL) for arsenic in drinking water is to be lowered in the United States. Membrane treatment is a viable method to meet the reduced MCL. The suitability of reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, ultrafiltration and microfiltration as an arsenic treatment method is investigated. Treatment recommendations are made based upon the results of several pilot studies.

  3. ESTIMATION OF RISK FROM CARCINOGENS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study aimed at developing a means for estimating cancer mortality as a function of carcinogen concentration in drinking water. Cancer risk data for cigarette smokers was treated by the method of standard additions to provide an estimate of ambient ca...

  4. DBP CONTROL IN DRINKING WATER: COST AND PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is currently attempting to balance the complex trade-offs in chemical and microbial risks associated with controlling disinfection and disinfection byproducts (D/DBP) in drinking water. In attempting to achieve this balance, the...

  5. ABSORPTION OF LEAD FROM DRINKING WATER WITH VARYING MINERAL CONTENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead (Pb) (200 ppm) was administered via drinking water to rats for nine weeks. In addition, the rats were grouped so that they received 75, 100, 150 and 250% of the minimum daily requirements (MDR) of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), and magnesium (Mg) as required for normal growth. The...

  6. Arsenic in Drinking Water--The Silent Killer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wajrak, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Natural arsenic salts are present in all waters, with natural concentrations of less than 10 parts per billion (ppb). Unfortunately, there is an increasing number of countries where toxic arsenic compounds in groundwater, which is used for drinking and irrigation, have been detected at concentrations above the World Health Organization's…

  7. NEUROTOXICITY PRODUCED BY DIBROMOACETIC ACID IN DRINKING WATER OF RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript examines the neurotoxic potential of a commonly found disinfection by-product (DBP), dibromoacetic acid (DBA). While the Safe Drinking Water Act requires evaluation of DBPs for noncancer health effects, surprisingly few have been tested for neurotoxicity. Rats e...

  8. ELECTRO-REGENERATED ION-EXCHANGE DEIONIZATION OF DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the development of a device for removal of inorganic salts from drinking water to facilitate the subsequent concentration of organic solutes for bioassay. Prior attempts to concentrate the organic solutes by reverse osmosis (RO) resulted in precipitation of t...

  9. Model-Based Control of Drinking-Water Treatment Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Van Schagen

    2009-01-01

    The drinking water in the Netherlands is of high quality and the production cost is low. This is the result of extensive research in the past decades to innovate and optimise the treatment processes. The processes are monitored and operated by motivated and skilled operators and process technologists, which leads to an operator-dependent, subjective, variable and possibly suboptimal operation of

  10. Arsenic removal from drinking water by flocculation and microfiltration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Binbing Han; Timothy Runnells; Julio Zimbron; Ranil Wickramasinghe

    2002-01-01

    Arsenic removal from drinking water is a major problem in many parts of the world. We have investigated arsenic removal by flocculation and microfiltration. Ferric chloride and ferric sulphate have been used as flocculants. The use of small amounts of cationic polymeric flocculants, as flocculation aids in the presence of ferric ions, has also been investigated. The results obtained here

  11. TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR CONTROLLING TRIHALOMETHANES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this volume, the authors attempt to bring together information developed over the past 6 years, on all aspects of trihalomethanes as they relate to drinking water. Section I summarizes with references to the primary literature the discovery of the trihalomethane problem, healt...

  12. FETOTOXIC EFFECTS OF NICKEL IN DRINKING WATER IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nickel chloride was administered in drinking water to pregnant mice from the 2nd through the 17th day of gestation at nickel doses of 0, 500, or 1000 ppm. Fetal or maternal toxicity was not seen after administration of 500 ppm of nickel. However, the higher dose caused spontaneou...

  13. BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON PARTICLES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sampling protocol was developed to examine particles released from granular activated carbon filter beds. A gauze filter/Swinnex procedure was used to collect carbon fines from 201 granular activated carbon-treated drinking water samples over 12 months. Application of a homogen...

  14. REAL-TIME REMOTE MONITORING OF DRINKING WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past eight years, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) has funded the testing and evaluation of various online "real-time" technologies for monitoring drinking water quality. The events of 9/11 and subsequent threats t...

  15. PRESENCE-ABSENCE COLIFORM TEST IN MONITORING DRINKING WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from four comparative studies were analyzed to compare the recovery of total coliform bacteria from drinking water using the presence-absence test, the multiple fermentation tube procedure and the membrane filter technique. ombined recoveries showed the presence-absence test...

  16. MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF DRINKING WATER MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES: A PHYLOGENETIC APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbiological quality of drinking water is assessed using culture-based methods that are highly selective and that tend to underestimate the densities and diversity of microbial populations inhabiting distribution systems. In order to better understand the effect of differe...

  17. DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS AND DURATION OF GESTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) suggest high exposure decreases risk of preterm birth. We examined this association with total trihalomethane (TTHM) and five haloacetic acids (HAA5) among 2,041 women in a prospective pregnancy study conducted from...

  18. GUIDELINES FOR ULTRAVIOLET DISINFECTION OF DRINKING WATER: CONSIDERATIONS FOR ONTARIO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron Hofmann; Bob Andrews; Pat Lachmaniuk

    2004-01-01

    The Ontario Ministry of the Environment is actively investigating protocols for approving the installation of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection systems for drinking water disinfection. This paper discusses issues that may be considered for selecting the appropriate UV dose, validating UV reactor performance, and monitoring the performance of the reactor once installed.

  19. USING WATERSHED ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR PROTECTING DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first manuscript describes the application of watershed ERA principles to the development of a strategic watershed management plan for Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, where the primary focus was on the protection of drinking water quality, a concern typically addressed by...

  20. Mineralogical Evidence of Galvanic Corrosion in Domestic, Drinking Water Pipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water distribution system (DWDS) piping contains numerous examples of galvanically-coupled metals (e.g., soldered copper pipe joints, copper-lead pipes joined during partial replacements of lead service lines). The possible role of galvanic corrosion in the release of l...

  1. DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AND RISK OF CANCER DEATH IN WISCONSIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A case control study of drinking water treatment practices and female cancer mortality was conducted in Wisconsin. Cancer deaths for 1972-1977 from 28 Wisconsin counties and non-cancer deaths matched to cancer deaths on age, year of death and county of residence, were compared fo...

  2. MODELING CHLORINE RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mass transfer-based model is developed for predicting chlorine decay in drinking water distribution networks. he model considers first order reactions of chlorine to occur both in the bulk flow and at the pipe wall. he overall rate of the wall reaction is a function of the rate...

  3. MODELING CHLORINE RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mass-transfer-based model is developed for predicting chlorine decay in drinking-water distribution networks. The model considers first-order reactions of chlorine to occur both in the bulk flow and at the pipe wall. The overall rate of the wall reaction is a function of the ...

  4. OCCURRENCE OF ALUMINUM IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A random selection of 186 water utilities was used for this study in which raw and finished water samples were collected from each facility five times throughout a year and analyzed for iron and aluminum by atomic absorption techniques. The water samples were categorized by the s...

  5. Water Everywhere: Is There Enough to Drink?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kim Burley (Lindsay Thurber Comprehensive High School; )

    2002-05-01

    This lesson focuses on water supply issues stemming from population growth and land use. Students can complete histograms on global water usage, create a water usage trivia game or campaign, write a "sinkhole" news article, examine an aquifer system, illustrate a desalination process and more!

  6. Nitrate removal from drinking water -- Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anoop Kapoor; T. Viraraghavan

    1997-01-01

    Nitrate concentrations in surface water and especially in ground water have increased in Canada, the US, Europe, and other areas of the world. This trend has raised concern because nitrates cause methemoglobiinemia in infants. Several treatment processes including ion exchange, biological denitrification, chemical denitrification, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, and catalytic denitrification can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency,

  7. Arsenic Removal Technologies for Drinking Water Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuan-Seong Ng; Zaini Ujang; Pierre Le-Clech

    2004-01-01

    Arsenic contamination as a consequence of human activities such as mining and pesticide use is affecting the water resource quality worldwide. Because of the high risk of arsenic exposure, specific water treatment processes are required to meet the anticipated more severe water quality standards. Better understanding of presently available processes is necessary to develop economic, efficient and effective methods for

  8. 40 CFR 144.7 - Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    (a) The Director may identify (by narrative description, illustrations, maps, or other means) and shall protect as underground sources of drinking water, all aquifers and parts of aquifers which meet the definition of “underground source of drinking water” in §...

  9. 40 CFR 144.7 - Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    (a) The Director may identify (by narrative description, illustrations, maps, or other means) and shall protect as underground sources of drinking water, all aquifers and parts of aquifers which meet the definition of “underground source of drinking water” in §...

  10. A Visual Insight into the Degradation of Metals Used in Drinking Water Distribution Systems Using AFM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating the fundamental corrosion and passivation of metallic copper used in drinking water distribution materials is important in understanding the overall mechanism of the corrosion process. Copper pipes are widely used for drinking water distribution systems and although it...

  11. 40 CFR 144.7 - Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...underground sources of drinking water, all aquifers and parts of aquifers which meet the definition of “underground source of drinking water” in § 144.3, except to the extent there is an applicable aquifer exemption under...

  12. 40 CFR 144.7 - Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...as an underground source of drinking water, all aquifers or parts of aquifers which meet the definition of an “underground source of drinking water” in § 144.3. Even if an aquifer has not been specifically...

  13. Treatment Technology to Meet the Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations for Inorganics: Part 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorg, Thomas J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This article is the third in a series summarizing existing treatment technology to meet the inorganic National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. This report deals specifically with treatment methods for removing cadmium, lead, and silver from drinking water. (CS)

  14. Maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal outcomes in Inner Mongolia, China, Journal

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Bayingnormen is a region located in western Inner Mongolia China with a population that is exposed to a wide range of drinking water Arsenic concentrations. This study evaluated the relationship between maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal endpoints ...

  15. 76 FR 67187 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Notice of a Public Teleconference Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ...Drinking Water Regulations for Lead and Copper. DATES: The public teleconference will...Drinking Water Regulations for Lead and Copper: EPA is developing proposed revisions to the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR), which is the National...

  16. COMMUNITY HEALTH ASSOCIATED WITH ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER IN MILLARD COUNTY, UTAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluates the health effects of arsenic in drinking water at levels approximately four times the maximum allowed by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. Physical examinations of 250 people included evaluating dermatological and neurological health, ...

  17. GEOCHEMISTRY OF SULFUR IN IRON CORROSION SCALES FOUND IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iron-sulfur geochemistry is important in many natural and engineered environments, including drinking water systems. In the anaerobic environment beneath scales of corroding iron drinking water distribution system pipes, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) produce sulfide from natu...

  18. REMOVAL OF BERYLLIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CHEMICAL COAGULATION AND LIME SOFTENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. ar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride and lime softening performed ...

  19. Determination of uranium in drinking water using a PERALS spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ensor, D.D.; Narrie, C.L. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The determination of uranium from natural water samples involves a lengthy and complicated process which is characterized by low recoveries and precision. Methods must incorporate the isolation of natural uranium isotopes ({sup 238}U and {sup 234}U) from other radionuclides, while purifying the samples to prevent organic and metal interferences. A new analysis method for uranium in drinking water has been proposed combining solvent extraction sample preparation and high-resolution, alpha-liquid-scintillation-spectrometric analysis for effective beta/gamma background rejection. The Photon Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation spectrometer has a counting efficiency for alphas of 99.68%, while rejecting >99% of interfering beta and gamma pulses. The new method is a rapid, easy, cost-effective procedure for the determination of total uranium activity or limited isotopic uranium ({sup 238}U and {sup 234}U) activity in drinking water with recoveries of >95%. The results of analysis of various drinking water samples including well water, bottled water, and ground water will be presented. {reg_sign}PERALS is a registered trademark of ORDELA, Inc.

  20. Chlorine resistance of poliovirus isolants recovered from drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, P T; Metcalf, T G; Sproul, O J

    1980-01-01

    Poliovirus 1 isolants were recovered from finished drinking water produced by a modern, well-operated water treatment plant. These waters contained free chlorine residuals in excess of 1 mg/liter. The chlorine inactivation of purified high-titer preparations of two such isolants was compared with the inactivation behavior of two stock strains of poliovirus 1, LSc and Mahoney. The surviving fraction of virus derived from the two natural isolants was shown to be orders of magnitude greater than that of the standard strains. These results raise the question whether indirect drinking water standards based on free chlorine residuals are adequate public health measures, or whether direct standards based on virus determinations might be necessary. Images PMID:6257162

  1. Organic mutagens and drinking water in the Netherlands : a study on mutagenicity of organic constituents in drinking water in The Netherlands and their possible carcinogenic effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Kool

    1983-01-01

    Several mutagenic and carcinogenic organic compounds have been detected in Dutch surface waters and in drinking water prepared from these surface waters. Although the levels of these compounds in drinking- and surface water are relatively low, in general below ?g per litre, it appeared that organic concentrates tested in the Ames\\/microsome assay, showed mutagenic activity in 50 ml surface- and 500

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF WATER SUPPLY TECHNOLOGY TO MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT OF 1996: TRENDS AND PROSPECTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The passage of the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974 has had a major impact on the way water is treated and delivered in the U.S. The Act established national drinking water regulations for more than 170,000 public drinking water systems serving over 250 million people ...

  3. Reverse osmosis treatment to remove inorganic contaminants from drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Huxstep, M.R.; Sorg, T.J.

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of the research project was to determine the removal of inorganic contaminants from drinking water using several state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membrane elements. A small 5-KGPD reverse osmosis system was utilized and five different membrane elements were studied individually with the specific inorganic contaminants added to several natural Florida ground waters. Removal data were also collected on naturally occurring substances.

  4. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER ? WATTS PREMIER INC. WP-4V DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Watts Premier WP-4V POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The WP-4V employs a reverse osmosis (RO) m...

  5. DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN IOWA. 1. TRENDS AND INCIDENCE BY SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER AND SIZE OF MUNICIPALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The available data resources in the State of Iowa were used to investigate the relationships of drinking water contaminants and cancer incidence rates for communities. Age-adjusted, sex-specific cancer incidence rates for the years 1969-1978 were determined for municipalities hav...

  6. Drinking Water Problems: Iron and Manganese 

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2004-02-20

    Iron and manganese can give water an unpleasant taste, odor and color. In this publication you'll learn how to know whether your water contains iron or manganese and how to eliminate these contaminants with various treatment methods such as aeration...

  7. Impact of Environmental Factors on Legionella Populations in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Schwake, David Otto; Alum, Absar; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of environmental factors on Legionella in drinking water distribution systems, the growth and survival of Legionella under various conditions was studied. When incubated in tap water at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 32 °C, L. pneumophila survival trends varied amongst the temperatures, with the stable populations maintained for months at 25 °C and 32 °C demonstrating that survival is possible at these temperatures for extended periods in oligotrophic conditions. After inoculating coupons of PVC, copper, brass, and cast iron, L. pneumophila colonized biofilms formed on each within days to a similar extent, with the exception of cast iron, which contained 1-log less Legionella after 90 days. L. pneumophila spiked in a model drinking water distribution system colonized the system within days. Chlorination of the system had a greater effect on biofilm-associated Legionella concentrations, with populations returning to pre-chlorination levels within six weeks. Biofilms sampled from drinking water meters collected from two areas within central Arizona were analyzed via PCR for the presence of Legionella. Occurrence in only one area indicates that environmental differences in water distribution systems may have an impact on the survival of Legionella. These results document the impact of different environmental conditions on the survival of Legionella in water. PMID:25996405

  8. Impact of environmental factors on legionella populations in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Schwake, David Otto; Alum, Absar; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of environmental factors on Legionella in drinking water distribution systems, the growth and survival of Legionella under various conditions was studied. When incubated in tap water at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 32 °C, L. pneumophila survival trends varied amongst the temperatures, with the stable populations maintained for months at 25 °C and 32 °C demonstrating that survival is possible at these temperatures for extended periods in oligotrophic conditions. After inoculating coupons of PVC, copper, brass, and cast iron, L. pneumophila colonized biofilms formed on each within days to a similar extent, with the exception of cast iron, which contained 1-log less Legionella after 90 days. L. pneumophila spiked in a model drinking water distribution system colonized the system within days. Chlorination of the system had a greater effect on biofilm-associated Legionella concentrations, with populations returning to pre-chlorination levels within six weeks. Biofilms sampled from drinking water meters collected from two areas within central Arizona were analyzed via PCR for the presence of Legionella. Occurrence in only one area indicates that environmental differences in water distribution systems may have an impact on the survival of Legionella. These results document the impact of different environmental conditions on the survival of Legionella in water. PMID:25996405

  9. BOOK REVIEW OF "DRINKING WATER REGULATION AND HEALTH"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the enactment of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974, several amendments and other new regulations have been developed for drinking water. The book, "Drinking Water Regulation and Health", explains these regulations and provides background on why they were developed ...

  10. 78 FR 68838 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ...FRL-9902-93-OW] National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Request for Nominations...three-year appointment to the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council). The 15 member...Council was established by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to provide practical and...

  11. TABLE 1: TOTAL LEAD Content in Drinking Water Client: St. Francis Xavier University

    E-print Network

    TABLE 1: TOTAL LEAD Content in Drinking Water Client: St. Francis Xavier University Site Location-11, 2014 #12;TABLE 1 (cont'd): TOTAL LEAD Content in Drinking Water Client: St. Francis Xavier University Hall - Basement Laundry Room B3 Sink 42 23 46 6.1 NOTES: value 1 Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water

  12. TABLE 1: TOTAL LEAD Content in Drinking Water Client: St. Francis Xavier University

    E-print Network

    TABLE 1: TOTAL LEAD Content in Drinking Water Client: St. Francis Xavier University Site Location;TABLE 1 (cont'd): TOTAL LEAD Content in Drinking Water Client: St. Francis Xavier University Site Laundry Room B3 - Sink 42 - 23 - NOTES: value - exceeds MAC 1 Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water

  13. Is Your Well Water Safe to Drink? Family, Home & Garden Education Center

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Is Your Well Water Safe to Drink? Family, Home & Garden Education Center practical solutions Hampshire residents drink water drawn from private wells. Though the state has strict requirements health. According to Bernie Lucey, senior engineer with the state's Drinking Water Protection Program, 56

  14. ALTERNATIVE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS FROM SUPERFUND SITES: DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL REGISTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a 'prototype' program initiated by U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division (Cincinnati, Ohio), Region V Drinking Water Program (Chicago, Illinois), and Technology Evaluation Section (Edison, New Jersey) to inventory the types of drinking water related tech...

  15. Naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water: An exercise in risk benefit analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Milvy; C. Richard Cothern

    1989-01-01

    The scientific background information describing the occurrence, measurement, health effects, treatment technology, risk assessment and economic consequences of the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water are described for 60,000 public drinking water supplies. The relevant data for the occurrence of radium, uranium and radon in drinking water supplies are discussed and analysed. Radon is of importance because it

  16. Arsenic removal from drinking water during coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hering, J.G. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Chen, P.Y. [Industrial Technology Research Inst., Chutung Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China); Wilkie, J.A.; Elimelech, M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1997-08-01

    The efficiency of arsenic removal from source waters and artificial freshwaters during coagulation with ferric chloride and alum was examined in bench-scale studies. Arsenic(V) removal by either ferric chloride or alum was relatively insensitive to variations in source water composition below pH 8. At pH 8 and 9, the efficiency of arsenic(V) removal by ferric chloride was decreased in the presence of natural organic matter. The pH range for arsenic(V) removal with alum was more restricted than with ferric chloride. For source waters spiked with 20 {micro}g/L arsenic(V), final dissolved arsenic(V) concentrations in the product water of less than 2 {micro}g/L were achieved with both coagulants at neutral pH. Removal of arsenic(III) from source waters by ferric chloride was both less efficient and more strongly influenced by source water composition than removal of arsenic(V). The presence of sulfate (at pH 4 and 5) and natural organic matter (at pH 4 through 9) adversely affected the efficiency of arsenic(III) removal by ferric chloride. Arsenic(III) could not be removed from source waters by coagulation with alum.

  17. Monitoring copper release in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    d'Antonio, L; Fabbricino, M; Panico, A

    2008-01-01

    A new procedure, recently proposed for on-line monitoring of copper released from metal pipes in household plumbing system for drinking water distribution during the development of corrosion processes, is tested experimentally. Experiments were carried out in laboratory controlled conditions, using synthetic water and varying the water alkalinity. The possibility of using the corrosion potential as a surrogate measure of copper concentration in stagnating water is shown, verifying, in the meantime, the effect of alkalinity on the development of passivation phenomena, which tend to protect the pipe from corrosion processes. Experimental data are discussed, highlighting the potentiality of the procedure, and recognizing its limitations. PMID:18441440

  18. Establishing a Proficiency Testing Scheme for Drinking Water Radiochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookman, Brian

    2008-08-01

    As part of its international water proficiency testing (PT) scheme, `Aquacheck', the LGC Proficiency Testing Group has established a new water radiochemistry PT scheme. The PT scheme is aimed at laboratories who undertake radiochemical analysis on drinking water samples as part of an environmental monitoring programme. Following a scheme design and feasibility study, the new scheme was established to monitor the laboratory performance of participants undertaking the determination of gross alpha, gross beta and tritium activity. Three rounds of the new water radiochemistry PT scheme are now complete. This paper explains the process of establishing such a scheme, reviews the results so far, and addresses future development of the scheme.

  19. THE REMOVAL OF GLYPHOSATE FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of granulated activated carbon (GAC), packed activated carbon (PAC), conventional treatment, membranes, and oxidation for removing glyphosate from natural waters is evaluated. Results indicate that GAC and PAC are not effective in removing glyphosate, while oxid...

  20. Arsenic removal from drinking water during coagulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet G. Hering; Pen-Yuan Chen; Jennifer A. Wilkie; Menachem Elimelech

    1997-01-01

    The efficiency of arsenic removal from source waters and artificial freshwaters during coagulation with ferric chloride and alum was examined in bench-scale studies. Arsenic(V) removal by either ferric chloride or alum was relatively insensitive to variations in source water composition below pH 8. At pH 8 and 9, the efficiency of arsenic(V) removal by ferric chloride was decreased in the

  1. Microbial contamination of drinking water in Pakistan--a review.

    PubMed

    Nabeela, Farhat; Azizullah, Azizullah; Bibi, Roqaia; Uzma, Syeda; Murad, Waheed; Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Ullah, Waheed; Qasim, Muhammad; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2014-12-01

    Water pollution with pathogenic microorganisms is one of the serious threats to human health, particularly in developing countries. The main objective of this article is to highlight microbial contamination of drinking water, the major factors responsible for microbial contamination, and the resulting health problems in Pakistan. Furthermore, this study will be helpful for researchers and administrative agencies to initiate relevant studies and develop new policies to protect further deterioration of water supply with pathogenic microbes and ensure clean and safe drinking water to the public in Pakistan. In Pakistan, water at the source, in the distribution network, and at the consumer tap is heavily polluted with coliforms and fecal coliforms all over the country. An overview of more than 7,000 water samples reviewed here reveals that an average of over 71 and 58 % samples in the country was contaminated with total coliforms and fecal coliforms, respectively. Drinking water contamination accounts for 20 to 40 % of all diseases in the country, which causes national income losses of Rs 25-58 billion annually (US$0.25-0.58 billion, approximately 0.6-1.44 % of the country's GDP). Improper disposal of industrial and municipal wastes is the most important factor responsible for water pollution in the country followed by cross-contamination due to old and leaking pipes and lack of water filtration and disinfection facilities. There is an urgent need for emergency steps to stop further deterioration of water quality and improve the existing water quality so as to protect the public from widespread waterborne diseases. PMID:25056753

  2. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Increasingly Important Pathogens in Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Falkinham, Joseph O; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens are responsible for a significant number of infections whose origin has been traced to drinking water. These opportunistic pathogens represent an emerging water borne disease problem with a major economic cost of at least $1 billion annually. The common features of this group of waterborne pathogens include: disinfectant-resistance, pipe surface adherence and biofilm formation, growth in amoebae, growth on low organic concentrations, and growth at low oxygen levels. Their emergence is due to the fact that conditions resulting from drinking water treatment select for them. As such, there is a need for novel approaches to reduce exposure to these pathogens. In addition to much-needed research, controls to reduce numbers and human exposure can be instituted independently by utilities and homeowners and hospital- and building-operators. PMID:26066311

  3. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Increasingly Important Pathogens in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Falkinham, Joseph O.; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens are responsible for a significant number of infections whose origin has been traced to drinking water. These opportunistic pathogens represent an emerging water borne disease problem with a major economic cost of at least $1 billion annually. The common features of this group of waterborne pathogens include: disinfectant-resistance, pipe surface adherence and biofilm formation, growth in amoebae, growth on low organic concentrations, and growth at low oxygen levels. Their emergence is due to the fact that conditions resulting from drinking water treatment select for them. As such, there is a need for novel approaches to reduce exposure to these pathogens. In addition to much-needed research, controls to reduce numbers and human exposure can be instituted independently by utilities and homeowners and hospital- and building-operators. PMID:26066311

  4. Evaluation of semidecentralized emergency drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Eloidin, Océane; Dorea, Caetano C

    2015-08-24

    This study evaluates the potential for a novel semidecentralized approach that uses coagulant disinfectant products (CDPs) for humanitarian water treatment, by testing two commercially available products (CDP-W and CDP-T). Their performances were evaluated against the relevant water quality treatment objectives (The Sphere Project) under laboratory conditions, using a standardized testing protocol with both synthetic and natural surface test waters. Tests indicated a satisfactory performance by one of the products (CDP-W) with respect to humanitarian water quality objectives, (i.e., free chlorine residual, pH, and turbidity) that was dependent on initial water quality characteristics. Adequate bacterial inactivation (final thermotolerant coliform concentration of < 1 cfu/100 mL) was always attained and log reductions of up to 5 were achieved. The other product (CDP-T) did not exhibit any measurable coagulation and disinfection properties, indicating the variability of product quality and the need to conduct evaluations such as the ones presented in this study. Such results are of relevance to relief agencies delivering water supply interventions. PMID:26121019

  5. Nano-silver in drinking water and drinking water sources: stability and influences on disinfection by-product formation.

    PubMed

    Tugulea, A-M; Bérubé, D; Giddings, M; Lemieux, F; Hnatiw, J; Priem, J; Avramescu, M-L

    2014-10-01

    Nano-silver is increasingly used in consumer products from washing machines and refrigerators to devices marketed for the disinfection of drinking water or recreational water. The nano-silver in these products may be released, ending up in surface water bodies which may be used as drinking water sources. Little information is available about the stability of the nano-silver in sources of drinking water, its fate during drinking water disinfection processes, and its interaction with disinfection agents and disinfection by-products (DBPs). This study aims to investigate the stability of nano-silver in drinking water sources and in the finished drinking water when chlorine and chloramines are used for disinfection and to observe changes in the composition of DBPs formed when nano-silver is present in the source water. A dispersion of nano-silver particles (10 nm; PVP-coated) was used to spike untreated Ottawa River water, treated Ottawa River water, organic-free water, and a groundwater at concentrations of 5 mg/L. The diluted dispersions were kept under stirred and non-stirred conditions for up to 9 months and analyzed weekly using UV absorption to assess the stability of the nano-silver particles. In a separate experiment, Ottawa River water containing nano-silver particles (at 0.1 and 1 mg/L concentration, respectively) was disinfected by adding sodium hypochlorite (a chlorinating agent) in sufficient amounts to maintain a free chlorine residual of approximately 0.4 mg/L after 24 h. The disinfected drinking water was then quenched with ascorbic acid and analyzed for 34 neutral DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes, 1,1 dichloro-2-propanone, 1,1,1 trichloro-2-propanone, chloropicrin, and cyanogen chloride). The results were compared to the profile of DBPs obtained under the same conditions in the absence of nano-silver and in the presence of an equivalent concentration of Ag(+) ions (as AgNO3). The stability of the nano-silver dispersions in untreated Ottawa River water, with a dissolved organic carbon concentration of 6 mg/L, was significantly higher than the stability of the nano-silver dispersions in distilled, organic-free water. Nano-silver particles suspended in the groundwater agglomerated and were quickly and quantitatively removed from the solution. Our data confirm previous observations that natural dissolved organic matter stabilizes nano-silver particles, while the high-ionic strength of groundwater appears to favor their agglomeration and precipitation. As expected, nano-silver was not stable in Ottawa River water through the chlorination process, but survived for many days when added to the Ottawa River water after treatment with chlorine or chloramines. Stirring appeared to have minimal effect on nano-silver stability in untreated and treated Ottawa River water. The profile of DBPs formed in the presence of nAg differed significantly from the profile of DBPs formed in the absence of nAg only at the 1 mg/L nAg concentration. The differences observed consisted mainly in reduced formation of some brominated DBPs and a small increase in the formation of cyanogen chloride. The reduced formation of brominated congeners may be explained by the decrease in available bromide due to the presence of Ag(+) ions. It should be noted that a concentration of 1 mg/L is significantly higher than nAg concentrations that would be expected to be present in surface waters, but these results could be significant for the disinfection of some wastewaters with comparably high nano-silver concentrations. PMID:24458938

  6. Enteropathogenic Bacteria Contamination of Unchlorinated Drinking Water in Korea, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Si Won; Lee, Do Kyung; An, Hyang Mi; Cha, Min Kyeong; Kim, Kyung Jae

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of unchlorinated drinking water in Korea, 2010. One hundred and eighty unchlorinated drinking water samples were collected from various sites in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. Methods To investigate bacterial presence, the pour plate method was used with cultures grown on selective media for total bacteria, total coliforms, and Staphylococcus spp., respectively. Results In the 180 total bacteria investigation, 72 samples from Seoul and 33 samples from Gyeonggi province were of an unacceptable quality (>102 CFU/mL). Of all the samples tested, total coliforms were detected in 28 samples (15.6%) and Staphylococcus spp. in 12 samples (6.7%). Most of the coliform isolates exhibited high-level resistance to cefazolin (88.2%), cefonicid (64.7%) and ceftazidime (20.6%). In addition, Staphylococcus spp. isolates exhibited high-level resistance to mupirocin (42%). Species of Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Cupriavidus, Hafnia, Rahnella, Serratia, and Yersinia were isolated from the water samples. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that consumption of unchlorinated drinking water could represent a notable risk to the health of consumers. As such, there is need for continuous monitoring of these water sources and to establish standards. PMID:22216417

  7. Author's personal copy Reply to the comment ``Bottled drinking water: Water contamination

    E-print Network

    Filzmoser, Peter

    Author's personal copy Reply Reply to the comment ``Bottled drinking water: Water contamination with the bottle walls or be due to the formation and dissolution of colloids in the water during storage planning to use bottled water as a proxy for ground- water composition at the European scale. Müller

  8. Drinking water standard for tritium-what's the risk?

    PubMed

    Kocher, D C; Hoffman, F O

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents an assessment of lifetime risks of cancer incidence associated with the drinking water standard for tritium established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA); this standard is an annual-average maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 740 Bq L(-1). This risk assessment has several defining characteristics: (1) an accounting of uncertainty in all parameters that relate a given concentration of tritium in drinking water to lifetime risk (except the number of days of consumption of drinking water in a year and the number of years of consumption) and an accounting of correlations of uncertain parameters to obtain probability distributions that represent uncertainty in estimated lifetime risks of cancer incidence; (2) inclusion of a radiation effectiveness factor (REF) to represent an increased biological effectiveness of low-energy electrons emitted in decay of tritium compared with high-energy photons; (3) use of recent estimates of risks of cancer incidence from exposure to high-energy photons, including the dependence of risks on an individual's gender and age, in the BEIR VII report; and (4) inclusion of risks of incidence of skin cancer, principally basal cell carcinoma. By assuming ingestion of tritium in drinking water at the MCL over an average life expectancy of 80 y in females and 75 y in males, 95% credibility intervals of lifetime risks of cancer incidence obtained in this assessment are (0.35, 12) × 10(-4) in females and (0.30, 15) × 10(-4) in males. Mean risks, which are considered to provide the best single measure of expected risks, are about 3 × 10(-4) in both genders. In comparison, USEPA's point estimate of the lifetime risk of cancer incidence, assuming a daily consumption of drinking water of 2 L over an average life expectancy of 75.2 y and excluding an REF for tritium and incidence of skin cancer, is 5.6 × 10(-5). Probability distributions of annual equivalent doses to the whole body associated with the drinking water standard for tritium also were obtained. Means and 97.5th percentiles of maximum annual doses to females and males, which occur at age <1 y, all are less than the annual equivalent dose of 40 ?Sv used by USEPA to establish the MCL. PMID:21799344

  9. Arsenic in your water?: Economists study perceptions of risks from drinking water high in arsenic 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic in water?your tx H2O | pg. 27 Story by Kathy Wythe Economists study perceptions of risks from drinking water high in arsenic In several ?hot spots? across the United States people may be drinking water with high levels of naturally... occurring arsenic without understanding the associated risks, according to agricultural economists. ?Many households in arsenic ?hot spots? are in fact being exposed to harmful doses of arsenic,? said Dr. Douglass Shaw, professor of agricultural...

  10. Delta Drinking Water Quality and TreatmentDelta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment WeiWei--Hsiang ChenHsiang Chen

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    11 Delta Drinking Water Quality and TreatmentDelta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment Costs processes in the DeltaCurrent treatment processes in the Delta X X (a) X X (a) X X a X X a X X (a) X a X a ­ Ozonation (widely used for Delta water) ­ UV irradiation · Treatment processes for DBP precursor removal

  11. ARSENIC DESORPTION FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has recently lowered the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic from 0.050 mg/L to 0.010 mg/L for all community and non-community water sources. The new MCL for arsenic must be met by January 2006. Recent studies have found th...

  12. Federal regulation of lead in drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reiss

    1991-01-01

    The decline of the Roman Empire has been attributed, in part, to lead poisoning. Scholars have reported that Roman food, water and wine all contained excessive amounts of lead. Although Americans ingest considerably less lead than did the ancient Romans, lead poisoning still poses a significant public health threat in this country, particularly to children. The Federal Centers for Disease

  13. Drinking Water Treatment: Activated Carbon Filtration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Divorak, Bruce I.

    This site, presented by the University of Nebraska - Lincoln Extension, discusses the principles, processes and requirements of activated carbon filtration systems for the domestic (household) user. The site addresses contaminants removed, those not removed, water testing, principals of treatment and the equipment used in this treatment.

  14. ANALYZING DRINKING WATER FOR DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the mid 19th Century, Chinese workers on the North American transcontinental railroad suffered less illness than other groups. While generally mysterious at the time, today the reason is obvious. The Chinese preference for tea required heating the water, thus killing many path...

  15. BIOFILMS IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtually anywhere a surface comes into contact with the water in a distribution system, one can find biofilms. Biofilms are formed in distribution system pipelines when microbial cells attach to pipe surfaces and multiply to form a film or slime layer on the pipe. Probably withi...

  16. REMEDIATION OF DRINKING WATER FOR RURAL POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrate is the most common nitrogen contaminant in raw water supplies. In rural areas agricultural activities that involve the use of fertilizers and animal manures are major sources of nitrate contamination. Several processes are currently available that can effectively remove nitrate from raw wa...

  17. Residential exposure to drinking water arsenic in Inner Mongolia, China

    SciTech Connect

    Ning Zhixiong [Ba Men Anti-Epidemic Station, Lin He, Inner Mongolia (China); Lobdell, Danelle T. [Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, Chapel Hill (United States); Kwok, Richard K. [RTI International, P.O. Box 12194, 3040 Cornwallis Rd, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2194 (United States)], E-mail: rkwok@rti.org; Liu Zhiyi; Zhang Shiying; Ma Chenglong [Ba Men Anti-Epidemic Station, Lin He, Inner Mongolia (China); Riediker, Michael [Institut Universitaire Romand de Sante au Travail, Lausanne (Switzerland); Mumford, Judy L. [Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, Chapel Hill (United States)

    2007-08-01

    In the Ba Men region of Inner Mongolia, China, a high prevalence of chronic arsenism has been reported in earlier studies. A survey of the arsenic contamination among wells from groundwater was conducted to better understand the occurrence of arsenic (As) in drinking water. A total of 14,866 wells (30% of all wells in the region) were analyzed for their arsenic-content. Methods used to detect arsenic were Spectrophotometric methods with DCC-Ag (detection limit, 0.5 {mu}g of As/L); Spot method (detection limit, 10 {mu}g of As/L); and air assisted Colorimetry method (detection limit, 20 {mu}g of As/L). Arsenic-concentrations ranged from below limit of detection to 1200 {mu}g of As/L. Elevated concentrations were related to well depth (10 to 29 m), the date the well was built (peaks from 1980-1990), and geographic location (near mountain range). Over 25,900 individuals utilized wells with drinking water arsenic concentrations above 20 {mu}g of As/L (14,500 above 50 {mu}g of As/L-the current China national standard in drinking water and 2198 above 300 {mu}g of As/L). The presented database of arsenic in wells of the Ba Men region provides a useful tool for planning future water explorations when combined with geological information as well as support for designing upcoming epidemiological studies on the effects of arsenic in drinking water for this region.

  18. Health significance and occurrence of injured bacteria in drinking water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFeters, G. A.; LeChevallier, M. W.; Singh, A.; Kippin, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Enteropathogenic and indicator bacteria become injured in drinking water with exposure to sublethal levels of various biological, chemical and physical factors. One manifestation of this injury is the inability to grow and form colonies on selective media containing surfactants. The resulting underestimation of indicator bacteria can lead to a false estimation of water potability. m-T7 medium was developed specifically for the recovery of injured coliforms (both "total" and fecal) in drinking water. The m-T7 method was used to survey operating drinking water treatment and distribution systems for the presence of injured coliforms that were undetected with currently used media. The mean recovery with m-Endo LES medium was less than 1/100 ml while it ranged between 6 and 68/100ml with m-T7 agar. The majority of samples giving positive results with m-T7 medium yielded no detectable coliforms with m-Endo LES agar. Over 95% of the coliform bacteria in these samples were injured. Laboratory experiments were also done to ascribe the virulence of injured waterborne pathogens. Enteropathogens including Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica and Shigella spp. required up to 20 times the chlorine levels to produce the same injury in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and nonpathogenic coliforms. Similar results were seen with Y. enterocolitica exposed to copper. The recovery of ETEC was followed by delayed enterotoxin production, both in vitro and in the gut of experimental animals. This indicates that injured waterborne enteropathogenic bacteria can be virulent.

  19. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in drinking water of Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Distribution and seasonal variation of sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in the drinking water of Tehran, the capital of Iran. Detected single and total PAHs concentrations were in the range of 2.01-38.96 and 32.45-733.10 ng/L, respectively, which were quite high compared to the values recorded in other areas of the world. The average occurrence of PAHs with high molecular weights was 79.55%; for example, chrysene occurred in 60.6% of the samples, with a maximum concentration of 438.96 ng/L. In addition, mean carcinogen to non-carcinogen PAHs ratio was 63.84. Although the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene, as an indicator of water pollution to PAHs, was lower than the guideline value proposed by World Health Organization (WHO) as well as that of Iranian National Drinking Water Standards for all of the samples, the obtained results indicated that carcinogen PAHs present in the drinking water of Tehran can cause threats to human health. PMID:24499505

  20. Studies on urban drinking water quality in a tropical zone.

    PubMed

    Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Pathak, S P; Gopal, K; Murthy, R C

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities associated with industrialization, agriculture and urbanization have led to the deterioration in water quality due to various contaminants. To assess the status of urban drinking water quality, samples were collected from the piped supplies as well as groundwater sources from different localities of residential, commercial and industrial areas of Lucknow City in a tropical zone of India during pre-monsoon for estimation of coliform and faecal coliform bacteria, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and heavy metals. Bacterial contamination was found to be more in the samples from commercial areas than residential and industrial areas. OCPs like ?,?-hexachlorocyclohexane and 1,1 p,p-DDE {dichloro-2, 2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethene)} were found to be present in most of the samples from study area. The total organochlorine pesticide levels were found to be within the European Union limit (0.5 ?g/L) in most of the samples. Most of the heavy metals estimated in the samples were also found to be within the permissible limits as prescribed by World Health Organization for drinking water. Thus, these observations show that contamination of drinking water in urban areas may be mainly due to municipal, industrial and agricultural activities along with improper disposal of solid waste. This is an alarm to safety of public health and aquatic environment in tropics. PMID:21409358

  1. Monochloramine cometabolism by Nitrosomonas europaea under drinking water conditions.

    PubMed

    Maestre, Juan P; Wahman, David G; Speitel, Gerald E

    2013-09-01

    Chloramine is widely used in United States drinking water systems as a secondary disinfectant, which may promote the growth of nitrifying bacteria because ammonia is present. At the onset of nitrification, both nitrifying bacteria and their products exert a monochloramine demand, decreasing the residual disinfectant concentration in water distribution systems. This work investigated another potentially significant mechanism for residual disinfectant loss: monochloramine cometabolism by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Monochloramine cometabolism was studied with the pure culture AOB Nitrosomonas europaea (ATCC 19718) in batch kinetic experiments under drinking water conditions. Three batch reactors were used in each experiment: a positive control to estimate the ammonia kinetic parameters, a negative control to account for abiotic reactions, and a cometabolism reactor to estimate the cometabolism kinetic constants. Kinetic parameters were estimated in AQUASIM with a simultaneous fit to all experimental data. The cometabolism reactors showed a more rapid monochloramine decay than in the negative controls, demonstrating that cometabolism occurs. Cometabolism kinetics were best described by a pseudo first order model with a reductant term to account for ammonia availability. Monochloramine cometabolism kinetics were similar to those of ammonia metabolism, and monochloramine cometabolism was a significant loss mechanism (30-60% of the observed monochloramine decay). These results suggest that monochloramine cometabolism should occur in practice and may be a significant contribution to monochloramine decay during nitrification episodes in drinking water distribution systems. PMID:23770484

  2. Antibiotic Administration in the Drinking Water of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Marx, James O; Vudathala, Daljit; Murphy, Lisa; Rankin, Shelley; Hankenson, F Claire

    2014-01-01

    Although antibiotics frequently are added to the drinking water of mice, this practice has not been tested to confirm that antibiotics reach therapeutic concentrations in the plasma of treated mice. In the current investigation, we 1) tested the stability of enrofloxacin and doxycycline in the drinking water of adult, female C57BL/6 mice; 2) measured the mice's consumption of water treated with enrofloxacin, doxycycline, amoxicillin, or trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole; and 3) used HPLC to measure plasma antibiotic concentrations in mice that had ingested treated water for 1 wk. Plasma concentrations of antibiotic were measured 1 h after the start of both the light and dark cycle. The main findings of the study were that both enrofloxacin and nonpharmaceutical, chemical-grade doxycycline remained relatively stable in water for 1 wk. In addition, mice consumed similar volumes of antibiotic-treated and untreated water. The highest plasma antibiotic concentrations measured were: enrofloxacin, 140.1 ± 10.4 ng/mL; doxycycline, 56.6 ± 12.5 ng/mL; amoxicillin, 299.2 ± 64.1 ng/mL; and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, 5.9 ± 1.2 ng/mL. Despite the stability of the antibiotics in the water and predictable water consumption by mice, the plasma antibiotic concentrations were well below the concentrations required for efficacy against bacterial pathogens, except for those pathogens that are exquisitely sensitive to the antibiotic. The findings of this investigation prompt questions regarding the rationale of the contemporary practice of adding antibiotics to the drinking water of mice for systemic antibacterial treatments. PMID:24827573

  3. Childhood lead poisoning; Case study traces source to drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, E.; Brown, M.J.; Madigan, P.; McNulty, P.; Okonski, L.; Schmidt, J.

    1989-07-01

    Lead poisoning as a result of drinking water carried through lead service lines has been well-documented in the literature. A case of childhood lead poisoning is presented in which the only identified source of lead was lead solder from newly installed water pipes. Partly as a result of this case, the Massachusetts Bourd of Plumbers and Gas Fitters banned the use of 50/50 lead-tin solder or potable water lines. It is anticipated that this ban will increase the cost of new housing by only $16 per unit but will significantly reduce one environmental source of lead.

  4. Survey of bottled drinking water available in Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Pip, E

    2000-01-01

    Forty domestic and imported brands of bottled water were purchased in Manitoba, Canada and examined for total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride, sulfate, nitrate-nitrogen, cadmium, lead, copper, and radioactivity. The samples showed great variation in quality, and some exceeded the Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for drinking water for TDS, chloride, and lead. Carbonation, ozonation, and type of packaging were not associated with differences in metal levels, although carbonated samples tended to show higher TDS values. A number of deficiencies were found with respect to product labeling. PMID:11017891

  5. Effect of home-used water purifier on fluoride concentration of drinking water in southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Kheirmand, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fluoride in drinking water plays a key role in dental health. Due to the increasing use of water-purifier, the effect of these devices on fluoride concentration of drinking water was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Drinking water samples were collected before and after passing through a home water-purifier, from four different water sources. The fluoride, calcium and magnesium concentration of the samples were measured using the quantitative spectrophotometery technique. Data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon test. P value < 0.1 was considered as significant. Results: The result showed that the concentration of fluoride was 0.05-0.61 ppm before purification and was removed completely afterward. Furthermore, other ions reduced significantly after treatment by the water purifier. Conclusion: This study revealed that this device decreases the fluoride content of water, an issue which should be considered in low and high-fluoridated water sources. PMID:24130584

  6. Federal regulation of lead in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Reiss, K.M.

    1991-12-31

    The decline of the Roman Empire has been attributed, in part, to lead poisoning. Scholars have reported that Roman food, water and wine all contained excessive amounts of lead. Although Americans ingest considerably less lead than did the ancient Romans, lead poisoning still poses a significant public health threat in this country, particularly to children. The Federal Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recently reported that more than four million children suffer from lead poisoning. The director of the CDC has stated that {open_quotes}lead poisoning is the No. 1 environmental problem facing America`s children.{close_quotes} In addition to threatening children, lead poisoning presents health dangers to adults and, ironically, to federal government officials themselves. For example, at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) headquarters, water samples at nineteen sources were found to contain excessive amounts of lead. Additionally, a survey of twelve Capitol Hill buildings found that twenty-one percent of the water sources tested contained excessive lead levels.

  7. Tracking persistent pharmaceutical residues from municipal sewage to drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heberer, Thomas

    2002-09-01

    In urban areas such as Berlin (Germany) with high municipal sewage water discharges and low surface water flows there is a potential risk of drinking water contamination by polar organic compounds when groundwater recharge is used in drinking water production. Thus, some pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are not eliminated completely in the municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they are discharged as contaminants into the receiving waters. In terms of several monitoring studies carried out in Berlin between 1996 and 2000, PhACs such as clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, propyphenazone, primidone and carbamazepine were detected at individual concentrations up to the ?g/l-level in influent and effluent samples from STPs and in all surface water samples collected downstream from the STPs. Under recharge conditions, several compounds were also found at individual concentrations up to 7.3 ?g/l in samples collected from groundwater aquifers near to contaminated water courses. A few of the PhACs were also identified at the ng/l-level in Berlin tap water samples.

  8. Removing lead in drinking water with activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy M. Taylor; Roy W. Kuennen

    1994-01-01

    A point-of-use (POU) granular activated carbon (GAC) fixed bed adsorber (FBA) was evaluated for reduction of soluble and insoluble lead from drinking water. Some of the factors which affect lead removal by GAC were evaluated, such as carbon type, solution pH, and a limited amount of work on competitive interactions. The design criteria for lead reduction by a POU device

  9. DRINKING WATER QUALITY IN THE US-MEXICO BORDER REGION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL WESTERHOFF; MARIO ESPARZA-SOTO; PORFIRIO CABALLERO MATA; WILLIAM T. PARRY; WILLIAM P. JOHNSON

    Samples of drinking water were collected form over 400 sites throughout northern Mexico, along the US border. Field analysis for positive chlorine residuals were used as indicators for the potential prevention of intestinal diseases, caused by microbial pathogens. Measurable chlorine residuals (>0.05 mgCl2\\/L) were present in 80% of the samples, indicating the addition of chlorine and potential protection against virus

  10. Gastric Cancer Mortality and Drinking Water Qualities in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-Y. Yang; H.-F. Chiu; J.-F. Chiu; M.-F. Cheng; W.-Y. Kao

    1997-01-01

    .   The possible association between the risk of gastric cancer and nitrate and hardness in drinking water from municipal supplies\\u000a was investigated in a matched case-control study in Taiwan. Data on gastric cancer deaths among eligible residents in Taiwan\\u000a from 1987 through 1991 (6,766 cases) were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department\\u000a of Health.

  11. Incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in drinking water in Cairo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmy Tawfik El-Zanfaly; El-Saied Abd-Aziz Kassim; Samir M. Badr-Eldin

    1987-01-01

    The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria was found among standard plate count (SPC) populations of chlorinated drinking water from two districts in Cairo. SPC values obtained were low, ranging between 20 and 3 800 mL-1. Most strains appeared to be ampicillin resistant (89.7%). Those were followed by sulfaguanidine (78.1%) and streptomycin (56.9%). The majority of the tested strains were resistant

  12. A Nephelometric Turbidity System for Monitoring Residential Drinking Water Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theofanis P. Lambrou; Christos C. Anastasiou; Christos G. Panayiotou

    \\u000a In this paper the design and development of a turbidity system for monitoring drinking water quality in households is presented.\\u000a Its operation is based on the principle that the intensity of the light scattered by the suspended matter is proportional\\u000a to its concentration. Unlike the commercially available turbidity meters, which are relatively expensive and bulky, the proposed\\u000a device is small-sized,

  13. Concentrations of Natural Radionuclides in Municipal Supply Drinking Water and Evaluation of Radiological Hazards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. A. Tahir; A. S. Alaamer

    2009-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides are always present in groundwater used for drinking and cultivation purposes. Intake of these radionuclides through ingestion of drinking water results in radiation doses to humans, which may cause radiological health hazards. This article presents the results of measured concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides of Ra, Th, and K in municipal supply drinking water in metropolitan Lahore

  14. Function of Serum Complement in Drinking Water Arsenic Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Laila N.; Zahid, M. Shamim Hasan; Nabi, A. H. M. Nurun; Hossain, Mahmud

    2012-01-01

    Serum complement function was evaluated in 125 affected subjects suffering from drinking water arsenic toxicity. Their mean duration of exposure was 7.4 ± 5.3?yrs, and the levels of arsenic in drinking water and urine samples were 216 ± 211 and 223 ± 302??g/L, respectively. The mean bactericidal activity of complement from the arsenic patients was 92% and that in the unexposed controls was 99% (P < 0.01), but heat-inactivated serum showed slightly elevated activity than in controls. In patients, the mean complement C3 was 1.56?g/L, and C4 was 0.29?g/L compared to 1.68?g/L and 0.25?g/L, respectively, in the controls. The mean IgG in the arsenic patients was 24.3?g/L that was highly significantly elevated (P < 0.001). Arsenic patients showed a significant direct correlation between C3 and bactericidal activity (P = 0.014). Elevated levels of C4 indicated underutilization and possibly impaired activity of the classical complement pathway. We conclude reduced function of serum complement in drinking water arsenic toxicity. PMID:22545044

  15. Arsenic in drinking water and lung cancer: A systematic review

    SciTech Connect

    Celik, Ismail [Department of Medical Oncology, Hacettepe University Institute of Oncology, Ankara (Turkey); Gallicchio, Lisa [Prevention and Research Center, Mercy Medical Center (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Boyd, Kristina; Lam, Tram K.; Matanoski, Genevieve [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Tao Xuguang [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (United States); Shiels, Meredith; Hammond, Edward [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Chen Liwei [Department of International Health, Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Robinson, Karen A. [Department of General Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (United States); Caulfield, Laura E. [Department of International Health, Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Herman, James G. [Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (United States); Guallar, Eliseo [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Alberg, Anthony J. [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Hollings Cancer Center, and Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics and Epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina (United States)], E-mail: alberg@musc.edu

    2008-09-15

    Exposure to inorganic arsenic via drinking water is a growing public health concern. We conducted a systematic review of the literature examining the association between arsenic in drinking water and the risk of lung cancer in humans. Towards this aim, we searched electronic databases for articles published through April 2006. Nine ecological studies, two case-control studies, and six cohort studies were identified. The majority of the studies were conducted in areas of high arsenic exposure (100 {mu}g/L) such as southwestern Taiwan, the Niigata Prefecture, Japan, and Northern Chile. Most of the studies reported markedly higher risks of lung cancer mortality or incidence in high arsenic areas compared to the general population or a low arsenic exposed reference group. The quality assessment showed that, among the studies identified, only four assessed arsenic exposure at the individual level. Further, only one of the ecological studies presented results adjusted for potential confounders other than age; of the cohort and case-control studies, only one-half adjusted for cigarette smoking status in the analysis. Despite these methodologic limitations, the consistent observation of strong, statistically significant associations from different study designs carried out in different regions provide support for a causal association between ingesting drinking water with high concentrations of arsenic and lung cancer. The lung cancer risk at lower exposure concentrations remains uncertain.

  16. Who is drinking nitrate in their well water?

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, T.J.; Harding, A.K. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Public Health

    1996-10-01

    This study evaluated the health risks for a rural northeastern Oregon population which is exposed to high nitrate levels in well water. The study also identified possible sources of nitrate contamination, and investigated measures the resident had taken to reduce their nitrate exposure from well water. Three data sets were used in the study, including a telephone survey of the residents, existing information collected by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality about well water nitrate concentrations, and demographic information from census records. Results revealed that 23% of the surveyed population was drinking well water that contained nitrate in excess of the 10 ppm nitrate-nitrogen maximum contaminant level adopted by the US Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Seventy-two percent of the households with nitrate levels exceeding the 10 ppm level did not use devices that effectively remove nitrates. The population included few women of childbearing age, and was generally older than other nearby urban or rural populations. Resident infants were not exposed to well water nitrate in excess of the 10 ppm level, and were therefore not at apparent risk for methemoglobinemia (blue-baby syndrome). Although the risk of infant methemoglobinemia was low in this area, it is recommended that alternative water sources be explored, and that follow-up monitoring be performed by state and/or local agencies.

  17. Evaluating the potential for a Helicobacter pylori drinking water guideline.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Michael; Hamilton, Kerry; Hamilton, Michael; Haas, Charles N

    2014-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a microaerophilic, gram-negative bacterium that is linked to adverse health effects including ulcers and gastrointestinal cancers. The goal of this analysis is to develop the necessary inputs for a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) needed to develop a potential guideline for drinking water at the point of ingestion (e.g., a maximum contaminant level, or MCL) that would be protective of human health to an acceptable level of risk while considering sources of uncertainty. Using infection and gastric cancer as two discrete endpoints, and calculating dose-response relationships from experimental data on humans and monkeys, we perform both a forward and reverse risk assessment to determine the risk from current reported surface water concentrations of H. pylori and an acceptable concentration of H. pylori at the point of ingestion. This approach represents a synthesis of available information on human exposure to H. pylori via drinking water. A lifetime risk of cancer model suggests that a MCL be set at <1 organism/L given a 5-log removal treatment because we cannot exclude the possibility that current levels of H. pylori in environmental source waters pose a potential public health risk. Research gaps include pathogen occurrence in source and finished water, treatment removal rates, and determination of H. pylori risks from other water sources such as groundwater and recreational water. PMID:24660760

  18. Effects of Drinking Water Temperature on Physiological Responses of Lactating Holstein Cows in Summer1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ko LANHAM; C. E. Coppock; K. Z. Milam; J. M. Labore; D. H. Nave; R. A. Stermer; C. F. Brasington

    1986-01-01

    Nine Iactating Holstein cows were offered drinking water of 7.2, 15.6, and 23.9°C in a 3 x 3 Latin square design in Experiment 1. Water was offered for 10 min at 1300 h to simulate time in a milking parlor. Water consumption de- clined as drinking water temperature decreased. Respiration rates decreased as the drinking water temperature decreased. In Experiment

  19. Rural drinking water at supply and household levels: Quality and management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bilqis A. Hoque; Kelly Hallman; Jason Levy; Howarth Bouis; Nahid Ali; Feroze Khan; Sufia Khanam; Mamun Kabir; Sanower Hossain; Mohammad Shah Alam

    2006-01-01

    Access to safe drinking water has been an important national goal in Bangladesh and other developing countries. While Bangladesh has almost achieved accepted bacteriological drinking water standards for water supply, high rates of diarrheal disease morbidity indicate that pathogen transmission continues through water supply chain (and other modes). This paper investigates the association between water quality and selected management practices

  20. A Case Study of the DAF-based Drinking Water Treatment Plant in Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byeong-Yong Sohn; Tae-Joon Park; Byung Soo Oh; Soon-Buhm Kwon; Joon-Wun Kang

    2008-01-01

    Since 2003, a full-scale dissolved air flotation (DAF) process has been operated by the Korea Water Resources Corporation (K-Water) in the Songjeon drinking water treatment plant (SWTP). The SWPT was designed with an adaptable operation mode so that it is able to produce safe and stable drinking water, even when the raw water is in very poor condition. The adaptable

  1. June 20, 2001 Characterization of Arsenic Occurrence in US Drinking Water

    E-print Network

    contaminant levels (MCLs) for various harmful substances in public drinking water supplies. The determination. The support and guidance provided by Judy Calem and Ben Smith of the US EPA OÆce of Ground Water and Drinking 55,000 community water suppliers. These systems collect raw water from both surface and ground water

  2. [Uranium Concentration in Drinking Water from Small-scale Water Supplies in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany].

    PubMed

    Ostendorp, G

    2015-04-01

    In this study the drinking water of 212 small-scale water supplies, mainly situated in areas with intensive agriculture or fruit-growing, was analysed for uranium. The median uranium concentration amounted to 0.04?µg/lL, the 95(th) percentile was 2.5?µg/L. The maximum level was 14?µg/L. This sample exceeded the guideline value for uranium in drinking water. The uranium concentration in small-scale water supplies was found to be slightly higher than that in central water works in Schleswig-Holstein. Water containing more than 10?mg/L nitrate showed significantly higher uranium contents. The results indicate that the uranium burden in drinking water from small wells is mainly determined by geological factors. An additional anthropogenic effect of soil management cannot be excluded. Overall uranium concentrations were low and not causing health concerns. However, in specific cases higher concentrations may occur. PMID:25356561

  3. Bacterial community analysis of drinking water biofilms in southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lührig, Katharina; Canbäck, Björn; Paul, Catherine J; Johansson, Tomas; Persson, Kenneth M; Rådström, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing of the V1-V2 and V3 variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene generated a total of 674,116 reads that described six distinct bacterial biofilm communities from both water meters and pipes. A high degree of reproducibility was demonstrated for the experimental and analytical work-flow by analyzing the communities present in parallel water meters, the rare occurrence of biological replicates within a working drinking water distribution system. The communities observed in water meters from households that did not complain about their drinking water were defined by sequences representing Proteobacteria (82-87%), with 22-40% of all sequences being classified as Sphingomonadaceae. However, a water meter biofilm community from a household with consumer reports of red water and flowing water containing elevated levels of iron and manganese had fewer sequences representing Proteobacteria (44%); only 0.6% of all sequences were classified as Sphingomonadaceae; and, in contrast to the other water meter communities, markedly more sequences represented Nitrospira and Pedomicrobium. The biofilm communities in pipes were distinct from those in water meters, and contained sequences that were identified as Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Desulfovibrio, and Sulfuricurvum. The approach employed in the present study resolved the bacterial diversity present in these biofilm communities as well as the differences that occurred in biofilms within a single distribution system, and suggests that next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons can show changes in bacterial biofilm communities associated with different water qualities. PMID:25739379

  4. Influence of water quality on the embodied energy of drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Santana, Mark V E; Zhang, Qiong; Mihelcic, James R

    2014-01-01

    Urban water treatment plants rely on energy intensive processes to provide safe, reliable water to users. Changes in influent water quality may alter the operation of a water treatment plant and its associated energy use or embodied energy. Therefore the objective of this study is to estimate the effect of influent water quality on the operational embodied energy of drinking water, using the city of Tampa, Florida as a case study. Water quality and water treatment data were obtained from the David L Tippin Water Treatment Facility (Tippin WTF). Life cycle energy analysis (LCEA) was conducted to calculate treatment chemical embodied energy values. Statistical methods including Pearson's correlation, linear regression, and relative importance were used to determine the influence of water quality on treatment plant operation and subsequently, embodied energy. Results showed that influent water quality was responsible for about 14.5% of the total operational embodied energy, mainly due to changes in treatment chemical dosages. The method used in this study can be applied to other urban drinking water contexts to determine if drinking water source quality control or modification of treatment processes will significantly minimize drinking water treatment embodied energy. PMID:24517328

  5. Drinking and water balance during exercise and heat acclimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Brock, P. J.; Keil, L. C.; Morse, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    The interactions between fluid intake and balance, and plasma ion, osmotic, and endocrine responses during dehydration produced by exercise in cool and warm environments during acclimation are explored. Two groups of five male subjects performed 8 days of ergometer exercise in hot and thermoneutral conditions, respectively. The exercise trials lasted 2 hr each. Monitoring was carried out on the PV, osmotic, sodium, and endocrine concentrations, voluntary fluid intake, fluid balances, and fluid deficits. A negative correlation was observed between the plasma sodium and osmolality during acclimation. The presence of hypervolemia during acclimation is suggested as a cause of drinking, while the vasopressin concentration was not found to be a significant factor stimulating drinking. Finally, the predominant mechanism in fluid intake during exercise and heat exposure is concluded to be the renin-angiotensin II system in the presence of reductions in total body water and extracellular plasma volumes.

  6. The First Outbreak of Giardiasis with Drinking Water in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Kim, Cheon-Hyeon; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Ma, Da-Won; Goo, Bo-La; Na, Mun-Su; Youn, Seung-Ki; Lee, Won-Ja

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the pathogen of the diarrhea outbreak in a village in Jeollabuk province in Korea in April 2010. Methods: DNA extraction was performed from the 120 L of collected water, which was centrifuged at 10,000 x g for 30 min. PCR reactions were conducted in a total of 25 ul, which included PCR premix (GenDEPOT, Barker, TX, USA), 2 ul (?100 ng) of extracted DNA, and 10 pmol of each primer. Results: Nine people out of 25 had a symptom of abdominal pain accompanied by diarrhea after they used stored valley water in a water tank as a provisional water supply source without chlorine sterilization. Among them Giardia lamblia was detected in fecal samples of 7 people using the polymerase chain reaction method. Although G. lamblia was also detected from water provided by the provisional water supply system stored in the water tank and used as drinking water, it was not detected in the water tank itself. This water-borne outbreak is considered to have occurred when the provisional water supply tube was destroyed under a building construction and contaminated by G. lamblia, but its precise cause has not been clarified. Conclusion: This outbreak resulting from G. lamblia is very meaningful as the first outbreak of an infection by a water-borne parasite in Korea. PMID:24159537

  7. Drinking Water Contamination Due To Lead-based Solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, N.; Bartelt, E.; Cuff, K. E.

    2004-12-01

    The presence of lead in drinking water creates many health hazards. Exposure to lead-contaminated water can affect the brain, the central nervous system, blood cells, and kidneys, causing such problems as mental retardation, kidney disease, heart disease, stroke, and death. One way in which lead can contaminate our water supply is through the use of lead solder to join pipes. Lead solder was widely used in the past because of its ease of application as well as its low cost. Lead contamination in residential areas has previously been found to be a particularly serious problem in first-draw samples, of water that has sat stagnant in pipes overnight. To investigate the time-dependence of drinking water lead contamination, we analyzed samples taken hourly of water exposed to lead solder. While our preliminary data was insufficient to show more than a rough correlation between time of exposure and lead concentration over short periods (1-3 hours), we were able to confirm that overnight exposure of water to lead-based solder results in the presence high levels of lead. We also investigated other, external factors that previous research has indicated contribute to increased concentrations of lead. Our analysis of samples of lead-exposed water at various pH and temperatures suggests that these factors can be equally significant in terms of their contribution to elevated lead concentration levels. In particular, water that is slightly corrosive appears to severely impact the solubility of lead. As this type of water is common in much of the Northeast United States, the presence of lead-based solder in residential areas there is especially problematic. Although lead-based solder has been banned since the 1980s, it remains a serious concern, and a practical solution still requires further research.

  8. Influence of water drinking on resting energy expenditure in overweight children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Dubnov-Raz; N W Constantini; H Yariv; S Nice; N Shapira

    2011-01-01

    Background:It was previously demonstrated that drinking water significantly elevates the resting energy expenditure (REE) in adults, and that low water intake is associated with obesity and lesser success in weight reduction. This study addressed the potential of water drinking to increase the REE in children, as an additional tool for weight management.Objective:To examine the effect of drinking water on the

  9. Chronic Ingestion of Uranium in Drinking Water: A Study of Kidney Bioeffects in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Limson Zamora; B. L. Tracy; J. M. Zielinski; D. P. Meyerhof; M. A. Mossf

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted of the chemical effects on the human kidney induced by the chronic ingestion of uranium in drinking water. Subjects were divided into two groups:The low-exposure group,whose drinking water was obtained from a municipal water system and contained <1 ?g uranium\\/L, andthe high-exposure group,whose drinking water was obtained from private drilled wells and contained uranium levels that

  10. Emergency Response Planning to Reduce the Impact of Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water system...

  11. A study of lead concentrations in drinking water from water coolers at Tusculum College

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1990-01-01

    Lead concentrations in drinking water were studied in a random sample of sixteen water coolers at Tusculum College to determine if the Environmental Protection Agency limit of fifty parts per billion lead was exceeded. The random sample of coolers was selected and classified based on brand, location, and frequency of use. One liter water samples were drawn from the coolers

  12. Removal of cyanobacterial toxins (microcystins) and cyanobacterial cells from drinking water using domestic water filters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda A. Lawton; Benjamin J. P. A. Cornish; Andrew W. R. MacDonald

    1998-01-01

    Toxic cyanobacteria are increasingly found in drinking water reservoirs, with cells and\\/or dissolved toxins entering the potable water supply. The most commonly observed group of cyanobacterial toxins is the microcystins, and concern about their impact on human health has prompted investigations into remedial treatment methods. This study investigates the ability of domestic water filters to remove cyanobacterial cells and microcystins

  13. Drinking water treatment and distribution systems must comply with US EPA water quality regula-

    E-print Network

    Fay, Noah

    . Water utilities primarily use chlorine to disinfect wa- ter for public use. Chlorine kills bacteria of chlorine dur- ing water treatment forms disinfection by-products (DBP), which are carcinogenic when/RESEARCH METHODS Disinfection of drinking water is critical to protecting the public against diseases caused

  14. 59 FR- National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Monitoring Requirements for Public Drinking Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-02-10

    ...practices and source water characteristics influence bromate formation...CNCl standards from pure gas. One solution...to measure CNCl in water using EPA Method 524...practices and source water characteristics influence CNCl...

  15. Can we protect everybody from drinking water contaminants?

    PubMed

    Howd, Robert A

    2002-01-01

    Dozens of chemicals, both natural and manmade, are often found in drinking water. Some, such as the natural contaminants uranium and arsenic, are well-known toxicants with a large toxicology database. Other chemicals, such as methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) from leaking fuel tanks, we learn about as we go along. For still others, such as the alkyl benzenes, there are very little available data, and few prospects of obtaining more. In some cases, chemicals are purposely added to drinking water for beneficial purposes (e.g., chlorine, fluoride, alum), which may cause a countervailing hazard. Removing all potentially toxic chemicals from the water is virtually impossible and is precluded for beneficial uses and for economic reasons. Determination of safe levels of chemicals in drinking water merges the available toxicity data with exposure and human effect assumptions into detailed hazard assessments. This process should incorporate as much conservatism as is needed to allow for uncertainty in the toxicity and exposure estimates. Possible sensitive subpopulations such as unborn children, infants, the elderly, and those with common diseases such as impaired kidney function must also be considered. However, the range of sensitivity and the variability of toxicity and exposure parameters can never be fully documented. In addition, the validity of the low-dose extrapolations, and whether the toxic effect found in animals occurs at all in humans, is never clear. This publication discusses how these competing needs and uncertainties intersect in the development of Public Health Goals for uranium, fluoride, arsenic, perchlorate, and other highly debated chemicals. PMID:12396685

  16. Increased Childhood Liver Cancer Mortality and Arsenic in Drinking Water in Northern Chile

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    their water supply was supplemented in 1958 with water from rivers that contained arsenic at concen- trationsIncreased Childhood Liver Cancer Mortality and Arsenic in Drinking Water in Northern Chile Jane, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland, California Abstract Arsenic in drinking water

  17. Removal of Arsenic in Drinking Water by Iron Oxide-Coated Sand and Ferrihydrite — Batch Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. S. THIRUNAVUKKARASU; T. VIRARAGHAVAN; K. S. SUBRAMANIAN

    2001-01-01

    Arsenic, a common toxic element is mainly transported in the environment by water. Arsenic in drinking water is of major concern to many of the water util- ities in the world. Numerous studies have examined the removal of arsenic from drinking water through treatment processes such as coagulation-precipi- tation, reverse osmosis and ion exchange. The focus of research has now

  18. IN-FIELD PRESERVATION OF ARSENIC SPECIES IN DRINKING WATER USING EDTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two predominant inorganic arsenic species found in drinking waters are As(III) and As(V). As(III) is commonly associated with ground waters while As(V) is associated with surface waters. The efficiency of arsenic removal from a drinking water supply is dependent on the oxid...

  19. Chemical migration in drinking water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: a source of controversy.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Chemical migration in drinking water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: a source packaging applications, especially for drinking water. More bottled water is consumed than other bottled to diffuse from PET bottles to water. The exact detailed chemical composition of plastic materials is known

  20. Performance of Traditional and Molecular Methods for Detecting Biological Agents in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    USGS Report - To reduce the impact from a possible bioterrorist attack on drinking-water supplies, analytical methods are needed to rapidly detect the presence of biological agents in water. To this end, 13 drinking-water samples were collected at 9 water-treatment plants in Ohio...

  1. Risk perception, drinking water source and quality in a low-income Latino community

    E-print Network

    Fay, Noah

    Risk perception, drinking water source and quality in a low-income Latino community along the U water in 2006 (5th overall) · Increased bottled water use has been associated with risk perception standards · To elucidate the risk perceptions residents have about tap and bottled drinking water

  2. Study on the Test of Arsenic Removal for Drinking Water in the Rural Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Xi; Yue Li; Fanlong Kong; Jie Lu

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic is a kind of substance with high toxicity. Arsenic pollution exists in the drinking water of rural areas, which would be harmful for human health. Based on adsorption methods, this article designed a water treatment system to remove arsenic from drinking water in the rural areas. The water treatment system uses a stabilized waste material as the adsorption material

  3. SCREENING MODELS TO PREDICT PROBABILITY OF CONTAMINATION BY PATHOGENIC VIRUSES IN DRINKING WATER AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act's 1996 Amendments broadened the definition of public water systems (PWS) to include systems which serve drinking water to as few as 25 individuals. Implementation of the proposed Ground Water Rule for Pathogens will place an increased burden on utiliti...

  4. 7TH JAPAN - U.S. CONFERENCE ON DRINKING WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND WASTEWATER CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Update on U.S. Drinking Water and Water Quality ResearchThe U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) Office of Research and development continues to conduct drinking water and water quality related research to address high priority environmental problems. Curr...

  5. [Manganese in drinking water and its contribution to human exposure].

    PubMed

    Loranger, S; Bibeau, M C; Zayed, J

    1994-01-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) has been used in Canada since 1976 as an additive in unleaded gasoline. The combustion of MMT leads to the emission of Mn oxides to the environment and may represent a potential risk to public health. It therefore seems important to assess the associated Mn exposure. The present study is part of a broader research program on total human exposure to Mn and aims specifically at assessing the level of exposure to Mn and other metals via drinking water. A comparative study was performed between two groups of workers (garage mechanics and blue collar workers of the University of Montreal) differentiated by their exposure to inhaled Mn. For Pb, Cu and Zn in residential tap water, significant differences were observed between the first sample and the one taken after one minute of flow. A significant difference was also found between the two groups of workers (combined flow time) for Mn, Cu and Ca. The Mn contribution from water is estimated to be 1% of the total dose from ingested food. This low exposure may become important (17%) for persons drinking well water, especially if we consider interactions between metals following multimedia exposure. PMID:8085048

  6. Surface water pesticide modelling for decision support in drinking water production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmet, Nele; Dams, Jef; Bronders, Jan; Peleman, Gisèle; Verdickt, Liesbeth

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of pesticides and other contaminants in river systems may compromise the use of surface water for drinking water production. To reduce the cost of removal of pesticides from the raw water, drinking water companies can: search for other raw water sources, invest in water storage capacity to overcome periods with high pesticide concentrations (often related to the application period), or impose measures to reduce the emission of pesticides to surface water (i.e. sustainable application strategies or use restrictions). To select the most appropriate water management options, the costs and effects of the aforementioned actions need to be evaluated. This evaluation requires knowledge on the concentrations and loads of pesticides at the point of drinking water abstraction, as well as insight in the contribution and the temporal variability of different sources or subbasins. In such a case, a modelling approach can assist in generating measurement-based datasets and to compare different scenarios for water management. We illustrate how a modelling approach can provide decision support for water management related to drinking water abstraction from surface water in a catchment that suffers from elevated pesticide concentrations. The study area is a water production center (WPC) located in northwestern Belgium. The WPC abstracts raw water from the river IJzer or from a natural pond and its connected streams. The available quantities as well as the quality of the water vary throughout the year. The WPC uses a reservoir of 3 million m³ to capture and store raw water to overcome periods with limited water availability and/or poor water quality. However, the pressure on water increases and in the future this buffering capacity might be no longer sufficient to fulfill the drinking water production demand. A surface water quality model for the area is set up using InfoWorks RS. The model is applied to obtain insight in the concentrations and loads at the different points of drinking water abstraction (river IJzer and Blankaart pond), the contribution of the subbasins, and the seasonal dynamics. The model is also applied for scenario analysis related to water management and varying climatological conditions. Especially in summer, the availability of raw water of good quality for the WPC is limited. The discharge of the river IJzer is low and a minimum level is required for navigation, and the pond is part of a nature reserve where a minimum water level is imposed for conservation of aquatic habitats, and application of pesticides on the surrounding agricultural lands results in high pesticide concentrations (e.g. bentazon > 1µg/L).

  7. An evaluation of drinking water samples treated with alternative disinfectants

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, K.S.; Lykins, B.W. Jr.; Garner, L.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Due to concern over potential human health risks associated with the use of chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) for disinfection of drinking water, many utilities are considering alternative disinfectants. An evaluation is thus needed of the potential risks associated with the use of alternative disinfectants relative to those posed by Cl{sub 2}. At a pilot-scale drinking water plant in Jefferson Parish, LA., two studies were conducted in which clarified and sand filtered Mississippi River water was treated with either ozone (O{sub 3}), monochloramine (NH{sub 2}Cl), Cl{sub 2} or was not disinfected. Ozonated water was also post-disinfected with either NH{sub 2}Cl or Cl{sub 2}, to provide a disinfectant residual. For each treatment stream total organic carbon (TOC), total organic halide (TOX) and microbiological contaminants were determined. XAD resin concentrates were also prepared for mutagenicity testing in the Ames Salmonella assay. Water samples disinfected with O{sub 3} alone had low levels of mutagenic activity, the same as the non-disinfected water. The level of mutagenicity observed following chlorination was approximately twice that observed following treatment with NH{sub 2}Cl. Disinfection with O{sub 3} prior to treatment with either Cl{sub 2} or NH{sub 2}Cl resulted in a significantly lower level of mutagenicity than when either disinfectant was used alone. The concentrations of TOX present in the water samples showed a pattern similar to that of the mutagenicity data. The levels of TOC, by contrast, were similar for all the treatment streams. No significant baterial contamination was observed in water samples treated with either Cl{sub 2} or NH{sub 2}Cl alone or in combination with O{sub 3}, as determined by heterotrophic plate counts. However, O{sub 3} alone did not insure an acceptable level of disinfection at the end of the treatment stream.

  8. Physicochemical properties and the concentration of anions, major and trace elements in groundwater, treated drinking water and bottled drinking water in Najran area, KSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brima, Eid I.

    2014-11-01

    Basic information about major elements in bottled drinking water is provided on product labels. However, more information is needed about trace elements in bottled drinking water and other sources of drinking water to assess its quality and suitability for drinking. This is the first such study to be carried out in Najran city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A total of 48 water samples were collected from different sources comprising wells, stations for drinking water treatment and bottled drinking water (purchased from local supermarkets). The concentrations of 24 elements [aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), cesium (Cs), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molydenum (Mo), sodium (Na), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), rubidium (Rb), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), uranium (U) and zinc (Zn)] were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Anions (chlorine (Cl-), fluoride (F-), sulfate (SO4 2-) and nitrate (NO3 -) were determined by ion chromatography (IC). Electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total dissolved salts (TDS) and total hardness (TH) were also measured. All parameters of treated drinking water and bottled drinking water samples did not exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) 2008, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA 2009), Gulf Cooperation Council Standardization Organization (GSO) 2008 and Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO) 1984 recommended guidelines. It is noteworthy that groundwater samples were not used for drinking purpose. This study is important to raise public knowledge about drinking water, and to promote public health.

  9. Drinking Water in Transition: A Multilevel Cross-sectional Analysis of Sachet Water Consumption in Accra

    PubMed Central

    Stoler, Justin; Weeks, John R.; Appiah Otoo, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Rapid population growth in developing cities often outpaces improvements to drinking water supplies, and sub-Saharan Africa as a region has the highest percentage of urban population without piped water access, a figure that continues to grow. Accra, Ghana, implements a rationing system to distribute limited piped water resources within the city, and privately-vended sachet water–sealed single-use plastic sleeves–has filled an important gap in urban drinking water security. This study utilizes household survey data from 2,814 Ghanaian women to analyze the sociodemographic characteristics of those who resort to sachet water as their primary drinking water source. In multilevel analysis, sachet use is statistically significantly associated with lower overall self-reported health, younger age, and living in a lower-class enumeration area. Sachet use is marginally associated with more days of neighborhood water rationing, and significantly associated with the proportion of vegetated land cover. Cross-level interactions between rationing and proxies for poverty are not associated with sachet consumption after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic, socioeconomic, health, and environmental factors. These findings are generally consistent with two other recent analyses of sachet water in Accra and may indicate a recent transition of sachet consumption from higher to lower socioeconomic classes. Overall, the allure of sachet water displays substantial heterogeneity in Accra and will be an important consideration in planning for future drinking water demand throughout West Africa. PMID:23840643

  10. Incorporating Perceived Mortality Risks from Arsenic into Models of Drinking Water Behavior and Valuation of Arsenic Risk Reductions: Preliminary Results

    E-print Network

    Shaw, W. Douglass

    Incorporating Perceived Mortality Risks from Arsenic into Models of Drinking Water Behavior Science Univ. of Nevada, Reno Abstract The new regulatory standard for arsenic in public drinking water research on arsenic in drinking water. Recently, the federal regulatory standards for arsenic in drinking

  11. Risk factors associated with the choice to drink bottled water and tap water in rural Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Lianne; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Waldner, Cheryl

    2014-02-01

    A cross-sectional study investigated risk factors associated with choices to drink bottled water and tap water in rural Saskatchewan. Of 7,500 anonymous postal questionnaires mailed out, 2,065 responses were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Those who reported a water advisory (p < 0.001) or living in the area for £10 years (p = 0.01) were more likely to choose bottled water. Those who reported tap water was not safe to drink were more likely to choose bottled water, an effect greater for those who had no aesthetic complaints (p ? 0.001), while those with aesthetic complaints were more likely to choose bottled water if they believed the water was safe (p < 0.001). Respondents who treated their water and did not use a community supply were more likely to choose bottled water (p < 0.001), while those who did not treat their water were more likely to choose bottled water regardless of whether a community supply was used (p < 0.001). A similar pattern of risk factors was associated with a decreased likelihood of consuming tap water daily; however, the use of a community water supply was not significant. Understanding the factors involved in drinking water choices could inform public health education efforts regarding water management in rural areas. PMID:24487453

  12. Risk Factors Associated with the Choice to Drink Bottled Water and Tap Water in Rural Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Lianne; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Waldner, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study investigated risk factors associated with choices to drink bottled water and tap water in rural Saskatchewan. Of 7,500 anonymous postal questionnaires mailed out, 2,065 responses were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Those who reported a water advisory (p < 0.001) or living in the area for ?10 years (p = 0.01) were more likely to choose bottled water. Those who reported tap water was not safe to drink were more likely to choose bottled water, an effect greater for those who had no aesthetic complaints (p ? 0.001), while those with aesthetic complaints were more likely to choose bottled water if they believed the water was safe (p < 0.001). Respondents who treated their water and did not use a community supply were more likely to choose bottled water (p < 0.001), while those who did not treat their water were more likely to choose bottled water regardless of whether a community supply was used (p < 0.001). A similar pattern of risk factors was associated with a decreased likelihood of consuming tap water daily; however, the use of a community water supply was not significant. Understanding the factors involved in drinking water choices could inform public health education efforts regarding water management in rural areas. PMID:24487453

  13. Drinking Water Contaminants, Gene Polymorphisms, and Fetal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Infante-Rivard, Claire

    2004-01-01

    There are still many uncertainties regarding the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with exposure to drinking water disinfection by-products. In Montréal, Québec, Canada, we carried out a hospital-based case–control study including 493 cases of intrauterine growth restriction defined as birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age and sex, according to Canadian standards. Controls were babies (n = 472) delivered at the same hospital whose birth weight was at or above the 10th percentile, matched for gestational age, race, and sex. Exposure to total and specific trihalomethanes was measured using regulatory data collected by municipalities and the provincial Ministry of Environment. Residential history, water drinking, and shower habits during pregnancy, as well as known risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction, were measured with a face-to-face interview with all mothers. Mothers and newborns were characterized for two genetic polymorphisms, one in the CYP2E1 gene (G1259C), and another in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T). Exposure to specific and total trihalomethanes from drinking water, determined for 458 cases and 426 controls, did not result in an increased risk of intrauterine growth restriction. However, significant effect modification was observed between newborns with and without the CYP2E1 variant; among newborns with the variant, the adjusted odds ratio for intrauterine growth restriction associated with exposure to average total trihalomethanes above the 90th percentile (corresponding to 29.4 ?g/L) was 13.20 (95% confidence interval, 1.19–146.72). These findings suggest that exposure to trihalomethanes at the highest levels can affect fetal growth but only in genetically susceptible newborns. PMID:15289170

  14. Microbial risk assessment of drinking water based on hydrodynamic modelling of pathogen concentrations in source water.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Ekaterina; Petterson, Susan R; Dienus, Olaf; Nyström, Fredrik; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Pettersson, Thomas J R

    2015-09-01

    Norovirus contamination of drinking water sources is an important cause of waterborne disease outbreaks. Knowledge on pathogen concentrations in source water is needed to assess the ability of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) to provide safe drinking water. However, pathogen enumeration in source water samples is often not sufficient to describe the source water quality. In this study, the norovirus concentrations were characterised at the contamination source, i.e. in sewage discharges. Then, the transport of norovirus within the water source (the river Göta älv in Sweden) under different loading conditions was simulated using a hydrodynamic model. Based on the estimated concentrations in source water, the required reduction of norovirus at the DWTP was calculated using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The required reduction was compared with the estimated treatment performance at the DWTP. The average estimated concentration in source water varied between 4.8×10(2) and 7.5×10(3) genome equivalents L(-1); and the average required reduction by treatment was between 7.6 and 8.8 Log10. The treatment performance at the DWTP was estimated to be adequate to deal with all tested loading conditions, but was heavily dependent on chlorine disinfection, with the risk of poor reduction by conventional treatment and slow sand filtration. To our knowledge, this is the first article to employ discharge-based QMRA, combined with hydrodynamic modelling, in the context of drinking water. PMID:25931024

  15. Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources. PMID:24919129

  16. Unsealed tubewells lead to increased fecal contamination of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Knappett, Peter S K; McKay, Larry D; Layton, Alice; Williams, Daniel E; Alam, Md J; Mailloux, Brian J; Ferguson, Andrew S; Culligan, Patricia J; Serre, Marc L; Emch, Michael; Ahmed, Kazi M; Sayler, Gary S; van Geen, Alexander

    2012-12-01

    Bangladesh is underlain by shallow aquifers in which millions of drinking water wells are emplaced without annular seals. Fecal contamination has been widely detected in private tubewells. To evaluate the impact of well construction on microbial water quality 35 private tubewells (11 with intact cement platforms, 19 without) and 17 monitoring wells (11 with the annulus sealed with cement, six unsealed) were monitored for culturable Escherichia coli over 18 months. Additionally, two 'snapshot' sampling events were performed on a subset of wells during late-dry and early-wet seasons, wherein the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) E. coli, Bacteroidales and the pathogenicity genes eltA (enterotoxigenic E. coli; ETEC), ipaH (Shigella) and 40/41 hexon (adenovirus) were detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). No difference in E. coli detection frequency was found between tubewells with and without platforms. Unsealed private wells, however, contained culturable E. coli more frequently and higher concentrations of FIB than sealed monitoring wells (p < 0.05), suggestive of rapid downward flow along unsealed annuli. As a group the pathogens ETEC, Shigella and adenovirus were detected more frequently (10/22) during the wet season than the dry season (2/20). This suggests proper sealing of private tubewell annuli may lead to substantial improvements in microbial drinking water quality. PMID:23165714

  17. Microbiological safety of drinking water: United States and global perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, T E

    1999-01-01

    Waterborne disease statistics only begin to estimate the global burden of infectious diseases from contaminated drinking water. Diarrheal disease is dramatically underreported and etiologies seldom diagnosed. This review examines available data on waterborne disease incidence both in the United States and globally together with its limitations. The waterborne route of transmission is examined for bacterial, protozoal, and viral pathogens that either are frequently associated with drinking water (e.g., Shigella spp.), or for which there is strong evidence implicating the waterborne route of transmission (e.g., Leptospira spp.). In addition, crucial areas of research are discussed, including risks from selection of treatment-resistant pathogens, importance of environmental reservoirs, and new methodologies for pathogen-specific monitoring. To accurately assess risks from waterborne disease, it is necessary to understand pathogen distribution and survival strategies within water distribution systems and to apply methodologies that can detect not only the presence, but also the viability and infectivity of the pathogen. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10229718

  18. Transformation of sulfonylurea herbicides in simulated drinking water treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Binnan; Kong, Deyang; Lu, Junhe; Zhou, Quansuo

    2015-03-01

    Sulfonylurea herbicides (SUs) were detected in natural waters and could be potentially exposed to human beings via portable use. Thus, the removal of five representative SUs in simulated water treatment processes including coagulation, activated carbon adsorption, and chlorination disinfection was systematically investigated. Results showed that coagulation had little effect on the removal of the herbicides with the average removal less than 10 %. Powder-activated carbon adsorption was apparently more effective with removal rates of 50?~?70 %. SUs were also partially removed in chlorination process. A complete removal was achieved when the three treatments were performed in series. However, it was found that parts of the SUs were transformed into certain stable products with triazine/pyrimidine structures which might be of potential health risks in chlorination process. Thus, current drinking water treatment processes are not likely to provide sufficient protection for human population from exposure to SUs. PMID:25269843

  19. [How much water do we really need to drink?].

    PubMed

    Meinders, Arend-Jan; Meinders, Arend E

    2010-01-01

    Everywhere around us we see people sipping bottled water. In healthy people, the fluid balance is strictly regulated via osmoregulation by the hormone vasopressin and the kidneys, in combination with the thirst mechanism and drinking. Fluid intake comes from food, metabolism and beverages, including water. People lose fluid via the skin, respiration, faecal fluid and urinary output. The obligatory urine volume is determined by maximal renal concentrating ability and the solute load which must be excreted. Under normal circumstances of diet, exercise and climate the minimal urine output for healthy subjects is about 500 ml/day. Intake of more than 500 ml of fluids per day will result in the excretion of solute-free water. The recommended total daily fluid intake of 3,000 ml for men and of 2,200 ml for women is more than adequate. Higher fluid intake does not have any convincing health benefits, except perhaps in preventing (recurrent) kidney stones. PMID:20356431

  20. Separation, preconcentration, and determination of cadmium in drinking waters.

    PubMed

    Stafilov, T; Pavlovska, G; Cundeva, K; Zendelovska, D; Paneva, V

    2001-05-01

    A fast method for separation, preconcentration and determination of cadmium in drinking (source, well, tap) and water for irrigation is described. Iron(III) hexamethylenedithiocarbamate, Fe(HMDTC)3, has the role of colloid precipitate flotation collector. The determination of cadmium in final water solutions preconcentrated by flotation can be performed by flame (FAAS) or electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The method applied, either FAAS or ETAAS, depends of the concentration level of analyte in the water sample investigating. The AAS results are compared with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric measurements (ICP-AES) as an independent method. The ETAAS detection limit of cadmium is 0.002 microgram/L. PMID:11460328

  1. [Assessment of risk of contamination of drinking water for the health of children in Tula region].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu I; Liapina, N V

    2013-01-01

    The hygienic analysis of centralized drinking water supply in Tula region has been performed Thepriority contaminants of drinking water have been detected On the basis of risk assessment methodology non-carcinogenic health risks to the child population was calculated. A direct relationship between the incidence of some diseases in childhood population and pollution by chemical contaminants of drinking water has been established. PMID:24340577

  2. Drinking Water Is Associated With Weight Loss in Overweight Dieting Women Independent of Diet and Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jodi D. Stookey; Florence Constant; Barry M. Popkin; Christopher D. Gardner

    2008-01-01

    Background:Data from short-term experiments suggest that drinking water may promote weight loss by lowering total energy intake and\\/or altering metabolism. The long-term effects of drinking water on change in body weight and composition are unknown, however.Objective:This study tested for associations between absolute and relative increases in drinking water and weight loss over 12 months.Methods and Procedures:Secondary analyses were conducted on

  3. Comparison of Nitrate Levels in Raw Water and Finished Water from Historical Monitoring Data on Iowa Municipal Drinking Water Supplies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Weyer; Brian J. Smith; Zhen-Fang Feng; Jiji R. Kantamneni; David G. Riley

    2006-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of water sources is a concern where large amounts of nitrogen fertilizers are regularly applied to soils.\\u000a Ingested nitrate from dietary sources and drinking water can be converted to nitrite and ultimately to N-nitroso compounds,\\u000a many of which are known carcinogens. Epidemiologic studies of drinking water nitrate and cancer report mixed findings; a criticism\\u000a is the use of

  4. 61 FR 24354 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Monitoring Requirements for Public Drinking Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-05-14

    ...certain source water quality criteria...variability in the virus density over time. Therefore...sample of finished water, PWSs shall determine the density of total coliforms...in the finished water, for every month...learns that a density of at least...

  5. 78 FR 10269 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ...Parts 141 and 142 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform...RIN 2040-AD94 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform...g., Public Notification and Ground Water Rules). These revisions are in...

  6. MUTAGENICITY OF COAL TAR PAINTS USED IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity of coal tar paints used for coating drinking water tanks and pipes, as a preliminary screening for potential genotoxic hazards associated with leaching of mutagens into drinking water during water storage and distribution. To...

  7. Microbial Community Profile of a Lead Service Line Removed from a Drinking Water Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A corroded lead water pipe was removed from a drinking water distribution system and the microbial community was profiled using 16S rDNA techniques. This is the first report of the characterization of biofilm on a surface of a corroded lead drinking water pipe. The majority of ...

  8. Investigation and control strategies of lead concentration in drinking water distribution systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu Shihu; Liu Suiqing; Zhang Dong

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of lead pipes in the major countries in Europe was investigated. International protocols of lead concentration in drinking water on human health were reviewed and compared. Lead concentration in drinking water samples was measured and single pipe model was used to simulate the dissolution of lead into the water flowing. It has been successfully validated in a range

  9. Impact of backwashing on nitrification in the biological activated carbon filters used in drinking water treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Laurent; A. Kihn; A. Andersson; P. Servais

    2003-01-01

    Nitrification during biological filtration is currently used in drinking water production to remove ammonia, which is the source of several water quality problems during treatment and distribution. We evaluated here the impact of backwashing on nitrification efficiency in filters used for drinking water treatment. Two different granular activated carbon (one open and one closed carbon superstructure) were tested. Ammonia removal

  10. 78 FR 28242 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ...Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act On May 7, 2013, the Department...Ramos for violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and the Surface Water...be used by the association for future operation and maintenance of...

  11. Bishop's University "Think Global, Drink Local" Bottled Water Free Implementation Plan

    E-print Network

    Bishop's University "Think Global, Drink Local" Bottled Water Free Implementation Plan 1 Table Identification of all locations selling bottled water on campus................................Page 3 Alternative.......................................................................................Page 8 #12;Bishop's University "Think Global, Drink Local" Bottled Water Free Implementation Plan 2

  12. Accessing Safe Drinking Water: A Citizen Perspective on the Role of Science in a Contentious Issue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolff-Michael Roth; Robin McMillan; Brenda Storr; Donna Tait; Janet Riecken; Gail Bradshaw; Lilian Leivas Pozzer; Trudy Pauluth Penner

    Abstract Providing all people with access to safe drinking water is one of the central problems of our times, especially in less developed countries. However, even in developed countries such as Canada, accessing safe drinking water may be difficult. In this case study, we articulate how scientific and technological expertise and discourse are played out against local knowledge,and water needs

  13. Development of a low-cost portable colorimeter for the estimation of fluoride in drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohit; Lalita Kanwar; K. Kesava Rao

    2010-01-01

    People in many countries are affected by fluorosis owing to the high levels of fluoride in drinking water. An inexpensive method for estimating the concentration of the fluoride ion in drinking water would be helpful in identifying safe sources of water and also in monitoring the performance of defluoridation techniques. For this purpose, a simple, inexpensive, and portable colorimeter has

  14. Perspectives of low cost arsenic remediation of drinking water in Pakistan and other countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Haider Malik; Zahid Mehmood Khan; Qaisar Mahmood; Sadia Nasreen; Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhatti

    2009-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations above acceptable standards for drinking water have been detected in many countries and this should therefore is a global issue. The presence of arsenic in subsurface aquifers and drinking water systems is a potentially serious human health hazard. The current population growth in Pakistan and other developing countries will have direct bearing on the water sector for meeting

  15. The EU Drinking Water Directive: the boron standard and scientific uncertainty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika Weinthal; Yael Parag; Avner Vengosh; Antonio Muti; Wolfram Kloppmann

    2005-01-01

    In 1998 the European Union (EU) revised its Drinking Water Directive, which is responsible for regulating the quality of water in the EU intended for human con- sumption. Specifically, the EU added a new standard for the element boron in drink- ing water (1 mg\\/l). Yet, because of scientific uncertainty concerning the causes and magnitude of the boron problem in

  16. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN OXIDATION-REDUCTION POTENTIAL, OXIDANT, AND PH IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidation and reduction (redox) reactions are very important in drinking water. Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) measurements reflect the redox state of water. Redox measurements are not widely made by drinking water utilities in part because they are not well understood. The ...

  17. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN OXIDATION-REDUCTION, OXIDANT, AND PH IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidation and reduction (redox) reactions are very important in drinking water. Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) measurements reflect the redox state of water. Redox measurements are not widely made by drinking water utilities in part because they are not well understood. The ...

  18. STANDARD ADDITION METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF1 PHARMACEUTICAL RESIDUES IN DRINKING WATER BY SPE-2

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    STANDARD ADDITION METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF1 PHARMACEUTICAL RESIDUES IN DRINKING WATER BY SPE compounds in drinking or waste22 water processes has become very popular in recent years. LC-MS/MS is a powerful23 analytical tool often used to determine pharmaceutical residues at trace level in water.24

  19. Climate change versus urban drinking water supply and management: a case analysis on the coastal

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and arsenic contamination in surface and ground water in the coastal region has created severe negativeISLAM S N Climate change versus urban drinking water supply and management: a case analysis-mail: shafinoor@yahoo.com; ishafin@yahoo.com) Abstract Clean urban drinking water supply is now a crucial problem

  20. Treatment techniques for the recycling of bottle washing water in the soft drinks industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Ramirez Camperos; P. Mijaylova Nacheva; E. Diaz Tapia

    The soft drink production is an important sector in the manufacturing industry of Mexico. Water is the main source in the production of soft drinks. Wastewater from bottle washing is almost 50% of the total wastewater generated by this industry. In order to reduce the consumption of water, the water of the last bottle rinse can be reused in to

  1. The Effect of Oxidant and Redox Potential on Metal Corrosion in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Future drinking water regulatory action may require some water utilities to consider additional and/or alternative oxidation and disinfection practices. There is little known about the effect of oxidant changes on the corrosion of drinking water distribution system materials and ...

  2. How to Identify Lead Free Certification Marks for Drinking Water System & Plumbing Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act went into effect on January 4, 2014. The Act has reduced the lead content allowed in water system and plumbing products by changing the definition of lead free in Section 1417 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) from not more than 8% ...

  3. The use of nutshell carbons in drinking water filters for removal of chlorination by-products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Ahmedna; Wayne E Marshall; Abdo A Husseiny; Ipek Goktepe; Ramu M Rao

    2004-01-01

    Chlorination of drinking water is a common practice, used by numerous municipalities in the United States (US) to safeguard their water supplies. However, the chlorine used can chemically react with organic components in the drinking water to produce unwanted chlorination by-products. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the use of granular activated carbon produced from nutshells (almond, English

  4. DETERMINATION OF BROMATE IN DRINKING WATERS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bromate is a disinfection by-product in drinking water, formed during the ozonation of source water containing bromide. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer is combined with an ion chromatograph for the analysis of bromate in drinking waters. Three chromatographic colu...

  5. Escherichia coli O157:H7 in drinking water from private water supplies in the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franciska M. Schets; Ronald Italiaander; Leo Heijnen; Saskia A. Rutjes; Willem K. van der Zwaluw; Ana Maria de Roda Husman

    2005-01-01

    The microbiological quality of drinking water from 144 private water supplies in the Netherlands was tested and additionally the occurrence of Escherichia coli O157 was examined. Faecal indicators were enumerated by using standard membrane filtration methods. The presence of E. coli O157 was determined using a specific enrichment method. Eleven percent of the samples contained faecal indicators whereas E. coli

  6. Survey of the Mutagenicity of Surface Water, Sediments, and Drinking Water from the Penobscot Indian Nation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Survey of the Mutagenicity of Surface Water, Sediments, andDrinking Water from the Penobscot Indian NationSarah H. Warren, Larry D. Claxton,1, Thomas J. Hughes,*, Adam Swank,Janet Diliberto, Valerie Marshall, Daniel H. Kusnierz, Robert Hillger, David M. DeMariniNational Health a...

  7. Lead in drinking water from water coolers and in fingernails from subjects in Kuwait City, Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdul-Hadi Bu-Olayan; Sami N. Al-Yakoob; Shaker Alhazeem

    1996-01-01

    In response to concerns raised by the Kuwait Ministry of Public Health (KMPH) about the high lead levels in some commercial water coolers, samples of drinking water and fingernails were collected from 129 healthy donors (77 males and 52 females) during the period December 1994–February 1995. The mean nail lead levels for females and males were 5.50 ± 7.76 and

  8. GC/MS IDENTIFICATION OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS FROM MILWAUKEE'S NEW OZONATION PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Milwaukee Water Works recently added ozonation disinfection facilities to their municipal drinking water treatment. Coupling ozone treatment with biologically active filtration (BAF) was seen as a logical step to enhance multiple water quality objectives (an effective barrier...

  9. OXIDATION-REDUCTION POTENTIAL MEASUREMENTS OF IMPORTANT OXIDANTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions are important in drinking water treatment and distribution. Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) measurements of water reflect the tendency of major constituents in the water to accept or lose electrons. Although ORP measurements are valuable...

  10. 68 FR 42908 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement of Completion of EPA's Review of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-07-18

    ...drinking water, due to the low water solubility of DEHA. [sbull] The weight of evidence...new information, including the water solubility of DEHA under various environmental...classification. [[Page 42922

  11. Nature: "Water, Water, Everywhere, nor Any Drop to Drink"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinhorst, Sabine; Cannon, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    The difficulties faced by developing countries in obtaining clean water, and its misuse in advanced countries are reported. The new application of zeolites, or molecular synthesis of aluminosilicates in the desalination or purification of water forecasts a brighter future.

  12. Surveillance of Drinking Water Quality for Safe Water Supply—A Case Study from Shillong, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gajanan Kisan Khadse; Moromi D. Kalita; S. N. Pimpalkar; Pawan K. Labhasetwar

    To ascertain the quality of drinking water being supplied and maintained, it is necessary to conduct water quality surveillance\\u000a for evolving suitable strategy for future planning. In the present investigation, water quality was monitored in treatment\\u000a plants, service reservoirs, and at consumer ends in three seasons to assess the baseline water quality status at Shillong\\u000a in Meghalaya. There are three

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Alternative Testing Methods Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act A Appendix A to Subpart C of Part...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Monitoring and Analytical...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Alternative Testing Methods Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act A Appendix A to Subpart C of Part...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Monitoring and Analytical...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Alternative Testing Methods Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act A Appendix A to Subpart C of Part...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Monitoring and Analytical...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Alternative Testing Methods Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act A Appendix A to Subpart C of Part...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Monitoring and Analytical...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Alternative Testing Methods Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Approved for Analyses Under the Safe Drinking Water Act A Appendix A to Subpart C of Part...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Monitoring and Analytical...

  18. 76 FR 33756 - Notice of Approval of the Primacy Application for National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ...National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: (1...Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (January 5, 2006...review of the state's drinking water regulations, EPA noted...related to best available technology (BAT). Under...

  19. Evaluation of Disinfection Byproducts Formed from the Chlorination of Lyophilized and Reconstituted NOM Concentrate from a Drinking Water Source - Poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by difficulties in shipping large water quantities and NOM geographical and temporal variability. Access to a drinking water representative, shelf-stable, concentrated NOM source would solve th...

  20. Evaluation of Disinfection Byproducts formed from the Chlorination of Lyophilized and Reconstituted NOM Concentrate from a Drinking Water Source

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by difficulties in shipping large water quantities and NOM geographical and temporal variability. Access to a drinking water representative, shelf-stable, concentrated NOM source would solve th...