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1

Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH)  

MedlinePLUS

... the urine. PCH has been linked to secondary syphilis, tertiary syphilis, and other viral or bacterial infections. Sometimes the ... help. For example, if PCH is caused by syphilis, symptoms may get better when the syphilis is ...

2

PCH-2 regulates Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan.  

PubMed

Components or downstream targets of many signaling pathways such as Insulin/IGF-1 and TOR, as well as genes involved in cellular metabolism and bioenergetics can extend worm lifespan 20% or more. The C. elegans gene pch-2 and its homologs, including TRIP13 in humans, have been studied for their functions in cell mitosis and meiosis, but have never been implicated in lifespan regulation. Here we show that over-expression of TRIP13 in human fibroblasts confers resistance to environmental stressors such as UV radiation and oxidative stress. Furthermore, pch-2 overexpression in C. elegans extends worm lifespan, and enhances worm survival in response to various stressors. Conversely, reducing pch-2 expression with RNAi shortens worm lifespan. Additional genetic epistasis analysis indicates that the molecular mechanism of pch-2 in worm longevity is tied to functions of the sirtuin family, implying that pch-2 is another chromatin regulator for worm longevity. These findings suggest a novel function of the pch-2 gene involved in lifespan determination. PMID:25635513

Qian, Hong; Xu, Xiangru; Niklason, Laura E

2015-01-01

3

Family Member Involvement in Hastened Death  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When patients pursue a hastened death, how is the labor of family caregiving affected? The authors examined this question in a qualitative study of 35 families. Four cases reveal the main themes: "taking care" included mutual protection between patients and family members; "midwifing the death" without professional support left families unprepared…

Starks, Helene; Back, Anthony L.; Pearlman, Robert A.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Hsu, Clarissa; Gordon, Judith R.; Bharucha, Ashok J.

2007-01-01

4

Conducting a multi family member interview study.  

PubMed

Family researchers have long recognized the utility of incorporating interview data from multiple family members. Yet, relatively few contemporary scholars utilize such an approach due to methodological underdevelopment. This article contributes to family scholarship by providing a roadmap for developing and executing in-depth interview studies that include more than one family member. Specifically, it outlines the epistemological frames that most commonly underlie this approach, illustrates thematic research questions that it best addresses, and critically reviews the best methodological practices of conducting research with this approach. The three most common approaches are addressed in depth: separate interviews with each family member, dyadic or group interviews with multiple family members, and a combined approach that uses separate and dyadic or group interviews. This article speaks to family scholars who are at the beginning stages of their research project but are unsure of the best qualitative approach to answer a given research question. PMID:24410452

Reczek, Corinne

2014-06-01

5

Methods of Assessment for Affected Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article begins by making the point that a good assessment of the needs and circumstances of family members is important if previous neglect of affected family members is to be reversed. The methods we have used in research studies are then described. They include a lengthy semi-structured interview covering seven topic areas and standard…

Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Velleman, Richard; Copello, Alex

2010-01-01

6

42 CFR 435.119 - Qualified family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified family members. 435.119 Section 435.119 ...Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Qualified Family Members § 435.119 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A...

2010-10-01

7

Fort Lewis Exceptional Family Member Program (EFMP)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Located in the shadow of Mt. Rainier, Fort Lewis is the home of the highest per capita exceptional family member population in the Army. Ideally located on the Northwest coast of Washington State, Fort Lewis is home to the Strykers and First Brigade. Combined with its close proximity to McChord Air Force Base, the installation is ideally suited to…

Hebdon, Heather

2007-01-01

8

7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...through 1400.206, with respect to a farming operation conducted by persons...be considered to be actively engaged in farming if the adult family member meets the provisions...elects to be considered actively engaged in farming under this section must: (1)...

2010-01-01

9

7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...through 1400.206, with respect to a farming operation conducted by persons...be considered to be actively engaged in farming if the adult family member meets the provisions...elects to be considered actively engaged in farming under this section must: (1)...

2013-01-01

10

7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.  

...through 1400.206, with respect to a farming operation conducted by persons...be considered to be actively engaged in farming if the adult family member meets the provisions...elects to be considered actively engaged in farming under this section must: (1)...

2014-01-01

11

7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...through 1400.206, with respect to a farming operation conducted by persons...be considered to be actively engaged in farming if the adult family member meets the provisions...elects to be considered actively engaged in farming under this section must: (1)...

2011-01-01

12

7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...through 1400.206, with respect to a farming operation conducted by persons...be considered to be actively engaged in farming if the adult family member meets the provisions...elects to be considered actively engaged in farming under this section must: (1)...

2012-01-01

13

Grief elaboration in families with handicapped member.  

PubMed

Families with handicapped member seem to follow the same five stages (rejection and isolation, anger, dealing with the problem, depression, acceptance) of Kubler-Ross grief elaboration theory while dealing with the narcissistic wound of a handicapped child. Some of these families show a block in one of the stages. The effort of psychotherapy is to remove the block and let them reach the last stage. In this paper families under systemic psychotherapeutic treatment are analyzed, who had in common the birth of a child with low or modest invalidating signs and psychotic or autistic features. The families structure did not show the characteristics of a psychotic family. Nevertheless either one or both parents ignored the evidence of their child disease and they built a "disease-incongrous" wait around the child, trying to push away the painful reality. The authors explain the importance of this approach for the improvement of the autistic traits. PMID:1476349

Calandra, C; Finocchiaro, G; Raciti, L; Alberti, A

1992-01-01

14

Division of Human Resources DEATH OF A FAMILY MEMBER  

E-print Network

Division of Human Resources DEATH OF A FAMILY MEMBER Human Resources / Attendance and Leave Death of administrative leave to cover absences due to the death of a family member. Family member is defined as the spouse, domestic partner*, grandparents, parents, step parents, brothers, sisters, children

Meyers, Steven D.

15

Family Members' Reports of the Technology Use of Family Members with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A nationwide survey of family members of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities ranging in age from birth through adulthood was conducted to replicate a similar effort by Wehmeyer and update the knowledge base concerning technology use by people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Method: Survey responses…

Palmer, S. B.; Wehmeyer, M. L.; Davies, D. K.; Stock, S. E.

2012-01-01

16

Perceived Family Resources Based on Number of Members with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examines how the number of family members with ADHD affects other family members' perceived resources. Method: A total of 40 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and their mothers, fathers, and adolescent siblings living in the household participated. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze family-level data from a total…

Corwin, Melinda; Mulsow, Miriam; Feng, Du

2012-01-01

17

Reflectance Spectra of Members of Very Young Asteroid Families  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present SpeX infrared spectra for members of the dynamically young Datura, Iannini, Karin, and Veritas asteroid families (plus Koronis and Themis family controls). S-types are space-weathered on timescales of a few million years.

Chapman, C. R.; Enke, B.; Merline, W. J.; Nesvorný, D.; Tamblyn, P.; Young, E. F.

2009-03-01

18

Listening to the Voices of Family Members, Teachers, and Community Members  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigates the interrelationships between and among family members and community members who work with middle level children, and middle level teachers from the perspectives of the practitioners.

Musser, P. M.

2004-01-01

19

Family Members' Experience With Hospice in Nursing Homes.  

PubMed

Research has documented numerous benefits and challenges associated with receipt of hospice care in nursing homes; however, study of this partnership from the perspective of residents' family members has been limited. The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to explore family members' experience with hospice services received in the nursing home setting. Researchers conducted a secondary data analysis of 175 family member interviews using a thematic analytic approach. Findings highlighted the critical role of communication in supporting residents and their family members. Care coordination, support and oversight, and role confusion also impacted family members' experience of hospice care in the nursing home. Efforts directed at enhancing communication and more clearly articulating the roles of members of the health care team are indicated. PMID:25422516

Gage, L Ashley; Washington, Karla; Oliver, Debra Parker; Kruse, Robin; Lewis, Alexandra; Demiris, George

2014-11-23

20

GATA family members as inducers for cellular reprogramming to pluripotency.  

PubMed

Members of the GATA protein family play important roles in lineage specification and transdifferentiation. Previous reports show that some members of the GATA protein family can also induce pluripotency in somatic cells by substituting for Oct4, a key pluripotency-associated factor. However, the mechanism linking lineage-specifying cues and the activation of pluripotency remains elusive. Here, we report that all GATA family members can substitute for Oct4 to induce pluripotency. We found that all members of the GATA family could inhibit the overrepresented ectodermal-lineage genes, which is consistent with previous reports indicating that a balance of different lineage-specifying forces is important for the restoration of pluripotency. A conserved zinc-finger DNA-binding domain in the C-terminus is critical for the GATA family to induce pluripotency. Using RNA-seq and ChIP-seq, we determined that the pluripotency-related gene Sall4 is a direct target of GATA family members during reprogramming and serves as a bridge linking the lineage-specifying GATA family to the pluripotency circuit. Thus, the GATA family is the first protein family of which all members can function as inducers of the reprogramming process and can substitute for Oct4. Our results suggest that the role of GATA family in reprogramming has been underestimated and that the GATA family may serve as an important mediator of cell fate conversion. PMID:25591928

Shu, Jian; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Minjie; Yao, Anzhi; Shao, Sida; Du, Fengxia; Yang, Caiyun; Chen, Wenhan; Wu, Chen; Yang, Weifeng; Sun, Yingli; Deng, Hongkui

2015-02-01

21

Family Members' Unique Perspectives of the Family: Examining their Scope, Size, and Relations to Individual Adjustment  

PubMed Central

Using the Family Assessment Device (FAD; Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) and incorporating the perspectives of adolescent, mother, and father, this study examined each family member's “unique perspective” or non-shared, idiosyncratic view of the family. To do so we used a modified multitrait-multimethod confirmatory factor analysis that (1) isolated for each family member's six reports of family dysfunction the non-shared variance (a combination of variance idiosyncratic to the individual and measurement error) from variance shared by one or more family members and (2) extracted common variance across each family member's set of non-shared variances. The sample included 128 families from a U.S. East Coast metropolitan area. Each family member's unique perspective generalized across his or her different reports of family dysfunction and accounted for a sizable proportion of his or her own variance in reports of family dysfunction. Additionally, after holding level of dysfunction constant across families and controlling for a family's shared variance (agreement regarding family dysfunction), each family member's unique perspective was associated with his or her own adjustment. Future applications and competing alternatives for what these “unique perspectives” reflect about the family are discussed. PMID:22545933

Jager, Justin; Bornstein, Marc H.; Diane, L. Putnick; Hendricks, Charlene

2012-01-01

22

7 Counseling Options for Service Members and Their Families  

MedlinePLUS

... out how!. Apply Now Home » Casualty Assistance 7 Counseling Options for Service Members and Their Families The ... options for getting the help they seek. Military counseling services Your installation's chaplain — The chaplains in military ...

23

4-H Member Name _____________________________________ 4-H Club Version Family Handout  

E-print Network

4-H Member Name _____________________________________ 4-H Club Version Family Handout Family Hampshire 4-H on-line at: extension.unh.edu/4h/4h.htm Created by NDSU Extension Service Revised ____________________________________ Month/year _________________/______ Turn in this form to your leader by ________/________/________(date

New Hampshire, University of

24

Spectra of small Koronis family members  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The space-weathering process and its implications for the relationships between S- and Q-type asteroids and ordinary chondrite meteorites are long-standing problems in asteroid science. Although the visible and near-infrared spectra of S- and Q-type objects qualitatively show the same absorption features and quantitatively show evidence of the same minerals, the S types display increased spectral slopes and muted absorption features compared to the Q types. This spectral mismatch is consistent with the effects of the space weathering process. Binzel et al. provided the missing link between Q- and S-type bodies in near-Earth space by showing a reddening of spectral slope in objects from 0.1 to 5 km that corresponded to the transition from Q- to S-type spectra. This result implied that size, and therefore age, is related to the relationship between Q- and S-type. The existence of Q-type objects in the main belt was not confirmed until Mothe-Diniz and Nesvorny (2008) found them in young S-type clusters. To investigate the trend from Q to S in the main belt, we examined space weathering within the old main-belt Koronis family using a spectrophotometric survey (Rivkin et al. 2011, Thomas et al. 2011). Rivkin et al. (2011) identified several potential Q-type objects within the Koronis family. Our Q-type candidates were identified using broad-band spectrophotometry and could not be taxonomically classified on that basis alone. We obtained follow-up visible and near-infrared spectral observations of our potential Q-type objects, (26970) Elias, (45610) 2000 DJ_{48}, and (37411) 2001 XF_{152}, using Gemini and Magellan. We will present the results of these spectral follow-up observations. Observations of (26970) Elias demonstrate that the object is more consistent with the average Q-type spectrum than the average S-type spectrum.

Thomas, C.; Rivkin, A.; Trilling, D.; Moskovitz, N.

2014-07-01

25

New Insights in the Immunobiology of IL-1 Family Members  

PubMed Central

The interleukin-1 (IL 1) family of ligands is associated with acute and chronic inflammation, and plays an essential role in the non-specific innate response to infection. The biological properties of IL 1 family ligands are typically pro-inflammatory. The IL 1 family has 11 family members and can be categorized into subfamilies according to the length of their precursor and the length of the propiece for each precursor (Figure 1). The IL 1 subfamily consists of IL 1?, IL 1?, and IL 33, with the longest propieces of the IL 1 family. IL 18 and IL 37 belong to the IL 18 subfamily and contain smaller propieces than IL 1 and IL-33. Since IL 37 binds to the IL 18R? chain it is part of the IL 18 subfamily, however it remains to be elucidated how the propiece of IL 37 is removed. IL 36?, ?, and ? as well as IL 36 Ra belong to the IL 36 subfamily. In addition, IL 38 likely belongs to this family since it has the ability to bind to the IL 36R. The IL 36 subfamily has the shortest propiece. The one member of the IL 1 family that cannot be categorized in these subfamilies is IL 1 receptor antagonist (IL 1Ra), which has a signal peptide and is readily secreted. In the present review we will describe the biological functions of the IL-1F members and new insights in their biology. PMID:23847614

van de Veerdonk, Frank L.; Netea, Mihai G.

2013-01-01

26

Family Decision Making: Benefits to Persons with Developmental Disabilities and Their Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family involvement in planning and choosing services has become a key intervention concept in developmental disability services. This study (N = 547) modeled patterns of family decision making and assessed benefits to persons with developmental disabilities (DDs) and their family members. A latent profile analysis identified 4 classes that were…

Neely-Barnes, Susan; Graff, J. Carolyn; Marcenko, Maureen; Weber, Lisa

2008-01-01

27

[Psychoeducation of patients and their family members during episode psychosis].  

PubMed

The concept of psychoeducation is close to the concept of therapeutic education and refers to a kind of education intervention targeting people with a mental health condition. In the framework of psychosis, psychoeducation can be offered to patients, family members or both. The efficacy of patient psychoeducation on treatment adherence or social functioning is well-established but only if the family benefits of a joint psychoeducational intervention. Family psychoeducation, even without patient psychoeducation has proven efficacy in reducing relapse rate. This reduction is of the same order of magnitude as that obtained with an antipsychotic medication. PMID:24084420

Hodé, Y

2013-09-01

28

Family Members' Perceptions of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Device Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Although advancements in technology have expanded the use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices for children with disabilities, the use of AAC devices in school and home settings is often inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to examine family members' perceptions regarding the use of AAC devices. Factors that…

Bailey, Rita L.; Parette, Howard P., Jr.; Stoner, Julia B.; Angell, Maureen E.; Carroll, Kathleen

2006-01-01

29

76 FR 67363 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded...concerning individuals who work for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members...extend the FICA and FUTA exceptions for family members and religious sect members...

2011-11-01

30

How illness affects family members: a qualitative interview survey  

PubMed Central

Purpose Spillover effects of illness on family members can be substantial. The purpose of this study was to identify the domains of family members’ health and well-being that are affected when a relative has a chronic health condition. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted in February, 2012 with 49 individuals whose relatives had any of five chronic health conditions (arthritis, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease/dementia, cerebral palsy, and depression), purposively sampled to include different relationships with the ill relative (parent, child, spouse). Subjects were queried on whether and how having an ill relative affected their health and well-being; they were also asked about their caregiving responsibilities and the relative’s health. Interview data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Family members in our sample reported experiencing psychological and non-health effects from having an ill relative, and secondarily somatic effects. Effects on emotional health were most commonly reported as psychological spillover; non-health effects frequently included changes in daily activities and provision of caregiving. Spouses of patients reported the broadest range of spillover domains affected and adolescents of ill parents the fewest. Family members reported experiencing effects that were perceived as both positive and negative. Conclusions Spillover of illness onto family members encompasses a wide range of domains of health and well-being, extending beyond those included in many existing health-related quality of life measures. Outcomes measurement efforts should be expanded to adequately capture these health and well-being outcomes for analysis, to ensure that the benefits of interventions are accurately estimated and conclusions are valid. PMID:24142495

Wittenberg, Eve; Saada, Adrianna; Prosser, Lisa A.

2013-01-01

31

77 FR 12109 - Proposed Information Collection (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Activity: Comment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Activity: Comment Request...technology. Title: Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey, VA Form 10- 21081(NR...members of deceased veterans on their satisfaction with the quality care provided to...

2012-02-28

32

77 FR 27542 - Agency Information Collection Activities (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Activities (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB Review AGENCY...INFORMATION: Title: Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey, VA Form 10- 21081(NR...members of deceased veterans on their satisfaction with the quality care provided to...

2012-05-10

33

Acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Family Members in the United States  

PubMed Central

We investigated 32 families of persons with acute toxoplasmosis in which >1 other family member was tested for Toxoplasma gondii infection; 18 (56%) families had >1 additional family member with acute infection. Family members of persons with acute toxoplasmosis should be screened for infection, especially pregnant women and immunocompromised persons. PMID:24274896

Maldonado, Yvonne; Montoya, Jose G.

2013-01-01

34

Molecular Evolution and Structural Features of IRAK Family Members  

PubMed Central

The interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) family comprises critical signaling mediators of the TLR/IL-1R signaling pathways. IRAKs are Ser/Thr kinases. There are 4 members in the vertebrate genome (IRAK1, IRAK2, IRAKM, and IRAK4) and an IRAK homolog, Pelle, in insects. IRAK family members are highly conserved in vertebrates, but the evolutionary relationship between IRAKs in vertebrates and insects is not clear. To investigate the evolutionary history and functional divergence of IRAK members, we performed extensive bioinformatics analysis. The phylogenetic relationship between IRAK sequences suggests that gene duplication events occurred in the evolutionary lineage, leading to early vertebrates. A comparative phylogenetic analysis with insect homologs of IRAKs suggests that the Tube protein is a homolog of IRAK4, unlike the anticipated protein, Pelle. Furthermore, the analysis supports that an IRAK4-like kinase is an ancestral protein in the metazoan lineage of the IRAK family. Through functional analysis, several potentially diverged sites were identified in the common death domain and kinase domain. These sites have been constrained during evolution by strong purifying selection, suggesting their functional importance within IRAKs. In summary, our study highlighted the molecular evolution of the IRAK family, predicted the amino acids that contributed to functional divergence, and identified structural variations among the IRAK paralogs that may provide a starting point for further experimental investigations. PMID:23166766

Gosu, Vijayakumar; Basith, Shaherin; Durai, Prasannavenkatesh; Choi, Sangdun

2012-01-01

35

A Family-Based Diabetes Intervention for Hispanic Adults and Their Family Members  

PubMed Central

Aims The purpose of this quasi-experimental one group longitudinal study is to examine the effects of a family-based intervention program on diabetes self-management behaviors, HbA1c, other biomarkers, psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life in Hispanics with diabetes. Methods Adult patients with diabetes (n = 36) and family members (n = 37) were recruited from a community clinic in rural central North Carolina. Patients and family members attended an 8-week culturally tailored diabetes educational program taught in Spanish. Data was collected pre and post intervention for both patients and family members, with an additional data collection for patients 1 month post intervention. Results Most patients and family members were female and almost all were immigrants. HbA1c dropped by 0.41% on average among patients from pre-intervention to 1 month post intervention. Patients showed significant improvements in systolic blood pressure, diabetes self-efficacy diabetes knowledge, and physical and mental components of health-related quality of life. Higher levels of intake of healthy foods and performance of blood sugar tests and foot inspections were reported. Family members significantly lowered BMI and improved diabetes knowledge from pre- to immediate post-intervention. No significant changes in levels of physical activity were found among patients with diabetes or family members. Conclusions Findings suggest that including family members in educational interventions may provide emotional and psychological support to patients with diabetes, help to develop healthy family behaviors, and promote diabetes self-management. PMID:24248832

Wallace, Debra; McCoy, Thomas; Amirehsani, Karen

2014-01-01

36

"You Needed to Rehab...Families as Well": Family Members' Own Goals for Aphasia Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Aphasia affects family members in addition to the individuals with the communication disorder. In order to develop appropriate services for the relatives of people with aphasia post-stroke, their rehabilitation goals need to be identified. Aim: The aim of the current investigation was to identify the rehabilitation goals that family

Howe, Tami; Davidson, Bronwyn; Worrall, Linda; Hersh, Deborah; Ferguson, Alison; Sherratt, Sue; Gilbert, Jocelyn

2012-01-01

37

Discovery of a Satellite to Asteroid Family Member (702) Alauda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rojo and Margot [1] reported the discovery of a satellite to (702) Alauda from adaptive-optics imaging with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) 8-m Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Cerro Paranal, Chile. (702) Alauda (a = 3.2 AU, e = 0.02, i = 21 deg) has been identified as the largest member of a dynamical family [2,3], suggesting a possible origin

Jean-Luc Margot; P. Rojo

2007-01-01

38

Arabidopsis amidase 1, a member of the amidase signature family.  

PubMed

Amidase 1 (AMI1), a specific indole-3-acetamide amidohydrolase, is an Arabidopsis thaliana amidase signature enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid from indole-3-acetamide. Amidase signature family members catalyze a diverse range of enzymatic reactions and are found widespread in nature, for instance in bacteria, mammals, and plants. At the protein level, the family members share a conserved stretch of approximately 50-130 amino acids, the name-giving amidase signature. Elucidation of the crystal structures of a mammalian fatty acid amide hydrolase and the bacterial malonamidase E2 revealed an unusual Ser-cisSer-Lys catalytic triad in proteins of this family. In addition, other members, such as the amidase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain J1 or Sulfolobus solfataricus, seem to use an accessory Cys-cisSer-Lys center. AMI1 possesses all conserved amino-acid residues of the Ser-cisSer-Lys triad, but lacks the CX(3)C motif and therefore the Cys-cisSer-Lys catalytic site. Using a set of point-mutated variants of AMI1 and chemical modifications, we analyzed the relative importance of single amino-acid residues of AMI1 with respect to substrate conversion. These experiments revealed that a specific serine residue, Ser137, is essential for AMI1 enzymatic activity. We also report structural and functional differences of AMI1 from other amidase signature enzymes. PMID:17555521

Neu, Daniel; Lehmann, Thomas; Elleuche, Skander; Pollmann, Stephan

2007-07-01

39

Certification of Health Care Provider for U.S. Department of Labor Family Member's Serious Health Condition  

E-print Network

of Health Care Provider for U.S. Department of Labor Family Member's Serious Health Condition (Family: _____________________________________________________________ If family member is your son or daughter, date of birth

Oklahoma, University of

40

SAMHSA's support of behavioral health systems serving service members, veterans, and their families  

E-print Network

SAMHSA's support of behavioral health systems serving service members, veterans, and their families Page 1 SAMHSA's support of behavioral health systems serving service members, veterans Aligata, SAMHSA's support of behavioral health systems serving service members, veterans

Mather, Patrick T.

41

Examination of grief among family members of individuals with serious and persistent mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many family members experience a profound sense of loss when a relative becomes mentally ill. The adjustment to this loss is similar to grief as a response to death. The extent of this grief may be explained by personal characteristics of family members, the severity of the illness, and the extent of social support available. A family member's emotional response

Phyllis Solomon; Jeffrey Draine

1996-01-01

42

78 FR 33699 - Visas: Classification of Immediate Family Members as G Nonimmigrants  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...that an immediate family member of a principal...With this change, family members of diplomats...United States-based companies to compete with foreign-based companies in domestic and import...member of the immediate family of a principal...

2013-06-05

43

ERK7 is an autoactivated member of the MAPK family.  

PubMed

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 7 (ERK7) shares significant sequence homology with other members of the ERK family of signal transduction proteins, including the signature TEY activation motif. However, ERK7 has several distinguishing characteristics. Unlike other ERKs, ERK7 has been shown to have significant constitutive activity in serum-starved cells, which is not increased further by extracellular stimuli that typically activate other members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. On the other hand, ERK7's activation state and kinase activity appear to be regulated by its ability to utilize ATP and the presence of its extended C-terminal region. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of ERK7 activation. The results suggest that 1) MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitors do not suppress ERK7 kinase activity; 2) intramolecular autophosphorylation is sufficient for activation of ERK7 in the absence of an upstream MEK; and 3) multiple regions of the C-terminal domain of ERK7 regulate its kinase activity. Taken together, these results indicate that autophosphorylation is sufficient for ERK7 activation and that the C-terminal domain regulates its kinase activity through multiple interactions. PMID:11287416

Abe, M K; Kahle, K T; Saelzler, M P; Orth, K; Dixon, J E; Rosner, M R

2001-06-15

44

41 CFR 302-3.203 - If I am transferring in the interest of the Government and my employed immediate family member(s...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the Government and my employed immediate family member(s) transfer is not in the interest...Relocation of Two Or More Employed Immediate Family Members § 302-3.203 If I am transferring...the Government and my employed immediate family member(s) transfer is not in the...

2010-07-01

45

Three-Dimensional Metal Piperazinyldiphosphonate Phases with Ellipsoidal Cavities Defined by 44-Membered Rings: Crystal Structures of [ M{O 3PCH 2NH(C 2H 4) 2NHCH 2PO 3}] · H 2O, M= Mn and Co  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrothermal reaction of a mixture of (Et 4N) 2MnCl 4, N, N'-piperazinebis(methylenephosphonic acid), Et 4NCl · H 2O, and H 2O in the mole ratio 1:1:5:300, adjusted to pH 5 with 40% aqueous (Bu 4N)OH, at 160°C for 63 h yielded [Mn{O 3PCH 2NH(C 2H 4) 2NHCH 2PO 3}] · H 2O (1) in 60% as off-white platelets. The analogous reaction using (Et 4N) 2CoCl 4produced [Co{O 3PCH 2NH(C 2H 4) 2NHCH 2PO 3}] · H 2O (2). The isomorphous materials 1 and 2 display three-dimensional network structures, based on binuclear units of corner-sharing metal and phosphorus tetrahedra, forming eight membered {-Co-O-P-O-} 2rings. The diphosphonate groups serve to tether the binuclear units into large ellipsoidal 44-membered rings. As the piperazinyl nitrogen atoms are protonated, the organic moiety of the disphosphonate group serves as both tether and charge compensating site. Compound 1 exhibits Curie-Weiss paramagnetism with weak antiferromagnetism between Mn centers. In contrast, the susceptibility of 2 exhibits a broad maximum at low temperatures consistent with short range antiferromagnetic coupling. Crystal data: 1, C 6H 16MnN 2O 7P 2, triclinic P1, a= 8.393(2)Å, b= 9.043(2)Å, c= 9.125(2)Å, ? = 62.88(3)°, ? = 86.36(3)°, ? = 78.96(3)°, V= 604.8(3)Å 3; R= 0.056 for 1663 reflections. 2, C 6H 16CoN 2O 7P 2, triclinic P1, a= 8.340(2)Å, b= 8.917(2)Å, c= 9.018(2)Å, ? = 64.11(3)°, ? = 86.24(3)°, ? = 78.87(3)°, V= 591.9(2)Å 3; R= 0.083 for 1917 reflections.

LaDuca, Robert; Rose, David; DeBord, Jeffrey R. D.; Haushalter, Robert C.; O'Connor, Charles J.; Zubieta, Jon

1996-05-01

46

The TNF family member APRIL promotes colorectal tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member APRIL (A proliferation inducing ligand) is a disease promoter in B-cell malignancies. APRIL has also been associated with a wide range of solid malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC). As evidence for a supportive role of APRIL in solid tumor formation was still lacking, we studied the involvement of APRIL in CRC. We observed that ectopic APRIL expression exacerbates the number and size of adenomas in ApcMin mice and in a mouse model for colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis. Furthermore, knockdown of APRIL in primary spheroid cultures of colon cancer cells and both mouse and human CRC cell lines reduced tumor clonogenicity and in vivo outgrowth. Taken together, our data therefore indicate that both tumor-derived APRIL and APRIL produced by non-tumor cells is supportive in colorectal tumorigenesis. PMID:22705846

Lascano, V; Zabalegui, L F; Cameron, K; Guadagnoli, M; Jansen, M; Burggraaf, M; Versloot, M; Rodermond, H; van der Loos, C; Carvalho-Pinto, C E; Kalthoff, H; Medema, J P; Hahne, M

2012-01-01

47

Certification of Health Care Provider for U.S. Department of Labor Family Member's Serious Health Condition Employment Standards Administration  

E-print Network

of Health Care Provider for U.S. Department of Labor Family Member's Serious Health Condition Employment: _____________________________________________________________ If family member is your son or daughter, date of birth

48

The histone H1 family: specific members, specific functions?  

PubMed

The linker histone H1 binds to the DNA entering and exiting the nucleosomal core particle and has an important role in establishing and maintaining higher order chromatin structures. H1 forms a complex family of related proteins with distinct species, tissue and developmental specificity. In higher eukaryotes all H1 variants have the same general structure, consisting of a central conserved globular domain and less conserved N-terminal and C-terminal tails. These tails are moderately conserved among species, but differ among variants, suggesting a specific function for each H1 variant. Due to compensatory mechanisms and to the lack of proper tools, it has been very difficult to study the biological role of individual variants in chromatin-mediated processes. Our knowledge about H1 variants is indeed limited, and in vitro and in vivo observations have often been contradictory. Therefore, H1 variants were considered to be functionally redundant. However, recent knockout studies and biochemical analyses in different organisms have revealed exciting new insights into the specificity and mechanisms of actions of the H1 family members. Here, we collect and compare the available literature about H1 variants and discuss possible specific roles that challenge the concept of H1 being a mere structural component of chromatin and a general repressor of transcription. PMID:18208346

Izzo, Annalisa; Kamieniarz, Kinga; Schneider, Robert

2008-04-01

49

Clinical Features: Similar to other types of pontocerebellar hypoplasias (PCH), subtypes PCH2 (OMIM 277470) and PCH4 (OMIM  

E-print Network

European ancestry and a haplotype on which p.A307S arose as a founder mutation [2]. Inheritance at 773-702-8247 Test methods: The University of Chicago Laboratory offers mutation analysis of all 11 weeks Testing for a known mutation in additional family members Sample specifications: 3 to10 cc

Das, Soma

50

Emotional Disorders in Pairs of Patients and Their Family Members during and after ICU Stay  

PubMed Central

Introduction Patients and family members undergo different experiences of suffering from emotional disorders during ICU stay and after ICU discharge. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in pairs (patient and respective family member), during stay at an open visit ICU and at 30 and 90-days post-ICU discharge. We hypothesized that there was a positive correlation with the severity of symptoms among pairs and different patterns of suffering over time. Methods A prospective study was conducted in a 22-bed adult general ICU including patients with >48 hours stay. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was completed by the pairs (patients/respective family member). Interviews were made by phone at 30 and 90-days post-ICU discharge using the Impact of Event Scale (IES) and the HADS. Multivariate models were constructed to predict IES score at 30 days for patients and family members. Results Four hundred and seventy one family members and 289 patients were interviewed in the ICU forming 184 pairs for analysis. Regarding HADS score, patients presented less symptoms than family members of patients who survived and who deceased at 30 and 90-days (p<0.001). However, family members of patients who deceased scored higher anxiety and depression symptoms (p = 0.048) at 90-days when compared with family members of patients who survived. Patients and family members at 30-days had a similar IES score, but it was higher in family members at 90-days (p = 0.019). For both family members and patients, age and symptoms of anxiety and depression during ICU were the major determinants for PTSD at 30-days. Conclusions Anxiety, depression and PTSD symptoms were higher in family members than in the patients. Furthermore, these symptoms in family members persisted at 3 months, while they decreased in patients. PMID:25616059

Fumis, Renata Rego Lins; Ranzani, Otavio T.; Martins, Paulo Sérgio; Schettino, Guilherme

2015-01-01

51

Experiences of the families concerning organ donation of a family member with brain death  

PubMed Central

Background: In recent years, the lack of organ for transplantation has resulted in health planners and authorities in all countries, including Iran, paying serious attention to the issue. Despite the above-mentioned fact, families with a member affected by brain death are not interested in organ donation. Objective: This study is aimed at making an investigation into the decision-making process of organ donation in families with brain death. Also, the research is aimed at investigating how the deterrent and facilitating factors in the process of organ donation can be made. Materials and Methods: The current research is a qualitative study with descriptive exploratory approach. Data were collected through unstructured interviews with 10 family members who gave consent to organ donation of their family members in 2012. Purposeful sampling processes began in March 2012 and lasted up to June 2012. Simultaneously, thematic approach was used in analyzing the data. Results: Data analysis led to finding 24 categories and 11 themes, which fell into two categories: facilitating and deterrent factors. The five main deterrent themes included the five themes of prohibiting factors that were shock, hope for recovery, unknown process, and conflict of opinions, and worrying association. The six main facilitating themes included humanistic desires, immortality, culture making, satisfaction of the deceased, assurance, and eternal honor. Conclusion: The findings indicated that there is ambiguity and different interpretations on brain death. The research also showed that using the experiences of donator families can provide practical and applied solutions to facilitate the process of organ donation and solve the problems faced by the health care system. PMID:24949074

Yousefi, Hojatollah; Roshani, Asieh; Nazari, Fatemeh

2014-01-01

52

Syncope in genotype-negative long QT syndrome family members.  

PubMed

Unaffected long-QT syndrome family members (FMs) frequently experience syncope. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that syncope events in FMs are benign events and to compare clinical characteristics, triggers eliciting the syncope events, and long-term outcomes between FMs and those with LQT1 or LQT2 mutations from the international Long QT Syndrome Registry. A total of 679 FMs, 864 LQT1 patients, and 782 LQT2 patients were included. Seventy-eight FMs (11%) experienced cardiovascular events. Almost all cardiovascular events were nonfatal syncope; only 1 FM, with an additional mitral valve prolapse, experienced aborted cardiac arrest during exercise. The mean age at first syncope in FMs was 17 years, and female FMs experienced syncope more frequently than male FMs (14% vs 9%, p = 0.027). Syncope was more frequently triggered by exercise in LQT1 patients (43% in LQT1 patients vs 5% in FMs, p <0.001), while syncope triggered by a variety of other triggers was more frequent in FMs (54% in FMs vs 22% in LQT1 patients and 30% in LQT2 patients, p <0.001 for both). None of the FMs experienced aborted cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death after the first syncopal episode. In conclusion, syncope is frequently present in FMs, and these syncopal events occurred more frequently in female than in male FMs, with an increased incidence in midadolescence. Triggers eliciting the syncopal events were different between FMs and patients with long-QT syndrome mutations. Hence, the type of trigger is useful in distinguishing between high- and low-risk syncope. These data indicate that FMs from families with LQTS have a benign form of syncope, most likely related to vasovagal syncope and not ventricular tachyarrhythmic syncope. PMID:25173441

Olde Nordkamp, Louise R A; Ruwald, Martin H; Goldenberg, Ilan; Wieling, Wouter; McNitt, Scott; Polonsky, Bronislava; Wilde, Arthur A M; van Dijk, Nynke; Moss, Arthur J

2014-10-15

53

A fish-specific member of the TPPP protein family?  

PubMed

A eukaryotic protein family, the tubulin polymerization promoting proteins (TPPPs), has recently been identified. It has been termed after its first member, TPPP/p25 or TPPP1, which exhibits microtubule-stabilizing function and plays a role in neurodegenerative diseases. In mammalian genomes, two further paralogues, TPPP2 and TPPP3, can be found. In this article, I show that TPPP1 and TPPP3, but not TPPP2, are included in paralogons, on human chromosomes, Hsa5 and Hsa16, respectively. I suggest that the single non-vertebrate tppp gene was duplicated in the first round of whole-genome duplication in the vertebrate lineage giving rise to tppp1 and the precursor of tppp2/tppp3. The existence of a teleost fish-specific fourth paralogue, tppp4, has also been raised, but it is not supported by synteny analysis. Alternatively, the new group can be considered as the fish orthologue of TPPP2. The case that the new group is the consequence of the teleost fish-specific whole-genome duplication (3R) cannot be excluded. PMID:23053195

Orosz, Ferenc

2012-08-01

54

STS-106 crew gathers to greet family members  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While meeting with family on the day before launch, the STS-106 crew poses for a photo. Waving, left to right, are Mission Specialist Richard A. Mastracchio, Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Edward T. Lu, Yuri I. Malenchenko, Boris V. Morukov and Daniel C. Burbank. Malenchenko and Morukov are with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. In the background (left) is Launch Pad 39B and Space Shuttle Atlantis, with the Rotating Service Structure still in place. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8, 2000, at 8:45 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. On the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long-duration crew, dubbed '''Expedition One,''' is due to arrive at the Station in late fall. Landing is targeted for Sept. 19 at 4:59 a.m. EDT at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility.

2000-01-01

55

The psychological well-being of family members of individuals with schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of the study was to attempt to understand the experience of family members of individuals with schizophrenia.\\u000a More specifically, we wanted to determine whether a measure of caregiving would be a stronger predictor of the psychological\\u000a well-being of families who have a member with schizophrenia than a measure of burden. Method: Forty-one family members of 30 individuals

L. Martens; J. Addington

2001-01-01

56

Racial disparity in capital punishment and its impact on family members of capital defendants.  

PubMed

A review of the literature was conducted to explore the continuing racial disparity in capital punishment and its effects on family members of African American capital defendants. Statistical studies conducted on both the state and national level conclude that racial bias influences all stages of the death penalty process, with race of the victim being one of the most significant factors. This racial bias places an added burden on family members of African American capital defendants. While research has explored the impact of capital punishment on family members of capital defendants, the unique experiences of family members of African American defendants has not been addressed in the research literature. PMID:23581803

Schweizer, Jennifer

2013-01-01

57

Depression, Anxiety and Somatization in Women with War Missing Family Members  

PubMed Central

Introduction: During the war circumstances, women and children are exposed to multiple traumatic experiences, one of which is an violent disappearance of a family member. Goal: The aim of this research was to establish the presence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatization in women in Bosnia and Herzegovina who have sought their war missing family members for 15 to 18 years. Subjects and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 120 women with war missing family member and 40 women without a war missing family member as a control group. For assessment of depression, anxiety and symptoms of somatization the self-rating Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Somatic Symptoms Index (SSI) questionnaire and a general questionnaire on the sociodemographic data and data on war missing family members were used. Results: A significantly higher intensity of symptoms of depression (p<0.001), anxiety (p<0.001) and somatization (p = 0.013) was present in women with, in comparison to women without a missing family member. In comparison of the kinship with the missing family members, statistically significantly higher intensity of symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatization was in women with a missing child (p<0.001) in comparison to other missing family members. Conclusion: A prolonged period of seeking, waiting and uncertainty of what happened in the war with the missing family member presents for those women a prolonged suffering manifested through depression, anxiety and symptoms of somatization. PMID:24167436

Barakovi?, Devla; Avdibegovi?, Esmina; Sinanovi?, Osman

2013-01-01

58

MIF Family Members Cooperatively Inhibit p53 Expression and Activity  

PubMed Central

The tumor suppressor p53 is induced by genotoxic stress in both normal and transformed cells and serves to transcriptionally coordinate cell cycle checkpoint control and programmed cell death responses. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an autocrine and paracrine acting cytokine/growth factor that promotes lung adenocarcinoma cell motility, anchorage-independence and neo-angiogenic potential. Several recent studies indicate that the only known homolog of MIF, D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT - also referred to as MIF-2), has functionally redundant activities with MIF and cooperatively promotes MIF-dependent pro-tumorigenic phenotypes. We now report that MIF and D-DT synergistically inhibit steady state p53 phosphorylation, stabilization and transcriptional activity in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. The combined loss of MIF and D-DT by siRNA leads to dramatically reduced cell cycle progression, anchorage independence, focus formation and increased programmed cell death when compared to individual loss of MIF or D-DT. Importantly, p53 mutant and p53 null lung adenocarcinoma cell lines were only nominally rescued from the cell growth effects of MIF/D-DT combined deficiency suggesting only a minor role for p53 in these transformed cell growth phenotypes. Finally, increased p53 activation was found to be independent of aberrantly activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that occurs in response to MIF/D-DT-deficiency but is dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mediate aberrant AMPK activation in these cells. Combined, these findings suggest that both p53 wildtype and mutant human lung adenocarcinoma tumors rely on MIF family members for maximal cell growth and survival. PMID:24932684

Brock, Stephanie E.; Rendon, Beatriz E.; Xin, Dan; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha; Mitchell, Robert A.

2014-01-01

59

Familial visceral myopathy: a family with at least six involved members.  

PubMed Central

A family with at least six members affected by hollow organ visceral myopathy is described. Patients in the first or second decades of life developed symptoms which included weight loss, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain and distension, constipation and diarrhoea, and urinary symptoms. The radiological features of the disease consisted of oesophageal aperistalsis, megaduodenum, and variable dilatation of the small and large bowel. Four patients had urinary tract involvement with dilatation of the ureters and/or incomplete bladder emptying. Two patients were severely affected and needed home parenteral nutrition and surgical treatment; others were symptomatic but remained well. The characteristic pathological abnormality was vacuolar degeneration predominantly affecting the longitudinal muscle. The disease in this family appears to be transmitted by autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:2806997

Rodrigues, C A; Shepherd, N A; Lennard-Jones, J E; Hawley, P R; Thompson, H H

1989-01-01

60

Enrollment Form ...you wish to purchase coverage for family member(s) or are a special student taking at least 1 course but fewer than 27 units. All  

E-print Network

Enrollment Form ...you wish to purchase coverage for family member(s) or are a special student (4) family $ 1,908 $ 795 $ 1,113 MIT Student Medical Plan for services at MIT Medical only To choose Extended Insurance Plan, family members must enroll in the MIT Student Medical Plan. Student Extended

Reuter, Martin

61

41 CFR 302-3.225 - If my immediate family member(s) return to the U.S. before me, will I be reimbursed for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false If my immediate family member(s) return to the U.S. before...transporting part of my household goods with my family and the rest of my household goods when...Transfers Prior Return of Immediate Family Members § 302-3.225 If my...

2010-07-01

62

Caregiving for Dementia in Family Members: Caregiving Burden and Prospects for Effective Intervention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Caring for a family member with dementia is a major source of stress for the caregiver. To assess the impact of caring for an impaired family member and to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs, 34 caregivers of relatives with dementia completed an amended form of the Philadelphia Geriatric Center's Caregiver Survey and two…

Maiden, Robert J.; And Others

63

Effective doses to family members of patients treated with radioiodine-131  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effective dose to family members of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine-131, and also to compare the results with dose constraints proposed by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). For the estimation of the effective doses, sixty family members of sixty patients, treated with radioiodine-131, and thermoluminiscent dosimeters (Model TLD 100) were used. Thyroid cancer patients were hospitalized for three days, while hyperthyroid patients were treated on out-patient basis. The family members wore TLD in front of the torso for seven days. The radiation doses to family members of thyroid cancer patients were well below the recommended dose constraint of 1 mSv. The mean value of effective dose was 0.21 mSv (min 0.02 - max 0.51 mSv). Effective doses, higher than 1 mSv, were detected for 11 family members of hyperthyroid patients. The mean value of effective dose of family members of hyperthyroid patients was 0.87 mSv (min 0.12 - max 6.79). The estimated effective doses to family members of hyperthyroid patients were higher than the effective doses to family members of thyroid carcinoma patients. These findings may be considered when establishing new national guidelines concerning radiation protection and release of patients after a treatment with radioiodine therapy.

Zdraveska Kocovska, M.; Vaskova, O.; Majstorov, V.; Kuzmanovska, S.; Pop Gjorceva, D.; Spasic Jokic, V.

2011-09-01

64

William Albright Scholarship Endowed in 2006 by family members in memory of William  

E-print Network

William Albright Scholarship Endowed in 2006 by family members in memory of William Albright Fund Endowed in 1998 to pay for the expense of formal and informal concert and concert tour apparel for student members of the Men's Glee Club Patricia Joy Arden Scholarship Fund Endowed in 2003 by family

Shyy, Wei

65

Catapulting Shifts in Images, Understandings, and Actions for Family Members through Research-Based Drama  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examined how images, understandings, and actions change for family members of persons with dementia after the introduction of a research-based drama called I'm Still Here. Guided by interpretivist phenomenology, a set of seven pre- and post-performance focus groups were conducted with family members (n = 48) in four cities. Findings…

Dupuis, Sherry L.; Gillies, Jennifer; Mitchell, Gail J.; Jonas-Simpson, Christine; Whyte, Colleen; Carson, Jennifer

2011-01-01

66

The Other Victims of Traumatic Brain Injury: Consequences for Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is both an acute and a chronic impairment, with long-term difficulties affecting both the patient and members of the patient’s family. The impact of TBI may be different for spouses, parents, children, and siblings, and they can be portrayed as the other and often neglected victims of the trauma. Family members are a potentially high risk

VICTOR FLORIAN; SHLOMO KATZ

1991-01-01

67

Grief among Family Members of Nursing Home Residents with Advanced Dementia  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe pre-loss and post-loss grief symptoms among family members of nursing home (NH) residents with advanced dementia, and to identify predictors of greater post-loss grief symptoms. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 22 NHs in the greater Boston area. Participants 123 family members of NH residents who died with advanced dementia. Measurements Pre-loss grief was measured at baseline, and post-loss grief was measured 2 and 7 months post-loss using the Prolonged Grief Disorder scale. Independent variables included resident and family member sociodemographic characteristics, resident comfort, acute illness, acute care prior to death, family member depression, and family member understanding of dementia and of resident’s prognosis. Results Levels of pre-loss and post-loss grief were relatively stable from baseline to 7 months post-loss. Feelings of separation and yearning were the most prominent grief symptoms. After multivariable adjustment, greater pre-loss grief and the family member having lived with the resident prior to NH admission were the only factors independently associated with greater post-loss grief 7 months after resident death. Conclusions The pattern of grieving for some family members of NH residents with advanced dementia is prolonged and begins before resident death. Identification of family members at risk for post-loss grief during the pre-loss period may help guide interventions aimed at lessening post-loss grief. PMID:21606897

Givens, Jane L.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Kiely, Dan K.; Shaffer, Michele L.; Mitchell, Susan L.

2011-01-01

68

Familial idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Evidence of lung inflammation in unaffected family members  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated 17 clinically unaffected members of three families with an autosomal dominant form of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis for evidence of alveolar inflammation. Each person in the study was examined by gallium-67 scanning for a general estimate of pulmonary inflammation, and by bronchoalveolar lavage for characterization of the types of recovered cells and their state of activation. Eight of the 17 subjects had evidence of alveolar inflammation on the lavage studies. Supporting data included increased numbers of neutrophils and activated macrophages that released one or more neutrophil chemoattractants, and growth factors for lung fibroblasts--findings similar to those observed in patients with overt idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Four of these eight also had a positive gallium scan; in all the other clinically unaffected subjects the scan was normal. During a follow-up of two to four years in seven of the eight subjects who had evidence of inflammation, no clinical evidence of pulmonary fibrosis has appeared. These results indicate that alveolar inflammation occurs in approximately half the clinically unaffected family members at risk of inheriting autosomal dominant idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Whether these persons with evidence of pulmonary inflammation but no fibrosis will proceed to have clinically evident pulmonary fibrosis is not yet known.

Bitterman, P.B.; Rennard, S.I.; Keogh, B.A.; Wewers, M.D.; Adelberg, S.; Crystal, R.G.

1986-05-22

69

[Conception of family members of people with mental disorders on self-help groups].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to understand how family members of people with mental disorders conceive the performance of self- help groups (SG). This qualitative study was conducted with eleven family members who participate in a SG of the Maringaense Mental Health Association. Data were collected from April to June 2010 during group meetings, in an adjoining room, by means of semi-structured interviews, which were then subjected to content analysis. Two categories emerged: "The group compensates for deficiencies in care", which points out deficiencies arising from the formal care services and the benefits of SG for family members and, "Idealized care", which reveals the expectations of the family in relation to mental health care. It was concluded that family members would like activities of the SG to be incorporated by mental health care services and for family care to become a part of the care plan. PMID:25474837

Brischiliari, Adriano; Bessa, Jacqueline Botura; Waidman, Maria Angélica Pagliarini; Marcon, Sonia Silva

2014-09-01

70

[Conception of family members of people with mental disorders on self-help groups].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to understand how family members of people with mental disorders conceive the performance of self- help groups (SG). This qualitative study was conducted with eleven family members who participate in a SG of the Maringaense Mental Health Association. Data were collected from April to June 2010 during group meetings, in an adjoining room, by means of semi-structured interviews, which were then subjected to content analysis. Two categories emerged: "The group compensates for deficiencies in care", which points out deficiencies arising from the formal care services and the benefits of SG for family members and, "Idealized care", which reveals the expectations of the family in relation to mental health care. It was concluded that family members would like activities of the SG to be incorporated by mental health care services and for family care to become a part of the care plan. PMID:25508616

Brischiliari, Adriano; Bessa, Jacqueline Botura; Waidman, Maria Angélica Pagliarini; Marcon, Sonia Silva

2014-09-01

71

The role of parents and family members in ART treatment adherence: Evidence from Thailand  

PubMed Central

High levels of treatment adherence are crucial for the success of expanding ART treatment programs everywhere. Augmenting adherence through treatment supporters is one promising strategy. Most discussions focus on peers, especially members of PHA groups, for this purpose. Far less attention is given to family members and especially older age parents. Yet ART recipients often live with or nearby parents and other family members who are highly motivated to ensure the treatment's success. This study examines the extent that family members, especially parents, assist adherence in Thailand. Results indicate that most adult ART patients live with family members and over half live with or in the same locality as a parent. Family members, including parents, commonly remind ART patients to take medications, especially if coresident. Moreover, parents often remind patients to get resupplies and sometimes accompany them to appointments. Clearly close family members, including parents, should be explicitly incorporated into adherence augmentation programs and provided adequate information to facilitate their role as long-term adherence partners, not only in Thailand but wherever ART recipients are closely linked to family members through living and caregiving arrangements. PMID:20221313

Knodel, John; Kespichayawattana, Jiraporn; Saengtienchai, Chanpen; Wiwatwanich, Suvinee

2009-01-01

72

5 CFR 890.302 - Coverage of family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...enroll for self and family coverage. Because...children from prior marriages who do not live with...are the issue of the marriage, an employee or annuitant...right in a self and family enrollment even though...regular parent-child relationship. (iv) A...

2012-01-01

73

5 CFR 890.302 - Coverage of family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...enroll for self and family coverage. Because...children from prior marriages who do not live with...are the issue of the marriage, an employee or annuitant...right in a self and family enrollment even though...regular parent-child relationship. (iv) A...

2010-01-01

74

5 CFR 890.302 - Coverage of family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...enroll for self and family coverage. Because...children from prior marriages who do not live with...are the issue of the marriage, an employee or annuitant...right in a self and family enrollment even though...regular parent-child relationship. (iv) A...

2013-01-01

75

5 CFR 890.302 - Coverage of family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...enroll for self and family coverage. Because...children from prior marriages who do not live with...are the issue of the marriage, an employee or annuitant...right in a self and family enrollment even though...regular parent-child relationship. (iv) A...

2011-01-01

76

Family Members Affected by a Close Relative's Addiction: The Stress-Strain-Coping-Support Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines the stress-strain-coping-support (SSCS) model which underpins the whole programme of work described in this supplement. The need for such a model is explained: previous models of substance misuse and the family have attributed dysfunction or deficiency to families or family members. In contrast, the SSCS model assumes that…

Orford, Jim; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Templeton, Lorna

2010-01-01

77

Using focus groups to design a psychoeducation program for patients with schizophrenia and their family members  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this project was to determine what factors to be considered in planning a psychoeducation program to better meet the needs of patients with schizophrenia and their family members. Methods: Three focus group sessions were conducted and recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by members of the research team. Results: Patients hoped to grasp the fullest possible knowledge about schizophrenia, whereas the factors influencing the efficacy of the schizophrenia health education curriculum included: discrimination, non-understanding of family members, easy to forget, unreasonable timetable. Health education was mainly in the form of classroom teaching. Conclusions: 1. At present, there are a few psychiatric education courses in China; 2. Patients and their family members are eager to acquire knowledge about the contents of schizophrenia; 3. Misconceptions would hinder the rehabilitation of patients; 4. Worry about being discriminated; 5. There is a different knowledge demand between the patients and their family members. PMID:24482705

Song, Yan; Liu, Dan; Chen, Yuxiang; He, Guoping

2014-01-01

78

Screening of family members of patients with acute brucellosis in an endemic area of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease and it's still endemic in Iran. There are some reports regarding brucellosis infection in family members sharing same risk factors and remain unrecognized. However, few studies on the importance of family screening are available. We aimed to screen household members of index cases with acute brucellosis for detecting additional unrecognized cases in central province of Iran. Patients and Methods 163 family members of 50 index cases were enrolled in the study. Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STA) and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) agglutination were checked in all samples. A case with STA titer ? 1:80, 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) agglutination ? 40 and compatible signs and symptoms was considered positive for brucellosis. Results 15 (9.2%) of family members were seropositive for Brucella agglutinin and among them, 8 (53.3%) were asymptomatic and 7 (46.7%) were symptomatic. STA titer ranged from 1:80 to 1:640 in seropositive members. 4 of the 15 seropositive cases who identified by screening came from one index case with 6 family members. All symptomatic seropositive cases treated for Brucella infection and recovered without any complications in 6 months follow up. Conclusion On the basis of our data, family members of brucellosis patients are at risk of disease acquisition, and screening of household members provides an effective way for early diagnosis and prompt treatment. However cost benefit of screening should be evaluated to reach definite decision for the implementation of the screening as a nationwide program. PMID:24475326

Sofian, Masoomeh; Safaeipour, Leila; Aghakhani, Arezoo; Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Banifazl, Mohammad; Sharif, Alireza; Farazi, Ali-Asghar; Eslamifar, Ali; Didgar, Farshideh; Ramezani, Amitis

2013-01-01

79

A unified nomenclature of NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER family members in plants.  

PubMed

Members of the plant NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER (NRT1/PTR) family display protein sequence homology with the SLC15/PepT/PTR/POT family of peptide transporters in animals. In comparison to their animal and bacterial counterparts, these plant proteins transport a wide variety of substrates: nitrate, peptides, amino acids, dicarboxylates, glucosinolates, IAA, and ABA. The phylogenetic relationship of the members of the NRT1/PTR family in 31 fully sequenced plant genomes allowed the identification of unambiguous clades, defining eight subfamilies. The phylogenetic tree was used to determine a unified nomenclature of this family named NPF, for NRT1/PTR FAMILY. We propose that the members should be named accordingly: NPFX.Y, where X denotes the subfamily and Y the individual member within the species. PMID:24055139

Léran, Sophie; Varala, Kranthi; Boyer, Jean-Christophe; Chiurazzi, Maurizio; Crawford, Nigel; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise; David, Laure; Dickstein, Rebecca; Fernandez, Emilio; Forde, Brian; Gassmann, Walter; Geiger, Dietmar; Gojon, Alain; Gong, Ji-Ming; Halkier, Barbara A; Harris, Jeanne M; Hedrich, Rainer; Limami, Anis M; Rentsch, Doris; Seo, Mitsunori; Tsay, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Mingyong; Coruzzi, Gloria; Lacombe, Benoît

2014-01-01

80

Death at the Worksite: Helping Grieving Family Members  

MedlinePLUS

... workers involved. Few responsibilities are more difficult for managers than that of informing the family about an ... When an employee dies on the job, the manager suddenly takes on new and unfamiliar tasks that ...

81

Coping When a Family Member Has Been Called to War  

MedlinePLUS

... can also take time. Know that the entire cycle of deployment can be a painful and frightening ... Christenson, J., & Adler, L. E. (2001). The emotional cycle of deployment: A military family perspective. U.S. Army ...

82

Psychiatric Worker and Family Members: Pathways Towards Co-Operation Networks within Psychiatric Assistance Services  

PubMed Central

The family’s role in patient care was greatly altered by Law 180. This law, introduced in Italy in 1978, led to a gradual phasing out of custodial treatment for psychiatric patients. This different mindset, which views the family as an alternative to institutionalization, leads to it being seen as an essential entity in the setting up of community service dynamics. We interviewed health professionals in order to understand obstacles of collaboration between family members and mental health care workers. The goal was to uncover actions that promote collaboration and help build alliances between families and psychiatric workers. Results showed that health professionals view the family as a therapeutic resource. Despite this view, family members were rarely included in patient treatment. The reasons is: the structures have a theoretical orientation of collaboration with the family but, for nurses not are organized a few meeting spaces with family members. Services should create moments, such as multi-family groups or groups of information, managed by nurses and not only by doctors. These occasions it might facilitate the knowledge between professionals and family members. PMID:25478137

2014-01-01

83

The effect of an anger management program for family members of patients with alcohol use disorders.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to test the structured anger management nursing program for the family members of patients with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Families with the AUDs suffer from the dysfunctional family dynamic caused by the patients' deteriorative disease processes of alcohol dependence. Family members of AUDs feel bitter and angry about the uncontrolled behaviors and relapses of the patients in spite of great effort for a long time. This chronic anger threatens the optimal function of the family as well as obstructs the family to help the patients who are suffering from AUDs. Sixty three subjects were participated who were referred from community mental health centers, alcohol consultation centers, and an alcohol hospital in Korea. Pre-post scores of the Korean Anger Expression Inventory were used to test the program. An anger management program was developed and implemented to promote anger expression and anger management for the family members of the patients with AUDs. The total anger expression score of the experimental group was significantly more reduced as compared with that of the control group. Subjects in the experimental group reported after the program that they felt more comfortable and their life was changed in a better way. The anger management program was effective to promote anger expression and anger management for family members of AUDs. Nurses need to include family members in their nursing process as well as to care of patients with AUDs to maximize nursing outcome and patient satisfaction. PMID:20117687

Son, Ju-Young; Choi, Yun-Jung

2010-02-01

84

Seed Protein Bodies from Several Members of the Family Umbelliferae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein bodies of the seeds of the family Umbelliferae have not been studied extensively since late in the nineteenth century. Using a variety of recent technology and methodology certain aspects of the protein bodies of carrot (Daucus carota L. cv imperator 408), caraway (Carum carvi L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), dill (Anethum graveolens L.), celery (Apium graveolens L. cv tall

Ernest Spitzer

1981-01-01

85

Osteopoikilosis: Pain as a Presenting Symptom in Three Family Members  

PubMed Central

Osteopoikilosis is a rare asymptomatic sclerosing bony dysplasia of benign origin. It is usually found incidentally on radiological examinations. Familial occurrence indicates a genetic milieu with autosomal dominant pattern. Here, we present a case report of a young woman suffering from pelvic pain due to osteopoikilosis (OPK). The same disorder was later found in her son and daughter. PMID:21573035

Aghdashi, M.A.; Aghdashi, M.M.; Rabiepoor, M.

2011-01-01

86

Osteopoikilosis: pain as a presenting symptom in three family members.  

PubMed

Osteopoikilosis is a rare asymptomatic sclerosing bony dysplasia of benign origin. It is usually found incidentally on radiological examinations. Familial occurrence indicates a genetic milieu with autosomal dominant pattern. Here, we present a case report of a young woman suffering from pelvic pain due to osteopoikilosis (OPK). The same disorder was later found in her son and daughter. PMID:21573035

Aghdashi, M A; Aghdashi, M M; Rabiepoor, M

2011-01-01

87

5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.307 Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? A...

2012-01-01

88

5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.306 Are foster children eligible as family members? Yes, foster children...

2013-01-01

89

5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.307 Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? A...

2013-01-01

90

5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.306 Are foster children eligible as family members? Yes, foster children...

2010-01-01

91

5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?  

...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.307 Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? A...

2014-01-01

92

5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?  

...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.306 Are foster children eligible as family members? Yes, foster children...

2014-01-01

93

5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.307 Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? A...

2010-01-01

94

5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.307 Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? A...

2011-01-01

95

5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.306 Are foster children eligible as family members? Yes, foster children...

2011-01-01

96

5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.306 Are foster children eligible as family members? Yes, foster children...

2012-01-01

97

42 CFR 31.10 - Dependent members of families; use of Service facilities.  

42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dependent members...families; use of Service facilities. 31.10 Section 31.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL...

2014-10-01

98

42 CFR 31.10 - Dependent members of families; use of Service facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dependent members...families; use of Service facilities. 31.10 Section 31.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL...

2011-10-01

99

42 CFR 31.10 - Dependent members of families; use of Service facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dependent members...families; use of Service facilities. 31.10 Section 31.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL...

2013-10-01

100

42 CFR 31.10 - Dependent members of families; use of Service facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dependent members...families; use of Service facilities. 31.10 Section 31.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL...

2010-10-01

101

Experiences of family members of patients with colostomies and expectations about professional intervention  

PubMed Central

Objective the objective was to understand the experience of a group of family members of patients with colostomies, revealing their expectations regarding the intervention of health professionals. Method qualitative research, with the social phenomenological approach of Alfred Schütz, conducted in Montevideo in 2012; twelve family members of patients with colostomies participated, from an ostomy service of a health institution. Results the following categories were identified: family ties, trust in the health care team, the nurse as the articulator of the process, the desire to humanize care, and adaptation to new family life. Conclusions knowing the experience and expectations of the families of colostomy patients was achieved, emphasizing the previous family relationships to build upon them, and the trust in the health team, emphasizing the nurse as articulator of the process. Expectations focused on the desire for humanized care, enhancing adaptation of the nuclear family to the new way of life, restoring and enhancing its strengths, and collaborating in overcoming its weaknesses.

Ferreira-Umpiérrez, Augusto; Fort-Fort, Zoraida

2014-01-01

102

25 CFR 26.17 - Can more than one family member be financially assisted at the same time?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Can more than one family member be financially...PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.17 Can more than one family member be financially...time? Yes, more than one family member can be assisted, providing that each...

2012-04-01

103

Counseling Family Members of Addicts/Alcoholics: The Stages of Change Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article adapts the stages of change model, a model in which specific interventions of harm reduction are directed toward the client's readiness for treatment, as a guiding framework for counseling family members of alcoholics/addicts. Interventions at each stage of the family's readiness for change, from precontemplation to action, are…

van Wormer, Katherine

2008-01-01

104

A new member of the frizzled family from Drosophila functions as a Wingless receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Receptors for Wingless and other signalling molecules of the Wnt gene family have yet to be identified. We show here that cultured Drosophila cells transfected with a novel member of the frizzled gene family in Drosophila, Dfz2, respond to added Wingless protein by elevating the level of the Armadillo protein. Moreover, Wingless binds to Drosophila or human cells expressing Dfz2.

Purnima Bhanot; Marcel Brink; Cindy Harryman Samos; Jen-Chih Hsieh; Yanshu Wang; Jennifer P. Macke; Deborah Andrew; Jeremy Nathans; Roel Nusse

1996-01-01

105

Beyond sudden death in the athlete: how to identify family members at risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden death in young athletes is always a catastrophic event which focuses medical and public attention on the prevention of similar tragedies in other sporting participants. In this review article, we discuss the importance of evaluation of family members, who, by virtue of the familial nature of many of the diseases that cause sudden cardiac death, are potentially at risk

Giovanni Quarta; Pier Lambiase; Perry Elliott

2011-01-01

106

STIGMA ARISING FROM FAMILY MEMBERS OF THE MENTALLY ILL PATIENTS IN HOSPITAL TAIPING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although public stigma towards the mentally ill is a known challenge, stigma from within the family has not been widely studied. This study aimed to compare the experience of stigma between mentally ill patients and diabetic controls, particularly focusing on stigma arising from family members. This is a cross sectional case control study. The case group consisted of 63 patients

Nursyuhaida MN; Nik Siti; Fatimah M

107

Using Picture Books to Help Children Cope with a Family Member's Alzheimer's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the resulting behavioral changes in a loved one can cause intense emotional reactions from all family members, including children. Sharing and discussing relevant picture books can be an effective strategy to help the children in such families understand and deal with their emotions. Picture books can…

Holland, Marna

2005-01-01

108

Proteolytic Cleavage of the Ectodomain of the L1 CAM Family Member Tractin*  

E-print Network

NH2- and COOH-terminal cleavage fragments interact with each other and that this interaction providesProteolytic Cleavage of the Ectodomain of the L1 CAM Family Member Tractin* Received to the consensus sequence for cleavage by mem- bers of the furin family of convertases, and this proteo- lytic site

Johansen, Jorgen

109

Genetic Counseling and Presenilin-1 Alzheimer's Disease: “Research FamilyMembers Share Some Thoughts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic counseling is a 2-way street between counselor and the counseled. In this article, both share experiences gained through more than 25 years of searching for the gene, finding the presenilin-1 Alzheimer's disease gene, and waiting for a cure. “Research Families” made research models a reality. Few family members requested presymptomatic testing.

Linda E. Nee

2007-01-01

110

Essential PchG-Dependent Reduction in Pyochelin Biosynthesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

The biosynthetic genes pchDCBA and pchEF, which are known to be required for the formation of the siderophore pyochelin and its precursors salicylate and dihydroaeruginoate (Dha), are clustered with the pchR regulatory gene on the chromosome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The 4.6-kb region located downstream of the pchEF genes was found to contain three additional, contiguous genes, pchG, pchH, and pchI, probably forming a pchEFGHI operon. The deduced amino acid sequences of PchH and PchI are similar to those of ATP binding cassette transport proteins with an export function. PchG is a homolog of the Yersinia pestis and Y. enterocolitica proteins YbtU and Irp3, which are involved in the biosynthesis of yersiniabactin. A null mutation in pchG abolished pyochelin formation, whereas mutations in pchH and pchI did not affect the amounts of salicylate, Dha, and pyochelin produced. The pyochelin biosynthetic genes were expressed from a vector promoter, uncoupling them from Fur-mediated repression by iron and PchR-dependent induction by pyochelin. In a P. aeruginosa mutant lacking the entire pyochelin biosynthetic gene cluster, the expressed pchDCBA and pchEFG genes were sufficient for salicylate, Dha, and pyochelin production. Pyochelin formation was also obtained in the heterologous host Escherichia coli expressing pchDCBA and pchEFG together with the E. coli entD gene, which provides a phosphopantetheinyl transferase necessary for PchE and PchF activation. The PchG protein was purified and used in combination with PchD and phosphopantetheinylated PchE and PchF in vitro to produce pyochelin from salicylate, l-cysteine, ATP, NADPH, and S-adenosylmethionine. Based on this assay, a reductase function was attributed to PchG. In summary, this study completes the identification of the biosynthetic genes required for pyochelin formation from chorismate in P. aeruginosa. PMID:11208777

Reimmann, Cornelia; Patel, Hiten M.; Serino, Laura; Barone, Mario; Walsh, Christopher T.; Haas, Dieter

2001-01-01

111

TRPV3: time to decipher a poorly understood family member!  

PubMed Central

The vanilloid transient receptor potential channel TRPV3 differs in several aspects from other members of the TRPV subfamily. This Ca2+-, ATP- and calmodulin-regulated channel constitutes a target for many natural compounds and has a unique expression pattern as the most prominent and important TRP channel in keratinocytes of the skin. Although TRPV3 is considered as a thermosensitive channel, its function as a thermosensor in the skin is challenged. Nevertheless, it plays important roles in other skin functions such as cutaneous sensations, hair development and barrier function. More recently, mutations in TRPV3 were linked with a rare genodermatosis known as the Olmsted syndrome. This review gives an overview on properties of TRPV3 and its functions in the skin and skin diseases. PMID:23836684

Nilius, Bernd; Bíró, Tamás; Owsianik, Grzegorz

2014-01-01

112

Alternative nuclear functions for NF-?B family members  

PubMed Central

The NF-?B signalling pathway regulates many different biological processes from the cellular level to the whole organism. The majority of these functions are completely dependent on the activation of the cytoplasmic IKK kinase complex that leads to I?B degradation and results in the nuclear translocation of specific NF-?B dimers, which, in general, act as transcription factors. Although this is a well-established mechanism of action, several publications have now demonstrated that some members of this pathway display additional functions in the nucleus as regulators of NF-?B-dependent and independent gene expression. In this review, we compiled and put in context most of the data concerning specific nuclear roles for IKK and I?B proteins. PMID:21984965

Espinosa, Lluís; Bigas, Anna; Mulero, Maria Carmen

2011-01-01

113

IQGAP Family Members in Yeast, Dictyostelium, and Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

IQGAPs are a family of scaffolding proteins with multiple domains, named for the IQ motifs and GTPase activating protein (GAP) related domains. Despite their GAP homology, IQGAP proteins act as effectors for GTP-bound GTPases of the Ras superfamily and do not stimulate GTP hydrolysis. IQGAPs are found in eukaryotic cells from yeast to human, and localize to actin-containing structures such as lamellipodia, membrane ruffles, cell-cell adhesions, phagocytic cups, and the actomyosin ring formed during cytokinesis. Mammalian IQGAPs also act as scaffolds for signaling pathways. IQGAPs perform their myriad functions through association with a large number of proteins including filamentous actin (F-actin), GTPases, calcium-binding proteins, microtubule binding proteins, kinases, and receptors. The focus of this paper is on recent studies describing new binding partners, mechanisms of regulation, and biochemical and physiological functions of IQGAPs in yeast, amoeba, and mammalian cells. PMID:22505937

Shannon, Katie B.

2012-01-01

114

STS-101 crew members meet family and friends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-101 crew gather during a meeting with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. From left, Mission Specialist Susan J. Helms, Commander James D. Halsell Jr., Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber, Pilot Scott J. Horowitz and Mission Specialists Yuri Vladimirovich Usachev, Jeffery N. Williams and James S. Voss. In the background is the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the pad. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

2000-01-01

115

STS-101 crew members meet family and friends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-101 Mission Specialist Yuri Vladimirovich Usachev, a Russian cosmonaut, and his wife Vera Sergeevna Usacheva during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

2000-01-01

116

STS-101 crew members meet family and friends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A light-hearted moment during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. From left, Commander James D. Halsell Jr., Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber and Pilot Scott J. Horowitz. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

2000-01-01

117

STS-101 crew members meet family and friends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-101 Commander James D. Halsell Jr. waves as he stands with his wife Kathy during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

2000-01-01

118

STS-101 crew members meet family and friends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-101 Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber and her husband Jerome Elkind during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

2000-01-01

119

Challenges Facing a Deaf Family Member Concerning a Loved One’s Dying  

PubMed Central

Individuals who are Deaf face challenges both similar and unique from those faced by hearing individuals when a family member is dying. This study was guided by the question “What are the challenges faced by a Deaf family member when a loved one is dying?” Methods - This qualitative study is guided by critical theory and an interpretive perspective. Robert, a college-educated older adult who has been Deaf from birth was interviewed in American Sign Language using a death history format. Results – There are challenges for Deaf family members that affect communication with both the dying person and health care professionals. Patient-family communication issues included physical challenges and financial challenges. Lack of cultural competence concerning the Deaf community created challenges communicating with professionals. Decision-making was also a challenge. Conclusions These findings provide a framework for future research concerning the needs of Deaf individuals facing the end of life and provide guidance for clinicians. PMID:19910395

Kehl, Karen A.; Gartner, Constance M.

2010-01-01

120

Cyclic beta-glucans of members of the family Rhizobiaceae.  

PubMed Central

Cyclic beta-glucans are low-molecular-weight cell surface carbohydrates that are found almost exclusively in bacteria of the Rhizobiaceae family. These glucans are major cellular constituents, and under certain culture conditions their levels may reach up to 20% of the total cellular dry weight. In Agrobacterium and Rhizobium species, these molecules contain between 17 and 40 glucose residues linked solely by beta-(1,2) glycosidic bonds. In Bradyrhizobium species, the cyclic beta-glucans are smaller (10 to 13 glucose residues) and contain glucose linked by both beta-(1,6) and beta-(1,3) glycosidic bonds. In some rhizobial strains, the cyclic beta-glucans are unsubstituted, whereas in other rhizobia these molecules may become highly substituted with moieties such as sn-1-phosphoglycerol. To date, two genetic loci specifically associated with cyclic beta-glucan biosynthesis have been identified in Rhizobium (ndvA and ndvB) and Agrobacterium (chvA and chvB) species. Mutants with mutations at these loci have been shown to be impaired in their ability to grow in hypoosmotic media, have numerous alterations in their cell surface properties, and are also impaired in their ability to infect plants. The present review will examine the structure and occurrence of the cyclic beta-glucans in a variety of species of the Rhizobiaceae. The possible functions of these unique molecules in the free-living bacteria as well as during plant infection will be discussed. PMID:8078434

Breedveld, M W; Miller, K J

1994-01-01

121

Genetic studies of the members of small, dynamical asteroid families  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of spectrophotometric data of asteroids 9 Metis and 113 Amalthea have revealed a probable genetic (compositional) link between these two objects. The nearly identical composition of the silicate components of these two asteroids is consistent with their derivation from a single parent body. Based on the present compositional and morphological interpretations of 9 Metis and 113 Amalthea, and using plausible (chondritic) starting compositions for the parent body, the original parent asteroid is estimated to have been between approximately 300 and 600 kilometers in diameter. Thus Metis and Amalthea are the largest survivors of a highly-evolved, genetic asteroid family from which 86-96% of the original mass has been lost. New data in the wavelength region of approximately 0.4-2.5 ?m have been obtained for asteroid 434 Hungaria. This is the most complete visible to near- infrared spectrum to date for this object. The near- infrared portion of the spectrum is smooth, featureless, and agrees well with previous visible region data. Hungaria's relatively high albedo of 46 percent and lack of intense spectral absorption features strictly limits the suite of possible mineral analogs for this asteroid. Based on spectral, meteoritic and petrologic considerations the silicate composition of the surface of Hungaria is mostly likely made up of iron-free enstatite. However, new visible region data appear to exhibit weak, broad spectral absorption features near 0.5, 0.6, and 1 ?m. While the features near 0.5 and 1 ?m are unreliable and inconsistent, the weak feature near 0.6 ?m appears to be real and may help to constrain the composition of Hungaria. Most minerals which exhibit a similar absorption feature, and are commonly found in meteorites, have a much lower albedo. The dark chondritic inclusions in the Cumberland Falls aubrite exhibit a similar feature near 0.6 ?m, and this meteorite provides a possible spectral and compositional analog for Hungaria.

Kelley, Michael Shawn

1999-10-01

122

Parents and Children Only? Acculturation and the Influence of Extended Family Members among Vietnamese Refugees  

PubMed Central

The nuclear family is often the point of departure in much of the existing acculturation research on refugee youth and children of refugees. The influence of other extended family members appears to receive less attention in understanding acculturation processes and intergenerational perspectives. This qualitative study explores the influence of extended family members upon a small sample of Vietnamese refugee parents and their adolescents while they undergo acculturation through their long-term resettlement process in Norway. With repeated interviews over a time span of 3 years, we identified situations and processes in family life in which extended kin become particularly activated and influential. Vietnamese refugee families in Norway keep close contact with extended kin even in the face of geographical distance to kin remaining in Vietnam, or globally dispersed. Aunts, uncles, and cousins are experienced as significant persons in the lives of many adolescents. Additionally, birth order of parents can often influence relationship dynamics among siblings and siblings children. Extended kin surfaced as especially important and influential at critical stages and crisis situations in family life. Extended family, and in particular, parental siblings play important roles in the acculturation experience and family functioning of Vietnamese refugee families in Norway. This has important implications for the study of Vietnamese and other refugee and immigrant families in acculturation research. PMID:24510190

Tingvold, Laila; Middelthon, Anne-Lise; Allen, James; Hauff, Edvard

2012-01-01

123

Family Quality of Life of Australian Families with a Member with an Intellectual/Developmental Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Family quality of life (FQOL) is a recent concept in intellectual/developmental disability research. Outcomes for the family are important to the provision of services because families, rather than institutions, are increasingly considered the primary support unit. This article presents Australian findings using the international…

Rillotta, F.; Kirby, N.; Shearer, J.; Nettelbeck, T.

2012-01-01

124

Children exposed to the arrest of a family member: Associations with mental health  

PubMed Central

The arrest of a parent or other family member can be detrimental to children’s health. To study the impact of exposure to the arrest of a family member on children’s mental health and how said association may change across developmental periods, we examined baseline data for children (birth through 11 years) entering family-based systems of care (SOC). Children exposed to the arrest of a family member had experienced significantly more 5.38 (SD = 2.59) different types of potentially traumatic events (PTE) than children not exposed to arrest 2.84 (SD = 2.56). Multiple regression model results showed that arrest exposure was significantly associated with greater behavioral and emotional challenges after controlling for children’s age, gender, race/ethnicity, household income, caregiver’s education, parenting factors, and other PTE exposure. Further analyses revealed differences in internalizing and externalizing behaviors associated with arrest exposure across developmental levels. This study highlights some of the mental health challenges for children exposed to the arrest of a family member, while adding to our knowledge of how such an event affects children across different developmental periods. More trauma-informed, developmentally appropriate systems need to be in place at all levels to assist children and families experiencing arrest. PMID:24829537

Snyder, Frank J.; Kaufman, Joy S.; Finley, Meghan K.; Griffin, Amy; Anderson, Janet; Marshall, Tim; Radway, Susan; Stack, Virginia; Crusto, Cindy A.

2013-01-01

125

Prokaryotic members of a new family of putative helicases with similarity to transcription activator SNF2.  

PubMed

Cloning and sequence analysis of a new open reading frame from Bacillus cereus reveals the relationship to a recently identified family of putative eukaryotic transcription activators similar to the yeast SNF2 gene product. As a result of comparative analysis of sequence features conserved in all members of this family, a gene from a chilo iridescent virus, as well as a putative helicase from Escherichia coli (hepA), can also be grouped into this family. The unexpected presence of prokaryotic and viral sequences in the previously purely eukaryotic SNF2 family suggests a defined subgroup of DNA helicases present in all species, with specific function in transcription activation. PMID:8464078

Kolstø, A B; Bork, P; Kvaløy, K; Lindback, T; Grønstadt, A; Kristensen, T; Sander, C

1993-03-20

126

[Recurrent familial hyperparathyroidism. A propos of 7 adenomas in 3 members of the same family. Review of the literature].  

PubMed

Over a period of 23 years, 3 members of a family of 5 presented with 7 parathyroid adenomas (4 in the first case, 2 in the second case, 1 in the third case). Excision of each adenoma, with systematic pre-operative assessment of the remaining parathyroid tissue, led to complete clinical and laboratory cure of each episode. The delay in the appearance of recurrence was between 3 and 9 years. After reviewing the literature, the authors stress the importance, in any case of hyperparathyroidism, of routinely investigating the serum calcium levels in members of the patient's family, especially if the patient is young and if he has had several episodes or multiglandular involvement in one episode. The authors discuss the literature concerning recurrent familial hyperparathyroidism with endocrine polyadenomatosis and the "hypercalcaemia-hypocalciuria" syndrome. PMID:6320421

Doury, P; Eulry, F; Pattin, S; Fromantin, M; Gautier, D; Bernard, J; Tabaraud, F; Masson, C; Dano, P

1983-12-29

127

[Familial and recurrent hyperparathyroidism. Apropos of 7 adenomas in 3 members of the same family. Review of the literature].  

PubMed

Over a period of 23 years, 3 members of a family of 5 presented with 7 parathyroid adenomas (4 in the first case, 2 in the second case, 1 in the third case). Excision of each adenoma, with systematic pre-operative assessment of the remaining parathyroid tissue, led to complete clinical and laboratory cure of each episode. The delay in the appearance of recurrence was between 3 and 9 years. After reviewing the literature, the authors stress the importance, in any case of hyperparathyroidism, of routinely investigating the serum calcium levels in members of the patient's family, especially if the patient is young and if he has had several episodes or a multiglandular involvement in the one episode. The authors discuss the literature concerning recurrent familial hyperparathyroidism with endocrine polyadenomatosis and the "hypercalcaemia - hypocalciuria" syndrome. PMID:6857134

Doury, P; Eulry, F; Pattin, S; Fromantin, M; Gautier, D; Bernard, J; Tabaraud, F; Masson, C; Dano, P

1983-02-01

128

Receptivity and Preferences in Cancer Risk Reduction Lifestyle Programs: A Survey of Colorectal Cancer Family Members  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer is a shared family experience, and thus the purpose of this study was to assess receptivity and preferences for cancer risk reduction programs among at-risk family members with two or more relatives affected with colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods The sample comprised 401 at-risk family members with two or more relatives affected with CRC from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. In March 2009, respondents completed a mailed survey assessing receptivity and preferences for participating in cancer risk reduction programs and evaluated their relationship to demographic, medical, and psychosocial variables. Multivariable generalized estimating equation approaches were used to model preferences. Results Overall, 81% of respondents were receptive to a lifestyle cancer risk reduction program; of these, about half (54%) preferred to participate with their family. Program preferences included: weight management (36%) and nutrition (31%); delivered through the internet (41%) or mail (39%). In a multivariate model, a greater level of concern about cancer (p<0.001), female gender (p=0.002), and higher education (p=0.016) were significantly correlated with willingness to participate in lifestyle programs. Conclusions Family members of those with CRC are receptive to cancer risk reduction programs that focus on weight management and nutrition delivered via the internet or mail. Future research is needed to determine how best to incorporate a family-based approach that addresses the cancer experience when designing lifestyle intervention programs.

Howell, Lisa A.; Brockman, Tabetha A.; Sinicrope, Pamela S.; Patten, Christi A; Decker, Paul A.; Ehlers, Shawna L.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Nigon, Sandra K.; Petersen, Gloria M.

2014-01-01

129

Determining the satisfaction levels of the family members of patients with advanced-stage cancer.  

PubMed

Objective: The objective of our study was to determine the satisfaction levels of family members of patients with advanced-stage cancer. Method: This descriptive study was conducted in the palliative care and medical oncology clinics of a university hospital in the province of Izmir between April of 2011 and January of 2012. The study sample consisted of a total of 145 family members, who were selected from among the family members of patients with advanced-stage cancer receiving palliative treatment. The study data were obtained using the Patient Description Form and Family Satisfaction Scale during face-to-face interviews with patients. Results: Some 67% of patients were female and 33% male, 70% were married, 35% were high school graduates, and 34.5% were housewives. The average total family satisfaction score was 76.87 ± 1.14, and the average scores for the component variables were as follows: information giving 74.37 ± 1.28, availability of care 78.40 ± 1.17, physical care 78.99 ± 1.09, and psychosocial care 74.52 ± 1.30. We found a relationship between the level of satisfaction of family members and (1) gender, (2) occupation, (3) presence of someone supporting the care, and (4) possession of sufficient information about the patient (p < 0.05). Significance of Results: Satisfaction levels of participants were determined to be high. We found that family member satisfaction levels were affected by gender and occupation, the existence of someone supporting the care, and possession of sufficient information about the patient. PMID:24892641

Ozcelik, Hanife; Cakmak, Deniz Ezgi; Fadiloglu, Cicek; Yildirim, Yasemin; Uslu, Ruchan

2014-06-01

130

The CIP family of fieldbus protocols and its newest member Ethernet\\/IP  

Microsoft Academic Search

DeviceNet and ControlNet are two well known members of the same family of protocols - the CIP family (CIP=Control an Information Protocol). Both protocols have been developed by Rockwell Automation, but are now owned and maintained by the two manufacturers organizations ODVA (Open DeviceNet Vendors Association, see http:\\/\\/www.odva.org) and ControlNet International (see http:\\/\\/www.controlnet.org\\/). ODVA and ControlNet International have recently introduced

V. Schiffer

2001-01-01

131

Low-income families' perceptions on the use of drugs by one of their members.  

PubMed

Families who are socially excluded are vulnerable to problems related to the use of psychoactive substances. This study aimed to identify the perception regarding drugs use among families that lived in extreme poverty and participated in a social-educational group in the suburbs of a city in the interior of São Paulo State. A survey-like quantitative study was conducted involving 70 members of families who participated in the social-educational groups of the Program for Integral Assistance to the Family. Results indicated that 67 (95.7%) of the subjects were married, at an average age of 37, most of them had not completed grade school, and were unemployed. Fifty five (78.6%) had a family member who used alcohol, fifty two (74,3%) smoked, and twenty three (32.9%) used some kind of illicit drug. The results also showed that living with a relative who was a drug user was perceived as problem that elicited feelings resentment, but also conformism on the part of other family members. PMID:18506350

Martins, Mayra; Santos, Manoel Antonio Dos; Pillon, Sandra Cristina

2008-01-01

132

An Uncharacterized Member of the Ribokinase Family in Thermococcus kodakarensis Exhibits myo-Inositol Kinase Activity*  

PubMed Central

Here we performed structural and biochemical analyses on the TK2285 gene product, an uncharacterized protein annotated as a member of the ribokinase family, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. The three-dimensional structure of the TK2285 protein resembled those of previously characterized members of the ribokinase family including ribokinase, adenosine kinase, and phosphofructokinase. Conserved residues characteristic of this protein family were located in a cleft of the TK2285 protein as in other members whose structures have been determined. We thus examined the kinase activity of the TK2285 protein toward various sugars recognized by well characterized ribokinase family members. Although activity with sugar phosphates and nucleosides was not detected, kinase activity was observed toward d-allose, d-lyxose, d-tagatose, d-talose, d-xylose, and d-xylulose. Kinetic analyses with the six sugar substrates revealed high Km values, suggesting that they were not the true physiological substrates. By examining activity toward amino sugars, sugar alcohols, and disaccharides, we found that the TK2285 protein exhibited prominent kinase activity toward myo-inositol. Kinetic analyses with myo-inositol revealed a greater kcat and much lower Km value than those obtained with the monosaccharides, resulting in over a 2,000-fold increase in kcat/Km values. TK2285 homologs are distributed among members of Thermococcales, and in most species, the gene is positioned close to a myo-inositol monophosphate synthase gene. Our results suggest the presence of a novel subfamily of the ribokinase family whose members are present in Archaea and recognize myo-inositol as a substrate. PMID:23737529

Sato, Takaaki; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Yukika; Kuwata, Keiko; Kusaka, Eriko; Fujita, Haruo; Miki, Kunio; Atomi, Haruyuki

2013-01-01

133

College Adjustment and Subjective Well-Being when Coping with a Family Member's Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals coping with the chronic or terminal illness of a family member are presented with a unique challenge that may influence their adjustment and overall well-being. This study investigated variables that relate to college adjustment and subjective well-being, including attachment, social support, coping, and illness-related constructs, in…

Schmidt, Christa K.; Welsh, Anne C.

2010-01-01

134

Simvastatin promotes Th2-type responses through the induction of the chitinase family member Ym1  

E-print Network

Simvastatin promotes Th2-type responses through the induction of the chitinase family member Ym1 (DCs) without direct interaction with CD4 T cells. Exposure of DCs to simvastatin induced the differ- entiation of a distinct subset of DCs characterized by a high expression of B220. These simvastatin

Allen, Judith

135

Perceived Emotional Support from Family and Friends in Members of Homosexual, Married, and Heterosexual Cohabiting Couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influenced perceptions of emotional support from friends and family in members of gay, lesbian, married, and heterosexual cohabiting couples. Both the individual partner and the couple were used as units of analysis. Using the individual partner scores, perceived emotional support was related to Type of Couple (marrieds perceived more emotional

Lawrence A. Kurdek; J. Patrick Schmitt

1987-01-01

136

Self-Concept and Depression among Children Who Experienced the Death of a Family Member  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the moderating effects of physical and academic self-concept on depression among children who experienced the death of a family member. Data from Phase III of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care was used in the present study. Having a higher physical self-concept…

Nguyen, Hong T.; Scott, Amy N.

2013-01-01

137

Factors Affecting Burden of South Koreans Providing Care to Disabled Older Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the determinants of caregiving burden among South Koreans who care for their disabled older family members. A sample of 1,000 primary caregivers taken from the Comprehensive Study for Elderly Welfare Policy in Seoul, South Korea was analyzed. Independent variables included the demographic characteristics of caregivers and care…

Lee, Minhong; Yoon, Eunkyung; Kropf, Nancy P.

2007-01-01

138

Triticum Mosaic Virus: A Distinct Member of the Family Potyviridae with an Unusually Long Leader Sequence  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The complete genome sequence of Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), a member in the family Potyviridae, has been determined to be 10,266 nucleotides excluding the 3’-polyadenylated tail. The genome encodes a large polyprotein of 3,112 amino acids with the ‘hall-mark proteins’ of potyviruses including a s...

139

BERA Sports Clearance: Weight Room: Any contractor or family member wishing to use the Weight  

E-print Network

the Recreation Office (Bldg 400) a copy of their health insurance for fitness classes, league sports & weightBERA Sports Clearance: Weight Room: Any contractor or family member wishing to use the Weight Room will be kept on file. BERA League Sports: BSA paid employees must fill out this BERA Sports Clearance Form

140

Developing and Maintaining Mutual Aid Groups for Parents and Other Family Members: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 60-item bibliography, a compilation of abstracts of books, articles, handbooks, conference proceedings, and newsletters published from 1978 through 1989, addresses various aspects of groups, programs and other self-help resources for parents and other family members of people with disabilities. Literature in the first section provides…

Stuntzner-Gibson, Denise; And Others

141

Posttraumatic Symptoms in Japanese Bereaved Family Members with Special Regard to Suicide and Homicide Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members using a questionnaire. Participants were bereaved as a result of suicide and homicide (n = 51 and 49, respectively), with natural death (n = 56) as a control; and their relationships to the deceased were parent-child (n = 79), conjugal (n =…

Ogata, Kohske; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Nishi, Yuko; Maeda, Hitoshi

2011-01-01

142

Differential expression of sirtuin family members in the developing, adult, and aged rat brain  

PubMed Central

The sirtuins are NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases and/or ADP-ribosyltransferases that play roles in metabolic homeostasis, stress response and potentially aging. This enzyme family resides in different subcellular compartments, and acts on a number of different targets in the nucleus, cytoplasm and in the mitochondria. Despite their recognized ability to regulate metabolic processes, the roles played by specific sirtuins in the brain—the most energy demanding tissue in the body—remains less well investigated and understood. In the present study, we examined the regional mRNA and protein expression patterns of individual sirtuin family members in the developing, adult, and aged rat brain. Our results show that while each sirtuin is expressed in the brain at each of these different stages, they display unique spatial and temporal expression patterns within the brain. Further, for specific members of the family, the protein expression profile did not coincide with their respective mRNA expression profile. Moreover, using primary cultures enriched for neurons and astrocytes respectively, we found that specific sirtuin members display preferential neural lineage expression. Collectively, these results provide the first composite illustration that sirtuin family members display differential expression patterns in the brain, and provide evidence that specific sirtuins could potentially be targeted to achieve cell-type selective effects within the brain. PMID:25566066

Sidorova-Darmos, Elena; Wither, Robert G.; Shulyakova, Natalya; Fisher, Carl; Ratnam, Melanie; Aarts, Michelle; Lilge, Lothar; Monnier, Philippe P.; Eubanks, James H.

2014-01-01

143

Signaling by epithelial members of the CEACAM family – mucosal docking sites for pathogenic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) comprise a group of immunoglobulin-related vertebrate glycoproteins. Several family members, including CEACAM1, CEA, and CEACAM6, are found on epithelial tissues throughout the human body. As they modulate diverse cellular functions, their signaling capacity is in the focus of current research. In this review we will summarize the knowledge about common signaling processes initiated by epithelial CEACAMs and suggest a model of signal transduction by CEACAM family members lacking significant cytoplasmic domains. As pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria exploit these receptors during mucosal colonization, we try to highlight the connection between CEACAMs, microbes, and cellular responses. Special emphasis in this context is placed on the functional interplay between CEACAMs and integrins that influences matrix adhesion of epithelial cells. The cooperation between these two receptor families provides an intriguing example of the fine tuning of cellular responses and their manipulation by specialized microorganisms. PMID:24735478

2014-01-01

144

It starts with access! A grounded theory of family members working to get through critical illness.  

PubMed

The critical illness of an adult constitutes a crisis for the patient's family. They relinquish primary responsibility for the physical well-being of the patient to health providers, but remain involved, working to get through the situation. What constitutes this "work"? Results of two grounded theory studies revealed that family members were engaged first in the pivotal work of gaining access because of their overarching need to be present with and for their critically ill relative. Other work included patient-related work, nurse/physician-related work, and self-related work. These findings extend our understanding of their experiences beyond current knowledge and paternalistic perceptions of burden, stress and coping, and need recognition and fulfillment. Critical care nurses are exhorted to support family members in their work by removing barriers to patient, staff, and information access and to partnering opportunities. PMID:21531855

Vandall-Walker, Virginia; Clark, Alexander M

2011-05-01

145

Cancer in the Family: Review of the Psychosocial Perspectives of Patients and Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As advances in cancer care have led to more treatment options and longer survival for cancer patients, a focus on quality of life for patients and their families has gained importance. This review provides a discussion of stress and coping theory, documents the relevance of this topic area for social work practice, and illuminates the results of a…

Mitschke, Diane B.

2008-01-01

146

Redefining Residential: Family-Driven Care in Residential Treatment--Family Members Speak  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the sixth in a series of papers issued by the American Association of Children's Residential Centers (AACRC) regarding emerging and best practices in the field of residential treatment for children, youth, and families. AACRC is a long standing national association focused exclusively on practice and policy issues related to the provision…

Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 2009

2009-01-01

147

4-H Family Dog Score Sheet This class is designed for 4-H members enrolled in the Family Dog Project. While in the ring the dog will  

E-print Network

___________________________ Maximum Points Points Awarded 1. Dog's Behavior Sit/Stay 10 Come 10 Walk on a Leash 10 Total for Behavior4-H Family Dog Score Sheet This class is designed for 4-H members enrolled in the Family Dog Project. While in the ring the dog will be on display and the member will demonstrate that the dog can sit

New Hampshire, University of

148

Prosurvival Bcl-2 family members affect autophagy only indirectly, by inhibiting Bax and Bak  

PubMed Central

Antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family members such as Bcl-2, myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), and B-cell lymphoma-X large (Bcl-xL) are proposed to inhibit autophagy by directly binding to the BH3 domain of Beclin 1/Atg6. However, these Bcl-2 family proteins also block the proapoptotic activity of Bcl-2–associated X (Bax) and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak), and many inducers of autophagy also cause cell death. Therefore, when the mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis pathway is functional, interpretation of such experiments is complicated. To directly test the impact of the endogenous antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members on autophagy in the absence of apoptosis, we inhibited their activity in cells lacking the essential cell death mediators Bax and Bak. We also used inducible lentiviral vectors to overexpress Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, or Mcl-1 in cells and subjected them to treatments that promote autophagy. In the absence of Bax and Bak, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 had no detectable effect on autophagy or cell death in myeloid or fibroblast cell lines. On the other hand, when Bax and Bak were present, inhibiting the prosurvival Bcl-2 family members stimulated autophagy, but this correlated with increased cell death. In addition, inhibition of autophagy induced by amino acid starvation, etoposide, or interleukin-3 withdrawal did not affect cell death in the absence of Bax and Bak. These results demonstrate that the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members do not directly inhibit components of the autophagic pathway but instead affect autophagy indirectly, owing to their inhibition of Bax and Bak. PMID:24912196

Lindqvist, Lisa M.; Heinlein, Melanie; Huang, David C. S.; Vaux, David L.

2014-01-01

149

Family Quality of Life from the Perspectives of Individual Family Members: A Korean-American Family and Deafness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning in the mid-to-late 1980s, the focus on individual quality of life expanded to family quality of life (FQOL) in the field of intellectual disabilities. However, few studies examined FQOL for families who have children with hearing loss. Furthermore, most studies focused on mothers' perceptions of FQOL. The purpose of this study is to…

Hong, Joo Young; Turnbull, Ann

2013-01-01

150

Accumulation of m, a structural member of X,K-ATPase -subunit family, in nuclear envelopes of perinatal myocytes  

E-print Network

Accumulation of m, a structural member of X,K-ATPase -subunit family, in nuclear envelopes member of X,K-ATPase -subunit family, in nuclear envelopes of perinatal myocytes. Am J Physiol Cell in sarcoplasmic reticulum but is concen- trated in nuclear envelopes of both prenatal and postnatal skeletal

Brand, Paul H.

151

Certification of Health Care Provider for THE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK Family Member's Serious Health Condition  

E-print Network

Certification of Health Care Provider for THE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK Family Member's Serious with a serious health condition to submit a medical certification issued by the health care provider for FMLA leave to care for a covered family member with a serious health condition. If requested by your

Rosen, Jay

152

Giving information to family members of patients in the intensive care unit: Iranian nurses’ ethical approaches  

PubMed Central

Receiving information related to patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit is among the most important needs of the family members of such patients. When health care professionals should decide whether to be honest or to give hope, giving information becomes an ethical challenge We conducted a research to study the ethical approaches of Iranian nurses to giving information to the family members of patients in the intensive care units. This research was conducted in the intensive care units of three teaching hospitals in Iran. It employed a qualitative approach involving semi-structured and in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 12 nurses to identify the ethical approaches to giving information to family members of the intensive care unit patients. A conventional content analysis of the data produced two categories and five subcategories. The two categories were as follows: a) informational support, and b) emotional support. Informational support had 2 subcategories consisting of being honest in giving information, and providing complete and understandable information. Emotional support in giving information had 3 sub-categories consisting of gradual revelation, empathy and assurance. Findings of the study indicated that ethical approaches to giving information can be in the form of either informational support or emotional support, based on patients’ conditions and prognoses, their families’ emotional state, the necessity of providing a calm atmosphere in the ICU and the hospital, and other patients and their families’ peace. Findings of the present study can be used as a basis for further studies and for offering ethical guidelines in giving information to the families of patients hospitalized in the ICU. PMID:25512830

Farahani, Mansoureh A; Gaeeni, Mina; Mohammadi, Nooreddin; Seyedfatemi, Naima

2014-01-01

153

Pch2 is a hexameric ring ATPase that remodels the chromosome axis protein Hop1  

PubMed Central

In budding yeast the pachytene checkpoint 2 (Pch2) protein regulates meiotic chromosome axis structure by maintaining the domain-like organization of the synaptonemal complex proteins homolog pairing 1 (Hop1) and molecular zipper 1 (Zip1). Pch2 has also been shown to modulate meiotic double-strand break repair outcomes to favor recombination between homologs, play an important role in the progression of meiotic recombination, and maintain ribosomal DNA stability. Pch2 homologs are present in fruit flies, worms, and mammals, however the molecular mechanism of Pch2 function is unknown. In this study we provide a unique and detailed biochemical analysis of Pch2. We find that purified Pch2 is an AAA+ (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) protein that oligomerizes into single hexameric rings in the presence of nucleotides. In addition, we show Pch2 binds to Hop1, a critical axial component of the synaptonemal complex that establishes interhomolog repair bias, in a nucleotide-dependent fashion. Importantly, we demonstrate that Pch2 displaces Hop1 from large DNA substrates and that both ATP binding and hydrolysis by Pch2 are required for Pch2–Hop1 transactions. Based on these and previous cell biological observations, we suggest that Pch2 impacts meiotic chromosome function by directly regulating Hop1 localization. PMID:24367111

Chen, Cheng; Jomaa, Ahmad; Ortega, Joaquin; Alani, Eric E.

2014-01-01

154

Family influences on self-management among functionally independent adults with diabetes or heart failure: do family members hinder as much as they help?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Among functionally independent patients with diabetes or heart failure, we examined family member support and family-related barriers to self-care. We then identified patient characteristics associated with family support and family barriers and how each was associated with self-management adherence.Methods: Cross-sectional survey of 439 patients with diabetes or heart failure (74% response rate).Results: 75% of respondents reported supportive family involvement

Ann-Marie Rosland; Michele Heisler; Hwa-Jung Choi; Maria J. Silveira; John D. Piette

2010-01-01

155

Targeting of vacuolar membrane localized members of the TPK channel family.  

PubMed

Four members of the tandem-pore potassium channel family of Arabidopsis thaliana (TPK1, 2, 3, and 5) reside in the vacuolar membrane, whereas TPK4 is a plasma membrane K(+)-channel. By constructing chimeras between TPK1 and TPK4, we attempted to identify channel domains involved in the trafficking process and found that the TPK1 cytoplasmic C-terminal domain (CT) is critical for the ER- as well as Golgi-sorting steps. Following site-directed mutagenesis, we identified a diacidic motif (DLE) required for ER-export of TPK1. However, this diacidic motif in the C-terminus is not conserved among other members of the TPK family, and TPK3 sorting is independent of its CT. Moreover, the 14-3-3 binding site of TPK1, essential for channel activation, is not involved in channel sorting. PMID:19825594

Dunkel, Marcel; Latz, Andreas; Schumacher, Karin; Müller, Thomas; Becker, Dirk; Hedrich, Rainer

2008-11-01

156

Elevated levels of members of the STAT family of transcription factors in breast carcinoma nuclear extracts.  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor, milk protein binding factor (MPBF/Stat5), is a member of the STAT family of signalling molecules which mediates prolactin signal transduction in lactating mammary gland by binding to GAS (gamma-interferon activation site) DNA elements. We have determined the levels of STAT factors in nuclear extracts from a variety of human breast tissues including carcinoma and normal 'resting' breast by electrophoretic mobility-shift assay. The results show that the level of STAT binding activity is low in normal 'resting' breast and benign lesions while carcinoma samples have significantly higher (P < 0.01) amounts of STAT binding activity. Supershift analysis suggests that Stat1 and possibly other members of the STAT family of signalling factors, including Stat3, are activated in breast cancer tissues. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:7710952

Watson, C. J.; Miller, W. R.

1995-01-01

157

Reconstructing meaning through occupation after the death of a family member: accommodation, assimilation, and continuing bonds.  

PubMed

Reactions to death have been studied extensively from psychological, behavioral, and physiological perspectives. Occupational adaptation to loss has received scant attention. Qualitative research was undertaken to identify and describe occupational responses in bereavement. The constant comparative approach was used to analyze and interpret the occupational responses. Adaptive strategies of occupational accommodation and assimilation were used after the death of a family member. Desire to sustain bonds with the deceased motivated specific occupational engagements. These occupational responses served to reconstruct meaning after the death of a family member. These findings contribute to understanding adaptation after death by adding an occupational perspective to previous theories. Occupational therapists' abilities to support clients after loss can be enhanced through appreciation of occupational accommodation and assimilation and the role of continuing occupational bonds after the death of a loved one. PMID:20131573

Hoppes, Steve; Segal, Ruth

2010-01-01

158

Antigenic polymorphism of the LamB protein among members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.  

PubMed Central

In this study we demonstrate that most members of the family Enterobacteriaceae possess a maltose-inducible outer membrane protein homologous to the LamB protein of Escherichia coli K-12. These proteins react with polyclonal antibodies raised against the LamB protein of E. coli K-12. We compared the antigenic structure of the LamB protein in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae with six monoclonal antibodies raised against the LamB protein of E. coli K-12. Four of them reacted with epitopes located at the outer face of the membrane, and two reacted with epitopes located at the inner face of the membrane. A great degree of variability was observed for the external epitopes. Even in a single species, such as E. coli, an important polymorphism was present. In contrast, the internal epitopes were more conserved. Images PMID:4040134

Bloch, M A; Desaymard, C

1985-01-01

159

Comparison of family functioning and social support between families with a member who has obsessive-compulsive disorder and control families in Shanghai  

PubMed Central

Background Family functioning plays an important role in the etiology and course of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) so understanding the types of problems families with OCD patients have will help in the creation of OCD-specific family interventions. Objective Compare family functioning and social support of OCD patients and their co-resident parents to that of community controls and their co-resident parents. Methods Thirty-two psychiatric outpatients at the Affiliated East Hospital of Tongji University (in Shanghai) who met DSM-IV criteria for OCD and one of their co-resident parents and 31 community controls matched for age and years of education with the patients and one of their co-resident parents independently completed Chinese versions of the self-administered McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD), which assesses seven dimensions of family functioning, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), which assesses perceived support from family members, from friends and from other associates. Results All of the FAD dimension scores for both patients and their parents were in the unhealthy range (based on cut-off scores used in the Western version of the scale). With the exception of the Affective Involvement dimension of the FAD, patients with OCD and their parents reported significantly more poor family functioning and more poor social support than community controls and their parents. The concordance of patients FAD scores of and their parents scores was significantly stronger than that of controls and their parents for the Problem Solving, Communication and Affective Involvement dimensions (all p<0.001) but significantly weaker for the Behavioral Control dimension (p=0.009). For all four groups of respondents the four measures of perceived social support were all positively correlated with each of the seven measures of family functioning, though several of the correlation coefficients did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions OCD, like several other psychiatric illnesses, is an illness that profoundly affects families in China. Interventions for OCD need to integrate family-based psychosocial approaches (e.g., family therapy) with individual-based biological and psychological interventions. Our finding that perceived social support—from family members and from others—are closely related to family functioning in all types of respondents highlights the central role of families in the personal identity and social networks of individuals in China. PMID:25324597

Wang, Jikun; Zhao, Xudong

2012-01-01

160

Regulation of all members of the antizyme family by antizyme inhibitor  

PubMed Central

ODC (ornithine decarboxylase) is the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. Polyamines are essential for cellular growth and differentiation but enhanced ODC activity is associated with cell transformation. Post-translationally, ODC is negatively regulated through members of the antizyme family. Antizymes inhibit ODC activity, promote ODC degradation through the 26 S proteasome and regulate polyamine transport. Besides the ubiquitously expressed antizymes 1 and 2, there is the tissue-specific antizyme 3 and an yet uncharacterized antizyme 4. Antizyme 1 has been shown to be negatively regulated through the AZI (antizyme inhibitor) that binds antizyme 1 with higher affinity compared with ODC. In the present study, we show by yeast two- and three-hybrid protein–protein interaction studies that AZI interacts with all members of the antizyme family and is capable of disrupting the interaction between each antizyme and ODC. In a yeast-based ODC complementation assay, we show that human ODC is able to complement fully the function of the yeast homologue of ODC. Co-expression of antizymes resulted in ODC inhibition and cessation of yeast growth. The antizyme-induced growth inhibition could be reversed by addition of putrescine or by the co-expression of AZI. The protein interactions could be confirmed by immunoprecipitation of the human ODC–antizyme 2–AZI complexes. In summary, we conclude that human AZI is capable of acting as a general inhibitor for all members of the antizyme family and that the previously not yet characterized antizyme 4 is capable of binding ODC and inhibiting its enzymic activity similar to the other members of the antizyme family. PMID:15355308

2004-01-01

161

MicroRNA-125 family members exert a similar role in the regulation of murine hematopoiesis.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial for proper functioning of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Members of the miRNA-125 family (consisting of miR-125a, miR-125b1, and miR-125b2) are known to confer a proliferative advantage on cells upon overexpression, to decrease the rate of apoptosis by targeting proapoptotic genes, and to promote differentiation toward the myeloid lineage in mice. However, many distinct biological effects of the three miR-125 species have been reported as well. In the current study, we set out to assess whether the three miRNA-125s that carry identical seed sequences could be functionally different. Our data show that overexpression of each of the three miR-125 family members preserves HSPCs in a primitive state in vitro, results in a competitive advantage upon serial transplantation, and promotes skewing toward the myeloid lineage. All miR-125 family members decreased the pool of phenotypically defined Lin(-)Sca(+)Kit(+)CD48(-)CD150(+) long-term hematopoietic stem cells, simultaneously increasing the self-renewal activity upon secondary transplantation. The downregulation of miR-125s in hematopoietic stem cells abolishes these effects and impairs long-term contribution to blood cell production. The introduction of a point mutation within the miRNA-125 seed sequence abolishes all abovementioned effects and leads to the restoration of normal hematopoiesis. Our results show that all miR-125 family members are similar in function, they likely operate in a seed-sequence-dependent manner, and they induce a highly comparable hematopoietic phenotype. PMID:25092555

Wojtowicz, Edyta E; Walasek, Marta A; Broekhuis, Mathilde J C; Weersing, Ellen; Ritsema, Martha; Ausema, Albertina; Bystrykh, Leonid V; de Haan, Gerald

2014-10-01

162

Confirmation From Family Members: Parent and Sibling Contributions to Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined the relationship between confirmation (i.e., validation, acceptance) by family members and adolescent psychosocial adjustment (i.e., self-esteem, strength of self-concept, and autonomy). Study 1 showed confirmation by parents was positively related to mid-adolescents' psychosocial adjustment. Study 2 showed that although late-adolescents perceived mothers as exhibiting greater confirmation than both fathers and siblings, a simultaneous assessment of mother, father,

René M. Dailey

2009-01-01

163

Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among family members of infected and non-infected symptomatic children.  

PubMed

This study determined the prevalence of seropositivity of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies, and evaluated some socio-epidemiologic characteristics among family members of infected and non-infected symptomatic children. One hundred children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms without previous H. pylori eradication treatment were prospectively studied by both upper endoscopy with histopathological biopsies examination, and serum anti-H. pylori IgG test between July 2012 to June 2013. The patients were subdivided into: H. pylori infected children (GI), and H. pylori non-infected children (GII). Also, 320 of their family members were examined for serum anti-H. pylori IgG and stool antigen tests. Sheets were filled out included personal and medical history. The results showed statistically significant difference between both groups as regard dyspepsia, anemia, and histopathological findings (chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer, and duodenitis). Family members were subdivided into: those of H. pylori infected symptomatic children (165) and those of H. pylori non-infected symptomatic children (155). Anti-H. pylori IgG prevalence was significantly higher in relatives of GI than those of GII (69.1% vs. 29%; p<0.05). The seroprevalence of H.pylori infection in all family members was (49.7%). Mothers of GI showed the highest seroprevalence (39.5%) as compared to fathers and siblings (22.8%, & 37.7%, respectively). Relatives of GI with low socioeconomic status, and lived in rural area showed the highest seroprevalence (82.5%, & 78.1% respectively). PMID:24640875

Hamed, Mohammed E; Hussein, Hatem M; El Sadany, Hosam F; Elgobashy, Ashgan A; Atta, Amal H

2013-12-01

164

Covalent modification of all members of human cullin family proteins by NEDD8  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently we found that NEDD8, a ubiquitin-like protein, was linked covalently to human cullin-4A (abbreviated Cul-4A) by a new ubiquitin-related pathway that is analogous to but distinct from the ligating system for SUMO1, another ubiquitin-like protein. However, it remained unknown whether the other five members of the family of human cullin\\/Cdc53 proteins are modified by NEDD8. Here we report that

Tomoko Hori; Fumio Osaka; Tomoki Chiba; Chikara Miyamoto; Ken Okabayashi; Naoki Shimbara; Seishi Kato; Keiji Tanaka

1999-01-01

165

Risk of Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms in Family Members of Intensive Care Unit Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Intensive care unit (ICU) admission of a relative is a stress- ful event that may cause symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objectives: Factors associated with these symptoms need to be identified. Methods: For patients admitted to 21 ICUs between March and November 2003, we studied the family member with the main potential decision-making role.Measurements: Ninety days after ICU

Elie Azoulay; Frederic Pochard; Nancy Kentish-Barnes; Sylvie Chevret; Jerome Aboab; Christophe Adrie; Djilali Annane; Gerard Bleichner; Michael Darmon; Thomas Fassier; Richard Galliot; Cyril Goulenok; Dany Goldgran-Toledano; Jan Hayon; Michel Kaidomar; Christian Laplace; Jerome Larche ´; Laurent Papazian; Jean Reignier; Faycal Saidi; Jérôme Liotier; Catherine Poisson; Benoît Schlemmer

2005-01-01

166

Cloning and characterization of a second member of the mouse mdr gene family.  

PubMed Central

The mammalian mdr gene family comprises a small number of closely related genes. Previously, we have shown that one member, mdr1, has the capacity to convey multidrug resistance to drug-sensitive recipient cells in a gene transfer protocol. However, the functional characteristics of other members of this gene family have not been examined. In this report, we characterize a second member of the mdr gene family which we designated mdr2. We determined the nucleotide sequence corresponding to the complete coding region of this mdr2 transcript. The predicted amino acid sequence of this protein (1,276 amino acids) showed that it is a membrane glycoprotein highly homologous to mdr1 (85%), strongly suggesting that both genes originate from a common ancestor. Regions of divergence between mdr1 and mdr2 proteins are concentrated in two discrete segments of the predicted polypeptides, each approximately 100 residues in length. The mdr2 protein appears to be formed by the duplication of a structural unit which encodes three putative transmembrane loops and a predicted nucleotide-binding fold and is highly homologous to bacterial transport proteins such as hlyB. This strong homology suggests that mdr2 also participates in an energy-dependent membrane transport process. However, the direct relationship, if any, of this new member of the mdr family to multidrug resistance remains to be established. Knowledge of the complete nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid sequence of the mdr2 gene product will enable the preparation of gene-specific probes and antibodies necessary to study the functional role of this gene in multidrug resistance and normal physiological processes. PMID:3405218

Gros, P; Raymond, M; Bell, J; Housman, D

1988-01-01

167

Isolation and characterization of a cellulase gene family member expressed during avocado fruit ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present in this paper the structural analysis of two members of a small cellulase gene family, designated cel1 and cel2, from avocado. These genes were isolated by screening a ? EMBL3 genomic library with a ripening-induced cellulase cDNA. Restriction endonuclease and Southern blot analyses showed that the cel1 gene is highly homologous to the cellulase cDNA and thus represents

Laura G. Cass; Kathleen A. Kirven; Rolf E. Christoffersen

1990-01-01

168

RXR-2, a member of the retinoid x receptor family in Schistosoma mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA encoding a second full-length member of the Schistosoma mansoni RXR family (SmRXR-2) was identified. The nucleotide sequence of SmRXR-2 translates into a protein of 784 amino acids with a pI of 7.63 and an approximate mass of 78kDa making it the largest reported RXR to date. Phylogenetic tree analysis provides evidence that SmRXR-2 is the most ancient full-length

Wendy J. Freebern; Edward G. Niles; Philip T. LoVerde

1999-01-01

169

A Family Member's Job Loss as a Risk Factor for Smoking Among Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life events are associated with an increased likelihood of adolescent smoking. This study examined a family member's job loss as a predictor of smoking initiation over a 1-year period. Southern California students completed surveys in 6th and 7th grade. Of the 2,168 students, 252 (12%) reported that an adult in the household had lost a job within the past 6

Jennifer B. Unger; Jeffery E. Hamilton; Steve Sussman

2004-01-01

170

Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Family Member RANK Mediates Osteoclast Differentiation and Activation Induced by Osteoprotegerin Ligand  

Microsoft Academic Search

A receptor that mediates osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and activation has been identified via genomic analysis of a primary osteoclast precursor cell cDNA library and is identical to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family member RANK. The RANK mRNA was highly expressed by isolated bone marrow-derived osteoclast progenitors and by mature osteoclasts in vivo. Recombinant OPGL binds specifically

Hailing Hsu; David L. Lacey; Colin R. Dunstan; Irina Solovyev; Anne Colombero; Emma Timms; Hong-Lin Tan; Gary Elliott; Michael J. Kelley; Ildiko Sarosi; Ling Wang; Xing-Zhong Xia; Robin Elliott; Laura Chiu; Tabitha Black; Sheila Scully; Casey Capparelli; Sean Morony; Grant Shimamoto; Michael B. Bass; William J. Boyle

1999-01-01

171

Sources of hope: Perception of Iranian family members of patients in the Intensive Care Unit  

PubMed Central

Background: Admission to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is recognized as a situation with emotional strain, uncertainty, and fear of losing the patient. In such stressful situations, it is hope that can promote psychological stability in the patient's family members. Related literature revealed that sources of hope in this situation have still not been discussed well in studies. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the sources of hope from the perspective of families of ICU patients in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study that was carried out adopting the conventional qualitative content analysis approach, 19 family members of 13 patients hospitalized in the ICU from three teaching hospitals were selected, through purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using conventional content analysis, through the process of data reduction and condensation, coding, and also generating categories and subcategories. Results: Analysis of the data revealed sources of hope in families of ICU patients. These sources appeared as two main categories- internal sources and external sources. The internal sources had two subcategories consisting of ’religious-spirituality beliefs’ and ’positive attitude’. The external sources had four subcategories consisting of healthcare professionals’ interactions, empathy of families and friends, patient's condition, and participation in care. Conclusions: The results of this study showed the sources of hope in the families of the patients in the ICU. These sources, as moderating factors, could reduce physical and psychological damages caused to the families. In the present study, the categorizations of the participants’ in-depth experience could develop a new horizon for healthcare professionals, especially nurses, on the sources of hope, based on culture.

Gaeeni, Mina; Farahani, Mansoureh A; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Seyedfatemi, Naima

2014-01-01

172

Deprescribing psychotropic medications in aged care facilities: the potential role of family members.  

PubMed

There is widespread concern in Australia and internationally at the high prevalence of psychotropic medication use in residential aged care facilities. It is difficult for nurses and general practitioners in aged care facilities to cease new residents' psychotropic medications when they often have no information about why residents were started on the treatment, when and by whom and with what result. Most existing interventions have had a limited and temporary effect and there is a need to test different strategies to overcome the structural and practical barriers to psychotropic medication cessation or deprescribing. In this chapter, we review the literature regarding psychotropic medication deprescribing in aged care facilities and present the protocol of a novel study that will examine the potential role of family members in facilitating deprescribing. This project will help determine if family members can contribute information that will prove useful to clinicians and thereby overcome one of the barriers to deprescribing medications whose harmful effects often outweigh their benefits. We wish to understand the knowledge and attitudes of family members regarding the prescribing and deprescribing of psychotropic medications to newly admitted residents of aged care facilities with a view to developing and testing a range of clinical interventions that will result in better, safer prescribing practices. PMID:25416108

Plakiotis, Christos; Bell, J Simon; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Pond, Dimity; O'Connor, Daniel W

2015-01-01

173

Mice with Combined Gene KnockOuts Reveal Essential and Partially Redundant Functions of Amyloid Precursor Protein Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amyloid precursor protein (APP) involved in Alzheimer's dis- ease is a member of a larger gene family including amyloid precursor-like proteins APLP1 and APLP2. We generated and examined the phenotypes of mice lacking individual or all pos- sible combinations of APP family members to assess potential functional redundancies within the gene family. Mice deficient for the nervous system-specific APLP1

Sabine Heber; Jochen Herms; Vladan Gajic; Johannes Hainfellner; Adriano Aguzzi; Thomas Rulicke; Hans Kretzschmar; Cornelia von Koch; Sangram Sisodia; Phillippe Tremml; Hans-Peter Lipp; David P. Wolfer; Ulrike Muller

2000-01-01

174

The Importance of Older Family Members in Providing Social Resources and Promoting Cancer Screening in Families with a Hereditary Cancer Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study evaluates the role of older family members as providers of social resources within familial network systems affected by an inherited cancer susceptibility syndrome. Design and Methods: Respondents who previously participated in a study that involved genetic counseling and testing for Lynch syndrome and their family network…

Ashida, Sato; Hadley, Donald W.; Goergen, Andrea F.; Skapinsky, Kaley F.; Devlin, Hillary C.; Koehly, Laura M.

2011-01-01

175

Family Quality of Life among Families with a Member Who Has an Intellectual Disability: An Exploratory Examination of Key Domains and Dimensions of the Revised FQOL Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The Family Quality of Life Survey (FQOLS-2006) was developed as the result of increased interest in family quality of life (FQOL) among families with a member who has an intellectual disability (ID). The instrument includes nine life domains and six dimensions reflecting the main areas and characteristics of FQOL. The aim of the…

Werner, S.; Edwards, M.; Baum, N.; Brown, I.; Brown, R. I.; Isaacs, B. J.

2009-01-01

176

Extreme structural heterogeneity among the members of a maize retrotransposon family.  

PubMed Central

A few families of retrotransposons characterized by the presence of long terminal repeats (LTRs) have amplified relatively recently in maize and account for >50% of the genome. Surprisingly, none of these elements have been shown to cause a single mutation. In contrast, most of the retrotransposon-induced mutations isolated in maize are caused by the insertion of elements that are present in the genome at 2-50 copies. To begin to understand what limits the amplification of this mutagenic class of LTR-retrotransposons, we are focusing on five elements previously identified among 17 mutations of the maize waxy gene. One of these elements, Stonor, has sustained a deletion of the entire gag region and part of the protease domain. Missing sequences were recovered from larger members of the Stonor family and indicate that the deletion probably occurred during retrotransposition. These large elements have an exceptionally long leader of 2 kb that includes a highly variable region of approximately 1 kb that has not been seen in previously characterized retrotransposons. This region serves to distinguish each member of the Stonor family and indicates that no single element has yet evolved that can attain the very high copy numbers characteristic of other element families in maize. PMID:9799276

Marillonnet, S; Wessler, S R

1998-01-01

177

Expression of CCN family members correlates with the clinical features of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Studies have reported that the CCN family of proteins plays an important role in stimulating tumorigenesis. However, the relationship between the CCN protein family members and the features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the expression levels of CCN protein family members and the features of HCC. Expression levels of the CCN family of proteins in 80-paired primary HCC samples and 11 normal liver samples were determined by a quantitative real-time PCR assay. Enhanced expression of nephroblastoma overexpressed protein (NOV) and decreased expression of Wnt-induced secreted protein 1 (WISP1), cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were found in HCC samples when compared to levels in matched non-cancerous tissues. No significant difference in WISP2 was found between matched-pair samples; only a few samples showed WISP3 expression. Furthermore, the expression levels of NOV, WISP1 and CYR61 were closely correlated with certain clinical features, including venous invasion, cellular differentiation, pTNM stage, disease-free survival and overall survival. Our results suggest that HCC progression may be enhanced by NOV and suppressed by WISP1 and CYR61. Our statistical analysis suggests that these proteins may be valuable in determining the prognosis of this deadly disease and directs attention to modulating the levels of these proteins as a potential mode of therapy. PMID:25571929

Zhang, Heyun; Li, Wenbin; Huang, Pinbo; Lin, Lehang; Ye, Hua; Lin, Dechen; Koeffler, H Phillip; Wang, Jie; Yin, Dong

2015-03-01

178

PE-1, a novel ETS oncogene family member, localizes to chromosome 1q21-q23  

SciTech Connect

The v-ets oncogene family shares a conserved peptide motif called the ETS domain that mediates sequence-specific DNA binding. This motif is unique among transcription factor families. Using partially degenerate oligonucleotides from conserved regions of the ETS domain and the polymerase chain reaction, the authors isolated a new member of v-ets family designated PE-1 from HL60 cells. PE-1 was expressed as an approximately 7.5-kb transcript in most cell lines tested. In the hairy cell leukemia line Eskol, there was an additional 1.8-kb transcript observed. PE-1 was the most common ETS domain gene found in CD34[sup +]HLA-DR[sup [minus

Klemsz, M.; Hromas, R.; Bruno, E.; Hoffman, R. (Indiana Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States)); Raskind, W. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States))

1994-03-15

179

Informing family members of individuals with Lynch syndrome: a guideline for clinical geneticists.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of Lynch syndrome can lead to the prevention of colorectal cancer through periodic colonoscopies and removal of premalignant lesions in susceptible individuals. Therefore, predisposed individuals identified by mutation analysis are advised to inform their at-risk relatives about the options of predictive DNA testing and preventive measures. However, it has now been established that more than half of these relatives do not receive the necessary information. Barriers in conveying information include family communication problems and variable attitudes and practice among clinical geneticists. In this complex field, both medical, psychological, ethical and juridical aspects deserve consideration. Here we summarize the development of a revised guideline for clinical geneticists that allows a more active role of the geneticist, aimed at improving procedures to inform family members in Lynch syndrome and other hereditary and familial cancer syndromes. PMID:23535968

Menko, Fred H; Aalfs, Cora M; Henneman, Lidewij; Stol, Yrrah; Wijdenes, Miranda; Otten, Ellen; Ploegmakers, Marleen M J; Legemaate, Johan; Smets, Ellen M A; de Wert, Guido M W R; Tibben, Aad

2013-06-01

180

Anoctamin/TMEM16 family members are Ca2+-activated Cl? channels  

PubMed Central

Ca2+-activated Cl? channels (CaCCs) perform many important functions in cell physiology including secretion of fluids from acinar cells of secretory glands, amplification of olfactory transduction, regulation of cardiac and neuronal excitability, mediation of the fast block to polyspermy in amphibian oocytes, and regulation of vascular tone. Although a number of proteins have been proposed to be responsible for CaCC currents, the anoctamin family (ANO, also known as TMEM16) exhibits characteristics most similar to those expected for the classical CaCC. Interestingly, this family of proteins has previously attracted the interest of both developmental and cancer biologists. Some members of this family are up-regulated in a number of tumours and functional deficiency in others is linked to developmental defects. PMID:19015192

Hartzell, H Criss; Yu, Kuai; Xiao, Qinhuan; Chien, Li-Ting; Qu, Zhiqiang

2009-01-01

181

MUTYH the base excision repair gene family member associated with colorectal cancer polyposis  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer is classified in to three forms: sporadic (70–75%), familial (20–25%) and hereditary (5–10%). hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes classified into two different subtypes: polyposis and non polyposis. Familial Adenomatous polyposis (FAP; OMIM #175100) is the most common polyposis syndrome, account for <1% of colorectal cancer incidence and characterized by germline mutations in the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC, 5q21- q22; OMIM #175100). FAP is a dominant cancer predisposing syndrome which 20–25% cases are de novo. There is also another polyposis syndrome; MUTYH associated polyposis (MAP, OMIM 608456) which it is caused by mutation in human Mut Y homologue MUTYH (MUTYH; OMIM 604933) and it is associated with multiple (15–100) colonic adenomas. In this paper we discuss MUTYH mechanism as an important member of Base Excision Repair (BER) family and its important role in polyposis condition. PMID:24834277

Kashfi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Golmohammadi, Mina; Behboudi, Faeghe; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2013-01-01

182

Page 1 of 2 To allow employees to be away from work upon the death of a family member.  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 2 Purpose To allow employees to be away from work upon the death of a family member. Policy Georgia Southern University allows funeral/bereavement time-off to all employees when a death, parent, grandparent, brother/ sister, and step-child Extended Family- The extended family includes legal

Hutcheon, James M.

183

Anomalous placement of introns in a member of the intermediate filament multigene family: an evolutionary conundrum.  

PubMed Central

The origin of introns and their role (if any) in gene expression, in the evolution of the genome, and in the generation of new expressed sequences are issues that are understood poorly, if at all. Multigene families provide a favorable opportunity for examining the evolutionary history of introns because it is possible to identify changes in intron placement and content since the divergence of family members from a common ancestral sequence. Here we report the complete sequence of the gene encoding the 68-kilodalton (kDa) neurofilament protein; the gene is a member of the intermediate filament multigene family that diverged over 600 million years ago. Five other members of this family (desmin, vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and type I and type II keratins) are encoded by genes with six or more introns at homologous positions. To our surprise, the number and placement of introns in the 68-kDa neurofilament protein gene were completely anomalous, with only three introns, none of which corresponded in position to introns in any characterized intermediate filament gene. This finding was all the more unexpected because comparative amino acid sequence data suggest a closer relationship of the 68-kDa neurofilament protein to desmin, vimentin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein than between any of these three proteins and the keratins. It appears likely that an mRNA-mediated transposition event was involved in the evolution of the 68-kDa neurofilament protein gene and that subsequent events led to the acquisition of at least two of the three introns present in the contemporary sequence. PMID:3785173

Lewis, S A; Cowan, N J

1986-01-01

184

The Ras-association domain family (RASSF) members and their role in human tumourigenesis  

PubMed Central

Ras proteins play a direct causal role in human cancer with activating mutations in Ras occurring in ? 30% of tumours. Ras effectors also contribute to cancer, as mutations occur in Ras effectors, notably B-Raf and PI3-K, and drugs blocking elements of these pathways are in clinical development. In 2000, a new Ras effector was identified, RAS-association domain family 1 (RASSF1), and expression of the RASSF1A isoform of this gene is silenced in tumours by methylation of its promoter. Since methylation is reversible and demethylating agents are currently being used in clinical trials, detection of RASSF1A silencing by promoter hypermethylation has potential clinical uses in cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. RASSF1A belongs to a new family of RAS effectors, of which there are currently 8 members (RASSF1–8). RASSF1–6 each contain a variable N-terminal segment followed by a Ras-association (RA) domain of the Ral-GDS/AF6 type, and a specialised coiled-coil structure known as a SARAH domain extending to the C-terminus. RASSF7–8 contain an N-terminal RA domain and a variable C-terminus. Members of the RASSF family are thought to function as tumour suppressors by regulating the cell cycle and apoptosis. This review will summarise our current knowledge of each member of the RASSF family and in particular what role they play in tumourigenesis, with a special focus on RASSF1A, whose promoter methylation is one of the most frequent alterations found in human tumours. PMID:17692468

van der Weyden, Louise; Adams, David J.

2007-01-01

185

Utilization of and Barriers to HIV and MCH Services among Community ART Group Members and Their Families in Tete, Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Mozambique continues to face many challenges in HIV and maternal and child health care (MCH). Community-based antiretroviral treatment groups (CAG) enhance retention to care among members, but whether such benefits extend to their families and to MCH remains unclear. In 2011 we studied utilization of HIV and MCH services among CAG members and their family aggregates in Changara, Mozambique, through a mixed-method assessment. We systematically revised all patient-held health cards from CAG members and their non-CAG family aggregate members and conducted semistructured group discussions on MCH topics. Quantitative data were analysed in EPI-Info. Qualitative data were manually thematically analysed. Information was retrieved from 1,624 persons, of which 420 were CAG members (26%). Good compliance with HIV treatment among CAG members was shared with non-CAG HIV-positive family members on treatment, but many family aggregate members remained without testing, and, when HIV positive, without HIV treatment. No positive effects from the CAG model were found for MCH service utilization. Barriers for utilization mentioned centred on insufficient knowledge, limited community-health facility collaboration, and structural health system limitations. CAG members were open to include MCH in their groups, offering the possibility to extend patient involvement to other health needs. We recommend that lessons learnt from HIV-based activism, patient involvement, and community participation are applied to broader SRH services, including MCH care. PMID:23956849

Dezembro, Sergio; Matias, Humberto; Muzila, Fausto; Brumana, Luisa; Capobianco, Emanuele

2013-01-01

186

Race-related differences in the experiences of family members of persons with mental illness participating in the NAMI Family to Family Education Program.  

PubMed

Families play an important role in the lives of individuals with mental illness. Coping with the strain of shifting roles and multiple challenges of caregiving can have a huge impact. Limited information exists regarding race-related differences in families' caregiving experiences, their abilities to cope with the mental illness of a loved one, or their interactions with mental health service systems. This study examined race-related differences in the experiences of adults seeking to participate in the National Alliance on Mental Illness Family-to-Family Education Program due to mental illness of a loved one. Participants were 293 White and 107 African American family members who completed measures of problem- and emotion-focused coping, knowledge about mental illness, subjective illness burden, psychological distress, and family functioning. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine race-related differences. African American caregivers reported higher levels of negative caregiving experiences, less knowledge of mental illness, and higher levels of both problem-solving coping and emotion-focused coping, than White caregivers. Mental health programs serving African American families should consider targeting specific strategies to address caregiving challenges, support their use of existing coping mechanisms and support networks, and increase their knowledge of mental illness. PMID:25213395

Smith, Melissa Edmondson; Lindsey, Michael A; Williams, Crystal D; Medoff, Deborah R; Lucksted, Alicia; Fang, Li Juan; Schiffman, Jason; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Dixon, Lisa B

2014-12-01

187

Mental health professional support in families with a member suffering from severe mental illness: a grounded theory model.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a model of mental health professional (MHP) support based on the needs of families with a member suffering from severe mental illness (SMI). Twelve family members were interviewed with the focus on their needs of support by MHP, then the interviews were analyzed according to the grounded theory method. The generated model of MHP support had two core categories: the family members' process from crisis to recovery and their interaction with the MHP about mental health/illness and daily living of the person with SMI. Interaction based on ongoing contact between MHP and family members influenced the family members' process from crisis towards recovery. Four MHP strategies--being present, listening, sharing and empowering--met the family members' needs of support in the different stages of the crisis. Being present includes early contact, early information and protection by MHP at onset of illness or relapse. Listening includes assessing burden, maintaining contact and confirmation in daily living for the person with SMI. Sharing between MHP and family members includes co-ordination, open communication and security in daily living for the person with SMI. Finally, the MHP strategy empowering includes creating a context, counselling and encouraging development for the family members. The present model has a holistic approach and can be used as an overall guide for MHP support in clinical care of families of persons with SMI. For future studies, it is important to study the interaction of the family with SMI and the connection between hope, coping and empowerment. PMID:16489966

Gavois, Helena; Paulsson, Gun; Fridlund, Bengt

2006-03-01

188

Facilitators and barriers to hypertension self-management in urban African Americans: perspectives of patients and family members  

PubMed Central

Introduction We aimed to inform the design of behavioral interventions by identifying patients’ and their family members’ perceived facilitators and barriers to hypertension self-management. Materials and methods We conducted focus groups of African American patients with hypertension and their family members to elicit their views about factors influencing patients’ hypertension self-management. We recruited African American patients with hypertension (n = 18) and their family members (n = 12) from an urban, community-based clinical practice in Baltimore, Maryland. We conducted four separate 90-minute focus groups among patients with controlled (one group) and uncontrolled (one group) hypertension, as well as their family members (two groups). Trained moderators used open-ended questions to assess participants’ perceptions regarding patient, family, clinic, and community-level factors influencing patients’ effective hypertension self-management. Results Patient participants identified several facilitators (including family members’ support and positive relationships with doctors) and barriers (including competing health priorities, lack of knowledge about hypertension, and poor access to community resources) that influence their hypertension self-management. Family members also identified several facilitators (including their participation in patients’ doctor’s visits and discussions with patients’ doctors outside of visits) and barriers (including their own limited health knowledge and patients’ lack of motivation to sustain hypertension self-management behaviors) that affect their efforts to support patients’ hypertension self-management. Conclusion African American patients with hypertension and their family members reported numerous patient, family, clinic, and community-level facilitators and barriers to patients’ hypertension self-management. Patients’ and their family members’ views may help guide efforts to tailor behavioral interventions designed to improve hypertension self-management behaviors and hypertension control in minority populations. PMID:23966772

Flynn, Sarah J; Ameling, Jessica M; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Wolff, Jennifer L; Bone, Lee R; Levine, David M; Roter, Debra l; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Fisher, Annette R; Purnell, Leon; Ephraim, Patti L; Barbers, Jeffrey; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Albert, Michael C; Cooper, Lisa A; Fagan, Peter J; Martin, Destiny; Ramamurthi, Hema C; Boulware, L Ebony

2013-01-01

189

Compostibacillus humi gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Bacillaceae , isolated from sludge compost.  

PubMed

Two novel Gram-staining-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, and moderately thermophilic bacteria, designated strain DX-3T and GIESS002, respectively were isolated from sludge composts from Guangdong Province, China. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates were closely related to each other with extremely high similarity (99.6%), and were members of the family Bacillaceae. However, these two isolates formed a novel phylogenetic branch within this family. Their closest relatives were the members of the genera Ornithinibacillus, Oceanobacillus and Virgibacillus. Cells of both strains were facultatively anaerobic and catalase- and oxidase-positive. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was A1? (meso-DAP direct). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major cellular fatty acid was iso-C15:0. The DNA G+C content was 43.2-43.7 mol%. The polyphasic taxonomic results indicated that strains DX-3T and GIESS002 represent a novel species in a new genus in the family Bacillaceae, order Bacillales for which the name Compostibacillus humi gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DX-3T (=KCTC 33104T =CGMCC 1.12360T). PMID:25358510

Yu, Zhen; Wen, Junlin; Yang, Guiqin; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Shungui

2014-10-30

190

Merkel cell carcinoma dependence on bcl-2 family members for survival.  

PubMed

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare but aggressive cutaneous neoplasm with high metastatic potential, has a poor prognosis at late stages of disease with no proven chemotherapeutic regimens. Using an enriched culture medium, we established and characterized 11 MCC cell lines for Bcl-2 family profiling and functional studies. Immunoblot analysis revealed collectively high protein levels of prosurvival Bcl-2 members in cell lines and a panel of MCC tumors. Downregulation of individual Bcl-2 proteins by RNAi promoted death in a subset of MCC cell lines, whereas simultaneous inhibition of multiple family members by using the small-molecule antagonist ABT-263 led to a marked induction of cell death in 10 of 11 lines. ABT-263 induced Bax-dependent apoptosis with rapid cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP, regardless of Bcl-2 family profile or the presence of Merkel cell polyomavirus. Furthermore, ABT-263 treatment led to rapid and sustained growth suppression of MCC xenografts from a representative cell line, accompanied by a striking increase in apoptosis. Our results establish that concurrent inhibition of multiple prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins leads to effective induction of apoptosis, and strongly support the concept that targeting MCC dependence on these molecules may be useful therapeutically by reversing an intrinsic resistance to cell death. PMID:24614157

Verhaegen, Monique E; Mangelberger, Doris; Weick, Jack W; Vozheiko, Tracy D; Harms, Paul W; Nash, Kevin T; Quintana, Elsa; Baciu, Paul; Johnson, Timothy M; Bichakjian, Christopher K; Dlugosz, Andrzej A

2014-08-01

191

Operator recognition by the ROK transcription factor family members, NagC and Mlc.  

PubMed

NagC and Mlc, paralogous members of the ROK family of proteins with almost identical helix-turn-helix DNA binding motifs, specifically regulate genes for transport and utilization of N-acetylglucosamine and glucose. We previously showed that two amino acids in a linker region outside the canonical helix-turn-helix motif are responsible for Mlc site specificity. In this work we identify four amino acids in the linker, which are required for recognition of NagC targets. These amino acids allow Mlc and NagC to distinguish between a C/G and an A/T bp at positions ±11 of the operators. One linker position, glycine in NagC and arginine in Mlc, corresponds to the major specificity determinant for the two proteins. In certain contexts it is possible to switch repression from Mlc-style to NagC-style, by interchanging this glycine and arginine. Secondary determinants are supplied by other linker positions or the helix-turn-helix motif. A wide genomic survey of unique ROK proteins shows that glycine- and arginine-rich sequences are present in the linkers of nearly all ROK family repressors. Conserved short sequence motifs, within the branches of the ROK evolutionary tree, suggest that these sequences could also be involved in operator recognition in other ROK family members. PMID:25452338

Bréchemier-Baey, Dominique; Domínguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Oberto, Jacques; Plumbridge, Jacqueline

2015-01-01

192

Operator recognition by the ROK transcription factor family members, NagC and Mlc  

PubMed Central

NagC and Mlc, paralogous members of the ROK family of proteins with almost identical helix-turn-helix DNA binding motifs, specifically regulate genes for transport and utilization of N-acetylglucosamine and glucose. We previously showed that two amino acids in a linker region outside the canonical helix-turn-helix motif are responsible for Mlc site specificity. In this work we identify four amino acids in the linker, which are required for recognition of NagC targets. These amino acids allow Mlc and NagC to distinguish between a C/G and an A/T bp at positions ±11 of the operators. One linker position, glycine in NagC and arginine in Mlc, corresponds to the major specificity determinant for the two proteins. In certain contexts it is possible to switch repression from Mlc-style to NagC-style, by interchanging this glycine and arginine. Secondary determinants are supplied by other linker positions or the helix-turn-helix motif. A wide genomic survey of unique ROK proteins shows that glycine- and arginine-rich sequences are present in the linkers of nearly all ROK family repressors. Conserved short sequence motifs, within the branches of the ROK evolutionary tree, suggest that these sequences could also be involved in operator recognition in other ROK family members. PMID:25452338

Bréchemier-Baey, Dominique; Domínguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Oberto, Jacques; Plumbridge, Jacqueline

2015-01-01

193

Complete genome sequence of Tunisvirus, a new member of the proposed family Marseilleviridae.  

PubMed

Marseillevirus is the founding member of the proposed family Marseilleviridae, which is the second discovered family of giant viruses that infect amoebae. These viruses have been recovered from environmental water samples and, more recently, from humans. Tunisvirus was isolated from fountain water in Tunis, Tunisia, by culturing on Acanthamoeba spp. and is a new marseillevirus. We describe here its 380,011 base-pair genome. A total of 484 proteins were identified, among which 320 and 358 have an ortholog in Marseillevirus and Lausannevirus (e-value<1e-2), respectively, and 259 and 299 have best reciprocal hits with a Marseillevirus and a Lausannevirus protein, respectively. In addition, a significant hit was found in organisms other than marseilleviruses for 144 Tunisvirus proteins, indicating extensive lateral gene transfers, as has been demonstrated previously for Marseillevirus. Finally, a total of 21 ORFans were identified. Phylogeny reconstructions and analysis of the gene repertoires of marseilleviruses, including the proportion of orthologs and the mean amino acid identity between genes in pairs, suggest that the proposed family Marseilleviridae encompasses three lineages. Lineage A is composed of Marseillevirus, Cannes 8 virus and Senegalvirus; lineage B is represented by Lausannevirus alone; and lineage C has Tunisvirus as its first member. Taken together, these findings suggest that the marseilleviruses display a substantial level of diversity. PMID:24770845

Aherfi, Sarah; Boughalmi, Mondher; Pagnier, Isabelle; Fournous, Ghislain; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier; Colson, Philippe

2014-09-01

194

Members of the Meloidogyne avirulence protein family contain multiple plant ligand-like motifs.  

PubMed

Sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes engage in complex interactions with their host plants by secreting effector proteins. Some effectors of both root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) and cyst nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.) mimic plant ligand proteins. Most prominently, cyst nematodes secrete effectors that mimic plant CLAVATA3/ESR-related (CLE) ligand proteins. However, only cyst nematodes have been shown to secrete such effectors and to utilize CLE ligand mimicry in their interactions with host plants. Here, we document the presence of ligand-like motifs in bona fide root-knot nematode effectors that are most similar to CLE peptides from plants and cyst nematodes. We have identified multiple tandem CLE-like motifs conserved within the previously identified Meloidogyne avirulence protein (MAP) family that are secreted from root-knot nematodes and have been shown to function in planta. By searching all 12 MAP family members from multiple Meloidogyne spp., we identified 43 repetitive CLE-like motifs composing 14 unique variants. At least one CLE-like motif was conserved in each MAP family member. Furthermore, we documented the presence of other conserved sequences that resemble the variable domains described in Heterodera and Globodera CLE effectors. These findings document that root-knot nematodes appear to use CLE ligand mimicry and point toward a common host node targeted by two evolutionarily diverse groups of nematodes. As a consequence, it is likely that CLE signaling pathways are important in other phytonematode pathosystems as well. PMID:25014776

Rutter, William B; Hewezi, Tarek; Maier, Tom R; Mitchum, Melissa G; Davis, Eric L; Hussey, Richard S; Baum, Thomas J

2014-08-01

195

Claudin family members exhibit unique temporal and spatial expression boundaries in the chick embryo  

PubMed Central

The claudin family of proteins are integral components of tight junctions and are responsible for determining the ion specificity and permeability of paracellular transport within epithelial and endothelial cell layers. Several members of the claudin family have been shown to be important during embryonic development and morphogenesis. However, detailed embryonic expression patterns have been described for only a few claudins. Here, we provide a phylogenetic analysis of the chicken claudins and a comprehensive analysis of their mRNA expression profiles. We found that claudin family members exhibit both overlapping and unique expression patterns throughout development. Especially striking were the distinct expression boundaries observed between neural and non-neural ectoderm, as well as within ectodermal derivatives. Claudins were also expressed in endodermally-derived tissues, including the anterior intestinal portal, pharynx, lung and pancreas and in mesodermally derived tissues such as the kidney, gonad and heart. The overlapping zones of claudin expression observed in the chick embryo may confer distinct domains of ion permeability within the early epiblast and in epithelial, mesodermal and endothelial derivatives that may ultimately influence embryonic patterning and morphogenesis during development. PMID:24665397

Collins, Michelle M; Baumholtz, Amanda I; Ryan, Aimee K

2013-01-01

196

Isolation of an additional member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, FGFR-3.  

PubMed Central

The fibroblast growth factors are a family of polypeptide growth factors involved in a variety of activities including mitogenesis, angiogenesis, and wound healing. Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) have previously been identified in chicken, mouse, and human and have been shown to contain an extracellular domain with either two or three immunoglobulin-like domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain. We have isolated a human cDNA for another tyrosine kinase receptor that is highly homologous to the previously described FGFR. Expression of this receptor cDNA in COS cells directs the expression of a 125-kDa glycoprotein. We demonstrate that this cDNA encodes a biologically active receptor by showing that human acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors activate this receptor as measured by 45Ca2+ efflux assays. These data establish the existence of an additional member of the FGFR family that we have named FGFR-3. Images PMID:1847508

Keegan, K; Johnson, D E; Williams, L T; Hayman, M J

1991-01-01

197

Isolation of an additional member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, FGFR-3  

SciTech Connect

The fibroblast growth factors are a family of polypeptide growth factors involved in a variety of activities including mitogenesis, angiogenesis, and wound healing. Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) have previously been identified in chicken, mouse, and human and have been shown to contain an extracellular domain with either two or three immunoglobulin-like domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain. The authors have isolated a human cDNA for another tyrosine kinase receptor that is highly homologous to the previously described FGFR. Expression of this receptor cDNA in COS cells directs the expression of a 125-kDa glycoprotein. They demonstrate that this cDNA encodes a biologically active receptor by showing that human acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors activate this receptor as measured by {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} efflux assays. These data establish the existence of an additional member of the FGFR family that they have named FGFR-3.

Keegan, K.; Hayman, M.J. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (United States)); Johnson, D.E.; Williams, L.T. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States))

1991-02-15

198

The Aging-Associated Enzyme CLK-1 is a Member of the Carboxylate-Bridged Diiron Family of Proteins  

E-print Network

The aging-associated enzyme CLK-1 is proposed to be a member of the carboxylate-bridged diiron family of proteins. To evaluate this hypothesis and characterize the protein, we expressed soluble mouse CLK-1 (MCLK1) in ...

Behan, Rachel K.

199

Verrucosispora gifhornensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the actinobacterial family Micromonosporaceae.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming actinomycete strain, HR1-2T, was isolated from a peat bog near Gifhorn, Lower Saxony, Germany. Comparative analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence indicated that HR1-2T was phylogenetically related to members of the family Micromonosporaceae, branching adjacent to Spirilliplanes yamanashiensis, Couchioplanes caeruleus, Catenuloplanes japonicus and members of the genus Micromonospora. The affiliation to the family was supported by the presence of family-specific 16S rDNA signature nucleotides, DNA G + C content of 70 mol%, peptidoglycan of type A1 gamma' (directly crossed-linked, presence of glycine, alanine, glutamic acid and mesodiaminopimelic acid in the peptide side-chain), menaquinone MK-9(H4) as the major respiratory lipoquinone, polar lipid composition PII (phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositolmannosides) and a glycolyl type of muramic acid. It differed from genera of the family by the lack of arabinose in whole-cell sugars and a unique nucleotide signature stretch between positions 1132 and 1143 (Escherichia coli numbering), 5' CAAUUCGGUUG 3'. Morphologically strain HR1-2T resembles Micromonospora species but can be distinguished from them by the lack of arabinose in whole-cell sugars, the presence of 10-methyl C17:0 fatty acids and a distinct 16S rDNA sequence. Based on the unique combination of morphological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties a new genus, Verrucosispora gen. nov., is proposed. The type species of this genus is Verrucosispora gifhornensis sp. nov., and the type strain of V. gifhornensis is strain HR1-2T (= DSM 44337T). PMID:9828414

Rheims, H; Schumann, P; Rohde, M; Stackebrandt, E

1998-10-01

200

Evolution of Mammalian Chitinase(-Like) Members of Family 18 Glycosyl Hydrolases  

PubMed Central

Family 18 of glycosyl hydrolases encompasses chitinases and so-called chi-lectins lacking enzymatic activity due to amino acid substitutions in their active site. Both types of proteins widely occur in mammals although these organisms lack endogenous chitin. Their physiological function(s) as well as evolutionary relationships are still largely enigmatic. An overview of all family members is presented and their relationships are described. Molecular phylogenetic analyses suggest that both active chitinases (chitotriosidase and AMCase) result from an early gene duplication event. Further duplication events, followed by mutations leading to loss of chitinase activity, allowed evolution of the chi-lectins. The homologous genes encoding chitinase(-like) proteins are clustered in two distinct loci that display a high degree of synteny among mammals. Despite the shared chromosomal location and high homology, individual genes have evolved independently. Orthologs are more closely related than paralogues, and calculated substitution rate ratios indicate that protein-coding sequences underwent purifying selection. Substantial gene specialization has occurred in time, allowing for tissue-specific expression of pH optimized chitinases and chi-lectins. Finally, several family 18 chitinase-like proteins are present only in certain lineages of mammals, exemplifying recent evolutionary events in the chitinase protein family. PMID:17720922

Bussink, Anton P.; Speijer, Dave; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.; Boot, Rolf G.

2007-01-01

201

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training of Family Members Before Hospital Discharge Using Video Self-Instruction: A Feasibility Trial  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a crucial therapy for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), yet rates of bystander CPR are low. This is especially the case for SCA occurring in the home setting, as family members of at-risk patients are often not CPR trained. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the feasibility of a novel hospital-based CPR education program targeted to family members of patients at increased risk for SCA. DESIGN Prospective, multicenter, cohort study. SETTING Inpatient wards at 3 hospitals. SUBJECTS Family members of inpatients admitted with cardiac-related diagnoses. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS Family members were offered CPR training via a proctored video-self instruction (VSI) program. After training, CPR skills and participant perspectives regarding their training experience were assessed. Surveys were conducted one month postdischarge to measure the rate of “secondary training” of other individuals by enrolled family members. At the 3 study sites, 756 subjects were offered CPR instruction; 280 agreed to training and 136 underwent instruction using the VSI program. Of these, 78 of 136 (57%) had no previous CPR training. After training, chest compression performance was generally adequate (mean compression rate 90 ± 26/minute, mean depth 37 ± 12 mm). At 1 month, 57 of 122 (47%) of subjects performed secondary training for friends or family members, with a calculated mean of 2.1 persons trained per kit distributed. CONCLUSIONS The hospital setting offers a unique “point of capture” to provide CPR instruction to an important, undertrained population in contact with at-risk individuals. PMID:21916007

Blewer, Audrey L.; Leary, Marion; Decker, Christopher S.; Andersen, James C.; Fredericks, Amanda C.; Bobrow, Bentley J.; Abella, Benjamin S.

2014-01-01

202

A Preliminary Investigation of the Role of Religion for Family Members of Lesbian, Gay Male, or Bisexual Male and Female Individuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys family members of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals regarding the role of religion in acceptance of their family member and how they reconciled any conflicts between religious beliefs and family member's sexual orientation. The most commonly identified theme was believing that the unconditional love associated with God extended…

Lease, Suzanne H.; Shulman, Julie L.

2003-01-01

203

41 CFR 302-3.202 - If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same official station, may we both claim...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same...allowances for the same non-employee family member? 302-3.202 Section 302-3...Relocation of Two Or More Employed Immediate Family Members § 302-3.202 If my...

2010-07-01

204

41 CFR 302-3.200 - When a member of my immediate family who is also an employee and I are transferring to the same...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false When a member of my immediate family who is also an employee and I are transferring...Relocation of Two Or More Employed Immediate Family Members § 302-3.200 When a member of my immediate family who is also an employee and I are...

2010-07-01

205

Bim: a novel member of the Bcl-2 family that promotes apoptosis.  

PubMed Central

Certain members of the Bcl-2 family inhibit apoptosis while others facilitate this physiological process of cell death. An expression screen for proteins that bind to Bcl-2 yielded a small novel protein, denoted Bim, whose only similarity to any known protein is the short (nine amino acid) BH3 motif shared by most Bcl-2 homologues. Bim provokes apoptosis, and the BH3 region is required for Bcl-2 binding and for most of its cytotoxicity. Like Bcl-2, Bim possesses a hydrophobic C-terminus and localizes to intracytoplasmic membranes. Three Bim isoforms, probably generated by alternative splicing, all induce apoptosis, the shortest being the most potent. Wild-type Bcl-2 associates with Bim in vivo and modulates its death function, whereas Bcl-2 mutants that lack survival function do neither. Significantly, Bcl-xL and Bcl-w, the two closest homologues of Bcl-2, also bind to Bim and inhibit its activity, but more distant viral homologues, adenovirus E1B19K and Epstein-Barr virus BHRF-1, can do neither. Hence, Bim appears to act as a 'death ligand' which can only neutralize certain members of the pro-survival Bcl-2 sub-family. PMID:9430630

O'Connor, L; Strasser, A; O'Reilly, L A; Hausmann, G; Adams, J M; Cory, S; Huang, D C

1998-01-01

206

New member of the trefoil factor family of proteins is an alpha-macroglobulin protease inhibitor.  

PubMed

The amino acid sequence of the monomeric alpha-macroglobulin (alphaM) from the American bullfrog, Rana catesbiana, was determined. The mature protein consisted of 1469 amino acid residues and shared sequence identity with other members of the alphaM family of protein. The central portion of the frog monomeric alphaM contained Cys residues positioned analogously to the Cys residues in human alpha(2)-macroglobulin (alpha(2)M), known to be involved in disulfide bridges. Additionally, the frog monomeric alphaM contained six Cys residues in a approximately 60 residue COOH-terminal extension not present in previously characterized alphaMs. The spacing of the Cys residues and the overall sequence identity of this COOH-terminal extension were consistent with a trefoil motif. This is the first time a member of the trefoil factor family has been identified in the circulatory system. The "bait region" was located between Arg(675)-Lys(685) and contained mainly basic amino acid residues. The COOH-terminal receptor-binding domain was not exposed prior to proteolysis of this highly susceptible region. The proximity of the receptor-binding and trefoil domains implied that the trefoil domain is similarly concealed before bait region cleavage. PMID:12147353

Thøgersen, Ida B; Hammes, Stephen R; Rubenstein, David S; Pizzo, Salvatore V; Valnickova, Zuzana; Enghild, Jan J

2002-07-29

207

Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B8 is secreted via non-classical pathway.  

PubMed

Mouse aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B8 (AKR1B8) has the highest similarity to human aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10), a secretory protein through lysosomes-mediated non-classical secretory pathway. To identify whether AKR1B8 is secreted through the same pathway, we carried out this study. Self-developed sandwich ELISA and western blot were used to detect AKR1B8 in cells and culture medium of CT-26 murine colon carcinoma cells. AKR1B8 releases in an independent manner to Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of ER-to-Golgi classical secretion pathway. Several factors, which are involved in the non-classical secretion pathway, such as temperature, ATP and calcium ion, regulated AKR1B8 secretion from mouse colorectal cancer cells CT-26. Lysosomotropic NH4Cl increased AKR1B8 secretion, and AKR1B8 was located in isolated lysosomes. Therefore, AKR1B8 is a new secretory protein through the lysosomes-mediated non-classical pathway. PMID:25120755

Tang, Zhenwang; Xia, Chenglai; Huang, Renbin; Li, Xiaoning; Wang, Wan-Chun; Guo, Wangyuan; Duan, Lili; Luo, Weihao; Cao, Deliang; Luo, Di-Xian

2014-01-01

208

Bax and Bid, two proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members, inhibit homologous recombination, independently of apoptosis regulation.  

PubMed

In order to analyse the relationships between regulation of apoptosis and homologous recombination (HR), we overexpressed proapoptotic Bax or only-BH3 Bid proteins or antiapoptotic Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL, in hamster CHO cells or in SV40-transformed human fibroblasts. We measured HR induced by gamma-rays, UVC or a specific double-strand cleavage targeted in the recombination substrate by the meganuclease I-SceI. We show here that the induction of both recombinant cells and recombinant colonies was impaired when expressing Bcl-2 family members, in hamster as well as in human cells. Moreover, the pro- as well as antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members inhibited HR, independently of degradation of the RAD51 recombination protein and of their impact on apoptosis. These data reveal a mechanism of HR downregulation by potentially proapoptotic proteins, distinct from and parallel to degradation of recombination proteins, a situation that should also optimize the efficiency of programmed cell death. PMID:16407825

Dumay, A; Laulier, C; Bertrand, P; Saintigny, Y; Lebrun, F; Vayssière, J-L; Lopez, B S

2006-05-25

209

Functional Relationship between Protein Disulfide Isomerase Family Members during the Oxidative Folding of Human Secretory Proteins  

PubMed Central

To examine the relationship between protein disulfide isomerase family members within the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum, PDI, ERp57, ERp72, and P5 were depleted with high efficiency in human hepatoma cells, either singly or in combination. The impact was assessed on the oxidative folding of several well-characterized secretory proteins. We show that PDI plays a predominant role in oxidative folding because its depletion delayed disulfide formation in all secretory proteins tested. However, the phenotype was surprisingly modest suggesting that other family members are able to compensate for PDI depletion, albeit with reduced efficacy. ERp57 also exhibited broad specificity, overlapping with that of PDI, but with preference for glycosylated substrates. Depletion of both PDI and ERp57 revealed that some substrates require both enzymes for optimal folding and, furthermore, led to generalized protein misfolding, impaired export from the ER, and degradation. In contrast, depletion of ERp72 or P5, either alone or in combination with PDI or ERp57 had minimal impact, revealing a narrow substrate specificity for ERp72 and no detectable role for P5 in oxidative protein folding. PMID:20660153

Rutkevich, Lori A.; Cohen-Doyle, Myrna F.; Brockmeier, Ulf

2010-01-01

210

Phylogenetic Analysis of Members of the Phycodnaviridae Virus Family, Using Amplified Fragments of the Major Capsid Protein Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algal viruses are considered ecologically important by affecting host population dynamics and nutrient flow in aquatic food webs. Members of the family Phycodnaviridae are also interesting due to their extraordinary genome size. Few algal viruses in the Phycodnaviridae family have been sequenced, and those that have been have few genes in common and low gene homology. It has hence been

J. B. Larsen; A. Larsen; G. Bratbak; R.-A. Sandaa

2008-01-01

211

Hippocampal protein kinase C family members in spatial memory retrieval in the mouse.  

PubMed

Although a few individual members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family were studied in spatial memory no systematic approach was carried out to concomitantly determine all described PKC family members in spatial memory of the mouse. It was therefore the aim of the current study to link hippocampal PKCs to memory retrieval in the Morris water maze (MWM). CD1 mice were trained (n=9) or untrained (n=9) in the MWM, hippocampi were taken 6h following the test for memory retrieval and PKCs were determined in mouse hippocampi by immunoblotting. The trained animals learned the spatial memory task and kept memory at the probe trial. PKCs alpha and epsilon were comparable between groups while PKCs beta, delta, gamma (two forms, i.e. two bands on Western blotting), zeta (2 forms) were higher in trained mice and theta (2 forms) were lower in trained mice. PKC gamma (1 form) was significantly correlating with the time spent in the target quadrant (r=0.7933; P=0.0188). Changes of hippocampal levels of PKCs beta, delta, gamma, zeta and theta were paralleling memory retrieval of the MWM task but correlations revealed that spatial memory retrieval was only linked to one form of PKC gamma. Results are also in agreement with a recent publication showing that PKM zeta is not required for memory formation. These findings may be relevant for the interpretation of previous work and the design of future work on the protein kinase C family in spatial memory of the mouse. PMID:24075976

Li, Lin; You, Lanhua; Sunyer, Berta; Patil, Sudarshan; Höger, Harald; Pollak, Arnold; Stork, Oliver; Lubec, Gert

2014-01-01

212

A new subgroup of the IS3 family and properties of its representative member ISPpy1.  

PubMed

Recently, we described a novel insertion element, ISPpy1, isolated from a permafrost strain of Psychrobacter maritimus. In this work, we demonstrated that ISPpy1 is a member of a novel subgroup of the IS3 family of insertion sequences (ISs) that was not identified and characterized previously. IS elements of this subgroup termed the ISPpy1 subgroup are broadly distributed among different taxa of Eubacteria, including Geobacteraceae, Chlorobiaceae, Desulfobacteraceae, Methylobacteriaceae, Nitrosomonadaceae and Cyanobacteria. While displaying characteristic features of the IS3-family elements, ISPpy1 subgroup elements exhibit some unusual features. In particular, most of them have longer terminal repeats with unconventional ends and frameshifting box with an atypical organization, and, unlike many other IS3-family elements, do not exhibit any distinct IS specificity. We studied the transposition and mutagenic properties of a representative member of this subgroup, ISPpy1 and showed that in contrast to the original P. maritimus host, in a heterologous host, Escherichia coli K-12, it is able to translocate with extremely high efficiency into the chromosome, either by itself or as a part of a composite transposon containing two ISPpy1 copies. The majority of transposants carry multiple chromosomal copies (up to 12) of ISPpy1. It was discovered that ISPpy1 is characterized by a marked mutagenic activity in E. coli: its chromosomal insertions generate various types of mutations, including auxotrophic, pleiotropic and rifampicin-resistance mutations. The distribution of IS elements of the novel subgroup among different bacteria, their role in the formation of composite transposons and the horizontal transfer of genes are examined and discussed. PMID:23832000

Petrova, Mayya; Shcherbatova, Natalya; Gorlenko, Zhosephine; Mindlin, Sofia

2013-09-01

213

Characterization of three members of the ACC synthase gene family in Solanum tuberosum L.  

PubMed

Two genomic clones corresponding to three members of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase gene family in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) have been isolated and sequenced. Two highly homologous genes, ST-ACS1A and ST-ACS1B, transcribed in opposite directions were found in an 8.9 kb region. Their coding sequences are interrupted by two introns at identical positions. Their closest relative in tomato is the LE-ACS3 gene. The third gene in potato, ST-ACS2, was found in a 4 kb region and shows a gene structure similar to that of the tomato LE-ACS4 gene and to the mung bean VR-ACS4 and VR-ACS5 genes. Based on its lack of significant homology to the tomato gene family and its closeness to the VR-ACS4 and VR-ACS5 genes, we propose that LE-ACS7 represents an additional isoform in the tomato genome. Moreover, in a phylogenetic comparison of known ACC synthases, the ST-ACS2 isoform was grouped in a separate lineage together with the mung bean VR-ACS4 and VR-ACS5, and the moth orchid DS-ACS1A and DS-ACS1B gene products. Expression of the three potato genes was studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on total RNA. The twin genes are positively regulated by indole-3-acetic acid in hypocotyls and expression is modulated by wounding in the leaves. The third gene is responsive to ethylene and wounding mainly in tubers. The roles of these three genes and of other members of the ACC synthase gene family in vegetative processes of potato such as tuberization, dormancy, and sprouting have yet to be determined. PMID:7891663

Destéfano-Beltrán, L J; van Caeneghem, W; Gielen, J; Richard, L; van Montagu, M; van der Straeten, D

1995-02-20

214

ERK8, a new member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family.  

PubMed

The ERKs are a subfamily of the MAPKs that have been implicated in cell growth and differentiation. By using the rat ERK7 cDNA to screen a human multiple tissue cDNA library, we identified a new member of the ERK family, ERK8, that shares 69% amino acid sequence identity with ERK7. Northern analysis demonstrates that ERK8 is present in a number of tissues with maximal expression in the lung and kidney. Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized the ERK8 gene to chromosome 8, band q24.3. Expression of ERK8 in COS cells and bacteria indicates that, in contrast to constitutively active ERK7, ERK8 has minimal basal kinase activity and a unique substrate profile. ERK8, which contains two SH3-binding motifs in its C-terminal region, associates with the c-Src SH3 domain in vitro and co-immunoprecipitates with c-Src in vivo. Co-transfection with either v-Src or a constitutively active c-Src increases ERK8 activation indicating that ERK8 can be activated downstream of c-Src. ERK8 is also activated following serum stimulation, and the extent of this activation is reduced by pretreatment with the specific Src family inhibitor PP2. The ERK8 activation by serum or Src was not affected by the MEK inhibitor U0126 indicating that activation of ERK8 does not require MEK1, MEK2, or MEK5. Although most closely related to ERK7, the relatively low sequence identity, minimal basal activity, and different substrate profile identify ERK8 as a distinct member of the MAPK family that is activated by an Src-dependent signaling pathway. PMID:11875070

Abe, Mark K; Saelzler, Matthew P; Espinosa, Rafael; Kahle, Kristopher T; Hershenson, Marc B; Le Beau, Michelle M; Rosner, Marsha Rich

2002-05-10

215

Retroelements versus APOBEC3 family members: No great escape from the magnificent seven  

PubMed Central

Retroelements comprise a large and successful family of transposable genetic elements that, through intensive infiltration, have shaped the genomes of humans and other mammals over millions of years. In fact, retrotransposons now account for approximately 45% of the human genome. Because of their genomic mobility called retrotransposition, some retroelements can cause genetic diseases; such retrotransposition events occur not only in germ cells but also in somatic cells, posing a threat to genomic stability throughout all cellular populations. In response, mammals have developed intrinsic immunity mechanisms that provide resistance against the deleterious effects of retrotransposition. Among these, seven members of the APOBEC3 (A3) family of cytidine deaminases serve as highly active, intrinsic, antiretroviral host factors. Certain A3 proteins effectively counteract infections of retroviruses such as HIV-1, as well as those of other virus families, while also blocking the transposition of retroelements. Based on their preferential expression in the germ cells, in which retrotransposons may be active, it is likely that A3 proteins were acquired through mammalian evolution primarily to inhibit retrotransposition and thereby maintain genomic stability in these cells. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of the interplay between the retroelements currently active in the human genome and the anti-retroelement A3 proteins. PMID:22912627

Arias, Juan F.; Koyama, Takayoshi; Kinomoto, Masanobu; Tokunaga, Kenzo

2012-01-01

216

Impacts of Parasites in Early Life: Contrasting Effects on Juvenile Growth for Different Family Members  

PubMed Central

Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We experimentally treated European Shag (Phalacrocorax aristoteli) nestlings with the broad-spectrum anti-parasite drug ivermectin and compared their growth rates with nestlings from control broods. Average growth rates measured over the period of linear growth (10 days to 30 days of age) and survival did not differ for nestlings from treated and control broods. However, when considering individuals within broods, parasite treatment reversed the patterns of growth for individual family members: last-hatched nestlings grew significantly slower than their siblings in control nests but grew faster in treated nests. This was at the expense of their earlier-hatched brood-mates, who showed an overall growth rate reduction relative to last-hatched nestlings in treated nests. These results highlight the importance of exploring individual variation in the costs of infection and suggest that parasites could be a key factor modulating within-family dynamics, sibling competition and developmental trajectories from an early age. PMID:22384190

Reed, Thomas E.; Daunt, Francis; Kiploks, Adam J.; Burthe, Sarah J.; Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M. V.; Takahashi, Emi A.; Newell, Mark; Wanless, Sarah; Cunningham, Emma J. A.

2012-01-01

217

Biochemical properties of human dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 7.  

PubMed

Dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 7 (DHRS7, retSDR4, SDR34C1) is a previously uncharacterized member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. While human SDR members are known to play an important role in various (patho)biochemical pathways including intermediary metabolism and biotransformation of xenobiotics, only 20% of them are considered to be well characterized. Based on phylogenetic tree and SDR sequence clusters analysis DHRS7 is a close relative to well-known SDR member 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11?-HSD1) that participates in metabolism of endogenous and xenobiotic substances with carbonyl group. The aim of present study is to determine the basic biochemical properties of DHRS7 and its possible involvement in metabolism of substrates with carbonyl group. For the first time the computational predictions of this membrane protein and membrane topology were experimentally confirmed. DHRS7 has been demonstrated to be an integral protein facing the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum with lack of posttranscriptional glycosylation modification. Subsequently, NADP(H) cofactor preference and enzymatic reducing activity of DHRS7 was determined towards endogenous substrates with a steroid structure (cortisone, 4-androstene-3,17-dion) and also toward relevant exogenous substances bearing a carbonyl group harmful to human health (1,2-naphtoquinone, 9,10-phenantrenequinone). In addition to 11?-HSD1, DHRS7 is another enzyme from SDR superfamily that have been proved, at least in vitro, to contribute to the metabolism of xenobiotics with carbonyl group. PMID:24246760

Stambergova, Hana; Skarydova, Lucie; Dunford, James E; Wsol, Vladimir

2014-01-25

218

Keepers of the secret: desires to conceal a family member's HIV-positive status in Namibia, Africa.  

PubMed

When people learn that they have tested positive for HIV, they may share their news with a family member; and this family listener may want them to keep their diagnosis a secret. This study extends privacy management research (e.g., Petronio, 2002) by investigating variables related to family members' desires to keep HIV-status secrets. Two studies, 2 years apart, included adult-respondents (N = 1,358) in northern Namibia, where HIV is prevalent. Two factors predicted potential co-owners' desires to keep a family member's HIV-positive status secret: (a) the sense of an environment inappropriate for disclosure, and (b) a lack of efficacy to oppose it. These findings suggest that many factors translated from disclosers to co-owners and from (primarily) Western studies of disclosure to southern Africa. From this investigation, one might consider the contexts that redistribute power so that confidants may limit discloser's rights to share his or her own information. PMID:19657828

Smith, Rachel A; Niedermyer, Angela J

2009-07-01

219

In silico identification and characterization of the MAPK family members of unicellular model eukaryote Tetrahymena thermophila.  

PubMed

The biological function and evolutionary diversity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family have mostly been studied in fungi, animals and plants, with very limited information from lower eukaryotes. This study aimed to describe the MAPKs of unicellular Tetrahymena thermophila. Eight members of the T. thermophila MAPK (TtMPK) gene family, in addition to previously reported TtMPK1, TtMPK2 and TtMPK3, were identified bioinformatically using a T. thermophila genome database. Phylogenetic analysis assigned the TtMPKs into two major groups, ERK1/2-like (TtMPK1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9) as stress-responsive MAPKs for biotic and abiotic stresses, and ERK7/8-like (TtMPK4, 10, and 11) as cell-cycle-associated protein kinases for biotic factors. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the TtMPKs showed high mRNA expression at 30°C; however, only TtMPK5 and TtMPK6 showed high expression at 37°C. Osmotic shock by 100mM NaCl only increased the expression of TtMPK2, whereas 20mM NaCl reduced the expression of all MPKs to almost zero. The results suggested that T. thermophila MAPKs are among the closest representatives of the ancestors of the eukaryotic MAPK family. Although no functional characterization of MPKs was performed, this study is the first report of the genome-wide MAPK family in T. thermophila. PMID:25286252

Y?ld?z, Mehmet Taha; Arslanyolu, Muhittin

2014-10-01

220

Youth’s narratives about family members smoking: parenting the parent- it’s not fair!  

PubMed Central

Background Successful cancer prevention policies and programming for youth must be based on a solid understanding of youth’s conceptualization of cancer and cancer prevention. Accordingly, a qualitative study examining youth’s perspectives of cancer and its prevention was undertaken. Not surprisingly, smoking (i.e., tobacco cigarette smoking) was one of the dominant lines of discourse in the youth’s narratives. This paper reports findings of how youth conceptualize smoking with attention to their perspectives on parental and family-related smoking issues and experiences. Methods Seventy-five Canadian youth ranging in age from 11–19 years participated in the study. Six of the 75 youth had a history of smoking and 29 had parents with a history of smoking. Youth were involved in traditional ethnographic methods of interviewing and photovoice. Data analysis involved multiple levels of analysis congruent with ethnography. Results Youth’s perspectives of parents and other family members’ cigarette smoking around them was salient as represented by the theme: It’s not fair. Youth struggled to make sense of why parents would smoke around their children and perceived their smoking as an unjust act. The theme was supported by four subthemes: 1) parenting the parent about the dangers of smoking; 2) the good/bad parent; 3) distancing family relationships; and 4) the prisoner. Instead of being talked to about smoking it was more common for youth to share stories of talking to their parents about the dangers of smoking. Parents who did not smoke were seen by youth as the good parent, as opposed to the bad parent who smoked. Smoking was an agent that altered relationships with parents and other family members. Youth who lived in homes where they were exposed to cigarette smoke felt like a trapped prisoner. Conclusions Further research is needed to investigate youth’s perceptions about parental cigarette smoking as well as possible linkages between youth exposed to second hand smoke in their home environment and emotional and lifestyle-related health difficulties. Results emphasize the relational impact of smoking when developing anti-tobacco and cancer prevention campaigns. Recognizing the potential toll that second-hand smoke can have on youth’s emotional well-being, health care professionals are encouraged to give youth positive messages in coping with their parents’ smoking behaviour. PMID:23140551

2012-01-01

221

Disclosure of Children's Positive Serostatus to Family and Nonfamily Members: Informal Caregivers in Togo, West Africa  

PubMed Central

This study examined the structural constraints to disclosure of children's positive serostatus among informal caregivers to family and nonfamily members in Togo. It drew on two data sources, one qualitative and the other quantitative. Qualitative data showed that caregivers cautiously disclosed child's positive serostatus for fear of being stigmatized and discriminated against as well as to protect the children from being stigmatized. Binary regression analyses revealed that different factors influenced reasons for disclosure of a child's serostatus. For instance, while caregivers' serostatus and number of children significantly influenced disclosure for financial support, disclosure of a child's serostatus for spiritual support was strongly affected by education and religion. These results shed light on factors and reasons for disclosure among caregivers. This knowledge is important because different types of programs and advice should be given to caregivers with specific reason(s) for disclosure instead of creating a “one-size-fits all” program for all caregivers. PMID:21776378

Moore, Ami R.; Williamson, David

2011-01-01

222

X(3915) and X(4350) as New Members in the P-Wave Charmonium Family  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of the mass spectrum and the calculation of the strong decay of P-wave charmonium states strongly purport to explain the newly observed X(3915) and X(4350) as new members in the P-wave charmonium family, i.e., chi{sub c0}{sup '} for X(3915) and chi{sub c2}{sup ''} for X(4350). Under the P-wave charmonium assignment to X(3915) and X(4350), the J{sup PC} quantum numbers of X(3915) and X(4350) must be 0{sup ++} and 2{sup ++} respectively, which provide important criteria to test the P-wave charmonium explanation for X(3915) and X(4350) proposed by this Letter. The decay behavior of the remaining two P-wave charmonium states with the second radial excitation is predicted, and an experimental search for them is suggested.

Liu Xiang; Sun Zhifeng [School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Lanzhou University and Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Luo Zhigang [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2010-03-26

223

UNC study finds cancer gene family member functions key to cell adhesion and migration  

Cancer.gov

While cancer researchers are learning more of WTX and how its loss contributes to cancer formation, virtually nothing is known of FAM123C or FAM123A, the latter of which is a highly abundant protein within neurons, cells that receive and send messages from the body to the brain and back to the body. A UNC-led team of scientists used sophisticated technologies to identify and describe the protein interactions that distinguish each member of the WTX family. They found that unlike WTX and FAM123C, FAM123A interacts with a specific set of proteins that regulates cell adhesion and migration, processes essential to normal cell functioning and which, when mutated, contribute to human diseases such as cancer or Alzheimer’s.

224

RXR-2, a member of the retinoid x receptor family in Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

A cDNA encoding a second full-length member of the Schistosoma mansoni RXR family (SmRXR-2) was identified. The nucleotide sequence of SmRXR-2 translates into a protein of 784 amino acids with a pI of 7.63 and an approximate mass of 78kDa making it the largest reported RXR to date. Phylogenetic tree analysis provides evidence that SmRXR-2 is the most ancient full-length RXR identified. SmRXR-2 exhibits unique sequence features compared with other RXRs. RT-PCR results demonstrate that the SmRXR-2 gene is constitutively expressed and thus must play multiple roles throughout schistosome development in the vertebrate host. PMID:10375618

Freebern, W J; Niles, E G; LoVerde, P T

1999-06-11

225

Leeuwenhoekiella palythoae sp. nov., a new member of the family Flavobacteriaceae.  

PubMed

The taxonomic status of a novel, heterotrophic, strictly aerobic, gliding and yellow-orange-pigmented bacterium (strain KMM 6264(T)), associated with the coral Palythoa, was determined. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain KMM 6264(T) clustered with the recognized species of the genus Leeuwenhoekiella of the family Flavobacteriaceae with 96.4-98.2 % sequence similarity. DNA-DNA reassociation levels between the isolate and the type strains of Leeuwenhoekiella species were 15-22 %. The DNA G+C content was 41.2 mol%. The phylogenetic evidence and the results of genomic and phenotypic analyses showed that the isolate should be classified as a member of a novel species of the genus Leeuwenhoekiella, for which the name Leeuwenhoekiella palythoae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KMM 6264(T) (=KCTC 22020(T)=LMG 24856(T)). PMID:19643875

Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Vancanneyt, Marc; Kim, Seung Bum; Zhukova, Natalia V; Han, Ji Hye; Mikhailov, Valery V

2009-12-01

226

STS-95 crew members greet families at Launch Pad 39B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-95 crew members greet their families from Launch Pad 39B. From left, they are Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., and Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, with the European Space Agency (ESA). The crew were making final preparations for launch, targeted for liftoff at 2 p.m. on Oct. 29. The mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, returning to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

1998-01-01

227

Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B)  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Impaired trafficking of kAE1 causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). {yields} The interaction between kAE1 and kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is reported. {yields} The co-localization between kAE and KIF3B was detected in human kidney tissues. {yields} A marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane was observed when KIF3B was knockdown. {yields} KFI3B plays an important role in trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of {alpha}-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange and the failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells.

Duangtum, Natapol [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand) [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)] [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)] [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Limjindaporn, Thawornchai, E-mail: limjindaporn@yahoo.com [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)] [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai, E-mail: grpye@mahidol.ac.th [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)] [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

2011-09-16

228

What constitutes quality of family experience at the end of life? Perspectives from family members of patients who died in the hospital.  

PubMed

Objective: Most palliative care efforts focus on assessing and improving the quality of life and quality of care for patients. Palliative care views the family as the unit of care; therefore, excellent comprehensive palliative care should also address the needs of the family and the caregiver(s). While the recent literature has offered detailed descriptions of caregiving needs in the home setting, it is crucial to describe the needs of family members who provide care for patients with advanced illness in an inpatient setting, where family members serve as the key intermediaries and decision makers. Therefore, we sought to define the relevant aspects of quality of experience for families of hospitalized patients. Method: We convened a series of focus groups to identify the domains important for the quality of experience of dying patients' family members. Participants included bereaved family members of patients who had died at a Veterans Administration (VA) or private academic medical center. We conducted four in-depth follow-up interviews to probe for additional details and validate our interpretation of the focus group findings. Results: Participants (n = 14) ranged in age from 46 to 83, with a mean of 62. All were female; 64% were Caucasian, 21% African American, and 14% did not report their ethnicity. Content analysis yielded 64 attributes of quality of family experience constituting eight domains: completion, symptom impact, decision making, preparation, relationship with healthcare providers, affirmation of the whole person, post-death care, and supportive services. Significance of results: Our data have implications for clinical guidance in assisting family members in the inpatient palliative setting, which often includes patient incapacity for communication and decision making. They suggest the importance of developing corresponding methods to assist families with the tasks involved with life completion, being prepared for a crisis and imminent death, and post-death care. Provider communications and relationships are central to the processes of meeting the clinical needs of family members. Our findings should inform the development of measures to assess family experience. PMID:25003541

Steinhauser, Karen E; Voils, Corrine I; Bosworth, Hayden; Tulsky, James A

2014-07-01

229

Interprofessional collaboration and family member involvement in intensive care units: emerging themes from a multi-sited ethnography.  

PubMed

Abstract This article presents emerging findings from the first year of a two-year study, which employed ethnographic methods to explore the culture of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) and family member involvement in eight North American intensive care units (ICUs). The study utilized a comparative ethnographic approach - gathering observation, interview and documentary data relating to the behaviors and attitudes of healthcare providers and family members across several sites. In total, 504 hours of ICU-based observational data were gathered over a 12-month period in four ICUs based in two US cities. In addition, 56 semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a range of ICU staff (e.g. nurses, doctors and pharmacists) and family members. Documentary data (e.g. clinical guidelines and unit policies) were also collected to help develop an insight into how the different sites engaged organizationally with IPC and family member involvement. Directed content analysis enabled the identification and categorization of major themes within the data. An interprofessional conceptual framework was utilized to help frame the coding for the analysis. The preliminary findings presented in this paper illuminate a number of issues related to the nature of IPC and family member involvement within an ICU context. These findings are discussed in relation to the wider interprofessional and health services literature. PMID:25238573

Reeves, Scott; McMillan, Sarah E; Kachan, Natasha; Paradis, Elise; Leslie, Myles; Kitto, Simon

2014-09-19

230

Crying in solitude or with someone for support and consolation--experiences from family members in palliative home care.  

PubMed

Crying has not been studied from the perspective of family members of patients in palliative care. The aim of this study was to explore the significance of family members crying in a palliative care context with special reference to factors that influence crying. Interviews were carried out with 14 family members of patients admitted to palliative care. A hermeneutic approach according to Gadamer was used. Three main categories emerged. (1) Before the start of crying, some prerequisites for crying had to be fulfilled, such as an allowing attitude and courage, time, feeling secure, honesty, and trusting relationships. These prerequisites did not cause crying themselves; rather crying emerged when triggering factors occurred. (2) Triggers for crying were circumstances that created uncertainty and turbulence (bad news), exhaustion due to lack of own time, and sympathy from others. (3) Family members tried to do the best possible by adopting or hiding their crying, to ease the patient's burden and to create a positive counterbalance to suffering and grief. As an interpretation of the whole, crying could be expressed as being shared with someone for support and consolation or escape to solitude for integrity and respite. As a conclusion, crying may be an efficient strategy for family members in palliative care to express their suffering and to gain new energy to continue. PMID:18772658

Rydé, Kerstin; Strang, Peter; Friedrichsen, Maria

2008-01-01

231

BCL2DB: database of BCL-2 family members and BH3-only proteins  

PubMed Central

BCL2DB (http://bcl2db.ibcp.fr) is a database designed to integrate data on BCL-2 family members and BH3-only proteins. These proteins control the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and probably many other cellular processes as well. This large protein group is formed by a family of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic homologs that have phylogenetic relationships with BCL-2, and by a collection of evolutionarily and structurally unrelated proteins characterized by the presence of a region of local sequence similarity with BCL-2, termed the BH3 motif. BCL2DB is monthly built, thanks to an automated procedure relying on a set of homemade profile HMMs computed from seed reference sequences representative of the various BCL-2 homologs and BH3-only proteins. The BCL2DB entries integrate data from the Ensembl, Ensembl Genomes, European Nucleotide Archive and Protein Data Bank databases and are enriched with specific information like protein classification into orthology groups and distribution of BH motifs along the sequences. The Web interface allows for easy browsing of the site and fast access to data, as well as sequence analysis with generic and specific tools. BCL2DB provides a helpful and powerful tool to both ‘BCL-2-ologists’ and researchers working in the various fields of physiopathology. Database URL: http://bcl2db.ibcp.fr PMID:24608034

Rech de Laval, Valentine; Deléage, Gilbert; Aouacheria, Abdel; Combet, Christophe

2014-01-01

232

Coexpression of the myc gene family members in human neuroblastoma cell lines.  

PubMed

Members of the myc oncogene family such as c, N-, and L-myc are expressed in many malignant tumors. Expression of c-, N-, and L-myc oncogenes in 7 human neuroblastoma cell lines (GOTO, IMR-32, TGW, SCCH-26, TNB 9, NBL-S, and SK-N-SH), a human small cell lung carcinoma SBC-5 cell line, and a human monocytic leukemia THP-1-S cell line at mRNA and protein levels was studied to know the specificity of a newly developed antibody against homologous region at C-terminus of N-Myc, designated as anti pan-Myc antibody. By RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis, coexpression of three myc genes was detected in all neuroblastoma cell lines tested. c-and L-myc expression were observed that anti pan-Myc antibody recognizes c-Myc and N-Myc proteins but not L-Myc. These results indicate that neuroblastoma cells may acquire an aberrant transcriptional control system in myc family gene expression. PMID:8535284

Hemmi, H; Yamada, K; Yoon, U H; Kato, M; Taniguchi, F; Tsuchida, Y; Shimatake, H

1995-08-01

233

Caenispirillum salinarum sp. nov., a member of the family Rhodospirillaceae isolated from a solar saltern.  

PubMed

A novel Gram-negative, vibrio-shaped, motile bacterium, designated strain AK4(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from a solar saltern at Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India. Strain AK4(T) was positive for oxidase, urease and DNase activities but negative for gelatinase, catalase, ornithine decarboxylase, lysine decarboxylase, nitrate reduction, aesculin, indole and lipase activities. The fatty acids were dominated by unsaturated components, with a high abundance of summed feature 8 (C(18:1)?7c and/or C(18:1)?6c) and C(17:1)?6c. Strain AK4(T) contained Q-10 as the major respiratory quinone and phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine as major polar lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain AK4(T) was 71.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain AK4(T) was most closely related to the type strain of Caenispirillum bisanense of the family Rhodospirillaceae (phylum 'Proteobacteria') (96.6% sequence similarity). It shared <93.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with other members of the family. Based on phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic inference, strain AK4(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Caenispirillum, for which the name Caenispirillum salinarum sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is AK4(T) (=MTCC 10963(T)=JCM 17360(T)). PMID:21908680

Ritika, C; Suresh, K; Kumar, P Anil

2012-07-01

234

Members of the thrombospondin gene family bind stromal interaction molecule 1 and regulate calcium channel activity.  

PubMed

The thrombospondins (TSPs) are a family of matricellular proteins that regulate cellular phenotype through interactions with a myriad of other proteins and proteoglycans. We have identified a novel interaction of the members of the TSP gene family with stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1). This association is robust since it is preserved in Triton X-100, can be detected with multiple anti-TSP-1 and anti-STIM1 antibodies, and is detected in a wide range of cell types. We have also found that STIM1 co-immunoprecipitates with TSP-4 and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), and that a recombinant version of the N-terminal domain of STIM1 binds to the signature domain of TSP-1 and COMP. The association of the TSPs with STIM1 is observed in both the presence and absence of calcium indicating that the calcium-dependent conformation of the signature domain of TSPs is not required for binding. Thus, this interaction could occur in the ER under conditions of normal or low calcium concentration. Furthermore, we observed that the expression of COMP in HEK 293 cells decreases STIM1-mediated calcium release activated calcium (CRAC) channel currents and increases arachidonic acid calcium (ARC) channel currents. These data indicate that the TSPs regulate STIM1 function and participate in the reciprocal regulation of two channels that mediate calcium entry into the cell. PMID:24845346

Duquette, Mark; Nadler, Monica; Okuhara, Dayne; Thompson, Jill; Shuttleworth, Trevor; Lawler, Jack

2014-07-01

235

Phenotypic Variation Among Seven Members of One Family with Deficiency of Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase  

PubMed Central

We describe a family of seven boys affected by Lesch-Nyhan disease with various phenotypes. Further investigations revealed a mutation c.203T>C in the gene encoding HGprt of all members, with substitution of leucine to proline at residue 68 (p.Leu68Pro). Thus patients from this family display a wide variety of symptoms although sharing the same mutation. Mutant HGprt enzyme was prepared by site-directed mutagenesis and the kinetics of the enzyme revealed that the catalytic activity of the mutant was reduced, in association with marked reductions in the affinity towards phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP). Its Km for PRPP was increased 215-fold with hypoxanthine as substrate and 40-fold with guanine as substrate with associated reduced catalytic potential. Molecular modeling confirmed that the most prominent defect was the dramatically reduced affinity towards PRPP. Our studies suggest that the p.Leu68Pro mutation has a strong impact on PRPP binding and on stability of the active conformation. This suggests that factors other than HGprt activity per se may influence the phenotype of Lesch-Nyhan patients. PMID:24075303

Ceballos-Picot, Irène; Augé, Franck; Fu, Rong; Olivier-Bandini, Anne; Cahu, Julie; Chabrol, Brigitte; Aral, Bernard; de Martinville, Bérengère; Lecain, Jean-Paul; Jinnah, H. A.

2013-01-01

236

Phenotypic variation among seven members of one family with deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase.  

PubMed

We describe a family of seven boys affected by Lesch-Nyhan disease with various phenotypes. Further investigations revealed a mutation c.203T>C in the gene encoding HGprt of all members, with substitution of leucine to proline at residue 68 (p.Leu68Pro). Thus patients from this family display a wide variety of symptoms although sharing the same mutation. Mutant HGprt enzyme was prepared by site-directed mutagenesis and the kinetics of the enzyme revealed that the catalytic activity of the mutant was reduced, in association with marked reductions in the affinity towards phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP). Its Km for PRPP was increased 215-fold with hypoxanthine as substrate and 40-fold with guanine as substrate with associated reduced catalytic potential. Molecular modeling confirmed that the most prominent defect was the dramatically reduced affinity towards PRPP. Our studies suggest that the p.Leu68Pro mutation has a strong impact on PRPP binding and on stability of the active conformation. This suggests that factors other than HGprt activity per se may influence the phenotype of Lesch-Nyhan patients. PMID:24075303

Ceballos-Picot, Irène; Augé, Franck; Fu, Rong; Olivier-Bandini, Anne; Cahu, Julie; Chabrol, Brigitte; Aral, Bernard; de Martinville, Bérengère; Lecain, Jean-Paul; Jinnah, H A

2013-11-01

237

Caregivers' attitudes toward their family members' participation in Alzheimer disease research: implications for recruitment and retention.  

PubMed

Current levels of participation in Alzheimer disease (AD) research are inadequate, particularly among nonwhites. This study was conducted to examine caregivers' attitudes toward their family members' participation in AD research. Six focus group interviews were conducted with 38 white and 12 African-American caregivers of participants enrolled in clinical research projects. Both white and African-American families participated in research to help their care recipients and future generations, receive support from the clinical and research staff, and obtain feedback about patient status and research results. Among white caregivers, primary barriers to participation in research included the potential for no direct benefit, problems with the procedures and tests involved, lack of time and resources, and difficulty accepting the diagnosis. Among African-American caregivers, primary barriers included general skepticism about the research process and firmly established attitudes about medical treatment and help seeking that serve as disincentives to research participation. To maximize the perceived benefits of research participation, potential participants should have access to regular personal contact with staff, information about health status changes in the care recipient, and the short-term and long-term results of the research studies in which they are participants. In addition, researchers should be sensitive to the concerns that may serve as barriers to participation, particularly among African Americans. PMID:11522931

Connell, C M; Shaw, B A; Holmes, S B; Foster, N L

2001-01-01

238

Cloning and characterization of SOX5, a new member of the human SOX gene family  

SciTech Connect

The mammalian Y-linked testis determining gene, SRY, encodes a protein with a DNA binding motif known as the HMG box. A large family of genes sharing a high similarity with the SRY HMG box and named Sox (Sry-related HMG box) in mouse and SOX in human has been identified from various organisms. We have cloned SOX5, a new member of the human SOX gene family. SOX5 cDNAs isolated from a human adult testis cDNA library show a high similarity with the mouse Sox5 transcript over a large region identical in all the human cDNAs. However, comparison of the 5{prime} unique sequences of the cDNAs suggests that the SOX5 gene is subject to alternative splicing. Genomic analysis identified a SOX5 pseudogene located on 8q21.1, whereas the SOX5 gene itself, which contains a minimum of five introns, maps to 12p12.1. In contrast to the mouse gene, the human SOX5 gene is expressed in a variety of human tissues, and different size transcripts are observed in adult testis and fetal brain. 19 refs., 5 figs.

Wunderle, V.M.; Critcher, R.; Goodfellow, P.N. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Ashworth, A. [Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom)] [Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom)

1996-09-01

239

Plant, animal, and fungal micronutrient queuosine is salvaged by members of the DUF2419 protein family.  

PubMed

Queuosine (Q) is a modification found at the wobble position of tRNAs with GUN anticodons. Although Q is present in most eukaryotes and bacteria, only bacteria can synthesize Q de novo. Eukaryotes acquire queuine (q), the free base of Q, from diet and/or microflora, making q an important but under-recognized micronutrient for plants, animals, and fungi. Eukaryotic type tRNA-guanine transglycosylases (eTGTs) are composed of a catalytic subunit (QTRT1) and a homologous accessory subunit (QTRTD1) forming a complex that catalyzes q insertion into target tRNAs. Phylogenetic analysis of eTGT subunits revealed a patchy distribution pattern in which gene losses occurred independently in different clades. Searches for genes co-distributing with eTGT family members identified DUF2419 as a potential Q salvage protein family. This prediction was experimentally validated in Schizosaccharomyces pombe by confirming that Q was present by analyzing tRNA(Asp) with anticodon GUC purified from wild-type cells and by showing that Q was absent from strains carrying deletions in the QTRT1 or DUF2419 encoding genes. DUF2419 proteins occur in most Eukarya with a few possible cases of horizontal gene transfer to bacteria. The universality of the DUF2419 function was confirmed by complementing the S. pombe mutant with the Zea mays (maize), human, and Sphaerobacter thermophilus homologues. The enzymatic function of this family is yet to be determined, but structural similarity with DNA glycosidases suggests a ribonucleoside hydrolase activity. PMID:24911101

Zallot, Rémi; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Gaston, Kirk W; Forouhar, Farhad; Limbach, Patrick A; Hunt, John F; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

2014-08-15

240

Identification of a novel member of the CLIC family, CLIC6, mapping to 21q22.12.  

PubMed

Five members of the newly identified chloride intracellular channel (CLIC) gene family of intracellular chloride channels (CLIC1-CLIC5) have previously been described in humans. Here we report the molecular cloning and initial characterisation of two splice forms of a novel member of this family, CLIC6, mapping to human chromosome 21. Two essential features distinguish CLIC6 from other members of the family. The CLIC6 protein is significantly longer and the CLIC6 gene contains a GC rich segment, which encodes a 10 amino acid motif repeated 14 times in the amino-terminus. Surprisingly, the repeat is conserved in the lagomorphs, but not in the rodents lineage. The putative bovine orthologue of CLIC5, p64, also exhibits a repeated motif, which is different from that of CLIC6. Attempts to functionally characterise CLIC6 by voltage clamp failed to show any chloride channel activity. Hence, the exact function of this protein remains unknown. PMID:14597386

Friedli, Marc; Guipponi, Michel; Bertrand, Sonia; Bertrand, Daniel; Neerman-Arbez, Marguerite; Scott, Hamish S; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Reymond, Alexandre

2003-11-27

241

Altered patterns of expression of members of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) family in lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

hnRNP A2\\/B1 has been suggested as a useful early detection marker for lung carcinoma. hnRNP A2\\/B1 is a member of a large family of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP proteins) involved in a variety of functions, including regulation of transcription, mRNA metabolism, and translation. In lung cancer, we have evaluated the expression and cellular localization of several members of the hnRNP

Irene Pino; Rubén P??o; Gemma Toledo; Natalia Zabalegui; Silvestre Vicent; Natalia Rey; Mar??a D. Lozano; Wenceslao Torre; Jesús Garc??a-Foncillas; Luis M. Montuenga

2003-01-01

242

Financial abuse of older people by a family member: a difficult terrain for service providers in Australia.  

PubMed

Financial abuse by a family member is the most common form of abuse experienced by older Australians, and early intervention is required. National online surveys of 228 chief executive officers and 214 aged care service providers found that, while they were well placed to recognize financial abuse, it was often difficult to intervene successfully. Problems providers encountered included difficulties in detecting abuse, the need for consent before they could take action, the risk that the abusive family member would withdraw the client from the service, and a lack of resources to deal with the complexities inherent in situations of financial abuse. PMID:24779540

Adams, Valerie Margaret; Bagshaw, Dale; Wendt, Sarah; Zannettino, Lana

2014-01-01

243

Identification of an essential Caulobacter crescentus gene encoding a member of the Obg family of GTP-binding proteins.  

PubMed Central

We have identified an essential Caulobacter crescentus gene (cgtA) that encodes a member of a recently identified subfamily of GTPases (the Obg family) conserved from Bacteria to Archaea to humans. This evolutionary conservation between distantly related species suggests that this family of GTP-binding proteins possesses a fundamental, yet unknown, cellular role. In this report, we describe the isolation and sequence of the cgtA gene. The predicted CgtA protein displays striking similarity to the Obg family of small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins, both in the conserved guanine nucleotide-binding domains and throughout the N-terminal glycine-rich domain that is found in many members of the Obg family. Disruption of the cgtA gene was lethal, demonstrating that this gene is essential for cell growth. Immunoblot analysis revealed that CgtA protein levels remained constant throughout the C. crescentus cell cycle. PMID:9335292

Maddock, J; Bhatt, A; Koch, M; Skidmore, J

1997-01-01

244

The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral stress management training on mental health, social interaction and family function in adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive member*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated stress management training to improve mental health, social interaction and family function among adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive member. METHODS: There were 34 adolescents (13-18 years old) with at least one family member living with HIV from whom finally 15 attended the study and participated in 8 weekly sessions of stress management training. The tests used in this study were: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (self and parent report), General Health Questionnare-28 (GHQ-28) and Family Assessment Device (FAD), conducted before, after and three months after the intervention. The collected data were analyzed by repeated measure test using SPSS software (Version 18.0). RESULTS: Adolescents with one HIV positive family member showed high level of emotional problem (40%) and conduct problem (33.3%). There was a significant difference between before, after and 3months after intervention based on GHQ-28 mean scores and FAD mean sores (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference between mean scores of peers’ relationship based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms) before and after intervention, but there was no significant difference between mean scores of pro social behavior based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms) in all three stages (before, after and three months after intervention). CONCLUSIONS: Stress management training is effective in improving mental health, family function and social interaction among adolescents living with parents infected with HIV/AIDS. PMID:22091302

Keypour, Maryam; Arman, Soroor; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

2011-01-01

245

Interactions Among Members of the Bcl2 Protein Family Analyzed with a Yeast Two-Hybrid System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions of the Bcl-2 protein with itself and other members of the Bcl-2 family, including Bcl-X-L, Bcl-X-S, Mcl-1, and Bax, were explored with a yeast two-hybrid system. Fusion proteins were created by linking Bcl-2 family proteins to a LexA DNA-binding domain or a B42 trans-activation domain. Protein-protein interactions were examined by expression of these fusion proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae having

Takaaki Sato; Motoi Hanada; Sharon Bodrug; Shinji Irie; Natsuko Iwama; Lawrence H. Boise; Craig B. Thompson; Erica Golemis; Linda Fong; Hong-Gang Wang; John C. Reed

1994-01-01

246

SR Protein Family Members Display Diverse Activities in the Formation of Nascent and Mature mRNPs In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The SR proteins are a family of pre-mRNA splicing factors with additional roles in gene regulation. To investigate individual family members in vivo, we generated a comprehensive panel of stable cell lines expressing GFP-tagged SR proteins under endoge- nous promoter control. Recruitment of SR proteins to nascent FOS RNA was transcription dependent and RNase sensitive, with unique patterns of

Aparna K. Sapra; Minna-Liisa Änkö; Inna Grishina; Mike Lorenz; Marta Pabis; Ina Poser; Jarod Rollins; Eva-Maria Weiland; Karla M. Neugebauer

2009-01-01

247

TRANCE, a TNF Family Member, Activates Akt\\/PKB through a Signaling Complex Involving TRAF6 and c-Src  

Microsoft Academic Search

TRANCE, a TNF family member, and its receptor, TRANCE-R, are critical regulators of dendritic cell and osteoclast function. Here, we demonstrate that TRANCE activates the antiapoptotic serine\\/threonine kinase Akt\\/PKB through a signaling complex involving c-Src and TRAF6. A deficiency in c-Src or addition of Src family kinase inhibitors blocks TRANCE-mediated PKB activation in osteoclasts. c-Src and TRAF6 interact with each

Brian R Wong; Daniel Besser; Nacksung Kim; Joseph R Arron; Masha Vologodskaia; Hidesaburo Hanafusa; Yongwon Choi

1999-01-01

248

In the aftermath of teenage suicide: A qualitative study of the psychosocial consequences for the surviving family members  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of family reactions following teenage suicide are hampered by the psychological difficulties of approaching families and recruiting an unbiased sample of study subjects. By using a small but consecutive series of cases, we examined the qualitative aspects of loosing a teenage family member due to suicide. Such an understanding is important for future organisation of proper programs that provide professional support in the grief process. Methods From a large project on teenage unnatural death in northern Sweden 1981–2000 (including 88 suicides), 13 cases from 1995 through 1998 were retrospectively identified and consecutively analysed. Ten families agreed to participate. The open interviews took place 15 to 25 months after the suicide. The information gathered was manually analysed according to a grounded theory model, resulting in allocation of data into one of three domains: post-suicidal reactions, impact on daily living, and families' need for support. Results Teenager suicide is a devastating trauma for the surviving family and the lack of sustainable explanations for the suicide is a predominant issue in the grief process. The prolonged social and psychological isolation of the families in grief should be challenged. At the time of the interview, the families were still struggling with explaining why the suicide occurred, especially since most suicides had occurred without overt premonitory signs. The bereaved family members were still profoundly affected by the loss, but all had returned to an ostensibly normal life. Post-suicide support was often badly timed and insufficient, especially for younger siblings. Conclusion Family doctors can organise a long-term, individually formulated support scheme for the bereaved, including laymen who can play a most significant role in the grief process. There is also a need for better understanding of the families who have lost a teenager whom committed suicide and for the development and testing of treatment schemes for the bereaved family. PMID:18426560

Lindqvist, Per; Johansson, Lars; Karlsson, Urban

2008-01-01

249

Assessment of Premutation in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 Affected Family Members by TP-PCR and Genetic Counseling  

PubMed Central

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by the expansion of an unstable CTG repeat located in the 3?-UTR of (DMPK) the DM protein kinase gene. Patients with DM1 have expansions of greater than 50 repeats and up to many thousands. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the utility of TP-PCR in diagnostics as well as the assessment of premutation carriers in proband families. Twenty-seven DM1 cases were enrolled (from twenty-six families) and the 13 families of these cases came forward for family screening. The patient group constitute 22 males and 5 females and the average age of onset was 32.8 years (range 17 to 52). All clinically diagnosed DM1 cases and their family members DNA samples were analyzed by TP-PCR. All the cases were found to be positive for the CTG repeat expansion. Among those five families, four had at least an asymptomatic carrier. In the remaining one family other than the proband none was found to be neither affected nor asymptomatic. We reconfirmed the utility of PCR based screening for DM1 as being reliable and rapid molecular test and it should be used as an initial screening test for all patients with DM and their family members for initial screening purpose. PMID:24715907

Kumar, Ashok; Agarwal, Sarita; Pradhan, Sunil

2014-01-01

250

Family Matters: Co-enrollment of Family Members Into Care Is Associated With Improved Outcomes for HIV-Infected Women Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background: Although there is widespread interest in understanding how models of care for delivering antiretroviral therapy (ART) may influence patient outcomes, family-focused approaches have received little attention. In particular, there have been few investigations of whether the co-enrollment of HIV-infected family members may improve adult ART outcomes over time. Methods: We examined the association between co-enrollment of HIV-infected family members into care and outcomes of women initiating ART in 12 HIV care and treatment programs across sub-Saharan Africa. Using data from the mother-to-child transmission-(MTCT) Plus Initiative, women starting ART were categorized according to the co-enrollment of an HIV-infected partner and/or HIV-infected child within the same program. Mortality and loss to follow-up were assessed for up to 5 years after women's ART initiation. Results: Of the 2877 women initiating ART included in the analysis, 31% (n = 880) had at least 1 HIV-infected family member enrolled into care at the same program, including 24% (n = 689) who had an HIV-infected male partner, and 10% (n = 295) who had an HIV-infected child co-enrolled. There was no significant difference in the risk of death of women by family co-enrollment status (P = 0.286). However, the risk of loss to follow-up was greatest among women who did not have an HIV-infected family member co-enrolled (19% after 36 months on ART) compared with women who had an HIV-infected family member co-enrolled (3%–8% after 36 months on ART) (P < 0.001). These associations persisted after adjustment for demographic and clinical covariates and were consistent across countries and care programs. Discussion: These data provide novel evidence for the association between adult outcomes on ART and co-enrollment of HIV-infected family members into care at the same program. Interventions that build on women's family contexts warrant further consideration in both research and policies to promote retention in ART services across sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25436824

Abrams, Elaine J.; Zhang, Yuan; Duong, Jimmy; El-Sadr, Wafaa M.; Carter, Rosalind J.

2014-01-01

251

Members of the chloride intracellular ion channel protein family demonstrate glutaredoxin-like enzymatic activity.  

PubMed

The Chloride Intracellular Ion Channel (CLIC) family consists of six evolutionarily conserved proteins in humans. Members of this family are unusual, existing as both monomeric soluble proteins and as integral membrane proteins where they function as chloride selective ion channels, however no function has previously been assigned to their soluble form. Structural studies have shown that in the soluble form, CLIC proteins adopt a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fold, however, they have an active site with a conserved glutaredoxin monothiol motif, similar to the omega class GSTs. We demonstrate that CLIC proteins have glutaredoxin-like glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase enzymatic activity. CLICs 1, 2 and 4 demonstrate typical glutaredoxin-like activity using 2-hydroxyethyl disulfide as a substrate. Mutagenesis experiments identify cysteine 24 as the catalytic cysteine residue in CLIC1, which is consistent with its structure. CLIC1 was shown to reduce sodium selenite and dehydroascorbate in a glutathione-dependent manner. Previous electrophysiological studies have shown that the drugs IAA-94 and A9C specifically block CLIC channel activity. These same compounds inhibit CLIC1 oxidoreductase activity. This work for the first time assigns a functional activity to the soluble form of the CLIC proteins. Our results demonstrate that the soluble form of the CLIC proteins has an enzymatic activity that is distinct from the channel activity of their integral membrane form. This CLIC enzymatic activity may be important for protecting the intracellular environment against oxidation. It is also likely that this enzymatic activity regulates the CLIC ion channel function. PMID:25581026

Al Khamici, Heba; Brown, Louise J; Hossain, Khondker R; Hudson, Amanda L; Sinclair-Burton, Alxcia A; Ng, Jane Phui Mun; Daniel, Elizabeth L; Hare, Joanna E; Cornell, Bruce A; Curmi, Paul M G; Davey, Mary W; Valenzuela, Stella M

2015-01-01

252

Members of the Chloride Intracellular Ion Channel Protein Family Demonstrate Glutaredoxin-Like Enzymatic Activity  

PubMed Central

The Chloride Intracellular Ion Channel (CLIC) family consists of six evolutionarily conserved proteins in humans. Members of this family are unusual, existing as both monomeric soluble proteins and as integral membrane proteins where they function as chloride selective ion channels, however no function has previously been assigned to their soluble form. Structural studies have shown that in the soluble form, CLIC proteins adopt a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fold, however, they have an active site with a conserved glutaredoxin monothiol motif, similar to the omega class GSTs. We demonstrate that CLIC proteins have glutaredoxin-like glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase enzymatic activity. CLICs 1, 2 and 4 demonstrate typical glutaredoxin-like activity using 2-hydroxyethyl disulfide as a substrate. Mutagenesis experiments identify cysteine 24 as the catalytic cysteine residue in CLIC1, which is consistent with its structure. CLIC1 was shown to reduce sodium selenite and dehydroascorbate in a glutathione-dependent manner. Previous electrophysiological studies have shown that the drugs IAA-94 and A9C specifically block CLIC channel activity. These same compounds inhibit CLIC1 oxidoreductase activity. This work for the first time assigns a functional activity to the soluble form of the CLIC proteins. Our results demonstrate that the soluble form of the CLIC proteins has an enzymatic activity that is distinct from the channel activity of their integral membrane form. This CLIC enzymatic activity may be important for protecting the intracellular environment against oxidation. It is also likely that this enzymatic activity regulates the CLIC ion channel function. PMID:25581026

Al Khamici, Heba; Brown, Louise J.; Hossain, Khondker R.; Hudson, Amanda L.; Sinclair-Burton, Alxcia A.; Ng, Jane Phui Mun; Daniel, Elizabeth L.; Hare, Joanna E.; Cornell, Bruce A.; Curmi, Paul M. G.; Davey, Mary W.; Valenzuela, Stella M.

2015-01-01

253

Upolu virus and Aransas Bay virus, Two Presumptive Bunyaviruses, Are Novel Members of the Family Orthomyxoviridae  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Emerging and zoonotic pathogens pose continuing threats to human health and ongoing challenges to diagnostics. As nucleic acid tests are playing increasingly prominent roles in diagnostics, the genetic characterization of molecularly uncharacterized agents is expected to significantly enhance detection and surveillance capabilities. We report the identification of two previously unrecognized members of the family Orthomyxoviridae, which includes the influenza viruses and the tick-transmitted Thogoto and Dhori viruses. We provide morphological, serologic, and genetic evidence that Upolu virus (UPOV) from Australia and Aransas Bay virus (ABV) from North America, both previously considered potential bunyaviruses based on electron microscopy and physicochemical features, are orthomyxoviruses instead. Their genomes show up to 68% nucleotide sequence identity to Thogoto virus (segment 2; ?74% at the amino acid level) and a more distant relationship to Dhori virus, the two prototype viruses of the recognized species of the genus Thogotovirus. Despite sequence similarity, the coding potentials of UPOV and ABV differed from that of Thogoto virus, instead being like that of Dhori virus. Our findings suggest that the tick-transmitted viruses UPOV and ABV represent geographically distinct viruses in the genus Thogotovirus of the family Orthomyxoviridae that do not fit in the two currently recognized species of this genus. IMPORTANCE Upolu virus (UPOV) and Aransas Bay virus (ABV) are shown to be orthomyxoviruses instead of bunyaviruses, as previously thought. Genetic characterization and adequate classification of agents are paramount in this molecular age to devise appropriate surveillance and diagnostics. Although more closely related to Thogoto virus by sequence, UPOV and ABV differ in their coding potentials by lacking a proposed pathogenicity factor. In this respect, they are similar to Dhori virus, which, despite the lack of a pathogenicity factor, can cause disease. These findings enable further studies into the evolution and pathogenicity of orthomyxoviruses. PMID:24574415

Chowdhary, Rashmi; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Popov, Vsevolod; Street, Craig; Tesh, Robert B.; Lipkin, W. Ian

2014-01-01

254

The Millennium Cohort Family Study: a prospective evaluation of the health and well-being of military service members and their families.  

PubMed

The need to understand the impact of war on military families has never been greater than during the past decade, with more than three million military spouses and children affected by deployments to Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom. Understanding the impact of the recent conflicts on families is a national priority, however, most studies have examined spouses and children individually, rather than concurrently as families. The Department of Defense (DoD) has recently initiated the largest study of military families in US military history (the Millennium Cohort Family Study), which includes dyads of military service members and their spouses (n?>?10,000). This study includes US military families across the globe with planned follow-up for 21+ years to evaluate the impact of military experiences on families, including both during and after military service time. This review provides a comprehensive description of this landmark study including details on the research objectives, methodology, survey instrument, ancillary data sets, and analytic plans. The Millennium Cohort Family Study offers a unique opportunity to define the challenges that military families experience, and to advance the understanding of protective and vulnerability factors for designing training and treatment programs that will benefit military families today and into the future. PMID:24912670

Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Fairbank, John A; Marmar, Charlie R; Schlenger, William

2014-09-01

255

Complete sequence and genetic characterization of Raspberry latent virus, a novel member of the family Reoviridae.  

PubMed

A new virus isolated from red raspberry plants and detected in the main production areas in northern Washington State, USA and British Columbia, Canada was fully sequenced and found to be a novel member of the family Reoviridae. The virus was designated as Raspberry latent virus (RpLV) based on the fact that it is symptomless when present in single infections in several Rubus virus indicators and commercial raspberry cultivars. RpLV genome is 26,128 nucleotides (nt) divided into 10 dsRNA segments. The length of the genomic segments (S) was similar to those of other reoviruses ranging from 3948 nt (S1) to 1141 nt (S10). All of the segments, except S8, have the conserved terminal sequences 5'-AGUU----GAAUAC-3'. A point mutation at each terminus of S8 resulted in the sequences 5'-AGUA----GAUUAC-3'. Inverted repeats adjacent to each conserved terminus as well as stem loops and extended pan handles were identified by analyses of secondary structures of the non-coding sequences. All segments, except S3 and S10, contained a single open reading frame (ORF) on the positive sense RNAs. Two out-of-frame overlapping ORFs were identified in segments S3 (ORF S3a and S3b) and S10 (ORF S10a and S10b). Amino acid (aa) alignments of the putative proteins encoded by the main ORF in each segment revealed a high identity to several proteins encoded by reoviruses from different genera including Oryzavirus, Cypovirus, and Dinovernavirus. Alignments of the polymerase, the most conserved protein among reoviruses, revealed a 36% aa identity between RpLV and Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV), the type member of the genus Oryzavirus, indicating that these two viruses are closely related. Phylogenetic analyses showed that RpLV clusters with members of the genera Oryzavirus, Cypovirus, Dinovernavirus and Fijivirus. These genera belong to the subfamily Spinareovirinae which includes reoviruses with spiked core particles ('turreted' reoviruses). In addition, two nucleotide binding motifs, regarded as 'signature' sequences among turreted reoviruses, were also found in RpLV P8, suggesting that RpLV is a novel dicot-infecting reovirus in the subfamily Spinareovirinae. PMID:21144872

Quito-Avila, Diego F; Jelkmann, Wilhelm; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E; Keller, Karen; Martin, Robert R

2011-02-01

256

Working with families on an inpatient psychiatric unit for children: Hospital staff members are family therapists, too  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inpatient psychiatric units for children can be potent agents for family change. The activities of nursing, education, and activity therapy staff are an important addition to a program of formal family therapy in psychiatric hospitals. These modalities must be organized into a family framework so that insights and achievements from one arena may be generalized to another.

Paul A. Mansheim

1989-01-01

257

An Exploratory Study of Family Member Characteristics and Involvement: Effects on Entrepreneurial Behavior in the Family Firm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family fi rms are essential for economic growth and development through new business startups and growth of existing family firms. Entrepreneurial behavior by the CEO is essential for such growth to occur. Entrepreneurial behavior can be influenced by inher- ent characteristics of the CEO, such as age and tenure, as well as by the degree of family inf luence in

Franz W. Kellermanns; Kimberly A. Eddleston; Tim Barnett; Allison Pearson

2009-01-01

258

The tubulin cofactor C family member TBCCD1 orchestrates cytoskeletal filament formation.  

PubMed

TBCCD1 is an enigmatic member of the tubulin-binding cofactor C (TBCC) family of proteins required for mother-daughter centriole linkage in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and nucleus-centrosome-Golgi linkage in mammalian cells. Loss of these linkages has severe morphogenetic consequences, but the mechanism(s) through which TBCCD1 contributes to cell organisation is unknown. In the African sleeping sickness parasite Trypanosoma brucei a microtubule-dominant cytoskeleton dictates cell shape, influencing strongly the positioning and inheritance patterns of key intracellular organelles. Here, we show the trypanosome orthologue of TBCCD1 is found at multiple locations: centrioles, the centriole-associated Golgi 'bi-lobe', and the anterior end of the cell body. Loss of Trypanosoma brucei TBCCD1 results in disorganisation of the structurally complex bi-lobe architecture and loss of centriole linkage to the single unit-copy mitochondrial genome (or kinetoplast) of the parasite. We therefore identify TBCCD1 as an essential protein associated with at least two filament-based structures in the trypanosome cytoskeleton. The last common ancestor of trypanosomes, animals and green algae was arguably the last common ancestor of all eukaryotes. On the basis of our observations, and interpretation of published data, we argue for an unexpected co-option of the TBCC domain for an essential non-tubulin-related function at an early point during evolution of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. PMID:24101722

André, Jane; Harrison, Stephanie; Towers, Katie; Qi, Xin; Vaughan, Sue; McKean, Paul G; Ginger, Michael L

2013-12-01

259

Members of the RCK potassium channel family are differentially expressed in the rat nervous system.  

PubMed

mRNAs encoding four members of the RCK potassium channel family, named RCK1, RCK3, RCK4 and RCK5 have been analyzed by RNA blot hybridization experiments using specific RNA probes. Each probe recognizes a single mRNA species, their sizes ranging from approximately 4600 nucleotides up to approximately 11,000 nucleotides. The expression of RCK mRNAs as well as their developmental appearance in different regions of the central and peripheral rat nervous system has been investigated. The two most abundant RCK potassium channel mRNAs (RCK1 and RCK5) are predominantly expressed in the adult nervous system. RCK3 and RCK4 mRNAs are present throughout all developmental stages studied. The temporal and regional patterns observed are specific for each RCK potassium channel mRNA indicating that specific regulation of expression occurs. Differential mRNA expression might provide one mechanism for the generation of potassium channel diversity in vivo. PMID:2311579

Beckh, S; Pongs, O

1990-03-01

260

Characterization of an M28 metalloprotease family member residing in the yeast vacuole  

PubMed Central

The systematic and complete characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome and proteome has been stalled in some cases by misannotated genes. One such gene is YBR074W, which was initially annotated as two independent open reading frames (ORFs). We now report on Ybr074, a metalloprotease family member that was initially predicted to reside in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that Ybr074 may be an ER quality control protease. Instead, indirect immunofluorescence images indicate that Ybr074 is a vacuolar protein, and by employing protease protection assays, we demonstrate that a conserved M28 metalloprotease domain is oriented within the lumen. Involvement of Ybr074 in ER protein quality control was ruled out by examining the stabilities of several well-characterized substrates in strains lacking Ybr074. Finally, using a proteomic approach, we show that disrupting Ybr074 function affects the levels of select factors implicated in vacuolar trafficking and osmoregulation. Together, our data indicate that Ybr074 is the only multi-spanning vacuolar membrane protease found in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:23679341

Hecht, Karen A.; Wytiaz, Victoria A.; Ast, Tslil; Schuldiner, Maya; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

2013-01-01

261

Platelet-derived S100 family member myeloid-related protein-14 regulates thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Expression of the gene encoding the S100 calcium–modulated protein family member MRP-14 (also known as S100A9) is elevated in platelets from patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (MI) compared with those from patients with stable coronary artery disease; however, a causal role for MRP-14 in acute coronary syndromes has not been established. Here, using multiple models of vascular injury, we found that time to arterial thrombotic occlusion was markedly prolonged in Mrp14–/– mice. We observed that MRP-14 and MRP-8/MRP-14 heterodimers (S100A8/A9) are expressed in and secreted by platelets from WT mice and that thrombus formation was reduced in whole blood from Mrp14–/– mice. Infusion of WT platelets, purified MRP-14, or purified MRP-8/MRP-14 heterodimers into Mrp14–/– mice decreased the time to carotid artery occlusion after injury, indicating that platelet-derived MRP-14 directly regulates thrombosis. In contrast, infusion of purified MRP-14 into mice deficient for both MRP-14 and CD36 failed to reduce carotid occlusion times, indicating that CD36 is required for MRP-14–dependent thrombosis. Our data identify a molecular pathway of thrombosis that involves platelet MRP-14 and CD36 and suggest that targeting MRP-14 has potential for treating atherothrombotic disorders, including MI and stroke. PMID:24691441

Wang, Yunmei; Fang, Chao; Gao, Huiyun; Bilodeau, Matthew L.; Zhang, Zijie; Croce, Kevin; Liu, Shijian; Morooka, Toshifumi; Sakuma, Masashi; Nakajima, Kohsuke; Yoneda, Shuichi; Shi, Can; Zidar, David; Andre, Patrick; Stephens, Gillian; Silverstein, Roy L.; Hogg, Nancy; Schmaier, Alvin H.; Simon, Daniel I.

2014-01-01

262

BTG1, a member of a new family of antiproliferative genes.  

PubMed Central

The BTG1 gene locus has been shown to be involved in a t(8;12)(q24;q22) chromosomal translocation in a case of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We report here the cloning and sequencing of the human BTG1 cDNA and establish the genomic organization of this gene. The full-length cDNA isolated from a lymphoblastoid cell line contains an open reading frame of 171 amino acids. BTG1 expression is maximal in the G0/G1 phases of the cell cycle and is down-regulated when cells progress throughout G1. Furthermore, transfection experiments of NIH3T3 cells indicate that BTG1 negatively regulates cell proliferation. The BTG1 open reading frame is 60% homologous to PC3, an immediate early gene induced by nerve growth factor in rat PC12 cells. Sequence and Northern blot analyses indicate that BTG1 and PC3 are not cognate genes. We then postulate that these two genes are the first members of a new family of antiproliferative genes. Images PMID:1373383

Rouault, J P; Rimokh, R; Tessa, C; Paranhos, G; Ffrench, M; Duret, L; Garoccio, M; Germain, D; Samarut, J; Magaud, J P

1992-01-01

263

New functions of the chloroplast Preprotein and Amino acid Transporter (PRAT) family members in protein import  

PubMed Central

Plant cells contain distinct compartments such as the nucleus, the endomembrane system comprising the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, peroxisomes, vacuoles, as well as mitochondria and chloroplasts. All of these compartments are surrounded by 1 or 2 limiting membranes and need to import proteins from the cytosol. Previous work led to the conclusion that mitochondria and chloroplasts use structurally different protein import machineries in their outer and inner membranes for the uptake of cytosolic precursor proteins. Our most recent data show that there is some unexpected overlap. Three members of the family of preprotein and amino acid transporters, PRAT, were identified in chloroplasts that mediate the uptake of transit sequence-less proteins into the inner plastid envelope membrane. By analogy, mitochondria contain with TIM22 a related PRAT protein that is involved in the import of transit sequence-less proteins into the inner mitochondrial membrane. Both mitochondria and chloroplasts thus make use of similar import mechanisms to deliver some of their proteins to their final place. Because single homologs of HP20- and HP30-like proteins are present in algae such as Chlamydomonas, Ostreococcus, and Volvox, which diverged from land plants approximately 1 billion years ago, it is likely that the discovered PRAT-mediated mechanism of protein translocation evolved concomitantly with the secondary endosymbiotic event that gave rise to green plants. PMID:24476934

Rossig, Claudia; Reinbothe, Christiane; Gray, John; Valdes, Oscar; von Wettstein, Diter; Reinbothe, Steffen

2014-01-01

264

Molecular remodeling of members of the relaxin family during primate evolution.  

PubMed

Employing comparative analysis of the cDNA-coding sequences of the unique preprorelaxin of the Afro-lorisiform Galago crassicaudatus and the Malagasy lemur Varecia variegata and the relaxin-like factor (RLF) of G. crassicaudatus, we demonstrated distinct differences in the dynamics of molecular remodeling of both hormones during primate evolution. The lorisiform and lemuriform preprorelaxin sequences encoded identical hormones, providing the first endocrinological evidence for the monophyletic origin of all Strepsirrhini. Structural analysis revealed the lemuriform members of the relaxin family to be potentially bioactive single-gene products. In contrast to the "two-prong" relaxin receptor-binding motif (RELVR) present within the B-domains of other primate relaxins, strepsirrhine relaxin contained a unique "three-prong" motif (RRLIR) with highest sequence homology to the receptor-binding motif of the evolutionarily much older skate relaxin. In contrast to relaxin, the RLF molecule was highly conserved during primate evolution and contained within its B-domain the putative relaxin receptor-binding motif and a pentameric sequence implicated in binding to specific RLF receptors. Mutually exclusive expression of strepsirrhine preprorelaxin and RLF were observed in the fetal villous trophoblast cells of the strepsirrhine placenta and postpubertal testicular Leydig cells, respectively, reflecting distinct functional roles for both hormones within the reproductive tract of Strepsirrhini. PMID:11230540

Klonisch, T; Froehlich, C; Tetens, F; Fischer, B; Hombach-Klonisch, S

2001-03-01

265

Associations between violent video gaming, empathic concern, and prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends, and family members.  

PubMed

Exposure to media violence, including violent video gaming, can have a cognitive desensitization effect, lowering empathic concern for others in need. Since emerging adulthood offers increased opportunities to volunteer, strengthen relationships, and initiate new relationships, decreases in empathic concern and prosocial behavior may prove inhibitive to optimal development during this time. For these reasons, the current study investigated associations between violent video gaming, empathic responding, and prosocial behavior enacted toward strangers, friends, and family members. Participants consisted of 780 emerging adults (M age = 19.60, SD = 1.86, range = 18–29, 69% female, 69% Caucasian) from four universities in the United States. Results showed small to moderate effects between playing violent video gaming and lowered empathic concern for both males and females. In addition, lowered empathic concern partially mediated the pathways between violent video gaming and prosocial behavior toward all three targets (at the level of a trend for females), but was most strongly associated with lower prosocial behavior toward strangers. Discussion highlights how violent video gaming is associated with lower levels of prosocial behavior through the mechanism of decreased empathic concern, how this association can affect prosocial behavior differently across target, and finally what implications this might have for development during emerging adulthood. PMID:22302216

Fraser, Ashley M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, Larry J; Stockdale, Laura A

2012-05-01

266

Three members of the Arabidopsis glycosyltransferase family 8 are xylan glucuronosyltransferases.  

PubMed

Xylan is a major component of the plant cell wall and the most abundant noncellulosic component in the secondary cell walls that constitute the largest part of plant biomass. Dicot glucuronoxylan consists of a linear backbone of ?(1,4)-linked xylose residues substituted with ?(1,2)-linked glucuronic acid (GlcA). Although several genes have been implicated in xylan synthesis through mutant analyses, the biochemical mechanisms responsible for synthesizing xylan are largely unknown. Here, we show evidence for biochemical activity of GUX1 (for GlcA substitution of xylan 1), a member of Glycosyltransferase Family 8 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that is responsible for adding the glucuronosyl substitutions onto the xylan backbone. GUX1 has characteristics typical of Golgi-localized glycosyltransferases and a K(m) for UDP-GlcA of 165 ?m. GUX1 strongly favors xylohexaose as an acceptor over shorter xylooligosaccharides, and with xylohexaose as an acceptor, GlcA is almost exclusively added to the fifth xylose residue from the nonreducing end. We also show that several related proteins, GUX2 to GUX5 and Plant Glycogenin-like Starch Initiation Protein6, are Golgi localized and that only two of these proteins, GUX2 and GUX4, have activity as xylan ?-glucuronosyltransferases. PMID:22706449

Rennie, Emilie A; Hansen, Sara Fasmer; Baidoo, Edward E K; Hadi, Masood Z; Keasling, Jay D; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

2012-08-01

267

FoxA family members are crucial regulators of the hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation program  

PubMed Central

During endochondral ossification small immature chondrocytes enlarge to form hypertrophic chondrocytes, which express collagen X. In this work, we demonstrate that FoxA factors are induced during chondrogenesis, bind to conserved binding sites in the collagen X enhancer, and can promote the expression of a collagen X-luciferase reporter in both chondrocytes and fibroblasts. In addition, we demonstrate by both gain and loss of function analyses that FoxA factors play a crucial role driving the expression of both endogenous collagen X and other hypertrophic chondrocyte-specific genes. Mice engineered to lack expression of both FoxA2 and FoxA3 in their chondrocytes display defects in chondrocyte hypertrophy, alkaline phosphatase expression, and mineralization in their sternebrae and in addition exhibit postnatal dwarfism that is coupled to significantly decreased expression of both collagen X and MMP13 in their growth plates. Together, our findings indicate that FoxA family members are crucial regulators of the hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation program. PMID:22595668

Ionescu, Andreia; Kozhemyakina, Elena; Nicolae, Claudia; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Olsen, Bjorn R.; Lassar, Andrew B.

2012-01-01

268

Dictyostelium giganteum plasmid Dgp1 is a member of the Ddp2 plasmid family.  

PubMed

Dgp1, a circular 4.4-kb plasmid found in the nuclei of Dictyostelium giganteum strain DG61, is a member of the same plasmid family as plasmids Ddp2 and pDG1. Dgp1 has sequence similarity to a conserved region of the Ddp2 and pDG1 open reading frames. As with Ddp2 and pDG1, a single large RNA is transcribed from Dgp1. This 3.3-kb transcript is present at about 350 copies per vegetative cell. The transcript abundance decreased about 10-fold in early aggregation and continued at this lower level until late culmination when it returned to the level seen in vegetative cells. Dgp1 has a repeat of several hundred base pairs in a location, relative to the transcribed region, similar to the inverted repeats found in Ddp2 and pDG1. Dgp1 cannot be maintained as a plasmid in Dictyostelium discoideum AX4 cells, suggesting that Dgp1 carries species-specific maintenance elements. PMID:1518911

Yin, Y; Welker, D L

1992-07-01

269

Expression of members of the multidrug resistance protein family in human term placenta.  

PubMed

The placenta serves, in part, as a barrier to exclude noxious substances from the fetus. In humans, a single-layered syncytium of polarized trophoblast cells and the fetal capillary endothelium separate the maternal and fetal circulations. P-glycoprotein is present in the syncytiotrophoblast throughout gestation, consistent with a protective role that limits exposure of the fetus to hydrophobic and cationic xenobiotics. We have examined whether members of the multidrug resistance protein (MRP) family are expressed in term placenta. After screening a placenta cDNA library, partial clones of MRP1, MRP2, and MRP3 were identified. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting studies demonstrated that MRP2 was localized to the apical syncytiotrophoblast membrane. MRP1 and MRP3 were predominantly expressed in blood vessel endothelia with some evidence for expression in the apical syncytiotrophoblast. ATP-dependent transport of the anionic substrates dinitrophenyl-glutathione and estradiol-17-beta-glucuronide was also demonstrated in apical syncytiotrophoblast membranes. Given the cellular distribution of these transporters, we hypothesize that MRP isoforms serve to protect fetal blood from entry of organic anions and to promote the excretion of glutathione/glucuronide metabolites in the maternal circulation. PMID:11004020

St-Pierre, M V; Serrano, M A; Macias, R I; Dubs, U; Hoechli, M; Lauper, U; Meier, P J; Marin, J J

2000-10-01

270

Intracellular localization of the BCL-2 family member BOK and functional implications  

PubMed Central

The pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BOK is widely expressed and resembles the multi-BH domain proteins BAX and BAK based on its amino acid sequence. The genomic region encoding BOK was reported to be frequently deleted in human cancer and it has therefore been hypothesized that BOK functions as a tumor suppressor. However, little is known about the molecular functions of BOK. We show that enforced expression of BOK activates the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway in BAX/BAK-proficient cells but fails to kill cells lacking both BAX and BAK or sensitize them to cytotoxic insults. Interestingly, major portions of endogenous BOK are localized to and partially inserted into the membranes of the Golgi apparatus as well as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and associated membranes. The C-terminal transmembrane domain of BOK thereby constitutes a ‘tail-anchor' specific for targeting to the Golgi and ER. Overexpression of full-length BOK causes early fragmentation of ER and Golgi compartments. A role for BOK on the Golgi apparatus and the ER is supported by an abnormal response of Bok-deficient cells to the Golgi/ER stressor brefeldin A. Based on these results, we propose that major functions of BOK are exerted at the Golgi and ER membranes and that BOK induces apoptosis in a manner dependent on BAX and BAK. PMID:23429263

Echeverry, N; Bachmann, D; Ke, F; Strasser, A; Simon, H U; Kaufmann, T

2013-01-01

271

Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) family members in helminth infections.  

PubMed

Helminth parasites are a diverse group of multicellular organisms. Despite their heterogeneity, helminths share many common characteristics, such as the modulation of the immune system of their hosts towards a permissive state that favors their development. They induce strong Th2-like responses with high levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 cytokines, and decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-?. IL-4, IFN-? and other cytokines bind with their specific cytokine receptors to trigger an immediate signaling pathway in which different tyrosine kinases (e.g. Janus kinases) are involved. Furthermore, a seven-member family of transcription factors named Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STAT) that initiate the transcriptional activation of different genes are also involved and regulate downstream the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. However, how helminths avoid and modulate immune responses remains unclear; moreover, information concerning STAT-mediated immune regulation during helminth infections is scarce. Here, we review the research on mice deficient in STAT molecules, highlighting the importance of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in regulating susceptibility and/or resistance in these infections. PMID:22110388

Becerra-Díaz, Mireya; Valderrama-Carvajal, Héctor; Terrazas, Luis I

2011-01-01

272

STS-103 crew members and their families pose for a portrait before DEPARTing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-103 crew pose for a group portrait with their families and loved ones on the runway at Patrick Air Force Base in Cocoa Beach, Fla. They are preparing to board an airplane that will return them to their home base at the Johnson Space Center in Houston following the successful completion of their mission. From left to right, the crew members are Mission Specialists John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, and Steven L. Smith; Pilot Scott J. Kelly; and Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. Discovery landed in darkness the previous evening, Dec. 27, on runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. This was the first time that a Shuttle crew spent the Christmas holiday in space. The STS-103 mission accomplished outfitting the Hubble Space Telescope with six new gyroscopes, six new voltage/temperature improvement kits, a new onboard computer, a new solid state recorder and new data transmitter, a new fine guidance sensor along with new insulation on parts of the orbiting telescope. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery.

1999-01-01

273

Development of a Simple and Rapid Fluorogenic Procedure for Identification of Vibrionaceae Family Members  

PubMed Central

We describe a simple colony overlay procedure for peptidases (COPP) for the rapid fluorogenic detection and quantification of Vibrionaceae from seawater, shellfish, sewage, and clinical samples. The assay detects phosphoglucose isomerase with a lysyl aminopeptidase activity that is produced by Vibrionaceae family members. Overnight cultures are overlaid for 10 min with membranes containing a synthetic substrate, and the membranes are examined for fluorescent foci under UV illumination. Fluorescent foci were produced by all the Vibrionaceae tested, including Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., and Plesiomonas spp. Fluorescence was not produced by non-Vibrionaceae pathogens. Vibrio cholerae strains O1, O139, O22, and O155 were strongly positive. Seawater and oysters were assayed, and 87 of 93 (93.5%) of the positive isolates were identified biochemically as Vibrionaceae, principally Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Photobacterium damselae, and Shewanella putrefaciens. None of 50 nonfluorescent isolates were Vibrionaceae. No Vibrionaceae were detected in soil, and only A. hydrophila was detected in sewage. The COPP technique may be particularly valuable in environmental and food-testing laboratories and for monitoring water quality in the aquaculture industry. PMID:16000757

Richards, Gary P.; Watson, Michael A.; Parveen, Salina

2005-01-01

274

Mice Lacking the SLAM Family Member CD84 Display Unaltered Platelet Function in Hemostasis and Thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Background Platelets are anuclear cell fragments derived from bone marrow megakaryocytes that safeguard vascular integrity by forming thrombi at sites of vascular injury. Although the early events of thrombus formation—platelet adhesion and aggregation—have been intensively studied, less is known about the mechanisms and receptors that stabilize platelet-platelet interactions once a thrombus has formed. One receptor that has been implicated in this process is the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family member CD84, which can undergo homophilic interactions and becomes phosphorylated upon platelet aggregation. Objective The role of CD84 in platelet physiology and thrombus formation was investigated in CD84-deficient mice. Methods and Results We generated CD84-deficient mice and analyzed their platelets in vitro and in vivo. Cd84?/? platelets exhibited normal activation and aggregation responses to classical platelet agonists. Furthermore, CD84 deficiency did not affect integrin-mediated clot retraction and spreading of activated platelets on fibrinogen. Notably, also the formation of stable three-dimensional thrombi on collagen-coated surfaces under flow ex vivo was unaltered in the blood of Cd84?/? mice. In vivo, Cd84?/? mice exhibited unaltered hemostatic function and arterial thrombus formation. Conclusion These results show that CD84 is dispensable for thrombus formation and stabilization, indicating that its deficiency may be functionally compensated by other receptors or that it may be important for platelet functions different from platelet-platelet interactions. PMID:25551754

Hofmann, Sebastian; Braun, Attila; Pozgaj, Rastislav; Morowski, Martina; Vögtle, Timo; Nieswandt, Bernhard

2014-01-01

275

Familial Discoid Medial Meniscus Tear in Three Members of a Family: A Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Background. A discoid meniscus is a thickened variant of the normal C-shaped meniscus prone to injury. Discoid medial meniscal tears have rarely been reported within families and may suggest familial or developmental origins. Methods. We report the cases of two Caucasian brothers with symptomatic discoid medial meniscus tears. A literature review was conducted addressing discoid medial meniscus and cases of familial meniscus tears. Case Presentation. Physically active brothers presented with progressively worsening knee pain. MRI revealed medial meniscus tears in both brothers. The family history of medial meniscus tears in their mother and the discoid medial meniscus injuries found on arthroscopy suggested evidence for familial discoid medial meniscus tears. Conclusions. Discoid medial meniscus tears within a family have not been previously reported. Two cases of families with discoid lateral meniscus tears have been reported. Discoid medial meniscus is rare relative to the discoid lateral meniscus and predisposes children to symptomatic tears. PMID:25548700

Ahmed Ali, Raheel; McKay, Scott

2014-01-01

276

IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL WHITEFLY-TRANSMITTED MEMBER OF THE FAMILY POTYVIRIDAE ISOLATED FROM CUCURBITS IN FLORIDA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A novel whitefly-transmitted member of the family Potyviridae was isolated from a squash plant (Cucurbita pepo) with vein yellowing symptoms in Florida. The virus, for which the name Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is proposed, has flexuous rod-shaped particles of ~840 nm in length. Koch’s pos...

277

Epidemiology of intestinal colonization by members of the family Enterobacteriaceae highly resistant to erythromycin in a hematology-oncology unit.  

PubMed Central

Intestinal colonization by highly erythromycin-resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae was surveyed for 4 years in a hematology-oncology unit. Fifty-four of 555 patients (9.7%) were colonized, each with a different strain. The incidence of intestinal carriage was not correlated with erythromycin consumption in the ward but was strongly associated with individual exposure to erythromycin. PMID:3729363

Andremont, A; Sancho-Garnier, H; Tancrede, C

1986-01-01

278

Differential expression of three members of the multidomain adhesion CCp family in babesia bigemina, babesia bovis and theileria equi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Members of the CCp protein family have been previously described to be expressed on gametocytes of apicomplexan Plasmodium parasites. Knocking out Plasmodium CCp genes blocks the development of the parasite in the mosquito vector, making the CCp proteins potential targets for the development of a tr...

279

Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Patients Display Variable Antibody Profiles against the Nine-Member Polymorphic Membrane Protein Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic analysis of the Chlamydiaceae has revealed a multigene family encoding large, putatively auto- transported polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) with nine members in the sexually transmitted pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. While various pathogenesis-related functions are emerging for the Pmps, observed genotypic and phenotypic variation among several chlamydial Pmps in various Chlamydia species has led us to hypothesize that the pmp gene

Chun Tan; Ru-ching Hsia; Huizhong Shou; Catherine L. Haggerty; Roberta B. Ness; Charlotte A. Gaydos; Deborah Dean; Amy M. Scurlock; David P. Wilson; Patrik M. Bavoil

2009-01-01

280

The process of recovery of people with mental illness: The perspectives of patients, family members and care providers: Part 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is a qualitative design study that examines points of divergence and convergence in the perspectives on recovery of 36 participants or 12 triads. Each triad comprising a patient, a family member\\/friend, a care provider and documents the procedural, analytic of triangulating perspectives as a means of understanding the recovery process which is illustrated by four case studies. Variations

Sylvie Noiseux; Denise Tribble St-Cyr; Ellen Corin; Pierre-Luc St-Hilaire; Raymond Morissette; Claude Leclerc; Danielle Fleury; Luc Vigneault; Francine Gagnier

2010-01-01

281

Feral hogs (Sus scrofa) are members of the same family as the domestic breeds, and in Texas include  

E-print Network

Feral hogs (Sus scrofa) are members of the same family as the domestic breeds, and in Texas include the European wild hogs, feral hogs, and hybrids. Feral hogs prefer the cover of dense brush for pro- tection wallowing in ponds, springs and streams close to protective cover. Feral hogs are omnivorous and will eat

Watson, Craig A.

282

Members of the Hedgehog (Hh) family of signaling proteins control cell fates and proliferation during animal development in  

E-print Network

450 Members of the Hedgehog (Hh) family of signaling proteins control cell fates and proliferation cell nevus syndrome CBP CREB-binding protein Ci Cubitus interruptus Cos2 Costal 2 Fu Fused Hh Hedgehog NP-C Niemann­Pick Type C disease PKA protein kinase A Ptc Patched Shh Sonic hedgehog Smo Smoothened

Quake, Stephen R.

283

‘Normal disruption’: South Asian and African\\/Caribbean relatives caring for an older family member in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little has been written on informal care of an older relative among minority ethnic groups in the UK. This paper examines the meanings of being an informal carer of an older family member for South Asian and African\\/Caribbean carers. The analysis presented here is based on qualitative interviews with 21 African\\/Caribbean and 15 South Asian carers. Drawing primarily on the

Joy Adamson; Jenny Donovan

2005-01-01

284

New Constraints on the Asteroid 298 Baptistina, the Alleged Family Member of the K/T Impactor  

E-print Network

In their study Bottke et al. (2007) suggest that a member of the Baptistina asteroid family was the probable source of the K/T impactor which ended the reign of the Dinosaurs 65 Myr ago. Knowledge of the physical and material properties pertaining to the Baptistina asteroid family are, however, not well constrained. In an effort to begin addressing the situation, data from an international collaboration of observatories were synthesized to determine the rotational period of the family's largest member, asteroid 298 Baptistina (P_r = 16.23+-0.02 hrs). Discussed here are aspects of the terrestrial impact delivery system, implications arising from the new constraints, and prospects for future work.

Majaess, Daniel J; Molnar, Larry A; Haegert, Melissa J; Lane, David J; Turner, David G; Nielsen, Inga

2008-01-01

285

New Constraints on the Asteroid 298 Baptistina, the Alleged Family Member of the K/T Impactor  

E-print Network

In their study Bottke et al. (2007) suggest that a member of the Baptistina asteroid family was the probable source of the K/T impactor which ended the reign of the Dinosaurs 65 Myr ago. Knowledge of the physical and material properties pertaining to the Baptistina asteroid family are, however, not well constrained. In an effort to begin addressing the situation, data from an international collaboration of observatories were synthesized to determine the rotational period of the family's largest member, asteroid 298 Baptistina (P_r = 16.23+-0.02 hrs). Discussed here are aspects of the terrestrial impact delivery system, implications arising from the new constraints, and prospects for future work.

Daniel J. Majaess; David Higgins; Larry A. Molnar; Melissa J. Haegert; David J. Lane; David G. Turner; Inga Nielsen

2008-11-02

286

Limited family members/staff communication in intensive care units in the Czech and Slovak Republics considerably increases anxiety in patients ´ relatives – the DEPRESS study  

PubMed Central

Background Symptoms of anxiety and depression are common among family members of ICU patients and are culturally dependent. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression and associated factors in family members of ICU patients in two Central European countries. Methods We conducted a prospective multicenter study involving 22 ICUs (250 beds) in the Czech and Slovak Republics. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression in family members of ICU patients. Family member understanding of the patient’s condition was assessed using a structured interview and a questionnaire was used to assess satisfaction with family member/ICU staff communication. Results Twenty two intensive care units (both adult and pediatric) in academic medical centers and community hospitals participated in the study. During a 6 month period, 405 family members of 293 patients were enrolled. We found a high prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms – 78% and 54%, respectively. Information leaflets distributed to family members did not lower incidences of anxiety/depression. Family members with symptoms of depression reported higher levels of satisfaction according to the modified Critical Care Family Needs Inventory. Extended contact between staff and family members was the only related factor associated with anxiety reduction (p?=?0.001). Conclusion Family members of ICU patients in East European countries suffer from symptoms of anxiety and depression. We identified limited family member/ICU staff communication as an important health care professional-related factor associated with a higher incidence of symptoms of anxiety. This factor is potentially amenable to improvement and may serve as a target for proactive intervention proactive intervention. PMID:24467834

2014-01-01

287

Client Family-Member Participation Is Associated with Improved Residential Treatment Program Completion at an International Drug and Alcohol Treatment Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research at Crossroads Centre Antigua has shown a 15% increase in long-term abstinence rates of clients if a family member attended the family program. This study examines the association of family program participation on client residential treatment completion. A retrospective review of records of all clients admitted from January 2004 to June 2007 was performed. Participation of client family

Thomas C. Martin; Tania Lewis; Judith A. Josiah-Martin; Tim Sinnott

2010-01-01

288

Unique translational modification of an invertebrate neuropeptide: a phosphorylated member of the adipokinetic hormone peptide family  

PubMed Central

Separation of an extract of corpora cardiaca from the protea beetle, Trichostetha fascicularis, by single-step RP (reverse-phase)-HPLC and monitoring of tryptophan fluorescence resulted in two distinctive peaks, the material of which mobilized proline and carbohydrates in a bioassay performed using the beetle. Material from one of these peaks was; however, inactive in the classical bioassays of locusts and cockroaches that are used for detecting peptides belonging to the AKH (adipokinetic hormone) family. After enzymatically deblocking the N-terminal pyroglutamic acid (pGlu) residue in the peptide material and sequencing by Edman degradation, a partial sequence was obtained: (pGlu)-Ile-Asn-Met-Thr-Xaa-Gly-Trp. The complete sequence was deduced from ESI-MSn (electrospray ionization multi-stage-MS); position six was identified as a phosphothreonine residue and the C-terminus is amidated. The peptide, code-named Trifa-CC, was chemically synthesized and used in confirmatory experiments to show that the primary structure had been correctly assigned. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a phosphorylated invertebrate neuropeptide. Synthetic Trifa-CC co-elutes with the natural peptide, found in the gland of the protea beetle, after RP-HPLC. Moreover, the natural peptide can be dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase and the product of that reaction has the same retention time as a synthetic nonphosphorylated octapeptide which has the same sequence as Trifa-CC. Finally, synthetic Trifa-CC has hypertrehalosaemic and hyperprolinaemic biological activity in the protea beetle, but even high concentrations of synthetic Trifa-CC are inactive in locusts and cockroaches. Hence, the correct peptide structure has been assigned. Trifa-CC of the protea beetle is an unusual member of the AKH family that is unique in its post-translational modification. Since it increases the concentration of carbohydrates and proline in the haemolymph when injected into the protea beetle, and since these substrates are also used during flight, we hypothesize that Trifa-CC controls the mobilization of these metabolites in the protea beetle. PMID:16271039

2005-01-01

289

Psychosocial impact of an X-linked hereditary disease: a study of Alport syndrome patients and family members.  

PubMed

A nationwide search for patients with Alport syndrome (AS), a hereditary nephritis with sensorineural hearing loss and occasional ocular anomalies, was performed. As AS is usually transmitted in an X-linked fashion, its form is usually severe in male and mild in female patients. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 patients with AS and their family members from 17 families and 11 pedigrees. The emphasis was on psychosocial stress experienced in everyday life, as well as the influence of AS on family relationships, especially mother-son relationships. Special attention was paid to children's reactions and feelings as well as the coping strategies of the family. Denial was the most common psychological defence found in our study. We found several cases where AS had led to chronic mental suffering. One of the patterns was a combination of maternal depression and an overprotective attitude toward an AS-affected son. In other instances, depressive symptomatology and anxiety were seen in connection with complications and an adverse outcome of the disease. Families with any AS manifestations should be encouraged to discuss openly the past histories of family members, their fears, feelings of guilt, hopes and expectations. The role and empathic attitude of the clinician is crucial in this process. Mildly affected mothers who have sons with AS are especially in need of psychological support. Professional psychological help should be made available but not given routinely. PMID:10921441

Pajari, H; Sinkkonen, J

2000-05-01

290

Building on the Hopes and Dreams of Latino Families with Young Children: Findings from Family Member Focus Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past, Latino families were often regarded as being uninvolved in their child's education, particularly within the parent involvement literature. More recently, authors are encouraging educational professionals to look at a family's "funds of knowledge" to encourage their involvement. This expression takes into account the knowledge a…

Gregg, Katy; Rugg, Mary; Stoneman, Zolinda

2012-01-01

291

Spider glue proteins have distinct architectures compared with traditional spidroin family members.  

PubMed

Adhesive spider glues are required to perform a variety of tasks, including web construction, prey capture, and locomotion. To date, little is known regarding the molecular and structural features of spider glue proteins, in particular bioadhesives that interconnect dragline or scaffolding silks during three-dimensional web construction. Here we use biochemical and structural approaches to identify and characterize two aggregate gland specific gene products, AgSF1 and AgSF2, and demonstrate that these proteins co-localize to the connection joints of both webs and wrapping silks spun from the black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus. Protein architectures are markedly divergent between AgSF1 and AgSF2, as well as traditional spider silk fibroin family members, suggesting connection joints consist of a complex proteinaceous network. AgSF2 represents a nonglycosylated 40-kDa protein that has novel internal amino acid block repeats with the consensus sequence NVNVN embedded in a glycine-rich matrix. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of AgSF1 reveals pentameric QPGSG iterations that are similar to conserved modular elements within mammalian elastin, a rubber-like elastomeric protein that interfaces with collagen. Wet-spinning methodology using purified recombinant proteins show AgSF1 has the potential to self-assemble into fibers. X-ray fiber diffraction studies performed on these synthetic fibers reveal the presence of noncrystalline domains that resemble classical rubber networks. Collectively, these data support that the aggregate gland serves to extrude a protein mixture that contains substances that allow for the self-assembly of fiber-like structures that interface with dragline silks to mediate prey capture. PMID:22927444

Vasanthavada, Keshav; Hu, Xiaoyi; Tuton-Blasingame, Tiffany; Hsia, Yang; Sampath, Sujatha; Pacheco, Ryan; Freeark, Jordan; Falick, Arnold M; Tang, Simon; Fong, Justine; Kohler, Kristin; La Mattina-Hawkins, Coby; Vierra, Craig

2012-10-19

292

Spider Glue Proteins Have Distinct Architectures Compared with Traditional Spidroin Family Members*  

PubMed Central

Adhesive spider glues are required to perform a variety of tasks, including web construction, prey capture, and locomotion. To date, little is known regarding the molecular and structural features of spider glue proteins, in particular bioadhesives that interconnect dragline or scaffolding silks during three-dimensional web construction. Here we use biochemical and structural approaches to identify and characterize two aggregate gland specific gene products, AgSF1 and AgSF2, and demonstrate that these proteins co-localize to the connection joints of both webs and wrapping silks spun from the black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus. Protein architectures are markedly divergent between AgSF1 and AgSF2, as well as traditional spider silk fibroin family members, suggesting connection joints consist of a complex proteinaceous network. AgSF2 represents a nonglycosylated 40-kDa protein that has novel internal amino acid block repeats with the consensus sequence NVNVN embedded in a glycine-rich matrix. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of AgSF1 reveals pentameric QPGSG iterations that are similar to conserved modular elements within mammalian elastin, a rubber-like elastomeric protein that interfaces with collagen. Wet-spinning methodology using purified recombinant proteins show AgSF1 has the potential to self-assemble into fibers. X-ray fiber diffraction studies performed on these synthetic fibers reveal the presence of noncrystalline domains that resemble classical rubber networks. Collectively, these data support that the aggregate gland serves to extrude a protein mixture that contains substances that allow for the self-assembly of fiber-like structures that interface with dragline silks to mediate prey capture. PMID:22927444

Vasanthavada, Keshav; Hu, Xiaoyi; Tuton-Blasingame, Tiffany; Hsia, Yang; Sampath, Sujatha; Pacheco, Ryan; Freeark, Jordan; Falick, Arnold M.; Tang, Simon; Fong, Justine; Kohler, Kristin; La Mattina-Hawkins, Coby; Vierra, Craig

2012-01-01

293

GLUT8, a novel member of the sugar transport facilitator family with glucose transport activity.  

PubMed

GLUT8 is a novel glucose transporter-like protein that exhibits significant sequence similarity with the members of the sugar transport facilitator family (29.4% of amino acids identical with GLUT1). Human and mouse sequence (86.2% identical amino acids) comprise 12 putative membrane-spanning helices and several conserved motifs (sugar transporter signatures), which have previously been shown to be essential for transport activity, e.g. GRK in loop 2, PETPR in loop 6, QQLSGVN in helix 7, DRAGRR in loop 8, GWGPIPW in helix 10, and PETKG in the C-terminal tail. An expressed sequence tag (STS A005N15) corresponding with the 3'-untranslated region of GLUT8 has previously been mapped to human chromosome 9. COS-7 cells transfected with GLUT8 cDNA expressed a 42-kDa protein exhibiting specific, glucose-inhibitable cytochalasin B binding (K(D) = 56.6 +/- 18 nm) and reconstitutable glucose transport activity (8.1 +/- 1. 4 nmol/(mg protein x 10 s) versus 1.1 +/- 0.1 in control transfections). In human tissues, a 2.4-kilobase pair transcript was predominantly found in testis, but not in testicular carcinoma. Lower amounts of the mRNA were detected in most other tissues including skeletal muscle, heart, small intestine, and brain. GLUT8 mRNA was found in testis from adult, but not from prepubertal rats; its expression in human testis was suppressed by estrogen treatment. It is concluded that GLUT8 is a sugar transport facilitator with glucose transport activity and a hormonally regulated testicular function. PMID:10821868

Doege, H; Schürmann, A; Bahrenberg, G; Brauers, A; Joost, H G

2000-05-26

294

Geothermomicrobium terrae gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Thermoactinomycetaceae.  

PubMed

Strains YIM 77562(T) and YIM 77580, two novel Gram-staining-positive, filamentous bacterial isolates, were recovered from the Rehai geothermal field, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. Good growth was observed at 50-55 °C and pH 7.0. Aerial mycelium was absent on all media tested. Substrate mycelium was well-developed, long and moderately flexuous, and formed abundant, single, warty, ornamented endospores. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains indicated that they belong to the family Thermoactinomycetaceae. Similarity levels between the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains and those of type strains of members of the Thermoactinomycetaceae were 88.33-93.24?%; the highest sequence similarity was with Hazenella coriacea DSM 45707(T). In both strains, the predominant menaquinone was MK-7, the diagnostic diamino acid was meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major cellular fatty acids were iso-C14?:?0, iso-C15?:?0 and iso-C16?:?0. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, unidentified polar lipids and unidentified phospholipids. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 77562(T) and YIM 77580 were 45.5 and 44.2 mol%, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness data suggest that the two isolates represent a single species. Based on phylogenetic analyses and physiological and biochemical characteristics, it is proposed that the two strains represent a single novel species in a new genus, Geothermomicrobium terrae gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Geothermomicrobium terrae is YIM 77562(T) (?=?CCTCC AA 2011022(T)?=?JCM 18057(T)). PMID:24907264

Zhou, En-Min; Yu, Tian-Tian; Liu, Lan; Ming, Hong; Yin, Yi-Rui; Dong, Lei; Tseng, Min; Nie, Guo-Xing; Li, Wen-Jun

2014-09-01

295

Alternative polyadenylation and miR-34 family members regulate tau expression.  

PubMed

Tau pathologically aggregates in Alzheimer's disease, and evidence suggests that reducing tau expression may be safe and beneficial for the prevention or treatment of this disease. We sought to examine the role of the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of human tau mRNA in regulating tau expression. Tau expresses two 3'-UTR isoforms, long and short, as a result of alternative polyadenylation. Using luciferase reporter constructs, we found that expression from these isoforms is differentially controlled in human neuroblastoma cell lines M17D and SH-SY5Y. Several microRNAs were computationally identified as candidates that might bind the long, but not short, tau 3'-UTR isoform. A hit from a screen of candidates, miR-34a, was subsequently shown to repress the expression of endogenous tau protein in M17D cells. Conversely, inhibition of endogenously expressed miR-34 family members leads to increased endogenous tau expression. In addition, through an unbiased screen of fragments of the human tau 3'-UTR using a luciferase reporter assay, we identified several other regions in the long tau 3'-UTR isoform that contain regulatory cis-elements. Improved understanding of the regulation of tau expression by its 3'-UTR may ultimately lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies. mRNA 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTR) often regulate transcript stability or translation. Despite the centrality of the tau protein in Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases, the human tau 3'-UTR has been little studied. This report identifies regions of the tau 3'-UTR that influence expression and shows that microRNA (miR)-34a targets this 3'-UTR to lower expression, which is considered an important therapeutic goal. PMID:24032460

Dickson, John R; Kruse, Carla; Montagna, Daniel R; Finsen, Bente; Wolfe, Michael S

2013-12-01

296

Role of nutrient-sensing taste 1 receptor (T1R) family members in gastrointestinal chemosensing.  

PubMed

Luminal nutrient sensing by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) expressed on the apical domain of enteroendocrine cells activates intracellular pathways leading to secretion of gut hormones that control vital physiological processes such as digestion, absorption, food intake and glucose homeostasis. The taste 1 receptor (T1R) family of GPCR consists of three members: T1R1; T1R2; T1R3. Expression of T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3 at mRNA and protein levels has been demonstrated in the intestinal tissue of various species. It has been shown that T1R2-T1R3, in association with G-protein gustducin, is expressed in intestinal K and L endocrine cells, where it acts as the intestinal glucose (sweet) sensor. A number of studies have demonstrated that activation of T1R2-T1R3 by natural sugars and artificial sweeteners leads to secretion of glucagon-like peptides 1&2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2) and glucose dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). GLP-1 and GIP enhance insulin secretion; GLP-2 increases intestinal growth and glucose absorption. T1R1-T1R3 combination co-expressed on the apical domain of cholecystokinin (CCK) expressing cells is a luminal sensor for a number of L-amino acids; with amino acid-activation of the receptor eliciting CCK secretion. This article focuses on the role of the gut-expressed T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3 in intestinal sweet and L-amino acid sensing. The impact of exploiting T1R2-T1R3 as a nutritional target for enhancing intestinal glucose absorption and gut structural maturity in young animals is also highlighted. PMID:24382171

Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P; Daly, Kristian; Al-Rammahi, Miran; Moran, Andrew W; Bravo, David

2014-06-01

297

Biological Functionalities of Transglutaminase 2 and the Possibility of Its Compensation by Other Members of the Transglutaminase Family  

PubMed Central

Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is the most widely distributed and most abundantly expressed member of the transglutaminase family of enzymes, a group of intracellular and extracellular proteins that catalyze the Ca2+-dependent posttranslational modification of proteins. It is a unique member of the transglutaminase family owing to its specialized biochemical, structural and functional elements, ubiquitous tissue distribution and subcellular localization, and substrate specificity. The broad substrate specificity of TG2 and its flexible interaction with numerous other gene products may account for its multiple biological functions. In addition to the classic Ca2+-dependent transamidation of proteins, which is a hallmark of transglutaminase enzymes, additional Ca2+-independent enzymatic and nonenzymatic activities of TG2 have been identified. Many such activities have been directly or indirectly implicated in diverse cellular physiological events, including cell growth and differentiation, cell adhesion and morphology, extracellular matrix stabilization, wound healing, cellular development, receptor-mediated endocytosis, apoptosis, and disease pathology. Given the wide range of activities of the transglutaminase gene family it has been suggested that, in the absence of active versions of TG2, its function could be compensated for by other members of the transglutaminase family. It is in the light of this assertion that we review, herein, TG2 activities and the possibilities and premises for compensation for its absence. PMID:24778599

Coussons, Peter

2014-01-01

298

As the planning for a memorial to Eisenhower moves forward, members of his family raise concerns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eisenhower as a Barefoot Boy? Family Objects to a Memorial http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/07/arts/design/eisenhower-memorial-by-frank-gehry-draws-objections-from-family.htmlGehry's design for Eisenhower memorial misses the markhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/realestate/gehrys-design-for-eisenhower-memorial-misses-the-mark/2012/01/23/gIQAy22jVQ_story.htmlA Q&A With Susan Eisenhower About the Fight Over Her Grandfather's Memorialhttp://www.washingtonian.com/blogarticles/people/capitalcomment/22381.htmlIn Defense of Frank Gehryhttp://www.washingtonian.com/blogarticles/people/capitalcomment/22617.htmlDwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commissionhttp://eisenhowermemorial.org/U.S. Commission of Fine Artshttp://www.cfa.gov/Memorials to great men and women can be controversial affairs, and the recent dispute over the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial in Washington, DC serves as a reminder of such issues. Another planned memorial is coming under close scrutiny, and once again, the proverbial battleground is in the United States capital. Over the past couple of years, the noted designer and architect Frank Gehry has been working on the design for the memorial to President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and the groundbreaking is scheduled to take place this year on the Washington Mall. The current design features Eisenhower as a young boy in Kansas looking at some of his later accomplishments, with a backdrop of the plains of the Sunflower State. These proposed plans do not sit well with some, including his granddaughter, Susan Eisenhower, and the National Civic Art Society, which remarked that "The statue of Ike as a Kansas farmer-boy mocks the president as cornpone in chief, the supreme allied bumpkin." In January, members of the Eisenhower family made their concerns about the design public, and it remains to be seen whether there might be an extension of the comment period regarding the memorial. The preliminary design has already been approved by the United States Commission of Fine Arts, but it must also be approved by the National Capital Planning Commission. As of this writing, Frank Gehry had yet to offer comment on this recent turn of events and public discussion. The first link leads to a nice article from this Tuesday's New York Times about the proposed memorial to President Eisenhower. The second link will take users to a piece of architectural criticism by Roger K. Lewis, published in the Washington Post. Moving on, the third link will take interested parties to an interview with Susan Eisenhower about the memorial to her grandfather. The fourth link leads to follow-up exchange with Daniel J. Feil, the executive architect for the Eisenhower Memorial Commission over the past six years. The fifth link leads to the website of the Eisenhower Memorial Commission. Here visitors can learn about the commission, the designs for the proposed memorial, and also read press releases. The final link will take visitors to the homepage of the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts, where they can learn about the work of the Commission and the ways in which the Commission gives expert advice on "matters of design and aesthetics."

Grinnell, Max

2012-02-10

299

The sodium/iodide symporter NIS is a transcriptional target of the p53-family members in liver cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Thyroid iodide accumulation via the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS; SLC5A5) has been the basis for the longtime use of radio-iodide in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancers. NIS is also expressed, but poorly functional, in some non-thyroid human cancers. In particular, it is much more strongly expressed in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines than in primary human hepatocytes (PHH). The transcription factors and signaling pathways that control NIS overexpression in these cancers is largely unknown. We identified two putative regulatory clusters of p53-responsive elements (p53REs) in the NIS core promoter, and investigated the regulation of NIS transcription by p53-family members in liver cancer cells. NIS promoter activity and endogenous NIS mRNA expression are stimulated by exogenously expressed p53-family members and significantly reduced by member-specific siRNAs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis shows that the p53–REs clusters in the NIS promoter are differentially occupied by the p53-family members to regulate basal and DNA damage-induced NIS transcription. Doxorubicin strongly induces p53 and p73 binding to the NIS promoter, leading to an increased expression of endogenous NIS mRNA and protein in HCC and CCA cells, but not in PHH. Silencing NIS expression reduced doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in HCC cells, pointing to a possible role of a p53-family-dependent expression of NIS in apoptotic cell death. Altogether, these results indicate that the NIS gene is a direct target of the p53 family and suggests that the modulation of NIS by DNA-damaging agents is potentially exploitable to boost NIS upregulation in vivo. PMID:24052075

Guerrieri, F; Piconese, S; Lacoste, C; Schinzari, V; Testoni, B; Valogne, Y; Gerbal-Chaloin, S; Samuel, D; Bréchot, C; Faivre, J; Levrero, M

2013-01-01

300

[The relationship between the family member and the child with AIDS: understanding in the light of Martin Buber].  

PubMed

This qualitative study with a phenomenological approach aimed at understanding what it means to be a family caregiver of a child living with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the light of Martin Buber's philosophy. The study was carried out at the Pediatric outpatient Unit of a teaching hospital of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil with the participation of 7 family caregivers. Data was collected between September and October, 2006 using phenomenological interviews, and interpreted using Ricouer's hermeneutics. The ethical issues were considered. Being a family member of a child with AIDS is a complex existential phenomenon including changes, caring, dialogues, and concerns in search of the wellbeing of both children and caretaker in the world. Understanding the meaning of these phenomena the life of these families is essential to Nursing in order to plan and to develop a humanistic, ethical, esthetical, and solidary care. PMID:18822758

Schaurich, Diego; da Motta, Maria da Graça Corso

2008-06-01

301

The m Protein, a Member of the X,K-ATPase -Subunits Family, Is Located Intracellularly in Pig Skeletal Muscle1  

E-print Network

The m Protein, a Member of the X,K-ATPase -Subunits Family, Is Located Intracellularly in Pig of the pig cDNA encoding the muscle- specific m-protein, a member of the X,K-ATPase -subunits family-PCR performed on 24 tissues from newborn pigs. The m expression was shown to be highly tissue-specific, being

Brand, Paul H.

302

The characterization of the soybean polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins ( Pgip ) gene family reveals that a single member is responsible for the activity detected in soybean tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins that inhibit fungal endopolygalacturonases (PGs). They are encoded by multigene families whose members show functional redundancy and subfunctionalization for recognition of fungal PGs. In order to expand the information on the structure and functional features of legume PGIP, we have isolated and characterized four members of the soybean Pgip gene family and

R. D’Ovidio; S. Roberti; M. Di Giovanni; C. Capodicasa; M. Melaragni; L. Sella; P. Tosi; F. Favaron

2006-01-01

303

41 CFR 303-70.403 - When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's duty station outside CONUS, must...a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's duty station outside CONUS,...

2010-07-01

304

41 CFR 303-70.403 - When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's duty station outside CONUS, must...a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's duty station outside CONUS,...

2012-07-01

305

41 CFR 303-70.303 - When an immediate family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the...  

...immediate family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's duty station OCONUS, must we...immediate family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's duty station OCONUS, must...

2014-07-01

306

41 CFR 303-70.403 - When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's duty station outside CONUS, must...a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's duty station outside CONUS,...

2011-07-01

307

41 CFR 303-70.403 - When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's duty station outside CONUS, must...a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's duty station outside CONUS,...

2013-07-01

308

Identification of a Testis-Enriched Heat Shock Protein and Fourteen Members of Hsp70 Family in the Swamp Eel  

PubMed Central

Background Gonad differentiation is one of the most important developmental events in vertebrates. Some heat shock proteins are associated with gonad development. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the teleost fish and its roles in sex differentiation are poorly understood. Methods and Findings We have identified a testis-enriched heat shock protein Hspa8b2 in the swamp eel using Western blot analysis and Mass Spectrometry (MS). Fourteen Hsp70 family genes were further identified in this species based on transcriptome information. The phylogenetic tree of Hsp70 family was constructed using the Maximum Likelihood method and their expression patterns in the swamp eel gonads were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Conclusion There are fourteen gene members in the Hsp70 family in the swamp eel genome. Hsp70 family, particularly Hspa8, has expanded in the species. One of the family members Hspa8b2 is predominantly expressed in testis of the swamp eel. PMID:23750249

He, Yan; Luo, Majing; Yi, Minhan; Sheng, Yue; Cheng, Yibin; Zhou, Rongjia; Cheng, Hanhua

2013-01-01

309

Aquareovirus effects syncytiogenesis by using a novel member of the FAST protein family translated from a noncanonical translation start site.  

PubMed

As nonenveloped viruses, the aquareoviruses and orthoreoviruses are unusual in their ability to induce cell-cell fusion and syncytium formation. While an extraordinary family of fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins is responsible for orthoreovirus syncytiogenesis, the basis for aquareovirus-induced syncytiogenesis is unknown. We now report that the S7 genome segment of an Atlantic salmon reovirus is polycistronic and uses a noncanonical CUG translation start codon to produce a 22-kDa integral membrane protein responsible for syncytiogenesis. The aquareovirus p22 protein represents a fourth distinct member of the FAST family with a unique repertoire and arrangement of structural motifs. PMID:19297495

Racine, Trina; Hurst, Tara; Barry, Chris; Shou, Jingyun; Kibenge, Frederick; Duncan, Roy

2009-06-01

310

Aquareovirus Effects Syncytiogenesis by Using a Novel Member of the FAST Protein Family Translated from a Noncanonical Translation Start Site?  

PubMed Central

As nonenveloped viruses, the aquareoviruses and orthoreoviruses are unusual in their ability to induce cell-cell fusion and syncytium formation. While an extraordinary family of fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins is responsible for orthoreovirus syncytiogenesis, the basis for aquareovirus-induced syncytiogenesis is unknown. We now report that the S7 genome segment of an Atlantic salmon reovirus is polycistronic and uses a noncanonical CUG translation start codon to produce a 22-kDa integral membrane protein responsible for syncytiogenesis. The aquareovirus p22 protein represents a fourth distinct member of the FAST family with a unique repertoire and arrangement of structural motifs. PMID:19297495

Racine, Trina; Hurst, Tara; Barry, Chris; Shou, Jingyun; Kibenge, Frederick; Duncan, Roy

2009-01-01

311

Evolutionary Origin of the Scombridae (Tunas and Mackerels): Members of a Paleogene Adaptive Radiation with 14 Other Pelagic Fish Families  

PubMed Central

Uncertainties surrounding the evolutionary origin of the epipelagic fish family Scombridae (tunas and mackerels) are symptomatic of the difficulties in resolving suprafamilial relationships within Percomorpha, a hyperdiverse teleost radiation that contains approximately 17,000 species placed in 13 ill-defined orders and 269 families. Here we find that scombrids share a common ancestry with 14 families based on (i) bioinformatic analyses using partial mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences from all percomorphs deposited in GenBank (10,733 sequences) and (ii) subsequent mitogenomic analysis based on 57 species from those targeted 15 families and 67 outgroup taxa. Morphological heterogeneity among these 15 families is so extraordinary that they have been placed in six different perciform suborders. However, members of the 15 families are either coastal or oceanic pelagic in their ecology with diverse modes of life, suggesting that they represent a previously undetected adaptive radiation in the pelagic realm. Time-calibrated phylogenies imply that scombrids originated from a deep-ocean ancestor and began to radiate after the end-Cretaceous when large predatory epipelagic fishes were selective victims of the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. We name this clade of open-ocean fishes containing Scombridae “Pelagia” in reference to the common habitat preference that links the 15 families. PMID:24023883

Miya, Masaki; Friedman, Matt; Satoh, Takashi P.; Takeshima, Hirohiko; Sado, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Wataru; Yamanoue, Yusuke; Nakatani, Masanori; Mabuchi, Kohji; Inoue, Jun G.; Poulsen, Jan Yde; Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Sato, Yukuto; Nishida, Mutsumi

2013-01-01

312

Identification of the fertility restoration locus, Rfo, in radish, as a member of the pentatricopeptide-repeat protein family  

PubMed Central

Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in radish (Raphanus sativus) is caused by an aberrant mitochondrial gene, Orf138, that prevents the production of functional pollen without affecting female fertility. Rfo, a nuclear gene that restores male fertility, alters the expression of Orf138 at the post-transcriptional level. The Ogura CMS/Rfo two-component system is a useful model for investigating nuclear–cytoplasmic interactions, as well as the physiological basis of fertility restoration. Using a combination of positional cloning and microsynteny analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana and radish, we genetically and physically delimited the Rfo locus to a 15-kb DNA segment. Analysis of this segment shows that Rfo is a member of the pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) family. In Arabidopsis, this family contains more than 450 members of unknown function, although most of them are predicted to be targeted to mitochondria and chloroplasts and are thought to have roles in organellar gene expression. PMID:12740605

Desloire, Sophie; Gherbi, Hassen; Laloui, Wassila; Marhadour, Sylvie; Clouet, Vanessa; Cattolico, Laurence; Falentin, Cyril; Giancola, Sandra; Renard, Michel; Budar, Françoise; Small, Ian; Caboche, Michel; Delourme, Régine; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

2003-01-01

313

Identification of the fertility restoration locus, Rfo, in radish, as a member of the pentatricopeptide-repeat protein family.  

PubMed

Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in radish (Raphanus sativus) is caused by an aberrant mitochondrial gene, Orf138, that prevents the production of functional pollen without affecting female fertility. Rfo, a nuclear gene that restores male fertility, alters the expression of Orf138 at the post-transcriptional level. The Ogura CMS/Rfo two-component system is a useful model for investigating nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions, as well as the physiological basis of fertility restoration. Using a combination of positional cloning and microsynteny analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana and radish, we genetically and physically delimited the Rfo locus to a 15-kb DNA segment. Analysis of this segment shows that Rfo is a member of the pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) family. In Arabidopsis, this family contains more than 450 members of unknown function, although most of them are predicted to be targeted to mitochondria and chloroplasts and are thought to have roles in organellar gene expression. PMID:12740605

Desloire, Sophie; Gherbi, Hassen; Laloui, Wassila; Marhadour, Sylvie; Clouet, Vanessa; Cattolico, Laurence; Falentin, Cyril; Giancola, Sandra; Renard, Michel; Budar, Françoise; Small, Ian; Caboche, Michel; Delourme, Régine; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

2003-06-01

314

A novel member of the family Hepeviridae from cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beginning in 1988, the Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cell line was used to isolate a novel virus from spawning adult trout in the state of California, USA. Termed the cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) virus (CTV), the small, round virus was not associated with disease, but was subsequently found to be present in an increasing number of trout populations in the western USA, likely by a combination of improved surveillance activities and the shipment of infected eggs to new locations. Here, we report that the full length genome of the 1988 Heenan Lake isolate of CTV consisted of 7269 nucleotides of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA beginning with a 5' untranslated region (UTR), followed by three open reading frames (ORFs), a 3' UTR and ending in a polyA tail. The genome of CTV was similar in size and organization to that of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) with which it shared the highest nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities. Similar to the genomes of human, rodent or avian hepeviruses, ORF 1 encoded a large, non-structural polyprotein that included conserved methyltransferase, protease, helicase and polymerase domains, while ORF 2 encoded the structural capsid protein and ORF 3 the phosphoprotein. Together, our data indicated that CTV was clearly a member of the family Hepeviridae, although the level of amino acid sequence identity with the ORFs of mammalian or avian hepeviruses (13-27%) may be sufficiently low to warrant the creation of a novel genus. We also performed a phylogenetic analysis using a 262. nt region within ORF 1 for 63 isolates of CTV obtained from seven species of trout reared in various geographic locations in the western USA. While the sequences fell into two genetic clades, the overall nucleotide diversity was low (less than 8.4%) and many isolates differed by only 1-2 nucleotides, suggesting an epidemiological link. Finally, we showed that CTV was able to form persistently infected cultures of the CHSE-214 cell line that may have use in research on the biology or treatment of hepevirus infections of humans or other animals.

Batts, William; Yun, Susan; Hedrick, Ronald; Winton, James

2011-01-01

315

Functional characterisation of three members of the Vitis vinifera L. carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase gene family  

PubMed Central

Background In plants, carotenoids serve as the precursors to C13-norisoprenoids, a group of apocarotenoid compounds with diverse biological functions. Enzymatic cleavage of carotenoids catalysed by members of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) family has been shown to produce a number of industrially important volatile flavour and aroma apocarotenoids including ?-ionone, geranylacetone, pseudoionone, ?-ionone and 3-hydroxy-?-ionone in a range of plant species. Apocarotenoids contribute to the floral and fruity attributes of many wine cultivars and are thereby, at least partly, responsible for the “varietal character”. Despite their importance in grapes and wine; carotenoid cleavage activity has only been described for VvCCD1 and the mechanism(s) and regulation of carotenoid catabolism remains largely unknown. Results Three grapevine-derived CCD-encoding genes have been isolated and shown to be functional with unique substrate cleavage capacities. Our results demonstrate that the VvCCD4a and VvCCD4b catalyse the cleavage of both linear and cyclic carotenoid substrates. The expression of VvCCD1, VvCCD4a and VvCCD4b was detected in leaf, flower and throughout berry development. VvCCD1 expression was constitutive, whereas VvCCD4a expression was predominant in leaves and VvCCD4b in berries. A transgenic population with a 12-fold range of VvCCD1 expression exhibited a lack of correlation between VvCCD1 expression and carotenoid substrates and/or apocarotenoid products in leaves, providing proof that the in planta function(s) of VvCCD1 in photosynthetically active tissue is distinct from the in vitro activities demonstrated. The isolation and functional characterisation of VvCCD4a and VvCCD4b identify two additional CCDs that are functional in grapevine. Conclusions Taken together, our results indicate that the three CCDs are under various levels of control that include gene expression (spatial and temporal), substrate specificity and compartmentalisation that act individually and/or co-ordinately to maintain carotenoid and volatile apocarotenoid levels in plants. Altering the expression of VvCCD1 in a transgenic grapevine population illustrated the divergence between the in vitro enzyme activity and the in planta activity of this enzyme, thereby contributing to the efforts to understand how enzymatic degradation of carotenoids involved in photosynthesis occurs. The identification and functional characterisation of VvCCD4a and VvCCD4b suggest that these enzymes are primarily responsible for catalysing the cleavage of plastidial carotenoids. PMID:24106789

2013-01-01

316

A novel member of the subtilisin-like protease family from Streptomyces albogriseolus.  

PubMed Central

We previously isolated three extracellular endogenous enzymes from a Streptomyces albogriseolus mutant strain which were targets of Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor (SSI) (S. Taguchi, A. Odaka, Y. Watanabe, and H. Momose, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:180-186, 1995). In the present study, of the three enzymes the largest one, with a molecular mass of 45 kDa (estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis), termed SAM-P45, has been characterized in detail. The entire gene encoding SAM-P45 was cloned as an approximately 10-kb fragment from S. albogriseolus S-3253 genomic DNA into an Escherichia coli host by using a shuttle plasmid vector. The amino acid sequence corresponding to the internal region of SAM-P45, deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the gene, revealed high homology, particularly in three regions around the active-site residues (Asp, His, and Ser), with the amino acid sequences of the mature domain of subtilisin-like serine proteases. In order to investigate the enzymatic properties of this protease, recombinant SAM-P45 was overproduced in Streptomyces coelicolor by using a strong SSI gene promoter. Sequence analysis of the SAM-P45 gene and peptide mapping of the purified SAM-P45 suggested that it is synthesized as a large precursor protein containing a large C-terminal prodomain (494 residues) in addition to an N-terminal preprodomain (23 and 172 residues). A high proportion of basic amino acids in the C-terminal prodomain was considered to serve an element interactive with the phospholipid bilayer existing in the C-terminal prodomain, as found in other membrane-anchoring proteases of gram-positive bacteria. It is noteworthy that SAM-P45 was found to prefer basic amino acids to aromatic or aliphatic amino acids in contrast to subtilisin BPN', which has a broad substrate specificity. The hydrolysis by SAM-P45 of the synthetic substrate (N-succinyl-L-Gly-L-Pro-L-Lys-p-nitroanilide) most preferred by this enzyme was inhibited by SSI, chymostatin, and EDTA. The proteolytic activity of SAM-P45 was stimulated by the divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+. From these findings, we conclude that SAM-P45 interacts with SSI and can be categorized as a novel member of the subtilisin-like serine protease family. PMID:8990295

Suzuki, M; Taguchi, S; Yamada, S; Kojima, S; Miura, K I; Momose, H

1997-01-01

317

Protein kinase A catalytic subunit interacts and phosphorylates members of trans-sialidase super-family in Trypanosoma cruzi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein kinase A (PKA) has been suggested as a regulator of stage differentiation in Trypanosoma cruzi. Using a yeast two-hybrid system we have begun to characterize the downstream substrates of T. cruzi PKA. We identified several members of the trans-sialidase super family by this approach. Immunoprecitation demonstrated that a TcPKAc monoclonal antibody was able to pull-down proteins recognized by trans-sialidase

Yi Bao; Louis M. Weiss; Yan Fen Ma; Stuart Kahn; Huan Huang

2010-01-01

318

Use of family member-based supervision in the management of patients with hypertension in rural China  

PubMed Central

Medication nonadherence is a major problem in the management of hypertension. The aim of this study was to develop a family member-based supportive therapy for patients with hypertension to provide an affordable way to access essential health services and to ensure adequate control of blood pressure. This study applied a mixed methods approach using qualitative and quantitative study designs in Yangzhong County, a rural area in the People’s Republic of China. Findings from indepth interviews demonstrated that the limited effects of traditional health education, a lack of professional advice regarding antihypertensive treatment, and age were related to a patient’s adherence with regular blood pressure measurement and taking medication. We also performed a quantitative study, selecting two villages in Yangzhong County as study sites. A total of 188 patients with hypertension were invited to participate in a 6-month family member-based intervention trial. The primary outcomes were the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention strategy. Secondary outcomes included medication adherence and changes in blood pressure. More than 75% of patients expressed a wish for external reminders, and 93.5% responded that they would accept the family member-based supervision. The patients preferred their spouse or a child as the supervisor. After the 6-month intervention, the proportion of patients with uncontrolled blood pressure decreased from 87.2% to 45.7%. This pilot study shows that external supervision by family members is acceptable and feasible for patients with hypertension; it also shows favorable effects with regard to improved treatment adherence and blood pressure control. Future randomized controlled trials with modified intervention measures are needed to validate this finding. PMID:25114514

Huang, Susan; Chen, Ye; Zhou, Jing; Wang, Jianming

2014-01-01

319

Bcl2 Family Members as Sentinels of Cellular Integrity and Role of Mitochondrial Intermembrane Space Proteins in Apoptotic Cell Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to their function as major energy-providing organelles of the cell, mitochondria accomplish a crucial role in apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic BH3-only members of the Bcl-2 family continuously sense the cellular integrity and well-being at various subcellular levels. If these sentinels are induced, released or activated, they converge on the release of mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins such as cytochrome c,

Nele Festjens; Marjan van Gurp; Geert van Loo; Xavier Saelens; Peter Vandenabeele

2004-01-01

320

Dlxin-1, a member of MAGE family, inhibits cell proliferation, invasion and tumorigenicity of glioma stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously reported the presence of Dlxin-1, a member of the melanoma antigen gene (MAGE) family, in the brain and showed its function as a cell cycle arrest protein, suggesting that Dlxin-1 may have anti-proliferative functions in rapidly growing tumors. Using the cancer stem cell hypothesis, which attributes the initiation and progression of brain tumors to the cancer-initiating stem

E M Reddy; S T Chettiar; N Kaur; R Ganeshkumar; V Shepal; N C Shanbhag; A Shiras

2011-01-01

321

Aedes aegypti ML and Niemann-Pick type C family members are agonists of dengue virus infection.  

PubMed

Upon exposure to dengue virus, the Aedes aegypti mosquito vector mounts an anti-viral immune defense by activating the Toll, JAK/STAT, and RNAi pathways, thereby limiting infection. While these pathways and several other factors have been identified as dengue virus antagonists, our knowledge of factors that facilitate dengue virus infection is limited. Previous dengue virus infection-responsive transcriptome analyses have revealed an increased mRNA abundance of members of the myeloid differentiation 2-related lipid recognition protein (ML) and the Niemann Pick-type C1 (NPC1) families upon dengue virus infection. These genes encode lipid-binding proteins that have been shown to play a role in host-pathogen interactions in other organisms. RNAi-mediated gene silencing of a ML and a NPC1 gene family member in both laboratory strain and field-derived Ae. aegypti mosquitoes resulted in significantly elevated resistance to dengue virus in mosquito midguts, suggesting that these genes play roles as dengue virus agonists. In addition to their possible roles in virus cell entry and replication, gene expression analyses suggested that ML and NPC1 family members also facilitate viral infection by modulating the mosquito's immune competence. Our study suggests that the dengue virus influences the expression of these genes to facilitate its infection of the mosquito host. PMID:24135719

Jupatanakul, Natapong; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George

2014-03-01

322

G2-Phase Chromosomal Radiosensitivity of Primary Fibroblasts from Hereditary Retinoblastoma Family Members and Some Apparently Normal Controls  

PubMed Central

We previously described an enhanced sensitivity for cell killing and ?-H2AX focus induction after both high-dose-rate and continuous low-dose-rate ? irradiation in 14 primary fibroblast strains derived from hereditary-type retinoblastoma family members (both affected RB1+/? probands and unaffected RB1+/+ parents). Here we present G2-phase chromosomal radiosensitivity assay data for primary fibroblasts derived from these RB family members and five Coriell cell bank controls (four apparently normal individuals and one bilateral RB patient). The RB family members and two normal Coriell strains had significantly higher (?1.5-fold, P < 0.05) chromatid-type aberration frequencies in the first postirradiation mitosis after doses of 50 cGy and 1 Gy of 137Cs ? radiation compared to the remaining Coriell strains. The induction of chromatid-type aberrations by high-dose-rate G2-phase ? irradiation is significantly correlated to the proliferative ability of these cells exposed to continuous low-dose-rate ? irradiation (reported in Wilson et al., Radiat. Res. 169, 483–494, 2008). Our results suggest that these moderately radiosensitive individuals may harbor hypomorphic genetic variants in genomic maintenance and/or DNA repair genes or may carry epigenetic changes involving genes that more broadly modulate such systems, including G2-phase-specific DNA damage responses. PMID:20041760

Wilson, Paul F.; Nagasawa, Hatsumi; Fitzek, Markus M.; Little, John B.; Bedford, Joel S.

2010-01-01

323

Positive selection, molecular recombination structure and phylogenetic reconstruction of members of the family Tombusviridae: Implication in virus taxonomy  

PubMed Central

A detailed study of putative recombination events and their evolution frequency in the whole genome of the currently known members of the family Tombusviridae, comprising 79 accessions retrieved from the international databases, was carried out by using the RECCO and RDP version 3.31? algorithms. The first program allowed the detection of potential recombination sites in seven out of eight virus genera (Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, Carmovirus, Dianthovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and Tombusvirus), the second program provided the same results except for genus Dianthovirus. On the other hand, both methods failed to detect recombination breakpoints in the genome of members of genus Machlomovirus. Furthermore, based on Fisher’s Exact Test of Neutrality, positive selection exerted on protein-coding genes was detected in 17 accession pairs involving 15 different lineages. Except genera Machlomovirus, and Panicovirus along with unclassified Tombusviridae, all the other taxonomical genera and the unassigned Tombusviridae encompassed representatives under positive selection. The evolutionary history of all members of the Tombusviridae family showed that they segregated into eight distinct groups corresponding to the eight genera which constitute this family. The inferred phylogeny reshuffled the classification currently adopted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. A reclassification was proposed. PMID:22215970

Boulila, Moncef

2011-01-01

324

What’s at Stake? Genetic Information from the Perspective of People with Epilepsy and their Family Members  

PubMed Central

Substantial progress has been made in identifying genes that raise risk for epilepsy, and genetic testing for some of these genes is increasingly being used in clinical practice. However, almost no empirical data are available from the perspective of people with epilepsy and their family members about the impact of genetic information and potential benefits and harms of genetic testing. To address this gap we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 40 individuals (22 with epilepsy, 18 unaffected) in the USA from families containing multiple affected individuals who had participated in epilepsy genetics research. The interviews were coded and analyzed using the principles of grounded theory. Several major themes emerged from these interviews. Participants expressed “personal theories of inheritance” that emphasized commonalities among relatives and the idea that disease risk is most shared by family members who share physical or personality traits. Most participants said they would have genetic testing if it were offered. They cited many potential benefits, including learning what caused epilepsy in their family, being better able to care and advocate for children at risk, reducing guilt and blame, providing an increased sense of control, and relieving anxiety in unaffected individuals who test negative. The influence of genetic information on reproduction was a particularly salient theme. Although respondents believed genetic testing would be useful for informing their reproductive choices, they also expressed fear that it could lead to external pressures to modify these choices. Other concerns about the potential negative impact of genetic information included increased blame and guilt, increased stigma and discrimination in employment and insurance, self-imposed limitations on life goals, and alterations in fundamental conceptions of “what epilepsy is.” Consideration of the perspectives of people with epilepsy and their family members is critical to understanding the implications of contemporary epilepsy genetic research and testing. PMID:21831495

Shostak, Sara; Zarhin, Dana; Ottman, Ruth

2011-01-01

325

Analysis of CPEB Family Protein Member CPEB4 Function in Mammalian Neurons: A Dissertation.  

E-print Network

??Local protein synthesis is required for long-term memory formation in the brain. One protein family, Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element binding Protein (CPEB) that regulates protein synthesis… (more)

Kan, Ming-Chung

2008-01-01

326

Mechanistic Studies of Ser/Thr Dehydration Catalyzed by a Member of the LanL Lanthionine Synthetase Family  

PubMed Central

Members of the LanL family of lanthionine synthetases consist of three catalytic domains, an N-terminal pSer/pThr lyase domain, a central Ser/Thr kinase domain, and a C-terminal lanthionine cyclase domain. The N-terminal lyase domain has sequence homology with members of the OspF family of effector proteins. In this study, the residues in the lyase domain of VenL that are conserved in the active site of OspF proteins were mutated to evaluate their importance for catalysis. In addition, residues that are fully conserved in the LanL family but not in the OspF family were mutated. Activity assays with these mutant proteins are consistent with a model in which Lys80 in VenL deprotonates the ?-proton of pSer/pThr residues to initiate the elimination reaction. Lys51 is proposed to activate this proton by coordination to the carbonyl of the pSer/pThr, and His53 is believed to protonate the phosphate leaving group. These functions are very similar to the corresponding homologous residues in OspF proteins. On the other hand, recognition of the phosphate group of pSer/pThr appears to be achieved differently in VenL than in the OspF proteins. Arg156 and Lys103 are thought to interact with the phosphate group on the basis of a structural homology model. PMID:21229987

2011-01-01

327

Stepparents and the Law: Knowledge for Counselors, Guidelines for Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This literature-based article will acquaint family counselors with the relevant family law statutes to better guide their counseling with stepfamilies and to help stepparents better understand the current laws regarding their status. The article will specifically address stepparent status, postdivorce custody, visitation, financial support plus…

Gold, Joshua M.

2009-01-01

328

Autismo: Lo Que Miembros de Familia Necesitan Saber (Autism: What the Family Members Need to Know).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Spanish, the booklet addresses basic information for families with children who have autism. Facts about the syndrome are listed, followed by signs and symptoms, a summary of programmatic requirements, answers to questions frequently asked by families, suggestions to help parents cope, concerns facing adolescents and adults with autism, and…

Bancroft School, Haddonfield, NJ.

329

Bidirectional Associations between Coparenting Relations and Family Member Anxiety: A Review and Conceptual Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research into anxiety has largely ignored the dynamics of family systems in anxiety development. Coparenting refers to the quality of coordination between individuals responsible for the upbringing of children and links different subsystems within the family, such as the child, the marital relationship, and the parents. This review discusses the…

Majdandzic, Mirjana; de Vente, Wieke; Feinberg, Mark E.; Aktar, Evin; Bogels, Susan M.

2012-01-01

330

Structure of a Complex between Nedd8 and the Ulp/Senp Protease Family Member Den1  

SciTech Connect

The Nedd8 conjugation pathway is conserved from yeast to humans and is essential in many organisms. Nedd8 is conjugated to cullin proteins in a process that alters SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, and it is presumed that Nedd8 deconjugation would reverse these effects. We now report the X-ray structures of the human Nedd8-specific protease, Den1, in a complex with the inhibitor Nedd8 aldehyde, thus revealing a model for the tetrahedral transition state intermediate generated during proteolysis. Although Den1 is closely related to the SUMO-specific protease family (Ulp/Senp family), structural analysis of the interface suggests determinants involved in Nedd8 selectivity by Den1 over other ubiquitin-like family members and suggests how the Ulp/Senp architecture has been modified to interact with different ubiquitin-like modifiers.

Reverter, David; Wu, Kenneth; Erdene, Tudeviin Gan; Pan, Zhen-Qiang; Wilkinson, Keith D.; Lima, Christopher D. (Sinai); (MSKCC); (Emory)

2010-07-20

331

Phylogenetic Analysis of Members of the Phycodnaviridae Virus Family, Using Amplified Fragments of the Major Capsid Protein Gene?  

PubMed Central

Algal viruses are considered ecologically important by affecting host population dynamics and nutrient flow in aquatic food webs. Members of the family Phycodnaviridae are also interesting due to their extraordinary genome size. Few algal viruses in the Phycodnaviridae family have been sequenced, and those that have been have few genes in common and low gene homology. It has hence been difficult to design general PCR primers that allow further studies of their ecology and diversity. In this study, we screened the nine type I core genes of the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses for sequences suitable for designing a general set of primers. Sequence comparison between members of the Phycodnaviridae family, including three partly sequenced viruses infecting the prymnesiophyte Pyramimonas orientalis and the haptophytes Phaeocystis pouchetii and Chrysochromulina ericina (Pyramimonas orientalis virus 01B [PoV-01B], Phaeocystis pouchetii virus 01 [PpV-01], and Chrysochromulina ericina virus 01B [CeV-01B], respectively), revealed eight conserved regions in the major capsid protein (MCP). Two of these regions also showed conservation at the nucleotide level, and this allowed us to design degenerate PCR primers. The primers produced 347- to 518-bp amplicons when applied to lysates from algal viruses kept in culture and from natural viral communities. The aim of this work was to use the MCP as a proxy to infer phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity among members of the Phycodnaviridae family and to determine the occurrence and diversity of this gene in natural viral communities. The results support the current legitimate genera in the Phycodnaviridae based on alga host species. However, while placing the mimivirus in close proximity to the type species, PBCV-1, of Phycodnaviridae along with the three new viruses assigned to the family (PoV-01B, PpV-01, and CeV-01B), the results also indicate that the coccolithoviruses and phaeoviruses are more diverged from this group. Phylogenetic analysis of amplicons from virus assemblages from Norwegian coastal waters as well as from isolated algal viruses revealed a cluster of viruses infecting members of the prymnesiophyte and prasinophyte alga divisions. Other distinct clusters were also identified, containing amplicons from this study as well as sequences retrieved from the Sargasso Sea metagenome. This shows that closely related sequences of this family are present at geographically distant locations within the marine environment. PMID:18359826

Larsen, J. B.; Larsen, A.; Bratbak, G.; Sandaa, R.-A.

2008-01-01

332

Expression of members of the novel membrane linked metalloproteinase family ADAM in cells derived from a range of haematological malignancies.  

PubMed

ADAMs (A disintegrin and metalloproteinase) are a recently discovered family of proteins with significant primary sequence similarity to the reprolysin family of snake venomases. These ADAMs closest known homologues are the type III reprolysin enzymes which have been demonstrated to be, among other things potent type IV collagenases. ADAMs are putative membrane linked proteins with several domains including a metalloproteinase domain, a potential integrin binding domain, a cysteine rich sequence and an EGF like sequence. They have been implicated in a wide variety of functions including basement membrane degradation and cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. We have used RT-PCR and Northern blotting to characterise the expression of members of this family in cells derived from a variety of haematological malignancies including leukaemia (HL60 and Jurkat), erythroleukaemia (K562), lymphoma (U937 and Cupillo) and myeloma (U266B1). We find clear expression of four members of this novel family of proteins but note differences in the expression levels of each member. The ADAMs known as MADM (ADAM10), MCMP (ADAM12, MDC9) and Metargidin (ADAM15) which all possess potentially active metalloproteinase domains are expressed in all these cell types to significant levels. The putative tumour suppressor gene MDC (ADAM11) is expressed at very low levels in all cells examined. As ADAMs may have both potential metalloproteinase activity and adhesive domains we wish to explore the role of these proteins with regard to pathophysiology of haematological malignancy such as egression of leukaemic cells from the bone marrow. PMID:9199213

Wu, E; Croucher, P I; McKie, N

1997-06-18

333

SOX4 Transcriptionally Regulates Multiple SEMA3/Plexin Family Members and Promotes Tumor Growth in Pancreatic Cancer  

PubMed Central

Semaphorin signaling through Plexin frequently participates in tumorigenesis and malignant progression in various types of cancer. In particular, the role of semaphorin signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unexplored, despite a high likelihood of metastasis and mortality. Unlike other epithelial malignancies that often express a small number of specific genes in the Semaphorin/Plexin family, five or more are often expressed in human PDAC. Such concomitant expression of these SEMA3/Plexin family members is not a result of gene amplification, but (at least partially) from increased gene transcription activated by SOX4 de novo expressed in PDAC. Via chromatin-immunoprecipitation, luciferase promoter activity assay and electrophoresis mobility shift assay, SOX4 is demonstrated to bind to the consensus site at the promoter of each SEMA3 and Plexin gene to enhance transcription activity. Conversely, RNAi-knockdown of SOX4 in PDAC cell lines results in decreased expression of SEMA3/Plexin family members and is associated with restricted tumor growth both in vitro and in SCID mice. We further demonstrate that SOX4 levels parallel with the summed expression of SEMA3/Plexin family members (P?=?0.033, NPar Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis), which also correlates with poor survival in human PDAC (P?=?0.0409, Kaplan-Meier analysis). Intriguingly, miR-129-2 and miR-335, both of which target SOX4 for degradation, are co-repressed in human PDAC cases associated with up-regulated SOX4 in a statistically significant way. In conclusion, we disclose a miR-129-2(miR-335)/SOX4/Semaphorin-Plexin regulatory axis in the tumorigenesis of pancreatic cancer. PMID:23251334

Huang, Hsin-Yi; Cheng, Yu-Yao; Liao, Wei-Chih; Tien, Yu-Wen; Yang, Chih-Hsin James; Hsu, Su-Ming; Huang, Pei-Hsin

2012-01-01

334

The dispanins: a novel gene family of ancient origin that contains 14 human members.  

PubMed

The Interferon induced transmembrane proteins (IFITM) are a family of transmembrane proteins that is known to inhibit cell invasion of viruses such as HIV-1 and influenza. We show that the IFITM genes are a subfamily in a larger family of transmembrane (TM) proteins that we call Dispanins, which refers to a common 2TM structure. We mined the Dispanins in 36 eukaryotic species, covering all major eukaryotic groups, and investigated their evolutionary history using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to infer a phylogenetic tree. We identified ten human genes that together with the known IFITM genes form the Dispanin family. We show that the Dispanins first emerged in eukaryotes in a common ancestor of choanoflagellates and metazoa, and that the family later expanded in vertebrates where it forms four subfamilies (A-D). Interestingly, we also find that the family is found in several different phyla of bacteria and propose that it was horizontally transferred to eukaryotes from bacteria in the common ancestor of choanoflagellates and metazoa. The bacterial and eukaryotic sequences have a considerably conserved protein structure. In conclusion, we introduce a novel family, the Dispanins, together with a nomenclature based on the evolutionary origin. PMID:22363774

Sällman Almén, Markus; Bringeland, Nathalie; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B

2012-01-01

335

Biosynthesis of pyochelin and dihydroaeruginoic acid requires the iron-regulated pchDCBA operon in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed Central

The high-affinity siderophore salicylate is an intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of pyochelin, another siderophore and chelator of transition metal ions, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The 2.5-kb region upstream of the salicylate biosynthetic genes pchBA was sequenced and found to contain two additional, contiguous genes, pchD and pchC, having the same orientation. The deduced amino acid sequence of the 60-kDa PchD protein was similar to those of the EntE protein (2,3-dihydroxybenzoate-AMP ligase) of Escherichia coli and other adenylate-forming enzymes, suggesting that salicylate might be adenylated at the carboxyl group by PchD. The 28-kDa PchC protein showed similarities to thioesterases of prokaryotic and eukaryotic origin and might participate in the release of the product(s) formed from activated salicylate. One potential product, dihydroaeruginoate (Dha), was identified in culture supernatants of iron-limited P. aeruginosa cells. The antifungal antibiotic Dha is thought to arise from the reaction of salicylate with cysteine, followed by cyclization of cysteine. Inactivation of the chromosomal pchD gene by insertion of the transcription and translation stop element omega Sm/Sp abolished the production of Dha and pyochelin, implying that PchD-mediated activation of salicylate may be a common first step in the synthesis of both metabolites. Furthermore, the pchD::omega Sm/Sp mutation had a strong polar effect on the expression of the pchBA genes, i.e., on salicylate synthesis, indicating that the pchDCBA genes constitute a transcriptional unit. A full-length pchDCBA transcript of ca. 4.4 kb could be detected in iron-deprived, growing cells of P. aeruginosa. Transcription of pchD started at tandemly arranged promoters, which overlapped with two Fur boxes (binding sites for the ferric uptake regulator) and the promoter of the divergently transcribed pchR gene encoding an activator of pyochelin biosynthesis. This promoter arrangement allows tight iron-mediated repression of the pchDCBA operon. PMID:8982005

Serino, L; Reimmann, C; Visca, P; Beyeler, M; Chiesa, V D; Haas, D

1997-01-01

336

Members of the Pmp protein family of Chlamydia pneumoniae mediate adhesion to human cells via short repetitive peptide motifs  

PubMed Central

Chlamydiae sp. are obligate intracellular pathogens that cause a variety of diseases in humans. Adhesion of the infectious elementary body to the eukaryotic host cell is a pivotal step in chlamydial pathogenesis. Here we describe the characterization of members of the polymorphic membrane protein family (Pmp), the largest protein family (with up to 21 members) unique to Chlamydiaceae. We show that yeast cells displaying Pmp6, Pmp20 or Pmp21 on their surfaces, or beads coated with the recombinant proteins, adhere to human epithelial cells. A hallmark of the Pmp protein family is the presence of multiple repeats of the tetrapeptide motifs FxxN and GGA(I, L, V) and deletion analysis shows that at least two copies of these motifs are needed for adhesion. Importantly, pre-treatment of human cells with recombinant Pmp6, Pmp20 or Pmp21 protein reduces infectivity upon subsequent challenge with Chlamydia pneumoniae and correlates with diminished attachment of Chlamydiae to target cells. Antibodies specific for Pmp21 can neutralize infection in vitro. Finally, a combination of two different Pmp proteins in infection blockage experiments shows additive effects, possibly suggesting similar functions. Our findings imply that Pmp6, Pmp20 and Pmp21 act as adhesins, are vital during infection and thus represent promising vaccine candidates. PMID:21062373

Mölleken, Katja; Schmidt, Eleni; Hegemann, Johannes H

2010-01-01

337

Molecular interactions of prodiginines with the BH3 domain of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members.  

PubMed

Prodigiosin and obatoclax, members of the prodiginines family, are small molecules with anti-cancer properties that are currently under preclinical and clinical trials. The molecular target(s) of these agents, however, is an open question. Combining experimental and computational techniques we find that prodigiosin binds to the BH3 domain in some BCL-2 protein families, which play an important role in the apoptotic programmed cell death. In particular, our results indicate a large affinity of prodigiosin for MCL-1, an anti-apoptotic member of the BCL-2 family. In melanoma cells, we demonstrate that prodigiosin activates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by disrupting MCL-1/BAK complexes. Computer simulations with the PELE software allow the description of the induced fit process, obtaining a detailed atomic view of the molecular interactions. These results provide new data to understand the mechanism of action of these molecules, and assist in the development of more specific inhibitors of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins. PMID:23460874

Hosseini, Ali; Espona-Fiedler, Margarita; Soto-Cerrato, Vanessa; Quesada, Roberto; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo; Guallar, Victor

2013-01-01

338

Family Involvement in Four Voices: Administrator, Teacher, Students, and Community Member  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaborations and partnerships among schools and community members have been described as a way to provide better educational opportunities for students. Such school-community partnerships have been described as relationships that involve exchange and engagement with mutually defined goals benefiting all participants. However, the process of…

Wiseman, Angela

2010-01-01

339

Crystal Structure of Cytomegalovirus IE1 Protein Reveals Targeting of TRIM Family Member PML via Coiled-Coil Interactions  

PubMed Central

PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are enigmatic structures of the cell nucleus that act as key mediators of intrinsic immunity against viral pathogens. PML itself is a member of the E3-ligase TRIM family of proteins that regulates a variety of innate immune signaling pathways. Consequently, viruses have evolved effector proteins to modify PML-NBs; however, little is known concerning structure-function relationships of viral antagonists. The herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) expresses the abundant immediate-early protein IE1 that colocalizes with PML-NBs and induces their dispersal, which correlates with the antagonization of NB-mediated intrinsic immunity. Here, we delineate the molecular basis for this antagonization by presenting the first crystal structure for the evolutionary conserved primate cytomegalovirus IE1 proteins. We show that IE1 consists of a globular core (IE1CORE) flanked by intrinsically disordered regions. The 2.3 Å crystal structure of IE1CORE displays an all ?-helical, femur-shaped fold, which lacks overall fold similarity with known protein structures, but shares secondary structure features recently observed in the coiled-coil domain of TRIM proteins. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds efficiently to the TRIM family member PML, and is able to induce PML deSUMOylation. Intriguingly, this results in the release of NB-associated proteins into the nucleoplasm, but not of PML itself. Importantly, we show that PML deSUMOylation by IE1CORE is sufficient to antagonize PML-NB-instituted intrinsic immunity. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds via the coiled-coil domain to PML and also interacts with TRIM5? We propose that IE1CORE sequesters PML and possibly other TRIM family members via structural mimicry using an extended binding surface formed by the coiled-coil region. This mode of interaction might render the antagonizing activity less susceptible to mutational escape. PMID:25412268

Sevvana, Madhumati; Otto, Victoria; Schilling, Eva-Maria; Stump, Joachim D.; Müller, Regina; Reuter, Nina; Sticht, Heinrich; Muller, Yves A.; Stamminger, Thomas

2014-01-01

340

Cloning and Characterization of CD300d, a Novel Member of the Human CD300 Family of Immune Receptors*  

PubMed Central

Herein we present the cloning and molecular characterization of CD300d, a member of the human CD300 family of immune receptors. CD300d cDNA was cloned from RNA obtained from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and RT-PCR revealed the gene to be expressed in cells of myeloid lineage. The cloned cDNA encoded for a type I protein with a single extracellular Ig V-type domain and a predicted molecular mass of 21.5 kDa. The short cytoplasmic tail is lacking in any known signaling motif, but there is a negatively charged residue (glutamic acid) within the transmembrane domain. CD300d forms complexes with the CD300 family members, with the exception of CD300c. Contrary to other activating members of the CD300 family of receptors, surface expression of CD300d in COS-7-transfected cells required the presence of an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activating motif-bearing adaptor (Fc?R?). Accordingly, we found that CD300d was able to recruit Fc?R?. Unexpectedly, we could not detect CD300d on the surface of cells expressing Fc?R?, suggesting the existence of unknown mechanisms regulating the trafficking of this molecule. The presence of other CD300 molecules also did not modify the intracellular expression of CD300d. In fact, the presence of CD300d decreased the levels of surface expression of CD300f but not CD300c. Our data suggest that the function of CD300d would be related to the regulation of the expression of other CD300 molecules and the composition of CD300 complexes on the cell surface. PMID:22291008

Comas-Casellas, Emma; Martínez-Barriocanal, Águeda; Miró, Francesc; Ejarque-Ortiz, Aroa; Schwartz, Simo; Martín, Margarita; Sayós, Joan

2012-01-01

341

Differential Expression of Three Members of the Multidomain Adhesion CCp Family in Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Theileria equi  

PubMed Central

Members of the CCp protein family have been previously described to be expressed on gametocytes of apicomplexan Plasmodium parasites. Knocking out Plasmodium CCp genes blocks the development of the parasite in the mosquito vector, making the CCp proteins potential targets for the development of a transmission-blocking vaccine. Apicomplexans Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina are the causative agents of bovine babesiosis, and apicomplexan Theileria equi causes equine piroplasmosis. Bovine babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis are the most economically important parasite diseases that affect worldwide cattle and equine industries, respectively. The recent sequencing of the B. bovis and T. equi genomes has provided the opportunity to identify novel genes involved in parasite biology. Here we characterize three members of the CCp family, named CCp1, CCp2 and CCp3, in B. bigemina, B. bovis and T. equi. Using B. bigemina as an in vitro model, expression of all three CCp genes and proteins was demonstrated in temperature-induced sexual stages. Transcripts for all three CCp genes were found in vivo in blood stages of T. equi, and transcripts for CCp3 were detected in vivo in blood stages of B. bovis. However, no protein expression was detected in T. equi blood stages or B. bovis blood stages or B. bovis tick stages. Collectively, the data demonstrated a differential pattern of expression of three orthologous genes of the multidomain adhesion CCp family by B. bigemina, B. bovis and T. equi. The novel CCp members represent potential targets for innovative approaches to control bovine babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis. PMID:23844089

Bastos, Reginaldo G.; Suarez, Carlos E.; Laughery, Jacob M.; Johnson, Wendell C.; Ueti, Massaro W.; Knowles, Donald P.

2013-01-01

342

Vigorous physical activity impairs myocardial function in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and in mutation positive family members  

PubMed Central

Aims Exercise increases risk of ventricular arrhythmia in subjects with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). We aimed to investigate the impact of exercise on myocardial function in ARVC subjects. Methods and Results We included 110 subjects (age 42?±?17?years), 65 ARVC patients and 45 mutation-positive family members. Athletes were defined as subjects with ?4?h vigorous exercise/week [?1440 metabolic equivalents (METs?×?minutes/week)] during a minimum of 6 years. Athlete definition was fulfilled in 37/110 (34%) subjects. We assessed right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) myocardial function by echocardiography, and by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The RV function by RV fractional area change (FAC), RV global longitudinal strain (GLS) by echocardiography, and RV ejection fraction (EF) by MRI was reduced in athletes compared with non-athletes (FAC 34?±?9% vs. 40?±?11%, RVGLS –18.3?±?6.1% vs. –22.0?±?4.8%, RVEF 32?±?8% vs. 43?±?10%, all P?family members (47?±?3% vs. 52?±?6%, P?family members. The amount and intensity of exercise activity was associated with impaired LV and RV function. Exercise may aggravate and accelerate myocardial dysfunction in ARVC. PMID:25319773

Saberniak, Jørg; Hasselberg, Nina E; Borgquist, Rasmus; Platonov, Pyotr G; Sarvari, Sebastian I; Smith, Hans-Jørgen; Ribe, Margareth; Holst, Anders G; Edvardsen, Thor; Haugaa, Kristina H

2014-01-01

343

Comparative phylogenetic analysis of genome-wide Mlo gene family members from Glycine max and Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Powdery mildew locus O (Mlo) gene family is one of the largest seven transmembrane protein-encoding gene families. The Mlo proteins act as negative regulators of powdery mildew resistance and a loss-of-function mutation in Mlo is known to confer broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew. In addition, the Mlo gene family members are known to participate in various developmental and biotic and abiotic stress response-related pathways. Therefore, a genome-wide similarity search using the characterized Mlo protein sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana was carried out to identify putative Mlo genes in soybean (Glycine max) genome. This search identified 39 Mlo domain containing protein-encoding genes that were distributed on 15 of the 20 G. max chromosomes. The putative promoter regions of these Mlo genes contained response elements for different external stimuli, including different hormones and abiotic stresses. Of the 39 GmMlo proteins, 35 were rich (8.7-13.1 %) in leucine, while five were serine-rich (9.2-11.9 %). Furthermore, all the GmMlo members were localized in the plasma membrane. Phylogenetic analysis of the GmMlo and the AtMlo proteins classified them into three main clusters, and the cluster I comprised two sub-clusters. Multiple sequence alignment visualized the location of seven transmembrane domains, and a conserved CaM-binding domain. Some of the GmMlo proteins (GmMlo10, 20, 22, 23, 32, 36, 37) contained less than seven transmembrane domains. The motif analysis yielded 27 motifs; out of these, motif 2, the only motif present in all the GmMlos, was highly conserved and three amino acid residues were essentially invariant. Five of the GmMlo members were much smaller in size; presumably they originated through deletion following a gene duplication event. The presence of a large number of GmMlo members in the G. max genome may be due to its paleopolyploid nature and the large genome size as compared to that of Arabidopsis. The findings of this study may further help in characterization and isolation of individual GmMlo members. PMID:24469270

Deshmukh, Reena; Singh, V K; Singh, B D

2014-06-01

344

Using the synergy model of patient care in understanding the lived emergency department experiences of patients, family members and their nurses during critical illness: a phenomenological study.  

PubMed

Despite many studies conducted aimed to understand and improve emergency care, research on the triad of nurses, patients, and family members looking at the lived emergency department experiences and their perspective of each from the other is notably absent. In a hermeneutic phenomenological study using van Manen's method, a sample of 10 patients, 5 family members, and 8 nurses of a nonprofit community hospital was recruited and interviewed in 2010 to 2011 to explore, understand, and describe their lived experiences during critical illness in the emergency department. The nurses perceived that addressing the patient's physiologic deficit promptly is vital in the emergency department as well as including family members as coparticipants in the care. Patients and family members perceived that communication, critical thinking, sensitivity, and caring are essential for emergency department nurses. The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses' Synergy Model for Patient Care was applied in conceptualizing the findings and served as a framework in recommending practices and interventions geared toward improving competencies required in caring for critically ill patients and their families in the emergency department. The study supports recognizing the patient and family as active participants in the patient's medical care; encouraging family-member presence and creating institutional policies for patient- and family-centered care, as well as encouraging the development of ongoing programs that will recognize, enhance, and support the psychological and emotional well-being of emergency department nurses. PMID:24100433

Cypress, Brigitte S

2013-01-01

345

The salivary gland-specific apyrase of the mosquito Aedes aegypti is a member of the 5'-nucleotidase family.  

PubMed Central

The saliva of hematophagous insects contains a variety of pharmacologically active substances that counteract the normal hemostatic response to injury in vertebrate hosts. The yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, secretes an apyrase that inhibits ADP-dependent platelet aggregation. Apyrase was purified as an active enzyme from adult female salivary glands and subjected to tryptic digestion, and the resulting peptides were sequenced. The amino acid sequences obtained match the conceptual translation product of a cDNA clone isolated from an adult female salivary gland library. Sequence comparisons indicate similarities with a ubiquitous family of 5'-nucleotidases. The mosquito protein differs from other members of the family by lacking a carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic domain. The apparent conversion of a gene encoding an enzyme involved in a common metabolic event at the cellular level to a gene involved in the antihemostatic response of mosquitoes illustrates one way this particular insect has adapted to the challenges of bloodfeeding. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7846038

Champagne, D E; Smartt, C T; Ribeiro, J M; James, A A

1995-01-01

346

miR-181 targets multiple Bcl-2 family members and influences apoptosis and mitochondrial function in astrocytes  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria are central to the execution of apoptosis, and the Bcl-2 protein family of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins interacts with mitochondria to regulate apoptosis. Using bioinformatics we predicted that miR-181, a microRNA expressed in brain, could target the 3?UTRs of Bcl-2 family members Bcl-2-L11/Bim, Mcl-1, and Bcl-2. Using the luciferase reporter assay we confirmed these targets. We used mimic and inhibitor to alter miR-181a levels in primary astrocyte cultures and found miR-181a reduction was associated with increased Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 protein levels. Decreased miR-181a levels reduced glucose deprivation induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in astrocytes. PMID:21958558

Ouyang, Yi-Bing; Lu, Yu; Yue, Sibiao; Giffard, Rona G.

2011-01-01

347

75 FR 33491 - Absence and Leave; Definitions of Family Member, Immediate Relative, and Related Terms  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...traditional families and the institution of marriage. Some did not believe in giving any...State or by the District of Columbia as a marriage or analogous relationship (including...wanted to know what standard, absent a marriage, civil union, or other form of...

2010-06-14

348

Expression and Function of Members of a Divergent Nuclear Receptor Family in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a large class of ligand-regulated transcriptional modulators that have been shown to play roles in many developmental processes. The Caenorhabditis elegans genome is predicted to encode a large and divergent family of NR proteins. The functions of most of these genes are unknown. As a first step toward defining their roles, we have initiated an expression

Tomoyuki Miyabayashi; Mark T Palfreyman; Ann E Sluder; Frank Slack; Piali Sengupta

1999-01-01

349

Negotiating Connection to GLBT Experience: Family Members’ Experience of Anti-GLBT Movements and Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been numerous legislative initiatives to limit gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) people’s rights at local, state, and national levels (G. M. Herek, 2006). Although research has focused on how GLBT people are affected by these initiatives, to date no research has explored the impact of this legislation upon the families of origin of GLBT people. This qualitative

Jennifer R. Arm; Sharon G. Horne; Heidi M. Levitt

2009-01-01

350

Negotiating Connection to GLBT Experience: Family Members' Experience of Anti-GLBT Movements and Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been numerous legislative initiatives to limit gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) people's rights at local, state, and national levels (G. M. Herek, 2006). Although research has focused on how GLBT people are affected by these initiatives, to date no research has explored the impact of this legislation upon the families of…

Arm, Jennifer R.; Horne, Sharon G.; Levitt, Heidi M.

2009-01-01

351

Elicitor-specific induction of one member of the chitinase gene family in Arachis hypogaea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitinases are believed to play an important role in plant defence against bacterial and fungal attack. In peanut (Arachis hypogaea) chitinase genes form a small multigene family. Four chitinase cDNAs (chit 1–4) were isolated from cultured peanut cells. Expression of individual chit genes was assayed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP).

Thomas Herget; Jeff Schell; Peter H. Schreier

1990-01-01

352

Dilemmas Families Face in Talking With Returning U.S. Military Service Members About Seeking Professional Help for Mental Health Issues.  

PubMed

Drawing on Goldsmith's (2004) normative theory, this article maps dilemmas family members experience when talking with returning service members (SMs) about seeking mental health care. Eighty family members of United States SMs who served in Iraq or Afghanistan read a scenario where their SM was displaying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depression symptoms. Participants described goals they would pursue, barriers they might encounter, and advice they would give others in the situation. Four dilemmas of talking about mental health emerged: (a) getting you to recognize the problem without implying you're not normal, (b) convincing you to seek help without implying you're weak, (c) being persistent but patient, and (d) wanting you to open up without implying I can understand. Family members reported using four groups of strategies to manage these dilemmas. Directions for expanding the concept of dilemmas as "paradoxes" and for supporting military families as well as rethinking policy assumptions are discussed. PMID:25175387

Wilson, Steven R; Gettings, Patricia E; Hall, Elizabeth Dorrance; Pastor, Rebekah G

2014-08-30

353

Crystal structure of murine coronavirus receptor sCEACAM1a[1,4],a member of the carcinoembtyonic antigen family  

SciTech Connect

CEACAM1 is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family. Isoforms of murine CEACAM1 serve as receptors for mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a murine coronavirus. Here we report the crystal structure of soluble murine sCEACAM1a[1,4], which is composed of two Ig-like domains and has MHV neutralizing activity. Its N-terminal domain has a uniquely folded CC' loop that encompasses key virus-binding residues. This is the first atomic structure of any member of the CEA family, and provides a prototypic architecture for functional exploration of CEA family members. We discuss the structural basis of virus receptor activities of murine CEACAM1 proteins, binding of Neisseria to human CEACAM1, and other homophilic and heterophilic interactions of CEA family members.

Tan, K.; Zelus, B. D.; Meijers, R.; Liu, J.-H.; Bergelson, J. M.; Zhang, R.; Duke, N.; Joachimiak, A.; Holmes, K. V.; Wang, J.-H.; Biosciences Division; Dana-Farber Cancer Inst.; Harvard Medical School; Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center; Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

2002-05-01

354

Is Autism a Member of a Family of Diseases Resulting from Genetic/Cultural Mismatches? Implications for Treatment and Prevention  

PubMed Central

Several lines of evidence support the view that autism is a typical member of a large family of immune-related, noninfectious, chronic diseases associated with postindustrial society. This family of diseases includes a wide range of inflammatory, allergic, and autoimmune diseases and results from consequences of genetic/culture mismatches which profoundly destabilize the immune system. Principle among these consequences is depletion of important components, particularly helminths, from the ecosystem of the human body, the human biome. Autism shares a wide range of features in common with this family of diseases, including the contribution of genetics/epigenetics, the identification of disease-inducing triggers, the apparent role of immunity in pathogenesis, high prevalence, complex etiologies and manifestations, and potentially some aspects of epidemiology. Fortunately, using available resources and technology, modern medicine has the potential to effectively reconstitute the human biome, thus treating or even avoiding altogether the consequences of genetic/cultural mismatches which underpin this entire family of disease. Thus, if indeed autism is an epidemic of postindustrial society associated with immune hypersensitivity, we can expect that the disease is readily preventable. PMID:22928103

Bilbo, Staci D.; Jones, John P.; Parker, William

2012-01-01

355

B-Cell Maturation Protein, Which Binds the Tumor Necrosis Factor Family Members BAFF and APRIL, Is Dispensable for Humoral Immune Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

B-cell maturation protein (BCMA) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family and is expressed in B lymphocytes. BCMA binds two TNF family members, BAFF and APRIL, that stimulate cellular proliferation. BAFF in particular has been shown to influence B-cell survival and activation, and transgenic mice overexpressing BAFF have a lupus-like autoimmune disorder. We have inactivated BCMA

SHENGLI XU; KONG-PENG LAM

2001-01-01

356

Degradation of the Herbicide Glyphosate by Members of the Family Rhizobiaceae  

PubMed Central

Several strains of the family Rhizobiaceae were tested for their ability to degrade the phosphonate herbicide glyphosate (isopropylamine salt of N-phosphonomethylglycine). All organisms tested (seven Rhizobium meliloti strains, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Rhizobium galega, Rhizobium trifolii, Agrobacterium rhizogenes, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens) were able to grow on glyphosate as the sole source of phosphorus in the presence of the aromatic amino acids, although growth on glyphosate was not as fast as on Pi. These results suggest that glyphosate degradation ability is widespread in the family Rhizobiaceae. Uptake and metabolism of glyphosate were studied by using R. meliloti 1021. Sarcosine was found to be the immediate breakdown product, indicating that the initial cleavage of glyphosate was at the C—P bond. Therefore, glyphosate breakdown in R. meliloti 1021 is achieved by a C—P lyase activity. PMID:16348512

Liu, C.-M.; McLean, P. A.; Sookdeo, C. C.; Cannon, F. C.

1991-01-01

357

Meanings and purposes of caring for a family member: an autoethnography.  

PubMed

Engagement in two interlinked areas of occupation, familial social participation and caring for my father at the end of his life, led to a journey of self-discovery. A qualitative research methodology, autoethnography, is used to develop a narrative that examines engagement in these two occupations before, during, and after my father's illness and death. I discuss meanings and purposes of familial social participation and caregiving, suggesting that transforming fear of death to awareness of death is a central purpose of caregiving. Implications for therapists and caregivers include considerations about the value of occupation, discussion of a continuum of caregiving, examination of boundaries when caring for a parent, thoughts about the roles of altruism, love, anger, and "bad faith" in caregiving, and analysis of sons as caregivers for fathers. Further research on meanings and purposes of caregiving is proposed. PMID:15969274

Hoppes, Steve

2005-01-01

358

Medication Administration By Family Members of Dependent Elders In Shared Care Arrangements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-three long-term care family caregivers whose care-recipients were enrolled in adult day care programs participated in face-to-face, semistructured interviews designed to learn more about their medication administration experiences. Two distinct styles of decision making were identified: self-directed and physician-directed. To help them with their medication administration responsibility, both groups used primary (physicians, pharmacists, or both) and secondary sources of information

Shirley S. Travis; Lisa Sparks Bethea

2001-01-01

359

Bin2, a Functionally Nonredundant Member of the BAR Adaptor Gene Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

BAR family proteins are a unique class of adaptor proteins characterized by a common N-terminal fold of undetermined function termed the BAR domain. This set of adaptors, which includes the mammalian proteins amphiphysin and Bin1 and the yeast proteins Rvs167p and Rvs161p, has been implicated in diverse cellular processes, including synaptic vesicle endocytosis, actin regulation, differentiation, cell survival, and tumorigenesis.

Kai Ge; George C. Prendergast

2000-01-01

360

Actinocatenispora thailandica gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Micromonosporaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two actinomycete strains, TT2-10T and TT2-3, which produced long spore chains (more than 10 spores per chain), were isolated from peat swamp forest soil in Pattaloong Province, Thailand. Their taxonomic positions were determined using a polyphasic approach. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of these strains coincided with those of the family Micromonosporaceae, i.e. cell-wall chemotype II, muramic acid of the N-glycolyl type,

Chitti Thawai; Somboon Tanasupawat; Takashi Itoh; Takuji Kudo

2006-01-01

361

Cloning and expression of a human voltage-gated potassium channel. A novel member of the RCK potassium channel family.  

PubMed

We have isolated and characterized a human cDNA (HBK2) that is homologous to novel member (RCK2) of the K+ channel RCK gene family expressed in rat brain. RCK2 mRNA was detected predominantly in midbrain areas and brainstem. The primary sequences of the HBK2/RCK2 K+ channel proteins exhibit major differences to other members of the RCK gene family. The bend region between segments S1 and S2 is unusually long and does not contain the N-glycosylation site commonly found in this region. They might be O-glycosylated instead. Functional characterization of the HBK2/RCK2 K+ channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes following micro-injection in in vitro transcribed HBK2 or RCK2 cRNA showed that the HBK2/RCK2 proteins form voltage-gated K+ channels with novel functional and pharmacological properties. These channels are different to RCK1, RCK3, RCK4 and RCK5 K+ channels. PMID:2347305

Grupe, A; Schröter, K H; Ruppersberg, J P; Stocker, M; Drewes, T; Beckh, S; Pongs, O

1990-06-01

362

Molecular characterization and mapping of murine genes encoding three members of the stefin family of cysteine proteinase inhibitors  

SciTech Connect

Stefins or Type 1 cystatins belong to a large, evolutionarily conserved protein superfamily, the members of which inhibit the papain-like cysteine proteinases. The authors report here on the molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of three newly identified members of the murine stefin gene family. These genes, designated herein as mouse stefins 1, 2, and 3, were isolated on the basis of their relatively increased expression in moth-eaten viable compared to normal congenic mouse bone marrow cells. The open reading frames of the stefin cDNAs encode proteins of approximately 11.5 kDa that show between 50 and 92% identity to sequences of stefins isolated from various other species. Data from Southern analysis suggest that the murine stefin gene family encompasses at least 6 and possible 10-20 membranes, all of which appear to be clustered in the genome. Analysis of interspecific backcross mice indicates that the genes encoding the three mouse stefins all map to mouse chromosome 16, a localization that is consistent with the recent assignment of the human stefin A gene to a region of conserved homology between human chromosome 3q and the proximal region of mouse chromosome 16. 51 refs., 7 figs.

Tsui, F.W.L.; Hingwo Tsui; Mok, S. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada) Toronto Hospital, Ontario (Canada)); Mlinaric, I.; Siminovitch, K.A. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada) Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Copeland, N.G.; Gilbert, D.J.; Jenkins, N.A. (NCI-Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, MD (United States))

1993-03-01

363

Cloning, characterization and phylogenetic analyses of members of three major venom families from a single specimen of Walterinnesia aegyptia.  

PubMed

Walterinnesia aegyptia is a monotypic elapid snake inhabiting in Africa and Mideast. Although its envenoming is known to cause rapid deaths and paralysis, structural data of its venom proteins are rather limited. Using gel filtration and reverse-phase HPLC, phospholipases A(2) (PLAs), three-fingered toxins (3FTxs), and Kunitz-type protease inhibitors (KIns) were purified from the venom of a single specimen of this species caught in northern Egypt. In addition, specific primers were designed and PCR was carried out to amplify the cDNAs encoding members of the three venom families, respectively, using total cDNA prepared from its venom glands. Complete amino acid sequences of two acidic PLAs, three short chain 3FTxs, and four KIns of this venom species were thus deduced after their cDNAs were cloned and sequenced. They are all novel sequences and match the mass data of purified proteins. For members of each toxin family, protein sequences were aligned and subjected to molecular phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the PLAs and a Kunitz inhibitor of W. aegyptia are most similar to those of king cobra venom, and its 3FTxs belongs to either Type I alpha-neurotoxins or weak toxins of orphan-II subtype. It is remarkable that both king cobra and W. aegyptia cause rapid deaths of the victims, and a close evolutionary relationship between them is speculated. PMID:18405934

Tsai, Hsin-Yu; Wang, Ying Ming; Tsai, Inn-Ho

2008-06-01

364

The Medicago truncatula sucrose transporter family: characterization and implication of key members in carbon partitioning towards arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.  

PubMed

We identified de novo sucrose transporter (SUT) genes involved in long-distance transport of sucrose from photosynthetic source leaves towards sink organs in the model leguminous species Medicago truncatula. The identification and functional analysis of sugar transporters provide key information on mechanisms that underlie carbon partitioning in plant-microorganism interactions. In that way, full-length sequences of the M. truncatula SUT (MtSUT) family were retrieved and biochemical characterization of MtSUT members was performed by heterologous expression in yeast. The MtSUT family now comprises six genes which distribute among Dicotyledonous clades. MtSUT1-1 and MtSUT4-1 are key members in regard to their expression profiles in source leaves and sink roots and were characterized as functional H(+)/sucrose transporters. Physiological and molecular responses to phosphorus supply and inoculation by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices was studied by gene expression and sugar quantification analyses. Sucrose represents the main sugar transport form in M. truncatula and the expression profiles of MtSUT1-1, MtSUT2, and MtSUT4-1 highlight a fine-tuning regulation for beneficial sugar fluxes towards the fungal symbiont. Taken together, these results suggest distinct functions for proteins from the SUT1, SUT2, and SUT4 clades in plant and in biotrophic interactions. PMID:22930732

Doidy, Joan; van Tuinen, Diederik; Lamotte, Olivier; Corneillat, Marion; Alcaraz, Gérard; Wipf, Daniel

2012-11-01

365

Evolution of hematopoiesis: Three members of the PU.1 transcription factor family in a cartilaginous fish, Raja eglanteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes are present in jawed vertebrates, including cartilaginous fishes, but not in jawless vertebrates or invertebrates. The origins of these lineages may be understood in terms of evolutionary changes in the structure and regulation of transcription factors that control lymphocyte development, such as PU.1. The identification and characterization of three members of the PU.1 family of transcription factors in a cartilaginous fish, Raja eglanteria, are described here. Two of these genes are orthologs of mammalian PU.1 and Spi-C, respectively, whereas the third gene, Spi-D, is a different family member. In addition, a PU.1-like gene has been identified in a jawless vertebrate, Petromyzon marinus (sea lamprey). Both DNA-binding and transactivation domains are highly conserved between mammalian and skate PU.1, in marked contrast to lamprey Spi, in which similarity is evident only in the DNA-binding domain. Phylogenetic analysis of sequence data suggests that the appearance of Spi-C may predate the divergence of the jawed and jawless vertebrates and that Spi-D arose before the divergence of the cartilaginous fish from the lineage leading to the mammals. The tissue-specific expression patterns of skate PU.1 and Spi-C suggest that these genes share regulatory as well as structural properties with their mammalian orthologs.

Anderson, M. K.; Sun, X.; Miracle, A. L.; Litman, G. W.; Rothenberg, E. V.

2001-01-01

366

Spiked-in pulsed in vivo labeling identifies a new member of the CCN family in regenerating newt hearts.  

PubMed

The newt Notophthalmus viridescens , which belongs to the family of salamanders (Urodela), owns remarkable regenerative capacities allowing efficient scar-free repair of various organs including the heart. Salamanders can regrow large parts of the myocardium unlike mammals, which cannot replace lost cardiomyocytes efficiently. Unfortunately, very little is known about the molecules and the regulatory circuits facilitating efficient heart regeneration in newts or salamanders. To identify proteins that are involved in heart regeneration, we have developed a pulsed SILAC-based mass spectrometry method based on the detection of paired peptide peaks after ¹³C?-lysine incorporation into proteins in vivo. Proteins were identified by matching mass spectrometry derived peptide sequences to a recently established normalized newt EST library. Our approach enabled us to identify more than 2200 nonredundant proteins in the regenerating newt heart. Because of the pulsed in vivo labeling approach, accurate quantification was achieved for 1353 proteins, of which 72 were up- and 31 down-regulated with a (|log 2 ratio| > 1) during heart regeneration. One deregulated member was identified as a new member of the CCN protein family, showing a wound specific activation. We reason that the detection of such deregulated newt-specific proteins in regenerating hearts supports the idea of a local evolution of tissue regeneration in salamanders. Our results significantly improve understanding of dynamic changes in the complex protein network that underlies heart regeneration and provides a basis for further mechanistic studies. PMID:22891955

Looso, Mario; Michel, Christian S; Konzer, Anne; Bruckskotten, Marc; Borchardt, Thilo; Krüger, Marcus; Braun, Thomas

2012-09-01

367

A method of identifying and isolating a unique member of a multigene family: application to a trypanosome surface antigen gene.  

PubMed Central

A chimeric oligonucleotide was constructed using DNA sequences from two distal regions of a cDNA which encodes a major surface antigen (TSA-1) of Trypanosoma cruzi. Conditions were found that allowed the chimeric oligonucleotide to hybridize only to a 5.4 kb EcoRI fragment in a Southern blot of total genomic DNA. The 5.4 kb EcoRI genomic DNA fragment has previously been shown to be located at a telomeric site, thus the studies described here directly demonstrate that the TSA-1 gene is telomeric in location. It is also shown that the chimeric oligonucleotide can be used to selectively identify recombinant lambda phage which harbor the TSA-1 gene using standard library screening procedures. Since these studies demonstrate that a chimeric oligonucleotide can be used to identify in both Southern blots and library screens a single member among the more than sixty members of the TSA-1 gene family, it seems likely that chimeric oligonucleotides may be of general use in studies involving repetitive DNA sequence families. Images PMID:2030963

Ruef, B J; Hecht, J H; Manning, J E

1991-01-01

368

Molecular Identification and Expression Analysis of Filaggrin-2, a Member of the S100 Fused-Type Protein Family  

PubMed Central

Genes of the S100 fused-type protein (SFTP) family are clustered within the epidermal differentiation complex and encode essential components that maintain epithelial homeostasis and barrier functions. Recent genetic studies have shown that mutations within the gene encoding the SFTP filaggrin cause ichthyosis vulgaris and are major predisposing factors for atopic dermatitis. As a vital component of healthy skin, filaggrin is also a precursor of natural moisturizing factors. Here we present the discovery of a member of this family, designated as filaggrin-2 (FLG2) that is expressed in human skin. The FLG2 gene encodes a histidine- and glutamine-rich protein of approximately 248 kDa, which shares common structural features with other SFTP members, in particular filaggrin. We found that FLG2 transcripts are present in skin, thymus, tonsils, stomach, testis and placenta. In cultured primary keratinocytes, FLG2 mRNA expression displayed almost the same kinetics as that of filaggrin following Ca2+ stimulation, suggesting an important role in molecular regulation of epidermal terminal differentiation. We provide evidences that like filaggrin, FLG2 is initially expressed by upper granular cells, proteolytically processed and deposited in the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum (SC) layers of normal epidermis. Thus, FLG2 and filaggrin may have overlapping and perhaps synergistic roles in the formation of the epidermal barrier, protecting the skin from environmental insults and the escape of moisture by offering precursors of natural moisturizing factors. PMID:19384417

Wu, Zhihong; Hansmann, Britta; Meyer-Hoffert, Ulf; Gläser, Regine; Schröder, Jens-Michael

2009-01-01

369

Otariodibacter oris gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Pasteurellaceae isolated from the oral cavity of pinnipeds.  

PubMed

A total of 27 bacterial isolates from California sea lions and a walrus tentatively classified within the family Pasteurellaceae was further characterized by genotypic and phenotypic tests. Phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequences showed that the isolates investigated formed a monophyletic group, tentatively designated Bisgaard taxon 57. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, the most closely related species with a validly published name was Bisgaardia hudsonensis and the most closely related species based on rpoB sequence comparison was Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida; highest similarities between the isolates and the type strains of B. hudsonensis and P. multocida subsp. multocida were 95.0 and 88.2%. respectively. All isolates of Bisgaard taxon 57 exhibit the phenotypic characters of the family Pasteurellaceae. Members of Bisgaard taxon 57 can be separated from existing genera of the Pasteurellaceae by the following tests: positive reactions for catalase, oxidase, Voges-Proskauer and indole; no X- or V-factor dependency; and acid production from L-arabinose (slow), L-fucose, maltose and trehalose, but not from dulcitol, D-mannitol, D-mannose or sucrose. The main fatty acids of Bisgaard taxon 57 (CCUG 59994(T)) are C(14:0), C(16:0), C(16:1)?7c and the summed feature C(14:0) 3-OH/iso-C(16:1) I. This fatty acid profile is characteristic of members of the Pasteurellaceae. The quinone profile of Bisgaard taxon 57 (DSM 23800(T)) was similar to that of other genera in the Pasteurellaceae. The DNA G+C content of strain Baika1(T) is 36.2 mol%, which is at the lower end of the range for members of the family Pasteurellaceae. On the basis of both phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed that members of Bisgaard taxon 57 should be classified as representatives of a novel species in a new genus, Otariodibacter oris gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Otariodibacter oris is Baika1(T) (=CCUG 59994(T)=DSM 23800(T)), which was isolated from the oral cavity of a healthy California sea lion in Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark, in 2007. PMID:22199211

Hansen, Mie Johanne; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Christensen, Henrik; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Bisgaard, Magne

2012-11-01

370

N. meningitidis 1681 is a member of the FinO family of RNA chaperones.  

SciTech Connect

The conjugative transfer of F-like plasmids between bacteria is regulated by the plasmid-encoded RNA chaperone, FinO, which facilitates sense - antisense RNA interactions to regulate plasmid gene expression. FinO was thought to adopt a unique structure, however many putative homologs have been identified in microbial genomes and are considered members of the FinO-conjugation-repressor superfamily. We were interested in determining whether other members were also able to bind RNA and promote duplex formation, suggesting that this motif does indeed identify a putative RNA chaperone. We determined the crystal structure of the N. meningitidis MC58 protein NMB1681. It revealed striking similarity to FinO, with a conserved fold and a large, positively charged surface that could function in RNA interactions. Using assays developed to study FinO-FinP sRNA interactions, NMB1681, like FinO, bound tightly to FinP RNA stem-loops with short 5-foot and 3-foot single-stranded tails but not to ssRNA. It also was able to catalyze strand exchange between an RNA duplex and a complementary single-strand, and facilitated duplexing between complementary RNA hairpins. Finally, NMB1681 was able to rescue a finO deficiency and repress F plasmid conjugation. This study strongly suggests that NMB1681 is a FinO-like RNA chaperone that likely regulates gene expression through RNA-based mechanisms in N. meningitidis.

Chaulk, S.; Lu, J.; Tan, K.; Arthur, D.; Edwards, R.; Frost, L.; Joachimiak, A.; Glover, J. (Biosciences Division); (Univ. of Alberta)

2010-11-01

371

Forkhead Box P family members at the crossroad between tolerance and immunity: a balancing act.  

PubMed

Maintaining an immune balance between a chronic inflammatory state and autoimmunity is regulated at multiple levels by complex cellular signaling mechanisms. Numerous immune stimulatory and inhibitory signals converge on a large variety of transcriptional regulators. One key transcriptional regulator of immune homeostasis is FOXP3, which is a member of the Forkhead Box P subfamily of transcription factors and was shown to be essential for the development and maintenance of regulatory T cells. However, other FOXP members have received less attention in relation to a role in immune regulation. Still, recent developments point toward a general important regulatory role for FOXP proteins in the development and function of the adaptive immune system and establishment of a balanced immune response. Here, we discuss the current knowledge on the role of FOXP proteins in establishing immune homeostasis with an emphasis on T-cell biology. Furthermore, we review and speculate about different modes of regulating general FOXP activity and the function of this in health and disease. PMID:23886296

Fleskens, Veerle; van Boxtel, Ruben

2014-03-01

372

Evolutionary characterization of pig interferon-inducible transmembrane gene family and member expression dynamics in tracheobronchial lymph nodes of pigs infected with swine respiratory disease viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies have found that a cluster of duplicated gene loci encoding the interferon26 inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) family have antiviral activity against several viruses, including influenza A virus. The gene family has 5 and 7 members in humans and mice, respectively. Here, we confirm th...

373

Evolutionary characterization of pig interferon-inducible transmembrane gene family and member expression dynamics in tracheobronchial lymph nodes of pigs infected with swine respiratory disease viruses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies have found that a cluster of duplicated gene loci encoding the interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) family have antiviral activity against several viruses, including influenza A virus. The gene family has 5 and 7 members in humans and mice, respectively. Here, we confirm the...

374

Hakata Antigen, a New Member of the Ficolin\\/Opsonin p35 Family, Is a Novel Human Lectin Secreted into Bronchus\\/Alveolus and Bile  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Hakata antigen was first reported as a serum protein that reacted with an au- toantibody from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Recently, it has been found that Hakata antigen is a new member of the ficolin\\/opsonin p35 family, which is a distinct lectin family, on the basis of homology of structures and the common characteristic of pos- sessing lectin

Mina Akaiwa; Yoshiaki Yae; Rie Sugimoto; Satoshi O. Suzuki; Toru Iwaki; Kenji Izuhara; Naotaka Hamasaki

375

'We need to know what's going on': views of family members toward the sexual expression of people with dementia in residential aged care.  

PubMed

This paper reports on a study which explored the views and attitudes of family members towards the sexual expression of residents with dementia in residential aged care facilities in two states in Australia. Recruitment was challenging and only seven family members agreed to an interview on this topic. Data were analysed using a constant comparative method. Family were generally supportive of residents' rights to sexual expression, but only some types of behaviours were approved of. There was an acknowledgement that responding to residents' sexuality was difficult for staff and many families believed that they should be kept informed of their relative's sexual behaviours and moreover be involved in decision making about it. Findings suggest the need for family education and a larger study to better understand the views and motivations of family carers and how these might impact on the sexual expression of the older person with dementia living in residential aged care. PMID:24339072

Bauer, Michael; Nay, Rhonda; Tarzia, Laura; Fetherstonhaugh, Deirdre; Wellman, David; Beattie, Elizabeth

2014-09-01

376

How Pediatricians Can Deal with Children Who Have Been Sexually Abused by Family Members  

PubMed Central

The present paper discusses children who have been the victims of sexual abuse in their own family. It focuses on the special role of pediatricians and medical staff in identifying such children and providing them with initial assistance by reporting the situation to the authorities. The first part of the paper surveys the short- and long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse, including the physical and emotional impact of sexual exploitation and severe neglect. This section discusses the symptoms shown by abused children, and how they express and deal with their trauma. It is extremely important for pediatricians to be sensitive to the possibility of patients being abused at home, as this is an area still largely regarded as a societal taboo. Also included in this section a discussion of the effects that are manifested when the victim has grown to adulthood, such as personality disorders. The second part of the paper deals with how pediatricians must act when they encounter such a situation in which they suspect sexual abuse in the family. They should strive to identify the problem and bring it to the attention of the authorities. Discovery of the problem is the most vital part of the path to the victim's recovery. The paper also discusses the aspect of treatment, advising doctors who encounter this problem on ways of dealing with it. PMID:22389771

Wolf, Ruth

2011-01-01

377

How pediatricians can deal with children who have been sexually abused by family members.  

PubMed

The present paper discusses children who have been the victims of sexual abuse in their own family. It focuses on the special role of pediatricians and medical staff in identifying such children and providing them with initial assistance by reporting the situation to the authorities. The first part of the paper surveys the short- and long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse, including the physical and emotional impact of sexual exploitation and severe neglect. This section discusses the symptoms shown by abused children, and how they express and deal with their trauma. It is extremely important for pediatricians to be sensitive to the possibility of patients being abused at home, as this is an area still largely regarded as a societal taboo. Also included in this section a discussion of the effects that are manifested when the victim has grown to adulthood, such as personality disorders. The second part of the paper deals with how pediatricians must act when they encounter such a situation in which they suspect sexual abuse in the family. They should strive to identify the problem and bring it to the attention of the authorities. Discovery of the problem is the most vital part of the path to the victim's recovery. The paper also discusses the aspect of treatment, advising doctors who encounter this problem on ways of dealing with it. PMID:22389771

Wolf, Ruth

2011-01-01

378

Structural Characterization of Inhibitors with Selectivity against Members of a Homologous Enzyme Family  

SciTech Connect

The aspartate biosynthetic pathway provides essential metabolites for many important biological functions, including the production of four essential amino acids. As this critical pathway is only present in plants and microbes, any disruptions will be fatal to these organisms. An early pathway enzyme, L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, produces a key intermediate at the first branch point of this pathway. Developing potent and selective inhibitors against several orthologs in the L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase family can serve as lead compounds for antibiotic development. Kinetic studies of two small molecule fragment libraries have identified inhibitors that show good selectivity against L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenases from two different bacterial species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Vibrio cholerae, despite the presence of an identical constellation of active site amino acids in this homologous enzyme family. Structural characterization of enzyme-inhibitor complexes have elucidated different modes of binding between these structurally related enzymes. This information provides the basis for a structure-guided approach to the development of more potent and more selective inhibitors.

Pavlovsky, Alexander G.; Liu, Xuying; Faehnle, Christopher R.; Potente, Nina; Viola, Ronald E. (Toledo)

2013-01-31

379

Antagonizing Bcl-2 Family Members Sensitizes Neuroblastoma and Ewing's Sarcoma to an Inhibitor of Glutamine Metabolism.  

PubMed

Neuroblastomas (NBL) and Ewing's sarcomas (EWS) together cause 18% of all pediatric cancer deaths. Though there is growing interest in targeting the dysregulated metabolism of cancer as a therapeutic strategy, this approach has not been fully examined in NBL and EWS. In this study, we first tested a panel of metabolic inhibitors and identified the glutamine antagonist 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) as the most potent chemotherapeutic across all NBL and EWS cell lines tested. Myc, a master regulator of metabolism, is commonly overexpressed in both of these pediatric malignancies and recent studies have established that Myc causes cancer cells to become "addicted" to glutamine. We found DON strongly inhibited tumor growth of multiple tumor lines in mouse xenograft models. In vitro, inhibition of caspases partially reversed the effects of DON in high Myc expressing cell lines, but not in low Myc expressing lines. We further showed that induction of apoptosis by DON in Myc-overexpressing cancers is via the pro-apoptotic factor Bax. To relieve inhibition of Bax, we tested DON in combination with the Bcl-2 family antagonist navitoclax (ABT-263). In vitro, this combination caused an increase in DON activity across the entire panel of cell lines tested, with synergistic effects in two of the N-Myc amplified neuroblastoma cell lines. Our study supports targeting glutamine metabolism to treat Myc overexpressing cancers, such as NBL and EWS, particularly in combination with Bcl-2 family antagonists. PMID:25615615

Olsen, Rachelle R; Mary-Sinclair, Michelle N; Yin, Zhirong; Freeman, Kevin W

2015-01-01

380

Basic leucine zipper family in barley: genome-wide characterization of members and expression analysis.  

PubMed

The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family is one of the largest and most diverse transcription factors in eukaryotes participating in many essential plant processes. We identified 141 bZIP proteins encoded by 89 genes from the Hordeum vulgare genome. HvbZIPs were classified into 11 groups based on their DNA-binding motif. Amino acid sequence alignment of the HvbZIPs basic-hinge regions revealed some highly conserved residues within each group. The leucine zipper heptads were analyzed predicting their dimerization properties. 34 conserved motifs were identified outside the bZIP domain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that major diversification within the bZIP family predated the monocot/dicot divergence, although intra-species duplication and parallel evolution seems to be occurred afterward. Localization of HvbZIPs on the barley chromosomes revealed that different groups have been distributed on seven chromosomes of barley. Six types of intron pattern were detected within the basic-hinge regions. Most of the detected cis-elements in the promoter and UTR sequences were involved in seed development or abiotic stress response. Microarray data analysis revealed differential expression pattern of HvbZIPs in response to ABA treatment, drought, and cold stresses and during barley grain development and germination. This information would be helpful for functional characterization of bZIP transcription factors in barley. PMID:25173685

Pourabed, Ehsan; Ghane Golmohamadi, Farzan; Soleymani Monfared, Peyman; Razavi, Seyed Morteza; Shobbar, Zahra-Sadat

2015-01-01

381

Taonella mepensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Rhodospirillaceae isolated from activated sludge.  

PubMed

A novel Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped strain, H1(T), was isolated from activated sludge by micromanipulation. No close relatives among cultured bacterial isolates were found; phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain H1(T) forms a deep single branch in the family Rhodospirillaceae. Cells of strain H1(T) were slightly curved to straight rods (1.2-1.4 × 1.5-1.7 µm) and motile by a single polar flagellum. Strain H1(T) was able to grow in the presence of 0-4 % NaCl and grew optimally at 37 °C and pH 6.0-7.0. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed that strain H1(T) possessed Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C18 : 1?7c, C16 : 0 and C19 : 0 cyclo ?8c as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content of strain H1(T) was 65.1 mol%. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, and phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, indicate that strain H1(T) should represent a novel genus and species of the family Rhodospirillaceae. The name Taonella mepensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Taonella mepensis is H1(T) ( = CICC 10529(T) = CCTCC AB 2012861(T) = KACC 16940(T)). PMID:23223814

Xi, Xue-dong; Dong, Wei-liang; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Yan; Cui, Zhong-li

2013-07-01

382

Rad: A member of the Ras family overexpressed in muscle of type II diabetic humans  

SciTech Connect

To identify the gene or genes associated with insulin resistance in Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, subtraction libraries were prepared from skeletal muscle of normal and diabetic humans and screened with subtracted probes. Only one clone out of 4000 was selectively overexpressed in Type II diabetic muscle as compared to muscle of non-diabetic or Type I diabetic individuals. This clone encoded a new 290 kilodalton member of the Ras-guanosine triphosphatase superfamily and was termed Rad (Ras associated with diabetes). Messenger ribonucleic acid of Rad was expressed primarily in skeletal and cardiac muscle and was increased an average of 8.6-fold in the muscle of Type II diabetics as compared to normal individuals.

Reynet, C.; Kahn, C.R. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States))

1993-11-26

383

Considering racial and ethnic preferences in communication and interactions among the patient, family member, and physician following diagnosis of localized prostate cancer: study of a US population  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among American men. The multiple treatment options for localized prostate cancer and potential side effects can complicate the decision-making process. We describe the level of engagement and communication among the patient, family member, and physician (the decision-making “triad”) in the decision process prior to treatment. Using the Family and Cancer Therapy Selection (FACTS) study baseline survey data, we note racial/ethnic variations in communication among the triad. Sensitivity to and awareness of decision-making styles of both the patient and their family member (or caregiver) may enable clinicians to positively influence communication exchanges about important clinical decisions. PMID:21760749

Rim, Sun Hee; Hall, Ingrid J; Fairweather, Megan E; Fedorenko, Catherine R; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Smith, Judith Lee; Thompson, Ian M; Keane, Thomas E; Penson, David F; Moinpour, Carol M; Zeliadt, Steven B; Ramsey, Scott D

2011-01-01

384

Considering racial and ethnic preferences in communication and interactions among the patient, family member, and physician following diagnosis of localized prostate cancer: study of a US population.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among American men. The multiple treatment options for localized prostate cancer and potential side effects can complicate the decision-making process. We describe the level of engagement and communication among the patient, family member, and physician (the decision-making "triad") in the decision process prior to treatment. Using the Family and Cancer Therapy Selection (FACTS) study baseline survey data, we note racial/ethnic variations in communication among the triad. Sensitivity to and awareness of decision-making styles of both the patient and their family member (or caregiver) may enable clinicians to positively influence communication exchanges about important clinical decisions. PMID:21760749

Rim, Sun Hee; Hall, Ingrid J; Fairweather, Megan E; Fedorenko, Catherine R; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Smith, Judith Lee; Thompson, Ian M; Keane, Thomas E; Penson, David F; Moinpour, Carol M; Zeliadt, Steven B; Ramsey, Scott D

2011-01-01

385

Furry and Feathered Family Members-A Critical Review of Their Role in Palliative Care.  

PubMed

This article presents a comprehensive critical review of the peer-reviewed literature on palliative care and companion animals (CAs), reporting on the evidence and knowledge base regarding CAs and their role for people at end of life. PubMed, PsycINFO, Medline, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched for studies pertaining to CAs, end of life, and hospice palliative care. Six studies dealt specifically with empirical research. The remaining literature addressed the topic peripherally or anecdotally. The evidence for efficacy and the knowledge base about the role of CAs at end of life in hospice and palliative care is weak. Further efforts are required to study the conditions under which CAs may be beneficial for patient care, including acceptability to staff, family, and other patients, and with consideration of welfare for the animals involved. PMID:23892336

Chur-Hansen, Anna; Zambrano, Sofia C; Crawford, Gregory B

2013-07-26

386

Molecular characterization of a Galactomyces geotrichum lipase, another member of the cholinesterase/lipase family.  

PubMed

Geotrichum candidum secretes several lipase isoenzymes, differing in their selectively towards esters of long chain fatty acids with a cis-9 double bond. One group shows an absolute selectively towards these fatty acid esters, the other group has a more relaxed specificity and will also hydrolyze other long chain fatty acid esters. Galactomyces geotrichum secrets a lipase that has the same specificity as the latter group. The corresponding lipase gene was cloned from Galactomyces geotrichum. From an alignment of our enzymes' primary structure with those of different strains of Geotrichum candidum, remarkable conservation is evident and it is not yet possible to identify residues/structures responsible for differences in fatty acid specificity. Comparison of the GCL/GGL family with a variety of lipases from other sources, indicated that they are more related to mammalian than microbial lipases. PMID:7578238

Phillips, A; Pretorius, G H; van Rensburg, H G

1995-10-25

387

Jilinibacillus soli gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Bacillaceae.  

PubMed

A Gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, motile, endospore-forming bacterium, designated strain A12(T), was isolated from a saline and alkali soil samples in Baicheng City, western of Jilin Province, China. Growth occurred in 15-45 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and at pH 7.0-11.5 (optimum, pH 9.0) and in the presence of 0-10 % (w/v) NaCl [optimum, 1-3 % (w/v) NaCl]. Meso-DAP was present in the peptidoglycan. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The major polar lipid profile was phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidyl inositol-methyl and phosphotidylinositol dimannosid. The major fatty acid (>10 % of total fatty acids) was anteiso-C15:0. DNA G + C content was 36.2 mol %. The level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain A12(T) and other recognized species of the family was below 95.6 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data indicated that the strain A12(T) fell with the family Bacillaceae and formed a distinct taxon. Based on physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, strain A12(T) was considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Jilinibacillus soli gen. nov., sp. nov. was proposed. The type strain of Jilinibacillus soli was A12(T) (=GIMN1.014(T) = CCTCC M2011164(T) = KCTC 33417(T)). PMID:25193716

Liu, Jingying; Wang, Xiuran; Li, Meina; Du, Qian; Li, Qiyun; Ma, Pengda

2015-01-01

388

EMR1, an unusual member in the family of hormone receptors with seven transmembrane segments  

SciTech Connect

Proteins with seven transmembrane segments (7TM) define a superfamily of receptors (7TM receptors) sharing the same topology: an extracellular N-terminus, three extramembranous loops on either side of the plasma membrane, and a cytoplasmic C-terminal tail. Upon ligand binding, cytoplasmic portions of the activated receptor interact with heterotrimeric G-coupled proteins to induce various second messengers. A small group, recently recognized on the basis of homologous primary amino acid sequences, comprises receptors to hormones of the secretin/vasoactive intestinal peptide/glucagon family, parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptides, growth hormone-releasing factor, corticotropin-releasing factor, and calcitonin. A cDNA, extracted from a neuroectodermal cDNA library, was predicted to encode a new 886-amino-acid protein with three distinct domains. The C-terminal third contains the seven hydrophobic segments and characteristic residues that allow the protein to be readily aligned with the various hormone receptors in the family. Six egf-like modules, at the N-terminus of the predicted mature protein, are separated from the transmembrane segments by a serine/threonine-rich domain, a feature reminiscent of mucin-like, single-span, integral membrane glycoproteins with adhesive properties. Because of its unique characteristics, this putative egf module-containing, mucin-like hormone receptor has been named EMR1. Southern analysis of a panel of somatic cell hybrids and fluorescence in situ hybridization have assigned the EMR1 gene to human chromosome 19p13.3. 73 refs., 8 figs.

Baud, V. [Laboratoire de Biologie des Tumeurs Humaines, Villejuif (France)] [Laboratoire de Biologie des Tumeurs Humaines, Villejuif (France); Chissoe, S.L.; Roe, B.A. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); and others

1995-03-20

389

Molecular characterisation of four class 2 cytokine receptor family members in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.  

PubMed

The interleukin (IL)-10 cytokine family includes IL-10, IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26 and the lambda/type III interferons. They are highly pleiotropic and mediate a variety of activities, including immune suppression and antibacterial immunity. To exert their functions they signal through a heterodimeric receptor composed of a subunit with a long intracellular domain (R1 type receptors; IL-10R1, IL-20R1 or IL-22R1) and a subunit with a short intracellular domain (R2 type receptors; IL-10R2 or IL-20R2). In this study we report the identification of three R1 type receptors (named IL-10R1/CRFB7, IL-20R1a/CRFB8a and IL-20R1b/CRFB8b) and one R2 type receptor (named IL-10R2/CRFB4) in rainbow trout. The nomenclature of the receptors was supported by homology analysis, conserved motifs and phylogenetic tree analysis, confirming they belong to the piscine class 2 cytokine receptor family. For instance, they all displayed the presence of characteristic features, such as conserved fibronectin type-III domains. Expression analysis in tissues collected from healthy fish revealed different patterns of expression for each receptor, suggesting their potential involvement in different types of immune responses. When studying the modulation of the genes in cell lines and primary cultures, a greater effect was observed in the cell lines, where the expression of most receptors was affected by incubation with microbial mimics (LPS and PolyI:C) or the pro-inflammatory cytokine rIFN-?. In addition, expression of the four receptors was modulated by viral infection, suggesting a potential involvement of such receptors and their ligands in antiviral defence. PMID:25195068

Monte, Milena M; Wang, Tiehui; Collet, Bertrand; Zou, Jun; Secombes, Chris J

2015-01-01

390

Ligand-receptor binding revealed by the TNF family member TALL-1.  

SciTech Connect

The tumour necrosis factor (TNF) ligand TALL-1 and its cognate receptors, BCMA, TACI and BAFF-R, were recently identified as members of the TNF superfamily, which are essential factors contributing to B-cell maturation. The functional, soluble fragment of TALL-1 (sTALL-1) forms a virus-like assembly for its proper function. Here we determine the crystal structures of sTALL-1 complexed with the extracellular domains of BCMA and BAFF-R at 2.6 and 2.5 {angstrom}, respectively. The single cysteine-rich domain of BCMA and BAFF-R both have saddle-like architectures, which sit on the horseback-like surface formed by four coil regions on each individual sTALL-1 monomer. Three novel structural modules, D2, X2 and N, were revealed from the current structures. Sequence alignments, structural modelling and mutagenesis revealed that one disulphide bridge in BAFF-R is critical for determining the binding specificity of the extracellular domain eBAFF-R to TALL-1 instead of APRIL, a closely related ligand of TALL-1, which was confirmed by binding experiments in vitro.

Liu, Y. F.; Hong, X.; Kappler, J.; Jiang, L.; Zhang, R. G.; Xu, L. G.; Pan, C.-H.; Martin, W. E.; Murphy, R. C.; Shu, H.-B.; Dai, S. D.; Zhang, G. Y.; Biosciences Division; National Jewish Medical and Research Center; Howard Hughes Medical Inst.; Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center; Peking Univ.

2003-05-01

391

MOLECULAR AND NEUROIMAGING FINDINGS IN PONTOCEREBELLAR HYPOPLASIA TYPE 2 (PCH2): IS PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS POSSIBLE?  

PubMed Central

The pontocerebellar hypoplasias (PCH) are a group of early-onset, autosomal recessive disorders resulting in abnormal growth and function of the brainstem and cerebellum. PCH type 2 (PCH2) is characterized by respiratory and feeding difficulties at birth, extrapyramidal dyskinesia, severe developmental impairment, progressive microcephaly and frequent death in childhood. Neuropathologic findings include diffuse cerebral gliosis with white matter changes, hypoplastic pons with depletion of neurons in the pontine nuclei, hypoplastic cerebellar hemispheres due to short cerebellar folia with poor branching, segmental loss of dentate, inferior olivary, and ventral pontine nuclei, and near absence of transverse pontine fibers with preservation of long fiber tracts and spinal anterior horn cells. On brain imaging, the cerebellar hemispheres appear very flat, and are more severely involved than the vermis. Most patients with PCH2 have mutations in TSEN54, with occasional mutations found in TSEN34 or TSEN2, genes that encode subunits of tRNA splicing endonuclease. Although this is a congenital disorder of pontocerebellar dysgenesis with fetal onset of neurodegeneration and symptoms at birth, prenatal imaging is unreliable in diagnosing this disorder in utero. We report on IVF dizygous twins with detailed prenatal imaging that failed to reveal any cerebellar abnormalities. Direct sequence analysis of TSEN54 showed homozygosity for c.919G>T, the common founder mutation in most PCH2 patients, and both parents were heterozygous for this mutation. We found no evidence of cerebellar dysgenesis on prenatal ultrasounds, but MRI tractography showed absence of pontine crossing fibers, a unique feature that might be useful for prenatal diagnosis of this condition. PMID:20803644

Graham, John M.; Spencer, Andrew H.; Grinberg, Inessa; Niesen, Charles E.; Platt, Lawrence D.; Maya, Marcel; Namavar, Yasmin; Baas, Frank; Dobyns, William B.

2010-01-01

392

Reprogramming activity of NANOGP8, a NANOG family member widely expressed in cancer.  

PubMed

NANOG is a key transcription factor for pluripotency in embryonic stem cells. The analysis of NANOG in human cells is confounded by the presence of multiple and highly similar paralogs. In particular, there are three paralogs encoding full-length proteins, namely, NANOG1, NANOG2 and NANOGP8, and at least eight additional paralogs that do not encode full-length NANOG proteins. Here, we have examined NANOG family expression in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and in human cancer cell lines using a multi-NANOG PCR that amplifies the three functional paralogs and most of the non-functional ones. As anticipated, we found that hESCs express large amounts of NANOG1 and, interestingly, they also express NANOG2. In contrast, most human cancer cells tested express NANOGP8 and the non-coding paralogs NANOGP4 and NANOGP5. Notably, in some cancer cell lines, the NANOG protein levels produced by NANOGP8 are comparable to those produced by NANOG1 in pluripotent cells. Finally, we show that NANOGP8 is as active as NANOG1 in the reprogramming of human and murine fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells. These results show that cancer-associated NANOGP8 can contribute to promote de-differentiation and/or cellular plasticity. PMID:23752184

Palla, A R; Piazzolla, D; Abad, M; Li, H; Dominguez, O; Schonthaler, H B; Wagner, E F; Serrano, M

2014-05-01

393

Streptimonospora salina gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Nocardiopsaceae.  

PubMed

Actinomycete strain YIM 90002T (= CCTCC 99003T = CCRC 16284T) was isolated from a soil sample collected from a salt lake in the west of China. The aerial mycelium of this organism is well developed but not fragmented and, at maturity, forms short chains of spores. Spores in short chains are oval- to rod-shaped and have wrinkled surfaces. Substrate mycelium is branched with non-fragmenting hyphae and forms single oval to round spores borne on sporophores or dichotomously branching sporophores. Single spores have wrinkled surfaces. Single spores and spores in short chains are non-motile. Strain YIM 90002T contains meso-diaminopimelic acid, DD-diaminopimelic acid, glycine, lysine and aspartic acid in its cell wall and has glucose, galactose, ribose, xylose, arabinose and mannose as whole-cell sugars (no diagnostic sugars). The phospholipids are phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The major menaquinones are MK-9(H6), MK-10(H2) and MK-10(H4). Phylogenetic data indicate that this strain belongs to the family Nocardiopsaceae. The morphological and physiological characteristics and chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data for this strain differ from those of previously described actinomycetes. Therefore, a new genus, Streptimonospora, is proposed for this organism; the type species of the genus is Streptimonospora salina gen. nov., sp. nov., and the type strain of S. salina is strain YIM 90002T. PMID:11321080

Cui, X L; Mao, P H; Zeng, M; Li, W J; Zhang, L P; Xu, L H; Jiang, C L

2001-03-01

394

Knockdown of the antiapoptotic bcl-2 family member a1/bfl-1 protects mice from anaphylaxis.  

PubMed

Many forms of hypersensitivity reactions and allergic responses depend on deregulated mast cell activity. Several reports suggested that the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bcl2a1/Bfl-1/A1 plays a critical role in mast cell survival upon activation. However, its in vivo relevance is poorly understood because of quadruplication of the Bcl2a1 gene locus in mice, hindering conventional knockout studies. In this study, we used a mouse model allowing traceable constitutive knockdown of all A1 isoforms expressed in the hematopoietic system by RNA interference. Knockdown of A1 reduced mast cell numbers in the skin and impaired connective tissue-like mast cell survival upon Fc?RI-mediated activation in vitro. In contrast, A1 was dispensable for mucosa-like mast cell differentiation and survival. Moreover, knockdown of A1 prevented IgE-mediated passive systemic and cutaneous anaphylaxis in vivo. Our findings demonstrate that A1 is essential for the homeostasis of connective tissue mast cells, identifying A1 as a possible therapeutic target for therapy of certain types of mast cell-driven allergy symptoms. PMID:25548219

Ottina, Eleonora; Lyberg, Katarina; Sochalska, Maja; Villunger, Andreas; Nilsson, Gunnar P

2015-02-01

395

The First Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Members of the Ribonuclease E Family  

PubMed Central

The Escherichia coli endoribonuclease RNase E is central to the processing and degradation of all types of RNA and as such is a pleotropic regulator of gene expression. It is essential for growth and was one of the first examples of an endonuclease that can recognise the 5?-monophosphorylated ends of RNA thereby increasing the efficiency of many cleavages. Homologues of RNase E can be found in many bacterial families including important pathogens, but no homologues have been identified in humans or animals. RNase E represents a potential target for the development of new antibiotics to combat the growing number of bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics in use currently. Potent small molecule inhibitors that bind the active site of essential enzymes are proving to be a source of potential drug leads and tools to dissect function through chemical genetics. Here we report the use of virtual high-throughput screening to obtain small molecules predicted to bind at sites in the N-terminal catalytic half of RNase E. We show that these compounds are able to bind with specificity and inhibit catalysis of Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNase E and also inhibit the activity of RNase G, a paralogue of RNase E. PMID:25619596

Kime, Louise; Vincent, Helen A.; Gendoo, Deena M. A.; Jourdan, Stefanie S.; Fishwick, Colin W. G.; Callaghan, Anastasia J.; McDowall, Kenneth J.

2015-01-01

396

Knockdown of the Antiapoptotic Bcl-2 Family Member A1/Bfl-1 Protects Mice from Anaphylaxis  

PubMed Central

Many forms of hypersensitivity reactions and allergic responses depend on deregulated mast cell activity. Several reports suggested that the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bcl2a1/Bfl-1/A1 plays a critical role in mast cell survival upon activation. However, its in vivo relevance is poorly understood because of quadruplication of the Bcl2a1 gene locus in mice, hindering conventional knockout studies. In this study, we used a mouse model allowing traceable constitutive knockdown of all A1 isoforms expressed in the hematopoietic system by RNA interference. Knockdown of A1 reduced mast cell numbers in the skin and impaired connective tissue–like mast cell survival upon Fc?RI-mediated activation in vitro. In contrast, A1 was dispensable for mucosa-like mast cell differentiation and survival. Moreover, knockdown of A1 prevented IgE-mediated passive systemic and cutaneous anaphylaxis in vivo. Our findings demonstrate that A1 is essential for the homeostasis of connective tissue mast cells, identifying A1 as a possible therapeutic target for therapy of certain types of mast cell–driven allergy symptoms. PMID:25548219

Ottina, Eleonora; Lyberg, Katarina; Sochalska, Maja

2015-01-01

397

A novel member of glycoside hydrolase family 30 subfamily 8 with altered substrate specificity.  

PubMed

Endoxylanases classified into glycoside hydrolase family 30 subfamily 8 (GH30-8) are known to hydrolyze the hemicellulosic polysaccharide glucuronoxylan (GX) but not arabinoxylan or neutral xylooligosaccharides. This is owing to the specificity of these enzymes for the ?-1,2-linked glucuronate (GA) appendage of GX. Limit hydrolysis of this substrate produces a series of aldouronates each containing a single GA substituted on the xylose penultimate to the reducing terminus. In this work, the structural and biochemical characterization of xylanase 30A from Clostridium papyrosolvens (CpXyn30A) is presented. This xylanase possesses a high degree of amino-acid identity to the canonical GH30-8 enzymes, but lacks the hallmark ?8-?8 loop region which in part defines the function of this GH30 subfamily and its role in GA recognition. CpXyn30A is shown to have a similarly low activity on all xylan substrates, while hydrolysis of xylohexaose revealed a competing transglycosylation reaction. These findings are directly compared with the model GH30-8 enzyme from Bacillus subtilis, XynC. Despite its high sequence identity to the GH30-8 enzymes, CpXyn30A does not have any apparent specificity for the GA appendage. These findings confirm that the typically conserved ?8-?8 loop region of these enzymes influences xylan substrate specificity but not necessarily ?-1,4-xylanase function. PMID:25372685

St John, Franz J; Dietrich, Diane; Crooks, Casey; Pozharski, Edwin; González, Javier M; Bales, Elizabeth; Smith, Kennon; Hurlbert, Jason C

2014-11-01

398

RUNX family members are covalently modified and regulated by PIAS1-mediated sumoylation.  

PubMed

Transcription factors of the RUNX family (RUNXs), which play pivotal roles in normal development and neoplasia, are regulated by various post-translational modifications. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of RUNXs, we performed a large-scale functional genetic screen of a fly mutant library. The screen identified dPias (the fly ortholog of mammalian PIASs), an E3 ligase for the SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) modification, as a novel genetic modifier of lz (the fly ortholog of mammalian RUNX3). Molecular biological analysis revealed that lz/RUNXs are sumoylated by dPias/PIAS1 at an evolutionarily conserved lysine residue (K372 of lz, K144 of RUNX1, K181 of RUNX2 and K148 of RUNX3). PIAS1-mediated sumoylation inhibited RUNX3 transactivation activity, and this modification was promoted by the AKT1 kinase. Importantly, PIAS1 failed to sumoylate some RUNX1 mutants associated with breast cancer. In nude mice, tumorigenicity was promoted by RUNX3 bearing a mutation in the sumoylation site, but suppressed by wild-type RUNX3. Our results suggest that RUNXs are sumoylated by PIAS1, and that this modification could play a critical role in the regulation of the tumor-suppressive activity of these proteins. PMID:24777122

Kim, J-H; Jang, J-W; Lee, Y-S; Lee, J-W; Chi, X-Z; Li, Y-H; Kim, M-K; Kim, D-M; Choi, B-S; Kim, J; Kim, H-M; van Wijnen, A; Park, Ily; Bae, S-C

2014-01-01

399

RUNX family members are covalently modified and regulated by PIAS1-mediated sumoylation  

PubMed Central

Transcription factors of the RUNX family (RUNXs), which play pivotal roles in normal development and neoplasia, are regulated by various post-translational modifications. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of RUNXs, we performed a large-scale functional genetic screen of a fly mutant library. The screen identified dPias (the fly ortholog of mammalian PIASs), an E3 ligase for the SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) modification, as a novel genetic modifier of lz (the fly ortholog of mammalian RUNX3). Molecular biological analysis revealed that lz/RUNXs are sumoylated by dPias/PIAS1 at an evolutionarily conserved lysine residue (K372 of lz, K144 of RUNX1, K181 of RUNX2 and K148 of RUNX3). PIAS1-mediated sumoylation inhibited RUNX3 transactivation activity, and this modification was promoted by the AKT1 kinase. Importantly, PIAS1 failed to sumoylate some RUNX1 mutants associated with breast cancer. In nude mice, tumorigenicity was promoted by RUNX3 bearing a mutation in the sumoylation site, but suppressed by wild-type RUNX3. Our results suggest that RUNXs are sumoylated by PIAS1, and that this modification could play a critical role in the regulation of the tumor-suppressive activity of these proteins. PMID:24777122

Kim, J-H; Jang, J-W; Lee, Y-S; Lee, J-W; Chi, X-Z; Li, Y-H; Kim, M-K; Kim, D-M; Choi, B-S; Kim, J; Kim, H-M; van Wijnen, A; Park, IlY; Bae, S-C

2014-01-01

400

Hex1: a new human Rad2 nuclease family member with homology to yeast exonuclease 1.  

PubMed Central

Nucleolytic processing of chromosomal DNA is required in operations such as DNA repair, recombination and replication. We have identified a human gene, named HEX1 forhumanexonuclease 1, by searching the EST database for cDNAs that encode a homolog to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EXO1 gene product. Based on its homology to this and other DNA repair proteins of the Rad2 family, most notably Schizosaccharomyces pombe exonuclease 1 (Exo1), Hex1 presumably functions as a nuclease in aspects of recombination or mismatch repair. Similar to the yeast proteins, recombinant Hex1 exhibits a 5'-->3' exonuclease activity. Northern blot analysis revealed that HEX1 expression is highest in fetal liver and adult bone marrow, suggesting that the encoded protein may operate prominently in processes specific to hemopoietic stem cell development. HEX1 gene equivalents were found in all vertebrates examined. The human gene includes 14 exons and 13 introns that span approximately 42 kb of genomic DNA and maps to the chromosomal position 1q42-43, a region lost in some cases of acute leukemia and in several solid tumors. PMID:9685493

Wilson, D M; Carney, J P; Coleman, M A; Adamson, A W; Christensen, M; Lamerdin, J E

1998-01-01

401

SOX15 and other SOX family members are important mediators of tumorigenesis in multiple cancer types  

PubMed Central

SOX genes are transcription factors with important roles in embryonic development and carcinogenesis. The SOX family of 20 genes is responsible for regulating lineage and tissue specific gene expression patterns, controlling numerous developmental processes including cell differentiation, sex determination, and organogenesis. As is the case with many genes involved in regulating development, SOX genes are frequently deregulated in cancer. In this perspective we provide a brief overview of how SOX proteins can promote or suppress cancer growth. We also present a pan-cancer analysis of aberrant SOX gene expression and highlight potential molecular mechanisms responsible for their disruption in cancer. Our analyses indicate the prominence of SOX deregulation in different cancer types and reveal potential roles for SOX genes not previously described in cancer. Finally, we summarize our recent identification of SOX15 as a candidate tumor suppressor in pancreatic cancer and propose several research avenues to pursue to further delineate the emerging role of SOX15 in development and carcinogenesis. PMID:25594027

Thu, Kelsie L.; Becker-Santos, Daiana D.; Radulovich, Nikolina; Pikor, Larissa A.; Lam, Wan L.; Tsao, Ming-Sound

2014-01-01

402

Changes in dynamics upon oligomerization regulate substrate binding and allostery in amino acid kinase family members.  

PubMed

Oligomerization is a functional requirement for many proteins. The interfacial interactions and the overall packing geometry of the individual monomers are viewed as important determinants of the thermodynamic stability and allosteric regulation of oligomers. The present study focuses on the role of the interfacial interactions and overall contact topology in the dynamic features acquired in the oligomeric state. To this aim, the collective dynamics of enzymes belonging to the amino acid kinase family both in dimeric and hexameric forms are examined by means of an elastic network model, and the softest collective motions (i.e., lowest frequency or global modes of motions) favored by the overall architecture are analyzed. Notably, the lowest-frequency modes accessible to the individual subunits in the absence of multimerization are conserved to a large extent in the oligomer, suggesting that the oligomer takes advantage of the intrinsic dynamics of the individual monomers. At the same time, oligomerization stiffens the interfacial regions of the monomers and confers new cooperative modes that exploit the rigid-body translational and rotational degrees of freedom of the intact monomers. The present study sheds light on the mechanism of cooperative inhibition of hexameric N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase by arginine and on the allosteric regulation of UMP kinases. It also highlights the significance of the particular quaternary design in selectively determining the oligomer dynamics congruent with required ligand-binding and allosteric activities. PMID:21980279

Marcos, Enrique; Crehuet, Ramon; Bahar, Ivet

2011-09-01

403

Changes in Dynamics upon Oligomerization Regulate Substrate Binding and Allostery in Amino Acid Kinase Family Members  

PubMed Central

Oligomerization is a functional requirement for many proteins. The interfacial interactions and the overall packing geometry of the individual monomers are viewed as important determinants of the thermodynamic stability and allosteric regulation of oligomers. The present study focuses on the role of the interfacial interactions and overall contact topology in the dynamic features acquired in the oligomeric state. To this aim, the collective dynamics of enzymes belonging to the amino acid kinase family both in dimeric and hexameric forms are examined by means of an elastic network model, and the softest collective motions (i.e., lowest frequency or global modes of motions) favored by the overall architecture are analyzed. Notably, the lowest-frequency modes accessible to the individual subunits in the absence of multimerization are conserved to a large extent in the oligomer, suggesting that the oligomer takes advantage of the intrinsic dynamics of the individual monomers. At the same time, oligomerization stiffens the interfacial regions of the monomers and confers new cooperative modes that exploit the rigid-body translational and rotational degrees of freedom of the intact monomers. The present study sheds light on the mechanism of cooperative inhibition of hexameric N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase by arginine and on the allosteric regulation of UMP kinases. It also highlights the significance of the particular quaternary design in selectively determining the oligomer dynamics congruent with required ligand-binding and allosteric activities. PMID:21980279

Marcos, Enrique; Crehuet, Ramon; Bahar, Ivet

2011-01-01

404

Diatom PtCPF1 is a new cryptochrome/photolyase family member with DNA repair and transcription regulation activity  

PubMed Central

Members of the cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF) are widely distributed throughout all kingdoms, and encode photosensitive proteins that typically show either photoreceptor or DNA repair activity. Animal and plant cryptochromes have lost DNA repair activity and now perform specialized photoperceptory functions, for example, plant cryptochromes regulate growth and circadian rhythms, whereas mammalian and insect cryptochromes act as transcriptional repressors that control the circadian clock. However, the functional differentiation between photolyases and cryptochromes is now being questioned. Here, we show that the PtCPF1 protein from the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum shows 6-4 photoproduct repair activity and can act as a transcriptional repressor of the circadian clock in a heterologous mammalian cell system. Conversely, it seems to have a wide role in blue-light-regulated gene expression in diatoms. The protein might therefore represent a missing link in the evolution of CPFs, and act as a novel ultraviolet/blue light sensor in marine environments. PMID:19424294

Coesel, Sacha; Mangogna, Manuela; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Heijde, Marc; Rogato, Alessandra; Finazzi, Giovanni; Todo, Takeshi; Bowler, Chris; Falciatore, Angela

2009-01-01

405

A novel EID family member, EID-3, inhibits differentiation and forms a homodimer or heterodimer with EID-2  

SciTech Connect

The EID family members, i.e., E1A-like inhibitor of differentiation-1 (EID-1) and EID-1-like inhibitor of differentiation-2 (EID-2), were identified as negative regulators of cellular differentiation. EID-1 seems to inhibit differentiation by blocking histone acetyltransferase activity and EID-2 possibly inhibits differentiation through binding to class I histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here, we report a novel inhibitor of differentiation exhibiting homology with EID-2 termed EID-3 (EID-2-like inhibitor of differentiation-3). Like EID-2, EID-3 inhibited MyoD- and GR{alpha}-dependent transcription and blocked muscle differentiation in cultured cells by binding to class I HDACs. Unlike that of EID-2, the C-terminus, but not the N-terminus, of EID-3 was required for nuclear localization. EID-3 formed a homodimer or heterodimer with EID-2. These results suggest that EID-3 inhibits differentiation by blocking transcription as a complex in cells.

Sasajima, Yuka [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Miyake, Satoshi [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Yuasa, Yasuhito [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan)]. E-mail: yuasa.monc@tmd.ac.jp

2005-08-05

406

[Identification of a novel human MAST4 gene, a new member of the microtubule associated serine-threonine kinase family].  

PubMed

Human protein kinases make up a large superfamily of homologous proteins, which are related by virtue of their kinase domains (also known as catalytic domains). Here we report the cloning and characterization of a novel human MAST4 (microtubule associated serine/threonine kinase family member 4) gene, which locates on human chromosome 5q13. The MAST4 cDNA is 7587 base pairs in length and encodes a putative protein of 2435 amino acids which contains a serine/threonine kinase domain and a PDZ domain. MAST4 protein has 64%, 63%, 59% and 39% identical aminoacid residues with MAST1, MAST2, MAST3 and MASTL respectively. RT-PCR analysis revealed relatively high expression level of MAST4 in most normal human tissues, with an exception of in testis, small intestine, colon and peripheral blood leukocyte. PMID:17086981

Sun, L; Gu, S; Li, X; Sun, Y; Zheng, D; Yu, K; Ji, C; Tang, R; Xie, Y; Mao, Y

2006-01-01

407

Serum vitamin D-binding protein is a third member of the albumin and alpha fetoprotein gene family.  

PubMed Central

A near full-length cDNA encoding the human vitamin D-binding protein (hDBP) was isolated from a human liver mRNA expression library. Complete sequence analysis of this clone predicts the full-length amino acid sequence of the pre-hDBP. Comparison of the sequence of the hDBP mRNA and protein to existing protein and nucleic acid data banks demonstrates a strong and highly characteristic homology of the hDBP with human albumin (hALB) and human alpha-fetoprotein (hAFP). Based upon this structural comparison, we establish that DBP is a member of the ALB and AFP gene family. Images PMID:2416779

Cooke, N E; David, E V

1985-01-01

408

Mutation of TweedleD, a member of an unconventional cuticle protein family, alters body shape in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Body shape determination represents a critical aspect of morphogenesis. In the course of investigating body shape regulation in Drosophila, we have identified a dominant mutation, TweedleD(1) (TwdlD(1)), that alters overall dimensions at the larval and pupal stages. Characterization of the affected locus led to the discovery of a gene family that has 27 members in Drosophila and is found only among insects. Analysis of gene expression at the RNA and protein levels revealed gene-specific temporal and spatial patterns in ectodermally derived tissues. In addition, light microscopic studies of fluorescently tagged proteins demonstrated that Tweedle proteins are incorporated into larval cuticular structures. This demonstration that a mutation in a Drosophila cuticular protein gene alters overall morphology confirms a role for the fly exoskeleton in determining body shape. Furthermore, parallels between these findings and studies of cuticle collagen genes in Caenorhabditis elegans suggest that the exoskeleton influences body shape in diverse organisms. PMID:17075064

Guan, Xiao; Middlebrooks, Brooke W; Alexander, Sherry; Wasserman, Steven A

2006-11-01

409

Analysis of 14-3-3 Family Member Function in Xenopus Embryos by Microinjection of Antisense Morpholino Oligos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 14-3-3 intracellular phosphoserine/threonine-binding proteins are adapter molecules that regulate signal transduction, cell cycle, nutrient sensing, apoptotic, and cytoskeletal pathways. There are seven 14-3-3 family members, encoded by separate genes, in vertebrate organisms. To evaluate the role of individual 14-3-3 proteins in vertebrate embryonic development, we utilized an antisense morpholino oligo microinjection technique in Xenopus laevis embryos. By use of this method, we showed that embryos lacking specific 14-3-3 proteins displayed unique phenotypic abnormalities. Specifically, embryos lacking 14-3-3 ? exhibited gastrulation and axial patterning defects, but embryos lacking 14-3-3 ? exhibited eye defects without other abnormalities, and embryos lacking 14-3-3 ? appeared completely normal. These and other results demonstrate the power and specificity of the morpholino antisense oligo microinjection technique.

Lau, Jeffrey M. C.; Muslin, Anthony J.

410

Functional and Transcriptome Analysis Reveals an Acclimatization Strategy for Abiotic Stress Tolerance Mediated by Arabidopsis NF-YA Family Members  

PubMed Central

Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) is a heterotrimeric complex formed by NF-YA/NF-YB/NF-YC subunits that binds to the CCAAT-box in eukaryotic promoters. In contrast to other organisms, in which a single gene encodes each subunit, in plants gene families of over 10 members encode each of the subunits. Here we report that five members of the Arabidopsis thaliana NF-YA family are strongly induced by several stress conditions via transcriptional and miR169-related post-transcriptional mechanisms. Overexpression of NF-YA2, 7 and 10 resulted in dwarf late-senescent plants with enhanced tolerance to several types of abiotic stress. These phenotypes are related to alterations in sucrose/starch balance and cell elongation observed in NF-YA overexpressing plants. The use of transcriptomic analysis of transgenic plants that express miR169-resistant versions of NF-YA2, 3, 7, and 10 under an estradiol inducible system, as well as a dominant-repressor version of NF-YA2 revealed a set of genes, whose promoters are enriched in NF-Y binding sites (CCAAT-box) and that may be directly regulated by the NF-Y complex. This analysis also suggests that NF-YAs could participate in modulating gene regulation through positive and negative mechanisms. We propose a model in which the increase in NF-YA transcript levels in response to abiotic stress is part of an adaptive response to adverse environmental conditions in which a reduction in plant growth rate plays a key role. PMID:23118940

Leyva-González, Marco Antonio; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

2012-01-01

411

Identification and functional analysis of Joka2, a tobacco member of the family of selective autophagy cargo receptors.  

PubMed

Two main mechanisms of protein turnover exist in eukaryotic cells: the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the autophagy-lysosomal pathway. Autophagy is an emerging important constituent of many physiological and pathological processes, such as response to nutrient deficiency, programmed cell death and innate immune response. In mammalian cells the selectivity of autophagy is ensured by the presence of cargo receptors, such as p62/SQSTM1 and NBR1, responsible for sequestration of the ubiquitinated proteins. In plants no selective cargo receptors have been identified yet. The present report indicates that structural and functional homologs of p62 and NBR1 proteins exist in plants. The tobacco protein, named Joka2, has been identified in yeast two-hybrid search as a binding partner of a small coiled-coil protein, a member of UP9/LSU family of unknown function, encoded by the UP9C gene strongly and specifically induced during sulfur deficiency. The typical domains of p62 and NBR1 are conserved in Joka2. Similarly to p62, Joka2-YFP has dual localization (cytosolic speckles and the nucleus); it forms homodimers and interacts with a member of the ATG8 family. Increased expression of Joka2 and ATG8f was observed in roots of tobacco plants grown for two days in nutrient-deficient conditions. Constitutive ectopic expression of Joka2-YFP in tobacco resulted in attenuated response (manifested by lesser yellowing of the leaves) to nutrient deficiency. In conclusion, Joka2, and presumably the process of selective autophagy, might constitute an important part of plant response to environmental stresses. PMID:21670587

Zientara-Rytter, Katarzyna; Lukomska, Jolanta; Moniuszko, Grzegorz; Gwozdecki, Rafa?; Surowiecki, Przemys?aw; Lewandowska, Ma?gorzata; Liszewska, Frantz; Wawrzy?ska, Anna; Sirko, Agnieszka

2011-10-01

412

Differential regulation of four members of the ACC synthase gene family in plum  

PubMed Central

The regulation of ACC synthase (ACS) genes was studied in early (‘Early Golden’) and late (‘Shiro’) Japanese plum cultivars (Prunus salicina L.) in order to determine the role of this gene family in fruit ripening. Of the four Ps-ACS cDNAs isolated, two (Ps-ACS1 and -3) showed differential expression between the two cultivars. Ps-ACS1 accumulated during fruit ripening of ‘Early Golden’ (‘EG’) and ‘Shiro’ (‘SH’) in ethylene-dependent and -independent manners, respectively. Ps-ACS3a transcripts accumulated throughout fruit development and during ‘EG’ fruit ripening. Ps-ACS3b was detected only during ripening of ‘SH’ fruit. Furthermore, Ps-ACS3a transcript accumulation was negatively regulated by ethylene, whereas Ps-ACS3b was positively induced by the hormone. In both cultivars, the expression of Ps-ACS4 and -5 is under positive and negative feedback control by ethylene, respectively. Genetic analyses of ‘EG’ and ‘SH’ cultivars demonstrated that ‘EG’ is homozygous for Ps-ACS3a whereas ‘SH’ is heterozygous for Ps-ACS3 (a/b). The role of ethylene-overproducer 1-like in delaying fruit ripening by interacting with Ps-ACS proteins was also studied. The effect of the plant hormones, auxin, gibberellin, and cytokinin, in regulating ethylene production by promoting the induction of the different Ps-ACS mRNAs in plum was investigated. A model is presented in which differences in Ps-ACS alleles and gene expression between early and late plums are critical in determining the ripening behaviour of the cultivars. PMID:18535295

El-Sharkawy, I.; Kim, W. S.; Jayasankar, S.; Svircev, A. M.; Brown, D. C. W.

2008-01-01

413

The effect of preventability and severity levels of a genetic disorder on desire to communicate genetic testing information to family members.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of severity and preventability of a genetic disorder on belief that genetic test results should be shared with family members, desire to be tested, and opinions about physician?s role in sharing information. Participants were 359 undergraduate students who received one of four descriptions of a fictitious genetic disorder called hemocythemia (i.e., factorial combination of high versus low disease preventability and high versus low disease severity). Logistic regression analyses indicated that disease severity and preventability did not influence agreement that genetic information should be shared with family members, interest in being tested for the disorder, or agreement that physicians should share genetic information without permission. Those who read about the disorder as preventable were more likely to agree that their family members should be tested for the disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82, p < 0.05). Females, African Americans, and those of other races were more likely to agree that they would want their family members tested for hemocythemia than males or European Americans (p < 0.05). Describing the disorder as preventable minimized the effect of the severity manipulation on perception of disease severity (p < 0.05). Understanding a disorder to be preventable may increase encouragement of family members to be tested and affect perceived seriousness of the condition. PMID:16379546

Crabb, Jennifer A; Tucker, Diane C; Mun, Eun Young

2005-01-01

414

Complex phylogeny and gene expression patterns of members of the NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER family (NPF) in wheat.  

PubMed

NPF (formerly referred to as low-affinity NRT1) and 'high-affinity' NRT2 nitrate transporter genes are involved in nitrate uptake by the root, and transport and distribution of nitrate within the plant. The NPF gene family consists of 53 members in Arabidopsis thaliana, however only 11 of these have been functionally characterized. Although homologous genes have been identified in genomes of different plant species including some cereals, there is little information available for wheat (Triticum aestivum). Sixteen genes were identified in wheat homologous to characterized Arabidopsis low-affinity nitrate transporter NPF genes, suggesting a complex wheat NPF gene family. The regulation of wheat NFP genes by plant N-status indicated involvement of these transporters in substrate transport in relation to N-metabolism. The complex expression pattern in relation to tissue specificity, nitrate availability and senescence may be associated with the complex growth patterns of wheat depending on sink/source demands, as well as remobilization during grain filling. PMID:24913625

Buchner, Peter; Hawkesford, Malcolm J

2014-10-01

415

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of Seneca Valley virus-001, a new member of the Picornaviridae family.  

PubMed

Seneca Valley Virus-001 (SVV-001) is a newly found species in the Picornaviridae family. SVV-001 is the first naturally occurring nonpathogenic picornavirus observed to mediate selective cytotoxicity towards tumor cells with neuroendocrine cancer features. The nonsegmented (+)ssRNA genome of SVV-001 shares closest sequence similarity to the genomes of the members of the Cardiovirus genus. However, based on the distinct characteristics of the genome organization and other biochemical properties, it has been suggested that SVV-001 represents a new genus, namely 'Senecavirus', in the Picornaviridae family. In order to understand the oncolytic properties of SVV-001, the native virus was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group R3, with unit-cell parameters (in the hexagonal setting) a = b = 311.5, c = 1526.4 A. Although the SVV crystals diffracted to better than 2.3 A resolution, the data quality is acceptable [I/sigma(I) > 2.0] to 2.6 A resolution. The unit-cell volume and the locked rotation-function analysis suggest that six particles could be accommodated in the unit cell, with two distinct sets of one third of a particle, each containing 20 protomers, occupying the crystallographic asymmetric unit. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00314925) PMID:18391430

Venkataraman, Sangita; Reddy, Seshidhar P; Loo, Jackie; Idamakanti, Neeraja; Hallenbeck, Paul L; Reddy, Vijay S

2008-04-01

416

TRIM16 Acts as an E3 Ubiquitin Ligase and Can Heterodimerize with Other TRIM Family Members  

PubMed Central

The TRIM family of proteins is distinguished by its tripartite motif (TRIM). Typically, TRIM proteins contain a RING finger domain, one or two B-box domains, a coiled-coil domain and the more variable C-terminal domains. TRIM16 does not have a RING domain but does harbour two B-box domains. Here we showed that TRIM16 homodimerized through its coiled-coil domain and heterodimerized with other TRIM family members; TRIM24, Promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) protein and Midline-1 (MID1). Although, TRIM16 has no classic RING domain, three-dimensional modelling of TRIM16 suggested that its B-box domains adopts RING-like folds leading to the hypothesis that TRIM16 acts as an ubiquitin ligase. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrated that TRIM16, devoid of a classical RING domain had auto-polyubiquitination activity and acted as an E3 ubiquitin ligase in vivo and in vitro assays. Thus via its unique structure, TRIM16 possesses both heterodimerization function with other TRIM proteins and also has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. PMID:22629402

Holien, Jessica K.; Koach, Jessica; Parker, Michael W.; Kavallaris, Maria; Marshall, Glenn M.; Cheung, Belamy B.

2012-01-01

417

Biochemical characterization of the Drosophila dpp protein, a member of the transforming growth factor beta family of growth factors.  

PubMed Central

The decapentaplegic (dpp) gene of Drosophila melanogaster is required for pattern formation in the embryo and for viability of the epithelial cells in the imaginal disks. The dpp protein product predicted from the DNA sequence is similar to members of a family of growth factors that includes transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). We have produced polyclonal antibodies to a recombinant dpp protein made in bacteria and used a metallothionein promoter to express a dpp cDNA in Drosophila S2 cells. Similar to other proteins in the TGF-beta family, the dpp protein produced by the Drosophila cells was proteolytically cleaved, and both portions of the protein were secreted from the cells. The amino-terminal 47-kilodalton (kDa) peptide was found in the medium and in the proteins adhering to the plastic petri dish. The carboxy-terminal peptide, the region with sequence similarity to the active ligand portion of TGF-beta, was found extracellularly as a 30-kDa homodimer. Most of the 30-kDa homodimer was in the S2 cell protein adsorbed onto the surface of the plastic dish. The dpp protein could be released into solution by increased salt concentration and nonionic detergent. Under these conditions, the amino-terminal and carboxy-terminal portions of dpp were not associated in a stable complex. Images PMID:1692958

Panganiban, G E; Rashka, K E; Neitzel, M D; Hoffmann, F M

1990-01-01

418

Chlamydia trachomatis-infected patients display variable antibody profiles against the nine-member polymorphic membrane protein family.  

PubMed

Genomic analysis of the Chlamydiaceae has revealed a multigene family encoding large, putatively autotransported polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) with nine members in the sexually transmitted pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. While various pathogenesis-related functions are emerging for the Pmps, observed genotypic and phenotypic variation among several chlamydial Pmps in various Chlamydia species has led us to hypothesize that the pmp gene repertoire is the basis of a previously undetected mechanism of antigenic variation. To test this hypothesis, we chose to examine the serologic response of C. trachomatis-infected patients to each Pmp subtype. Immune serum samples were collected from four populations of patients with confirmed C. trachomatis genital infection: 40 women with pelvic inflammatory disease from Pittsburgh, PA; 27 and 34 adolescent/young females from Oakland, CA, and Little Rock, AR, respectively; and 58 adult male patients from Baltimore, MD. The Pmp-specific antibody response was obtained using immunoblot analysis against each of the nine recombinantly expressed Pmps and quantified by densitometry. Our results show that nearly all C. trachomatis-infected patients mount a strong serologic response against individual or multiple Pmp subtypes and that the antibody specificity profile varies between patients. Moreover, our analysis reveals differences in the strengths and specificities of the Pmp subtype-specific antibody reactivity relating to gender and clinical outcome. Overall, our results indicate that the Pmps elicit various serologic responses in C. trachomatis-infected patients and are consistent with the pmp gene family being the basis of a mechanism of antigenic variation. PMID:19487469

Tan, Chun; Hsia, Ru-ching; Shou, Huizhong; Haggerty, Catherine L; Ness, Roberta B; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Dean, Deborah; Scurlock, Amy M; Wilson, David P; Bavoil, Patrik M

2009-08-01

419

Cloning and characterization of the Hakata antigen, a member of the ficolin/opsonin p35 lectin family.  

PubMed

The Hakata antigen is a novel, thermolabile beta2-macroglycoprotein that reacts with sera from patients suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus. In this study we present the structure and the function of the Hakata antigen. We have identified cDNA clones encoding the Hakata antigen and analyzed its function. The cDNA included a possible open reading frame of 897 nucleotides, encoding 299 amino acids. The Hakata antigen consisted of a collagen-like domain in the middle section and a fibrinogen-like domain in the COOH terminus, both of which are homologous to human ficolin-1 and opsonin P35, indicating that these three molecules form a distinct family. The molecular mass of the Hakata antigen expressed in transfected cells was 35 kDa under reduced conditions, and it formed ladder bands under nonreducing conditions compatible with the previous result that the Hakata antigen exists in serum as homopolymers. Purified Hakata antigen sustained lectin activity, showing affinity with GalNAc, GlcNAc, D-fucose as mono/oligosaccharide, and lipopolysaccharides from Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella minnesota. These results suggest that the Hakata antigen, a new member of the ficolin/opsonin P35 family, plays a role in the serum exerting lectin activity under physiological conditions. PMID:9694814

Sugimoto, R; Yae, Y; Akaiwa, M; Kitajima, S; Shibata, Y; Sato, H; Hirata, J; Okochi, K; Izuhara, K; Hamasaki, N

1998-08-14

420

Psychological response of family members of patients hospitalised for influenza A/H1N1 in Oaxaca, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background The A/H1N1 pandemic originated in Mexico in April 2009, amid high uncertainty, social and economic disruption, and media reports of panic. The aim of this research project was to evaluate the psychological response of family primary caregivers of patients hospitalised in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with suspected influenza A/H1N1 to establish whether there was empirical evidence of high adverse psychological response, and to identify risk factors for such a response. If such evidence was found, a secondary aim was to develop a specific early intervention of psychological support for these individuals, to reduce distress and possibly lessen the likelihood of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the longer term. Methods Psychological assessment questionnaires were administered to the family primary caregivers of patients hospitalised in the ICU in the General Hospital of Zone 1 of the Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS), Oaxaca, Mexico with suspected influenza A/H1N1, during the month of November 2009. The main outcome measures were ratings of reported perceived stress (PSS-10), depression (CES-D), and death anxiety (DAQ). Data were subjected to simple and multiple linear regression analysis to identify risk factors for adverse psychological response. Results Elevated levels of perceived stress and depression, compared to population normative data, and moderate levels of death anxiety were noted. Levels of depression were similar to those found in comparable studies of family members of ICU patients admitted for other conditions. Multiple regression analysis indicated that increasing age and non-spousal family relationship were significantly associated with depression and perceived stress. Female gender, increasing age, and higher levels of education were significantly associated with high death anxiety. Comparisons with data collected in previous studies in the same hospital ICU with groups affected by a range of other medical conditions indicated that the psychological response reported in this study was generally lower. Conclusions Data indicated that, contrary to widely publicised reports of 'panic' surrounding A/H1N1, that some of those most directly affected did not report excessive psychological responses; however, we concluded that there was sufficient evidence to support provision of limited psychological support to family caregivers. PMID:21129214

2010-01-01

421

Comparative biochemical analysis of three members of the Schistosoma mansoni TAL family: Differences in ion and drug binding properties  

PubMed Central

The tegumental allergen-like (TAL) proteins from Schistosoma mansoni are part of a family of calcium binding proteins found only in parasitic flatworms. These proteins have attracted interest as potential drug or vaccine targets, yet comparatively little is known about their biochemistry. Here, we compared the biochemical properties of three members of this family: SmTAL1 (Sm22.6), SmTAL2 (Sm21.7) and SmTAL3 (Sm20.8). Molecular modelling suggested that, despite similarities in domain organisation, there are differences in the three proteins’ structures. SmTAL1 was predicted to have two functional calcium binding sites and SmTAL2 was predicted to have one. Despite the presence of two EF-hand-like structures in SmTAL3, neither was predicted to be functional. These predictions were confirmed by native gel electrophoresis, intrinsic fluorescence and differential scanning fluorimetry: both SmTAL1 and SmTAL2 are able to bind calcium ions reversibly, but SmTAL3 is not. SmTAL1 is also able to interact with manganese, strontium, iron(II) and nickel ions. SmTAL2 has a different ion binding profile interacting with cadmium, manganese, magnesium, strontium and barium ions in addition to calcium. All three proteins form dimers and, in contrast to some Fasciola hepatica proteins from the same family; dimerization is not affected by calcium ions. SmTAL1 interacts with the anti-schistosomal drug praziquantel and the calmodulin antagonists trifluoperazine, chlorpromazine and W7. SmTAL2 interacts only with W7. SmTAL3 interacts with the aforementioned calmodulin antagonists and thiamylal, but not praziquantel. Overall, these data suggest that the proteins have different biochemical properties and thus, most likely, different in vivo functions. PMID:25447146

Thomas, Charlotte M.; Fitzsimmons, Colin M.; Dunne, David W.; Timson, David J.

2015-01-01

422

Soluble-E-cadherin activates HER and IAP family members in HER2+ and TNBC human breast cancers.  

PubMed

Recent literature suggests that sEcad exerts pro-oncogenic effects, possibly acting as a ligand for the human epidermal growth factor family. Here we show that sEcad is a novel candidate protein for drug targeting since it is increased in human and mouse HER2-positive (HER2+) breast tumors, MMTV-PyMT bodily fluids and human cell culture systems. Mechanistically, we show that endogenous sEcad, and to a lesser extent membrane-bound E-cadherin, associates with HER1, HER2, and HER3 in human and MMTV-PyMT mouse HER2+ tumors and with HER1 in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) specimens. Furthermore, addition of exogenous recombinant human E-cadherin/Fc chimeric protein (rhEcad/Fc; sEcad) to HER2+ MCF-7, SKBR3, and HER2-negative MDA-MB-231 TNBC cells, resulted in sEcad-HER receptor family interactions, activation of HER1-4 and downstream pro-survival signaling, including the MAPK-PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways and IAP family members. Lastly, we demonstrate that sEcad exerts pro-oncogenic effects via HER signaling, and acts additively with the HER ligand EGF to promote HER2+ breast cancer proliferation and migration, as well as TNBC invasion. Because sEcad associates and activates many of the oncogenic pathways that tumors utilize for growth and survival and serum levels in patients correlates with clinical response, suggests that targeted therapy against sEcad in combination with other therapies may potentially offer a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of breast cancers. PMID:23776059

Brouxhon, Sabine M; Kyrkanides, Stephanos; Teng, Xiaofei; O'Banion, M Kerry; Clarke, Robert; Byers, Stephen; Ma, Li

2014-11-01

423

Comparative biochemical analysis of three members of the Schistosoma mansoni TAL family: Differences in ion and drug binding properties.  

PubMed

The tegumental allergen-like (TAL) proteins from Schistosoma mansoni are part of a family of calcium binding proteins found only in parasitic flatworms. These proteins have attracted interest as potential drug or vaccine targets, yet comparatively little is known about their biochemistry. Here, we compared the biochemical properties of three members of this family: SmTAL1 (Sm22.6), SmTAL2 (Sm21.7) and SmTAL3 (Sm20.8). Molecular modelling suggested that, despite similarities in domain organisation, there are differences in the three proteins' structures. SmTAL1 was predicted to have two functional calcium binding sites and SmTAL2 was predicted to have one. Despite the presence of two EF-hand-like structures in SmTAL3, neither was predicted to be functional. These predictions were confirmed by native gel electrophoresis, intrinsic fluorescence and differential scanning fluorimetry: both SmTAL1 and SmTAL2 are able to bind calcium ions reversibly, but SmTAL3 is not. SmTAL1 is also able to interact with manganese, strontium, iron(II) and nickel ions. SmTAL2 has a different ion binding profile interacting with cadmium, manganese, magnesium, strontium and barium ions in addition to calcium. All three proteins form dimers and, in contrast to some Fasciola hepatica proteins from the same family; dimerization is not affected by calcium ions. SmTAL1 interacts with the anti-schistosomal drug praziquantel and the calmodulin antagonists trifluoperazine, chlorpromazine and W7. SmTAL2 interacts only with W7. SmTAL3 interacts with the aforementioned calmodulin antagonists and thiamylal, but not praziquantel. Overall, these data suggest that the proteins have different biochemical properties and thus, most likely, different in vivo functions. PMID:25447146

Thomas, Charlotte M; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Dunne, David W; Timson, David J

2015-01-01