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1

The PCH Family Member Proline-Serine-Threonine Phosphatase-interacting Protein 1 Targets to the Leukocyte Uropod and Regulates Directed Cell Migration  

PubMed Central

Pombe Cdc15 homology (PCH) family members have emerged as important regulators of membrane–cytoskeletal interactions. Here we show that PSTPIP1, a PCH family member expressed in hematopoietic cells, regulates the motility of neutrophil-like cells and is a novel component of the leukocyte uropod where it colocalizes with other uropod components, such as type I PIPKI?. Furthermore, we show that PSTPIP1 association with the regulator of endocytosis, dynamin 2, and PSTPIP1 expression impairs transferrin uptake and endocytosis. We also show that PSTPIP1 localizes at the rear of neutrophils with a subpopulation of F-actin that is specifically detected by the binding of an F-actin probe that detects a more stable population of actin. Finally, we show that actin polymerization, but not the microtubule network, is necessary for the polarized distribution of PSTPIP1 toward the rear of the cell. Together, our findings demonstrate that PSTPIP1 is a novel component of the leukocyte uropod that regulates endocytosis and cell migration.

Cooper, Kate M.; Bennin, David A.

2008-01-01

2

Children Who Kill Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of risk in young offenders is complicated by the general lack of specific assessment instruments. Young offenders who kill family members constitute a small group and often display characteristics that set them apart from the general young offender population. The following article reviews information about young offenders who murder family members in the context of three cases. Young

C. J. Lennings

2003-01-01

3

Exceptional Family Member Program EFM.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The EFM Program is a mandatory enrollment program per OPNAVINST 1754.2 (series) that identifies long term medical and special education needs of family members and ensures assignment consideration of those needs when transferring. To ensure special needs ...

1996-01-01

4

7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Family members. 1400.208 Section 1400... Payment Eligibility § 1400.208 Family members. (a) Notwithstanding the...conducted by persons, a majority of whom are family members, an adult family...

2012-01-01

5

Caring for Families with a Handicapped Member  

PubMed Central

The family with a handicapped member experiences stress and faces a variety of potential problems. The response of the family unit will vary according to the timing of this experience in the family life cycle, the health of the family, and the nature of the handicapped member's disability. Awareness of the needs of the family unit will help the physician to ensure its members' proper education and support, and to identify those families that may require family assessment and therapy. Dealing with the handicapped may also have implications for the physician.

Sawa, Russell J.

1989-01-01

6

Family Member Involvement in Hastened Death  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When patients pursue a hastened death, how is the labor of family caregiving affected? The authors examined this question in a qualitative study of 35 families. Four cases reveal the main themes: "taking care" included mutual protection between patients and family members; "midwifing the death" without professional support left families unprepared…

Starks, Helene; Back, Anthony L.; Pearlman, Robert A.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Hsu, Clarissa; Gordon, Judith R.; Bharucha, Ashok J.

2007-01-01

7

Methods of Assessment for Affected Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The article begins by making the point that a good assessment of the needs and circumstances of family members is important if previous neglect of affected family members is to be reversed. The methods we have used in research studies are then described. They include a lengthy semi-structured interview covering seven topic areas and standard…

Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Velleman, Richard; Copello, Alex

2010-01-01

8

Managing patients whose family members are physicians.  

PubMed

The ethical complexities involving physicians who treat their own family members are well known and it is generally accepted that such practice should not occur. We present three anonymous cases in which patient family members who worked as physicians complicated the medical care of their hospitalized relatives. When a health care worker's family member becomes a hospital patient, the situation can be emotionally charged due to the medical insight the multiple parties have, as well as the desire of relatives to be protective of their family members. Clinician-relatives need to allow the medical team to assume the role of caretaker when their family members are hospitalized. Teams may need to employ limit setting in order to ensure fair and consistent care for all patients on the ward, and to prevent escalation of emotionally charged situations. PMID:21525827

Bramstedt, K A; Popovich, M

2011-04-26

9

Principal Components of Heritability From Neurocognitive Domains Differ Between Families With Schizophrenia and Control Subjects  

PubMed Central

Objective: Various measures of neurocognitive function show mean differences among individuals with schizophrenia (SZ), their relatives, and population controls. We use eigenvector transformations that maximize heritability of multiple neurocognitive measures, namely principal components of heritability (PCH), and evaluate how they distribute in SZ families and controls. Methods: African-Americans with SZ or schizoaffective disorder (SZA) (n = 514), their relatives (n = 1092), and adult controls (n = 300) completed diagnostic interviews and computerized neurocognitive tests. PCH were estimated from 9 neurocognitive domains. Three PCH, PCH1–PCH3, were modeled to determine if status (SZ, relative, and control), other psychiatric covariates, and education were significant predictors of mean values. A small-scale linkage analysis was also conducted in a subset of the sample. Results: PCH1, PCH2, and PCH3 account for 72% of the genetic variance. PCH1 represents 8 of 9 neurocognitive domains, is most highly correlated with spatial processing and emotion recognition, and has unadjusted heritability of 68%. The means for PCH1 differ significantly among SZ, their relatives, and controls. PCH2, orthogonal to PCH1, is most closely correlated with working memory and has an unadjusted heritability of 45%. Mean PCH2 is different only between SZ families and controls. PCH3 apparently represents a heritable component of neurocognition similar across the 3 diagnostic groups. No significant linkage evidence to PCH1–PCH3 or individual neurocognitive measures was discovered. Conclusions: PCH1 is highly heritable and genetically correlated with SZ. It should prove useful in future genetic analyses. Mean PCH2 differentiates SZ families and controls but not SZ and unaffected family members.

Wiener, Howard; Klei, Lambertus; Calkins, Monica; Wood, Joel; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Gur, Ruben; Bradford, L. DiAnne; Richard, Jan; Edwards, Neil; Savage, Robert; Kwentus, Joseph; Allen, Trina; McEvoy, Joseph; Santos, Alberto; Gur, Raquel; Devlin, Bernie; Go, Rodney

2013-01-01

10

Fort Lewis Exceptional Family Member Program (EFMP)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Located in the shadow of Mt. Rainier, Fort Lewis is the home of the highest per capita exceptional family member population in the Army. Ideally located on the Northwest coast of Washington State, Fort Lewis is home to the Strykers and First Brigade. Combined with its close proximity to McChord Air Force Base, the installation is ideally suited…

Hebdon, Heather

2007-01-01

11

Family Members’ Support for GLBT Issues: The Role of Family Adaptability and Cohesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Families high in cohesion and adaptability are often able to function better than families low in cohesion and adaptability. This study hypothesized that heterosexual family members who report their family adaptability and\\/or cohesion to be high rather than low would have more contact with their GLBT family member, report more GLBT friends, family members, and GLBT acquaintances, as well as

Teresa Reeves; Sharon G. Horne; Sharon Scales Rostosky; Ellen D. B. Riggle; Linda R. Baggett; Rebecca A. Aycock

2010-01-01

12

An Unusually Shaped Haumea Family Member  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2013 EL61 Haumea is a 2000 km-scale, fast-spinning Kuiper belt object covered in water ice, but with a bulk density near 2.5 g/cc implying a rocky interior. Approximately a dozen Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) have been identified as possibly related to Haumea in that they share similar orbital properties and have unusually fresh, icy surfaces similar to the water-ice mantle covering the latter. These KBOs are usually referred to as the Haumea family. Sparse photometry of one of the family members, 2003 SQ317, revealed an interesting high photometric variability. We followed up on those observations and used the NTT in La Silla to obtain dense, time-resolved photometry of SQ317 over two semesters. Analysis of the lightcurve indicates a spin period P=7.2 hr and a photometric range equal to 0.9 mag. We will present implications of this lightcurve to the object's shape and bulk density.

Lacerda, Pedro

2013-10-01

13

Family Members of Kids with Cancer Also at Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Family Members of Kids With Cancer Also at Risk ... 9, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cancer in Children Family History FRIDAY, Aug. 9 (HealthDay News) -- Close family ...

14

Comparative integromics on Angiopoietin family members.  

PubMed

Angiopoietin-1 (ANGPT1), Angiopoietin-4 (ANGPT4), VEGF, FGF2, FGF4, HGF, Ephrin, IL8 and CXCL12 (SFD1) are pro-angiogenic factors (angiogenic activators), while Angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2), Angiostatin, Endostatin, Tumstatin, Canstatin, THBS1, THBS2, TNFSF15 (VEGI) and Vasohibin (VASH1) are anti-angiogenic factors (angiogenic inhibitors). ANGPT1 and ANGPT2 are ligands for TIE family receptor tyrosine kinases, TIE1 and TIE2 (TEK). Angiopoietin family consists of ANGPT1, ANGPT2, ANGPT4, ANGPTL1 (ANGPT3), ANGPTL2, ANGPTL3 (ANGPT5), ANGPTL4, ANGPTL5, ANGPTL6 and ANGPTL7. TCF/LEF binding sites within the promoter region of human Angiopoietin family members were searched for by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). Because four TCF/LEF-binding sites were identified within the human ANGPTL7 promoter, comparative genomics analyses on ANGPTL7 orthologs were further performed. ANGPTL7 gene at human chromosome 1p36.22 was located within intron 28 of FRAP1 gene encoding mTOR protein. Chimpanzee ANGPTL7 gene, consisting of five exons, was located within NW_101546.1 genome sequence. Chimpanzee ANGPTL7 showed 99.4% and 86.1% total-amino-acid identity with human ANGPTL7 and mouse Angptl7, respectively. Human ANGPTL7 mRNA was expressed in neural tissues, keratoconus cornea, trabecular meshwork, melanotic melanoma and uterus endometrial cancer, while mouse Angptl7 mRNA was expressed in four-cell embryo, synovial fibroblasts, thymus, uterus and testis. Four TCF/LEF-binding sites within human ANGPTL7 promoter were conserved in chimpanzee ANGPTL7 promoter; however, only an unrelated TCF/LEF-binding site occurred in mouse and rat Angptl7 promoters. Human ANGPTL7, characterized as potent target gene of WNT/ beta-catenin signaling pathway, is a pharmacogenomics target in the fields of oncology and regenerative medicine. PMID:16685428

Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

2006-06-01

15

Perceived Family Resources Based on Number of Members with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: This study examines how the number of family members with ADHD affects other family members' perceived resources. Method: A total of 40 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and their mothers, fathers, and adolescent siblings living in the household participated. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze family-level data from a total…

Corwin, Melinda; Mulsow, Miriam; Feng, Du

2012-01-01

16

Listening to the Voices of Family Members, Teachers, and Community Members  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigates the interrelationships between and among family members and community members who work with middle level children, and middle level teachers from the perspectives of the practitioners.

Musser, P. M.

2004-01-01

17

Comparative integromics on VEGF family members.  

PubMed

VEGF, Hedgehog, FGF, Notch, and WNT signaling pathways network together for vascular remodeling during embryogenesis, tissue regeneration, and carcinogenesis. VEGFA (VEGF), VEGFB, VEGFC, VEGFD (FIGF) and PGF (PlGF) are VEGF family ligands for receptor tyrosine kinases, including VEGFR1 (FLT1), VEGFR2 (KDR) and VEGFR3 (FLT4). Bevacizumab (Avastin), Sunitinib (Sutent) and Sorafenib (Nexavar) are anti-cancer drugs targeted to VEGF signaling pathway. TCF/LEF binding sites within the promoter region of human VEGF family members were searched for by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). Because four TCF/LEF-binding sites were identified within the 5'-promoter region of human VEGFD gene within AC095351.5 genome sequence, comparative genomics analyses on VEGFD orthologs were further performed. ASB9-ASB11-VEGFD locus at human chromosome Xp22.2 and ASB5-VEGFC locus at human chromosome 4q34 were paralogous regions within the human genome. Human VEGFD mRNA was expressed in lung, small intestine, uterus, breast, neural tissues, and neuroblastoma. Mouse Vegfd mRNA was expressed in kidney, pregnant oviduct, and neural tissues. Chimpanzee VEGFD promoter, cow Vegfd promoter, mouse Vegfd promoter and rat Vegfd promoter were identified within NW_121675.1, AC161065.2, AL732475.6 and AC130036.3 genome sequences, respectively. Three out of four TCF/LEF-binding sites within human VEGFD promoter were conserved in chimpanzee VEGFD promoter, and one in cow Vegfd promoter. TCF/LEF-binding site, not conserved in human VEGFD promoter, occurred in cow, mouse and rat Vegfd promoters. At least five out of six bHLH-binding sites within human VEGFD proximal promoter region were conserved in chimpanzee VEGFD proximal promoter region, while only one in cow Vegfd proximal promoter region. Together these facts indicate that relatively significant promoter evolution occurred among mammalian VEGFD orthologs. Human VEGFD was characterized as a potent target gene of WNT/beta-catenin signaling pathway. VEGFD, implicated in angiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis, is a pharmacogenomics target in the field of oncology. PMID:16685460

Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

2006-06-01

18

Coping Strategies of Family Members of Hospitalized Psychiatric Patients  

PubMed Central

This exploratory research paper investigated the coping strategies of families of hospitalized psychiatric patients and identified their positive and negative coping strategies. In this paper, the coping strategies of 45 family members were examined using a descriptive, correlational, mixed method research approach. Guided by the Neuman Systems Model and using the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales and semistructured interviews, this paper found that these family members used more emotion-focused coping strategies than problem-focused coping strategies. The common coping strategies used by family members were communicating with immediate family, acceptance of their situation, passive appraisal, avoidance, and spirituality. The family members also utilized resources and support systems, such as their immediate families, mental health care professionals, and their churches.

Eaton, Phyllis M.; Davis, Bertha L.; Hammond, Pamela V.; Condon, Esther H.; McGee, Zina T.

2011-01-01

19

The After-Death Call to Family Members: Academic Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors discuss clinical and teaching aspects of a telephone call by the treating clinician to family members after a patient dies. Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted for references to an after-death call made by the treating clinician to family members. A review of this literature is summarized. Results: A clinical application…

LoboPrabhu, Sheila; Molinari, Victor; Pate, Jennifer; Lomax, James

2008-01-01

20

Validation of Toolkit After-Death Bereaved Family Member Interview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Toolkit After-Death Bereaved Family Member Interview to measure quality of care at the end of life from the unique perspective of family members. The survey included proposed problem scores (a count of the opportunity to improve the quality of care) and scales. Data were collected through

Joan M. Teno; Brian Clarridge; Virginia Casey; Susan Edgman-Levitan; Jack Fowler

2001-01-01

21

Anticipated work\\/family conflict and family member views: role in police recruiting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on police officer recruiting has not focused on anticipated work\\/family conflict, the amount of conflict an applicant thinks will be in a police job. The influence of anticipated work\\/family conflict on applicant and family member opinions and applicant behavior wasexamined. Also, gender and family role differences were examined. We found congruence in applicant and family member views, and a

Ann Marie Ryan; S. David Kriska; Bradley J. West; Joshua M. Sacco

2001-01-01

22

Family Members' Retrospective Perceptions of Intrafamilial Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parents and daughters in 21 families of women with borderline personality disorder (BPD), 23 women with restricting anorexia nervosa (AN), and 25 women without clinical histories (NC) responded to the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and the Beavers Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI). On the PBI, BPD daughters' perceptions differed from both their parents' whereas AN daughters' perceptions differed from their mothers'.

Herta A. Guttman; Lise Laporte

2002-01-01

23

Lineage Affect Similarity and Health of Older Family Members.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interviews with same-sex adult members of three-generation family lines can dramatize similarities and differences by age and generation in ways of thinking and feeling. An analysis of interviews with 157 families examined the health of the grandparent, the happiness of each of the three generational representatives, and family salience. Twelve…

Troll, Lillian E.

24

Family Support Project: Final Report to the Administration on Aging (Caring for Aged Family Members).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are presented of a project undertaken to implement and assess family support services that were aimed at enhancing the ability and willingness of families to retain the primary responsibility for caring for aged family members. An experimental des...

R. J. V. Montgomery E. F. Borgatta

1985-01-01

25

Regulation of hematopoiesis by chemokine family members.  

PubMed

Chemokines, originally designated as chemoattractant cytokines, comprise a large family of molecules that have been implicated in a number of different functions mediated through chemokine receptors. Among these functions are regulatory roles in hematopoiesis that encompass effects on the proliferation, survival, and homing/migration of myeloid progenitor cells. This article reviews the field of chemokine regulation of hematopoiesis at the level of myeloid progenitor cells. PMID:11530812

Broxmeyer, H E

2001-07-01

26

Regulation of Hematopoiesis by Chemokine Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemokines, originally designated as chemoattractant cytokines, comprise a large family of molecules that have been implicated\\u000a in a number of different functions mediated through chemokine receptors. Among these functions are regulatory roles in hematopoiesis\\u000a that encompass effects on the proliferation, survival, and homing\\/migration of myeloid progenitor cells. This article reviews\\u000a the field of chemokine regulation of hematopoiesis at the level

Hal E. Broxmeyer

2001-01-01

27

Tuberous sclerosis: case report and investigation of family members  

PubMed Central

Familial tuberous sclerosis probably occurs more often than is indicated by the literature: many family members show signs of being carriers of the gene for the disease when carefully examined. This article reports on a family with documented tuberous sclerosis in three generations and discusses the examination and investigation of at-risk family members, including the newborn, for signs of the disease. The potential teratogenic effects of anticonvulsants, used to control seizures in tuberous sclerosis, are also discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3AFig. 3B

Wilson, R. Douglas; Hall, Judith G.; McGillivray, Barbara C.

1985-01-01

28

Space weathering of small Koronis family members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space weathering process and its implications for the relationships between S- and Q-type asteroids and ordinary chondrite meteorites is an often debated topic in asteroid science. Q-type asteroids have been shown to display the best spectral match to ordinary chondrites (McFadden, L.A., Gaffey, M.J., McCord, T.B. [1985]. Science 229, 160-163). While the Q-types and ordinary chondrites share some spectral features with S-type asteroids, the S-types have significantly redder spectral slopes than the Q-types in visible and near-infrared wavelengths. This reddening of spectral slope is attributed to the effects of space weathering on the observed surface composition. The analysis by Binzel et al. (Binzel, R.P., Rivkin, A.S., Stuart, J.S., Harris, A.W., Bus, S.J., Burbine, T.H. [2004]. Icarus 170, 259-294) provided a missing link between the Q- and S-type bodies in near-Earth space by showing a reddening of spectral slope in objects from 0.1 to 5 km that corresponded to a transition from Q-type to S-type asteroid spectra, implying that size, and therefore surface age, is related to the relationship between S- and Q-types. The existence of Q-type asteroids in the main-belt was not confirmed until Mothé-Diniz and Nesvorny (Mothé-Diniz, T., Nesvorny, D. [2008]. Astron. Astrophys. 486, L9-L12) found them in young S-type clusters. The young age of these families suggest that the unweathered surface could date to the formation of the family. This leads to the question of whether older S-type main-belt families can contain Q-type objects and display evidence of a transition from Q- to S-type. To answer this question we have carried out a photometric survey of the Koronis family using the Kitt Peak 2.1 m telescope. This provides a unique opportunity to compare the effects of the space weathering process on potentially ordinary chondrite-like bodies within a population of identical initial conditions. We find a trend in spectral slope for objects 1-5 km that shows the transition from Q- to S-type in the main-belt. This data set will prove crucial to our understanding of the space weathering process and its relevant timescales.

Thomas, Cristina A.; Rivkin, Andrew S.; Trilling, David E.; Marie-therese Enga; Grier, Jennifer A.

2011-03-01

29

Communal Responsiveness in Relationships with Female versus Male Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies of college students in the US utilized a new methodological approach in which participants arranged their multiple\\u000a family members (i.e. parents, siblings, aunts, and uncles) within a series of relationship network grids. These grids measured\\u000a participants’ own feelings of communal responsiveness toward and perceived feelings of communal responsiveness from each family member relative to one another. The results

Joan K. Monin; Margaret S. Clark; Edward P. Lemay

2008-01-01

30

Family Members' Experiences With Do-Not-Resuscitate (DNR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study describes the experience of family members making do-not-resuscitate (DNR) decisions for an imcompetent, terminally ill family member. Terminally ill was defined as a debilitating condition that is medically incurable and expected to cause death. The essence of the experience was gathered through in-depth unstructured interviews. Interviews were then analyzed using qualitative analysis procedures. Three broad theme categories

GWEN LARSEN

1999-01-01

31

Lysine221 is the general base residue of the isochorismate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PchA) in a reaction that is diffusion limited.  

PubMed

The isochorismate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PchA) catalyzes the conversion of chorismate to isochorismate, which is subsequently converted by a second enzyme (PchB) to salicylate for incorporation into the salicylate-capped siderophore pyochelin. PchA is a member of the MST family of enzymes, which includes the structurally homologous isochorismate synthases from Escherichia coli (EntC and MenF) and salicylate synthases from Yersinia enterocolitica (Irp9) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MbtI). The latter enzymes generate isochorismate as an intermediate before generating salicylate and pyruvate. General acid-general base catalysis has been proposed for isochorismate synthesis in all five enzymes, but the residues required for the isomerization are a matter of debate, with both lysine221 and glutamate313 proposed as the general base (PchA numbering). This work includes a classical characterization of PchA with steady state kinetic analysis, solvent kinetic isotope effect analysis and by measuring the effect of viscosogens on catalysis. The results suggest that isochorismate production from chorismate by the MST enzymes is the result of general acid-general base catalysis with a lysine as the base and a glutamic acid as the acid, in reverse protonation states. Chemistry is determined to not be rate limiting, favoring the hypothesis of a conformational or binding step as the slow step. PMID:23942051

Meneely, Kathleen M; Luo, Qianyi; Dhar, Prajnaparamita; Lamb, Audrey L

2013-08-11

32

Play Interactions of Family Members Towards Children with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The play interactions of family members towards children with autism were examined in the current study. Siblings, mothers, and fathers of nine families of a child with autism were observed in dyadic play interactions with the child. Results revealed that mothers and fathers exhibited more play behaviors towards children with autism than siblings, while the children with autism initiated more

Nabil Hassan El-Ghoroury; Raymond G. Romanczyk

1999-01-01

33

Caregiving by Teens for Family Members With Huntington Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this report is to describe caregiving by teens for family members with Huntington disease (HD). Thirty-two teens in HD families in the United States and Canada participated in focus groups from 2002 to 2005 in a study to identify concerns and strategies to manage concerns. An unexpected finding was 24 (77%) described caregiving activities. Descriptive analysis of

Janet K. Williams; Lioness Ayres; Janet Specht; Kathleen Sparbel; Mary Lou Klimek

2009-01-01

34

Family Members' Influence on Family Meal Vegetable Choices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Characterize the process of family vegetable selection (especially cruciferous, deep orange, and dark green leafy vegetables); demonstrate the usefulness of Exchange Theory (how family norms and experiences interact with rewards and costs) for interpreting the data. Design: Eight focus groups, 2 with each segment (men/women vegetable…

Wenrich, Tionni R.; Brown, J. Lynne; Miller-Day, Michelle; Kelley, Kevin J.; Lengerich, Eugene J.

2010-01-01

35

Ethnicity, social status, and families' experiences of caring for a mentally ill family member  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing attention to the role of families as caregivers of family members with serious mental illness. This paper presents data from a multicultural sample of 90 family caregivers from diverse ethnic backgrounds. The paper examines families' experiences with mental health services; their support networks and family burdens; and their conceptions of mental illness. The paper both provides one

Peter J. Guarnaccia; Pilar Parra

1996-01-01

36

Space Weathering of Small Koronis Family Members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Often debated topics in asteroid science are the space weathering process and its implications for the relationships between S- and Q-type asteroids and ordinary chondrite meteorites. Q-type asteroids have been shown to display the best spectral match to ordinary chondrites (McFadden et al. 1985). While the Q-types and ordinary chondrites share some spectral features with S-type asteroids, the S-types have significantly redder slopes than the Q-types. This reddening of spectral slope is attributed to the effects of space weathering on the observed surface composition. The analysis by Binzel et al. (2004) provided a missing link between the Q- and S-type bodies in near-Earth space by showing a reddening of spectral slope in objects from 0.1 to 5 km that corresponded to a transition from Q-type to S-type asteroid spectra. However the link was not complete. The existence of Q-type asteroids in the main-belt had not been verified. We have completed a photometric survey of the Koronis family using the Kitt Peak 2.1m telescope. This provides a unique opportunity to compare the effects of the space weathering process on potentially ordinary chondrite-like bodies within a population of identical initial conditions. We find a trend in spectral slope for objects 1-5 km that shows the transition from Q- to S-type in the main-belt. We have also identified potential Q-type asteroids in the main-belt. This data set will prove crucial to our understanding of the space weathering process and its relevant timescales.

Thomas, Cristina A.; Rivkin, A. S.; Trilling, D. E.; Enga, M.; Grier, J. A.

2010-10-01

37

Targeting the IL-1 family members in skin inflammation  

PubMed Central

The IL-1 family of cytokines comprises 11 proteins with pro- and anti-inflammatory functions that are mediated through an equally large group of receptors and coreceptors. Dysregulation of the IL-1 system may lead to diseases such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis and cutaneous lupus erythematosus. These inflammatory skin conditions greatly affect quality of life and life expectancy, and their frequencies are increasing. However, treatment options for these diseases are unsatisfactory. This review briefly summarizes new findings, reported in the past 2 years, implicating IL-1 family members in skin inflammation. Furthermore, how the biological activities of the IL-1 family members may be inhibited is discussed.

Jensen, Liselotte E

2010-01-01

38

Country variations in family members' informal pressure to drink less  

PubMed Central

The paper examines how family members in 18 countries attempt to influence each other to drink less. Data come from the GENACIS (Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study) dataset. Countries included were Argentina, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, India, Japan, Nigeria, Norway, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Uganda, UK and Uruguay (overall sample 44,115). In each country, the percentage of people who had experienced family member pressure to drink less were compared to country abstinence rate, mean drinking volume per drinker and other societal-level factors. While countries differed greatly on proportion of drinkers having experienced family members' pressure to drink less, in all countries drinking women reported less pressure than drinking men in their own society. In all studied countries, informal pressure was exerted most often by the spouse or sexual partner. However, other family members were also involved. Informal pressure was found to be highly correlated with the country's socioeconomic conditions. Informal pressure to drink less by family members is on one hand an expression of social and family problems, caused by heavy drinking, especially in the economically less developed countries, suggesting alcohol-related deprivation. On the other hand, similar gender differences were seen in all the societies, men reporting receiving more informal pressure than women. Thus, informal pressure to drink less tended to reflect the gender conflict caused by heavy use of alcohol by men.

Holmila, Marja; Raitasalo, Kirsimarja; Knibbe, Ronald; Selin, Klara

2009-01-01

39

Evolution of secretin family GPCR members in the metazoa  

PubMed Central

Background Comparative approaches using protostome and deuterostome data have greatly contributed to understanding gene function and organismal complexity. The family 2 G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are one of the largest and best studied hormone and neuropeptide receptor families. They are suggested to have arisen from a single ancestral gene via duplication events. Despite the recent identification of receptor members in protostome and early deuterostome genomes, relatively little is known about their function or origin during metazoan divergence. In this study a comprehensive description of family 2 GPCR evolution is given based on in silico and expression analyses of the invertebrate receptor genes. Results Family 2 GPCR members were identified in the invertebrate genomes of the nematodes C. elegans and C. briggsae, the arthropods D. melanogaster and A. gambiae (mosquito) and in the tunicate C. intestinalis. This suggests that they are of ancient origin and have evolved through gene/genome duplication events. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses have demonstrated that the immediate gene environment, with regard to gene content, is conserved between the protostome and deuterostome receptor genomic regions. Also that the protostome genes are more like the deuterostome Corticotrophin Releasing Factor (CRF) and Calcitonin/Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CAL/CGRP) receptors members than the other family 2 GPCR members. The evolution of family 2 GPCRs in deuterostomes is characterised by acquisition of new family members, with SCT (Secretin) receptors only present in tetrapods. Gene structure is characterised by an increase in intron number with organismal complexity with the exception of the vertebrate CAL/CGRP receptors. Conclusion The family 2 GPCR members provide a good example of gene duplication events occurring in tandem with increasing organismal complexity during metazoan evolution. The putative ancestral receptors are proposed to be more like the deuterostome CAL/CGRP and CRF receptors and this may be associated with their fundamental role in calcium regulation and the stress response, both of which are essential for survival.

Cardoso, Joao CR; Pinto, Vanda C; Vieira, Florbela A; Clark, Melody S; Power, Deborah M

2006-01-01

40

Psychotherapeutic issues with family members of persons with physical disabilities.  

PubMed

The need for individual psychotherapy for family members of persons with physical disabilities is growing as medical interventions improve and survival rates increase. The family members' grief reactions are one part of the adjustment process. Psychological difficulties that develop are influenced by a number of considerations. The family member as psychotherapy patient is part of a family unit whose balance, functioning and development has been disrupted. Factors relevant to physical disability, family systems approaches, and psychodynamic theory are influential in the treatment. The extent and type of a relative's disability determines the practical and personal impact for the patient as does the relationship of the patient to the person with the disability. A spouse, parent, child or sibling will each experience different practical and emotional consequences within the context of his/her ages, stage of life, and culture. The circumstances of the onset of the disability, the quality of the relationship, and the psychodynamic balance within each person and within the relationship are important issues to consider. All of the above affect the meaning of the disability for each family member personally, interpersonally, intrapsychically, and within the family unit. Because of limited experience with these emotionally loaded issues, possibilities for countertransference are significant. Recommendation is made for increased exposure to the area of physical disability in the training of psychotherapists. PMID:8048653

Padrone, F J

1994-01-01

41

Postanesthesia care unit visitation decreases family member anxiety.  

PubMed

Despite advocacy by professional nursing organizations, no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have evaluated the response of family members to a visit with an adult patient during a postanesthesia care unit (PACU) stay. Therefore, the purpose of this RCT was to evaluate the impact of a brief PACU visitation on the anxiety of family members. The study was conducted in a phase I PACU of a large community-based hospital. Subjects were designated adult family members or significant others of an adult PACU patient who had undergone general anesthesia. A pretest-posttest RCT design was used. The dependent variable was the change in anxiety scores of the visitor after seeing his or her family member in the PACU. Student t test (unpaired, two tailed) was used to determine if changes in anxiety scores (posttest score-pretest score) were different for the PACU visit and no visit groups. A total of 45 participants were studied over a 3-month period, with N=24 randomly assigned to a PACU visit and N=21 assigned to usual care (no PACU visit). Participants in the PACU visit group had a statistically significant (P=.0001) decrease in anxiety after the visitation period (-4.11±6.4); participants in the usual care group (no PACU visit) had an increase in anxiety (+4.47±6.6). The results from this study support the value and importance of PACU visitation for family members. PMID:22264615

Carter, Amy J; Deselms, JoAnn; Ruyle, Shelley; Morrissey-Lucas, Marcella; Kollar, Suzie; Cannon, Shelly; Schick, Lois

2012-02-01

42

Psychosocial Impact of Cancer Patients on Their Family Members  

PubMed Central

Purpose A population-based study was conducted in order to examine the characteristics of family members of cancer patients in comparison with the general population and also to evaluate the psychosocial impact of cancer patients on their family members. Materials and Methods From the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES IV) (2007-2009) dataset, we identified 460 cancer patients and then selected family members of these patients who were aged 20 years or older (n=565). The control group was sampled from members of families without a cancer patient with matching for sex and age (n=2,260). Serial conditional logistic regression models were used for comparison of characteristics between family members of cancer patients and subjects in the control group. Results Family members of cancer patients were less employed (57.9% vs. 63.0%, p<0.001), more functionally limited (20.2% vs. 16.5%, p=0.032), and had lower self-rated health (p=0.023) compared with sex and age-matched control subjects. They also had a significantly higher level of stress (79.7% vs. 76.1%, p=0.008), history of depression (12.9% vs. 10.2%, p=0.035), and current depressive symptoms (5.5% vs. 3.5%, p=0.038). However, higher physical activity was reported in family members of cancer patients (13.6% vs. 9.6%, p=0.003) than in control subjects. The presence of a cancer patient in the family showed an association with current depressive symptoms (odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 2.48; p=0.028), however, the association was no longer significant after adjustment for household income, education level, and employment status (p=0.304). Conclusion Family members of cancer patients are more susceptible to depression, probably due to adverse change in socioeconomic status. Use of multidisciplinary approaches for promotion of psychological health and well-being is essential.

Lim, Sun Min; Kim, Hyeon Chang

2013-01-01

43

Non-family-members in the family business management team: a multinational investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a multi-country context, the inclusion of family-member managers and non-family-member\\u000a managers in family businesses, and the relationship of this variable to certain management activities, styles and characteristics.\\u000a A large sample (N = 593) of family businesses was generated from six countries (Croatia, Egypt, France, India, Kuwait and the United States),\\u000a countries

Matthew C. Sonfield; Robert N. Lussier

2009-01-01

44

New Insights in the Immunobiology of IL-1 Family Members  

PubMed Central

The interleukin-1 (IL 1) family of ligands is associated with acute and chronic inflammation, and plays an essential role in the non-specific innate response to infection. The biological properties of IL 1 family ligands are typically pro-inflammatory. The IL 1 family has 11 family members and can be categorized into subfamilies according to the length of their precursor and the length of the propiece for each precursor (Figure 1). The IL 1 subfamily consists of IL 1?, IL 1?, and IL 33, with the longest propieces of the IL 1 family. IL 18 and IL 37 belong to the IL 18 subfamily and contain smaller propieces than IL 1 and IL-33. Since IL 37 binds to the IL 18R? chain it is part of the IL 18 subfamily, however it remains to be elucidated how the propiece of IL 37 is removed. IL 36?, ?, and ? as well as IL 36 Ra belong to the IL 36 subfamily. In addition, IL 38 likely belongs to this family since it has the ability to bind to the IL 36R. The IL 36 subfamily has the shortest propiece. The one member of the IL 1 family that cannot be categorized in these subfamilies is IL 1 receptor antagonist (IL 1Ra), which has a signal peptide and is readily secreted. In the present review we will describe the biological functions of the IL-1F members and new insights in their biology.

van de Veerdonk, Frank L.; Netea, Mihai G.

2013-01-01

45

Toddlers’ Food Preferences: Concordance with Family Members’ Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the food preferences of toddlers and the concordance with preferences of their family members, 118 children, ages 28 to 36 months, were assessed with a written questionnaire completed by their mothers. The questionnaire included 196 foods commonly eaten across the U.S. Response categories were [food] never offered, never tasted, [child] likes and eats, dislikes but eats, likes but

Jean Skinner; Betty Ruth Carruth; James Moran; Kelly Houck; James Schmidhammer; Ann Reed; Frances Coletta; Richard Cotter; Dana Ott

1998-01-01

46

Working with Black Families Having Mentally Retarded Members.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper examines culture as an influential variable in the shaping of the value system within the sturcture of black families specifically those with mentally retarded members. Typical negative views of the black culture included such characteristics as matriarchal, unstable, and pathological. More recent views have focused on strengths,…

Utley, Cheryl A.; Marion, Robert

47

Child sexual abuse by family members: A radical feminist perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radical feminist theory states that patriarchy is related to the oppression and victimization of women. This study focuses on the extent to which radical feminist theory can be used to understand male and female children as victims of sexual abuse by female and male family members. The data are cases (N=3864) of “substantiated” and “indicated” intrafamilial child sexual abuse reported

Jennifer Crew Solomon

1992-01-01

48

[Psychoeducation of patients and their family members during episode psychosis].  

PubMed

The concept of psychoeducation is close to the concept of therapeutic education and refers to a kind of education intervention targeting people with a mental health condition. In the framework of psychosis, psychoeducation can be offered to patients, family members or both. The efficacy of patient psychoeducation on treatment adherence or social functioning is well-established but only if the family benefits of a joint psychoeducational intervention. Family psychoeducation, even without patient psychoeducation has proven efficacy in reducing relapse rate. This reduction is of the same order of magnitude as that obtained with an antipsychotic medication. PMID:24084420

Hodé, Y

2013-09-01

49

When a family member has a schizophrenic disorder: Practice issues across the family life cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viewing individuals with schizophrenic disorders within a family life-cycle con- text promotes recognition of the range of family roles, particularly partnership andparenting roles, in clients' lives. Knowledge of clients ' stage of family devel- opment allows practitioners to view the client more holistically--as a family member with roles and responsibilities-instead of as an isolated, ill individual. Gender diflerences-in family roles

Layne K. Strornwall; Elizabeth A. R. Robinson

1998-01-01

50

HEALTHY FAMILY FUNCTIONING SCALE: FAMILY MEMBERS' PERCEPTIONS OF COHESION, ADAPTABILITY, AND COMMUNICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This was a two-phase study involving the development and testing of a new self-report instrument called the Healthy Family Functioning Scale. The HFFS was designed to assess individual family members' perceptions of healthy family functioning. The major dimensions chosen for the instrument were cohesion, adaptability, and communication which had been identified in both the theoretical and the empirical literature as

JOHN STEPHEN SENNOTT

1981-01-01

51

Variations in Conflictual Family Issues by Adolescent Pubertal Status, Gender, and Family Member  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to describe domains of family conflict and to examine variations in these domains by adolescent pubertal status, gender, and status as a family member. Sixty-three intact family triads completed an instrument designed to assess pubertal status and the Issues Checklist. Principal Factor Analysis with Varimax rotation resulted in the retention of seven factors accounting

Dennis R. Papini; Rickard A. Sebby

1988-01-01

52

Finding a Voice: The Experiences of Chinese Family Members Participating in Family Support Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family support groups (FSG) are an important source of intervention for caregivers of an older, frailer, or ill family member. Whether and how FSG works within ethnic minority groups is not well understood, however. Drawing on data from a sub-set of a larger qualitative study focused on exploring the impact of participating in a family support group, this study examined

Sing Mei Chan; Deborah L. OConnor

2008-01-01

53

Interacting with patients' family members during the office visit.  

PubMed

The physician-patient relationship is part of the patient's larger social system and is influenced by the patient's family. A patient's family member can be a valuable source of health information and can collaborate in making an accurate diagnosis and planning a treatment strategy during the office visit. However, it is important for the physician to keep an appropriate balance when addressing concerns to maintain the alliance formed among physician, patient, and family member. The patient-centered medical home, a patient care concept that helps address this dynamic, often involves a robust partnership among the physician, the patient, and the patient's family. During the office visit, this partnership may be influenced by the ethnicity, cultural values, beliefs about illness, and religion of the patient and his or her family. Physicians should recognize abnormal family dynamics during the office visit and attempt to stay neutral by avoiding triangulation. The only time neutrality should be disrupted is if the physician suspects abuse or neglect. It is important that the patient has time to communicate privately with the physician at some point during the visit. PMID:22010616

Omole, Folashade S; Sow, Charles M; Fresh, Edith; Babalola, Dolapo; Strothers, Harry

2011-10-01

54

76 FR 70057 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service 26 CFR Part 301 [TD 9554] RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded...for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of religious faiths), and 3306(c)(5) (concerning persons...

2011-11-10

55

76 FR 71259 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service 26 CFR Part 301 [TD 9554] RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded...for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of religious faiths), and 3306(c)(5) (concerning persons...

2011-11-17

56

76 FR 76037 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service 26 CFR Part 301 [TD 9554] RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded...for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of religious faiths), and 3306(c)(5) (concerning persons...

2011-12-06

57

77 FR 12109 - Proposed Information Collection (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Activity: Comment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Activity: Comment Request...technology. Title: Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey, VA Form 10- 21081(NR...members of deceased veterans on their satisfaction with the quality care provided to...

2012-02-28

58

77 FR 27542 - Agency Information Collection Activities (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Activities (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB Review AGENCY...INFORMATION: Title: Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey, VA Form 10- 21081(NR...members of deceased veterans on their satisfaction with the quality care provided to...

2012-05-10

59

Ordinary chondrite-like colors in small Koronis family members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey of small (<5-10 km diameter) members of the Koronis family shows some objects with visible-wavelength broadband colors consistent with membership in the Q-class (Tholen, D.J. [1984]. Asteroid taxonomy from cluster analysis of photometry. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Bus, S.J., Binzel, R.P. [2002]. Icarus 158, 146-177). This agrees with an ordinary chondritic composition for this family and suggests the timescale for changing Q-class to S-class spectra in the main belt is roughly comparable to the regolith refresh time in the 2-5 km size range.

Rivkin, Andrew S.; Thomas, Cristina A.; Trilling, David E.; Enga, Marie-therese; Grier, Jennifer A.

2011-02-01

60

Stress experiences of family members of registered sex offenders.  

PubMed

The collateral consequences of sex offender registration and notification (SORN) have been well established, although little evidence has supported the efficacy of SORN. Based on the belief that family members provide some of the most consistent, important, and intense forms of support for criminal offenders in general and registered sex offenders (RSOs) more specifically, the experiences of sanctions, losses, and stresses of these individuals is examined. Using survey responses from 584 individuals known to visit online support and advocacy groups for RSOs and their loved ones, this study identifies the stress levels and stressors experienced by this population. Findings show that family members of RSOs experience high levels of social isolation, fear, shame, property damage, and forced residential relocation. Perceived stress is significantly higher for those who are of lower economic means, feel isolated, have high levels of fear and shame/embarrassment, or were forced to move. PMID:19499594

Tewksbury, Richard; Levenson, Jill

61

Modulation of TNF receptor family members to inhibit autoimmune disease.  

PubMed

Certain members of the TNF-receptor family have shown proinflammatory function during immune activation and can be directly involved with the pathogenic effects observed during an autoimmune episode. The TNF-R family members summarized in this review includes: TNF-RI + II, OX40, and 4-1BB and they are expressed on a variety of leukocytes within the body. Studies within the last decade suggest that all of these proteins or their natural ligands can be targeted with various agents designed to diminish clinical signs of disease in autoimmune models. The data from the preclinical models specifically involving TNF-blockade have led to the development of clinical trials for patients with multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. This review will chronicle the preclinical development of agents designed to inhibit OX40 and 4-1BB functions in autoimmunity and discuss relevant preclinical and clinical data associated with TNF-blockade. PMID:15853742

Weinberg, Andrew D; Montler, Ryan

2005-04-01

62

Crystal structure of a phospholipase D family member  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first crystal structure of a phospholipase D (PLD) family member has been determined at 2.0 Å resolution. The PLD superfamily is defined by a common sequence motif, HxK(x)4D(x)6GSxN, and includes enzymes involved in signal transduction, lipid biosynthesis, endonucleases and open reading frames in pathogenic viruses and bacteria. The crystal structure suggests that residues from two sequence motifs form a

Jeanne A. Stuckey; Jack E. Dixon

1999-01-01

63

Where are the small Kreutz-family members?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kreutz sungrazer family is one of the best-known comet families and contains some of the most spectacular comets in history. However, due to its extreme orbit geometry, most members in this family are either too faint or too close to the sun to be observed from the ground. Space-based coronagraphs launched in recent decades, notably the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), have detected over 2000 Kreutz members that come very close to the sun. The observations are limited to a very short time period 1-2 d) from the perihelion of these objects, and suffer from low astrometric/photometric precision; the states of these objects when they are away from the sun are still unconstrained. In this study, we use the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) to search for small Kreutz comets at low solar elongation 50 deg) on several nights from September 2012 to January 2013. We are able to cover ~10 sq. deg per night to 22.5, a limiting magnitude that should be able to reveal small SOHO-size Kreutz members, according to the brightening rate proposed by Knight et al. (2010, AJ, 139, 926). Preliminary result will be presented in this talk.

Ye, Quanzhi; Wiegert, P.; Hui, M.; Kracht, R.

2013-10-01

64

The Lost Boys of Sudan: Ambiguous Loss, Search for Family, and Reestablishing Relationships with Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Lost Boys of Sudan" were separated from their families by civil war and subsequently lived in 3 other countries--Ethiopia, Kenya, and the United States. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 refugees who located surviving family members in Sudan after an average separation of 13.7 years. The interviews probed their experiences of…

Luster, Tom; Qin, Desiree B.; Bates, Laura; Johnson, Deborah J.; Rana, Meenal

2008-01-01

65

"You Needed to Rehab...Families as Well": Family Members' Own Goals for Aphasia Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Aphasia affects family members in addition to the individuals with the communication disorder. In order to develop appropriate services for the relatives of people with aphasia post-stroke, their rehabilitation goals need to be identified. Aim: The aim of the current investigation was to identify the rehabilitation goals that family

Howe, Tami; Davidson, Bronwyn; Worrall, Linda; Hersh, Deborah; Ferguson, Alison; Sherratt, Sue; Gilbert, Jocelyn

2012-01-01

66

"You Needed to Rehab...Families as Well": Family Members' Own Goals for Aphasia Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Aphasia affects family members in addition to the individuals with the communication disorder. In order to develop appropriate services for the relatives of people with aphasia post-stroke, their rehabilitation goals need to be identified. Aim: The aim of the current investigation was to identify the rehabilitation goals that family

Howe, Tami; Davidson, Bronwyn; Worrall, Linda; Hersh, Deborah; Ferguson, Alison; Sherratt, Sue; Gilbert, Jocelyn

2012-01-01

67

41 CFR 302-3.303 - May I claim reimbursement for the return of my immediate family member(s) or household goods more...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...reimbursement for the return of my immediate family member(s) or household goods more than...reimbursement for the return of my immediate family member(s) or household goods more...reimbursement for the return of your immediate family member(s) or household goods more...

2011-07-01

68

41 CFR 302-3.302 - May my agency pay for my immediate family member(s) and my household goods to be returned to the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false May my agency pay for my immediate family member(s) and my household goods to...302 May my agency pay for my immediate family member(s) and my household goods to...your agency may pay for your immediate family member(s) and your household goods...

2011-07-01

69

76 FR 67363 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TD 9554] RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions...members), 3127 (concerning members of religious faiths), and 3306(c)(5) (concerning...FUTA exceptions for family members and religious sect members to certain entities...

2011-11-01

70

Living with psychiatric patients: Implications for the mental health of family members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current treatment policy has resulted in large numbers of ex-hospitalized psychiatric patients residing with family members in the community. However, little is known about the emotional consequences for family members. This paper focusses on the relationship between level of chronic strain, as indexed by 'objective' and 'subjective' family burden, and extent of psychological distress among family members of ex-hospitalized psychiatric

Samuel Noh; R. Jay Turner

1987-01-01

71

Psychological responses in family members after the Hebron massacre.  

PubMed

The authors attempted to determine the frequency of severe psychological responses in surviving family members in a religious Muslim culture. Twenty-three wives, twelve daughters and twenty-six sons of heads of households massacred while praying in the Hebron mosque on 25 February 1994 were interviewed with the clinician-administered PTSD scale; 50% of daughters, 39% of wives, and 23% of sons met criteria for PTSD. PTSD or traumatic bereavement occurs with high frequency after a major tragedy in a Moslem society, despite religious admiration of dead martyrs. PMID:9989347

Elbedour, S; Baker, A; Shalhoub-Kevorkian, N; Irwin, M; Belmaker, R H

1999-01-01

72

5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Are foster children eligible as family members...CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM...894.306 Are foster children eligible as family members? Yes, foster children may be eligible for...

2013-01-01

73

Individuals Receiving Addiction Treatment: Are Medical Costs of their Family Members Reduced?  

PubMed Central

Aims To examine whether alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment of the individual with AOD disorders is related to reduced medical costs of family members. Methods Using Kaiser Permanente Northern California administrative databases we matched AOD treatment patients with health plan members without AOD disorders on age, gender, and utilization criteria; we identified family members of each group. We measured abstinence at 1-year post-intake and examined health care costs per member-month of family members of AOD patients and of controls through 5 years post-intake. We used generalized estimating equation methods to examine differences in average medical cost per member-month for each year, between family members of abstinent and non-abstinent AOD patients and control family members. We used multilevel models to examine the 4-year trajectories of cost subsequent to measuring abstinence status, controlling for pre-intake cost, age, gender and family size. Results AOD patients’ family members had significantly higher costs and more psychiatric and medical conditions than control family members in the pre-treatment year. At 2-5 years post-intake, each year family members of AOD patients who were abstinent at 1 year had similar average per member-month medical costs as control family members (e.g., difference at year 5=$2.63; p>.82), whereas average per member-month costs of family members of non-abstinent patients were higher (e.g., difference at year 5=$35.59; p=.06). Family members of AOD patients who were not abstinent at 1 year, had a trajectory of increasing medical cost (slope=$10.32; p=.03) relative to control family members. Conclusions Successful AOD treatment is related to medical cost reductions for family members; these reductions may be considered a proxy for improved health.

Weisner, Constance; Parthasarathy, Sujaya; Moore, Charles; Mertens, Jennifer R.

2010-01-01

74

Al-anon family groups: newcomers and members.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT. Objective: Empirical knowledge is lacking about Al-Anon Family Groups (Al-Anon), the most widely used form of help by people concerned about another's drinking, partly because conducting research on 12-step groups is challenging. Our purpose was to describe a new method of obtaining survey data from 12-step group attendees and to examine influences on initial Al-Anon attendance and attendees' recent life contexts and functioning. Method: Al-Anon's World Service Office sent a mailing to a random sample of groups, which subsequently yielded surveys from newcomers (n = 359) and stable members (n = 264). Results: Reasons for groups' nonparticipation included having infrequent newcomers and the study being seen as either contrary to the 12 Traditions or too uncomfortable for newcomers. Main concerns prompting initial Al-Anon attendance were problems with overall quality of life and with the Al-Anon trigger (a significant drinking individual), and being stressed and angry. Goals for Al-Anon attendance were related to the following concerns: better quality of life, fewer trigger-related problems, and less stress. Members reported better functioning in some of these domains (quality of life, relationship with the trigger) but did not differ from newcomers on physical and psychological health. Newcomers were more likely to have recently drunk alcohol and to have obtained treatment for their own substance misuse problems. Conclusions: This method of collecting data from 12-step group attendees yielded valid data and also was seen by many in Al-Anon as consistent with the Traditions. Both newcomers and members had aimed to improve their overall quality of life and well-being through Al-Anon, and, indeed, members were more satisfied with their quality of life than were newcomers. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 74, 965-976, 2013). PMID:24172125

Timko, Christine; Cronkite, Ruth; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Laudet, Alexandre; Roth, Jeffrey; Moos, Rudolf H

2013-11-01

75

41 CFR 302-3.226 - Will the Government reimburse me if I am not eligible to return with my immediate family member(s...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...not eligible to return with my immediate family member(s) to the U.S. and choose...Transfers Prior Return of Immediate Family Members § 302-3.226 Will the...not eligible to return with my immediate family member(s) to the U.S. and...

2011-07-01

76

41 CFR 302-3.226 - Will the Government reimburse me if I am not eligible to return with my immediate family member(s...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...not eligible to return with my immediate family member(s) to the U.S. and choose...Transfers Prior Return of Immediate Family Members § 302-3.226 Will the...not eligible to return with my immediate family member(s) to the U.S. and...

2012-07-01

77

Spectra And Albedos Of Small Koronis Family Members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space weathering process and its implications for the relationships between S- and Q-type asteroids and ordinary chondrite meteorites are long-standing problems in asteroid science. Although the visible and near-infrared spectra of S- and Q-type objects qualitatively show the same absorption features and quantitatively show evidence of the same minerals, the S-types display increased spectral slopes and muted absorption features compared to the Q-types. This spectral mismatch is consistent with the effects of the space weathering process. We investigated space weathering within the old Main Belt Koronis family using a spectrophotometric survey (Rivkin et al. 2011, Thomas et al. 2011). Rivkin et al. (2011) identified several potential Q-type objects within the Koronis family. We present followup spectral observations of two of these potential Q-type objects. In addition to our observations, we investigated the albedo distribution of small Koronis family members and will discuss whether albedo variations are due to space weathering or variations in regolith.

Thomas, Cristina A.; Trilling, D. E.; Rivkin, A. S.

2012-10-01

78

Homicide of six family members using multiple methods in Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family of six members were murdered at their own residence. Four of the family members had been killed with large heavy sharp weapons which produced multiple deep cut injuries predominantly on the neck and face. In these victims, death occurred as a result of haemorrhage. Two family members were killed by ligature strangulation and hanging. The victim, who was

Nilukshi Abeyasinghe; Ravindra Fernando; S. Niranjan

2009-01-01

79

49 CFR 805.735-8 - Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Employment of family members in transportation and related...CONDUCT § 805.735-8 Employment of family members in transportation and related...the Board if a member of his immediate family (blood relations who are...

2011-10-01

80

41 CFR 302-4.100 - What PCS travel expenses will my immediate family members receive?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...What PCS travel expenses will my immediate family members receive? 302-4.100 Section...What PCS travel expenses will my immediate family members receive? Except as specifically...of the travel expenses of your immediate family members. [FTR Amdt. 98, 66 FR...

2012-07-01

81

41 CFR 302-3.510 - When must we pay return travel for immediate family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...must we pay return travel for immediate family members? 302-3.510 Section 302-3...must we pay return travel for immediate family members? You must pay transportation...for one-way return travel of immediate family members when the employee has...

2011-07-01

82

41 CFR 302-3.510 - When must we pay return travel for immediate family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...must we pay return travel for immediate family members? 302-3.510 Section 302-3...must we pay return travel for immediate family members? You must pay transportation...for one-way return travel of immediate family members when the employee has...

2012-07-01

83

41 CFR 302-4.100 - What PCS travel expenses will my immediate family members receive?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...What PCS travel expenses will my immediate family members receive? 302-4.100 Section...What PCS travel expenses will my immediate family members receive? Except as specifically...of the travel expenses of your immediate family members. Effective Date Note:...

2011-07-01

84

Examination of grief among family members of individuals with serious and persistent mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many family members experience a profound sense of loss when a relative becomes mentally ill. The adjustment to this loss is similar to grief as a response to death. The extent of this grief may be explained by personal characteristics of family members, the severity of the illness, and the extent of social support available. A family member's emotional response

Phyllis Solomon; Jeffrey Draine

1996-01-01

85

Muscarinic toxicity among family members after consumption of mushrooms.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are commercially cultivated over the world and safe for human consumption, except in those with known allergies. Among the thousands of mushroom species identified, few are considered to be edible. Mushroom hunting has emerged as an adventure and recreational activity in recent decades. Wild forms of mushrooms are often poisonous and visually mimic the edible ones, thus leading to mistaken harvesting, consumption, and toxicities. In literature, various systemic toxic syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning have been described. We report four members of a family with muscarinic manifestations after accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. The Clitocybe species of mushrooms they consumed resulted in their muscarinic toxicity. Patients with muscarinic mushroom toxicity have early onset of symptoms and they respond well to atropine and symptomatic supportive care. PMID:23833447

George, Peter; Hegde, Narasimha

2013-01-01

86

Muscarinic Toxicity Among Family Members After Consumption of Mushrooms  

PubMed Central

Mushrooms are commercially cultivated over the world and safe for human consumption, except in those with known allergies. Among the thousands of mushroom species identified, few are considered to be edible. Mushroom hunting has emerged as an adventure and recreational activity in recent decades. Wild forms of mushrooms are often poisonous and visually mimic the edible ones, thus leading to mistaken harvesting, consumption, and toxicities. In literature, various systemic toxic syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning have been described. We report four members of a family with muscarinic manifestations after accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. The Clitocybe species of mushrooms they consumed resulted in their muscarinic toxicity. Patients with muscarinic mushroom toxicity have early onset of symptoms and they respond well to atropine and symptomatic supportive care.

George, Peter; Hegde, Narasimha

2013-01-01

87

KLF Family Members Regulate Intrinsic Axon Regeneration Ability  

PubMed Central

Neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) lose their ability to regenerate early in development, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. By screening genes developmentally regulated in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), we identified Krüppel-like factor–4 (KLF4) as a transcriptional repressor of axon growth in RGCs and other CNS neurons. RGCs lacking KLF4 showed increased axon growth both in vitro and after optic nerve injury in vivo. Related KLF family members suppressed or enhanced axon growth to differing extents, and several growth-suppressive KLFs were up-regulated postnatally, whereas growth-enhancing KLFs were down-regulated. Thus, coordinated activities of different KLFs regulate the regenerative capacity of CNS neurons.

Moore, Darcie L.; Blackmore, Murray G.; Hu, Ying; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Bixby, John L.; Lemmon, Vance P.; Goldberg, Jeffrey L.

2010-01-01

88

Functional and cancer genomics of ASXL family members  

PubMed Central

Additional sex combs-like (ASXL)1, ASXL2 and ASXL3 are human homologues of the Drosophila Asx gene that are involved in the regulation or recruitment of the Polycomb-group repressor complex (PRC) and trithorax-group (trxG) activator complex. ASXL proteins consist of ASXN, ASXH, ASXM1, ASXM2 and PHD domains. ASXL1 directly interacts with BAP1, KDM1A (LSD1), NCOA1 and nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs), such as retinoic acid receptors, oestrogen receptor and androgen receptor. ASXL family members are epigenetic scaffolding proteins that assemble epigenetic regulators and transcription factors to specific genomic loci with histone modifications. ASXL1 is involved in transcriptional repression through an interaction with PRC2 and also contributes to transcriptional regulation through interactions with BAP1 and/or NHR complexes. Germ-line mutations of human ASXL1 and ASXL3 occur in Bohring-Opitz and related syndromes. Amplification and overexpression of ASXL1 occur in cervical cancer. Truncation mutations of ASXL1 occur in colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI), malignant myeloid diseases, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and liver, prostate and breast cancers; those of ASXL2 occur in prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer and breast cancer and those of ASXL3 are observed in melanoma. EPC1-ASXL2 gene fusion occurs in adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma. The prognosis of myeloid malignancies with misregulating truncation mutations of ASXL1 is poor. ASXL family members are assumed to be tumour suppressive or oncogenic in a context-dependent manner.

Katoh, M

2013-01-01

89

Family resemblance: Ten family members with prosopagnosia and within-class object agnosia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on neuropsychological testing done with a family in which many members reported severe face recognition impairments. These 10 individuals were high functioning in everyday life and performed normally on tests of low-level vision and high-level cognition. In contrast, they showed clear deficits with tests requiring face memory and judgements of facial similarity. They did not show deficits with

Bradley Duchaine; Laura Germine; Ken Nakayama

2007-01-01

90

Detection of Renal Dysfunctions in Family Members of Patients with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: Recent studies have questioned whether new cases of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) are occurring. The aim of the present study was to find out whether new members with renal dysfunctions can be identified among family members of BEN patients from the Kolubara region. Methods: The study included 47 family members of 5 BEN patients on hemodialysis (HD) and 17

2005-01-01

91

Animal and Plant Members of a Gene Family with Similarity to Alkaloid-Synthesizing Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we describe novel members of a gene family which have similarity to strictosidine synthase (SS), one of the key enzymes in the production of monoterpene indole alkaloids. In addition to the first animal member of the family described previously (Drosophila hemomucin), a second Drosophila member has been identified, which appears to differ in subcellular distribution from hemomucin. In Arabidopsis,

Marco Fabbri; Gabriele Delp; Otto Schmidt; Ulrich Theopold

2000-01-01

92

Mental health outcomes of family members of Oregonians who request physician aid in dying.  

PubMed

Oregon legalized physician aid in dying over 10 years ago but little is known about the effects of this choice on family members' mental health. We surveyed 95 family members of decedent Oregonians who had explicitly requested aid in dying, including 59 whose loved one received a lethal prescription and 36 whose loved one died by lethal ingestion. For comparison purposes, family members of Oregonians who died of cancer or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also were surveyed. A mean of 14 months after death, 11% of family members whose loved one requested aid in dying had major depressive disorder, 2% had prolonged grief, and 38% had received mental health care. Among those whose family member requested aid in dying, whether or not the patient accessed a lethal prescription had no influence on subsequent depression, grief, or mental health services use; however, family members of Oregonians who received a lethal prescription were more likely to believe that their loved one's choices were honored and less likely to have regrets about how the loved one died. Comparing family members of those who requested aid in dying to those who did not revealed no differences in primary mental health outcomes of depression, grief, or mental health services use. Family members of Oregonians who requested aid in dying felt more prepared and accepting of the death than comparison family members. In summary, pursuit of aid in dying does not have negative effects on surviving family members and may be associated with greater preparation and acceptance of death. PMID:19783401

Ganzini, Linda; Goy, Elizabeth R; Dobscha, Steven K; Prigerson, Holly

2009-12-01

93

Digital family portraits: supporting peace of mind for extended family members  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing social problem in the U.S., and elsewhere, is supporting older adults who want to continue living independently, as opposed to moving to an institutional care setting. One key part of this complex problem is providing awareness of senior adults day-to-day activities, promoting peace of mind for extended family members. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a

Elizabeth D. Mynatt; Jim Rowan; Sarah Craighill; Annie Jacobs

2001-01-01

94

The PCH family protein, Cdc15p, recruits two F-actin nucleation pathways to coordinate cytokinetic actin ring formation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.  

PubMed

Cytokinetic actin ring (CAR) formation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe requires two independent actin nucleation pathways, one dependent on the Arp2/3 complex and another involving the formin Cdc12p. Here we investigate the role of the S. pombe Cdc15 homology family protein, Cdc15p, in CAR assembly and find that it interacts with proteins from both of these nucleation pathways. Cdc15p binds directly to the Arp2/3 complex activator Myo1p, which likely explains why actin patches and the Arp2/3 complex fail to be medially recruited during mitosis in cdc15 mutants. Cdc15p also binds directly to Cdc12p. Cdc15p and Cdc12p not only display mutual dependence for CAR localization, but also exist together in a ring-nucleating structure before CAR formation. The disruption of these interactions in cdc15 null cells is likely to be the reason for their complete lack of CARs. We propose a model in which Cdc15p plays a critical role in recruiting and coordinating the pathways essential for the assembly of medially located F-actin filaments and construction of the CAR. PMID:12939254

Carnahan, Robert H; Gould, Kathleen L

2003-08-25

95

Patterns of Informal Support from Family and Church Members among African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigated sociodemographic, family, and church factors as correlates of support from family and church members among African Americans. Surveys found significant age, gender, marital, and parental status differences in patterns of support from family and church. Perceptions of family closeness, degree of interaction with family, and overall…

Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Schroepfer, Tracy

2002-01-01

96

Burden on family members of the mentally ill: A naturalistic study in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with mental disorders often cause distress among their family members. We examined a total of 25 pairs of newly referred psychiatric patients and their family members to investigate the correlations between family burden and patient diagnosis (using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R [SCID] axis I disorders), symptomatic severity (Positive and Negative Symptoms Scales [PANSS]), global function (Global Assessment

Chieko Hasui; Shinji Sakamoto; Tomoko Sugiura; Ryoji Miyata; Yasuo Fujii; Fumio Koshiishi; Toshinori Kitamura

2002-01-01

97

Needs, supports, burden, and affect the experiences of family members of individuals with mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research project was to examine the needs and supports of family members of people with schizophrenia and to determine the relationship between needs, supports, objective burden, negative affect, and positive affect. The participants were 32 family members of a self-help and support group catering to the families of people with schizophrenia. Three categories of needs and

Lysanne Chénier

1990-01-01

98

Dialectical Behavior Therapy-Based Skills Training for Family Members of Suicide Attempters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study evaluated the effect of Family Connections (FC), a Dialectical Behavior Therapy-based manualized skills training program, for family members of suicide attempters. The DBT-based skills training program aims to enhance the knowledge of wide range research based aspects of suicidal behavior and treatment recommendations. Furthermore it includes skills training for interpersonal relationships and also offers family members an

Mia Rajalin; Lina Wickholm-Pethrus; Timo Hursti; Jussi Jokinen

2009-01-01

99

Does Race Influence Conflict Between Nursing Home Staff and Family Members of Residents?  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This study examines the influence of race on perceived similarity and conflict between nursing home staff and family members of residents. Despite evidence that the caregiving experience varies by race for both family and professional caregivers, little is known about how race plays a role in staff conflict with residents’ family members. Methods. We used a representative sample of Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) to test relationships between race, treatment from family members, similarity to family members in expectations for care by CNAs, and conflicts with family members concerning aspects of resident care. Results. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that race was not a predictor of staff perception of conflict with family members or of poor treatment from residents’ families. However, Black nursing assistants were more likely to perceive that their own expectations of nursing care are dissimilar from those of residents’ family members. Dissimilarity predicted reports of poor treatment from family members, and poor treatment was a positive predictor of perception of conflict. Discussion. The personal long-term nature of nursing home care necessitates a high level of connectedness between family caregivers and nursing home staff. Results highlight the importance of establishing organizational pathways for communication of expectations between nursing staff and residents’ families.

Pillemer, Karl; Sechrist, Jori; Suitor, Jill

2011-01-01

100

H-NS family members function coordinately in an opportunistic pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histone-like nucleoid structuring protein, H-NS, is a prominent global regulator of gene expression. Many Gram-negative bacteria contain multiple members of the H-NS family of proteins. Thus, a key question is whether H-NS family members have overlapping or distinct functions. To address this question we performed genome-wide location analyses with MvaT and MvaU, the two H-NS family members present in

Sandra Castang; Heather R. McManus; Keith H. Turner; Simon L. Dove

2008-01-01

101

The psychological well-being of family members of individuals with schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of the study was to attempt to understand the experience of family members of individuals with schizophrenia.\\u000a More specifically, we wanted to determine whether a measure of caregiving would be a stronger predictor of the psychological\\u000a well-being of families who have a member with schizophrenia than a measure of burden. Method: Forty-one family members of 30 individuals

L. Martens; J. Addington

2001-01-01

102

Views on Physician-Assisted Suicide Among Family Members of Oregon Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-eight Oregonians with advanced cancer and their family members participated in a cross-sectional survey to understand agreement in views on physician-assisted suicide (PAS), which was a legal option for these patients. Half of the family members would support the patient's request for PAS, 30% would oppose it, and 19% were undecided. Low religiousness and the family member's personal health concerns

Linda Ganzini; Tomasz M. Beer; Matthew C. Brouns

2006-01-01

103

Racial disparity in capital punishment and its impact on family members of capital defendants.  

PubMed

A review of the literature was conducted to explore the continuing racial disparity in capital punishment and its effects on family members of African American capital defendants. Statistical studies conducted on both the state and national level conclude that racial bias influences all stages of the death penalty process, with race of the victim being one of the most significant factors. This racial bias places an added burden on family members of African American capital defendants. While research has explored the impact of capital punishment on family members of capital defendants, the unique experiences of family members of African American defendants has not been addressed in the research literature. PMID:23581803

Schweizer, Jennifer

2013-01-01

104

41 CFR 302-3.203 - If I am transferring in the interest of the Government and my employed immediate family member(s...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...employed immediate family member(s) transfer is not in the interest of the Government...ALLOWANCE BY SPECIFIC TYPE Types of Transfers Relocation of Two Or More Employed...employed immediate family member(s) transfer is not in the interest of the...

2012-07-01

105

41 CFR 302-3.203 - If I am transferring in the interest of the Government and my employed immediate family member(s...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...employed immediate family member(s) transfer is not in the interest of the Government...ALLOWANCE BY SPECIFIC TYPE Types of Transfers Relocation of Two Or More Employed...employed immediate family member(s) transfer is not in the interest of the...

2011-07-01

106

41 CFR 302-3.225 - If my immediate family member(s) return to the U.S. before me, will I be reimbursed for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false If my immediate family member(s) return to the U.S. before...transporting part of my household goods with my family and the rest of my household goods when...Transfers Prior Return of Immediate Family Members § 302-3.225 If my...

2012-07-01

107

5 CFR 890.302 - Coverage of family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...under a parent's self and family enrollment becomes the parent...elect to enroll for self and family coverage. Because the employee...are also children who are the issue of the marriage, an employee...her own right in a self and family enrollment even though his...

2013-01-01

108

Family members' perspectives on psychiatric hospitalization and discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Families of currently hospitalized patients in an extended-care psychiatric facility were interviewed concerning their views of hospitalization and discharge. Although most were sad that their relative was hospitalized, only a third felt that they would rather be caring for their relative at home. Families felt communication with hospital staff was poor and many of their needs were unmet. Families indicated

Phyllis Solomon; Shirley Beck; Barry Gordon

1988-01-01

109

Caregiver Social Problem Solving Abilities and Family Member Adjustment Following Congestive Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family members have a considerable impact on the health and well-being of others in the family. The characteristics of family caregivers that relate to care recipients' positive and negative outcomes associated with chronic disease have received scant empirical attention. We reasoned that family caregiver social problem solving abilities would be associated with depression and life satisfaction reported by persons with

Monica Kurylo; Timothy R. Elliott; Lisa DeVivo; Laura E. Dreer

2004-01-01

110

Counselling for Patients and Family Members: A Follow-Up Study in the Emergency Department  

PubMed Central

Although the research indicates that patients and family members are not fully satisfied with the counselling they receive, little is known about the quality of counselling in more detail. The purpose of the study was to describe patients' and their family members' experiences about counselling in emergency department, and follow how these experiences possibly change after the educational intervention for the whole nursing staff of the ED ward. The pre-test-post-test follow-up design was implemented including online continuing education for ED staff. The data were collected via questionnaires from patients and their family members in two phases and analyzed statistically. After online education of staff, experiences of patients and family members concerning counselling were better than before the education. Especially, family members' satisfaction had increased. However, our results also indicated that patients and family members desire more information for example, regarding medications. Care practices had developed towards family-centeredness, which patients and family members appreciate. Online education proved also in some degree its usefulness in educating ED staff, by offering the same education to a staff which works in shifts. Furthermore, family presence and participation practices should be developed by offering possibilities for families to stay with each other on ED ward.

Paavilainen, Eija; Salminen-Tuomaala, Mari; Leikkola, Paivi

2012-01-01

111

Testicular Cancer and Genetics Knowledge Among Familial Testicular Cancer Family Members  

PubMed Central

Purpose It was our aim to determine baseline levels of testicular cancer and genetics knowledge among members of families with Familial Testicular Cancer (FTC). Methods This is a sub-study of an ongoing National Cancer Institute (NCI) multidisciplinary, etiologically-focused, cross-sectional study of FTC. We evaluated 258 male and female participants including testicular cancer (TC) survivors, blood relatives and spouses to assess factors associated with a Genetic Knowledge Scale (GKS) and Testicular Cancer Knowledge Scale (TCKS). Results Knowledge levels were generally low, with genetic knowledge lower than TC knowledge (p<0.01). Men with a personal TC history scored highest on TC knowledge, while gender, age and education differentially influenced knowledge levels, particularly among unaffected relatives. Conclusions Prior to identifying FTC susceptibility genes, we recommend tailoring FTC genetic education to the different informational needs of TC survivors, their spouses and relatives, in preparation for the day when clinical susceptibility testing may be available.

Beckjord, Ellen B.; Banda Ryan, Deliya R.; Carr, Ann G.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Korde, Larissa; Greene, Mark H.

2011-01-01

112

The many roles of family members in "family-centered care"--part I.  

PubMed

This article is the first in a series highlighting parental roles in family-centered care. A brief history of family-centered care from the 1960s to the present provides the context for the development of numerous roles parents have begun to play in the health care system. This background is followed by a mother's description of the steps in her own evolution as a "parent advocate." Deborah Dokken first developed her voice in the health care system as a parent to three premature infants, one of whom survived. Dokken used the skills she developed as a NICU parent to help other families through a peer-support program. She was subsequently invited to serve on a hospital's Ethics Committee; later to participate as a co-investigator and consultant on a palliative care education project; and most recently to be a member of several federal level health care advisory committees. Several themes in her development as a parent advocate included: readiness and commitment to assume new roles; the open support of at least one care professional in each setting; the identification of roles that matched her interest, background, and skills; and a growing conviction of her ability to contribute in a holistic way. Subsequent articles in this series will introduce other parents as they describe a variety of parental roles in family-centered care. We hope that illustration of these roles will inspire further involvement of parents in the pediatric health care system, at all levels. PMID:17256294

Dokken, Deborah; Ahmann, Elizabeth

113

Effectiveness of an Educational and Support Program for Family Members of a Substance Abuser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined changes in enabling and coping among 32 family members who attended a 6-week community-based educational and support group designed for family members of substance abusers. Participants completed the Enabling Behaviors subscale of the Behavior Enabling Scale (Rotunda & Doman, 2001) and the 8 subscales from the Brief COPE Inventory (Carver, 1997) at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 30-day

Amanda Jeffrey Platter; Michelle L. Kelley

2012-01-01

114

Catapulting Shifts in Images, Understandings, and Actions for Family Members through Research-Based Drama  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examined how images, understandings, and actions change for family members of persons with dementia after the introduction of a research-based drama called I'm Still Here. Guided by interpretivist phenomenology, a set of seven pre- and post-performance focus groups were conducted with family members (n = 48) in four cities. Findings…

Dupuis, Sherry L.; Gillies, Jennifer; Mitchell, Gail J.; Jonas-Simpson, Christine; Whyte, Colleen; Carson, Jennifer

2011-01-01

115

The Other Victims of Traumatic Brain Injury: Consequences for Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is both an acute and a chronic impairment, with long-term difficulties affecting both the patient and members of the patient’s family. The impact of TBI may be different for spouses, parents, children, and siblings, and they can be portrayed as the other and often neglected victims of the trauma. Family members are a potentially high risk

VICTOR FLORIAN; SHLOMO KATZ

1991-01-01

116

Mental Health Outcomes of Family Members of Oregonians Who Request Physician Aid in Dying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oregon legalized physician aid in dying over 10 years ago but little is known about the effects of this choice on family members' mental health. We surveyed 95 family members of decedent Oregonians who had explicitly requested aid in dying, including 59 whose loved one received a lethal prescription and 36 whose loved one died by lethal ingestion. For comparison

Linda Ganzini; Elizabeth R. Goy; Steven K. Dobscha; Holly Prigerson

2009-01-01

117

Identification and characterization of thrombospondin-4, a new member of the thrombospondin gene family  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new member of the thrombospondin gene family, designated thrombospondin-4, has been identified in the Xenopus laevis genome. The predicted amino acid sequence indicates that the protein is simi- lar to the other members of this gene family in the structure of the type 3 repeats and the COOH-terminal domain. Thrombospondin-4 contains four type 2 repeats and lacks the type

Jack Lawler; Mark Duquette; Charles A. Whittaker; Josephine C. Adams; Katherine McHenry; Douglas W. DeSimone

1993-01-01

118

Differences in caregivers of demented and lucid chronically ill family members  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between social support, mood states, and burden was studied in 63 caregivers of chronically ill family members. These caregivers were categorized as providing care for either chronically ill demented or lucid family members. Contact was made with participating caregivers and their medical personnel so as to verify that reported illness did not overlap in both categories (e.g., AIDS

Nancy J. Karlin; Susan P. Bromley

1996-01-01

119

Measuring Resident and Family Member Determinants of Satisfaction With Assisted Living  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study developed measures of satisfac- tion with assisted living from residents' and family members' perspectives. Design and Methods: We collected survey data from 204 residents and 232 family members associated with 11 assisted living facilities. We used confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate the goodness of fit of a priori measurement models. Results: Iterative analysis to improve mea- surement

Perry Edelman; Marylou Guihan; Fred B. Bryant; Donna J. Munroe

2006-01-01

120

Good Death Inventory: A Measure for Evaluating Good Death from the Bereaved Family Member's Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to develop a measure for evaluating good death from the bereaved family member's perspective, and to examine the validity and reliability of the assessment. A cross-sectional anonymous questionnaire was administered to bereaved family members of cancer patients who had died in a regional cancer center from September 2004 to February 2006. We measured the

Mitsunori Miyashita; Tatsuya Morita; Kazuki Sato; Kei Hirai; Yasuo Shima; Yosuke Uchitomi

2008-01-01

121

Effective doses to family members of patients treated with radioiodine-131  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effective dose to family members of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine-131, and also to compare the results with dose constraints proposed by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). For the estimation of the effective doses, sixty family members of sixty patients, treated with radioiodine-131, and thermoluminiscent dosimeters (Model TLD 100) were used. Thyroid cancer patients were hospitalized for three days, while hyperthyroid patients were treated on out-patient basis. The family members wore TLD in front of the torso for seven days. The radiation doses to family members of thyroid cancer patients were well below the recommended dose constraint of 1 mSv. The mean value of effective dose was 0.21 mSv (min 0.02 - max 0.51 mSv). Effective doses, higher than 1 mSv, were detected for 11 family members of hyperthyroid patients. The mean value of effective dose of family members of hyperthyroid patients was 0.87 mSv (min 0.12 - max 6.79). The estimated effective doses to family members of hyperthyroid patients were higher than the effective doses to family members of thyroid carcinoma patients. These findings may be considered when establishing new national guidelines concerning radiation protection and release of patients after a treatment with radioiodine therapy.

Zdraveska Kocovska, M.; Vaskova, O.; Majstorov, V.; Kuzmanovska, S.; Pop Gjorceva, D.; Spasic Jokic, V.

2011-09-01

122

Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Weight Loss in Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility that lifestyle changes may be shared by the family members of subjects with obesity attending cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for weight loss has been scarcely evaluated. The purpose of this study was to measure the changes in body weight, lifestyle habits, and stage of change toward physical activity in the family members of 149 subjects with overweight\\/obesity enrolled into

Raffaella Rossini; Simona Moscatiello; Giulietta Tarrini; Silvia Di Domizio; Valentina Soverini; Andreina Romano; Arianna Mazzotti; Riccardo Dalle Grave; Giulio Marchesini

2011-01-01

123

Protecting the health of employees caring for family members with special health care needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over half of American workers are holding a paid job while also providing unpaid assistance and support to a family member. Research shows that family members who provide care to children or adults with special health care needs are themselves at risk of physical and mental health problems. Yet, little research has explored how the work environment mediates the effects

Alison Earle; Jody Heymann

2011-01-01

124

41 CFR 302-4.702 - What PCS travel expenses must we pay for the employee's immediate family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...PCS travel expenses must we pay for the employee's immediate family members...PCS travel expenses must we pay for the employee's immediate family members...of travel expenses you must pay for the employee's immediate family...

2012-07-01

125

41 CFR 302-4.702 - What PCS travel expenses must we pay for the employee's immediate family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PCS travel expenses must we pay for the employee's immediate family members...PCS travel expenses must we pay for the employee's immediate family members...of travel expenses you must pay for the employee's immediate family...

2011-07-01

126

Sibling Disability and Children's Reactivity to Conflicts Involving Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although rarely considered, siblings may significantly affect families in ways that have implications for other children's functioning, especially when the siblings' problems pose special difficulties. This study examined how having a disabled sibling predicted children's reactions to the everyday stress of family-related conflicts. Thirty children with a disabled sibling (15 boys, 15 girls) and 30 with nondisabled siblings (15 boys,

Charisse L. Nixon; E. Mark Cummings

1999-01-01

127

Television in Indian Adolescents' Lives: A Member of the Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studied the context in which eighth graders in India watch television through an experience sampling study of 100 urban middle-class Indian families. As a whole, findings indicate that the television viewing of middle-class Indian youth is typically a relaxed antidote to the stresses of the day that they share with their families. (SLD)|

Verma, Suman; Larson, Reed W.

2002-01-01

128

Genealogy of an ancient protein family: the Sirtuins, a family of disordered members  

PubMed Central

Background Sirtuins genes are widely distributed by evolution and have been found in eubacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. While prokaryotic and archeal species usually have one or two sirtuin homologs, in humans as well as in eukaryotes we found multiple versions and in mammals this family is comprised of seven different homologous proteins being all NAD-dependent de-acylases. 3D structures of human SIRT2, SIRT3, and SIRT5 revealed the overall conformation of the conserved core domain but they were unable to give a structural information about the presence of very flexible and dynamically disordered regions, the role of which is still structurally and functionally unclear. Recently, we modeled the 3D-structure of human SIRT1, the most studied member of this family, that unexpectedly emerged as a member of the intrinsically disordered proteins with its long disordered terminal arms. Despite clear similarities in catalytic cores between the human sirtuins little is known of the general structural characteristics of these proteins. The presence of disorder in human SIRT1 and the propensity of these proteins in promoting molecular interactions make it important to understand the underlying mechanisms of molecular recognition that reasonably should involve terminal segments. The mechanism of recognition, in turn, is a prerequisite for the understanding of any functional activity. Aim of this work is to understand what structural properties are shared among members of this family in humans as well as in other organisms. Results We have studied the distribution of the structural features of N- and C-terminal segments of sirtuins in all known organisms to draw their evolutionary histories by taking into account average length of terminal segments, amino acid composition, intrinsic disorder, presence of charged stretches, presence of putative phosphorylation sites, flexibility, and GC content of genes. Finally, we have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the putative phosphorylation sites in human sirtuins confirming those sites already known experimentally for human SIRT1 and 2 as well as extending their topology to all the family to get feedback of their physiological functions and cellular localization. Conclusions Our results highlight that the terminal segments of the majority of sirtuins possess a number of structural features and chemical and physical properties that strongly support their involvement in activities of recognition and interaction with other protein molecules. We also suggest how a multisite phosphorylation provides a possible mechanism by which flexible and intrinsically disordered segments of a sirtuin supported by the presence of positively or negatively charged stretches might enhance the strength and specificity of interaction with a particular molecular partner.

2013-01-01

129

42 CFR 436.121 - Qualified family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN GUAM, PUERTO RICO, AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.121 Qualified family...

2012-10-01

130

29 CFR 825.124 - Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember. 825...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.124...

2013-07-01

131

Is It Beneficial to Involve a Family Member? A Meta-Analysis of Psychosocial Interventions for Chronic Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Links between chronic illness and family relationships have led to psychosocial interventions targeted at the patient's closest family member or both patient and family member. The authors conducted a meta-analytic review of randomized studies comparing these interventions with usual medical care (k = 70), focusing on patient outcomes (depression, anxiety, relationship satisfaction, disability, and mortality) and family member outcomes (depression,

Lynn M. Martire; Amy P. Lustig; Richard Schulz; Gregory E. Miller; Vicki S. Helgeson

2004-01-01

132

Osteopoikilosis: Pain as a Presenting Symptom in Three Family Members  

PubMed Central

Osteopoikilosis is a rare asymptomatic sclerosing bony dysplasia of benign origin. It is usually found incidentally on radiological examinations. Familial occurrence indicates a genetic milieu with autosomal dominant pattern. Here, we present a case report of a young woman suffering from pelvic pain due to osteopoikilosis (OPK). The same disorder was later found in her son and daughter.

Aghdashi, M.A.; Aghdashi, M.M.; Rabiepoor, M.

2011-01-01

133

Counseling Options for Service Members and Their Families  

MedlinePLUS

... No Fear Act Download a PDF reader FOIA Privacy Policy and Security OUR WEBSITES MilitaryINSTALLATIONS Military Youth on the Move MSEP Career Portal Plan My Deployment Plan My Move eSponsorship Training Resource Request Form USA4 Military Families STAY CONNECTED Social Media Hub

134

FIT-recommend ing TV programs to family members  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of cable and satellite TV channels exposes the viewer to a huge variety of contents requiring the investment of substantial efforts in search of interesting programs.Recommendation systems may alleviate the problem by proposing the preferred programs according to prior user choices. However, in most homes, watching TV is a “family” event requiring the recommendation system to represent the

Dina Goren-bar; Oded Glinansky

2004-01-01

135

Emerging roles of MTA family members in human cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastasis-associated genes (MTAs) represent a rapidly growing novel gene family. At present, there are three different known genes (MTA1, MTA2, and MTA3) and six reported isoforms (MTA1, MTA1s, MTA1-ZG29p, MTA2, MTA3, MTA3L). MTA1, MTA2, and MTA3 are components of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation complex, which is associated with adenosine triphosphate-dependent chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation. MTA proteins, as a

Rakesh Kumar; Rui-An Wang; Rozita Bagheri-Yarmand

2003-01-01

136

Television in Indian Adolescents' Lives: A Member of the Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the effects of TV on youth, it is important to know the context in which they view it. This paper reports findings from an Experience Sampling study of 100 urban, middle-class Indian families to elucidate the “context of use” for this group. Mothers, fathers, and 8th graders carried alarm watches for 1 week and provided 13,674 reports on

Suman Verma; Reed W. Larson

2002-01-01

137

Turkish Family Members’ Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined familial patterns of attitudes toward lesbians (AT-Lesbians) and toward gay men (AT-Gay) by using Herek’s\\u000a (1998) short-form of AT-Lesbian and AT-Gay scales. The participants were 116 college students (47 males, 69 females) and their\\u000a parents (116 mothers, 116 fathers) located in the West Anatolian region of Turkey. Results point to significant differences\\u000a between parents and their daughters,

Aynur Oksal

2008-01-01

138

Family members' responsibilities to nursing home residents: "she is the only mother I got".  

PubMed

Findings from this qualitative study indicate that family members of nursing home residents hold themselves responsible for overseeing the care of their loved one, representing the resident's perspective and history, and keeping the family connections. These role expectations can be assets to nursing homes. Nursing and social work staff are called on to be leaders among all staff to maximize constructive family involvement and minimize the stress families may experience if they are not able to fulfill their role expectations. PMID:18286792

Bern-Klug, Mercedes; Forbes-Thompson, Sarah

2008-02-01

139

The development of PCR-based markers for the selection of eyespot resistance genes Pch1 and Pch2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two eyespot resistance genes (Pch1 and Pch2) have been characterised in wheat. The potent resistance gene Pch1, transferred from Aegilops ventricosa, is located on the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 7D (7DL). Pch2 derives from the variety Cappelle Desprez and is located at the distal end of chromosome 7AL. The RFLP marker Xpsr121 and the endopeptidase isozyme

N. H. Chapman; C. Burt; H. Dong; P. Nicholson

2008-01-01

140

The Effects of Having a Child with ADHD on Family Members and Family Management. Data Trends #98  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The articles summarized in this "Data Trends" discuss how members of families including children with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) are greatly affected in their daily lives and functioning by symptoms…

Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2004

2004-01-01

141

Perceived Intrafamilial Connectedness and Autonomy in Families with and without an Anxious Family Member: A Multiple Informant Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Perceived intrafamilial "emotional connectedness" and "autonomy" were investigated within families with and without an anxious family member using a multiple informant approach. The sample consisted of 32 mothers with a current anxiety disorder and 56 controls, their partners, and their anxious and nonanxious teenage children. No differences were…

de Albuquerque, Jiske E. G.; Schneider, Silvia

2012-01-01

142

Perceived Intrafamilial Connectedness and Autonomy in Families with and without an Anxious Family Member: A Multiple Informant Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceived intrafamilial "emotional connectedness" and "autonomy" were investigated within families with and without an anxious family member using a multiple informant approach. The sample consisted of 32 mothers with a current anxiety disorder and 56 controls, their partners, and their anxious and nonanxious teenage children. No differences were…

de Albuquerque, Jiske E. G.; Schneider, Silvia

2012-01-01

143

An Automated Method for Rapid Identification of Putative Gene Family Members in Plants  

PubMed Central

Background Gene duplication events have played a significant role in genome evolution, particularly in plants. Exhaustive searches for all members of a known gene family as well as the identification of new gene families has become increasingly important. Subfunctionalization via changes in regulatory sequences following duplication (adaptive selection) appears to be a common mechanism of evolution in plants and can be accompanied by purifying selection on the coding region. Such negative selection can be detected by a bias toward synonymous over nonsynonymous substitutions. However, the process of identifying this bias requires many steps usually employing several different software programs. We have simplified the process and significantly shortened the time required by condensing many steps into a few scripts or programs to rapidly identify putative gene family members beginning with a single query sequence. Results In this report we 1) describe the software tools (SimESTs, PCAT, and SCAT) developed to automate the gene family identification, 2) demonstrate the validity of the method by correctly identifying 3 of 4 PAL gene family members from Arabidopsis using EST data alone, 3) identify 2 to 6 CAD gene family members from Glycine max (previously unidentified), and 4) identify 2 members of a putative Glycine max gene family previously unidentified in any plant species. Conclusion Gene families in plants, particularly that subset where purifying selection has occurred in the coding region, can be identified quickly and easily by integrating our software tools and commonly available contig assembly and ORF identification programs.

Frank, Ronald L; Mane, Ajay; Ercal, Fikret

2006-01-01

144

42 CFR 31.10 - Dependent members of families; use of Service facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dependent members...families; use of Service facilities. 31.10 Section 31.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL...

2011-10-01

145

42 CFR 31.10 - Dependent members of families; use of Service facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dependent members...families; use of Service facilities. 31.10 Section 31.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL...

2012-10-01

146

Support Framework for First Responder Family Members: A Proposed Model for Increasing Responder Effectiveness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis focuses on the physical, mental and emotional support requirements for the family members of first responders engaged in emergency scene mitigation. The likelihood of a large-scale incident involving multiple emergency disciplines and a multi-...

B. E. Sturdivant

2009-01-01

147

Employment Efforts of Family Members--Who Works and How Much  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A new measure of intensity of employment of human resources was developed for this rural-urban comparative study and utilized to assess the productivity of small town and low-income urban family units and their individual members. (MW)|

Metzen, Edward J.; Helmick, Sandra A.

1974-01-01

148

Nanographene and nanodiamond; new members in the nanocarbon family.  

PubMed

Nanographene and nanodiamond are new members of nanocarbons, which consist of nano-sized hexagonal and tetrahedral networks, respectively. The presence of edges and surfaces distinguishes nanographene and nanodiamond, respectively, from other nanocarbons owing to their structure dependent electronic features. Nanographene has an unconventional nonbonding pi-state (edge state) localized around its edge that is dependent on the edge geometry. The edge states, having localized spins, impart a nanographene-based molecular magnetic character. The structure and electronic/magnetic properties of nanodiamond vary depending on how the surface carbon atoms are terminated. Nanodiamond, with a naked surface, is subjected to structural reconstruction at the expense of sigma-dangling bonds. The hydrogenation of the surface is expected to give an electron reservoir function. The incompletely hydrogenated surface is magnetic with surface-induced spins. PMID:19378299

Enoki, Toshiaki; Takai, Kazuyuki; Osipov, Vladimir; Baidakova, Marina; Vul', Alexander

2009-06-01

149

Gene fusions involving PAX and FOX family members in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chromosomal translocations t(2;13)(q35;q14) and t(1;13)(p36;q14) are characteristic of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, a pediatric soft tissue cancer related to the striated muscle lineage. These translocations rearrange PAX3 and PAX7, members of the paired box transcription factor family, and juxtapose these genes with FKHR, a member of the fork head transcription factor family. This juxtaposition generates PAX3–FKHR and PAX7–FKHR chimeric genes that

Frederic G Barr

2001-01-01

150

IRAK4: A novel member of the IRAK family with the properties of an IRAKkinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toll\\/IL-1 receptor family members are central components of host defense mechanisms in a variety of species. One well conserved element in their signal transduction is Ser\\/Thr kinases, which couple early signaling events in a receptor complex at the plasma membrane to larger signalosomes in the cytosol. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has one member of this family of kinases, termed

Shyun Li; Astrid Strelow; Elizabeth J. Fontana; Holger Wesche

2002-01-01

151

Family members' experiences of personal assistance given to a relative with disabilities.  

PubMed

Personal assistance is a type of home care common to many countries even though entitlement and legislative framework may vary from country to country. At present, there exists no knowledge about the family members' experiences of such assistance; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate family members' experiences of personal assistance given to a relative of working age with a functional disability. Twenty-five family members who had a relative with a severe neurological disease in Sweden were interviewed about the significance of personal assistance, and the qualitative interviews were subjected to qualitative latent content analysis. The overall findings verify the close connection between the family members' experiences and their perception of the quality of the caring relationship between the personal assistant and the person with disability. The main finding was an appreciation of the personal assistance on the part of the family members. However, in situations where the encounter between the assistant and the relative with disability was perceived negatively, the family members experienced great anxiety. The shortcomings were the inability to maintain a private life with assistance and the limitation of choice because of the shortage of personal assistants. Beyond these general findings, this study found that personal assistance was experienced by the family members in terms of dignity and empowering care. This theme was generated from seven subthemes: Insight into private life, Security through the close relation, Social life through freedom of movement, Influence over the organisation of assistance, Self-determination and understanding, Friendship and mutual respect and Adaption to the dependency on assistance. The findings indicate that responsible officials, work leaders and assistants need constantly to improve the implementation of the law. In such efforts, the experiences of family members described in this study are a source of knowledge. PMID:21651637

Ahlström, Gerd; Wadensten, Barbro

2011-06-08

152

What are motives of family members who take responsibility in palliative cancer care?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aim.?Some studies show that the family members willingly take great responsibility in palliative care. However, their motives for doing so have not been much explored and the aim of this study is to investigate that further.Method.?Twenty family members of patients enrolled in palliative care were interviewed in depth. The interviews were taped, transcribed and analysed using a qualitative,

Lisa Sand; Mariann Olsson; Peter Strang

2010-01-01

153

Placental Growth Factor, a Member of the VEGF Family, Contributes to the Development of Choroidal Neovascularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. VEGF has been shown to be necessary, but not suffi- cient alone, for the development of subretinal pathologic an- giogenesis. In the current study, the influence of placental growth factor (PlGF), a member of the VEGF family, in human and experimental choroidal neovascularization (CNV) was in- vestigated. METHODS. The presence of VEGF family member mRNA was evaluated by RT-PCR

Jean-Marie Rakic; Vincent Lambert; Laetitia Devy; Aernout Luttun; Peter Carmeliet; Carel Claes; Laurent Nguyen; Jean-Michel Foidart; Agnes Noel; Carine Munaut

2003-01-01

154

Attitudes towards CPR training and performance in family members of patients with heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering that heart patients may be at higher risk for cardiac arrest, this study was conducted to evaluate the preparedness and willingness of cardiac patient family members to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A cross-sectional survey of 100 family members of cardiac patients was conducted at a tertiary care emergency department over a 1.5-month period. Response rate was 95%. While 49%

Elke Platz; Mark D. Scheatzle; Paul E. Pepe; Stephen R. Dearwater

2000-01-01

155

Sexual Lives and Family Function of Women with Family Member with Disability: Educational Status and Income Level  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine how sexual lives and family functions of women with low educational and income status\\u000a who had family members with disability were influenced. The study included subjects with disability comprising 12.29% of Turkish\\u000a population who have disabilities. Using the sampling formula in which the size of universe was known, the sample included\\u000a the families with

Handan ZincirFiliz; Filiz Özkan; Zeliha Kaya Erten; Emine Ümit Sevi?

156

Characterisation of candidate members of (136108) Haumea's family. II. Follow-up observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. From a dynamical analysis of the orbital elements of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), Ragozzine & Brown (2007, AJ, 134, 2160) reported a list of candidate members of the first collisional family found among this population, associated with (136 108) Haumea (a.k.a. 2003 EL61). Aims: We aim to distinguish the true members of the Haumea collisional family from interlopers. We search for water ice on their surfaces, which is a common characteristic of the known family members. The properties of the confirmed family are used to constrain the formation mechanism of Haumea, its satellites, and its family. Methods: Optical and near-infrared photometry is used to identify water ice. We use in particular the CH4 filter of the Hawk-I instrument at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope as a short H-band (HS), the (J - HS) colour being a sensitive measure of the water ice absorption band at 1.6 ?m. Results: Continuing our previous study headed by Snodgrass, we report colours for 8 candidate family members, including near-infrared colours for 5. We confirm one object as a genuine member of the collisional family (2003 UZ117), and reject 5 others. The lack of infrared data for the two remaining objects prevent any conclusion from being drawn. The total number of rejected members is therefore 17. The 11 confirmed members represent only a third of the 36 candidates. Conclusions: The origin of Haumea's family is likely to be related to an impact event. However, a scenario explaining all the peculiarities of Haumea itself and its family remains elusive. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla & Paranal, Chile - 81.C-0544 & 82.C-0306 & 84.C-0594.

Carry, B.; Snodgrass, C.; Lacerda, P.; Hainaut, O.; Dumas, C.

2012-08-01

157

Family members providing home-based palliative care to older adults: the enactment of multiple roles.  

PubMed

Canadians are experiencing increased life expectancy and chronic illness requiring end-of-life care. There is limited research on the multiple roles for family members providing home-based palliative care. Based on a larger ethnographic study of client-family-provider relationships in home-based palliative care, this qualitative secondary analysis explores the enactment of multiple roles for family members providing home-based palliative care to seniors with advanced cancer. Family members had multiple expectations to provide care but felt their expectations of services were unmet. The process of enacting multiple roles was depicted by three interrelated themes: balancing, re-prioritizing, and evolving. Positive and negative health responses resulted from attempts to minimize personal health while simultaneously maintaining health. "True" family-centred care was found to be lacking, but should be a goal of health professionals involved in end-of-life care. PMID:19158043

Clemmer, Sarah J; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Forbes, Dorothy

2008-01-01

158

76 FR 67384 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions To Disregard Entities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...31 and 301 [REG-136565-09] RIN 1545-BJ06 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions To Disregard Entities...for employers and their employees where both are members of religious faiths opposed to participation in Social Security Act...

2011-11-01

159

A Cooperative Communication Intervention for Nursing Home Staff and Family Members of Residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This article reports on a randomized, con- trolled study of Partners in Caregiving, an intervention designed to increase cooperation and effective communication between family members and nursing home staff. Design and Methods: Participants in- cluded 932 relatives and 655 staff members recruited from 20 nursing homes, randomly assigned to treatment and control conditions. Parallel training sessions on communication and

Karl Pillemer; J. Jill Suitor; Charles R. Henderson; Rhoda Meador; Leslie Schultz; Julie Robison; Carol Hegeman

160

Disclosure of Huntington's disease to family members: the dilemma of known but unknowing parties.  

PubMed

Predictive genetic testing presents unique issues in the legal and ethical debate concerning disclosure of information within the physician-patient relationship. A duty to disclose information to family members has been found when the disclosure is likely to result in the ability to mitigate the damaging effects of the disease. When evaluating the situation where a individual is at risk of Huntington's disease, the analysis must be different, as shown in this paper, and necessitates an ethical and legal examination of the consequences of receipt of the information on family members, those known but unknowing parties who are at risk of inheriting a genetic disease. This paper analyzes the potential legal duty of a physician to disclose or withhold genetic information from the family members of patients. Existing statutes governing genetic information do not directly address the interests of family members. Courts that have ruled on the duty to disclose medical or genetic information have analyzed these issues using traditional concepts of tort law. Yet the situation presented by Huntington's disease is unique and demands a different framework for analysis, given the late onset and lack of curative or ameliorative treatment. This paper also analyzes the ethical standards to be invoked when considering violating the privacy of a patient or a family member. The principles of autonomy and self-determination of family members are considered, versus the risk of harm and the privacy interest in not knowing potentially devastating information. PMID:11216659

Hakimian, R

2000-01-01

161

Multiple Bcl-2 family members demonstrate selective dimerizations with Bax.  

PubMed Central

A family of Bcl-2-related proteins regulates cell death and shares highly conserved BH1 and BH2 domains. BH1 and BH2 domains of Bcl-2 were required for it to heterodimerize with Bax and to repress apoptosis. A yeast two-hybrid assay accurately reproduced this interaction and defined a selectivity and hierarchy of further dimerizations. Bax also heterodimerizes with Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, and A1. A Gly-159-->Ala substitution in BH1 of Bcl-xL disrupted its heterodimerization with Bax and abrogated its inhibition of apoptosis in mammalian cells. This suggests that the susceptibility to apoptosis is determined by multiple competing dimerizations in which Bax may be a common partner. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Sedlak, T W; Oltvai, Z N; Yang, E; Wang, K; Boise, L H; Thompson, C B; Korsmeyer, S J

1995-01-01

162

The Relationship between Dysfunctional Family Environments and Family Member Food Intake.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores relationships between family environment and family food intake. Findings indicate a significant negative relationship between the family's dysfunctional environment (indicated by high conflict, control, and organization) and family dietary intake. A significant positive relationship was found between the family's cohesive and…

Kintner, Martha; And Others

1981-01-01

163

Mental health and emotional relationships of family members whose relatives have drug problems.  

PubMed

The presence of a drug abuser in a family can seriously affect the family's mental health and relationships. This study focuses on the stress of families of drug abusers, relationships, and their relevant factors, as well as examines ways to support them. The subjects of this study were family members of drug abusers treated at drug abuser family support groups, medical institutions, or municipal mental health and welfare centers. To these institutions, 1,298 questionnaires were sent, and 543 responses with sufficient data were used for analysis. The survey consisted of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), and questionnaire items regarding disruptions to family life, relationship with drug users, and the use of family support services. The survey results showed that the mean GHQ score was 4.5, and those whose score are cut-off 3 and more, indicating poor mental health accounted for 54.7%. More than half of the subjects responded that drug problems have affected family members in terms of the health condition, daily living, and financial problems. Regarding emotional relationships with the addicts, most of the families answered that they have had negative feelings toward them, such as "being dragged into drug problems" and "being over-protective". A significant correlation was observed between the GHQ score and family members' relationship with the addict, and these variables were closely correlated with participation in the family group, the status of drug abstinence, living environment, and participation in a self-support group by the addict. As the results, most of the family members of drug users have problems with mental health and the recovery of relationships even though they have accessed support centers, and it was verified that the family support group works effectively to help solve their problems. PMID:22413561

Morita, Nobuaki; Naruse, Nobuya; Yoshioka, Sachiko; Nishikawa, Kyoko; Okazaki, Naoto; Tsujimoto, Toshiyuki

2011-12-01

164

Characterization of Members of the Legionellaceae Family by Automated Ribotyping  

PubMed Central

In order to implement a new and reliable method for characterizing different species of Legionella, a genetic fingerprinting study with an automated ribotyping system (RiboPrinter) was completed with members of this genus which were deposited at the American Type Culture Collection. The RiboPrinter examined the different patterns of EcoRI digestion fragments from the rRNA operons of 110 strains, representing 48 of the 49 described Legionella species as well as 70 serogroups of those species. Distinctive and consistent patterns were obtained for the type strains of the 48 species investigated. Legionella pneumophila subsp. fraseri and L. pneumophila subsp. pascullei each generated a specific pattern, whereas L. pneumophila subsp. pneumophila produced six different fingerprint patterns. No correlation seemed to exist between the ribotypes obtained and the 15 serotypes of L. pneumophila. For the other species, those with two known serogroups presented two distinctive patterns with the RiboPrinter with the exception of L. hackeliae and L. quinlivanii, which yielded only one pattern. We also encountered ribotypes for strains which were not identified to the species level. The ribotypes generated for these strains with the RiboPrinter did not match those generated for known type strains, suggesting the putative description of new serogroups or species. Although the automated system did not have sufficient discriminatory ability to serve as an epidemiological tool in a clinical setting, it appeared to be a powerful tool for general genomic analysis of the Legionella isolates (e.g., determination of new species) and assessment of the interrelationship among Legionella strains through the RiboPrinter database connection.

Cordevant, Christophe; Tang, Jane S.; Cleland, David; Lange, Marc

2003-01-01

165

Reducing family members’ anxiety and uncertainty in illness around transfer from intensive care: an intervention study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: This intervention study examines anxiety and uncertainty in illness in families transferring from intensive care to a general ward. Methods: The pre-test, post-test design purposively allocated family members to a control (n = 80) and intervention group (n = 82). The intervention group experienced a structured individualised transfer method whereas the control group received existing ad hoc transfer methods.

Marion L Mitchell; Mary Courtney

2004-01-01

166

Identification of two new nonclassical members of the rat prolactin family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prolactin (PRL) family is comprised of a group of hormones\\/cytokines that are expressed in the anterior pituitary, uterus, and placenta. These proteins participate in the control of maternal and fetal adaptations to pregnancy. In this report, we have identified two new nonclassical members of the rat PRL family through a search of the National Center for Biotechnology Information dbEST

N Sahgal; G T Knipp; B Liu; B M Chapman; G Dai; M J Soares

2000-01-01

167

Attributions and Affective Reactions of Family Members and Course of Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors tested an attribution–affect model of schizophrenic relapse attending to the role of families’ positive affect (warmth) and negative affect (criticism). Coders listened to interviews of 40 family members taken from C. E. Vaughn, K. S. Synder, S. Jones, W. B. Freeman, and I. R. Falloon (1984) and rated their attributions of controllability for the symptoms and behaviors of

Steven R. López; Kathleen A. Nelson; Karen S. Snyder; Jim Mintz

1999-01-01

168

It Starts With Access!: A Grounded Theory of Family Members Working to Get Through Critical Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical illness of an adult constitutes a crisis for the patient’s family. They relinquish primary responsibility for the physical well-being of the patient to health providers, but remain involved, working to get through the situation. What constitutes this “work”? Results of two grounded theory studies revealed that family members were engaged first in the pivotal work of gaining access

Virginia Vandall-Walker; Alexander M. Clark

2011-01-01

169

Expressed Emotion and Subclinical Psychopathology Observable Within the Transactions Between Schizophrenic Patients and Their Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined whether young, recently discharged schizophrenic patients from high (n = 34) and low (n = 14) expressed emotion (EE) families differ in their level of subclinical symptomatology during a direct interaction task. Compared with patients from low-EE homes, patients from high-EE home showed significantly more odd and disruptive behavior with family members. High-EE relatives were more likely

Irwin S. Rosenfarb; Michael J. Goldstein; Jim Mintz; Keith H. Nuechterlein

1995-01-01

170

The relationship of adverse childhood experiences to a history of premature death of family members  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To assess the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including childhood abuse and neglect, and serious household dysfunction, and premature death of a family member. Because ACEs increase the risk for many of the leading causes of death in adults and tend to be familial and intergenerational, we hypothesized that persons who report having more ACEs would be more

Robert F Anda; Maxia Dong; David W Brown; Vincent J Felitti; Wayne H Giles; Geraldine S Perry; Edwards J Valerie; Shanta R Dube

2009-01-01

171

Should Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Be Considered as a Possible Member of the Family Bunyaviridae?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary From a comparison of published data on the properties of tomato spotted wilt virus and viruses in the family Bunyaviridae, it is concluded that tomato spotted wilt virus should be considered as a possible member of the family.Copyright © 1984 S. Karger AG, Basel

Robert G. Milne; Richard I. B. Francki

1984-01-01

172

Using Picture Books to Help Children Cope with a Family Member's Alzheimer's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the resulting behavioral changes in a loved one can cause intense emotional reactions from all family members, including children. Sharing and discussing relevant picture books can be an effective strategy to help the children in such families understand and deal with their emotions. Picture books can…

Holland, Marna

2005-01-01

173

The family relations, peer relations, and criminal activities of Caucasian and Hispanic-American gang members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile gang members present serious problems to society, yet few empirical studies have examined their criminal activity, family relations, and peer relations in comparison with other highly antisocial youths. In a 2 (Gang Membership) × 2 (Ethnicity: Hispanic-American vs. Caucasian) design, 131 incarcerated male juvenile offenders were administered a battery assessing criminal activity, family relations, and peer relations. Results demonstrated

Jean-Marie Lyon; Scott Henggeler; James A. Hall

1992-01-01

174

Understanding Latino Family Attitudes in Relation to Latino Gang Members' Substance Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a content analysis of ethnographic interviews from long-term Latino gang members whose families have recently immigrated to the United States. Positive relationships within the family, parental support, a consistent and constructive parental discipline style and adult supervision tend to be related negatively to adolescents' deviant behaviors and their association with deviant peers. An expected positive relationship between

Mario De La Rosa; Christopher Rice; Douglas Rugh

2007-01-01

175

Family Members Providing Home-Based Palliative Care to Older Adults: The Enactment of Multiple Roles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Canadians are experiencing increased life expectancy and chronic illness requiring end-of-life care. There is limited research on the multiple roles for family members providing home-based palliative care. Based on a larger ethnographic study of client-family-provider relationships in home-based palliative care, this qualitative secondary…

Clemmer, Sarah J.; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Forbes, Dorothy

2008-01-01

176

Developing supportive care for family members of people with lung cancer: a feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Families provide crucial support, yet their own needs often go unrecognised and, as a consequence, remain unmet. The purpose\\u000a of this study was to evaluate a newly developed supportive intervention for family members of patients with lung cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  A consecutive convenience sample of 25 family members of people with lung cancer received an individualised supportive intervention\\u000a from a

Alison Richardson; Hilary Plant; Sally Moore; Jibby Medina; Amanda Cornwall; Emma Ream

2007-01-01

177

Imf, a Novel Myogenic Repressor, Interacts with Members of the MyoD Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

During embryogenesis, cells from the ventral and dorsal parts of the somites give rise to sclerotome and dermomyotome, respectively. Dermomyotome contains skeletal muscle precursors that are determined by the MyoD family of myogenic factors. We have isolated a novel myogenic repressor, I-mf (Inhibitor of MyoD family), which is highly expressed in the sclerotome. In contrast, MyoD family members are concentrated

C.-M. Amy Chen; Norbert Kraut; Mark Groudine; Harold Weintraub

1996-01-01

178

Behind Family Lines : Family members? adaptations to military-induced separations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interrelation between work and family life has long been recognized and in many of today?s Western societies, both men and women face the challenges of combining work and family demands. Above and beyond the widespread prevalence of work affecting family, work is especially likely to bear upon family life in the course of job-induced separations. In such instances, work

Manon Daniëlle Andres

2010-01-01

179

Safety threats and opportunities to improve interfacility care transitions: insights from patients and family members  

PubMed Central

Aim To explore patients’ and family members’ perspectives on how safety threats are detected and managed across care transitions and strategies that improve care transitions from acute care hospitals to complex continuing care and rehabilitation health care organizations. Background Poorly executed care transitions can result in additional health care spending due to adverse outcomes and delays as patients wait to transfer from acute care to facilities providing different levels of care. Patients and their families play an integral role in ensuring they receive safe care, as they are the one constant in care transitions processes. However, patients’ and family members’ perspectives on how safety threats are detected and managed across care transitions from health care facility to health care facility remain poorly understood. Methods This qualitative study used semistructured interviews with patients (15) and family members (seven) who were transferred from an acute care hospital to a complex continuing care/rehabilitation care facility. Data were analyzed using a directed content analytical approach. Results Our results revealed three key overarching themes in the perceptions: lacking information, getting “funneled through” too soon, and difficulty adjusting to the shift from total care to almost self-care. Several patients and families described their expectations and experiences associated with their interfacility care transitions as being uninformed about their transfer or that transfer happened too early. In addition, study participants identified the need for having a coordinated approach to care transitions that engages patients and family members. Conclusion Study findings provide patients’ and family members’ perspectives on key safety threats and how to improve care transitions. Of particular importance is the need for patients and family members to play a more active role in their care transition planning and self-care management.

Jeffs, Lianne; Kitto, Simon; Merkley, Jane; Lyons, Renee F; Bell, Chaim M

2012-01-01

180

38 CFR 71.50 - Provision of certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...professional counseling, marriage and family counseling, training, and...services. (3) Marriage and family counseling includes services...veteran address mental health issues, manage physical health problems...other medical conditions in family members. (b)...

2013-07-01

181

Skin lead contamination of family members of boat-caulkers in southern Thailand.  

PubMed

Powdered lead oxide (Pb(3)O(4)) is used in the wooden-boat repair industry as a constituent of the caulking material. This study compared skin lead of household members of caulkers' and control homes, and examined the relationship of household member's skin lead with household floor lead loading (FLL) and dust lead content (DLC). FLL and DLC were measured in 67 caulkers' houses and 46 nearby houses with no known lead exposure. In each household, wipe specimens of skin lead were obtained from one selected family member. Hand lead loading (HdLL) and foot lead loading (FtLL) were significantly higher in family members of caulkers than controls (geometric mean 64.4 vs. 36.2 ?g m(-2); p = 0.002 and 77.8 vs 43.8 ?g m(-2); p = 0.002, respectively). This pattern mirrored FLL and DLC, which were also higher in caulkers' than in control houses (geometric mean 109.9 vs. 40.1 ?g m(-2); p<0.001 and 434.8 vs 80.8 ?g g(-1); p<0.001, respectively). Multiple linear regression modelling revealed FLL to be a better predictor than DLC for HdLL in all age groups and for FtLL in adult family members. In conclusion, skin lead levels are elevated in family members living in a lead-exposed worker's house and are related to the levels of household lead contamination. PMID:20823635

Untimanon, Orrapan; Geater, Alan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Saetia, Wiyada; Utapan, Sutida

2010-09-01

182

NOV (CCN3) regulation in the growth plate and CCN family member expression in cartilage neoplasia.  

PubMed

Growth plate chondrocytes undergo a coordinated differentiation process resulting in terminal differentiation and new bone formation. Enchondromas are pre-malignant, benign cartilaginous lesions that arise from growth plate chondrocytes that fail to undergo terminal differentiation. NOV (nephroblastoma overexpressed) is a member of the CCN family of proteins, which share a common multi-modular organization. While the role of NOV in chondrocyte development and cartilage neoplasia is not known, other CCN family members play a role in chondrocyte differentiation, or are differentially regulated in cartilage neoplasia. In embryonic murine growth plates, NOV was expressed in pre-hypertrophic and early hypertrophic chondrocytes. PTHrP treatment (which inhibits terminal differentiation) decreased NOV expression in murine femurs maintained in organ culture, and decreased the activity of a NOV reporter construct in vitro. Expression of the CCN family members NOV, CTGF, CYR61, and WISP-1 was examined in 15 chondrosarcomas of various grades and in three enchondromas. Expression of all of the family members was lower in the higher-grade tumours. As identification of the grade of cartilage neoplasia can sometimes be difficult using histology alone, the level of expression of CCN family members could be a useful adjunct in the determination of tumour grade. PMID:14648665

Yu, Chunying; Le, Anh-Thy; Yeger, Herman; Perbal, Bernard; Alman, Benjamin A

2003-12-01

183

Nucleoredoxin, a novel thioredoxin family member involved in cell growth and differentiation.  

PubMed

Thioredoxin (TRX) family proteins are involved in various biologic processes by regulating the response to oxidative stress. Nucleoredoxin (NRX), a relatively uncharacterized member of the TRX family protein, has recently been reported to regulate the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, which itself regulates cell fate and early development, in a redox-dependent manner. In this review, we describe the TRX family proteins and discuss in detail the similarities and differences between NRX and other TRX family proteins. Although NRX possesses a conserved TRX domain and a catalytic motif for oxidoreductase activity, its sequence homology to TRX is not as high as that of the close relatives of TRX. The sequence of NRX is more similar to that of tryparedoxin (TryX), a TRX family member originally identified in parasite trypanosomes. We also discuss the reported properties and potential physiologic roles of NRX. PMID:17567240

Funato, Yosuke; Miki, Hiroaki

2007-08-01

184

Sources of Stress for Family Members of Nursing Home Residents with Advanced Dementia  

PubMed Central

The sources of stress for families of nursing home (NH) residents with advanced dementia have not been well described. Semi--structured interviews were conducted with 16 family members previously enrolled in the Choices, Attitudes and Strategies for Care of Advanced Dementia at the End-of-Life (CASCADE) study, a prospective cohort of 323 NH residents with advanced dementia and their family members. Questions inquired about the experience of having a family member in the NH, communication with health care professionals, surrogate decision-making, emotional distress and recommendations for improvement in care. Transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method. The majority of participants were female (63%), children of the resident (94%) and white (94%). The average age was 62 years. Four themes emerged: 1) inadequate resident personal care, resulting in family member vigilance and participation in care; 2) stress at the time of NH admission; 3) lack of communication with NH physicians; and 4) challenges of surrogate decision making, including the need for education to support advance care planning and end-of-life decisions. Our results support the provision of emotional support to families upon resident admission, education regarding prognosis to guide decision making, improved resident care and greater communication with health care professionals.

Givens, Jane L.; Lopez, Ruth Palan; Mazor, Kathleen M.; Mitchell, Susan L.

2011-01-01

185

Sources of stress for family members of nursing home residents with advanced dementia.  

PubMed

The sources of stress for families of nursing home (NH) residents with advanced dementia have not been well described. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 16 family members previously enrolled in the Choices, Attitudes, and Strategies for Care of Advanced Dementia at the End-of-Life study, a prospective cohort of 323 NH residents with advanced dementia and their family members. Questions were asked pertaining to the experience of having a family member in the NH, communication with health-care professionals, surrogate decision making, emotional distress, and recommendations for improvement in care. Transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method. The majority of the participants were women (63%), children of the resident (94%), and white (94%). The average age was 62 years. Four themes emerged: (1) inadequate resident personal care, resulting in family member vigilance and participation in care; (2) stress at the time of NH admission; (3) lack of communication with NH physicians; and (4) challenges of surrogate decision making, including the need for education to support advance care planning and end-of-life decisions. Our results support the provision of emotional support to families upon resident admission, education regarding prognosis to guide decision making, improved resident care, and greater communication with health care professionals. PMID:22037596

Givens, Jane L; Lopez, Ruth Palan; Mazor, Kathleen M; Mitchell, Susan L

186

41 CFR 302-3.200 - When a member of my immediate family who is also an employee and I are transferring to the same...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...other is not eligible as an immediate family member(s); or (b) Only one of the employees considered as head of the household and the other is eligible as an immediate family member(s) on the first employee's...

2012-07-01

187

41 CFR 302-3.200 - When a member of my immediate family who is also an employee and I are transferring to the same...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...other is not eligible as an immediate family member(s); or (b) Only one of the employees considered as head of the household and the other is eligible as an immediate family member(s) on the first employee's...

2011-07-01

188

The willingness of family members of critically ill adults to learn the coping technique of imagery.  

PubMed

Critical care nurses face the challenge of helping anxious families cope with the critical illness of one of their members. The purposes of this exploratory descriptive pilot study were to identify whether adult family members of surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients were willing and able to learn imagery during the time of their family member's critical illness, and which factors facilitate the learning. Of the 139 persons invited, 26 (18.7%) indicated willingness to participate, but only 10 participants completed both learning sessions. All 10 subjects achieved increased relaxation with the imaging. Facilitators of their learning were the quiet environment, the investigator's voice, and the breathing aspect of the technique. Those who participated found imagery beneficial, but further study is needed regarding the basis of both willingness and reluctance to learn relaxation techniques such as imagery to assist with coping during the SICU vigil. PMID:10373843

Schweer, D K; Hart, L K; Glick, O J; Mobily, P C

1999-03-01

189

Posttraumatic Stress and Complicated Grief in Family Members of Patients in the Intensive Care Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Family members of patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are at risk for mental health morbidity both during and after a\\u000a patient’s ICU stay.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  To determine prevalences of and factors associated with anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress and complicated grief in\\u000a family members of ICU patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Prospective, longitudinal cohort study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Participants  Fifty family members of patients in ICUs at a large university

Wendy G. Anderson; Robert M. Arnold; Derek C. Angus; Cindy L. Bryce

2008-01-01

190

Caring for Grieving Family Members: Results from a National Hospice Survey  

PubMed Central

Background A founding principle of hospice is that the patient and family is the unit of care; however, we lack national information on services to family members. Although Medicare certification requires bereavement services be provided, reimbursement rates are not tied to the level or quality of care; therefore, limited financial incentives exist for hospice to provide more than a minimal benefit. Objectives To assess the scope and intensity of services provided to family members by hospice. Research Design We fielded a national survey of hospices between September 2008 and November 2009. Participants A national sample of U.S. hospices with an 84 percent response rate (N=591). Measures Bereavement services to the family, bereavement services to the community, labor-intensive family services and comprehensive family services. Results Most hospices provided bereavement services to the family (78%) and to the community (76%), but only a minority of hospices provided labor-intensive (23%) or comprehensive (27%) services to grieving family members. Larger hospice size was positively and significantly associated with each of the four measures of family services. We found no significant difference in provision of bereavement services to the family, labor-intensive services or comprehensive services by ownership type; however, non-profit hospices were more likely than for-profit hospices to provide bereavement services to the community. Conclusions Our results demonstrate substantial diversity in the scope and intensity of services provided to families of patients with terminal illnesses, suggesting a need for clearer guidance on what hospices should provide to exemplify best practices. Consensus within the field on more precise guidelines in this area is essential.

Barry, Colleen L.; Carlson, Melissa D. A.; Thompson, Jennifer W.; Schlesinger, Mark; McCorkle, Ruth; Kasl, Stanislav; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

2012-01-01

191

The Janus kinase family and signaling through members of the cytokine receptor superfamily  

SciTech Connect

Many cytokines initiate cellular responses through their interaction with members of the cytokine receptor superfamily which contain no catalytic domains in their cytoplasmic domains. Irrespective, ligand binding induces tyrosine phosphorylation, which requires a membrane proximal region of the cytoplasmic domain. Recent studies have shown that members of the Janus kinase (JAK) family of protein tyrosine kinases associate with the membrane proximal region, are rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated following ligand binding and their in vitro kinase activity is activated. The JAKs are 130-kDa proteins which lack SH2/SH3 domains and contain two kinase domains, an active domain and a second kinase-like domain. Individual receptors associate with, or require, one or more of the three known family members including JAK1, JAK2, and tyk2. Substrates of the JAKs include the 91-kDa and 113-kDa proteins of the interferon-stimulated transcription complex ISGF3. These proteins, when tyrosine phosphorylated, migrate to the nucleus and participate in the activation of gene transcription. Recent evidence suggests that the 91- and 113-kDa proteins are members of a large family of genes that are potential substrates of JAK family members and may regulate a variety of genes involved in cell growth, differentiation or function. 42 refs.

Ihle, J.N. [St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

1994-12-31

192

Egocentrism and inefficiency in the communication of families containing schizophrenic members.  

PubMed

Conceptual and methodological shortcomings of research on family and interactional psychopathology are owing mainly to the use of vague and ill-defined concepts of communication. Based on a theory of language use and communication within general social and cognitive psychology (e.g., Heider, Mead, Piaget, Rometvet) Blakar has outlined a methodology by which interaction is analyzed in terms of how and to what extent the participants (families) manage or fail to cope with the various prerequisites for successful communication under varying situational conditions. A study illustrating this program is presented: The interaction of twelve families, six with (Group S) and six without (Group N) a schizophrenic member, is analyzed in Blakar's communication conflict situation with respect to the members' ability to decenter and take the perspective of each other. Group S proved significantly more egocentric, their egocentric attitudes resulting, as would be expected, in very inefficient communication. Moreover, Group S were not able to adapt their pattern of communication to the changing situational requirements. Finally, the subtle interplay between the capacities and behavior of the individual members and the family system is illustrated: the egocentrism of the members resulted in "closed systems," and the closed systems hindered adequate feedback, forcing the members to decenter. PMID:527700

Mossige, S; Pettersen, R B; Blakar, R M

1979-12-01

193

Pch2 Links Chromatin Silencing to Meiotic Checkpoint Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PCH2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for the meiotic checkpoint that prevents chromosome segregation when recombination and chromosome synapsis are defective. Mutation of PCH2 relieves the checkpoint-induced pachytene arrest of the zip1, zip2, and dmc1 mutants, resulting in chromosome missegregation and low spore viability. Most of the Pch2 protein localizes to the nucleolus, where it represses meiotic interhomolog

Pedro A. San-Segundo; G. Shirleen Roeder

1999-01-01

194

Functional conservation between members of an ancient duplicated transcription factor family, LSF/Grainyhead.  

PubMed

The LSF/Grainyhead transcription factor family is involved in many important biological processes, including cell cycle, cell growth and development. In order to investigate the evolutionary conservation of these biological roles, we have characterized two new family members in Caenorhabditis elegans and Xenopus laevis. The C.elegans member, Ce-GRH-1, groups with the Grainyhead subfamily, while the X.laevis member, Xl-LSF, groups with the LSF subfamily. Ce-GRH-1 binds DNA in a sequence-specific manner identical to that of Drosophila melanogaster Grainyhead. In addition, Ce-GRH-1 binds to sequences upstream of the C.elegans gene encoding aromatic L-amino-acid decarboxylase and genes involved in post-embryonic development, mab-5 and dbl-1. All three C.elegans genes are homologs of D.melanogaster Grainyhead-regulated genes. RNA-mediated interference of Ce-grh-1 results in embryonic lethality in worms, accompanied by soft, defective cuticles. These phenotypes are strikingly similar to those observed previously in D.melanogaster grainyhead mutants, suggesting conservation of the developmental role of these family members over the course of evolution. Our phylogenetic analysis of the expanded LSF/GRH family (including other previously unrecognized proteins/ESTs) suggests that the structural and functional dichotomy of this family dates back more than 700 million years, i.e. to the time when the first multicellular organisms are thought to have arisen. PMID:12888489

Venkatesan, Kavitha; McManus, Heather R; Mello, Craig C; Smith, Temple F; Hansen, Ulla

2003-08-01

195

Opposing Functions of Classic and Novel IL-1 Family Members in Gut Health and Disease  

PubMed Central

In addition to their well-established role(s) in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI)-related inflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and inflammation-associated colorectal cancer (CRC), emerging evidence confirms the critical involvement of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) cytokine family and their ligands in the maintenance of normal gut homeostasis. In fact, the paradigm that IBD occurs in two distinct phases is substantiated by the observation that classic IL-1 family members, such as IL-1, the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and IL-18, possess dichotomous functions depending on the phase of disease, as well as on their role in initiating vs. sustaining chronic gut inflammation. Another recently characterized IL-1 family member, IL-33, also possesses dual functions in the gut. IL-33 is upregulated in IBD and potently induces Th2 immune responses, while also amplifying Th1-mediated inflammation. Neutralization studies in acute colitis models, however, have yielded controversial results and recent reports suggest a protective role of IL-33 in epithelial regeneration and mucosal wound healing. Finally, although little is currently known regarding the potential contribution of IL-36 family members in GI inflammation/homeostasis, another IL-1 family member, IL-37, is emerging as a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine with the ability to down-regulate colitis. This new body of information has important translational implications for both the prevention and treatment of patients suffering from IBD and inflammation-associated CRC.

Lopetuso, Loris R.; Chowdhry, Saleem; Pizarro, Theresa T.

2013-01-01

196

Functional conservation between members of an ancient duplicated transcription factor family, LSF/Grainyhead  

PubMed Central

The LSF/Grainyhead transcription factor family is involved in many important biological processes, including cell cycle, cell growth and development. In order to investigate the evolutionary conservation of these biological roles, we have characterized two new family members in Caenorhabditis elegans and Xenopus laevis. The C.elegans member, Ce-GRH-1, groups with the Grainyhead subfamily, while the X.laevis member, Xl-LSF, groups with the LSF subfamily. Ce-GRH-1 binds DNA in a sequence-specific manner identical to that of Drosophila melanogaster Grainyhead. In addition, Ce-GRH-1 binds to sequences upstream of the C.elegans gene encoding aromatic l-amino-acid decarboxylase and genes involved in post-embryonic development, mab-5 and dbl-1. All three C.elegans genes are homologs of D.melanogaster Grainyhead-regulated genes. RNA-mediated interference of Ce-grh-1 results in embryonic lethality in worms, accompanied by soft, defective cuticles. These phenotypes are strikingly similar to those observed previously in D.melanogaster grainyhead mutants, suggesting conservation of the developmental role of these family members over the course of evolution. Our phylogenetic analysis of the expanded LSF/GRH family (including other previously unrecognized proteins/ESTs) suggests that the structural and functional dichotomy of this family dates back more than 700 million years, i.e. to the time when the first multicellular organisms are thought to have arisen.

Venkatesan, Kavitha; McManus, Heather R.; Mello, Craig C.; Smith, Temple F.; Hansen, Ulla

2003-01-01

197

Pharmacological manipulation of Bcl-2 family members to control cell death  

PubMed Central

The commitment to programmed cell death involves complex interactions among pro- and antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins. The physiological result of a decision by these proteins to undergo cell death is permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Pharmacologic manipulation of proteins in this family appears both feasible and efficacious, whether the goal is decreased cell death, as in ischemia of the myocardium or brain, or increased cell death, as in cancer.

Letai, Anthony

2005-01-01

198

Role of RUNX family members in transcriptional repression and gene silencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

RUNX family members are DNA-binding transcription factors that regulate the expression of genes involved in cellular differentiation and cell cycle progression. The RUNX family includes three mammalian RUNX proteins (RUNX1, -2, -3) and two homologues in Drosophila. Experiments in Drosophila and mouse indicate that the RUNX proteins are required for gene silencing of engrailed and CD4, respectively. RUNX-mediated repression involves

Kristie L Durst; Scott W Hiebert

2004-01-01

199

[Has the time arrived to allow family members to be present during resuscitation?].  

PubMed

In the last few years, family presence during resuscitation (FPDR) has emerged as an important topic. Traditionally, family members were not allowed to be present during resuscitation. The logic behind the practice of separating family members from their relatives during resuscitation was that watching a family member during resuscitation--a process that involves invasive procedures, is a traumatic and unnecessary experience for the family. However, over recent years, as part of a changing attitude towards patients and their families, and the development of medical consumerism, there is a change toward permitting family members to be present during resuscitation. Following these developments, fertile research is taking place. The Israeli Ministry of Health has not published any guidelines to date concerning FPDR. Therefore, FPDR is subject to the particular staffs' decisions. If a decision to adopt FPDR as a policy will be taken, it is not clear if the means to accommodate such a policy are available in Israel. FPDR is emerging as an important subject and as part of patient-centered care. More research and discussion are needed in the Israeli health system in order to understand the differences between the Israeli system and other health systems. To date, FPDR is not a viable option in the Israeli health system. Further research will help understand why this option is not a feasible option in Israel and will shed light on whether there are specific characteristics of the Israeli health care system that impede the implementation of such a policy change. There is also a need to understand the viewpoints of medical staff, patients and their families, as well as the social, logistic, ethical and legal implications of FPDR. PMID:19485277

Wacht, Oren; Snir, Yoram; Davidovitch, Nadav

2009-03-01

200

Crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima 0065 - a member of the IclR transcriptional factor family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the IclR family of transcription regulators modulate signal-dependent expression of genes involved in carbon metabolism in bacteria and archaea. The Thermotoga maritima TM0065 gene codes for a protein (TM-IclR) that is homologous to the IclR family. We have determined the crystal structure of TM-IclR at 2.2 Angstroms resolution using MAD phasing and synchrotron radiation. The protein is composed

R.-G. Zhang; Y.-C. Kim; T. Skarina; S. Beasley; R. Laskowski; C. Arrowsmith; A. Edwards; A. Joachimiak; A. Savchenko; Birbeck Coll

2002-01-01

201

Differential expression of the members of the Asr gene family in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we continued to dissect the Asr (ABA\\/water stress\\/ripening-induced) gene family originally described in tomato. A RT-PCR-based strategy was developed to assess the organ (leaf, root and fruit) and developmental (immature and ripe fruit) specificity of expression of the three known members of the Asr gene family under normal and stress conditions. Our results allow us to conclude

Laura Maskin; Gustavo E. Gudesblat; Javier E. Moreno; Fernando O. Carrari; Nicolás Frankel; Adrián Sambade; Magdalena Rossi; Norberto D. Iusem

2001-01-01

202

An uncharacterized member of the ribokinase family in Thermococcus kodakarensis exhibits myo-inositol kinase activity.  

PubMed

Here we performed structural and biochemical analyses on the TK2285 gene product, an uncharacterized protein annotated as a member of the ribokinase family, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. The three-dimensional structure of the TK2285 protein resembled those of previously characterized members of the ribokinase family including ribokinase, adenosine kinase, and phosphofructokinase. Conserved residues characteristic of this protein family were located in a cleft of the TK2285 protein as in other members whose structures have been determined. We thus examined the kinase activity of the TK2285 protein toward various sugars recognized by well characterized ribokinase family members. Although activity with sugar phosphates and nucleosides was not detected, kinase activity was observed toward d-allose, d-lyxose, d-tagatose, d-talose, d-xylose, and d-xylulose. Kinetic analyses with the six sugar substrates revealed high Km values, suggesting that they were not the true physiological substrates. By examining activity toward amino sugars, sugar alcohols, and disaccharides, we found that the TK2285 protein exhibited prominent kinase activity toward myo-inositol. Kinetic analyses with myo-inositol revealed a greater kcat and much lower Km value than those obtained with the monosaccharides, resulting in over a 2,000-fold increase in kcat/Km values. TK2285 homologs are distributed among members of Thermococcales, and in most species, the gene is positioned close to a myo-inositol monophosphate synthase gene. Our results suggest the presence of a novel subfamily of the ribokinase family whose members are present in Archaea and recognize myo-inositol as a substrate. PMID:23737529

Sato, Takaaki; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Yukika; Kuwata, Keiko; Kusaka, Eriko; Fujita, Haruo; Miki, Kunio; Atomi, Haruyuki

2013-06-04

203

Effects of patients with bipolar, schizophrenic, and major depressive disorders on the mental and other healthcare expenses of family members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family members who live with patients with serious mental disorders incur increased healthcare expenses. A retrospective study measured these increased expenses using administrative data from a large Blue Cross Blue Shield health plan in the USA. Mental and other healthcare expenses of family members of patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or major depression were compared to those of control family

Frank D. Gianfrancesco; Ruey-hua Wang; Elaine Yu

2005-01-01

204

High Prevalence of Mycoplasma Infections in Symptomatic (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome) Family Members of Mycoplasma-Positive Gulf War Illness Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Immediate family members of veterans diagnosed with Gulf War Illnesses often complain of fatiguing illnesses, and upon analysis they report similar signs and symptoms as their veteran family members. Since a relatively common finding in Gulf War Illness patients is a bacterial infection due to Mycoplasma species, we examined military families (149 patients: 42 veterans, 40 spouses, 32 other

Garth L. Nicolson; Marwan Y. Nasralla; Nancy L. Nicolson; Joerg Haier

2003-01-01

205

A study of the family burden of 150 family members of schizophrenic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. – Investigation into the family burden (FB) of schizophrenic patients has recently risen sharply. Nevertheless, to date there has been little consensus as to what factors influence the FB. The purpose of this study is to acquire a greater insight into the variables that influence the FB.Subjects\\/methods. – The FB was measured with the interview for the family burden

B. Lowyck; M. De Hert; E. Peeters; M. Wampers; P. Gilis; J. Peuskens

2004-01-01

206

Familial dilated cardiomyopathy: Echocardiographic diagnostic criteria for classification of family members as affected  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Echocardiographic criteria for left ventricular enlargement (LVE) used to classify subjects as affected in families with familial dilated cardiomyopathy (FDC) have been inconsistent. A recent report from a large Framingham echocardiographic study provides an opportunity to improve the assignment of LVE and FDC in kindreds, principally with a dilated phenotype. The objective of this study is to evaluate an

Ray E. Hershberger; Hanyu Ni; Kathy A. Crispell

1999-01-01

207

Pneumonia care and the nursing home: a qualitative descriptive study of resident and family member perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Nursing home residents are frequently sent to hospital for diagnostic tests or to receive acute health care services. These transfers are both costly and for some, associated with increased risks. Although improved technology allows long-term care facilities to deliver more complex health care on site, if this is to become a trend then residents and family members must see

Soo Chan Carusone; Mark Loeb; Lynne Lohfeld

2006-01-01

208

DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMPLE AND RAPID FLUOROGENIC PROCEDURE FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIONACEAE FAMILY MEMBERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We describe a rapid, fluorogenic procedure to detect Vibrionaceae family members isolated from seawater, shellfish, sewage, and clinical samples. The assay, referred to as the colony overlay procedure for peptidases (COPP), is based on a recently identified lysyl aminopeptidase activity that is asso...

209

Characterization of poplar ZIP family members ZIP1 and ZNT1  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A plant must regulate heavy metals to maintain adequate resources for plant processes while protecting against excess metal damage. Regulation of heavy metals such as zinc (Zn) has been attributed to the Zn transporter ZNT1 gene and other members of its larger ZIP transporter family. However, these ...

210

Factors Affecting Burden of South Koreans Providing Care to Disabled Older Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the determinants of caregiving burden among South Koreans who care for their disabled older family members. A sample of 1,000 primary caregivers taken from the Comprehensive Study for Elderly Welfare Policy in Seoul, South Korea was analyzed. Independent variables included the demographic characteristics of caregivers and care…

Lee, Minhong; Yoon, Eunkyung; Kropf, Nancy P.

2007-01-01

211

The Impact of Chronic Illness on the Health and Well-Being of Family Members.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explored the impact of dementia on family members' physical and mental health while caring for an ill parent/spouse. Severity of illness was significantly associated with health and well-being for spouses, offspring, and in-laws, regardless of the amount of caregiving. Demonstrates the potential cascading effect of severe illness. (RJM)|

Lieberman, Morton A.; Fisher, Lawrence

1995-01-01

212

Narratives of Grieving African-Americans about Racism in the Lives of Deceased Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a comprehensive interview study on African-American grief, the authors explored how racism is incorporated into narratives about a deceased family member. To the extent that experiences of racism are pervasive in African-American life and to the extent that narratives about a person who has died generally account for the life…

Rosenblatt, Paul C.; Wallace, Beverly R.

2005-01-01

213

Complete sequence and genetic characterization of Raspberry latent virus, a novel member of the family Reoviridae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new virus isolated from red raspberry plants and detected in the main production areas in northern Washington State, the United States and British Columbia, Canada was fully sequenced and found to be a novel member of the family Reoviridae. The virus was designated as Raspberry latent virus (RpLV)...

214

Tailored Versus Generic Interventions for Skin Cancer Risk Reduction for Family Members of Melanoma Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Improving strategies for risk reduction among family members of patients with melanoma may reduce their risk for melanoma. Objective: To evaluate the effects of two behavioral interventions designed to improve the frequency of total cutaneous skin examination by a health provider (TCE), skin self-examination (SSE), and sun protection among first degree relatives of patients with melanoma; and to evaluate

Sharon Manne; Paul B. Jacobsen; Michael E. Ming; Gary Winkel; Sophie Dessureault; Stuart R. Lessin

2010-01-01

215

Posttraumatic Symptoms in Japanese Bereaved Family Members with Special Regard to Suicide and Homicide Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members using a questionnaire. Participants were bereaved as a result of suicide and homicide (n = 51 and 49, respectively), with natural death (n = 56) as a control; and their relationships to the deceased were parent-child (n = 79), conjugal (n =…

Ogata, Kohske; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Nishi, Yuko; Maeda, Hitoshi

2011-01-01

216

Impact of Close Family Members on Older Adults' Early Response to Depression Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of 130 depressed older adults and their spouses or adult children examined the impact of caregiver burden specific to patients' depressive symptoms on patients' response to antidepressant treatment. Primary care patients completed medical, psychiatric, and neuropsychological assessments prior to treatment, and interviews were conducted with their identified family member. As hypothesized, caregivers' depression-specific burden predicted greater depression severity

Lynn M. Martire; Richard Schulz; Charles F. Reynolds; Jennifer Q. Morse; Meryl A. Butters; Gregory A. Hinrichsen

2008-01-01

217

Affectivity in the problem-solving interactions of schizophrenia patients and their family members  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to examine the relationship between symptomatology and the affect expressed between individuals with schizophrenia and their family members. It was hypothesized that, because of their impact on patient social behavior and potential burden on relatives, greater negative symptoms would be associated with less emotional expression in patients but would be related to the greater expression of negative

Jack J Blanchard; Steven L Sayers; Lindsay M Collins; Alan S Bellack

2004-01-01

218

Factors Affecting Burden of South Koreans Providing Care to Disabled Older Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the determinants of caregiving burden among South Koreans who care for their disabled older family members. A sample of 1,000 primary caregivers taken from the Comprehensive Study for Elderly Welfare Policy in Seoul, South Korea was analyzed. Independent variables included the demographic characteristics of caregivers and care recipients, the severity of cognitive impairment among care recipients, care

Minhong Lee; Eunkyung Yoon; NANCY P. KROPF

2007-01-01

219

Exploration of Concerns of Relatives During Continuous Palliative Sedation of Their Family Members with Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the experiences of relatives during continuous palliative sedation are scarce. Because these relatives may be the ones most closely involved with the patient, it is important to evaluate the possible burdens that they experience. We aimed to explore and evaluate concerns of relatives during continuous palliative sedation of their family members admitted to an acute palliative care unit.

Silvia van Dooren; Hetty T. M. van Veluw; Lia van Zuylen; Judith A. C. Rietjens; Jan Passchier; Carin C. D. van der Rijt

2009-01-01

220

Do Violent Offenders With Schizophrenia Who Attack Family Members Differ From Those With Other Victims?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do violent offenders with schizophrenia who attack family members differ from those with other victims? Data on individual background factors were collected on all male offenders of violent crimes who for their first time were subject to forensic psychiatric evaluation in Sweden between 1992 and 2000 and were diagnosed with schizophrenia. In addition to descriptive data for the whole sample,

Annika Nordström; Gunnar Kullgren

2003-01-01

221

SME3, a Novel Member of the Serratia marcescens SME Family of Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing  -Lactamases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spread of -lactamases among members of the family Enterobacteriaceae is an increasing trend throughout the world. While the vast majority of -lactamases cannot hydrolyze car- bapenems, several types of carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes have been described. The most common are the molecular class B metalloenzymes that are found on mobile elements (14); however, several types of class A, or functional group

Anne Marie Queenan; Wenchi Shang; Paul Schreckenberger; Karen Lolans; Karen Bush; John Quinn

2006-01-01

222

EvaIuating the "good death" concept from Iranian bereaved family members' perspective.  

PubMed

Improving end-of-life care demands that first you define what constitutes a good death for different cultures. This study was conducted to evaluate a good death concept from the Iranian bereaved family members' perspective. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was designed using a Good Death Inventory (GDI) questionnaire to evaluate 150 bereaved family members. Data were analyzed by SPSS. Based on the results, the highest scores belonged to the domains "being respected as an individual," "natural death," "religious and spiritual comfort," and "control over the future." The domain perceived by family members as less important was "unawareness of death." Providing a good death requires professional caregivers to be sensitive and pay attention to the preferences of each unique person's perceptions. In order to implement holistic care, caregivers must be aware of patients' spiritual needs. Establishing a specific unit in a hospital and individually treating each patient as a valued family member could be the best way to improve the quality of end-of-life care that is missing in Iran. PMID:21542412

Iranmanesh, Sedigheh; Hosseini, Habibollah; Esmaili, Mohammad

223

Suicides among Family Members of Elderly Suicide Victims: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study compares elderly suicides with (n = 13) and without (n = 72) family member suicide. Previous episodes of suicidal behavior were more common among suicides who lost first-degree relatives by suicide (100% vs. 65%, p = 0.009). Six persons had lost an offspring by suicide prior to their own deaths. Substance use disorder was…

Waern, Margda

2005-01-01

224

Identification and characterization of thrombospondin-4, a new member of the thrombospondin gene family  

PubMed Central

A new member of the thrombospondin gene family, designated thrombospondin-4, has been identified in the Xenopus laevis genome. The predicted amino acid sequence indicates that the protein is similar to the other members of this gene family in the structure of the type 3 repeats and the COOH-terminal domain. Thrombospondin-4 contains four type 2 repeats and lacks the type 1 repeats that are found in thrombospondin-1 and 2. The amino-terminal domain of thrombospondin-4 has no significant homology with the other members of the thrombospondin gene family or with other proteins in the database. RNAse protection analysis establishes that the initial expression of Xenopus thrombospondin-4 is observed during neurulation. Levels of mRNA expression increase twofold during tailbud stages but decrease by the feeding tadpole stage. The size of the thrombospondin-4 message is 3.3 Kb and 3.4 Kb in the frog and human, respectively. Northern blot analysis of human tissues reveals high levels of thrombospondin-4 expression in heart and skeletal muscle, low levels in brain, lung and pancreas and undetectable levels in the placenta, liver and kidney. These data establish the existence of a new member of the thrombospondin gene family that may participate in the genesis and function of cardiac and skeletal muscle.

1993-01-01

225

Functional analysis of the Escherichia coli genome for members of the ?\\/ ? hydrolase family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: The structural conservation and variation of the active sites of the ?\\/? hydrolases with known structures were studied. The similarities were incorporated into a three-dimensional motif that specifies essential requirements for the enzymatic functions. A threading algorithm was used to align 651 Escherichia coli open reading frames (ORFs) to one of the members of the ?\\/? hydrolase fold family.

Li Zhang; Adam Godzik; Jeffrey Skolnick; Jacquelyn S. Fetrow

1998-01-01

226

Developing Respite Care: A Support Service for Families with Disabled Members.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes respite care, a temporary relief service for families with developmentally disabled members at home, as an essential element in preventing institutionalization of disabled persons. Major approaches for providing respite care are identified. The advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches are discussed. (Author/JAC)|

Upshur, Carole C.

1983-01-01

227

Posttraumatic Symptoms in Japanese Bereaved Family Members with Special Regard to Suicide and Homicide Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members using a questionnaire. Participants were bereaved as a result of suicide and homicide (n = 51 and 49, respectively), with natural death (n = 56) as a control; and their relationships to the deceased were parent-child (n = 79), conjugal (n =…

Ogata, Kohske; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Nishi, Yuko; Maeda, Hitoshi

2011-01-01

228

5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible...CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM...894.307 Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? A child age 22 or over is...

2010-01-01

229

5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible...CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM...894.307 Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? A child age 22 or over is...

2013-01-01

230

5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible...CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM...894.307 Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? A child age 22 or over is...

2009-01-01

231

Analysis of the key active subsites of glycoside hydrolase 13 family members  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Amylase, pullulanase, neopullulanase, cyclomaltodextrinase (CDase), cyclomaltodextin glucanotransferase (CGTase), etc. are some of the amylolytic enzymes that act on polysaccharides. These enzymes differ from each other with respect to substrate and linkage specificities. These enzymes have been grouped into the GH13 (GH, Glycoside Hydrolase) family in the CAZy database on the basis of similarity in amino acid sequence. Members of this

Vikash Kumar

2010-01-01

232

Family members' knowledge about borderline personality disorder: correspondence with their levels of depression, burden, distress, and expressed emotion.  

PubMed

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and generally chronic disorder that presents patients and their family members with multiple challenges. Little is currently known about how much family members of patients with BPD know about this disorder. Thirty-two family members of BPD patients were assessed for their level of knowledge about BPD. Knowledge level was then correlated with family members' burden, depression, distress, and expressed emotion. Contrary to expectation, greater knowledge about BPD was associated with higher levels of family members' burden, distress, depression, and greater hostility toward patients. These findings raise concerns about (a) the value of information family members receive about BPD and (b) the importance of the source and accuracy of the information they receive. Further research is warranted and may provide additional information to this understudied area. PMID:14979218

Hoffman, Perry D; Buteau, Ellie; Hooley, Jill M; Fruzzetti, Alan E; Bruce, Martha L

2003-01-01

233

Redetermination of the space weathering rate using spectra of Iannini asteroid family members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have obtained moderate S/N (˜85) spectra at a realized resolution of R˜100 for 11 members of the Iannini family, until recently the youngest known family at under 5 million years of age [Nesvorný, D., Bottke, W.F., Levison, H.F., Dones, L., 2003. Astrophys. J. 591, 486 497, 720 771]. The spectra were acquired using the Echellette Spectrograph and Imager in its low-resolution prism mode on the Keck II telescope. The family members belong to the S-complex of asteroids with perhaps some K class members. The Iannini family members' average spectral slope, defined as the slope of the best-fit line constrained to pivot about 1 at 550 nm, is (0.30±0.04)/?m, matching the (0.26±0.03)/?m reported by Jedicke et al. [Jedicke, R., Nesvorný, D., Whiteley, R.J., Ivezi?, Ž., Juri?, M., 2004. Nature 429, 275 277] using SDSS [Ivezi?, Ž., Juri?, M., Lupton, R.H., Tabachnik, S., Quinn, T., 2002. In: Tyson, J.A., Wolff, S. (Eds.), Survey and Other Telescope Technologies and Discoveries. In: Proc. SPIE, vol. 4836. SPIE, Bellingham, pp. 98 103] color photometry. Using our spectra for this family as well as new observations of Karin family members [Vernazza, P., Birlan, M., Rossi, A., Dotto, E., Nesvorný, D., Brunetto, R., Fornasier, S., Fulchignoni, M., Renner, S., 2006. Astron. Astrophys. 460, 945 951] and new classifications of some older families we have revised the space weathering rate of S-complex asteroids originally determined by Jedicke et al. [Jedicke, R., Nesvorný, D., Whiteley, R.J., Ivezi?, Ž., Juri?, M., 2004. Nature 429, 275 277]. Following Jedicke et al. [Jedicke, R., Nesvorný, D., Whiteley, R.J., Ivezi?, Ž., Juri?, M., 2004. Nature 429, 275 277] we parameterize the space weathering rate of the principal component color of the spectrum (PC), which is correlated with the spectral slope, as PC(t)=PC(0)+?PC[1-exp]. Our revised rate suggests that the characteristic time scale for space weathering is ?=570±220 Myr and that new S-complex clusters will have an initial color of PC(0)=0.31±0.04. The revised time scale is in better agreement with lab measurements and our measurements support the use of space weathering as a dating method. Under the assumption that all the spectra should be identical, since the members all derive from the same parent body and are presumably covered with similar regolith, we combined them to obtain a high-S/N composite spectrum for the family. The combined spectrum is within the S-complex.

Willman, Mark; Jedicke, Robert; Nesvorný, David; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Ivezi?, Željko; Fevig, Ronald

2008-06-01

234

The expression of lysyl-oxidase gene family members in myeloproliferative neoplasms.  

PubMed

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are malignant disorders originating from clonal expansion of a single neoplastic stem cell and characteristically show an increase in bone marrow reticulin fibers. Lysyl oxidases (LOXs) are copper-dependent amine oxidases that play a critical role in the biogenesis of connective tissue by crosslinking extracellular matrix proteins, collagen and elastin. Expression of LOX gene family members is increased in disorders associated with increased fibrosis. To evaluate involvement of LOX gene family in various MPNs. In-situ hybridization was used to detect Lysyl-Oxidase family members in bone marrow biopsies from patients with different MPNs. We compared normal bone marrows and those from patients with polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Serum levels of lysyl-oxidase from patients with PMF and healthy controls were also examined. LOX gene family was not detected in normal bone marrows. All members of the LOX gene family were over expressed in PMF. In other MPNs a differential pattern of expression was observed. Differences in gene expression were statistically significant (P < 0.010). The medianserum LOX levels in normal controls was 28.4 ± 2.5 ng\\ml and 44.6 ± 9.44 ng\\ml in PMF (P = 0.02). The varying pattern of expression of LOX genes may reflect differences in the pathophysiology of bone marrow fibrosis in these MPNs. These observations could be used as the basis for future targeted therapy directed against bone marrow fibrosis. PMID:23494965

Tadmor, T; Bejar, J; Attias, D; Mischenko, E; Sabo, E; Neufeld, G; Vadasz, Z

2013-03-12

235

Paradoxical role of an Egr transcription factor family member, Egr2\\/Krox20, in learning and memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that Egr1\\/zif268, a member of the Egr family of transcription factors, is critical for the consolidation of several forms of memories. Recently, the Egr3 family member has also been implicated in learning and memory. Because Egr family members encode closely related zinc-finger transcription factors sharing a highly homologous DNA binding domain that recognises the same DNA

Roseline Poirier; Caroline Mailhes; Patrick Charnay; Sabrina Davis; Serge Laroche; Carmen Sandi

2007-01-01

236

Functional and structural analysis of members of the TorD family, a large chaperone family dedicated to molybdoproteins.  

PubMed

The trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) reductase TorA, a DMSO reductase family member, is a periplasmic molybdoenzyme of Escherichia coli. The cytoplasmic protein TorD acts as a chaperone for TorA, allowing the efficient insertion of the molybdenum cofactor into the apoform of the enzyme prior to its secretion. This paper demonstrates that TorD is a member of a large family of prokaryotic proteins that are structurally related. Moreover, their genes generally belong to operons also encoding molybdoenzymes of the DMSO reductase family. Both the TorD and the DMSO reductase families present a similar phylogenetic organization, suggesting a co-evolution of these two families of proteins. This hypothesis is also supported by the fact that the TorD and DmsD chaperones cannot replace each other and thus appear dedicated to specific molybdopartners. Interestingly, it was found that the positive effect of TorD on TorA maturation, and the partial inhibitory effect of DmsD and homologues, are independent of the TorA signal sequence. PMID:15073303

Ilbert, Marianne; Méjean, Vincent; Iobbi-Nivol, Chantal

2004-04-01

237

Familial multiple exostosis arising from bones of enchondral as well as membranous (in a family affecting seven members)  

PubMed Central

Familial multiple exostosis in a family of seven members who are affected found that exostosis was arising both from bones of enchondral as well as membranous ossification, which was sessile as well as pedunculated and was larger in size at the growing ends of the bones. The lesions occur only in bones that develop from cartilage (endochondral ossification). In our study, we have noticed lesions occurring in both endochondral as well as membranous bone. Till now, no article has mentioned about membranous origin (clavicle).

Kambali, Maruti; Priyamargavi, H.; Nazeer, Shiek; Mukherjee, Debojyothi; Gudi, N. S.

2012-01-01

238

Effects of cognitive-behavioral treatment for weight loss in family members.  

PubMed

The possibility that lifestyle changes may be shared by the family members of subjects with obesity attending cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for weight loss has been scarcely evaluated. The purpose of this study was to measure the changes in body weight, lifestyle habits, and stage of change toward physical activity in the family members of 149 subjects with overweight/obesity enrolled into a weekly group CBT for weight management in the years 2007-2008. 230 adult (aged >18 years) family members (129 spouses, 72 children (43 female, 29 male), 29 with a different family relationship) completed a self-administered questionnaire at baseline and soon after the end of the completion of their relatives' program (approximately 6 months later). The questionnaire consisted of qualitative information regarding food choices, estimation of energy and food intake, self-report of height and weight, and motivation toward physical activity. At baseline, self-reported body mass index was normal in 115 cases, in the range 25 to 29.9 in 80 and ?30 in 35. Following CBT of their relatives, the family members significantly reduced their average daily energy intake (-232 kcal/day; P<0.001) and the reported body weight decreased on average by 1 kg (P=0.001). The analysis of food choices revealed a reduced average daily amount of energy from dressings (-40 kcal, P<0.001), main courses with cheese or fat meat (-24 kcal, P=0.002), refined carbohydrates (-16 kcal, P<0.001), bread (-58 kcal, P<0.001), breakfast biscuits (-23 kcal, P=0.005), chocolate (-7 kcal, P=0.024), and nonalcoholic beverages (fruit juices and carbonated drinks; -10 kcal; P=0.013), whereas fruit consumption was increased (+10 kcal; P=0.023). There was also a shift in the stage of change toward exercising. Body mass index changes of family members and CBT subjects were significantly correlated, mainly within spouses. In conclusion, CBT for weight loss positively influences the lifestyle habits of family members of participants, reducing energy intake and promoting a more favorable attitude toward physical activity. PMID:22027054

Rossini, Raffaella; Moscatiello, Simona; Tarrini, Giulietta; Di Domizio, Silvia; Soverini, Valentina; Romano, Andreina; Mazzotti, Arianna; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Marchesini, Giulio

2011-11-01

239

Cancer in the Family: Review of the Psychosocial Perspectives of Patients and Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

As advances in cancer care have led to more treatment options and longer survival for cancer patients, a focus on quality of life for patients and their families has gained importance. This review provides a discussion of stress and coping theory, documents the relevance of this topic area for social work practice, and illuminates the results of a literature review

Diane B. Mitschke

2008-01-01

240

Cancer in the Family: Review of the Psychosocial Perspectives of Patients and Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As advances in cancer care have led to more treatment options and longer survival for cancer patients, a focus on quality of life for patients and their families has gained importance. This review provides a discussion of stress and coping theory, documents the relevance of this topic area for social work practice, and illuminates the results of…

Mitschke, Diane B.

2008-01-01

241

Specific regulation of E2F family members by cyclin-dependent kinases.  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor E2F-1 interacts stably with cyclin A via a small domain near its amino terminus and is negatively regulated by the cyclin A-dependent kinases. Thus, the activities of E2F, a family of transcription factors involved in cell proliferation, are regulated by at least two types of cell growth regulators: the retinoblastoma protein family and the cyclin-dependent kinase family. To investigate further the regulation of E2F by cyclin-dependent kinases, we have extended our studies to include additional cyclins and E2F family members. Using purified components in an in vitro system, we show that the E2F-1-DP-1 heterodimer, the functionally active form of the E2F activity, is not a substrate for the active cyclin D-dependent kinases but is efficiently phosphorylated by the cyclin B-dependent kinases, which do not form stable complexes with the E2F-1-DP-1 heterodimer. Phosphorylation of the E2F-1-DP-1 heterodimer by cyclin B-dependent kinases, however, did not result in down-regulation of its DNA-binding activity, as is readily seen after phosphorylation by cyclin A-dependent kinases, suggesting that phosphorylation per se is not sufficient to regulate E2F DNA-binding activity. Furthermore, heterodimers containing E2F-4, a family member lacking the cyclin A binding domain found in E2F-1, are not efficiently phosphorylated or functionally down-regulated by cyclin A-dependent kinases. However, addition of the E2F-1 cyclin A binding domain to E2F-4 conferred cyclin A-dependent kinase-mediated down-regulation of the E2F-4-DP-1 heterodimer. Thus, both enzymatic phosphorylation and stable physical interaction are necessary for the specific regulation of E2F family members by cyclin-dependent kinases.

Dynlacht, B D; Moberg, K; Lees, J A; Harlow, E; Zhu, L

1997-01-01

242

Differences in the transactivation domains of p53 family members: a computational study.  

PubMed

The N terminal transactivation domain of p53 is regulated by ligases and coactivator proteins. The functional conformation of this region appears to be an alpha helix which is necessary for its appropriate interactions with several proteins including MDM2 and p300. Folding simulation studies have been carried out to examine the propensity and stability of this region and are used to understand the differences between the family members with the ease of helix formation following the order p53 > p73 > p63. It is clear that hydrophobic clusters control the kinetics of helix formation, while electrostatic interactions control the thermodynamic stability of the helix. Differences in these interactions between the family members may partially account for the differential binding to, and regulation by, MDM2 (and MDMX). Phosphorylations of the peptides further modulate the stability of the helix and control associations with partner proteins. PMID:20158876

Mavinahalli, Jagadeesh N; Madhumalar, Arumugam; Beuerman, Roger W; Lane, David P; Verma, Chandra

2010-02-10

243

[Brazilian experiences in the participation of users and family members in mental health research].  

PubMed

In this paper the authors describe and contextualize the participation of users and family members in mental health research in Brazil, addressing the recent tradition of the experiences of recovery and empowerment to define the analysis of some Brazilian experiences of evaluative research and intervention projects, which count on these social actors to act as researchers. The experiences of Self-Help Groups and the Guide to Autonomous Medication Management are described briefly, in order to analyze the limits and possibilities of participation of users and their family members in research, which is still incipient and sporadic in the Brazilian reality. The authors also recommend the creation of an agenda in public health policy that encourages this participation. PMID:24061010

Presotto, Rodrigo Fernando; Silveira, Marília; Delgado, Pedro Gabriel Godinho; Vasconcelos, Eduardo Mourão

2013-10-01

244

Analysis of the role of the HIF hydroxylase family members in erythropoiesis.  

PubMed

HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor) hydroxylases have been implicated in EPO (erythropoietin) production and erythropoiesis. Here we examined the role of each of the three EGLN family members and the HIF asparaginyl hydroxylase FIH (factor inhibiting HIF) in EPO production. We examined the effect of inhibiting individual as well as combinations of HIF hydroxylases with RNAi. We found that inhibition of EGLN1 (egl nine homolog 1) as well as other members of the EGLN family (EGLN2 and EGLN3) led to accumulative EPO production in vitro. We then knocked down EGNL1 in vivo by injecting one-cell murine zygotes with lentivirus-containing RNAi. Progeny with demonstrated EGLN1 inhibition had elevated EPO production and erythropoiesis in vivo. Among all the in vitro and in vivo studies, no or minimal VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) mRNA or protein stimulation resulted from inhibition of EGLN1. PMID:19683512

Fisher, Timothy S; Lira, Paul D; Stock, Jeffrey L; Perregaux, David G; Brissette, William H; Ozolins, Terence R S; Li, Baiyong

2009-08-14

245

Four members of the HSP101 gene family are differently regulated in Triticum durum Desf.  

PubMed

Heat shock proteins play an essential role in preventing deleterious effects of high temperatures. In many plants, HSP101 has a central role in heat stress survival. We report the isolation and characterization of four cDNAs corresponding to different members of the durum wheat HSP101 gene family. Expression analysis revealed differences in their induction. Accordingly, durum wheat HSP101 genes are differently regulated, therefore having distinct roles in stress response and thermotolerance acquisition. These findings are important for further dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying the stress response and for understanding the functions of the HSP101 family members. This information could be important for the exploitation of specific alleles in marker assisted selection for abiotic stress resistance. PMID:17888913

Gullì, Mariolina; Corradi, Massimiliano; Rampino, Patrizia; Marmiroli, Nelson; Perrotta, Carla

2007-09-14

246

Compassion Fatigue: An Application of the Concept to Informal Caregivers of Family Members with Dementia  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Compassion fatigue is a concept used with increasing frequency in the nursing literature. The objective of this paper is to identify common themes across the literature and to apply these themes, and an existing model of compassion fatigue, to informal caregivers for family members with dementia. Findings. Caregivers for family members with dementia may be at risk for developing compassion fatigue. The model of compassion fatigue provides an informative framework for understanding compassion fatigue in the informal caregiver population. Limitations of the model when applied to this population were identified as traumatic memories and the emotional relationship between parent and child, suggesting areas for future research. Conclusions. Research is needed to better understand the impact of compassion fatigue on informal caregivers through qualitative interviews, to identify informal caregivers at risk for compassion fatigue, and to provide an empirical basis for developing nursing interventions for caregivers experiencing compassion fatigue.

Day, Jennifer R.; Anderson, Ruth A.

2011-01-01

247

The nurse's role in providing information to surgical patients and family members in Turkey: a descriptive study.  

PubMed

In 2008, we conducted a nonexperimental, cross-sectional, descriptive study in the surgical services department of a hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, with the aim of determining how much information was required by perioperative patients and their family members, the extent to which this information was provided, and the role that nurses play in this process. We included a total of 394 outpatients and inpatients and their family members (ie, 197 patients, 197 family members) and 30 nurses in the study. We collected the research data by using one questionnaire for patients, a second for family members of patients, and a third for nurses. We discovered that the patients and their family members wanted to be given more information about the surgical process than they had received. Patients wanted more information about the intraoperative period, whereas their family members wanted more information about the postoperative period. We also found that nurses were aware that they did not play an effective role in providing information to patients and their family members because of a lack of knowledge about what information they were responsible for providing and insufficient staffing. We concluded that nurses should know what education they are responsible for providing, put more effort into understanding patient and family member information needs, and plan a better means of providing information to meet those needs. PMID:22633384

Sayin, Yazile; Aksoy, Güler

2012-06-01

248

A Positive Aspect of Caregiving: The Influence of Social Support on Caregiving Gains for Family Members of Relatives with Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines family members' caregiving gains as a result of caring for their relatives with schizophrenic spectrum disorders, and the influence of formal and informal social support on these positive experiences. The results from interviews with 560 family members support that the experience of caregiving gains is prevalent. Moreover, formal support from mental health professionals through information sharing and

Fang-pei Chen; Jan S. Greenberg

2004-01-01

249

Factors Associated With Perceived Burden, Resourcefulness, and Quality of Life in Female Family Members of Adults With Serious Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Each year, 54 million American adults are affected by serious mental illness. Most of these persons depend on female family members for support or assistance, and unless these women are resourceful, they may experience considerable burden, stigma by association, depressive thoughts, and poor quality of life. OBJECTIVE:In this study, we examined the associations between characteristics of female family members

Jaclene A. Zauszniewski; Abir K. Bekhet; M. Jane Suresky

2008-01-01

250

Family members' strategies when their elderly relatives consider relocation to a residential home--adapting, representing and avoiding.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to reveal how family members act, react and reason when their elderly relative considers relocation to a residential home. Since family members are usually involved in the logistics of their elderly relative's relocation, yet simultaneously expected not to influence the decision, the focus is on how family members experience participation in the relocation process in a Swedish context. 17 family members are included in 27 open, semi-structured interviews and follow-up contacts. Prominent features in the findings are firstly the family members' ambition to tone down their personal opinions, even though in their minds their personal preferences are clear, and secondly, the family members' ambivalence about continuity and change in their everyday lives. Family members are found to apply the adapting, the representing, or the avoiding strategy, indirectly also influencing their interaction with the care manager. Siblings applied the adapting strategy, spouses the representing strategy, while family members in the younger generation at times switched between the strategies. PMID:22939546

Söderberg, Maria; Ståhl, Agneta; Melin Emilsson, Ulla

2012-08-05

251

AXR2 Encodes a Member of the Aux\\/IAA Protein Family1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant gain-of-function axr2-1 mutation of Arabidopsis causes agravitropic root and shoot growth, a short hypocotyl and stem, and auxin-resistant root growth. We have cloned the AXR2 gene using a map-based approach, and find that it is the same as IAA7, a member of the IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) family of auxin-inducible genes. The axr2-1 mutation changes a single amino acid

Punita Nagpal; Loni M. Walker; Jeff C. Young; Ami Sonawala; Candace Timpte; Mark Estelle; Jason W. Reed

2000-01-01

252

Cornulin, a New Member of the “Fused Gene” Family, Is Expressed During Epidermal Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protein encoded by the C1orf10 gene was described to be esophageal-specific and a marker for cancer development. This protein, however, has the previously unreported structural features of the “fused gene” family combining sequences and structural similarities of both the S100 proteins and precursor proteins of the cornified cell envelope as in profilaggrin, trichohyalin, and repetin. Since all members of

Romuald Contzler; Bertrand Favre; Marcel Huber; Daniel Hohl

2005-01-01

253

Intimacy and the Internet: Relationships with Friends, Romantic Partners, and Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Digital communication tools, such as email, instant messaging, text messaging, games, and social networking sites are very\\u000a popular among adolescents. Youth use them to interact and communicate with their peers as well as their family members. In\\u000a this chapter, we explore the role of technology in the third task facing adolescents: that of developing intimacy and interconnections\\u000a with the people

Kaveri Subrahmanyam; David Šmahel

254

Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Family Member RANK Mediates Osteoclast Differentiation and Activation Induced by Osteoprotegerin Ligand  

Microsoft Academic Search

A receptor that mediates osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and activation has been identified via genomic analysis of a primary osteoclast precursor cell cDNA library and is identical to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family member RANK. The RANK mRNA was highly expressed by isolated bone marrow-derived osteoclast progenitors and by mature osteoclasts in vivo. Recombinant OPGL binds specifically

Hailing Hsu; David L. Lacey; Colin R. Dunstan; Irina Solovyev; Anne Colombero; Emma Timms; Hong-Lin Tan; Gary Elliott; Michael J. Kelley; Ildiko Sarosi; Ling Wang; Xing-Zhong Xia; Robin Elliott; Laura Chiu; Tabitha Black; Sheila Scully; Casey Capparelli; Sean Morony; Grant Shimamoto; Michael B. Bass; William J. Boyle

1999-01-01

255

Cloning of the peroxiredoxin gene family in rats and characterization of the fourth member  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxiredoxin (PRx) exhibits thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase activity and constitutes a family of proteins. Four members of genes from rat tissues were isolated by PCR using degenerated primers based on the sequences which encode a pair of highly conserved Cys-containing domains, and were then cloned to full-length cDNAs. These included two genes which have previously been isolated in rats, PRx I and

Akio Matsumoto; Ayako Okado; Tsuneko Fujii; Junichi Fujii; Masayuki Egashira; Norio Niikawa; Naoyuki Taniguchi

1999-01-01

256

Schizophrenia: illness impact on family members in a traditional society – rural Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Background: Studies have consistently shown that both the subjective and objective dimensions of burden among family members of schizophrenia\\u000a patients and other psychiatric disorders are prevalent. However, as most of these reports were from western societies, we\\u000a lack information on the subject in developing countries. Method: The study was conducted within the framework of the ongoing epidemiological study of

T. Shibre; D. Kebede; A. Alem; A. Negash; N. Deyassa; A. Fekadu; D. Fekadu; L. Jacobsson; G. Kullgren

2003-01-01

257

Guidelines for Disclosing Genetic Information to Family Members: From Development to Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the existing legal frameworks, professional guidelines and other documents related to the conditions and\\u000a extent of the disclosure of genetic information by physicians to at-risk family members. Although the duty of a physician\\u000a regarding disclosure of genetic information to a patient’s relatives has only been addressed by few legal cases, courts have\\u000a found such a duty under

Béatrice Godard; Thierry Hurlimann; Martin Letendre; Nathalie Égalité

2006-01-01

258

Rapid microbiochemical method for presumptive identification of gastroenteritis-associated members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.  

PubMed Central

A method for rapid screening of isolates of pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae is described. Flow charts are used in conjunction with triple sugar iron agar, o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside-phenylalanine-motility sulfate screening media, oxidase test, and six rapid biochemical tests, namely, lysine decarboxylase, urease, indole, esculin hydrolysis, malonate, and xylose. This scheme is used to provide an inexpensive but rapid presumptive identification of Salmonella, Shigella, Edwardsiella, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas, Vibrio, and Yersinia isolates from stool cultures.

Yong, D C; Thompson, J S; Prytula, A

1985-01-01

259

Risk of Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms in Family Members of Intensive Care Unit Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Intensive care unit (ICU) admission of a relative is a stress- ful event that may cause symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objectives: Factors associated with these symptoms need to be identified. Methods: For patients admitted to 21 ICUs between March and November 2003, we studied the family member with the main potential decision-making role.Measurements: Ninety days after ICU

Elie Azoulay; Frederic Pochard; Nancy Kentish-Barnes; Sylvie Chevret; Jerome Aboab; Christophe Adrie; Djilali Annane; Gerard Bleichner; Michael Darmon; Thomas Fassier; Richard Galliot; Cyril Goulenok; Dany Goldgran-Toledano; Jan Hayon; Michel Kaidomar; Christian Laplace; Jerome Larche ´; Laurent Papazian; Jean Reignier; Faycal Saidi; Jérôme Liotier; Catherine Poisson; Benoît Schlemmer

2005-01-01

260

Isolation and characterization of a cellulase gene family member expressed during avocado fruit ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present in this paper the structural analysis of two members of a small cellulase gene family, designated cel1 and cel2, from avocado. These genes were isolated by screening a ? EMBL3 genomic library with a ripening-induced cellulase cDNA. Restriction endonuclease and Southern blot analyses showed that the cel1 gene is highly homologous to the cellulase cDNA and thus represents

Laura G. Cass; Kathleen A. Kirven; Rolf E. Christoffersen

1990-01-01

261

Local overexpression of interleukin-1 family, member 6 relates to the development of tubulointerstitial lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of factors that exacerbate a disease is important for the development of biomarkers. In this study, we discovered ectopic overexpression of interleukin-1 family, member-6 (IL-1F6) in several murine renal diseases. IL-1F6 participates in cytokine\\/chemokine production in the epithelium. In PCR array analysis for inflammatory mediators, Il1f6 showed the highest expression in the kidney of the B6.MRLc1 glomerulonephritis model. IL-1F6

Osamu Ichii; Saori Otsuka; Nobuya Sasaki; Akira Yabuki; Hiroshi Ohta; Mitsuyoshi Takiguchi; Yoshiharu Hashimoto; Daiji Endoh; Yasuhiro Kon

2010-01-01

262

Interactions of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) and TNF Receptor Family Members in the Mouse and Human  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ligands of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) (4-1BBL, APRIL, BAFF, CD27L, CD30L, CD40L, EDA1, EDA2, FasL, GITRL, LIGHT, lymphotoxin , lymphotoxin , OX40L, RANKL, TL1A, TNF, TWEAK, and TRAIL) bind members of the TNF receptor super- family (TNFRSF). A comprehensive survey of ligand-receptor interac- tions was performed using a flow cytometry-based assay. All ligands engaged between one and five

Claudia Bossen; Karine Ingold; Aubry Tardivel; Jean-Luc Bodmer; Olivier Gaide; Sylvie Hertig; Christine Ambrose; Pascal Schneider

2006-01-01

263

Crystal Structure of Aspergillus niger Isopullulanase, a Member of Glycoside Hydrolase Family 49  

Microsoft Academic Search

An isopullulanase (IPU) from Aspergillus niger ATCC9642 hydrolyzes ?-1,4-glucosidic linkages of pullulan to produce isopanose. Although IPU does not hydrolyze dextran, it is classified into glycoside hydrolase family 49 (GH49), major members of which are dextran-hydrolyzing enzymes. IPU is highly glycosylated, making it difficult to obtain its crystal. We used endoglycosidase Hf to cleave the N-linked oligosaccharides of IPU, and

Masahiro Mizuno; Atsushi Koide; Akihiro Yamamura; Hiromi Akeboshi; Hiromi Yoshida; Shigehiro Kamitori; Yoshiyuki Sakano; Atsushi Nishikawa; Takashi Tonozuka

2008-01-01

264

H-NS family members function coordinately in an opportunistic pathogen.  

PubMed

The histone-like nucleoid structuring protein, H-NS, is a prominent global regulator of gene expression. Many Gram-negative bacteria contain multiple members of the H-NS family of proteins. Thus, a key question is whether H-NS family members have overlapping or distinct functions. To address this question we performed genome-wide location analyses with MvaT and MvaU, the two H-NS family members present in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We show that MvaT and MvaU bind the same chromosomal regions, coregulating the expression of approximately 350 target genes. We show further that like H-NS in enteric bacteria, which functions as a transcriptional silencer of foreign DNA by binding to AT-rich elements, MvaT and MvaU bind preferentially to AT-rich regions of the chromosome. Our findings establish that H-NS paralogs can function coordinately to regulate expression of the same set of target genes, and suggest that MvaT and MvaU are involved in silencing foreign DNA elements in P. aeruginosa. PMID:19028873

Castang, Sandra; McManus, Heather R; Turner, Keith H; Dove, Simon L

2008-11-21

265

Demographic and clinical characteristics associated with treatment status in family members with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

This study investigated the demographic and clinical factors that influence treatment status in family members with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Six hundred and two subjects from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) to diagnose Axis I disorders, and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) for assessment of OCD symptoms. The demographic and clinical data were compared between subjects who had received treatment and those who had not. A precipitous onset of symptoms, severe illness, multiple obsessions and compulsions, and co-morbid affective disorders were all positively associated with receiving treatment. Older age and the presence of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) or OCPD traits were negatively associated with treatment. Gender and age at onset of symptoms did not predict treatment history. The mean duration from onset of symptoms to receiving treatment was 13.8+/-SD 11.9 years, but there was a direct relationship between current age and time to treatment, with younger subjects receiving treatment sooner. Clinical factors are predominant in predicting treatment status in family members with OCD. Although the mean duration from onset of symptoms to treatment was long, younger family members appear to receive treatment sooner. PMID:17345603

Cullen, Bernadette; Samuels, Jack F; Pinto, Anthony; Fyer, Abby J; McCracken, James T; Rauch, Scott L; Murphy, Dennis L; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Knowles, James A; Piacentini, John; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Grados, Marco A; Riddle, Mark A; Rasmussen, Steven A; Pauls, David L; Willour, Virginia L; Shugart, Yin Y; Liang, Kung-Yee; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf; Nestadt, Gerald

2008-01-01

266

Differential Requirement for Rel/Nuclear Factor ?B Family Members in Natural Killer T Cell Development  

PubMed Central

Natural killer T (NKT) cells have been implicated in diverse immune responses ranging from suppression of autoimmunity to tumor rejection. Thymus-dependent NKT cells are positively selected by the major histocompatibility complex class I–like molecule CD1d, but the molecular events downstream of CD1d are still poorly understood. Here, we show that distinct members of the Rel/nuclear factor (NF)-?B family of transcription factors were required in both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells for normal development of thymic NKT cells. Activation of NF-?B via the classical I?B?-regulated pathway was required in a cell autonomous manner for the transition of NK-1.1–negative precursors that express the TCR V?14-J?18 chain to mature NK-1.1–positive NKT cells. The Rel/NF-?B family member RelB, on the other hand, had to be expressed in radiation resistant thymic stromal cells for the generation of early NK-1.1–negative NKT precursors. Moreover, NF-?B–inducing kinase (NIK) was required for both constitutive thymic DNA binding of RelB and the specific induction of RelB complexes in vitro. Thus, distinct Rel/NF-?B family members in hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells regulate NKT cell development with a unique requirement for NIK-mediated activation of RelB in thymic stroma.

Sivakumar, Vallabhapurapu; Hammond, Kirsten J.L.; Howells, Norma; Pfeffer, Klaus; Weih, Falk

2003-01-01

267

Conserved cellular function and stress-mediated regulation among members of the proteolipid protein family.  

PubMed

Chronic stress causes morphological alterations in the hippocampus of rodents and tree shrews, including atrophy of CA3 dendrites and loss of synapses. The molecular mechanisms underlying these structural changes remain largely unknown. We have previously identified M6a as a stress responsive gene and shown that M6a is involved in filopodium/spine outgrowth and, likely, synapse formation. M6a belongs to the proteolipid protein (PLP) family, all of their members having four transmembrane domains that allow their localization at the plasma membrane. In the present work, we analyzed other members of this family, the closely related M6b as well as PLP and its splice variant DM20. We found that chronic restraint stress in mice reduces M6b and DM20, but not PLP, mRNA levels in the hippocampus. In addition, M6b and DM20, but again not PLP, induce filopodium formation in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons. Several M6b protein isoforms were studied, all of them having similar effects except for the one lacking the transmembrane domains. Our results reveal a conserved cellular function and a stress-mediated regulation among members of the proteolipid protein family, suggesting an involvement of proteolipid proteins in the stress response. PMID:19937804

Fernández, María E; Alfonso, Julieta; Brocco, Marcela A; Frasch, Alberto C

2010-05-01

268

Proteolytic cleavage of the ectodomain of the L1 CAM family member Tractin.  

PubMed

Tractin is a member of the L1 family of cell adhesion molecules in leech. Immunoblot analysis suggests that Tractin is constitutively cleaved in vivo at a proteolytic site with the sequence RKRRSR. This sequence conforms to the consensus sequence for cleavage by members of the furin family of convertases, and this proteolytic site is shared by a majority of other L1 family members. We provide evidence with furin-specific inhibitor experiments, by site-specific mutagenesis of Tractin constructs expressed in S2 cells, as well as by Tractin expression in furin-deficient LoVo cells that a furin convertase is the likely protease mediating this processing. Cross-immunoprecipitations with Tractin domain-specific antibodies suggest that the resulting NH(2)- and COOH-terminal cleavage fragments interact with each other and that this interaction provides a means for the NH(2)-terminal fragment to be tethered to the membrane. Furthermore, in S2 cell aggregation assays we show that the NH(2)-terminal fragment is necessary for homophilic adhesion and that cells expressing only the transmembrane COOH-terminal fragment are non-adhesive. However, tethering of exogeneously provided Tractin NH(2)-terminal fragment to S2 cells expressing only the COOH-terminal fragment can functionally restore the adhesive properties of Tractin. PMID:12446717

Xu, Ying-Zhi; Ji, Yun; Zipser, Birgit; Jellies, John; Johansen, Kristen M; Johansen, Jorgen

2002-11-21

269

Photoreduction of the Folate Cofactor in Members of the Photolyase Family*  

PubMed Central

Cryptochromes and DNA photolyases are related flavoproteins with flavin adenine dinucleotide as the common cofactor. Whereas photolyases repair DNA lesions caused by UV radiation, cryptochromes generally lack repair activity but act as UV-A/blue light photoreceptors. Two distinct electron transfer (ET) pathways have been identified in DNA photolyases. One pathway uses within its catalytic cycle, light-driven electron transfer from FADH?* to the DNA lesion and electron back-transfer to semireduced FADHo after photoproduct cleavage. This cyclic ET pathway seems to be unique for the photolyase subfamily. The second ET pathway mediates photoreduction of semireduced or fully oxidized FAD via a triad of aromatic residues that is conserved in photolyases and cryptochromes. The 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (5,10-methenylTHF) antenna cofactor in members of the photolyase family is bleached upon light excitation. This process has been described as photodecomposition of 5,10-methenylTHF. We show that photobleaching of 5,10-methenylTHF in Arabidopsis cry3, a member of the cryptochrome DASH family, with repair activity for cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer lesions in single-stranded DNA and in Escherichia coli photolyase results from reduction of 5,10-methenylTHF to 5,10-methyleneTHF that requires the intact tryptophan triad. Thus, a third ET pathway exists in members of the photolyase family that remained undiscovered so far.

Moldt, Julia; Pokorny, Richard; Orth, Christian; Linne, Uwe; Geisselbrecht, Yann; Marahiel, Mohamed A.; Essen, Lars-Oliver; Batschauer, Alfred

2009-01-01

270

[Outpatient psycho-oncological care for family members and patients: access, psychological distress and supportive care needs].  

PubMed

Supportive care needs of family members of cancer patients are often overlooked within psychosocial care. A screening measure was sent to 132 family members and 362 cancer patients (response rate > 95 %) after telephone registration at a specialized outpatient clinic for psycho-oncology at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf. The majority of participants was informed about the outpatient clinic for psycho-oncology through advice by third parties. More than 90 % of family members and cancer patients show high levels of distress; 49 % of family members and 59 % of patients had moderate to high levels of depression; 58 % of family members and 61 % of patients had moderate to high levels of anxiety. No gender differences were observed in both groups. Most frequent supportive care needs in both groups refer to fear of recurrence, dealing with uncertainty, sadness and keeping a positive outlook. Our findings emphasize the need for specific psycho-oncological interventions. PMID:22565336

Rosenberger, Christina; Höcker, Anja; Cartus, Michaela; Schulz-Kindermann, Frank; Härter, Martin; Mehnert, Anja

2012-05-07

271

What's at Stake? Genetic Information from the Perspective of People with Epilepsy and their Family Members  

PubMed Central

Substantial progress has been made in identifying genes that raise risk for epilepsy, and genetic testing for some of these genes is increasingly being used in clinical practice. However, almost no empirical data are available from the perspective of people with epilepsy and their family members about the impact of genetic information and potential benefits and harms of genetic testing. To address this gap we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 40 individuals (22 with epilepsy, 18 unaffected) in the USA from families containing multiple affected individuals who had participated in epilepsy genetics research. The interviews were coded and analyzed using the principles of grounded theory. Several major themes emerged from these interviews. Participants expressed “personal theories of inheritance” that emphasized commonalities among relatives and the idea that disease risk is most shared by family members who share physical or personality traits. Most participants said they would have genetic testing if it were offered. They cited many potential benefits, including learning what caused epilepsy in their family, being better able to care and advocate for children at risk, reducing guilt and blame, providing an increased sense of control, and relieving anxiety in unaffected individuals who test negative. The influence of genetic information on reproduction was a particularly salient theme. Although respondents believed genetic testing would be useful for informing their reproductive choices, they also expressed fear that it could lead to external pressures to modify these choices. Other concerns about the potential negative impact of genetic information included increased blame and guilt, increased stigma and discrimination in employment and insurance, self-imposed limitations on life goals, and alterations in fundamental conceptions of “what epilepsy is.” Consideration of the perspectives of people with epilepsy and their family members is critical to understanding the implications of contemporary epilepsy genetic research and testing.

Shostak, Sara; Zarhin, Dana; Ottman, Ruth

2011-01-01

272

What's at stake? Genetic information from the perspective of people with epilepsy and their family members.  

PubMed

Substantial progress has been made in identifying genes that raise risk for epilepsy, and genetic testing for some of these genes is increasingly being used in clinical practice. However, almost no empirical data are available from the perspective of people with epilepsy and their family members about the impact of genetic information and potential benefits and harms of genetic testing. To address this gap we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 40 individuals (22 with epilepsy, 18 unaffected) in the USA from families containing multiple affected individuals who had participated in epilepsy genetics research. The interviews were coded and analyzed using the principles of grounded theory. Several major themes emerged from these interviews. Participants expressed "personal theories of inheritance" that emphasized commonalities among relatives and the idea that disease risk is most shared by family members who share physical or personality traits. Most participants said they would have genetic testing if it were offered. They cited many potential benefits, including learning what caused epilepsy in their family, being better able to care and advocate for children at risk, reducing guilt and blame, providing an increased sense of control, and relieving anxiety in unaffected individuals who test negative. The influence of genetic information on reproduction was a particularly salient theme. Although respondents believed genetic testing would be useful for informing their reproductive choices, they also expressed fear that it could lead to external pressures to modify these choices. Other concerns about the potential negative impact of genetic information included increased blame and guilt, increased stigma and discrimination in employment and insurance, self-imposed limitations on life goals, and alterations in fundamental conceptions of "what epilepsy is." Consideration of the perspectives of people with epilepsy and their family members is critical to understanding the implications of contemporary epilepsy genetic research and testing. PMID:21831495

Shostak, Sara; Zarhin, Dana; Ottman, Ruth

2011-07-23

273

Three Members of the 6-cys Protein Family of Plasmodium Play a Role in Gamete Fertility  

PubMed Central

The process of fertilization is critically dependent on the mutual recognition of gametes and in Plasmodium, the male gamete surface protein P48/45 is vital to this process. This protein belongs to a family of 10 structurally related proteins, the so called 6-cys family. To identify the role of additional members of this family in Plasmodium fertilisation, we performed genetic and functional analysis on the five members of the 6-cys family that are transcribed during the gametocyte stage of P. berghei. This analysis revealed that in addition to P48/45, two members (P230 and P47) also play an essential role in the process of parasite fertilization. Mating studies between parasites lacking P230, P48/45 or P47 demonstrate that P230, like P48/45, is a male fertility factor, consistent with the previous demonstration of a protein complex containing both P48/45 and P230. In contrast, disruption of P47 results in a strong reduction of female fertility, while males remain unaffected. Further analysis revealed that gametes of mutants lacking expression of p48/45 or p230 or p47 are unable to either recognise or attach to each other. Disruption of the paralog of p230, p230p, also specifically expressed in gametocytes, had no observable effect on fertilization. These results indicate that the P. berghei 6-cys family contains a number of proteins that are either male or female specific ligands that play an important role in gamete recognition and/or attachment. The implications of low levels of fertilisation that exist even in the absence of these proteins, indicating alternative pathways of fertilisation, as well as positive selection acting on these proteins, are discussed in the context of targeting these proteins as transmission blocking vaccine candidates.

Khan, Shahid M.; van Dooren, Maaike W.; Ramesar, Jai; Kaczanowski, Szymon; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Kroeze, Hans; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Eling, Wijnand M.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Waters, Andrew P.; Janse, Chris J.

2010-01-01

274

Protecting the health of employees caring for family members with special health care needs.  

PubMed

Over half of American workers are holding a paid job while also providing unpaid assistance and support to a family member. Research shows that family members who provide care to children or adults with special health care needs are themselves at risk of physical and mental health problems. Yet, little research has explored how the work environment mediates the effects of caregiving on caregivers' mental and physical health. With a sample of 2455 currently employed U.S. adults from the Work, Family, Community Nexus (WFCN) survey, a random-digit dial, nationally representative survey of Americans aged 18-69, we examine whether paid leave and flexibility policies mediate the relationship between caregiving and health. In Ordinary Least Squares regression models, we find that paid leave to address family members' health was associated with better mental health status as measured by the 5-item Mental Health Inventory and paid sick leave with better physical health status as measured by self-rated overall health status. A supportive supervisor was also associated with improvements in mental and physical health. For both men and women, paid leave and a supervisor's support offset some or all of the negative effects of caregiving, but for women, the buffering effects of working conditions are slightly larger. Enhancing the unpaid leave guaranteed in the U.S. Family and Medical Leave Act so that it is paid and passing national paid sick days legislation will help ensure that employed caregivers can retain their jobs, receive needed income, and meet their own mental and physical health needs. PMID:21669484

Earle, Alison; Heymann, Jody

2011-05-27

275

Family Influences on Self-Management Among Functionally Independent Adults with Diabetes or Heart Failure: Do Family Members Hinder As Much As They Help?  

PubMed Central

Objectives Among functionally independent patients with diabetes or heart failure, we examined family member support and family-related barriers to self-care. We then identified patient characteristics associated with family support and family barriers and how each was associated with self-management adherence. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 439 patients with diabetes or heart failure (74% response rate). Results 75% of respondents reported supportive family involvement in self-care, however 25% reported frequent family-related barriers to self-care. Women reported family support less often (64% vs. 77%) and family barriers to self-care more often (30% vs. 21%) than men. 78% of respondents reported involved family members nagged or criticized them about illness care. In multivariate models, low health literacy, partnered status, and higher family function were associated with higher family support levels, while female gender, older age, higher education, and more depression symptoms were associated with family barriers to self-care. Family barriers were associated with lower disease care self-efficacy (p<.0.01), and both barriers and family support were associated with patients’ self-management adherence (both p<0.05). Discussion Family members are highly involved in the self-care of these higher-functioning patients. Interventions should help patients with chronic illness overcome family barriers to self-care and help families use positive and effective support techniques.

Rosland, Ann-Marie; Heisler, Michele; Choi, HwaJung; Silveira, Maria J.; Piette, John D

2013-01-01

276

Extreme structural heterogeneity among the members of a maize retrotransposon family.  

PubMed Central

A few families of retrotransposons characterized by the presence of long terminal repeats (LTRs) have amplified relatively recently in maize and account for >50% of the genome. Surprisingly, none of these elements have been shown to cause a single mutation. In contrast, most of the retrotransposon-induced mutations isolated in maize are caused by the insertion of elements that are present in the genome at 2-50 copies. To begin to understand what limits the amplification of this mutagenic class of LTR-retrotransposons, we are focusing on five elements previously identified among 17 mutations of the maize waxy gene. One of these elements, Stonor, has sustained a deletion of the entire gag region and part of the protease domain. Missing sequences were recovered from larger members of the Stonor family and indicate that the deletion probably occurred during retrotransposition. These large elements have an exceptionally long leader of 2 kb that includes a highly variable region of approximately 1 kb that has not been seen in previously characterized retrotransposons. This region serves to distinguish each member of the Stonor family and indicates that no single element has yet evolved that can attain the very high copy numbers characteristic of other element families in maize.

Marillonnet, S; Wessler, S R

1998-01-01

277

Number of Family Members, a New Influencing Factor to Affect the Risk of Melamine-Associated Urinary Stones  

PubMed Central

Melamine is a new risk of urinary stones. Gansu province is a heavily affected area and has large population and underdeveloped economy. We hypothesized that number of family members and family income may play significant roles in the formation of urinary stones. A case-control study was performed among 190 infants. Results showed that the case group had less numbers of family members than the control (4.4 vs. 5.6, respectively). The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that number of family members was an independent influencing factor associated with urinary stones (OR, 0.606; 95% CI, 0.411–0.893; P = 0.011). Family income, however, did not exhibit a significant difference. Observed results suggested that number of family members was a new and significant influencing factor to affect the risk of melamine-associated urinary stones.

LIU, Changjiang; LI, Hui; YANG, Kedi; YANG, Haixia

2013-01-01

278

Anoctamin/TMEM16 family members are Ca2+-activated Cl? channels  

PubMed Central

Ca2+-activated Cl? channels (CaCCs) perform many important functions in cell physiology including secretion of fluids from acinar cells of secretory glands, amplification of olfactory transduction, regulation of cardiac and neuronal excitability, mediation of the fast block to polyspermy in amphibian oocytes, and regulation of vascular tone. Although a number of proteins have been proposed to be responsible for CaCC currents, the anoctamin family (ANO, also known as TMEM16) exhibits characteristics most similar to those expected for the classical CaCC. Interestingly, this family of proteins has previously attracted the interest of both developmental and cancer biologists. Some members of this family are up-regulated in a number of tumours and functional deficiency in others is linked to developmental defects.

Hartzell, H Criss; Yu, Kuai; Xiao, Qinhuan; Chien, Li-Ting; Qu, Zhiqiang

2009-01-01

279

Novel Members of Glycoside Hydrolase Family 13 Derived from Environmental DNA?  

PubMed Central

Starch and pullulan-modifying enzymes of the ?-amylase family (glycoside hydrolase family 13) have several industrial applications. To date, most of these enzymes have been derived from isolated organisms. To increase the number of members of this enzyme family, in particular of the thermophilic representatives, we have applied a consensus primer-based approach using DNA from enrichments from geothermal habitats. With this approach, we succeeded in isolating three new enzymes: a neopullulanase and two cyclodextrinases. Both cyclodextrinases displayed significant maltogenic amylase side activity, while one showed significant neopullulanase side activity. Specific motifs and domains that correlated with enzymatic activities were identified; e.g., the presence of the N domain was correlated with cyclodextrinase activity. The enzymes exhibited stability under thermophilic conditions and showed features appropriate for biotechnological applications.

Labes, Antje; Karlsson, Eva Nordberg; Fridjonsson, Olafur H.; Turner, Pernilla; Hreggvidson, Gudmundur O.; Kristjansson, Jakob K.; Holst, Olle; Schonheit, Peter

2008-01-01

280

Evaluating Genetic Counseling for Family Members of Individuals With Schizophrenia in the Molecular Age.  

PubMed

Background:Myths and concerns about the extent and meaning of genetic risk in schizophrenia may contribute to significant stigma and burden for families. Genetic counseling has long been proposed to be a potentially informative and therapeutic intervention for schizophrenia. Surprisingly, however, available data are limited. We evaluated a contemporary genetic counseling protocol for use in a community mental health-care setting by non-genetics professionals. Methods: We used a pre-post study design with longitudinal follow-up to assess the impact of genetic counseling on family members of individuals with schizophrenia, where molecular testing had revealed no known clinically relevant genetic risk variant. We assessed the outcome using multiple measures, including standard items and scales used to evaluate genetic counseling for other complex diseases. Results: Of the 122 family members approached, 78 (63.9%) actively expressed an interest in the study. Participants (n = 52) on average overestimated the risk of familial recurrence at baseline, and demonstrated a significant improvement in this estimate postintervention (P < .0001). This change was associated with an enduring decrease in concern about recurrence (P = .0003). Significant and lasting benefits were observed in other key areas, including increased knowledge (P < .0001) and a decreased sense of stigma (P = .0047). Endorsement of the need for genetic counseling was high (96.1%). Conclusions: These results provide initial evidence of the efficacy of schizophrenia genetic counseling for families, even in the absence of individually relevant genetic test results or professional genetics services. The findings support the integration of contemporary genetic counseling for families into the general management of schizophrenia in the community. PMID:23104866

Costain, Gregory; Esplen, Mary Jane; Toner, Brenda; Hodgkinson, Kathleen A; Bassett, Anne S

2012-10-27

281

MicroRNA-200 Family Members Differentially Regulate Morphological Plasticity and Mode of Melanoma Cell Invasion  

PubMed Central

Background A functional role of microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) in neoplasia and metastasis is becoming clear, and the miR-200 family has received much attention for potentially regulating tumor progression. The miRNAs of this family have been shown to suppress epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and their down-regulation in some tumors promotes invasion and metastasis. Interestingly, while miR-200 is down-regulated in some cancers, it is up-regulated in others. Principal Findings We show that levels of miR-200 are increased in melanoma cell lines compared to normal melanocytes and that miR-200 family members play a role in determining modes of tumor cell migration. Individual tumor cells can invade in either elongated, “mesenchymal-type” or rounded, “amoeboid-like” modes and these two modes of invasion are inter-convertible [1]. In melanoma cell lines, expression of miR-200 members does not suppress invasion but rather leads to a switch between modes of invasion. MicroRNA-200c results in a higher proportion of cells adopting the rounded, amoeboid-like mode of invasion, while miR-200a results in a protrusion-associated elongated mode of invasion. Functional target identification studies suggest that the morphological effects of miR-200c may be mediated by reduced expression of MARCKS, which has been linked to formation of cell protrusions. In contrast miR-200a reduces actomyosin contractility, a feature of rounded morphology. Significance Overall our findings call into question the general role of miR-200 in suppressing invasion and metastasis, and highlight novel distinguishing characteristics of individual miR-200 family members.

Elson-Schwab, Ilan; Lorentzen, Anna; Marshall, Christopher J.

2010-01-01

282

Turnover of amyloid precursor protein family members determines their nuclear signaling capability.  

PubMed

The amyloid precursor protein (APP) as well as its homologues, APP-like protein 1 and 2 (APLP1 and APLP2), are cleaved by ?-, ?-, and ?-secretases, resulting in the release of their intracellular domains (ICDs). We have shown that the APP intracellular domain (AICD) is transported to the nucleus by Fe65 where they jointly bind the histone acetyltransferase Tip60 and localize to spherical nuclear complexes (AFT complexes), which are thought to be sites of transcription. We have now analyzed the subcellular localization and turnover of the APP family members. Similarly to AICD, the ICD of APLP2 localizes to spherical nuclear complexes together with Fe65 and Tip60. In contrast, the ICD of APLP1, despite binding to Fe65, does not translocate to the nucleus. In addition, APLP1 predominantly localizes to the plasma membrane, whereas APP and APLP2 are detected in vesicular structures. APLP1 also demonstrates a much slower turnover of the full-length protein compared to APP and APLP2. We further show that the ICDs of all APP family members are degraded by the proteasome and that the N-terminal amino acids of ICDs determine ICD degradation rate. Together, our results suggest that different nuclear signaling capabilities of APP family members are due to different rates of full-length protein processing and ICD proteasomal degradation. Our results provide evidence in support of a common nuclear signaling function for APP and APLP2 that is absent in APLP1, but suggest that APLP1 has a regulatory role in the nuclear translocation of APP family ICDs due to the sequestration of Fe65. PMID:23874953

Gersbacher, Manuel T; Goodger, Zoë V; Trutzel, Annette; Bundschuh, Diana; Nitsch, Roger M; Konietzko, Uwe

2013-07-18

283

Ethical Dilemmas in Testing for Late Onset Conditions: Reactions to Testing and Perceived Impact on Other Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines some of the ethical dilemmas that arise when testing for the late onset, untreatable condition of Huntington disease (HD) specifically now that technology allows us to test younger generations of the family for the mutant gene. Drawing on interview data from families with Huntington disease, the reactions to testing and perceived impact on other family members are

Elizabeth Chapman

2002-01-01

284

In the aftermath of teenage suicide: A qualitative study of the psychosocial consequences for the surviving family members  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies of family reactions following teenage suicide are hampered by the psychological difficulties of approaching families and recruiting an unbiased sample of study subjects. By using a small but consecutive series of cases, we examined the qualitative aspects of loosing a teenage family member due to suicide. Such an understanding is important for future organisation of proper programs that

Per Lindqvist; Lars Johansson; Urban Karlsson

2008-01-01

285

Distinct roles of DBHS family members in the circadian transcriptional feedback loop.  

PubMed

Factors interacting with core circadian clock components are essential to achieve transcriptional feedback necessary for metazoan clocks. Here, we show that all three members of the Drosophila behavior human splicing (DBHS) family of RNA-binding proteins play a role in the mammalian circadian oscillator, abrogating or altering clock function when overexpressed or depleted in cells. Although these proteins are members of so-called nuclear paraspeckles, depletion of paraspeckles themselves via silencing of the structural noncoding RNA (ncRNA) Neat1 did not affect overall clock function, suggesting that paraspeckles are not required for DBHS-mediated circadian effects. Instead, we show that the proteins bound to circadian promoter DNA in a fashion that required the PERIOD (PER) proteins and potently repressed E-box-mediated transcription but not cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter-mediated transcription when they were exogenously recruited. Nevertheless, mice with one or both copies of these genes deleted show only small changes in period length or clock gene expression in vivo. Data from transient transfections show that each of these proteins can either repress or activate, depending on the context. Taken together, our data suggest that all of the DBHS family members serve overlapping or redundant roles as transcriptional cofactors at circadian clock-regulated genes. PMID:22966205

Kowalska, Elzbieta; Ripperger, Jürgen A; Muheim, Christine; Maier, Bert; Kurihara, Yasuyuki; Fox, Archa H; Kramer, Achim; Brown, Steven A

2012-09-10

286

Distinct Roles of DBHS Family Members in the Circadian Transcriptional Feedback Loop  

PubMed Central

Factors interacting with core circadian clock components are essential to achieve transcriptional feedback necessary for metazoan clocks. Here, we show that all three members of the Drosophila behavior human splicing (DBHS) family of RNA-binding proteins play a role in the mammalian circadian oscillator, abrogating or altering clock function when overexpressed or depleted in cells. Although these proteins are members of so-called nuclear paraspeckles, depletion of paraspeckles themselves via silencing of the structural noncoding RNA (ncRNA) Neat1 did not affect overall clock function, suggesting that paraspeckles are not required for DBHS-mediated circadian effects. Instead, we show that the proteins bound to circadian promoter DNA in a fashion that required the PERIOD (PER) proteins and potently repressed E-box-mediated transcription but not cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter-mediated transcription when they were exogenously recruited. Nevertheless, mice with one or both copies of these genes deleted show only small changes in period length or clock gene expression in vivo. Data from transient transfections show that each of these proteins can either repress or activate, depending on the context. Taken together, our data suggest that all of the DBHS family members serve overlapping or redundant roles as transcriptional cofactors at circadian clock-regulated genes.

Kowalska, Elzbieta; Ripperger, Jurgen A.; Muheim, Christine; Maier, Bert; Kurihara, Yasuyuki; Fox, Archa H.; Kramer, Achim

2012-01-01

287

R-Spondin Family Members Regulate the Wnt Pathway by a Common Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The R-Spondin (RSpo) family of secreted proteins is implicated in the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway. Despite the high structural homology between the four members, expression patterns and phenotypes in knockout mice have demonstrated striking differences. Here we dissected and compared the molecular and cellular function of all RSpo family members. Although all four RSpo proteins activate the canonical Wnt pathway, RSpo2 and 3 are more potent than RSpo1, whereas RSpo4 is relatively inactive. All RSpo members require Wnt ligands and LRP6 for activity and amplify signaling of Wnt3A, Wnt1, and Wnt7A, suggesting that RSpo proteins are general regulators of canonical Wnt signaling. Like RSpo1, RSpo2-4 antagonize DKK1 activity by interfering with DKK1 mediated LRP6 and Kremen association. Analysis of RSpo deletion mutants indicates that the cysteine-rich furin domains are sufficient and essential for the amplification of Wnt signaling and inhibition of DKK1, suggesting that Wnt amplification by RSpo proteins may be a direct consequence of DKK1 inhibition. Together, these findings indicate that RSpo proteins modulate the Wnt pathway by a common mechanism and suggest that coexpression with specific Wnt ligands and DKK1 may determine their biological specificity in vivo.

Kim, Kyung-Ah; Wagle, Marie; Tran, Karolyn; Zhan, Xiaoming; Dixon, Melissa A.; Liu, Shouchun; Gros, Delphine; Korver, Wouter; Yonkovich, Shirlee; Tomasevic, Nenad; Binnerts, Minke

2008-01-01

288

Testican-3: a brain-specific proteoglycan member of the BM-40/SPARC/osteonectin family.  

PubMed

The testicans are a three-member family of secreted proteoglycans structurally related to the BM-40/secreted protein acidic and rich in cystein (SPARC) osteonectin family of extracellular calcium-binding proteins. In vitro studies have indicated that testicans are involved in the regulation of extracellular protease cascades and in neuronal function. Here, we describe the biochemical characterization and tissue distribution of mouse testican-3 as well as the inactivation of the corresponding gene. The expression of testican-3 in adult mice is restricted to the brain, where it is located diffusely within the extracellular matrix, as well as associated with cells. Brain-derived testican-3 is a heparan sulphate proteoglycan. In cell culture, the core protein is detected in the supernatant and the extracellular matrix, whereas the proteoglycan form is restricted to the supernatant. This indicates possible interactions of the testican-3 core protein with components of the extracellular matrix which are blocked by addition of the glycosaminoglycan chains. Mice deficient in testican-3 are viable and fertile and do not show an obvious phenotype. This points to a functional redundancy among the different members of the testican family or between testican-3 and other brain heparan sulphate proteoglycans. PMID:23418755

Hartmann, Ursula; Hülsmann, Hanni; Seul, Judith; Röll, Sandra; Midani, Heven; Breloy, Isabelle; Hechler, Daniel; Müller, Regina; Paulsson, Mats

2013-03-13

289

[Difficult news: meanings attributed by family members of children with cystic fibrosis].  

PubMed

This article studied some of the meanings that difficult news assumes when transmitted by health professionals to relatives of young cystic fibrosis patients undergoing treatment at a public hospital located in the south zone of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is the result of qualitative research and analysis of ten narratives collected during two months in 2010. These meanings are not understood by professionals and interfere with the evolution of the illness, the coping process and the care given to the children. It has been observed that the content of the news is perceived differently depending on: The clarity with which it is transmitted to each family member; The forthright way it is conveyed without the preparation of the listener; The consideration of the context in which people live and the consequences involved; The presence of a family member when the news is delivered; and the fragmentation of information. Results indicate the need to make professionals aware of the importance of communication aspects in clinical meetings and the inclusion of this training process in the medical curriculum as well as during physicians' professional lives. It seems that in delivery of the news the family expects a balance between technical efficiency and conversational tact from professionals. PMID:23989567

Afonso, Selene Beviláqua Chaves; Mitre, Rosa Maria de Araujo

2013-09-01

290

The "duty to warn" a patient's family members about hereditary disease risks.  

PubMed

Genetic tests for adult-onset disorders, including common forms of cancer, are now commercially available, and tests for genetic polymorphisms that predict drug effects or toxicity after treatment are under development. For each of these circumstances, testing of 1 individual may imply an increased risk to his/her relative. The obligation, if any, to warn family members of the identification of a genetic mutation has generated concerns regarding the conflict between the physician's ethical obligations to respect the privacy of genetic information vs the potential liabilities resulting from the physician's failure to notify at-risk relatives. A duty to warn relatives about risks due to some infectious agents has been assumed by state and local health agencies, and the duty to breach confidentiality to warn of imminent harm has been the subject of case law. In general, the special nature of genetic tests has been viewed as a barrier to physicians' breaching the confidentiality of personal genetic information. However, the failure to warn family members about hereditary disease risks has already resulted in 3 lawsuits against physicians in the United States. While the findings of case law and the state and federal statutes that bear on the issue of "duty to warn" of inherited health risk are still being defined, we believe that health care professionals have a responsibility to encourage but not to coerce the sharing of genetic information in families, while respecting the boundaries imposed by the law and by the ethical practice of medicine. PMID:15383518

Offit, Kenneth; Groeger, Elizabeth; Turner, Sam; Wadsworth, Eve A; Weiser, Mary A

2004-09-22

291

Understanding Family-Centered Care in the Mental Health System: Perspectives From Family Members Caring for Relatives With Mental Health Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent focus on Family-Centered Care (FCC) in mental health has resulted in a variety of recommendations designed to increase family involvement in caring for relatives with mental health issues. Studies indicate that family members require collaboration, information, and support from the mental health system and its providers, but confidentiality concerns, funding limitations, and discrimination often prevent such needs from

Sandy McNeil

2012-01-01

292

The Importance of Older Family Members in Providing Social Resources and Promoting Cancer Screening in Families with a Hereditary Cancer Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This study evaluates the role of older family members as providers of social resources within familial network systems affected by an inherited cancer susceptibility syndrome. Design and Methods: Respondents who previously participated in a study that involved genetic counseling and testing for Lynch syndrome and their family network…

Ashida, Sato; Hadley, Donald W.; Goergen, Andrea F.; Skapinsky, Kaley F.; Devlin, Hillary C.; Koehly, Laura M.

2011-01-01

293

Production of Reactive Oxygen Species by Polyhalogenated Cyclic Hydrocarbons (PCH).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of this research strongly support the hypothesis that polyhalogenated cyclic hydrocarbons (PCH) induce production of reactive oxygen species which may contribute to many of the toxic manifestations associated with these xenobiotics. A non-inva...

S. J. Stohs

1992-01-01

294

Influence of posttraumatic stress disorder of the fathers on other family members.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to analyze the frequency of depression and anxiety and children behaviour in families whose heads of the family (father) suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The study was conducted from September 2005 until July 2006, with patients living in Mostar. The frequency of depression and anxiety in family members older than 18 years, and changes of the behaviour in children younger than 18 years of age were measured. The data were collected from 60 men and their families who had been diagnosed with PTSD by their psychiatrist. The control group was formed using matching criteria (age of the head of the family, his education, religion, family income and number of children). In this study, three questionnaires were used: one specially designed for this study, covering general information about family members, and a personal opinion of each family member about the family situation and relations within the family; Hopkins symptoms checklist - 25 (HSCL-25) for evaluation of depression and anxiety for subjects older than 18; and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) for children 5 to 18 years of age, which was completed by their mothers. More wives from the PTSD families had depression than wives from the controlled group (chi2=21,099; df=1; P<0,050). There was no difference between groups in frequency of depression and anxiety (chi2=0,003; df=1; P=0,959) for children older than 18 years. No difference in answers between groups of children younger than 18 years were found in the General Health Questionnaire. However, we found significant differences in separate questions. Mothers, who filled the questionnaire form, reported that children from fathers who had PTSD experienced stomach pain more often (chi2=10,474;df=2; P=0,005), eating problems (chi2=14,204;df=2; P=0,001) and breathing problems (chi2=9,748;df=2; P=0,008), than children from fathers who did not have PTSD. Children from fathers with PTSD were more easily upset (chi2=7,586; df=2; P=0,023) and worried more often (chi2=12,093; df=2; P=0,002), they were also more aggressive towards other children (chi2=6,156; df=1; P=0,013). The controlled group of children who wanted to help with the house work was larger than the tested group (chi2=10,383; df=2; P=0,006). More children from the controlled group missed school than from the other group of surveyed children (chi2=6,056; df=2; P=0,048). A significantly larger number of women, whose husbands had PTSD, were depressed, unlike women whose husbands were not ill. There was no significant difference in depression manifestation in a group of children older than 18, as well as in behaviour of a group of children younger than 18, but significant differences in some provided answers were found, that indicate the differences between controlled and tested groups. PMID:18318667

Zalihi?, Amra; Zalihi?, Dino; Pivi?, Gordana

2008-02-01

295

Facilitators and barriers to hypertension self-management in urban African Americans: perspectives of patients and family members  

PubMed Central

Introduction We aimed to inform the design of behavioral interventions by identifying patients’ and their family members’ perceived facilitators and barriers to hypertension self-management. Materials and methods We conducted focus groups of African American patients with hypertension and their family members to elicit their views about factors influencing patients’ hypertension self-management. We recruited African American patients with hypertension (n = 18) and their family members (n = 12) from an urban, community-based clinical practice in Baltimore, Maryland. We conducted four separate 90-minute focus groups among patients with controlled (one group) and uncontrolled (one group) hypertension, as well as their family members (two groups). Trained moderators used open-ended questions to assess participants’ perceptions regarding patient, family, clinic, and community-level factors influencing patients’ effective hypertension self-management. Results Patient participants identified several facilitators (including family members’ support and positive relationships with doctors) and barriers (including competing health priorities, lack of knowledge about hypertension, and poor access to community resources) that influence their hypertension self-management. Family members also identified several facilitators (including their participation in patients’ doctor’s visits and discussions with patients’ doctors outside of visits) and barriers (including their own limited health knowledge and patients’ lack of motivation to sustain hypertension self-management behaviors) that affect their efforts to support patients’ hypertension self-management. Conclusion African American patients with hypertension and their family members reported numerous patient, family, clinic, and community-level facilitators and barriers to patients’ hypertension self-management. Patients’ and their family members’ views may help guide efforts to tailor behavioral interventions designed to improve hypertension self-management behaviors and hypertension control in minority populations.

Flynn, Sarah J; Ameling, Jessica M; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Wolff, Jennifer L; Bone, Lee R; Levine, David M; Roter, Debra l; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Fisher, Annette R; Purnell, Leon; Ephraim, Patti L; Barbers, Jeffrey; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Albert, Michael C; Cooper, Lisa A; Fagan, Peter J; Martin, Destiny; Ramamurthi, Hema C; Boulware, L Ebony

2013-01-01

296

PMM2-CDG: Phenotype and genotype in four affected family members.  

PubMed

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are genetic defects in protein and lipid glycosylation. PMM2-CDG is the most prevalent protein N-glycosylation disorder with more than 700 reported patients. Here we report on a large Italian family with four affected members and three mutations. Two young sisters are compound heterozygous for mutations p.Leu32Arg and p.Arg141His, while two paternal great-aunts are compound heterozygosity for p.Leu32Arg and p.Thr237Met. The latter association has not been reported before. The most severely affected member had in addition an ALG6 mutation known to exacerbate the phenotype of patients with PMM2-CDG. PMID:23988505

Bortot, Barbara; Cosentini, Dora; Faletra, Flavio; Biffi, Stefania; De Martino, Eleonora; Carrozzi, Marco; Severini, Giovanni Maria

2013-08-26

297

A novel member of the ligand-gated chloride channel gene family from Haemonchus contortus.  

PubMed

Ligand-gated chloride channels (LGCCs) are key components of the nervous system of parasitic nematodes and important targets for anthelmintics. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of a novel member of the LGCC gene family (HcLGCC1) from the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. Sequence analysis revealed that the channel subunit encoded by HcLGCC1 is anion selective and a member of a group of channels characterized as having two Cys-loops in the N-terminal ligand-binding domain. Although the overall function of HcLGCC1 is presently unknown, the gene may play a key role in the early developmental stages of the parasite. Further investigations into the function of LGCCs, such as HcLGCC1, in parasitic nematodes should have implications for the discovery of new anthelmintic targets. PMID:18093350

Forrester, S G; Siddiqui, S Z

2007-12-20

298

[The development of an instrument for the "evaluation of hospices from the bereaved family members perspective"].  

PubMed

Inpatient hospice settings as facilities of health services are obliged to the quality assurance and internal quality development in Germany. The meaning of the patient's satisfaction as one of the indirect indicators for the judgement of nursing and care quality is indisputable by now. However, a subjective evaluation of the hospices by guests is practically and ethically problematic. An alternative approach is to investigate the views of bereaved relatives and close friends after the guest's death. The present article describes the development of an inventory for the evaluation of inpatient hospice settings from the bereaved relatives' point of view in order to examine the satisfaction of family members with the end-of-life care their loved ones received. With help of the inventory the question should be answered how family members judge the end-of-life care which was given to them and their late family members by the hospice. The construction of the questions results from the basis of existing concepts to the assessment of the end-of-life care and an analysis of all identified instruments to the evaluation of inpatient hospice settings from the perspective of bereaved relatives. The development of the questionnaire enclosed the formation of an item pool, the item choice, the critical discussion of the questions in the body of experts as well as a standardised and cognitive pretest beside a comprehensive literature research. A five-dimension questionnaire was developed that integrates physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and organisational aspects of the care at the end of life. The instrument encompasses 53 items, predominantly closed questions. PMID:21638257

Lohe, Mandy; Zimmermann, Manja; Luderer, Christiane; Sadowski, Katharina

2011-06-01

299

Mortality among displaced former UNITA members and their families in Angola: a retrospective cluster survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To measure retrospectively mortality among a previously inaccessible population of former UNITA members and their families displaced within Angola, before and after their arrival in resettlement camps after ceasefire of 4 April 2002. Design Three stage cluster sampling for interviews. Recall period for mortality assessment was from 21 June 2001 to 15-31 August 2002. Setting Eleven resettlement camps over four provinces of Angola (Bié, Cuando Cubango, Huila, and Malange) housing 149 000 former UNITA members and their families. Participants 900 consenting family heads of households, or most senior household members, corresponding to an intended sample size of 4500 individuals. Main outcome measures Crude mortality and proportional mortality, overall and by period (monthly, and before and after arrival in camps). Results Final sample included 6599 people. The 390 deaths reported during the recall period corresponded to an average crude mortality of 1.5/10 000/day (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 1.8), and, among children under 5 years old, to 4.1/10 000/day (3.3 to 5.2). Monthly crude mortality rose gradually to a peak in March 2002 and remained above emergency thresholds thereafter. Malnutrition was the leading cause of death (34%), followed by fever or malaria (24%) and war or violence (18%). Most war victims and people who had disappeared were women and children. Conclusions This population of displaced Angolans experienced global and child mortality greatly in excess of normal levels, both before and after the 2002 ceasefire. Malnutrition deaths reflect the extent of the food crisis affecting this population. Timely humanitarian assistance must be made available to all populations in such conflicts.

Grein, Thomas; Checchi, Francesco; Escriba, Josep M; Tamrat, Abiy; Karunakara, Unni; Stokes, Christopher; Brown, Vincent; Legros, Dominique

2003-01-01

300

Receptivity and preferences of pancreatic cancer family members for participating in lifestyle programs to reduce cancer risk  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer is a shared family experience that might provide an opportunity for lifestyle change among at-risk family members. The purpose of this study was to assess receptivity and preferences for cancer risk reduction programs among at-risk family members with two or more relatives affected with pancreas cancer. Methods We surveyed 401 at-risk family members in an existing pancreatic cancer family registry. Participants completed a mailed survey which examined demographic, medical, and psychosocial correlates of willingness to participate in lifestyle cancer risk reduction programs. Multivariable generalized estimating equation approaches were used to model preferences. Results Overall, 85% (n?=?342) of at-risk family members were receptive to lifestyle cancer risk reduction programs. Participant preferred programs focused on nutrition (36%, n?=?116) and weight management (33%, n?=?108), with Web/Internet (46%, n?=?157) being the most preferred delivery channel. Most respondents preferred to participate in programs with their family or friends (74%, n?=?182), rather than alone (25%, n?=?85). In multivariable analysis, younger age (p?=?0.008) and higher perceived likelihood of developing cancer (p?=?0.03) were associated with willingness to participate in lifestyle programs. Conclusions Family members of those with pancreatic cancer are receptive to cancer risk reduction programs focusing on nutrition and weight management delivered via the internet. Further research is indicated to determine how to best incorporate a family-based approach when designing lifestyle intervention programs.

2013-01-01

301

Evaluation of new medium with chromogenic substrates for members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in urine samples.  

PubMed Central

A new medium containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-glucuronide cyclohexylammonium salt (Glu agar) for Escherichia coli and a new medium containing 5-bromo-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactoside (Gal agar) for beta-galactosidase-positive members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were compared with MacConkey agar in a diagnostic trial with 3,562 urine specimens. The isolation rates of E. coli and beta-galactosidase-positive Enterobacteriaceae were increased 8.4 and 19.5%, respectively. The sensitivities and specificities of Glu agar and Gal agar were 98.5 and 100% and 99.2 and 99.5%, respectively.

Kodaka, H; Ishikawa, M; Iwata, M; Kashitani, F; Mizuochi, S; Yamaguchi, K

1995-01-01

302

The Human Laminin Receptor is a Member of the Integrin Family of Cell Adhesion Receptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A receptor for the adhesive basement membrane protein, laminin, was isolated from human glioblastoma cells by affinity chromatography on laminin. This receptor has a heterodimeric structure similar to that of receptors for other extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin and vitronectin. Incorporation of the laminin receptor into liposomal membranes makes it possible for liposomes to attach to surfaces coated with laminin. The receptor liposomes also attached to some extent to surfaces coated with fibronectin, but not with other matrix proteins. These properties identify the laminin receptor as a member of the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors.

Gehlsen, Kurt R.; Dillner, Lena; Engvall, Eva; Ruoslahti, Erkki

1988-09-01

303

Identification of another member of the transforming growth factor type beta gene family.  

PubMed Central

We report here the complete amino acid sequence of another member of the type beta transforming growth factor gene family, deduced from the nucleotide sequence of three overlapping cDNA clones. The C-terminal 112 amino acids share approximately 80% sequence identity with type beta 1 and beta 2 transforming growth factors, with many of the remaining differences being conservative substitutions. By analogy to type beta 1 and type beta 2 transforming growth factors, we predict the protein to be synthesized as a 412 amino acid precursor that undergoes proteolytic cleavage to produce the mature polypeptide. Images

ten Dijke, P; Hansen, P; Iwata, K K; Pieler, C; Foulkes, J G

1988-01-01

304

Comparative transcriptome profiling of amyloid precursor protein family members in the adult cortex  

PubMed Central

Background The ?-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the related ?-amyloid precursor-like proteins (APLPs) undergo complex proteolytic processing giving rise to several fragments. Whereas it is well established that A? accumulation is a central trigger for Alzheimer's disease, the physiological role of APP family members and their diverse proteolytic products is still largely unknown. The secreted APPs? ectodomain has been shown to be involved in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. The ?-secretase-generated APP intracellular domain (AICD) functions as a transcriptional regulator in heterologous reporter assays although its role for endogenous gene regulation has remained controversial. Results To gain further insight into the molecular changes associated with knockout phenotypes and to elucidate the physiological functions of APP family members including their proposed role as transcriptional regulators, we performed DNA microarray transcriptome profiling of prefrontal cortex of adult wild-type (WT), APP knockout (APP-/-), APLP2 knockout (APLP2-/-) and APPs? knockin mice (APP?/?) expressing solely the secreted APPs? ectodomain. Biological pathways affected by the lack of APP family members included neurogenesis, transcription, and kinase activity. Comparative analysis of transcriptome changes between mutant and wild-type mice, followed by qPCR validation, identified co-regulated gene sets. Interestingly, these included heat shock proteins and plasticity-related genes that were both down-regulated in knockout cortices. In contrast, we failed to detect significant differences in expression of previously proposed AICD target genes including Bace1, Kai1, Gsk3b, p53, Tip60, and Vglut2. Only Egfr was slightly up-regulated in APLP2-/- mice. Comparison of APP-/- and APP?/? with wild-type mice revealed a high proportion of co-regulated genes indicating an important role of the C-terminus for cellular signaling. Finally, comparison of APLP2-/- on different genetic backgrounds revealed that background-related transcriptome changes may dominate over changes due to the knockout of a single gene. Conclusion Shared transcriptome profiles corroborated closely related physiological functions of APP family members in the adult central nervous system. As expression of proposed AICD target genes was not altered in adult cortex, this may indicate that these genes are not affected by lack of APP under resting conditions or only in a small subset of cells.

2011-01-01

305

Aggressive behavior directed at nursing home personnel by residents' family members.  

PubMed

Anecdotal evidence suggests there is a significant amount of aggressive behavior directed at nursing home personnel by residents' family members. This exploratory study describes a random sample survey of 70 Florida nursing homes. Administrators reported 1,193 acts of verbal aggression and 13 acts of physical aggression for a 6-month period. Dissatisfaction over how the specific and overall care needs of residents were being met was most frequently cited as the contributing factor. Social work staff and directors of nursing were most often called on to resolve these conflicts. The authors conclude with recommendations for research and conflict resolution. PMID:7959112

Vinton, L; Mazza, N

1994-08-01

306

Differential expression of members of the E2F family of transcription factors in rodent testes  

PubMed Central

Background The E2F family of transcription factors is required for the activation or repression of differentially expressed gene programs during the cell cycle in normal and abnormal development of tissues. We previously determined that members of the retinoblastoma protein family that interacts with the E2F family are differentially expressed and localized in almost all the different cell types and tissues of the testis and in response to known endocrine disruptors. In this study, the cell-specific and stage-specific expression of members of the E2F proteins has been elucidated. Methods We used immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of tissue sections and Western blot analysis of proteins, from whole testis and microdissected stages of seminiferous tubules to study the differential expression of the E2F proteins. Results For most of the five E2F family members studied, the localizations appear conserved in the two most commonly studied rodent models, mice and rats, with some notable differences. Comparisons between wild type and E2F-1 knockout mice revealed that the level of E2F-1 protein is stage-specific and most abundant in leptotene to early pachytene spermatocytes of stages IX to XI of mouse while strong staining of E2F-1 in some cells close to the basal lamina of rat tubules suggest that it may also be expressed in undifferentiated spermatogonia. The age-dependent development of a Sertoli-cell-only phenotype in seminiferous tubules of E2F-1 knockout males corroborates this, and indicates that E2F-1 is required for spermatogonial stem cell renewal. Interestingly, E2F-3 appears in both terminally differentiated Sertoli cells, as well as spermatogonial cells in the differentiative pathway, while the remaining member of the activating E2Fs, E2F-2 is most concentrated in spermatocytes of mid to late prophase of meiosis. Comparisons between wildtype and E2F-4 knockout mice demonstrated that the level of E2F-4 protein displays a distinct profile of stage-specificity compared to E2F-1, which is probably related to its prevalence and role in Sertoli cells. IHC of rat testis indicates that localization of E2F-5 is distinct from that of E2F-4 and overlaps those of E2F-1 and E2F-2. Conclusion The E2F-1 represents the subfamily of transcription factors required during stages of DNA replication and gene expression for development of germ cells and the E2F-4 represents the subfamily of transcription factors that help maintain gene expression for a terminally differentiated state within the testis.

El-Darwish, Kame S; Parvinen, Martti; Toppari, Jorma

2006-01-01

307

'A voyage of grief and beauty': supporting a dying family member with an intellectual disability.  

PubMed

This article reports on a small research project designed to reveal what it is like to support a dying family member with an intellectual disability in a community setting. Five open-ended interviews were conducted with individuals who had experienced this phenomenon. Three thematic elements which lay within the experience of being a family support person were elucidated through hermeneutic phenomenological analysis of interview audio-recordings, verbatim transcripts and field notes. Collectively, these themes (Interlocked Companionship, Search for New Balance and Permeable Interaction) created a metaphorical understanding that participants had navigated a voyage of grief and beauty'. Rhetorical consideration of the research findings generated recommendations for tertiary, palliative care and intellectual disability support services. These are presented along with suggestions for future research. PMID:18959283

Marlow, Susan; Martin, Margi

2008-07-01

308

Niakha virus: A novel member of the family Rhabdoviridae isolated from phlebotomine sandflies in Senegal.  

PubMed

Members of the family Rhabdoviridae have been assigned to eight genera but many remain unassigned. Rhabdoviruses have a remarkably diverse host range that includes terrestrial and marine animals, invertebrates and plants. Transmission of some rhabdoviruses often requires an arthropod vector, such as mosquitoes, midges, sandflies, ticks, aphids and leafhoppers, in which they replicate. Herein we characterize Niakha virus (NIAV), a previously uncharacterized rhabdovirus isolated from phebotomine sandflies in Senegal. Analysis of the 11,124nt genome sequence indicates that it encodes the five common rhabdovirus proteins with alternative ORFs in the M, G and L genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the L protein indicate that NIAV's closest relative is Oak Vale rhabdovirus, although in this analysis NIAV is still so phylogenetically distinct that it might be classified as distinct from the eight currently recognized Rhabdoviridae genera. This observation highlights the vast, and yet not fully recognized diversity, of this family. PMID:23773405

Vasilakis, Nikos; Widen, Steven; Mayer, Sandra V; Seymour, Robert; Wood, Thomas G; Popov, Vsevolov; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Ghedin, Elodie; Holmes, Edward C; Walker, Peter J; Tesh, Robert B

2013-06-14

309

Bcl-2 family member Bcl-G is not a proapoptotic protein  

PubMed Central

The three major subgroups of the Bcl-2 family, including the prosurvival Bcl-2-like proteins, the proapoptotic Bcl-2 homology (BH)3-only proteins and Bax/Bak proteins, regulate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In addition, some outliers within the Bcl-2 family do not fit into these subgroups. One of them, Bcl-G, has a BH2 and a BH3 region, and was proposed to trigger apoptosis. To investigate the physiological role of Bcl-G, we have inactivated the gene in the mouse and generated monoclonal antibodies to determine its expression. Although two isoforms of Bcl-G exist in human, only one is found in mice. mBcl-G is expressed in a range of epithelial as well as in dendritic cells. Loss of Bcl-G did not appear to affect any of these cell types. mBcl-G only binds weakly to prosurvival members of the Bcl-2 family, and in a manner that is independent of its BH3 domain. To understand what the physiological role of Bcl-G might be, we searched for Bcl-G-binding partners through immunoprecipitation/mass spectroscopy and yeast-two-hybrid screening. Although we did not uncover any Bcl-2 family member in these screens, we found that Bcl-G interacts specifically with proteins of the transport particle protein complex. We conclude that Bcl-G most probably does not function in the classical stress-induced apoptosis pathway, but rather has a role in protein trafficking inside the cell.

Giam, M; Okamoto, T; Mintern, J D; Strasser, A; Bouillet, P

2012-01-01

310

Essential PchG-dependent reduction in pyochelin biosynthesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

The biosynthetic genes pchDCBA and pchEF, which are known to be required for the formation of the siderophore pyochelin and its precursors salicylate and dihydroaeruginoate (Dha), are clustered with the pchR regulatory gene on the chromosome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The 4.6-kb region located downstream of the pchEF genes was found to contain three additional, contiguous genes, pchG, pchH, and pchI, probably forming a pchEFGHI operon. The deduced amino acid sequences of PchH and PchI are similar to those of ATP binding cassette transport proteins with an export function. PchG is a homolog of the Yersinia pestis and Y. enterocolitica proteins YbtU and Irp3, which are involved in the biosynthesis of yersiniabactin. A null mutation in pchG abolished pyochelin formation, whereas mutations in pchH and pchI did not affect the amounts of salicylate, Dha, and pyochelin produced. The pyochelin biosynthetic genes were expressed from a vector promoter, uncoupling them from Fur-mediated repression by iron and PchR-dependent induction by pyochelin. In a P. aeruginosa mutant lacking the entire pyochelin biosynthetic gene cluster, the expressed pchDCBA and pchEFG genes were sufficient for salicylate, Dha, and pyochelin production. Pyochelin formation was also obtained in the heterologous host Escherichia coli expressing pchDCBA and pchEFG together with the E. coli entD gene, which provides a phosphopantetheinyl transferase necessary for PchE and PchF activation. The PchG protein was purified and used in combination with PchD and phosphopantetheinylated PchE and PchF in vitro to produce pyochelin from salicylate, L-cysteine, ATP, NADPH, and S-adenosylmethionine. Based on this assay, a reductase function was attributed to PchG. In summary, this study completes the identification of the biosynthetic genes required for pyochelin formation from chorismate in P. aeruginosa. PMID:11208777

Reimmann, C; Patel, H M; Serino, L; Barone, M; Walsh, C T; Haas, D

2001-02-01

311

Regulation of the ovarian reserve by members of the transforming growth factor beta family.  

PubMed

Genetic or environmental factors that affect the endowment of oocytes, their assembly into primordial follicles, or their subsequent entry into the growing follicle pool can disrupt reproductive function and may underlie disorders such as primary ovarian insufficiency. Mouse models have been instrumental in identifying genes important in ovarian development, and a number of genes now associated with ovarian dysfunction in women were first identified as causing reproductive defects in knockout mice. The transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) family consists of developmentally important growth factors that include the TGFBs, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), activins, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and growth and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9). The ovarian primordial follicle pool is the source of oocytes in adults. Development of this pool can be grossly divided into three key processes: (1) establishment of oocytes during embryogenesis followed by (2) assembly and (3) activation of the primordial follicle. Disruptions in any of these processes may cause reproductive dysfunction. Most members of the TGFB family show pivotal roles in each of these areas. Understanding the phenotypes of various mouse models for this protein family will be directly relevant to understanding how disruptions in TGFB family signaling result in reproductive diseases in women and will present new areas for development of tailored diagnostics and interventions for infertility. PMID:22847922

Pangas, Stephanie A

2012-09-11

312

Regulation of the ovarian reserve by members of the transforming growth factor beta family  

PubMed Central

Genetic or environmental factors that affect the endowment of oocytes, their assembly nto primordial follicles, or their subsequent entry into the growing follicle pool can disrupt reproductive function and may underlie disorders such as primary ovarian insufficiency. Mouse models have been instrumental in identifying genes important in ovarian development, and a number of genes now associated with ovarian dysfunction in women were first identified as causing reproductive defects in knockout mice. The transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) family consists of developmentally important growth factors that include the TGFBs, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), activins, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and growth and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9). The ovarian primordial follicle pool is the source of oocytes in adults. Development of this pool can be grossly divided into three key processes: (1) establishment of oocytes during embryogenesis followed by (2) assembly and (3) activation of the primordial follicle. Disruptions in any of these processes may cause reproductive dysfunction. Most members of the TGFB family show pivotal roles in each of these areas. Understanding the phenotypes of various mouse models for this protein family will be directly relevant to understanding how disruptions in TGFB family signaling result in reproductive diseases in women and will present new areas for development of tailored diagnostics and interventions for infertility.

Pangas, Stephanie A.

2012-01-01

313

Disclosing HIV Serostatus to Family Members: Effects on Psychological and Physiological Health in Minority Women Living with HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Directly disclosing a positive HIV serostatus to family members can have psychological and physiological health benefits.\\u000a Perceptions that one is in a supportive family environment may enhance these benefits.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  We examined a mediated moderation model in which we expected interactions between serostatus disclosure to family members\\u000a and HIV-specific family support to be associated with women’s perceived stress, which in turn

Erin M. Fekete; Michael H. Antoni; Ron Durán; Brenda L. Stoelb; Mahendra Kumar; Neil Schneiderman

2009-01-01

314

[Between the legal system and medical and psychosocial intervention: the reality of family members of individuals with mental illness].  

PubMed

In this article, the author examines the impact of judicial intervention of individuals with mental illness on family members. The author subunits the hypothesis that an offer of more diversified services could reduce legal intervention of these individuals and consequently attenuate the devastating effects on family members. According to the families' equation, the more services will be developed and adapted, the less frequent family will have to call upon the legal system to intervene and fewer individuals with mental illness will find themselves behind bars. PMID:20361107

Fradet, Hélène

2009-01-01

315

25 CFR 26.17 - Can more than one family member be financially assisted at the same time?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...same time? 26.17 Section 26.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.17 Can more than one family member be financially...

2011-04-01

316

Providing internet lessons to oncology patients and family members: a shared project.  

PubMed

The paper describes the steps in a pilot study taken to develop and evaluate an Internet intervention for cancer patients and family members. The intervention was a shared project of two hospital departments; a volunteer oncology support service, Hope & Cope, and the Health Services Library. Forty subjects were surveyed on their computer use and interest, and of these, half used the Internet to access health and medical information. Of the 40 subjects, 28 participated in an innovative, one-to-one teaching session with a medical librarian where they learned to access Internet sites to find information specific to their needs and subsequently be more confident in their perceived ability to evaluate the information received. Follow up interviews found that the sessions were well received and at two months follow-up the participants attributed their positive well being in large part to the intervention. Internet use by oncology patients and family members in conjunction with skilled help has the potential to contribute in a timely fashion to the well being of those with cancer. PMID:12228877

Edgar, Linda; Greenberg, Arlene; Remmer, Jean

317

Differential Spatial Expression and Subcellular Localization of CtBP Family Members in Rodent Brain  

PubMed Central

C-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs) are well-characterized nuclear transcriptional co-regulators. In addition, cytoplasmic functions were discovered for these ubiquitously expressed proteins. These include the involvement of the isoform CtBP1-S/BARS50 in cellular membrane-trafficking processes and a role of the isoform RIBEYE as molecular scaffolds in ribbons, the presynaptic specializations of sensory synapses. CtBPs were suggested to regulate neuronal differentiation and they were implied in the control of gene expression during epileptogenesis. However, the expression patterns of CtBP family members in specific brain areas and their subcellular localizations in neurons in situ are largely unknown. Here, we performed comprehensive assessment of the expression of CtBP1 and CtBP2 in mouse brain at the microscopic and the ultra-structural levels using specific antibodies. We quantified and compared expression levels of both CtBPs in biochemically isolated brain fractions containing cellular nuclei or synaptic compartment. Our study demonstrates differential regional and subcellular expression patterns for the two CtBP family members in brain and reveals a previously unknown synaptic localization for CtBP2 in particular brain regions. Finally, we propose a mechanism of differential synapto-nuclear targeting of its splice variants CtBP2-S and CtBP2-L in neurons.

Richter, Karin; Lazarevic, Vesna; Altrock, Wilko D.; Fischer, Klaus-Dieter; Gundelfinger, Eckart D.; Fejtova, Anna

2012-01-01

318

The role of lysyl oxidase family members in the stabilization of abdominal aortic aneurysms.  

PubMed

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States today. We employed a model for AAA development using apolipoprotein E knock out mice fed a high-fat diet and treated with ANG II and ?-aminopropionitrile (?-APN) for 4 wk. ANG II induces hypertension and atherosclerotic disease, whereas ?-APN inhibits the activity of the lysyl oxidase/ lysyl oxidase-like protein (LOX/LOXL) family members. LOX/LOXL family members crosslink collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix and therefore contribute to the integrity and stabilization of a healthy vessel wall. In this model, cotreatment with ANG II and ?-APN caused a 90% AAA incidence and increased atherosclerotic lesion formation from less than 5% to greater than 25% after 4 wk. In more atheroprotected mouse strains (C57BL/6 and BalbC), cotreatment with ANG II and ?-APN caused 50% and 40% AAA incidence, respectively. These data demonstrate the importance of LOX/LOXL to the stability of the vessel wall. Therapeutic strategies to overexpress LOX/LOXL enzymes or to support the crosslinking of soluble matrix proteins in a polymeric scaffold are a promising opportunity to achieve stabilization of AAAs. PMID:22904155

Remus, Ebony Washington; O'Donnell, Robert E; Rafferty, Kathryn; Weiss, Daiana; Joseph, Giji; Csiszar, Katalin; Fong, Sheri F T; Taylor, W Robert

2012-08-17

319

The role of lysyl oxidase family members in the stabilization of abdominal aortic aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States today. We employed a model for AAA development using apolipoprotein E knock out mice fed a high-fat diet and treated with ANG II and ?-aminopropionitrile (?-APN) for 4 wk. ANG II induces hypertension and atherosclerotic disease, whereas ?-APN inhibits the activity of the lysyl oxidase/ lysyl oxidase-like protein (LOX/LOXL) family members. LOX/LOXL family members crosslink collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix and therefore contribute to the integrity and stabilization of a healthy vessel wall. In this model, cotreatment with ANG II and ?-APN caused a 90% AAA incidence and increased atherosclerotic lesion formation from less than 5% to greater than 25% after 4 wk. In more atheroprotected mouse strains (C57BL/6 and BalbC), cotreatment with ANG II and ?-APN caused 50% and 40% AAA incidence, respectively. These data demonstrate the importance of LOX/LOXL to the stability of the vessel wall. Therapeutic strategies to overexpress LOX/LOXL enzymes or to support the crosslinking of soluble matrix proteins in a polymeric scaffold are a promising opportunity to achieve stabilization of AAAs.

Remus, Ebony Washington; O'Donnell, Robert E.; Rafferty, Kathryn; Weiss, Daiana; Joseph, Giji; Csiszar, Katalin; Fong, Sheri F. T.

2012-01-01

320

Advillin (p92): a new member of the gelsolin/villin family of actin regulatory proteins.  

PubMed

A new member of the gelsolin/villin family of actin regulatory proteins was initially identified by screening an adult murine brain cDNA library with a probe for bovine adseverin. The predicted amino acid sequence of the 92 kDa murine protein p92 (advillin) is 75% homologous to villin and 65% homologous to gelsolin and adseverin. It shares a six domain structure with other gelsolin family members and has a carboxy-terminal headpiece, similar to, yet distinct from, villin. Northern blot analysis shows a high level of mRNA expression in murine uterus and human intestine. In situ mRNA analysis of adult murine tissues demonstrates that the message is most highly expressed in the endometrium of the uterus, the intestinal lining, and at the surface of the tongue. In murine embryonic development, strong expression of the message is observed by day 14.5 in dorsal root ganglia and trigeminal ganglia. Expression is also noted at day 16.5 in cerebral cortex. We propose that p92 (advillin) has unique functions in the morphogenesis of neuronal cells which form ganglia, and that it may compensate to explain the near normal phenotype observed in villin-deficient mice. PMID:9664034

Marks, P W; Arai, M; Bandura, J L; Kwiatkowski, D J

1998-08-01

321

Predictive analysis of ceftazidime hydrolysis in CTX-M-type ?-lactamase family members with a mutational substitution at position 167  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CTX-M family of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases has been increasing in number over recent years. Its members preferentially hydrolyse cefotaxime over ceftazidime. Recently, ceftazidime-hydrolysing CTX-M ?-lactamase producers with a mutation at Pro167Ser have been found. The aim of this study was to determine whether members of the CTX-M-type ?-lactamase family are capable of ceftazidime hydrolysis after introduction of the Pro167Ser point

Soichiro Kimura; Yoshikazu Ishii; Kazuhiro Tateda; Keizo Yamaguchi

2007-01-01

322

ERM Family Members as Molecular Linkers between the Cell Surface Glycoprotdn CD44 and Actin-based Cytoskeletons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ERM family members, ezrin, radixin, and moesin, localizing just beneath the plasma mem- branes, are thought to be involved in the actin ilia- merit\\/plasma membrane association. To identify the in- tegral membrane protein directly associated with ERM family members, we performed immunoprecipitation studies using antimoesin mAb and cultured baby ham- ster kidney (BHK) cells metabolically labeled with (35S)methionine or

Saehiko Tsukita; Kumiko Oishi; Naruki Sato; Junji Sagara; Akihiko Kawai

1994-01-01

323

Characterization of Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus: a new member of the family Caulimoviridae.  

PubMed

Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus (CmYLCV) has been characterized as the aetiological agent of the Cestrum parqui mosaic disease. The virus genome was cloned and the clone was proven to be infectious to C. parqui. The presence of typical viroplasms in virus-infected plant tissue and the information obtained from the complete genomic sequence confirmed CmYLCV as a member of the Caulimoviridae family. All characteristic domains conserved in plant pararetroviruses were found in CmYLCV. Its genome is 8253 bp long and contains seven open reading frames (ORFs). Phylogenetic analysis of the relationships with other members of the Caulimoviridae revealed that CmYLCV is closely related to the Soybean chlorotic mottle virus (SbCMV)-like genus and particularly to SbCMV. However, in contrast to the other members of this genus, the primer-binding site is located in the intercistronic region following ORF Ib rather than within this ORF, and an ORF corresponding to ORF VII is missing. PMID:14645927

Stavolone, Livia; Ragozzino, Antonio; Hohn, Thomas

2003-12-01

324

The alpha-subunit of protein prenyltransferases is a member of the tetratricopeptide repeat family.  

PubMed Central

Lipidation catalyzed by protein prenyltransferases is essential for the biological function of a number of eukaryotic proteins, many of which are involved in signal transduction and vesicular traffic regulation. Sequence similarity searches reveal that the alpha-subunit of protein prenyltransferases (PTalpha) is a member of the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) superfamily. This finding makes the three-dimensional structure of the rat protein farnesyltransferase the first structural model of a TPR protein interacting with its protein partner. Structural comparison of the two TPR domains in protein farnesyltransferase and protein phosphatase 5 indicates that variation in TPR consensus residues may affect protein binding specificity through altering the overall shape of the TPR superhelix. A general approach to evolutionary analysis of proteins with repetitive sequence motifs has been developed and applied to the protein prenyltransferases and other TPR proteins. The results suggest that all members in PTalpha family originated from a common multirepeat ancestor, while the common ancestor of PTalpha and other members of TPR superfamily is likely to be a single repeat protein.

Zhang, H.; Grishin, N. V.

1999-01-01

325

Recommended restrictions after 131I therapy: measured doses in family members.  

PubMed

Absorbed doses to family members of patients treated with (131)I were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters worn on the chest. Twenty-two patients with thyroid cancer were hospitalized for 2 d for treatment with 3,700-7,400 MBq, and 18 hyperthyroid patients were treated on an outpatient basis with 200-600 MBq. Doses were measured over periods of 15-21 d following the administration of radioiodine in 35 partners and 38 children, aged 4 mo to 25 y. These results were correlated with dose rate measurements performed with an ionization chamber, and residual thyroid uptake was assessed by scintigraphy over the same period. In the cancer group, the residual activity in thyroid remnants was less than 50 MBq in all cases at day 4 following treatment and decayed with a mean half-life of 2.2 (SD: 0.8) d. The dose measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters was lower than 0.5 mSv in all partners and children. In the hyperthyroid group, the effective half-life averaged 6.2 (SD: 1.2) d. The median of the doses measured in partners and children were 1.04 mSv (range: 0.05-5.2) and 0.13 mSv (range: 0.04-3.1), respectively. Fifteen children (88%) received less than the dose constraint of 0.5 mSv. The ICRP recommend an annual limit of 1 mSv for the members of the public. In addition, dose constraints (for example: 0.5 mSv) should be complied with whenever possible. The recommended dose limits are generally well met among family members of patients treated with 1311 for cancer. The higher doses measured in hyperthyroid patients, compared to thyroid cancer patients, relate to a higher (131)I retention by the gland and justify more extended and stringent restriction periods, based on residual thyroid activity. PMID:9929123

Mathieu, I; Caussin, J; Smeesters, P; Wambersie, A; Beckers, C

1999-02-01

326

Activating chronic kidney disease patients and family members through the Internet to promote integration of care  

PubMed Central

Abstract Purpose To describe the potential role of the Internet as a vehicle for improving integration of care through activating chronic kidney disease patients and their family members. Also, to describe how that potential is being developed through a website sponsored by the Medicare program in the United States. Background The Internet is expanding at a rapid rate, and health-related websites are one of its most popular features. Efforts to promote integration of care have focused mainly on providers up to now, and more emphasis is needed on the potential roles of patients. Chronically ill patients have particular needs for improved education about their conditions and enhanced involvement in care planning and treatment decisions. Medicare developed the Dialysis Facility Compare website to serve those goals for people with chronic kidney disease. Methods We conducted qualitative research with 140 chronic kidney disease patients and family members, and 130 renal care professionals to evaluate and improve the Dialysis Facility Compare website. A series of 19 focus groups, 13 triads (small focus groups), and 56 individual interviews were conducted in four regions of the United States and by telephone. Results We found that the Dialysis Facility Compare website has the potential to improve integration of care for people with chronic kidney disease in at least three ways. First: by expanding the roles of patients as members of the multi-disciplinary team of caregivers treating their disease. Second: through better integration of the informal care provided in the home and community with the formal care provided by health professionals. Third: by improving coordination of between care provided in the pre-dialysis and dialysis phases of the disease. Discussion We developed recommendations for revising and enhancing the Dialysis Facility Compare website in a number of ways to better promote patient activation and integration of care. The unique features of the Internet, such as its different dimensions of interactivity, and applications of behavioural theories for website design should also be further explored.

Trisolini, Michael; Roussel, Amy; Zerhusen, Eileen; Schatell, Dorian; Harris, Shelly; Bandel, Karen; Salib, Philip; Klicko, Kristi

2004-01-01

327

TRICARE program; TRICARE Prime Remote for active duty family members and TRICARE Prime enrollment period. Final rule.  

PubMed

This final rule implements 10 U.S.C. 1079(p), as added by section 722(b) of the Floyd D. Spence National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001. The rule provides coverage for medical care for active duty family members who reside with an active duty member of the Uniformed Services assigned to remote areas and eligible for the program known as TRICARE Prime Remote. Active duty family members who enroll in TRICARE Prime Remote for Active Duty Family Members (TPRADFM) will enjoy benefits generally comparable to TRICARE Prime enrollees including access standards, benefit coverage, and cost-shares. This final rule also implements Section 702 of the NDAA for FY 2003, which establishes circumstances under which dependents of Reserve Components and National Guard members called to active duty in support of contingency operations may enroll in TRICARE Prime Remote for Active Duty Family Members, and dependents of TRICARE Prime Remote service members may remain enrolled when the service member receives orders for an unaccompanied follow-on assignment. Finally, this final rule establishes circumstances under which eligible beneficiaries may enroll in TRICARE Prime for a period of less than 1 year. PMID:16933398

2006-08-25

328

Evolutionary, structural and functional interplay of the I?B family members.  

PubMed

A primary level of control for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) is effected through its interactions with the inhibitor protein, inhibitor of kappa B (I?B). Several lines of evidence confirm the existence of multiple forms of I?B that appear to regulate NF-?B by distinct mechanisms. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis to understand the evolutionary history and intrinsic functional diversity of I?B family members. Phylogenetic relationships were constructed to trace the evolution of the I?B family genes. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed 10 I?B subfamily members that clustered into 5 major clades. Since the ankyrin (ANK) domain appears to be more ancient than the Rel homology domain (RHD), our phylogenetic analysis suggests that some undefined ancestral set of ANK repeats acquired an RHD before any duplication and was later duplicated and then diverged into the different I?B subfamilies. Functional analysis identified several functionally divergent sites in the ANK repeat domains (ARDs) and revealed that this region has undergone strong purifying selection, suggesting its functional importance in I?B genes. Structural analysis showed that the major variations in the number of ANK repeats and high conformational changes in the finger loop ARD region contribute to the differing binding partner specificities, thereby leading to distinct I?B functions. In summary, our study has provided useful information about the phylogeny and structural and functional divergence of the I?B family. Additionally, we identified a number of amino acid sites that contribute to the predicted functional divergence of these proteins. PMID:23372681

Basith, Shaherin; Manavalan, Balachandran; Gosu, Vijayakumar; Choi, Sangdun

2013-01-23

329

Evolutionary, Structural and Functional Interplay of the I?B Family Members  

PubMed Central

A primary level of control for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) is effected through its interactions with the inhibitor protein, inhibitor of kappa B (I?B). Several lines of evidence confirm the existence of multiple forms of I?B that appear to regulate NF-?B by distinct mechanisms. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis to understand the evolutionary history and intrinsic functional diversity of I?B family members. Phylogenetic relationships were constructed to trace the evolution of the I?B family genes. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed 10 I?B subfamily members that clustered into 5 major clades. Since the ankyrin (ANK) domain appears to be more ancient than the Rel homology domain (RHD), our phylogenetic analysis suggests that some undefined ancestral set of ANK repeats acquired an RHD before any duplication and was later duplicated and then diverged into the different I?B subfamilies. Functional analysis identified several functionally divergent sites in the ANK repeat domains (ARDs) and revealed that this region has undergone strong purifying selection, suggesting its functional importance in I?B genes. Structural analysis showed that the major variations in the number of ANK repeats and high conformational changes in the finger loop ARD region contribute to the differing binding partner specificities, thereby leading to distinct I?B functions. In summary, our study has provided useful information about the phylogeny and structural and functional divergence of the I?B family. Additionally, we identified a number of amino acid sites that contribute to the predicted functional divergence of these proteins.

Gosu, Vijayakumar; Choi, Sangdun

2013-01-01

330

Synthesis and characterization of uranium(IV)-bearing members of the [NZP] structural family  

SciTech Connect

The sodium dizirconium tris(phosphate) structural family ([NZP]) includes compounds that may be represented by the general formula M{prime}M{double{underscore}prime}{sup 1--3}A{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. The ability of KXr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, a member of the [NZP] structural family, to accommodate U(IV) on the octahedrally coordinated A site has been demonstrated for compounds in the series KZr{sub 2{minus}x}U{sub x}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (0 {le} x {le} 0.20)(KZ series). KU{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, the end member of the series, was found to adopt a monoclinic structure with 9-fold coordination of U(IV) that does not belong to the [NZP] family. The compounds were prepared from sol-gel derived precursors in an argon environment. X-ray microanalyses indicated that the precursor powders had reacted fully to produce compounds of the expected stoichiometries. Rietveld refined X-ray powder diffraction data of the KZ series confirmed a rhombohedral (R) structure and suggested random occupation of the A site by U/Zr. The presence of U(IV) was established by comparison of the UV/vis spectra of the KZ series with those of other U(IV) phosphates. The Rietveld refined data show an increase in the volume of the R cell with increasing values of x. The structure of KU{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}, determine from Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data, is monoclinic.

Hawkins, H.T.; Spearing, D.R.; Veirs, D.K.; Danis, J.A.; Smith, D.M.; Tait, C.D.; Runde, W.H.; Spilde, M.N.; Scheetz, B.E.

1999-10-01

331

Plant cells contain a novel member of the retinoblastoma family of growth regulatory proteins.  

PubMed Central

The product of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (Rb) controls the passage of mammalian cells through G1 phase. Animal virus oncoproteins interact with the Rb protein via an LXCXE motif and disrupt Rb-E2F complexes, driving cells into S-phase. Recently, we found that the RepA protein of a plant geminivirus contains an LXCXE motif that is essential for its function, a finding that predicts the existence of Rb-related proteins in plant cells. Here we report the isolation of a maize cDNA clone encoding a protein (ZmRb1) which, based on structural and functional studies, is closely related to the mammalian Rb family of growth regulatory proteins. ZmRb1 shows a high degree of amino acid conservation when compared with animal Rb members, particularly in the A/B 'pocket' domain, but ZmRb1 has a shorter N-terminal domain. ZmRb1 forms stable complexes with plant LXCXE-containing proteins, e.g. geminivirus RepA protein. Geminivirus DNA replication is reduced in plant cells transfected with plasmids encoding either ZmRb1 or human p130, a member of the Rb family. This suggests that ZmRb1 controls the G1/S transit in plant cells and is consistent with the fact that geminiviruses need an S-phase environment for DNA replication, as animal DNA tumor viruses do. Our results allow the extension of the Rb family of tumor suppressor proteins to plants and have implications on animal and plant strategies for cell growth control. Images

Xie, Q; Sanz-Burgos, A P; Hannon, G J; Gutierrez, C

1996-01-01

332

Fos Family Members Induce Cell Cycle Entry by Activating Cyclin D1  

PubMed Central

Expression of the fos family of transcription factors is stimulated by growth factors that induce quiescent cells to reenter the cell cycle, but the cellular targets of the Fos family that regulate cell cycle reentry have not been identified. To address this issue, mice that lack two members of the fos family, c-fos and fosB, were derived. The fosB?/? c-fos?/? mice are similar in phenotype to c-fos?/? mice but are 30% smaller. This decrease in size is consistent with an abnormality in cell proliferation. Fibroblasts derived from fosB?/? c-fos?/? mice were found to have a defect in proliferation that results at least in part from a failure to induce cyclin D1 following serum-stimulated cell cycle reentry. Although definitive evidence that c-Fos and FosB directly induce cyclin D1 transcription will require further analysis, these findings raise the possibility that c-Fos and FosB are either direct or indirect transcriptional regulators of the cyclin D1 gene and may function as a critical link between serum stimulation and cell cycle progression.

Brown, Jennifer R.; Nigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard J.; Ye, Hong; Thompson, Margaret A.; Saudou, Frederic; Pestell, Richard G.; Greenberg, Michael E.

1998-01-01

333

Retroelements versus APOBEC3 family members: No great escape from the magnificent seven  

PubMed Central

Retroelements comprise a large and successful family of transposable genetic elements that, through intensive infiltration, have shaped the genomes of humans and other mammals over millions of years. In fact, retrotransposons now account for approximately 45% of the human genome. Because of their genomic mobility called retrotransposition, some retroelements can cause genetic diseases; such retrotransposition events occur not only in germ cells but also in somatic cells, posing a threat to genomic stability throughout all cellular populations. In response, mammals have developed intrinsic immunity mechanisms that provide resistance against the deleterious effects of retrotransposition. Among these, seven members of the APOBEC3 (A3) family of cytidine deaminases serve as highly active, intrinsic, antiretroviral host factors. Certain A3 proteins effectively counteract infections of retroviruses such as HIV-1, as well as those of other virus families, while also blocking the transposition of retroelements. Based on their preferential expression in the germ cells, in which retrotransposons may be active, it is likely that A3 proteins were acquired through mammalian evolution primarily to inhibit retrotransposition and thereby maintain genomic stability in these cells. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of the interplay between the retroelements currently active in the human genome and the anti-retroelement A3 proteins.

Arias, Juan F.; Koyama, Takayoshi; Kinomoto, Masanobu; Tokunaga, Kenzo

2012-01-01

334

Tensin1 and a previously undocumented family member, tensin2, positively regulate cell migration  

PubMed Central

Tensin is a focal adhesion molecule that binds to actin filaments and participates in signaling pathways. In this study, we have characterized a previously undocumented tensin family member, tensin2/KIAA 1075. Human tensin2 cDNA encodes a 1,285-aa sequence that shares extensive homology with tensin1 at its amino- and carboxyl-terminal ends, which include the actin-binding domain, the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, and the phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain. Analysis of the genomic structures of tensin1 and tensin2 further confirmed that they represent a single gene family. Examination of tensin2 mRNA distribution revealed that heart, kidney, skeletal muscle, and liver were tissues of high expression. The endogenous and recombinant tensin2 were expressed as a 170-kDa protein in NIH 3T3 cells. The subcellular localization of tensin2 was determined by transfection of green fluorescence protein (GFP)–tensin2 fusion construct. The results indicated that tensin2 is also localized to focal adhesions. Finally, functional analysis of tensin genes has demonstrated that expression of tensin genes is able to promote cell migration on fibronectin, indicating that the tensin family plays a role in regulating cell motility.

Chen, Huaiyang; Duncan, Ian C.; Bozorgchami, Hormozd; Lo, Su Hao

2002-01-01

335

41 CFR 302-4.202 - Are there any circumstances in which a per diem allowance for my immediate family members is not...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...which a per diem allowance for my immediate family members is not allowed? 302-4.202...which a per diem allowance for my immediate family members is not allowed? Yes, per diem for your immediate family members cannot be authorized if you...

2011-07-01

336

Accommodation and resistance to the dominant cultural discourse on psychiatric mental health: oral history accounts of family members.  

PubMed

Oral history makes a critical contribution in articulating the perspectives of people often overlooked in histories written from the standpoint of dominating class, gender, ethnic or professional groups. Using three interrelated approaches - life stories, oral history, and narrative analysis - this paper analyzes family responses to psychiatric care and mental illness in oral history interviews with family members who experienced mental illness themselves or within their family between 1930 and 1975. Interviews with three family members in Alberta, Canada are the primary focus. These stories provide an important avenue to understand the meaning and transformations of mental health-care from the point of view of families. Family members' stories reveal contradictory responses to the dominant cultural discourse. Using a performative framework of interpretation, the narratives reveal a complex interplay between medical, social and cultural conceptions of mental illness, deepening our understanding of its meaning. The history of mental health-care can be substantially enriched by the analysis of family members' stories, not only revealing the constructed nature of mental illness, but also illustrating the family as a mediating context in which the meaning of mental illness is negotiated. PMID:18028147

Boschma, Geertje

2007-12-01

337

Aberrant over-expression of a forkhead family member, FOXO1A, in a brain tumor cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The mammalian FOXO (forkhead box, O subclass) proteins are a family of pleiotropic transcription factors involved in the regulation of a broad range of cellular processes critical for survival. Despite the essential and diverse roles of the FOXO family members in human cells and their involvement in tumor pathogenesis, the regulation of FOXO expression remains poorly understood. We have

Peter B Dallas; Simone Egli; Philippa A Terry; Ursula R Kees

2007-01-01

338

Gallin; an antimicrobial peptide member of a new avian defensin family, the ovodefensins, has been subject to recent gene duplication  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Egg white must provide nutrients and protection to the developing avian embryo. One way in which this is achieved is an arsenal of antimicrobial proteins and peptides which are essentially extensions of the innate immune system. Gallin is a recently identified member of a family of peptides that are found in egg white. The function of this peptide family

Daoqing Gong; Peter W Wilson; Maureen M Bain; Karina McDade; Jiri Kalina; Virginie Hervé-Grépinet; Yves Nys; Ian C Dunn

2010-01-01

339

All Members of the MHC Multigene Family Respond to Thyroid Hormone in a Highly Tissue-Specific Manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammals different isoforms of myosin heavy chain are encoded by the members of a multigene family. The expression of each gene of this family is regulated in a tissue-and developmental stage-specific manner as well as by hormonal and various pathological stimuli. In this study the molecular basis of isoform switches induced in myosin heavy chain by thyroid hormone was

Seigo Izumo; Bernardo Nadal-Ginard; Vijak Mahdavi

1986-01-01

340

Family-Owned Business Succession: The Influence of Pre-performance in the Nomination of Family and Nonfamily Members: Evidence from Spanish Firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although family-owned business succession has been widely researched, very few studies investigate the relationship between preperformance and succession. Drawing on the agency and the resource-based view theories, we investigate how previous firm performance may influence the nomination of a family or a nonfamily member to top senior positions. We argue that positive firm performance will lead to the nomination of

Eduardo Bocatto; Carles Gispert; Josep Rialp

2010-01-01

341

Youth's narratives about family members smoking: parenting the parent- it's not fair!  

PubMed Central

Background Successful cancer prevention policies and programming for youth must be based on a solid understanding of youth’s conceptualization of cancer and cancer prevention. Accordingly, a qualitative study examining youth’s perspectives of cancer and its prevention was undertaken. Not surprisingly, smoking (i.e., tobacco cigarette smoking) was one of the dominant lines of discourse in the youth’s narratives. This paper reports findings of how youth conceptualize smoking with attention to their perspectives on parental and family-related smoking issues and experiences. Methods Seventy-five Canadian youth ranging in age from 11–19 years participated in the study. Six of the 75 youth had a history of smoking and 29 had parents with a history of smoking. Youth were involved in traditional ethnographic methods of interviewing and photovoice. Data analysis involved multiple levels of analysis congruent with ethnography. Results Youth’s perspectives of parents and other family members’ cigarette smoking around them was salient as represented by the theme: It’s not fair. Youth struggled to make sense of why parents would smoke around their children and perceived their smoking as an unjust act. The theme was supported by four subthemes: 1) parenting the parent about the dangers of smoking; 2) the good/bad parent; 3) distancing family relationships; and 4) the prisoner. Instead of being talked to about smoking it was more common for youth to share stories of talking to their parents about the dangers of smoking. Parents who did not smoke were seen by youth as the good parent, as opposed to the bad parent who smoked. Smoking was an agent that altered relationships with parents and other family members. Youth who lived in homes where they were exposed to cigarette smoke felt like a trapped prisoner. Conclusions Further research is needed to investigate youth’s perceptions about parental cigarette smoking as well as possible linkages between youth exposed to second hand smoke in their home environment and emotional and lifestyle-related health difficulties. Results emphasize the relational impact of smoking when developing anti-tobacco and cancer prevention campaigns. Recognizing the potential toll that second-hand smoke can have on youth’s emotional well-being, health care professionals are encouraged to give youth positive messages in coping with their parents’ smoking behaviour.

2012-01-01

342

Stress, needs, and quality of life of family members caring for adults living with HIV\\/AIDS in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stress, needs and quality of life (QoL) of family members of people living with HIV\\/AIDS (PLWHA) are critical to explore in Taiwan where home care projects are not available to help the PLWHA families. We examined the extent of stress, needs, QoL and its correlates that family caregivers of PLWHA experienced with structural questionnaires survey. A total of 50

Ming-Chu Feng; Jui-Ying Feng; Tun-Chieh Chen; Po-Liang Lu; Nai-Ying Ko; Yen-Hsu Chen

2009-01-01

343

Health family trees: a tool for finding and helping young family members of coronary and cancer prone pedigrees in Texas and Utah.  

PubMed

We report on the feasibility and utility of a new approach for identifying the small percentage of families in the general population with strong familial predisposition to early coronary heart disease, strokes, and common familial cancers (breast, colon, lung), using the "Health Family Tree," a medical family history. A total of 24,332 "trees" were completed by parents and students in 37 high schools in 14 urban and rural communities in Texas and Utah during the years 1980-86. Completed "trees" were obtained from 68 per cent of all enrolled students. High-risk families, included 1,796 families with early coronary disease (7.5 per cent of all student families or 3.7 per cent of their parents' families), 870 stroke families (3.6 per cent), and 415 cancer prone families (1.7 per cent). Among these 3,081 high-risk families there were 8,245 family members already reported to have been diagnosed by a physician to have the familial disease of interest and 43,269 high risk unaffected siblings and offspring of these persons. The average cost per identified high-risk unaffected person was under $10. We conclude that the "Health Family Tree" is a feasible and cost-effective way to find high-risk families. PMID:3421383

Williams, R R; Hunt, S C; Barlow, G K; Chamberlain, R M; Weinberg, A D; Cooper, H P; Carbonari, J P; Gotto, A M

1988-10-01

344

Health family trees: a tool for finding and helping young family members of coronary and cancer prone pedigrees in Texas and Utah.  

PubMed Central

We report on the feasibility and utility of a new approach for identifying the small percentage of families in the general population with strong familial predisposition to early coronary heart disease, strokes, and common familial cancers (breast, colon, lung), using the "Health Family Tree," a medical family history. A total of 24,332 "trees" were completed by parents and students in 37 high schools in 14 urban and rural communities in Texas and Utah during the years 1980-86. Completed "trees" were obtained from 68 per cent of all enrolled students. High-risk families, included 1,796 families with early coronary disease (7.5 per cent of all student families or 3.7 per cent of their parents' families), 870 stroke families (3.6 per cent), and 415 cancer prone families (1.7 per cent). Among these 3,081 high-risk families there were 8,245 family members already reported to have been diagnosed by a physician to have the familial disease of interest and 43,269 high risk unaffected siblings and offspring of these persons. The average cost per identified high-risk unaffected person was under $10. We conclude that the "Health Family Tree" is a feasible and cost-effective way to find high-risk families.

Williams, R R; Hunt, S C; Barlow, G K; Chamberlain, R M; Weinberg, A D; Cooper, H P; Carbonari, J P; Gotto, A M

1988-01-01

345

X(3915) and X(4350) as New Members in the P-Wave Charmonium Family  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of the mass spectrum and the calculation of the strong decay of P-wave charmonium states strongly purport to explain the newly observed X(3915) and X(4350) as new members in the P-wave charmonium family, i.e., chi{sub c0}{sup '} for X(3915) and chi{sub c2}{sup ''} for X(4350). Under the P-wave charmonium assignment to X(3915) and X(4350), the J{sup PC} quantum numbers of X(3915) and X(4350) must be 0{sup ++} and 2{sup ++} respectively, which provide important criteria to test the P-wave charmonium explanation for X(3915) and X(4350) proposed by this Letter. The decay behavior of the remaining two P-wave charmonium states with the second radial excitation is predicted, and an experimental search for them is suggested.

Liu Xiang; Sun Zhifeng [School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Lanzhou University and Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Luo Zhigang [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2010-03-26

346

Yip1 domain family, member 6 (Yipf6) mutation induces spontaneous intestinal inflammation in mice  

PubMed Central

Using an environmentally sensitized genetic screen we identified mutations that cause inflammatory colitis in mice. The X-linked Klein-Zschocher (KLZ) mutation created a null allele of Yipf6, a member of a gene family believed to regulate vesicular transport in yeast, but without known functions in mammals. Yipf6 is a five transmembrane-spanning protein associated with Golgi compartments. Klein-Zschocher mutants were extremely sensitive to colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and developed spontaneous ileitis and colitis after 16 mo of age in specific pathogen-free housing conditions. Electron microscopy, gene expression, and immunocytochemistry analyses provided evidence that impaired intestinal homeostasis stemmed from defective formation and secretion of large secretory granules from Paneth and goblet cells. These studies support a tissue- and organ-specific function for Yipf6 in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and implicate the orthologous human gene as a disease susceptibility locus.

Brandl, Katharina; Tomisato, Wataru; Li, Xiaohong; Neppl, Christina; Pirie, Elaine; Falk, Werner; Xia, Yu; Moresco, Eva Marie Y.; Baccala, Roberto; Theofilopoulos, Argyrios N.; Schnabl, Bernd; Beutler, Bruce

2012-01-01

347

UNC study finds cancer gene family member functions key to cell adhesion and migration  

Cancer.gov

While cancer researchers are learning more of WTX and how its loss contributes to cancer formation, virtually nothing is known of FAM123C or FAM123A, the latter of which is a highly abundant protein within neurons, cells that receive and send messages from the body to the brain and back to the body. A UNC-led team of scientists used sophisticated technologies to identify and describe the protein interactions that distinguish each member of the WTX family. They found that unlike WTX and FAM123C, FAM123A interacts with a specific set of proteins that regulates cell adhesion and migration, processes essential to normal cell functioning and which, when mutated, contribute to human diseases such as cancer or Alzheimer’s.

348

Disclosure of Children's Positive Serostatus to Family and Nonfamily Members: Informal Caregivers in Togo, West Africa  

PubMed Central

This study examined the structural constraints to disclosure of children's positive serostatus among informal caregivers to family and nonfamily members in Togo. It drew on two data sources, one qualitative and the other quantitative. Qualitative data showed that caregivers cautiously disclosed child's positive serostatus for fear of being stigmatized and discriminated against as well as to protect the children from being stigmatized. Binary regression analyses revealed that different factors influenced reasons for disclosure of a child's serostatus. For instance, while caregivers' serostatus and number of children significantly influenced disclosure for financial support, disclosure of a child's serostatus for spiritual support was strongly affected by education and religion. These results shed light on factors and reasons for disclosure among caregivers. This knowledge is important because different types of programs and advice should be given to caregivers with specific reason(s) for disclosure instead of creating a “one-size-fits all” program for all caregivers.

Moore, Ami R.; Williamson, David

2011-01-01

349

The emotions and coping strategies of caregivers of family members with a terminal cancer.  

PubMed

This study documents the emotional experiences and coping strategies of a group of caregivers as they move from the diagnosis of a close family member with terminal cancer through the stages of caring and post bereavement. Supportive evidence, matching that of previous literature, was gathered regarding the impact of such care, but additional findings counter the notion of "burden" by revealing that strong positive emotions were experienced by these caregivers regarding the opportunity given to them to express their love through care. By contrast and post bereavement, however, intense grief was reported. There appeared to be a complete lack of emotional support throughout from health professionals, particularly in the bereavement phase when need is very apparent. PMID:11324182

Grbich, C; Parker, D; Maddocks, I

2001-01-01

350

Multilevel Models to Identify Contextual Effects on Individual Group Member Outcomes: A Family Example  

PubMed Central

This manuscript illustrates methods for utilizing measurements of individuals to identify group contextual effects on individual outcomes. Contextual effects can be identified by one of three methods: 1) divergence of the simple within- and between-group regression coefficients, 2) the presence of a cross-level interaction of the within- and between-group predictor variable, or 3) the effect of discrepancies within the group. These methods can be used to incorporate group context into an individual model and can be utilized for any individual process variable that might be affected by a group context. Example data include measures of hassles and coping adequacy of inner city, poor, African American new mothers and their family members.

FEASTER, DANIEL; BRINCKS, AHNALEE; ROBBINS, MICHAEL; SZAPOCZNIK, JOSE

2012-01-01

351

Diagnostic value of interactions between members of the family Neisseriaceae and lectins.  

PubMed Central

The lectin slide agglutination test for Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been modified and improved. Results show that wheat germ agglutinin and soybean lectin agglutinate 100% (193 of 193 tested) of clinical isolates of N. gonorrhoeae. Lectin-reactive meningococci can be readily identified by the hydrolysis of gamma-glutamyl-beta-naphthylamide. Branhamella catarrhalis, Neisseria lactamica, Neisseria sicca, Neisseria subflava, Neisseria perflava, and meningococcal serogroups A, B, C, X, Y, and Z do not interfere with the positive identification of N. gonorrhoeae. The frequently encountered problem of autoagglutination of members of the family Neisseriaceae may be circumvented by a short treatment of cellular suspensions with DNase. Based on agglutination assays, the enzyme treatment did not result in a loss of wheat germ agglutinin receptors from the bacteria. The lectin agglutination test, coupled with the gamma-glutamyl aminopeptidase assay, is proposed as a rapid and accurate means of identifying clinical isolates of gonococci.

Doyle, R J; Nedjat-Haiem, F; Keller, K F; Frasch, C E

1984-01-01

352

Diagnostic value of interactions between members of the family Neisseriaceae and lectins.  

PubMed

The lectin slide agglutination test for Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been modified and improved. Results show that wheat germ agglutinin and soybean lectin agglutinate 100% (193 of 193 tested) of clinical isolates of N. gonorrhoeae. Lectin-reactive meningococci can be readily identified by the hydrolysis of gamma-glutamyl-beta-naphthylamide. Branhamella catarrhalis, Neisseria lactamica, Neisseria sicca, Neisseria subflava, Neisseria perflava, and meningococcal serogroups A, B, C, X, Y, and Z do not interfere with the positive identification of N. gonorrhoeae. The frequently encountered problem of autoagglutination of members of the family Neisseriaceae may be circumvented by a short treatment of cellular suspensions with DNase. Based on agglutination assays, the enzyme treatment did not result in a loss of wheat germ agglutinin receptors from the bacteria. The lectin agglutination test, coupled with the gamma-glutamyl aminopeptidase assay, is proposed as a rapid and accurate means of identifying clinical isolates of gonococci. PMID:6546936

Doyle, R J; Nedjat-Haiem, F; Keller, K F; Frasch, C E

1984-03-01

353

The p90 RSK Family Members: Common Functions and Isoform Specificity.  

PubMed

The p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSK) are implicated in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion. In cancer, RSKs modulate cell transformation, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. Indeed, changes in the expression of RSK isoforms have been reported in several malignancies, including breast, prostate, and lung cancers. Four RSK isoforms have been identified in humans on the basis of their high degree of sequence homology. Although this similarity suggests some functional redundancy between these proteins, an increasing body of evidence supports the existence of isoform-based specificity among RSKs in mediating particular cellular processes. This review briefly presents the similarities between RSK family members before focusing on the specific function of each of the isoforms and their involvement in cancer progression. Cancer Res; 73(17); 5301-8. ©2013 AACR. PMID:23970478

Lara, Romain; Seckl, Michael J; Pardo, Olivier E

2013-08-22

354

Complete sequence and genetic characterization of pigeon avian nephritis virus, a member of the family Astroviridae.  

PubMed

In the current study, the complete genome sequence of a member of the family Astroviridae isolated from pigeons was determined through genetic characterization and phylogeny analysis. The isolated genome sequence was proposed to be that of pigeon avian nephritis virus (ANV), whose genome structure and characteristics were similar to previously reported avian astroviruses. The sequenced ssRNA genome comprises 6928 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) tail, and contains three open reading frames. Phylogenetic analysis using a partial nucleotide sequence of the polymerase gene and the entire amino acid sequence of the full-length capsid protein revealed that pigeon avian nephritis virus is closely related to the previously published ANV, especially to the Japanese G-4260 and Chinese strains. This investigation provides information on the sequence and genetic characteristics of this virus and contributes to a better understanding of pigeon ANV and the possible occurrence of astrovirus transmission between chickens and pigeons. PMID:21618030

Zhao, W; Zhu, A L; Yu, Y; Yuan, C L; Zhu, C X; Yang, Z B; Cui, L; Hua, X G

2011-05-27

355

Yip1 domain family, member 6 (Yipf6) mutation induces spontaneous intestinal inflammation in mice.  

PubMed

Using an environmentally sensitized genetic screen we identified mutations that cause inflammatory colitis in mice. The X-linked Klein-Zschocher (KLZ) mutation created a null allele of Yipf6, a member of a gene family believed to regulate vesicular transport in yeast, but without known functions in mammals. Yipf6 is a five transmembrane-spanning protein associated with Golgi compartments. Klein-Zschocher mutants were extremely sensitive to colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and developed spontaneous ileitis and colitis after 16 mo of age in specific pathogen-free housing conditions. Electron microscopy, gene expression, and immunocytochemistry analyses provided evidence that impaired intestinal homeostasis stemmed from defective formation and secretion of large secretory granules from Paneth and goblet cells. These studies support a tissue- and organ-specific function for Yipf6 in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and implicate the orthologous human gene as a disease susceptibility locus. PMID:22802641

Brandl, Katharina; Tomisato, Wataru; Li, Xiaohong; Neppl, Christina; Pirie, Elaine; Falk, Werner; Xia, Yu; Moresco, Eva Marie Y; Baccala, Roberto; Theofilopoulos, Argyrios N; Schnabl, Bernd; Beutler, Bruce

2012-07-16

356

INTERDEPENDENCE OF STRESS PROCESSES AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN FAMILY MEMBERS: INFLUENCE OF HIV SEROSTATUS AND A NEW INFANT  

PubMed Central

This study makes a theoretical contribution to stress process research by using a systemic approach to contextualize individual outcomes within the framework of other family members' experience. Utilizing a mixed model approach, indicators of the stress process of urban low-income HIV+ African American recent mothers were found to affect the psychological distress and perceived adequacy of coping of multiple other family members. These relationships were found to be strongest proximal to birth and to be exacerbated by HIV infection. Social support to the mother was found to have differential effects depending on whether it was from the immediate family or outside sources. HIV infection of the recent mother was found to affect family members both through relationships of the mother's stress process and through their own coping responses.

FEASTER, DANIEL J.; SZAPOCZNIK, JOSE

2005-01-01

357

Basis for the essentiality of H-NS family members in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Members of the histone-like nucleoid-structuring (H-NS) family of proteins have been shown to play important roles in silencing gene expression and in nucleoid compaction. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the two H-NS family members MvaT and MvaU are thought to bind the same AT-rich regions of the chromosome and function coordinately to control a common set of genes. Here we present evidence that the loss of both MvaT and MvaU cannot be tolerated because it results in the production of Pf4 phage that superinfect and kill cells or inhibit their growth. Using a ClpXP-based protein depletion system in combination with transposon mutagenesis, we identify mutants of P. aeruginosa that can tolerate the depletion of MvaT in an ?mvaU mutant background. Many of these mutants contain insertions in genes encoding components, assembly factors, or regulators of type IV pili or contain insertions in genes of the prophage Pf4. We demonstrate that cells that no longer produce type IV pili or that no longer produce the replicative form of the Pf4 genome can tolerate the loss of both MvaT and MvaU. Furthermore, we show that the loss of both MvaT and MvaU results in an increase in expression of Pf4 genes and that cells that cannot produce type IV pili are resistant to infection by Pf4 phage. Our findings suggest that type IV pili are the receptors for Pf4 phage and that the essential activities of MvaT and MvaU are to repress the expression of Pf4 genes. PMID:22821971

Castang, Sandra; Dove, Simon L

2012-07-20

358

Basis for the Essentiality of H-NS Family Members in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Members of the histone-like nucleoid-structuring (H-NS) family of proteins have been shown to play important roles in silencing gene expression and in nucleoid compaction. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the two H-NS family members MvaT and MvaU are thought to bind the same AT-rich regions of the chromosome and function coordinately to control a common set of genes. Here we present evidence that the loss of both MvaT and MvaU cannot be tolerated because it results in the production of Pf4 phage that superinfect and kill cells or inhibit their growth. Using a ClpXP-based protein depletion system in combination with transposon mutagenesis, we identify mutants of P. aeruginosa that can tolerate the depletion of MvaT in an ?mvaU mutant background. Many of these mutants contain insertions in genes encoding components, assembly factors, or regulators of type IV pili or contain insertions in genes of the prophage Pf4. We demonstrate that cells that no longer produce type IV pili or that no longer produce the replicative form of the Pf4 genome can tolerate the loss of both MvaT and MvaU. Furthermore, we show that the loss of both MvaT and MvaU results in an increase in expression of Pf4 genes and that cells that cannot produce type IV pili are resistant to infection by Pf4 phage. Our findings suggest that type IV pili are the receptors for Pf4 phage and that the essential activities of MvaT and MvaU are to repress the expression of Pf4 genes.

Castang, Sandra

2012-01-01

359

The selective BH4-domain biology of Bcl-2-family members: IP3Rs and beyond.  

PubMed

Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-family members not only neutralize pro-apoptotic proteins but also directly regulate intracellular Ca(2+) signaling from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), critically controlling cellular health, survival, and death initiation. Furthermore, distinct Bcl-2-family members may selectively regulate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R): Bcl-2 likely acts as an endogenous inhibitor of the IP3R, preventing pro-apoptotic Ca(2+) transients, while Bcl-XL likely acts as an endogenous IP3R-sensitizing protein promoting pro-survival Ca(2+) oscillations. Furthermore, distinct functional domains in Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL may underlie the divergence in IP3R regulation. The Bcl-2 homology (BH) 4 domain, which targets the central modulatory domain of the IP3R, is likely to be Bcl-2's determining factor. In contrast, the hydrophobic cleft targets the C-terminal Ca(2+)-channel tail and might be more crucial for Bcl-XL's function. Furthermore, one amino acid critically different in the sequence of Bcl-2's and Bcl-XL's BH4 domains underpins their selective effect on Ca(2+) signaling and distinct biological properties of Bcl-2 versus Bcl-XL. This difference is evolutionary conserved across five classes of vertebrates and may represent a fundamental divergence in their biological function. Moreover, these insights open novel avenues to selectively suppress malignant Bcl-2 function in cancer cells by targeting its BH4 domain, while maintaining essential Bcl-XL functions in normal cells. Thus, IP3R-derived molecules that mimic the BH4 domain's binding site on the IP3R may function synergistically with BH3-mimetic molecules selectivity suppressing Bcl-2's proto-oncogenic activity. Finally, a more general role for the BH4 domain on IP3Rs, rather than solely anti-apoptotic, may not be excluded as part of a complex network of molecular interactions. PMID:22955373

Monaco, Giovanni; Vervliet, Tim; Akl, Haidar; Bultynck, Geert

2012-09-06

360

Growth inhibitory effects of three miR-129 family members on gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Reduced expression of microRNA-129 (miR-129) has been reported in several types of tumor cell lines as well as in primary tumor tissues. However, little is known about how miR-129 affects cell proliferation in gastric cancer. Here, we show that all miR-129 family members, miR-129-1-3p, miR-129-2-3p, and miR-129-5p, are down-regulated in gastric cancer cell lines compared with normal gastric epithelial cells. Furthermore, using the real-time cell analyzer assay to observe the growth effects of miR-129 on gastric cancer cells, we found that all three mature products of miR-129 showed tumor suppressor activities. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying down-regulation of miR-129 in gastric cancer, we analyzed the effects of miR-129 mimics on the cell cycle. We found that increased miR-129 levels in gastric cancer cells resulted in significant G0/G1 phase arrest. Interestingly, we showed that cyclin dependent kinase 6 (CDK6), a cell cycle-associated protein involved in G1-S transition, was a target of miR-129. We also found that expression of the sex determining region Y-box 4 (SOX4) was inversely associated with that of miR-129-2-3p and miR-129-5p but not of miR-129-1-3p. Together, our data indicate that all miR-129 family members, not only miR-129-5p, as previously thought, play an important role in regulating cell proliferation in gastric cancer. PMID:24055727

Yu, Xiuchong; Song, Haojun; Xia, Tian; Han, Shuang; Xiao, Bingxiu; Luo, Lin; Xi, Yang; Guo, Junming

2013-09-20

361

Novel plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae from Ohio.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic studies of plasmid-mediated resistance at the Cleveland Veterans Administration Medical Center revealed that related plasmids had disseminated among members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. We studied the beta-lactamases encoded by these plasmids in Escherichia coli C600 transformants or transconjugants. Substrate and inhibition profiles of the enzymes determined by two of these plasmids suggested an activity resembling TEM-1; however, isoelectric focusing revealed a pI of 7.0. These two plasmids were originally found in a Serratia marcescens (pDS076) and an Enterobacter cloacae (pDS075) strain isolated from the same sink in the medical intensive care unit and later, in an Enterobacter cloacae (pDS142 identical to pDS076) isolate colonizing a patient in the same unit. The plasmids also carried the aminoglycoside resistance determinant, 2"-aminoglycoside nucleotidyl transferase. A 2-kilobase AvaI restriction endonuclease digestion fragment of pSD075 known to carry the beta-lactamase determinant was used as a molecular probe. This probe did not recognize sequences of any plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase tested including the recently described determinants ROB-1, TLE-1, and OXA-4-7. A TEM-1 probe derived from the 0.7-kilobase PstI-EcoRI fragment of pBR322 failed to recognize the new beta-lactamase gene. Four additional Enterobacter cloacae and two Enterobacter aerogenes strains isolated in Columbus, Ohio, have been shown to produce a pI 7.0 beta-lactamase and to carry plasmids recognized by the 2-kilobase probe. These data suggest dissemination of a novel plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase among members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in Ohio and demonstrate the development and utility of a molecular probe for the new determinant. We suggest that the novel beta-lactamase be named OHIO-1. Images

Shlaes, D M; Medeiros, A A; Kron, M A; Currie-McCumber, C; Papa, E; Vartian, C V

1986-01-01

362

Usability of a CKD Educational Website Targeted to Patients and Their Family Members  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Web-based technology is critical to the future of healthcare. As part of the Safe Kidney Care cohort study evaluating patient safety in CKD, this study determined how effectively a representative sample of patients with CKD or family members could interpret and use the Safe Kidney Care website (www.safekidneycare.org), an informational website on safety in CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Between November of 2011 and January of 2012, persons with CKD or their family members underwent formal usability testing administered by a single interviewer with a second recording observer. Each participant was independently provided a list of 21 tasks to complete, with each task rated as either easily completed/noncritical error or critical error (user cannot complete the task without significant interviewer intervention). Results Twelve participants completed formal usability testing. Median completion time for all tasks was 17.5 minutes (range=10–44 minutes). In total, 10 participants had greater than or equal to one critical error. There were 55 critical errors in 252 tasks (22%), with the highest proportion of critical errors occurring when participants were asked to find information on treatments that may damage kidneys, find the website on the internet, increase font size, and scroll to the bottom of the webpage. Participants were generally satisfied with the content and usability of the website. Conclusions Web-based educational materials for patients with CKD should target a wide range of computer literacy levels and anticipate variability in competency in use of the computer and internet.

Zuckerman, Marni; Fink, Wanda; Hu, Peter; Yang, Shiming; Fink, Jeffrey C.

2012-01-01

363

V factor-dependent members of the family Pasteurellaceae in the porcine upper respiratory tract.  

PubMed Central

A study was performed to obtain a better understanding of the diversity and ecology of members of the family Pasteurellaceae in the porcine respiratory tract. A collection of 132 V factor-dependent strains of Pasteurellaceae selected from porcine field isolates mainly from the respiratory tract were subjected to detailed characterization. In addition to the three hitherto recognized species Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis, and Haemophilus taxon "minor group," three distinct taxa were observed. Some of these taxa, which are provisionally designated taxa D, E, and F, would by traditional criteria be mistaken for H. parasuis but differed by several biochemical characteristics. To study the ecology of the V factor-dependent species, swabs from the nasal and oral cavities of 29 pigs were cultivated on selective and nonselective media. By studying approximately 30 isolates from each sample, the distribution and relative proportion of the individual taxa were determined. A. pleuropneumoniae was detected in samples from the tonsil areas of only two acutely ill animals. H. parasuis was isolated from the nasal cavities of four out of nine healthy pigs but from the oral cavities of only two animals. In contrast, taxon "minor group" and taxa D, E, and F were present in the oral cavities of the majority of pigs but were not detected in samples from their nasal cavities. The results indicate that all the observed V factor-dependent species of Pasteurellaceae except A. pleuropneumoniae, are members of the resident microflora of various mucosal surfaces of the porcine upper respiratory tract.

M?ller, K; Kilian, M

1990-01-01

364

Family members' involvement in elder care provision in nursing homes and their considerations about financial compensation: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to establish how family members are involved in elder care provision in nursing homes; this included research into their feelings about potentially extending their involvement to obtain financial benefits as compensation for high accommodation costs. Family members remain involved in the caring process after their relatives have been admitted to an institution. On average, accommodation costs in nursing homes in Slovenia have risen above the residents' retirement pension, and families must supplement the difference. Because of this, familial involvement should be linked to reduced accommodation costs. This research employed a non-experimental, descriptive study design through unstructured interviews. Participants included fifty family members (n=50) who visit their relatives in nursing homes. Data were collected in 2010 at five nursing homes in Slovenia and processed by means of conventional content analysis. The major themes that emerged from the content analysis, describing family involvement, were as follows: visiting and making oneself useful, delivery of items for personal use, hands-on care, physical therapy and organization of nursing home activities. Family members showed some interest in receiving financial compensation for their involvement. The proposed financial compensation may be a delicate and morally questionable matter but would involve fairness and transparency, while enabling easier organization of elder care provision. Eventually, nursing home residents' well-being could be improved. PMID:23375798

Habjani?, Ana; Pajnkihar, Majda

2013-02-01

365

Stress, needs, and quality of life of family members caring for adults living with HIV/AIDS in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The stress, needs and quality of life (QoL) of family members of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are critical to explore in Taiwan where home care projects are not available to help the PLWHA families. We examined the extent of stress, needs, QoL and its correlates that family caregivers of PLWHA experienced with structural questionnaires survey. A total of 50 family caregivers of PLWHA visiting a medical center in Taiwan participated in the study from October 2005 to August 2006. Family caregivers felt most stressful on disclosure and stigma issues, and most worried about patients' interpersonal relationships. The most important needs were care-related needs including knowledge of the disease progression, methods of examination and treatment, and the related side effects. The level of stress significantly positively correlated with needs, and negatively correlated with QoL. Availability of alternative manpower to care PLWHA and being PLWHA's parents were two significant factors affecting family caregivers' QoL. In conclusion, family members of PLWHA experienced high level of stress, enormous caring needs, and poor QoL. A family-centered care for PLWHA and their families in the community is crucial to improve quality of care and to prevent family's overload, particularly for families with no alternative manpower and for those being PLWHA's parents. PMID:19266410

Feng, Ming-Chu; Feng, Jui-Ying; Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lu, Po-Liang; Ko, Nai-Ying; Chen, Yen-Hsu

2009-04-01

366

Neutral lipids in the study of relationships of members of the family micrococcaceae.  

PubMed

The organisms studied were those of the family Micrococcaceae which cannot participate in genetic exchange with Micrococcus luteus and those whose biochemical and physiological characteristics appear to bridge the genera Staphylococcus and Micrococcus. The hydrocarbon compositions of M. luteus ATCC 4698 and Micrococcus sp. ATCC 398 were shown to be similar to those previously reported for many M. luteus strains, consisting of isomers of branched monoolefins in the range C25 to C31. However, Micrococcus sp. ATCC 398 differed somewhat by having almost all C29 isomers (approximately 88% of the hydrocarbon composition). Micrococcus spp. ATCC 401 and ATCC 146 and M. roseus strains ATCC 412, ATCC 416, and ATCC 516 contained the same type of hydrocarbon patterns, but the predominant hydrocarbons were within a lower distribution range (C23 to C27), similar to Micrococcus sp. ATCC 533 previously reported. The chromatographic profile and carbon range of the hydrocarbons of an atypical strain designated M. candicans ATCC 8456 differed significantly from the hydrocarbon pattern presented above. The hydrocarbons were identified as branched and normal olefins in the range C16 to C22. Studies of several different strains of staphylococci revealed that these organisms do not contain readily detectable amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The members of the family Micrococcaceae have been divided into two major groups based on the presence or absence of hydrocarbons. With the exception of M. candicans ATCC 8456, this division corresponded to the separation of these organisms according to their deoxyribonucleic acid compositions. PMID:5122809

Morrison, S J; Tornabene, T G; Kloos, W E

1971-10-01

367

Erythrocyte remodeling in Plasmodium berghei infection: the contribution of SEP family members.  

PubMed

The malaria parasite Plasmodium largely modifies the infected erythrocyte through the export of proteins to multiple sites within the host cell. This remodeling is crucial for pathology and translocation of virulence factors to the erythrocyte surface. In this study, we investigated localization and export of small exported proteins/early transcribed membrane proteins (SEP/ETRAMPs), conserved within Plasmodium genus. This protein family is characterized by a predicted signal peptide, a short lysine-rich stretch, an internal transmembrane domain and a highly charged C-terminal region of variable length. We show here that members of the rodent Plasmodium berghei family are components of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM), which surrounds the parasite throughout the erythrocytic cycle. During P. berghei development, vesicle-like structures containing these proteins detach from the PVM en route to the host cytosol. These SEP-containing vesicles remain associated with the infected erythrocyte ghosts most probably anchored to the membrane skeleton. Transgenic lines expressing the green fluorescent protein appended to different portions of sep-coding region allowed us to define motifs required for protein export. The highly charged terminal region appears to be involved in protein-protein interactions. PMID:22106924

Currà, Chiara; Pace, Tomasino; Franke-Fayard, Blandine M D; Picci, Leonardo; Bertuccini, Lucia; Ponzi, Marta

2011-12-13

368

Phenotypic variation among seven members of one family with deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase.  

PubMed

We describe a family of seven boys affected by Lesch-Nyhan disease with various phenotypes. Further investigations revealed a mutation c.203T>C in the gene encoding HGprt of all members, with substitution of leucine to proline at residue 68 (p.Leu68Pro). Thus patients from this family display a wide variety of symptoms although sharing the same mutation. Mutant HGprt enzyme was prepared by site-directed mutagenesis and the kinetics of the enzyme revealed that the catalytic activity of the mutant was reduced, in association with marked reductions in the affinity towards phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP). Its Km for PRPP was increased 215-fold with hypoxanthine as substrate and 40-fold with guanine as substrate with associated reduced catalytic potential. Molecular modeling confirmed that the most prominent defect was the dramatically reduced affinity towards PRPP. Our studies suggest that the p.Leu68Pro mutation has a strong impact on PRPP binding and on stability of the active conformation. This suggests that factors other than HGprt activity per se may influence the phenotype of Lesch-Nyhan patients. PMID:24075303

Ceballos-Picot, Irène; Augé, Franck; Fu, Rong; Olivier-Bandini, Anne; Cahu, Julie; Chabrol, Brigitte; Aral, Bernard; de Martinville, Bérengère; Lecain, Jean-Paul; Jinnah, H A

2013-09-08

369

Members of the Arabidopsis actin gene family are widely dispersed in the genome.  

PubMed Central

Plant genomes are subjected to a variety of DNA turnover mechanisms that are thought to result in rapid expansion and presumable contraction of gene copy number. The evolutionary history of the 10 actin genes in Arabidopsis thaliana is well characterized and can be traced to the origin of vascular plant genomes. Knowledge about the genomic position of each actin gene may be the key to tracing landmark genomic duplication events that define plant families or genera and facilitate further mutant isolation. All 10 actin genes were mapped by following the segregation of cleaved amplified polymorphisms between two ecotypes and identifying actin gene locations among yeast artificial chromosomes. The Arabidopsis actin genes are widely dispersed on four different chromosomes (1, 2, 3, and 5). Even the members of three closely related and recently duplicated pairs of actin genes are unlinked. Several other cytoskeletal genes (profilins, tubulins) that might have evolved in concert with actins were also mapped, but showed few patterns consistent with that evolutionary history. Thus, the events that gave rise to the actin gene family have been obscured either by the duplication of very small genic fragments or by extensive rearrangement of the genome.

McKinney, E C; Meagher, R B

1998-01-01

370

Organic anion transporter (Slc22a) family members as mediators of toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Exposure of the body to toxic organic anions is unavoidable and occurs from both intentional and unintentional sources. Many hormones, neurotransmitters, and waste products of cellular metabolism, or their metabolites, are organic anions. The same is true for a wide variety of medications, herbicides, pesticides, plant and animal toxins, and industrial chemicals and solvents. Rapid and efficient elimination of these substances is often the body's best defense for limiting both systemic exposure and the duration of their pharmacological or toxicological effects. For organic anions, active transepithelial transport across the renal proximal tubule followed by elimination via the urine is a major pathway in this detoxification process. Accordingly, a large number of organic anion transport proteins belonging to several different gene families have been identified and found to be expressed in the proximal nephron. The function of these transporters, in combination with the high volume of renal blood flow, predisposes the kidney to increased toxic susceptibility. Understanding how the kidney mediates the transport of organic anions is integral to achieving desired therapeutic outcomes in response to drug interactions and chemical exposures, to understanding the progression of some disease states, and to predicting the influence of genetic variation upon these processes. This review will focus on the organic anion transporter (OAT) family and discuss the known members, their mechanisms of action, subcellular localization, and current evidence implicating their function as a determinant of the toxicity of certain endogenous and xenobiotic agents.

Sweet, Douglas H. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 280 Calhoun Street (Room QE218), PO Box 250140, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)]. E-mail: sweetd@musc.edu

2005-05-01

371

Antigenic relationships among penicillin-binding proteins 1 from members of the families Pasteurellaceae and Enterobacteriaceae.  

PubMed Central

Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) from Haemophilus influenzae RD purified by a combination of affinity chromatography, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and electroelution were used to immunize rabbits to obtain specific antisera. Antisera directed against PBP 1 (1b) of H. influenzae cross-reacted with representative organisms of the family Pasteurellaceae and with many members of the family Enterobacteriaceae but not with other gram-negative organisms. Immunization with purified PBP 3 of H. influenzae produced antisera that reacted with PBP 1 (1b) of H. influenzae and showed the same cross-reactive pattern with other species as the anti-PBP 1 antiserum. A 24,000-molecular-weight polypeptide of H. influenzae, not radiolabeled by [35S]penicillin, reacted with antisera against purified PBPs 1 (1a, 1b), 2, and 3. The results suggest that antigenic epitopes are shared among similar PBPs from related species and even among different PBPs within the same species. Images

Schryvers, A B; Wong, S S; Bryan, L E

1986-01-01

372

A Novel Member of the Netrin Family, ?-Netrin, Shares Homology with the ? Chain of Laminin  

PubMed Central

The netrins are a family of laminin-related molecules. Here, we characterize a new member of the family, ?-netrin. ?-Netrin is homologous to the NH2 terminus of laminin chain short arms; it contains a laminin-like domain VI and 3.5 laminin EGF repeats and a netrin C domain. Unlike other netrins, this new netrin is more related to the laminin ? chains, thus, its name ?-netrin. An initial analysis of the tissue distribution revealed that kidney, heart, ovary, retina, and the olfactory bulb were tissues of high expression. We have expressed the molecule in a eukaryotic cell expression system and made antibodies to the expressed product. Both in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to describe the cellular source of ?-netrin and where ?-netrin is deposited. ?-Netrin is a basement membrane component; it is present in the basement membranes of the vasculature, kidney, and ovaries. In addition, ?-netrin is expressed in a limited set of fiber tracts within the brain, including the lateral olfactory tract and the vomeronasal nerve. Functional studies were performed and show that ?-netrin promotes neurite elongation from olfactory bulb explants. Together, these data suggest that ?-netrin is important in neural, kidney, and vascular development.

Koch, Manuel; Murrell, Julie R.; Hunter, Dale D.; Olson, Pamela F.; Jin, William; Keene, Douglas R.; Brunken, William J.; Burgeson, Robert E.

2000-01-01

373

Synergistic cooperation of PDI family members in peroxiredoxin 4-driven oxidative protein folding.  

PubMed

The mammalian endoplasmic reticulum (ER) harbors disulfide bond-generating enzymes, including Ero1? and peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4), and nearly 20 members of the protein disulfide isomerase family (PDIs), which together constitute a suitable environment for oxidative protein folding. Here, we clarified the Prx4 preferential recognition of two PDI family proteins, P5 and ERp46, and the mode of interaction between Prx4 and P5 thioredoxin domain. Detailed analyses of oxidative folding catalyzed by the reconstituted Prx4-PDIs pathways demonstrated that, while P5 and ERp46 are dedicated to rapid, but promiscuous, disulfide introduction, PDI is an efficient proofreader of non-native disulfides. Remarkably, the Prx4-dependent formation of native disulfide bonds was accelerated when PDI was combined with ERp46 or P5, suggesting that PDIs work synergistically to increase the rate and fidelity of oxidative protein folding. Thus, the mammalian ER seems to contain highly systematized oxidative networks for the efficient production of large quantities of secretory proteins. PMID:23949117

Sato, Yoshimi; Kojima, Rieko; Okumura, Masaki; Hagiwara, Masatoshi; Masui, Shoji; Maegawa, Ken-Ichi; Saiki, Masatoshi; Horibe, Tomohisa; Suzuki, Mamoru; Inaba, Kenji

2013-08-16

374

Crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima 0065 - a member of the IclR transcriptional factor family  

SciTech Connect

Members of the IclR family of transcription regulators modulate signal-dependent expression of genes involved in carbon metabolism in bacteria and archaea. The Thermotoga maritima TM0065 gene codes for a protein (TM-IclR) that is homologous to the IclR family. We have determined the crystal structure of TM-IclR at 2.2 Angstroms resolution using MAD phasing and synchrotron radiation. The protein is composed of two domains: the N-terminal DNA-binding domain contains the winged helix-turn-helix motif, and the C-terminal presumed regulatory domain is involved in binding signal molecule. In a proposed signal-binding site, a bound Zn2+ ion was found. In the crystal, TM-IclR forms a dimer through interactions between DNA-binding domains. In the dimer, the DNA-binding domains are 2-fold related, but the dimer is asymmetric with respect to the orientation of signal-binding domains. Crystal packing analysis showed that TM-IclR dimers form a tetramer through interactions exclusively by signal-binding domains. A model is proposed for binding of IclR-like factors to DNA, and it suggests that signal-dependent transcription regulation is accomplished by affecting an oligomerization state of IclR and therefore its affinity for DNA target.

Zhang, R.-G.; Kim, Y.-C.; Skarina, T.; Beasley, S.; Laskowski, R.; Arrowsmith, C.; Edwards, A.; Joachimiak, A.; Savchenko, A.; Univ. of Toronto; Univ. Health Network; Birbeck Coll.

2002-05-24

375

Vigilance. Evolution and definition for caregivers of family members with Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The language of caregiving relies heavily on terms that are frequently negative such as caregiver stress and burden, but these are not universally accepted phenomenon. The purpose of this article is to report on the development of caregiver vigilance and to suggest it offers both neutral terminology and a means to include caregivers' perceptions of their supervisory role. The concept of vigilance emerged from a qualitative study of caregivers of family members with Alzheimer's disease. Vigilance is defined as the caregivers' continual oversight of their care recipients' activities. The five key components of vigilance were watchful supervision, protective intervening, anticipating, always on duty, and being there. Vigilant caregivers saw themselves as "on duty" even when they were not "doing things." The findings of this study support caregivers' perceptions of 24-hour-a-day responsibility. Nurses need to realize that caregiver vigilance is not necessarily diminished when professional caregivers intervene or institutionalization occurs. Debriefing caregivers about their unique family caregiving knowledge and incorporating it into caregiving is a key strategy for nurses to use to build caregiver trust and reduce their vigilance time. PMID:13677157

Mahoney, Diane Feeney

2003-08-01

376

Cloning and characterization of SOX5, a new member of the human SOX gene family  

SciTech Connect

The mammalian Y-linked testis determining gene, SRY, encodes a protein with a DNA binding motif known as the HMG box. A large family of genes sharing a high similarity with the SRY HMG box and named Sox (Sry-related HMG box) in mouse and SOX in human has been identified from various organisms. We have cloned SOX5, a new member of the human SOX gene family. SOX5 cDNAs isolated from a human adult testis cDNA library show a high similarity with the mouse Sox5 transcript over a large region identical in all the human cDNAs. However, comparison of the 5{prime} unique sequences of the cDNAs suggests that the SOX5 gene is subject to alternative splicing. Genomic analysis identified a SOX5 pseudogene located on 8q21.1, whereas the SOX5 gene itself, which contains a minimum of five introns, maps to 12p12.1. In contrast to the mouse gene, the human SOX5 gene is expressed in a variety of human tissues, and different size transcripts are observed in adult testis and fetal brain. 19 refs., 5 figs.

Wunderle, V.M.; Critcher, R.; Goodfellow, P.N. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Ashworth, A. [Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom)

1996-09-01

377

Xiangella phaseoli gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Micromonosporaceae.  

PubMed

A novel endophytic actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-J5(T) was isolated from roots of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that NEAU-J5(T) is phylogenetically related to members of the family Micromonosporaceae. The whole-cell sugars were galactose, mannose and glucose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H6). The major fatty acids were C16:0, C18:0, C17:1?7c, iso-C15:0 and C17:0. The phospholipids were phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The DNA G+C content was 72.2 mol%. On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and characteristic patterns of 16S rRNA gene signature nucleotides, strain NEAU-J5(T) represents a novel species of a new genus within the family Micromonosporaceae, for which the name Xiangella phaseoli gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Xiangella phaseoli is strain NEAU-J5(T) (=CGMCC 4.7038(T)=DSM 45730(T)). PMID:23104362

Wang, Xiangjing; Jia, Feiyu; Liu, Chongxi; Zhao, Junwei; Wang, Liang; Shen, Yue; Wang, Jidong; Zhang, Ji; Li, Chuang; Xiang, Wensheng

2012-10-26

378

Naasia aerilata gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Microbacteriaceae isolated from air.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterial strain, 5116S-4(T), was isolated from an air sample collected in Suwon city, Republic of Korea. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that this strain was a new member of the family Microbacteriaceae. The sequence similarities of this strain to the members of the family Microbacteriaceae were less than 97 %, with the highest values observed with Cryobacterium mesophilum MSL-15(T) (96.3 %), Cryobacterium roopkundense RuGl7(T) (96.2 %), Labedella gwakjiensis KSW2-17(T) (96.2 %), Cryobacterium luteum Hh15(T) (96.2 %), Cryobacterium psychrophilum DSM 4854(T) (96.2 %), Klugiella xanthotipulae 44C3(T) (96.0 %) and Amnibacterium kyonggiense KSL51201-037(T) (96.0 %). According to the phylogenetic tree, strain 5116S-4(T) formed a cluster with A. kyonggiense KSL51201-037(T), Labedella gwakjiensis KSW2-17(T) and Lysinimonas soli SGM3-12(T) (95.3 % sequence similarity) on the support of high bootstrap values. Cells were motile with single polar flagellum and showed optimum growth at 30 °C and pH 7 without NaCl. Predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0. Polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, dimannosyldiacylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, one unknown glycolipid, one unknown phospholipid and one unknown lipid. The acyl type of the cell-wall muramic acid was the acetyl type. Peptidoglycan was supposed to be the type B1 with 2,4-diaminobutyric acid on position 3. Strain 5116S-4(T) was clearly distinguishable from the phylogenetically related genera in the family Microbacteriaceae in terms of chemotaxonomic characteristics. On the basis of the chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, a novel genus and species are proposed, Naasia aerilata gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Naasia aerilata is 5116S-4(T) ( = KACC 15517(T) = NBRC 108725(T)). PMID:23203625

Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kim, Soo-Jin; Jang, Yun-Hee; Hamada, Moriyuki; Tamura, Tomohiko; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro; Kwon, Soon-Wo

2012-11-30

379

Zebrafish tenascin-W, a new member of the tenascin family.  

PubMed

A cDNA clone encoding tenascin-W, a novel member of the tenascin family, was isolated from a 20- to 28-h postfertilization (hpf) zebrafish cDNA library on the basis of the conserved epidermal growth factor-like domains represented in all tenascin molecules. An open reading frame of 2796 base pairs encodes a mature protein consisting of heptad repeats, a cysteine-rich amino terminal region, 3.5 epidermal growth factor-like repeats, five fibronectin type III homologous repeats, and a domain homologous to fibrinogen. These domains are the typical modular elements of molecules of the tenascin family. Sequence comparison demonstrated that TN-W shares homologies with the members of the tenascin family but is not a species homolog of any identified tenascin. The expression pattern of tn-w was analyzed by in situ hybridization in 1-day-old embryos, in 3-day-old larvae, and in juvenile zebrafish. At 24-25 hpf, tn-w mRNA was expressed in the lateral plate mesoderm, most conspicuously in the presumptive sclerotome. Migrating cells of sclerotomal and neural crest origins also showed high levels of expression. At 3 days, expression by sclerotomal and neural crest cells continued to be observed while expression in the somitic mesoderm was decreased. In juvenile fish, tn-w was expressed weakly by cells in the myosepta and, more strongly, by presumably nonneuronal cells in the dorsal root ganglia. In these tissues and at the same developmental stages, the expression of tn-w partially overlapped with the distribution of tn-c mRNA. In addition, tn-c was expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and in the axial mesoderm, neither of which expressed tn-w at any of the age stages examined. The expression pattern of tn-w suggests an involvement in neural crest and sclerotome cell migration and in the formation of the skeleton. Similar and possibly overlapping functions could also be performed by tn-c, which appears to have additional functions during the development of the CNS. PMID:9552162

Weber, P; Montag, D; Schachner, M; Bernhardt, R R

1998-04-01

380

Ultrastructural Analysis of the Rugose Cell Envelope of a Member of the Pasteurellaceae Family  

PubMed Central

Bacterial membranes serve as selective environmental barriers and contain determinants required for bacterial colonization and survival. Cell envelopes of Gram-negative bacteria consist of an outer and an inner membrane separated by a periplasmic space. Most Gram-negative bacteria display a smooth outer surface (e.g., Enterobacteriaceae), whereas members of the Pasteurellaceae and Moraxellaceae families show convoluted surfaces. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, an oral pathogen representative of the Pasteurellaceae family, displays a convoluted membrane morphology. This phenotype is associated with the presence of morphogenesis protein C (MorC). Inactivation of the morC gene results in a smooth membrane appearance when visualized by two-dimensional (2D) electron microscopy. In this study, 3D electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy of whole-mount bacterial preparations as well as 3D electron microscopy of ultrathin sections of high-pressure frozen and freeze-substituted specimens were used to characterize the membranes of both wild-type and morC mutant strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Our results show that the mutant strain contains fewer convolutions than the wild-type bacterium, which exhibits a higher curvature of the outer membrane and a periplasmic space with 2-fold larger volume/area ratio than the mutant bacterium. The inner membrane of both strains has a smooth appearance and shows connections with the outer membrane, as revealed by visualization and segmentation of 3D tomograms. The present studies and the availability of genetically modified organisms with altered outer membrane morphology make A. actinomycetemcomitans a model organism for examining membrane remodeling and its implications in antibiotic resistance and virulence in the Pasteurellaceae and Moraxellaceae bacterial families.

Azari, Fereshteh; Nyland, Lori; Yu, Chunxiao; Radermacher, Michael; Mintz, Keith P.

2013-01-01

381

Ultrastructural analysis of the rugose cell envelope of a member of the Pasteurellaceae family.  

PubMed

Bacterial membranes serve as selective environmental barriers and contain determinants required for bacterial colonization and survival. Cell envelopes of Gram-negative bacteria consist of an outer and an inner membrane separated by a periplasmic space. Most Gram-negative bacteria display a smooth outer surface (e.g., Enterobacteriaceae), whereas members of the Pasteurellaceae and Moraxellaceae families show convoluted surfaces. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, an oral pathogen representative of the Pasteurellaceae family, displays a convoluted membrane morphology. This phenotype is associated with the presence of morphogenesis protein C (MorC). Inactivation of the morC gene results in a smooth membrane appearance when visualized by two-dimensional (2D) electron microscopy. In this study, 3D electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy of whole-mount bacterial preparations as well as 3D electron microscopy of ultrathin sections of high-pressure frozen and freeze-substituted specimens were used to characterize the membranes of both wild-type and morC mutant strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Our results show that the mutant strain contains fewer convolutions than the wild-type bacterium, which exhibits a higher curvature of the outer membrane and a periplasmic space with 2-fold larger volume/area ratio than the mutant bacterium. The inner membrane of both strains has a smooth appearance and shows connections with the outer membrane, as revealed by visualization and segmentation of 3D tomograms. The present studies and the availability of genetically modified organisms with altered outer membrane morphology make A. actinomycetemcomitans a model organism for examining membrane remodeling and its implications in antibiotic resistance and virulence in the Pasteurellaceae and Moraxellaceae bacterial families. PMID:23378507

Azari, Fereshteh; Nyland, Lori; Yu, Chunxiao; Radermacher, Michael; Mintz, Keith P; Ruiz, Teresa

2013-02-01

382

The roles of receptor-associated protein (RAP) as a molecular chaperone for members of the LDL receptor family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the LDL receptor family mediate endocytosis and signal transduction of many extracellular ligands which participate in lipoprotein metabolism, protease regulation, embryonic development, and the pathogenesis of disease (e.g., Alzheimer's disease). Structurally, these receptors share common motifs and modules that are highlighted with clusters of cysteine-rich ligand-binding repeats. Perhaps, the most significant feature that is shared by members of

Guojun Bu

2001-01-01

383

Functional Characterization of a New Member of the Cdk9 Family in Aspergillus nidulans ? †  

PubMed Central

Cdk9-like kinases in complex with T-type cyclins are essential components of the eukaryotic transcription elongation machinery. The full spectrum of Cdk9/cyclin T targets, as well as the specific consequences of phosphorylations, is still largely undefined. We identify and characterize here a Cdk9 kinase (PtkA) in the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans. Deletion of ptkA had a lethal effect in later stages of vegetative growth and completely impeded asexual development. Overexpression of ptkA affected directionality of polarized growth and the initiation of new branching sites. A green fluorescent protein-tagged PtkA version localized inside the nucleus during interphase, supporting a role of PtkA in transcription elongation, as observed in other organisms. We also identified a putative cyclin T homolog, PchA, in the A. nidulans genome and confirmed its interaction with PtkA in vivo. Surprisingly, the Pcl-like cyclin PclA, previously described to be involved in asexual development, was also found to interact with PtkA, indicating a possible role of PtkA in linking transcriptional activity with development and/or morphogenesis in A. nidulans. This is the first report of a Cdk9 kinase interacting with a Pcl-like cyclin, revealing interesting new aspects about the involvement of this Cdk-subfamily in differential gene expression.

Bathe, Friederike; Kempf, Claudia; Osmani, Stephen A.; Osmani, Aysha H.; Hettinger, Sabrina; Wohlmann, Elke; Fischer, Reinhard

2010-01-01

384

African American Bereaved Family Members' Perceptions of Hospice Quality: Do Hospices with High Proportions of African Americans Do Better?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Research suggests that racial differences in end-of-life care persist even among patients enrolled in hospice. Objective The objective of the study was to examine the association between bereaved family members' satisfaction with hospice services and the proportion of African American (AA) patients in hospice. Methods The 2007 and 2008 Family Evaluation of Hospice Care (FEHC) Survey examined family members' perceptions of the quality of care on several dimensions including: unmet need for pain, dyspnea, and emotional support; being informed about the patient's condition and what to expect as the patient was dying; being informed about medications and treatments for symptoms; coordination of care; and overall satisfaction with care. We examined the association between family members' perception along each domain and the proportion of AAs served by hospices surveyed. Results Of the 11,892 AA decedents in 678 hospice programs, 53.7% were female. The leading cause of death was cancer (51.6%). On univariate analysis, family members of decedents who died in hospices that had higher proportions of AAs were less likely to have concerns about unmet pain needs (odds ratio [OR] 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72–0.98), more likely to have concerns about coordination of care (1.28, 1.17–1.40), and less likely to perceive care as excellent or very good (0.73, 0.63–0.84). Coordination-of-care concerns and lower overall rating of care persisted in multivariable analyses. There were no other significant associations between family perceptions and proportions of AAs in hospice. Conclusions Among hospices with higher proportions of AAs, family members have more concerns about coordination of care and have lower overall perceptions of quality.

Xuan, Lei; Halm, Ethan A.

2012-01-01

385

Modulation of myosin filament organization by C-protein family members.  

PubMed Central

We have analyzed the interactions between two types of sarcomeric proteins: myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and members of an abundant thick filament-associated protein family (myosin-binding protein; MyBP). Previous work has demonstrated that when MyHC is transiently transfected into mammalian nonmuscle COS cells, the expressed protein forms spindle-shaped structures consisting of bundles of myosin thick filaments. Co-expression of MyHC and MyBP-C or -H modulates the MyHC structures, resulting in dramatically longer cables consisting of myosin and MyBP encircling the nucleus. Immunoelectron microscopy indicates that these cable structures are more uniform in diameter than the spindle structures consisting solely of MyHC, and that the myosin filaments are compacted in the presence of MyBP. Deletion analysis of MyBP-H indicates that cable formation is dependent on the carboxy terminal 24 amino acids. Neither the MyHC spindles nor the MyHC/MyBP cables associate with the endogenous actin cytoskeleton of the COS cell. While there is no apparent co-localization between these structures and the microtubule network, colchicine treatment of the cells promotes the formation of longer assemblages, suggesting that cytoskeletal architecture may physically impede or regulate polymer formation/extension. The data presented here contribute to a greater understanding of the interactions between the MyBP family and MyHC, and provide additional evidence for functional homology between MyBP-C and MyBP-H. Images

Seiler, S H; Fischman, D A; Leinwand, L A

1996-01-01

386

Rubrivirga marina gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Rhodothermaceae isolated from deep seawater.  

PubMed

Two aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, pale-red-pigmented and rod-shaped bacterial strains, designated SAORIC-26 and SAORIC-28(T), were isolated from seawater (3000 m depth) from the Pacific Ocean. Phylogenetic analysis based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the novel isolates could be affiliated with the family Rhodothermaceae of the class Cytophagia. Strains SAORIC-26 and SAORIC-28(T) shared 99.7% pairwise sequence similarity with each other and showed less than 92.6% similarity with other cultivated members of the class Cytophagia. The strains were found to be non-motile, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative and able to hydrolyse gelatin and aesculin. The DNA G+C contents were determined to be 64.8-65.8 mol% and MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone. Summed feature 9 (iso-C17:1?9c and/or C16:0 10-methyl), summed feature 3 (C16:1?6c and/or C16:1?7c) and iso-C15:0 were found to be the major cellular fatty acids. On the basis of this taxonomic study using a polyphasic approach, it was concluded that strains SAORIC-26 and SAORIC-28(T) represent a novel species of a new genus in the family Rhodothermaceae, for which the name Rubrivirga marina gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species of is SAORIC-28(T) (=KCTC 23867(T)=NBRC 108816(T)). An additional strain of the species is SAORIC-26. PMID:23148103

Park, Sanghwa; Song, Jaeho; Yoshizawa, Susumu; Choi, Ahyoung; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Kogure, Kazuhiro

2012-11-12

387

Identification and characterization of genetically divergent members of the newly established family Mesoniviridae.  

PubMed

The recently established family Mesoniviridae (order Nidovirales) contains a single species represented by two closely related viruses, Cavally virus (CavV) and Nam Dinh virus (NDiV), which were isolated from mosquitoes collected in Côte d'Ivoire and Vietnam, respectively. They represent the first nidoviruses to be discovered in insects. Here, we report the molecular characterization of four novel mesoniviruses, Hana virus, Méno virus, Nsé virus, and Moumo virus, all of which were identified in a geographical region in Côte d'Ivoire with high CavV prevalence. The viruses were found with prevalences between 0.5 and 2.8%, and genome sequence analyses and phylogenetic studies suggest that they represent at least three novel species. Electron microscopy revealed prominent club-shaped surface projections protruding from spherical, enveloped virions of about 120 nm. Northern blot data show that the four mesoniviruses analyzed in this study produce two major 3'-coterminal subgenomic mRNAs containing two types of 5' leader sequences resulting from the use of different pairs of leader and body transcription-regulating sequences that are conserved among mesoniviruses. Protein sequencing, mass spectroscopy, and Western blot data show that mesonivirus particles contain eight major structural protein species, including the putative nucleocapsid protein (25 kDa), differentially glycosylated forms of the putative membrane protein (20, 19, 18, and 17 kDa), and the putative spike (S) protein (77 kDa), which is proteolytically cleaved at a conserved site to produce S protein subunits of 23 and 57 kDa. The data provide fundamental new insight into common and distinguishing biological properties of members of this newly identified virus family. PMID:23536661

Zirkel, Florian; Roth, Hanna; Kurth, Andreas; Drosten, Christian; Ziebuhr, John; Junglen, Sandra

2013-03-27

388

Prevalence and Frequency of Problems of Concerned Family Members with a Substance Using Loved One  

PubMed Central

Background Limited research has examined the prevalence and frequency of specific problems of concerned family members and significant others (CSOs) of alcohol or substance using individuals (SUIs). Objectives We surveyed CSOs of SUIs to determine the prevalence and frequency of their problems and explored whether relationship to the SUI, gender of the CSO, or living arrangements altered problem prevalence and frequency. Method Non-substance using CSOs (N = 110) completed the Significant Other Survey, which asks about problems in seven domains (emotional; family; relationship; financial; health; violence; legal). Problem outcomes were compared based on the CSO’s relationship to the SUI (partner or spouse vs. parent), gender of the CSO (male vs. female), and living arrangements of the CSO and SUI (residing together vs. residing apart). Results Problems were prevalent with at least two-thirds of the participants endorsing one or more problems in all but the legal domain. They also occurred frequently, with CSOs reporting problems on one-third to one-half of the past 30 days, in all but the violence and legal domains. Problems tended to be greater for CSOs who were partners, females, or living with the SUI. Conclusion CSOs experience frequent problems in a wide range of life domains and the types of difficulties they experience appear to differ based on type of relationship, gender, and their living arrangement relative to the SUI. Scientific Significance This investigation expands our understanding of the specific problems that CSOs face. The findings have important implications for treatment and health policy regarding these individuals.

Benishek, Lois A.; Kirby, Kimberly C.; Dugosh, Karen Leggett

2011-01-01

389

Jejuia pallidilutea gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from seawater.  

PubMed

An aerobic, pale-orange-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative bacterium, designated strain EM39T, was isolated from seawater from the eastern coast of Jeju Island, Korea, and its taxonomic status was established using a polyphasic approach. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies revealed that strain EM39T formed a distinct lineage within the family Flavobacteriaceae and could be distinguished from strains of members of the related genera Gaetbulibacter, Mariniflexile and Tamlana by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis (similarity values between strain EM39T and related strains were all less than 93.8%). Cells of strain EM39T were non-gliding, catalase- and oxidase-positive rods that were devoid of flexirubin pigments. Growth was observed at 15-35 degrees C (optimum, 25-30 degrees C) and pH 6.5-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.5). The genomic DNA G+C content was 34.6 mol% and the major respiratory quinone was MK-6. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C15:1 G and iso-C17:0 3-OH. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic data, strain EM39T represents a novel species in a new genus in the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Jejuia pallidilutea gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EM39T (=KCTC 22298T=DSM 21165T). PMID:19605703

Lee, Dong-Heon; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel; Lee, Young Sun; Jung, Jae Sung; Kim, Jeong Myeong; Chung, Bok Sil; Park, Soo Kwon; Jeon, Che Ok

2009-07-15

390

Identification, tissue expression and chromosomal localization of human Obscurin-MLCK, a member of the titin and Dbl families of myosin light chain kinases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the Dbl family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) have important roles in the organization of actin-based cytoskeletal structures of a wide variety of cell types. Through the activation of members of the Rho family of GTP signaling molecules, these exchange factors elicit cytoskeletal alterations that allow cellular remodeling. As important regulators of RhoGTPase activity, members of this

Mark W Russell; Maide O Raeker; Kristin A Korytkowski; Kevin J Sonneman

2002-01-01

391

Epithelial membrane protein-2 and epithelial membrane protein-3: two novel members of the peripheral myelin protein 22 gene family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is expressed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), and mutations affecting the PMP22 gene are associated with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies. We have previously defined the PMP22\\/EMP\\/MP20 gene family by characterizing the PMP22-related epithelial membrane protein-1 (EMP-1). We now report the identification of two additional members of the same family, epithelial

Verdon Taylor; Ueli Suter

1996-01-01

392

A common variant in combination with a nonsense mutation in a member of the thioredoxin family causes primary ciliary dyskinesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thioredoxins belong to a large family of enzymatic proteins that function as general protein disulfide reductases, therefore participating in several cellular processes via redox-mediated reactions. So far, none of the 18 members of this family has been involved in human pathology. Here we identified TXNDC3, which encodes a thioredoxin-nucleoside diphosphate kinase, as a gene implicated in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD),

Bénédicte Duriez; Philippe Duquesnoy; Estelle Escudier; A.-M. Bridoux; Denise Escalier; Isabelle Rayet; Elisabeth Marcos; A.-M. Vojtek; J.-F. Bercher; Serge Amselem

2007-01-01

393

Expression of Members of the 28-Kilodalton Major Outer Membrane Protein Family of Ehrlichia chaffeensis during Persistent Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 28-kDa immunodominant outer membrane proteins (P28 OMPs) of Ehrlichia chaffeensis are encoded by a multigene family. As an indirect measure of the in vivo expression of the members of the p28 multigene family of E. chaffeensis, sera from two beagle dogs experimentally infected with E. chaffeensis were evaluated for the presence of specific antibodies to P28 OMPs by enzyme-linked

Jian-zhi Zhang; Hong Guo; Gary M. Winslow; Xue-jie Yu

2004-01-01

394

Stress processes in caring for an end-of-life family member: Application of a theoretical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Family caregivers play a vital role in maintaining the lives of individuals with advanced illness living in the community. However, the responsibility of caregiving for an end-of-life family member can have profound consequences on the psychological, physical and financial well-being of the caregiver. While the literature has identified caregiver stress or strain as a complex process with multiple contributing

Daryl Bainbridge; Paul Krueger; Lynne Lohfeld; Kevin Brazil

2009-01-01

395

A New Member of the Rho Family, Rnd1, Promotes Disassembly of Actin Filament Structures and Loss of Cell Adhesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the Rho GTPase family regulate the organization of the actin cytoskeleton in response to extracellular growth factors. We have identified three proteins that form a distinct branch of the Rho family: Rnd1, expressed mostly in brain and liver; Rnd2, highly expressed in testis; and Rnd3\\/RhoE, showing a ubiquitous low expression. At the subcellular level, Rnd1 is concentrated at

Catherine D. Nobes; Inger Lauritzen; Marie-Geneviève Mattei; Sonia Paris; Alan Hall; Pierre Chardin

1998-01-01

396

SR Protein Family Members Display Diverse Activities in the Formation of Nascent and Mature mRNPs In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The SR proteins are a family of pre-mRNA splicing factors with additional roles in gene regulation. To investigate individual family members in vivo, we generated a comprehensive panel of stable cell lines expressing GFP-tagged SR proteins under endoge- nous promoter control. Recruitment of SR proteins to nascent FOS RNA was transcription dependent and RNase sensitive, with unique patterns of

Aparna K. Sapra; Minna-Liisa Änkö; Inna Grishina; Mike Lorenz; Marta Pabis; Ina Poser; Jarod Rollins; Eva-Maria Weiland; Karla M. Neugebauer

2009-01-01

397

Binding to DNA and the Retinoblastoma Gene Product Promoted by Complex Formation of Different E2F Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

The E2F family of transcription factors functions in the control of the mammalian cell cycle. Here it is shown that two family members, E2F-1 and DP-1, form specific heterodimers in vivo, a process that enhances DNA binding, transactivation, and the binding of the retinoblastoma gene product. These results suggest that heterodimerization regulates E2F function and contributes to cell cycle control.

Wilhelm Krek; David M. Livingston; Suman Shirodkar

1993-01-01

398

A Novel Member of the Netrin Family,  -Netrin, Shares Homology with the   Chain of Laminin: Identification, Expression, and Functional Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The netrins are a family of laminin-related molecules. Here, we characterize a new member of the family, b -netrin. b -Netrin is homologous to the NH 2 terminus of laminin chain short arms; it contains a lami- nin-like domain VI and 3.5 laminin EGF repeats and a netrin C domain. Unlike other netrins, this new netrin is more related to

Manuel Koch; Julie R. Murrell; Dale D. Hunter; Pamela F. Olson; William Jin; Douglas R. Keene; William J. Brunken; Robert E. Burgeson

2000-01-01

399

Homophilic Adhesion Mechanism of Neurofascin, a Member of the L1 Family of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The L1 family neural cell adhesion molecules play key roles in specifying the formation and remodeling of the neural network, but their homophilic interaction that mediates adhesion is not well understood. We report two crystal structures of a dimeric form of the headpiece of neurofascin, an L1 family member. The four N-terminal Ig-like domains of neurofascin form a horseshoe shape,

Heli Liu; Pamela J. Focia; Xiaolin He

2012-01-01

400

Proinflammatory role of amphiregulin, an epidermal growth factor family member whose expression is augmented in rheumatoid arthritis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) and EGF receptor (EGFR) families play important roles in the hyperplastic growth of several tissues as well as tumor growth. Since synovial hyperplasia in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) resembles a tumor, involvement of the EGF\\/EGFR families in RA pathology has been implied. Although several reports have suggested that ErbB2 is the most important member of

Shoji Yamane; Satoru Ishida; Yukie Hanamoto; Ken-ichi Kumagai; Riako Masuda; Konagi Tanaka; Noriyuki Shiobara; Noriko Yamane; Toshihito Mori; Takuo Juji; Naoshi Fukui; Tsunetoshi Itoh; Takahiro Ochi; Ryuji Suzuki

2008-01-01

401

miR181 targets multiple Bcl2 family members and influences apoptosis and mitochondrial function in astrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondria are central to the execution of apoptosis, and the Bcl-2 protein family of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins interacts with mitochondria to regulate apoptosis. Using bioinformatics we predicted that miR-181, a microRNA expressed in brain, could target the 3?UTRs of Bcl-2 family members Bcl-2-L11\\/Bim, Mcl-1, and Bcl-2. Using the luciferase reporter assay we confirmed these targets. We used mimic and

Yi-Bing Ouyang; Yu Lu; Sibiao Yue; Rona G. Giffard

402

jun-D: a third member of the jun gene family.  

PubMed Central

The protooncogene c-jun encodes a component of the transcription factor AP-1. Both murine c-jun and a related gene (jun-B) are rapidly activated in BALB/c3T3 cells by serum growth factors. We report here the cloning and analysis of a cDNA encoding a third member of the murine jun family, jun-D. The amino acid sequence encoded by jun-D has two extensive regions of homology with the other Jun proteins. One homology region includes the DNA-binding domain and sequences required for dimer formation and interaction with the Fos oncoprotein; the other includes the acidic sequence thought to be involved in gene activation. All three jun mRNAs are present in a variety of murine tissues and cell lines. In resting 3T3 cells, jun-D is expressed at a higher level compared to c-jun and jun-B, and its transcription is stimulated only slightly by serum growth factors. Thus, jun-D appears to be regulated differently than c-jun and jun-B. Images

Ryder, K; Lanahan, A; Perez-Albuerne, E; Nathans, D

1989-01-01

403

Overlapping promoter targeting by Elk-1 and other divergent ETS-domain transcription factor family members  

PubMed Central

ETS-domain transcription factors play important roles in controlling gene expression in a variety of different contexts; however, these proteins bind to very similar sites and it is unclear how in vivo specificity is achieved. In silico analysis is unlikely to reveal specific targets for individual family members and direct experimental approaches are therefore required. Here, we take advantage of an inducible dominant-negative expression system to identify a group of novel target genes for the ETS-domain transcription factor Elk-1. Elk-1 is thought to mainly function through cooperation with a second transcription factor SRF, but the targets we identify are largely SRF-independent. Furthermore, we demonstrate that there is a high degree of overlapping, cell type-specific, target gene binding by Elk-1 and other ETS-domain transcription factors. Our results are therefore consistent with the notion that there is a high degree of functional redundancy in target gene regulation by ETS-domain transcription factors in addition to the specific target gene regulation that can be dictated through heterotypic interactions exemplified by the Elk-1-SRF complex.

Boros, Joanna; O'Donnell, Amanda; Donaldson, Ian J.; Kasza, Aneta; Zeef, Leo; Sharrocks, Andrew D.

2009-01-01

404

Rapid detection of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae by a monoclonal antibody.  

PubMed Central

Six monoclonal antibodies directed against enterobacteria were produced and characterized. The specificity of one of these antibodies (CX9/15; immunoglobulin G2a) was studied by indirect immunofluorescence against 259 enterobacterial strains and 125 other gram-negative bacteria. All of the enterobacteria were specifically recognized, the only exception being Erwinia chrysanthemi (one strain tested). Bacteria not belonging to members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were not detected, except for Plesiomonas shigelloides (two strains tested), Aeromonas hydrophila (five strains tested), and Aeromonas sobria (one strain tested). This recognition spectrum strongly suggested that CX9/15 recognized the enterobacterial common antigen. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot (immunoblot) experiments, the six antienterobacteria antibodies presented similar specificities; they all revealed only one band with an apparent molecular weight of about 20,000 from the crude extract of an enterobacterium. The six monoclonal antibodies, and especially CX9/15, can be used to develop new tests for rapid and specific detection of enterobacteria. Images

Levasseur, S; Husson, M O; Leitz, R; Merlin, F; Laurent, F; Peladan, F; Drocourt, J L; Leclerc, H; Van Hoegaerden, M

1992-01-01

405

The AP-1 family member FOS blocks transcriptional activity of the nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1  

PubMed Central

Steroid production in the adrenal zona glomerulosa is under the control of angiotensin II (Ang II), which, upon binding to its receptor, activates protein kinase C (PKC) within these cells. PKC is a potent inhibitor of the steroidogenic enzyme CYP17. We have demonstrated that, in the ovary, PKC activates expression of FOS, a member of the AP-1 family, and increased expression of this gene is linked to CYP17 downregulation. However, the pathway and the molecular mechanism responsible for the inhibitory effect of PKC on CYP17 expression are not defined. Herein, we demonstrated that Ang II inhibited CYP17 through PKC and ERK1/2-activated FOS and that blocking FOS expression decreased PKC-mediated inhibition. Although CYP17 transcription was activated by the nuclear receptor SF-1, expression of FOS resulted in a decrease in SF-1-mediated gene transcription. FOS physically interacted with the hinge region of SF-1 and modulated its transactivity, thus preventing binding of cofactors such as SRC1 and CBP, which were necessary to fully activate CYP17 transcription. Collectively, these results indicate a new regulatory mechanism for SF-1 transcriptional activity that might influence adrenal zone-specific expression of CYP17, a mechanism that can potentially be applied to other steroidogenic tissues.

Sirianni, Rosa; Nogueira, Edson; Bassett, Mary H.; Carr, Bruce R.; Suzuki, Takashi; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Ando, Sebastiano; Rainey, William E.

2010-01-01

406

[Variety of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura clinical course in Polish family members with ADAMTS 13 gene mutation].  

PubMed

The congenital form of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (Upshaw-Schulman syndrom) is a result of genetically conditioned dysfunction of protease ADAMTS 13 enzyme which is responsible for von Wiellebrand factor multimer disintegration. The disease is inherited autosomally and recessively. The decrease of ADAMTS 13 activity results in intravascular clotting process activation with rapid lowering of platelet count, haemolytic anaemia, and occurence of schistocytes. Clinically, the disease is characterized by a range of symptoms such as severe jaundice in neonatal period, embolicthrombotic incidents of nervous system and progressive dysfunction of kidneys and other organs. Delaying diagnosis and hence administering of freshly frozen plasma leads to death. Molecular diagnosis allows for identification of genetical profile of the patient, and showing lowered enzyme activity is a basis for regular prophylactic plasma administration which is the protease donor. In our study we present members of a Polish family identified with ADAMTS 13 mutation. 52 old male with heterozygotic mutation of exon 29 (4143_4144insA) and in exon 19 (c2281G>A; Gly761Ser), experienced a few episodes of ischaemic stroke with ongoing neurological deficiency and developed chronic kidney disease. His 16-year old daughter with double homozygotic mutation in exon 29 (4143_4144insA) after severe episode of TTP at the age of 4 has been receiving plasma every 2 weeks for 12 years, which prevented her from other disorders. Target treatment introduced to clinical practice by means of ADAMTS 13 obtained by genetic recombination technology raises hopes. PMID:23700827

Hyla-Klekot, Lidia; Kucharska, Grazyna; S?onka, Karina

2013-03-01

407

Nitrogen fixation and nitrogenase activities in members of the family Rhodospirillaceae.  

PubMed Central

Strains of all 18 species of the family Rhodospirillaceae (nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria) were studied for their comparative nitrogen-fixing abilities. All species, with the exception of Rhodocyclus purpureus, were capable of growth with N2 as the sole nitrogen source under photosynthetic (anaerobic) conditions. Most rapid growth on N2 was observed in strains of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata. Within the genus Rhodopseudomonas, the species R. capsulata, R. sphaeroides, R. viridis, R. gelatinosa, and R. blastica consistently showed the highest in vivo nitrogenase rates (with the acetylene reduction technique); nitrogenase rates in other species of Rhodopseudomonas and in most species of Rhodospirillum were notably lower. Chemotrophic (dark microaerobic) nitrogen fixation occurred in all species with the exception of one strain of Rhodospirillum fulvum; oxygen requirements for dark N2 fixation varied considerably among species and even within strains of the same species. We conclude that the capacity to fix molecular nitrogen is virtually universal among members of the Rhodospirillaceae but that the efficacy of the process varies considerably among species.

Madigan, M; Cox, S S; Stegeman, R A

1984-01-01

408

SSC1, an essential member of the yeast HSP70 multigene family, encodes a mitochondrial protein.  

PubMed Central

SSC1 is an essential member of the yeast HSP70 multigene family (E. Craig, J. Kramer, and J. Kosic-Smithers, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:4156-4160, 1987). Analysis of the SSC1 DNA sequence revealed that it could encode a 70,627-dalton protein that is more similar to DnaK, an Escherichia coli hsp70 protein, than other yeast hsp70s whose sequences have been determined. Ssc1p was found to have an amino-terminal extension of 28 amino acids, in comparison with either Ssa1p, another hsp70 yeast protein, or Dnak. This putative leader is rich in basic and hydroxyl amino acids, characteristic of many mitochondrial leader sequences. Ssc1p that was synthesized in vitro could be imported into mitochondria and was cleaved in the process. The imported protein comigrated with an abundant mitochondrial protein that reacted with hsp70-specific antibodies. We conclude that Ssc1p is a mitochondrial protein and that hsp70 proteins perform functions in many compartments of the cell. Images

Craig, E A; Kramer, J; Shilling, J; Werner-Washburne, M; Holmes, S; Kosic-Smithers, J; Nicolet, C M

1989-01-01

409

Three Members of the LC8/DYNLL Family Are Required for Outer Arm Dynein Motor Function  

PubMed Central

The highly conserved LC8/DYNLL family proteins were originally identified in axonemal dyneins and subsequently found to function in multiple enzyme systems. Genomic analysis uncovered a third member (LC10) of this protein class in Chlamydomonas. The LC10 protein is extracted from flagellar axonemes with 0.6 M NaCl and cofractionates with the outer dynein arm in sucrose density gradients. Furthermore, LC10 is specifically missing only from axonemes of those strains that fail to assemble outer dynein arms. Previously, the oda12-1 insertional allele was shown to lack the Tctex2-related dynein light chain LC2. The LC10 gene is located ?2 kb from that of LC2 and is also completely missing from this mutant but not from oda12-2, which lacks only the 3? end of the LC2 gene. Although oda12-1 cells assemble outer arms that lack only LC2 and LC10, this strain exhibits a flagellar beat frequency that is consistently less than that observed for strains that fail to assemble the entire outer arm and docking complex (e.g., oda1). These results support a key regulatory role for the intermediate chain/light chain complex that is an integral and highly conserved feature of all oligomeric dynein motors.

Tanner, Christopher A.; Rompolas, Panteleimon; Patel-King, Ramila S.; Gorbatyuk, Oksana; Wakabayashi, Ken-ichi; Pazour, Gregory J.

2008-01-01

410

Processing of beta-secretase by furin and other members of the proprotein convertase family.  

PubMed

The amyloid peptide is the main constituent of the amyloid plaques in brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. This peptide is generated from the amyloid precursor protein by two consecutive cleavages. Cleavage at the N terminus is performed by the recently discovered beta-secretase (Bace). This aspartyl protease contains a propeptide that has to be removed to obtain mature Bace. Furin and other members of the furin family of prohormone convertases are involved in this process. Surprisingly, beta-secretase activity, neither at the classical Asp(1) position nor at the Glu(11) position of amyloid precursor protein, seems to be controlled by this maturation step. Furthermore, we show that Glu(11) cleavage is a function of the expression level of Bace, that it depends on the membrane anchorage of Bace, and that Asp(1) cleavage can be followed by Glu(11) cleavage. Our data suggest that pro-Bace could be active as a beta-secretase in the early biosynthetic compartments of the cell and could be involved in the generation of the intracellular pool of the amyloid peptide. We conclude that modulation of the conversion of pro-Bace to mature Bace is not a relevant drug target to treat Alzheimer's disease. PMID:11071887

Creemers, J W; Ines Dominguez, D; Plets, E; Serneels, L; Taylor, N A; Multhaup, G; Craessaerts, K; Annaert, W; De Strooper, B

2000-11-08

411

Three Members of the Arabidopsis Glycosyltransferase Family 8 Are Xylan Glucuronosyltransferases1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Xylan is a major component of the plant cell wall and the most abundant noncellulosic component in the secondary cell walls that constitute the largest part of plant biomass. Dicot glucuronoxylan consists of a linear backbone of ?(1,4)-linked xylose residues substituted with ?(1,2)-linked glucuronic acid (GlcA). Although several genes have been implicated in xylan synthesis through mutant analyses, the biochemical mechanisms responsible for synthesizing xylan are largely unknown. Here, we show evidence for biochemical activity of GUX1 (for GlcA substitution of xylan 1), a member of Glycosyltransferase Family 8 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that is responsible for adding the glucuronosyl substitutions onto the xylan backbone. GUX1 has characteristics typical of Golgi-localized glycosyltransferases and a Km for UDP-GlcA of 165 ?m. GUX1 strongly favors xylohexaose as an acceptor over shorter xylooligosaccharides, and with xylohexaose as an acceptor, GlcA is almost exclusively added to the fifth xylose residue from the nonreducing end. We also show that several related proteins, GUX2 to GUX5 and Plant Glycogenin-like Starch Initiation Protein6, are Golgi localized and that only two of these proteins, GUX2 and GUX4, have activity as xylan ?-glucuronosyltransferases.

Rennie, Emilie A.; Hansen, Sara Fasmer; Baidoo, Edward E.K.; Hadi, Masood Z.; Keasling, Jay D.; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

2012-01-01

412

Expression, Purification, and Characterization of Recombinant NOD1 (NLRC1), a NLR Family Member  

PubMed Central

NOD1 (NLRC1) is a member of the NLR family of innate immunity proteins, which are important cellular sensors of various pathogens. Deregulated NOD1 signaling is involved in various autoimmune, inflammatory, and allergic diseases, making it a potential target for drug discovery. However, to date, the successful high-yield purification NOD1 protein has not been reported. Here we describe the large-scale expression of recombinant NOD1 protein in non-adherent mammalian cells. One-step immunoaffinity purification was carried out, yielding highly pure protein with excellent yields. Gel-sieve chromatography studies showed that the purified NOD1 protein eluted almost exclusively as a monomer. Addition of the NOD1 ligand, (?-Tri-DAP), stimulated NOD1 protein oligomerization. Using purified NOD1 protein for nucleotide binding studies by the Fluorescence Polarization Assay (FPA) method, we determined that NOD1 binds preferentially to ATP over ADP and AMP or dATP. We also documented that purified NOD1 protein binds directly to purified pro-apoptotic protein Bid, thus extending recent data that have identified Bid as an enhancer of NOD1 signaling. This expression and purification strategy will enable a wide variety of biochemical studies of mechanisms of NOD1 regulation, as well as laying a foundation for future attempts at drug discovery.

Askari, Nadav; Correa, Ricardo G.; Zhai, Dayong; Reed, John C.

2011-01-01

413

Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) Family Members in Helminth Infections  

PubMed Central

Helminth parasites are a diverse group of multicellular organisms. Despite their heterogeneity, helminths share many common characteristics, such as the modulation of the immune system of their hosts towards a permissive state that favors their development. They induce strong Th2-like responses with high levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 cytokines, and decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-?. IL-4, IFN-? and other cytokines bind with their specific cytokine receptors to trigger an immediate signaling pathway in which different tyrosine kinases (e.g. Janus kinases) are involved. Furthermore, a seven-member family of transcription factors named Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) that initiate the transcriptional activation of different genes are also involved and regulate downstream the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. However, how helminths avoid and modulate immune responses remains unclear; moreover, information concerning STAT-mediated immune regulation during helminth infections is scarce. Here, we review the research on mice deficient in STAT molecules, highlighting the importance of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in regulating susceptibility and/or resistance in these infections.

Becerra-Diaz, Mireya; Valderrama-Carvajal, Hector; Terrazas, Luis I.

2011-01-01

414

Associations between violent video gaming, empathic concern, and prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends, and family members.  

PubMed

Exposure to media violence, including violent video gaming, can have a cognitive desensitization effect, lowering empathic concern for others in need. Since emerging adulthood offers increased opportunities to volunteer, strengthen relationships, and initiate new relationships, decreases in empathic concern and prosocial behavior may prove inhibitive to optimal development during this time. For these reasons, the current study investigated associations between violent video gaming, empathic responding, and prosocial behavior enacted toward strangers, friends, and family members. Participants consisted of 780 emerging adults (M age = 19.60, SD = 1.86, range = 18–29, 69% female, 69% Caucasian) from four universities in the United States. Results showed small to moderate effects between playing violent video gaming and lowered empathic concern for both males and females. In addition, lowered empathic concern partially mediated the pathways between violent video gaming and prosocial behavior toward all three targets (at the level of a trend for females), but was most strongly associated with lower prosocial behavior toward strangers. Discussion highlights how violent video gaming is associated with lower levels of prosocial behavior through the mechanism of decreased empathic concern, how this association can affect prosocial behavior differently across target, and finally what implications this might have for development during emerging adulthood. PMID:22302216

Fraser, Ashley M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, Larry J; Stockdale, Laura A

2012-05-01

415

[Cytogenetic markers in blood lymphocytes from members of a family with high predisposition to breast cancer].  

PubMed

A medico-genealogical study was concerned with a line consisting of 38 members. Four of 18 women had breast cancer (BrCr) and one-leukemia. BrCr was diagnosed in the 1st generation in the proband's grandmother (1-2) at the age of 40 and in the 3rd generation: in the proband (III-8) at the age of 43 and in two of her sisters at the age of 44 (III-2) and 48 (III-10), respectively. Breast tumors appeared in the 3rd generation patients approximately at the same age. A cytogenetic study of venous blood lymphocyte metaphases using G-banding of chromosomes revealed homogeneously-stained regions in 100% of cells in the proband's chromosome I: (q11-q12). In the proband's asymptomatic daughter (IV-9), pronounced chromosomal instability (ruptures in chromosomes and chromatids in 50% of cells) was observed. Also, single and multiple double minutes were detected in 10% of cells, while marker 14(p12-pter)-in 100%. This marker was also identified in 100% of lymphocytes taken from the asymptomatic daughter (IV-11) of the proband's sister (III-10). The nature and significance of cytogenetic markers detected in blood lymphocytes of the proband and said siblings are discussed. Heritability of said cytogenetic markers pointing to predisposition to cancer development (of BrCr in said family) is suggested. PMID:8815634

Monakhov, A S; Semiglazov, V F; Brezhneva, T V

1996-01-01

416

Kalilo plasmids are a family of four distinct members with individual global distributions across species.  

PubMed

Kalilo is a linear 9-kb plasmid, isolated originally from Hawaiian strains of the heterothallic fungus Neurospora intermedia. Its properties include terminal inverted repeats, two ORFs coding for a presumptive DNA and an RNA polymerase, and the ability to cause senescence in its original host and in the closely related species Neurospora crassa. We have examined natural isolates alleged to contain plasmids homologous to kalilo. Most of these isolates do in fact contain plasmids with so close an identity to kalilo as to be certain relatives. We found a new case of kalilo in Neurospora tetrasperma from Moorea-Tahiti, and a new case of LA-kalilo (previously found only in N. tetrasperma) in N. crassa from Haiti. A previously unreported, substantially shorter, kalilo variant has been found in three geographically separate isolates of the heterothallic species Neurospora discreta. Therefore, if the previously reported kalilo variant from the genus Gelasinospora is included, in all there are four members of the kalilo plasmid family. The main differences between these plasmids are in the terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). The phylogeny of the TIR sequences is largely congruent with that of nuclear DNA in the species in which they are found, suggesting that the plasmids are related by vertical descent throughout the evolution of these species. However, there are two cases of a plasmid found in a heterothallic and a pseudohomothallic species in the same global area; these cases might have arisen from more recent horizontal transmission or introgression. PMID:10672443

He, C; Nastasja de Groot; Bok, J W; Griffiths, A J

2000-01-01

417

[Genome-wide prediction of interferon family members of tree shrew and their molecular characteristics analysis].  

PubMed

Interferons (IFNs) represent proteins with antiviral activities that are secreted from cells in response to a variety of stimuli. In addition to antiviral, antibacterial and anti-parasitic host-defense functions they are now also recognized as crucial regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and death as well as activators of specialized cell functions particularly in the immune system and play important roles in infectious and inflammatory diseases, autoimmunity and cancer. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) were found to be susceptible to several human viruses and therefore are widely regarded as good models for analyzing mechanism of human diseases. In this report, we have forecasted the interferon family members of tree shrew from its genome mainly using the methods like Blast (whole genome shotgun sequence) and gene prediction. Our data show that tree shrew interferon system includes: type I IFN: ? (five subtypes), ?, ?, ?, epsilon, ?; type II IFN: ?; type III IFN: ?1, ?2/3. Furthermore, the predicted structures of ? and ? have similar character with those of other mammals. However, there are some differences in cysteine position and N-glycosylation numbers between human and Tree shrew IFNs. These results provide fundamental basis for further molecular cloning and function analysis of tree shrew IFNs in future. PMID:22345011

Li, Ming-Li; Tian, Wei-Wei; Gao, Yue-Dong; Guo, Yan; Huang, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Hua-Tang

2012-02-01

418

Evolutionary study of vertebrate and invertebrate members of the dystrophin and utrophin gene family  

SciTech Connect

Vertebrates express two members of the dystrophin gene family. The prototype, dystrophin, is expressed in muscle and neural tissue, and is defective in the human disorders Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD, BMD). The dystrophin homologue utrophin is more generally expressed but has not yet been associated with a genetic disorder. The function of neither protein is clear. A comparison of human utrophin with the known dystrophins (human, mouse, chicken, Torpedo) suggests that dystrophin and utrophin diverged before the vertebrate radiation. We have used reverse-transcript PCR (RT-PCR) directed by degenerate primers to characterize dystrophin and utrophin transcripts from a range of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Our results suggest that the duplication leading to distinct dystrophin and utrophin genes occurred close to the point of divergence of urochordates from the cephalochordate-vertebrate lineage. This divergence may have occurred to fulfill a novel role which arose at this point, or may reflect a need for separate regulation of the neuromuscular and other functions of the ancient dystrophin. Our data include sequences of the first non-human utrophins to be characterized, and show these to be substantially more divergent than their cognate dystrophins. In addition, our results provide a large body of information regarding the tolerance of amino acid positions in the cysteine-rich and C-terminal domains to substitution. This will aid the interpretations of DMD and BMD missense mutations in these regions.

Roberts, R.G.; Nicholson, L.; Bobrow, M. [Paediatric Research Unit, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

1994-09-01

419

Members of a dinoflagellate luciferase gene family differ in synonymous substitution rates.  

PubMed

Regulation and evolution of dinoflagellate luciferases are of particular interest since the enzyme is structurally unique and bioluminescence is under circadian control. In this study, three new members of the dinoflagellate luciferase gene family were identified and characterized from Pyrocystis lunula. These genes, lcfA, lcfB, and lcfC, also exhibit the unusual structure and organization previously reported for the luciferase gene of a related dinoflagellate, Lingulodinium polyedrum: three repeated domains, each encoding an active catalytic site, multiple gene copies, and tandem organization. The histidine residues involved in the pH regulation of L. polyedrum luciferase activity, and implicated in the regulation of flashing, are also fully conserved in P. lunula. The interspecific conservation between the individual luciferase domains of P. lunula and L. polyedrum is higher than among domains intramolecularly, indicating that this unique gene structure arose through duplication events that occurred prior to the divergence of these dinoflagellates. However, P. lunula luciferase genes differ from L. polyedrum in several respects, notably, the occurrence of an intron in one gene (lcfC), a 2.25-kb intergenic region connecting lcfA and lcfB, and, of particular interest, an invariant rate of synonymous (silent) substitutions along the repeat domains, in contrast to L. polyedrum luciferase, where the occurrence of synonymous substitutions is practically absent in the central region of the domains. PMID:11747464

Okamoto, O K; Liu, L; Robertson, D L; Hastings, J W

2001-12-25

420

Molecular homology among members of the R gene family in maize.  

PubMed

The R gene family determines the timing, distribution and amount of anthocyanin pigmentation in maize. This family comprises a set of regulatory genes, consisting of a cluster of several elements at the R locus, on chromosome 10, the Lc and Sn gene lying about two units R distal and B on chromosome 2. Each gene determines a tissue-specific pigmentation of different parts of the seed and plant. The proposed duplicated function of R, Sn, Lc and B loci is reflected in cDNA sequence similarity. In this paper an extensive analysis of the predicted proteins of the R, Sn, Lc and B genes together with a search for putative sites of post-translational modification is reported. A comparison with the prosite database discloses several N-glycosylation and phosphorylation sites, as well as the basic Helix-Loop-Helix (HLH) domain of transcriptional activators. Sn, Lc, and R-S show a high conservation of these sites, while B is more divergent. Analysis of the 5' leader of mRNA sequences discloses the presence of five ATG triplets with two upstream open reading frames (uORFs) of 38 and 15 amino acids and a loop structure indicating a possible mechanism of control at the translational level. It is conceivable that possible mechanisms acting at the translational and post-translational level could modulate the expression and the activation of these transcription factors. Northern analysis of various tissues of different R alleles highlights a strict correlation between pigment accumulation in different tissues and the expression of the regulatory and structural genes suggesting that the pattern of pigmentation relies on a mechanism of differential expression of the members of the R family. Analysis of the Sn promoter discloses the presence of several sequences resembling binding sites of known transcription factors (as GAGA and GT) that might be responsible for the spatial and light-induced expression of this gene. Two regions include a short sequence homologous to the consensus binding site of the B-HLH domain suggesting a self-regulatory control of the Sn gene. PMID:8220447

Consonni, G; Geuna, F; Gavazzi, G; Tonelli, C

1993-02-01

421

Contribution by Steinway Family Members to the Technical and Acoustical Capabilities of the Steinway Grand Piano.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of the piano throughout its history has been the instrument-maker's constant struggle to meet the demands of the performing artist. Although all improvements were gradual and many individuals and family establishments contributed to its present technical and acoustical make -up, the Steinway history became unique in the world of piano-making. Its rise to world prominence in the industry was meteoric, its influence upon standards of technology and quality pervasive. Within a few decades, the Steinway Family emigrated to America, transformed piano technology, establishing the essential features we use today, assumed the leadership of American industry and returned to Europe to conquer. The following pages attempt to examine how the innate technical talent and industry of the founder, the inventiveness of his sons, all contributed in turn to the Steinway success. But particular attention will be paid to William who--in the course of the constant struggle between labor and capital--, reluctantly reconciled the Steinway interest with the basic in commerce became the standard of the industry. His brother, Theodore's ever -searching scientific mind, inventiveness and determination to produce the best piano possible, never disregarding acceptable empirical discoveries that could be utilized, opened up new possibilities in piano construction and acoustics. His capacity to utilize the research-results of other scientists enabled the company to incorporate the most up-to-date scientific methods into numerous patents that have been imitated all over the world but could never be successfully duplicated. This study describes the evolution of the piano in general and the Steinway Grand in particular throughout the ages as an indispensable tool of the performing artist. It gives a detailed account of the seemingly insurmountable crises that were successfully overcome while constantly improving its technical and acoustical quality to an unprecedented degree. But since 1972, for the first time in its history the company has been taken over by several financial interests and it faces new challenges from world competition with no Steinway family member in sight to continue the tradition.

Geczy, Charles K.

422

[Alcohol dependence syndrome and BDIM (before-discharge intervention method)--report 4, the family members' self-reports about BDIM].  

PubMed

One hundred fifty-three inpatients with alcohol dependence syndrome were treated with the structured BDIM (Before-Discharge Intervention Method). 82 patients of them have participated to self-help group meetings or kept having therapy as our outpatients or inpatients during the study period. We chose the families of the 82 patients as our study subject Out of the study subjects who took part in BDIM, 64 families (117 persons) answered our questionnaire. Among them 63 families (101 persons) gave their described answers of impressions and opinions about BDIM, which were summarized as follows. (1) Through BDIM the family members gained second thought on their alcoholic family member (IP: identified patient) and they could tell their new view to IP. BDIM enabled them to tell IP their sincere feeling and hope for recovery of IP. BDIM empowered both IP and IP's family members. (2) The family members became to know IP's orientation on his or her disease. They came to know IP's denial and understand him or her as he or she was. (3) The family members felt emotional ties among themselves and IP through BDIM. When the family members of a dysfunctional family took part together in BDIM, they could know the feelings, thoughts, experiences and hopes one another. The family members had a precious experience of mutual understanding among themselves and IP to hope for recovery together. (4) The family members appreciated BDIM as a effective therapy. In BDIM many of them regarded highly of giving their letters to IP as a useful method to convey their feeling and thoughts calmly to IP. (5) On the other hand some family members pointed out the difficulty for themselves to write on BDIM. For family members who are not good at writing a letter or tend only to blame IP through their letters, writing and giving letters to IP is not appropriate as a therapy. If family members feel strong anxiety or fear, it is safe not to practice BDIM. PMID:15782581

Ino, Aro; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Yamashiro, Kazunori; Cho, Tetsuji; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

2005-02-01

423

Clinical procedure for colon carcinoma tissue sampling directly affects the cancer marker-capacity of VEGF family members  

PubMed Central

Background mRNA levels of members of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor family (VEGF-A, -B, -C, -D, Placental Growth Factor/PlGF) have been investigated as tissue-based markers of colon cancer. These studies, which used specimens obtained by surgical resection or colonoscopic biopsy, yielded contradictory results. We studied the effect of the sampling method on the marker accuracy of VEGF family members. Methods Comparative RT-qPCR analysis was performed on healthy colon and colon carcinoma samples obtained by biopsy (n?=?38) or resection (n?=?39) to measure mRNA expression levels of individual VEGF family members. mRNA levels of genes encoding the eicosanoid enzymes cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and of genes encoding the hypoxia markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) were included as markers for cellular stress and hypoxia. Results Expression levels of COX2, 5-LOX, GLUT-1 and CAIX revealed the occurrence in healthy colon resection samples of hypoxic cellular stress and a concurrent increment of basal expression levels of VEGF family members. This increment abolished differential expression of VEGF-B and VEGF-C in matched carcinoma resection samples and created a surgery-induced underexpression of VEGF-D. VEGF-A and PlGF showed strong overexpression in carcinoma samples regardless of the sampling method. Conclusions Sampling-induced hypoxia in resection samples but not in biopsy samples affects the marker-reliability of VEGF family members. Therefore, biopsy samples provide a more accurate report on VEGF family mRNA levels. Furthermore, this limited expression analysis proposes VEGF-A and PlGF as reliable, sampling procedure insensitive mRNA-markers for molecular diagnosis of colon cancer.

2012-01-01

424

The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral stress management training on mental health, social interaction and family function in adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive member*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated stress management training to improve mental health, social interaction and family function among adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive member. METHODS: There were 34 adolescents (13-18 years old) with at least one family member living with HIV from whom finally 15 attended the study and participated in 8 weekly sessions of stress management training. The tests used in this study were: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (self and parent report), General Health Questionnare-28 (GHQ-28) and Family Assessment Device (FAD), conducted before, after and three months after the intervention. The collected data were analyzed by repeated measure test using SPSS software (Version 18.0). RESULTS: Adolescents with one HIV positive family member showed high level of emotional problem (40%) and conduct problem (33.3%). There was a significant difference between before, after and 3months after intervention based on GHQ-28 mean scores and FAD mean sores (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference between mean scores of peers’ relationship based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms) before and after intervention, but there was no significant difference between mean scores of pro social behavior based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms) in all three stages (before, after and three months after intervention). CONCLUSIONS: Stress management training is effective in improving mental health, family function and social interaction among adolescents living with parents infected with HIV/AIDS.

Keypour, Maryam; Arman, Soroor; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

2011-01-01

425

An Investigation of Violent and Nonviolent Adolescents' Family Functioning, Problems Concerning Family Members, Anger and Anger Expression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study is to (a) investigate the families of violent and nonviolent adolescents in terms of family functioning, trait anger and anger expression, and (b) compare incidence of psychological problems, alcohol usage and delinquent behaviors. The sample consisted of families of both violent (n = 54) and nonviolent adolescents (n =…

Avci, Rasit; Gucray, Songul Sonay

2010-01-01

426

An Exploratory Study of Family Member Characteristics and Involvement: Effects on Entrepreneurial Behavior in the Family Firm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family fi rms are essential for economic growth and development through new business startups and growth of existing family firms. Entrepreneurial behavior by the CEO is essential for such growth to occur. Entrepreneurial behavior can be influenced by inher- ent characteristics of the CEO, such as age and tenure, as well as by the degree of family inf luence in

Franz W. Kellermanns; Kimberly A. Eddleston; Tim Barnett; Allison Pearson

2009-01-01

427

Resilience in Families with Children and Adult Members with Intellectual Disabilities: Tracing Elements of a Psycho-Social Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aim: This paper seeks to illumine how families with children and adult members with intellectual disabilities manage to manifest a buoyant and durable capacity over time. It is therefore concerned centrally with the idea of resilience. Method: Drawing from diverse theoretical literatures from child development and protection and gerontology, the…

Grant, Gordon; Ramcharan, Paul; Flynn, Margaret

2007-01-01

428

The Role of Spouses and Extended Family Members as Primary Caretakers of Children During a Parent's Drug Addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study explores the experiences of five men and one woman who were parents, substance dependent, and receiving treatment at a year-long drug treatment program. The qualitative research methods of observation and in-depth interviewing were used to collect and analyze information about their experiences. This paper discusses themes related to the role of spouses and extended family members who

Laurie Knis-Matthews

2007-01-01

429

The pain experience of cognitively impaired nursing home residents: Perceptions of family members and certified nursing assistants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain in cognitively impaired nursing home (NH) elders is difficult to detect. We report the results of the qualitative interview portion of a larger study that characterized the pain experience of cognitively impaired NH residents. Interviews were conducted with 16 family members or friends and 11 certified nursing assistants (CNAs) of 20 cognitively impaired NH residents experiencing pain. Analysis of

Janet C. Mentes; Julie Teer; Mary P. Cadogan

2004-01-01

430

Guam Medical Plans Do Not Ensure Active Duty Family Members Will Have Adequate Access to Dental Care.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Inspector General, Department of Defense (IG/DoD) evaluated DoD's plans for providing dental care to active duty family members (ADFMs) in Guam in view of the anticipated growth in population resulting from the planned base closure in Okinawa and subs...

A. F. Carey

2011-01-01

431

UpaG, a New Member of the Trimeric Autotransporter Family of Adhesins in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Escherichia coli to colonize both intestinal and extraintestinal sites is driven by the presence of specific virulence factors, among which are the autotransporter (AT) proteins. Members of the trimeric AT adhesin family are important virulence factors for several gram-negative pathogens and mediate adherence to eukaryotic cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. In this study, we characterized a

Jaione Valle; Amanda N. Mabbett; Glen C. Ulett; Alejandro Toledo-Arana; Karine Wecker; Makrina Totsika; Mark A. Schembri; Jean-Marc Ghigo; Christophe Beloin

2008-01-01

432

Engaging Patients and Family Members in Patient Safety—The Experience of the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As one of its strategies to improve care, the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) has launched a number of initiatives to increase patient and family member involvement in the delivery of mental health services, including the hiring of peer counselors and the use of parent advocates. The effort to orient mental health services toward a more rehabilitative

Joyce B. Wale; Robert R. Moon

2005-01-01

433

Expression and co-expression of the members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family in invasive breast carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family plays an important role in breast carcinogenesis. Much interest has been focused recently on its members because of their potential role as prognostic indicators in breast cancer and their involvement in cancer therapy. We have evaluated more than 1500 cases of invasive breast carcinoma immunohistochemically using tissue microarray technology to examine the expression

D M Abd El-Rehim; S E Pinder; C E Paish; J A Bell; R S Rampaul; R W Blamey; J F R Robertson; R I Nicholson; I O Ellis

2004-01-01

434

Using social stories and behavior skills training involving family members to increase social skills for a child with autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the effectiveness of a social story intervention with a social story plus behavior skills training intervention involving family members for a child with autism. A multiple baseline across siblings design was used to assess the impact of the intervention on social interaction of the child with autism, as well as the social interaction of the child's siblings.

Jamie Leigh Powell

2009-01-01