Sample records for pch family members

  1. The PCH Family Member MAYP\\/PSTPIP2 Directly Regulates F-Actin Bundling and Enhances Filopodia Formation and Motility in Macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Violeta Chitu; Fiona J. Pixley; Frank Macaluso; Daniel R. Larson; John Condeelis; E. Richard Stanley

    2005-01-01

    Macrophage actin-associated tyrosine phosphorylated protein (MAYP) belongs to the Pombe Cdc15 homology (PCH) family of proteins involved in the regulation of actin-based functions including cell adhesion and motility. In mouse macrophages, MAYP is tyrosine phosphorylated after activation of the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R), which also induces actin reorganization, membrane ruffling, cell spreading, polarization, and migration. Because MAYP associates with F-actin,

  2. Providing support to family members.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, Ruth; Dowd, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Providing recognition and simple information can be powerful and reassure a family member who is anxious and worried about an ill relative. While "answers" concerning the procedure are often not available, providing information that is available--the locations of the rest rooms and coffee shop; approximately how long the procedure will take; where to wait; and the process involved in the radiological procedure, reading and getting the results--can give some feeling of control, and thus reduce feelings of powerlessness. Most importantly, family members who are recognized and included with the patient in the treatment process will be reassured of the competency of the staff and gain hopefulness about the outcome of the diagnostic and treatment experience. And providing hope in the healthcare setting is a radiology professional's most important job. PMID:15543702

  3. Family member involvement in hastened death.

    PubMed

    Starks, Helene; Back, Anthony L; Pearlman, Robert A; Koenig, Barbara A; Hsu, Clarissa; Gordon, Judith R; Bharucha, Ashok J

    2007-02-01

    When patients pursue a hastened death, how is the labor of family care-giving affected? The authors examined this question in a qualitative study of 35 families. Four cases reveal the main themes: "taking care" included mutual protection between patients and family members; "midwifing the death" without professional support left families unprepared for adverse events; "tying up loose ends" included dealing with family members' fear of legal consequences; and "moving ahead" involved a greater risk of complicated grief when families encountered complications during the dying process. These results highlight the positive and negative consequences of family members' participation in a hastened death. PMID:17410692

  4. 20 CFR 653.104 - Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members...104 Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members...established for services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors and crew...

  5. 20 CFR 653.104 - Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members...104 Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members...established for services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors and crew...

  6. 20 CFR 653.104 - Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members...104 Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members...established for services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors and crew...

  7. 20 CFR 653.104 - Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members...104 Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members...established for services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors and crew...

  8. 20 CFR 653.104 - Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members...104 Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members...established for services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors and crew...

  9. Family management after the sudden death of a family member.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Debra L

    2012-02-01

    Although more is known about how individuals within families make decisions and manage more discrete issues when a family member is dying, less is known about how families as a unit manage after the sudden death of a family member. The article discusses an investigation that was conducted to better understand how families respond to the life-threatening illness or injury and eventual death of a family member. The purpose of the study was to define Family Management Styles (FMSs) and determine distinctive characteristics of each FMS used by families after the death of a family member who had life-sustaining therapy withdrawn as a result of an unexpected, life-threatening illness or injury. Interviews are conducted with 8 families (22 family members) 1 to 2 years after the death of their family members. A modified typology of FMSs based on a directed analysis that was then inductively modified includes: progressing, accommodating, maintaining, struggling, and floundering. Understanding FMSs and how FMSs may change over time, reflecting the changing focus of family work, will further aid in the development of family-focused interventions as well as develop FMSs within the context of end of life. PMID:22223496

  10. Metabolic Regulation by p53 Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Berkers, Celia R.; Maddocks, Oliver D.K.; Cheung, Eric C.; Mor, Inbal; Vousden, Karen H.

    2013-01-01

    The function of p53 is best understood in response to genotoxic stress, but increasing evidence suggests that p53 also plays a key role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. p53 and its family members directly influence various metabolic pathways, enabling cells to respond to metabolic stress. These functions are likely to be important for restraining the development of cancer but could also have a profound effect on the development of metabolic diseases, including diabetes. A better understanding of the metabolic functions of p53 family members may aid in the identification of therapeutic targets and reveal novel uses for p53-modulating drugs. PMID:23954639

  11. 7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...through 1400.206, with respect to a farming operation conducted by persons...be considered to be actively engaged in farming if the adult family member meets the provisions...elects to be considered actively engaged in farming under this section must: (1)...

  12. PCH-2 regulates Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hong; Xu, Xiangru; Niklason, Laura E

    2015-01-01

    Components or downstream targets of many signaling pathways such as Insulin/IGF-1 and TOR, as well as genes involved in cellular metabolism and bioenergetics can extend worm lifespan 20% or more. The C. elegans gene pch-2 and its homologs, including TRIP13 in humans, have been studied for their functions in cell mitosis and meiosis, but have never been implicated in lifespan regulation. Here we show that over-expression of TRIP13 in human fibroblasts confers resistance to environmental stressors such as UV radiation and oxidative stress. Furthermore, pch-2 overexpression in C. elegans extends worm lifespan, and enhances worm survival in response to various stressors. Conversely, reducing pch-2 expression with RNAi shortens worm lifespan. Additional genetic epistasis analysis indicates that the molecular mechanism of pch-2 in worm longevity is tied to functions of the sirtuin family, implying that pch-2 is another chromatin regulator for worm longevity. These findings suggest a novel function of the pch-2 gene involved in lifespan determination. PMID:25635513

  13. Interleukin17 Family Members and Inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay K. Kolls; Anders Lindén

    2004-01-01

    IL-17A was cloned more than 10 years ago and six IL-17 family members (IL-17A-F) have subsequently been described. IL-17A is largely produced by activated memory T lymphocytes but stimulates innate immunity and host defense. IL-17A and IL-17F both mobilize neutrophils partly through granulopoeisis and CXC chemokine induction, as well as increased survival locally. IL-17A and IL-17F production by T lymphocytes

  14. Variables influencing family members' decisions regarding continued placement of family members with mental disabilities in one state-operated institution 

    E-print Network

    Colvin, Alex Don

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of the study is to identify variables influencing family members’ decisions regarding continued placement of family members with mental disabilities in state-operated mental retardation institutions. This study ...

  15. Family members' influence on family meal vegetable choices

    PubMed Central

    Wenrich, Tionni R.; Brown, J. Lynne; Miller-Day, Michelle; Kelley, Kevin J.; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Characterize the process of family vegetable selection (especially cruciferous, deep orange, and dark green leafy vegetables); demonstrate the usefulness of Exchange Theory (how family norms and past experiences interact with rewards and costs) for interpreting the data. Design Eight focus groups, two with each segment (men/women vegetable-likers/dislikers based on a screening form). Participants completed a vegetable intake form. Setting Rural Appalachian Pennsylvania. Participants 61 low-income, married/cohabiting men (n=28) and women (n=33). Analysis Thematic analysis within Exchange Theory framework for qualitative data. Descriptive analysis, t-tests and chi-square tests for quantitative data. Results Exchange Theory proved useful for understanding that regardless of sex or vegetable-liker/disliker status, meal preparers see more costs than rewards to serving vegetables. Past experience plus expectations of food preparer role and of deference to family member preferences supported a family norm of serving only vegetables acceptable to everyone. Emphasized vegetables are largely ignored due to unfamiliarity; family norms prevented experimentation and learning through exposure. Conclusions and Implications Interventions to increase vegetable consumption of this audience could 1) alter family norms about vegetables served, 2) change perceptions of past experiences, 3) reduce social and personal costs of serving vegetables and 4) increase tangible and social rewards of serving vegetables. PMID:20452288

  16. Family Members' Reports of the Technology Use of Family Members with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, S. B.; Wehmeyer, M. L.; Davies, D. K.; Stock, S. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A nationwide survey of family members of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities ranging in age from birth through adulthood was conducted to replicate a similar effort by Wehmeyer and update the knowledge base concerning technology use by people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Method: Survey responses…

  17. Partnerships at the Middle Level: Perceptions of Family Members, Community Members, and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Patricia Maureen

    Recognizing the need for family, school, and community members to participate in partnerships to support middle level children, this study investigated the perceptions of family members, community members, and middle school teachers regarding their relationships with each other from a perspective that views all three groups as integral parts of a…

  18. Reflectance Spectra of Members of Very Young Asteroid Families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.; Enke, B.; Merline, W. J.; Nesvorný, D.; Tamblyn, P.; Young, E. F.

    2009-03-01

    We present SpeX infrared spectra for members of the dynamically young Datura, Iannini, Karin, and Veritas asteroid families (plus Koronis and Themis family controls). S-types are space-weathered on timescales of a few million years.

  19. Part 2: Family Health During and After Death of a Family Member

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon A. Denham

    1999-01-01

    An ethnographic study of families who used hospice services was conducted to identify how families defined and practiced family health during a time of family transition. Eight families (N = 29) who recently experienced the death of a family member participated in three interviews. Key findings were: (a) family health is a complex construct with dynamic intergenerational linked patterns, (b)

  20. Nursing support for family members of critically ill adults.

    PubMed

    Vandall-Walker, Virginia; Jensen, Louise; Oberle, Kathleen

    2007-11-01

    Researchers have identified the needs of family members of critically ill adults, explored their experiences, and investigated interventions. To address a gap in the theoretical knowledge about how nurses help these individuals, the authors developed a grounded theory of nursing support from the perspective of family members. Results indicated that family members were initiated into a cycle of Work to meet perceived responsibilities to Get Through the experience. Supportive nurses engaged in the process of Lightening Our Load to mitigate the negative effects of the critical care experience on family members by Engaging With Us, Sustaining Us, and Disengaging From Us. No previous research has yet identified the Work of these family members, the steps they take to gain nurses' respect, and the significance to them of nurses' Welcoming us and Saying goodbye. This theory extends the understanding of nursing support beyond current knowledge of family needs, caring, comfort, supportive care, and social support. PMID:17968038

  1. The After-Death Call to Family Members: Academic Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoboPrabhu, Sheila; Molinari, Victor; Pate, Jennifer; Lomax, James

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss clinical and teaching aspects of a telephone call by the treating clinician to family members after a patient dies. Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted for references to an after-death call made by the treating clinician to family members. A review of this literature is summarized. Results: A clinical application…

  2. Coping as a caregiver for an elderly family member.

    PubMed

    Alpert, Jordan M; Womble, Frances E

    2015-07-01

    With nearly 30% of the adult U.S. population acting as caregivers for sick, disabled, or elderly family members, it is imperative that caregivers become better equipped to cope with this challenging role. Although caregiving is regarded as an arduous endeavor, caring for an older family member may actually produce positive experiences. This study examines how caregivers use communication as a tool to cope with caring for an older family member. Over a span of 15 months, more than 150 caregiver stories were gathered from AgingCare.com, analyzed thematically, and categorized. The results show that stories utilize emotion-based techniques, including humor (20%), positive framing (16%), and acceptance (11%), to reveal that lasting, meaningful bonds can develop between caregivers and caregivers' relatives. These techniques allow caregivers to redefine their familial role and to find comfort in disheartening situations. Thus, coping is a truly communicative event since emotions can facilitate behaviors directed at ailing family members. PMID:25062386

  3. Helping Older Family Members Become More Active

    MedlinePLUS

    Everyday Fitness Ideas from the National Institute on Aging at NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Helping Older Family ... garden or gardening group. Many local organizations offer fitness programs for older people. Places to look include: ...

  4. Family Members' Unique Perspectives of the Family: Examining their Scope, Size, and Relations to Individual Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Jager, Justin; Bornstein, Marc H.; Diane, L. Putnick; Hendricks, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Using the Family Assessment Device (FAD; Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) and incorporating the perspectives of adolescent, mother, and father, this study examined each family member's “unique perspective” or non-shared, idiosyncratic view of the family. To do so we used a modified multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis that (1) isolated for each family member's six reports of family dysfunction the non-shared variance (a combination of variance idiosyncratic to the individual and measurement error) from variance shared by one or more family members and (2) extracted common variance across each family member's set of non-shared variances. The sample included 128 families from a U.S. East Coast metropolitan area. Each family member's unique perspective generalized across his or her different reports of family dysfunction and accounted for a sizable proportion of his or her own variance in reports of family dysfunction. Additionally, after holding level of dysfunction constant across families and controlling for a family's shared variance (agreement regarding family dysfunction), each family member's unique perspective was associated with his or her own adjustment. Future applications and competing alternatives for what these “unique perspectives” reflect about the family are discussed. PMID:22545933

  5. May 2, 2012 Family Member Verification Deadline

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    insurance, supplemental life insurance, ADD, disability, and supplemental disability. Frequently asked are a problem for employers and members nationwide. UC's health & welfare benefits program for faculty, staff, including social security numbers, on your documents before sending them in. 5. What if I am away from home

  6. Death at the Worksite: Helping Grieving Family Members

    MedlinePLUS

    Death at the Worksite: Helping Grieving Family Members By Helen Fitzgerald, CT Introduction With heart disease on ... fatal heart attacks occur in the workplace. Other deaths — from accidents, for example — can also happen during ...

  7. Childhood cancer: differential effects on the family members.

    PubMed

    Cornman, B J

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe individual, dyadic, and family responses to childhood cancer and related current-life stresses, self-esteem issues, marital satisfaction, and perceptions of family environments. A descriptive, correlational design was used with 20 families who had at least one well child and one child with cancer. Parents and children were asked to create drawings using a projective drawing technique called Kinetic Family Drawings (KFDs), then these drawings were compared with norms on the following quantitative measures: Schedule of Recent Experiences, Life Events Scale for Adolescents and Life Events Scale for Children, Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Family Environment Scale. Results supported a need to evaluate each family member's individual responses to childhood cancer, given the importance of the family as a social environment for children. Results revealed an informative and, at times, varied profile across instruments and family members in the areas of adjustment, life stresses, self-esteem, marital satisfaction, and views of the family environment. For example, mothers reported significantly lower self-esteem than fathers. Yet, with the KFD, no significant differences on scores were found between family members. PMID:8278281

  8. Family Members' Influence on Family Meal Vegetable Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenrich, Tionni R.; Brown, J. Lynne; Miller-Day, Michelle; Kelley, Kevin J.; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Characterize the process of family vegetable selection (especially cruciferous, deep orange, and dark green leafy vegetables); demonstrate the usefulness of Exchange Theory (how family norms and experiences interact with rewards and costs) for interpreting the data. Design: Eight focus groups, 2 with each segment (men/women vegetable…

  9. Being Socialised into Language Shift: The Impact of Extended Family Members on Family Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Christmas, Cassie

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a family language policy (FLP) in the context of an extended bilingual Gaelic-English family on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. It demonstrates how certain family members (namely, the children's mother and paternal grandmother) negotiate and reify a strongly Gaelic-centred FLP. It then discusses how other extended family

  10. [Characterization of some thiol oxidoreductase family members].

    PubMed

    Varlamova, E G; Gol'tiaev, M V; Novoselov, S V; Novoselov, V I; Fecenko, E E

    2013-01-01

    There are no doubt about the important role of free radicals and reactive oxygen species in the processes of cell activity. The disturbances of intracellular redox processes are often accompanied with the development of such common pathologies as diabetes, myocardial infarction, neurodegeneration, broncho-pulmonary diseases, cancer, etc. To date, there are a large number of antioxidant enzymes related to different redox biology systems, the key role among them is played by enzymes belong to the thiol oxidoreductases superfamily, which consists of thioredoxin, glutaredoxin, peroxiredoxin, protein disulfidizomeraz, glutathione peroxidase families, and a number of other proteins. In addition to the antioxidant function, thiol oxidoreductases display the ability to recycle of hydroperoxide to form specific disulfide bonds within and between proteins that significantly extends the range of their functionality. Therefore, biochemical characterization and elucidation of functional mechanisms of the superfamily proteins is a highly actual problem of redox biology. PMID:24466746

  11. Spectra of small Koronis family members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Rivkin, A.; Trilling, D.; Moskovitz, N.

    2014-07-01

    The space-weathering process and its implications for the relationships between S- and Q-type asteroids and ordinary chondrite meteorites are long-standing problems in asteroid science. Although the visible and near-infrared spectra of S- and Q-type objects qualitatively show the same absorption features and quantitatively show evidence of the same minerals, the S types display increased spectral slopes and muted absorption features compared to the Q types. This spectral mismatch is consistent with the effects of the space weathering process. Binzel et al. provided the missing link between Q- and S-type bodies in near-Earth space by showing a reddening of spectral slope in objects from 0.1 to 5 km that corresponded to the transition from Q- to S-type spectra. This result implied that size, and therefore age, is related to the relationship between Q- and S-type. The existence of Q-type objects in the main belt was not confirmed until Mothe-Diniz and Nesvorny (2008) found them in young S-type clusters. To investigate the trend from Q to S in the main belt, we examined space weathering within the old main-belt Koronis family using a spectrophotometric survey (Rivkin et al. 2011, Thomas et al. 2011). Rivkin et al. (2011) identified several potential Q-type objects within the Koronis family. Our Q-type candidates were identified using broad-band spectrophotometry and could not be taxonomically classified on that basis alone. We obtained follow-up visible and near-infrared spectral observations of our potential Q-type objects, (26970) Elias, (45610) 2000 DJ_{48}, and (37411) 2001 XF_{152}, using Gemini and Magellan. We will present the results of these spectral follow-up observations. Observations of (26970) Elias demonstrate that the object is more consistent with the average Q-type spectrum than the average S-type spectrum.

  12. Family members and friends who help beneficiaries make health decisions.

    PubMed

    Sofaer, S; Kreling, B; Kenney, E; Swift, E K; Dewart, T

    2001-01-01

    People enrolled in Medicare often turn to family members and friends for help in making health decisions, including Medicare health plan choices. To learn how family members and friends participate in decisionmaking, what information they currently use, and what information they would like, we held eight focus groups in San Diego and Baltimore. Although responses were different in the two markets, participants in both cities reported receiving inadequate information and indicated they were largely unaware of available CMS-supported information. Beneficiaries want easy-to-use print materials targeted to their needs and opportunities to participate in seminars and receive personal counseling. PMID:12500366

  13. A new member of the plasma protease inhibitor gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Ragg, H

    1986-01-01

    A 2.1-kb cDNA clone representing a new member of the protease inhibitor family was isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The inhibitor, named human Leuserpin 2 (hLS2), comprises 480 amino acids and contains a leucine residue at its putative reactive center. HLS2 is about 25-28% homologous to three human members of the plasma protease inhibitor family: antithrombin III, alpha 1-antitrypsin and alpha 1-antichymotrypsin. A comparison with published partial amino acid sequences shows that hLS2 is closely related to the thrombin inhibitor heparin cofactor II. Images PMID:3003690

  14. Patient, physician, and family member understanding of living wills.

    PubMed

    Upadya, Anupama; Muralidharan, Visvanathan; Thorevska, Natalya; Amoateng-Adjepong, Yaw; Manthous, Constantine A

    2002-12-01

    This study examines understanding of living wills by patients, family members, and physicians. Questionnaires were used to examine whether each cohort understood patients' living wills regarding endotracheal intubation and cardiopulmonary rescuscitation (CPR). Of 4,800 patients admitted during the study period, 206 reported having living wills, all of which precluded intubation and CPR for "terminal conditions." Of 140 admitted to the general hospital wards, 17 (12%) wanted their living wills to preclude intubation/mechanical ventilation and 12 (8.6%) did not want resuscitation under any circumstances. Seven of 120 (6%) physicians and 4 of 108 family members would not intubate or perform CPR even if there was a chance of recovery. Of 88 patients with complete data (including physicians and family members), 29 (33%) wanted their living wills to block intubation/mechanical ventilation only if they were deemed terminal and 46 (52%) wanted the living will to block intubation even if there was a 10% chance of recovery. Thirteen (15%) wanted to block intubation even if the chance of recovery was > or = 50. Results were similar for wishes regarding CPR. These data suggest substantial differences of patient, physician, and family member understanding of living wills. Living wills did not reflect fully patients' expectations of receiving (or not receiving) life-sustaining modalities. PMID:12406822

  15. Family Members' Perceptions of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Device Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Rita L.; Parette, Howard P., Jr.; Stoner, Julia B.; Angell, Maureen E.; Carroll, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Although advancements in technology have expanded the use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices for children with disabilities, the use of AAC devices in school and home settings is often inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to examine family members' perceptions regarding the use of AAC devices. Factors that…

  16. Yarkovsky-Driven Leakage of Koronis Family Members

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Vokrouhlický; M. Broz; P. Farinella; Z. Knezevic

    2001-01-01

    The orbit of the asteroid 2953 Vysheslavia is currently locked in a tiny chaotic zone very close to the 5 : 2 mean motion jovian resonance. Its dynamical lifetime is estimated to be of the order of only about 10 Myr. Since Vysheslavia is a member of the Koronis family, such a short dynamical lifetime opens a variety of interesting

  17. [Family, a care unit for its members: reflexive concerns].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Luzia Wilma Santana; da Silva, Danuzia Santana; Gonçalves, Lucia Hisako Takase; da Costa, Maria Arminda da Silva Mendes Carneiro; Martins, Maria Manuela Ferreira Pereira da Silva; Figueiredo, Maria Henriqueta de Jesus Silva

    2008-01-01

    This reflection has searched through a brief historic perspective, to understand the family as a care unit for its members. It has as objective, to awake a health professional's more conscientious new look for the care to elderly people in chronical condition, aiming to extend this look to the family as a unit care. This reflexion leans on Systemic Thought, that is, on the comprehension that the family isn't the sum of parts, but pressuposes the whole and the parts at the same time, thus it isn't possible to see the individual only without looking at the family as a whole in the dynamical relations and interactions between them. After the realized re-reading it became that it's necessary to rethink new strategies to approach the care to the bearer of a chronic disease such as diabetes, that embrace the whole family as focus attention of its members health, considering the complexity, intersubjectivity and instability of the new pos-modern science paradigm. PMID:19685609

  18. Ordinary chondrite-like colors in small Koronis family members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivkin, Andrew S.; Thomas, Cristina A.; Trilling, David E.; Enga, Marie-therese; Grier, Jennifer A.

    2011-02-01

    A survey of small (<5-10 km diameter) members of the Koronis family shows some objects with visible-wavelength broadband colors consistent with membership in the Q-class (Tholen, D.J. [1984]. Asteroid taxonomy from cluster analysis of photometry. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Bus, S.J., Binzel, R.P. [2002]. Icarus 158, 146-177). This agrees with an ordinary chondritic composition for this family and suggests the timescale for changing Q-class to S-class spectra in the main belt is roughly comparable to the regolith refresh time in the 2-5 km size range.

  19. "You Needed to Rehab...Families as Well": Family Members' Own Goals for Aphasia Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Tami; Davidson, Bronwyn; Worrall, Linda; Hersh, Deborah; Ferguson, Alison; Sherratt, Sue; Gilbert, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aphasia affects family members in addition to the individuals with the communication disorder. In order to develop appropriate services for the relatives of people with aphasia post-stroke, their rehabilitation goals need to be identified. Aim: The aim of the current investigation was to identify the rehabilitation goals that family

  20. Distinct Functions of Egr Gene Family Members in Cognitive Processes

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Roseline; Cheval, Hélène; Mailhes, Caroline; Garel, Sonia; Charnay, Patrick; Davis, Sabrina; Laroche, Serge

    2008-01-01

    The different gene members of the Egr family of transcriptional regulators have often been considered to have related functions in brain, based on their co-expression in many cell-types and structures, the relatively high homology of the translated proteins and their ability to bind to the same consensus DNA binding sequence. Recent research, however, suggest this might not be the case. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of the functional roles of the different Egr family members in learning and memory. We briefly outline evidence from mutant mice that Egr1 is required specifically for the consolidation of long-term memory, while Egr3 is primarily essential for short-term memory. We also review our own recent findings from newly generated forebrain-specific conditional Egr2 mutant mice, which revealed that Egr2, as opposed to Egr1 and Egr3, is dispensable for several forms of learning and memory and on the contrary can act as an inhibitory constraint for certain cognitive functions. The studies reviewed here highlight the fact that Egr family members may have different, and in certain circumstances antagonistic functions in the adult brain. PMID:18982106

  1. Where are the small Kreutz-family members?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Quanzhi; Wiegert, P.; Hui, M.; Kracht, R.

    2013-10-01

    The Kreutz sungrazer family is one of the best-known comet families and contains some of the most spectacular comets in history. However, due to its extreme orbit geometry, most members in this family are either too faint or too close to the sun to be observed from the ground. Space-based coronagraphs launched in recent decades, notably the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), have detected over 2000 Kreutz members that come very close to the sun. The observations are limited to a very short time period 1-2 d) from the perihelion of these objects, and suffer from low astrometric/photometric precision; the states of these objects when they are away from the sun are still unconstrained. In this study, we use the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) to search for small Kreutz comets at low solar elongation 50 deg) on several nights from September 2012 to January 2013. We are able to cover ~10 sq. deg per night to 22.5, a limiting magnitude that should be able to reveal small SOHO-size Kreutz members, according to the brightening rate proposed by Knight et al. (2010, AJ, 139, 926). Preliminary result will be presented in this talk.

  2. Organ Donation Campaigns: Perspective of Dialysis Patient's Family Members

    PubMed Central

    TUMIN, Makmor; RAJA ARIFFIN, Raja Noriza; MOHD SATAR, NurulHuda; NG, Kok-Peng; LIM, Soo-Kun; CHONG, Chin-Sieng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Solving the dilemma of the organ shortage in Malaysia requires educating Malaysians about organ donation and transplantation. This paper aims at exploring the average Malaysian households ’ preferred channels of campaigns and the preferred campaigners in a family setting, targeting at the dialysis family members. Methods We analyzed the responses of 350 respondents regarding organ donation campaigns. The respondents are 2 family members of 175 dialysis patients from 3 different institutions. The information on respondents’ willingness to donate and preferred method and channel of organ donation campaign were collected through questionnaire. Results Malaysian families have a good tendency to welcome campaigns in both the public and private (their homes) spheres. We also found that campaigns facilitated by the electronic media (Television and Radio) and executed by experienced doctors are expected to optimize the outcomes of organ donation, in general. Chi-square tests show that there are no significant differences in welcoming campaigns among ethnics. However, ethnics preferences over the campaign methods and campaigners are significantly different (P <0.05). Conclusion Ethnic differences imply that necessary modifications on the campaign channels and campaigners should also be taken under consideration. By identifying the preferred channel and campaigners, this study hopes to shed some light on the ways to overcome the problem of organ shortage in Malaysia. PMID:25909060

  3. Stromal-dependent tumor promotion by MIF family members.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Robert A; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha

    2014-12-01

    Solid tumors are composed of a heterogeneous population of cells that interact with each other and with soluble and insoluble factors that, when combined, strongly influence the relative proliferation, differentiation, motility, matrix remodeling, metabolism and microvessel density of malignant lesions. One family of soluble factors that is becoming increasingly associated with pro-tumoral phenotypes within tumor microenvironments is that of the migration inhibitory factor family which includes its namesake, MIF, and its only known family member, D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT). This review seeks to highlight our current understanding of the relative contributions of a variety of immune and non-immune tumor stromal cell populations and, within those contexts, will summarize the literature associated with MIF and/or D-DT. PMID:25277536

  4. 22 CFR 42.68 - Informal evaluation of family members if principal applicant precedes them.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Informal evaluation of family members if principal...Immigrant Visas § 42.68 Informal evaluation of family members if principal...consular officer may arrange for an informal examination of the...

  5. 22 CFR 42.68 - Informal evaluation of family members if principal applicant precedes them.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Informal evaluation of family members if principal...Immigrant Visas § 42.68 Informal evaluation of family members if principal...consular officer may arrange for an informal examination of the...

  6. 22 CFR 42.68 - Informal evaluation of family members if principal applicant precedes them.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Informal evaluation of family members if principal...Immigrant Visas § 42.68 Informal evaluation of family members if principal...consular officer may arrange for an informal examination of the...

  7. Asteroid (90) Antiope: Another icy member of the Themis family?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, Kelsey D.; Emery, Joshua P.; Campins, Humberto; Kelley, Michael S. P.

    2015-07-01

    Many members of the Themis family show evidence of hydration in the form of oxidized iron in phyllosilicates (Florczak, M. et al. [1999]. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 134, 463-471), and OH-bearing minerals (Takir, D., Emery, J.P. [2012]. Icarus 219, 641-654). The largest member, (24) Themis, has H2O ice covering its surface (Campins, H. et al. [2010]. Nature 464, 1320-1321; Rivkin, A.S., Emery, J.P. [2010]. Nature 464, 1322-1323). We have investigated the second largest Themis-family asteroid, (90) Antiope, which Castillo-Rogez and Schmidt (Castillo-Rogez, J.C., Schmidt, B.E. [2010]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L10202) predict to have a composition that includes water ice and organics. We obtained 2-4-?m spectroscopy of (90) Antiope in 2006 and 2008, and we find an absorption in the 3-?m region clearly present in our 2008 spectrum and likely in our 2006 spectrum. Both spectra have rounded, bowl-shaped absorptions consistent with those ascribed to water ice as in the spectrum of Asteroid (24) Themis. We also present and compare Spitzer 8-12-?m mid-infrared spectra of (24) Themis and (90) Antiope. We find that (90) Antiope is lacking a "fairy castle" dusty surface, which is in contrast to (24) Themis, other Themis family members (Licandro, J. et al. [2012]. Astron. Astrophys. 537, A73), and Jupiter Trojans (e.g. Emery, J.P., Cruikshank, D.P., Van Cleve, J. [2006]. Icarus 182, 496-512). We conclude that the surface structure of (90) Antiope is most similar to Cybele Asteroid (121) Hermione (Hargrove, K.D. et al. [2012]. Icarus 221, 453-455).

  8. Psychological responses in family members after the Hebron massacre.

    PubMed

    Elbedour, S; Baker, A; Shalhoub-Kevorkian, N; Irwin, M; Belmaker, R H

    1999-01-01

    The authors attempted to determine the frequency of severe psychological responses in surviving family members in a religious Muslim culture. Twenty-three wives, twelve daughters and twenty-six sons of heads of households massacred while praying in the Hebron mosque on 25 February 1994 were interviewed with the clinician-administered PTSD scale; 50% of daughters, 39% of wives, and 23% of sons met criteria for PTSD. PTSD or traumatic bereavement occurs with high frequency after a major tragedy in a Moslem society, despite religious admiration of dead martyrs. PMID:9989347

  9. Recurrent cutaneous abscesses in two Italian family members

    PubMed Central

    Cantisani, Carmen; Richetta, Antonio G.; Bitonti, Andrea; Curatolo, Pietro; Ferretti, Gianfranco; Mattozzi, Carlo; Luca, Melis; Silvestri, Emidio; Calvieri, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Environmental mycobacteria are the causative factors of an increasing number of infections worldwide. Cutaneous infections as a result of such mycobacteria are often misdiagnosed, and their treatment is difficult since they can show in vivo and in vitro multidrug resistance. Absence of pathognomonic clinical signs and variable histological findings often delay diagnosis. We report a case of localized recurrent soft tissue swelling by Mycobacterium marinum in 2 members of the same family. The cases are being reported for their uncommon clinical presentation and the associated etiological agent. Patients recovered completely following therapy with rifampicin 600 mg plus isoniazide 300 mg daily for 45 days. PMID:24470891

  10. SAMHSA's support of behavioral health systems serving service members, veterans, and their families

    E-print Network

    Mather, Patrick T.

    SAMHSA's support of behavioral health systems serving service members, veterans, and their families Page 1 SAMHSA's support of behavioral health systems serving service members, veterans Aligata, SAMHSA's support of behavioral health systems serving service members, veterans

  11. Family Members' Reports of Non-Staff Abuse in Michigan Nursing Homes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenmei Zhang; Connie Page; Tom Conner; Lori A. Post

    2012-01-01

    Recent research showed that mistreatment of nursing home residents by other residents may be highly prevalent. The present study examined the issue from family members' perspectives. The data came from the 2005 and 2007 random-digit dial telephone surveys of Michigan households with a family member in long-term care. Based on family members' reports, about 10% of nursing home residents aged

  12. ECU Family Weekend 2013 Order Form Parent/Family Member Name Date

    E-print Network

    _____________________________________ ___________________ Student's Name Student's Banner # or Student Pirate Club (SPC) Member For specific information about · Pirate's Bounty Auction For information and registration visit www.piratealumni.com/piratesbounty N/A N/A $ · Pirate Family Weekend Tailgate Your student will NOT be able to use his/her meal card for the tailgate

  13. Clinical and surgical data of affected members of a classic CFEOM 1 family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriano Magli; Teresa de Berardinis; Fabiana D'Esposito; Vincenzo Gagliardi

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Congenital fibiosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM1) refers to a group of congenital eye movement disorders that are characterized by non-progressive restrictive ophthalmoplegia. We present clinical and surgical data on affected members of a classic CFEOM1 family. METHODS: Ten members of a fifteen-member, three-generation Italian family affected by classic CFEOM participated in this study. Each affected family member underwent

  14. RASSF6 is a novel member of the RASSF family of tumor suppressors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N P C Allen; H Donninger; M D Vos; K Eckfeld; L Hesson; L Gordon; M J Birrer; F Latif; G J Clark

    2007-01-01

    RASSF family proteins are tumor suppressors that are frequently downregulated during the development of human cancer. The best-characterized member of the family is RASSF1A, which is downregulated by promoter methylation in 40–90% of primary human tumors. We now identify and characterize a novel member of the RASSF family, RASSF6. Like the other family members, RASSF6 possesses a Ras Association domain

  15. The TNF family member APRIL promotes colorectal tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lascano, V; Zabalegui, L F; Cameron, K; Guadagnoli, M; Jansen, M; Burggraaf, M; Versloot, M; Rodermond, H; van der Loos, C; Carvalho-Pinto, C E; Kalthoff, H; Medema, J P; Hahne, M

    2012-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member APRIL (A proliferation inducing ligand) is a disease promoter in B-cell malignancies. APRIL has also been associated with a wide range of solid malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC). As evidence for a supportive role of APRIL in solid tumor formation was still lacking, we studied the involvement of APRIL in CRC. We observed that ectopic APRIL expression exacerbates the number and size of adenomas in ApcMin mice and in a mouse model for colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis. Furthermore, knockdown of APRIL in primary spheroid cultures of colon cancer cells and both mouse and human CRC cell lines reduced tumor clonogenicity and in vivo outgrowth. Taken together, our data therefore indicate that both tumor-derived APRIL and APRIL produced by non-tumor cells is supportive in colorectal tumorigenesis. PMID:22705846

  16. 38 CFR 71.50 - Provision of certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...family counseling, training, and mental health services to a family...

  17. 38 CFR 71.50 - Provision of certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...family counseling, training, and mental health services to a family...

  18. 38 CFR 71.50 - Provision of certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...family counseling, training, and mental health services to a family...

  19. 38 CFR 71.50 - Provision of certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...family counseling, training, and mental health services to a family...

  20. Homo- and heterodimerization of APP family members promotes intercellular adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Soba, Peter; Eggert, Simone; Wagner, Katja; Zentgraf, Hanswalter; Siehl, Katjuscha; Kreger, Sylvia; Löwer, Alexander; Langer, Andreas; Merdes, Gunter; Paro, Renato; Masters, Colin L; Müller, Ulrike; Kins, Stefan; Beyreuther, Konrad

    2005-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease, but its physiological function and that of its mammalian paralogs, the amyloid precursor-like proteins 1 and 2 (APLPs), is still poorly understood. APP has been proposed to form dimers, a process that could promote cell adhesion via trans-dimerization. We investigated the dimerization and cell adhesion properties of APP/APLPs and provide evidence that all three paralogs are capable of forming homo- and heterocomplexes. Moreover, we show that trans-interaction of APP family proteins promotes cell–cell adhesion in a homo- and heterotypic fashion and that endogenous APLP2 is required for cell–cell adhesion in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. We further demonstrate interaction of all the three APP family members in mouse brain, genetic interdependence, and molecular interaction of APP and APLPs in synaptically enriched membrane compartments. Together, our results provide evidence that homo- and heterocomplexes of APP/APLPs promote trans-cellular adhesion in vivo. PMID:16193067

  1. Parents and family members in the era of ART: evidence from Cambodia and Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Knodel; Sochanny Hak; Chandore Khuon; Dane So; John McAndrew

    2011-01-01

    Ensuring treatment adherence is critical for the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs in developing countries. Enlisting NGOs or persons living with HIV\\/AIDS (PLHA) group members as treatment supporters is one common strategy. Less attention is given to family members and especially older-age parents. Yet ART patients often live with other family members who are highly motivated to ensure treatment

  2. Mental health outcomes of family members of Oregonians who request physician aid in dying.

    PubMed

    Ganzini, Linda; Goy, Elizabeth R; Dobscha, Steven K; Prigerson, Holly

    2009-12-01

    Oregon legalized physician aid in dying over 10 years ago but little is known about the effects of this choice on family members' mental health. We surveyed 95 family members of decedent Oregonians who had explicitly requested aid in dying, including 59 whose loved one received a lethal prescription and 36 whose loved one died by lethal ingestion. For comparison purposes, family members of Oregonians who died of cancer or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also were surveyed. A mean of 14 months after death, 11% of family members whose loved one requested aid in dying had major depressive disorder, 2% had prolonged grief, and 38% had received mental health care. Among those whose family member requested aid in dying, whether or not the patient accessed a lethal prescription had no influence on subsequent depression, grief, or mental health services use; however, family members of Oregonians who received a lethal prescription were more likely to believe that their loved one's choices were honored and less likely to have regrets about how the loved one died. Comparing family members of those who requested aid in dying to those who did not revealed no differences in primary mental health outcomes of depression, grief, or mental health services use. Family members of Oregonians who requested aid in dying felt more prepared and accepting of the death than comparison family members. In summary, pursuit of aid in dying does not have negative effects on surviving family members and may be associated with greater preparation and acceptance of death. PMID:19783401

  3. Emotional Disorders in Pairs of Patients and Their Family Members during and after ICU Stay

    PubMed Central

    Fumis, Renata Rego Lins; Ranzani, Otavio T.; Martins, Paulo Sérgio; Schettino, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients and family members undergo different experiences of suffering from emotional disorders during ICU stay and after ICU discharge. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in pairs (patient and respective family member), during stay at an open visit ICU and at 30 and 90-days post-ICU discharge. We hypothesized that there was a positive correlation with the severity of symptoms among pairs and different patterns of suffering over time. Methods A prospective study was conducted in a 22-bed adult general ICU including patients with >48 hours stay. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was completed by the pairs (patients/respective family member). Interviews were made by phone at 30 and 90-days post-ICU discharge using the Impact of Event Scale (IES) and the HADS. Multivariate models were constructed to predict IES score at 30 days for patients and family members. Results Four hundred and seventy one family members and 289 patients were interviewed in the ICU forming 184 pairs for analysis. Regarding HADS score, patients presented less symptoms than family members of patients who survived and who deceased at 30 and 90-days (p<0.001). However, family members of patients who deceased scored higher anxiety and depression symptoms (p = 0.048) at 90-days when compared with family members of patients who survived. Patients and family members at 30-days had a similar IES score, but it was higher in family members at 90-days (p = 0.019). For both family members and patients, age and symptoms of anxiety and depression during ICU were the major determinants for PTSD at 30-days. Conclusions Anxiety, depression and PTSD symptoms were higher in family members than in the patients. Furthermore, these symptoms in family members persisted at 3 months, while they decreased in patients. PMID:25616059

  4. Comparison of Families with and without a Suicide Prevention Plan Following a Suicidal Attempt by a Family Member.

    PubMed

    Cho, Heung-Don; Kim, Nam-Young; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Jeong, Du-Shin; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2015-07-01

    The frequency and extent of the existence of a familial suicide prevention plan may differ across cultures. The aim of this work was, therefore, to determine how common it was for families to develop a suicide prevention plan and to compare the main measures used by families with and without such a plan, after an attempt to commit suicide was made by a member of a family living in a rural area of Korea. On the basis of the presence or absence of a familial suicide prevention plan, we compared 50 recruited families that were divided into 2 groups, with Group A (31 families) employing a familial suicide prevention plan after a suicide attempt by a family member, and Group B (19 families) not doing so. The strategy that was employed most frequently to prevent a reoccurrence among both populations was promoting communication among family members, followed by seeking psychological counseling and/or psychiatric treatment. Contrary to our expectation, the economic burden from medical treatment after a suicide attempt did not influence the establishment of a familial suicide prevention plan. It is a pressing social issue that 38% (19 of 50) of families in this study did not employ a familial suicide prevention plan, even after a family member had attempted suicide. Regional suicide prevention centers and/or health authorities should pay particular attention to these patients and their families. PMID:26130963

  5. Comparison of Families with and without a Suicide Prevention Plan Following a Suicidal Attempt by a Family Member

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Heung-Don; Kim, Nam-Young; Gil, Hyo-wook; Jeong, Du-shin

    2015-01-01

    The frequency and extent of the existence of a familial suicide prevention plan may differ across cultures. The aim of this work was, therefore, to determine how common it was for families to develop a suicide prevention plan and to compare the main measures used by families with and without such a plan, after an attempt to commit suicide was made by a member of a family living in a rural area of Korea. On the basis of the presence or absence of a familial suicide prevention plan, we compared 50 recruited families that were divided into 2 groups, with Group A (31 families) employing a familial suicide prevention plan after a suicide attempt by a family member, and Group B (19 families) not doing so. The strategy that was employed most frequently to prevent a reoccurrence among both populations was promoting communication among family members, followed by seeking psychological counseling and/or psychiatric treatment. Contrary to our expectation, the economic burden from medical treatment after a suicide attempt did not influence the establishment of a familial suicide prevention plan. It is a pressing social issue that 38% (19 of 50) of families in this study did not employ a familial suicide prevention plan, even after a family member had attempted suicide. Regional suicide prevention centers and/or health authorities should pay particular attention to these patients and their families. PMID:26130963

  6. Digital family portraits: supporting peace of mind for extended family members

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth D. Mynatt; Jim Rowan; Sarah Craighill; Annie Jacobs

    2001-01-01

    A growing social problem in the U.S., and elsewhere, is supporting older adults who want to continue living independently, as opposed to moving to an institutional care setting. One key part of this complex problem is providing awareness of senior adults day-to-day activities, promoting peace of mind for extended family members. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a

  7. Structure and T Cell Inhibition Properties of B7 Family Member, B7-H3

    E-print Network

    Zang, Xingxing

    Structure Article Structure and T Cell Inhibition Properties of B7 Family Member, B7-H3 Vladimir the recogni- tion of the B7 family of ligands. B7-H3 is a recently identified B7 family member, engagement between the T cell receptor (TCR) and the antigenic peptide:major histocom- patibility complex (p

  8. Impact of Demented Patients on Their Family Members and CareGivers in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsiu-Chih Liu; Ker-Neng Lin; Hai-Kung Tsou; Kai-Ming Lee; Sui-Hing Yan; Shuu-Jiun Wang; Benjamin N. Chiang

    1991-01-01

    A standardized questionnaire was sent to family members or care-givers of 105 patients with dementia; 68 were returned. Eighty-eight percent of the patients were cared for at home by their spouses or adult children. The adverse impacts of dementia on patient family's economy, relations among family members, and social life are recognized. The majority of the subjects had only limited

  9. Defining UML Family Members Using Prefaces IBM European Object Technology Practice, UK

    E-print Network

    Rumpe, Bernhard

    Defining UML Family Members Using Prefaces Steve Cook IBM European Object Technology Practice, UK as a family of languages. Implicitly or explicitly, any particular UML model should be accompanied by a definition of the particular UML family member used for the model. The definition should cover syntactic

  10. An intervention to improve mental health and family well-being of injecting drug users and family members in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Lin, Chunqing; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Tuan, Le Anh; Farmer, Shu C; Detels, Roger

    2014-06-01

    Family plays an important role in the lives of injecting drug users (IDUs) in Vietnam. This study examined the preliminary outcomes of an intervention targeting IDUs and their family members in Vietnam. Eighty-three families, including 83 IDUs and 83 family members, were recruited from 4 communes in Phú T?o Province, Vietnam. The 4 communes were randomized to either an intervention condition or a standard care condition. The IDUs and their family members in the intervention condition completed 4 group sessions, with the aims to improve their mental health and family relations and to promote positive behavioral change. The intervention effect was evaluated at baseline and 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments. A significant reduction in depressive symptoms and improvement in family functioning were reported for IDUs in the intervention group compared with those in the standard care group. The family members in the intervention group reported better coping skills at 3 months, fewer depressive symptoms at 6 months, and improved family function at both 3 and 6 months compared with those in the standard care group. However, no significant intervention effect was observed for IDUs in terms of drug-using behavior. This study demonstrates the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of an intervention that simultaneously targets IDUs and their family members in Vietnam. Study findings highlight the importance of including family members and enhancing their role in drug use intervention efforts. PMID:24079647

  11. Racial disparity in capital punishment and its impact on family members of capital defendants.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A review of the literature was conducted to explore the continuing racial disparity in capital punishment and its effects on family members of African American capital defendants. Statistical studies conducted on both the state and national level conclude that racial bias influences all stages of the death penalty process, with race of the victim being one of the most significant factors. This racial bias places an added burden on family members of African American capital defendants. While research has explored the impact of capital punishment on family members of capital defendants, the unique experiences of family members of African American defendants has not been addressed in the research literature. PMID:23581803

  12. Depression, Anxiety and Somatization in Women with War Missing Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Barakovi?, Devla; Avdibegovi?, Esmina; Sinanovi?, Osman

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: During the war circumstances, women and children are exposed to multiple traumatic experiences, one of which is an violent disappearance of a family member. Goal: The aim of this research was to establish the presence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatization in women in Bosnia and Herzegovina who have sought their war missing family members for 15 to 18 years. Subjects and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 120 women with war missing family member and 40 women without a war missing family member as a control group. For assessment of depression, anxiety and symptoms of somatization the self-rating Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Somatic Symptoms Index (SSI) questionnaire and a general questionnaire on the sociodemographic data and data on war missing family members were used. Results: A significantly higher intensity of symptoms of depression (p<0.001), anxiety (p<0.001) and somatization (p = 0.013) was present in women with, in comparison to women without a missing family member. In comparison of the kinship with the missing family members, statistically significantly higher intensity of symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatization was in women with a missing child (p<0.001) in comparison to other missing family members. Conclusion: A prolonged period of seeking, waiting and uncertainty of what happened in the war with the missing family member presents for those women a prolonged suffering manifested through depression, anxiety and symptoms of somatization. PMID:24167436

  13. The PCH family protein, Cdc15p, recruits two F-actin nucleation pathways to coordinate cytokinetic actin ring formation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Carnahan, Robert H; Gould, Kathleen L

    2003-09-01

    Cytokinetic actin ring (CAR) formation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe requires two independent actin nucleation pathways, one dependent on the Arp2/3 complex and another involving the formin Cdc12p. Here we investigate the role of the S. pombe Cdc15 homology family protein, Cdc15p, in CAR assembly and find that it interacts with proteins from both of these nucleation pathways. Cdc15p binds directly to the Arp2/3 complex activator Myo1p, which likely explains why actin patches and the Arp2/3 complex fail to be medially recruited during mitosis in cdc15 mutants. Cdc15p also binds directly to Cdc12p. Cdc15p and Cdc12p not only display mutual dependence for CAR localization, but also exist together in a ring-nucleating structure before CAR formation. The disruption of these interactions in cdc15 null cells is likely to be the reason for their complete lack of CARs. We propose a model in which Cdc15p plays a critical role in recruiting and coordinating the pathways essential for the assembly of medially located F-actin filaments and construction of the CAR. PMID:12939254

  14. 5 CFR 734.405 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...family member of either a candidate for partisan political office, or a candidate for political party office, may appear in photographs of the candidate's family which might appear in a political advertisement, a broadcast, campaign...

  15. 5 CFR 734.405 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...family member of either a candidate for partisan political office, or a candidate for political party office, may appear in photographs of the candidate's family which might appear in a political advertisement, a broadcast, campaign...

  16. 5 CFR 734.405 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...family member of either a candidate for partisan political office, or a candidate for political party office, may appear in photographs of the candidate's family which might appear in a political advertisement, a broadcast, campaign...

  17. 5 CFR 734.405 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...family member of either a candidate for partisan political office, or a candidate for political party office, may appear in photographs of the candidate's family which might appear in a political advertisement, a broadcast, campaign...

  18. 5 CFR 734.405 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...family member of either a candidate for partisan political office, or a candidate for political party office, may appear in photographs of the candidate's family which might appear in a political advertisement, a broadcast, campaign...

  19. Understanding of advance care planning by family members of persons undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Calvin, Amy O; Engebretson, Joan C; Sardual, S Alexander

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore hemodialysis patients' family members' understanding of end-of-life decision-making processes. The project aimed to address (a) family members' constructions of advance care planning (ACP), including their roles and responsibilities, and (b) family members' perceptions of health care providers' roles and responsibilities in ACP. Eighteen family members of persons undergoing hemodialysis were recruited primarily from outpatient dialysis facilities and interviewed individually. Confirmed transcript data were analyzed, coded, and compared, and categories were established. Interpretations were validated throughout the interviews and peer debriefing sessions were used at a later stage in the analysis. The overarching construct identified was one of Protection. Family members protect patients by (a) Sharing Burdens, (b) Normalizing Life, and (c) Personalizing Care. Recommendations for future research include the need to explore ACP of persons undergoing hemodialysis who do not have a family support system. PMID:24326309

  20. 29 CFR 779.234 - Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner or members of his immediate family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...other member of the immediate family of such owner” shall not...other member of the immediate family of such owner” is considered to include relationships such as brother, sister...the exception to include family operated...

  1. 41 CFR 302-3.511 - What must we consider when determining return travel for immediate family member(s) for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...return travel for immediate family member(s) for compassionate...the return of the immediate family for compelling personal reasons...of a member of the immediate family; (c) Obligations imposed...annulment of the employee's marriage; or (e) A dependent...

  2. Everyday Living with Diabetes Described by Family Members of Adult People with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Paavilainen, Eija; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore family members' experiences of everyday life in families with adult people living with type 1 diabetes. The grounded theory method was used to gather and analyse data from the interviews of nineteen family members. Six concepts describing the family members' views on everyday living with diabetes were generated on the basis of the data. Everyday life with diabetes is described as being intertwined with hypoglycemia. Becoming acquainted with diabetes takes place little by little. Being involved in the management and watching self-management from the sidelines are concepts describing family members' participation in the daily management of diabetes. The family members are also integrating diabetes into everyday life. Living on an emotional roller-coaster tells about the thoughts and feelings that family members experience. Family members of adult people with diabetes are involved in the management of the diabetes in many ways and experience many concerns. The family members' point of view is important to take into consideration when developing education for adults with diabetes. PMID:24455251

  3. 41 CFR 302-4.101 - Must my immediate family member(s) and I begin PCS travel at the old official station and end at...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...immediate family member(s) and I begin PCS travel at the old official station and end...ALLOWANCES PERMANENT CHANGE OF STATION (PCS) ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION...immediate family member(s) and I begin PCS travel at the old official station and...

  4. Catapulting Shifts in Images, Understandings, and Actions for Family Members through Research-Based Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Sherry L.; Gillies, Jennifer; Mitchell, Gail J.; Jonas-Simpson, Christine; Whyte, Colleen; Carson, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This article examined how images, understandings, and actions change for family members of persons with dementia after the introduction of a research-based drama called I'm Still Here. Guided by interpretivist phenomenology, a set of seven pre- and post-performance focus groups were conducted with family members (n = 48) in four cities. Findings…

  5. Selective Amplification and Cloning of Four New Members of the G Protein-Coupled Receptor Family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick Libert; Marc Parmentier; Anne Lefort; Christiane Dinsart; Jacqueline van Sande; Carine Maenhaut; Marie-Jeanne Simons; Jacques E. Dumont; Gilbert Vassart

    1989-01-01

    An approach based on the polymerase chain reaction has been devised to clone new members of the family of genes encoding guanosine triphosphate-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors. Degenerate primers corresponding to consensus sequences of the third and sixth transmembrane segments of available receptors were used to selectively amplify and clone members of this gene family from thyroid complementary DNA. Clones

  6. Bereaved Family Members' Evaluation of Hospice Care: What Factors Influence Overall Satisfaction with Services?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramona L. Rhodes; Susan L. Mitchell; Susan C. Miller; Stephen R. Connor; Joan M. Teno

    2008-01-01

    As patients near the end of life, bereaved family members provide an important source of evaluation of the care they receive. A study was conducted to identify which processes of care were associated with greater satisfaction with hospice services from the perception of bereaved family members. A total of 116,974 surveys from 819 hospices in the United States were obtained

  7. Supporting Friends and Family Members with Eating Disorders: Discrepancies between Intentions and Reality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krista E. Brown; Josie Geller

    2006-01-01

    This study examined how female undergraduate students anticipated they would approach a friend or family member with disordered eating and what kinds of support they believed to be helpful. The relationship between eating disorder symptomatology and anticipated approaches also was examined. Participants read vignettes depicting scenarios involving a friend or family member with disordered eating and described their anticipated approach.

  8. Familial idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Evidence of lung inflammation in unaffected family members

    SciTech Connect

    Bitterman, P.B.; Rennard, S.I.; Keogh, B.A.; Wewers, M.D.; Adelberg, S.; Crystal, R.G.

    1986-05-22

    We evaluated 17 clinically unaffected members of three families with an autosomal dominant form of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis for evidence of alveolar inflammation. Each person in the study was examined by gallium-67 scanning for a general estimate of pulmonary inflammation, and by bronchoalveolar lavage for characterization of the types of recovered cells and their state of activation. Eight of the 17 subjects had evidence of alveolar inflammation on the lavage studies. Supporting data included increased numbers of neutrophils and activated macrophages that released one or more neutrophil chemoattractants, and growth factors for lung fibroblasts--findings similar to those observed in patients with overt idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Four of these eight also had a positive gallium scan; in all the other clinically unaffected subjects the scan was normal. During a follow-up of two to four years in seven of the eight subjects who had evidence of inflammation, no clinical evidence of pulmonary fibrosis has appeared. These results indicate that alveolar inflammation occurs in approximately half the clinically unaffected family members at risk of inheriting autosomal dominant idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Whether these persons with evidence of pulmonary inflammation but no fibrosis will proceed to have clinically evident pulmonary fibrosis is not yet known.

  9. Human CARD12 Is a Novel CED4\\/Apaf1 Family Member That Induces Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brad J. Geddes; Lin Wang; Waan-Jeng Huang; Michele Lavellee; Gulam A. Manji; Melissa Brown; Mark Jurman; Jie Cao; Jay Morgenstern; Sarah Merriam; M. Alexandra Glucksmann; Peter S. DiStefano; John Bertin

    2001-01-01

    The CED4\\/Apaf-1 family of proteins functions as critical regulators of apoptosis and NF-?B signaling pathways. A novel human member of this family, called CARD12, was identified that induces apoptosis when expressed in cells. CARD12 is most similar in structure to the CED4\\/Apaf-1 family member CARD4, and is comprised of an N-terminal caspase recruitment domain (CARD), a central nucleotide-binding site (NBS),

  10. Patients' and family members' experiences of a psychoeducational family intervention after a first episode psychosis: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Liv; Frich, Jan C; Friis, Svein; Røssberg, Jan Ivar

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore patients' and family members' experiences of the different elements of a psychoeducational family intervention. A qualitative, explorative study was performed based on digitally recorded in-depth interviews with 12 patients and 14 family members. The interview data were transcribed in a slightly modified verbatim mode and analysed using systematic text condensation. Six themes that both patients and family members experienced as important in the family intervention were identified: alliance, support, anxiety and tension, knowledge and learning, time, and structure. A good relationship between the group leaders and participants was essential in preventing dropout. Meeting with other people in the same situation reduced feelings of shame and increased hope for the future. Hearing real life stories was experienced as being more important for gaining new knowledge about psychosis than lectures and workshops. However, many patients experienced anxiety and tension during the meetings. The group format could be demanding for patients immediately after a psychotic episode and for those still struggling with distressing psychotic symptoms. Group leaders need to recognise patients' levels of anxiety before, and during, the intervention, and consider the different needs of patients and family members in regards to when the intervention starts, the group format, and the patients' level of psychotic symptoms. The findings in the present study may help to tailor family work to better meet the needs of both patients and family members. PMID:24350752

  11. Family Members Affected by a Close Relative's Addiction: The Stress-Strain-Coping-Support Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Templeton, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines the stress-strain-coping-support (SSCS) model which underpins the whole programme of work described in this supplement. The need for such a model is explained: previous models of substance misuse and the family have attributed dysfunction or deficiency to families or family members. In contrast, the SSCS model assumes that…

  12. Nurses’ experiences of interactions with family members in intensive care units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ing-Mari Söderström; Eva Benzein; Britt-Inger Saveman

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe nurses' experi- ences of interactions with family members in intensive care units. Ten experienced Registered Nurses were interviewed, and the interview text was qualitatively analysed by its content. Nursing of families was experi- enced as an essential, necessary and demanding task, and no systematic assessment and intervention with families were talked about.

  13. Candidate Members and Age Estimate of the Family of Kuiper Belt Object 2003 EL61

    E-print Network

    D. Ragozzine; M. E. Brown

    2007-09-04

    The collisional family of Kuiper belt object (KBO) 2003 EL61 opens the possibility for many interesting new studies of processes important in the formation and evolution of the outer solar system. As the first family in the Kuiper belt, it can be studied using techniques developed for studying asteroid families, although some modifications are necessary. Applying these modified techniques allows for a dynamical study of the 2003 EL61 family. The velocity required to change orbits is used to quantitatively identify objects near the collision. A method for identifying family members that have potentially diffused in resonances (like 2003 EL61) is also developed. Known family members are among the very closest KBOs to the collision and two new likely family members are identified: 2003 UZ117 and 1999 OY3. We also give tables of candidate family members which require future observations to confirm membership. We estimate that a minimum of ~1 GYr is needed for resonance diffusion to produce the current position of 2003 EL61, implying that the family is likely primordial. Future refinement of the age estimate is possible once (many) more resonant objects are identified. The ancient nature of the collision contrasts with the seemingly fresh surfaces of known family members, suggesting that our understanding of outer solar system surfaces is incomplete.

  14. MEMBER'S REGISTRATION Fall 2013 First Name: _________________________ Family Name: _________________________________

    E-print Network

    Kambhampati, Patanjali

    MEMBER'S REGISTRATION ­ Fall 2013 First Name: Year: 19______ Month: ______ Day: ______ Please carefully September 20 1 p.m. 273 You, Your Autonomy and the system 1041 October 7 1 p.m. 301 MCLL's brainy bar 2 Lab

  15. Supportive Resources for Adult Patients, Family Members, and Friends

    E-print Network

    Liu, Xiaole Shirley

    and after treatment. 617-632-3006 or www.dana-farber.org/nutrition #12;Cancer and related diseases affect-to-day challenges of a cancer diagnosis. Find tips for coping, support groups, and more. 617-632-4235 or www.dana-farber.org/friendsplace Help for Families ­ The Family Connections program offers resources for parents with cancer

  16. Accommodating family life: mentoring future female faculty members.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Harvey F

    2015-03-01

    The demands of family life are crucial factors in successfully retaining women in science. Retention efforts should focus on creating a family-friendly environment within the laboratory and the institute. Based on my own experiences, I suggest ways to attract top young scientists and support their development into leading researchers. PMID:25601644

  17. Psychiatric Worker and Family Members: Pathways Towards Co-Operation Networks within Psychiatric Assistance Services

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The family’s role in patient care was greatly altered by Law 180. This law, introduced in Italy in 1978, led to a gradual phasing out of custodial treatment for psychiatric patients. This different mindset, which views the family as an alternative to institutionalization, leads to it being seen as an essential entity in the setting up of community service dynamics. We interviewed health professionals in order to understand obstacles of collaboration between family members and mental health care workers. The goal was to uncover actions that promote collaboration and help build alliances between families and psychiatric workers. Results showed that health professionals view the family as a therapeutic resource. Despite this view, family members were rarely included in patient treatment. The reasons is: the structures have a theoretical orientation of collaboration with the family but, for nurses not are organized a few meeting spaces with family members. Services should create moments, such as multi-family groups or groups of information, managed by nurses and not only by doctors. These occasions it might facilitate the knowledge between professionals and family members. PMID:25478137

  18. Perceived Intrafamilial Connectedness and Autonomy in Families with and without an Anxious Family Member: A Multiple Informant Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Albuquerque, Jiske E. G.; Schneider, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Perceived intrafamilial "emotional connectedness" and "autonomy" were investigated within families with and without an anxious family member using a multiple informant approach. The sample consisted of 32 mothers with a current anxiety disorder and 56 controls, their partners, and their anxious and nonanxious teenage children. No differences were…

  19. The Effects of Having a Child with ADHD on Family Members and Family Management. Data Trends #98

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The articles summarized in this "Data Trends" discuss how members of families including children with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) are greatly affected in their daily lives and functioning by symptoms…

  20. Variables influencing family members' decisions regarding continued placement of family members with mental disabilities in one state-operated institution

    E-print Network

    Colvin, Alex Don

    2009-05-15

    , the availability of social supports and community service systems has exerted an important influence on a family?s decision to seek out of home placement ( Hill, 1958; McCubbin, 1979). Lazarus (1966) noted however, that family caregiver reactions depend heavily... on their subjective evaluation of the situation. Therefore, before a caregiver considers the institutional environment as their only viable choice, m ore reliable knowledge would be helpful to clinicians and parents faced with the difficult decision of whether...

  1. Suicidal ideation and distress in family members bereaved by suicide in portugal.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sara; Campos, Rui C; Tavares, Sofia

    2015-07-01

    The present study assessed the impact of suicide and distress on suicidal ideation in a sample of 93 Portuguese family members bereaved by suicide. A control community sample of 102 adults also participated. After controlling for educational level, those bereaved by the suicide of a family member were found to have higher levels of suicidal ideation. Forty-two percent of family members had Suicide Ideation Questionnaire scores at or above the cutoff point. General distress, depression, anxiety, and hostility related to suicidal ideation, whereas time since suicide also interacted with general distress and depression in predicting suicidal ideation. PMID:25551259

  2. Associative stigma in family members of psychotic patients in Flanders: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Catthoor, Kirsten; Schrijvers, Didier; Hutsebaut, Joost; Feenstra, Dineke; Persoons, Philippe; De Hert, Marc; Peuskens, Jozef; Sabbe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess presence and severity of associative stigma in family members of psychotic patients and factors for higher associative stigma. METHODS: Standardized semi-structured interview of 150 family members of psychotic patients receiving full time treatment. This study on associative stigma in family members of psychotic patients was part of a larger research program on the burden of the family, using “Interview for the Burden of the Family” and the chapters stigma, treatment and attribution from the “Family interview Schedule”. The respondents were relatives, one per patient, either partner or parent. The patients had been diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder. All contacts with patients and relatives were in Dutch. Relatives were deemed suitable to participate in this research if they saw the patient at least once a week. Recruitment took place in a standardized way: after obtaining the patient’s consent, the relatives were approached to participate. The results were analyzed using SPSS Version 18.0. RESULTS: The prevalence of associative stigma in this sample is 86%. Feelings of depression in the majority of family members are prominent. Twenty-one point three percent experienced guilt more or less frequent, while shame was less pronounced. Also, 18.6% of all respondents indicated that they tried to hide the illness of their family member for others regularly or more. Three six point seven percent really kept secret about it in certain circumstances and 29.3% made efforts to explain what the situation or psychiatric condition of their family member really is like. Factors with marked significance towards higher associative stigma are a worsened relationship between the patient and the family member, conduct problems to family members, the patients’ residence in a residential care setting, and hereditary attributional factors like genetic hereditability and character. The level of associative stigma has significantly been predicted by the burden of aggressive disruptions to family housemates of the psychotic patient. CONCLUSION: Family members of psychotic patients in Flanders experience higher associative stigma compared to previous international research. Disruptive behavior by the patient towards in-housing family members is the most accurate predictor of higher associative stigma. PMID:25815261

  3. The significance of services in a psychiatric hospital for family members of persons with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Shor, Ron; Shalev, Anat

    2015-03-01

    Hospitalization of persons with mental illness may cause their family members to experience multiple stressors that stem from the hospitalization as well as from the duties of helping him or her. However, providing support services in psychiatric hospitals for family members has received only limited attention. To change this situation, mental health professionals in a psychiatric hospital in Israel developed an innovative family-centered practice model, the Family Members' Support and Consultation (FMSC) service center. We examined the significance to family members of the services they received from the FMSC service center in a study that included 20 caregivers. Ten participated in 2 focus groups of 5 participants each; 10 were interviewed personally. We implemented a thematic analysis to analyze the data. According to the participants, the staff of the FMSC service center provided support services that helped them cope with the stressors and difficulties they experienced within the context of the psychiatric hospital. The participants emphasized the significance of the immediacy and accessibility of support provided, as well as the positive effects of systemic interventions aimed at changing the relationships between family members and systems in the psychiatric hospital. Our findings show the importance of integrating a service that focuses on the needs of family members of persons with mental illness within a psychiatric hospital. PMID:25485823

  4. 42 CFR 31.9 - Dependent members of families; treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...NATIONAL OCEAN SURVEY, PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, AND FORMER LIGHTHOUSE...National Ocean Survey and Public Health Service § 31.9 Dependent...Guard Reserve and members of the Women's Reserve of the Coast Guard...or retired. (c) Public Health Service. Commissioned...

  5. 42 CFR 31.9 - Dependent members of families; treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...NATIONAL OCEAN SURVEY, PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, AND FORMER LIGHTHOUSE...National Ocean Survey and Public Health Service § 31.9 Dependent...Guard Reserve and members of the Women's Reserve of the Coast Guard...or retired. (c) Public Health Service. Commissioned...

  6. 42 CFR 31.9 - Dependent members of families; treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...NATIONAL OCEAN SURVEY, PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, AND FORMER LIGHTHOUSE...National Ocean Survey and Public Health Service § 31.9 Dependent...Guard Reserve and members of the Women's Reserve of the Coast Guard...or retired. (c) Public Health Service. Commissioned...

  7. 42 CFR 31.9 - Dependent members of families; treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...NATIONAL OCEAN SURVEY, PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, AND FORMER LIGHTHOUSE...National Ocean Survey and Public Health Service § 31.9 Dependent...Guard Reserve and members of the Women's Reserve of the Coast Guard...or retired. (c) Public Health Service. Commissioned...

  8. 42 CFR 31.9 - Dependent members of families; treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...NATIONAL OCEAN SURVEY, PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, AND FORMER LIGHTHOUSE...National Ocean Survey and Public Health Service § 31.9 Dependent...Guard Reserve and members of the Women's Reserve of the Coast Guard...or retired. (c) Public Health Service. Commissioned...

  9. 5 CFR 734.307 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...family member of either a candidate for partisan political office, candidate for political party office, or candidate for public office in...employee who is married to a candidate for partisan political office may attend a fundraiser for...

  10. 5 CFR 734.307 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...family member of either a candidate for partisan political office, candidate for political party office, or candidate for public office in...employee who is married to a candidate for partisan political office may attend a fundraiser for...

  11. 5 CFR 734.307 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...family member of either a candidate for partisan political office, candidate for political party office, or candidate for public office in...employee who is married to a candidate for partisan political office may attend a fundraiser for...

  12. 5 CFR 734.307 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...family member of either a candidate for partisan political office, candidate for political party office, or candidate for public office in...employee who is married to a candidate for partisan political office may attend a fundraiser for...

  13. 5 CFR 734.307 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...family member of either a candidate for partisan political office, candidate for political party office, or candidate for public office in...employee who is married to a candidate for partisan political office may attend a fundraiser for...

  14. IRAK4: A novel member of the IRAK family with the properties of an IRAKkinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shyun Li; Astrid Strelow; Elizabeth J. Fontana; Holger Wesche

    2002-01-01

    Toll\\/IL-1 receptor family members are central components of host defense mechanisms in a variety of species. One well conserved element in their signal transduction is Ser\\/Thr kinases, which couple early signaling events in a receptor complex at the plasma membrane to larger signalosomes in the cytosol. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has one member of this family of kinases, termed

  15. Comparative expression analysis of members of the Hsp70 family in the chytridiomycete Blastocladiella emersonii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raphaela de Castro Georg; Suely Lopes Gomes

    2007-01-01

    Sequencing of a large number of expressed sequence tags from Blastocladiella emersonii revealed the presence of ten distinct putative members of the 70 kDa-heat shock protein (Hsp70) family in this fungus. The amino acid sequence deduced from eight of these cDNAs showed significant similarity to members of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hsp70 family, and the remaining displayed high sequence homology with hsp70

  16. Study of biometric parameters in family members of primary angle closure glaucoma patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Sihota; D Ghate; S Mohan; V Gupta; R M Pandey; T Dada

    2008-01-01

    ObjectivesTo measure ocular biometric parameters in all possible untreated family members of index primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) patients and to correlate these values among affected, unaffected, and suspected family members.MethodsAnterior chamber depth (ACD), axial length (AL), lens thickness (LT), relative lens position, and central corneal thickness (CCT) were measured in first- and second-degree relatives of index patients. These biometric

  17. Identification and characterization of a new member of the TNF family that induces apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven R. Wiley; Ken Schooley; Pamela J. Smolak; Wenie S. Din; Chang-Pin Huang; Jillian K. Nicholl; Grant R. Sutherland; Terri Davis Smith; Charles Rauch; Craig A. Smith; Raymond G. Goodwin

    1995-01-01

    A novel tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member has been cloned and characterized. This protein, designated TNF-related apoptosis-Inducing ligand (TRAIL), consists of 281 and 291 as in the human and murine forms, respectively, which share 65% as identity. TRAIL is a type II membrane protein, whose C-terminal extracellular domain shows clear homology to other TNF family members. TRAIL transcripts are

  18. Placental Growth Factor, a Member of the VEGF Family, Contributes to the Development of Choroidal Neovascularization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marie Rakic; Vincent Lambert; Laetitia Devy; Aernout Luttun; Peter Carmeliet; Carel Claes; Laurent Nguyen; Jean-Michel Foidart; Agnes Noel; Carine Munaut

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE. VEGF has been shown to be necessary, but not suffi- cient alone, for the development of subretinal pathologic an- giogenesis. In the current study, the influence of placental growth factor (PlGF), a member of the VEGF family, in human and experimental choroidal neovascularization (CNV) was in- vestigated. METHODS. The presence of VEGF family member mRNA was evaluated by RT-PCR

  19. 25 CFR 26.17 - Can more than one family member be financially assisted at the same time?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Can more than one family member be financially assisted at the same time? 26.17 Section 26.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN...Can more than one family member be financially assisted at the same time? Yes, more than one family member can be assisted,...

  20. 5 CFR 890.302 - Coverage of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...married, but each has children from prior marriages...and there are also children who are the issue of...enroll in his or her own right in a self and family...dependency. (1) A child is considered to be dependent...judicial determination of support has been obtained;...

  1. 5 CFR 890.302 - Coverage of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...married, but each has children from prior marriages...and there are also children who are the issue of...enroll in his or her own right in a self and family...dependency. (1) A child is considered to be dependent...judicial determination of support has been obtained;...

  2. 5 CFR 890.302 - Coverage of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...married, but each has children from prior marriages...and there are also children who are the issue of...enroll in his or her own right in a self and family...dependency. (1) A child is considered to be dependent...judicial determination of support has been obtained;...

  3. Inviting Families and Community Members to the Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulsebosch, Pat

    This paper describes the School Community Partnership Development (SCPD) and the Deaf Parent to Hearing Parent Project (DPHPP), which are sources for school improvement and parent education and for the organization and empowerment of communities for long-term change. Families involved in the SCPD engage in math and science activities throughout…

  4. Establishing the surgical nurse liaison role to improve patient and family member communication.

    PubMed

    Herd, Hope A; Rieben, Melissa A

    2014-05-01

    Having clear personal communication with a surgical patient's family members decreases the anxiety and increases patient and family member satisfaction. Perioperative team members at one East Coast community hospital implemented a new approach to communication in the perioperative area to address patient satisfaction after patient survey scores declined in the areas of communication and calming fears. An additional consideration was the facility's plan to move to a new facility in which the surgical department would be split across two floors. A literature review revealed that adding a surgical nurse liaison can increase patient, family member, and staff member satisfaction. The administration approved creation of the position, with duties that included managing the waiting area, facilitating interaction between physicians and patients' family members, and assisting with family visits to the perianesthesia unit. After implementation of this position, results of surveys showed increases in patient satisfaction. One year after the position was established, staff members reported they were happy with the position as well. PMID:24766921

  5. Photometric Observations of a Very Young Family-Member Asteroid (832) Karin

    E-print Network

    Malhotra, Renu

    Photometric Observations of a Very Young Family-Member Asteroid (832) Karin Fumi Yoshida1 Budi (Received 2004 March 15; accepted 2004 April 15) Abstract Asteroid (832) Karin is the largest member in optical bands. The rotational period of asteroid Karin was determined to be 18.346 ± 0.096 hr. Its

  6. Nursing intervention studies on patients and family members: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Elina; Leino, Kaija; Paavilainen, Eija; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2009-09-01

    The development of evidence-based practice is a major current challenge in the fields of nursing practice and nursing research. A concerted effort is needed to develop and test interventions and to assess their impacts. The illness of one family member inevitably affects other family members and the whole family. Nursing interventions should be so designed that they support and enhance the life situation of both patients and their families. The aim of this study is to undertake a systematic review of nursing intervention studies on patients and family members published in international databases in 2001-2006. The main focus was on the targets, methods and impacts of interventions. The articles for the review were searched from Medline and Cinahl (n = 31) and analysed by content analysis and the RE-AIM evaluation model. The results showed that the interventions were targeted at patients with chronic diseases and individual family members. In addition to support components, the interventions included elements of teaching, counselling and education. The preliminary evidence indicated that the interventions were effective in relieving the burden of care and depressive symptoms of family members of Alzheimer, cancer, stroke and schizophrenia patients as well as in promoting their quality of life and coping. Nursing interventions are still in the development and testing phase. The challenge for the future is to broaden the scope and application of interventions in different nursing environments. Assessments of the efficacy of interventions should also consider their adaptation, implementation and maintenance in practical nursing. PMID:22804689

  7. Strengthening Family Members of Incarcerated Youth: A Productive Role for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Dorothy P.; Wilson, Constance; Carter, Jannie; Johnson, LaKeisha

    2014-01-01

    The challenge to provide incarcerated youth the skills needed to succeed and avoid recidivism has prompted the use of family-systems approaches in juvenile detention centers. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in northern Alabama to determine the impact of a conflict resolution workshop on the family members of incarcerated youth. Results…

  8. Family Members Providing Home-Based Palliative Care to Older Adults: The Enactment of Multiple Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemmer, Sarah J.; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Forbes, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    Canadians are experiencing increased life expectancy and chronic illness requiring end-of-life care. There is limited research on the multiple roles for family members providing home-based palliative care. Based on a larger ethnographic study of client-family-provider relationships in home-based palliative care, this qualitative secondary analysis…

  9. Psychosocial Concerns of Adults with Developmental Disabilities: Perspectives of the Self, Family Member, and the Provider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudet, Laura; Pulos, Steve; Crethar, Hugh; Burger, Susan

    2002-01-01

    In this study, self-reports of 34 individuals with developmental disabilities (DD) were compared with proxy ratings from family and providers. Correlations between the ratings of individuals with DD and the proxy raters were low, as were the correlations between family members and providers. In all scales except "cognition," the individual with DD…

  10. Family Members' Views on Seeking Placement in State-Supported Living Centers in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Alex D.; Larke, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the factors that influence family members' decisions to seek placement for relatives with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (ID/DD) into state-supported living centers in Texas. The sample included 51 family caregivers between the ages of 26 and 95. Using descriptive statistics, correlation, and inferential…

  11. Clinical and surgical data of affected members of a classic CFEOM 1 family

    PubMed Central

    Magli, Adriano; de Berardinis, Teresa; D'Esposito, Fabiana; Gagliardi, Vincenzo

    2003-01-01

    Background Congenital fibiosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM1) refers to a group of congenital eye movement disorders that are characterized by non-progressive restrictive ophthalmoplegia. We present clinical and surgical data on affected members of a classic CFEOM1 family. Methods Ten members of a fifteen-member, three-generation Italian family affected by classic CFEOM participated in this study. Each affected family member underwent ophthalmologic (corrected visual acuity, pupillary function, anterior segment and fundus examination), orthoptic (cover test, cover-uncover test, prism alternate cover test), and preoperative examinations. Eight of the ten affected members had surgery and underwent postoperative examinations. Surgical procedures are listed. Results All affected members were born with varying degrees of bilateral ptosis and ophthalmoplegia with both eyes fixed in a hypotropic position (classic CFEOM). The affected members clinical data prior to surgery, surgery procedures and postoperative outcomes are presented. On 14 operated eyes to correct ptosis there was an improvement in 12 eyes. In addition, the head position improved in all patients. Conclusions Surgery is effective at improving ptosis in the majority of patients with classic CFEOM. However, the surgical approach should be individualized to each patient, as inherited CFEOM exhibits variable expressivity and the clinical features may differ markedly between affected individuals, even within the same family. PMID:12702216

  12. Challenges Facing a Deaf Family Member Concerning a Loved One’s Dying

    PubMed Central

    Kehl, Karen A.; Gartner, Constance M.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals who are Deaf face challenges both similar and unique from those faced by hearing individuals when a family member is dying. This study was guided by the question “What are the challenges faced by a Deaf family member when a loved one is dying?” Methods - This qualitative study is guided by critical theory and an interpretive perspective. Robert, a college-educated older adult who has been Deaf from birth was interviewed in American Sign Language using a death history format. Results – There are challenges for Deaf family members that affect communication with both the dying person and health care professionals. Patient-family communication issues included physical challenges and financial challenges. Lack of cultural competence concerning the Deaf community created challenges communicating with professionals. Decision-making was also a challenge. Conclusions These findings provide a framework for future research concerning the needs of Deaf individuals facing the end of life and provide guidance for clinicians. PMID:19910395

  13. TRPV3: time to decipher a poorly understood family member!

    PubMed

    Nilius, Bernd; Bíró, Tamás; Owsianik, Grzegorz

    2014-01-15

    The vanilloid transient receptor potential channel TRPV3 differs in several aspects from other members of the TRPV subfamily. This Ca(2+)-, ATP- and calmodulin-regulated channel constitutes a target for many natural compounds and has a unique expression pattern as the most prominent and important TRP channel in keratinocytes of the skin. Although TRPV3 is considered as a thermosensitive channel, its function as a thermosensor in the skin is challenged. Nevertheless, it plays important roles in other skin functions such as cutaneous sensations, hair development and barrier function. More recently, mutations in TRPV3 were linked with a rare genodermatosis known as the Olmsted syndrome. This review gives an overview on properties of TRPV3 and its functions in the skin and skin diseases. PMID:23836684

  14. Behind Family Lines : Family members? adaptations to military-induced separations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manon Daniëlle Andres

    2010-01-01

    The interrelation between work and family life has long been recognized and in many of today?s Western societies, both men and women face the challenges of combining work and family demands. Above and beyond the widespread prevalence of work affecting family, work is especially likely to bear upon family life in the course of job-induced separations. In such instances, work

  15. Factors affecting frequency of communication about family health history with family members and doctors in a medically underserved population

    PubMed Central

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Goodman, Melody; Pandya, Chintan; Garg, Priyanka; Stafford, Jewel; Lachance, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Objective Family history contributes to risk for many common chronic diseases. Little research has investigated patient factors affecting communication of this information. Methods 1061 adult community health center patients were surveyed. We examined factors related to frequency of discussions about family health history (FHH) with family members and doctors. Results Patients who talked frequently with family members about FHH were more likely to report a family history of cancer (p=.012) and heart disease (p<.001), seek health information frequently in newspapers (p<.001) and in general (p<.001), and be female (p<.001). Patients who talked frequently with doctors about FHH were more likely to report a family history of heart disease (p=.011), meet physical activity recommendations (p=.022), seek health information frequently in newspapers (p<.001) and in general (p<.001), be female (p<.001), and not have experienced racial discrimination in healthcare (p<.001). Conclusion Patients with a family history of some diseases, those not meeting physical activity recommendations, and those who do not frequently seek health information may not have ongoing FHH discussions. Practice Implications Interventions are needed to encourage providers to update patients’ family histories systematically and assist patients in initiating FHH conversations in order to use this information for disease prevention and control. PMID:22197261

  16. Predicting the number and sizes of IBD regions among family members and evaluating the family size requirement for linkage studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanling; Wang, Zhanyong; Wang, Lusheng; Sham, Pak-Chung; Huang, Peng; Lau, Yu Lung

    2008-12-01

    With genotyping of high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) replacing that of microsatellite markers in linkage studies, it becomes possible to accurately determine the genomic regions shared identity by descent (IBD) by family members. In addition to evaluating the likelihood of linkage for a region with the underlining disease (the LOD score approach), an appropriate question to ask is what would be the expected number and sizes of IBD regions among the affecteds, as there could be more than one region reaching the maximum achievable LOD score for a given family. Here, we introduce a computer program to allow the prediction of the total number of IBD regions among family members and their sizes. Reversely, it can be used to predict the portion of the genome that can be excluded from consideration according to the family size and user-defined inheritance mode and penetrance. Such information has implications on the feasibility of conducting linkage analysis on a given family of certain size and structure or on a few small families when interfamily homogeneity can be assumed. It can also help determine the most relevant members to be genotyped for such a study. Simulation results showed that the IBD regions containing true mutations are usually larger than regions IBD due to random chance. We have made use of this feature in our program to allow evaluation of the identified IBD regions based on Bayesian probability calculation and simulation results. PMID:18575462

  17. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The STS-101 crew gather during a meeting with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. From left, Mission Specialist Susan J. Helms, Commander James D. Halsell Jr., Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber, Pilot Scott J. Horowitz and Mission Specialists Yuri Vladimirovich Usachev, Jeffery N. Williams and James S. Voss. In the background is the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the pad. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  18. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-101 Commander James D. Halsell Jr. waves as he stands with his wife Kathy during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  19. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A light-hearted moment during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. From left, Commander James D. Halsell Jr., Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber and Pilot Scott J. Horowitz. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  20. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-101 Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber and her husband Jerome Elkind during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  1. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-101 Mission Specialist Yuri Vladimirovich Usachev, a Russian cosmonaut, and his wife Vera Sergeevna Usacheva during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  2. Impact of bone marrow stromal cells on Bcl-2 family members in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Viralkumar; Balakrishnan, Kumudha; Wierda, William G.; Gandhi, Varsha

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common form of adult leukemia in the western world. High levels of Bcl-2 family anti-apoptotic proteins are responsible for apoptotic-resistance. Besides anti-apoptotic proteins, microenvironment provides substantial surviving signals to CLL leukemic cells. However, the in-depth-knowledge on the role of individual Bcl-2 family members in the context of microenvironment is still limited. We performed a comprehensive analysis of transcripts and proteins of 18 Bcl-2 family members using “apoptosis array micro fluidic card” in primary cells before and after stromal co-cultures. Our data showed that, 5 of 6 anti-apoptotic members (excluding Bcl-b), 2 of 3 pro-apoptotic members (excluding Bok) and 6 of 9 BH3-only members were present at detectable mRNA levels in CLL cells. Importantly, stromal mediated extended survival of CLL cells was in strong association with elevated global transcription. Upon co-culturing with stromal cells, there was early response of increase in anti- (2/5) and pro-apoptotic protein (3/8) transcripts on day 1, while increase in anti-apoptotic proteins were observed on day 3, with no significant change in pro-apoptotic proteins. Our study revealed a differential pattern of expression of both transcripts and proteins following stromal co-cultures, proposing significance of Bcl-2 family members in stromal microenvironment. PMID:23837491

  3. Parents and Children Only? Acculturation and the Influence of Extended Family Members among Vietnamese Refugees.

    PubMed

    Tingvold, Laila; Middelthon, Anne-Lise; Allen, James; Hauff, Edvard

    2012-03-01

    The nuclear family is often the point of departure in much of the existing acculturation research on refugee youth and children of refugees. The influence of other extended family members appears to receive less attention in understanding acculturation processes and intergenerational perspectives. This qualitative study explores the influence of extended family members upon a small sample of Vietnamese refugee parents and their adolescents while they undergo acculturation through their long-term resettlement process in Norway. With repeated interviews over a time span of 3 years, we identified situations and processes in family life in which extended kin become particularly activated and influential. Vietnamese refugee families in Norway keep close contact with extended kin even in the face of geographical distance to kin remaining in Vietnam, or globally dispersed. Aunts, uncles, and cousins are experienced as significant persons in the lives of many adolescents. Additionally, birth order of parents can often influence relationship dynamics among siblings and siblings children. Extended kin surfaced as especially important and influential at critical stages and crisis situations in family life. Extended family, and in particular, parental siblings play important roles in the acculturation experience and family functioning of Vietnamese refugee families in Norway. This has important implications for the study of Vietnamese and other refugee and immigrant families in acculturation research. PMID:24510190

  4. Parents and Children Only? Acculturation and the Influence of Extended Family Members among Vietnamese Refugees

    PubMed Central

    Tingvold, Laila; Middelthon, Anne-Lise; Allen, James; Hauff, Edvard

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear family is often the point of departure in much of the existing acculturation research on refugee youth and children of refugees. The influence of other extended family members appears to receive less attention in understanding acculturation processes and intergenerational perspectives. This qualitative study explores the influence of extended family members upon a small sample of Vietnamese refugee parents and their adolescents while they undergo acculturation through their long-term resettlement process in Norway. With repeated interviews over a time span of 3 years, we identified situations and processes in family life in which extended kin become particularly activated and influential. Vietnamese refugee families in Norway keep close contact with extended kin even in the face of geographical distance to kin remaining in Vietnam, or globally dispersed. Aunts, uncles, and cousins are experienced as significant persons in the lives of many adolescents. Additionally, birth order of parents can often influence relationship dynamics among siblings and siblings children. Extended kin surfaced as especially important and influential at critical stages and crisis situations in family life. Extended family, and in particular, parental siblings play important roles in the acculturation experience and family functioning of Vietnamese refugee families in Norway. This has important implications for the study of Vietnamese and other refugee and immigrant families in acculturation research. PMID:24510190

  5. STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Commander Kevin Kregel enjoys a reunion with his wife, Jeanne, near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

  6. STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Mission Specialist Janet Lynn Kavandi poses for photographers near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

  7. STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Mission Specialist Gerhard Thiele enjoys a reunion with his wife near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

  8. STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Pilot Dominic Gorie enjoys a reunion with his wife, Wendy, near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

  9. Family Quality of Life of Australian Families with a Member with an Intellectual/Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillotta, F.; Kirby, N.; Shearer, J.; Nettelbeck, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Family quality of life (FQOL) is a recent concept in intellectual/developmental disability research. Outcomes for the family are important to the provision of services because families, rather than institutions, are increasingly considered the primary support unit. This article presents Australian findings using the international…

  10. Caring for Grieving Family Members: Results from a National Hospice Survey

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Colleen L.; Carlson, Melissa D. A.; Thompson, Jennifer W.; Schlesinger, Mark; McCorkle, Ruth; Kasl, Stanislav; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2012-01-01

    Background A founding principle of hospice is that the patient and family is the unit of care; however, we lack national information on services to family members. Although Medicare certification requires bereavement services be provided, reimbursement rates are not tied to the level or quality of care; therefore, limited financial incentives exist for hospice to provide more than a minimal benefit. Objectives To assess the scope and intensity of services provided to family members by hospice. Research Design We fielded a national survey of hospices between September 2008 and November 2009. Participants A national sample of U.S. hospices with an 84 percent response rate (N=591). Measures Bereavement services to the family, bereavement services to the community, labor-intensive family services and comprehensive family services. Results Most hospices provided bereavement services to the family (78%) and to the community (76%), but only a minority of hospices provided labor-intensive (23%) or comprehensive (27%) services to grieving family members. Larger hospice size was positively and significantly associated with each of the four measures of family services. We found no significant difference in provision of bereavement services to the family, labor-intensive services or comprehensive services by ownership type; however, non-profit hospices were more likely than for-profit hospices to provide bereavement services to the community. Conclusions Our results demonstrate substantial diversity in the scope and intensity of services provided to families of patients with terminal illnesses, suggesting a need for clearer guidance on what hospices should provide to exemplify best practices. Consensus within the field on more precise guidelines in this area is essential. PMID:22310561

  11. Payment or reimbursement for certain medical expenses for Camp Lejeune family members. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-09-24

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is promulgating regulations to implement statutory authority to provide payment or reimbursement for hospital care and medical services provided to certain veterans' family members who resided at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, for at least 30 days during the period beginning on January 1, 1957, and ending on December 31, 1987. Under this rule, VA will reimburse family members, or pay providers, for medical expenses incurred as a result of certain illnesses and conditions that may be attributed to exposure to contaminated drinking water at Camp Lejeune during this time period. Payment or reimbursement will be made within the limitations set forth in statute and Camp Lejeune family members will receive hospital care and medical services that are consistent with the manner in which we provide hospital care and medical services to Camp Lejeune veterans. PMID:25255501

  12. Alcohol consumption and health status of family members: health impacts without ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wenbin; Chikritzhs, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    Background Over several decades, many cohort studies from the medical epidemiology literature have observed that compared to abstainers, moderate drinkers experience lower risk for a range of diseases. It was very difficult to separate the hypothesised physiological protective effect of moderate drinking from its well correlated confounders in observational study settings. Aims To investigate the association between current alcohol consumption levels of randomly selected family members and the current self-reported health status of other members living within the same family, using a large scale representative general population survey. Method Poisson regression models of the association between randomly selected key respondent alcohol consumption and health status of co-habiting family members using data from the 2008, 2009 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys. Self-reported alcohol consumption of randomly selected key participants and self-reported health status of adult and child (parent reported) family members living in the same household were measured and compared. Results After controlling for a large range of commonly reported confounders, inverse associations were evident between light and moderate alcohol consumption of key participants and the prevalence of adverse health status among their family members, including children. Conclusions The superior health status attributed to family members of light and moderate drinkers is highly likely to be spurious and due to residual confounding rather than physiologically protective effects of alcohol. Unaccounted for confounding is likely to underpin apparent ‘protective effects’ due to moderate drinking commonly reported from observational studies of all-cause mortality, heart disease, stroke, and other chronic diseases. PMID:23176437

  13. High Prevalence of Mycoplasma Infections in Symptomatic (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome) Family Members of Mycoplasma-Positive Gulf War Illness Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garth L. Nicolson; Marwan Y. Nasralla; Nancy L. Nicolson; Joerg Haier

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY. Immediate family members of veterans diagnosed with Gulf War Illnesses often complain of fatiguing illnesses, and upon analysis they report similar signs and symptoms as their veteran family members. Since a relatively common finding in Gulf War Illness patients is a bacterial infection due to Mycoplasma species, we examined military families (149 patients: 42 veterans, 40 spouses, 32 other

  14. Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Post-ICU Family Members: Review and Methodological Challenges.

    PubMed

    Petrinec, Amy B; Daly, Barbara J

    2014-07-23

    Family members of intensive care unit (ICU) patients are at risk for symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following ICU discharge. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the current literature regarding post-ICU family PTSD symptoms with an emphasis on methodological issues in conducting research on this challenging phenomenon. An extensive review of the literature was performed confining the search to English language studies reporting PTSD symptoms in adult family members of adult ICU patients. Ten studies were identified for review published from 2004 to 2012. Findings demonstrate a significant prevalence of family PTSD symptoms in the months following ICU hospitalization. However, there are several methodological challenges to the interpretation of existing studies and to the conduct of future research including differences in sampling, identification of risk factors and covariates of PTSD, and lack of consensus regarding the most appropriate PTSD symptom measurement tools and timing. PMID:25061017

  15. Identification and localization of a neurally expressed member of the plakoglobin\\/ armadillo multigene family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Paffenholz; Werner W. Franke

    1997-01-01

    The plakoglobin\\/armadillo multigene family comprises many proteins widely differing in sizes and functions which have in common a variable number of tandemly repeated arm sequences of about 42 amino acids (aa). In a search for proteins with sequence homology to the desmosomal-plaque-associated arm-repeat-containing protein, plakophilin 1, we have identified a novel plakoglobin\\/armadillo protein. This new member of the multigene family

  16. Working with Family Members to Engage Treatment-Refusing Drinkers: The CRAFT Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Ellen Smith; Robert J. Meyers; Julia L. Austin

    2008-01-01

    Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is an empirically-supported program based on behavioral reinforcement that engages treatment-refusing alcohol-other drug abusers into treatment by working with their concerned family members. These concerned significant others (CSOs) are taught how to rearrange contingencies in the drinker's environment such that sober behavior is supported and drinking behavior is discouraged. CSOs receive behavioral skills training

  17. Redetermination of the space weathering rate using spectra of Iannini asteroid family members

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Willman; Robert Jedicke; David Nesvorný; Nicholas Moskovitz; Željko Ivezi?; Ronald Fevig

    2008-01-01

    We have obtained moderate S\\/N (?85) spectra at a realized resolution of R?100 for 11 members of the Iannini family, until recently the youngest known family at under 5 million years of age [Nesvorný, D., Bottke, W.F., Levison, H.F., Dones, L., 2003. Astrophys. J. 591, 486–497, 720–771]. The spectra were acquired using the Echellette Spectrograph and Imager in its low-resolution

  18. Perceptions of the Concept of Mutation among Family Members of Patients Receiving Outpatient Genetic Services and University Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriko Ando; Yumi Iwamitsu; Kazuhisa Takemura; Yukiko Saito; Fumio Takada

    2009-01-01

    Our objectives were to investigate: (1) relationships between perceptions of various terms regarding mutation and the depth\\u000a of knowledge regarding mutation among family members of patients receiving genetic outpatient services, and (2) differences\\u000a in perceptions of the term “gene mutation” for family members versus university students. Fifty-eight family members and 178\\u000a university students responded to two questionnaires: Impressions regarding the

  19. Three cases of kindred with familial breast cancer in which carrier detection by BRCA gene testing was performed on family members

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadashi Nomizu; Takeshi Sakuma; Mutsuo Yamada; Masami Matsuzaki; Naoto Katagata; Fumiaki Watanabe; Mitsuhiro Nihei; Chikashi Ishioka; Seiichi Takenoshita; Rikiya Abe

    We performed presymptomatic carrier detection by BRCA gene testing of the family members of three familial breast cancer kindred diagnosed with pathogenetic mutation in BRCA genes. All members were over 20 years of age. We explained familial breast cancer and BRCA gene testing, and obtained autonomic consent before gene testing. Genetic testing revealed twins in a family were dizygotic.\\u000a In another

  20. Characterization of poplar ZIP family members ZIP1 and ZNT1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A plant must regulate heavy metals to maintain adequate resources for plant processes while protecting against excess metal damage. Regulation of heavy metals such as zinc (Zn) has been attributed to the Zn transporter ZNT1 gene and other members of its larger ZIP transporter family. However, these ...

  1. College Adjustment and Subjective Well-Being when Coping with a Family Member's Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Christa K.; Welsh, Anne C.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals coping with the chronic or terminal illness of a family member are presented with a unique challenge that may influence their adjustment and overall well-being. This study investigated variables that relate to college adjustment and subjective well-being, including attachment, social support, coping, and illness-related constructs, in…

  2. Factors Affecting Burden of South Koreans Providing Care to Disabled Older Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Minhong; Yoon, Eunkyung; Kropf, Nancy P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the determinants of caregiving burden among South Koreans who care for their disabled older family members. A sample of 1,000 primary caregivers taken from the Comprehensive Study for Elderly Welfare Policy in Seoul, South Korea was analyzed. Independent variables included the demographic characteristics of caregivers and care…

  3. Talking Spirituality with Family Members: Black and Latina/o Children Co-Researcher Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Nadjwa E. L.

    2006-01-01

    Children in public schools challenge people's conceptions of them by talking about their spiritualities and spiritual practices. Based on a one-year multicultural feminist critical narrative inquiry, this article examines how Black and Latina/o first grade children co-researchers interview family members to think about their beliefs, encourage…

  4. ** Data as of 05/12/09 Family members with Medicare

    E-print Network

    Reed, Christopher A.

    ** Data as of 05/12/09 Family members with Medicare Blue Shield Medicare PPO Health Net Seniority Plus Kaiser Permanente Senior Advantage Blue Shield Medicare PPO UC provides premium support - Health Reimbursement Account (HRA) - $3,000 per covered person - Subject to graduated eligibility Medicare retirees

  5. BERA Sports Clearance: Weight Room: Any contractor or family member wishing to use the Weight

    E-print Network

    BERA Sports Clearance: Weight Room: Any contractor or family member wishing to use the Weight Room will be kept on file. BERA League Sports: BSA paid employees must fill out this BERA Sports Clearance Form or while playing in BERA sports league on site, you must call the Occupation Medical Clinic at ext. 3670

  6. Triticum Mosaic Virus: A Distinct Member of the Family Potyviridae with an Unusually Long Leader Sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome sequence of Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), a member in the family Potyviridae, has been determined to be 10,266 nucleotides excluding the 3’-polyadenylated tail. The genome encodes a large polyprotein of 3,112 amino acids with the ‘hall-mark proteins’ of potyviruses including a s...

  7. The impact of supportive telephone call intervention on grief after the death of a family member.

    PubMed

    Kaunonen, M; Tarkka, M T; Laippala, P; Paunonen-Ilmonen, M

    2000-12-01

    This study describes the impact of a supportive telephone call on grief 4 months after the death of a family member. The study design involved a quasi-experimental intervention group (n = 70) and a control group (n = 155). The intervention was a supportive telephone call after the death of a family member. Grief reactions were measured with the Hogan Grief Reactions Checklist. Results were completed by content analysis of family members' experiences of the intervention. Chi-square and t tests were used to compare the associations with demographic data, and logistic regression analysis was used to compare the responses. The results pointed to differences in despair and personal growth between the groups. The participants experienced the supportive telephone call positively for the most part. Negative experiences were associated with promises to call in which the call never reached the participant. Grieving family members' positive experiences of the call indicate that there is a need for individual support after the death, given by nurses of the wards in which the deceased received care. PMID:11128128

  8. Elucidation of the structures of all members of the Avsunviroidae family

    E-print Network

    Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    . This family includes four members, and the type species is the Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd). That said-Mignault, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada, J1E 4K8 SUMMARY Viroids are small single-stranded RNA pathogens which cause on their structure for their propagation. The elucidation of the secondary structures of viroids has been limited

  9. Suicides among Family Members of Elderly Suicide Victims: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waern, Margda

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study compares elderly suicides with (n = 13) and without (n = 72) family member suicide. Previous episodes of suicidal behavior were more common among suicides who lost first-degree relatives by suicide (100% vs. 65%, p = 0.009). Six persons had lost an offspring by suicide prior to their own deaths. Substance use disorder was…

  10. Religion, Meaning-Making and Social Support Coping in Patients with Schizophrenia and their Family Members

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naomi Tuchman

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe and persistent mental illness. Nonetheless, recovery is often possible through pharmacotherapy in conjunction with psychosocial interventions, which help patients and their family members to develop coping strategies that alleviate distress associated with the symptoms of the illness and increase psychological well-being. Religion is one variable that has been strongly linked to the utilization of certain beneficial

  11. Predictors of belief that genetic test information about hemochromatosis should be shared with family members.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Diane C; Acton, Ronald T; Press, Nancy; Ruggiero, Andrea; Reiss, Jacob A; Walker, Ann P; Wenzel, Lari; Harrison, Barbara; Fadojutimi-Akinsiku, Margaret; Harrison, Helen; Adams, Paul; Crabb, Jennifer A; Anderson, Roger; Thomson, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    We queried 101,951 white, Hispanic, black, Asian, American Indian (i.e., American Indian or Alaska Native in the United States and North American Indian, Metis, or Inuit in Canada) and Pacific Islander (including Native Hawaiian) adults who agreed to be genotypically and phenotypically screened for hemochromatosis as part of the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) study about their views on sharing genetic test information with family members. Multiple logistic regression (adjusting for study site, age group, race/ethnicity, preferred language, gender, education group, income group, SF-36 General Health and Mental Health subscales, perceived benefits and limitations of genetic testing, and belief that genetic testing is a good idea) evaluated independent predictors of responding "Strongly Agree" or "Agree" versus "Disagree" or "Strongly Disagree" to the statement "Information about a person's genetic risk should be shared with family members". Agreement that genetic risk information should be shared with family members was high (93% in the overall sample of 78,952 who answered this question), but differed among racial/ethnic groups. Hispanics were significantly less likely to agree that genetic test information should be shared with family members (i.e., 88% versus 92% or more among all other ethnicities). The relationship of perceived limitations and benefits of testing, gender, and age group to the belief that information should be shared differed among racial/ethnic groups, with Spanish-preferring Hispanics being the most different from other subgroups. PMID:16545004

  12. Posttraumatic Symptoms in Japanese Bereaved Family Members with Special Regard to Suicide and Homicide Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogata, Kohske; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Nishi, Yuko; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members using a questionnaire. Participants were bereaved as a result of suicide and homicide (n = 51 and 49, respectively), with natural death (n = 56) as a control; and their relationships to the deceased were parent-child (n = 79), conjugal (n =…

  13. Self-Concept and Depression among Children Who Experienced the Death of a Family Member

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Hong T.; Scott, Amy N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the moderating effects of physical and academic self-concept on depression among children who experienced the death of a family member. Data from Phase III of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care was used in the present study. Having a higher physical self-concept…

  14. Differential expression of sirtuin family members in the developing, adult, and aged rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Sidorova-Darmos, Elena; Wither, Robert G.; Shulyakova, Natalya; Fisher, Carl; Ratnam, Melanie; Aarts, Michelle; Lilge, Lothar; Monnier, Philippe P.; Eubanks, James H.

    2014-01-01

    The sirtuins are NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases and/or ADP-ribosyltransferases that play roles in metabolic homeostasis, stress response and potentially aging. This enzyme family resides in different subcellular compartments, and acts on a number of different targets in the nucleus, cytoplasm and in the mitochondria. Despite their recognized ability to regulate metabolic processes, the roles played by specific sirtuins in the brain—the most energy demanding tissue in the body—remains less well investigated and understood. In the present study, we examined the regional mRNA and protein expression patterns of individual sirtuin family members in the developing, adult, and aged rat brain. Our results show that while each sirtuin is expressed in the brain at each of these different stages, they display unique spatial and temporal expression patterns within the brain. Further, for specific members of the family, the protein expression profile did not coincide with their respective mRNA expression profile. Moreover, using primary cultures enriched for neurons and astrocytes respectively, we found that specific sirtuin members display preferential neural lineage expression. Collectively, these results provide the first composite illustration that sirtuin family members display differential expression patterns in the brain, and provide evidence that specific sirtuins could potentially be targeted to achieve cell-type selective effects within the brain. PMID:25566066

  15. Among the three striatin family members, SG2NA was first to arise during evolution.

    PubMed

    Tanti, Goutam Kumar; Singarapu, Nandini; Muthuswami, Rohini; Goswami, Shyamal K

    2014-01-01

    Striatin, SG2NA, and zinedin constitute a three-member subfamily of WD-40 repeat proteins. They are found only in metazoans and are likely to have scaffolding functions. Apart from WD-40 repeats, they also have a caveolin-binding motif, a coiled-coil structure, and a calmodulin-binding domain. This paper focuses on the analysis of their evolution as a paradigm of understanding the metazoan scaffolds. Each member of the family forms distinct phylogenetic clusters, wherein striatins, SG2NAs, and zinedins have 13, 10, and 9 conserved motifs, respectively. Furthermore, two of those motifs each in striatin and in zinedin and three in SG2NA are exclusive for the respective subfamily. Of those exclusive motifs for SG2NA, two encompass the caveolin-binding and coiled-coiled domains. Collectively, they show the presence of 11 conserved motifs, suggestive of convergence of individual motifs and creation of patterns. A prokaryotic WD-40 repeat motif pCM-I was found only in the corresponding domain of SG2NA but not in other family members. It is thus hypothesized that striatin family members have evolved from bacteria, and SG2NA was the first member to arise. PMID:24389256

  16. Postnatal roles of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family members in nociceptors plasticity.

    PubMed

    Malin, Sacha A; Davis, Brian M

    2008-10-25

    The neurotrophin and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family of growth factors have been extensively studied because of their proven ability to regulate development of the peripheral nervous system. The neurotrophin family, which includes nerve growth factor (NGF), NT-3, NT4/5 and BDNF, is also known for its ability to regulate the function of adult sensory neurons. Until recently, little was known concerning the role of the GNDF-family (that includes GDNF, artemin, neurturin and persephin) in adult sensory neuron function. Here we describe recent data that indicates that the GDNF family can regulate sensory neuron function, that some of its members are elevated in inflammatory pain models and that application of these growth factors produces pain in vivo. Finally we discuss how these two families of growth factors may converge on a single membrane receptor, TRPV1, to produce long-lasting hyperalgesia. PMID:18958362

  17. The expression of lysyl-oxidase gene family members in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tadmor, T; Bejar, J; Attias, D; Mischenko, E; Sabo, E; Neufeld, G; Vadasz, Z

    2013-05-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are malignant disorders originating from clonal expansion of a single neoplastic stem cell and characteristically show an increase in bone marrow reticulin fibers. Lysyl oxidases (LOXs) are copper-dependent amine oxidases that play a critical role in the biogenesis of connective tissue by crosslinking extracellular matrix proteins, collagen and elastin. Expression of LOX gene family members is increased in disorders associated with increased fibrosis. To evaluate involvement of LOX gene family in various MPNs. In-situ hybridization was used to detect Lysyl-Oxidase family members in bone marrow biopsies from patients with different MPNs. We compared normal bone marrows and those from patients with polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Serum levels of lysyl-oxidase from patients with PMF and healthy controls were also examined. LOX gene family was not detected in normal bone marrows. All members of the LOX gene family were over expressed in PMF. In other MPNs a differential pattern of expression was observed. Differences in gene expression were statistically significant (P < 0.010). The medianserum LOX levels in normal controls was 28.4 ± 2.5 ng\\ml and 44.6 ± 9.44 ng\\ml in PMF (P = 0.02). The varying pattern of expression of LOX genes may reflect differences in the pathophysiology of bone marrow fibrosis in these MPNs. These observations could be used as the basis for future targeted therapy directed against bone marrow fibrosis. PMID:23494965

  18. Signaling by epithelial members of the CEACAM family – mucosal docking sites for pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) comprise a group of immunoglobulin-related vertebrate glycoproteins. Several family members, including CEACAM1, CEA, and CEACAM6, are found on epithelial tissues throughout the human body. As they modulate diverse cellular functions, their signaling capacity is in the focus of current research. In this review we will summarize the knowledge about common signaling processes initiated by epithelial CEACAMs and suggest a model of signal transduction by CEACAM family members lacking significant cytoplasmic domains. As pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria exploit these receptors during mucosal colonization, we try to highlight the connection between CEACAMs, microbes, and cellular responses. Special emphasis in this context is placed on the functional interplay between CEACAMs and integrins that influences matrix adhesion of epithelial cells. The cooperation between these two receptor families provides an intriguing example of the fine tuning of cellular responses and their manipulation by specialized microorganisms. PMID:24735478

  19. Proposed regulations could limit access to affordable health coverage for workers' children and family members.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Ken; Graham-Squire, Dave; Roby, Dylan H; Kominski, Gerald F; Kinane, Christina M; Needleman, Jack; Watson, Greg; Gans, Daphna

    2011-12-01

    Key Findings. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) is designed to offer premium subsidies to help eligible individuals and their families purchase insurance coverage when affordable job-based coverage is not available. However, the law is unclear on how this affordability protection is applied in those instances where self-only coverage offered by an employer is affordable but family coverage is not. Regulations recently proposed by the Department of the Treasury would make family members ineligible for subsidized coverage in the exchange if an employee is offered affordable self-only coverage by an employer, even if family coverage is unaffordable. This could have significant financial consequences for low- and moderate-income families that fall in this gap. Using an alternative interpretation of the law could allow the entire family to enter the exchange when family coverage is unaffordable, which would broaden access to coverage. However, this option has been cited as cost prohibitive. In this brief we consider a middle ground alternative that would base eligibility for the individual worker on the cost of self-only coverage, but would use the additional cost to the employee for family coverage as the basis for determining affordability and eligibility for subsidies for the remaining family members. We find that: Under the middle ground alternative scenario an additional 144,000 Californians would qualify for and use premium subsidies in the California Health Benefit Exchange, half of whom are children. Less than 1 percent of those with employer-based coverage would move to subsidized coverage in the California Health Benefit Exchange as a result of having unaffordable coverage on the job. PMID:23599987

  20. The Eek receptor, a member of the Eph family of tyrosine protein kinases, can be activated by three different Eph family ligands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina P Sánchez

    1997-01-01

    The Eph family of receptors, the largest subgroup within the tyrosine protein kinase receptor family, are comprised of at least thirteen members, many of which are predominantly expressed in the developing and adult nervous system. In this study, we have isolated a full-length cDNA, encoding the mouse homologue of a previous partially characterized Eek protein, a member of Eph receptor

  1. 5 CFR 894.202 - If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member... § 894.202 If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover? Yes, if you enroll for self plus one, you must state at the time...

  2. 5 CFR 894.202 - If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member... § 894.202 If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover? Yes, if you enroll for self plus one, you must state at the time...

  3. 5 CFR 894.202 - If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member... § 894.202 If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover? Yes, if you enroll for self plus one, you must state at the time...

  4. 5 CFR 894.202 - If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member... § 894.202 If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover? Yes, if you enroll for self plus one, you must state at the time...

  5. 5 CFR 894.202 - If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member... § 894.202 If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover? Yes, if you enroll for self plus one, you must state at the time...

  6. GASA4, One of the 14-Member Arabidopsis GASA Family of Small Polypeptides, Regulates Flowering and Seed Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the plant-specific gibberellic acid-stimulated Arabidopsis (GASA) gene family play roles in hormone response, defense and development. We have identified six new Arabidopsis GASA genes, bringing the total number of family members to 14. Here we show that these genes all encode small polyp...

  7. Those Who Are Left behind: An Estimate of the Number of Family Members of Suicide Victims in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Joe; Choi, Yun Jeong; Mori, Kohta; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Sugano, Saki

    2009-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature of suicide studies by presenting procedures and its estimates of the number of family members who lose their loved ones to suicide. Using Japanese aggregate level data, three main findings emerge: first, there are approximately five bereaved family members per suicide; second, in 2006, there were about…

  8. The method of nursing support in hospital and patients' and family members' experiences of the effectiveness of the support.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Elina; Kaunonen, Marja; Aalto, Pirjo; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2014-06-01

    Nurses are an important source of support for patients and family members during hospitalization. It is unclear, however, what kinds of support methods are used in hospitals and how the support affects the patient and family member(s). This study describes methods of nursing support in hospital and adult patients' and their family members' experiences of this support. The data were collected in spring 2009 through essays written by and group interviews with nurses (n = 11) working at a Finnish university hospital. The data from patients (n = 9) and family members (n = 7) were collected in individual and group interviews. The material was interpreted by inductive content analysis. In their interaction with patients and family members, the hospital nurses used the methods of emotional and informational support. Patients' and family members' experiences of the effectiveness of this support were related to the establishment of a care relationship, their future outlook, mental well-being and experiences of getting well. The evidence from this research will be useful in developing methods of nursing support for patients and family members and family-oriented care in hospital. PMID:23773113

  9. Family Quality of Life from the Perspectives of Individual Family Members: A Korean-American Family and Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Joo Young; Turnbull, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in the mid-to-late 1980s, the focus on individual quality of life expanded to family quality of life (FQOL) in the field of intellectual disabilities. However, few studies examined FQOL for families who have children with hearing loss. Furthermore, most studies focused on mothers' perceptions of FQOL. The purpose of this study is to…

  10. Identification, structure, and differential expression of members of a BURP domain containing protein family in soybean.

    PubMed

    Granger, Cheryl; Coryell, Virginia; Khanna, Anupama; Keim, Paul; Vodkin, Lila; Shoemaker, Randy C

    2002-08-01

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) exhibiting homology to a BURP domain containing gene family were identified from the Glycine max (L.) Merr. EST database. These ESTs were assembled into 16 contigs of variable sizes and lengths. Consistent with the structure of known BURP domain containing proteins, the translation products exhibit a modular structure consisting of a C-terminal BURP domain, an N-terminal signal sequence, and a variable internal region. The soybean family members exhibit 35-98% similarity in a -100-amino-acid C-terminal region, and a phylogenetic tree constructed using this region shows that some soybean family members group together in closely related pairs, triplets, and quartets, whereas others remain as singletons. The structure of these groups suggests that multiple gene duplication events occurred during the evolutionary history of this family. The depth and diversity of G. max EST libraries allowed tissue-specific expression patterns of the putative soybean BURPs to be examined. Consistent with known BURP proteins, the newly identified soybean BURPs have diverse expression patterns. Furthermore, putative paralogs can have both spatially and quantitatively distinct expression patterns. We discuss the functional and evolutionary implications of these findings, as well as the utility of EST-based analyses for identifying and characterizing gene families. PMID:12175072

  11. Spread of viral infection to family members from influenza patients treated with a neuraminidase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takashi; Shiosakai, Kazuhito

    2014-07-01

    We compared the incidence rates of household secondary infection among influenza patients prescribed laninamivir, oseltamivir, or zanamivir (neuraminidase inhibitors), based on health-insurance claims data owned by Japan Medical Data Center (JMDC) which was consisting of medical information on patients who were prescribed an anti-influenza drug and their family members between October 2010 and July 2011. The date when an index case patient was prescribed laninamivir, oseltamivir or zanamivir for the first time was defined as "Day 1". If other members in the same family were prescribed laninamivir, oseltamivir, zanamivir, or peramivir during Days 3-8, we assumed any household secondary infection had occurred. The incidence rate was 11.0%, 14.3%, and 11.6% in index case patients prescribed laninamivir, oseltamivir, and zanamivir, respectively. The results of the logistic regression analysis revealed a significant difference between laninamivir and oseltamivir, while no significant difference was observed between laninamivir and zanamivir. PMID:24787736

  12. [Brazilian experiences in the participation of users and family members in mental health research].

    PubMed

    Presotto, Rodrigo Fernando; Silveira, Marília; Delgado, Pedro Gabriel Godinho; Vasconcelos, Eduardo Mourão

    2013-10-01

    In this paper the authors describe and contextualize the participation of users and family members in mental health research in Brazil, addressing the recent tradition of the experiences of recovery and empowerment to define the analysis of some Brazilian experiences of evaluative research and intervention projects, which count on these social actors to act as researchers. The experiences of Self-Help Groups and the Guide to Autonomous Medication Management are described briefly, in order to analyze the limits and possibilities of participation of users and their family members in research, which is still incipient and sporadic in the Brazilian reality. The authors also recommend the creation of an agenda in public health policy that encourages this participation. PMID:24061010

  13. LDL receptor and its family members serve as the cellular receptors for vesicular stomatitis virus.

    PubMed

    Finkelshtein, Danit; Werman, Ariel; Novick, Daniela; Barak, Sara; Rubinstein, Menachem

    2013-04-30

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) exhibits a remarkably robust and pantropic infectivity, mediated by its coat protein, VSV-G. Using this property, recombinant forms of VSV and VSV-G-pseudotyped viral vectors are being developed for gene therapy, vaccination, and viral oncolysis and are extensively used for gene transduction in vivo and in vitro. The broad tropism of VSV suggests that it enters cells through a highly ubiquitous receptor, whose identity has so far remained elusive. Here we show that the LDL receptor (LDLR) serves as the major entry port of VSV and of VSV-G-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors in human and mouse cells, whereas other LDLR family members serve as alternative receptors. The widespread expression of LDLR family members accounts for the pantropism of VSV and for the broad applicability of VSV-G-pseudotyped viral vectors for gene transduction. PMID:23589850

  14. Compassion Fatigue: An Application of the Concept to Informal Caregivers of Family Members with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Day, Jennifer R.; Anderson, Ruth A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Compassion fatigue is a concept used with increasing frequency in the nursing literature. The objective of this paper is to identify common themes across the literature and to apply these themes, and an existing model of compassion fatigue, to informal caregivers for family members with dementia. Findings. Caregivers for family members with dementia may be at risk for developing compassion fatigue. The model of compassion fatigue provides an informative framework for understanding compassion fatigue in the informal caregiver population. Limitations of the model when applied to this population were identified as traumatic memories and the emotional relationship between parent and child, suggesting areas for future research. Conclusions. Research is needed to better understand the impact of compassion fatigue on informal caregivers through qualitative interviews, to identify informal caregivers at risk for compassion fatigue, and to provide an empirical basis for developing nursing interventions for caregivers experiencing compassion fatigue. PMID:22229086

  15. Reconstructing meaning through occupation after the death of a family member: accommodation, assimilation, and continuing bonds.

    PubMed

    Hoppes, Steve; Segal, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Reactions to death have been studied extensively from psychological, behavioral, and physiological perspectives. Occupational adaptation to loss has received scant attention. Qualitative research was undertaken to identify and describe occupational responses in bereavement. The constant comparative approach was used to analyze and interpret the occupational responses. Adaptive strategies of occupational accommodation and assimilation were used after the death of a family member. Desire to sustain bonds with the deceased motivated specific occupational engagements. These occupational responses served to reconstruct meaning after the death of a family member. These findings contribute to understanding adaptation after death by adding an occupational perspective to previous theories. Occupational therapists' abilities to support clients after loss can be enhanced through appreciation of occupational accommodation and assimilation and the role of continuing occupational bonds after the death of a loved one. PMID:20131573

  16. MAP1D, a novel methionine aminopeptidase family member is overexpressed in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Leszczyniecka, M; Bhatia, U; Cueto, M; Nirmala, N R; Towbin, H; Vattay, A; Wang, B; Zabludoff, S; Phillips, P E

    2006-06-01

    N-terminal methionine removal is an important cellular process required for proper biological activity, subcellular localization, and eventual degradation of many proteins. The enzymes that catalyze this reaction are called Methionine Aminopeptidases (MAPs). To date, only two MAP family members, MAP1A and MAP2, have been well characterized and studied in mammals. In our studies, we have cloned a full length MAP1D gene. Expression and purification of full length recombinant protein shows that the sequence encodes an enzyme with MAP activity. MAP1D is overexpressed in colon cancer cell lines and in colon tumors as compared to matched normal tissue samples. Downregulation of MAP1D expression by shRNA in HCT-116 colon carcinoma cells reduces anchorage-independant growth in soft agar. These data suggest that MAP1D is a potentially oncogenic, novel member of the MAP gene family that may play an important role in colon tumorigenesis. PMID:16568094

  17. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Family Member RANK Mediates Osteoclast Differentiation and Activation Induced by Osteoprotegerin Ligand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hailing Hsu; David L. Lacey; Colin R. Dunstan; Irina Solovyev; Anne Colombero; Emma Timms; Hong-Lin Tan; Gary Elliott; Michael J. Kelley; Ildiko Sarosi; Ling Wang; Xing-Zhong Xia; Robin Elliott; Laura Chiu; Tabitha Black; Sheila Scully; Casey Capparelli; Sean Morony; Grant Shimamoto; Michael B. Bass; William J. Boyle

    1999-01-01

    A receptor that mediates osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and activation has been identified via genomic analysis of a primary osteoclast precursor cell cDNA library and is identical to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family member RANK. The RANK mRNA was highly expressed by isolated bone marrow-derived osteoclast progenitors and by mature osteoclasts in vivo. Recombinant OPGL binds specifically

  18. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on expressions of Bcl2 family members in gastric adenocarcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Zhang; Dian-Chun Fang; Rong-Quan Wang; Shi-Ming Yang; Hai-Feng Liu; Yuan-Hui Luo

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection on the expressions of Bcl-2 family members in gastric adenocarcinoma. METHODS: Gastric adenocarcinoma and resection margin tissues of 95 patients were studied. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure Bid, Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA expressions. RESULTS: Expressions of Bid and Bax in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues without H pylori infection, with

  19. Tissue distribution of three members of the murine protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Marcus; Dawn Shaffer; Patricia Farrar; Michael Green

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of PDI, ERp61 and ERp72, members of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins, was determined in various murine tissues. Relative amounts of mRNA were measured using a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Protein levels were determined from Western blots. In most tissues, protein levels paralleled the amount of mRNA for each

  20. Multiple myeloma, acute leukemia, and Hodgkin's disease. Occurrence in three of four family members.

    PubMed

    Kyle, R A; Henderson, E S; Randolph, V L; Budge, W R

    1976-03-01

    Among a family of four persons, three members each had a separate malignant disease during a 3-year period. The mother and father concurrently had multiple myeloma and Hodgkin's disease, respectively, and less than 3 years later, their only son was found to have acute granulocytic leukemia. No increased incidence of deaths attributed to Hodgkin's disease, acute leukemia, or multiple myeloma was found in the community. No other cause for this cluster of hematologic malignancies could be found. PMID:1063053

  1. Neurotrophin6 is a new member of the nerve growth factor family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudolf Götz; Reinhard Köster; Christoph Winkler; Friedrich Raulf; Friedrich Lottspeich; Manfred Schartl; Hans Thoenen

    1994-01-01

    DURING vertebrate development, many neurons depend for survival and differentiation on their target cells1-3. The best documented mediator of such a retrograde trophic action is the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF)1. NGF and the other known members of the neurotrophin family, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and neurotrophin-4\\/5 (NT-4\\/5) are conserved as distinct genes over large evolutionary distances4-6. Here

  2. Multiple Members of the E2F Transcription Factor Family are the Products of Oncogenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gangfeng Xu; David M. Livingston; Wilhelm Krek

    1995-01-01

    The retinoblastoma gene product (pRB) is a known tumor suppressor, capable of arresting growth in mid-to-late G_1. Part of its growth suppression action arises from interaction(s) with one or more members of the E2F family of transcription factors. These proteins most likely contribute to progression from G_o to S phase in mammalian cells, and pRB binding most likely inhibits aspects

  3. Nonionic Detergents Induce Dimerization among Members of the Bcl2 Family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Te Hsu; Richard J. Youle

    1997-01-01

    Members of the Bcl-2 family (including Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bax) play key roles in the regulation of apoptosis. These proteins are believed to be membrane-associated and have been proposed to regulate apoptosis through both homodimerization and heterodimerization. We have found that whereas Bcl-2 is predominantly mem- brane-associated as previously reported, significant amounts of Bcl-XL and most of the Bax proteins

  4. Cloning and characterization of a second member of the mouse mdr gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Gros, P; Raymond, M; Bell, J; Housman, D

    1988-01-01

    The mammalian mdr gene family comprises a small number of closely related genes. Previously, we have shown that one member, mdr1, has the capacity to convey multidrug resistance to drug-sensitive recipient cells in a gene transfer protocol. However, the functional characteristics of other members of this gene family have not been examined. In this report, we characterize a second member of the mdr gene family which we designated mdr2. We determined the nucleotide sequence corresponding to the complete coding region of this mdr2 transcript. The predicted amino acid sequence of this protein (1,276 amino acids) showed that it is a membrane glycoprotein highly homologous to mdr1 (85%), strongly suggesting that both genes originate from a common ancestor. Regions of divergence between mdr1 and mdr2 proteins are concentrated in two discrete segments of the predicted polypeptides, each approximately 100 residues in length. The mdr2 protein appears to be formed by the duplication of a structural unit which encodes three putative transmembrane loops and a predicted nucleotide-binding fold and is highly homologous to bacterial transport proteins such as hlyB. This strong homology suggests that mdr2 also participates in an energy-dependent membrane transport process. However, the direct relationship, if any, of this new member of the mdr family to multidrug resistance remains to be established. Knowledge of the complete nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid sequence of the mdr2 gene product will enable the preparation of gene-specific probes and antibodies necessary to study the functional role of this gene in multidrug resistance and normal physiological processes. PMID:3405218

  5. Developmental Role and Auxin Responsiveness of Class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper Gene Family Members in Rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-Ichi Itoh; Ken-Ichiro Hibara; Yutaka Sato; Yasuo Nagato

    2008-01-01

    Members of the Class III homeodomain leucine zipper (Class III HD-Zip) gene family are central regulators of crucial aspects of plant development. To better understand the roles of five Class III HD-Zip genes in rice (Oryza sativa) development, we investigated their expression patterns, ectopic expression phenotypes, and auxin responsiveness. Four genes, OSHB1 to OSHB4, were expressed in a localized domain

  6. Al-Anon Family Groups’ Newcomers and Members: Concerns about the Drinkers in their Lives

    PubMed Central

    Timko, Christine; Cronkite, Ruth; Laudet, Alexandre; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Roth, Jeffrey; Moos, Rudolf H

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Despite Al-Anon’s widespread availability and use, knowledge is lacking about the drinkers in attendees’ lives. We filled this gap by describing and comparing Al-Anon newcomers’ and members’ reports about their “main drinker” (main person prompting initial attendance). Methods Al-Anon’s World Service Office mailed a random sample of groups, yielding completed surveys from newcomers (N = 362) and stable members (N = 265). Results Newcomers’ and members’ drinkers generally were comparable. They had known their drinker for an average of 22 years and been concerned about his or her’s drinking for 9 years; about 50% had daily contact with the drinker. Most reported negative relationship aspects (drinker gets on your nerves; you disagree about important things). Newcomers had more concern about the drinker’s alcohol use than members did, and were more likely to report their drinkers’ driving under the influence. Drinkers’ most frequent problem due to drinking was family arguments, and most common source of help was 12-step groups, with lower rates among drinkers of newcomers. Concerns spurring initial Al-Anon attendance were the drinker’s poor quality of life, relationships, and psychological status; goals for initial attendance reflected these concerns. Discussion and Conclusions The drinker’s alcohol use was of less concern in prompting initial Al-Anon attendance, and, accordingly, the drinker’s reduced drinking was a less frequently endorsed goal of attendance. Scientific Significance Family treatments for substance use problems might expand interventions and outcome domains beyond abstinence and relationship satisfaction to include the drinker’s quality of life and psychological symptoms and in turn relieve concerns of family members. PMID:24628725

  7. Sources of hope: Perception of Iranian family members of patients in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Gaeeni, Mina; Farahani, Mansoureh A; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Seyedfatemi, Naima

    2014-01-01

    Background: Admission to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is recognized as a situation with emotional strain, uncertainty, and fear of losing the patient. In such stressful situations, it is hope that can promote psychological stability in the patient's family members. Related literature revealed that sources of hope in this situation have still not been discussed well in studies. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the sources of hope from the perspective of families of ICU patients in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study that was carried out adopting the conventional qualitative content analysis approach, 19 family members of 13 patients hospitalized in the ICU from three teaching hospitals were selected, through purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using conventional content analysis, through the process of data reduction and condensation, coding, and also generating categories and subcategories. Results: Analysis of the data revealed sources of hope in families of ICU patients. These sources appeared as two main categories- internal sources and external sources. The internal sources had two subcategories consisting of ’religious-spirituality beliefs’ and ’positive attitude’. The external sources had four subcategories consisting of healthcare professionals’ interactions, empathy of families and friends, patient's condition, and participation in care. Conclusions: The results of this study showed the sources of hope in the families of the patients in the ICU. These sources, as moderating factors, could reduce physical and psychological damages caused to the families. In the present study, the categorizations of the participants’ in-depth experience could develop a new horizon for healthcare professionals, especially nurses, on the sources of hope, based on culture. PMID:25558262

  8. Keepers of the Secret: Desires to Conceal a Family Member's HIV-Positive Status in Namibia, Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel A. Smith; Angela J. Niedermyer

    2009-01-01

    When people learn that they have tested positive for HIV, they may share their news with a family member; and this family listener may want them to keep their diagnosis a secret. This study extends privacy management research (e.g., Petronio, 2002) by investigating variables related to family members' desires to keep HIV-status secrets. Two studies, 2 years apart, included adult-respondents

  9. The Influence of Family Therapy on Flexibility and Cohesion among Family Members Seeking Male Residential Treatment for Adolescent and Young Adult Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Stephanie L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated within a substance abuse treatment center the influence of family therapy on flexibility and cohesion among family members. Past studies have suggested adolescents who abuse substances exist in families who have a lack of balance of flexibility and cohesion. Unfortunately, few studies have examined the influence of…

  10. The Importance of Older Family Members in Providing Social Resources and Promoting Cancer Screening in Families with a Hereditary Cancer Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashida, Sato; Hadley, Donald W.; Goergen, Andrea F.; Skapinsky, Kaley F.; Devlin, Hillary C.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates the role of older family members as providers of social resources within familial network systems affected by an inherited cancer susceptibility syndrome. Design and Methods: Respondents who previously participated in a study that involved genetic counseling and testing for Lynch syndrome and their family network…

  11. Drob-1, a Drosophila member of the Bcl-2/CED-9 family that promotes cell death

    PubMed Central

    Igaki, Tatsushi; Kanuka, Hirotaka; Inohara, Naohiro; Sawamoto, Kazunobu; Núñez, Gabriel; Okano, Hideyuki; Miura, Masayuki

    2000-01-01

    The Bcl-2/CED-9 family of proteins, which includes both antiapoptotic and proapoptotic members, plays key regulating roles in programmed cell death. We report here the identification and characterization of Drob-1, the first Drosophila member of the Bcl-2/CED-9 family to be isolated. Drob-1 contains four conserved Bcl-2 homology domains (BH1, BH2, BH3, and BH4) and a C-terminal hydrophobic domain. Ectopic expression of Drob-1 in the developing Drosophila eye resulted in a rough-eye phenotype. Furthermore, when overexpressed in Drosophila S2 cells, Drob-1 induced apoptosis accompanied by elevated caspase activity. This Drob-1-induced cell death, however, could not be antagonized by baculovirus p35, a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor. Drob-1 was localized to the intracytoplasmic membranes, predominantly to the mitochondrial membranes, and a mutant Drob-1 lacking the hydrophobic C terminus lost both its mitochondrial localization and its proapoptotic activity. These results suggest that Drob-1 promotes cell death by inducing both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways at the mitochondria. Our identification of Drob-1 and further genetic analysis should provide increased understanding of the universal mechanisms by which the Bcl-2/CED-9 family members and other related proteins regulate apoptosis. PMID:10639136

  12. Moral injury: a mechanism for war-related psychological trauma in military family members.

    PubMed

    Nash, William P; Litz, Brett T

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has provided compelling evidence of mental health problems in military spouses and children, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), related to the war-zone deployments, combat exposures, and post-deployment mental health symptoms experienced by military service members in the family. One obstacle to further research and federal programs targeting the psychological health of military family members has been the lack of a clear, compelling, and testable model to explain how war-zone events can result in psychological trauma in military spouses and children. In this article, we propose a possible mechanism for deployment-related psychological trauma in military spouses and children based on the concept of moral injury, a model that has been developed to better understand how service members and veterans may develop PTSD and other serious mental and behavioral problems in the wake of war-zone events that inflict damage to moral belief systems rather by threatening personal life and safety. After describing means of adapting the moral injury model to family systems, we discuss the clinical implications of moral injury, and describe a model for its psychological treatment. PMID:23852334

  13. Deprescribing psychotropic medications in aged care facilities: the potential role of family members.

    PubMed

    Plakiotis, Christos; Bell, J Simon; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Pond, Dimity; O'Connor, Daniel W

    2015-01-01

    There is widespread concern in Australia and internationally at the high prevalence of psychotropic medication use in residential aged care facilities. It is difficult for nurses and general practitioners in aged care facilities to cease new residents' psychotropic medications when they often have no information about why residents were started on the treatment, when and by whom and with what result. Most existing interventions have had a limited and temporary effect and there is a need to test different strategies to overcome the structural and practical barriers to psychotropic medication cessation or deprescribing. In this chapter, we review the literature regarding psychotropic medication deprescribing in aged care facilities and present the protocol of a novel study that will examine the potential role of family members in facilitating deprescribing. This project will help determine if family members can contribute information that will prove useful to clinicians and thereby overcome one of the barriers to deprescribing medications whose harmful effects often outweigh their benefits. We wish to understand the knowledge and attitudes of family members regarding the prescribing and deprescribing of psychotropic medications to newly admitted residents of aged care facilities with a view to developing and testing a range of clinical interventions that will result in better, safer prescribing practices. PMID:25416108

  14. Physiological unfolded protein response regulated by OASIS family members, transmembrane bZIP transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Shinichi; Saito, Atsushi; Asada, Rie; Kanemoto, Soshi; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2011-04-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays role in the maintenance of numerous aspects of cellular and organismal homeostasis by folding, modifying, and exporting nascent secretory and transmembrane proteins. Failure of the ER's adaptive capacity results in accumulation of unfolded or malfolded proteins in the ER lumen (ER stress). To avoid cellular damage, mammalian cells activate the specific signals from the ER to the cytosol or nucleus to enhance the capacity for protein folding, attenuate the synthesis of proteins, and degrade unfolded proteins. These signaling pathways are collectively known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). The canonical branches of the UPR are mediated by three ER membrane-bound proteins, PERK, IRE1, and ATF6. These ER stress transducers basically play important roles in cell survival after ER stress. Recently, novel types of ER stress transducers, OASIS family members that share a region of high sequence similarity with ATF6 have been identified. They have a transmembrane domain, which allows them to associate with the ER, and possess a transcription-activation domain and a bZIP domain. OASIS family proteins include OASIS, BBF2H7, CREBH, AIbZIP, and Luman. Despite the structural similarities among OASIS family proteins and ATF6, differences in activating stimuli, tissue distribution, and response element binding indicate specialized functions of each member on regulating the UPR in the specific organs and tissues. Here, we summarize our current understanding of biochemical characteristics and in vivo functions of OASIS family proteins, particularly focusing on OASIS and BBF2H7. A growing body of new works suggests that the UPR branches regulated by OASIS family members play essential roles in cell differentiation and maturation or maintenance of basal cellular homeostasis in mammals. PMID:21438114

  15. Multiple recombination events maintain sequence identity among members of the nitrogenase multigene family in Rhizobium etli.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, C; Romero, D

    1998-01-01

    A distinctive characteristic of the Rhizobium genome is the frequent finding of reiterated sequences, which often constitute multigene families. Interestingly, these families usually maintain a high degree of nucleotide sequence identity. It is commonly assumed that apparent gene conversion between reiterated elements might lead to concerted variation among members of a multigene family. However, the operation of this mechanism has not yet been demonstrated in the Rhizobiaceae. In this work, we employed different genetic constructions to address the role of apparent gene conversion as a homogenizing mechanism between members of the plasmid-located nitrogenase multigene family in Rhizobium etli. Our results show that a 28-bp insertion into one of the nitrogenase reiterations can be corrected by multiple recombination events, including apparent gene conversion. The correction process was dependent on the presence of both a wild-type recA gene and wild-type copies of the nitrogenase reiterations. Frequencies of apparent gene conversion to the wild-type nitrogenase reiterations were the same when the insertion to be corrected was located either in cis or in trans, indicating that this event frequently occurs through intermolecular interactions. Interestingly, a high frequency of multiple crossovers was observed, suggesting that these large plasmid molecules are engaging repeatedly in recombination events, in a situation akin to phage recombination or recombination among small, high-copy number plasmids. PMID:9611191

  16. The effect of family member migration on education and work among nonmigrant youth in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Halpern-Manners, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    While academic and policy circles have given much attention to the assimilatory experiences of Mexican immigrants in the United States, less is known about those who stay behind-an especially unfortunate oversight given the increasing number of Mexican youth with migrant family members. Of the studies on this topic, most have sought to identify the effect that migration has on youths' migratory and educational aspirations, often using qualitative methods in individual sending communities. The present article supplements this research in two ways: (1) in addition to assessing educational outcomes, the scope of the analysis is expanded to include nonmigrant' interaction with another homeland institution of upward mobility: the labor market; and (2) using a large demographic data set, statistical techniques are employed to adjust for unobserved selectivity into the migrant family-member population, thus accounting for a potentially serious source of bias. The results suggest that youth in migrant-sending families are less likely to complete the educational transitions leading up to postsecondary school and have a lower probability of participating in the local economy. The results also indicate that unobserved factors play a "nonignorable" role in sorting youth into migrant and nonmigrant families. PMID:21347807

  17. The Effect of Family Member Migration on Education and Work among Nonmigrant Youth in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Halpern-Manners, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    While academic and policy circles have given much attention to the assimilatory experiences of Mexican immigrants in the United States, less is known about those who stay behind—an especially unfortunate oversight given the increasing number of Mexican youth with migrant family members. Of the studies that do exist, most have sought to identify the effect migration has on youths’ migratory and educational aspirations, often using qualitative methods in single sending communities. The present article supplements this research in two ways: (1) in addition to assessing educational outcomes, the scope of the analysis is expanded to include nonmigrants’ interaction with another homeland institution of upward mobility—the labor market; and (2) using a large demographic data set, statistical techniques are employed to adjust for unobserved selectivity into the migrant family-member population, thus accounting for a potentially serious source of bias. The results suggest that youth in migrant-sending families are less likely to complete the educational transitions leading up to post-secondary school, and have a lower probability of participating in the local economy. The results also indicate that unobserved factors play a “nonignorable” role in sorting youth into migrant and nonmigrant families. PMID:21347807

  18. Detection of Additional Members of the 2003 EL61 Family via Infrared Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    E. L. Schaller; M. E. Brown

    2008-08-01

    We have acquired near-infrared spectra of Kuiper belt objects 2003 UZ117, 2005 CB79 and 2004 SB60 with NIRC on the Keck I Telescope. These objects are dynamically close to the core of the 2003 EL61 collisional family and were suggested to be potential fragments of this collision by Ragozzine and Brown (2007). We find that the spectra of 2003 UZ117 and 2005 CB79 both show the characteristic strong water ice absorption features seen exclusively on 2003 EL61, its largest satellite, and the six other known collisional fragments. In contrast, we find that the near infrared spectrum of 2004 SB60 is essentially featureless with a fraction of water ice of less than 5%. We discuss the implications of the discovery of these additional family members for understanding the formation and evolution of this collisional family in the outer solar system.

  19. PE-1, a novel ETS oncogene family member, localizes to chromosome 1q21-q23

    SciTech Connect

    Klemsz, M.; Hromas, R.; Bruno, E.; Hoffman, R. (Indiana Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States)); Raskind, W. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States))

    1994-03-15

    The v-ets oncogene family shares a conserved peptide motif called the ETS domain that mediates sequence-specific DNA binding. This motif is unique among transcription factor families. Using partially degenerate oligonucleotides from conserved regions of the ETS domain and the polymerase chain reaction, the authors isolated a new member of v-ets family designated PE-1 from HL60 cells. PE-1 was expressed as an approximately 7.5-kb transcript in most cell lines tested. In the hairy cell leukemia line Eskol, there was an additional 1.8-kb transcript observed. PE-1 was the most common ETS domain gene found in CD34[sup +]HLA-DR[sup [minus

  20. Evaluating Genetic Counseling for Family Members of Individuals With Schizophrenia in the Molecular Age

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Anne S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Myths and concerns about the extent and meaning of genetic risk in schizophrenia may contribute to significant stigma and burden for families. Genetic counseling has long been proposed to be a potentially informative and therapeutic intervention for schizophrenia. Surprisingly, however, available data are limited. We evaluated a contemporary genetic counseling protocol for use in a community mental health-care setting by non–genetics professionals. Methods: We used a pre-post study design with longitudinal follow-up to assess the impact of genetic counseling on family members of individuals with schizophrenia, where molecular testing had revealed no known clinically relevant genetic risk variant. We assessed the outcome using multiple measures, including standard items and scales used to evaluate genetic counseling for other complex diseases. Results: Of the 122 family members approached, 78 (63.9%) actively expressed an interest in the study. Participants (n = 52) on average overestimated the risk of familial recurrence at baseline, and demonstrated a significant improvement in this estimate postintervention (P < .0001). This change was associated with an enduring decrease in concern about recurrence (P = .0003). Significant and lasting benefits were observed in other key areas, including increased knowledge (P < .0001) and a decreased sense of stigma (P = .0047). Endorsement of the need for genetic counseling was high (96.1%). Conclusions: These results provide initial evidence of the efficacy of schizophrenia genetic counseling for families, even in the absence of individually relevant genetic test results or professional genetics services. The findings support the integration of contemporary genetic counseling for families into the general management of schizophrenia in the community. PMID:23104866

  1. Complex Determinants in Specific Members of the Mannose Receptor Family Govern Collagen Endocytosis*

    PubMed Central

    Jürgensen, Henrik J.; Johansson, Kristina; Madsen, Daniel H.; Porse, Astrid; Melander, Maria C.; Sørensen, Kristine R.; Nielsen, Christoffer; Bugge, Thomas H.; Behrendt, Niels; Engelholm, Lars H.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the well-conserved mannose receptor (MR) protein family have been functionally implicated in diverse biological and pathological processes. Importantly, a proposed common function is the internalization of collagen for intracellular degradation occurring during bone development, cancer invasion, and fibrosis protection. This functional relationship is suggested by a common endocytic capability and a candidate collagen-binding domain. Here we conducted a comparative investigation of each member's ability to facilitate intracellular collagen degradation. As expected, the family members uPARAP/Endo180 and MR bound collagens in a purified system and internalized collagens for degradation in cellular settings. In contrast, the remaining family members, PLA2R and DEC-205, showed no collagen binding activity and were unable to mediate collagen internalization. To pinpoint the structural elements discriminating collagen from non-collagen receptors, we constructed a series of receptor chimeras and loss- and gain-of-function mutants. Using this approach we identified a critical collagen binding loop in the suggested collagen binding region (an FN-II domain) in uPARAP/Endo180 and MR, which was different in PLA2R or DEC-205. However, we also found that an active FN-II domain was not a sufficient determinant to allow collagen internalization through these receptors. Nevertheless, this ability could be acquired by the transfer of a larger segment of uPARAP/Endo180 (the Cys-rich domain, the FN-II domain and two CTLDs) to DEC-205. These data underscore the importance of the FN-II domain in uPARAP/Endo180 and MR-mediated collagen internalization but at the same time uncover a critical interplay with flanking domains. PMID:24500714

  2. The Ras-association domain family (RASSF) members and their role in human tumourigenesis.

    PubMed

    van der Weyden, Louise; Adams, David J

    2007-09-01

    Ras proteins play a direct causal role in human cancer with activating mutations in Ras occurring in approximately 30% of tumours. Ras effectors also contribute to cancer, as mutations occur in Ras effectors, notably B-Raf and PI3-K, and drugs blocking elements of these pathways are in clinical development. In 2000, a new Ras effector was identified, RAS-association domain family 1 (RASSF1), and expression of the RASSF1A isoform of this gene is silenced in tumours by methylation of its promoter. Since methylation is reversible and demethylating agents are currently being used in clinical trials, detection of RASSF1A silencing by promoter hypermethylation has potential clinical uses in cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. RASSF1A belongs to a new family of RAS effectors, of which there are currently 8 members (RASSF1-8). RASSF1-6 each contain a variable N-terminal segment followed by a Ras-association (RA) domain of the Ral-GDS/AF6 type, and a specialised coiled-coil structure known as a SARAH domain extending to the C-terminus. RASSF7-8 contain an N-terminal RA domain and a variable C-terminus. Members of the RASSF family are thought to function as tumour suppressors by regulating the cell cycle and apoptosis. This review will summarise our current knowledge of each member of the RASSF family and in particular what role they play in tumourigenesis, with a special focus on RASSF1A, whose promoter methylation is one of the most frequent alterations found in human tumours. PMID:17692468

  3. Race-related differences in the experiences of family members of persons with mental illness participating in the NAMI Family to Family Education Program.

    PubMed

    Smith, Melissa Edmondson; Lindsey, Michael A; Williams, Crystal D; Medoff, Deborah R; Lucksted, Alicia; Fang, Li Juan; Schiffman, Jason; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Dixon, Lisa B

    2014-12-01

    Families play an important role in the lives of individuals with mental illness. Coping with the strain of shifting roles and multiple challenges of caregiving can have a huge impact. Limited information exists regarding race-related differences in families' caregiving experiences, their abilities to cope with the mental illness of a loved one, or their interactions with mental health service systems. This study examined race-related differences in the experiences of adults seeking to participate in the National Alliance on Mental Illness Family-to-Family Education Program due to mental illness of a loved one. Participants were 293 White and 107 African American family members who completed measures of problem- and emotion-focused coping, knowledge about mental illness, subjective illness burden, psychological distress, and family functioning. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine race-related differences. African American caregivers reported higher levels of negative caregiving experiences, less knowledge of mental illness, and higher levels of both problem-solving coping and emotion-focused coping, than White caregivers. Mental health programs serving African American families should consider targeting specific strategies to address caregiving challenges, support their use of existing coping mechanisms and support networks, and increase their knowledge of mental illness. PMID:25213395

  4. Calcium-dependent Phospholipid Scramblase Activity of TMEM16 Protein Family Members*

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Jun; Fujii, Toshihiro; Imao, Takeshi; Ishihara, Kenji; Kuba, Hiroshi; Nagata, Shigekazu

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetrical distribution of phospholipids between the inner and outer plasma membrane leaflets is disrupted in various biological processes. We recently identified TMEM16F, an eight-transmembrane protein, as a Ca2+-dependent phospholipid scramblase that exposes phosphatidylserine (PS) to the cell surface. In this study, we established a mouse lymphocyte cell line with a floxed allele in the TMEM16F gene. When TMEM16F was deleted, these cells failed to expose PS in response to Ca2+ ionophore, but PS exposure was elicited by Fas ligand treatment. We expressed other TMEM16 proteins in the TMEM16F?/? cells and found that not only TMEM16F, but also 16C, 16D, 16G, and 16J work as lipid scramblases with different preference to lipid substrates. On the other hand, a patch clamp analysis in 293T cells indicated that TMEM16A and 16B, but not other family members, acted as Ca2+-dependent Cl? channels. These results indicated that among 10 TMEM16 family members, 7 members could be divided into two subfamilies, Ca2+-dependent Cl? channels (16A and 16B) and Ca2+-dependent lipid scramblases (16C, 16D, 16F, 16G, and 16J). PMID:23532839

  5. Evolution of akirin family in gene and genome levels and coexpressed patterns among family members and rel gene in croaker.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianxing; Gao, Yunhang; Xu, Tianjun

    2015-09-01

    Akirins, which are highly conserved nuclear proteins, are present throughout the metazoan and regulate innate immunity, embryogenesis, myogenesis, and carcinogenesis. This study reports all akirin genes from miiuy croaker and analyzes comprehensively the akirin gene family combined with akirin genes from other species. A second nuclear localization signal (NLS) is observed in akirin2 homologues, which is not in akirin1 homologues in all teleosts and most other vertebrates. Thus, we deduced that the loss of second NLS in akirin1 homologues in teleosts likely occurred in an ancestor to all Osteichthyes after splitting with cartilaginous fish. Significantly, the akirin2(2) gene included six exons interrupted by five introns in the miiuy croaker, which may be caused by the intron insertion event as a novel evidence for the variation of akirin gene structure in some species. In addition, comparison of the genomic neighborhood genes of akirin1, akirin2(1), and akirin2(2) demonstrates a strong level of conserved synteny across the teleost classes, which further proved the deduction of Macqueen and Johnston 2009 that the produce of akirin paralogues can be attributed to whole-genome duplications and the loss of some akirin paralogues after genome duplications. Furthermore, akirin gene family members and relish gene are ubiquitously expressed across all tissues, and their expression levels are increased in three immune tissues after infection with Vibrio anguillarum. Combined with the expression patterns of LEAP-1 and LEAP-2 from miiuy croaker, an intricate network of co-regulation among family members is established. Thus, it is further proved that akirins acted in concert with the relish protein to induce the expression of a subset of downstream pathway elements in the NF-kB dependent signaling pathway. PMID:25912355

  6. You reported on your verification form that one or more of your family members will be attending college at least half-time during the 2014-2015 school year. To continue processing your application for financial aid, the school your family member(s) is at

    E-print Network

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    You reported on your verification form that one or more of your family members will be attending for financial aid, the school your family member(s) is attending must complete, sign, and return this Verification of Enrollment form to UMass Amherst Financial Aid Services. Please submit one form for each

  7. Members of the Meloidogyne avirulence protein family contain multiple plant ligand-like motifs.

    PubMed

    Rutter, William B; Hewezi, Tarek; Maier, Tom R; Mitchum, Melissa G; Davis, Eric L; Hussey, Richard S; Baum, Thomas J

    2014-08-01

    Sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes engage in complex interactions with their host plants by secreting effector proteins. Some effectors of both root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) and cyst nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.) mimic plant ligand proteins. Most prominently, cyst nematodes secrete effectors that mimic plant CLAVATA3/ESR-related (CLE) ligand proteins. However, only cyst nematodes have been shown to secrete such effectors and to utilize CLE ligand mimicry in their interactions with host plants. Here, we document the presence of ligand-like motifs in bona fide root-knot nematode effectors that are most similar to CLE peptides from plants and cyst nematodes. We have identified multiple tandem CLE-like motifs conserved within the previously identified Meloidogyne avirulence protein (MAP) family that are secreted from root-knot nematodes and have been shown to function in planta. By searching all 12 MAP family members from multiple Meloidogyne spp., we identified 43 repetitive CLE-like motifs composing 14 unique variants. At least one CLE-like motif was conserved in each MAP family member. Furthermore, we documented the presence of other conserved sequences that resemble the variable domains described in Heterodera and Globodera CLE effectors. These findings document that root-knot nematodes appear to use CLE ligand mimicry and point toward a common host node targeted by two evolutionarily diverse groups of nematodes. As a consequence, it is likely that CLE signaling pathways are important in other phytonematode pathosystems as well. PMID:25014776

  8. Operator recognition by the ROK transcription factor family members, NagC and Mlc.

    PubMed

    Bréchemier-Baey, Dominique; Domínguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Oberto, Jacques; Plumbridge, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    NagC and Mlc, paralogous members of the ROK family of proteins with almost identical helix-turn-helix DNA binding motifs, specifically regulate genes for transport and utilization of N-acetylglucosamine and glucose. We previously showed that two amino acids in a linker region outside the canonical helix-turn-helix motif are responsible for Mlc site specificity. In this work we identify four amino acids in the linker, which are required for recognition of NagC targets. These amino acids allow Mlc and NagC to distinguish between a C/G and an A/T bp at positions ±11 of the operators. One linker position, glycine in NagC and arginine in Mlc, corresponds to the major specificity determinant for the two proteins. In certain contexts it is possible to switch repression from Mlc-style to NagC-style, by interchanging this glycine and arginine. Secondary determinants are supplied by other linker positions or the helix-turn-helix motif. A wide genomic survey of unique ROK proteins shows that glycine- and arginine-rich sequences are present in the linkers of nearly all ROK family repressors. Conserved short sequence motifs, within the branches of the ROK evolutionary tree, suggest that these sequences could also be involved in operator recognition in other ROK family members. PMID:25452338

  9. Claudin family members exhibit unique temporal and spatial expression boundaries in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Collins, Michelle M; Baumholtz, Amanda I; Ryan, Aimee K

    2013-07-01

    The claudin family of proteins are integral components of tight junctions and are responsible for determining the ion specificity and permeability of paracellular transport within epithelial and endothelial cell layers. Several members of the claudin family have been shown to be important during embryonic development and morphogenesis. However, detailed embryonic expression patterns have been described for only a few claudins. Here, we provide a phylogenetic analysis of the chicken claudins and a comprehensive analysis of their mRNA expression profiles. We found that claudin family members exhibit both overlapping and unique expression patterns throughout development. Especially striking were the distinct expression boundaries observed between neural and non-neural ectoderm, as well as within ectodermal derivatives. Claudins were also expressed in endodermally-derived tissues, including the anterior intestinal portal, pharynx, lung and pancreas and in mesodermally derived tissues such as the kidney, gonad and heart. The overlapping zones of claudin expression observed in the chick embryo may confer distinct domains of ion permeability within the early epiblast and in epithelial, mesodermal and endothelial derivatives that may ultimately influence embryonic patterning and morphogenesis during development. PMID:24665397

  10. Influence of posttraumatic stress disorder of the fathers on other family members.

    PubMed

    Zalihi?, Amra; Zalihi?, Dino; Pivi?, Gordana

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the frequency of depression and anxiety and children behaviour in families whose heads of the family (father) suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The study was conducted from September 2005 until July 2006, with patients living in Mostar. The frequency of depression and anxiety in family members older than 18 years, and changes of the behaviour in children younger than 18 years of age were measured. The data were collected from 60 men and their families who had been diagnosed with PTSD by their psychiatrist. The control group was formed using matching criteria (age of the head of the family, his education, religion, family income and number of children). In this study, three questionnaires were used: one specially designed for this study, covering general information about family members, and a personal opinion of each family member about the family situation and relations within the family; Hopkins symptoms checklist - 25 (HSCL-25) for evaluation of depression and anxiety for subjects older than 18; and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) for children 5 to 18 years of age, which was completed by their mothers. More wives from the PTSD families had depression than wives from the controlled group (chi2=21,099; df=1; P<0,050). There was no difference between groups in frequency of depression and anxiety (chi2=0,003; df=1; P=0,959) for children older than 18 years. No difference in answers between groups of children younger than 18 years were found in the General Health Questionnaire. However, we found significant differences in separate questions. Mothers, who filled the questionnaire form, reported that children from fathers who had PTSD experienced stomach pain more often (chi2=10,474;df=2; P=0,005), eating problems (chi2=14,204;df=2; P=0,001) and breathing problems (chi2=9,748;df=2; P=0,008), than children from fathers who did not have PTSD. Children from fathers with PTSD were more easily upset (chi2=7,586; df=2; P=0,023) and worried more often (chi2=12,093; df=2; P=0,002), they were also more aggressive towards other children (chi2=6,156; df=1; P=0,013). The controlled group of children who wanted to help with the house work was larger than the tested group (chi2=10,383; df=2; P=0,006). More children from the controlled group missed school than from the other group of surveyed children (chi2=6,056; df=2; P=0,048). A significantly larger number of women, whose husbands had PTSD, were depressed, unlike women whose husbands were not ill. There was no significant difference in depression manifestation in a group of children older than 18, as well as in behaviour of a group of children younger than 18, but significant differences in some provided answers were found, that indicate the differences between controlled and tested groups. PMID:18318667

  11. Dynorphin A as a potential endogenous ligand for four members of the opioid receptor gene family.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Tong, Y; Tian, M; Dehaven, R N; Cortesburgos, L; Mansson, E; Simonin, F; Kieffer, B; Yu, L

    1998-07-01

    Dynorphin A is an endogenous opioid peptide that activates the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) with high potency. Some studies also showed that the distribution and functional activity of dynorphin A are not completely correlated with those of KOR, suggesting that dynorphin A may interact with other receptors. To investigate the possibility that dynorphin A may serve as an agonist for other opioid receptors, we took the advantage of the cloning of the three major types of opioid receptors, mu (MOR), delta (DOR) and KOR, and examined their affinity for and their activation by dynorphin A. We used mammalian cells transfected with each of the cDNA clones for the human receptors hMOR, hDOR, hKOR and showed that dynorphin A displaced [3H]-diprenorphine binding with Ki values in the nanomolar range at all three receptors. We also showed that, when hMOR, hDOR or hKOR was coexpressed with a G protein-activated potassium channel in Xenopus oocytes, dynorphin A induced a potassium current with EC50 values in the nanomolar range for all three receptors. Furthermore, we showed that the human hORLI, an opioid receptor-like receptor that has been identified as a novel member of the opioid receptor gene family, displayed dynorphin A binding and functional activation. These results indicate that dynorphin A is capable of binding to and functional activation of all members of the opioid receptor family, suggesting that, as a potential endogenous agonist, its activity in humans may involve interaction with other members of the opioid receptor family in addition to kappa receptors. PMID:9655852

  12. Yarkovsky-driven Leakage of Koronis Family Members and the Case of 2953 Vysheslavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokrouhlický, D.; Brož , M.; Farinella, P.; Kneževi? , Z.

    1999-09-01

    The non--gravitational Yarkovsky effect can shift the semimajor axis of small asteroids up to ~ 20 km in size by ~ 0.01 AU. This mobility increases the supply of multi--km bodies to the near--Earth asteroid population, but may have other consequences related to the dynamics of main--belt asteroids, in particular those which are near the edges of the Kirkwood gaps. We have integrated the orbits of asteroids 2953 Vysheslavia, 1991 UA_2, 1993 FR58 (plus a number of ``dynamical clones'' of these bodies) which all lie very close to the outer border of the powerful 5:2 resonance. Our simulations typically span 250 Myr and take into account gravitational perturbations due to the outer planets (except Pluto) and both components (diurnal and seasonal) of the Yarkovsky effect. Vysheslavia is a member of the Koronis family, but is presently locked in a region that exhibits chaotic dynamics, a coincidence which motivated some earlier studies on its origin and evolution. Although our simulations do not reproduce the very short lifetime of Vysheslavia reported in earlier studies (possibly due to the use of a different integrator), we confirm the complex dynamical structure of the region just outside the 5:2 resonance. In particular, Vysheslavia is trapped in a layer characterized by ``stable chaos'', and typically it stays there for at least 100 Myr. Other small members of the Koronis family, which were originally located very close to this region, may reach it by Yarkovsky drift in 50--500 Myr (depending on their size, thermal parameters and the orientation of their spin axis). A temporary capture spanning tens to hundreds Myr in the thin chaotic layer is then possible, until eventually the body falls into the 5:2 resonance. Such an evolutionary scenario might apply both to Vysheslavia itself (in the past) and to other nearby members of the Koronis family (in the future).

  13. TEDE per cumulated activity for family members exposed to adult patients treated with 131I.

    PubMed

    Han, Eun Young; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley E

    2013-01-01

    In 1997, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission amended its criteria under which patients administered radioactive materials could be released from the hospital. The revised criteria ensures that the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to any individual exposed to the released patient will not likely exceed 5 mSv. Licensees are recommended to use one of the three options to release the patient in accordance with these regulatory requirements: administered activity, measured dose rate, or patient-specific dose calculation. The NRC's suggested calculation method is based on the assumption that the patient (source) and a family member (target) are each considered to be points in space. This point source/target assumption has been shown to be conservative in comparison to more realistic guidelines. In this present study, the effective doses to family members were calculated using a series of revised Oak Ridge National Laboratory stylised phantoms coupled with a Monte Carlo radiation transport code. A set of TEDE per cumulated activity values were calculated for three different distributions of (131)I (thyroid, abdomen and whole body), various separation distances and two exposure scenarios (face-to-face standing and side-by-side lying). The results indicate that an overestimation of TEDE per cumulated activity based on the point source/target method was >2-fold. The values for paediatric phantoms showed a strong age-dependency, which showed that dosimetry for children should be separately considered instead of using adult phantoms as a substitute. On the basis of the results of this study, a licensee may use less conservative patient-specific release criteria and provide the patient and the family members with more practical dose avoidance guidelines. PMID:22821723

  14. Association between family members of dialysis patients and chronic kidney disease: a multicenter study in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Family members of patients with end stage renal disease were reported to have an increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, studies differentiated genetic and non-genetic family members are limited. We sought to investigate the prevalence of CKD among fist-degree relatives and spouses of dialysis patients in China. Methods Seventeen dialysis facilities from 4 cities of China including 1062 first-degree relatives and 450 spouses of dialysis patients were enrolled. Sex- and age- matched controls were randomly selected from a representative sample of general population in Beijing. CKD was defined as decreased estimated glomerular (eGFR?family members of dialysis patients and presence of CKD is different between first-degree relatives and spouses. The underlying mechanisms deserve further investigation. PMID:23331610

  15. The Aging-Associated Enzyme CLK-1 is a Member of the Carboxylate-Bridged Diiron Family of Proteins

    E-print Network

    Behan, Rachel K.

    The aging-associated enzyme CLK-1 is proposed to be a member of the carboxylate-bridged diiron family of proteins. To evaluate this hypothesis and characterize the protein, we expressed soluble mouse CLK-1 (MCLK1) in ...

  16. Your Child or Family Member May Have Dengue Fever According to Their Clinical History and Physical Examination

    MedlinePLUS

    Your child or family member may have dengue fever according to their clinical history and physical examination. ... to come back. DO WHILE THE PATIENT HAS FEVER DO WHEN FEVER GOING AWAY CS205910 How to ...

  17. Glucosinolates in members of the family brassicaceae: separation and identification by LC/ESI-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Matthäus, B; Luftmann, H

    2000-06-01

    Seeds of 14 different members of the family Brassicaceae were investigated with regard to their content and composition of glucosinolates by HPLC-UV/ESI-MS-MS coupling. The seeds were extracted with hot methanol/water (70:30 v/v) and the desulfoglucosinolates isolated by anion-exchange chromatography with solid-phase extraction columns. The desulfoglucosinolates were detected by UV and identified by ESI-MS/MS with the neutral loss method. Nineteen different glucosinolates were detected in the seeds with a wide range of contents (10-200 micromol/g) and a great variation in the composition. PMID:10888528

  18. Using beepers to keep family members involved in the patient's care.

    PubMed

    Morehead, K A; Hunt, D M

    1997-01-01

    The 1994 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) National Customer Feedback Survey of 43,594 recently discharged inpatients revealed that problems relating to emotional support were reported two to three more frequently by VHA patients than by patients in the private sector. The scores related to emotional support that were reported by 130 Oklahoma City Veterans Affairs Medical Center surgery respondents were the facility's least favorable scores in benchmark comparisons with all VHA surgery patients and with surgery patients at Picker Institute, a nonprofit, private sector research and education organization. These scores prompted the initiation of a successful program to loan radio and digital beepers to patients' family members. PMID:10167160

  19. Evaluation of new medium with chromogenic substrates for members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in urine samples.

    PubMed Central

    Kodaka, H; Ishikawa, M; Iwata, M; Kashitani, F; Mizuochi, S; Yamaguchi, K

    1995-01-01

    A new medium containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-glucuronide cyclohexylammonium salt (Glu agar) for Escherichia coli and a new medium containing 5-bromo-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactoside (Gal agar) for beta-galactosidase-positive members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were compared with MacConkey agar in a diagnostic trial with 3,562 urine specimens. The isolation rates of E. coli and beta-galactosidase-positive Enterobacteriaceae were increased 8.4 and 19.5%, respectively. The sensitivities and specificities of Glu agar and Gal agar were 98.5 and 100% and 99.2 and 99.5%, respectively. PMID:7699041

  20. Six members of the mouse forkhead gene family are developmentally regulated.

    PubMed Central

    Kaestner, K H; Lee, K H; Schlöndorff, J; Hiemisch, H; Monaghan, A P; Schütz, G

    1993-01-01

    The 110-aa forkhead domain defines a class of transcription factors that have been shown to be developmentally regulated in Drosophila melanogaster and Xenopus laevis. The forkhead domain is necessary and sufficient for target DNA binding as shown for the rat hepatic nuclear factor 3 (HNF3) gene family. We have cloned six forkhead gene family members from a mouse genomic library in addition to the mouse equivalents of the genes for HNF3 alpha, -beta, and -gamma. The six genes, termed fkh-1 to fkh-6, share a high degree of similarity with the Drosophila forkhead gene, having 57-67% amino acid identity within the forkhead domain. fkh-1 seems to be the mammalian homologue of the Drosophila FD1 gene, as the sequences are 86% identical. fkh-1 to fkh-6 show distinct spatial patterns of expression in adult tissues and are expressed during embryogenesis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7689224

  1. Amphibian albumins as members of the albumin, alpha-fetoprotein, vitamin D-binding protein multigene family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise Nardelli Haefliger; John E. Moskaitis; Daniel R. Schoenberg; Walter Wahli I

    1989-01-01

    Summary TheXenopus laevis 68-kd and 74-kd albumin amino acid sequences are examined with respect to their relationship to the other known members of the albumin\\/?-fetoprotein\\/vitamin D-binding protein gene family. Each of the three members of this family presents a unique pattern of conserved regions indicating a differential selective pressure related to specific functional characteristics. Furthermore, an evolutionary tree of these

  2. HSF4, a New Member of the Human Heat Shock Factor Family Which Lacks Properties of a Transcriptional Activator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AKIRA NAKAI; MASAKO TANABE; YOSHINORI KAWAZOE; JOHJI INAZAWA; RICHARD I. MORIMOTO; ANDKAZUHIRO NAGATA

    Heatshocktranscriptionfactors(HSFs)mediatetheinducibletranscriptionalresponseofgenesthatencode heat shock proteins and molecular chaperones. In vertebrates, three relatedHSFgenes (HSF1to -3) and the respective gene products (HSFs) have been characterized. We report the cloning and characterization of human HSF4 (hHSF4), a novel member of the hHSF family that shares properties with other members of the HSF family yet appears to be functionally distinct. hHSF4 lacks the carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic

  3. The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum encodes members of the Puf RNA-binding protein family with conserved RNA binding activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liwang Cui; Qi Fan; Jinfang Li

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of RNA-binding proteins, Puf, regu- lates translation and RNA stability by binding to specific sequences in the 3¢-untranslated region of target mRNAs. Members of this protein family share a conserved Puf domain consisting of eight 36 amino acid imperfect repeats. Here we report two Puf family member genes, PfPuf1 and PfPuf2, from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium

  4. 20 CFR 410.230 - Written statement filed by or for a miner on behalf of a member of his family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...on behalf of a member of his family. 410.230 Section 410...SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) ...on behalf of a member of his family. Notwithstanding the...on behalf of a member of his family until such miner's...

  5. Regulation of the ovarian reserve by members of the transforming growth factor beta family

    PubMed Central

    Pangas, Stephanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic or environmental factors that affect the endowment of oocytes, their assembly nto primordial follicles, or their subsequent entry into the growing follicle pool can disrupt reproductive function and may underlie disorders such as primary ovarian insufficiency. Mouse models have been instrumental in identifying genes important in ovarian development, and a number of genes now associated with ovarian dysfunction in women were first identified as causing reproductive defects in knockout mice. The transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) family consists of developmentally important growth factors that include the TGFBs, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), activins, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and growth and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9). The ovarian primordial follicle pool is the source of oocytes in adults. Development of this pool can be grossly divided into three key processes: (1) establishment of oocytes during embryogenesis followed by (2) assembly and (3) activation of the primordial follicle. Disruptions in any of these processes may cause reproductive dysfunction. Most members of the TGFB family show pivotal roles in each of these areas. Understanding the phenotypes of various mouse models for this protein family will be directly relevant to understanding how disruptions in TGFB family signaling result in reproductive diseases in women and will present new areas for development of tailored diagnostics and interventions for infertility. PMID:22847922

  6. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training of Family Members Before Hospital Discharge Using Video Self-Instruction: A Feasibility Trial

    PubMed Central

    Blewer, Audrey L.; Leary, Marion; Decker, Christopher S.; Andersen, James C.; Fredericks, Amanda C.; Bobrow, Bentley J.; Abella, Benjamin S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a crucial therapy for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), yet rates of bystander CPR are low. This is especially the case for SCA occurring in the home setting, as family members of at-risk patients are often not CPR trained. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the feasibility of a novel hospital-based CPR education program targeted to family members of patients at increased risk for SCA. DESIGN Prospective, multicenter, cohort study. SETTING Inpatient wards at 3 hospitals. SUBJECTS Family members of inpatients admitted with cardiac-related diagnoses. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS Family members were offered CPR training via a proctored video-self instruction (VSI) program. After training, CPR skills and participant perspectives regarding their training experience were assessed. Surveys were conducted one month postdischarge to measure the rate of “secondary training” of other individuals by enrolled family members. At the 3 study sites, 756 subjects were offered CPR instruction; 280 agreed to training and 136 underwent instruction using the VSI program. Of these, 78 of 136 (57%) had no previous CPR training. After training, chest compression performance was generally adequate (mean compression rate 90 ± 26/minute, mean depth 37 ± 12 mm). At 1 month, 57 of 122 (47%) of subjects performed secondary training for friends or family members, with a calculated mean of 2.1 persons trained per kit distributed. CONCLUSIONS The hospital setting offers a unique “point of capture” to provide CPR instruction to an important, undertrained population in contact with at-risk individuals. PMID:21916007

  7. Differential display-mediated rapid identification of different members of a multigene family, HSP16.9 in wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chandrashekhar P. Joshi; Henry T. Nguyen

    1996-01-01

    Isolation of cDNAs encoding individual members of a gene family is essential for assessing their role in a biological phenomenon. However, this process is often laborious and slow due to highly conserved protein-coding region that interferes with the isolation of the individual members. Identification of gene-specific probes from 3' non-coding regions of different members can assist in the fast retrieval

  8. Impact of a Family Information Leaflet on Effectiveness of Information Provided to Family Members of Intensive Care Unit Patients A Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELIE AZOULAY; FRÉDÉRIC POCHARD; SYLVIE CHEVRET; CAROLINE BORNSTAIN; ANNE WERNET; ISABELLE CATTANEO; DJILALI ANNANE; FRÉDÉRIC BRUN; PIERRE-EDOUARD BOLLAERT; JEAN-RALPH ZAHAR; DANY GOLDGRAN-TOLEDANO; CHRISTOPHE ADRIE; LUC-MARIE JOLY; JEROME TAYORO; THIBAUT DESMETTRE; ETIENNE PIGNE; ANTOINE PARROT; OLIVIER SANCHEZ; BENOÎT SCHLEMMER

    Comprehension and satisfaction are relevant criteria for evaluat- ing the effectiveness of information provided to family members of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. We performed a prospective randomized trial in 34 French ICUs to compare comprehension of diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and satisfaction with information provided by ICU caregivers, in ICU patient family representatives who did (n ? 87) or did

  9. Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B8 is secreted via non-classical pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhenwang; Xia, Chenglai; Huang, Renbin; Li, Xiaoning; Wang, Wan-Chun; Guo, Wangyuan; Duan, Lili; Luo, Weihao; Cao, Deliang; Luo, Di-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Mouse aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B8 (AKR1B8) has the highest similarity to human aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10), a secretory protein through lysosomes-mediated non-classical secretory pathway. To identify whether AKR1B8 is secreted through the same pathway, we carried out this study. Self-developed sandwich ELISA and western blot were used to detect AKR1B8 in cells and culture medium of CT-26 murine colon carcinoma cells. AKR1B8 releases in an independent manner to Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of ER-to-Golgi classical secretion pathway. Several factors, which are involved in the non-classical secretion pathway, such as temperature, ATP and calcium ion, regulated AKR1B8 secretion from mouse colorectal cancer cells CT-26. Lysosomotropic NH4Cl increased AKR1B8 secretion, and AKR1B8 was located in isolated lysosomes. Therefore, AKR1B8 is a new secretory protein through the lysosomes-mediated non-classical pathway. PMID:25120755

  10. Correlates of Caregiver Burden among Family Members of Patients with Schizophrenia in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeosun, Increase Ibukun

    2013-01-01

    Family members of patients with schizophrenia have enormous roles in the care of their patients, which could negatively impact their well being. Development of interventions targeted at alleviating the burden of informal care giving is hinged on the recognition of the factors associated with the various dimensions of burden. This study determined the correlates of caregiver burden among family members of patients with schizophrenia in Lagos, Nigeria. The study instruments included the Zarit burden interview (ZBI) and the positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia (PANSS). Exploratory factor analysis of the ZBI produced a five-factor structure with “financial/physical strain”, “time/dependence strain”, “emotional strain”, “uncertainty”, and “self-criticism” domains. On multiple regression analyses, total PANSS scores, poor social support, and lower educational levels of caregivers were predictive of higher burden scores on the “financial/physical strain”, “time/dependence”, and “emotional strain” domains. Longer duration of illness, shorter patient-caregiver contact time, and being a female caregiver were predictive of higher burden scores on the “uncertainty”, “self-criticism”, and “emotional strain” domains, respectively. There is need for interventions to alleviate the burden on caregivers of patients with schizophrenia in Nigeria. These strategies must include comprehensive social support and improve access to services for patients and their caregivers. PMID:24222848

  11. Correlates of Caregiver Burden among Family Members of Patients with Schizophrenia in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeosun, Increase Ibukun

    2013-01-01

    Family members of patients with schizophrenia have enormous roles in the care of their patients, which could negatively impact their well being. Development of interventions targeted at alleviating the burden of informal care giving is hinged on the recognition of the factors associated with the various dimensions of burden. This study determined the correlates of caregiver burden among family members of patients with schizophrenia in Lagos, Nigeria. The study instruments included the Zarit burden interview (ZBI) and the positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia (PANSS). Exploratory factor analysis of the ZBI produced a five-factor structure with "financial/physical strain", "time/dependence strain", "emotional strain", "uncertainty", and "self-criticism" domains. On multiple regression analyses, total PANSS scores, poor social support, and lower educational levels of caregivers were predictive of higher burden scores on the "financial/physical strain", "time/dependence", and "emotional strain" domains. Longer duration of illness, shorter patient-caregiver contact time, and being a female caregiver were predictive of higher burden scores on the "uncertainty", "self-criticism", and "emotional strain" domains, respectively. There is need for interventions to alleviate the burden on caregivers of patients with schizophrenia in Nigeria. These strategies must include comprehensive social support and improve access to services for patients and their caregivers. PMID:24222848

  12. Structures and functions of protein disulfide isomerase family members involved in proteostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Masaki; Kadokura, Hiroshi; Inaba, Kenji

    2015-06-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential cellular compartment in which an enormous number of secretory and cell surface membrane proteins are synthesized and subjected to cotranslational or posttranslational modifications, such as glycosylation and disulfide bond formation. Proper maintenance of ER protein homeostasis (sometimes termed proteostasis) is essential to avoid cellular stresses and diseases caused by abnormal proteins. Accumulating knowledge of cysteine-based redox reactions catalyzed by members of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family has revealed that these enzymes play pivotal roles in productive protein folding accompanied by disulfide formation, as well as efficient ER-associated degradation accompanied by disulfide reduction. Each of PDI family members forms a protein-protein interaction with a preferential partner to fulfill a distinct function. Multiple redox pathways that utilize PDIs appear to function synergistically to attain the highest quality and productivity of the ER, even under various stress conditions. This review describes the structures, physiological functions, and cooperative actions of several essential PDIs, and provides important insights into the elaborate proteostatic mechanisms that have evolved in the extremely active and stress-sensitive ER. PMID:25697777

  13. Transcriptional Analysis of Histone Deacetylase Family Members Reveal Similarities Between Differentiating and Aging Spermatogonial Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kofman, Amber E.; Huszar, Jessica M.

    2013-01-01

    The differentiation of adult stem cells involves extensive chromatin remodeling, mediated in part by the gene products of histone deacetylase (HDAC) family members. While the transcriptional downregulation of HDACs can impede stem cell self-renewal in certain contexts, it may also promote stem cell maintenance under other circumstances. In self-renewing, differentiating, and aging spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), the gene expression dynamics of HDACs have not yet been characterized. To gain further insight with these studies, we analyzed the transcriptional profiles of six HDAC family members, previously identified to be the most highly expressed in self-renewing SSCs, during stem cell differentiation and aging. Here we discovered that in both differentiating and aging SSCs the expression of Sirt4 increases, while the expression of Hdac2, Hdac6, and Sirt1 decreases. When SSCs are exposed to the lifespan-enhancing drug rapamycin in vivo, the resultant HDAC gene expression patterns are opposite of those seen in the differentiating and aging SSCs, with increased Hdac2, Hdac6, and Sirt1 and decreased Hdac8, Hdac9, and Sirt4. Our findings suggest that HDACs important for stem cell maintenance and oxidative capacity are downregulated as adult stem cells differentiate or age. These results provide important insights into the epigenetic regulation of stem cell differentiation and aging in mammals. PMID:22729928

  14. The role of lysyl oxidase family members in the stabilization of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Remus, Ebony Washington; O'Donnell, Robert E; Rafferty, Kathryn; Weiss, Daiana; Joseph, Giji; Csiszar, Katalin; Fong, Sheri F T; Taylor, W Robert

    2012-10-15

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States today. We employed a model for AAA development using apolipoprotein E knock out mice fed a high-fat diet and treated with ANG II and ?-aminopropionitrile (?-APN) for 4 wk. ANG II induces hypertension and atherosclerotic disease, whereas ?-APN inhibits the activity of the lysyl oxidase/ lysyl oxidase-like protein (LOX/LOXL) family members. LOX/LOXL family members crosslink collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix and therefore contribute to the integrity and stabilization of a healthy vessel wall. In this model, cotreatment with ANG II and ?-APN caused a 90% AAA incidence and increased atherosclerotic lesion formation from less than 5% to greater than 25% after 4 wk. In more atheroprotected mouse strains (C57BL/6 and BalbC), cotreatment with ANG II and ?-APN caused 50% and 40% AAA incidence, respectively. These data demonstrate the importance of LOX/LOXL to the stability of the vessel wall. Therapeutic strategies to overexpress LOX/LOXL enzymes or to support the crosslinking of soluble matrix proteins in a polymeric scaffold are a promising opportunity to achieve stabilization of AAAs. PMID:22904155

  15. Mn2+ modulates the kinetic properties of an archaeal member of the PLL family.

    PubMed

    Porzio, Elena; Di Gennaro, Spartaco; Palma, Achille; Manco, Giuseppe

    2013-03-25

    Recently we reported on the characterization of an archaeal member of the amidohydrolase superfamily, namely Sulfolobus acidocaldarius lactonase, showing low but significant and extremely thermostable paraoxonase activity. This enzyme, that we have named SacPox, is a member of the new described family of phosphotriesterase-like lactonases (PLLs). In this family the binuclear metal centre, which is involved in the catalytic machinery, has been poorly studied up to now. In this work we describe the expression of the protein in presence of different metals showing Mn(2+) to support the higher activity. The enzyme has been over-expressed, purified and characterized as a Mn(2+)-containing enzyme by inductive plasma coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), showing also surprising kinetic differences in comparison with the cadmium-containing enzyme. The Mn(2+) containing enzyme was about 30-fold more efficient with paraoxon as substrate and more stable than the Cd(2+) counterpart, even though the Mn(2+) affinity for the binuclear metal centre is apparently lower. These results increase our knowledge of the biochemical characteristics of SacPox mainly with regard to the metal-ions modulation of function. PMID:23174457

  16. Cancer patients', family members' and professional helpers' conceptions and beliefs concerning death.

    PubMed

    Kuuppelomäki, M

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of different groups of people towards death, as well as their opinions and beliefs concerning life after death. The study is part of a larger research project in which cancer patients' suffering and coping were under examination. Data were collected in semi-structured focused interviews with 32 patients with incurable cancer, 13 family members, 13 nurses and 13 doctors from two central hospitals and four community health centres. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed by content analysis. Most of the interviewees were not afraid of death. The professionals were slightly more often afraid of death than the patients and the family members. The participants gave many reasons for their opinions. The interviewees were not very interested in reading death-related literature. Only nurses had read a great deal of literature on death. Most of the participants believed in the existence of God and in life after death. The participants had different kinds of conceptions of the events after death. The doctors differed from the other groups in that they read less literature on death and had less faith in God and in life after death. PMID:12849629

  17. Attitudes of cancer patients, their family members and health professionals toward active euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Kuuppelomäki, M

    2000-03-01

    This qualitative study describes the attitudes of four groups of people in cancer care toward active euthanasia. Patients (32) with incurable cancer, their family members (13), nurses (13) and physicians (13) participated in the study which was carried out in two central hospitals and in four health centres in Finland. The data was collected by means of focused interviews which were taped, transcribed and then analysed by content analysis. More than half of the participants said that they could ethically justify active euthanasia. Most of these were family members and nurses. The main reasons for their ethical justification were the terminal illness of the patient, the presence of suffering and pain and the patient's own request. Those who could not justify active euthanasia said that one human being has no right to decide death of another. Potential abuse, uncertainty about the finality of the situation, the possibility of effective alleviation of symptoms and the effects which the practice might have on medical staff were also mentioned by this group. The results of this study support the assumption given in the earlier literature that attitudes toward active euthanasia are most positive where terminally ill cancer patients are concerned. PMID:11051938

  18. PAP IB, a new member of the Reg gene family: cloning, expression, structural properties, and evolution by gene duplication

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 PAP IB, a new member of the Reg gene family: cloning, expression, structural properties-type lectin-like domain but possess additional highly conserved amino acids. By studying human databases and FII families, respectively. REG I and PAP IB share 50% sequence identity. After cloning PAP IB

  19. HHLA2 is a member of the B7 family and inhibits human CD4 and CD8 T-cell function

    E-print Network

    Zang, Xingxing

    -cell costimulation and coinhibition generated by engagement of the B7 family and their receptor CD28 familyHHLA2 is a member of the B7 family and inhibits human CD4 and CD8 T-cell function Ruihua Zhaoa targets. Here we describe HERV­H LTR- associating protein 2 (HHLA2) as a member of the B7 family

  20. Evolutionary, Structural and Functional Interplay of the I?B Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Gosu, Vijayakumar; Choi, Sangdun

    2013-01-01

    A primary level of control for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) is effected through its interactions with the inhibitor protein, inhibitor of kappa B (I?B). Several lines of evidence confirm the existence of multiple forms of I?B that appear to regulate NF-?B by distinct mechanisms. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis to understand the evolutionary history and intrinsic functional diversity of I?B family members. Phylogenetic relationships were constructed to trace the evolution of the I?B family genes. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed 10 I?B subfamily members that clustered into 5 major clades. Since the ankyrin (ANK) domain appears to be more ancient than the Rel homology domain (RHD), our phylogenetic analysis suggests that some undefined ancestral set of ANK repeats acquired an RHD before any duplication and was later duplicated and then diverged into the different I?B subfamilies. Functional analysis identified several functionally divergent sites in the ANK repeat domains (ARDs) and revealed that this region has undergone strong purifying selection, suggesting its functional importance in I?B genes. Structural analysis showed that the major variations in the number of ANK repeats and high conformational changes in the finger loop ARD region contribute to the differing binding partner specificities, thereby leading to distinct I?B functions. In summary, our study has provided useful information about the phylogeny and structural and functional divergence of the I?B family. Additionally, we identified a number of amino acid sites that contribute to the predicted functional divergence of these proteins. PMID:23372681

  1. An Evolutionary-Conserved Function of Mammalian Notch Family Members as Cell Adhesion Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Akihiko; Yoshino, Miya; Hikosaka, Mari; Okuyama, Kazuki; Zhou, Lan; Sakano, Seiji; Yagita, Hideo; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Notch family members were first identified as cell adhesion molecules by cell aggregation assays in Drosophila studies. However, they are generally recognized as signaling molecules, and it was unclear if their adhesion function was restricted to Drosophila. We previously demonstrated that a mouse Notch ligand, Delta-like 1 (Dll1) functioned as a cell adhesion molecule. We here investigated whether this adhesion function was conserved in the diversified mammalian Notch ligands consisted of two families, Delta-like (Dll1, Dll3 and Dll4) and Jagged (Jag1 and Jag2). The forced expression of mouse Dll1, Dll4, Jag1, and Jag2, but not Dll3, on stromal cells induced the rapid and enhanced adhesion of cultured mast cells (MCs). This was attributed to the binding of Notch1 and Notch2 on MCs to each Notch ligand on the stromal cells themselves, and not the activation of Notch signaling. Notch receptor-ligand binding strongly supported the tethering of MCs to stromal cells, the first step of cell adhesion. However, the Jag2-mediated adhesion of MCs was weaker and unlike other ligands appeared to require additional factor(s) in addition to the receptor-ligand binding. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the function of cell adhesion was conserved in mammalian as well as Drosophila Notch family members. Since Notch receptor-ligand interaction plays important roles in a broad spectrum of biological processes ranging from embryogenesis to disorders, our finding will provide a new perspective on these issues from the aspect of cell adhesion. PMID:25255288

  2. Retroelements versus APOBEC3 family members: No great escape from the magnificent seven.

    PubMed

    Arias, Juan F; Koyama, Takayoshi; Kinomoto, Masanobu; Tokunaga, Kenzo

    2012-01-01

    Retroelements comprise a large and successful family of transposable genetic elements that, through intensive infiltration, have shaped the genomes of humans and other mammals over millions of years. In fact, retrotransposons now account for approximately 45% of the human genome. Because of their genomic mobility called retrotransposition, some retroelements can cause genetic diseases; such retrotransposition events occur not only in germ cells but also in somatic cells, posing a threat to genomic stability throughout all cellular populations. In response, mammals have developed intrinsic immunity mechanisms that provide resistance against the deleterious effects of retrotransposition. Among these, seven members of the APOBEC3 (A3) family of cytidine deaminases serve as highly active, intrinsic, antiretroviral host factors. Certain A3 proteins effectively counteract infections of retroviruses such as HIV-1, as well as those of other virus families, while also blocking the transposition of retroelements. Based on their preferential expression in the germ cells, in which retrotransposons may be active, it is likely that A3 proteins were acquired through mammalian evolution primarily to inhibit retrotransposition and thereby maintain genomic stability in these cells. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of the interplay between the retroelements currently active in the human genome and the anti-retroelement A3 proteins. PMID:22912627

  3. Perexilibacter aurantiacus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family 'Flammeovirgaceae' isolated from sediment.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Ishikawa, Shu; Kasai, Hiroaki; Yokota, Akira

    2007-05-01

    A strictly aerobic, Gram-negative, gliding, dull-orange-pigmented, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain Shu-F-UV2-2(T), was isolated from sediment (Carp Island, Republic of Palau) and was the focus of a polyphasic taxonomic study. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the novel isolate was affiliated to the family 'Flammeovirgaceae' of the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it showed highest sequence similarity (85.5 %) to Flammeovirga yaeyamensis NBRC 100898(T). The novel isolate could be differentiated phenotypically and physiologically from recognized members of the family 'Flammeovirgaceae'. The G+C content of the DNA was 43.0 mol%, MK-7 was the major menaquinone and iso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 1)omega7c and C(16 : 1)omega5c were the major fatty acids. On the basis of this polyphasic evidence, it was concluded that strain Shu-F-UV2-2(T) represents a novel species in a new genus of the family 'Flammeovirgaceae', for which the name Perexilibacter aurantiacus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Shu-F-UV2-2(T) (=MBIC06993(T)=IAM 15413(T)=KCTC 12867(T)). PMID:17473242

  4. Impacts of Parasites in Early Life: Contrasting Effects on Juvenile Growth for Different Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Thomas E.; Daunt, Francis; Kiploks, Adam J.; Burthe, Sarah J.; Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M. V.; Takahashi, Emi A.; Newell, Mark; Wanless, Sarah; Cunningham, Emma J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We experimentally treated European Shag (Phalacrocorax aristoteli) nestlings with the broad-spectrum anti-parasite drug ivermectin and compared their growth rates with nestlings from control broods. Average growth rates measured over the period of linear growth (10 days to 30 days of age) and survival did not differ for nestlings from treated and control broods. However, when considering individuals within broods, parasite treatment reversed the patterns of growth for individual family members: last-hatched nestlings grew significantly slower than their siblings in control nests but grew faster in treated nests. This was at the expense of their earlier-hatched brood-mates, who showed an overall growth rate reduction relative to last-hatched nestlings in treated nests. These results highlight the importance of exploring individual variation in the costs of infection and suggest that parasites could be a key factor modulating within-family dynamics, sibling competition and developmental trajectories from an early age. PMID:22384190

  5. Complete genome sequence of Cannes 8 virus, a new member of the proposed family "Marseilleviridae".

    PubMed

    Aherfi, Sarah; Pagnier, Isabelle; Fournous, Ghislain; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard; Colson, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Marseillevirus is a giant virus that was isolated in 2007 by culturing water collected from a cooling tower in Paris, France, on Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Since then, five other marseilleviruses have been detected in environmental or human samples. The genomes of two of the six marseilleviruses have been described in detail. We describe herein the genome of Cannes 8 virus, a new member of the proposed family "Marseilleviridae." Cannes 8 virus was isolated from water collected from a cooling tower in Cannes in southeastern France. Its genome is a circular double-stranded DNA molecule with 374,041 base pairs, larger than the Marseillevirus and Lausannevirus genomes. This genome harbors 484 open reading frames predicted to encode proteins with sizes ranging from 50 to 1,537 amino acids, among which 380 (79%) and 272 (56%) are bona fide orthologs of Marseillevirus and Lausannevirus proteins, respectively. In addition, 407 and 336 predicted proteins have significant hits against Marseillevirus and Lausannevirus proteins, respectively, and 294 proteins are shared by all three marseilleviruses. The Cannes 8 virus genome has a high level of collinearity (for 96% of orthologs) with the Marseillevirus genome. About two-thirds of the Cannes 8 virus gene repertoire is composed of family ORFans. The description and annotation of the genomes of new marseilleviruses that will undoubtedly be recovered from environmental or clinical samples will be helpful to increase our knowledge of the pan-genome of the family "Marseilleviridae." PMID:23912978

  6. Retroelements versus APOBEC3 family members: No great escape from the magnificent seven

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Juan F.; Koyama, Takayoshi; Kinomoto, Masanobu; Tokunaga, Kenzo

    2012-01-01

    Retroelements comprise a large and successful family of transposable genetic elements that, through intensive infiltration, have shaped the genomes of humans and other mammals over millions of years. In fact, retrotransposons now account for approximately 45% of the human genome. Because of their genomic mobility called retrotransposition, some retroelements can cause genetic diseases; such retrotransposition events occur not only in germ cells but also in somatic cells, posing a threat to genomic stability throughout all cellular populations. In response, mammals have developed intrinsic immunity mechanisms that provide resistance against the deleterious effects of retrotransposition. Among these, seven members of the APOBEC3 (A3) family of cytidine deaminases serve as highly active, intrinsic, antiretroviral host factors. Certain A3 proteins effectively counteract infections of retroviruses such as HIV-1, as well as those of other virus families, while also blocking the transposition of retroelements. Based on their preferential expression in the germ cells, in which retrotransposons may be active, it is likely that A3 proteins were acquired through mammalian evolution primarily to inhibit retrotransposition and thereby maintain genomic stability in these cells. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of the interplay between the retroelements currently active in the human genome and the anti-retroelement A3 proteins. PMID:22912627

  7. Youth’s narratives about family members smoking: parenting the parent- it’s not fair!

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Successful cancer prevention policies and programming for youth must be based on a solid understanding of youth’s conceptualization of cancer and cancer prevention. Accordingly, a qualitative study examining youth’s perspectives of cancer and its prevention was undertaken. Not surprisingly, smoking (i.e., tobacco cigarette smoking) was one of the dominant lines of discourse in the youth’s narratives. This paper reports findings of how youth conceptualize smoking with attention to their perspectives on parental and family-related smoking issues and experiences. Methods Seventy-five Canadian youth ranging in age from 11–19 years participated in the study. Six of the 75 youth had a history of smoking and 29 had parents with a history of smoking. Youth were involved in traditional ethnographic methods of interviewing and photovoice. Data analysis involved multiple levels of analysis congruent with ethnography. Results Youth’s perspectives of parents and other family members’ cigarette smoking around them was salient as represented by the theme: It’s not fair. Youth struggled to make sense of why parents would smoke around their children and perceived their smoking as an unjust act. The theme was supported by four subthemes: 1) parenting the parent about the dangers of smoking; 2) the good/bad parent; 3) distancing family relationships; and 4) the prisoner. Instead of being talked to about smoking it was more common for youth to share stories of talking to their parents about the dangers of smoking. Parents who did not smoke were seen by youth as the good parent, as opposed to the bad parent who smoked. Smoking was an agent that altered relationships with parents and other family members. Youth who lived in homes where they were exposed to cigarette smoke felt like a trapped prisoner. Conclusions Further research is needed to investigate youth’s perceptions about parental cigarette smoking as well as possible linkages between youth exposed to second hand smoke in their home environment and emotional and lifestyle-related health difficulties. Results emphasize the relational impact of smoking when developing anti-tobacco and cancer prevention campaigns. Recognizing the potential toll that second-hand smoke can have on youth’s emotional well-being, health care professionals are encouraged to give youth positive messages in coping with their parents’ smoking behaviour. PMID:23140551

  8. Characterization of a novel ?-L-arabinofuranosidase in Bifidobacterium longum: functional elucidation of a DUF1680 protein family member.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kiyotaka; Takashi, Yukari; Obuchi, Eriko; Kitahara, Kanefumi; Suganuma, Toshihiko

    2014-02-21

    Pfam DUF1680 (PF07944) is an uncharacterized protein family conserved in many species of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, and plants. Previously, we cloned and characterized the hypBA2 gene as a ?-L-arabinobiosidase in Bifidobacterium longum JCM 1217. In this study, we cloned a DUF1680 family member, the hypBA1 gene, which constitutes a gene cluster with hypBA2. HypBA1 is a novel ?-L-arabinofuranosidase that liberates L-arabinose from the L-arabinofuranose (Araf)-?1,2-Araf disaccharide. HypBA1 also transglycosylates 1-alkanols with retention of the anomeric configuration. Mutagenesis and azide rescue experiments indicated that Glu-338 is a critical residue for catalytic activity. This study provides the first characterization of a DUF1680 family member, which defines a new family of glycoside hydrolases, the glycoside hydrolase family 127. PMID:24385433

  9. Emerging Roles for FCRL Family Members in Lymphocyte Biology and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, F.J.; Won, W.J.; Becker, E.J.; Easlick, J.L.; Tabengwa, E.; Li, R.; Shakhmatov, M.; Burrows, P.D.; Davis, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the extended Fc receptor-like (FCRL) family in humans and mice are preferentially expressed by B cells and possess tyrosine-based immunoregulatory function. Although the majority of these proteins repress B cell receptor-mediated activation, there is emerging evidence for their bifunctionality and capacity to counter-regulate adaptive and innate signaling pathways. In light of these findings, the recent discovery of ligands for several of these molecules has begun to reveal exciting potential for them in normal lymphocyte biology and is launching a new phase of FCRL investigation. Importantly, these fundamental developments are also setting the stage for defining their altered roles in the pathogenesis of a growing number of immune-mediated diseases. Here we review recent advances in the FCRL field and highlight the significance of these intriguing receptors in normal and perturbed immunobiology. PMID:25116094

  10. Two FLX family members are non-redundantly required to establish the vernalization requirement in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joohyun; Amasino, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of natural genetic variation for the vernalization requirement in Arabidopsis have revealed two genes, FRIGIDA (FRI) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), that are determinants of the vernalization-requiring, winter-annual habit. In this study, we show that FLC EXPRESSOR LIKE 4 (FLL4) is essential for up-regulation of FLC in winter-annual Arabidopsis accessions and establishment of a vernalization requirement. FLL4 is part of the FLC EXPRESSOR (FLX) gene family and both are non-redundantly involved in flowering-time control. Epistasis analysis among FRI, FLL4, FLX and autonomous-pathway genes reveals that FRI fve exhibits an extreme delay of flowering compared to fri fve, but mutants in other autonomous-pathway genes do not, indicating that FVE acts most antagonistically to FRI. FLL4 may represent a new member of a FRI-containing complex that activates FLC. PMID:23864009

  11. Interactions between an HMG-1 protein and members of the Rel family

    PubMed Central

    Brickman, Joshua M.; Adam, Maryse; Ptashne, Mark

    1999-01-01

    We show that the Drosophila protein DSP1, an HMG-1/2-like protein, binds DNA highly cooperatively with three members of the Rel family of transcriptional regulators (NF-?B, the p50 subunit of NF-?B, and the Rel domain of Dorsal). This cooperativity is apparent with DNA molecules bearing consensus Rel-protein-binding sites and is unaffected by the presence of a negative regulatory element, a sequence previously proposed to be important for mediating repression by these Rel proteins. The cooperativity observed in these DNA-binding assays is paralleled by interactions between protein pairs in the absence of DNA. We also show that in HeLa cells, as assayed by transient transfection, expression of DSP1 increases activation by Dorsal from the twist promoter and inhibits that activation from the zen promoter, consistent with the previously proposed idea that DSP1 can affect the action of Dorsal in a promoter-specific fashion. PMID:10485885

  12. Thalassaemia: a study on the perception of patients and family members.

    PubMed

    Wahab, I Abdul; Naznin, M; Nora, M Z; Suzanah, A R; Zulaiho, M; Faszrul, A R Aidl; Kamaruzaman, W S

    2011-10-01

    Marked improvement in the management of thalassaemia has not been matched by progress in psychosocial rehabilitation as thalassaemia continues to pose challenges to patients and their family members. Few studies have been carried out in Malaysia to look at such issues. This study is therefore to explore the concerns, beliefs and feelings about thalassaemia. It was conducted in the year 2009 over 7 months on "focus groups", in patients aged 8-22 years and parents attending Paediatric Clinic of Tengku Ampuan Afzan Hospital, Kuantan, Pahang. Results showed that concerns and adverse impact were related to lower grades in education, poor self-image, less chance of employment, marriage, financial burden and social integration. Compliance to subcutaneous iron chelator was poor. There were various concerns related to blood transfusion therapy. It is evident that thalassaemia greatly affects the psychosocial dimensions and a more structured long term psychosocial support is needed to improve quality of life of patients. PMID:22299552

  13. Differential Inhibition of Signal Peptide Peptidase Family Members by Established ?-Secretase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Yong; Ladd, Gabriela Z.; Ceballos-Diaz, Carolina; Jung, Joo In; Greenbaum, Doron; Felsenstein, Kevin M.; Golde, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    The signal peptide peptidases (SPPs) are biomedically important proteases implicated as therapeutic targets for hepatitis C (human SPP, (hSPP)), plasmodium (Plasmodium SPP (pSPP)), and B-cell immunomodulation and neoplasia (signal peptide peptidase like 2a, (SPPL2a)). To date, no drug-like, selective inhibitors have been reported. We use a recombinant substrate based on the amino-terminus of BRI2 fused to amyloid ? 1-25 (A?1-25) (FBA) to develop facile, cost-effective SPP/SPPL protease assays. Co-transfection of expression plasmids expressing the FBA substrate with SPP/SPPLs were conducted to evaluate cleavage, which was monitored by ELISA, Western Blot and immunoprecipitation/MALDI-TOF Mass spectrometry (IP/MS). No cleavage is detected in the absence of SPP/SPPL overexpression. Multiple ?-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) and (Z-LL)2 ketone differentially inhibited SPP/SPPL activity; for example, IC50 of LY-411,575 varied from 51±79 nM (on SPPL2a) to 5499±122 nM (on SPPL2b), while Compound E showed inhibition only on hSPP with IC50 of 1465±93 nM. Data generated were predictive of effects observed for endogenous SPPL2a cleavage of CD74 in a murine B-Cell line. Thus, it is possible to differentially inhibit SPP family members. These SPP/SPPL cleavage assays will expedite the search for selective inhibitors. The data also reinforce similarities between SPP family member cleavage and cleavage catalyzed by ?-secretase. PMID:26046535

  14. Usability of a CKD Educational Website Targeted to Patients and Their Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, Marni; Fink, Wanda; Hu, Peter; Yang, Shiming; Fink, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Web-based technology is critical to the future of healthcare. As part of the Safe Kidney Care cohort study evaluating patient safety in CKD, this study determined how effectively a representative sample of patients with CKD or family members could interpret and use the Safe Kidney Care website (www.safekidneycare.org), an informational website on safety in CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Between November of 2011 and January of 2012, persons with CKD or their family members underwent formal usability testing administered by a single interviewer with a second recording observer. Each participant was independently provided a list of 21 tasks to complete, with each task rated as either easily completed/noncritical error or critical error (user cannot complete the task without significant interviewer intervention). Results Twelve participants completed formal usability testing. Median completion time for all tasks was 17.5 minutes (range=10–44 minutes). In total, 10 participants had greater than or equal to one critical error. There were 55 critical errors in 252 tasks (22%), with the highest proportion of critical errors occurring when participants were asked to find information on treatments that may damage kidneys, find the website on the internet, increase font size, and scroll to the bottom of the webpage. Participants were generally satisfied with the content and usability of the website. Conclusions Web-based educational materials for patients with CKD should target a wide range of computer literacy levels and anticipate variability in competency in use of the computer and internet. PMID:22798537

  15. PchC Thioesterase Optimizes Nonribosomal Biosynthesis of the Peptide Siderophore Pyochelin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Reimmann, Cornelia; Patel, Hiten M.; Walsh, Christopher T.; Haas, Dieter

    2004-01-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the antibiotic dihydroaeruginoate (Dha) and the siderophore pyochelin are produced from salicylate and cysteine by a thiotemplate mechanism involving the peptide synthetases PchE and PchF. A thioesterase encoded by the pchC gene was found to be necessary for maximal production of both Dha and pyochelin, but it was not required for Dha release from PchE and could not replace the thioesterase function specified by the C-terminal domain of PchF. In vitro, 2-aminobutyrate, a cysteine analog, was adenylated by purified PchE and PchF proteins. In vivo, this analog strongly interfered with Dha and pyochelin formation in a pchC deletion mutant but affected production of these metabolites only slightly in the wild type. Exogenously supplied cysteine overcame the negative effect of a pchC mutation to a large extent, whereas addition of salicylate did not. These data are in agreement with a role for PchC as an editing enzyme that removes wrongly charged molecules from the peptidyl carrier protein domains of PchE and PchF. PMID:15375116

  16. V factor-dependent members of the family Pasteurellaceae in the porcine upper respiratory tract.

    PubMed Central

    Møller, K; Kilian, M

    1990-01-01

    A study was performed to obtain a better understanding of the diversity and ecology of members of the family Pasteurellaceae in the porcine respiratory tract. A collection of 132 V factor-dependent strains of Pasteurellaceae selected from porcine field isolates mainly from the respiratory tract were subjected to detailed characterization. In addition to the three hitherto recognized species Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis, and Haemophilus taxon "minor group," three distinct taxa were observed. Some of these taxa, which are provisionally designated taxa D, E, and F, would by traditional criteria be mistaken for H. parasuis but differed by several biochemical characteristics. To study the ecology of the V factor-dependent species, swabs from the nasal and oral cavities of 29 pigs were cultivated on selective and nonselective media. By studying approximately 30 isolates from each sample, the distribution and relative proportion of the individual taxa were determined. A. pleuropneumoniae was detected in samples from the tonsil areas of only two acutely ill animals. H. parasuis was isolated from the nasal cavities of four out of nine healthy pigs but from the oral cavities of only two animals. In contrast, taxon "minor group" and taxa D, E, and F were present in the oral cavities of the majority of pigs but were not detected in samples from their nasal cavities. The results indicate that all the observed V factor-dependent species of Pasteurellaceae except A. pleuropneumoniae, are members of the resident microflora of various mucosal surfaces of the porcine upper respiratory tract. PMID:2280002

  17. A nonpyrrolysine member of the widely distributed trimethylamine methyltransferase family is a glycine betaine methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Ticak, Tomislav; Kountz, Duncan J.; Girosky, Kimberly E.; Krzycki, Joseph A.; Ferguson, Donald J.

    2014-01-01

    COG5598 comprises a large number of proteins related to MttB, the trimethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase. MttB has a genetically encoded pyrrolysine residue proposed essential for catalysis. MttB is the only known trimethylamine methyltransferase, yet the great majority of members of COG5598 lack pyrrolysine, leaving the activity of these proteins an open question. Here, we describe the function of one of the nonpyrrolysine members of this large protein family. Three nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs are encoded in Desulfitobacterium hafniense, a Gram-positive strict anaerobe present in both the environment and human intestine. D. hafniense was found capable of growth on glycine betaine with electron acceptors such as nitrate or fumarate, producing dimethylglycine and CO2 as products. Examination of the genome revealed genes for tetrahydrofolate-linked oxidation of a methyl group originating from a methylated corrinoid protein, but no obvious means to carry out corrinoid methylation with glycine betaine. DSY3156, encoding one of the nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs, was up-regulated during growth on glycine betaine. The recombinant DSY3156 protein converts glycine betaine and cob(I)alamin to dimethylglycine and methylcobalamin. To our knowledge, DSY3156 is the first glycine betaine:corrinoid methyltransferase described, and a designation of MtgB is proposed. In addition, DSY3157, an adjacently encoded protein, was shown to be a methylcobalamin:tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase and is designated MtgA. Homologs of MtgB are widely distributed, especially in marine bacterioplankton and nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts. They are also found in multiple members of the human microbiome, and may play a beneficial role in trimethylamine homeostasis, which in recent years has been directly tied to human cardiovascular health. PMID:25313086

  18. Co-ordinate regulation of cytokinin gene family members during flag leaf and reproductive development in wheat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As the global population continues to expand, increasing yield in bread wheat is of critical importance as 20% of the world’s food supply is sourced from this cereal. Several recent studies of the molecular basis of grain yield indicate that the cytokinins are a key factor in determining grain yield. In this study, cytokinin gene family members in bread wheat were isolated from four multigene families which regulate cytokinin synthesis and metabolism, the isopentenyl transferases (IPT), cytokinin oxidases (CKX), zeatin O-glucosyltransferases (ZOG), and ?-glucosidases (GLU). As bread wheat is hexaploid, each gene family is also likely to be represented on the A, B and D genomes. By using a novel strategy of qRT-PCR with locus-specific primers shared among the three homoeologues of each family member, detailed expression profiles are provided of family members of these multigene families expressed during leaf, spike and seed development. Results The expression patterns of individual members of the IPT, CKX, ZOG, and GLU multigene families in wheat are shown to be tissue- and developmentally-specific. For instance, TaIPT2 and TaCKX1 were the most highly expressed family members during early seed development, with relative expression levels of up to 90- and 900-fold higher, respectively, than those in the lowest expressed samples. The expression of two cis-ZOG genes was sharply increased in older leaves, while an extremely high mRNA level of TaGLU1-1 was detected in young leaves. Conclusions Key genes with tissue- and developmentally-specific expression have been identified which would be prime targets for genetic manipulation towards yield improvement in bread wheat breeding programmes, utilising TILLING and MAS strategies. PMID:22672647

  19. Dynamic expression of basic helix-loop-helix Olig family members: implication of Olig2 in neuron and oligodendrocyte differentiation and identification of a new member, Olig3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirohide Takebayashi; Shosei Yoshida; Michiya Sugimori; Hidetaka Kosako; Ryo Kominami; Masato Nakafuku; Yo-ichi Nabeshima

    2000-01-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors have been shown to be essential for specification of various cell types. Here, we describe a novel bHLH family consisting of three members, two of which (Olig1, Olig2) are expressed in a nervous tissue-specific manner, whereas the third, Olig3 is found mainly in non-neural tissues. Olig1 and Olig2, which recently have been implicated in oligodendrogenesis,

  20. Organic anion transporter (Slc22a) family members as mediators of toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, Douglas H. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 280 Calhoun Street (Room QE218), PO Box 250140, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)]. E-mail: sweetd@musc.edu

    2005-05-01

    Exposure of the body to toxic organic anions is unavoidable and occurs from both intentional and unintentional sources. Many hormones, neurotransmitters, and waste products of cellular metabolism, or their metabolites, are organic anions. The same is true for a wide variety of medications, herbicides, pesticides, plant and animal toxins, and industrial chemicals and solvents. Rapid and efficient elimination of these substances is often the body's best defense for limiting both systemic exposure and the duration of their pharmacological or toxicological effects. For organic anions, active transepithelial transport across the renal proximal tubule followed by elimination via the urine is a major pathway in this detoxification process. Accordingly, a large number of organic anion transport proteins belonging to several different gene families have been identified and found to be expressed in the proximal nephron. The function of these transporters, in combination with the high volume of renal blood flow, predisposes the kidney to increased toxic susceptibility. Understanding how the kidney mediates the transport of organic anions is integral to achieving desired therapeutic outcomes in response to drug interactions and chemical exposures, to understanding the progression of some disease states, and to predicting the influence of genetic variation upon these processes. This review will focus on the organic anion transporter (OAT) family and discuss the known members, their mechanisms of action, subcellular localization, and current evidence implicating their function as a determinant of the toxicity of certain endogenous and xenobiotic agents.

  1. Cloning and characterization of SOX5, a new member of the human SOX gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Wunderle, V.M.; Critcher, R.; Goodfellow, P.N. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Ashworth, A. [Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom)] [Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-09-01

    The mammalian Y-linked testis determining gene, SRY, encodes a protein with a DNA binding motif known as the HMG box. A large family of genes sharing a high similarity with the SRY HMG box and named Sox (Sry-related HMG box) in mouse and SOX in human has been identified from various organisms. We have cloned SOX5, a new member of the human SOX gene family. SOX5 cDNAs isolated from a human adult testis cDNA library show a high similarity with the mouse Sox5 transcript over a large region identical in all the human cDNAs. However, comparison of the 5{prime} unique sequences of the cDNAs suggests that the SOX5 gene is subject to alternative splicing. Genomic analysis identified a SOX5 pseudogene located on 8q21.1, whereas the SOX5 gene itself, which contains a minimum of five introns, maps to 12p12.1. In contrast to the mouse gene, the human SOX5 gene is expressed in a variety of human tissues, and different size transcripts are observed in adult testis and fetal brain. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Cloning and characterization of two members of the vertebrate Dlx gene family.

    PubMed

    Simeone, A; Acampora, D; Pannese, M; D'Esposito, M; Stornaiuolo, A; Gulisano, M; Mallamaci, A; Kastury, K; Druck, T; Huebner, K

    1994-03-15

    A number of vertebrate genes of the Dlx gene family have been cloned in mouse, frog, and zebrafish. These genes contain a homeobox related to that of Distalless, a gene expressed in the developing head and limbs of Drosophila embryos. We cloned and studied the expression of two members of this family, which we named Dlx5 and Dlx6, in human and mouse. The two human genes, DLX5 and DLX6, are closely linked in an inverted convergent configuration in a region of chromosome 7, at 7q22. Similarly, the two human genes DLX1 and DLX2 are closely linked in a convergent configuration at 2q32, near the HOXD (previously HOX4) locus. In situ hybridization experiments in mouse embryos revealed expression of Dlx5 and Dlx6 mRNA in restricted regions of ventral diencephalon and basal telencephalon, with a distribution very similar to that reported for Dlx1 and Dlx2 mRNA. A surprising feature of Dlx5 and Dlx6 is that they are also expressed in all skeletal structures of midgestation embryos after the first cartilage formation. The expression pattern of these genes, together with their chromosome localization, may provide useful cues for the study of congenital disorders in which there is a combination of craniofacial and limb defects. PMID:7907794

  3. Synergistic cooperation of PDI family members in peroxiredoxin 4-driven oxidative protein folding

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yoshimi; Kojima, Rieko; Okumura, Masaki; Hagiwara, Masatoshi; Masui, Shoji; Maegawa, Ken-ichi; Saiki, Masatoshi; Horibe, Tomohisa; Suzuki, Mamoru; Inaba, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian endoplasmic reticulum (ER) harbors disulfide bond-generating enzymes, including Ero1? and peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4), and nearly 20 members of the protein disulfide isomerase family (PDIs), which together constitute a suitable environment for oxidative protein folding. Here, we clarified the Prx4 preferential recognition of two PDI family proteins, P5 and ERp46, and the mode of interaction between Prx4 and P5 thioredoxin domain. Detailed analyses of oxidative folding catalyzed by the reconstituted Prx4–PDIs pathways demonstrated that, while P5 and ERp46 are dedicated to rapid, but promiscuous, disulfide introduction, PDI is an efficient proofreader of non-native disulfides. Remarkably, the Prx4-dependent formation of native disulfide bonds was accelerated when PDI was combined with ERp46 or P5, suggesting that PDIs work synergistically to increase the rate and fidelity of oxidative protein folding. Thus, the mammalian ER seems to contain highly systematized oxidative networks for the efficient production of large quantities of secretory proteins. PMID:23949117

  4. Caregivers' attitudes toward their family members' participation in Alzheimer disease research: implications for recruitment and retention.

    PubMed

    Connell, C M; Shaw, B A; Holmes, S B; Foster, N L

    2001-01-01

    Current levels of participation in Alzheimer disease (AD) research are inadequate, particularly among nonwhites. This study was conducted to examine caregivers' attitudes toward their family members' participation in AD research. Six focus group interviews were conducted with 38 white and 12 African-American caregivers of participants enrolled in clinical research projects. Both white and African-American families participated in research to help their care recipients and future generations, receive support from the clinical and research staff, and obtain feedback about patient status and research results. Among white caregivers, primary barriers to participation in research included the potential for no direct benefit, problems with the procedures and tests involved, lack of time and resources, and difficulty accepting the diagnosis. Among African-American caregivers, primary barriers included general skepticism about the research process and firmly established attitudes about medical treatment and help seeking that serve as disincentives to research participation. To maximize the perceived benefits of research participation, potential participants should have access to regular personal contact with staff, information about health status changes in the care recipient, and the short-term and long-term results of the research studies in which they are participants. In addition, researchers should be sensitive to the concerns that may serve as barriers to participation, particularly among African Americans. PMID:11522931

  5. Plant, Animal, and Fungal Micronutrient Queuosine Is Salvaged by Members of the DUF2419 Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Queuosine (Q) is a modification found at the wobble position of tRNAs with GUN anticodons. Although Q is present in most eukaryotes and bacteria, only bacteria can synthesize Q de novo. Eukaryotes acquire queuine (q), the free base of Q, from diet and/or microflora, making q an important but under-recognized micronutrient for plants, animals, and fungi. Eukaryotic type tRNA-guanine transglycosylases (eTGTs) are composed of a catalytic subunit (QTRT1) and a homologous accessory subunit (QTRTD1) forming a complex that catalyzes q insertion into target tRNAs. Phylogenetic analysis of eTGT subunits revealed a patchy distribution pattern in which gene losses occurred independently in different clades. Searches for genes co-distributing with eTGT family members identified DUF2419 as a potential Q salvage protein family. This prediction was experimentally validated in Schizosaccharomyces pombe by confirming that Q was present by analyzing tRNAAsp with anticodon GUC purified from wild-type cells and by showing that Q was absent from strains carrying deletions in the QTRT1 or DUF2419 encoding genes. DUF2419 proteins occur in most Eukarya with a few possible cases of horizontal gene transfer to bacteria. The universality of the DUF2419 function was confirmed by complementing the S. pombe mutant with the Zea mays (maize), human, and Sphaerobacter thermophilus homologues. The enzymatic function of this family is yet to be determined, but structural similarity with DNA glycosidases suggests a ribonucleoside hydrolase activity. PMID:24911101

  6. The experience of Chinese immigrant women in caring for a terminally ill family member in Australia.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Mary T; Koo, Fung Kuen; White, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese community, a heterogeneous, highly visible non-English speaking ethnic group in Australia, remains mostly hidden and underrepresented in palliative care service delivery along with participation in health research despite being the fastest growing such group in the country. There is a lack of Australian research information concerning the impact of migration on the caregiving experience of women carers within the Chinese cultural framework and the Australian palliative care context. This paper aims to explore the influence of Chinese cultural norms and immigration on the experience of immigrant women of Chinese ancestry caring for a terminally ill family member at home in Sydney. This study also seeks to identify factors that may present access barriers to palliative care support services. A qualitative approach was used in this study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with five home-based Chinese women carers and were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings identified that the participants found being a carer is a lonely and isolating experience. Sources of isolation and loneliness included social isolation experienced as a solitary carer without meaningful family and social relationships; loss of familiar cultural understandings and family values; and emotional isolators expressed in response to the physical and emotional role commitment and other constraints. The study results suggest the need for palliative care educational programmes designed to help nurses to understand the impact of cultural background within the palliative care context. Results also indicate that health care professionals should provide culturally appropriate and competent palliative care services, sensitive to the diverse socio-cultural influences and individual needs of Chinese migrants. PMID:25632724

  7. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training of family members before hospital discharge using video self-instruction: a feasibility trial

    PubMed Central

    Blewer, Audrey L.; Leary, Marion; Decker, Christopher S.; Andersen, James C.; Fredericks, Amanda C.; Bobrow, Bentley J.; Abella, Benjamin S.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a crucial therapy for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), yet rates of bystander CPR are low. This is especially the case for SCA occurring in the home setting, as family members of at-risk patients are often not CPR trained. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the feasibility of a novel hospital-based CPR education program targeted to family members of patients at increased risk for SCA. DESIGN Prospective, multicenter, cohort study. SETTING Inpatient wards at three hospitals. SUBJECTS Family members of inpatients admitted with cardiac-related diagnoses. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS Family members were offered CPR training via a proctored video-self instruction (VSI) program. After training, CPR skills were assessed, in addition to participant perspectives regarding their training experience. Surveys were conducted one month post-discharge to measure the rate of “secondary training” of other individuals by enrolled family members. At the three study sites, 756 subjects were offered CPR instruction; 280 agreed to training and 136 underwent instruction using the VSI program. Of these, 78/136 (57%) had no previous CPR training. After training, chest compression performance was generally adequate (mean compression rate 90±26 /min, mean depth 37± 12 mm). At one month, 57/122 (47%) of subjects performed secondary training for friends or family members, with a calculated mean of 2.1 persons trained per kit distributed. CONCLUSIONS The hospital setting offers a unique “point of capture” to provide CPR instruction to an important, undertrained population in contact with at-risk individuals. PMID:20717891

  8. A globular complex formation by Nda1 and the other five members of the MCM protein family in fission yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhisa Adachi; Jiro Usukura; Mitsuhiro Yanagida

    1997-01-01

    Background: In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Nda1, Nda4, Mis5 and Cdc21 proteins belong to the MCM (minichromosome maintenance) pro- tein family which is thought to have six members. Each MCM member is required for the early stages of DNA replication, and has a well-conserved central 200-amino acid domain containing a puta- tive ATP binding motif. However, the precise molecular

  9. USACE Deployment Handbook for USACE Personnel and Family Members, December 2009, Version IX Send comments to: amira.s.fahmy@usace.army.mil

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    comments to: amira.s.fahmy@usace.army.mil January 2010 #12;2 USACE Deployment Handbook for USACE Personnel and Family Members, January 2010, Version IX Send comments to: FamilyReadiness@usace.army.mil Summary of changes USACE Deployment Handbook for USACE Personnel and Family Members U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

  10. Global analysis of target genes of 21 members of the ZAD transcription factor family in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Krystel, Joseph; Ayyanathan, Kasirajan

    2012-01-01

    The zinc-finger associated domain (ZAD) family is the largest transcription factor family in dipteran insects. Still, their functional significance is barely recognized in the literature due in part to their resistance to mutagenesis screens in genetic studies. Therefore, we employed in vitro techniques to identify the DNA-binding characteristics of several members of the Drosophila melanogaster ZAD family in an effort to study their target genes. In this comprehensive investigation, we constructed a panel of GST-Zinc finger (ZnF) array chimera from 21 selected ZAD proteins and used them to select binding sites from an oligonucleotide library by employing electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). Samples of the binding population were sequenced and used to derive DNA-binding consensus sequence for each member. These consensus sequences were tested for complex formation with their respective protein chimera and the specificity of binding ascertained by competition EMSA. Bioinformatics tools were used to identify potential genetic targets. The identified consensus sequences were distinct for each member and the putative genomic targets were clustered in the regulatory regions of specific genes. This appears to be consistent with a conservation of function between members and also suggests that the overlapping functions of ZAD proteins are the result of positive selection to maintain redundancy and not simply artifacts of recent expansion. Putative target genes suggest a major role of the ZAD family members in the regulation of several early developmental genes including homeobox transcription factors. PMID:23085320

  11. Which carers of family members at the end of life need more support from health services and why?

    PubMed

    McNamara, Beverley; Rosenwax, Lorna

    2010-04-01

    With end of life care a national priority in many countries, and the main place of care the family home, informal family carers are now considered the frontline of primary care. Yet we are insufficiently informed about the needs of carers, both during the time of caring and during bereavement. This study identifies which carers believed they did not get enough support from health services when caring for a terminally ill family member, what factors influenced perceptions of support, and whether inadequate support influenced the carer's health following the death of a family member. Unlike previous survey designs that explore end-of-life concerns, we were able to triangulate interview data from semi-structured telephone interviews (August 2005-June 2006) with a relatively large group of 1071 carers in Western Australia, with administrative records from death registrations, hospital morbidity and community care records from the 1071 deceased family members. The addition of administrative data allowed us to quantify hospital and community care service use. Data analysis consisted of summary statistics and logistic regressions for two groups of carers during the first few months of bereavement: those whose health got a bit/lot worse, and those who were not coping on most/all days. We found that carers were more likely to have poor health if they perceived they did not get enough support from health services and if the deceased family member did not die in the carer's preferred place of death. Additionally, carers were more likely to be not coping if they were aged 60 years or less, female, had lost a spouse/partner and the deceased family member did not die in the carer's preferred place. By identifying which carers are more vulnerable than others, carer education and practical support can be targeted to specific groups. Ideally resources for bereavement support should be extended into the months following the relative's death. PMID:20116158

  12. Coexpression of trk family members and low-affinity neurotrophin receptors in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hitoshi Kashiba; Koichi Noguchi; Yoshihiro Ueda; Emiko Senba

    1995-01-01

    We examined the colocalization of trk family and low-affinity neurotrophin receptor (LANR) mRNAs by means of in situ hybridization histochemistry in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. About 35–40%, 5%, and 15–20% of DRG neurons were positive for trkA, trkB, and trkC mRNAs, respectively. Each member of the trk family was coexpressed with LANR. The trkB mRNA-expressing neurons essentially lacked

  13. Expression of M-Cadherin, a Member of the Cadherin Multigene Family, Correlates with Differentiation of Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Donalies; Matthias Cramer; Martin Ringwald; Anna Starzinski-Powitz

    1991-01-01

    Cadherins, a multigene family of transmembrane glycoproteins, mediate Ca2+-dependent intercellular adhesion. They are thought to be essential for the control of morphogenetic processes, including myogenesis. Here we report the identification and characterization of the cDNA of another member of the cadherin family, M-cadherin (M for muscle), from differentiating muscle cells. The longest open reading frame of the cDNAs isolated contains

  14. Epithelial membrane protein-2 and epithelial membrane protein-3: two novel members of the peripheral myelin protein 22 gene family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Verdon Taylor; Ueli Suter

    1996-01-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is expressed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), and mutations affecting the PMP22 gene are associated with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies. We have previously defined the PMP22\\/EMP\\/MP20 gene family by characterizing the PMP22-related epithelial membrane protein-1 (EMP-1). We now report the identification of two additional members of the same family, epithelial

  15. In the aftermath of teenage suicide: A qualitative study of the psychosocial consequences for the surviving family members

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Per; Johansson, Lars; Karlsson, Urban

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies of family reactions following teenage suicide are hampered by the psychological difficulties of approaching families and recruiting an unbiased sample of study subjects. By using a small but consecutive series of cases, we examined the qualitative aspects of loosing a teenage family member due to suicide. Such an understanding is important for future organisation of proper programs that provide professional support in the grief process. Methods From a large project on teenage unnatural death in northern Sweden 1981–2000 (including 88 suicides), 13 cases from 1995 through 1998 were retrospectively identified and consecutively analysed. Ten families agreed to participate. The open interviews took place 15 to 25 months after the suicide. The information gathered was manually analysed according to a grounded theory model, resulting in allocation of data into one of three domains: post-suicidal reactions, impact on daily living, and families' need for support. Results Teenager suicide is a devastating trauma for the surviving family and the lack of sustainable explanations for the suicide is a predominant issue in the grief process. The prolonged social and psychological isolation of the families in grief should be challenged. At the time of the interview, the families were still struggling with explaining why the suicide occurred, especially since most suicides had occurred without overt premonitory signs. The bereaved family members were still profoundly affected by the loss, but all had returned to an ostensibly normal life. Post-suicide support was often badly timed and insufficient, especially for younger siblings. Conclusion Family doctors can organise a long-term, individually formulated support scheme for the bereaved, including laymen who can play a most significant role in the grief process. There is also a need for better understanding of the families who have lost a teenager whom committed suicide and for the development and testing of treatment schemes for the bereaved family. PMID:18426560

  16. A specific gene conversion of an Alu family member in the LDL-receptor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Deininger, P.L.; Kass, D.H.; Batzer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    There are about 500,000 Alu family members dispersed throughout the human genome. Each of these elements is about 300 bp long and they are spread through an RNA-mediated transposition process termed retroposition. The Alu elements are not identical in sequence, but instead seem to be randomly diverged from several subfamily consensus sequences. These subfamilies can be roughly divided, based on diagnostic nucleotide positions, into groups of Alu sequences inserted during different stages in primate evolution. A PCR-based assay in which we amplify a specific Alu-containing site in the genomes of different primates allows us to detect the time of insertion of that individual Alu element in the primate genome. In studying members of one of the youngest Alu subfamilies, Sb2, we detected one element that had apparently inserted over 25 million years ago, much earlier than any other Sb2 element tested. Upon sequencing the amplified PCR products, we found that an Alu was in that precise location for 25 million years, but only in the human genome was it an Sb2 element. Its sequence was consistent with the oldest (PS) Alu subfamily in the other primates. This element evolves as expected throughout primates with the exception of the human, where it has suddenly acquired 16 separate diagnostic subfamily mutations. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, this Alu element has been specifically gene converted by an Alu element from this newer subfamily, without affecting the flanking sequences at all. It is clear that the majority of Alu subfamily evolution is dominated by insertion processes. However, this event shows that some of the details of Alu subfamily evolution may also be affected by gene conservation. Studies on several humans also show that this locus continued to accumulate mutations at an exceptionally high level after the conversion, making it useful as a polymorphic marker for the LDL-receptor locus.

  17. The Millennium Cohort Family Study: a prospective evaluation of the health and well-being of military service members and their families.

    PubMed

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Fairbank, John A; Marmar, Charlie R; Schlenger, William

    2014-09-01

    The need to understand the impact of war on military families has never been greater than during the past decade, with more than three million military spouses and children affected by deployments to Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom. Understanding the impact of the recent conflicts on families is a national priority, however, most studies have examined spouses and children individually, rather than concurrently as families. The Department of Defense (DoD) has recently initiated the largest study of military families in US military history (the Millennium Cohort Family Study), which includes dyads of military service members and their spouses (n?>?10,000). This study includes US military families across the globe with planned follow-up for 21+ years to evaluate the impact of military experiences on families, including both during and after military service time. This review provides a comprehensive description of this landmark study including details on the research objectives, methodology, survey instrument, ancillary data sets, and analytic plans. The Millennium Cohort Family Study offers a unique opportunity to define the challenges that military families experience, and to advance the understanding of protective and vulnerability factors for designing training and treatment programs that will benefit military families today and into the future. PMID:24912670

  18. Members of the chloride intracellular ion channel protein family demonstrate glutaredoxin-like enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Al Khamici, Heba; Brown, Louise J; Hossain, Khondker R; Hudson, Amanda L; Sinclair-Burton, Alxcia A; Ng, Jane Phui Mun; Daniel, Elizabeth L; Hare, Joanna E; Cornell, Bruce A; Curmi, Paul M G; Davey, Mary W; Valenzuela, Stella M

    2015-01-01

    The Chloride Intracellular Ion Channel (CLIC) family consists of six evolutionarily conserved proteins in humans. Members of this family are unusual, existing as both monomeric soluble proteins and as integral membrane proteins where they function as chloride selective ion channels, however no function has previously been assigned to their soluble form. Structural studies have shown that in the soluble form, CLIC proteins adopt a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fold, however, they have an active site with a conserved glutaredoxin monothiol motif, similar to the omega class GSTs. We demonstrate that CLIC proteins have glutaredoxin-like glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase enzymatic activity. CLICs 1, 2 and 4 demonstrate typical glutaredoxin-like activity using 2-hydroxyethyl disulfide as a substrate. Mutagenesis experiments identify cysteine 24 as the catalytic cysteine residue in CLIC1, which is consistent with its structure. CLIC1 was shown to reduce sodium selenite and dehydroascorbate in a glutathione-dependent manner. Previous electrophysiological studies have shown that the drugs IAA-94 and A9C specifically block CLIC channel activity. These same compounds inhibit CLIC1 oxidoreductase activity. This work for the first time assigns a functional activity to the soluble form of the CLIC proteins. Our results demonstrate that the soluble form of the CLIC proteins has an enzymatic activity that is distinct from the channel activity of their integral membrane form. This CLIC enzymatic activity may be important for protecting the intracellular environment against oxidation. It is also likely that this enzymatic activity regulates the CLIC ion channel function. PMID:25581026

  19. Allosalinactinospora lopnorensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Nocardiopsaceae isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lin; Tuo, Li; Habden, Xugela; Zhang, Yuqin; Liu, Jiameng; Jiang, Zhongke; Liu, Shaowei; Dilbar, Tohty; Sun, Chenghang

    2015-01-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain CA15-2(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from the rhizosphere of tamarisk in the Lop Nor region, Xinjiang, China, and was characterized by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Optimal growth occurred at 37 °C and pH 7.5-8.0 and with 5% (w/v) NaCl. Strain CA15-2(T) formed white to pale-yellow branched substrate mycelium without fragmentation and sparse aerial mycelium with wavelike curves. Whole-cell hydrolysates of the isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid of the cell wall but no diagnostic sugars. The polar lipids comprised diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified glycolipid, one unidentified phospholipid and other unidentified lipids. MK-9(H8), MK-10(H8) and MK-10(H6) were the predominant menaquinones. The major fatty acids were iso-C16:0 and C16:0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 69.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain CA15-2(T) formed a distinct subclade in the family Nocardiopsaceae, with less than 95% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to all known members of the family Nocardiopsaceae. On the basis of the evidence from our polyphasic study, a novel genus, Allosalinactinospora gen. nov., is proposed, with the type species Allosalinactinospora lopnorensis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Allosalinactinospora lopnorensis is strain CA15-2(T) (?=?DSM 45697(T)?=CGMCC 4.7074(T)). PMID:25332211

  20. Upolu virus and Aransas Bay virus, Two Presumptive Bunyaviruses, Are Novel Members of the Family Orthomyxoviridae

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Rashmi; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Popov, Vsevolod; Street, Craig; Tesh, Robert B.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Emerging and zoonotic pathogens pose continuing threats to human health and ongoing challenges to diagnostics. As nucleic acid tests are playing increasingly prominent roles in diagnostics, the genetic characterization of molecularly uncharacterized agents is expected to significantly enhance detection and surveillance capabilities. We report the identification of two previously unrecognized members of the family Orthomyxoviridae, which includes the influenza viruses and the tick-transmitted Thogoto and Dhori viruses. We provide morphological, serologic, and genetic evidence that Upolu virus (UPOV) from Australia and Aransas Bay virus (ABV) from North America, both previously considered potential bunyaviruses based on electron microscopy and physicochemical features, are orthomyxoviruses instead. Their genomes show up to 68% nucleotide sequence identity to Thogoto virus (segment 2; ?74% at the amino acid level) and a more distant relationship to Dhori virus, the two prototype viruses of the recognized species of the genus Thogotovirus. Despite sequence similarity, the coding potentials of UPOV and ABV differed from that of Thogoto virus, instead being like that of Dhori virus. Our findings suggest that the tick-transmitted viruses UPOV and ABV represent geographically distinct viruses in the genus Thogotovirus of the family Orthomyxoviridae that do not fit in the two currently recognized species of this genus. IMPORTANCE Upolu virus (UPOV) and Aransas Bay virus (ABV) are shown to be orthomyxoviruses instead of bunyaviruses, as previously thought. Genetic characterization and adequate classification of agents are paramount in this molecular age to devise appropriate surveillance and diagnostics. Although more closely related to Thogoto virus by sequence, UPOV and ABV differ in their coding potentials by lacking a proposed pathogenicity factor. In this respect, they are similar to Dhori virus, which, despite the lack of a pathogenicity factor, can cause disease. These findings enable further studies into the evolution and pathogenicity of orthomyxoviruses. PMID:24574415

  1. An Investigation of Violent and Nonviolent Adolescents' Family Functioning, Problems Concerning Family Members, Anger and Anger Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Rasit; Gucray, Songul Sonay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to (a) investigate the families of violent and nonviolent adolescents in terms of family functioning, trait anger and anger expression, and (b) compare incidence of psychological problems, alcohol usage and delinquent behaviors. The sample consisted of families of both violent (n = 54) and nonviolent adolescents (n =…

  2. CERTIFICATION OF PHYSICIAN/PRACTITIONER FAMILY MEMBER HEALTH CONDITION RETURN TO: Human Resources, University of Oregon, 677 East 12th

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    involves: (1) Treatment3 two or more times by health care provider, by a nurse or physician's assistant for treatment by a health care provider, or by a nurse or physician's assistant under direct supervisionCERTIFICATION OF PHYSICIAN/PRACTITIONER FAMILY MEMBER HEALTH CONDITION RETURN TO: Human Resources

  3. Molecular Cell, Vol. 2, 163171, August, 1998, Copyright 1998 by Cell Press Direct Binding of CDC20 Protein Family Members

    E-print Network

    Fang, Guowei

    20 Protein Family Members Activates the Anaphase-Promoting Complex in Mitosis and G1 Biochemical further ubiquitins to the ubiquiti-mitosis. We show that APC is activated during mitosis nated substrate as mediated destruction of anaphase inhibitors, Pds1p inwell as its bindingto APC peak in mitosis and decrease

  4. Members of the Hedgehog (Hh) family of signaling proteins control cell fates and proliferation during animal development in

    E-print Network

    Quake, Stephen R.

    450 Members of the Hedgehog (Hh) family of signaling proteins control cell fates and proliferation cell nevus syndrome CBP CREB-binding protein Ci Cubitus interruptus Cos2 Costal 2 Fu Fused Hh Hedgehog NP-C Niemann­Pick Type C disease PKA protein kinase A Ptc Patched Shh Sonic hedgehog Smo Smoothened

  5. [Supply and demand in the meetings between mental health professionals and family members of people with mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Constantinidis, Teresinha Cid; de Andrade, Angela Nobre

    2015-02-01

    This paper is a development of a doctoral thesis presented at the Federal University of Espírito Santo. It seeks to analyze the elucidation of needs, development of supply and demand in the provision of care and the relationship between mental health professionals and family members of people with mental disorders. A qualitative research approach was used as the method of choice to achieve the proposed objectives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with mental health professionals from two psychosocial care centers (CAPS) in the city of Vitória, Espírito Santo, and with family members of frequenters of these institutions. After thematic analysis of content, senses, meanings and values assigned to the needs, supplies and demands present in this relationship were revealed. It highlighted the disparity between supply and demand and the lack of awareness of the needs of family members and their demands related to the routines of mental institutions. Using ethics in the philosophy of Spinoza as a benchmark, the ramifications of this process are discussed in the meetings between mental health professionals and family members of people with mental disorders and the micropolitics of the provision of care in the context of these actors. PMID:25715127

  6. Forming alliances: Toward a grounded theory of the nurse caring for the family caregiver of a schizophrenic member

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alice Rose Kempe

    1994-01-01

    This qualitative, descriptive study identified and explained the conceptual category of forming alliances that occurred between the psychiatric nurse and the family caregiver with a schizophrenic member during entry into the emergency care setting. Forming alliances was facilitated by the process of Making the Most of the Moment. Three strategies were identified that nurses used to Make the Most of

  7. Greetings Titan Parents and Family Members! I would like to welcome you once more to the Titan

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Greetings Titan Parents and Family Members! I would like to welcome you once more to the Titan with helpful information and useful tools, we have developed our first parent newsletter, Titan Parent are Kandy Mink Salas, Dean of Students Welcome New Titan Parents! A Message from our Dean of Students INSIDE

  8. Expression of most matrix metalloproteinase family members in breast cancer represents a tumor-induced host response.

    PubMed Central

    Heppner, K. J.; Matrisian, L. M.; Jensen, R. A.; Rodgers, W. H.

    1996-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family members have been associated with advanced-stage cancer and contribute to tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis as determined by inhibitor studies. In situ hybridization was performed to analyze the expression and localization of all known MMPs in a series of human breast cancer biopsy specimens. Most MMPs were localized to tumor stroma, and all MMPs had very distinct expression patterns. Matrilysin was expressed by morphologically normal epithelial ducts within tumors and in tissue from reduction mammoplasties, and by epithelial-derived tumor cells. Many family members, including stromelysin-3, gelatinase A, MT-MMP, interstitial collagenase, and stromelysin-1 were localized to fibroblasts of tumor stroma of invasive cancers but in quite distinct, and generally widespread, patterns. Gelatinase B, collagenase-3, and metalloelastase expression were more focal; gelatinase B was primarily localized to endothelial cells, collagenase-3 to isolated tumor cells, and metalloelastase to cytokeratin-negative, macrophage-like cells. The MMP inhibitor, TIMP-1, was expressed in both stromal and tumor components in most tumors, and neither stromelysin-2 nor neutrophil collagenase were detected in any of the tumors. These results indicate that there is very tight and complex regulation in the expression of MMP family members in breast cancer that generally represents a host response to the tumor and emphasize the need to further evaluate differential functions for MMP family members in breast tumor progression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8686751

  9. TALL-1 is a novel member of the TNF family that is down-regulated by mitogens

    E-print Network

    Hu, Wen-Hui

    and FasL/ApoL. This search identified multiple EST clones that encode two different human genes. We have the identification and cloning of a novel TNF family member that has been designated as TALL-1. TALL-1 is a 285-aminoBank EST database with the TBLASTN program for genes homologous to the extracellular domains of human TNF

  10. Applying the 5-Step Method to Children and Affected Family Members: Opportunities and Challenges within Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwin, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to consider how the 5-Step Method could be developed to meet the needs of affected family members (AFMs) with children under the age of 18. This would be an entirely new development. This article examines opportunities and challenges within practice and policy and makes suggestions on how the Method could be taken…

  11. Differential expression of three members of the multidomain adhesion CCp family in babesia bigemina, babesia bovis and theileria equi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the CCp protein family have been previously described to be expressed on gametocytes of apicomplexan Plasmodium parasites. Knocking out Plasmodium CCp genes blocks the development of the parasite in the mosquito vector, making the CCp proteins potential targets for the development of a tr...

  12. Diatom PtCPF1 is a new cryptochrome\\/photolyase family member with DNA repair and transcription regulation activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sacha Coesel; Manuela Mangogna; Tomoko Ishikawa; Marc Heijde; Alessandra Rogato; Giovanni Finazzi; Takeshi Todo; Chris Bowler; Angela Falciatore

    2009-01-01

    Members of the cryptochrome\\/photolyase family (CPF) are widely distributed throughout all kingdoms, and encode photosensitive proteins that typically show either photoreceptor or DNA repair activity. Animal and plant cryptochromes have lost DNA repair activity and now perform specialized photoperceptory functions, for example, plant cryptochromes regulate growth and circadian rhythms, whereas mammalian and insect cryptochromes act as transcriptional repressors that control

  13. Coping With Academic FailureGender Differences in Students' Self-Reported Interactions With Family Members and Friends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Rydell Altermatt

    2007-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the interactions early adolescent students report having with significant others following academic failure and the consequences of these interactions for student worry. The 5th- through 8th-grade students ( N = 297) reported on their general strategies for coping with academic failure, the nature of their everyday interactions with family members and friends following failure,

  14. Activation of RAS family members confers resistance to ROS1 targeting drugs

    PubMed Central

    Cargnelutti, Marilisa; Corso, Simona; Pergolizzi, Margherita; Mévellec, Laurence; Aisner, Dara L.; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Comoglio, Paolo M.; Doebele, Robert C.; Vialard, Jorge; Giordano, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The ROS1 tyrosine kinase is activated in lung cancer as a consequence of chromosomal rearrangement. Although high response rates and disease control have been observed in lung cancer patients bearing rearranged ROS1 tumors (ROS1+) treated with the kinase inhibitor crizotinib, many of these patients eventually relapse. To identify mechanisms of resistance to ROS1 inhibitors we generated resistant cells from HCC78 lung cancer cells bearing the SLC34A2-ROS1 rearrangement. We found that activation of the RAS pathway in the HCC78 cell model, due to either KRAS/NRAS mutations or to KRAS amplification, rendered the cells resistant to ROS1 inhibition. These cells were cross-resistant to different ROS1 inhibitors, but sensitive to inhibitors of the RAS signaling pathway. Interestingly, we identified focal KRAS amplification in a biopsy of a tumor from a patient that had become resistant to crizotinib treatment. Altogether our data suggest that the activation of members of the RAS family can confer resistance to ROS1 inhibitors. This has important clinical implications as: (i) RAS genetic alterations in ROS1+ primary tumors are likely negative predictors of efficacy for targeted drugs and (ii) this kind of resistance is unlikely to be overcome by the use of more specific or more potent ROS1 targeting drugs. PMID:25691052

  15. Asian prunus viruses: New related members of the family Flexiviridae in Prunus germplasm of Asian origin.

    PubMed

    Marais, A; Svanella-Dumas, L; Foissac, X; Gentit, P; Candresse, T

    2006-09-01

    Serological reactivity to Plum pox virus (PPV) antisera has been described in several Prunus sources of Asian origin that are free of PPV infection. Using polyvalent or specific PCR assays, the presence of three closely related agents in two of these sources, Prunus mume cv. Bungo and P. persica cv. Ku Chu'a Hung, was demonstrated. Similarities in genome organization and sequence comparisons indicate that these agents should be regarded as members of the genus Foveavirus, their only singular trait being a very large (>800 nt) 3' non-coding region (NCR), as compared to the ca. 130-180 nt 3' NCR observed in other Foveaviruses. The three agents are very divergent from known Foveaviruses but are also significantly removed one from the others, with overall nucleotide sequence identity levels in the sequenced region of ca. 74-76% and of only 60.8-67.5% in their complete CP gene (61.9-71.3% amino acid sequence identity). Given the species discrimination criteria in the family Flexiviridae, these three agents should be regarded as three related yet distinct new viruses belonging to the Foveavirus genus, for which the names Asian prunus virus 1, 2 and 3 are proposed. Evidence is provided for the presence of variants of these new viruses in other Prunus germplasm of Asian origin. PMID:16621102

  16. New functions of the chloroplast Preprotein and Amino acid Transporter (PRAT) family members in protein import.

    PubMed

    Rossig, Claudia; Reinbothe, Christiane; Gray, John; Valdes, Oscar; von Wettstein, Diter; Reinbothe, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Plant cells contain distinct compartments such as the nucleus, the endomembrane system comprising the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, peroxisomes, vacuoles, as well as mitochondria and chloroplasts. All of these compartments are surrounded by 1 or 2 limiting membranes and need to import proteins from the cytosol. Previous work led to the conclusion that mitochondria and chloroplasts use structurally different protein import machineries in their outer and inner membranes for the uptake of cytosolic precursor proteins. Our most recent data show that there is some unexpected overlap. Three members of the family of preprotein and amino acid transporters, PRAT, were identified in chloroplasts that mediate the uptake of transit sequence-less proteins into the inner plastid envelope membrane. By analogy, mitochondria contain with TIM22 a related PRAT protein that is involved in the import of transit sequence-less proteins into the inner mitochondrial membrane. Both mitochondria and chloroplasts thus make use of similar import mechanisms to deliver some of their proteins to their final place. Because single homologs of HP20- and HP30-like proteins are present in algae such as Chlamydomonas, Ostreococcus, and Volvox, which diverged from land plants approximately 1 billion years ago, it is likely that the discovered PRAT-mediated mechanism of protein translocation evolved concomitantly with the secondary endosymbiotic event that gave rise to green plants. PMID:24476934

  17. Novel Importin-? Family Member Kpna7 Is Required for Normal Fertility and Fecundity in the Mouse*

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianjun; Wang, Fengchao; Yuan, Ye; Zhu, Xiaoquan; Wang, Yixuan; Zhang, Yu; Kou, Zhaohui; Wang, Shufang; Gao, Shaorong

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear importing system and nuclear factors play important roles in mediating nuclear reprogramming and zygotic gene activation. However, the components and mechanisms that mediate nuclearly specific targeting of the nuclear proteins during nuclear reprogramming and zygotic gene activation remain largely unknown. Here, we identified a novel member of the importin-? family, AW146299(KPNA7), which is predominantly expressed in mouse oocytes and zygotes and localizes to the nucleus or spindle. Mutation of Kpna7 gene caused reproductivity reduction and sex imbalance by inducing preferential fetal lethality in females. Parthenogenesis analysis showed that the cell cycle of activated one-cell embryos is loss of control and ahead of schedule but finally failed to develop into blastocyst stage. Further RT-PCR and epigenetic modification analysis showed that knocking out of Kpna7 induced abnormalities of gene expression (dppa2, dppa4, and piwil2) and epigenetic modifications (down-regulation of histone H3K27me3). Biochemical analysis showed that KPNA7 interacts with KPNB1 (importin-?1). In summary, we identified a novel Kpna7 gene that is required for normal fertility and fecundity. PMID:20699224

  18. Cage-Like B41 (+) and B42 (2+) : New Chiral Members of the Borospherene Family.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Su-Yan; Bai, Hui; Tian, Wen-Juan; Gao, Ting; Li, Hai-Ru; Miao, Chang-Qing; Mu, Yue-Wen; Lu, Hai-Gang; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian

    2015-07-01

    The newly discovered borospherenes B40 (-/0) and B39 (-) mark the onset of a new class of boron nanostructures. Based on extensive first-principles calculations, we introduce herein two new chiral members to the borospherene family: the cage-like C1 B41 (+) (1) and C2 B42 (2+) (2), both of which are the global minima of the systems with degenerate enantiomers. These chiral borospherene cations are composed of twelve interwoven boron double chains with six hexagonal and heptagonal faces and may be viewed as the cuborenes analogous to cubane (C8 H8 ). Chemical bonding analyses show that there exists a three-center two-electron ??bond on each B3 triangle and twelve multicenter two-electron ??bonds over the ??skeleton. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that C1 B41 (+) (1) fluctuates above 300?K, whereas C2 B42 (2+) (2) remains dynamically stable. The infrared and Raman spectra of these borospherene cations are predicted to facilitate their experimental characterizations. PMID:26014224

  19. Synthesis of some members of the hydroxylated phenanthridone subclass of the Amaryllidaceae alkaloid family.

    PubMed

    Padwa, Albert; Zhang, Hongjun

    2007-03-30

    The total synthesis of several members of the hydroxylated phenanthridone subclass of the Amaryllidaceae alkaloid family has been carried out. (+/-)-Lycoricidine and (+/-)-7-deoxypancratistatin were assembled through a one-pot Stille/intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition cascade to construct the core skeleton. The initially formed [4+2]-cycloadduct undergoes nitrogen-assisted ring opening followed by a deprotonation/reprotonation of the resulting zwitterion to give a rearranged hexahydroindolinone on further heating at 160 degrees C. The stereochemical outcome of the IMDAF cycloaddition has the side arm of the tethered vinyl group oriented exo with respect to the oxygen bridge. The resulting cycloadduct was used for the stereocontrolled installation of the remaining functionality present in the C-ring of the target molecules. Key features of the synthetic strategy include (1) a lithium hydroxide induced tandem hydrolysis/decarboxylation/elimination sequence to introduce the required pi-bond in the C-ring of (+/-)-lycoricidine, and (2) conversion of the initially formed Diels-Alder adduct into an aldehyde intermediate which then undergoes a stereospecific decarbonylation reaction mediated by Wilkinson's catalyst to set the trans-B-C ring junction of (+/-)-7-deoxypancratistatin. PMID:17338575

  20. Lsh, chromatin remodeling family member, modulates genome-wide cytosine methylation patterns at nonrepeat sequences.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yongguang; Xi, Sichuan; Shan, Jigui; Maunakea, Alika; Che, Anney; Briones, Victorino; Lee, Eunice Y; Geiman, Theresa; Huang, Jiaqiang; Stephens, Robert; Leighty, Robert M; Zhao, Keji; Muegge, Kathrin

    2011-04-01

    DNA methylation is critical for normal development and plays important roles in genome organization and transcriptional regulation. Although DNA methyltransferases have been identified, the factors that establish and contribute to genome-wide methylation patterns remain elusive. Here, we report a high-resolution cytosine methylation map of the murine genome modulated by Lsh, a chromatin remodeling family member that has previously been shown to regulate CpG methylation at repetitive sequences. We provide evidence that Lsh also controls genome-wide cytosine methylation at nonrepeat sequences and relate those changes to alterations in H4K4me3 modification and gene expression. Deletion of Lsh alters the allocation of cytosine methylation in chromosomal regions of 50 kb to 2 Mb and, in addition, leads to changes in the methylation profile at the 5' end of genes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that loss of Lsh promotes--as well as prevents--cytosine methylation. Our data indicate that Lsh is an epigenetic modulator that is critical for normal distribution of cytosine methylation throughout the murine genome. PMID:21427231

  1. Differential Expression of Two Novel Members of the Tomato Ethylene-Receptor Family

    PubMed Central

    Tieman, Denise M.; Klee, Harry J.

    1999-01-01

    The phytohormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development, and environmental responses. Much of the developmental regulation of ethylene responses in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) occurs at the level of hormone sensitivity. In an effort to understand the regulation of ethylene responses, we isolated and characterized tomato genes with sequence similarity to the Arabidopsis ETR1 (ethylene response 1) ethylene receptor. Previously, we isolated three genes that exhibit high similarity to ETR1 and to each other. Here we report the isolation of two additional genes, LeETR4 and LeETR5, that are only 42% and 40% identical to ETR1, respectively. Although the amino acids known to be involved in ethylene binding are conserved, LeETR5 lacks the histidine within the kinase domain that is predicted to be phosphorylated. This suggests that histidine kinase activity is not necessary for an ethylene response, because mutated forms of both LeETR4 and LeETR5 confer dominant ethylene insensitivity in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression analysis indicates that LeETR4 accounts for most of the putative ethylene-receptor mRNA present in reproductive tissues, but, like LeETR5, it is less abundant in vegetative tissues. Taken together, ethylene perception in tomato is potentially quite complex, with at least five structurally divergent, putative receptor family members exhibiting significant variation in expression levels throughout development. PMID:10318694

  2. Platelet-derived S100 family member myeloid-related protein-14 regulates thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunmei; Fang, Chao; Gao, Huiyun; Bilodeau, Matthew L.; Zhang, Zijie; Croce, Kevin; Liu, Shijian; Morooka, Toshifumi; Sakuma, Masashi; Nakajima, Kohsuke; Yoneda, Shuichi; Shi, Can; Zidar, David; Andre, Patrick; Stephens, Gillian; Silverstein, Roy L.; Hogg, Nancy; Schmaier, Alvin H.; Simon, Daniel I.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of the gene encoding the S100 calcium–modulated protein family member MRP-14 (also known as S100A9) is elevated in platelets from patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (MI) compared with those from patients with stable coronary artery disease; however, a causal role for MRP-14 in acute coronary syndromes has not been established. Here, using multiple models of vascular injury, we found that time to arterial thrombotic occlusion was markedly prolonged in Mrp14–/– mice. We observed that MRP-14 and MRP-8/MRP-14 heterodimers (S100A8/A9) are expressed in and secreted by platelets from WT mice and that thrombus formation was reduced in whole blood from Mrp14–/– mice. Infusion of WT platelets, purified MRP-14, or purified MRP-8/MRP-14 heterodimers into Mrp14–/– mice decreased the time to carotid artery occlusion after injury, indicating that platelet-derived MRP-14 directly regulates thrombosis. In contrast, infusion of purified MRP-14 into mice deficient for both MRP-14 and CD36 failed to reduce carotid occlusion times, indicating that CD36 is required for MRP-14–dependent thrombosis. Our data identify a molecular pathway of thrombosis that involves platelet MRP-14 and CD36 and suggest that targeting MRP-14 has potential for treating atherothrombotic disorders, including MI and stroke. PMID:24691441

  3. Parasutterella excrementihominis gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Alcaligenaceae isolated from human faeces.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Fumiko; Morotomi, Masami; Sakon, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Ryuichiro

    2009-07-01

    A novel, strictly anaerobic, non-spore-forming, Gram-negative coccobacillus (strain YIT 11859(T)) was isolated from human faeces. Biochemically, this strain was largely unreactive and was asaccharolytic. Growth of strain YIT 11859(T) in peptone-yeast extract broth produced no visible turbidity, and a trace amount of propionate was detected as an end product of metabolism. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain YIT 11859(T) was related most closely to the type strains of Sutterella species, with 90.8-88.0 % sequence similarity. Phylogenetic analysis of these and other related sequences confirmed that strain YIT 11859(T) was phylogenetically most closely associated with Sutterella species, but formed a separate cluster, indicating that strain YIT 11859(T) represents a novel member of the family Alcaligenaceae. Fatty acid analysis demonstrated the presence of a high concentration of C(18 : 1)omega9c (75 % of the total). The main respiratory quinones were menaquinone (MK-6) and methylated menaquinone (MMK-6). The G+C content of the DNA was 49.8 mol%. These results suggest that strain YIT 11859(T) represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Parasutterella excrementihominis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Parasutterella excrementihominis is YIT 11859(T) (=DSM 21040(T) =JCM 15078(T)). PMID:19542131

  4. STS-103 crew members and their families pose for a portrait before DEPARTing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-103 crew pose for a group portrait with their families and loved ones on the runway at Patrick Air Force Base in Cocoa Beach, Fla. They are preparing to board an airplane that will return them to their home base at the Johnson Space Center in Houston following the successful completion of their mission. From left to right, the crew members are Mission Specialists John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, and Steven L. Smith; Pilot Scott J. Kelly; and Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. Discovery landed in darkness the previous evening, Dec. 27, on runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. This was the first time that a Shuttle crew spent the Christmas holiday in space. The STS-103 mission accomplished outfitting the Hubble Space Telescope with six new gyroscopes, six new voltage/temperature improvement kits, a new onboard computer, a new solid state recorder and new data transmitter, a new fine guidance sensor along with new insulation on parts of the orbiting telescope. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery.

  5. Mhp107 Is a Member of the Multifunctional Adhesin Family of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae*

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Lisa M.; Falconer, Linda; Deutscher, Ania T.; Minion, F. Chris; Padula, Matthew P.; Dixon, Nicholas E.; Djordjevic, Steven P.; Walker, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the causative pathogen of porcine enzootic pneumonia, an economically significant disease that disrupts the mucociliary escalator in the swine respiratory tract. Expression of Mhp107, a P97 paralog encoded by the gene mhp107, was confirmed using ESI-MS/MS. To investigate the function of Mhp107, three recombinant proteins, F1Mhp107, F2Mhp107, and F3Mhp107, spanning the N-terminal, central, and C-terminal regions of Mhp107 were constructed. Colonization of swine by M. hyopneumoniae requires adherence of the bacterium to ciliated cells of the respiratory tract. Recent studies have identified a number of M. hyopneumoniae adhesins that bind heparin, fibronectin, and plasminogen. F1Mhp107 was found to bind porcine heparin (KD ?90 nm) in a dose-dependent and saturable manner, whereas F3Mhp107 bound fibronectin (KD ?180 nm) at physiologically relevant concentrations. F1Mhp107 also bound porcine plasminogen (KD = 24 nm) in a dose-dependent and physiologically relevant manner. Microspheres coated with F3Mhp107 mediate adherence to porcine kidney epithelial-like (PK15) cells, and all three recombinant proteins (F1Mhp107-F3Mhp107) bound swine respiratory cilia. Together, these findings indicate that Mhp107 is a member of the multifunctional M. hyopneumoniae adhesin family of surface proteins and contributes to both adherence to the host and pathogenesis. PMID:21245147

  6. Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) Family Members in Helminth Infections

    PubMed Central

    Becerra-Díaz, Mireya; Valderrama-Carvajal, Héctor; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2011-01-01

    Helminth parasites are a diverse group of multicellular organisms. Despite their heterogeneity, helminths share many common characteristics, such as the modulation of the immune system of their hosts towards a permissive state that favors their development. They induce strong Th2-like responses with high levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 cytokines, and decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-?. IL-4, IFN-? and other cytokines bind with their specific cytokine receptors to trigger an immediate signaling pathway in which different tyrosine kinases (e.g. Janus kinases) are involved. Furthermore, a seven-member family of transcription factors named Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) that initiate the transcriptional activation of different genes are also involved and regulate downstream the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. However, how helminths avoid and modulate immune responses remains unclear; moreover, information concerning STAT-mediated immune regulation during helminth infections is scarce. Here, we review the research on mice deficient in STAT molecules, highlighting the importance of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in regulating susceptibility and/or resistance in these infections. PMID:22110388

  7. Associations between violent video gaming, empathic concern, and prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends, and family members.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Ashley M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, Larry J; Stockdale, Laura A

    2012-05-01

    Exposure to media violence, including violent video gaming, can have a cognitive desensitization effect, lowering empathic concern for others in need. Since emerging adulthood offers increased opportunities to volunteer, strengthen relationships, and initiate new relationships, decreases in empathic concern and prosocial behavior may prove inhibitive to optimal development during this time. For these reasons, the current study investigated associations between violent video gaming, empathic responding, and prosocial behavior enacted toward strangers, friends, and family members. Participants consisted of 780 emerging adults (M age = 19.60, SD = 1.86, range = 18–29, 69% female, 69% Caucasian) from four universities in the United States. Results showed small to moderate effects between playing violent video gaming and lowered empathic concern for both males and females. In addition, lowered empathic concern partially mediated the pathways between violent video gaming and prosocial behavior toward all three targets (at the level of a trend for females), but was most strongly associated with lower prosocial behavior toward strangers. Discussion highlights how violent video gaming is associated with lower levels of prosocial behavior through the mechanism of decreased empathic concern, how this association can affect prosocial behavior differently across target, and finally what implications this might have for development during emerging adulthood. PMID:22302216

  8. Impact of conditional deletion of the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BIM in mice

    PubMed Central

    Herold, M J; Stuchbery, R; Mérino, D; Willson, T; Strasser, A; Hildeman, D; Bouillet, P

    2014-01-01

    The pro-apoptotic BH3-only BCL-2 family member BIM is a critical determinant of hematopoietic cell development and homeostasis. It has been argued that the striking hematopoietic abnormalities of BIM-deficient mice (accumulation of lymphocytes and granulocytes) may be the result of the loss of the protein throughout the whole animal rather than a consequence intrinsic to the loss of BIM in hematopoietic cells. To address this issue and allow the deletion of BIM in specific cell types in future studies, we have developed a mouse strain with a conditional Bim allele as well as a new Cre transgenic strain, Vav-CreER, in which the tamoxifen-inducible CreER recombinase (fusion protein) is predominantly expressed in the hematopoietic system. We show that acute loss of BIM in the adult mouse rapidly results in the hematopoietic phenotypes previously observed in mice lacking BIM in all tissues. This includes changes in thymocyte subpopulations, increased white blood cell counts and resistance of lymphocytes to BIM-dependent apoptotic stimuli, such as cytokine deprivation. We have validated this novel conditional Bim knockout mouse model using established and newly developed CreER strains (Rosa26-CreER and Vav-CreER) and will make these exciting new tools for studies on cell death and cancer available. PMID:25299771

  9. Hepatitis B virus upregulates the expression of kinesin family member 4A.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cheng-Liang; Cheng, Duo-Zhi; Liu, Fang; Yan, Xiao-Hong; Wu, Kai-Lang; Wang, Fu-Bing; Liu, Xing-Hui

    2015-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Kinesin family member 4A (KIF4A) is a microtubule?based motor protein, which is upregulated in cervical and lung cancer. However, the expression of KIF4A in HBV?associated HCC, and the effect of HBV on the expression of KIF4A remain to be elucidated. In the present study, the expression profiles of KIF4A were examined in cancerous tissues and paracancerous tissues from patients with HCC, who presented with histories of chronic HBV infection, and the role of HBV in the induction of the expression of KIF4A was investigated. HepG2 cells were transfected with the pHBV1.3, HBV infectious clone and a construct, which contained the luciferase gene under the control of the KIF4A gene promoter. The results demonstrated that the expression of KIF4A was significantly higher in the HCC tissues than in the paracancerous tissues. HBV activated the KIF4A gene promoter and upregulated the mRNA and protein expression of KIF4A. Furthermore, activation of the gene expression of KIF4A increased in a pHBV1.3 concentration?dependent manner. These results provide novel insights into the understanding of HCC oncogenesis caused by HBV. PMID:25998931

  10. [Genome-wide prediction of interferon family members of tree shrew and their molecular characteristics analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Li; Tian, Wei-Wei; Gao, Yue-Dong; Guo, Yan; Huang, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Hua-Tang

    2012-02-01

    Interferons (IFNs) represent proteins with antiviral activities that are secreted from cells in response to a variety of stimuli. In addition to antiviral, antibacterial and anti-parasitic host-defense functions they are now also recognized as crucial regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, survival and death as well as activators of specialized cell functions particularly in the immune system and play important roles in infectious and inflammatory diseases, autoimmunity and cancer. Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) were found to be susceptible to several human viruses and therefore are widely regarded as good models for analyzing mechanism of human diseases. In this report, we have forecasted the interferon family members of tree shrew from its genome mainly using the methods like Blast (whole genome shotgun sequence) and gene prediction. Our data show that tree shrew interferon system includes: type I IFN: ? (five subtypes), ?, ?, ?, epsilon, ?; type II IFN: ?; type III IFN: ?1, ?2/3. Furthermore, the predicted structures of ? and ? have similar character with those of other mammals. However, there are some differences in cysteine position and N-glycosylation numbers between human and Tree shrew IFNs. These results provide fundamental basis for further molecular cloning and function analysis of tree shrew IFNs in future. PMID:22345011

  11. Paradoxical Role of an Egr Transcription Factor Family Member, Egr2/Krox20, in Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Roseline; Cheval, Hélène; Mailhes, Caroline; Charnay, Patrick; Davis, Sabrina; Laroche, Serge

    2007-01-01

    It is well established that Egr1/zif268, a member of the Egr family of transcription factors, is critical for the consolidation of several forms of memories. Recently, the Egr3 family member has also been implicated in learning and memory. Because Egr family members encode closely related zinc-finger transcription factors sharing a highly homologous DNA binding domain that recognises the same DNA sequence, they may have related functions in brain. Another Egr family member expressed in brain, Egr2/Krox20 is known to be crucial for normal hindbrain development and has been implicated in several inherited peripheral neuropathies; however, due to Egr2-null mice perinatal lethality, its potential role in cognitive functions in the adult has not been yet explored. Here, we generated Egr2 conditional mutant mice allowing postnatal, forebrain-specific Cre-mediated Egr2 excision and tested homozygous, heterozygous and control littermates on a battery of behavioural tasks to evaluate motor capacity, exploratory behaviour, emotional reactivity and learning and memory performance in spatial and non-spatial tasks. Egr2-deficient mice had no sign of locomotor, exploratory or anxiety disturbances. Surprisingly, they also had no impairment in spatial learning and memory, taste aversion memory or fear memory using a trace conditioning paradigm. On the contrary, Egr2-deficient mice had improved performance in motor learning on a rotarod, and in object recognition memory. These results clearly do not extend the phenotypic consequences resulting from either Egr1 or Egr3 loss-of-function to Egr2. In contrast, they indicate that Egr family members may have different, and in certain circumstances antagonistic functions in the adult brain. PMID:18958188

  12. New Constraints on the Asteroid 298 Baptistina, the Alleged Family Member of the K/T Impactor

    E-print Network

    Majaess, Daniel J; Molnar, Larry A; Haegert, Melissa J; Lane, David J; Turner, David G; Nielsen, Inga

    2008-01-01

    In their study Bottke et al. (2007) suggest that a member of the Baptistina asteroid family was the probable source of the K/T impactor which ended the reign of the Dinosaurs 65 Myr ago. Knowledge of the physical and material properties pertaining to the Baptistina asteroid family are, however, not well constrained. In an effort to begin addressing the situation, data from an international collaboration of observatories were synthesized to determine the rotational period of the family's largest member, asteroid 298 Baptistina (P_r = 16.23+-0.02 hrs). Discussed here are aspects of the terrestrial impact delivery system, implications arising from the new constraints, and prospects for future work.

  13. New Constraints on the Asteroid 298 Baptistina, the Alleged Family Member of the K/T Impactor

    E-print Network

    Daniel J. Majaess; David Higgins; Larry A. Molnar; Melissa J. Haegert; David J. Lane; David G. Turner; Inga Nielsen

    2008-11-02

    In their study Bottke et al. (2007) suggest that a member of the Baptistina asteroid family was the probable source of the K/T impactor which ended the reign of the Dinosaurs 65 Myr ago. Knowledge of the physical and material properties pertaining to the Baptistina asteroid family are, however, not well constrained. In an effort to begin addressing the situation, data from an international collaboration of observatories were synthesized to determine the rotational period of the family's largest member, asteroid 298 Baptistina (P_r = 16.23+-0.02 hrs). Discussed here are aspects of the terrestrial impact delivery system, implications arising from the new constraints, and prospects for future work.

  14. Spider glue proteins have distinct architectures compared with traditional spidroin family members.

    PubMed

    Vasanthavada, Keshav; Hu, Xiaoyi; Tuton-Blasingame, Tiffany; Hsia, Yang; Sampath, Sujatha; Pacheco, Ryan; Freeark, Jordan; Falick, Arnold M; Tang, Simon; Fong, Justine; Kohler, Kristin; La Mattina-Hawkins, Coby; Vierra, Craig

    2012-10-19

    Adhesive spider glues are required to perform a variety of tasks, including web construction, prey capture, and locomotion. To date, little is known regarding the molecular and structural features of spider glue proteins, in particular bioadhesives that interconnect dragline or scaffolding silks during three-dimensional web construction. Here we use biochemical and structural approaches to identify and characterize two aggregate gland specific gene products, AgSF1 and AgSF2, and demonstrate that these proteins co-localize to the connection joints of both webs and wrapping silks spun from the black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus. Protein architectures are markedly divergent between AgSF1 and AgSF2, as well as traditional spider silk fibroin family members, suggesting connection joints consist of a complex proteinaceous network. AgSF2 represents a nonglycosylated 40-kDa protein that has novel internal amino acid block repeats with the consensus sequence NVNVN embedded in a glycine-rich matrix. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of AgSF1 reveals pentameric QPGSG iterations that are similar to conserved modular elements within mammalian elastin, a rubber-like elastomeric protein that interfaces with collagen. Wet-spinning methodology using purified recombinant proteins show AgSF1 has the potential to self-assemble into fibers. X-ray fiber diffraction studies performed on these synthetic fibers reveal the presence of noncrystalline domains that resemble classical rubber networks. Collectively, these data support that the aggregate gland serves to extrude a protein mixture that contains substances that allow for the self-assembly of fiber-like structures that interface with dragline silks to mediate prey capture. PMID:22927444

  15. Paenalcaligenes hominis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Alcaligenaceae.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, P; Falsen, E; Langer, S; Lodders, N; Busse, H-J

    2010-07-01

    A beige-pigmented bacterium (strain CCUG 53761A(T)) was isolated from human blood from an 85-year-old man in Göteborg, Sweden. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that this bacterium displayed <95 % similarity to all described species of the genera of the family Alcaligenaceae. It grouped within the radiation of the genus Alcaligenes, but showed only 93.0-94.8 % similarity to type strains of members of this genus (Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis, 94.8 %; Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. faecalis, 94.2 %; Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. phenolicus, 93.4 %). This discrimination was supported by chemotaxonomic differences. The polyamine pattern consisted of the predominant compound putrescine, moderate amounts of spermidine and minor to trace amounts of spermine and cadaverine; 2-hydroxyputrescine was not detectable. The quinone system was ubiquinone Q-8 with minor amounts of Q-7. The polar lipid profile was composed of the major lipids diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine and moderate amounts of phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown phospholipid; minor lipids were also detected. The fatty acid profile, with large amounts of C(16 : 0) and C(17 : 0) cyclo and the absence of C(12 : 0) 2-OH as hydroxylated fatty acid, also differed significantly from those reported for Alcaligenes species. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that strain CCUG 53761A(T) represents a novel genus and species, for which the name Paenalcaligenes hominis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Paenalcaligenes hominis is CCUG 53761A(T) =CCM 7698(T). PMID:19684310

  16. Basolateral expression of the ammonia transporter family member Rh C glycoprotein in the mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Young; Verlander, Jill W; Bishop, Jesse M; Cain, Brian D; Han, Ki-Hwan; Igarashi, Peter; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Handlogten, Mary E; Weiner, I David

    2009-03-01

    Ammonia metabolism and transport are critical for acid-base homeostasis. The ammonia transporter family member Rh C glycoprotein (Rhcg) is expressed in distal renal tubular segments, and its expression is regulated in parallel with renal ammonia metabolism. However, there are inconsistencies in its reported subcellular distribution, with both apical and basolateral Rhcg reported in rat and human kidney and only apical expression in mouse kidney. Because the membrane location of Rhcg is critical for understanding its physiological role, we reassessed mouse Rhcg localization using refined immunolocalization methods. Two antibodies directed against different Rhcg-specific epitopes identified both apical and basolateral Rhcg immunolabel in mouse kidney. Immunogold electron microscopy both confirmed basolateral plasma membrane Rhcg expression and showed that apical immunolabel represented expression in both the apical plasma membrane and in subapical cytoplasmic vesicles. Immunoblots and Northern blots identified similar bands in Balb/c and C57BL/6 kidneys, suggesting basolateral Rhcg may result from alternative trafficking. Basolateral Rhcg intensity was strain dependent, with less basolateral Rhcg expression in the Balb/c mouse compared with the C57BL/6 mouse. In mice with collecting duct-specific Rhcg gene deletion, generated using Cre-loxP techniques, neither apical nor basolateral Rhcg immunolabel was identified in the collecting duct, confirming that basolateral Rhcg was the product of the same gene product as apical Rhcg. Although basolateral Rhcg expression differed between C57BL/6 and Balb/c mice, Rh B glycoprotein, which is exclusively basolateral, was expressed at similar levels in the two strains. We conclude that Rhcg is present in both the apical and basolateral plasma membrane in the mouse kidney, where it is likely to contribute to renal ammonia metabolism. PMID:19129254

  17. Expression of the ammonia transporter family member, Rh B Glycoprotein, in the human kidney

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Handlogten, Mary E.; Whitehill, Florence; Osis, Gunars; Croker, Byron P.; Clapp, William L.; Verlander, Jill W.

    2013-01-01

    The ammonia transporter family member, Rh B Glycoprotein (RhBG/Rhbg), is essential for ammonia transport by the rodent kidney, but in the human kidney mRNA but not protein expression has been reported. Because ammonia transport is fundamental for acid-base homeostasis, the current study addressed RhBG expression in the human kidney. Two distinct RhBG mRNA sequences have been reported, with different numbers of consecutive cytosines at nt1265 and thus encoding different carboxy-tails. Sequencing the region of difference in both human kidney and liver mRNA showed eight sequential cytosines, not seven as in some reports. Knowing the correct mRNA sequence for RhBG, we then assessed RhBG protein expression using antibodies against the correct amino acid sequence. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated RhBG protein expression in human kidney and immunohistochemistry identified basolateral RhBG in connecting segment (CNT) and the cortical and outer medullary collecting ducts. Colocalization of RhBG with multiple cell-specific markers demonstrated that that CNT cells and collecting duct type A intercalated cells express high levels of RhBG, and type B intercalated cells and principal cells do not express detectable RhBG. Thus, these studies identify the correct mRNA and thus protein sequence for human RhBG and show that the human kidney expresses basolateral RhBG protein in CNT, type A intercalated cells, and non-A, non-B cells. We conclude that RhBG can mediate an important role in human renal ammonia transport. PMID:23324176

  18. Solution structure of Rv2377c - founding member of the MbtH-like protein family

    PubMed Central

    Buchko, Garry W.; Kim, Chang-Yub; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Myler, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein Rv2377c (71 residues, MW = 8.4 kDa) has been characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Rv2377c was the first identified member of the MbtH-like family of proteins. MbtH-like proteins have been implicated in siderophore biosynthesis, however, their precise biochemical function remain unknown. Size exclusion chromatography and NMR spectroscopy show that Rv2377c is a monomer in solution. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicates that Rv2377c unfolds upon heating and will reversibly fold into its native conformation upon cooling. Using NMR-based methods the solution structure of Rv2377c was determined and some of the dynamic properties of the protein studied. The protein contains a three-strand, anti-parallel ?-sheet (?3:?1:?2) nestled against one C-terminal ?-helix (S44-N55). Weak or absent amide cross peaks in the 1H-15N HSQC spectrum for many of the ?1 and ?2 residues suggest intermediate motion on the ms to ?s timescale at the ?1:?2 interface. Amide cross peaks in the 1H-15N HSQC spectrum are absent for all but one residue at the C-terminus (W56 - D71), a region that includes a highly conserved sequence WXDXR, suggesting this region is intrinsically disordered. The latter observation differs with the crystal structure of another MbtH-like protein, PA2412 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, where a second ordered ?-helix was observed at the extreme C-terminus. PMID:20434955

  19. MicroRNA-183 family members regulate sensorineural fates in the inner ear

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haiqiong; Kloosterman, Wigard; Fekete, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Members of the microRNA (miRNA) 183 family (miR-183, miR-96 and miR-182) are expressed abundantly in specific sensory cell types in the eye, nose and inner ear. In the inner ear, expression is robust in the mechanosensory hair cells and weak in the associated statoacoustic ganglion (SAG) neurons; both cell types can share a common lineage during development. Recently, dominant progressive hearing loss in humans and mice was linked to mutations in the seed region of miR-96, with associated defects in both development and maintenance of hair cells in the mutant mice. To understand how the entire triplet functions in the development of mechanosensory hair cells and neurons of the inner ear, we manipulated the levels of these miRNAs in zebrafish embryos using synthesized miRNAs and antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs). Over-expression of miR-96 or miR-182 induces duplicated otocysts, ectopic or expanded sensory patches and extra hair cells, while morphogenesis of the SAG is adversely affected to different degrees. In contrast, knockdown of miR-183, miR-96 and miR-182 causes reduced numbers of hair cells in the inner ear, smaller SAGs, defects in semicircular canals, and abnormal neuromasts on the posterior lateral line. However, the prosensory region of the posterior macula (PM), where the number of hair cells is reduced by ?50%, is not significantly impaired. Our findings suggest both distinct and common roles for the three miRNAs in cell fate determination in the inner ear, and these principles might apply to development of other sensory organs. PMID:20203184

  20. Functional antagonism between high temperature requirement protein A (HtrA) family members regulates trophoblast invasion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao-Yu; Chuang, Pei-Yun; Chen, Chie-Pein; Chiu, Yueh-Ho; Lo, Hsiao-Fan; Cheong, Mei-Leng; Huang, Jyun-Yuang; Kuo, Pao-Lin; Chen, Hungwen

    2014-08-15

    Human trophoblast invasion of decidualized endometrium is essential for placentation and is tightly regulated and involves trophoblast-decidual cell interaction. High temperature requirement A4 (HtrA4) is a secreted serine protease highly expressed in the invasive extravillous trophoblasts that invade decidua. In contrast, both HtrA1 and HtrA3 have been shown to inhibit trophoblast invasion. Here we provide evidence that decidua-secreted HtrA1 and HtrA3 antagonize HtrA4-mediated trophoblast invasion. We demonstrated that HtrA1 and HtrA3 interact with and degrade HtrA4 and thereby inhibit trophoblast-like JAR cell invasion. Specifically, HtrA1 and HtrA3 expression is up-regulated under decidualization conditions in endometrial stromal and epithelial cells, T-HESCs and Ishikawa cells, respectively. Conditioned media from these two cell lines after decidualization treatment suppress HtrA4-expressing JAR cell invasion in an HtrA1- or HtrA3-dependent manner. Co-culture of the HtrA4-expressing JAR cells with decidualization stimuli-treated T-HESC or Ishikawa monolayer also impairs JAR cell invasion, which can be reversed by HtrA1 or HtrA3 knockdown, supporting that HtrA1 and HtrA3 are crucial for trophoblast-decidual cell interaction in the control of trophoblast invasion. Our study reveals a novel regulatory mechanism of trophoblast invasion through physical and functional interaction between HtrA family members. PMID:25002585

  1. Antimicrobial activity of omwaprin, a new member of the waprin family of snake venom proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Dileep G.; Fry, Bryan G.; Alewood, Paul; Kumar, Prakash P.; Kini, R. Manjunatha

    2006-01-01

    We have isolated and characterized omwaprin, a 50-amino-acid cationic protein from the venom of inland taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus). It is a new member of the waprin family of snake venom proteins. A synthetic gene was designed and constructed for expressing the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. Recombinant omwaprin was used for carrying out functional analyses. The protein is non-toxic to Swiss albino mice at doses of up to 10 mg/kg when administered intraperitoneally. However, it shows selective and dose-dependant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The minimum inhibitory doses were in the range 2–10 ?g for selected species of bacteria in radial diffusion assays. The antibacterial activity is salt-tolerant up to 350 mM NaCl. However, omwaprin lost its antibacterial activity upon reduction and alkylation of its cysteine residues, or upon deletion of six N-terminal amino acid residues, four of which are positively charged. These observations indicate that the three-dimensional structure constrained by four disulfide bonds and the N-terminal residues are essential for its activity. The mechanism of action is via membrane disruption, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. Importantly, omwaprin lacks haemolytic activity on human erythrocytes. This demonstrates the specificity of omwaprin for bacterial membranes. Unlike other reported WAP (whey acidic protein) domain-containing antibacterial proteins, including elafin, EPPIN (epididymal proteinase inhibitor), SWAM1 and SWAM2 [single WAP (whey acidic protein) motif proteins 1 and 2] and SLPI (secretory leucocyte proteinase inhibitor), omwaprin shows species-specific activity on the Gram-positive bacteria tested. PMID:17044815

  2. Genomics, evolution, and expression of TBPL2, a member of the TBP family.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Cinzia; Ragusa, Marco; Duro, Laura; Guglielmino, Maria Rosa; Barbagallo, Davide; Carnemolla, Alisia; Laganà, Alessandro; Buffa, Pietro; Angelica, Rosario; Rinaldi, Antonella; Calafato, Maria Stella; Milicia, Ionella; Caserta, Cinzia; Giugno, Rosalba; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Giunta, Veronica; Rapisarda, Antonella; Di Pietro, Valentina; Grillo, Agata; Messina, Angelo; Ferro, Alfredo; Grzeschik, Karl Heinz; Purrello, Michele

    2007-06-01

    TBPL2 is the most recently discovered and less characterized member of the TATA box binding protein (TBP) family that also comprises TBP, TATA box binding protein-like 1 (TBPL1), and Drosophila melanogaster TBP related factor (TRF). In this paper we report our in silico and in vitro data on (i) the genomics of the TBPL2 gene in Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Gallus gallus, Xenopus tropicalis, and Takifugu rubripes; (ii) its evolution and phylogenetic relationship with TBP, TBPL1, and TRF; (iii) the structure of the TBPL2 proteins that belong to the recently identified group of the intrinsically unstructured proteins (IUPs); and (iv) TBPL2 expression in different organs and cell types of Homo sapiens and Rattus norvegicus. Similar to TBP, both the TBPL2 gene and protein are bimodular. The 3' region of the gene encoding the DNA binding domain (DBD) was well conserved during evolution. Its high homology to vertebrate TBP suggests that TBPL2 also should bind to the TATA box and interact with the proteins binding to TBP carboxy-terminal domain, such as the TBP associated factors (TAFs). As already demonstrated for TBP, TBPL2 amino-terminal segment is intrinsically unstructured and, even though variable among vertebrates, comprises a highly conserved motif not found in any other known protein. Absence of TBPL2 from the genome of invertebrates and plants demonstrates its specific origin within the subphylum of vertebrates. Our RT-PCR analysis of human and rat RNA shows that, similar to TBP, TBPL2 is ubiquitously synthesized even though at variable levels that are at least two orders of magnitude lower. Higher expression of TBPL2 in the gonads than in other organs suggests that it could perform important functions in gametogenesis. Our genomic and expression data should contribute to clarify why TBP has a general master role within the transcription apparatus (TA), whereas both TBPL1 and TBPL2 perform tissue-specific functions. PMID:17570761

  3. Functional activity and role of cation-efflux family members in Ni hyperaccumulation in Thlaspi goesingense.

    PubMed

    Persans, M W; Nieman, K; Salt, D E

    2001-08-14

    The ability of Thlaspi goesingense to hyperaccumulate Ni seems to be governed in part by enhanced accumulation of Ni within leaf vacuoles. We have characterized genes from T. goesingense encoding putative vacuolar metal ion transport proteins, termed metal tolerance proteins (TgMTPs). These proteins contain all of the features of cation-efflux family members, and evidence indicates they are derived from a single genomic sequence (TgMTP1) that gives rise to an unspliced (TgMTP1t1) and a spliced (TgMTP1t2) transcript. Heterologous expression of these transcripts in yeast lacking the TgMTP1 orthologues COT1 and ZRC1 complements the metal sensitivity of these yeast strains, suggesting that TgMTP1s are able to transport metal ions into the yeast vacuole in a manner similar to COT1 and ZRC1. The unspliced and spliced TgMTP1 variants differ within a histidine-rich putative metal-binding domain, and these sequence differences are reflected as alterations in the metal specificities of these metal ion transporters. When expressed in yeast, TgMTP1t1 confers the highest level of tolerance to Cd, Co, and Zn, whereas TgMTP1t2 confers the highest tolerance to Ni. TgMTP1 transcripts are highly expressed in T. goesingense compared with orthologues in the nonaccumulators Arabidopsis thaliana, Thlaspi arvense, and Brassica juncea. We propose that the high-level expression of TgMTP1 in T. goesingense accounts for the enhanced ability of this hyperaccumulator to accumulate metal ions within shoot vacuoles. PMID:11481436

  4. LRAD3, a Novel LDL Receptor Family Member that Modulates Amyloid Precursor Protein Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Sripriya; Noyes, Nathaniel C.; Migliorini, Mary; Winkles, Jeffrey A.; Battey, Frances D.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Smith, Elizabeth; Yepes, Manuel; Mikhailenko, Irina; Strickland, Dudley K.

    2011-01-01

    We have identified a novel LDL receptor family member, termed LDL receptor class A domain containing 3 (LRAD3), which is expressed in neurons. The LRAD3 gene encodes an approximately 50 kDa type I transmembrane receptor with an ectodomain containing three LDLa repeats, a transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic domain containing a conserved dileucine internalization motif and two polyproline motifs with potential to interact with WW domain containing proteins. Immunohistochemical analysis of mouse brain reveals LRAD3 expression in the cortex and hippocampus. In the mouse hippocampal derived cell line, HT22, LRAD3 partially co-localizes with amyloid precursor protein (APP), and interacts with APP as revealed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. To identify the portion of APP that interacts with LRAD3, we employed solid phase binding assays which demonstrated that LRAD3 failed to bind to a soluble APP fragment (sAPP?) released following ?-secretase cleavage. In contrast, C99, the ?-secretase product that remains cell associated, co-precipitated with LRAD3, confirming that regions within this portion of APP are important for associating with LRAD3. The association of LRAD3 with APP increases the amyloidogenic pathway of APP processing, resulting in a decrease in sAPP? production and increased A? peptide production. Pulse-chase experiments confirm that LRAD3 expression significantly decreases the cellular half-live of mature APP. These results reveal that LRAD3 influences APP processing and raises the possibility that LRAD3 alters APP function in neurons including its downstream signaling. PMID:21795536

  5. Evolution of the Bovine TLR Gene Family and Member Associations with Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Colleen A.; Bhattarai, Eric K.; Osterstock, Jason B.; Dowd, Scot E.; Seabury, Paul M.; Vikram, Meenu; Whitlock, Robert H.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Womack, James E.; Seabury, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) gene family occupy key roles in the mammalian innate immune system by functioning as sentries for the detection of invading pathogens, thereafter provoking host innate immune responses. We utilized a custom next-generation sequencing approach and allele-specific genotyping assays to detect and validate 280 biallelic variants across all 10 bovine TLR genes, including 71 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one putative nonsense SNP. Bayesian haplotype reconstructions and median joining networks revealed haplotype sharing between Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus breeds at every locus, and specialized beef and dairy breeds could not be differentiated despite an average polymorphism density of 1 marker/158 bp. Collectively, 160 tagSNPs and two tag insertion-deletion mutations (indels) were sufficient to predict 100% of the variation at 280 variable sites for both Bos subspecies and their hybrids, whereas 118 tagSNPs and 1 tagIndel predictively captured 100% of the variation at 235 variable sites for B. t. taurus. Polyphen and SIFT analyses of amino acid (AA) replacements encoded by bovine TLR SNPs indicated that up to 32% of the AA substitutions were expected to impact protein function. Classical and newly developed tests of diversity provide strong support for balancing selection operating on TLR3 and TLR8, and purifying selection acting on TLR10. An investigation of the persistence and continuity of linkage disequilibrium (r2?0.50) between adjacent variable sites also supported the presence of selection acting on TLR3 and TLR8. A case-control study employing validated variants from bovine TLR genes recognizing bacterial ligands revealed six SNPs potentially eliciting small effects on susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium spp paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle. The results of this study will broadly impact domestic cattle research by providing the necessary foundation to explore several avenues of bovine translational genomics, and the potential for marker-assisted vaccination. PMID:22164200

  6. Habitat Segregation and Biochemical Activities of Marine Members of the Family Vibrionaceae

    PubMed Central

    Simidu, Usio; Tsukamoto, Kumiko

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study of marine members of the family Vibrionaceae with the technique of numerical taxonomy revealed habitat segregation as well as a cosmopolitan nature of species distribution among the vibrios in different marine environments. The bacterial strains analyzed were isolated from seawater, sediments, phyto- and zooplankton, and fish in the Indian Ocean, the South and East China Sea, and West Pacific Ocean, and coastal areas of Japan. A total of 155 morphological, physiological, and biochemical tests were carried out for each of 405 strains examined. The results showed that most of the large taxonomical clusters which emerged from the computation corresponded to ecological groups which have particular niches. For instance, each group of seawater vibrios inhabited a particular water layer of limited depth range, in spite of the fact that strains of the group were isolated from sampling locations spread over a wide area from the Indian Ocean to Japanese coast. Various vibrio groups showed remarkable differences in their physiological and biochemical activities, and the activities of each group seemed to correspond with its ecological niche. The strains which inhabited surface-water layers grew fast and actively utilized many high-molecular-weight organic compounds and carbohydrates that are derived from fresh, easily degradable organic matter present in the surface waters, whereas the middle- and deep-water vibrios did not decompose most of the high-molecular-weight organic compounds except chitin but, rather, utilized some carbohydrates and organic acids which seemed to be derived from refractory particulate organic matter present in the deeper waters. PMID:16346911

  7. Stigma: a Unique Source of Distress for Family Members of Individuals with Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Anjana; Lucksted, Alicia; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Li Juan; Dixon, Lisa

    2014-08-29

    To distinguish the impact of mental illness stigma from that of other negative caregiving experiences, this study examined the unique relationships between stigma and caregiver/family functioning. Adult relatives (n?=?437) of individuals with mental illness completed questionnaires regarding caregiving experiences, distress, empowerment, and family functioning, as part of a larger study. Regression analyses examined the relationship between stigma and caregiver/family variables, while controlling for other negative caregiving experiences. Stigma was uniquely associated with caregiver distress, empowerment, and family functioning. Mental illness stigma is a potent source of distress for families and an important target of family services. PMID:25168187

  8. 41 CFR 302-3.202 - If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same official station, may we both claim...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same official station, may we both claim the same relocation allowances for the same non-employee family member? 302-3.202 Section 302-3.202...

  9. 41 CFR 302-3.201 - If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same official station in the interest of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...family member and I both transfer to the same official station in the interest of the Government, may we both claim the same relocation expenses? 302-3.201...family member and I both transfer to the same official station in the interest of...

  10. 41 CFR 302-3.201 - If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same official station in the interest of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...family member and I both transfer to the same official station in the interest of the Government, may we both claim the same relocation expenses? 302-3.201...family member and I both transfer to the same official station in the interest of...

  11. 41 CFR 302-3.202 - If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same official station, may we both claim...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same official station, may we both claim the same relocation allowances for the same non-employee family member? 302-3.202 Section 302-3.202...

  12. 41 CFR 302-3.202 - If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same official station, may we both claim...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same official station, may we both claim the same relocation allowances for the same non-employee family member? 302-3.202 Section 302-3.202...

  13. 41 CFR 302-3.202 - If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same official station, may we both claim...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same official station, may we both claim the same relocation allowances for the same non-employee family member? 302-3.202 Section 302-3.202...

  14. 41 CFR 302-3.201 - If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same official station in the interest of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...family member and I both transfer to the same official station in the interest of the Government, may we both claim the same relocation expenses? 302-3.201...family member and I both transfer to the same official station in the interest of...

  15. 41 CFR 302-3.201 - If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same official station in the interest of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...family member and I both transfer to the same official station in the interest of the Government, may we both claim the same relocation expenses? 302-3.201...family member and I both transfer to the same official station in the interest of...

  16. 41 CFR 302-3.201 - If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same official station in the interest of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...family member and I both transfer to the same official station in the interest of the Government, may we both claim the same relocation expenses? 302-3.201...family member and I both transfer to the same official station in the interest of...

  17. 41 CFR 302-3.202 - If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same official station, may we both claim...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 true If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same official station, may we both claim the same relocation allowances for the same non-employee family member? 302-3.202 Section 302-3.202...

  18. The characterization of the soybean polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins ( Pgip ) gene family reveals that a single member is responsible for the activity detected in soybean tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D’Ovidio; S. Roberti; M. Di Giovanni; C. Capodicasa; M. Melaragni; L. Sella; P. Tosi; F. Favaron

    2006-01-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins that inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs). They are encoded by multigene families whose members show functional redundancy and subfunctionalization for recognition of fungal PGs. In order to expand the information on the structure and functional features of legume PGIP, we have isolated and characterized four members of the soybean Pgip gene family and

  19. As the planning for a memorial to Eisenhower moves forward, members of his family raise concerns

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grinnell, Max

    2012-02-10

    Eisenhower as a Barefoot Boy? Family Objects to a Memorial http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/07/arts/design/eisenhower-memorial-by-frank-gehry-draws-objections-from-family.htmlGehry's design for Eisenhower memorial misses the markhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/realestate/gehrys-design-for-eisenhower-memorial-misses-the-mark/2012/01/23/gIQAy22jVQ_story.htmlA Q&A With Susan Eisenhower About the Fight Over Her Grandfather's Memorialhttp://www.washingtonian.com/blogarticles/people/capitalcomment/22381.htmlIn Defense of Frank Gehryhttp://www.washingtonian.com/blogarticles/people/capitalcomment/22617.htmlDwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commissionhttp://eisenhowermemorial.org/U.S. Commission of Fine Artshttp://www.cfa.gov/Memorials to great men and women can be controversial affairs, and the recent dispute over the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial in Washington, DC serves as a reminder of such issues. Another planned memorial is coming under close scrutiny, and once again, the proverbial battleground is in the United States capital. Over the past couple of years, the noted designer and architect Frank Gehry has been working on the design for the memorial to President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and the groundbreaking is scheduled to take place this year on the Washington Mall. The current design features Eisenhower as a young boy in Kansas looking at some of his later accomplishments, with a backdrop of the plains of the Sunflower State. These proposed plans do not sit well with some, including his granddaughter, Susan Eisenhower, and the National Civic Art Society, which remarked that "The statue of Ike as a Kansas farmer-boy mocks the president as cornpone in chief, the supreme allied bumpkin." In January, members of the Eisenhower family made their concerns about the design public, and it remains to be seen whether there might be an extension of the comment period regarding the memorial. The preliminary design has already been approved by the United States Commission of Fine Arts, but it must also be approved by the National Capital Planning Commission. As of this writing, Frank Gehry had yet to offer comment on this recent turn of events and public discussion. The first link leads to a nice article from this Tuesday's New York Times about the proposed memorial to President Eisenhower. The second link will take users to a piece of architectural criticism by Roger K. Lewis, published in the Washington Post. Moving on, the third link will take interested parties to an interview with Susan Eisenhower about the memorial to her grandfather. The fourth link leads to follow-up exchange with Daniel J. Feil, the executive architect for the Eisenhower Memorial Commission over the past six years. The fifth link leads to the website of the Eisenhower Memorial Commission. Here visitors can learn about the commission, the designs for the proposed memorial, and also read press releases. The final link will take visitors to the homepage of the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts, where they can learn about the work of the Commission and the ways in which the Commission gives expert advice on "matters of design and aesthetics."

  20. Use of Augmentative and Assistive Communication Strategies by Family Members in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Broyles, Lauren M.; Tate, Judith A.; Happ, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    Background Very little is known about patient-family communication during critical illness and mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit (ICU), including the use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) tools and strategies during patient-family communication. Objectives The study objectives were to identify (1) which AAC tools families use with nonspeaking ICU patients and how they are used, and (2) what families and nurses say about patient-family communication with nonspeaking patients in the ICU. Methods A qualitative secondary analysis was conducted of existing data from a clinical trial testing interventions to improve nurse-patient communication in the ICU. Narrative study data (field notes, intervention logs, nurse interviews) from 127 critically ill adults were reviewed for evidence of family involvement with AAC tools. Qualitative content analysis was applied for thematic description of family and nurse accounts of patient-family communication. Results Family involvement with AAC tools was evident in 44% (n= 41/93) of the patients completing the parent study protocol. Spouses/significant others communicated with patients most often. Writing was the most frequently used tool. Main themes describing patient-family communication included: (1) Families as unprepared and unaware; (2) Family perceptions of communication effectiveness; (3) Nurses deferring to or guiding patient-family communication; (4) Patient communication characteristics; and (5) Family experience and interest with AAC tools. Conclusions Families are typically unprepared for the communication challenges of critical illness, and often “on their own” in confronting them. Assessment by skilled bedside clinicians can reveal patient communication potential and facilitate useful AAC tools and strategies for patients and families. PMID:22381993

  1. Regulation of aldosterone synthase by activator transcription factor/cAMP response element-binding protein family members.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Edson F; Rainey, William E

    2010-03-01

    Aldosterone synthesis is regulated by angiotensin II (Ang II) and K(+) acting in the adrenal zona glomerulosa, in part through the regulation of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2). Here, we analyzed the role of cAMP response element (CRE)-binding proteins (CREBs) in the regulation of CYP11B2. Expression analysis of activator transcription factor (ATF)/CREB family members, namely the ATF1 and ATF2, the CREB, and the CRE modulator, in H295R cells and normal human adrenal tissue was performed using quantitative real-time PCR. Ang II-induced phosphorylation of ATF/CREB members was analyzed by Western blot analysis, and their subsequent binding to the CYP11B2 promoter using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Aldosterone production and CYP11B2 expression were measured in small interfering RNA-transfected cells to knockdown the expression of ATF/CREB members. CYP11B2 promoter activity was measured in H295R cells cotransfected with NURR1 (NR4A2) alone or with constitutively active vectors for ATF/CREB members. Ang II induced phosphorylation of ATF1, ATF2, and CRE modulator in a time-dependent manner. Based on chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, there was an increased association of these proteins with the CYP11B2 promoter after Ang II and K(+) treatment. Phosphorylated ATF/CREB members also bound the CYP11B2 promoter. Knockdown of ATF/CREB members reduced Ang II and K(+) induction of adrenal cell CYP11B2 mRNA expression and aldosterone production. The constitutively active ATF/CREB vectors increased the promoter activity of CYP11B2 and had a synergistic effect with NURR1. In summary, these results suggest that ATF/CREB and NGFI-B family members play a crucial role in the transcriptional regulation of CYP11B2 and adrenal cell capacity to produce aldosterone. PMID:20097716

  2. Identification of a Testis-Enriched Heat Shock Protein and Fourteen Members of Hsp70 Family in the Swamp Eel

    PubMed Central

    He, Yan; Luo, Majing; Yi, Minhan; Sheng, Yue; Cheng, Yibin; Zhou, Rongjia; Cheng, Hanhua

    2013-01-01

    Background Gonad differentiation is one of the most important developmental events in vertebrates. Some heat shock proteins are associated with gonad development. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the teleost fish and its roles in sex differentiation are poorly understood. Methods and Findings We have identified a testis-enriched heat shock protein Hspa8b2 in the swamp eel using Western blot analysis and Mass Spectrometry (MS). Fourteen Hsp70 family genes were further identified in this species based on transcriptome information. The phylogenetic tree of Hsp70 family was constructed using the Maximum Likelihood method and their expression patterns in the swamp eel gonads were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Conclusion There are fourteen gene members in the Hsp70 family in the swamp eel genome. Hsp70 family, particularly Hspa8, has expanded in the species. One of the family members Hspa8b2 is predominantly expressed in testis of the swamp eel. PMID:23750249

  3. The maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) genome encodes 33 members of the purple acid phosphatase family

    PubMed Central

    González-Muñoz, Eliécer; Avendaño-Vázquez, Aida-Odette; Montes, Ricardo A. Chávez; de Folter, Stefan; Andrés-Hernández, Liliana; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Sawers, Ruairidh J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members. PMID:26042133

  4. Aquareovirus effects syncytiogenesis by using a novel member of the FAST protein family translated from a noncanonical translation start site.

    PubMed

    Racine, Trina; Hurst, Tara; Barry, Chris; Shou, Jingyun; Kibenge, Frederick; Duncan, Roy

    2009-06-01

    As nonenveloped viruses, the aquareoviruses and orthoreoviruses are unusual in their ability to induce cell-cell fusion and syncytium formation. While an extraordinary family of fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins is responsible for orthoreovirus syncytiogenesis, the basis for aquareovirus-induced syncytiogenesis is unknown. We now report that the S7 genome segment of an Atlantic salmon reovirus is polycistronic and uses a noncanonical CUG translation start codon to produce a 22-kDa integral membrane protein responsible for syncytiogenesis. The aquareovirus p22 protein represents a fourth distinct member of the FAST family with a unique repertoire and arrangement of structural motifs. PMID:19297495

  5. Aquareovirus Effects Syncytiogenesis by Using a Novel Member of the FAST Protein Family Translated from a Noncanonical Translation Start Site?

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Trina; Hurst, Tara; Barry, Chris; Shou, Jingyun; Kibenge, Frederick; Duncan, Roy

    2009-01-01

    As nonenveloped viruses, the aquareoviruses and orthoreoviruses are unusual in their ability to induce cell-cell fusion and syncytium formation. While an extraordinary family of fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins is responsible for orthoreovirus syncytiogenesis, the basis for aquareovirus-induced syncytiogenesis is unknown. We now report that the S7 genome segment of an Atlantic salmon reovirus is polycistronic and uses a noncanonical CUG translation start codon to produce a 22-kDa integral membrane protein responsible for syncytiogenesis. The aquareovirus p22 protein represents a fourth distinct member of the FAST family with a unique repertoire and arrangement of structural motifs. PMID:19297495

  6. A procedure to recruit members to enlarge protein family databases - the building of UECOG (UniRef-Enriched COG Database) as a model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Fernandes; D. V. C. Barbosa; F. Prosdocimi; I. A. Pena; L. Santana-Santos; O. Coelho Junior; A. Barbosa-Silva; H. M. Velloso; M. A. Mudado; D. A. Natale; A. C. Faria-Campos; S. C. V. Aguiar; J. M. Ortega

    2008-01-01

    A procedure to recruit members to enlarge protein family databases is described here. The procedure makes use of UniRef50 clusters produced by UniProt. Current family entries are used to recruit additional members based on the UniRef50 clusters to which they belong. Only those additional UniRef50 members that are not fragments and whose length is within a restricted range relative to

  7. Evolutionary Origin of the Scombridae (Tunas and Mackerels): Members of a Paleogene Adaptive Radiation with 14 Other Pelagic Fish Families

    PubMed Central

    Miya, Masaki; Friedman, Matt; Satoh, Takashi P.; Takeshima, Hirohiko; Sado, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Wataru; Yamanoue, Yusuke; Nakatani, Masanori; Mabuchi, Kohji; Inoue, Jun G.; Poulsen, Jan Yde; Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Sato, Yukuto; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainties surrounding the evolutionary origin of the epipelagic fish family Scombridae (tunas and mackerels) are symptomatic of the difficulties in resolving suprafamilial relationships within Percomorpha, a hyperdiverse teleost radiation that contains approximately 17,000 species placed in 13 ill-defined orders and 269 families. Here we find that scombrids share a common ancestry with 14 families based on (i) bioinformatic analyses using partial mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences from all percomorphs deposited in GenBank (10,733 sequences) and (ii) subsequent mitogenomic analysis based on 57 species from those targeted 15 families and 67 outgroup taxa. Morphological heterogeneity among these 15 families is so extraordinary that they have been placed in six different perciform suborders. However, members of the 15 families are either coastal or oceanic pelagic in their ecology with diverse modes of life, suggesting that they represent a previously undetected adaptive radiation in the pelagic realm. Time-calibrated phylogenies imply that scombrids originated from a deep-ocean ancestor and began to radiate after the end-Cretaceous when large predatory epipelagic fishes were selective victims of the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. We name this clade of open-ocean fishes containing Scombridae “Pelagia” in reference to the common habitat preference that links the 15 families. PMID:24023883

  8. A pilot study of adaptation of the transtheoretical model to narratives of bereaved family members in the bereavement life review.

    PubMed

    Ando, Michiyo; Tsuda, Akira; Morita, Tatsuya; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Sanjo, Makiko; Shima, Yasuo

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the possibility of adaptation of the transtheoretical model (TTM) to narratives from the Bereavement Life Review. Narratives from 19 bereaved family members were recorded, transcribed into sentences, and allocated into stages based on the TTM criteria. Those who lived in fantasy were allocated to the precontemplation stage and who recognized the patient's death but could not adjust to the death were allocated to the contemplation stage. Those who understood the need for changes and had new plans were allocated to the preparation stage, and those who were coping were allocated to the action stage, and those who had confidence to remember the loved one who died were allocated to the maintenance stage. These results provide deeper understanding of a bereaved family member and suggest that a different intervention method may be useful in each stage. PMID:23689366

  9. Cloning and Expression of a Novel Member of the Low Voltage Activated T-Type Calcium Channel Family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-Ha Lee; Asif N. Daud; Leanne L. Cribbs; Antonio E. Lacerda; Alexei Pereverzev; Udo Klockner; Toni Schneider; Edward Perez-Reyes

    1999-01-01

    Low voltage-activated Ca 21 channels play important roles in pacing neuronal firing and producing network oscillations, such as those that occur during sleep and epilepsy. Here we de- scribe the cloning and expression of the third member of the T-type family, a1I or CavT.3, from rat brain. Northern analysis indicated that it is predominantly expressed in brain. Expres- sion of

  10. Differences in hormonal and renal vascular responses between normotensive patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and unaffected family members

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brendan J Barrett; Robert Foley; Janet Morgan; Donna Hefferton; Patrick Parfrey

    1994-01-01

    Differences in hormonal and renal vascular responses between normotensive patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and unaffected family members. We tested the hypothesis that overactivity of the renal and systemic renin-angiotensin system is important to the pathogenesis of hypertension in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Up to 21 normotensive subjects with ADPKD and creatinine clearance >70 ml\\/min\\/1.73 m2

  11. Bcl2 Family Members as Sentinels of Cellular Integrity and Role of Mitochondrial Intermembrane Space Proteins in Apoptotic Cell Death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nele Festjens; Marjan van Gurp; Geert van Loo; Xavier Saelens; Peter Vandenabeele

    2004-01-01

    In addition to their function as major energy-providing organelles of the cell, mitochondria accomplish a crucial role in apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic BH3-only members of the Bcl-2 family continuously sense the cellular integrity and well-being at various subcellular levels. If these sentinels are induced, released or activated, they converge on the release of mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins such as cytochrome c,

  12. The Combined Functions of Proapoptotic Bcl2 Family Members Bak and Bax Are Essential for Normal Development of Multiple Tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tullia Lindsten; Andrea J Ross; Ayala King; Wei-Xing Zong; Jeffrey C Rathmell; Helena A Shiels; Eugen Ulrich; Katrina G Waymire; Patryce Mahar; Kenneth Frauwirth; Yifeng Chen; Michael Wei; Vicki M Eng; David M Adelman; M. Celeste Simon; Averil Ma; Jeffrey A Golden; Gerard Evan; Stanley J Korsmeyer; Grant R MacGregor; Craig B Thompson

    2000-01-01

    Proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members have been proposed to play a central role in regulating apoptosis. However, mice lacking bax display limited phenotypic abnormalities. As presented here, bak?\\/? mice were found to be developmentally normal and reproductively fit and failed to develop any age-related disorders. However, when Bak-deficient mice were mated to Bax-deficient mice to create mice lacking both genes, the

  13. Binding of SH2B Family Members within a Potential Negative Regulatory Region Maintains JAK2 in an Active State

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason H. Kurzer; Pipsa Saharinen; Olli Silvennoinen; Christin Carter-Su

    2006-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) transduces signaling for the majority of known cytokine receptor family members and is constitutively activated in some cancers. Here we examine the mechanisms by which the adapter proteins SH2-B and APS regulate the activity of JAK2. We show that like SH2-B, APS binds JAK2 at multiple sites and that binding to phosphotyrosine 813

  14. A novel member of the TRAF family of putative signal transducing proteins binds to the cytosolic domain of CD40

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takaaki Sato; Shinji Irie; John C. Reed

    1995-01-01

    CD40 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R) family that regulates B-lymphocyte proliferation, immunoglobulin class-switching, and apoptosis through poorly defined signal transduction mechanisms. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, cDNAs were obtained that encode a novel protein, CD40-associated protein-1 (CAP-1), which binds specifically to the cytosolic domain of CD40 but not TNF-R1, TNF-R2, or Fas. The CAP-1 protein

  15. Functional genomic analysis of the AUXIN\\/INDOLE3ACETIC ACID gene family members in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Overvoorde; Yoko Okushima; Jose M. Alonso

    2005-01-01

    Auxin regulates various aspects of plant growth and development. The AUXIN\\/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux\\/IAA) genes encode short-lived transcriptional repressors that are targeted by the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1\\/AUXIN RECEPTOR F-BOX proteins. The Aux\\/IAA proteins regulate auxin-mediated gene expression by interacting with members of the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR protein family. Aux\\/IAA function is poorly understood; herein, we report the identification and characterization of

  16. Dlxin-1, a member of MAGE family, inhibits cell proliferation, invasion and tumorigenicity of glioma stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E M Reddy; S T Chettiar; N Kaur; R Ganeshkumar; V Shepal; N C Shanbhag; A Shiras

    2011-01-01

    We have previously reported the presence of Dlxin-1, a member of the melanoma antigen gene (MAGE) family, in the brain and showed its function as a cell cycle arrest protein, suggesting that Dlxin-1 may have anti-proliferative functions in rapidly growing tumors. Using the cancer stem cell hypothesis, which attributes the initiation and progression of brain tumors to the cancer-initiating stem

  17. Architecture and assembly of a divergent member of the ParM family of bacterial actin like proteins

    E-print Network

    Mullins, Dyche

    proteins Christopher R. Rivera, 1 Justin M. Kollman, 2,3 Jessica K. Polka, 1 David A. Agard, 2,3 and R in a divergent member of the ParM family from plasmid pB171. Previous work demonstrated that R1 ParM assembles only 41% identical, R1 and pB171 ParMs polymerize into nearly identical filaments with similar assembly

  18. Expression analysis of Arabidopsis XH/XS-domain proteins indicates overlapping and distinct functions for members of this gene family

    PubMed Central

    Butt, Haroon; Luschnig, Christian

    2014-01-01

    RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is essential for de novo DNA methylation in higher plants, and recent reports established novel elements of this silencing pathway in the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. INVOLVED IN DE NOVO DNA METHYLATION 2 (IDN2) and the closely related FACTOR OF DNA METHYLATION (FDM) are members of a plant-specific family of dsRNA-binding proteins characterized by conserved XH/XS domains and implicated in the regulation of RdDM at chromatin targets. Genetic analyses have suggested redundant as well as non-overlapping activities for different members of the gene family. However, detailed insights into the function of XH/XS-domain proteins are still elusive. By the generation and analysis of higher-order mutant combinations affected in IDN2 and further members of the gene family, we have provided additional evidence for their redundant activity. Distinct roles for members of the XH/XS-domain gene family were indicated by differences in their expression and subcellular localization. Fluorescent protein-tagged FDM genes were expressed either in nuclei or in the cytoplasm, suggestive of activities of XH/XS-domain proteins in association with chromatin as well as outside the nuclear compartment. In addition, we observed altered location of a functional FDM1–VENUS reporter from the nucleus into the cytoplasm under conditions when availability of further FDM proteins was limited. This is suggestive of a mechanism by which redistribution of XH/XS-domain proteins could compensate for the loss of closely related proteins. PMID:24574485

  19. Expression analysis of Arabidopsis XH/XS-domain proteins indicates overlapping and distinct functions for members of this gene family.

    PubMed

    Butt, Haroon; Graner, Sonja; Luschnig, Christian

    2014-03-01

    RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is essential for de novo DNA methylation in higher plants, and recent reports established novel elements of this silencing pathway in the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. Involved in de novo DNA methylation 2 (IDN2) and the closely related factor of DNA methylation (FDM) are members of a plant-specific family of dsRNA-binding proteins characterized by conserved XH/XS domains and implicated in the regulation of RdDM at chromatin targets. Genetic analyses have suggested redundant as well as non-overlapping activities for different members of the gene family. However, detailed insights into the function of XH/XS-domain proteins are still elusive. By the generation and analysis of higher-order mutant combinations affected in IDN2 and further members of the gene family, we have provided additional evidence for their redundant activity. Distinct roles for members of the XH/XS-domain gene family were indicated by differences in their expression and subcellular localization. Fluorescent protein-tagged FDM genes were expressed either in nuclei or in the cytoplasm, suggestive of activities of XH/XS-domain proteins in association with chromatin as well as outside the nuclear compartment. In addition, we observed altered location of a functional FDM1-VENUS reporter from the nucleus into the cytoplasm under conditions when availability of further FDM proteins was limited. This is suggestive of a mechanism by which redistribution of XH/XS-domain proteins could compensate for the loss of closely related proteins. PMID:24574485

  20. A novel member of the subtilisin-like protease family from Streptomyces albogriseolus.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, M; Taguchi, S; Yamada, S; Kojima, S; Miura, K I; Momose, H

    1997-01-01

    We previously isolated three extracellular endogenous enzymes from a Streptomyces albogriseolus mutant strain which were targets of Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor (SSI) (S. Taguchi, A. Odaka, Y. Watanabe, and H. Momose, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:180-186, 1995). In the present study, of the three enzymes the largest one, with a molecular mass of 45 kDa (estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis), termed SAM-P45, has been characterized in detail. The entire gene encoding SAM-P45 was cloned as an approximately 10-kb fragment from S. albogriseolus S-3253 genomic DNA into an Escherichia coli host by using a shuttle plasmid vector. The amino acid sequence corresponding to the internal region of SAM-P45, deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the gene, revealed high homology, particularly in three regions around the active-site residues (Asp, His, and Ser), with the amino acid sequences of the mature domain of subtilisin-like serine proteases. In order to investigate the enzymatic properties of this protease, recombinant SAM-P45 was overproduced in Streptomyces coelicolor by using a strong SSI gene promoter. Sequence analysis of the SAM-P45 gene and peptide mapping of the purified SAM-P45 suggested that it is synthesized as a large precursor protein containing a large C-terminal prodomain (494 residues) in addition to an N-terminal preprodomain (23 and 172 residues). A high proportion of basic amino acids in the C-terminal prodomain was considered to serve an element interactive with the phospholipid bilayer existing in the C-terminal prodomain, as found in other membrane-anchoring proteases of gram-positive bacteria. It is noteworthy that SAM-P45 was found to prefer basic amino acids to aromatic or aliphatic amino acids in contrast to subtilisin BPN', which has a broad substrate specificity. The hydrolysis by SAM-P45 of the synthetic substrate (N-succinyl-L-Gly-L-Pro-L-Lys-p-nitroanilide) most preferred by this enzyme was inhibited by SSI, chymostatin, and EDTA. The proteolytic activity of SAM-P45 was stimulated by the divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+. From these findings, we conclude that SAM-P45 interacts with SSI and can be categorized as a novel member of the subtilisin-like serine protease family. PMID:8990295

  1. Frequency of Blood-tissue Parasitic Infections in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis, as Compared to their Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Pestehchian, Nader; Etemadifarr, Masoud; Yousefi, Hossein-Ali; Chiani, Maryam; Aslani, Neda; Nasr, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system which has been identifies more prevalent in economically developed countries than in the developing countries. Low prevalence of parasitic infections (which can activate immune response and prevent or modulate damage to host antigens) in these areas is among the possible responsible factors for such a difference. In this study we aimed to compare frequency of blood-tissue parasitic infections in patients with MS, as compared to their healthy family members. Methods: This study was conducted on 50 relapsing remitting MS patients and 50 family members attending MS clinic at Alzahra Hospital. IgM and IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii were measured. Given the high prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Isfahan, all the participants were also examined for protozoan leishmania microscopically. Furthermore malaria parasite was investigated. Results: Eighteen patients and 24 healthy family members had positive test in IgG Toxoplasma gondii(P = 0.09). In both groups, there was no positive IgM Toxoplasma gondii. In investigating leishmania, only 3 participants in the case group and 2 in the control tested positive (P = 0.25). No case of malaria was found among the participants. Conclusion: Our results showed a mismatch with hygiene hypotheses examined. However, considering that the prevalence of parasites varies with time, and depends on numerous epidemiological factors; these results do not discredit the theory investigated. PMID:25709793

  2. Post-transcriptional regulation of transcript abundance by a conserved member of the tristetraprolin family in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Wells, Melissa L; Washington, Onica L; Hicks, Stephanie N; Nobile, Clarissa J; Hartooni, Nairi; Wilson, Gerald M; Zucconi, Beth E; Huang, Weichun; Li, Leping; Fargo, David C; Blackshear, Perry J

    2015-03-01

    Members of the tristetraprolin (TTP) family of CCCH tandem zinc finger proteins bind to AU-rich regions in target mRNAs, leading to their deadenylation and decay. Family members in Saccharomyces cerevisiae influence iron metabolism, whereas the single protein expressed in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Zfs1, regulates cell-cell interactions. In the human pathogen Candida albicans, deep sequencing of mutants lacking the orthologous protein, Zfs1, revealed significant increases (> 1.5-fold) in 156 transcripts. Of these, 113 (72%) contained at least one predicted TTP family member binding site in their 3'UTR, compared with only 3 of 56 (5%) down-regulated transcripts. The zfs1?/? mutant was resistant to 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, perhaps because of increased expression of the potential target transcript encoded by HIS3. Sequences of the proteins encoded by the putative Zfs1 targets were highly conserved among other species within the fungal CTG clade, while the predicted Zfs1 binding sites in these mRNAs often 'disappeared' with increasing evolutionary distance from the parental species. C.?albicans?Zfs1 bound to the ideal mammalian TTP binding site with high affinity, and Zfs1 was associated with target transcripts after co-immunoprecipitation. Thus, the biochemical activities of these proteins in fungi are highly conserved, but Zfs1-like proteins may target different transcripts in each species. PMID:25524641

  3. scbA from Streptococcus crista CC5A: an atypical member of the lraI gene family.

    PubMed

    Correia, F F; DiRienzo, J M; McKay, T L; Rosan, B

    1996-06-01

    A new member of the lraI family of putative adhesin genes was cloned, from Streptococcus crista CC5A, and sequenced. The gene, scbA appears to be part of an ABC transport operon and encodes a putative peptide of 34.7 kDa. The protein contains a signal sequence with residues 17 to 21 (L-A-A-C-S) matching the consensus sequence for the prolipoprotein cleavage site of signal peptidase II. ScbA is 57 to 93% identical, at the amino acid level, with the five previous sequenced members of the LraI family. Surprisingly, ScbA does not exhibit adhesion properties characteristic of the other LraI proteins. Strain CC5A bound poorly to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite and did not coaggregate with Actinomyces naeslundii PK606. An scbA insertion-duplication mutation that abolished expression (of ScbA was created. There was no difference in fibrin binding between this mutant and wild-type CC5A. Since it is possible that ScbA could play a role in corncob formation between S. crista and Fusobacterium nucleatum, this property was examined. The mutant strain retained the ability to form corncobs. On the basis of the lack of adhesin properties it appears that ScbA is an atypical member of the LraI family. PMID:8675315

  4. Actin-binding and Cell Proliferation Activities of Angiomotin Family Members Are Regulated by Hippo Pathway-mediated Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Siew Wee; Lim, Chun Jye; Guo, Fusheng; Tan, Ivan; Leung, Thomas; Hong, Wanjin

    2013-01-01

    Whether the Hippo pathway has downstream targets other than YAP and TAZ is unknown. In this report, we have identified angiomotin (Amot) family members as novel substrates of Hippo core kinases. The N-terminal regions of Amot proteins contain a conserved HXRXXS consensus site for LATS1/2-mediated phosphorylation. Phospho-specific antibodies showed that Hippo core kinases could mediate phosphorylation of endogenous as well as exogenous Amot family members. Knockdown of LATS1 and LATS2 endogenously reduced the phosphorylation of Amots detected by the phospho-specific antibodies. Mutation of the serine to alanine within this HXRXXS site in Amot and AmotL2 established that this site was essential for Hippo core kinase-mediated phosphorylation. Wild-type and non-phosphorylated Amot (Amot-S175A) were targeted to actin filaments, whereas phospho-mimic Amot (Amot-S175D) failed to be localized with actin. Overexpression of LATS2 caused dissociation of Amot from actin but not Amot-S175A. Mapping of the actin-binding site of Amot showed that serine 175 of Amot was important for the actin-binding activity. Amot-S175A promoted, whereas Amot and Amot-S175D inhibited, cell proliferation. These results collectively suggest that the Hippo pathway negatively regulates the actin-binding activity of Amot family members through direct phosphorylation. PMID:24225952

  5. The ETRAMP family member SEP2 is expressed throughout Plasmodium berghei life cycle and is released during sporozoite gliding motility.

    PubMed

    Currà, Chiara; Di Luca, Marco; Picci, Leonardo; de Sousa Silva Gomes dos Santos, Carina; Siden-Kiamos, Inga; Pace, Tomasino; Ponzi, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The early transcribed membrane proteins ETRAMPs belong to a family of small, transmembrane molecules unique to Plasmodium parasite, which share a signal peptide followed by a short lysine-rich stretch, a transmembrane domain and a variable, highly charged C-terminal region. ETRAMPs are usually expressed in a stage-specific manner. In the blood stages they localize to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane and, in described cases, to vesicle-like structures exported to the host erythrocyte cytosol. Two family members of the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei, uis3 and uis4, localize to secretory organelles of sporozoites and to the parasitophorous membrane vacuole of the liver stages. By the use of specific antibodies and the generation of transgenic lines, we showed that the P. berghei ETRAMP family member SEP2 is abundantly expressed in gametocytes as well as in mosquito and liver stages. In intracellular parasite stages, SEP2 is routed to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane while, in invasive ookinete and sporozoite stages, it localizes to the parasite surface. To date SEP2 is the only ETRAMP protein detected throughout the parasite life cycle. Furthermore, SEP2 is also released during gliding motility of salivary gland sporozoites. A limited number of proteins are known to be involved in this key function and the best characterized, the CSP and TRAP, are both promising transmission-blocking candidates. Our results suggest that ETRAMP members may be viewed as new potential candidates for malaria control. PMID:23840634

  6. The ETRAMP Family Member SEP2 Is Expressed throughout Plasmodium berghei Life Cycle and Is Released during Sporozoite Gliding Motility

    PubMed Central

    Currà, Chiara; Di Luca, Marco; Picci, Leonardo; de Sousa Silva Gomes dos Santos, Carina; Siden-Kiamos, Inga; Pace, Tomasino; Ponzi, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The early transcribed membrane proteins ETRAMPs belong to a family of small, transmembrane molecules unique to Plasmodium parasite, which share a signal peptide followed by a short lysine-rich stretch, a transmembrane domain and a variable, highly charged C-terminal region. ETRAMPs are usually expressed in a stage-specific manner. In the blood stages they localize to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane and, in described cases, to vesicle-like structures exported to the host erythrocyte cytosol. Two family members of the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei, uis3 and uis4, localize to secretory organelles of sporozoites and to the parasitophorous membrane vacuole of the liver stages. By the use of specific antibodies and the generation of transgenic lines, we showed that the P. berghei ETRAMP family member SEP2 is abundantly expressed in gametocytes as well as in mosquito and liver stages. In intracellular parasite stages, SEP2 is routed to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane while, in invasive ookinete and sporozoite stages, it localizes to the parasite surface. To date SEP2 is the only ETRAMP protein detected throughout the parasite life cycle. Furthermore, SEP2 is also released during gliding motility of salivary gland sporozoites. A limited number of proteins are known to be involved in this key function and the best characterized, the CSP and TRAP, are both promising transmission-blocking candidates. Our results suggest that ETRAMP members may be viewed as new potential candidates for malaria control. PMID:23840634

  7. RelAp43, a Member of the NF-?B Family Involved in Innate Immune Response against Lyssavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Tangy, Frédéric; Weil, Robert; Bourhy, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    NF-?B transcription factors are crucial for many cellular processes. NF-?B is activated by viral infections to induce expression of antiviral cytokines. Here, we identified a novel member of the human NF-?B family, denoted RelAp43, the nucleotide sequence of which contains several exons as well as an intron of the RelA gene. RelAp43 is expressed in all cell lines and tissues tested and exhibits all the properties of a NF-?B protein. Although its sequence does not include a transactivation domain, identifying it as a class I member of the NF-?B family, it is able to potentiate RelA-mediated transactivation and stabilize dimers comprising p50. Furthermore, RelAp43 stimulates the expression of HIAP1, IRF1, and IFN-? - three genes involved in cell immunity against viral infection. It is also targeted by the matrix protein of lyssaviruses, the agents of rabies, resulting in an inhibition of the NF-?B pathway. Taken together, our data provide the description of a novel functional member of the NF-?B family, which plays a key role in the induction of anti-viral innate immune response. PMID:23271966

  8. What’s at Stake? Genetic Information from the Perspective of People with Epilepsy and their Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Shostak, Sara; Zarhin, Dana; Ottman, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in identifying genes that raise risk for epilepsy, and genetic testing for some of these genes is increasingly being used in clinical practice. However, almost no empirical data are available from the perspective of people with epilepsy and their family members about the impact of genetic information and potential benefits and harms of genetic testing. To address this gap we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 40 individuals (22 with epilepsy, 18 unaffected) in the USA from families containing multiple affected individuals who had participated in epilepsy genetics research. The interviews were coded and analyzed using the principles of grounded theory. Several major themes emerged from these interviews. Participants expressed “personal theories of inheritance” that emphasized commonalities among relatives and the idea that disease risk is most shared by family members who share physical or personality traits. Most participants said they would have genetic testing if it were offered. They cited many potential benefits, including learning what caused epilepsy in their family, being better able to care and advocate for children at risk, reducing guilt and blame, providing an increased sense of control, and relieving anxiety in unaffected individuals who test negative. The influence of genetic information on reproduction was a particularly salient theme. Although respondents believed genetic testing would be useful for informing their reproductive choices, they also expressed fear that it could lead to external pressures to modify these choices. Other concerns about the potential negative impact of genetic information included increased blame and guilt, increased stigma and discrimination in employment and insurance, self-imposed limitations on life goals, and alterations in fundamental conceptions of “what epilepsy is.” Consideration of the perspectives of people with epilepsy and their family members is critical to understanding the implications of contemporary epilepsy genetic research and testing. PMID:21831495

  9. Cancer risk estimates for family members of a population-based family registry for breast and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Ziogas, A; Gildea, M; Cohen, P; Bringman, D; Taylor, T H; Seminara, D; Barker, D; Casey, G; Haile, R; Liao, S Y; Thomas, D; Noble, B; Kurosaki, T; Anton-Culver, H

    2000-01-01

    Population-based breast and ovarian cancer family registries can facilitate studies to evaluate genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of these malignancies. The purpose of this study is to describe what is, as far as we know, the first population-based breast and ovarian cancer family registry and to estimate breast and ovarian cancer risk in relatives of breast and ovarian cancer probands. Population-based consecutive incident cases of breast and ovarian cancer were invited to participate in the University of California, Irvine breast and ovarian family registry. In this study, we report data on 1567 breast cancer and 328 ovarian cancer probands. The operational components of this family registry include enrollment of probands, family history interviewing, confidentiality, pathology, verification and review, biospecimen bank, statistical/genetic analysis, and special studies on positional cloning of known genes. All of the components are tracked through the University of California, Irvine Genetic Research Information System. In non-Hispanic-white breast cancer probands, relative risk (RR) of breast cancer in mothers and sisters is significantly elevated [RR = 1.7 and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-2.0 and RR = 2.8 and 95% CI = 2.3-3.3, respectively]. In families of ovarian cancer probands, mothers are at increased risk of ovarian cancer (RR = 4.6; 95% CI, 2.1-8.7). RR of breast cancer in mothers of Hispanic breast cancer probands is significantly elevated (RR = 4.9; 95% CI, 2.6-8.5). No elevation of breast or ovarian cancer risk was observed among relatives of Asian probands. In general, there is a decrease in RR among mothers and sisters with increase in age of onset of probands. In second-degree relatives and first cousins, the breast cancer hazards ratios increase with increase in the number of affected first-degree relatives and decrease with increase in age at onset of the proband. PMID:10667470

  10. Returning from the War Zone: A Guide for Families of Military Members

    MedlinePLUS

    ... successful postwar adjustment, offering: ? Readjustment counseling (including PTSD treatment) ? Marriage and family benefits, bereavement, alcohol and drug counseling ? Job services and help obtaining services at ...

  11. Identification and gene organization of three novel members of the IL-1 family on human chromosome 2.

    PubMed

    Busfield, S J; Comrack, C A; Yu, G; Chickering, T W; Smutko, J S; Zhou, H; Leiby, K R; Holmgren, L M; Gearing, D P; Pan, Y

    2000-06-01

    Members of the IL-1 family of cytokines are important in mediating inflammatory responses. The genes encoding IL-1alpha, IL-beta, and the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) are clustered within 450 kb on human chromosome 2q. By searching the EST databases and sequencing this region of chromosome 2, we have identified three novel genes that show homology to the IL-1 family, which we have named IL-1-related protein 1, 2, and 3 (IL-1RP1, IL-1RP2, and IL-1RP3). All three genes contain a signature motif common to the IL-1 family and appear to be more closely related to IL-1Ra. Similar to the intracellular form of IL-1Ra, these genes lack conventional hydrophobic signal sequences. The expression of these genes appears to be highly restricted to various epithelial cell populations. Our results demonstrate the existence of additional IL-1 gene family members within the previously defined IL-1 cluster and point to this region of chromosome 2 as an evolutionary hotspot for IL-1 gene duplication. These genes may prove to have an important role in inflammatory responses. PMID:10860666

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of members of the Phycodnaviridae virus family, using amplified fragments of the major capsid protein gene.

    PubMed

    Larsen, J B; Larsen, A; Bratbak, G; Sandaa, R-A

    2008-05-01

    Algal viruses are considered ecologically important by affecting host population dynamics and nutrient flow in aquatic food webs. Members of the family Phycodnaviridae are also interesting due to their extraordinary genome size. Few algal viruses in the Phycodnaviridae family have been sequenced, and those that have been have few genes in common and low gene homology. It has hence been difficult to design general PCR primers that allow further studies of their ecology and diversity. In this study, we screened the nine type I core genes of the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses for sequences suitable for designing a general set of primers. Sequence comparison between members of the Phycodnaviridae family, including three partly sequenced viruses infecting the prymnesiophyte Pyramimonas orientalis and the haptophytes Phaeocystis pouchetii and Chrysochromulina ericina (Pyramimonas orientalis virus 01B [PoV-01B], Phaeocystis pouchetii virus 01 [PpV-01], and Chrysochromulina ericina virus 01B [CeV-01B], respectively), revealed eight conserved regions in the major capsid protein (MCP). Two of these regions also showed conservation at the nucleotide level, and this allowed us to design degenerate PCR primers. The primers produced 347- to 518-bp amplicons when applied to lysates from algal viruses kept in culture and from natural viral communities. The aim of this work was to use the MCP as a proxy to infer phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity among members of the Phycodnaviridae family and to determine the occurrence and diversity of this gene in natural viral communities. The results support the current legitimate genera in the Phycodnaviridae based on alga host species. However, while placing the mimivirus in close proximity to the type species, PBCV-1, of Phycodnaviridae along with the three new viruses assigned to the family (PoV-01B, PpV-01, and CeV-01B), the results also indicate that the coccolithoviruses and phaeoviruses are more diverged from this group. Phylogenetic analysis of amplicons from virus assemblages from Norwegian coastal waters as well as from isolated algal viruses revealed a cluster of viruses infecting members of the prymnesiophyte and prasinophyte alga divisions. Other distinct clusters were also identified, containing amplicons from this study as well as sequences retrieved from the Sargasso Sea metagenome. This shows that closely related sequences of this family are present at geographically distant locations within the marine environment. PMID:18359826

  13. Bidirectional Associations between Coparenting Relations and Family Member Anxiety: A Review and Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majdandzic, Mirjana; de Vente, Wieke; Feinberg, Mark E.; Aktar, Evin; Bogels, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Research into anxiety has largely ignored the dynamics of family systems in anxiety development. Coparenting refers to the quality of coordination between individuals responsible for the upbringing of children and links different subsystems within the family, such as the child, the marital relationship, and the parents. This review discusses the…

  14. Apollo asteroids (1566) Icarus and 2007 MK6: Icarus family members?

    E-print Network

    K. Ohtsuka; H. Arakida; T. Ito; T. Kasuga; J. Watanabe; D. Kinoshita; T. Sekiguchi; D. J. Asher; S. Nakano

    2007-08-22

    Although it is more complicated to search for near-Earth object (NEO) families than main belt asteroid (MBA) families, since differential orbital evolution within a NEO family can cause current orbital elements to drastically differ from each other, we have found that Apollo asteroids (1566) Icarus and the newly discovered 2007 MK6 are almost certainly related. Specifically, their orbital evolutions show a similar profile, time shifted by only ~1000 yr, based on our time-lag theory. The dynamical relationship between Icarus and 2007 MK6 along with a possible dust band, the Taurid-Perseid meteor swarm, implies the first detection of an asteroidal NEO family, namely the "Icarus asteroid family".

  15. Cloning and characterization of a novel member of the transforming growth factor-beta/bone morphogenetic protein family.

    PubMed

    Paralkar, V M; Vail, A L; Grasser, W A; Brown, T A; Xu, H; Vukicevic, S; Ke, H Z; Qi, H; Owen, T A; Thompson, D D

    1998-05-29

    Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of growth and differentiation factors have been identified in a wide variety of organisms, ranging from invertebrates to mammals. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) constitute a subgroup of proteins belonging to the TGF-beta superfamily. BMPs were initially identified by their ability to induce endochondral bone formation at ectopic sites, suggesting a critical role for this family in development and regeneration of the skeleton. They are also expressed at a variety of nonskeletal sites during development, suggesting possible extraskeletal roles for these proteins. We cloned a novel member of the BMP family that is expressed at high levels in the placenta and the prostate and that we have designated as prostate-derived factor (PDF). Based on cDNA sequence analysis, the predicted PDF protein contains two cysteines in addition to the seven conserved cysteines that are the hallmark of the members of the TGF-beta superfamily. In addition, Northern blot hybridization to poly(A)+ RNA showed low levels of expression in the kidney and pancreas. We further characterized the expression of this member of the BMP family by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. These results show high expression in the terminal villae of the placenta. The expression of the protein as visualized by immunohistochemistry shows an expression pattern identical to that of the message in the terminal villae of the placenta. In day 18 rat embryos, protein expression was also seen in the skin and in the cartilaginous tissue of developing skeleton. Orchidectomy and dihydrotestosterone treatment of rats revealed that PDF expression is regulated by androgens in the prostate. In addition, subcutaneous implantation of recombinant PDF induced cartilage formation and the early stages of endochondral bone formation. These data indicate that PDF has a functional relationship to the BMPs. PMID:9593718

  16. SOX4 Transcriptionally Regulates Multiple SEMA3/Plexin Family Members and Promotes Tumor Growth in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsin-Yi; Cheng, Yu-Yao; Liao, Wei-Chih; Tien, Yu-Wen; Yang, Chih-Hsin James; Hsu, Su-Ming; Huang, Pei-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Semaphorin signaling through Plexin frequently participates in tumorigenesis and malignant progression in various types of cancer. In particular, the role of semaphorin signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unexplored, despite a high likelihood of metastasis and mortality. Unlike other epithelial malignancies that often express a small number of specific genes in the Semaphorin/Plexin family, five or more are often expressed in human PDAC. Such concomitant expression of these SEMA3/Plexin family members is not a result of gene amplification, but (at least partially) from increased gene transcription activated by SOX4 de novo expressed in PDAC. Via chromatin-immunoprecipitation, luciferase promoter activity assay and electrophoresis mobility shift assay, SOX4 is demonstrated to bind to the consensus site at the promoter of each SEMA3 and Plexin gene to enhance transcription activity. Conversely, RNAi-knockdown of SOX4 in PDAC cell lines results in decreased expression of SEMA3/Plexin family members and is associated with restricted tumor growth both in vitro and in SCID mice. We further demonstrate that SOX4 levels parallel with the summed expression of SEMA3/Plexin family members (P?=?0.033, NPar Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis), which also correlates with poor survival in human PDAC (P?=?0.0409, Kaplan-Meier analysis). Intriguingly, miR-129-2 and miR-335, both of which target SOX4 for degradation, are co-repressed in human PDAC cases associated with up-regulated SOX4 in a statistically significant way. In conclusion, we disclose a miR-129-2(miR-335)/SOX4/Semaphorin-Plexin regulatory axis in the tumorigenesis of pancreatic cancer. PMID:23251334

  17. [How the family acts regarding the health-disease process of a family member with breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Araújo, Jorgéria da Silva; do Nascimento, Maria Angela Alves

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative study performed with ten relatives of cancer patients in two clinics located in Feira de Santana-BA, aiming at analyzing how the family thinks, feels, and acts concerning the disease. Data was collected by means of a semi-structured interview and analyzed by dialectic hermeneutics. Results showed that most interviewees associated cancer and death, and the first reaction concerning the disease was unexpected, with a feeling that "the world has fallen". With time, there appeared hope, solidarity and faith to face the disease; however, they regarded emotional support as critical for the treatment. Family experience regarding breast cancer was seen as a "life change" in individuals, in emotional, religious and biological terms. Such changes showed the need for support groups to help patients and their relatives to face the disease. PMID:15782698

  18. Structural basis for the mechanism and substrate specificity of glycocyamine kinase, a phosphagen kinase family member

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Kap; Pullalarevu, Sadhana; Surabian, Karen Talin; Howard, Andrew; Suzuki, Tomohiko; Moult, John; Herzberg, Osnat (Kochi); (IIT); (UMBI)

    2010-03-12

    Glycocyamine kinase (GK), a member of the phosphagen kinase family, catalyzes the Mg{sup 2+}-dependent reversible phosphoryl group transfer of the N-phosphoryl group of phosphoglycocyamine to ADP to yield glycocyamine and ATP. This reaction helps to maintain the energy homeostasis of the cell in some multicelullar organisms that encounter high and variable energy turnover. GK from the marine worm Namalycastis sp. is heterodimeric, with two homologous polypeptide chains, {alpha} and {beta}, derived from a common pre-mRNA by mutually exclusive N-terminal alternative exons. The N-terminal exon of GK{beta} encodes a peptide that is different in sequence and is 16 amino acids longer than that encoded by the N-terminal exon of GK{alpha}. The crystal structures of recombinant GK{alpha}{beta} and GK{beta}{beta} from Namalycastis sp. were determined at 2.6 and 2.4 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. In addition, the structure of the GK{beta}{beta} was determined at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution in complex with a transition state analogue, Mg{sup 2+}-ADP-NO{sub 3}{sup -}-glycocyamine. Consistent with the sequence homology, the GK subunits adopt the same overall fold as that of other phosphagen kinases of known structure (the homodimeric creatine kinase (CK) and the monomeric arginine kinase (AK)). As with CK, the GK N-termini mediate the dimer interface. In both heterodimeric and homodimeric GK forms, the conformations of the two N-termini are asymmetric, and the asymmetry is different than that reported previously for the homodimeric CKs from several organisms. The entire polypeptide chains of GK{alpha}{beta} are structurally defined, and the longer N-terminus of the {beta} subunit is anchored at the dimer interface. In GK{beta}{beta} the 24 N-terminal residues of one subunit and 11 N-terminal residues of the second subunit are disordered. This observation is consistent with a proposal that the GK{alpha}{beta} amino acids involved in the interface formation were optimized once a heterodimer emerged as the physiological form of the enzyme. As a consequence, the homodimer interface (either solely {alpha} or solely {beta} chains) has been corrupted. In the unbound state, GK exhibits an open conformation analogous to that observed with ligand-free CK or AK. Upon binding the transition state analogue, both subunits of GK undergo the same closure motion that clasps the transition state analogue, in contrast to the transition state analogue complexes of CK, where the corresponding transition state analogue occupies only one subunit, which undergoes domain closure. The active site environments of the GK, CK, and AK at the bound states reveal the structural determinants of substrate specificity. Despite the equivalent binding in both active sites of the GK dimer, the conformational asymmetry of the N-termini is retained. Thus, the coupling between the structural asymmetry and negative cooperativity previously proposed for CK is not supported in the case of GK.

  19. Novel family members of CYP109 from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56 exhibit characteristic biochemical and biophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Yogan; Hannemann, Frank; Girhard, Marco; Kappl, Reinhard; Même, Aurélie; Ringle, Michael; Janocha, Simon; Leize-Wagner, Emmanuelle; Urlacher, Vlada B; Bernhardt, Rita

    2013-01-01

    The members of the CYP109 family (CYP109C1, CYP109C2, and CYP109D1) from Sorangium cellulosum So ce56 are among the 21 P450 enzymes, of which only CYP109D1 and CYP264B1 have so far been functionally characterized. Here, we attempted to characterize two other P450s (CYP109C1 and CYP109C2) for the first time and compare their biochemical, biophysical, and functional properties to those of the fatty acid hydroxylating CYP109D1. Considering the physiological importance of fatty acids, we investigated saturated fatty acid binding and conversion for all members of the CYP109 family. The interaction between the CYP109 members and different autologous/heterologous redox partners was compared using Biacore measurements in which only CYP109D1 and bovine adrenodoxin (Adx) formed a complex. Surprisingly, this interaction was similarly efficient as the interaction of Adx with its mammalian redox partners. The in vitro reconstitution assays showed no activity when using CYP109C1, although substrate binding was demonstrated; also, there was subterminal hydroxylation of saturated fatty acids, when using CYP109C2 and CYP109D1, where CYP109D1 was a much more efficient fatty acid hydroxylase. Interestingly, the hydroxylation position moved inside the fatty acid chain when using long-chain fatty acids, thus producing possible precursors for physiologically important products. PMID:23586989

  20. Identification of a new member of PBAN family of neuropeptides from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptide hormones produced by neurosecretory cells in the central or peripheral nervous systems regulate various physiological and behavioral events during insect development and reproduction. Pyrokinin/Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide (PBAN) is a major neuropeptide family, chara...

  1. Perspectives of family members participating in cultural assessment of psychiatric disorders: Findings from the DSM-5 International Field Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Ladson; Aggarwal, Neil; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Weiss, Mitchell; Paralikar, Vasudeo; Deshpande, Smita; Jadhav, Sushrut; Ndetei, David; Nicasio, Andel; Boiler, Marit; Lam, Peter; Avelar, Yesi; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Despite the important roles families play in the lives of many persons with mental illness across cultures, there is a dearth of data worldwide on how family members perceive the process of cultural assessment as well as to how to best include them. This study addresses this gap in our knowledge through analysis of data collected across six countries as part of a DSM-5 Field Trial of the Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI). At clinician discretion, individuals who accompanied patients to the clinic visit (i.e. patient companions) at the time the CFI was conducted were invited to participate in the cultural assessment and answer questions about their experience. The specific aims of this paper are (1) to describe patterns of participation of patient companions in the CFI across the six countries, and (2) to examine the comparative feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility of the CFI from companion perspectives through analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data. Among the 321 patient interviews, only 86 (at 4 of 12 sites) included companions, all of whom were family members or other relatives. The utility, feasibility and acceptability of the CFI were rated favorably by relatives, supported by qualitative analyses of debriefing interviews. Cross-site differences in frequency of accompaniment merit further study. PMID:25738941

  2. ErpC, a member of the complement regulator-acquiring family of surface proteins from Borrelia burgdorferi, possesses an architecture previously unseen in this protein family

    PubMed Central

    Caesar, Joseph J. E.; Johnson, Steven; Kraiczy, Peter; Lea, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete responsible for Lyme disease, the most commonly occurring vector-borne disease in Europe and North America. The bacterium utilizes a set of proteins, termed complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (CRASPs), to aid evasion of the human complement system by recruiting and presenting complement regulator factor H on its surface in a manner that mimics host cells. Presented here is the atomic resolution structure of a member of this protein family, ErpC. The structure provides new insights into the mechanism of recruitment of factor H and other factor H-related proteins by acting as a molecular mimic of host glycosaminoglycans. It also describes the architecture of other CRASP proteins belonging to the OspE/F-related paralogous protein family and suggests that they have evolved to bind specific complement proteins, aiding survival of the bacterium in different hosts. PMID:23722838

  3. Differential Recognition of Members of the Carcinoembryonic Antigen Family by Opa Variants of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTINE P. BOS; FRITZ GRUNERT; ROBERT J. BELLAND

    1997-01-01

    Opacity (Opa) protein variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is implicated in the pathogenesis of gonorrhea, possibly by mediating adherence and entry of the bacteria into human tissues. One particular Opa protein me- diates adherence to epithelial cells through cell surface proteoglycans. Recently, two other eukaryotic cell recep- tors for Opa proteins have been reported. These receptors are members of a subgroup

  4. Common Occurrence of Monoclonal B-cell Lymphocytosis Among Members of High-Risk CLL Families

    PubMed Central

    Goldin, Lynn R.; Lanasa, Mark C.; Slager, Susan L.; Cerhan, James R.; Vachon, Celine M.; Strom, Sara S.; Camp, Nicola J.; Spector, Logan G.; Leis, Jose F.; Morrison, Vicki A.; Glenn, Martha; Rabe, Kari G.; Achenbach, Sara J.; Algood, Sallie D.; Abbasi, Fatima; Fontaine, Laura; Yau, Michelle; Rassenti, Laura Z.; Kay, Neil E.; Call, Timothy G.; Hanson, Curtis A.; Weinberg, J. Brice; Marti, Gerald E.; Caporaso, Neil E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is an asymptomatic haematological condition characterized by low absolute levels of B-cell clones with a surface immunophenotype similar to that of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). In the general population, MBL increases with age with a prevalence of 5–9% in individuals over age 60 years. It has been reported to be higher among first-degree relatives from CLL families. We report results of multi-parameter flow cytometry among 505 first-degree relatives with no personal history of lymphoproliferative disease from 140 families having at least two cases of CLL. Seventeen percent of relatives had MBL. Age was the most important determinant where the probability for developing MBL by age 90 years was 61%. MBL clustered in certain families but clustering was independent of the number of known CLL cases in a family. As is the case with CLL, males had a significantly higher risk for MBL than did females (p=0.04). MBL patients had significantly higher mean absolute lymphocyte counts (2.4 × 109/l) and B-cell counts (0.53 × 109/l) than those with a normal B-cell immunophenotype. Our findings show that MBL occurs at a very high rate in high risk CLL families. Both the age and gender distribution of MBL are parallel to CLL, implying a shared inherited risk. PMID:20738309

  5. A new member of the protein kinase C family, nPKC theta, predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Osada, S; Mizuno, K; Saido, T C; Suzuki, K; Kuroki, T; Ohno, S

    1992-01-01

    A new protein kinase C (PKC)-related cDNA with unique tissue distribution has been isolated and characterized. This cDNA encodes a protein, nPKC theta, which consists of 707 amino acid residues and showed the highest sequence similarity to nPKC delta (67.0% in total). nPKC theta has a zinc-finger-like cysteine-rich sequence (C1 region) and a protein kinase domain sequence (C3 region), both of which are common in all PKC family members. However, nPKC theta lacks a putative Ca2+ binding region (C2 region) that is seen only in the conventional PKC subfamily (cPKC alpha, -beta I, -beta II, and -gamma) but not in the novel PKC subfamily (nPKC delta, -epsilon, -zeta, and -eta). Northern (RNA) blot analyses revealed that the mRNA for nPKC theta is expressed predominantly in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, nPKC theta mRNA is the most abundantly expressed PKC isoform in skeletal muscle among the nine PKC family members. nPKC theta expressed in COS1 cells serves as a phorbol ester receptor. By the use of an antipeptide antibody specific to the D2-D3 region of the nPKC theta sequence, nPKC theta was recognized as a 79-kDa protein upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in mouse skeletal muscle extract and also in an extract from COS1 cells transfected with an nPKC theta cDNA expression plasmid. Autophosphorylation of immunoprecipitated nPKC theta was observed; it was enhanced by phosphatidylserine and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate but attenuated by the addition of Ca2+. These results clearly demonstrate that nPKC theta should be considered a member of the PKC family of proteins that play crucial roles in the signal transduction pathway. Images PMID:1508194

  6. Cloning and Characterization of CD300d, a Novel Member of the Human CD300 Family of Immune Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Comas-Casellas, Emma; Martínez-Barriocanal, Águeda; Miró, Francesc; Ejarque-Ortiz, Aroa; Schwartz, Simo; Martín, Margarita; Sayós, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Herein we present the cloning and molecular characterization of CD300d, a member of the human CD300 family of immune receptors. CD300d cDNA was cloned from RNA obtained from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and RT-PCR revealed the gene to be expressed in cells of myeloid lineage. The cloned cDNA encoded for a type I protein with a single extracellular Ig V-type domain and a predicted molecular mass of 21.5 kDa. The short cytoplasmic tail is lacking in any known signaling motif, but there is a negatively charged residue (glutamic acid) within the transmembrane domain. CD300d forms complexes with the CD300 family members, with the exception of CD300c. Contrary to other activating members of the CD300 family of receptors, surface expression of CD300d in COS-7-transfected cells required the presence of an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activating motif-bearing adaptor (Fc?R?). Accordingly, we found that CD300d was able to recruit Fc?R?. Unexpectedly, we could not detect CD300d on the surface of cells expressing Fc?R?, suggesting the existence of unknown mechanisms regulating the trafficking of this molecule. The presence of other CD300 molecules also did not modify the intracellular expression of CD300d. In fact, the presence of CD300d decreased the levels of surface expression of CD300f but not CD300c. Our data suggest that the function of CD300d would be related to the regulation of the expression of other CD300 molecules and the composition of CD300 complexes on the cell surface. PMID:22291008

  7. Vigorous physical activity impairs myocardial function in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and in mutation positive family members

    PubMed Central

    Saberniak, Jørg; Hasselberg, Nina E; Borgquist, Rasmus; Platonov, Pyotr G; Sarvari, Sebastian I; Smith, Hans-Jørgen; Ribe, Margareth; Holst, Anders G; Edvardsen, Thor; Haugaa, Kristina H

    2014-01-01

    Aims Exercise increases risk of ventricular arrhythmia in subjects with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). We aimed to investigate the impact of exercise on myocardial function in ARVC subjects. Methods and Results We included 110 subjects (age 42?±?17?years), 65 ARVC patients and 45 mutation-positive family members. Athletes were defined as subjects with ?4?h vigorous exercise/week [?1440 metabolic equivalents (METs?×?minutes/week)] during a minimum of 6 years. Athlete definition was fulfilled in 37/110 (34%) subjects. We assessed right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) myocardial function by echocardiography, and by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The RV function by RV fractional area change (FAC), RV global longitudinal strain (GLS) by echocardiography, and RV ejection fraction (EF) by MRI was reduced in athletes compared with non-athletes (FAC 34?±?9% vs. 40?±?11%, RVGLS –18.3?±?6.1% vs. –22.0?±?4.8%, RVEF 32?±?8% vs. 43?±?10%, all P?family members (47?±?3% vs. 52?±?6%, P?family members. The amount and intensity of exercise activity was associated with impaired LV and RV function. Exercise may aggravate and accelerate myocardial dysfunction in ARVC. PMID:25319773

  8. Crystal Structure of Cytomegalovirus IE1 Protein Reveals Targeting of TRIM Family Member PML via Coiled-Coil Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sevvana, Madhumati; Otto, Victoria; Schilling, Eva-Maria; Stump, Joachim D.; Müller, Regina; Reuter, Nina; Sticht, Heinrich; Muller, Yves A.; Stamminger, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are enigmatic structures of the cell nucleus that act as key mediators of intrinsic immunity against viral pathogens. PML itself is a member of the E3-ligase TRIM family of proteins that regulates a variety of innate immune signaling pathways. Consequently, viruses have evolved effector proteins to modify PML-NBs; however, little is known concerning structure-function relationships of viral antagonists. The herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) expresses the abundant immediate-early protein IE1 that colocalizes with PML-NBs and induces their dispersal, which correlates with the antagonization of NB-mediated intrinsic immunity. Here, we delineate the molecular basis for this antagonization by presenting the first crystal structure for the evolutionary conserved primate cytomegalovirus IE1 proteins. We show that IE1 consists of a globular core (IE1CORE) flanked by intrinsically disordered regions. The 2.3 Å crystal structure of IE1CORE displays an all ?-helical, femur-shaped fold, which lacks overall fold similarity with known protein structures, but shares secondary structure features recently observed in the coiled-coil domain of TRIM proteins. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds efficiently to the TRIM family member PML, and is able to induce PML deSUMOylation. Intriguingly, this results in the release of NB-associated proteins into the nucleoplasm, but not of PML itself. Importantly, we show that PML deSUMOylation by IE1CORE is sufficient to antagonize PML-NB-instituted intrinsic immunity. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds via the coiled-coil domain to PML and also interacts with TRIM5? We propose that IE1CORE sequesters PML and possibly other TRIM family members via structural mimicry using an extended binding surface formed by the coiled-coil region. This mode of interaction might render the antagonizing activity less susceptible to mutational escape. PMID:25412268

  9. Chryseomicrobium imtechense gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Planococcaceae.

    PubMed

    Arora, Pankaj Kumar; Chauhan, Archana; Pant, Bhawana; Korpole, Suresh; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Jain, Rakesh Kumar

    2011-08-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, yellow, non-motile, non-spore-forming, strictly aerobic bacterial strain, designated MW 10(T), was isolated from seawater of the Bay of Bengal, India, and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain MW 10(T) showed highest similarity to the type strains of Psychrobacillus psychrodurans (96.15 %) and Psychrobacillus psychrotolerans (96.01 %) and showed less than 96 % similarity to members of the genera Paenisporosarcina, Planococcus, Sporosarcina and Planomicrobium. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain MW 10(T) formed a clade separate from members of closely related genera. The morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of strain MW 10(T) differed from those of members of closely related genera. The major fatty acid in strain MW 10(T) was iso-C(15 : 0) and the menaquinones were MK-7 (48.4 %), MK-8 (32.3 %), MK-7(H(2)) (13.7 %) and MK-6 (5.6 %). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, an unknown phospholipid, an unknown lipid and an unknown glycolipid. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was l-Lys-d-Asp. The genomic DNA G+C content (53.4 mol%) of strain MW 10(T) was significantly different from those of members of closely related genera. On the basis of its morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics as well as our phylogenetic analysis, we conclude that strain MW 10(T) is a member of a novel genus and species, for which the name Chryseomicrobium imtechense gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain of Chryseomicrobium imtechense is MW 10(T) (?= MTCC 10098(T) ?= JCM 16573(T)). PMID:20833890

  10. 41 CFR 302-4.202 - Are there any circumstances in which a per diem allowance for my immediate family members is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...immediate family members cannot be authorized if you are: (a) A new appointee; (b) Assigned to posts of duty outside CONUS returning to place of actual residence for separation; or (c) Being relocated under the Government Employees Training...

  11. Dilemmas families face in talking with returning u.s. Military service members about seeking professional help for mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Steven R; Gettings, Patricia E; Hall, Elizabeth Dorrance; Pastor, Rebekah G

    2015-08-01

    Drawing on Goldsmith's (2004) normative theory, this article maps dilemmas family members experience when talking with returning service members (SMs) about seeking mental health care. Eighty family members of United States SMs who served in Iraq or Afghanistan read a scenario where their SM was displaying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depression symptoms. Participants described goals they would pursue, barriers they might encounter, and advice they would give others in the situation. Four dilemmas of talking about mental health emerged: (a) getting you to recognize the problem without implying you're not normal, (b) convincing you to seek help without implying you're weak, (c) being persistent but patient, and (d) wanting you to open up without implying I can understand. Family members reported using four groups of strategies to manage these dilemmas. Directions for expanding the concept of dilemmas as "paradoxes" and for supporting military families as well as rethinking policy assumptions are discussed. PMID:25175387

  12. Crystal structure of murine coronavirus receptor sCEACAM1a[1,4],a member of the carcinoembtyonic antigen family

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, K.; Zelus, B. D.; Meijers, R.; Liu, J.-H.; Bergelson, J. M.; Zhang, R.; Duke, N.; Joachimiak, A.; Holmes, K. V.; Wang, J.-H.; Biosciences Division; Dana-Farber Cancer Inst.; Harvard Medical School; Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center; Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

    2002-05-01

    CEACAM1 is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family. Isoforms of murine CEACAM1 serve as receptors for mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a murine coronavirus. Here we report the crystal structure of soluble murine sCEACAM1a[1,4], which is composed of two Ig-like domains and has MHV neutralizing activity. Its N-terminal domain has a uniquely folded CC' loop that encompasses key virus-binding residues. This is the first atomic structure of any member of the CEA family, and provides a prototypic architecture for functional exploration of CEA family members. We discuss the structural basis of virus receptor activities of murine CEACAM1 proteins, binding of Neisseria to human CEACAM1, and other homophilic and heterophilic interactions of CEA family members.

  13. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor/Tumor Necrosis Factor Family Members in Antiviral CD8 T-Cell Immunity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    CD8 memory T cells can play a critical role in protection against repeated exposure to infectious agents such as viruses, yet can also contribute to the immunopathology associated with these pathogens. Understanding the mechanisms that control effective memory responses has important ramifications for vaccine design and in the management of adverse immune reactions. Recent studies have implicated several members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family as key stimulatory and inhibitory molecules involved in the regulation of CD8 T cells. In this review, we discuss their control of the generation, persistence, and reactivation of CD8 T cells during virus infection. PMID:20377415

  14. Identification and characterization of 14 transposon-like elements in the noncoding regions of members of the Xa21 family of disease resistance genes in rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W.-Y. Song; L.-Y. Pi; T. E. Bureau; P. C. Ronald

    1998-01-01

    The rice disease resistance gene Xa21, which encodes a receptor-like kinase, is a member of a multigene family. Based on comparisons of genomic?sequences of seven\\u000a family members, seventeen transposon-like elements were identified in the 5? and 3? flanking regions and introns of these\\u000a genes. Sequence characterization revealed that these elements are diverse, showing similarity to maize Ds, CACTA and miniature

  15. Is Autism a Member of a Family of Diseases Resulting from Genetic/Cultural Mismatches? Implications for Treatment and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Bilbo, Staci D.; Jones, John P.; Parker, William

    2012-01-01

    Several lines of evidence support the view that autism is a typical member of a large family of immune-related, noninfectious, chronic diseases associated with postindustrial society. This family of diseases includes a wide range of inflammatory, allergic, and autoimmune diseases and results from consequences of genetic/culture mismatches which profoundly destabilize the immune system. Principle among these consequences is depletion of important components, particularly helminths, from the ecosystem of the human body, the human biome. Autism shares a wide range of features in common with this family of diseases, including the contribution of genetics/epigenetics, the identification of disease-inducing triggers, the apparent role of immunity in pathogenesis, high prevalence, complex etiologies and manifestations, and potentially some aspects of epidemiology. Fortunately, using available resources and technology, modern medicine has the potential to effectively reconstitute the human biome, thus treating or even avoiding altogether the consequences of genetic/cultural mismatches which underpin this entire family of disease. Thus, if indeed autism is an epidemic of postindustrial society associated with immune hypersensitivity, we can expect that the disease is readily preventable. PMID:22928103

  16. 41 CFR 302-4.100 - What PCS travel expenses will my immediate family members receive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What PCS travel expenses will my immediate family...ALLOWANCES PERMANENT CHANGE OF STATION (PCS) ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION...Travel Expenses § 302-4.100 What PCS travel expenses will my immediate...

  17. Negotiating Connection to GLBT Experience: Family Members' Experience of Anti-GLBT Movements and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arm, Jennifer R.; Horne, Sharon G.; Levitt, Heidi M.

    2009-01-01

    There have been numerous legislative initiatives to limit gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) people's rights at local, state, and national levels (G. M. Herek, 2006). Although research has focused on how GLBT people are affected by these initiatives, to date no research has explored the impact of this legislation upon the families of…

  18. Phylogenetic conservation and physical mapping of members of the H6 homeobox gene family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Stadler; J. C. Murray; N. J. Leysens; P. J. Goodfellow; M. Solursh

    1995-01-01

    Homeobox genes represent a class of transcription factors that play key roles in the regulation of embryogenesis and development. Here we report the identification of a homeobox-containing gene family that is highly conserved at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels in a diverse number of species. These species encompass both vertebrate and invertebrate phylogenies, ranging from Homo sapiens to

  19. Signature of Diversifying Selection on Members of the Pentatricopeptide Repeat Protein Family in Arabidopsis lyrata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Paul Foxe; Stephen I. Wright

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pentatricopeptide Repeat (PPR) proteins comprise a family of nuclear-encoded transcriptional regulators of cytoplasmic genes. They have shown,dramatic expansion in copy number in plants and although the functional importance of many remains unclear, a subset has been repeatedly implicated as nuclear restorers for cytoplasmic male sterility.

  20. Wage-Earner or Family Member? FCS Students Learn How to Achieve a Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNabb, Tamra

    2004-01-01

    Successful business people in all walks of life recognize that achieving a balance between their work lives and their families is critical to their personal happiness. Although the subject is mentioned in textbooks and seminars, very little, if any, time is spent discussing how the young career person will achieve this goal. Fortunately, potential…

  1. Expression of members of the putative olfactory receptor gene family in mammalian germ cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Parmentier; Frédéric Libert; Stéphane Schurmans; Serge Schiffmann; Anne Lefort; Dominique Eggerickx; Catherine Ledent; Catherine Mollereau; Catherine Gérard; Jason Perret; Anton Grootegoed; Gilbert Vassart

    1992-01-01

    A SERIES of genomic and complementary DNA clones encoding new putative members of G protein-coupled receptors were isolated using homology cloning and low-stringency polymerase chain reaction1,2. Among the unidentified receptors ('orphan receptors'), a human genomic clone (HGMP07) was characterized by the presence of its transcripts in the testis and by its belonging to a large subfamily of genes sharing extensive

  2. Left-right asymmetric expression of the TGFbeta-family member lefty in mouse embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chikara Meno; Yukio Saijoh; Hideta Fujii; Masako Ikeda; Takahiko Yokoyama; Minesuke Yokoyama; Yutaka Toyoda; Hiroshi Hamada

    1996-01-01

    EXAMPLES of lateral asymmetry are often found in vertebrates, such as the heart being on the left side, but the molecular mechanism governing the establishment of this left-right (L-R) handedness is unknown1. A diffusible morphogen may determine L-R polarity2, but a likely molecule has not so far been identified. Here we report on the gene lefty, a member of the

  3. ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE encodes a KANADI family member, linking polarity determination to separation and growth of Arabidopsis ovule integuments.

    PubMed

    McAbee, Jessica Messmer; Hill, Theresa A; Skinner, Debra J; Izhaki, Anat; Hauser, Bernard A; Meister, Robert J; Venugopala Reddy, G; Meyerowitz, Elliot M; Bowman, John L; Gasser, Charles S

    2006-05-01

    The Arabidopsis aberrant testa shape (ats) mutant produces a single integument instead of the two integuments seen in wild-type ovules. Cellular anatomy and patterns of marker gene expression indicate that the single integument results from congenital fusion of the two integuments of the wild type. Isolation of the ATS locus showed it to encode a member of the KANADI (KAN) family of putative transcription factors, previously referred to as KAN4. ATS was expressed at the border between the two integuments at the time of their initiation, with expression later confined to the abaxial layer of the inner integument. In an inner no outer (ino) mutant background, where an outer integument does not form, the ats mutation led to amorphous inner integument growth. The kan1kan2 double mutant exhibits a similar amorphous growth of the outer integument without affecting inner integument growth. We hypothesize that ATS and KAN1/KAN2 play similar roles in the specification of polarity in the inner and outer integuments, respectively, that parallel the known roles of KAN proteins in promoting abaxial identity during leaf development. INO and other members of the YABBY gene family have been hypothesized to have similar parallel roles in outer integument and leaf development. Together, these two hypotheses lead us to propose a model for normal integument growth that also explains the described mutant phenotypes. PMID:16623911

  4. Members of the bHLH-PAS family regulate Shh transcription in forebrain regions of the mouse CNS.

    PubMed

    Epstein, D J; Martinu, L; Michaud, J L; Losos, K M; Fan, C; Joyner, A L

    2000-11-01

    The secreted protein sonic hedgehog (Shh) is required to establish patterns of cellular growth and differentiation within ventral regions of the developing CNS. The expression of Shh in the two tissue sources responsible for this activity, the axial mesoderm and the ventral midline of the neural tube, is regulated along the anteroposterior neuraxis. Separate cis-acting regulatory sequences have been identified which direct Shh expression to distinct regions of the neural tube, supporting the view that multiple genes are involved in activating Shh transcription along the length of the CNS. We show here that the activity of one Shh enhancer, which directs reporter expression to portions of the ventral midbrain and diencephalon, overlaps both temporally and spatially with the expression of Sim2. Sim2 encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH-PAS) PAS domain containing transcriptional regulator whose Drosophila homolog, single-minded, is a master regulator of ventral midline development. Both vertebrate and invertebrate Sim family members were found sufficient for the activation of the Shh reporter as well as endogenous Shh mRNA. Although Shh expression is maintained in Sim2(-)(/)(-) embryos, it was determined to be absent from the rostral midbrain and caudal diencephalon of embryos carrying a dominant-negative transgene that disrupts the function of bHLH-PAS proteins. Together, these results suggest that bHLH-PAS family members are required for the regulation of Shh transcription within aspects of the ventral midbrain and diencephalon. PMID:11023872

  5. Otariodibacter oris gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Pasteurellaceae isolated from the oral cavity of pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mie Johanne; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Christensen, Henrik; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Bisgaard, Magne

    2012-11-01

    A total of 27 bacterial isolates from California sea lions and a walrus tentatively classified within the family Pasteurellaceae was further characterized by genotypic and phenotypic tests. Phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequences showed that the isolates investigated formed a monophyletic group, tentatively designated Bisgaard taxon 57. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, the most closely related species with a validly published name was Bisgaardia hudsonensis and the most closely related species based on rpoB sequence comparison was Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida; highest similarities between the isolates and the type strains of B. hudsonensis and P. multocida subsp. multocida were 95.0 and 88.2%. respectively. All isolates of Bisgaard taxon 57 exhibit the phenotypic characters of the family Pasteurellaceae. Members of Bisgaard taxon 57 can be separated from existing genera of the Pasteurellaceae by the following tests: positive reactions for catalase, oxidase, Voges-Proskauer and indole; no X- or V-factor dependency; and acid production from L-arabinose (slow), L-fucose, maltose and trehalose, but not from dulcitol, D-mannitol, D-mannose or sucrose. The main fatty acids of Bisgaard taxon 57 (CCUG 59994(T)) are C(14:0), C(16:0), C(16:1)?7c and the summed feature C(14:0) 3-OH/iso-C(16:1) I. This fatty acid profile is characteristic of members of the Pasteurellaceae. The quinone profile of Bisgaard taxon 57 (DSM 23800(T)) was similar to that of other genera in the Pasteurellaceae. The DNA G+C content of strain Baika1(T) is 36.2 mol%, which is at the lower end of the range for members of the family Pasteurellaceae. On the basis of both phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed that members of Bisgaard taxon 57 should be classified as representatives of a novel species in a new genus, Otariodibacter oris gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Otariodibacter oris is Baika1(T) (=CCUG 59994(T)=DSM 23800(T)), which was isolated from the oral cavity of a healthy California sea lion in Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark, in 2007. PMID:22199211

  6. A Member of a Family of Sulfate-Activating Enzymes Causes Murine Brachymorphism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyoto Kurima; Matthew L. Warman; Srinivasan Krishnan; Miriam Domowicz; Richard C. Krueger; Andrea Deyrup; Nancy B. Schwartz

    1998-01-01

    Sulfation is critical to the function of a wide variety of biomolecules. This common modification requires the enzymatic synthesis of an activated sulfate donor, phosphoadenosine-phosphosulfate (PAPS). In higher organisms PAPS synthesis is catalyzed by a bifunctional sulfurylase kinase (SK) polypeptide having both ATP-sulfurylase and adenosine-phosphosulfate kinase activities. We report the identification of a gene family encoding murine SK proteins with

  7. Bidirectional associations between coparenting relations and family member anxiety: a review and conceptual model.

    PubMed

    Majdandži?, Mirjana; de Vente, Wieke; Feinberg, Mark E; Aktar, Evin; Bögels, Susan M

    2012-03-01

    Research into anxiety has largely ignored the dynamics of family systems in anxiety development. Coparenting refers to the quality of coordination between individuals responsible for the upbringing of children and links different subsystems within the family, such as the child, the marital relationship, and the parents. This review discusses the potential mechanisms and empirical findings regarding the bidirectional relations of parent and child anxiety with coparenting. The majority of studies point to bidirectional associations between greater coparenting difficulties and higher levels of anxiety. For example, the few available studies suggest that paternal and perhaps maternal anxiety is linked to lower coparental support. Also, research supports the existence of inverse links between coparenting quality and child anxiety. A child's reactive temperament appears to have adverse effects on particularly coparenting of fathers. A conceptual model is proposed that integrates the role of parental and child anxiety, parenting, and coparenting, to guide future research and the development of clinical interventions. Future research should distinguish between fathers' and mothers' coparenting behaviors, include parental anxiety, and investigate the coparental relationship longitudinally. Clinicians should be aware of the reciprocal relations between child anxiety and coparenting quality, and families presenting for treatment who report child (or parent) anxiety should be assessed for difficulties in coparenting. Clinical approaches to bolster coparenting quality are called for. PMID:22124791

  8. Mutations of HNRNPA0 and WIF1 predispose members of a large family to multiple cancers.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chongjuan; Peng, Bo; Han, Younghun; Chen, Wei V; Rother, Joshua; Tomlinson, Gail E; Boland, C Richard; Chaussabel, Marc; Frazier, Marsha L; Amos, Christopher I

    2015-06-01

    We studied a large family that presented a strong familial susceptibility to multiple early onset cancers including prostate, breast, colon, and several other uncommon cancers. Through targeted gene, linkage, and whole genome sequencing analyses, we show that the presence of a variant in the regulatory region of HNRNPA0 associated with elevated cancer incidence in this family (Hazard ratio = 7.20, p = 0.0004). Whole genome sequencing identified a second rare protein changing mutation of WIF1 that interacted with the HNRNPA0 variant resulting in extremely high risk for cancer in carriers of mutations in both genes (p = 1.98 × 10(-13)). Analysis of downstream targets of the mutations in these two genes showed that the HNRNPA0 mutation affected expression patterns in the PI3 kinase and ERK/MAPK signaling pathways, while the WIF1 variant influenced expression of genes that play a role in NAD biosynthesis. This is a first report of variation in HNRNPA0 influencing common cancers or of a striking interaction between rare variants coexisting in an extended pedigree and jointly affecting cancer risk. PMID:25716654

  9. Immunologic studies of three family members with the immunodeficiency with hyper-IgM syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brahmi, Z; Lazarus, K H; Hodes, M E; Baehner, R L

    1983-04-01

    We report the results of immunologic studies in a family in which the father (III-5) and his two daughters (IV-7 and IV-8) had the hyper-IgM syndrome (IHIS). Repeated immunoglobulin levels done on III-5 showed a typical IHIS pattern: low IgG, traces of IgA, and high IgM. IV-7, who also had stage IIA Hodgkin's disease, had a similar pattern except after irradiation therapy to sites of disease, when IgM dropped to normal range while IgG and IgA remained low. IV-8, on the other hand, had normal IgG and IgA and moderately elevated IgM until age 18 months, when she gradually developed the IHIS pattern. All three patients had normal numbers of B cells (sIg) and of T cells, although IV-7 had increased suppression. Finally, all three patients shared the A3,B7 haplotype and none was blood type O. IHIS is not necessarily X linked, is not associated with blood type O, and appears to be heterogeneous even within the same family. Inheritance in this family is apparently autosomal dominant and the father may represent a new mutation. PMID:6602145

  10. The two neutrophil members of the formylpeptide receptor family activate the NADPH-oxidase through signals that differ in sensitivity to a gelsolin derived phosphoinositide-binding peptide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huamei Fu; Lena Björkman; Paul Janmey; Anna Karlsson; Jennie Karlsson; Charlotta Movitz; Claes Dahlgren

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The formylpeptide receptor family members FPR and FPRL1, expressed in myeloid phagocytes, belong to the G-protein coupled seven transmembrane receptor family (GPCRs). They share a high degree of sequence similarity, particularly in the cytoplasmic domains involved in intracellular signaling. The established model of cell activation through GPCRs states that the receptors isomerize from an inactive to an active state

  11. Evolutionary characterization of pig interferon-inducible transmembrane gene family and member expression dynamics in tracheobronchial lymph nodes of pigs infected with swine respiratory disease viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have found that a cluster of duplicated gene loci encoding the interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) family have antiviral activity against several viruses, including influenza A virus. The gene family has 5 and 7 members in humans and mice, respectively. Here, we confirm the...

  12. Hakata Antigen, a New Member of the Ficolin\\/Opsonin p35 Family, Is a Novel Human Lectin Secreted into Bronchus\\/Alveolus and Bile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mina Akaiwa; Yoshiaki Yae; Rie Sugimoto; Satoshi O. Suzuki; Toru Iwaki; Kenji Izuhara; Naotaka Hamasaki

    SUMMARY Hakata antigen was first reported as a serum protein that reacted with an au- toantibody from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Recently, it has been found that Hakata antigen is a new member of the ficolin\\/opsonin p35 family, which is a distinct lectin family, on the basis of homology of structures and the common characteristic of pos- sessing lectin

  13. N. meningitidis 1681 is a member of the FinO family of RNA chaperones.

    SciTech Connect

    Chaulk, S.; Lu, J.; Tan, K.; Arthur, D.; Edwards, R.; Frost, L.; Joachimiak, A.; Glover, J. (Biosciences Division); (Univ. of Alberta)

    2010-11-01

    The conjugative transfer of F-like plasmids between bacteria is regulated by the plasmid-encoded RNA chaperone, FinO, which facilitates sense - antisense RNA interactions to regulate plasmid gene expression. FinO was thought to adopt a unique structure, however many putative homologs have been identified in microbial genomes and are considered members of the FinO-conjugation-repressor superfamily. We were interested in determining whether other members were also able to bind RNA and promote duplex formation, suggesting that this motif does indeed identify a putative RNA chaperone. We determined the crystal structure of the N. meningitidis MC58 protein NMB1681. It revealed striking similarity to FinO, with a conserved fold and a large, positively charged surface that could function in RNA interactions. Using assays developed to study FinO-FinP sRNA interactions, NMB1681, like FinO, bound tightly to FinP RNA stem-loops with short 5-foot and 3-foot single-stranded tails but not to ssRNA. It also was able to catalyze strand exchange between an RNA duplex and a complementary single-strand, and facilitated duplexing between complementary RNA hairpins. Finally, NMB1681 was able to rescue a finO deficiency and repress F plasmid conjugation. This study strongly suggests that NMB1681 is a FinO-like RNA chaperone that likely regulates gene expression through RNA-based mechanisms in N. meningitidis.

  14. Family business: multiple members of major phytohormone classes orchestrate plant stress responses.

    PubMed

    Erb, Matthias; Glauser, Gaetan

    2010-09-10

    Low-molecular-weight compounds such as jasmonic, abscisic and salicylic acids are commonly thought to be regulators of plant stress responses. However, it is becoming clear that these molecules, often referred to as phytohormones, are only a part of bigger groups of compounds with biological activity. We propose that the concept of "hormone families" may help to better understand plant physiological responses by taking into account not only the alleged main regulators, but also their precursors, conjugates and catabolites. Novel approaches to profile potentially active compounds in plants are discussed. PMID:20648494

  15. Portibacter lacus gen. nov., sp.nov., a new member of the family Saprospiraceae isolated from a saline lake.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Matsuo, Yoshihide; Kasai, Hiroaki; Yokota, Akira

    2012-01-01

    A strictly aerobic, Gram-negative, orange-pigmented, rod-shaped, non-motile and chemoheterotrophic bacteria representing a new genus and species, designated YM8-076T, was isolated from lake water collected at a harbor on Lake Notoro, Hokkaido, Japan. Preliminary analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the novel isolate could be affiliated with the family Saprospiraceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it showed highest sequence similarity (88.5%) to Haliscomenobacter hydrossis ATCC 27775T. The strain could be differentiated phenotypically from recognized members of the family Saprospiraceae. The G+C content of DNA was 53.7 mol%, MK-7 was the major menaquinone and iso-C15?0, iso-C15?1 and iso-C17?0 3-OH were the major cellular fatty acids. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic studies, it was concluded that strain YM8-076T represents a new genus and species of the family Saprospiraceae. We propose the name Portibacter lacus gen. nov., sp. nov. for this strain; its type strain is YM8-076T (=KCTC 23747T=NBRC 108769T). PMID:22878737

  16. Homophilic Adhesion Mechanism of Neurofascin, a Member of the L1 Family of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Heli; Focia, Pamela J.; He, Xiaolin (NWU, MED)

    2012-02-13

    The L1 family neural cell adhesion molecules play key roles in specifying the formation and remodeling of the neural network, but their homophilic interaction that mediates adhesion is not well understood. We report two crystal structures of a dimeric form of the headpiece of neurofascin, an L1 family member. The four N-terminal Ig-like domains of neurofascin form a horseshoe shape, akin to several other immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules such as hemolin, axonin, and Dscam. The neurofascin dimer, captured in two crystal forms with independent packing patterns, reveals a pair of horseshoes in trans-synaptic adhesion mode. The adhesion interaction is mediated mostly by the second Ig-like domain, which features an intermolecular {beta}-sheet formed by the joining of two individual GFC {beta}-sheets and a large but loosely packed hydrophobic cluster. Mutagenesis combined with gel filtration assays suggested that the side chain hydrogen bonds at the intermolecular {beta}-sheet are essential for the homophilic interaction and that the residues at the hydrophobic cluster play supplementary roles. Our structures reveal a conserved homophilic adhesion mode for the L1 family and also shed light on how the pathological mutations of L1 affect its structure and function.

  17. Aureitalea marina gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae, isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Park, Sanghwa; Yoshizawa, Susumu; Inomata, Kentaro; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Yokota, Akira

    2012-04-01

    An irregular rod-shaped, non-gliding, yellow-pigmented bacterium was isolated from seawater from the western North Pacific Ocean near Japan. The strain, designated S1-66T, was Gram-negative, obligately aerobic, heterotrophic and oxidase-positive. Growth occurred in the presence of 1-4?% NaCl, with optimum growth at 2?% NaCl. The strain grew at 15-30 °C, with optimum growth at 20-25 °C. The G+C content of genomic DNA was 48.1 mol% (HPLC). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-6 and the major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0 (26.4?%), iso-C15:1 (20.3?%) and iso-C17:0 3-OH (14.2?%). Phylogenetic trees generated by using 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain S1-66T belongs to the family Flavobacteriaceae and showed 94.2?% sequence similarity to the most closely related type strain, Ulvibacter antarcticus IMCC3101T. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic features, S1-66T is classified in a novel genus and species within the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Aureitalea marina gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Aureitalea marina is S1-66T (=NBRC 107741T=KCTC 23434T). PMID:21669922

  18. Aureicoccus marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae, isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Park, Sanghwa; Yoshizawa, Susumu; Muramatsu, Yuki; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi; Yokota, Akira; Kogure, Kazuhiro

    2013-05-01

    A coccoid and amorphous-shaped, non-gliding, proteorhodopsin-containing, yellow bacterium, designated strain SG-18(T), was isolated from seawater in the western North Pacific Ocean near Japan. The strain was Gram-stain-negative, obligately aerobic, heterotrophic and oxidase-positive. It hydrolysed aesculin but not DNA, urea, gelatin or agar. Growth occurred in the presence of 1-5?% NaCl, with optimum growth at 2?% NaCl. The strain grew at 15-37 °C with an optimum temperature of 25-30 °C. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain SG-18(T) was 47.0 mol% (HPLC). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-6, and major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15?:?1 G, iso-C15?:?0, iso-C15?:?0 3-OH. Phylogenetic trees generated by using 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SG-18(T) belonged to the family Flavobacteriaceae and showed 92.7?% sequence similarity to the most closely related species, Croceitalea eckloniae DOKDO 025(T). On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic features, strain SG-18(T) is classified as representing a novel species of a new genus within the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Aureicoccus marinus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is SG-18(T) (?=?NBRC 108814(T)?=?KCTC 23967(T)). PMID:23002047

  19. How Pediatricians Can Deal with Children Who Have Been Sexually Abused by Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The present paper discusses children who have been the victims of sexual abuse in their own family. It focuses on the special role of pediatricians and medical staff in identifying such children and providing them with initial assistance by reporting the situation to the authorities. The first part of the paper surveys the short- and long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse, including the physical and emotional impact of sexual exploitation and severe neglect. This section discusses the symptoms shown by abused children, and how they express and deal with their trauma. It is extremely important for pediatricians to be sensitive to the possibility of patients being abused at home, as this is an area still largely regarded as a societal taboo. Also included in this section a discussion of the effects that are manifested when the victim has grown to adulthood, such as personality disorders. The second part of the paper deals with how pediatricians must act when they encounter such a situation in which they suspect sexual abuse in the family. They should strive to identify the problem and bring it to the attention of the authorities. Discovery of the problem is the most vital part of the path to the victim's recovery. The paper also discusses the aspect of treatment, advising doctors who encounter this problem on ways of dealing with it. PMID:22389771

  20. Analysis of Stable Low-Molecular-Weight RNA Profiles of Members of the Family Rhizobiaceae

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez, Encarna; Cruz-Sánchez, José María; Mateos, Pedro F.; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio

    1998-01-01

    Staircase electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels was used to analyze the stable low-molecular-weight (LMW) RNA profiles of 24 type strains belonging to the family Rhizobiaceae. This new electrophoretic technique results in good separation of the molecules forming the LMW RNA profiles. Differences in the number and distribution of the RNA bands in these profiles allowed us to identify differences among the 24 strains assayed. Species assignments based on LMW RNAs proved to be consistent with the established taxonomic classification. Analysis of the data obtained and the corresponding dendrograms revealed relationships between genera and species; these relationships were essentially the same as those obtained with other techniques, such as DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA sequencing. Use of the technique described here, with which it is possible to analyze a large number of strains in a short time, permits rapid identification of species belonging to the family Rhizobiaceae and should in the future facilitate biodiversity studies and detection of new species. PMID:9575134

  1. Members of the miRNA-200 Family Regulate Olfactory Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Philip S.; Zakhary, Lisa; Choi, Wen-Yee; Caron, Sophie; Alvarez-Saavedra, Ezequiel; Miska, Eric A.; McManus, Mike; Harfe, Brian; Giraldez, Antonio J.; Horvitz, Robert H.; Schier, Alexander F.; Dulac, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Summary MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are highly expressed in vertebrate neural tissues, but the contribution of specific miRNAs to the development and function of different neuronal populations is still largely unknown. We report that miRNAs are required for terminal differentiation of olfactory precursors in both mouse and zebrafish but are dispensable for proper function of mature olfactory neurons. The repertoire of miRNAs expressed in olfactory tissues contains over 100 distinct miRNAs. A subset, including the miR-200 family, shows high olfactory enrichment and expression patterns consistent with a role during olfactory neurogenesis. Loss of function of the miR-200 family phenocopies the terminal differentiation defect observed in absence of all miRNA activity in olfactory progenitors. Our data support the notion that vertebrate tissue differentiation is controlled by conserved subsets of organ-specific miRNAs in both mouse and zebrafish and provide insights into control mechanisms underlying olfactory differentiation in vertebrates. PMID:18184563

  2. A practical guideline for the release of patients treated by I-131 based on Monte Carlo dose calculations for family members.

    PubMed

    Han, Eun Young; Lee, Choonsik; Mcguire, Lynn; Bolch, Wesley E

    2014-06-01

    We recently published effective doses per time-integrated activity (mSv MBq(-1) s(-1)) for paediatric and adult family members exposed to an adult patient released from hospital following I-131 therapy. In the present study, we intend to provide medical physicists with a methodology to estimate family member effective dose in daily clinical practice because the duration of post-radiation precautions for the patient-family member exposure scenario has not been explicitly delineated based on the effective dose. Four different exposure scenarios are considered in this study including (1) a patient and a family member standing face to face, (2) a patient and a family member lying side by side, (3) an adult female patient holding a newborn child to her chest and (4) a one-year-old child standing on the lap of an adult female patient following her I-131 therapy. The results of this study suggest that an adult female hyperthyroidism (HT) patient who was administered with 740 MBq should keep a distance of 100 cm from a 15-year-old child for six days and the same distance from other adults for seven days. The HT female patient should avoid holding a newborn against her chest for at least 16 days following hospital discharge, and a female patient treated with 5550 MBq for differentiated thyroid cancer should not hold her newborn child for at least 15 days following hospital discharge. This study also gives dose coefficients allowing one to predict age-specific effective doses to family members given the measured dose rate (mSv h(-1)) of the patient. In conclusion, effective dose-based patient release criteria with a modified NRC two-component model provide a site medical physicist with less restrictive and age-specific radiation precaution guidance as they fully consider a patient's iodine biokinetics and photon attenuation within both the patient and the exposed family members. PMID:24705486

  3. [Perceptions of family members of patients with cancer on musical encounters during the antineoplastic treatment].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Vladimir Araujo; Marcon, Sonia Silva; Sales, Catarina Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    Current research is a qualitative phenomenological analysis, structured on Heidegger's existential analysis, whose aim was the perception of cancer patients' relatives who live with subjects with cancer and with anticancer treatment, about the musical encounters. Five subjects living at the clinic run by the Maringá Female Network against Cancer participated at eight musical encounters during January and February 2011. The meeting mediated by the music can provide the relatives with a moment of existential introspection which lead them to a transcendental experience in coping with their existential condition. It inspired the expression of subjectivity and the revealing of their existential / spiritual needs. Within the context of cancer palliative care, the encounters may broaden the integration and humanization possibilities of nursing care to the family, providing comfort, reflection and motivation in the wake of emergent adversities within the clinic's temporal term. PMID:25054703

  4. Involving family members in the implementation and evaluation of technologies for dementia: a dyad case study.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Amanda; Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J

    2015-04-01

    An increasing number of individuals worldwide are affected by dementia and it is important to examine nonpharmacological care approaches. A dyadic case study of a 6-month evaluation of a technology designed to engage individuals with dementia in activities in a memory care unit is presented. Findings show one caretaker of an individual with dementia (i.e., her mother) used the computer in a manner consistent with her usual style of interaction and supportive care; she continued to maintain awareness of her mother's activity preferences and cultivated her mother's quality of life by using the provided technology. These findings demonstrate a use for technology to support activities of older adults with dementia while engaging family and provide future directions for technology design and research in this population. PMID:25800405

  5. Characterization of Fpr-rs8, an Atypical Member of the Mouse Formyl Peptide Receptor Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Tiffany, H. Lee; Gao, Ji-Liang; Roffe, Ester; Sechler, Joan M.G.; Murphy, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    The formyl peptide receptor gene family encodes G protein-coupled receptors for phagocyte chemoattractants, including bacteria- and mitochondria-derived N-formylpeptides. The human family has 3 functional genes, whereas the mouse family has 7 functional genes and 2 possible pseudogenes (?Fpr-rs2 and ?Fpr-rs3). Here we characterize ?Fpr-rs2, a duplication of Fpr-rs2. Compared to Fpr-rs2, the ?Fpr-rs2 ORF is 186 nucleotides shorter but 98% identical. Due to a deletion and frame shift, the sequences lack homology from amino acid 219–289. Both transcripts were detected constitutively in multiple immune organs; however, ?Fpr-rs2 was consistently less abundant than Fpr-rs2. LPS induced expression of ?Fpr-rs2, but not Fpr-rs2, in spleen and bone marrow. Both transcripts were detected constitutively in thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal neutrophils, whereas only Fpr-rs2 was detected in thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages. Both transcripts were induced in LPS-stimulated macrophages. ?Fpr-rs2-GFP fusion protein appeared in cytoplasm but not plasma membrane of transfected HEK 293 cells, whereas Fpr-rs2-GFP labeled only plasma membrane. Survival of ?Fpr-rs2–/– mice was 33% shorter than that of wild-type and heterozygous littermates (p < 0.05), but no signature pathology was identified. Since ?Fpr-rs2 is expressed in phagocytes and regulated by bacterial products, and may affect longevity, we propose renaming it Fpr-rs8, an atypical member of the formyl peptide receptor gene family. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel PMID:21691049

  6. Characterization of Fpr-rs8, an atypical member of the mouse formyl peptide receptor gene family.

    PubMed

    Tiffany, H Lee; Gao, Ji-Liang; Roffe, Ester; Sechler, Joan M G; Murphy, Philip M

    2011-01-01

    The formyl peptide receptor gene family encodes G protein-coupled receptors for phagocyte chemoattractants, including bacteria- and mitochondria-derived N-formylpeptides. The human family has 3 functional genes, whereas the mouse family has 7 functional genes and 2 possible pseudogenes (?Fpr-rs2 and ?Fpr-rs3). Here we characterize ?Fpr-rs2, a duplication of Fpr-rs2. Compared to Fpr-rs2, the ?Fpr-rs2 ORF is 186 nucleotides shorter but 98% identical. Due to a deletion and frame shift, the sequences lack homology from amino acid 219-289. Both transcripts were detected constitutively in multiple immune organs; however, ?Fpr-rs2 was consistently less abundant than Fpr-rs2. LPS induced expression of ?Fpr-rs2, but not Fpr-rs2, in spleen and bone marrow. Both transcripts were detected constitutively in thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal neutrophils, whereas only Fpr-rs2 was detected in thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages. Both transcripts were induced in LPS-stimulated macrophages. ?Fpr-rs2-GFP fusion protein appeared in cytoplasm but not plasma membrane of transfected HEK 293 cells, whereas Fpr-rs2-GFP labeled only plasma membrane. Survival of ?Fpr-rs2(-/-) mice was 33% shorter than that of wild-type and heterozygous littermates (p < 0.05), but no signature pathology was identified. Since ?Fpr-rs2 is expressed in phagocytes and regulated by bacterial products, and may affect longevity, we propose renaming it Fpr-rs8, an atypical member of the formyl peptide receptor gene family. PMID:21691049

  7. Similarities and differences among 105 members of the Int family of site-specific recombinases.

    PubMed Central

    Nunes-Düby, S E; Kwon, H J; Tirumalai, R S; Ellenberger, T; Landy, A

    1998-01-01

    Alignments of 105 site-specific recombinases belonging to the Int family of proteins identified extended areas of similarity and three types of structural differences. In addition to the previously recognized conservation of the tetrad R-H-R-Y, located in boxes I and II, several newly identified sequence patches include charged amino acids that are highly conserved and a specific pattern of buried residues contributing to the overall protein fold. With some notable exceptions, unconserved regions correspond to loops in the crystal structures of the catalytic domains of lambda Int (Int c170) and HP1 Int (HPC) and of the recombinases XerD and Cre. Two structured regions also harbor some pronounced differences. The first comprises beta-sheets 4 and 5, alpha-helix D and the adjacent loop connecting it to alpha-helix E: two Ints of phages infecting thermophilic bacteria are missing this region altogether; the crystal structures of HPC, XerD and Cre reveal a lack of beta-sheets 4 and 5; Cre displays two additional beta-sheets following alpha-helix D; five recombinases carry large insertions. The second involves the catalytic tyrosine and is seen in a comparison of the four crystal structures. The yeast recombinases can theoretically be fitted to the Int fold, but the overall differences, involving changes in spacing as well as in motif structure, are more substantial than seen in most other proteins. The phenotypes of mutations compiled from several proteins are correlated with the available structural information and structure-function relationships are discussed. In addition, a few prokaryotic and eukaryotic enzymes with partial homology with the Int family of recombinases may be distantly related, either through divergent or convergent evolution. These include a restriction enzyme and a subgroup of eukaryotic RNA helicases (D-E-A-D proteins). PMID:9421491

  8. EMR1, an unusual member in the family of hormone receptors with seven transmembrane segments

    SciTech Connect

    Baud, V. [Laboratoire de Biologie des Tumeurs Humaines, Villejuif (France)] [Laboratoire de Biologie des Tumeurs Humaines, Villejuif (France); Chissoe, S.L.; Roe, B.A. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); and others

    1995-03-20

    Proteins with seven transmembrane segments (7TM) define a superfamily of receptors (7TM receptors) sharing the same topology: an extracellular N-terminus, three extramembranous loops on either side of the plasma membrane, and a cytoplasmic C-terminal tail. Upon ligand binding, cytoplasmic portions of the activated receptor interact with heterotrimeric G-coupled proteins to induce various second messengers. A small group, recently recognized on the basis of homologous primary amino acid sequences, comprises receptors to hormones of the secretin/vasoactive intestinal peptide/glucagon family, parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptides, growth hormone-releasing factor, corticotropin-releasing factor, and calcitonin. A cDNA, extracted from a neuroectodermal cDNA library, was predicted to encode a new 886-amino-acid protein with three distinct domains. The C-terminal third contains the seven hydrophobic segments and characteristic residues that allow the protein to be readily aligned with the various hormone receptors in the family. Six egf-like modules, at the N-terminus of the predicted mature protein, are separated from the transmembrane segments by a serine/threonine-rich domain, a feature reminiscent of mucin-like, single-span, integral membrane glycoproteins with adhesive properties. Because of its unique characteristics, this putative egf module-containing, mucin-like hormone receptor has been named EMR1. Southern analysis of a panel of somatic cell hybrids and fluorescence in situ hybridization have assigned the EMR1 gene to human chromosome 19p13.3. 73 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Clinical laboratory differentiation of Legionellaceae family members with pigment production and fluorescence on media supplemented with aromatic substrates.

    PubMed

    Vickers, R M; Yu, V L

    1984-05-01

    A systematic study of pigment production (browning) and fluorescence (extracellular yellow-green and intracellular blue-white) by nine Legionellaceae species was performed. A total of 56 strains representing Tatlockia micdadei (Pittsburgh pneumonia agent), Legionella pneumophila, Legionella jordanis, Legionella longbeachae, Legionella oakridgensis, Legionella wadsworthii, Fluoribacter bozemanae, Fluoribacter gormanii, and Fluoribacter dumoffii could be separated on media supplemented with tyrosine plus cystine, 3,4-diaminobenzoic acid, 3,5-diaminobenzoic acid, and 3-aminotyrosine. Parallel testing by hippurate hydrolysis and the bromocresol purple spot test enabled the identification of Legionellaceae species 24 to 72 h after primary isolation. This schema may be a practical alternative to species-specific antisera methods (slide agglutination or direct immunofluorescence) in the identification of members of the family Legionellaceae. PMID:6547453

  10. A novel EID family member, EID-3, inhibits differentiation and forms a homodimer or heterodimer with EID-2

    SciTech Connect

    Sasajima, Yuka [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Miyake, Satoshi [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Yuasa, Yasuhito [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan)]. E-mail: yuasa.monc@tmd.ac.jp

    2005-08-05

    The EID family members, i.e., E1A-like inhibitor of differentiation-1 (EID-1) and EID-1-like inhibitor of differentiation-2 (EID-2), were identified as negative regulators of cellular differentiation. EID-1 seems to inhibit differentiation by blocking histone acetyltransferase activity and EID-2 possibly inhibits differentiation through binding to class I histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here, we report a novel inhibitor of differentiation exhibiting homology with EID-2 termed EID-3 (EID-2-like inhibitor of differentiation-3). Like EID-2, EID-3 inhibited MyoD- and GR{alpha}-dependent transcription and blocked muscle differentiation in cultured cells by binding to class I HDACs. Unlike that of EID-2, the C-terminus, but not the N-terminus, of EID-3 was required for nuclear localization. EID-3 formed a homodimer or heterodimer with EID-2. These results suggest that EID-3 inhibits differentiation by blocking transcription as a complex in cells.

  11. The Bcl-2 family member BIM has multiple glaucoma-relevant functions in DBA/2J mice

    PubMed Central

    Harder, Jeffrey M.; Fernandes, Kimberly A.; Libby, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    Axonal insult induces retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death through a BAX-dependent process. The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member BIM is known to induce BAX activation. BIM expression increased in RGCs after axonal injury and its induction was dependent on JUN. Partial and complete Bim deficiency delayed RGC death after mechanical optic nerve injury. However, in a mouse model of glaucoma, DBA/2J mice, Bim deficiency did not prevent RGC death in eyes with severe optic nerve degeneration. In a subset of DBA/2J mice, Bim deficiency altered disease progression resulting in less severe nerve damage. Bim deficient mice exhibited altered optic nerve head morphology and significantly lessened intraocular pressure elevation. Thus, a decrease in axonal degeneration in Bim deficient DBA/2J mice may not be caused by a direct role of Bim in RGCs. These data suggest that BIM has multiple roles in glaucoma pathophysiology, potentially affecting susceptibility to glaucoma through several mechanisms. PMID:22833783

  12. Sibling rivalry: competition between Pol X family members in V(D)J recombination and general double strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Nick McElhinny, Stephanie A; Ramsden, Dale A

    2004-08-01

    The nonhomologous end-joining pathway is a major means for repairing double-strand breaks (DSBs) in all mitotic cell types. This repair pathway is also the only efficient means for resolving DSB intermediates in V(D)J recombination, a lymphocyte-specific genome rearrangement required for assembly of antigen receptors. A role for polymerases in end-joining has been well established. They are a major factor in determining the character of repair junctions but, in contrast to 'core' end-joining factors, typically appear to have a subtle impact on the efficiency of end-joining. Recent work implicates several members of the Pol X family in end-joining and suggests surprising complexity in the control of how these different polymerases are employed in this pathway. PMID:15242403

  13. Isolation, characterization and evolutionary relatedness of three members from the soybean multigene family encoding chlorophyll a/b binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Walling, L L; Chang, Y C; Demmin, D S; Holzer, F M

    1988-01-01

    The soybean light-harvesting complex II (LHC II) was composed of one major and three minor chlorophyll a/b (Cab) binding proteins. This study demonstrated that the soybean genome contained at least 11 genes that code for these Cab proteins. Three members of the soybean Cab gene family were characterized. Cab 3 coded for a 25.7 kD mature apoprotein with a 32 amino acid transit peptide. Comparisons with previously published Cab protein sequences indicated that Cab 3 coded for the major Cab protein of LHC II. Cab 2 coded for a novel Cab protein with an apparent molecular weight of 24.6 kD. Cab 2 retained a high degree of similarity with Cab 3, but distinguished itself from previously reported minor photosystem II type II Cab genes and products. Finally, Cab 1 was determined to be a pseudogene that had two deletions relative to Cab 2 and Cab 3. Images PMID:2905038

  14. Novel anti-thrombotic agent for modulation of protein disulfide isomerase family member ERp57 for prophylactic therapy.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guozhen; Shan, Luchen; Guo, Lin; Chu, Ivan Keung; Li, Guohui; Quan, Quan; Zhao, Yun; Chong, Cheong Meng; Zhang, Zaijun; Yu, Pei; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man; Sun, Yewei; Wang, Yuqiang; Lee, Simon MingYuen

    2015-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family members including PDI and ERp57 emerge as novel targets for anti-thrombotic treatments, but chemical agents with selectivity remain to be explored. We previously reported a novel derivative of danshensu (DSS), known as ADTM, displayed strong cardioprotective effects against oxidative stress-induced cellular injury in vitro and acute myocardial infarct in vivo. Herein, using chemical proteomics approach, we identified ERp57 as a major target of ADTM. ADTM displayed potent inhibitory effects on the redox activity of ERp57, inhibited the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced expressions of P-selectin and ?IIb?3 integrin, and disrupted the interaction between ERp57 and ?IIb?3. In addition, ADTM inhibited both arachidonic acid (AA)-induced and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Furthermore, ADTM significantly inhibited rat platelet aggregation and thrombus formation in vivo. Taken together, ADTM represents a promising candidate for anti-thrombotic therapy targeting ERp57. PMID:26037049

  15. Family members of older persons with multi-morbidity and their experiences of case managers in Sweden: an interpretive phenomenological approach

    PubMed Central

    Hjelm, Markus; Holmgren, Ann-Charlotte; Willman, Ania; Bohman, Doris; Holst, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Background Family members of older persons (75+) with multi-morbidity are likely to benefit from utilising case management services performed by case managers. However, research has not yet explored their experiences of case managers. Objectives The aim of the study was to deepen the understanding of the importance of case managers to family members of older persons (75+) with multi-morbidity. Design The study design was based on an interpretive phenomenological approach. Method Data were collected through individual interviews with 16 family members in Sweden. The interviews were analysed by means of an interpretive phenomenological approach. Results The findings revealed one overarching theme: “Helps to fulfil my unmet needs”, based on three sub-themes: (1) “Helps me feel secure – Experiencing a trusting relationship”, (2) “Confirms and strengthens me – Challenging my sense of being alone” and (3) “Being my personal guide – Increasing my competence”. Conclusion and discussion The findings indicate that case managers were able to fulfil unmet needs of family members. The latter recognised the importance of case managers providing them with professional services tailored to their individual needs. The findings can contribute to the improvement of case management models not only for older persons but also for their family members. PMID:25918497

  16. Salinarubrum litoreum gen. nov., sp. nov.: a new member of the family Halobacteriaceae isolated from Chinese marine solar salterns.

    PubMed

    Cui, Heng-Lin; Qiu, Xing-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Three halophilic archaeal strains, XD46(T), YJ-63-S1 and ZS-1-H, were isolated from three Chinese marine solar salterns. All were observed to have pleomorphic cells that lysed in distilled water, stained Gram-negative and formed red-pigmented colonies. They were found to grow optimally at 37 °C, at pH 7.0 and in the presence of 2.6 M NaCl and 0.05 M Mg(2+). The major polar lipids were identified as those typical for members of the Halobacteriaceae but also included major glycolipids chromatographically identical to sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-DGD-1), mannosyl glucosyl diether (DGD-1) and two unidentified ones. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the three strains were 99.8-100 % identical, showing most similarity to sequences of members of the family Halobacteriaceae, and clustering together as a distinct clade in phylogenetic tree reconstructions. The rpoB' gene similarities between the three strains were 98.7-100 % and lower to the sequences of other halobacteria. Their DNA G+C contents were determined to be 65.1-65.5 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggest that strains XD46(T) (=CGMCC 1.12237(T) = JCM 18649(T)), YJ-63-S1 (=CGMCC 1.12574) and ZS-1-H (=CGMCC 1.12544) represent a novel species in a new genus within the family Halobacteriaceae, for which the name Salinarubrum litoreum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:24158535

  17. Aberrant Promoter Hypermethylation of RASSF Family Members in Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Antje M.; Haag, Tanja; Walesch, Sara; Herrmann-Trost, Peter; Marsch, Wolfgang C.; Kutzner, Heinz; Helmbold, Peter; Dammann, Reinhard H.

    2013-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is one of the most aggressive cancers of the skin. RASSFs are a family of tumor suppressors that are frequently inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in various cancers. We studied CpG island promoter hypermethylation in MCC of RASSF2, RASSF5A, RASSF5C and RASSF10 by combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) in MCC samples and control tissue. We found RASSF2 to be methylated in three out of 43 (7%), RASSF5A in 17 out of 39 (44%, but also 43% in normal tissue), RASSF5C in two out of 26 (8%) and RASSF10 in 19 out of 84 (23%) of the cancer samples. No correlation between the methylation status of the analyzed RASSFs or between RASSF methylation and MCC characteristics (primary versus metastatic, Merkel cell polyoma virus infection, age, sex) was found. Our results show that RASSF2, RASSF5C and RASSF10 are aberrantly hypermethylated in MCC to a varying degree and this might contribute to Merkel cell carcinogenesis. PMID:24252868

  18. Rab And Arl GTPase Family Members Cooperate in the Localization of the Golgin GCC185

    SciTech Connect

    Burguete, A.Schweizer; Fenn, T.D.; Brunger, A.T.; Pfeffer, S.R.

    2009-05-27

    GCC185 is a large coiled-coil protein at the trans Golgi network that is required for receipt of transport vesicles inbound from late endosomes and for anchoring noncentrosomal microtubules that emanate from the Golgi. Here, we demonstrate that recruitment of GCC185 to the Golgi is mediated by two Golgi-localized small GTPases of the Rab and Arl families. GCC185 binds Rab6, and mutation of residues needed for Rab binding abolishes Golgi localization. The crystal structure of Rab6 bound to the GCC185 Rab-binding domain reveals that Rab6 recognizes a two-fold symmetric surface on a coiled coil immediately adjacent to a C-terminal GRIP domain. Unexpectedly, Rab6 binding promotes association of Arl1 with the GRIP domain. We present a structure-derived model for dual GTPase membrane attachment that highlights the potential ability of Rab GTPases to reach binding partners at a significant distance from the membrane via their unstructured and membrane-anchored, hypervariable domains.

  19. Human EML4, a novel member of the EMAP family, is essential for microtubule formation

    SciTech Connect

    Pollmann, Marc [Department of Hematopathology and Lymph Node Registry, Founded by the German Association of Pathologists at University of Kiel, Michaelisstr, 11, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Parwaresch, Reza [Department of Hematopathology and Lymph Node Registry, Founded by the German Association of Pathologists at University of Kiel, Michaelisstr, 11, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Adam-Klages, Sabine [Department of Immunology, University of Kiel (Germany); Kruse, Marie-Luise [1st Department of Medicine, University of Kiel (Germany); Buck, Friedrich [Department of Cell Biochemistry and Clinical Neurobiology, University of Hamburg (Germany); Heidebrecht, Hans-Juergen [Department of Hematopathology and Lymph Node Registry, Founded by the German Association of Pathologists at University of Kiel, Michaelisstr, 11, 24105 Kiel (Germany)]. E-mail: hheidebrecht@path.uni-kiel.de

    2006-10-15

    Human EML4 (EMAP-like protein 4) is a novel microtubule-associated WD-repeat protein of 120 kDa molecular weight, which is classified as belonging to the conserved family of EMAP-like proteins. Cosedimentation assays demonstrated that EML4 associates with in vitro polymerized microtubules. Correspondingly, immunofluorescence stainings and transient expression of EGFP-labeled EML4 revealed a complete colocalization of EML4 with the interphase microtubule array of HeLa cells. We present evidence that the amino-terminal portion of EML4 (amino acids 1-249) is essential for the association with microtubules. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that EML4 is hyperphosphorylated on serine/threonine residues during mitosis. In addition, immunofluorescence stainings demonstrated that hyperphosphorylated EML4 is associated with the mitotic spindle, suggesting that the function of EML4 is regulated by phosphorylation. siRNA-mediated knockdown of EML4 in HeLa cells led to a significant decrease in the number of cells. In no case mitotic figures could be observed in EML4 negative HeLa cells. Additionally, we observed a significant reduction of the proliferation rate and the uptake of radioactive [{sup 3}H]-thymidine as a result of EML4 silencing. Most importantly, EML4 negative cells showed a completely modified microtubule network, indicating that EML4 is necessary for correct microtubule formation.

  20. A novel member of glycoside hydrolase family 30 subfamily 8 with altered substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    St John, Franz J; Dietrich, Diane; Crooks, Casey; Pozharski, Edwin; González, Javier M; Bales, Elizabeth; Smith, Kennon; Hurlbert, Jason C

    2014-11-01

    Endoxylanases classified into glycoside hydrolase family 30 subfamily 8 (GH30-8) are known to hydrolyze the hemicellulosic polysaccharide glucuronoxylan (GX) but not arabinoxylan or neutral xylooligosaccharides. This is owing to the specificity of these enzymes for the ?-1,2-linked glucuronate (GA) appendage of GX. Limit hydrolysis of this substrate produces a series of aldouronates each containing a single GA substituted on the xylose penultimate to the reducing terminus. In this work, the structural and biochemical characterization of xylanase 30A from Clostridium papyrosolvens (CpXyn30A) is presented. This xylanase possesses a high degree of amino-acid identity to the canonical GH30-8 enzymes, but lacks the hallmark ?8-?8 loop region which in part defines the function of this GH30 subfamily and its role in GA recognition. CpXyn30A is shown to have a similarly low activity on all xylan substrates, while hydrolysis of xylohexaose revealed a competing transglycosylation reaction. These findings are directly compared with the model GH30-8 enzyme from Bacillus subtilis, XynC. Despite its high sequence identity to the GH30-8 enzymes, CpXyn30A does not have any apparent specificity for the GA appendage. These findings confirm that the typically conserved ?8-?8 loop region of these enzymes influences xylan substrate specificity but not necessarily ?-1,4-xylanase function. PMID:25372685

  1. HDAC Family Members Intertwined in the Regulation of Autophagy: A Druggable Vulnerability in Aggressive Tumor Entities

    PubMed Central

    Koeneke, Emily; Witt, Olaf; Oehme, Ina

    2015-01-01

    The exploitation of autophagy by some cancer entities to support survival and dodge death has been well-described. Though its role as a constitutive process is important in normal, healthy cells, in the milieu of malignantly transformed and highly proliferative cells, autophagy is critical for escaping metabolic and genetic stressors. In recent years, the importance of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in cancer biology has been heavily investigated, and the enzyme family has been shown to play a role in autophagy, too. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) are being integrated into cancer therapy and clinical trials are ongoing. The effect of HDACi on autophagy and, conversely, the effect of autophagy on HDACi efficacy are currently under investigation. With the development of HDACi that are able to selectively target individual HDAC isozymes, there is great potential for specific therapy that has more well-defined effects on cancer biology and also minimizes toxicity. Here, the role of autophagy in the context of cancer and the interplay of this process with HDACs will be summarized. Identification of key HDAC isozymes involved in autophagy and the ability to target specific isozymes yields the potential to cripple and ultimately eliminate malignant cells depending on autophagy as a survival mechanism. PMID:25915736

  2. Genetic interaction between members of the Vangl family causes neural tube defects in mice

    PubMed Central

    Torban, Elena; Patenaude, Anne-Marie; Leclerc, Severine; Rakowiecki, Staci; Gauthier, Susan; Andelfinger, Gregor; Epstein, Douglas J.; Gros, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are very frequent congenital abnormalities in humans. Recently, we have documented independent association of Vangl1 and Vangl2 gene mutations with NTDs. In the Looptail mouse, homozygosity (but not heterozygosity) for loss-of-function alleles at Vangl2 causes the severe NTD craniorachischisis, whereas heterozygosity for mutant variants of VANGL1 is associated with NTDs in a human cohort of sporadic and familial cases. To understand the role of Vangl1 in normal development, we created a mouse mutant with an inactivating mutation at Vangl1 (Vangl1gt). Vangl1 shows a dynamic pattern of expression in the developing neural tube and notochord at the time of neural tube closure. Vangl1gt/+ heterozygotes and Vangl1gt/gt homozygotes are viable and fertile, although Vangl1gt/gt display subtle alterations in polarity of inner hair cells of the cochlea. Remarkably, and as opposed to healthy Vangl1gt/+ and Vangl2lp/+ heterozygotes, Vangl1gt/+;Vangl2lp/+ double heterozygotes show profound developmental defects that include severe craniorachischisis, inner ear defects (disorganization of the stereociliary bundles of hair cells of the organ of Corti), and cardiac abnormality (aberrant right subclavian artery). These results show that genetic interaction between Vangl1 and Vangl2 genes causes neural tube defects and raise the possibility that interaction between individual Vangl genes and other genetic loci and/or environmental factors may additionally contribute to the etiology of NTDs. PMID:18296642

  3. MURC/Cavin-4 and cavin family members form tissue-specific caveolar complexes

    PubMed Central

    Bastiani, Michele; Liu, Libin; Hill, Michelle M.; Jedrychowski, Mark P.; Nixon, Susan J.; Lo, Harriet P.; Abankwa, Daniel; Luetterforst, Robert; Fernandez-Rojo, Manuel; Breen, Michael R.; Gygi, Steven P.; Vinten, Jorgen; Walser, Piers J.; North, Kathryn N.; Hancock, John F.; Pilch, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF)/Cavin is a cytoplasmic protein whose expression is obligatory for caveola formation. Using biochemistry and fluorescence resonance energy transfer–based approaches, we now show that a family of related proteins, PTRF/Cavin-1, serum deprivation response (SDR)/Cavin-2, SDR-related gene product that binds to C kinase (SRBC)/Cavin-3, and muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein (MURC)/Cavin-4, forms a multiprotein complex that associates with caveolae. This complex can constitutively assemble in the cytosol and associate with caveolin at plasma membrane caveolae. Cavin-1, but not other cavins, can induce caveola formation in a heterologous system and is required for the recruitment of the cavin complex to caveolae. The tissue-restricted expression of cavins suggests that caveolae may perform tissue-specific functions regulated by the composition of the cavin complex. Cavin-4 is expressed predominantly in muscle, and its distribution is perturbed in human muscle disease associated with Caveolin-3 dysfunction, identifying Cavin-4 as a novel muscle disease candidate caveolar protein. PMID:19546242

  4. Social support and adjustment to caring for elder family members: A multi-study analysis.

    PubMed

    Smerglia, Virginia L; Miller, Nancy B; Sotnak, Diane L; Geiss, Carrie A

    2007-03-01

    This multi-study analysis systematically examines research findings on relationships between social support and caregiver adjustment to discover whether informal support helps family caregivers. Caring for older relatives is an ongoing stressful life course event and role. Informal social support is often used as a predictor of caregiver adjustment outcomes. It is widely believed to enhance adjustment. Yet the varied research results do not necessarily support this belief. A computer-generated literature search of social sciences and medical databases produced thirty-five caregiving articles, published in refereed journals, which meet study parameters. A coding form was developed to categorize social support and adjustment variables for cross-tabular analyses. The findings show most relationships (61%) between social support and caregiver adjustment are not positively significant. Of the minority of positively significant relationships, neither perceived (available) nor received support is more important and neither instrumental nor socioemotional support is more likely to aid adjustment. Researchers and health care professionals need to explore the negative impact of social support and attributes of caregiver-care recipient relationships. PMID:17453554

  5. MURC/Cavin-4 and cavin family members form tissue-specific caveolar complexes.

    PubMed

    Bastiani, Michele; Liu, Libin; Hill, Michelle M; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Nixon, Susan J; Lo, Harriet P; Abankwa, Daniel; Luetterforst, Robert; Fernandez-Rojo, Manuel; Breen, Michael R; Gygi, Steven P; Vinten, Jorgen; Walser, Piers J; North, Kathryn N; Hancock, John F; Pilch, Paul F; Parton, Robert G

    2009-06-29

    Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF)/Cavin is a cytoplasmic protein whose expression is obligatory for caveola formation. Using biochemistry and fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based approaches, we now show that a family of related proteins, PTRF/Cavin-1, serum deprivation response (SDR)/Cavin-2, SDR-related gene product that binds to C kinase (SRBC)/Cavin-3, and muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein (MURC)/Cavin-4, forms a multiprotein complex that associates with caveolae. This complex can constitutively assemble in the cytosol and associate with caveolin at plasma membrane caveolae. Cavin-1, but not other cavins, can induce caveola formation in a heterologous system and is required for the recruitment of the cavin complex to caveolae. The tissue-restricted expression of cavins suggests that caveolae may perform tissue-specific functions regulated by the composition of the cavin complex. Cavin-4 is expressed predominantly in muscle, and its distribution is perturbed in human muscle disease associated with Caveolin-3 dysfunction, identifying Cavin-4 as a novel muscle disease candidate caveolar protein. PMID:19546242

  6. CS1, a novel member of the CD2 family, is homophilic and regulates NK cell function.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, Pappanaicken R; Lai, Wayne C; Chuang, Samuel S; Bennett, Michael; Mathew, Porunelloor A

    2002-09-01

    CS1 is a novel member of the CD2 subset of immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) expressed on NK, T and stimulated B cells. The cytoplasmic domain of CS1 contains immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM) which is present in 2B4, SLAM and CD84. The signaling adaptor molecule SAP/SH2D1A, the defective gene in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLPD), binds to ITSM and regulates immune cell function. However, recent studies indicate that CS1 may be regulated by a SAP-independent mechanism. In this study, we have examined the ligand specificity of CS1 and the effect of CS1 interaction with its ligand on the cytolytic activity of YT, a human NK cell line. Recombinant fusion protein, CS1-Ig, containing the CS1 extracellular domain and Fc portion of the human IgG bound cells transfected with CS1. CS1-Ig did not show any binding to cells expressing other members of the CD2 family. The cytolytic activity of YT was enhanced in presence of soluble CS1-Ig fusion protein. These results demonstrate that CS1 is a self-ligand and homophilic interaction of CS1 regulates NK cell cytolytic activity. PMID:12213321

  7. Differential regulation of four members of the ACC synthase gene family in plum

    PubMed Central

    El-Sharkawy, I.; Kim, W. S.; Jayasankar, S.; Svircev, A. M.; Brown, D. C. W.

    2008-01-01

    The regulation of ACC synthase (ACS) genes was studied in early (‘Early Golden’) and late (‘Shiro’) Japanese plum cultivars (Prunus salicina L.) in order to determine the role of this gene family in fruit ripening. Of the four Ps-ACS cDNAs isolated, two (Ps-ACS1 and -3) showed differential expression between the two cultivars. Ps-ACS1 accumulated during fruit ripening of ‘Early Golden’ (‘EG’) and ‘Shiro’ (‘SH’) in ethylene-dependent and -independent manners, respectively. Ps-ACS3a transcripts accumulated throughout fruit development and during ‘EG’ fruit ripening. Ps-ACS3b was detected only during ripening of ‘SH’ fruit. Furthermore, Ps-ACS3a transcript accumulation was negatively regulated by ethylene, whereas Ps-ACS3b was positively induced by the hormone. In both cultivars, the expression of Ps-ACS4 and -5 is under positive and negative feedback control by ethylene, respectively. Genetic analyses of ‘EG’ and ‘SH’ cultivars demonstrated that ‘EG’ is homozygous for Ps-ACS3a whereas ‘SH’ is heterozygous for Ps-ACS3 (a/b). The role of ethylene-overproducer 1-like in delaying fruit ripening by interacting with Ps-ACS proteins was also studied. The effect of the plant hormones, auxin, gibberellin, and cytokinin, in regulating ethylene production by promoting the induction of the different Ps-ACS mRNAs in plum was investigated. A model is presented in which differences in Ps-ACS alleles and gene expression between early and late plums are critical in determining the ripening behaviour of the cultivars. PMID:18535295

  8. Pathogenicity of members of the vibrionaceae family to cultured juvenile sablefish.

    PubMed

    Arkoosh, Mary R; Dietrich, Joseph P

    2015-06-01

    Sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria are a prized seafood species due to their high oil content and white flaky flesh. Raising these species in culture can help to provide an important source of protein for humans and relief to declining wild fish populations. Understanding the environmental factors that influence the production of Sablefish is important for successful culturing. The significance of host-pathogen interactions in Sablefish culture and the resulting environmental implications are unknown. Pathogens could potentially cause losses of cultured Sablefish stocks due to disease, while Sablefish cultured in net pens may also serve as reservoirs for pathogens and potentially transmit disease to wild fish species. In this initial study, the susceptibility of juvenile Sablefish to three bacterial pathogens from the family Vibrionaceae was examined. Listonella anguillarum, Vibrio ordalii, and V. splendidus can pose serious economic threats to cultured fish and shellfish. Groups of juvenile Sablefish were exposed to five concentrations of each of the pathogens. Sablefish were susceptible to L. anguillarum, but were resistant to V. ordalii and V. splendidus at exposure concentrations of ?1.32 × 10(7) CFU/mL and ?3.57 × 10(6) CFU/mL, respectively. The greatest L. anguillarum concentration examined (8.7 × 10(6) CFU/mL) resulted in 24% mortality in juvenile Sablefish. A 24% loss of Sablefish stock could significantly influence an aquaculture program. As determined by multiple logistic regression, the survival of Sablefish to L. anguillarum exposure was significantly affected by their body mass, and larger fish had a greater probability of survival. Aquaculture operations could employ various strategies to minimize the loss of juvenile Sablefish by accounting for their size and known susceptibilities to pathogens. Received December 9, 2014; accepted February 7, 2015. PMID:25970236

  9. Aureisphaera galaxeae gen. nov., sp. nov., a marine member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from the hard coral Galaxea fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Yasumoto-Hirose, Mina; Kasai, Hiroaki

    2015-06-01

    A novel Gram-stain negative, spherical, non-motile, strictly aerobic, heterotrophic, yellow pigmented bacterium, designated strain 04OKA003-7(T) was isolated from the hard coral Galaxea fascicularis L. collected at Akajima, Okinawa, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed the novel isolate is affiliated with the family Flavobacteriaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes and that it showed highest sequence similarity (92.9 %) to Vitellibacter aestuarii JC2436(T) and Aureitalea marina S1-66(T). The strain could be differentiated phenotypically from recognized members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. The major fatty acids of strain 04OKA003-7(T) were identified as iso-C15:0 and iso-C17:0 3-OH as defined by the MIDI system. The DNA G+C content was determined to be 41 mol%, the major respiratory quinone was identified as menaquinone 6 (MK-6) and a polar lipid profile was present consisting of phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and an unidentified lipid. From the distinct phylogenetic position and combination of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the strain is considered to represent a novel genus for which the name Aureisphaera galaxeae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. galaxeae is 04OKA003-7(T) (=KCTC 32993(T) = NBRC 110018(T)). PMID:25795444

  10. Complex phylogeny and gene expression patterns of members of the NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER family (NPF) in wheat.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Peter; Hawkesford, Malcolm J

    2014-10-01

    NPF (formerly referred to as low-affinity NRT1) and 'high-affinity' NRT2 nitrate transporter genes are involved in nitrate uptake by the root, and transport and distribution of nitrate within the plant. The NPF gene family consists of 53 members in Arabidopsis thaliana, however only 11 of these have been functionally characterized. Although homologous genes have been identified in genomes of different plant species including some cereals, there is little information available for wheat (Triticum aestivum). Sixteen genes were identified in wheat homologous to characterized Arabidopsis low-affinity nitrate transporter NPF genes, suggesting a complex wheat NPF gene family. The regulation of wheat NFP genes by plant N-status indicated involvement of these transporters in substrate transport in relation to N-metabolism. The complex expression pattern in relation to tissue specificity, nitrate availability and senescence may be associated with the complex growth patterns of wheat depending on sink/source demands, as well as remobilization during grain filling. PMID:24913625

  11. Suicidal Ideation, Plans, and Attempts Among Rural Young Chinese: The Effect of Suicide Death by a Family Member or Friend

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts have been found to be predictors of suicide. This study aims to estimate the suicidal behaviors in rural China. We studied 784 respondents as informants of suicide and 1,247 respondents as informants of community living controls, with the NCS-R measures on suicidal behaviors. The life-time prevalence of ideation, plans, and attempts among the informants of suicide was 18.1, 4.1, and 1.7%, and the 12-month prevalence was 12.1, 2.2, and 0.4%, respectively. The prevalence scores were higher for the family members than for friends of suicide. The risk factors for suicidal behaviors include being parents or spouse of the suicide, female gender, low education level, and being never married. As suicidal behaviors are more observed among those who have a suicide death in the family or among close friends, suicide screening and intervention efforts should be focused on this type of population. PMID:20623190

  12. A member of the Tlr family is involved in dsRNA innate immune response in Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Russo, Roberta; Chiaramonte, Marco; Matranga, Valeria; Arizza, Vincenzo

    2015-08-01

    The innate immune response involves proteins such as the membrane receptors of the Toll-like family (TLRs), which trigger different intracellular signalling pathways that are dependent on specific stimulating molecules. In sea urchins, TLR proteins are encoded by members of a large multigenic family composed of 60-250 genes in different species. Here, we report a newly identified mRNA sequence encoding a TLR protein (referred to as Pl-Tlr) isolated from Paracentrotus lividus immune cells. The partial protein sequence contained the conserved Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain, the transmembrane domain and part of the leucine repeats. Phylogenetic analysis of the Pl-Tlr protein was accomplished by comparing its sequence with those of TLRs from different classes of vertebrates and invertebrates. This analysis was suggestive of an evolutionary path that most likely represented the course of millions of years, starting from simple organisms and extending to humans. Challenge of the sea urchin immune system with poly-I:C, a chemical compound that mimics dsRNA, caused time-dependent Pl-Tlr mRNA up-regulation that was detected by QPCR. In contrast, bacterial LPS injury did not affect Pl-Tlr transcription. The study of the Tlr genes in the sea urchin model system may provide new perspectives on the role of Tlrs in the invertebrate immune response and clues concerning their evolution in a changing world. PMID:25907136

  13. Proteomic analysis of murine Piwi proteins reveals a role for arginine methylation in specifying interaction with Tudor family members

    PubMed Central

    Vagin, Vasily V.; Wohlschlegel, James; Qu, Jun; Jonsson, Zophonias; Huang, Xinhua; Chuma, Shinichiro; Girard, Angelique; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Hannon, Gregory J.; Aravin, Alexei A.

    2009-01-01

    In germ cells, Piwi proteins interact with a specific class of small noncoding RNAs, piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Together, these form a pathway that represses transposable elements, thus safeguarding germ cell genomes. Basic models describe the overall operation of piRNA pathways. However, the protein compositions of Piwi complexes, the critical protein–protein interactions that drive small RNA production and target recognition, and the precise molecular consequences of conserved localization to germline structures, call nuage, remains poorly understood. We purified the three murine Piwi family proteins, MILI, MIWI, and MIWI2, from mouse germ cells and characterized their interacting protein partners. Piwi proteins were found in complex with PRMT5/WDR77, an enzyme that dimethylates arginine residues. By immunoprecipitation with specific antibodies and by mass spectrometry, we found that Piwi proteins are arginine methylated at conserved positions in their N termini. These modifications are essential to direct complex formation with specific members of the Tudor protein family. Recognition of methylarginine marks by Tudor proteins can drive the localization of Piwi proteins to cytoplasmic foci in an artificial setting, supporting a role for this interaction in Piwi localization to nuage, a characteristic that correlates with proper operation of the piRNA pathway and transposon silencing in multiple organisms. PMID:19584108

  14. Los1p, Involved in Yeast Pre-Trna Splicing, Positively Regulates Members of the Sol Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Shen, W. C.; Stanford, D. R.; Hopper, A. K.

    1996-01-01

    To understand the role of Los1p in pre-tRNA splicing, we sought los1 multicopy suppressors. We found SOL1 that suppresses both point and null LOS1 mutations. Since, when fused to the Gal4p DNA-binding domain, Los1p activates transcription, we tested whether Los1p regulates SOL1. We found that los1 mutants have depleted levels of SOL1 mRNA and Sollp. Thus, LOS1 appears to positively regulate SOL1. SOL1 belongs to a multigene family with at least two additional members, SOL2 and SOL3. Sol proteins have extensive similarity to an unusual group of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases. As the similarities are restricted to areas separate from the catalytic domain, these G6PDs may have more than one function. The SOL family appears to be unessential since cells with a triple disruption of all three SOL genes are viable. SOL gene disruptions negatively affect tRNA-mediated nonsense suppression and the severity increases with the number of mutant SOL genes. However, tRNA levels do not vary with either multicopy SOL genes or with SOL disruptions. Therefore, the Sol proteins affect tRNA expression/function at steps other than transcription or splicing. We propose that LOS1 regulates gene products involved in tRNA expression/function as well as pre-tRNA splicing. PMID:8725220

  15. Psychological response of family members of patients hospitalised for influenza A/H1N1 in Oaxaca, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The A/H1N1 pandemic originated in Mexico in April 2009, amid high uncertainty, social and economic disruption, and media reports of panic. The aim of this research project was to evaluate the psychological response of family primary caregivers of patients hospitalised in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with suspected influenza A/H1N1 to establish whether there was empirical evidence of high adverse psychological response, and to identify risk factors for such a response. If such evidence was found, a secondary aim was to develop a specific early intervention of psychological support for these individuals, to reduce distress and possibly lessen the likelihood of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the longer term. Methods Psychological assessment questionnaires were administered to the family primary caregivers of patients hospitalised in the ICU in the General Hospital of Zone 1 of the Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS), Oaxaca, Mexico with suspected influenza A/H1N1, during the month of November 2009. The main outcome measures were ratings of reported perceived stress (PSS-10), depression (CES-D), and death anxiety (DAQ). Data were subjected to simple and multiple linear regression analysis to identify risk factors for adverse psychological response. Results Elevated levels of perceived stress and depression, compared to population normative data, and moderate levels of death anxiety were noted. Levels of depression were similar to those found in comparable studies of family members of ICU patients admitted for other conditions. Multiple regression analysis indicated that increasing age and non-spousal family relationship were significantly associated with depression and perceived stress. Female gender, increasing age, and higher levels of education were significantly associated with high death anxiety. Comparisons with data collected in previous studies in the same hospital ICU with groups affected by a range of other medical conditions indicated that the psychological response reported in this study was generally lower. Conclusions Data indicated that, contrary to widely publicised reports of 'panic' surrounding A/H1N1, that some of those most directly affected did not report excessive psychological responses; however, we concluded that there was sufficient evidence to support provision of limited psychological support to family caregivers. PMID:21129214

  16. Soluble-E-cadherin activates HER and IAP family members in HER2+ and TNBC human breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Brouxhon, Sabine M; Kyrkanides, Stephanos; Teng, Xiaofei; O'Banion, M Kerry; Clarke, Robert; Byers, Stephen; Ma, Li

    2014-11-01

    Recent literature suggests that sEcad exerts pro-oncogenic effects, possibly acting as a ligand for the human epidermal growth factor family. Here we show that sEcad is a novel candidate protein for drug targeting since it is increased in human and mouse HER2-positive (HER2+) breast tumors, MMTV-PyMT bodily fluids and human cell culture systems. Mechanistically, we show that endogenous sEcad, and to a lesser extent membrane-bound E-cadherin, associates with HER1, HER2, and HER3 in human and MMTV-PyMT mouse HER2+ tumors and with HER1 in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) specimens. Furthermore, addition of exogenous recombinant human E-cadherin/Fc chimeric protein (rhEcad/Fc; sEcad) to HER2+ MCF-7, SKBR3, and HER2-negative MDA-MB-231 TNBC cells, resulted in sEcad-HER receptor family interactions, activation of HER1-4 and downstream pro-survival signaling, including the MAPK-PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways and IAP family members. Lastly, we demonstrate that sEcad exerts pro-oncogenic effects via HER signaling, and acts additively with the HER ligand EGF to promote HER2+ breast cancer proliferation and migration, as well as TNBC invasion. Because sEcad associates and activates many of the oncogenic pathways that tumors utilize for growth and survival and serum levels in patients correlates with clinical response, suggests that targeted therapy against sEcad in combination with other therapies may potentially offer a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of breast cancers. PMID:23776059

  17. Complete structure of the human alpha-albumin gene, a new member of the serum albumin multigene family.

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, H; Dugaiczyk, A

    1996-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the human alpha-albumin gene, including 887 bp of the 5'-flanking region and 1311 bp of the 3-flanking region (24,454 in total), was determined from three overlapping lambda phage clones. The sequence spans 22,256 bp from the cap site to the polyadenylylation site, revealing a gene structure of 15 exons separated by 14 introns. The methionine initiation codon ATG is within exon 1; the termination codon TGA is within exon 14. Exon 15 is entirely untranslated and contains the polyadenylylation signal AATAAA. The deduced polypeptide chain is composed of a 21-amino-acid leader peptide, followed by 578 amino acids of the mature protein. There are seven repetitive DNA elements (Alu and Kpn) in the introns and 3-flanking region. The sizes of the 15 alpha-albumin exons match closely those of the albumin, alpha-fetoprotein, and vitamin D-binding protein genes. The exons are symmetrically placed within the three domains of the individual proteins, and they share a characteristic codon splitting pattern that is conserved among members of the gene family. The results provide strong evidence that alpha-albumin belongs to, and most likely completes with, the serum albumin gene family. Based on structural similarity, alpha-albumin appears to be most closely related to alpha-fetoprotein. The complete structure of this family of four tandemly linked genes provides a well-characterized approximately 200 kb locus in the 4q subcentromeric region of the human genome. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8755513

  18. Comparative biochemical analysis of three members of the Schistosoma mansoni TAL family: Differences in ion and drug binding properties

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Charlotte M.; Fitzsimmons, Colin M.; Dunne, David W.; Timson, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The tegumental allergen-like (TAL) proteins from Schistosoma mansoni are part of a family of calcium binding proteins found only in parasitic flatworms. These proteins have attracted interest as potential drug or vaccine targets, yet comparatively little is known about their biochemistry. Here, we compared the biochemical properties of three members of this family: SmTAL1 (Sm22.6), SmTAL2 (Sm21.7) and SmTAL3 (Sm20.8). Molecular modelling suggested that, despite similarities in domain organisation, there are differences in the three proteins’ structures. SmTAL1 was predicted to have two functional calcium binding sites and SmTAL2 was predicted to have one. Despite the presence of two EF-hand-like structures in SmTAL3, neither was predicted to be functional. These predictions were confirmed by native gel electrophoresis, intrinsic fluorescence and differential scanning fluorimetry: both SmTAL1 and SmTAL2 are able to bind calcium ions reversibly, but SmTAL3 is not. SmTAL1 is also able to interact with manganese, strontium, iron(II) and nickel ions. SmTAL2 has a different ion binding profile interacting with cadmium, manganese, magnesium, strontium and barium ions in addition to calcium. All three proteins form dimers and, in contrast to some Fasciola hepatica proteins from the same family; dimerization is not affected by calcium ions. SmTAL1 interacts with the anti-schistosomal drug praziquantel and the calmodulin antagonists trifluoperazine, chlorpromazine and W7. SmTAL2 interacts only with W7. SmTAL3 interacts with the aforementioned calmodulin antagonists and thiamylal, but not praziquantel. Overall, these data suggest that the proteins have different biochemical properties and thus, most likely, different in vivo functions. PMID:25447146

  19. Two novel human members of an emerging mammalian gene family related to mono-ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Koch-Nolte, F.; Haag, F.; Braren, R. [Univ. Hospital, Hamburg (Germany)] [and others] [Univ. Hospital, Hamburg (Germany); and others

    1997-02-01

    Mono-ADP-ribosylation is one of the posttranslational protein modifications regulating cellular metabolism, e.g., nitrogen fixation, in prokaryotes. Several bacterial toxins mono-ADP-ribosylate and inactivate specific proteins in their animal hosts. Recently, two mammalian GPI-anchored cell surface enzymes with similar activities were cloned (designated ART1 and ART2). We have now identified six related expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the public database and cloned the two novel human genes from which these are derived (designated ART3 and ART4). The deduced amino acid sequences of the predicted gene products show 28% sequence identity to one another and 32-41% identity vs the muscle and T cell enzymes. They contain signal peptide sequences characteristic of GPI anchorage. Southern Zoo blot analyses suggest the presence of related genes in other mammalian species. By PCR screening of somatic cell hybrids and by in situ hybridization, we have mapped the two genes to human chromosomes 4p14-p15.l and 12q13.2- q13.3. Northern blot analyses show that these genes are specifically expressed in testis and spleen, respectively. Comparison of genomic and cDNA sequences reveals a conserved exon/intron structure, with an unusually large exon encoding the predicted mature membrane proteins. Secondary structure prediction analyses indicate conserved motifs and amino acid residues consistent with a common ancestry of this emerging mammalian enzyme family and bacterial mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferases. It is possible that the four human gene family members identified so far represent the {open_quotes}tip of an iceberg,{close_quote} i.e., a larger family of enzymes that influences the function of target proteins via mono-ADP-ribosylation. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Soluble-E-Cadherin Activates HER and IAP Family Members in HER2+ and TNBC Human Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Brouxhon, Sabine M.; Kyrkanides, Stephanos; Teng, Xiaofei; O'Banion, M. Kerry; Clarke, Robert; Byers, Stephen; Ma, Li

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature suggests that sEcad exerts pro-oncogenic effects, possibly acting as a ligand for the human epidermal growth factor family. Here we show that sEcad is a novel candidate protein for drug targeting since it is increased in human and mouse HER2-positive (HER2+) breast tumors, MMTV-PyMT bodily fluids and human cell culture systems. Mechanistically, we show that endogenous sEcad, and to a lesser extent membrane-bound E-cadherin, associates with HER1, HER2, and HER3 in human and MMTV-PyMT mouse HER2+ tumors and with HER1 in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) specimens. Furthermore, addition of exogenous recombinant human E-cadherin/Fc chimeric protein (rhEcad/Fc; sEcad) to HER2+ MCF-7, SKBR3, and HER2-negative MDA-MB-231 TNBC cells, resulted in sEcad-HER receptor family interactions, activation of HER1–4 and downstream pro-survival signaling, including the MAPK-PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways and IAP family members. Lastly, we demonstrate that sEcad exerts pro-oncogenic effects via HER signaling, and acts additively with the HER ligand EGF to promote HER2+ breast cancer proliferation and migration, as well as TNBC invasion. Because sEcad associates and activates many of the oncogenic pathways that tumors utilize for growth and survival and serum levels in patients correlates with clinical response, suggests that targeted therapy against sEcad in combination with other therapies may potentially offer a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of breast cancers. PMID:23776059

  1. Comparative biochemical analysis of three members of the Schistosoma mansoni TAL family: Differences in ion and drug binding properties.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Charlotte M; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Dunne, David W; Timson, David J

    2015-01-01

    The tegumental allergen-like (TAL) proteins from Schistosoma mansoni are part of a family of calcium binding proteins found only in parasitic flatworms. These proteins have attracted interest as potential drug or vaccine targets, yet comparatively little is known about their biochemistry. Here, we compared the biochemical properties of three members of this family: SmTAL1 (Sm22.6), SmTAL2 (Sm21.7) and SmTAL3 (Sm20.8). Molecular modelling suggested that, despite similarities in domain organisation, there are differences in the three proteins' structures. SmTAL1 was predicted to have two functional calcium binding sites and SmTAL2 was predicted to have one. Despite the presence of two EF-hand-like structures in SmTAL3, neither was predicted to be functional. These predictions were confirmed by native gel electrophoresis, intrinsic fluorescence and differential scanning fluorimetry: both SmTAL1 and SmTAL2 are able to bind calcium ions reversibly, but SmTAL3 is not. SmTAL1 is also able to interact with manganese, strontium, iron(II) and nickel ions. SmTAL2 has a different ion binding profile interacting with cadmium, manganese, magnesium, strontium and barium ions in addition to calcium. All three proteins form dimers and, in contrast to some Fasciola hepatica proteins from the same family; dimerization is not affected by calcium ions. SmTAL1 interacts with the anti-schistosomal drug praziquantel and the calmodulin antagonists trifluoperazine, chlorpromazine and W7. SmTAL2 interacts only with W7. SmTAL3 interacts with the aforementioned calmodulin antagonists and thiamylal, but not praziquantel. Overall, these data suggest that the proteins have different biochemical properties and thus, most likely, different in vivo functions. PMID:25447146

  2. Modulation of NFAT-5, an outlying member of the NFAT family, in human keratinocytes and skin

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daraji, Wael I; Afolayan, John; Zelger, Bettina G; Abdellaoui, Adel; Zelger, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Background Cyclosporin A (CsA) and tacrolimus block T cell activation by inhibiting the phosphatase calcineurin and preventing translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of the transcription factor Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT). NFAT compose a family of transcription factors that are turned on during T cell activation. Aims To study the expression of NFAT-5 mRNA and protein in normal human keratinocytes and to investigate the cellular and subcellular pattern of expression of NFAT-5 in normal human skin and psoriasis, and analyze effects of different agonists and ultraviolet radiation on NFAT-5 in normal human skin. Methods Tissue cultures, Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), Western analysis, immunostaining, confocal microscopy. Results Sequencing of RT-PCR products confirmed the identity of the product that showed 100 % homology with the predicted NFAT-5 sequence. anti-NFAT-5 mainly detected a single band in cultured keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts using Western analysis. Immunohistochemistry showed that epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts in normal human and psoriatic skin express NFAT-5. NFAT-5 showed predominantly nuclear localization in epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts within five normal adult skin biopsies. Our data also suggest that UV irradiation reduces NFAT-5 nuclear localization within the epidermis. Unlike NFAT 1-4, NFAT-5/TonEBP was localized to both nucleus and cytoplasm of cultured keratinocytes. Cyclosporin A induces nuclear membrane translocation of NFAT-5 in cultured keratinocytes and raffinose (a hypertonicity inducing agent) induces more nuclear localization of NFAT-5 compared to untreated cells. In addition, differentiation-promoting agonists that induce sustained rise in intracellular calcium did not result in changes in NFAT-5 localization in cultured keratinocytes. Conclusion These studies provide the first observation of expression of NFAT-5/TonEBP mRNA protein in cultured keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts and possible functional regulation in cultured keratinocytes. CsA and raffinose effects on NFAT-5/TonEBP in cultured keratinocytes suggest diverse intracellular signaling pathways for NFAT-5/TonEBP in these cells, and that NFAT-5/TonEBP might function to translate different extracellular stimuli into appropriate functional responses. PMID:19956430

  3. The human ClC4 protein, a member of the CLC chloride channel\\/transporter family, is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum by its N-terminus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanneke Okkenhaug; Karsten-Henrich Weylandt; David Carmena; Dominic J. Wells; Christopher F. Higgins; Alessandro Sardini

    2006-01-01

    Despite considerable similarity in their amino acid sequences and structural features, the mam- malian members of the CLC chloride channel\\/trans- porter family have different subcellular locations. The subcellular location and function of one of these members, hClC-4, is controversial. To characterize its cellular function, we investigated its tissue distribution and subcellular location. Expression was high in excit- able tissues such

  4. Developmentally regulated expression, alternative splicing and distinct sub-groupings in members of the Schistosoma mansoni venom allergen-like (SmVAL) gene family

    E-print Network

    Chalmers, Iain W; McArdle, Andrew J; Coulson, Richard M R; Wagner, Marissa A; Schmid, Ralf; Hirai, Hirohisa; Hoffmann, Karl F

    2008-02-23

    Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK, 3Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK, 4Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Aichi 484-8506, Japan... to lead a study culminating in the molecular description of twenty-eight S. mansoni SCP/TAPS family members, designated SmVAL1-28. While the exact function of each SmVAL family member is currently unknown, the information provided in our study suggests...

  5. Functional screening of five PYPAF family members identifies PYPAF5 as a novel regulator of NF-?B and caspase-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill M. Grenier; Lin Wang; Gulam A. Manji; Waan-Jeng Huang; Amal Al-Garawi; Roxanne Kelly; Adam Carlson; Sarah Merriam; Jose M. Lora; Michael Briskin; Peter S. DiStefano; John Bertin

    2002-01-01

    PYRIN-containing Apaf-1-like proteins (PYPAFs) are a recently identified family of proteins thought to function in apoptotic and inflammatory signaling pathways. PYPAF1 and PYPAF7 proteins have been found to assemble with the PYRIN–CARD protein ASC and coordinate the activation of NF-?B and pro-caspase-1. To determine if other PYPAF family members function in pro-inflammatory signaling pathways, we screened five other PYPAF proteins

  6. Human CUL1, but not Other CuHin Family Members, Selectively Interacts with SKPI to Form a Complex with SKP2 and Cyclin A1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer J. Michel; Yue Xiong

    The budding yeast gene product, CDC53p, forms E3- like SCF complexes with SKPI and F-box-containing proteins to mediate the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of GI cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. Cdc53 represents a muftigene family, the human homologues of which, the cullin family, include at least six distinct members. We have found that human cullin I , but not the other

  7. Systematic Analysis of Sequences and Expression Patterns of Drought-Responsive Members of the HD-Zip Gene Family in Maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Zhao; Yuqiong Zhou; Haiyang Jiang; Xiaoyu Li; Defang Gan; Xiaojian Peng; Suwen Zhu; Beijiu Cheng

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundMembers of the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) gene family encode transcription factors that are unique to plants and have diverse functions in plant growth and development such as various stress responses, organ formation and vascular development. Although systematic characterization of this family has been carried out in Arabidopsis and rice, little is known about HD-Zip genes in maize (Zea mays L.).Methods

  8. Rubritalea sabuli sp. nov., a carotenoid- and squalene-producing member of the family Verrucomicrobiaceae, isolated from marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Matsuo, Yoshihide; Matsuda, Satoru; Adachi, Kyoko; Kasai, Hiroaki; Yokota, Akira

    2008-04-01

    The taxonomic status of a verrucomicrobial strain isolated from marine sediment was established based on a polyphasic examination. The novel isolate, strain YM29-052T, was obligately aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, coccoid or rod-shaped and chemoheterotrophic. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the new isolate shared approximately 94-99 % sequence similarity with members of genus Rubritalea of the family Verrucomicrobiaceae within the phylum 'Verrucomicrobia'. Genomic DNA-DNA hybridization between strain YM29-052T and Rubritalea squalenifaciens HOact23T showed relatedness of <70 %, the value commonly accepted as the threshold for the phylogenetic definition of a species. Strain YM29-052T produces carotenoid compounds that render the cell biomass a pink colour; the strain also contains squalene. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of the novel strain contains muramic acid and meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content of strain YM29-052T was 47.7 mol%; MK-8 and MK-9 were the major menaquinones. The presence of iso-C14 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and C16 : 1 omega 7c as major cellular fatty acids supported the identification of the novel isolate as a member of the genus Rubritalea. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic evidence, it was concluded that strain YM29-052T should be classified within a novel species of the genus Rubritalea, for which the name Rubritalea sabuli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YM29-052T (=MBIC08323T =KCTC 22127T). PMID:18398208

  9. The presence of a dnaK (HSP70) multigene family in members of the orders Planctomycetales and Verrucomicrobiales.

    PubMed Central

    Ward-Rainey, N; Rainey, F A; Stackebrandt, E

    1997-01-01

    Sequences of the dnaK gene, coding for the 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), were determined for six members of the order Planctomycetales, including representatives of three genera, and for the only cultivated member of the order Verrucomicrobiales, Verrucomicrobium spinosum. A fragment of the dnaK gene was amplified from these strains by PCR with oligonucleotide primers targeting regions of the dnaK gene that are conserved at the amino acid level, and the resulting PCR products were cloned into a plasmid vector. Sequence analysis of the cloned dnaK fragments revealed the presence of two different types of dnaK sequence in one of the planctomycete strains, Planctomyces maris, and in V. spinosum. Only one type of dnaK sequence was found for each of the remaining strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial sequence data suggested that the majority of planctomycete strains, including one of the Planctomyces maris sequences, form a coherent phylogenetic group branching adjacent to other main lines of descent within the domain Bacteria, as has been shown previously by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. One of the two V. spinosum dnaK sequences also appears to constitute a separate lineage within the gram-negative bacteria. Each of the remaining sequences from P. maris and V. spinosum, together with the single sequence obtained from Planctomyces limnophilus, appeared to be unrelated to the other planctomycete sequences and to occupy a position distant from that of other gram-negative bacteria. The phylogenetic diversity of dnaK sequences exhibited by P. maris and V. spinosum was comparable to that found in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC7942 and Escherichia coli, the only other prokaryotes for which a dnaK multigene family has been demonstrated. PMID:9335284

  10. Tetraspanin Family Member, CD82, Regulates Expression of EZH2 via Inactivation of p38 MAPK Signaling in Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nishioka, Chie; Ikezoe, Takayuki; Yang, Jing; Yokoyama, Akihito

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We recently found that the tetraspanin family member, CD82, which is aberrantly expressed in chemotherapy-resistant CD34+/CD38? acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells, negatively regulates matrix metalloproteinase 9, and plays an important role in enabling CD34+/CD38? AML cells to adhere to the bone marrow microenvironment. This study explored novel functions of CD82 that contribute to AML progression. Materials and Methods We employed microarray analysis comparing the gene expression profiles between CD34+/CD38? AML cells transduced with CD82 shRNA and CD34+/CD38? AML cells transduced with control shRNA. Real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis were performed to examine the effect of CD82 knockdown on the expression of the polycomb group member, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), in leukemia cells. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was performed to examine the effect of CD82 expression on the amount of EZH2 bound to the promoter regions of tumor suppressor genes in leukemia cells. We also utilized methylation-specific PCR to examine whether CD82 expression influences the methylation status of the tumor suppressor gene promoter regions in leukemia cells. Results Microarray analysis revealed that levels of EZH2 decreased after shRNA-mediated depletion of CD82 in CD34+/CD38? AML cells. Moreover, the antibody-mediated blockade of CD82 in leukemia cells lowered EZH2 expression via activation of p38 MAPK signaling, decreased the amount of EZH2 bound to the promoter regions of the tumor suppressor genes, and inhibited histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation in these promoter regions, resulting in upregulation of the tumor suppressors at both the mRNA and protein levels. PMID:25955299

  11. Differential effects of two pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 gene family on murine bone quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Lisa Marie

    Bax and Hrk are pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 gene family. Both Bax and Hrk have been previously implicated in ovarian cell survival. Effects on bone cells have also been studied in several members of the Bcl-2 gene family; thus, the focus of this work was to characterize the bone quality of mice deficient in Bax or Hrk. Bone quality of various age groups (3, 6, 12, 6 and 22 months) of Bax-knockout (KO) and Hrk-KO female mice were compared to age-matched control female mice. Additional groups of 6-month mice were ovariectomized (OVX) to determine whether effects are dependent on ovarian function. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was performed on all mice to determine bone mineral density (BMD). To evaluate bone mechanical properties, 3-point bending, torsion testing and femoral neck fracture were performed on femora, while compression was performed on individual vertebrae. Mechanical properties were rationalized through evaluation of structural (strut analysis, micro computed tomography), remodeling (histomorphometry, osteoclast staining) and material (back-scattered electron imaging, x-ray diffraction) properties. Aged Bax-KO mice do not experience the loss in BMD, bone mechanics and trabecular bone structural properties typically observed with age. Enhanced ovarian cell numbers in Bax-KO mice likely indirectly leads to this enhanced bone phenotype. Ovariectomy results in the loss of the enhanced trabecular bone phenotype, but does not affect the cortical bone phenotype. As such, cortical bone may be protected from typical OVX effects due to sustained osteoblast function in Bax-KO mice. By contrast, young Hrk-KO mice exhibit higher BMD and trabecular bone structural properties compared to control mice, coupled with a compromised mechanical integrity. This subtle transient osteopetrotic-like phenotype is likely influenced by a potentially augmented osteoblast survival, albeit with a compromised activity. This osteopetrotic-like phenotype, and the effect of Hrk-deficiency on osteoblasts, is enhanced following ovariectomy. Finally, a separate study was performed to assess whether fractography can be used to help in our understanding of failure mechanisms in mouse bone. Two groups of mice with different BMD and mechanical properties were tested in 3-point bending, and their fracture surfaces evaluated. Several correlations were found between fractography parameters and mechanical properties.

  12. Microbiological, immunological and genetic factors in family members with periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic disease, associated with hematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Okada, Mitsugi; Awane, Saori; Suzuki, Junji; Hino, Takamune; Takemoto, Toshinobu; Kurihara, Hidemi; Miura, Kazuo

    2002-08-01

    The microflora, immunological profiles of host defence functions, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) findings are reported for a mother, son and daughter who were diagnosed as having 'periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic diseases, associated with hematological disorders'. Examinations were made of the bacterial flora from the periodontal pocket, neutrophil chemotaxis, neutrophil phagocytosis, and the genotypes (DQB1) and serotypes (DR locus) of HLA class II antigens. Phenotypic analyses of the peripheral lymphocytes were also conducted. The subgingival microflora from the mother was dominated by Gram-negative rods, especially Porphyromonas endodontalis, Prevotella intermedia/Prevotella nigrescens and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Subgingival microflora samples from the son and daughter were dominated by Gram-positive cocci and Gram-positive rods. Through the use of polymerase chain reaction, Campylobacter rectus and Capnocytophaga gingivalis were detected in all subjects, whereas Porphyromonas gingivalis, P. intermedia, and Treponema denticola were not detected in any subjects. All three subjects showed a remarkable level of depressed neutrophil chemotaxis to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, although their phagocyte function levels were normal, in comparison to healthy control subjects. Each subject had the same genotype, HLA-DQB1*0601, while the mother had HLA-DR2 and HLA-DR8, and the son and daughter had HLA-DR2 only. In summary, the members of this family showed a similar predisposition to periodontitis with regard to certain host defence functions. It is suggested that the depressed neutrophil chemotaxis that was identified here could be a significant risk factor for periodontitis in this family. PMID:12200976

  13. Glaciimonas immobilis gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Oxalobacteraceae isolated from alpine glacier cryoconite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, De-Chao; Redzic, Mersiha; Schinner, Franz; Margesin, Rosa

    2011-09-01

    Strains Cr9-30(T) and Cr9-12 were isolated from alpine glacier cryoconite. Both strains were Gram-negative-staining, non-motile, rod-shaped and psychrophilic, showing good growth over the temperature range 1-20 °C. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the two strains formed a distinct branch within the family Oxalobacteraceae and were most closely related to members of the genus Collimonas. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains Cr9-30(T) and Cr9-12 was 99.0?%. The two strains showed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence pairwise similarity with Collimonas pratensis LMG 23965(T) (96.6 and 96.1?% for strains Cr9-30(T) and Cr9-12, respectively), Collimonas arenae LMG 23964(T) (96.5 and 96.3?%, respectively) and Collimonas fungivorans LMG 21973(T) (96.4 and 96.2?%, respectively). The predominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C??:??7c and/or iso-C??:? 2-OH), C??:? and C??:??7c. The DNA G+C content of strain Cr9-30(T) was 51.0 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis, strains Cr9-30(T) and Cr9-12 represent a novel species in a new genus of the family Oxalobacteraceae, for which the name Glaciimonas immobilis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Glaciimonas immobilis is Cr9-30(T) (?=?DSM 23240(T)?=?LMG 25547(T)). PMID:20935085

  14. Defense mechanisms against herbivory in Picea: sequence evolution and expression regulation of gene family members in the phenylpropanoid pathway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In trees, a substantial amount of carbon is directed towards production of phenolics for development and defense. This metabolic pathway is also a major factor in resistance to insect pathogens in spruce. In such gene families, environmental stimuli may have an important effect on the evolutionary fate of duplicated genes, and different expression patterns may indicate functional diversification. Results Gene families in spruce (Picea) have expanded to superfamilies, including O-methyltransferases, cytochrome-P450, and dirigents/classIII-peroxidases. Neo-functionalization of superfamily members from different clades is reflected in expression diversification. Genetical genomics can provide new insights into the genetic basis and evolution of insect resistance in plants. Adopting this approach, we merged genotype data (252 SNPs in a segregating pedigree), gene expression levels (for 428 phenylpropanoid-related genes) and measures of susceptibility to Pissodes stobi, using a partial-diallel crossing-design with white spruce (Picea glauca). Thirty-eight expressed phenylpropanoid-related genes co-segregated with weevil susceptibility, indicating either causative or reactive effects of these genes to weevil resistance. We identified eight regulatory genomic regions with extensive overlap of quantitative trait loci from susceptibility and growth phenotypes (pQTLs) and expression QTL (eQTL) hotspots. In particular, SNPs within two different CCoAOMT loci regulate phenotypic variation from a common set of 24 genes and three resistance traits. Conclusions Pest resistance was associated with individual candidate genes as well as with trans-regulatory hotspots along the spruce genome. Our results showed that specific genes within the phenylpropanoid pathway have been duplicated and diversified in the conifer in a process fundamentally different from short-lived angiosperm species. These findings add to the information about the role of the phenylpropanoid pathway in the evolution of plant defense mechanisms against insect pests and provide substantial potential for the functional characterization of several not yet resolved alternative pathways in plant defenses. PMID:22177423

  15. Coprobacter fastidiosus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Porphyromonadaceae isolated from infant faeces.

    PubMed

    Shkoporov, Andrei N; Khokhlova, Ekaterina V; Chaplin, Andrei V; Kafarskaia, Lyudmila I; Nikolin, Alexei A; Polyakov, Vladimir Yu; Shcherbakova, Victoria A; Chernaia, Zoya A; Efimov, Boris A

    2013-11-01

    A novel obligately anaerobic, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, non-motile Gram-reaction-negative bacterium was isolated from infant faeces. The strain, designated NSB1(T), was able to grow on rich media at 30-37 °C, in the presence of up to 2?% (w/v) Oxgall and 2?% (w/v) NaCl. Cells of strain NSB1(T) produced catalase, but not urease and indole. Aesculin was not hydrolysed. The strain was able to utilize d-glucose, lactose, maltose, mannose and raffinose as electron donors. When grown on d-glucose, the main metabolic end products were propionic and acetic acids, with a minor product being succinic acid. The major cellular fatty acids, iso-C15?:?0 and anteiso-C15?:?0, were present at a 1?:?1 molar ratio. The major menaquinone was MK-11. The DNA G+C content was found to be 38.5 mol%. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis strain NSB1(T) is a member of the family Porphyromonadaceae, phylum Bacteroidetes. The closest relatives of the strain were Barnesiella viscericola (88.2?% identity) and Barnesiella intestinihominis (87.4?% identity). On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic properties of strain NSB1(T) we conclude that this strain represent a novel species in a new genus within the family of Porphyromonadaceae for which the name Coprobacter fastidiosus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the species is NSB1(T) (?=?DSM 26242(T),?=?VKM B-2743(T)). PMID:23771624

  16. Lipid transfer particle from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a novel member of the apoB/large lipid transfer protein family[S

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Takeru; Yuasa, Masashi; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Sakudoh, Takashi; Honda, Naoko; Fugo, Hajime; Tsuchida, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    Lipid transfer particle (LTP) is a high-molecular-weight, very high-density lipoprotein known to catalyze the transfer of lipids between a variety of lipoproteins, including both insects and vertebrates. Studying the biosynthesis and regulation pathways of LTP in detail has not been possible due to a lack of information regarding the apoproteins. Here, we sequenced the cDNA and deduced amino acid sequences for three apoproteins of LTP from the silkworm (Bombyx mori). The three subunit proteins of the LTP are coded by two genes, apoLTP-II/I and apoLTP-III. ApoLTP-I and apoLTP-II are predicted to be generated by posttranslational cleavage of the precursor protein, apoLTP-II/I. Clusters of amphipathic secondary structure within apoLTP-II/I are similar to Homo sapiens apolipoprotein B (apoB) and insect lipophorins. The apoLTP-II/I gene is a novel member of the apoB/large lipid transfer protein gene family. ApoLTP-III has a putative conserved juvenile hormone-binding protein superfamily domain. Expression of apoLTP-II/I and apoLTP-III genes was synchronized and both genes were primarily expressed in the fat body at the stage corresponding to increased lipid transport needs. We are now in a position to study in detail the physiological role of LTP and its biosynthesis and assembly. PMID:23812557

  17. Crenotalea thermophila gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Chitinophagaceae isolated from a hot spring.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Satoshi; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Kazunori; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2014-04-01

    A thermophilic aerobic bacterium designated strain STH-1-Y1(T) was isolated from sulfur-turf in a Japanese hot spring (Okuhodaka hot spring, Gifu Pref.). Colonies of strain STH-1-Y1(T) were yellow and low convex morphology with a slightly irregular fringe. Cells were slender long rods, 0.4-0.6 µm wide and 1.2-3.0 µm long. The isolate was an obligate aerophilic organism, and could not grow by fermentation or nitrate respiration. The isolate had a thermophilic trait, and could grow at 35-60 °C and pH 5.5-7.5; maximum growth occurred at 55 °C and pH 7.0 with a doubling time of 1.9 h. The Biolog and API tests suggested that strain STH-1-Y1(T) was able to use various sugars such as glucose, lactose, mannose, maltose, trehalose, cellobiose and sucrose, but could not use sugar alcohols other than glycerol, i.e. adonitol, arabitol, erythritol, inositol, mannitol, sorbitol and xylitol. Lactate and glutamate could be used, but other fatty acids, i.e. acetate, citrate, propionate and succinate could not. Gelatin, casein, starch and glycogen were hydrolysed, but neither chitin nor agar was degraded. Cells lacked flexirubin and showed oxidase and catalase activities. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7), and major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15?:?0, iso-C17?:?0 3-OH, iso-C17?:?0 and anteiso-C15?:?0. No unsaturated fatty acids were detected. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain STH-1-Y1(T) was closely related to the family Chitinophagaceae within the phylum Bacteroidetes. However, the isolate was evenly distant from all members in this family with sequence similarities of 87-89?%. These significantly low sequence similarities strongly suggested that strain STH-1-Y1(T) represents a novel species in a new genus of the family Chitinophagaceae within the phylum Bacteroidetes. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the name Crenotalea thermophila gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is STH-1-Y1(T) (?=?JCM 11541(T)?=?DSM 14807(T)). PMID:24436064

  18. An Enzymatically Active ?-1,3-Glucanase from Ash Pollen with Allergenic Properties: A Particular Member in the Oleaceae Family

    PubMed Central

    Torres, María; Palomares, Oscar; Quiralte, Joaquín; Pauli, Gabrielle; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte

    2015-01-01

    Endo-?-1,3-glucanases are widespread enzymes with glycosyl hydrolitic activity involved in carbohydrate remodelling during the germination and pollen tube growth. Although members of this protein family with allergenic activity have been reported, their effective contribution to allergy is little known. In this work, we identified Fra e 9 as a novel allergenic ?-1,3-glucanase from ash pollen. We produced the catalytic and carbohydrate-binding domains as two independent recombinant proteins and characterized them from structural, biochemical and immunological point of view in comparison to their counterparts from olive pollen. We showed that despite having significant differences in biochemical activity Fra e 9 and Ole e 9 display similar IgE-binding capacity, suggesting that ?-1,3-glucanases represent an heterogeneous family that could display intrinsic allergenic capacity. Specific cDNA encoding Fra e 9 was cloned and sequenced. The full-length cDNA encoded a polypeptide chain of 461 amino acids containing a signal peptide of 29 residues, leading to a mature protein of 47760.2 Da and a pI of 8.66. An N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal carbohydrate-binding module are the components of this enzyme. Despite the phylogenetic proximity to the olive pollen ?-1,3-glucanase, Ole e 9, there is only a 39% identity between both sequences. The N- and C-terminal domains have been produced as independent recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris, respectively. Although a low or null enzymatic activity has been associated to long ?-1,3-glucanases, the recombinant N-terminal domain has 200-fold higher hydrolytic activity on laminarin than reported for Ole e 9. The C-terminal domain of Fra e 9, a cysteine-rich compact structure, is able to bind laminarin. Both molecules retain comparable IgE-binding capacity when assayed with allergic sera. In summary, the structural and functional comparison between these two closely phylogenetic related enzymes provides novel insights into the complexity of ?-1,3-glucanases, representing a heterogeneous protein family with intrinsic allergenic capacity. PMID:26177095

  19. A gene mapping to the sex-determining region of the mouse Y chromosome is a member of a novel family of embryonically expressed genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Gubbay; Jérôme Collignon; Peter Koopman; Blanche Capel; Androulla Economou; Andrea Münsterberg; Nigel Vivian; Peter Goodfellow; Robin Lovell-Badge

    1990-01-01

    A gene mapping to the sex-determining region of the mouse Y chromosome is deleted in a line of XY female mice mutant for Tdy, and is expressed at a stage during male gonadal development consistent with its having a role in testis determination. This gene is a member of a new family of at least five mouse genes, related by

  20. 5 CFR 894.203 - If I have a self plus one enrollment, when may I change which family member I want to cover or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false If I have a self plus one enrollment, when may I change which...Enrollment § 894.203 If I have a self plus one enrollment, when may I change which...covered family member under a self plus one enrollment or change to self...