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1

The PCH Family Member Proline-Serine-Threonine Phosphatase-interacting Protein 1 Targets to the Leukocyte Uropod and Regulates Directed Cell Migration  

PubMed Central

Pombe Cdc15 homology (PCH) family members have emerged as important regulators of membrane–cytoskeletal interactions. Here we show that PSTPIP1, a PCH family member expressed in hematopoietic cells, regulates the motility of neutrophil-like cells and is a novel component of the leukocyte uropod where it colocalizes with other uropod components, such as type I PIPKI?. Furthermore, we show that PSTPIP1 association with the regulator of endocytosis, dynamin 2, and PSTPIP1 expression impairs transferrin uptake and endocytosis. We also show that PSTPIP1 localizes at the rear of neutrophils with a subpopulation of F-actin that is specifically detected by the binding of an F-actin probe that detects a more stable population of actin. Finally, we show that actin polymerization, but not the microtubule network, is necessary for the polarized distribution of PSTPIP1 toward the rear of the cell. Together, our findings demonstrate that PSTPIP1 is a novel component of the leukocyte uropod that regulates endocytosis and cell migration.

Cooper, Kate M.; Bennin, David A.

2008-01-01

2

Exceptional Family Member Program EFM.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The EFM Program is a mandatory enrollment program per OPNAVINST 1754.2 (series) that identifies long term medical and special education needs of family members and ensures assignment consideration of those needs when transferring. To ensure special needs ...

1996-01-01

3

7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Family members. 1400.208 Section...AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES PAYMENT LIMITATION AND...Eligibility § 1400.208 Family members. (a) Notwithstanding...persons, a majority of whom are family members, an adult...

2010-01-01

4

Family Member Involvement in Hastened Death  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When patients pursue a hastened death, how is the labor of family caregiving affected? The authors examined this question in a qualitative study of 35 families. Four cases reveal the main themes: "taking care" included mutual protection between patients and family members; "midwifing the death" without professional support left families unprepared…

Starks, Helene; Back, Anthony L.; Pearlman, Robert A.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Hsu, Clarissa; Gordon, Judith R.; Bharucha, Ashok J.

2007-01-01

5

Conducting a multi family member interview study.  

PubMed

Family researchers have long recognized the utility of incorporating interview data from multiple family members. Yet, relatively few contemporary scholars utilize such an approach due to methodological underdevelopment. This article contributes to family scholarship by providing a roadmap for developing and executing in-depth interview studies that include more than one family member. Specifically, it outlines the epistemological frames that most commonly underlie this approach, illustrates thematic research questions that it best addresses, and critically reviews the best methodological practices of conducting research with this approach. The three most common approaches are addressed in depth: separate interviews with each family member, dyadic or group interviews with multiple family members, and a combined approach that uses separate and dyadic or group interviews. This article speaks to family scholars who are at the beginning stages of their research project but are unsure of the best qualitative approach to answer a given research question. PMID:24410452

Reczek, Corinne

2014-06-01

6

Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH)  

MedlinePLUS

... the urine. PCH has been linked to secondary syphilis, tertiary syphilis, and other viral or bacterial infections. Sometimes the ... help. For example, if PCH is caused by syphilis, symptoms may get better when the syphilis is ...

7

Methods of Assessment for Affected Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article begins by making the point that a good assessment of the needs and circumstances of family members is important if previous neglect of affected family members is to be reversed. The methods we have used in research studies are then described. They include a lengthy semi-structured interview covering seven topic areas and standard…

Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Velleman, Richard; Copello, Alex

2010-01-01

8

Principal Components of Heritability From Neurocognitive Domains Differ Between Families With Schizophrenia and Control Subjects  

PubMed Central

Objective: Various measures of neurocognitive function show mean differences among individuals with schizophrenia (SZ), their relatives, and population controls. We use eigenvector transformations that maximize heritability of multiple neurocognitive measures, namely principal components of heritability (PCH), and evaluate how they distribute in SZ families and controls. Methods: African-Americans with SZ or schizoaffective disorder (SZA) (n = 514), their relatives (n = 1092), and adult controls (n = 300) completed diagnostic interviews and computerized neurocognitive tests. PCH were estimated from 9 neurocognitive domains. Three PCH, PCH1–PCH3, were modeled to determine if status (SZ, relative, and control), other psychiatric covariates, and education were significant predictors of mean values. A small-scale linkage analysis was also conducted in a subset of the sample. Results: PCH1, PCH2, and PCH3 account for 72% of the genetic variance. PCH1 represents 8 of 9 neurocognitive domains, is most highly correlated with spatial processing and emotion recognition, and has unadjusted heritability of 68%. The means for PCH1 differ significantly among SZ, their relatives, and controls. PCH2, orthogonal to PCH1, is most closely correlated with working memory and has an unadjusted heritability of 45%. Mean PCH2 is different only between SZ families and controls. PCH3 apparently represents a heritable component of neurocognition similar across the 3 diagnostic groups. No significant linkage evidence to PCH1–PCH3 or individual neurocognitive measures was discovered. Conclusions: PCH1 is highly heritable and genetically correlated with SZ. It should prove useful in future genetic analyses. Mean PCH2 differentiates SZ families and controls but not SZ and unaffected family members.

Wiener, Howard; Klei, Lambertus; Calkins, Monica; Wood, Joel; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Gur, Ruben; Bradford, L. DiAnne; Richard, Jan; Edwards, Neil; Savage, Robert; Kwentus, Joseph; Allen, Trina; McEvoy, Joseph; Santos, Alberto; Gur, Raquel; Devlin, Bernie; Go, Rodney

2013-01-01

9

Metabolic regulation by p53 family members.  

PubMed

The function of p53 is best understood in response to genotoxic stress, but increasing evidence suggests that p53 also plays a key role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. p53 and its family members directly influence various metabolic pathways, enabling cells to respond to metabolic stress. These functions are likely to be important for restraining the development of cancer but could also have a profound effect on the development of metabolic diseases, including diabetes. A better understanding of the metabolic functions of p53 family members may aid in the identification of therapeutic targets and reveal novel uses for p53-modulating drugs. PMID:23954639

Berkers, Celia R; Maddocks, Oliver D K; Cheung, Eric C; Mor, Inbal; Vousden, Karen H

2013-11-01

10

TGF-? Family Members and Gonadal Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several members of the transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) family are involved in gonadal development; namely, TGF-? itself, inhibins, activins, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and GDF-9. These proteins do not affect initial gonadal organogenesis but play either a stimulatory or inhibitory role in the division and differentiation of gonadal cells and in meiotic maturation in the female. Furthermore, as shown by

Nathalie Josso; Nathalie di Clemente

1999-01-01

11

Family Members as Participants on Craniofacial Teams.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family members (N=83) who participated in professional team staffing concerning treatment plans for their child with a craniofacial difference (typically, cleft lip and/or palate) were surveyed. Ninety-seven percent of respondents said they would choose to meet with the team on their next visit to the clinic. The role of early interventionists on…

Andrews, James; Seaver, Earl; Stevens, George; Whiteley, Joseph

1998-01-01

12

Pch2 Acts through Xrs2 and Tel1/ATM to Modulate Interhomolog Bias and Checkpoint Function during Meiosis  

PubMed Central

Proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis requires the formation and repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) to form crossovers. Repair is biased toward using the homolog as a substrate rather than the sister chromatid. Pch2 is a conserved member of the AAA+-ATPase family of proteins and is implicated in a wide range of meiosis-specific processes including the recombination checkpoint, maturation of the chromosome axis, crossover control, and synapsis. We demonstrate a role for Pch2 in promoting and regulating interhomolog bias and the meiotic recombination checkpoint in response to unprocessed DSBs through the activation of axial proteins Hop1 and Mek1 in budding yeast. We show that Pch2 physically interacts with the putative BRCT repeats in the N-terminal region of Xrs2, a member of the MRX complex that acts at sites of unprocessed DSBs. Pch2, Xrs2, and the ATM ortholog Tel1 function in the same pathway leading to the phosphorylation of Hop1, independent of Rad17 and the ATR ortholog Mec1, which respond to the presence of single-stranded DNA. An N-terminal deletion of Xrs2 recapitulates the pch2? phenotypes for signaling unresected breaks. We propose that interaction with Xrs2 may enable Pch2 to remodel chromosome structure adjacent to the site of a DSB and thereby promote accessibility of Hop1 to the Tel1 kinase. In addition, Xrs2, like Pch2, is required for checkpoint-mediated delay conferred by the failure to synapse chromosomes.

Ho, Hsuan-Chung; Burgess, Sean M.

2011-01-01

13

Family members' influence on family meal vegetable choices  

PubMed Central

Objective Characterize the process of family vegetable selection (especially cruciferous, deep orange, and dark green leafy vegetables); demonstrate the usefulness of Exchange Theory (how family norms and past experiences interact with rewards and costs) for interpreting the data. Design Eight focus groups, two with each segment (men/women vegetable-likers/dislikers based on a screening form). Participants completed a vegetable intake form. Setting Rural Appalachian Pennsylvania. Participants 61 low-income, married/cohabiting men (n=28) and women (n=33). Analysis Thematic analysis within Exchange Theory framework for qualitative data. Descriptive analysis, t-tests and chi-square tests for quantitative data. Results Exchange Theory proved useful for understanding that regardless of sex or vegetable-liker/disliker status, meal preparers see more costs than rewards to serving vegetables. Past experience plus expectations of food preparer role and of deference to family member preferences supported a family norm of serving only vegetables acceptable to everyone. Emphasized vegetables are largely ignored due to unfamiliarity; family norms prevented experimentation and learning through exposure. Conclusions and Implications Interventions to increase vegetable consumption of this audience could 1) alter family norms about vegetables served, 2) change perceptions of past experiences, 3) reduce social and personal costs of serving vegetables and 4) increase tangible and social rewards of serving vegetables.

Wenrich, Tionni R.; Brown, J. Lynne; Miller-Day, Michelle; Kelley, Kevin J.; Lengerich, Eugene J.

2010-01-01

14

Family Members' Reports of the Technology Use of Family Members with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A nationwide survey of family members of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities ranging in age from birth through adulthood was conducted to replicate a similar effort by Wehmeyer and update the knowledge base concerning technology use by people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Method: Survey responses…

Palmer, S. B.; Wehmeyer, M. L.; Davies, D. K.; Stock, S. E.

2012-01-01

15

[Familial hypertrophic myocardiopathy: complex ventricular arrhythmias in healthy family members].  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the electrocardiographic changes among the members of a family affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Seventeen unaffected members and 8 affected members were studied by 24-hour Holter monitoring. Twenty-five normal controls were also studied by 24-hour Holter monitoring. One out of 7 (12.5%) patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 8 out of 17 (47%) unaffected relatives and 20 out of 25 (80%) controls did not show ventricular arrhythmias. One out of 7 patients (12.5%), 4 out of 17 (23.5%) unaffected relatives and 3 out of 25 (12%) of the control group showed Lown classes I-II ventricular arrhythmias. Complex ventricular arrhythmias (III-V Lown classes) were detected in 5/7 (71.4%) of patients, in 5/17 (29.5%) of unaffected members and only in 2/25 (8%) of the normals. Among the unaffected members we compared the prevalence of complex ventricular arrhythmias between the offspring of patients with that of the unaffected first-grade relatives. Three out 7 (43%) of the offspring of the patients showed complex ventricular arrhythmias and none among the offspring of normal first-grade relatives showed such arrhythmias. Neither the patients nor their relatives in this study showed any significant ST segment changes during the 24-hour Holter monitoring. We suggest that in first-grade relatives of patients with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, complex ventricular arrhythmias could be a marker of latent disease, without clinical and echocardiographic manifestations. PMID:2091829

Pothen, P; Cordiano, R; Scanavacca, G; Bongiově, S; Macor, F; Palmieri, R; Pigato, R; Pessina, A C; Dal Palů, C

1990-09-01

16

An Unusually Shaped Haumea Family Member  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2013 EL61 Haumea is a 2000 km-scale, fast-spinning Kuiper belt object covered in water ice, but with a bulk density near 2.5 g/cc implying a rocky interior. Approximately a dozen Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) have been identified as possibly related to Haumea in that they share similar orbital properties and have unusually fresh, icy surfaces similar to the water-ice mantle covering the latter. These KBOs are usually referred to as the Haumea family. Sparse photometry of one of the family members, 2003 SQ317, revealed an interesting high photometric variability. We followed up on those observations and used the NTT in La Silla to obtain dense, time-resolved photometry of SQ317 over two semesters. Analysis of the lightcurve indicates a spin period P=7.2 hr and a photometric range equal to 0.9 mag. We will present implications of this lightcurve to the object's shape and bulk density.

Lacerda, Pedro

2013-10-01

17

Comparative integromics on Angiopoietin family members.  

PubMed

Angiopoietin-1 (ANGPT1), Angiopoietin-4 (ANGPT4), VEGF, FGF2, FGF4, HGF, Ephrin, IL8 and CXCL12 (SFD1) are pro-angiogenic factors (angiogenic activators), while Angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2), Angiostatin, Endostatin, Tumstatin, Canstatin, THBS1, THBS2, TNFSF15 (VEGI) and Vasohibin (VASH1) are anti-angiogenic factors (angiogenic inhibitors). ANGPT1 and ANGPT2 are ligands for TIE family receptor tyrosine kinases, TIE1 and TIE2 (TEK). Angiopoietin family consists of ANGPT1, ANGPT2, ANGPT4, ANGPTL1 (ANGPT3), ANGPTL2, ANGPTL3 (ANGPT5), ANGPTL4, ANGPTL5, ANGPTL6 and ANGPTL7. TCF/LEF binding sites within the promoter region of human Angiopoietin family members were searched for by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). Because four TCF/LEF-binding sites were identified within the human ANGPTL7 promoter, comparative genomics analyses on ANGPTL7 orthologs were further performed. ANGPTL7 gene at human chromosome 1p36.22 was located within intron 28 of FRAP1 gene encoding mTOR protein. Chimpanzee ANGPTL7 gene, consisting of five exons, was located within NW_101546.1 genome sequence. Chimpanzee ANGPTL7 showed 99.4% and 86.1% total-amino-acid identity with human ANGPTL7 and mouse Angptl7, respectively. Human ANGPTL7 mRNA was expressed in neural tissues, keratoconus cornea, trabecular meshwork, melanotic melanoma and uterus endometrial cancer, while mouse Angptl7 mRNA was expressed in four-cell embryo, synovial fibroblasts, thymus, uterus and testis. Four TCF/LEF-binding sites within human ANGPTL7 promoter were conserved in chimpanzee ANGPTL7 promoter; however, only an unrelated TCF/LEF-binding site occurred in mouse and rat Angptl7 promoters. Human ANGPTL7, characterized as potent target gene of WNT/ beta-catenin signaling pathway, is a pharmacogenomics target in the fields of oncology and regenerative medicine. PMID:16685428

Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

2006-06-01

18

Perceived Family Resources Based on Number of Members with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examines how the number of family members with ADHD affects other family members' perceived resources. Method: A total of 40 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and their mothers, fathers, and adolescent siblings living in the household participated. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze family-level data from a total…

Corwin, Melinda; Mulsow, Miriam; Feng, Du

2012-01-01

19

Comparative integromics on VEGF family members.  

PubMed

VEGF, Hedgehog, FGF, Notch, and WNT signaling pathways network together for vascular remodeling during embryogenesis, tissue regeneration, and carcinogenesis. VEGFA (VEGF), VEGFB, VEGFC, VEGFD (FIGF) and PGF (PlGF) are VEGF family ligands for receptor tyrosine kinases, including VEGFR1 (FLT1), VEGFR2 (KDR) and VEGFR3 (FLT4). Bevacizumab (Avastin), Sunitinib (Sutent) and Sorafenib (Nexavar) are anti-cancer drugs targeted to VEGF signaling pathway. TCF/LEF binding sites within the promoter region of human VEGF family members were searched for by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). Because four TCF/LEF-binding sites were identified within the 5'-promoter region of human VEGFD gene within AC095351.5 genome sequence, comparative genomics analyses on VEGFD orthologs were further performed. ASB9-ASB11-VEGFD locus at human chromosome Xp22.2 and ASB5-VEGFC locus at human chromosome 4q34 were paralogous regions within the human genome. Human VEGFD mRNA was expressed in lung, small intestine, uterus, breast, neural tissues, and neuroblastoma. Mouse Vegfd mRNA was expressed in kidney, pregnant oviduct, and neural tissues. Chimpanzee VEGFD promoter, cow Vegfd promoter, mouse Vegfd promoter and rat Vegfd promoter were identified within NW_121675.1, AC161065.2, AL732475.6 and AC130036.3 genome sequences, respectively. Three out of four TCF/LEF-binding sites within human VEGFD promoter were conserved in chimpanzee VEGFD promoter, and one in cow Vegfd promoter. TCF/LEF-binding site, not conserved in human VEGFD promoter, occurred in cow, mouse and rat Vegfd promoters. At least five out of six bHLH-binding sites within human VEGFD proximal promoter region were conserved in chimpanzee VEGFD proximal promoter region, while only one in cow Vegfd proximal promoter region. Together these facts indicate that relatively significant promoter evolution occurred among mammalian VEGFD orthologs. Human VEGFD was characterized as a potent target gene of WNT/beta-catenin signaling pathway. VEGFD, implicated in angiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis, is a pharmacogenomics target in the field of oncology. PMID:16685460

Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

2006-06-01

20

Treatment of a Nondrinking Family Member of an Alcoholic Family System by a Family Nursing Team  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the clinical work of a family nursing team facilitating therapeutic change within a multigenerational alcoholic family system by intervening with the nondrinking family member. A model combining systemic assessment with strategic interventions was effectively used by this training team. The team designed \\

Lorraine M. Wright; Dusty Miller; Karen L. Nelson

1985-01-01

21

Coping Strategies of Family Members of Hospitalized Psychiatric Patients  

PubMed Central

This exploratory research paper investigated the coping strategies of families of hospitalized psychiatric patients and identified their positive and negative coping strategies. In this paper, the coping strategies of 45 family members were examined using a descriptive, correlational, mixed method research approach. Guided by the Neuman Systems Model and using the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales and semistructured interviews, this paper found that these family members used more emotion-focused coping strategies than problem-focused coping strategies. The common coping strategies used by family members were communicating with immediate family, acceptance of their situation, passive appraisal, avoidance, and spirituality. The family members also utilized resources and support systems, such as their immediate families, mental health care professionals, and their churches.

Eaton, Phyllis M.; Davis, Bertha L.; Hammond, Pamela V.; Condon, Esther H.; McGee, Zina T.

2011-01-01

22

Validation of Toolkit After-Death Bereaved Family Member Interview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Toolkit After-Death Bereaved Family Member Interview to measure quality of care at the end of life from the unique perspective of family members. The survey included proposed problem scores (a count of the opportunity to improve the quality of care) and scales. Data were collected through

Joan M. Teno; Brian Clarridge; Virginia Casey; Susan Edgman-Levitan; Jack Fowler

2001-01-01

23

Military Personnel: Medical, Family Support, and Educational Services Are Available for Exceptional Family Members.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Defense's (DOD) Exceptional Family Member Program (EFMP) is a mandatory enrollment program for active duty servicemembers who have family members with special medical needs. The Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fis...

M. Crosse

2007-01-01

24

Prospective Screening of Family Members with Moyamoya Disease Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of moyamoya disease (MMD). Previous studies concentrated on familial MMD patients. In this study, we focused on family members of sporadic MMD patients, and aimed to gain a clearer understanding of the role that genetic factors play in MMD. Methods The immediate family members of MMD patients were initially screened by transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) and positive cases were verified by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Results From July 2011 to March 2013, there were 527 MMD patients managed in our hospital, including 38 familial MMD cases. In this study, 285 immediate family members of 245 sporadic MMD patients were screened. Another 41 cases of familial MMD cases were identified, which included 21 family members and 20 corresponding sporadic MMD patients who had family members confirmed positive with MMD. As a result, the proportion of familial MMD patients increased from 7% (38/527) to 15% (79/527) in this period. For the main segments of the circle of Willis, Kappa values between TCD and MRA for the anterior cerebral arteries, middle cerebral arteries and posterior cerebral arteries were 0.91, 0.72, and 0.47, respectively. Familial cases confirmed by our screening showed a significantly higher percentage of asymptomatic patients (57%) compared with 9% from the control group who had a clear family history before. Conclusions Familial MMD patients may account for a higher percentage among all cases than previously thought. Some family members of MMD patients may also have MMD, but not have any obvious symptoms. Routine screening should be implemented for all family members of MMD patients to improve the detection rate for this part of the patient base. TCD has a high diagnostic agreement with MRA for MMD. TCD may be the preferred choice for screening because it is inexpensive and safe.

Han, Yi-Qin; Liu, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zheng-Shan; Yang, Wei-Zhong; Duan, Lian

2014-01-01

25

Distribution of Candida albicans genotypes among family members  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thirty-three families (71 subjects) were screened for the presence of Candida albicans in mouthwash or stool specimens; 12 families (28 subjects) were culture-positive for this yeast. An enrichment procedure provided a twofold increase in the recovery of C. albicans from mouthwash specimens. Nine of the twelve culture-positive families had two positive members each, two families had three positive members each, and one family had four positive members. Genetic profiles were obtained by three methods: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; restriction endonuclease analysis, and random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis. DNA fingerprinting of C. albicans isolated from one body site three consecutive times revealed that each of the 12 families carried a distinct genotype. No two families shared the same strain, and two or more members of a family commonly shared the same strain. Intrafamily genotypic identity (i.e., each member within the family harbored the same strain) was demonstrated in six families. Genotypes of isolates from husband and wife differed from one another in five families. All three methods were satisfactory in determining genotypes; however, we concluded that restriction endonuclease analysis provided adequate resolving power.

Mehta, S. K.; Stevens, D. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Feroze, F.; Pierson, D. L.

1999-01-01

26

Helping Older Family Members Become More Active  

MedlinePLUS

Everyday Fitness Ideas from the National Institute on Aging at NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Helping Older Family ... garden or gardening group. Many local organizations offer fitness programs for older people. Places to look include: ...

27

Lineage Affect Similarity and Health of Older Family Members.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with same-sex adult members of three-generation family lines can dramatize similarities and differences by age and generation in ways of thinking and feeling. An analysis of interviews with 157 families examined the health of the grandparent, the happiness of each of the three generational representatives, and family salience. Twelve…

Troll, Lillian E.

28

Characterization of Argonaute family members in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.  

PubMed

The Argonaute protein family is a highly conserved group of proteins, which have been implicated in RNA silencing in both plants and animals. Here, four members of the Argonaute family were systemically identified based on the genome sequence of Bombyx mori. Based on their sequence similarity, BmAgo1 and BmAgo2 belong to the Ago subfamily, while BmAgo3 and BmPiwi are in the Piwi subfamily. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that silkworm Argonaute family members are conserved in insects. Conserved amino acid residues involved in recognition of the 5' end of the small RNA guide strand and of the conserved (aspartate, aspartate and histidine [DDH]) motif present in their PIWI domains suggest that these four Argonaute family members may have conserved slicer activities. The results of microarray expression analysis show that there is a low expression level for B. mori Argonaute family members in different tissues and different developmental stages, except for BmPiwi. All four B. mori Argonaute family members are upregulated upon infection with B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus. The complete coding sequence of BmPiwi, the homolog of Drosophila piwi, was cloned and its expression occurred mainly in the area where spermatogonia and spermatocytes appear. Our results provide an overview of the B. mori Argonaute family members and suggest that they may have multiple roles. In addition, this is also the first report, to our knowledge, of the response of RNA silencing machinery to DNA virus infection in insects. PMID:23955828

Wang, Gen-Hong; Jiang, Liang; Zhu, Li; Cheng, Ting-Cai; Niu, Wei-Huan; Yan, Ya-Fei; Xia, Qing-You

2013-02-01

29

Coping When a Family Member Has Been Called to War  

MedlinePLUS

... National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival ... When a family member goes to war, the impact on those left at home can be challenging. ...

30

42 CFR 436.121 - Qualified family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN GUAM, PUERTO RICO, AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.121 Qualified family members. (a) Definition....

2013-10-01

31

If I Had - A Family Member with Metabolic Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... In Depth In the Spotlight If I Had... Universities and Hospitals By Disease or Symptom View QuickTime ... Douglas Van Nostrand, MD, Washington Hospital Center & Georgetown University If I Had - A Family Member with Metabolic ...

32

Death at the Worksite: Helping Grieving Family Members  

MedlinePLUS

Death at the Worksite: Helping Grieving Family Members By Helen Fitzgerald, CT Introduction With heart disease on ... fatal heart attacks occur in the workplace. Other deaths — from accidents, for example — can also happen during ...

33

78 FR 76529 - Members of a Family for Purpose of Filing CBP Family Declaration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCBP-2012-0008] RIN 1515-AD76 Members of a Family for Purpose of Filing CBP Family Declaration AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...declaration. The final rule expands the definitions of family members residing in one household. As a...

2013-12-18

34

77 FR 18143 - Members of a Family for Purpose of Filing a CBP Family Declaration  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCBP-2012-0008] RIN 1515-AD76 Members of a Family for Purpose of Filing a CBP Family Declaration AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border...a single customs declaration for members of a family traveling together upon arrival in the...

2012-03-27

35

Adaptation of Hispanic families to a member with mental retardation.  

PubMed

Adaptation of Hispanic (n = 51) and non-Hispanic (n = 195) white families to having a member with mental retardation was examined using surveys and interviews. We compared these families' demographic characteristics, religious values, and support resources and examined how these factors differentially affected caregiving burden for each group. Surveys and interviews were collected from 51 Hispanic and 195 non-Hispanic white families. Findings indicated that Hispanic families differed from the other families in SES, age of the person with mental retardation, religious values, and in their perceived burden of caring for a family member with mental retardation. Patterns of determinants of caregiving burden did not differ significantly for the two groups. PMID:7865204

Heller, T; Markwardt, R; Rowitz, L; Farber, B

1994-11-01

36

Targeting the IL-1 family members in skin inflammation  

PubMed Central

The IL-1 family of cytokines comprises 11 proteins with pro- and anti-inflammatory functions that are mediated through an equally large group of receptors and coreceptors. Dysregulation of the IL-1 system may lead to diseases such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis and cutaneous lupus erythematosus. These inflammatory skin conditions greatly affect quality of life and life expectancy, and their frequencies are increasing. However, treatment options for these diseases are unsatisfactory. This review briefly summarizes new findings, reported in the past 2 years, implicating IL-1 family members in skin inflammation. Furthermore, how the biological activities of the IL-1 family members may be inhibited is discussed.

Jensen, Liselotte E

2010-01-01

37

Lysine221 is the general base residue of the isochorismate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PchA) in a reaction that is diffusion limited.  

PubMed

The isochorismate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PchA) catalyzes the conversion of chorismate to isochorismate, which is subsequently converted by a second enzyme (PchB) to salicylate for incorporation into the salicylate-capped siderophore pyochelin. PchA is a member of the MST family of enzymes, which includes the structurally homologous isochorismate synthases from Escherichia coli (EntC and MenF) and salicylate synthases from Yersinia enterocolitica (Irp9) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MbtI). The latter enzymes generate isochorismate as an intermediate before generating salicylate and pyruvate. General acid-general base catalysis has been proposed for isochorismate synthesis in all five enzymes, but the residues required for the isomerization are a matter of debate, with both lysine221 and glutamate313 proposed as the general base (PchA numbering). This work includes a classical characterization of PchA with steady state kinetic analysis, solvent kinetic isotope effect analysis and by measuring the effect of viscosogens on catalysis. The results suggest that isochorismate production from chorismate by the MST enzymes is the result of general acid-general base catalysis with a lysine as the base and a glutamic acid as the acid, in reverse protonation states. Chemistry is determined to not be rate limiting, favoring the hypothesis of a conformational or binding step as the slow step. PMID:23942051

Meneely, Kathleen M; Luo, Qianyi; Dhar, Prajnaparamita; Lamb, Audrey L

2013-10-01

38

Controlling mesenchymal stem cell differentiation by TGF? family members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into various tissue types including bone, cartilage, fat, and muscle. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF?) family members, including TGF?s and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), play important roles in directing fate decisions for mesenchymal stem cells. TGF? can provide competence for early stages of chondroblastic and osteoblastic differentiation, but it inhibits myogenesis, adipogenesis, and late-stage osteoblast differentiation.

Bernard A. J. Roelen; Peter ten Dijke

2003-01-01

39

A Member of the Wedding? Heterosexism and Family Ritual  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterosexism as an interpersonal dynamic at weddings was examined using feminist critical science. Data were collected from 45 gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender people who attended focus groups. Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender participants described multiple interactions in which they were devalued or hidden while het-erosexuality was elevated, as well as interactions in which they or another family member resisted

Ramona Faith Oswald

2003-01-01

40

Expressed emotion in family members of depressed older adults.  

PubMed

This study examined similarities between the Expressed Emotion (EE) construct developed in the psychiatric literature and interpersonally relevant constructs derived from gerontology caregiver research. Expressed emotion and other indices derived from the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI) were assessed in 46 adult children and spouses providing care to an older adult hospitalized for major depressive disorder. The relationship of CFI indices with the family member's past and current relationship with the depressed relative, illness attributions, and emotional functioning was examined. Of the family members, 60.9% were classified as high EE. Measures of past and current relationship and illness attributions were significantly associated with most of the CFI indices. In multivariate analyses, past relationship and illness attributions predicted high EE status. Only past relationship predicted the CFI index of warmth. There is conceptual and empirical overlap between the EE construct and interpersonally relevant gerontology variables. Expressed emotion holds promise for a more complex understanding of caregiving and better caregiver interventions. PMID:15370051

Hinrichsen, G A; Adelstein, L; McMeniman, M

2004-07-01

41

Family Decision Making: Benefits to Persons with Developmental Disabilities and Their Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family involvement in planning and choosing services has become a key intervention concept in developmental disability services. This study (N = 547) modeled patterns of family decision making and assessed benefits to persons with developmental disabilities (DDs) and their family members. A latent profile analysis identified 4 classes that were…

Neely-Barnes, Susan; Graff, J. Carolyn; Marcenko, Maureen; Weber, Lisa

2008-01-01

42

76 FR 67363 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded...concerning individuals who work for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members...extend the FICA and FUTA exceptions for family members and religious sect members...

2011-11-01

43

Family Members' Reports of Abuse in Michigan Nursing Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article is to describe abuse and neglect of adults age 65 and older in Michigan nursing homes, as reported by members of their families. Using list-assisted random-digit dialing, data on abuse and neglect for a 12-month period were collected from individuals who had a relative age 65 or older in a Michigan nursing home. Of the

Robert J. Griffore; Gia E. Barboza; Teresa Mastin; James Oehmke; Lawrence B. Schiamberg; Lori Ann Post

2009-01-01

44

The role of Bcl2 family members in tumorigenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bcl-2 family consists of about 20 homologues of important pro- and anti-apoptotic regulators of programmed cell death. The established mode of function of the individual members is to either preserve or disturb mitochondrial integrity, thereby inducing or preventing release of apoptogenic factors like Cytochrome c (Cyt c) from mitochondria. Recent findings also indicate further Bcl-2-controlled mitochondria-independent apoptosis pathways. Bcl-2

Vladimir Kirkin; Stefan Joos; Martin Zörnig

2004-01-01

45

Differential sensitivity of FOS and JUN family members to calpains.  

PubMed

Degradation of c-fos protein (c-FOS) in the cytoplasm is very rapid in vivo and constitutes a crucial regulation of the nuclear steady-state level through the control of the amount of full-length molecules available for nuclear transport. Using cytoplasmic extracts from various origins, we report herein that c-FOS degradation can be initiated in a calcium-dependent manner which involves cysteine proteases called milli- and micro-calpain. Interestingly, FOS-B, a member of the fos multigene family, as well as all members of the jun family (JUN-B, c-JUN and JUN-D) are also sensitive to calpains albeit to different extents. FRA-2, which is a c-FOS-related protein, is resistant to micro- but not to milli-calpain whereas FRA-1, another member of the fos family, is resistant to both proteases. Given the fact that a work by others (Hiraď et al., 1991b) suggests that calpains can be involved in c-FOS and c-JUN degradation in vivo, our observations raises the possibility of a novel contribution to the regulation of AP-1 transcription complex activity through a differential control of the steady-state level of some of its components that involves calpains. PMID:8183563

Carillo, S; Pariat, M; Steff, A M; Roux, P; Etienne-Julan, M; Lorca, T; Piechaczyk, M

1994-06-01

46

Family environment and length of recovery for married male members of Gamblers Anonymous and female members of GamAnon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family environments of married male members of Gamblers Anonymous (GA) and married female members of GamAnon were measured with the Family Environment Scale (FES), a measure of 10 characteristics of family life. The total sample of 86 included 50 male GA and 36 female GamAnon members. GA and GamAnon groups did not differ from each other. However, the short-term GA

Joseph W. Ciarrocchi; Duane F. Reinert

1993-01-01

47

Regulation of Fertility by the p53 Family Members  

PubMed Central

The p53 family members, which consist of 3 transcription factors—p53, p63, and p73—are conserved during evolution. The p53 family proteins are involved in many important cellular functions, including tumor suppression (p53 and p73), the development of epithelial cell layers (p63), and the development of central nervous system and immune system (p73). Studies on p53-like proteins in low organisms have demonstrated that their primordial functions are to maintain the genomic integrity of germ cells and ensure faithful development and reproduction. In vertebrates, the p53 family proteins retain these functions in reproduction and at the same time have developed additional important functions in reproduction, such as the regulation of embryonic implantation (p53). p53 regulates embryonic implantation through transcriptional regulation of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). p63, in particular TAp63, is a main regulator to protect the fidelity of female germ cells during meiotic arrest. p73, in particular TAp73, regulates the ovary function and the quality of oocytes. Loss of p53, p63, or p73 genes in female mice leads to a significant decrease in fertility. These functions of the p53 family proteins in reproduction provide a plausible explanation for positive evolutionary selection observed in a group of single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes in the p53 family genes. A better understanding of the functions of the p53 family proteins in reproduction may lead to new strategies for fertility treatment.

Hu, Wenwei; Zheng, Tongsen; Wang, Jiabei

2011-01-01

48

"You Needed to Rehab...Families as Well": Family Members' Own Goals for Aphasia Rehabilitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Aphasia affects family members in addition to the individuals with the communication disorder. In order to develop appropriate services for the relatives of people with aphasia post-stroke, their rehabilitation goals need to be identified. Aim: The aim of the current investigation was to identify the rehabilitation goals that family

Howe, Tami; Davidson, Bronwyn; Worrall, Linda; Hersh, Deborah; Ferguson, Alison; Sherratt, Sue; Gilbert, Jocelyn

2012-01-01

49

Moderating the Covariance Between Family Member's Substance Use Behavior.  

PubMed

Twin and family studies implicitly assume that the covariation between family members remains constant across differences in age between the members of the family. However, age-specificity in gene expression for shared environmental factors could generate higher correlations between family members who are more similar in age. Cohort effects (cohort × genotype or cohort × common environment) could have the same effects, and both potentially reduce effect sizes estimated in genome-wide association studies where the subjects are heterogeneous in age. In this paper we describe a model in which the covariance between twins and non-twin siblings is moderated as a function of age difference. We describe the details of the model and simulate data using a variety of different parameter values to demonstrate that model fitting returns unbiased parameter estimates. Power analyses are then conducted to estimate the sample sizes required to detect the effects of moderation in a design of twins and siblings. Finally, the model is applied to data on cigarette smoking. We find that (1) the model effectively recovers the simulated parameters, (2) the power is relatively low and therefore requires large sample sizes before small to moderate effect sizes can be found reliably, and (3) the genetic covariance between siblings for smoking behavior decays very rapidly. Result 3 implies that, e.g., genome-wide studies of smoking behavior that use individuals assessed at different ages, or belonging to different birth-year cohorts may have had substantially reduced power to detect effects of genotype on cigarette use. It also implies that significant special twin environmental effects can be explained by age-moderation in some cases. This effect likely contributes to the missing heritability paradox. PMID:24647834

Verhulst, Brad; Eaves, Lindon J; Neale, Michael C

2014-07-01

50

Moderating the Covariance Between Family Member's Substance Use Behavior  

PubMed Central

Twin and family studies implicitly assume that the covariation between family members remains constant across differences in age between the members of the family. However, age-specificity in gene expression for shared environmental factors could generate higher correlations between family members who are more similar in age. Cohort effects (cohort × genotype or cohort × common environment) could have the same effects, and both potentially reduce effect sizes estimated in genome-wide association studies where the subjects are heterogeneous in age. In this paper we describe a model in which the covariance between twins and non-twin siblings is moderated as a function of age difference. We describe the details of the model and simulate data using a variety of different parameter values to demonstrate that model fitting returns unbiased parameter estimates. Power analyses are then conducted to estimate the sample sizes required to detect the effects of moderation in a design of twins and siblings. Finally, the model is applied to data on cigarette smoking. We find that (1) the model effectively recovers the simulated parameters, (2) the power is relatively low and therefore requires large sample sizes before small to moderate effect sizes can be found reliably, and (3) the genetic covariance between siblings for smoking behavior decays very rapidly. Result 3 implies that, e.g., genome-wide studies of smoking behavior that use individuals assessed at different ages, or belonging to different birth-year cohorts may have had substantially reduced power to detect effects of genotype on cigarette use. It also implies that significant special twin environmental effects can be explained by age-moderation in some cases. This effect likely contributes to the missing heritability paradox.

Eaves, Lindon J.; Neale, Michael C.

2014-01-01

51

Psychological responses in family members after the Hebron massacre.  

PubMed

The authors attempted to determine the frequency of severe psychological responses in surviving family members in a religious Muslim culture. Twenty-three wives, twelve daughters and twenty-six sons of heads of households massacred while praying in the Hebron mosque on 25 February 1994 were interviewed with the clinician-administered PTSD scale; 50% of daughters, 39% of wives, and 23% of sons met criteria for PTSD. PTSD or traumatic bereavement occurs with high frequency after a major tragedy in a Moslem society, despite religious admiration of dead martyrs. PMID:9989347

Elbedour, S; Baker, A; Shalhoub-Kevorkian, N; Irwin, M; Belmaker, R H

1999-01-01

52

Recurrent cutaneous abscesses in two Italian family members  

PubMed Central

Environmental mycobacteria are the causative factors of an increasing number of infections worldwide. Cutaneous infections as a result of such mycobacteria are often misdiagnosed, and their treatment is difficult since they can show in vivo and in vitro multidrug resistance. Absence of pathognomonic clinical signs and variable histological findings often delay diagnosis. We report a case of localized recurrent soft tissue swelling by Mycobacterium marinum in 2 members of the same family. The cases are being reported for their uncommon clinical presentation and the associated etiological agent. Patients recovered completely following therapy with rifampicin 600 mg plus isoniazide 300 mg daily for 45 days.

Cantisani, Carmen; Richetta, Antonio G.; Bitonti, Andrea; Curatolo, Pietro; Ferretti, Gianfranco; Mattozzi, Carlo; Luca, Melis; Silvestri, Emidio; Calvieri, Stefano

2010-01-01

53

The Role of ZIP Family Members in Iron Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Role of ZIP Family Members in Iron Transport\\u000a \\u000a Brenda Parson Hall3 and Mary Lou Guerinot3 \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (3) \\u000a Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, 03755 Hanover, New Hampshire, USA\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Without Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Mary Lou GuerinotEmail: guerinot@darmouth.edu

BRENDA PARSON HALL; MARY LOU GUERINOT

54

[Adventitious diagnosis of coeliac disease in three family members].  

PubMed

This report presents family that among three of four family members (father, daughter, son) coeliac disease was diagnosed. The first diagnosed person was 11-year-old girl who was included into population screening tests for coeliac disease. Father has been presented chronic diarrhoea since childhood. Son has been suffering from recurrent aphthous stomatitis for many years. The girl was completely asymptomatic. The serum antiendomysial antibodies were positive in a high titre in all three patients. They all also presented macroscopic markers of coeliac disease in form of loss of folds, scalloping or mosaic pattern in the descending part of the duodenum and typical histopathological lesions graded as 3b or 3c according to Marsh classification. PMID:18839618

Szaflarska-Pop?awska, Anna; Pop?awski, Cezary; Mierzwa, Grazyna

2008-07-01

55

Individuals Receiving Addiction Treatment: Are Medical Costs of their Family Members Reduced?  

PubMed Central

Aims To examine whether alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment of the individual with AOD disorders is related to reduced medical costs of family members. Methods Using Kaiser Permanente Northern California administrative databases we matched AOD treatment patients with health plan members without AOD disorders on age, gender, and utilization criteria; we identified family members of each group. We measured abstinence at 1-year post-intake and examined health care costs per member-month of family members of AOD patients and of controls through 5 years post-intake. We used generalized estimating equation methods to examine differences in average medical cost per member-month for each year, between family members of abstinent and non-abstinent AOD patients and control family members. We used multilevel models to examine the 4-year trajectories of cost subsequent to measuring abstinence status, controlling for pre-intake cost, age, gender and family size. Results AOD patients’ family members had significantly higher costs and more psychiatric and medical conditions than control family members in the pre-treatment year. At 2-5 years post-intake, each year family members of AOD patients who were abstinent at 1 year had similar average per member-month medical costs as control family members (e.g., difference at year 5=$2.63; p>.82), whereas average per member-month costs of family members of non-abstinent patients were higher (e.g., difference at year 5=$35.59; p=.06). Family members of AOD patients who were not abstinent at 1 year, had a trajectory of increasing medical cost (slope=$10.32; p=.03) relative to control family members. Conclusions Successful AOD treatment is related to medical cost reductions for family members; these reductions may be considered a proxy for improved health.

Weisner, Constance; Parthasarathy, Sujaya; Moore, Charles; Mertens, Jennifer R.

2010-01-01

56

Corneal topography in asymptomatic family members of a patient with pellucid marginal degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To report corneal topographic patterns in asymptomatic family members of a patient with pellucid marginal degeneration.METHODS: Computer-assisted corneal topography was used to study the corneas of five family members of a patient with pellucid marginal degeneration.RESULTS: In all five asymptomatic family members, corneal biomicroscopy was normal. Corneal topography, however, showed various abnormalities in different members of this family, particularly

Ruth M Santo; Samir J Bechara; Newton Kara-José

1999-01-01

57

Are bereaved family members a valid proxy for a patient's assessment of dying?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare assessments made retrospectively by bereaved family members (or the nearest carer to the patient) with assessments made before death by palliative staff and, where available, by patients themselves or the family member. Methods: Setting--two palliative care support teams. Assessments--were recorded prospectively by team staff, patients and their family members for consecutive patients referred, and then were recorde

Irene Higginson; Patricia Priest; Mark McCarthy

1994-01-01

58

Family Members' Narratives of Divorce and Interparental Conflict: Implications for Parental Alienation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on the internal dynamics of family members who experience divorce and interparental conflict. Interparental conflict and triangulating children increase the likelihood of alienating children from a parent. Narrative interviews with members of three families were used to explore meaning structures. Results showed how parents and children thought, felt, and created meaning about their experiences; how family members

Jennifer Gerber Moné; David MacPhee; Sharon K. Anderson; James H. Banning

2011-01-01

59

Family resemblance: Ten family members with prosopagnosia and within-class object agnosia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on neuropsychological testing done with a family in which many members reported severe face recognition impairments. These 10 individuals were high functioning in everyday life and performed normally on tests of low-level vision and high-level cognition. In contrast, they showed clear deficits with tests requiring face memory and judgements of facial similarity. They did not show deficits with

Bradley Duchaine; Laura Germine; Ken Nakayama

2007-01-01

60

Muscarinic Toxicity Among Family Members After Consumption of Mushrooms  

PubMed Central

Mushrooms are commercially cultivated over the world and safe for human consumption, except in those with known allergies. Among the thousands of mushroom species identified, few are considered to be edible. Mushroom hunting has emerged as an adventure and recreational activity in recent decades. Wild forms of mushrooms are often poisonous and visually mimic the edible ones, thus leading to mistaken harvesting, consumption, and toxicities. In literature, various systemic toxic syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning have been described. We report four members of a family with muscarinic manifestations after accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. The Clitocybe species of mushrooms they consumed resulted in their muscarinic toxicity. Patients with muscarinic mushroom toxicity have early onset of symptoms and they respond well to atropine and symptomatic supportive care.

George, Peter; Hegde, Narasimha

2013-01-01

61

Tx polyagglutination in three members of one family.  

PubMed

A case of acute haemolytic anaemia is described in a child. Tx polyagglutination of his red cells was observed, but no direct association with the anaemia could be proved. Polyagglutination was suspected because of irregularities in the AB0 blood grouping. Confirmation of the cryptantigen Tx was made when the patient's red cells were tested with lectins including Arachis hypogaea, Glycine soja, and Vicia cretica. Examination of family members showed Tx polyagglutination on the red cells of 2 siblings. The Tx polyagglutination was a transient phenomenon lasting 4-5.5 months, and could have been caused as the result of some unidentified bacterial or viral infection. Guidelines for transfusion therapy are suggested in patients in whom polyagglutination is recognised. PMID:3116808

Wolach, B; Sadan, N; Bird, G W; Moulds, J J; Bar-Shany, S; Ben-Porath, D; Levene, N A; Sela, R; Levene, C

1987-01-01

62

The TNF family member APRIL promotes colorectal tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member APRIL (A proliferation inducing ligand) is a disease promoter in B-cell malignancies. APRIL has also been associated with a wide range of solid malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC). As evidence for a supportive role of APRIL in solid tumor formation was still lacking, we studied the involvement of APRIL in CRC. We observed that ectopic APRIL expression exacerbates the number and size of adenomas in ApcMin mice and in a mouse model for colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis. Furthermore, knockdown of APRIL in primary spheroid cultures of colon cancer cells and both mouse and human CRC cell lines reduced tumor clonogenicity and in vivo outgrowth. Taken together, our data therefore indicate that both tumor-derived APRIL and APRIL produced by non-tumor cells is supportive in colorectal tumorigenesis.

Lascano, V; Zabalegui, L F; Cameron, K; Guadagnoli, M; Jansen, M; Burggraaf, M; Versloot, M; Rodermond, H; van der Loos, C; Carvalho-Pinto, C E; Kalthoff, H; Medema, J P; Hahne, M

2012-01-01

63

A member of the wedding? Heterosexism and family ritual.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Heterosexism as an interpersonal dynamic at weddings was examined using feminist critical science. Data were collected from 45 gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender people who attended focus groups. Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender participants described multiple interactions in which they were devalued or hidden while het-erosexuality was elevated, as well as interactions in which they or another family member resisted heterosexism. Weddings were perceived to be difficult, and participation in them was questioned. As part of their critique of weddings, participants offered a vision of relationships that was based on commitment, rather than heterosexuality or material benefits. Results of this study were used to create a brochure and Website for educating heterosexual people planning weddings. PMID:24815897

Oswald, Ramona Faith

2003-01-01

64

Bcl-2 family members: dual regulators of apoptosis and autophagy.  

PubMed

The essential autophagy protein and haplo-insufficient tumor suppressor, Beclin 1, interacts with several cofactors (Ambra1, Bif-1, UVRAG) to activate the lipid kinase Vps34, thereby inducing autophagy. In normal conditions, Beclin 1 is bound to and inhibited by Bcl-2 or the Bcl-2 homolog Bcl-X(L). This interaction involves a Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domain in Beclin 1 and the BH3 binding groove of Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L). Other proteins containing BH3 domains, called BH3-only proteins, can competitively disrupt the interaction between Beclin 1 and Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L) to induce autophagy. Nutrient starvation, which is a potent physiologic inducer of autophagy, can stimulate the dissociation of Beclin 1 from its inhibitors, either by activating BH3-only proteins (such as Bad) or by posttranslational modifications of Bcl-2 (such as phosphorylation) that may reduce its affinity for Beclin 1 and BH3-only proteins. Thus, anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members and pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins may participate in the inhibition and induction of autophagy, respectively. This hitherto neglected crosstalk between the core machineries regulating autophagy and apoptosis may redefine the role of Bcl-2 family proteins in oncogenesis and tumor progression. PMID:18497563

Levine, Beth; Sinha, Sangita; Kroemer, Guido

2008-07-01

65

The PCH family protein, Cdc15p, recruits two F-actin nucleation pathways to coordinate cytokinetic actin ring formation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.  

PubMed

Cytokinetic actin ring (CAR) formation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe requires two independent actin nucleation pathways, one dependent on the Arp2/3 complex and another involving the formin Cdc12p. Here we investigate the role of the S. pombe Cdc15 homology family protein, Cdc15p, in CAR assembly and find that it interacts with proteins from both of these nucleation pathways. Cdc15p binds directly to the Arp2/3 complex activator Myo1p, which likely explains why actin patches and the Arp2/3 complex fail to be medially recruited during mitosis in cdc15 mutants. Cdc15p also binds directly to Cdc12p. Cdc15p and Cdc12p not only display mutual dependence for CAR localization, but also exist together in a ring-nucleating structure before CAR formation. The disruption of these interactions in cdc15 null cells is likely to be the reason for their complete lack of CARs. We propose a model in which Cdc15p plays a critical role in recruiting and coordinating the pathways essential for the assembly of medially located F-actin filaments and construction of the CAR. PMID:12939254

Carnahan, Robert H; Gould, Kathleen L

2003-09-01

66

Discovery of a Satellite to Asteroid Family Member (702) Alauda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rojo and Margot [1] reported the discovery of a satellite to (702) Alauda from adaptive-optics imaging with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) 8-m Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Cerro Paranal, Chile. (702) Alauda (a = 3.2 AU, e = 0.02, i = 21 deg) has been identified as the largest member of a dynamical family [2,3], suggesting a possible origin of the satellite in the family formation event. The diameter of (702) Alauda is given in the IRAS Minor Planet Survey (IMPS) as 194.73 +/- 3.2 km [4]. If the primary and secondary have similar albedoes, the diameter of the satellite is about 5.5 km. This is based on the measured flux ratio between primary and secondary of 1250, possibly the largest ever observed for solar system binaries with adaptive optics. This is the first satellite discovered to a large minor planet of type B in the SMASSII taxonomy, which is defined by a linear featureless spectrum with bluish to neutral slope [5]. B-types are carbonaceous asteroids that are not well characterized. The mass and density estimates of B-type (2) Pallas vary by 50% [6,7]. Our ongoing determination of the satellite orbit will provide mass and density estimates for (702) Alauda. [1] Rojo and Margot, CBET 1016, 2007. [2] Foglia and Masi 2004, Minor Planet Bull. 41, 100. [3] Gil-Hutton 2006, Icarus 183, 93. [4] Tedesco 2002, AJ 123, 1056. [5] Bus and Binzel 2002, Icarus 158, 146. [6] Hilton 2002, Asteroids III, 103. [7] Britt et al. 2002, Asteroids III, 485.

Margot, Jean-Luc; Rojo, P.

2007-10-01

67

Expression, regulation, and triglyceride hydrolase activity of Adiponutrin family members.  

PubMed

Adiponutrin and a related protein, adipocyte triglyceride lipase (ATGL; also known as Desnutrin), were recently described as adipocyte-specific proteins with lipid hydrolase activity. Using bioinformatics, we identified three additional Adiponutrin family members (GS2, GS2-Like, and PNPLA1). Here, we report on the expression, regulation, and activity of GS2 and GS2-Like compared with Adiponutrin and Desnutrin/ATGL. GS2-Like is expressed and regulated in a manner similar to Adiponutrin; however, the absolute levels of mRNA are significantly lower than those of Adiponutrin or Desnutrin/ATGL. GS2 transcripts were identified only in humans and are highly expressed in adipose as well as other tissues. All four proteins show lipase activity in vitro, which is dependent on the presence of the active site serine for Adiponutrin, Desnutrin/ATGL, and GS2. Overexpression of Desnutrin/ATGL, GS2, and GS2-Like, but not Adiponutrin, decreases intracellular triglyceride levels. This is consistent with a function for Desnutrin/ATGL, GS2, and GS2-Like in lipolysis, but not for Adiponutrin. Consistent with previously reported data, Desnutrin/ATGL is upregulated by fasting in adipose tissue, whereas Adiponutrin is downregulated. Additionally, Adiponutrin and GS2-Like, but not Desnutrin/ATGL, are strongly induced in the liver of ob/ob mice. Our data support distinct functions for Adiponutrin and Desnutrin/ATGL and raise the possibility that GS2 may contribute significantly to lipolysis in human adipose tissue. PMID:16150821

Lake, Andrew C; Sun, Ying; Li, Jian-Liang; Kim, Jae Eun; Johnson, Jeremy W; Li, Dongmei; Revett, Tracy; Shih, Heather H; Liu, Wei; Paulsen, Janet E; Gimeno, Ruth E

2005-11-01

68

Redundant Roles of PRDM Family Members in Zebrafish Craniofacial Development  

PubMed Central

Background PRDM proteins are evolutionary conserved Zn-Finger transcription factors that share a characteristic protein domain organization. Previous studies have shown that prdm1a is required for the specification and differentiation of neural crest cells in the zebrafish. Results Here we examine other members of this family, specifically prdm3, 5, and 16, in the differentiation of the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton. prdm3 and prdm16 are strongly expressed in the pharyngeal arches, while prdm5 is expressed specifically in the area of the forming neurocranium. Knockdown of prdm3 and prdm16 results in a reduction in the neural crest markers dlx2a and barx1 and defects in both the viscerocranium and the neurocranium. The knockdown of prdm3 and prdm16 in combination is additive in the neurocranium, but not in the viscerocranium. Injection of sub-optimal doses of prdm1a with prdm3 or prdm16 Morpholinos together leads to more severe phenotypes in the viscerocranium and neurocranium. prdm5 mutants have defects in the neurocranium and prdm1a and prdm5 double mutants also show more severe phenotypes. Conclusions Overall, our data reveal that prdm3, 5, and 16 are involved in the zebrafish craniofacial development and that prdm1a may interact with prdm3, 5, and 16 in the formation of the craniofacial skeleton in zebrafish.

Ding, Hai-Lei; Clouthier, David E.; Artinger, Kristin B.

2014-01-01

69

STS-106 crew gathers to greet family members  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While meeting with family on the day before launch, the STS-106 crew poses for a photo. Waving, left to right, are Mission Specialist Richard A. Mastracchio, Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Edward T. Lu, Yuri I. Malenchenko, Boris V. Morukov and Daniel C. Burbank. Malenchenko and Morukov are with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. In the background (left) is Launch Pad 39B and Space Shuttle Atlantis, with the Rotating Service Structure still in place. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8, 2000, at 8:45 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. On the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long-duration crew, dubbed '''Expedition One,''' is due to arrive at the Station in late fall. Landing is targeted for Sept. 19 at 4:59 a.m. EDT at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility.

2000-01-01

70

Patterns of Informal Support from Family and Church Members among African Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated sociodemographic, family, and church factors as correlates of support from family and church members among African Americans. Surveys found significant age, gender, marital, and parental status differences in patterns of support from family and church. Perceptions of family closeness, degree of interaction with family, and overall…

Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Schroepfer, Tracy

2002-01-01

71

Experiences of the families concerning organ donation of a family member with brain death  

PubMed Central

Background: In recent years, the lack of organ for transplantation has resulted in health planners and authorities in all countries, including Iran, paying serious attention to the issue. Despite the above-mentioned fact, families with a member affected by brain death are not interested in organ donation. Objective: This study is aimed at making an investigation into the decision-making process of organ donation in families with brain death. Also, the research is aimed at investigating how the deterrent and facilitating factors in the process of organ donation can be made. Materials and Methods: The current research is a qualitative study with descriptive exploratory approach. Data were collected through unstructured interviews with 10 family members who gave consent to organ donation of their family members in 2012. Purposeful sampling processes began in March 2012 and lasted up to June 2012. Simultaneously, thematic approach was used in analyzing the data. Results: Data analysis led to finding 24 categories and 11 themes, which fell into two categories: facilitating and deterrent factors. The five main deterrent themes included the five themes of prohibiting factors that were shock, hope for recovery, unknown process, and conflict of opinions, and worrying association. The six main facilitating themes included humanistic desires, immortality, culture making, satisfaction of the deceased, assurance, and eternal honor. Conclusion: The findings indicated that there is ambiguity and different interpretations on brain death. The research also showed that using the experiences of donator families can provide practical and applied solutions to facilitate the process of organ donation and solve the problems faced by the health care system.

Yousefi, Hojatollah; Roshani, Asieh; Nazari, Fatemeh

2014-01-01

72

Dialectical Behavior Therapy-Based Skills Training for Family Members of Suicide Attempters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pilot study evaluated the effect of Family Connections (FC), a Dialectical Behavior Therapy-based manualized skills training program, for family members of suicide attempters. The DBT-based skills training program aims to enhance the knowledge of wide range research based aspects of suicidal behavior and treatment recommendations. Furthermore it includes skills training for interpersonal relationships and also offers family members an

Mia Rajalin; Lina Wickholm-Pethrus; Timo Hursti; Jussi Jokinen

2009-01-01

73

MIF Family Members Cooperatively Inhibit p53 Expression and Activity  

PubMed Central

The tumor suppressor p53 is induced by genotoxic stress in both normal and transformed cells and serves to transcriptionally coordinate cell cycle checkpoint control and programmed cell death responses. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an autocrine and paracrine acting cytokine/growth factor that promotes lung adenocarcinoma cell motility, anchorage-independence and neo-angiogenic potential. Several recent studies indicate that the only known homolog of MIF, D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT - also referred to as MIF-2), has functionally redundant activities with MIF and cooperatively promotes MIF-dependent pro-tumorigenic phenotypes. We now report that MIF and D-DT synergistically inhibit steady state p53 phosphorylation, stabilization and transcriptional activity in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. The combined loss of MIF and D-DT by siRNA leads to dramatically reduced cell cycle progression, anchorage independence, focus formation and increased programmed cell death when compared to individual loss of MIF or D-DT. Importantly, p53 mutant and p53 null lung adenocarcinoma cell lines were only nominally rescued from the cell growth effects of MIF/D-DT combined deficiency suggesting only a minor role for p53 in these transformed cell growth phenotypes. Finally, increased p53 activation was found to be independent of aberrantly activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that occurs in response to MIF/D-DT-deficiency but is dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mediate aberrant AMPK activation in these cells. Combined, these findings suggest that both p53 wildtype and mutant human lung adenocarcinoma tumors rely on MIF family members for maximal cell growth and survival.

Brock, Stephanie E.; Rendon, Beatriz E.; Xin, Dan; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha; Mitchell, Robert A.

2014-01-01

74

Depression, Anxiety and Somatization in Women with War Missing Family Members  

PubMed Central

Introduction: During the war circumstances, women and children are exposed to multiple traumatic experiences, one of which is an violent disappearance of a family member. Goal: The aim of this research was to establish the presence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatization in women in Bosnia and Herzegovina who have sought their war missing family members for 15 to 18 years. Subjects and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 120 women with war missing family member and 40 women without a war missing family member as a control group. For assessment of depression, anxiety and symptoms of somatization the self-rating Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Somatic Symptoms Index (SSI) questionnaire and a general questionnaire on the sociodemographic data and data on war missing family members were used. Results: A significantly higher intensity of symptoms of depression (p<0.001), anxiety (p<0.001) and somatization (p = 0.013) was present in women with, in comparison to women without a missing family member. In comparison of the kinship with the missing family members, statistically significantly higher intensity of symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatization was in women with a missing child (p<0.001) in comparison to other missing family members. Conclusion: A prolonged period of seeking, waiting and uncertainty of what happened in the war with the missing family member presents for those women a prolonged suffering manifested through depression, anxiety and symptoms of somatization.

Barakovic, Devla; Avdibegovic, Esmina; Sinanovic, Osman

2013-01-01

75

Racial disparity in capital punishment and its impact on family members of capital defendants.  

PubMed

A review of the literature was conducted to explore the continuing racial disparity in capital punishment and its effects on family members of African American capital defendants. Statistical studies conducted on both the state and national level conclude that racial bias influences all stages of the death penalty process, with race of the victim being one of the most significant factors. This racial bias places an added burden on family members of African American capital defendants. While research has explored the impact of capital punishment on family members of capital defendants, the unique experiences of family members of African American defendants has not been addressed in the research literature. PMID:23581803

Schweizer, Jennifer

2013-01-01

76

Everyday Living with Diabetes Described by Family Members of Adult People with Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to explore family members' experiences of everyday life in families with adult people living with type 1 diabetes. The grounded theory method was used to gather and analyse data from the interviews of nineteen family members. Six concepts describing the family members' views on everyday living with diabetes were generated on the basis of the data. Everyday life with diabetes is described as being intertwined with hypoglycemia. Becoming acquainted with diabetes takes place little by little. Being involved in the management and watching self-management from the sidelines are concepts describing family members' participation in the daily management of diabetes. The family members are also integrating diabetes into everyday life. Living on an emotional roller-coaster tells about the thoughts and feelings that family members experience. Family members of adult people with diabetes are involved in the management of the diabetes in many ways and experience many concerns. The family members' point of view is important to take into consideration when developing education for adults with diabetes.

Paavilainen, Eija; Astedt-Kurki, Paivi

2013-01-01

77

Screening of Household Family Members of Brucellosis Cases and Neighboring Community Members in Azerbaijan  

PubMed Central

Brucellosis is an endemic zoonotic disease in Azerbaijan. The first human brucellosis case reported in 1922 was in Pardabil village of a region currently named Shabran. Household members of brucellosis index cases are a population at risk for brucellosis infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of seropositivity of brucellosis among household and neighboring community members of brucellosis index cases in Azerbaijan. Twenty-one household members of 8 index brucellosis cases and 27 community neighbors were serologically tested for evidence of exposure by the serum agglutination test. Of these, the brucellosis seropositivity rate was 9.5% and 7.4%, respectively. Screening of household members of index cases and individuals who live in proximity to infected household members is a practical approach to increase the detection of brucellosis exposure.

Ismayilova, Rita; Mody, Rupal; Abdullayev, Rakif; Amirova, Kamala; Jabbarova, Latafat; Ustun, Narmin; Jahanov, Musa; Nasirova, Emilya; Powers, Marilyn; Rivard, Robert; Hepburn, Matthew; Bautista, Christian T.

2013-01-01

78

Screening of household family members of brucellosis cases and neighboring community members in Azerbaijan.  

PubMed

Brucellosis is an endemic zoonotic disease in Azerbaijan. The first human brucellosis case reported in 1922 was in Pardabil village of a region currently named Shabran. Household members of brucellosis index cases are a population at risk for brucellosis infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of seropositivity of brucellosis among household and neighboring community members of brucellosis index cases in Azerbaijan. Twenty-one household members of 8 index brucellosis cases and 27 community neighbors were serologically tested for evidence of exposure by the serum agglutination test. Of these, the brucellosis seropositivity rate was 9.5% and 7.4%, respectively. Screening of household members of index cases and individuals who live in proximity to infected household members is a practical approach to increase the detection of brucellosis exposure. PMID:23478582

Ismayilova, Rita; Mody, Rupal; Abdullayev, Rakif; Amirova, Kamala; Jabbarova, Latafat; Ustun, Narmin; Jahanov, Musa; Nasirova, Emilya; Powers, Marilyn; Rivard, Robert; Hepburn, Matthew; Bautista, Christian T

2013-05-01

79

Counselling for Patients and Family Members: A Follow-Up Study in the Emergency Department  

PubMed Central

Although the research indicates that patients and family members are not fully satisfied with the counselling they receive, little is known about the quality of counselling in more detail. The purpose of the study was to describe patients' and their family members' experiences about counselling in emergency department, and follow how these experiences possibly change after the educational intervention for the whole nursing staff of the ED ward. The pre-test-post-test follow-up design was implemented including online continuing education for ED staff. The data were collected via questionnaires from patients and their family members in two phases and analyzed statistically. After online education of staff, experiences of patients and family members concerning counselling were better than before the education. Especially, family members' satisfaction had increased. However, our results also indicated that patients and family members desire more information for example, regarding medications. Care practices had developed towards family-centeredness, which patients and family members appreciate. Online education proved also in some degree its usefulness in educating ED staff, by offering the same education to a staff which works in shifts. Furthermore, family presence and participation practices should be developed by offering possibilities for families to stay with each other on ED ward.

Paavilainen, Eija; Salminen-Tuomaala, Mari; Leikkola, Paivi

2012-01-01

80

Measuring Resident and Family Member Determinants of Satisfaction with Assisted Living  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study developed measures of satisfaction with assisted living from residents' and family members' perspectives. Design and Methods: We collected survey data from 204 residents and 232 family members associated with 11 assisted living facilities. We used confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate the goodness of fit of a priori…

Edelman, Perry; Guihan, Marylou; Bryant, Fred B.; Munroe, Donna J.

2006-01-01

81

Every Mark on the Page: Educating Family and Community Members about Young Children's Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family and community members often look at children's writing from a deficit point of view--seeing only what's "wrong" with it, what needs "fixing." Teachers can take a proactive role as family and community member educators, communicating to them how writing develops in young children and how they can play a positive role in this development.…

Cusumano, Kate Foley

2008-01-01

82

Grief among Family Members of Nursing Home Residents with Advanced Dementia  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe pre-loss and post-loss grief symptoms among family members of nursing home (NH) residents with advanced dementia, and to identify predictors of greater post-loss grief symptoms. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 22 NHs in the greater Boston area. Participants 123 family members of NH residents who died with advanced dementia. Measurements Pre-loss grief was measured at baseline, and post-loss grief was measured 2 and 7 months post-loss using the Prolonged Grief Disorder scale. Independent variables included resident and family member sociodemographic characteristics, resident comfort, acute illness, acute care prior to death, family member depression, and family member understanding of dementia and of resident’s prognosis. Results Levels of pre-loss and post-loss grief were relatively stable from baseline to 7 months post-loss. Feelings of separation and yearning were the most prominent grief symptoms. After multivariable adjustment, greater pre-loss grief and the family member having lived with the resident prior to NH admission were the only factors independently associated with greater post-loss grief 7 months after resident death. Conclusions The pattern of grieving for some family members of NH residents with advanced dementia is prolonged and begins before resident death. Identification of family members at risk for post-loss grief during the pre-loss period may help guide interventions aimed at lessening post-loss grief.

Givens, Jane L.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Kiely, Dan K.; Shaffer, Michele L.; Mitchell, Susan L.

2011-01-01

83

Three-Dimensional Metal Piperazinyldiphosphonate Phases with Ellipsoidal Cavities Defined by 44-Membered Rings: Crystal Structures of [ M{O 3PCH 2NH(C 2H 4) 2NHCH 2PO 3}] · H 2O, M= Mn and Co  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrothermal reaction of a mixture of (Et 4N) 2MnCl 4, N, N'-piperazinebis(methylenephosphonic acid), Et 4NCl · H 2O, and H 2O in the mole ratio 1:1:5:300, adjusted to pH 5 with 40% aqueous (Bu 4N)OH, at 160°C for 63 h yielded [Mn{O 3PCH 2NH(C 2H 4) 2NHCH 2PO 3}] · H 2O (1) in 60% as off-white platelets. The analogous reaction using (Et 4N) 2CoCl 4produced [Co{O 3PCH 2NH(C 2H 4) 2NHCH 2PO 3}] · H 2O (2). The isomorphous materials 1 and 2 display three-dimensional network structures, based on binuclear units of corner-sharing metal and phosphorus tetrahedra, forming eight membered {-Co-O-P-O-} 2rings. The diphosphonate groups serve to tether the binuclear units into large ellipsoidal 44-membered rings. As the piperazinyl nitrogen atoms are protonated, the organic moiety of the disphosphonate group serves as both tether and charge compensating site. Compound 1 exhibits Curie-Weiss paramagnetism with weak antiferromagnetism between Mn centers. In contrast, the susceptibility of 2 exhibits a broad maximum at low temperatures consistent with short range antiferromagnetic coupling. Crystal data: 1, C 6H 16MnN 2O 7P 2, triclinic P1, a= 8.393(2)Ĺ, b= 9.043(2)Ĺ, c= 9.125(2)Ĺ, ? = 62.88(3)°, ? = 86.36(3)°, ? = 78.96(3)°, V= 604.8(3)Ĺ 3; R= 0.056 for 1663 reflections. 2, C 6H 16CoN 2O 7P 2, triclinic P1, a= 8.340(2)Ĺ, b= 8.917(2)Ĺ, c= 9.018(2)Ĺ, ? = 64.11(3)°, ? = 86.24(3)°, ? = 78.87(3)°, V= 591.9(2)Ĺ 3; R= 0.083 for 1917 reflections.

LaDuca, Robert; Rose, David; DeBord, Jeffrey R. D.; Haushalter, Robert C.; O'Connor, Charles J.; Zubieta, Jon

1996-05-01

84

Familial idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Evidence of lung inflammation in unaffected family members  

SciTech Connect

We evaluated 17 clinically unaffected members of three families with an autosomal dominant form of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis for evidence of alveolar inflammation. Each person in the study was examined by gallium-67 scanning for a general estimate of pulmonary inflammation, and by bronchoalveolar lavage for characterization of the types of recovered cells and their state of activation. Eight of the 17 subjects had evidence of alveolar inflammation on the lavage studies. Supporting data included increased numbers of neutrophils and activated macrophages that released one or more neutrophil chemoattractants, and growth factors for lung fibroblasts--findings similar to those observed in patients with overt idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Four of these eight also had a positive gallium scan; in all the other clinically unaffected subjects the scan was normal. During a follow-up of two to four years in seven of the eight subjects who had evidence of inflammation, no clinical evidence of pulmonary fibrosis has appeared. These results indicate that alveolar inflammation occurs in approximately half the clinically unaffected family members at risk of inheriting autosomal dominant idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Whether these persons with evidence of pulmonary inflammation but no fibrosis will proceed to have clinically evident pulmonary fibrosis is not yet known.

Bitterman, P.B.; Rennard, S.I.; Keogh, B.A.; Wewers, M.D.; Adelberg, S.; Crystal, R.G.

1986-05-22

85

42 CFR 31.9 - Dependent members of families; treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...retired for disability. (b) National Ocean Survey. Commissioned officers, ships' officers, and members of the crews of vessels of the United States National Ocean Survey, including those on shore duty and those on detached duty, whether on active...

2012-10-01

86

Genealogy of an ancient protein family: the Sirtuins, a family of disordered members  

PubMed Central

Background Sirtuins genes are widely distributed by evolution and have been found in eubacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. While prokaryotic and archeal species usually have one or two sirtuin homologs, in humans as well as in eukaryotes we found multiple versions and in mammals this family is comprised of seven different homologous proteins being all NAD-dependent de-acylases. 3D structures of human SIRT2, SIRT3, and SIRT5 revealed the overall conformation of the conserved core domain but they were unable to give a structural information about the presence of very flexible and dynamically disordered regions, the role of which is still structurally and functionally unclear. Recently, we modeled the 3D-structure of human SIRT1, the most studied member of this family, that unexpectedly emerged as a member of the intrinsically disordered proteins with its long disordered terminal arms. Despite clear similarities in catalytic cores between the human sirtuins little is known of the general structural characteristics of these proteins. The presence of disorder in human SIRT1 and the propensity of these proteins in promoting molecular interactions make it important to understand the underlying mechanisms of molecular recognition that reasonably should involve terminal segments. The mechanism of recognition, in turn, is a prerequisite for the understanding of any functional activity. Aim of this work is to understand what structural properties are shared among members of this family in humans as well as in other organisms. Results We have studied the distribution of the structural features of N- and C-terminal segments of sirtuins in all known organisms to draw their evolutionary histories by taking into account average length of terminal segments, amino acid composition, intrinsic disorder, presence of charged stretches, presence of putative phosphorylation sites, flexibility, and GC content of genes. Finally, we have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the putative phosphorylation sites in human sirtuins confirming those sites already known experimentally for human SIRT1 and 2 as well as extending their topology to all the family to get feedback of their physiological functions and cellular localization. Conclusions Our results highlight that the terminal segments of the majority of sirtuins possess a number of structural features and chemical and physical properties that strongly support their involvement in activities of recognition and interaction with other protein molecules. We also suggest how a multisite phosphorylation provides a possible mechanism by which flexible and intrinsically disordered segments of a sirtuin supported by the presence of positively or negatively charged stretches might enhance the strength and specificity of interaction with a particular molecular partner.

2013-01-01

87

Television in Indian Adolescents' Lives: A Member of the Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the context in which eighth graders in India watch television through an experience sampling study of 100 urban middle-class Indian families. As a whole, findings indicate that the television viewing of middle-class Indian youth is typically a relaxed antidote to the stresses of the day that they share with their families. (SLD)

Verma, Suman; Larson, Reed W.

2002-01-01

88

Death at the Worksite: Helping Grieving Family Members  

MedlinePLUS

... fatal heart attacks occur in the workplace. Other deaths -- from accidents, for example -- can also happen during ... that of informing the family about an employee's death at work. When an employee dies on the ...

89

Family Members Affected by a Close Relative's Addiction: The Stress-Strain-Coping-Support Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines the stress-strain-coping-support (SSCS) model which underpins the whole programme of work described in this supplement. The need for such a model is explained: previous models of substance misuse and the family have attributed dysfunction or deficiency to families or family members. In contrast, the SSCS model assumes that…

Orford, Jim; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Templeton, Lorna

2010-01-01

90

When simple technology affords social presence: a case study for remote family members  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work explores how simple technologies are being adopted in family life as support for remote family members' interaction. We analyze the feeling of being closer to their remote relatives when using different types of interaction, based on users' report that live in countries geographically far from their families. The users' declarations reveal some benefits from those technologies. Our main

Antonia Lucinelma; Pessoa Albuquerque; Andrew Perkis

2008-01-01

91

29 CFR 825.124 - Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember. 825...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.124...

2013-07-01

92

Patients' and family members' experiences of a psychoeducational family intervention after a first episode psychosis: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to explore patients' and family members' experiences of the different elements of a psychoeducational family intervention. A qualitative, explorative study was performed based on digitally recorded in-depth interviews with 12 patients and 14 family members. The interview data were transcribed in a slightly modified verbatim mode and analysed using systematic text condensation. Six themes that both patients and family members experienced as important in the family intervention were identified: alliance, support, anxiety and tension, knowledge and learning, time, and structure. A good relationship between the group leaders and participants was essential in preventing dropout. Meeting with other people in the same situation reduced feelings of shame and increased hope for the future. Hearing real life stories was experienced as being more important for gaining new knowledge about psychosis than lectures and workshops. However, many patients experienced anxiety and tension during the meetings. The group format could be demanding for patients immediately after a psychotic episode and for those still struggling with distressing psychotic symptoms. Group leaders need to recognise patients' levels of anxiety before, and during, the intervention, and consider the different needs of patients and family members in regards to when the intervention starts, the group format, and the patients' level of psychotic symptoms. The findings in the present study may help to tailor family work to better meet the needs of both patients and family members. PMID:24350752

Nilsen, Liv; Frich, Jan C; Friis, Svein; Rřssberg, Jan Ivar

2014-01-01

93

Candidate Members and Age Estimate of the Family of Kuiper Belt Object 2003 EL61  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The collisional family of Kuiper Belt object (KBO) 2003 EL61 opens the possibility for many interesting new studies of processes important in the formation and evolution of the outer solar system. As the first family in the Kuiper Belt, it can be studied using techniques developed for studying asteroid families, although some modifications are necessary. Applying these modified techniques allows for a dynamical study of the 2003 EL61 family. The velocity required to change orbits is used to quantitatively identify objects near the collision. A method for identifying family members that have potentially diffused in resonances (like 2003 EL61) is also developed. Known family members are among the very closest KBOs to the collision and two new likely family members are identified: 2003 UZ117 and 1999 OY3. We also give tables of candidate family members that require future observations to confirm membership. We estimate that a minimum of ~1 Gyr is needed for resonance diffusion to produce the current position of 2003 EL61, implying that the family is likely primordial. Future refinement of the age estimate is possible once (many) more resonant objects are identified. The ancient nature of the collision contrasts with the seemingly fresh surfaces of known family members, suggesting that our understanding of outer solar system surfaces is incomplete.

Ragozzine, D.; Brown, M. E.

2007-12-01

94

Screening of family members of patients with acute brucellosis in an endemic area of Iran  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease and it's still endemic in Iran. There are some reports regarding brucellosis infection in family members sharing same risk factors and remain unrecognized. However, few studies on the importance of family screening are available. We aimed to screen household members of index cases with acute brucellosis for detecting additional unrecognized cases in central province of Iran. Patients and Methods 163 family members of 50 index cases were enrolled in the study. Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STA) and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) agglutination were checked in all samples. A case with STA titer ? 1:80, 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) agglutination ? 40 and compatible signs and symptoms was considered positive for brucellosis. Results 15 (9.2%) of family members were seropositive for Brucella agglutinin and among them, 8 (53.3%) were asymptomatic and 7 (46.7%) were symptomatic. STA titer ranged from 1:80 to 1:640 in seropositive members. 4 of the 15 seropositive cases who identified by screening came from one index case with 6 family members. All symptomatic seropositive cases treated for Brucella infection and recovered without any complications in 6 months follow up. Conclusion On the basis of our data, family members of brucellosis patients are at risk of disease acquisition, and screening of household members provides an effective way for early diagnosis and prompt treatment. However cost benefit of screening should be evaluated to reach definite decision for the implementation of the screening as a nationwide program.

Sofian, Masoomeh; Safaeipour, Leila; Aghakhani, Arezoo; Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Banifazl, Mohammad; Sharif, Alireza; Farazi, Ali-Asghar; Eslamifar, Ali; Didgar, Farshideh; Ramezani, Amitis

2013-01-01

95

Is It Beneficial to Involve a Family Member? A Meta-Analysis of Psychosocial Interventions for Chronic Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Links between chronic illness and family relationships have led to psychosocial interventions targeted at the patient's closest family member or both patient and family member. The authors conducted a meta-analytic review of randomized studies comparing these interventions with usual medical care (k = 70), focusing on patient outcomes (depression, anxiety, relationship satisfaction, disability, and mortality) and family member outcomes (depression,

Lynn M. Martire; Amy P. Lustig; Richard Schulz; Gregory E. Miller; Vicki S. Helgeson

2004-01-01

96

Glycosidase profiles of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.  

PubMed Central

A total of 712 strains representing 47 taxa of the family Enterobacteriaceae were tested for the ability to hydrolyze 14 4-methylumbelliferyl (4-MU)-linked substrates within 3 h of incubation. In addition to the well-known differentiation potential of the hydrolysis of 4-MU-beta-D-galactopyranoside, 4-MU-beta-D-glucuronide, and 4-MU-beta-D-xylopyranoside, the hydrolysis of some other fluorogenic substrates (e.g., 4-MU-beta-D-fucopyranoside, 4-MU-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminide, and 4-MU-alpha-D-galactopyranoside) can also be used for species differentiation within the family Enterobacteriaceae.

Kampfer, P; Rauhoff, O; Dott, W

1991-01-01

97

Expressed emotion in family members of depressed older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined similarities between the Expressed Emotion (EE) construct developed in the psychiatric literature and interpersonally relevant constructs derived from gerontology caregiver research. Expressed emotion and other indices derived from the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI) were assessed in 46 adult children and spouses providing care to an older adult hospitalized for major depressive disorder. The relationship of CFI indices

G. A. Hinrichsen; L. Adelstein; M. McMeniman

2004-01-01

98

Human members of the eukaryotic protein kinase family  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic protein kinases (EPKs) constitute one of the largest recognized protein families represented in the human genome. EPKs, which are similar to each other in sequence, structure and biochemical properties, are important players in virtually every signaling pathway involved in normal development and disease. Near completion of projects to sequence the human genome and transcriptome provide an opportunity to

Mitch Kostich; Jessie English; Vincent Madison; Ferdous Gheyas; Luquan Wang; Ping Qiu; Jonathan Greene; Thomas M Laz

2002-01-01

99

The effect of an anger management program for family members of patients with alcohol use disorders.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to test the structured anger management nursing program for the family members of patients with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Families with the AUDs suffer from the dysfunctional family dynamic caused by the patients' deteriorative disease processes of alcohol dependence. Family members of AUDs feel bitter and angry about the uncontrolled behaviors and relapses of the patients in spite of great effort for a long time. This chronic anger threatens the optimal function of the family as well as obstructs the family to help the patients who are suffering from AUDs. Sixty three subjects were participated who were referred from community mental health centers, alcohol consultation centers, and an alcohol hospital in Korea. Pre-post scores of the Korean Anger Expression Inventory were used to test the program. An anger management program was developed and implemented to promote anger expression and anger management for the family members of the patients with AUDs. The total anger expression score of the experimental group was significantly more reduced as compared with that of the control group. Subjects in the experimental group reported after the program that they felt more comfortable and their life was changed in a better way. The anger management program was effective to promote anger expression and anger management for family members of AUDs. Nurses need to include family members in their nursing process as well as to care of patients with AUDs to maximize nursing outcome and patient satisfaction. PMID:20117687

Son, Ju-Young; Choi, Yun-Jung

2010-02-01

100

Emerging roles of MTA family members in human cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastasis-associated genes (MTAs) represent a rapidly growing novel gene family. At present, there are three different known genes (MTA1, MTA2, and MTA3) and six reported isoforms (MTA1, MTA1s, MTA1-ZG29p, MTA2, MTA3, MTA3L). MTA1, MTA2, and MTA3 are components of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation complex, which is associated with adenosine triphosphate-dependent chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation. MTA proteins, as a

Rakesh Kumar; Rui-An Wang; Rozita Bagheri-Yarmand

2003-01-01

101

RASSF6 is a novel member of the RASSF family of tumor suppressors.  

PubMed

RASSF family proteins are tumor suppressors that are frequently downregulated during the development of human cancer. The best-characterized member of the family is RASSF1A, which is downregulated by promoter methylation in 40-90% of primary human tumors. We now identify and characterize a novel member of the RASSF family, RASSF6. Like the other family members, RASSF6 possesses a Ras Association domain and binds activated Ras. Exogenous expression of RASSF6 promoted apoptosis, synergized with activated K-Ras to induce cell death and inhibited the survival of specific tumor cell lines. Suppression of RASSF6 enhanced the tumorigenic phenotype of a human lung tumor cell line. Furthermore, RASSF6 is often downregulated in primary human tumors. RASSF6 shares some similar overall properties as other RASSF proteins. However, there are significant differences in biological activity between RASSF6 and other family members including a discrete tissue expression profile, cell killing specificity and impact on signaling pathways. Moreover, RASSF6 may play a role in dictating the degree of inflammatory response to the respiratory syncytial virus. Thus, RASSF6 is a novel RASSF family member that demonstrates the properties of a Ras effector and tumor suppressor but exhibits biological properties that are unique and distinct from those of other family members. PMID:17404571

Allen, N P C; Donninger, H; Vos, M D; Eckfeld, K; Hesson, L; Gordon, L; Birrer, M J; Latif, F; Clark, G J

2007-09-13

102

The Effects of Having a Child with ADHD on Family Members and Family Management. Data Trends #98  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The articles summarized in this "Data Trends" discuss how members of families including children with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) are greatly affected in their daily lives and functioning by symptoms…

Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2004

2004-01-01

103

42 CFR 31.10 - Dependent members of families; use of Service facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dependent members...families; use of Service facilities. 31.10 Section 31.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL...

2013-10-01

104

42 CFR 31.10 - Dependent members of families; use of Service facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dependent members...families; use of Service facilities. 31.10 Section 31.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL...

2012-10-01

105

Support Framework for First Responder Family Members: A Proposed Model for Increasing Responder Effectiveness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis focuses on the physical, mental and emotional support requirements for the family members of first responders engaged in emergency scene mitigation. The likelihood of a large-scale incident involving multiple emergency disciplines and a multi-...

B. E. Sturdivant

2009-01-01

106

Family Quality of Life before and after Out-of-Home Placement of a Family Member with an Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of out-of-home residential placement on families has been previously studied. However, no study has examined this issue through the lens of "family quality of life" (FQoL). The aim of this study was to produce a picture of FQoL among families with a member with an intellectual disability (ID) who has multiple diagnoses (i.e., an…

Werner, Shirli; Edwards, Meaghan; Baum, Nehama T.

2009-01-01

107

Alternative nuclear functions for NF-?B family members  

PubMed Central

The NF-?B signalling pathway regulates many different biological processes from the cellular level to the whole organism. The majority of these functions are completely dependent on the activation of the cytoplasmic IKK kinase complex that leads to I?B degradation and results in the nuclear translocation of specific NF-?B dimers, which, in general, act as transcription factors. Although this is a well-established mechanism of action, several publications have now demonstrated that some members of this pathway display additional functions in the nucleus as regulators of NF-?B-dependent and independent gene expression. In this review, we compiled and put in context most of the data concerning specific nuclear roles for IKK and I?B proteins.

Espinosa, Lluis; Bigas, Anna; Mulero, Maria Carmen

2011-01-01

108

Mexican American Fathers' Occupational Conditions: Links to Family Members' Psychological Adjustment  

PubMed Central

To examine the implications of fathers’ occupational conditions (i.e., income, work hours, shift work, pressure, workplace racism, and underemployment) for family members’ psychological adjustment, home interviews were conducted with fathers, mothers, and two adolescent offspring in each of 218 Mexican American families. Results underscored the importance of acculturation as a moderator. Fathers’ income was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in highly acculturated families but not in less acculturated families. In contrast, fathers’ reports of workplace racism were positively associated with depressive symptoms in less acculturated families but not in more acculturated family contexts. These findings were consistent across all 4 family members, suggesting that the “long arm” of the jobs held by Mexican American fathers extends to mothers and adolescent offspring.

Crouter, Ann C.; Davis, Kelly D.; Updegraff, Kimberly; Delgado, Melissa; Fortner, Melissa

2008-01-01

109

The Molecular Clock Runs at Different Rates Among Closely Related Members of a Gene Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The serum albumin gene family is composed of four members that have arisen by a series of duplications from a common ancestor.\\u000a From sequence differences between members of the gene family, we infer that a gene duplication some 580 Myr ago gave rise\\u000a to the vitamin D–binding protein (DBP) gene and a second lineage, which reduplicated about 295 Myr

Peter E. M. Gibbs; Werner F. Witke; Achilles Dugaiczyk

1998-01-01

110

Identification and characterization of a new member of the TNF family that induces apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member has been cloned and characterized. This protein, designated TNF-related apoptosis-Inducing ligand (TRAIL), consists of 281 and 291 as in the human and murine forms, respectively, which share 65% as identity. TRAIL is a type II membrane protein, whose C-terminal extracellular domain shows clear homology to other TNF family members. TRAIL transcripts are

Steven R. Wiley; Ken Schooley; Pamela J. Smolak; Wenie S. Din; Chang-Pin Huang; Jillian K. Nicholl; Grant R. Sutherland; Terri Davis Smith; Charles Rauch; Craig A. Smith; Raymond G. Goodwin

1995-01-01

111

IRAK4: A novel member of the IRAK family with the properties of an IRAKkinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toll\\/IL-1 receptor family members are central components of host defense mechanisms in a variety of species. One well conserved element in their signal transduction is Ser\\/Thr kinases, which couple early signaling events in a receptor complex at the plasma membrane to larger signalosomes in the cytosol. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has one member of this family of kinases, termed

Shyun Li; Astrid Strelow; Elizabeth J. Fontana; Holger Wesche

2002-01-01

112

38 CFR 71.50 - Provision of certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...training, and mental health services to certain...family members of veterans. 71.50 ...training, and mental health services to certain...family members of veterans. (a) Benefits...services to help the veteran address mental health issues,...

2013-07-01

113

Establishing the surgical nurse liaison role to improve patient and family member communication.  

PubMed

Having clear personal communication with a surgical patient's family members decreases the anxiety and increases patient and family member satisfaction. Perioperative team members at one East Coast community hospital implemented a new approach to communication in the perioperative area to address patient satisfaction after patient survey scores declined in the areas of communication and calming fears. An additional consideration was the facility's plan to move to a new facility in which the surgical department would be split across two floors. A literature review revealed that adding a surgical nurse liaison can increase patient, family member, and staff member satisfaction. The administration approved creation of the position, with duties that included managing the waiting area, facilitating interaction between physicians and patients' family members, and assisting with family visits to the perianesthesia unit. After implementation of this position, results of surveys showed increases in patient satisfaction. One year after the position was established, staff members reported they were happy with the position as well. PMID:24766921

Herd, Hope A; Rieben, Melissa A

2014-05-01

114

Migrant and minority family members in the intensive care unit. A review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Statistics show that people with migrant and minority background as patients are significant in numbers in the intensive care unit. This also puts family members in the perspective of nursing because family members are an inherent part of the intensive care unit. Family-centered care is perhaps most applicable to vulnerable populations like migrant family in the intensive care unit to meet family member’s needs. But very little is known about the situation of migrant and minority family members in the intensive care unit. The aim of the study was to explore the state of the science regarding family-centered care in the intensive care unit of patients with migration background in general and with a possible focus on major migrant populations in Austria—Former Yugoslavian und Turkish origin. A literature review investigated research articles that contained information on migrant and minority family members in the intensive care unit. Key points in the relevant articles were identified and categorized into themes with an explanation of findings at the end. Seventeen articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. No article was found regarding groups of major migrant population groups in Austria. The included articles uncovered five predominant themes: importance of cultural norms, communication, family dynamics, universal caring, and nursing/provider deficit in culturally competent care. In order to provide adequate nursing care a more cohesive body of information on more specific geographic and cultural populations is recommended. Because of the complete lack of research regarding migrant families of Former Yugoslavian and Turkish origin into Austria, an exploration of this population is recommended.

Quindemil, KettyElena; Anderson, Kathryn Hoehn; Mayer, Hanna

2013-01-01

115

IQGAP Family Members in Yeast, Dictyostelium, and Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

IQGAPs are a family of scaffolding proteins with multiple domains, named for the IQ motifs and GTPase activating protein (GAP) related domains. Despite their GAP homology, IQGAP proteins act as effectors for GTP-bound GTPases of the Ras superfamily and do not stimulate GTP hydrolysis. IQGAPs are found in eukaryotic cells from yeast to human, and localize to actin-containing structures such as lamellipodia, membrane ruffles, cell-cell adhesions, phagocytic cups, and the actomyosin ring formed during cytokinesis. Mammalian IQGAPs also act as scaffolds for signaling pathways. IQGAPs perform their myriad functions through association with a large number of proteins including filamentous actin (F-actin), GTPases, calcium-binding proteins, microtubule binding proteins, kinases, and receptors. The focus of this paper is on recent studies describing new binding partners, mechanisms of regulation, and biochemical and physiological functions of IQGAPs in yeast, amoeba, and mammalian cells.

Shannon, Katie B.

2012-01-01

116

Supporting conversations between individuals with dementia and their family members.  

PubMed

Remembrance of recent events is a major problem for individuals with dementia. Consequently, this article explores the process of acceptance and integration of a digital photograph diary (DPD) as a tool for remembrance of and conversations about daily life events. A design for multiple case studies was used. Seven couples, in which one individual in the couple had Alzheimer's disease, tested the DPD for 6 months. Data were collected in three sequences with interviews, observations, and screening instruments. In the analysis, all data were integrated to find common patterns of content. Some couples became regular users, while others used the DPD more sporadically. Factors contributing to regular use were how the DPD matched expectations, actual use, support, experienced usefulness, and reactions from family and friends. For those couples who became regular users, the DPD facilitated their conversation about recent daily activities. PMID:24066788

Karlsson, Eva; Axelsson, Karin; Zingmark, Karin; Fahlander, Kjell; Sävenstedt, Stefan

2014-02-01

117

STS-101 crew members meet family and friends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-101 Commander James D. Halsell Jr. waves as he stands with his wife Kathy during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

2000-01-01

118

STS-101 crew members meet family and friends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A light-hearted moment during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. From left, Commander James D. Halsell Jr., Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber and Pilot Scott J. Horowitz. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

2000-01-01

119

STS-101 crew members meet family and friends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-101 Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber and her husband Jerome Elkind during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

2000-01-01

120

STS-101 crew members meet family and friends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-101 crew gather during a meeting with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. From left, Mission Specialist Susan J. Helms, Commander James D. Halsell Jr., Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber, Pilot Scott J. Horowitz and Mission Specialists Yuri Vladimirovich Usachev, Jeffery N. Williams and James S. Voss. In the background is the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the pad. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

2000-01-01

121

STS-101 crew members meet family and friends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-101 Mission Specialist Yuri Vladimirovich Usachev, a Russian cosmonaut, and his wife Vera Sergeevna Usacheva during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

2000-01-01

122

29 CFR 779.234 - Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner or members of his immediate family.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...owner or members of his immediate family. 779.234 Section 779...LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY...or members of his immediate family. Section 3(s) provides...other member of the immediate family of such owner” shall not...

2010-07-01

123

25 CFR 26.17 - Can more than one family member be financially assisted at the same time?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...more than one family member be financially assisted at the same time? 26.17 Section 26.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS...more than one family member be financially assisted at the same time? Yes, more than one family member can be assisted,...

2011-04-01

124

A new member of a growing toxin family – Escherichia coli cytotoxic necrotizing factor 3 (CNF3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Escherichia coli Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factors, CNF1, CNF2 and CNFY from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis belong to a family of deamidating toxins. CNFs deamidate glutamine 63\\/61 in the switch II region of Rho GTPases that is essential for GTPase activity. Recently, a novel member of the CNF family has been described in Necrotoxigenic E. coli (NTEC) from sheep and goats which shares

Tanja Stoll; Gaby Markwirth; Simone Reipschläger; Gudula Schmidt

2009-01-01

125

Mexican American Fathers' Occupational Conditions: Links to Family Members' Psychological Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the implications of fathers' occupational conditions (i.e., income, work hours, shift work, pressure, workplace racism, and underemployment) for family members' psychological adjustment, home interviews were conducted with fathers, mothers, and two adolescent offspring in each of 218 Mexican American families. Results underscored the…

Crouter, Ann C.; Davis, Kelly D.; Updegraff, Kimberly; Delgado, Melissa; Fortner, Melissa

2006-01-01

126

Expressed Emotion and Subclinical Psychopathology Observable Within the Transactions Between Schizophrenic Patients and Their Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined whether young, recently discharged schizophrenic patients from high (n = 34) and low (n = 14) expressed emotion (EE) families differ in their level of subclinical symptomatology during a direct interaction task. Compared with patients from low-EE homes, patients from high-EE home showed significantly more odd and disruptive behavior with family members. High-EE relatives were more likely

Irwin S. Rosenfarb; Michael J. Goldstein; Jim Mintz; Keith H. Nuechterlein

1995-01-01

127

Expressed emotion and interdependence in White and Latino\\/Hispanic family members of patients with schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined associations among ethnicity, expressed emotion (EE) and interdependence in a sample of 41 Latino\\/Hispanic and White family members of patients with schizophrenia. EE was assessed using both the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI) and the Five Minute Speech Sample (FMSS). These measures were found to be highly concordant for rating EE. However, the CFI appears to identify high

Amy G. Weisman de Mamani; Jennifer A. Kymalainen; Grace A. Rosales; Jorge C. Armesto

2007-01-01

128

Attributions and Affective Reactions of Family Members and Course of Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors tested an attribution–affect model of schizophrenic relapse attending to the role of families’ positive affect (warmth) and negative affect (criticism). Coders listened to interviews of 40 family members taken from C. E. Vaughn, K. S. Synder, S. Jones, W. B. Freeman, and I. R. Falloon (1984) and rated their attributions of controllability for the symptoms and behaviors of

Steven R. López; Kathleen A. Nelson; Karen S. Snyder; Jim Mintz

1999-01-01

129

Exact parallel algorithms for some members of the traveling salesman problem family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traveling salesman problem and its many generalizations comprise one of the best known combinatorial optimization problem families. Most members of the family are NP-complete problems so that exact algorithms require an unpredictable and sometimes large computational effort. Parallel computers offer hope for providing the power required to meet these demands. A major barrier to applying parallel computers is the

Pekny

1989-01-01

130

The relationship of adverse childhood experiences to a history of premature death of family members  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To assess the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including childhood abuse and neglect, and serious household dysfunction, and premature death of a family member. Because ACEs increase the risk for many of the leading causes of death in adults and tend to be familial and intergenerational, we hypothesized that persons who report having more ACEs would be more

Robert F Anda; Maxia Dong; David W Brown; Vincent J Felitti; Wayne H Giles; Geraldine S Perry; Edwards J Valerie; Shanta R Dube

2009-01-01

131

Nephrotic syndrome in two members of a family with mercury poisoning.  

PubMed

Elevated urine mercury levels in two Asian brothers with the nephrotic syndrome led to the discovery of very high mercury concentrations in 7 out of 10 other family members. Mercury contamination was caused by gold refining in a garage at the home. Although childhood nephrotic syndrome is usually idiopathic, the proteinuria and the mercury inhalation were probably causally related in this family. PMID:2136288

Meeks, A; Keith, P R; Tanner, M S

1990-12-01

132

Using Picture Books to Help Children Cope with a Family Member's Alzheimer's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the resulting behavioral changes in a loved one can cause intense emotional reactions from all family members, including children. Sharing and discussing relevant picture books can be an effective strategy to help the children in such families understand and deal with their emotions. Picture books can…

Holland, Marna

2005-01-01

133

Characterization of Members of the Legionellaceae Family by Automated Ribotyping  

PubMed Central

In order to implement a new and reliable method for characterizing different species of Legionella, a genetic fingerprinting study with an automated ribotyping system (RiboPrinter) was completed with members of this genus which were deposited at the American Type Culture Collection. The RiboPrinter examined the different patterns of EcoRI digestion fragments from the rRNA operons of 110 strains, representing 48 of the 49 described Legionella species as well as 70 serogroups of those species. Distinctive and consistent patterns were obtained for the type strains of the 48 species investigated. Legionella pneumophila subsp. fraseri and L. pneumophila subsp. pascullei each generated a specific pattern, whereas L. pneumophila subsp. pneumophila produced six different fingerprint patterns. No correlation seemed to exist between the ribotypes obtained and the 15 serotypes of L. pneumophila. For the other species, those with two known serogroups presented two distinctive patterns with the RiboPrinter with the exception of L. hackeliae and L. quinlivanii, which yielded only one pattern. We also encountered ribotypes for strains which were not identified to the species level. The ribotypes generated for these strains with the RiboPrinter did not match those generated for known type strains, suggesting the putative description of new serogroups or species. Although the automated system did not have sufficient discriminatory ability to serve as an epidemiological tool in a clinical setting, it appeared to be a powerful tool for general genomic analysis of the Legionella isolates (e.g., determination of new species) and assessment of the interrelationship among Legionella strains through the RiboPrinter database connection.

Cordevant, Christophe; Tang, Jane S.; Cleland, David; Lange, Marc

2003-01-01

134

Caring for a family member with a traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

The responses to a questionnaire on subjective burden are reported for 52 primary caregivers of a group of persons with traumatic brain injuries sustained an average of 6 years previously. The aim of the study was to examine satisfaction with social support, perception of coping skills, and appraisal of symptoms as predictors of strain in the carers. A range of responses, both positive and negative, to the work of caring for a relative with a head injury was reported. A high prevalence rate of emotional and behavioural changes in the persons with head injuries was found and the amount of distress caused by these symptoms was found to be predictive of burden. The other factor important in predicting burden was the carers' ratings of their satisfaction with their ability to cope with the work of caregiving. Social support, injury severity, and the demographic characteristics of the persons with head injury and their carers were not significant predictors. Depression in the carers was also investigated and the variable most predictive of elevated depression scores was coping satisfaction. These findings reinforce the importance of strengthening carers coping resources in rehabilitation work with head injured persons and their families. PMID:9638324

Knight, R G; Devereux, R; Godfrey, H P

1998-06-01

135

STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Commander Kevin Kregel enjoys a reunion with his wife, Jeanne, near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

2000-01-01

136

STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Mission Specialist Janet Lynn Kavandi poses for photographers near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

2000-01-01

137

STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Mission Specialist Gerhard Thiele enjoys a reunion with his wife near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

2000-01-01

138

STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Pilot Dominic Gorie enjoys a reunion with his wife, Wendy, near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

2000-01-01

139

Cyclic beta-glucans of members of the family Rhizobiaceae.  

PubMed Central

Cyclic beta-glucans are low-molecular-weight cell surface carbohydrates that are found almost exclusively in bacteria of the Rhizobiaceae family. These glucans are major cellular constituents, and under certain culture conditions their levels may reach up to 20% of the total cellular dry weight. In Agrobacterium and Rhizobium species, these molecules contain between 17 and 40 glucose residues linked solely by beta-(1,2) glycosidic bonds. In Bradyrhizobium species, the cyclic beta-glucans are smaller (10 to 13 glucose residues) and contain glucose linked by both beta-(1,6) and beta-(1,3) glycosidic bonds. In some rhizobial strains, the cyclic beta-glucans are unsubstituted, whereas in other rhizobia these molecules may become highly substituted with moieties such as sn-1-phosphoglycerol. To date, two genetic loci specifically associated with cyclic beta-glucan biosynthesis have been identified in Rhizobium (ndvA and ndvB) and Agrobacterium (chvA and chvB) species. Mutants with mutations at these loci have been shown to be impaired in their ability to grow in hypoosmotic media, have numerous alterations in their cell surface properties, and are also impaired in their ability to infect plants. The present review will examine the structure and occurrence of the cyclic beta-glucans in a variety of species of the Rhizobiaceae. The possible functions of these unique molecules in the free-living bacteria as well as during plant infection will be discussed.

Breedveld, M W; Miller, K J

1994-01-01

140

Parents and Family Members in the Era of ART: Evidence from Cambodia and Thailand  

PubMed Central

Ensuring treatment adherence is critical for the success of ART programs in developing countries. Enlisting NGOs or PLHA group members as treatment supporters is one common strategy. Less attention is given to family members and especially older-age parents. Yet ART patients often live with other family members who are highly motivated to ensure treatment success. This study examines the role of family members and especially parents in assisting adherence in Cambodia and Thailand among adult ART patients. Most have a living parent and many live with or near a parent. Family members including parents commonly remind patients to take medications, particularly if coresident in the same household. Parents also remind patients to get resupplies and accompany them to appointments. Some contrasts between Cambodia and Thailand emerged. Fewer Cambodian than Thai patients had a living parent. However, among those who did, equal shares lived with parents. Cambodian parents more commonly reminded patients to take medications and get resupplies and accompanied them when doing so. In both countries correct knowledge of ART among parents was associated with the amount of advice from program personnel. The results underscore both the need to more explicitly incorporate close family members, including parents, into efforts to promote adherence and need for PLHA peers and home based care teams to provide them with adequate information, training and resources to increase their effectiveness.

Knodel, John; Hak, Sochanny; Khuon, Chandore; So, Dane; McAndrew, John

2011-01-01

141

Interleukin-1 family members are enhanced in psoriasis and suppressed by vitamin D and retinoic acid.  

PubMed

Interleukin (IL)-1 family comprise 11 members that play an important role in immune regulation and inflammatory process. Retinoids exert complex effects on the immune system, having anti-inflammatory effects in chronic dermatological diseases. Vitamin D (vitD) and analogs have been shown to suppress TNF-?-induced IL-1? in human keratinocytes (KCs). In the present study, we investigated IL-1 family members in psoriasis and the effects of vitD and retinoic acid (RA) on these members. We analyzed IL-1 family members gene expression in psoriatic skin and in ex vivo skin organ culture exposed to TNF-?, IL-17 or broadband UVB; afterwards, treatment with vitD or RA was performed and IL-1 family members mRNA was evaluated. Similarly, KCs were stimulated with IL-17 and subsequently treated with vitD. IL-1 family members were enhanced in psoriatic skin and in ex vivo skin organ cultures after pro-inflammatory stimuli (TNF-?, IL-17 and UVB). RA and vitD were able to suppress this enhancement. PMID:23435685

Balato, Anna; Schiattarella, Maria; Lembo, Serena; Mattii, Martina; Prevete, Nella; Balato, Nicola; Ayala, Fabio

2013-04-01

142

Imf, a Novel Myogenic Repressor, Interacts with Members of the MyoD Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

During embryogenesis, cells from the ventral and dorsal parts of the somites give rise to sclerotome and dermomyotome, respectively. Dermomyotome contains skeletal muscle precursors that are determined by the MyoD family of myogenic factors. We have isolated a novel myogenic repressor, I-mf (Inhibitor of MyoD family), which is highly expressed in the sclerotome. In contrast, MyoD family members are concentrated

C.-M. Amy Chen; Norbert Kraut; Mark Groudine; Harold Weintraub

1996-01-01

143

Personal attributions for melanoma risk in melanoma-affected patients and family members  

PubMed Central

Personal attributions for cancer risk involve factors that individuals believe contribute to their risk for developing cancer. Understanding personal risk attributions for melanoma may dictate gene-environment melanoma risk communication strategies. We examined attributions for melanoma risk in a population-based sample of melanoma survivors, first degree family members, and family members who are also parents (N=939). We conducted qualitative examination of open-ended risk attributions and logistic regression examining predictors (demographics, family member type, perceived risk) of the attributions reported (ultraviolet radiation [UVR] exposure, heredity/genetics, phenotype, personal melanoma history, miscellaneous). We found a predominance of risk attributions to UVR and heredity/genetics (80% and 45% of the sample, respectively). Those reporting higher education levels were more likely to endorse attributions to heredity/genetics, as well as to phenotype, than those of lower education levels. First-degree relatives and parent family members were more likely to endorse heredity/genetic attributions than melanoma survivors; melanoma survivors were more likely to endorse personal history of melanoma attributions compared to first-degree relatives and parent family members. These findings inform the development of risk communication interventions for melanoma families.

Hay, Jennifer; DiBonaventura, Marco; Baser, Raymond; Press, Nancy; Shoveller, Jeanne; Bowen, Deborah

2010-01-01

144

Holding blame at bay? 'Gene talk' in family members' accounts of schizophrenia aetiology  

PubMed Central

We provide the first detailed analysis of how, for what purposes and with what consequences people related to someone with a diagnosis of schizophrenia use ‘gene talk'. The article analyses findings from a qualitative interview study conducted in London and involving 19 participants (mostly women). We transcribed the interviews verbatim and analysed them using grounded theory methods. We analyse how and for what purposes participants mobilized ‘gene talk' in their affectively freighted encounter with an unknown interviewer. Gene talk served to (re)position blame and guilt, and was simultaneously used imaginatively to forge family history narratives. Family members used ‘gene talk' to recruit forebears with no psychiatric diagnosis into a family history of mental illness, and presented the origins of the diagnosed family member's schizophrenia as lying temporally before, and hence beyond the agency of the immediate family. Gene talk was also used in attempts to dislodge the distressing figure of the schizophrenia-inducing mother. ‘Gene talk', however, ultimately displaced, rather than resolved, the (self-)blame of many family members, particularly mothers. Our article challenges the commonly expressed view that genetic accounts will absolve family members' sense of (self-)blame in relation to their relative's/relatives' diagnosis.

Callard, Felicity; Rose, Diana; Hanif, Emma-Louise; Quigley, Jody; Greenwood, Kathryn; Wykes, Til

2012-01-01

145

Holding blame at bay? 'Gene talk' in family members' accounts of schizophrenia aetiology.  

PubMed

We provide the first detailed analysis of how, for what purposes and with what consequences people related to someone with a diagnosis of schizophrenia use 'gene talk'. The article analyses findings from a qualitative interview study conducted in London and involving 19 participants (mostly women). We transcribed the interviews verbatim and analysed them using grounded theory methods. We analyse how and for what purposes participants mobilized 'gene talk' in their affectively freighted encounter with an unknown interviewer. Gene talk served to (re)position blame and guilt, and was simultaneously used imaginatively to forge family history narratives. Family members used 'gene talk' to recruit forebears with no psychiatric diagnosis into a family history of mental illness, and presented the origins of the diagnosed family member's schizophrenia as lying temporally before, and hence beyond the agency of the immediate family. Gene talk was also used in attempts to dislodge the distressing figure of the schizophrenia-inducing mother. 'Gene talk', however, ultimately displaced, rather than resolved, the (self-)blame of many family members, particularly mothers. Our article challenges the commonly expressed view that genetic accounts will absolve family members' sense of (self-)blame in relation to their relative's/relatives' diagnosis. PMID:23227107

Callard, Felicity; Rose, Diana; Hanif, Emma-Louise; Quigley, Jody; Greenwood, Kathryn; Wykes, Til

2012-09-01

146

41 CFR 302-3.225 - If my immediate family member(s) return to the U.S. before me, will I be reimbursed for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true If my immediate family member(s) return to the U.S. before me, will I be reimbursed for transporting part of my household goods with my family and the rest of my household goods when I...

2013-07-01

147

Safety threats and opportunities to improve interfacility care transitions: insights from patients and family members  

PubMed Central

Aim To explore patients’ and family members’ perspectives on how safety threats are detected and managed across care transitions and strategies that improve care transitions from acute care hospitals to complex continuing care and rehabilitation health care organizations. Background Poorly executed care transitions can result in additional health care spending due to adverse outcomes and delays as patients wait to transfer from acute care to facilities providing different levels of care. Patients and their families play an integral role in ensuring they receive safe care, as they are the one constant in care transitions processes. However, patients’ and family members’ perspectives on how safety threats are detected and managed across care transitions from health care facility to health care facility remain poorly understood. Methods This qualitative study used semistructured interviews with patients (15) and family members (seven) who were transferred from an acute care hospital to a complex continuing care/rehabilitation care facility. Data were analyzed using a directed content analytical approach. Results Our results revealed three key overarching themes in the perceptions: lacking information, getting “funneled through” too soon, and difficulty adjusting to the shift from total care to almost self-care. Several patients and families described their expectations and experiences associated with their interfacility care transitions as being uninformed about their transfer or that transfer happened too early. In addition, study participants identified the need for having a coordinated approach to care transitions that engages patients and family members. Conclusion Study findings provide patients’ and family members’ perspectives on key safety threats and how to improve care transitions. Of particular importance is the need for patients and family members to play a more active role in their care transition planning and self-care management.

Jeffs, Lianne; Kitto, Simon; Merkley, Jane; Lyons, Renee F; Bell, Chaim M

2012-01-01

148

The impact of disease on family members: a critical aspect of medical care.  

PubMed

Most existing health-related quality of life research concerns the impact of disease on patients. However, in several medical specialties including dermatology, oncology, and physical and mental disability, studies have been carried out investigating the impact of disease on the lives of families of patients. The aim of this paper is to review the literature which relates to the impact of disease on family members of patients. The OVIDSP Medline was selected as the primary database, Searches were limited to sources published in English. 158 papers were identified for review. The definition of "family" varied across the literature, and a broad definition was accepted in this review. This review shows that a wide variety of aspects of family members' lives can be affected, including emotional, financial, family relationships, education and work, leisure time, and social activities. Many of these themes are linked to one another, with themes including financial impact and social impact being linked to emotional impact. Some positive aspects were also identified from the literature, including family relationships growing stronger. Several instruments exist to measure the impact of illness on the family, and most are disease or specialty- specific. The impact of disease on families of patients is often unrecognised and underestimated. Taking into account the quality of life of families as well as patients can offer the clinician a unique insight into issues such as family relationships and the effect of treatment decisions on the patient's close social group of partner and family. PMID:23759884

Golics, Catherine Jane; Basra, Mohammad Khurshid Azam; Finlay, Andrew Yule; Salek, Sam

2013-10-01

149

Impact of bone marrow stromal cells on Bcl-2 family members in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common form of adult leukemia in the Western world. High levels of Bcl-2 family anti-apoptotic proteins are responsible for apoptosis resistance. Besides anti-apoptotic proteins, the microenvironment provides substantial survival signals to CLL leukemic cells. However, in-depth knowledge on the role of individual Bcl-2 family members in the context of the microenvironment is still limited. We performed a comprehensive analysis of transcripts and proteins of 18 Bcl-2 family members using an "apoptosis array microfluidic card" in primary cells before and after stromal co-cultures. Our data showed that five of six anti-apoptotic members (excluding Bcl-b), two of three pro-apoptotic members (excluding Bok) and six of nine BH3-only members were present at detectable mRNA levels in CLL cells. Importantly, stromal-mediated extended survival of CLL cells was strongly associated with elevated global transcription. Upon co-culturing with stromal cells, there was an early response of an increase in anti- (2/5) and pro-apoptotic protein (3/8) transcripts on day 1, while an increase in anti-apoptotic proteins was observed on day 3, with no significant change in pro-apoptotic proteins. Our study revealed a differential pattern of expression of both transcripts and proteins following stromal co-cultures, proposing a significance of Bcl-2 family members in the stromal microenvironment. PMID:23837491

Patel, Viralkumar; Chen, Lisa S; Wierda, William G; Balakrishnan, Kumudha; Gandhi, Varsha

2014-04-01

150

Skin lead contamination of family members of boat-caulkers in southern Thailand.  

PubMed

Powdered lead oxide (Pb(3)O(4)) is used in the wooden-boat repair industry as a constituent of the caulking material. This study compared skin lead of household members of caulkers' and control homes, and examined the relationship of household member's skin lead with household floor lead loading (FLL) and dust lead content (DLC). FLL and DLC were measured in 67 caulkers' houses and 46 nearby houses with no known lead exposure. In each household, wipe specimens of skin lead were obtained from one selected family member. Hand lead loading (HdLL) and foot lead loading (FtLL) were significantly higher in family members of caulkers than controls (geometric mean 64.4 vs. 36.2 ?g m(-2); p = 0.002 and 77.8 vs 43.8 ?g m(-2); p = 0.002, respectively). This pattern mirrored FLL and DLC, which were also higher in caulkers' than in control houses (geometric mean 109.9 vs. 40.1 ?g m(-2); p<0.001 and 434.8 vs 80.8 ?g g(-1); p<0.001, respectively). Multiple linear regression modelling revealed FLL to be a better predictor than DLC for HdLL in all age groups and for FtLL in adult family members. In conclusion, skin lead levels are elevated in family members living in a lead-exposed worker's house and are related to the levels of household lead contamination. PMID:20823635

Untimanon, Orrapan; Geater, Alan; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Saetia, Wiyada; Utapan, Sutida

2011-01-01

151

Canadian families caring for members with mental illness: a vicious cycle.  

PubMed

The purpose of this qualitative, descriptive study was to explore the perspectives of individuals who were caring for a family member with a mental illness, with particular attention to housing, quality of supports, and formal care services. Eleven focus groups with family caregivers (N = 75) were conducted. Both individual and team thematic analyses were undertaken until interpretations of the experiences of the participants were inductively developed and conceptualized into a holistic interpretation. Findings revealed that family caregivers were part of a "circle of care," supporting the independence of the individual with mental illness while attempting to protect their family member with mental illness. However, findings suggested that this circle of care led to a "vicious cycle" of caregiving. Three major themes were identified: witnessing inadequacies, working behind the scenes, and creating a better world. Health-promoting family nursing practice and policy implications, as well as areas for further research, are discussed. PMID:16287823

Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Schofield, Ruth; Vos, Sandra; Coatsworth-Puspoky, Robin

2005-05-01

152

Opposing activities of two novel members of the IL-1 ligand family regulate skin inflammation  

PubMed Central

The interleukin (IL)-1 family members IL-1?, -1?, and -18 are potent inflammatory cytokines whose activities are dependent on heterodimeric receptors of the IL-1R superfamily, and which are regulated by soluble antagonists. Recently, several new IL-1 family members have been identified. To determine the role of one of these family members in the skin, transgenic mice expressing IL1F6 in basal keratinocytes were generated. IL1F6 transgenic mice exhibit skin abnormalities that are dependent on IL-1Rrp2 and IL-1RAcP, which are two members of the IL-1R family. The skin phenotype is characterized by acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, the presence of a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, and increased cytokine and chemokine expression. Strikingly, the combination of the IL-1F6 transgene with an IL1F5 deficiency results in exacerbation of the skin phenotype, demonstrating that IL-1F5 has antagonistic activity in vivo. Skin from IL1F6 transgenic, IL1F5?/? pups contains intracorneal and intraepithelial pustules, nucleated corneocytes, and dilated superficial dermal blood vessels. Additionally, expression of IL1RL2, -1F5, and -1F6 is increased in human psoriatic skin. In summary, dysregulated expression of novel agonistic and antagonistic IL-1 family member ligands can promote cutaneous inflammation, revealing potential novel targets for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders.

Blumberg, Hal; Dinh, Huyen; Trueblood, Esther S.; Pretorius, James; Kugler, David; Weng, Ning; Kanaly, Suzanne T.; Towne, Jennifer E.; Willis, Cynthia R.; Kuechle, Melanie K.; Sims, John E.; Peschon, Jacques J.

2007-01-01

153

Health-related quality of life in family members of patients with burns.  

PubMed

A severe burn not only affects the patients, but may also have a great impact on the lives of family members. It is known that family members of patients with burns experience psychological distress, but health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has not been studied in this group. The aim was to study predictors of HRQoL in family members of patients with burns. Forty-four family members of adult patients treated in a burn center, between 2000 and 2007, completed questionnaires during care, and at 3, 6, and 12 months after injury. HRQoL was assessed with the EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D), which consists of the dimensions: mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain, and anxiety/depression. The questionnaire generates an EQ-5D index and a visual analog scale (VAS) score. Overall, the EQ-5D index was similar to that of the general population. A slight improvement in HRQoL was found in the VAS scores and in the anxiety/depression dimension over time. In regression models, HRQoL was primarily predicted by earlier life events, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, and HRQoL, assessed during the patients' hospitalization. In summary, HRQoL assessed with VAS scores increased slightly during the first year postburn, and early screening for life events and psychological symptoms, and HRQoL might be useful in identifying family members in need of support. PMID:23666385

Bäckström, Josefin; Oster, Caisa; Gerdin, Bengt; Ekselius, Lisa; Willebrand, Mimmie

2014-01-01

154

[Experiences and ethical questions of family members of patients with dementia].  

PubMed

There are many decisions that family members of sufferers of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia are forced to take to guarantee the well-being and quality of life of their loved ones and, of course, themselves. A little more than 12 years ago in Medina del Campo, Valladolid, there arose the need to inform and, what's more, to support a large number of people whose family members had been diagnosed with a devastating type of dementia that was practically unknown. The illness presented these families with a growing number of difficult-to-resolve ethical dilemmas. This was the genesis of the Asociación de Familiares de enfermos de Alzheimer (Association of Family Members of Sufferers of Alzheimer's), where baffled family members searching for responsible answers came looking for help to their practical problems that they felt unable to solve using only common sense. What follows are the details of several real situations, the most delicate of which, as the Association psychologist, I shared with the affected families. The cases below involved a dilemma when applying the basic principles of bioethics: non-maleficence, beneficence and respect for the autonomy of the diseased. PMID:22548668

González Paniagua, M Cruz

2012-01-01

155

Coping with work-family conflict: A leader-member exchange perspective.  

PubMed

Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory is applied as a framework for understanding coping with work-family conflict. The effectiveness of four work-family coping strategies (i.e., preventive and episodic forms of both problem-focused and emotion-focused coping) is considered with emphasis on how the LMX relationship contributes to each form of coping with work interference with family. The LMX-based model of work-family coping accounts for the development of family-friendly work roles, use of organizational family-friendly policies, and the negotiation of flextime and flexplace accommodations. Constraints on the relationship between LMX and work-family coping associated with supervisor authority and resources and aspects of the organizational context are also discussed. Research and applied implications of the model are offered. PMID:21280949

Major, Debra A; Morganson, Valerie J

2011-01-01

156

Mammalian Lass6 and its related family members regulate synthesis of specific ceramides  

PubMed Central

The Lass (longevity-assurance homologue) family members, which are highly conserved among eukaryotes, function in ceramide synthesis. In the mouse, there are at least five Lass family members, Lass1, Lass2, Lass4, Lass5 and the hitherto uncharacterized Lass6. To investigate specific roles for each Lass member in ceramide synthesis, we cloned these five mouse proteins. Overproduction of any Lass protein in cultured cells resulted in an increase in cellular ceramide, but the ceramide species produced varied. Overproduction of Lass1 increased C18:0-ceramide levels preferentially, and overproduction of Lass2 and Lass4 increased levels of longer ceramides such as C22:0- and C24:0-ceramides. Lass5 and Lass6 produced shorter ceramide species (C14:0- and C16:0-ceramides); however, their substrate preferences towards saturated/unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA differed. In addition to differences in substrate preferences, we also demonstrated by Northern blotting that Lass family members are differentially expressed among tissues. Additionally, we found that Lass proteins differ with regard to glycosylation. Of the five members, only Lass2, Lass5 and Lass6 were N-glycosylated, each at their N-terminal Asn residue. The occurrence of N-glycosylation of some Lass proteins provides topological insight, indicating that the N-termini of Lass family members probably face the luminal side of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Furthermore, based on a proteinase K digestion assay, we demonstrated that the C-terminus of Lass6 faces the cytosolic side of the membrane. From these data we propose topology for the conserved Lag1 motif in Lass family members, namely that the N-terminal region faces the luminal side and the C-terminal region the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

2005-01-01

157

Perspectives on Family Substance Abuse: The Voices of Long-Term Al-Anon Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a series of in-depth interviews with eleven long-term Al-Anon members, the present article examines the perspectives of family members of alcoholics and relates their views on alcoholism and its effects. The interviews explored a number of issues, including respondents' personal experiences living with an alcoholic, the circumstances that drove them to seek help from Al-Anon, and descriptions of

Linda Richter; Pinka Chatterji; James Pierce

2000-01-01

158

The Janus kinase family and signaling through members of the cytokine receptor superfamily  

SciTech Connect

Many cytokines initiate cellular responses through their interaction with members of the cytokine receptor superfamily which contain no catalytic domains in their cytoplasmic domains. Irrespective, ligand binding induces tyrosine phosphorylation, which requires a membrane proximal region of the cytoplasmic domain. Recent studies have shown that members of the Janus kinase (JAK) family of protein tyrosine kinases associate with the membrane proximal region, are rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated following ligand binding and their in vitro kinase activity is activated. The JAKs are 130-kDa proteins which lack SH2/SH3 domains and contain two kinase domains, an active domain and a second kinase-like domain. Individual receptors associate with, or require, one or more of the three known family members including JAK1, JAK2, and tyk2. Substrates of the JAKs include the 91-kDa and 113-kDa proteins of the interferon-stimulated transcription complex ISGF3. These proteins, when tyrosine phosphorylated, migrate to the nucleus and participate in the activation of gene transcription. Recent evidence suggests that the 91- and 113-kDa proteins are members of a large family of genes that are potential substrates of JAK family members and may regulate a variety of genes involved in cell growth, differentiation or function. 42 refs.

Ihle, J.N. [St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

1994-12-31

159

Opposing Functions of Classic and Novel IL-1 Family Members in Gut Health and Disease  

PubMed Central

In addition to their well-established role(s) in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI)-related inflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and inflammation-associated colorectal cancer (CRC), emerging evidence confirms the critical involvement of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) cytokine family and their ligands in the maintenance of normal gut homeostasis. In fact, the paradigm that IBD occurs in two distinct phases is substantiated by the observation that classic IL-1 family members, such as IL-1, the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and IL-18, possess dichotomous functions depending on the phase of disease, as well as on their role in initiating vs. sustaining chronic gut inflammation. Another recently characterized IL-1 family member, IL-33, also possesses dual functions in the gut. IL-33 is upregulated in IBD and potently induces Th2 immune responses, while also amplifying Th1-mediated inflammation. Neutralization studies in acute colitis models, however, have yielded controversial results and recent reports suggest a protective role of IL-33 in epithelial regeneration and mucosal wound healing. Finally, although little is currently known regarding the potential contribution of IL-36 family members in GI inflammation/homeostasis, another IL-1 family member, IL-37, is emerging as a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine with the ability to down-regulate colitis. This new body of information has important translational implications for both the prevention and treatment of patients suffering from IBD and inflammation-associated CRC.

Lopetuso, Loris R.; Chowdhry, Saleem; Pizarro, Theresa T.

2013-01-01

160

Ethnicity, expressed emotion, and schizophrenia patients' perceptions of their family members' criticism.  

PubMed

Expressed emotion is a widely researched construct. However, less is known about patients' own perceptions of their relatives' expressed emotion. Using a sample of 42 patient/family member dyads with schizophrenia, we examined the concordance between the number of criticisms expressed by relatives during the Camberwell Family Interview and patients' perceptions of how critical they perceived their relative to be. As predicted, white and Latino family members who expressed more criticism during the Camberwell Family Interview were indeed perceived as more critical by patients. Among blacks, however, no significant association was found between relatives' expressed criticism and patients' perceptions of their relatives' criticism. Findings from this study suggest that cultural/ethnic values may influence how criticism from relatives is perceived and experienced by patients. PMID:16971814

Weisman, Amy G; Rosales, Grace A; Kymalainen, Jennifer A; Armesto, Jorge C

2006-09-01

161

Ethnicity, expressed emotion, and communication deviance in family members of patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationships among expressed emotion (EE), communication deviance (CD), and ethnicity in a sample of 57 white, Latino, and black relatives of patients with schizophrenia. A new method of assessing CD from the Five Minute Speech Sample was also developed and evaluated against an existing method (the Camberwell Family Interview; CFI). As hypothesized, high expressed emotion rated (from the CFI) was associated with higher levels of CD, and the Five Minute Speech Sample and CFI methods of assessing CD were concordant. CD statements made by white family members focused most on patient behaviors/symptoms that reflected a lack of independent functioning. CD statements of Latino and black relatives, however, focused most on patient behaviors that interfered with the family's interdependent functioning. Family members may have particular difficulty communicating coherently when discussing patients' inability to uphold important values and behaviors that are sanctioned by their ethnic background. PMID:16772854

Kymalainen, Jennifer A; Weisman, Amy G; Rosales, Grace A; Armesto, Jorge C

2006-06-01

162

Cloning and analysis of a murine PIAS family member, PIAS?, in developing skin and neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins are latent cytoplasmic transcription factors that become\\u000a activated in response to stimulation by various cytokines. Recently a new family of five structurally related proteins, called\\u000a PIAS (Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT) has been identified as potentially important downregulators of this pathway. Members\\u000a of the PIAS family of STAT inhibitors may play a

Sabine Sturm; Manuel Koch; Fletcher A. White

2000-01-01

163

High Prevalence of Mycoplasma Infections in Symptomatic (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome) Family Members of Mycoplasma-Positive Gulf War Illness Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Immediate family members of veterans diagnosed with Gulf War Illnesses often complain of fatiguing illnesses, and upon analysis they report similar signs and symptoms as their veteran family members. Since a relatively common finding in Gulf War Illness patients is a bacterial infection due to Mycoplasma species, we examined military families (149 patients: 42 veterans, 40 spouses, 32 other

Garth L. Nicolson; Marwan Y. Nasralla; Nancy L. Nicolson; Joerg Haier

2003-01-01

164

Effects of patients with bipolar, schizophrenic, and major depressive disorders on the mental and other healthcare expenses of family members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family members who live with patients with serious mental disorders incur increased healthcare expenses. A retrospective study measured these increased expenses using administrative data from a large Blue Cross Blue Shield health plan in the USA. Mental and other healthcare expenses of family members of patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or major depression were compared to those of control family

Frank D. Gianfrancesco; Ruey-hua Wang; Elaine Yu

2005-01-01

165

The Impact of Chronic Illness on the Health and Well-Being of Family Members.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored the impact of dementia on family members' physical and mental health while caring for an ill parent/spouse. Severity of illness was significantly associated with health and well-being for spouses, offspring, and in-laws, regardless of the amount of caregiving. Demonstrates the potential cascading effect of severe illness. (RJM)

Lieberman, Morton A.; Fisher, Lawrence

1995-01-01

166

Communication Education as Social Support: Teaching Families with a Dying Member.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching communication skills to families with a dying member presents unique challenges. As M. R. Parks' critique of interpersonal communication literature suggests, it is important to keep in mind the larger social context surrounding the person dying and to maintain a balanced perspective of information exchange (e.g., self-disclosure) and…

Morgan, Steven D.

167

Working with Teams and Organizations to Help Them Involve Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we describe our work in trying to influence whole service teams to move their practice towards greater involvement of affected family members. Work with five teams is described. The process varied but in all cases it included recruitment of the team, training, continued support and evaluation of results. Use of a standard…

Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Ibanga, Akanidomo

2010-01-01

168

The Experiences of Affected Family Members: A Summary of Two Decades of Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is based upon the collective findings of a number of studies conducted in a number of countries during the past 20 years. Female partners and mothers are the family members who have been most represented in the study samples, but the latter also included sizeable numbers of male partners, fathers, sisters, brothers and adult sons and…

Orford, Jim; Velleman, Richard; Copello, Alex; Templeton, Lorna; Ibanga, Akanidomo

2010-01-01

169

A Heavy Burden: The Cardiovascular Health Consequences of Having a Family Member Incarcerated  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examined the association of family member incarceration with cardiovascular risk factors and disease by gender. Methods We used a sample of 5470 adults aged 18 years and older in the National Survey of American Life, a 2001–2003 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of Blacks and Whites living in the United States, to examine 5 self-reported health conditions (diabetes, hypertension, heart attack or stroke, obesity, and fair or poor health). Results Family member incarceration was associated with increased likelihood of poor health across all 5 conditions for women but not for men. In adjusted models, women with family members who were currently incarcerated had 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 2.00), 2.53 (95% CI = 1.80, 3.55), and 1.93 (95% CI = 1.45, 2.58) times the odds of being obese, having had a heart attack or stroke, and being in fair or poor health, respectively. Conclusions Family member incarceration has profound implications for women's cardiovascular health and should be considered a unique risk factor that contributes to racial disparities in health.

Lee, Hedwig; Wildeman, Christopher; Wang, Emily A.; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S.

2014-01-01

170

Introducing Videotape to the Family in the Role of a Specialized Member of the Treatment System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Videotape replay in clinical treatment presents intervention opportunities. Introducing this equipment as a record keeper leads to the understanding that videotaped information is initially available to provide interpersonal bahavioral data. The therapist channels the potentially anxious responses of family members to their recorded images into an…

Metcoff, Jill

1980-01-01

171

Affectivity in the problem-solving interactions of schizophrenia patients and their family members  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to examine the relationship between symptomatology and the affect expressed between individuals with schizophrenia and their family members. It was hypothesized that, because of their impact on patient social behavior and potential burden on relatives, greater negative symptoms would be associated with less emotional expression in patients but would be related to the greater expression of negative

Jack J Blanchard; Steven L Sayers; Lindsay M Collins; Alan S Bellack

2004-01-01

172

A reinforced merging methodology for mapping unique peptide motifs in members of protein families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Members of a protein family often have highly conserved sequences; most of these sequences carry identical biological functions and possess similar three-dimensional (3-D) structures. However, enzymes with high sequence identity may acquire differential functions other than the common catalytic ability. It is probable that each of their variable regions consists of a unique peptide motif (UPM), which selectively interacts

Hao-teng Chang; Tun-wen Pai; Tan-chi Fan; Bo-han Su; Pei-chih Wu; Chuan-Yi Tang; Chun-tien Chang; Shi-hwei Liu; Margaret Dah-tsyr Chang

2006-01-01

173

A reinforced merging methodology for mapping unique peptide motifs in members of protein families  

PubMed Central

Background Members of a protein family often have highly conserved sequences; most of these sequences carry identical biological functions and possess similar three-dimensional (3-D) structures. However, enzymes with high sequence identity may acquire differential functions other than the common catalytic ability. It is probable that each of their variable regions consists of a unique peptide motif (UPM), which selectively interacts with other cellular proteins, rendering additional biological activities. The ability to identify and localize such UPMs is paramount in recognizing the characteristic role of each member of a protein family. Results We have developed a reinforced merging algorithm (RMA) with which non-gapped UPMs were identified in a variety of query protein sequences including members of human ribonuclease A (RNaseA), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), and Sma-and-Mad related protein families (Smad). The UPMs generally occupy specific positions in the resolved 3-D structures, especially the loop regions on the structural surfaces. These motifs coincide with the recognition sites for antibodies, as the epitopes of four monoclonal antibodies and two polyclonal antibodies were shown to overlap with the UPMs. Most of the UPMs were found to correlate well with the potential antigenic regions predicted by PROTEAN. Furthermore, an accuracy of 70% can be achieved in terms of mapping a UPM to an epitope. Conclusion Our study provides a bioinformatic approach for searching and predicting potential epitopes and interacting motifs that distinguish different members of a protein family.

Chang, Hao-Teng; Pai, Tun-Wen; Fan, Tan-chi; Su, Bo-Han; Wu, Pei-Chih; Tang, Chuan-Yi; Chang, Chun-Tien; Liu, Shi-Hwei; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr

2006-01-01

174

Factors Affecting Burden of South Koreans Providing Care to Disabled Older Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the determinants of caregiving burden among South Koreans who care for their disabled older family members. A sample of 1,000 primary caregivers taken from the Comprehensive Study for Elderly Welfare Policy in Seoul, South Korea was analyzed. Independent variables included the demographic characteristics of caregivers and care…

Lee, Minhong; Yoon, Eunkyung; Kropf, Nancy P.

2007-01-01

175

Coping, hope, and anticipatory grief in family members in palliative home care.  

PubMed

This article describes an exploratory, cross-sectional, correlational study designed to examine the relationships among general coping style, hope, and anticipatory grief in a convenience sample of 61 family members of people with terminal cancer. The framework for this study was based on grief theory, stress and coping, and transitions (2). Data were collected by the Jalowiec Coping Scale (3), the Herth Hope Index (4), the Non-Death Version of the Grief Experience Inventory (5), and a background information sheet. Findings revealed that family members experienced individual anticipatory grief patterns. Women reported more anger/hostility and despair than men. Adult children, more highly educated family members, family members not living with the ill person, and nonprimary caregivers also expressed more anger/hostility. Multiple regression results showed that emotive coping and hope accounted for significant variance in despair, somatization, and loss of control. Emotive coping contributed significant variation in anger/hostility, whereas lack of hope accounted for variation in social isolation. Neither the general coping styles nor hope significantly predicted death anxiety. The findings provide a base for future research and nursing practice. PMID:9691503

Chapman, K J; Pepler, C

1998-08-01

176

Expression and Localization of Members of the Fibroblast Growth Factor Family in the Bovine Mammary Gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the study was to examine the expres- sion and localization of members of the fibroblast growth factor family in the bovine mammary gland during different developmental and functional stages. Mammary tissue was obtained from German Brown Swiss cows (n = 23) during defined stages of mammo- genesis (before and during pregnancy), lactogenesis, peak and late lactation, and

A. Plath; R. Einspanier; C. Gabler; F. Peters; F. Sinowatz; D. Gospodarowicz; D. Schams

1998-01-01

177

Self-Concept and Depression among Children Who Experienced the Death of a Family Member  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the moderating effects of physical and academic self-concept on depression among children who experienced the death of a family member. Data from Phase III of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care was used in the present study. Having a higher physical self-concept…

Nguyen, Hong T.; Scott, Amy N.

2013-01-01

178

Posttraumatic Symptoms in Japanese Bereaved Family Members with Special Regard to Suicide and Homicide Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members using a questionnaire. Participants were bereaved as a result of suicide and homicide (n = 51 and 49, respectively), with natural death (n = 56) as a control; and their relationships to the deceased were parent-child (n = 79), conjugal (n =…

Ogata, Kohske; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Nishi, Yuko; Maeda, Hitoshi

2011-01-01

179

Living with a developmentally disabled child: attitude of family members in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to create an in-depth understanding of the experiences of living with a family member suffering from developmental disabilities from the social as well as personal point of view through qualitative research. The study used phenomenological methodology. Sixteen participants were recruited through purposive and snowball method. Data were collected via an open-ended narrative inviting the informants to focus

Rajib Lochan Dhar

2009-01-01

180

Chipmunk Parvovirus Is Distinct from Members in the Genus Erythrovirus of the Family Parvoviridae  

PubMed Central

The transcription profile of chipmunk parvovirus (ChpPV), a tentative member of the genus Erythrovirus in the subfamily Parvovirinae of the family Parvoviridae, was characterized by transfecting a nearly full-length genome. We found that it is unique from the profiles of human parvovirus B19 and simian parvovirus, the members in the genus Erythrovirus so far characterized, in that the small RNA transcripts were not processed for encoding small non-structural proteins. However, like the large non-structural protein NS1 of the human parvovirus B19, the ChpPV NS1 is a potent inducer of apoptosis. Further phylogenetic analysis of ChpPV with other parvoviruses in the subfamily Parvovirinae indicates that ChpPV is distinct from the members in genus Erythrovirus. Thus, we conclude that ChpPV may represent a new genus in the family Parvoviridae.

Cheng, Fang; Qiu, Jianming

2010-01-01

181

Perioperative communication and family members' perceived level of anxiety and satisfaction.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of periodic intraoperative communication between patients' waiting family members and the Operating Room (OR) nurse. The hypotheses were that the periodic updates would: 1) decrease perceived anxiety levels related to the surgical procedure; and 2) increase the overall satisfaction with the perioperative experience. In this convenience study participants were randomly assigned to either the "control group" (no periodic phone calls) or the "intervention group" (periodic intra-operative phone calls every two hours). Family member study participants completed both pre-operative and post-operative surveys. One hundred and seventeen (117) family member participants completed surveys (55=control group and 62= intervention group). The results of this study demonstrated that families receiving periodic updates from the OR circulating nurse experienced decreased anxiety levels (p = 0.002), perceived the experience to have been a "good experience" (p < 0.0001), and were more satisfied (p = 0.0002) than the families that received no updates. PMID:24261110

Blum, Eric Paul; Burns, Suzanne M

2013-09-01

182

ADAMTS9, a novel member of the ADAM-TS/ metallospondin gene family.  

PubMed

ADAM-TS/metallospondin genes encode a new family of proteins with structural homology to the ADAM metalloprotease-disintegrin family. However, unlike other ADAMs, these proteins contain thrombospondin type 1 (TSP1) repeats at the carboxy-terminal end and are secreted proteins instead of being membrane bound. Members of the ADAM-TS family have been implicated in the cleavage of proteoglycans, the control of organ shape during development, and the inhibition of angiogenesis. We have cloned a new member of the ADAM-TS/metallospondin family designated here as ADAMTS9. This protein has a metalloprotease domain, a disintegrin-like domain, one internal TSP1 motif, and three carboxy-terminal TSP1-like submotifs. In contrast to other ADAM-TS family members, ADAMTS9 is expressed in all fetal tissues examined as well as some adult tissues. Using FISH and radiation hybrid analysis, we have localized ADAMTS9 to chromosome 3p14.2-p14.3, an area known to be lost in hereditary renal tumors. PMID:10936055

Clark, M E; Kelner, G S; Turbeville, L A; Boyer, A; Arden, K C; Maki, R A

2000-08-01

183

Structure and function of interleukin-22 and other members of the interleukin-10 family.  

PubMed

The IL-10 family of cytokines is comprised of IL-10, IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26, and IFN-lambdas (IL-28A, IL-28B, and IL-29). The IL-10 family members bind to shared class II cytokine receptor chains that associate in various combinations in heterodimeric complexes. Upon interleukin/receptor complex formation, these proteins switch on the Jak/STAT pathway and elicit pleiotropic biological responses whose variety sharply contrasts with their structural similarities. IL-10 family members are involved in several human diseases and health conditions and hence their structural analyses may provide valuable information to design specific therapeutic strategies. In this review, we describe the human interleukin-10 family of cytokines, focusing on their structures and functions, with particular attention given to IL-22 and IL-10. We report on the recently published structures of IL-10 cytokine family members and their complexes with cognate transmembrane and soluble receptors as well as on interleukin physiology and physiopathology. PMID:20454917

Trivella, Daniela Barretto Barbosa; Ferreira-Júnior, José Ribamar; Dumoutier, Laure; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Polikarpov, Igor

2010-09-01

184

Arabidopsis ALF5, a multidrug efflux transporter gene family member, confers resistance to toxins.  

PubMed

The Arabidopsis genome contains many gene families that are not found in the animal kingdom. One of these is the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family, which has homology with bacterial efflux transporters. Arabidopsis has at least 54 members of this family, which often are found in tandem repeats. Analysis of ALF5, one member of this Arabidopsis family, suggests that its function is required for protection of the roots from inhibitory compounds. Loss of ALF5 function results in the sensitivity of the root to a number of compounds, including a contaminant of commercial agar. Moreover, expression of the Arabidopsis ALF5 cDNA in yeast confers resistance to tetramethylammonium. These phenotypes are consistent with a role for ALF5 as an efflux transporter. Both transcriptional and translational fusions of ALF5 to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene show that ALF5 is expressed strongly in the root epidermis, a tissue in direct contact with the external environment. The distinct requirement for ALF5 function is remarkable because of the large number of MATE gene family members in Arabidopsis, one of which is adjacent to ALF5 and 83% identical to ALF5 at the amino acid level. PMID:11449055

Diener, A C; Gaxiola, R A; Fink, G R

2001-07-01

185

Identification of a novel member of the CLIC family, CLIC6, mapping to 21q22.12  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five members of the newly identified chloride intracellular channel (CLIC) gene family of intracellular chloride channels (CLIC1–CLIC5) have previously been described in humans. Here we report the molecular cloning and initial characterisation of two splice forms of a novel member of this family, CLIC6, mapping to human chromosome 21. Two essential features distinguish CLIC6 from other members of the family.

Marc Friedli; Michel Guipponi; Sonia Bertrand; Daniel Bertrand; Marguerite Neerman-Arbez; Hamish S. Scott; Stylianos E. Antonarakis; Alexandre Reymond

2003-01-01

186

N-linked glycosylation modulates dimerization of protein disulfide isomerase family A member 2 (PDIA2).  

PubMed

Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family members are important enzymes for the correct folding and maturation of proteins that transit or reside in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The human PDI family comprises at least 19 members that differ in cell type expression, substrate specificity and post-translational modifications. PDI family A member 2 (PDIA2, previously known as PDIp) has a similar domain structure to prototypical PDI (also known as PDIA1), but the function and post-translational modifications of PDIA2 remain poorly understood. Unlike most PDI family members, PDIA2 contains three predicted N-linked glycosylation sites. By site-directed mutagenesis and enzymatic deglycosylation, we show here that all three Asn residues within the potential N-linked glycosylation sites of human PDIA2 (N127, N284 and N516) are glycosylated in human cells. Furthermore, mutation of N284 to glycosylation-null Gln increases formation of a highly stable disulfide-bonded PDIA2 dimer. Nevertheless, in HeLa cells, both wild-type and N127/284/516Q mutant PDIA2 proteins localize to the ER, but not the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment, suggesting that glycosylation is important for PDIA2 protein-protein interactions but not subcellular localization. Finally, we identified human major histocompatibility complex class 1 antigens (HLA-A,B,C) as potential binding partners of PDIA2, suggesting an involvement for PDIA2 in antigen presentation in addition to its previously described roles in autoimmunity and Parkinson's disease. These results further characterize this poorly defined member of the PDI family. PMID:23167757

Walker, Adam K; Soo, Kai Ying; Levina, Vita; Talbo, Gert H; Atkin, Julie D

2013-01-01

187

Signaling by epithelial members of the CEACAM family - mucosal docking sites for pathogenic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) comprise a group of immunoglobulin-related vertebrate glycoproteins. Several family members, including CEACAM1, CEA, and CEACAM6, are found on epithelial tissues throughout the human body. As they modulate diverse cellular functions, their signaling capacity is in the focus of current research. In this review we will summarize the knowledge about common signaling processes initiated by epithelial CEACAMs and suggest a model of signal transduction by CEACAM family members lacking significant cytoplasmic domains. As pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria exploit these receptors during mucosal colonization, we try to highlight the connection between CEACAMs, microbes, and cellular responses. Special emphasis in this context is placed on the functional interplay between CEACAMs and integrins that influences matrix adhesion of epithelial cells. The cooperation between these two receptor families provides an intriguing example of the fine tuning of cellular responses and their manipulation by specialized microorganisms.

2014-01-01

188

41 CFR 302-11.104 - When must I and/or a member(s) of my immediate family have acquired title interest in my...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...true When must I and/or a member(s) of my immediate family have acquired title interest in my residence to be eligible for the allowance for expenses incurred in connection with the sale of my residence? 302-11.104 Section...

2013-07-01

189

41 CFR 302-3.302 - May my agency pay for my immediate family member(s) and my household goods to be returned to the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true May my agency pay for my immediate family member(s) and my household goods to be returned to the U.S. before I complete my service agreement?...

2013-07-01

190

Effects of cognitive-behavioral treatment for weight loss in family members.  

PubMed

The possibility that lifestyle changes may be shared by the family members of subjects with obesity attending cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for weight loss has been scarcely evaluated. The purpose of this study was to measure the changes in body weight, lifestyle habits, and stage of change toward physical activity in the family members of 149 subjects with overweight/obesity enrolled into a weekly group CBT for weight management in the years 2007-2008. 230 adult (aged >18 years) family members (129 spouses, 72 children (43 female, 29 male), 29 with a different family relationship) completed a self-administered questionnaire at baseline and soon after the end of the completion of their relatives' program (approximately 6 months later). The questionnaire consisted of qualitative information regarding food choices, estimation of energy and food intake, self-report of height and weight, and motivation toward physical activity. At baseline, self-reported body mass index was normal in 115 cases, in the range 25 to 29.9 in 80 and ?30 in 35. Following CBT of their relatives, the family members significantly reduced their average daily energy intake (-232 kcal/day; P<0.001) and the reported body weight decreased on average by 1 kg (P=0.001). The analysis of food choices revealed a reduced average daily amount of energy from dressings (-40 kcal, P<0.001), main courses with cheese or fat meat (-24 kcal, P=0.002), refined carbohydrates (-16 kcal, P<0.001), bread (-58 kcal, P<0.001), breakfast biscuits (-23 kcal, P=0.005), chocolate (-7 kcal, P=0.024), and nonalcoholic beverages (fruit juices and carbonated drinks; -10 kcal; P=0.013), whereas fruit consumption was increased (+10 kcal; P=0.023). There was also a shift in the stage of change toward exercising. Body mass index changes of family members and CBT subjects were significantly correlated, mainly within spouses. In conclusion, CBT for weight loss positively influences the lifestyle habits of family members of participants, reducing energy intake and promoting a more favorable attitude toward physical activity. PMID:22027054

Rossini, Raffaella; Moscatiello, Simona; Tarrini, Giulietta; Di Domizio, Silvia; Soverini, Valentina; Romano, Andreina; Mazzotti, Arianna; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Marchesini, Giulio

2011-11-01

191

Redefining Residential: Family-Driven Care in Residential Treatment--Family Members Speak  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the sixth in a series of papers issued by the American Association of Children's Residential Centers (AACRC) regarding emerging and best practices in the field of residential treatment for children, youth, and families. AACRC is a long standing national association focused exclusively on practice and policy issues related to the provision…

Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 2009

2009-01-01

192

Cancer in the Family: Review of the Psychosocial Perspectives of Patients and Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As advances in cancer care have led to more treatment options and longer survival for cancer patients, a focus on quality of life for patients and their families has gained importance. This review provides a discussion of stress and coping theory, documents the relevance of this topic area for social work practice, and illuminates the results of a…

Mitschke, Diane B.

2008-01-01

193

[Cloning and analyzing of members of excitatory amino acid transporter family from neonatal mouse brain].  

PubMed

Excitatory amino acid transporter family (EAAT) contains several structure-related membrane proteins. They are essential for the removal of glutamate released from pre-synaptic terminal to terminate its action of synaptic transduction and maintaining the normal concentration of neurotransmitters in nerve system. To study these proteins in single animal model, we cloned several members of EAAT family, named mGLAST-1, mGLT-1, mEAAC1 and mASCT1, from a neonatal mouse brain cDNA library. The cDNA sequence of mASCT1 was firstly reported in mouse, it is composed of 3787 bp which has an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 532 amino acid residues. The mASCT1 protein was expressed in Xenopus oocyte and the function was characterized by 3H-Ser uptaking. The homology between human ASCT1 and mouse ASCT1 is 89.3%. The DNA sequence data shows the variance in length and composition exists in the sequence of 5'UTR and 3'UTR of mRNA in the family members of EAAT. This phenomenon may indicate a post-transcription regulation mechanism might exist in the gene expression of mouse EAAT family members. PMID:12548852

Peng, J B; Fei, J; Huang, F; Jin, X P; Gu, Q B; Guo, L H

2000-03-01

194

Activation of HER family members in gastric carcinoma cells mediates resistance to MET inhibition  

PubMed Central

Background Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. The receptor tyrosine kinase MET is constitutively activated in many gastric cancers and its expression is strictly required for survival of some gastric cancer cells. Thus, MET is considered a good candidate for targeted therapeutic intervention in this type of tumor, and MET inhibitors recently entered clinical trials. One of the major problems of therapies targeting tyrosine kinases is that many tumors are not responsive to treatment or eventually develop resistance to the drugs. Perspective studies are thus mandatory to identify the molecular mechanisms that could cause resistance to these therapies. Results Our in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that, in MET-addicted gastric cancer cells, the activation of HER (Human Epidermal Receptor) family members induces resistance to MET silencing or inhibition by PHA-665752 (a selective kinase inhibitor). We provide molecular evidences highlighting the role of EGFR, HER3, and downstream signaling pathways common to MET and HER family in resistance to MET inhibitors. Moreover, we show that an in vitro generated gastric cancer cell line resistant to MET-inhibition displays overexpression of HER family members, whose activation contributes to maintenance of resistance. Conclusions Our findings predict that gastric cancer tumors bearing constitutive activation of HER family members are poorly responsive to MET inhibition, even if this receptor is constitutively active. Moreover, the appearance of these alterations might also be responsible for the onset of resistance in initially responsive tumors.

2010-01-01

195

Prosurvival Bcl-2 family members affect autophagy only indirectly, by inhibiting Bax and Bak.  

PubMed

Antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family members such as Bcl-2, myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), and B-cell lymphoma-X large (Bcl-xL) are proposed to inhibit autophagy by directly binding to the BH3 domain of Beclin 1/Atg6. However, these Bcl-2 family proteins also block the proapoptotic activity of Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak), and many inducers of autophagy also cause cell death. Therefore, when the mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis pathway is functional, interpretation of such experiments is complicated. To directly test the impact of the endogenous antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members on autophagy in the absence of apoptosis, we inhibited their activity in cells lacking the essential cell death mediators Bax and Bak. We also used inducible lentiviral vectors to overexpress Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, or Mcl-1 in cells and subjected them to treatments that promote autophagy. In the absence of Bax and Bak, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 had no detectable effect on autophagy or cell death in myeloid or fibroblast cell lines. On the other hand, when Bax and Bak were present, inhibiting the prosurvival Bcl-2 family members stimulated autophagy, but this correlated with increased cell death. In addition, inhibition of autophagy induced by amino acid starvation, etoposide, or interleukin-3 withdrawal did not affect cell death in the absence of Bax and Bak. These results demonstrate that the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members do not directly inhibit components of the autophagic pathway but instead affect autophagy indirectly, owing to their inhibition of Bax and Bak. PMID:24912196

Lindqvist, Lisa M; Heinlein, Melanie; Huang, David C S; Vaux, David L

2014-06-10

196

Challenges of Antibiotic Prescribing for Assisted Living Residents: Perspectives of Providers, Staff, Residents, and Family Members  

PubMed Central

Objectives To better understand the antibiotic prescribing process in assisted living (AL) communities given the growing rates of antibiotic resistance. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Four AL communities in North Carolina. Participants AL residents who received antibiotics (n=30) from October 20, 2010 to March 31, 2011, and their primary family member, staff, and the prescribing medical provider. Measurements Semi-structured interviews conducted about prescribing included the information available at the time of prescribing and the perceptions of the quality of communication among providers, staff, residents and family members about the case. Providers were asked an open-ended question regarding how to improve the communication process related to antibiotic prescribing for AL residents. Results Among 30 cases of antibiotic prescriptions, providers often had limited information about the case and lacked familiarity with the residents, the residents’ families, and/or staff. In addition, they felt cases were less severe and less likely to need an antibiotic than did residents, families, and staff. Providers identified several ways to improve the communication process including better written documentation and staff/family presence. Conclusion In our small sample of AL communities, providers faced an array of challenges in making antibiotic prescribing decisions. Our work confirms the complex nature of antibiotic prescribing in AL communities and reveals further work is needed to determine how to improve the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing.

Kistler, Christine E.; Sloane, Philip D.; Platts-Mills, Timothy F.; Beeber, Anna S.; Khandelwal, Christine; Weber, David J.; Mitchell, C. Madeline; Reed, David; Chisholm, Latarsha; Zimmerman, Sheryl

2013-01-01

197

RalGDS family members couple Ras to Ral signalling and that's not all.  

PubMed

Ras proteins function as molecular switches that are activated in response to signalling pathways initiated by various extracellular stimuli and subsequently bind to numerous effector proteins leading to the activation of several signalling cascades within the cell. Ras and Ras-related proteins belong to a large superfamily of small GTPases characterized by significant sequence and function similarities. Several evidence indicate the existence of complex signalling networks that link Ras with its relatives in the family. A key role in this cross-talk is played by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that serve both as regulators and as effectors of Ras family proteins. The members of the RalGDS family, RalGDS, RGL, RGL2/Rlf and RGL3, can interact with activated Ras through their Ras Binding Domain (RBD), but may function as effectors for other Ras family members. They possess a REM-CDC25 homology region like RasGEFs, but specifically activate only RalA and RalB and not Ras or other Ras-related small GTPases. In this review we provide an update on this recently discovered family of GEFs, highlighting their crucial role in coupling activated Ras to activation of Ral, thus regulating several fundamental cell processes, and also discussing some evidence supporting Ras-independent additional functions of RalGDS proteins. PMID:20478380

Ferro, Elisa; Trabalzini, Lorenza

2010-12-01

198

Structure and function of interleukin-22 and other members of the interleukin-10 family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IL-10 family of cytokines is comprised of IL-10, IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26, and IFN-?s (IL-28A, IL-28B, and IL-29).\\u000a The IL-10 family members bind to shared class II cytokine receptor chains that associate in various combinations in heterodimeric\\u000a complexes. Upon interleukin\\/receptor complex formation, these proteins switch on the Jak\\/STAT pathway and elicit pleiotropic\\u000a biological responses whose variety sharply contrasts

Daniela Barretto Barbosa Trivella; José Ribamar Ferreira-Júnior; Laure Dumoutier; Jean-Christophe Renauld; Igor Polikarpov

2010-01-01

199

Presence of putative sphingomyelinase genes among members of the family Leptospiraceae.  

PubMed Central

The presence of multiple DNA elements in pathogenic members of the family Leptospiraceae, similar to the sphA sphingomyelinase gene from Leptospira borgpetersenii, was demonstrated by low-stringency hybridization experiments. These DNA elements were designated putative sphingomyelinase genes. Grouping of strains by similarity of hybridization patterns corresponds to the species subdivision of the family Leptospiraceae on the basis of genetic characteristics. Therefore, hybridization with the sphA gene can be used as a taxonomic tool. These hybridization experiments indicate the presence of two groups of genetically related pathogenic Leptospira species. Images

Segers, R P; van Gestel, J A; van Eys, G J; van der Zeijst, B A; Gaastra, W

1992-01-01

200

LDL receptor and its family members serve as the cellular receptors for vesicular stomatitis virus.  

PubMed

Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) exhibits a remarkably robust and pantropic infectivity, mediated by its coat protein, VSV-G. Using this property, recombinant forms of VSV and VSV-G-pseudotyped viral vectors are being developed for gene therapy, vaccination, and viral oncolysis and are extensively used for gene transduction in vivo and in vitro. The broad tropism of VSV suggests that it enters cells through a highly ubiquitous receptor, whose identity has so far remained elusive. Here we show that the LDL receptor (LDLR) serves as the major entry port of VSV and of VSV-G-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors in human and mouse cells, whereas other LDLR family members serve as alternative receptors. The widespread expression of LDLR family members accounts for the pantropism of VSV and for the broad applicability of VSV-G-pseudotyped viral vectors for gene transduction. PMID:23589850

Finkelshtein, Danit; Werman, Ariel; Novick, Daniela; Barak, Sara; Rubinstein, Menachem

2013-04-30

201

Chromosomal localization of seven PAX genes and cloning of a novel family member, PAX-9.  

PubMed

In the human paired box-containing (PAX) gene family, only two members, PAX-3 and PAX-6, which are associated with Waardenburg's syndrome and aniridia, respectively have been mapped to human chromosomes. We have now isolated cosmids for six additional human PAX genes (PAX-1,-2,-5,-7,-8,-9) and a polymerase chain reaction fragment for PAX-4. PAX-9 is a novel family member which is closely related in its paired domain to PAX-1. The chromosomal location of all cloned PAX genes was determined by analysis of somatic cell hybrids and (except PAX-4) by fluorescence in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes. PAX-1 and PAX-7 map to chromosomal regions containing previously assigned disease loci. PMID:7981748

Stapleton, P; Weith, A; Urbánek, P; Kozmik, Z; Busslinger, M

1993-04-01

202

Marriage and family therapy faculty members' balance of work and personal life.  

PubMed

A sense of imbalance is common among both professors and therapists, though few studies have been published examining the work and personal life balance of those who work in both professions simultaneously. Using in-depth telephone interviews, this study examined the work and personal life balance of 16 marriage and family therapy (MFT) faculty members. Results showed that six were satisfied with their balance, six were dissatisfied, and four were "middle of the road." Men, older participants, and those who were in their career longer were more likely to report feeling satisfied with their balance. Internal indicators of their balance included family and workplace messages, health indicators, feelings of contentment, and congruence with personal values. Child and relationship status, tenure status, and gender issues also impacted their sense of balance. Specific balance enhancers and reducers were highlighted, and participants discussed coping strategies and recommendations for other MFT faculty members. Clinical, training, and career implications are discussed. PMID:22512300

Matheson, Jennifer L; Rosen, Karen H

2012-04-01

203

Spread of viral infection to family members from influenza patients treated with a neuraminidase inhibitor.  

PubMed

We compared the incidence rates of household secondary infection among influenza patients prescribed laninamivir, oseltamivir, or zanamivir (neuraminidase inhibitors), based on health-insurance claims data owned by Japan Medical Data Center (JMDC) which was consisting of medical information on patients who were prescribed an anti-influenza drug and their family members between October 2010 and July 2011. The date when an index case patient was prescribed laninamivir, oseltamivir or zanamivir for the first time was defined as "Day 1". If other members in the same family were prescribed laninamivir, oseltamivir, zanamivir, or peramivir during Days 3-8, we assumed any household secondary infection had occurred. The incidence rate was 11.0%, 14.3%, and 11.6% in index case patients prescribed laninamivir, oseltamivir, and zanamivir, respectively. The results of the logistic regression analysis revealed a significant difference between laninamivir and oseltamivir, while no significant difference was observed between laninamivir and zanamivir. PMID:24787736

Nakano, Takashi; Shiosakai, Kazuhito

2014-07-01

204

Those Who Are Left behind: An Estimate of the Number of Family Members of Suicide Victims in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper contributes to the literature of suicide studies by presenting procedures and its estimates of the number of family members who lose their loved ones to suicide. Using Japanese aggregate level data, three main findings emerge: first, there are approximately five bereaved family members per suicide; second, in 2006, there were about…

Chen, Joe; Choi, Yun Jeong; Mori, Kohta; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Sugano, Saki

2009-01-01

205

IL33, a recently identified interleukin-1 gene family member, is expressed in human adipocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammation occurs in adipose tissue in obesity. We have examined whether IL-33, a recently identified IL-1 gene family member, and its associated receptors are expressed in human adipocytes. IL-33, IL-1RL1 and IL-1RAP gene expression was observed in human visceral white fat, in preadipocytes and in adipocytes (SGBS cells). Treatment with TNF? for 24h induced a 6-fold increase in IL-33 mRNA

I. Stuart Wood; Bohan Wang; Paul Trayhurn

2009-01-01

206

B18(2-): a quasi-planar bowl member of the Wankel motor family.  

PubMed

A quasi-planar member of the so-called 'Wankel motor' family, B18(2-), is found. This boron cluster is an electronically stable dianion and a concentric doubly ?- and ?-aromatic system. The inner B6 unit in B18(2-) undergoes quasi-free rotation inside the perimeter of the B12 ring. The absence of any localized ?-bond between the inner ring and the peripheral boron atoms makes the system fluxional. PMID:24807809

Moreno, Diego; Pan, Sudip; Zeonjuk, Lei Liu; Islas, Rafael; Osorio, Edison; Martínez-Guajardo, Gerardo; Chattaraj, Pratim K; Heine, Thomas; Merino, Gabriel

2014-07-01

207

Characterization of three members of the ACC synthase gene family in Solanum tuberosum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two genomic clones corresponding to three members of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase gene family in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) have been isolated and sequenced. Two highly homologous genes, ST-ACS1 A and ST-ACS1 B, transcribed in opposite directions were found in an 8.9 kb region. Their coding sequences are interrupted by two introns at identical positions. Their closest relative in

Luis J. C. Destéfano-Beltrán; Wim Caeneghem; Jan Gielen; Luc Richard; Marc Montagu; Dominique Straeten

1995-01-01

208

Stat3 and Stat4: Members of the Family of Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deduced amino acid sequence of two members of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family from the mouse are described. Comparison with the deduced protein sequence of the two previously described genes (Stat91 and Stat113), discovered because of their activation as transcription factors after interferon-induced tyrosine phosphorylation, shows several highly conserved regions, including the putative SH3 and

Zhong Zhong; Zilong Wen; James E. Darnell Jr.

1994-01-01

209

Isolation and characterization of a cellulase gene family member expressed during avocado fruit ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present in this paper the structural analysis of two members of a small cellulase gene family, designated cel1 and cel2, from avocado. These genes were isolated by screening a ? EMBL3 genomic library with a ripening-induced cellulase cDNA. Restriction endonuclease and Southern blot analyses showed that the cel1 gene is highly homologous to the cellulase cDNA and thus represents

Laura G. Cass; Kathleen A. Kirven; Rolf E. Christoffersen

1990-01-01

210

The attitudes of cardiac arrest survivors and their family members towards CPR courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: to evaluate self-assessment of first aid knowledge, readiness to make use of it in case of a medical emergency and judgement of a 1-day CPR course by cardiac arrest survivors, their family members and friends as compared to the general public. Background: the recurrence rate of a cardiac arrest after successful resuscitation is high and most of out-of-hospital cardiac

Andreas Kliegel; Wolfdieter Scheinecker; Fritz Sterz; Philip Eisenburger; Michael Holzer; Anton N. Laggner

2000-01-01

211

Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Family Member RANK Mediates Osteoclast Differentiation and Activation Induced by Osteoprotegerin Ligand  

Microsoft Academic Search

A receptor that mediates osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and activation has been identified via genomic analysis of a primary osteoclast precursor cell cDNA library and is identical to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family member RANK. The RANK mRNA was highly expressed by isolated bone marrow-derived osteoclast progenitors and by mature osteoclasts in vivo. Recombinant OPGL binds specifically

Hailing Hsu; David L. Lacey; Colin R. Dunstan; Irina Solovyev; Anne Colombero; Emma Timms; Hong-Lin Tan; Gary Elliott; Michael J. Kelley; Ildiko Sarosi; Ling Wang; Xing-Zhong Xia; Robin Elliott; Laura Chiu; Tabitha Black; Sheila Scully; Casey Capparelli; Sean Morony; Grant Shimamoto; Michael B. Bass; William J. Boyle

1999-01-01

212

Radiological investigation of meat of game and dose estimation for hunters and members of their families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes dose estimation for hunters and members of their families due to radionuclides 90Sr and Cs in meat of game hunted in Lithuania during two hunting seasons: 2003–2004 and 2004–2005. Research in the Nordic countries showed higher activity concentrations of both radionuclides in meat of game and higher doses to public consuming this meat. The scope of this

Raimondas Leopoldas Idzelis; Rima Ladygiene; Šar?nas Sinkevi?ius

2007-01-01

213

Comparative transcriptome profiling of amyloid precursor protein family members in the adult cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The ?-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the related ?-amyloid precursor-like proteins (APLPs) undergo complex proteolytic\\u000a processing giving rise to several fragments. Whereas it is well established that A? accumulation is a central trigger for\\u000a Alzheimer's disease, the physiological role of APP family members and their diverse proteolytic products is still largely\\u000a unknown. The secreted APPs? ectodomain has been shown to

Dorothee Aydin; Mikhail A Filippov; Jakob-Andreas Tschäpe; Norbert Gretz; Marco Prinz; Roland Eils; Benedikt Brors; Ulrike C Müller

2011-01-01

214

Reticulon family members modulate BACE1 activity and amyloid-? peptide generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibiting the activity of the ?-amyloid converting enzyme 1 (BACE1) or reducing levels of BACE1 in vivo decreases the production of amyloid-?. The reticulon family of proteins has four members, RTN1, RTN2, RTN3 and RTN4 (also known as Nogo), the last of which is well known for its role in inhibiting neuritic outgrowth after injury. Here we show that reticulon

Wanxia He; Yifeng Lu; Isam Qahwash; Xiang-You Hu; Ansi Chang; Riqiang Yan

2004-01-01

215

Local overexpression of interleukin-1 family, member 6 relates to the development of tubulointerstitial lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of factors that exacerbate a disease is important for the development of biomarkers. In this study, we discovered ectopic overexpression of interleukin-1 family, member-6 (IL-1F6) in several murine renal diseases. IL-1F6 participates in cytokine\\/chemokine production in the epithelium. In PCR array analysis for inflammatory mediators, Il1f6 showed the highest expression in the kidney of the B6.MRLc1 glomerulonephritis model. IL-1F6

Osamu Ichii; Saori Otsuka; Nobuya Sasaki; Akira Yabuki; Hiroshi Ohta; Mitsuyoshi Takiguchi; Yoshiharu Hashimoto; Daiji Endoh; Yasuhiro Kon

2010-01-01

216

Complete nucleotide sequence of Rosa rugosa leaf distortion virus, a new member of the family Tombusviridae.  

PubMed

This report describes the complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of Rosa rugosa leaf distortion virus (RrLDV), the causal agent of a previously undescribed virus disease of Rosa rugosa. The RrLDV genome is a positive-sense ssRNA, 3971 nucleotides in length, containing five open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a 27-kDa peptide (p27). ORF2 shares a common start codon with ORF1 and continues through the amber stop codon of p27 to produce an 87-kDa protein (p87) with amino acid sequence similarity to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) of members of the family Tombusviridae. ORF3 encodes a protein of 8 kDa with no significant similarity to known viral sequences. ORF4 encodes a 6-kDa protein (p6) with similarity to the p13 movement proteins of members of the family Tombusviridae. ORF5 has no conventional start codon and overlaps with p6. A putative +1 frame shift mechanism allows p6 translation to continue through the stop codon and results in a 12-kDa protein with high homology to the carmovirus p13 movement protein. The 37-kDa protein encoded by ORF6 has amino acid sequence similarity to coat proteins (CPs) of members of the family Tombusviridae. Phylogenetic analyses of the RdRp and CP amino acid sequences placed RrLDV in a subgroup close to members of the genus Carmovirus of the family Tombusviridae. PMID:23812616

Mollov, Dimitre; Lockhart, Ben; Zlesak, David C

2013-12-01

217

Functional Diversity and Regulation of Different Interleukin1 Receptor-Associated Kinase (IRAK) Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) was first described as a signal transducer for the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) and was later implicated in signal transduction of other members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)\\/IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) family. In the meantime, four different IRAK-like molecules have been identified: two active kinases, IRAK-1 and IRAK-4, and two inactive kinases, IRAK-2 and IRAK-M. All IRAKs

Sophie Janssens; Rudi Beyaert

2003-01-01

218

Family Quality of Life from the Perspectives of Individual Family Members: A Korean-American Family and Deafness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning in the mid-to-late 1980s, the focus on individual quality of life expanded to family quality of life (FQOL) in the field of intellectual disabilities. However, few studies examined FQOL for families who have children with hearing loss. Furthermore, most studies focused on mothers' perceptions of FQOL. The purpose of this study is to…

Hong, Joo Young; Turnbull, Ann

2013-01-01

219

Health and Diabetes Self-efficacy: A Study of Diabetic and Non-diabetic Free Clinic Patients and Family Members.  

PubMed

Free clinics across the country provide free or reduced fee healthcare to individuals who lack access to primary care and are socio-economically disadvantaged. This study examined perceived health status among diabetic and non-diabetic free clinic patients and family members of the patients. Diabetes self-efficacy among diabetic free clinic patients was also investigated with the goal of developing appropriate diabetes health education programs to promote diabetes self-management. English or Spanish speaking patients and family members (N = 365) aged 18 years or older completed a self-administered survey. Physical and mental health and diabetes self-efficacy were measured using standardized instruments. Diabetic free clinic patients reported poorer physical and mental health and higher levels of dysfunction compared to non-diabetic free clinic patients and family members. Having a family history of diabetes and using emergency room or urgent care services were significant factors that affected health and dysfunction among diabetic and non-diabetes free clinic patients and family members. Diabetic free clinic patients need to receive services not only for diabetes, but also for overall health and dysfunction issues. Diabetes educational programs for free clinic patients should include a component to increase diabetes empowerment as well as the knowledge of treatment and management of diabetes. Non-diabetic patients and family members who have a family history of diabetes should also participate in diabetes education. Family members of free clinic patients need help to support a diabetic family member or with diabetes prevention. PMID:24496670

Kamimura, Akiko; Christensen, Nancy; Myers, Kyl; Nourian, Maziar M; Ashby, Jeanie; Greenwood, Jessica L J; Reel, Justine J

2014-08-01

220

What's at Stake? Genetic Information from the Perspective of People with Epilepsy and their Family Members  

PubMed Central

Substantial progress has been made in identifying genes that raise risk for epilepsy, and genetic testing for some of these genes is increasingly being used in clinical practice. However, almost no empirical data are available from the perspective of people with epilepsy and their family members about the impact of genetic information and potential benefits and harms of genetic testing. To address this gap we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 40 individuals (22 with epilepsy, 18 unaffected) in the USA from families containing multiple affected individuals who had participated in epilepsy genetics research. The interviews were coded and analyzed using the principles of grounded theory. Several major themes emerged from these interviews. Participants expressed “personal theories of inheritance” that emphasized commonalities among relatives and the idea that disease risk is most shared by family members who share physical or personality traits. Most participants said they would have genetic testing if it were offered. They cited many potential benefits, including learning what caused epilepsy in their family, being better able to care and advocate for children at risk, reducing guilt and blame, providing an increased sense of control, and relieving anxiety in unaffected individuals who test negative. The influence of genetic information on reproduction was a particularly salient theme. Although respondents believed genetic testing would be useful for informing their reproductive choices, they also expressed fear that it could lead to external pressures to modify these choices. Other concerns about the potential negative impact of genetic information included increased blame and guilt, increased stigma and discrimination in employment and insurance, self-imposed limitations on life goals, and alterations in fundamental conceptions of “what epilepsy is.” Consideration of the perspectives of people with epilepsy and their family members is critical to understanding the implications of contemporary epilepsy genetic research and testing.

Shostak, Sara; Zarhin, Dana; Ottman, Ruth

2011-01-01

221

Physiological unfolded protein response regulated by OASIS family members, transmembrane bZIP transcription factors.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays role in the maintenance of numerous aspects of cellular and organismal homeostasis by folding, modifying, and exporting nascent secretory and transmembrane proteins. Failure of the ER's adaptive capacity results in accumulation of unfolded or malfolded proteins in the ER lumen (ER stress). To avoid cellular damage, mammalian cells activate the specific signals from the ER to the cytosol or nucleus to enhance the capacity for protein folding, attenuate the synthesis of proteins, and degrade unfolded proteins. These signaling pathways are collectively known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). The canonical branches of the UPR are mediated by three ER membrane-bound proteins, PERK, IRE1, and ATF6. These ER stress transducers basically play important roles in cell survival after ER stress. Recently, novel types of ER stress transducers, OASIS family members that share a region of high sequence similarity with ATF6 have been identified. They have a transmembrane domain, which allows them to associate with the ER, and possess a transcription-activation domain and a bZIP domain. OASIS family proteins include OASIS, BBF2H7, CREBH, AIbZIP, and Luman. Despite the structural similarities among OASIS family proteins and ATF6, differences in activating stimuli, tissue distribution, and response element binding indicate specialized functions of each member on regulating the UPR in the specific organs and tissues. Here, we summarize our current understanding of biochemical characteristics and in vivo functions of OASIS family proteins, particularly focusing on OASIS and BBF2H7. A growing body of new works suggests that the UPR branches regulated by OASIS family members play essential roles in cell differentiation and maturation or maintenance of basal cellular homeostasis in mammals. PMID:21438114

Kondo, Shinichi; Saito, Atsushi; Asada, Rie; Kanemoto, Soshi; Imaizumi, Kazunori

2011-04-01

222

Three Members of the 6-cys Protein Family of Plasmodium Play a Role in Gamete Fertility  

PubMed Central

The process of fertilization is critically dependent on the mutual recognition of gametes and in Plasmodium, the male gamete surface protein P48/45 is vital to this process. This protein belongs to a family of 10 structurally related proteins, the so called 6-cys family. To identify the role of additional members of this family in Plasmodium fertilisation, we performed genetic and functional analysis on the five members of the 6-cys family that are transcribed during the gametocyte stage of P. berghei. This analysis revealed that in addition to P48/45, two members (P230 and P47) also play an essential role in the process of parasite fertilization. Mating studies between parasites lacking P230, P48/45 or P47 demonstrate that P230, like P48/45, is a male fertility factor, consistent with the previous demonstration of a protein complex containing both P48/45 and P230. In contrast, disruption of P47 results in a strong reduction of female fertility, while males remain unaffected. Further analysis revealed that gametes of mutants lacking expression of p48/45 or p230 or p47 are unable to either recognise or attach to each other. Disruption of the paralog of p230, p230p, also specifically expressed in gametocytes, had no observable effect on fertilization. These results indicate that the P. berghei 6-cys family contains a number of proteins that are either male or female specific ligands that play an important role in gamete recognition and/or attachment. The implications of low levels of fertilisation that exist even in the absence of these proteins, indicating alternative pathways of fertilisation, as well as positive selection acting on these proteins, are discussed in the context of targeting these proteins as transmission blocking vaccine candidates.

Khan, Shahid M.; van Dooren, Maaike W.; Ramesar, Jai; Kaczanowski, Szymon; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Kroeze, Hans; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Eling, Wijnand M.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Waters, Andrew P.; Janse, Chris J.

2010-01-01

223

Multiple recombination events maintain sequence identity among members of the nitrogenase multigene family in Rhizobium etli.  

PubMed Central

A distinctive characteristic of the Rhizobium genome is the frequent finding of reiterated sequences, which often constitute multigene families. Interestingly, these families usually maintain a high degree of nucleotide sequence identity. It is commonly assumed that apparent gene conversion between reiterated elements might lead to concerted variation among members of a multigene family. However, the operation of this mechanism has not yet been demonstrated in the Rhizobiaceae. In this work, we employed different genetic constructions to address the role of apparent gene conversion as a homogenizing mechanism between members of the plasmid-located nitrogenase multigene family in Rhizobium etli. Our results show that a 28-bp insertion into one of the nitrogenase reiterations can be corrected by multiple recombination events, including apparent gene conversion. The correction process was dependent on the presence of both a wild-type recA gene and wild-type copies of the nitrogenase reiterations. Frequencies of apparent gene conversion to the wild-type nitrogenase reiterations were the same when the insertion to be corrected was located either in cis or in trans, indicating that this event frequently occurs through intermolecular interactions. Interestingly, a high frequency of multiple crossovers was observed, suggesting that these large plasmid molecules are engaging repeatedly in recombination events, in a situation akin to phage recombination or recombination among small, high-copy number plasmids.

Rodriguez, C; Romero, D

1998-01-01

224

PE-1, a novel ETS oncogene family member, localizes to chromosome 1q21-q23  

SciTech Connect

The v-ets oncogene family shares a conserved peptide motif called the ETS domain that mediates sequence-specific DNA binding. This motif is unique among transcription factor families. Using partially degenerate oligonucleotides from conserved regions of the ETS domain and the polymerase chain reaction, the authors isolated a new member of v-ets family designated PE-1 from HL60 cells. PE-1 was expressed as an approximately 7.5-kb transcript in most cell lines tested. In the hairy cell leukemia line Eskol, there was an additional 1.8-kb transcript observed. PE-1 was the most common ETS domain gene found in CD34[sup +]HLA-DR[sup [minus

Klemsz, M.; Hromas, R.; Bruno, E.; Hoffman, R. (Indiana Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States)); Raskind, W. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States))

1994-03-15

225

MUTYH the base excision repair gene family member associated with colorectal cancer polyposis  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer is classified in to three forms: sporadic (70–75%), familial (20–25%) and hereditary (5–10%). hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes classified into two different subtypes: polyposis and non polyposis. Familial Adenomatous polyposis (FAP; OMIM #175100) is the most common polyposis syndrome, account for <1% of colorectal cancer incidence and characterized by germline mutations in the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC, 5q21- q22; OMIM #175100). FAP is a dominant cancer predisposing syndrome which 20–25% cases are de novo. There is also another polyposis syndrome; MUTYH associated polyposis (MAP, OMIM 608456) which it is caused by mutation in human Mut Y homologue MUTYH (MUTYH; OMIM 604933) and it is associated with multiple (15–100) colonic adenomas. In this paper we discuss MUTYH mechanism as an important member of Base Excision Repair (BER) family and its important role in polyposis condition.

Kashfi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Golmohammadi, Mina; Behboudi, Faeghe; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2013-01-01

226

Relatives' perceptions of their interactional behavior with a schizophrenic family member.  

PubMed

Relatives' (N = 77) perceptions of their recent interactional behavior with a schizophrenic family member (N = 51), as measured by an adjective checklist, were compared with outside observer ratings of the relatives' Affective Style (AS) and the patients' Coping Style (CS) during a family interaction task. Results indicated that, overall, the relatives in the present sample perceived their own interactional behavior toward the patient, as well as the patients' behavior toward them, in a way that paralleled their affective behavior as assessed by outside raters. Moreover, the relatives' rated their relationship with the patient in a fashion that was more predictive of the observed interactional behavior of both the relatives and the patients than were the outside observers' ratings of the relatives' Expressed Emotion (EE) measured either at the patients' index hospitalization (using the Camberwell Family Interview, CFI-EE) or during the post-discharge period (assessed with a brief Five-Minute Speech Sample method, FMSS-EE). PMID:7698303

Friedmann, M S; Goldstein, M J

1994-12-01

227

Developing a living with hope program for caregivers of family members with advanced cancer.  

PubMed

A theory-based intervention, the Living with Hope Program (LWHP), was designed to foster hope in caregivers of family members with advanced cancer. The LWHP was developed from qualitative data and using Harding and Higginson's recommendations for family caregiver interventions as a guide. The LHWP is: (a) focused specifically on the caregivers themselves, (b) theory based, (c) feasible, (d) acceptable, and (e) pilot tested. The program consists of a hope video and a hope activity titled Stories of the Present. A mixed-method, concurrent triangulation, pre- and post-test design was used to pilot test the LWHP The results of the pilot test suggest the LWHP is easy to use, flexible, and feasible, and shows promise in increasing hope and quality of life scores in family caregivers. PMID:17444459

Duggleby, Wendy; Wright, Karen; Williams, Allison; Degner, Lesley; Cammer, Allison; Holtslander, Lorraine

2007-01-01

228

Diversity of the p70 Killer Cell Inhibitory Receptor (KIR3DL) Family Members in a Single Individual  

Microsoft Academic Search

NK cells and some T cells express members of a multigenic family of killer cell inhibitory receptors (KIRs) including p70\\u000a KIR (KIR3DL) and p58 KIR (KIR2DL) family that recognize polymorphic class I MHC molecules on target cells and transmit an\\u000a inhibitory signal to prevent killer cell-mediated cytoxicity. The cDNA sequences of p70 KIR family members reported so far\\u000a suggest that

Daeho Kwon; Yong-Joon Chwae; In Hong Choi; Jeon Han Park; Se Jong Kim; Jongsun Kim

2000-01-01

229

MicroRNA-200 Family Members Differentially Regulate Morphological Plasticity and Mode of Melanoma Cell Invasion  

PubMed Central

Background A functional role of microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) in neoplasia and metastasis is becoming clear, and the miR-200 family has received much attention for potentially regulating tumor progression. The miRNAs of this family have been shown to suppress epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and their down-regulation in some tumors promotes invasion and metastasis. Interestingly, while miR-200 is down-regulated in some cancers, it is up-regulated in others. Principal Findings We show that levels of miR-200 are increased in melanoma cell lines compared to normal melanocytes and that miR-200 family members play a role in determining modes of tumor cell migration. Individual tumor cells can invade in either elongated, “mesenchymal-type” or rounded, “amoeboid-like” modes and these two modes of invasion are inter-convertible [1]. In melanoma cell lines, expression of miR-200 members does not suppress invasion but rather leads to a switch between modes of invasion. MicroRNA-200c results in a higher proportion of cells adopting the rounded, amoeboid-like mode of invasion, while miR-200a results in a protrusion-associated elongated mode of invasion. Functional target identification studies suggest that the morphological effects of miR-200c may be mediated by reduced expression of MARCKS, which has been linked to formation of cell protrusions. In contrast miR-200a reduces actomyosin contractility, a feature of rounded morphology. Significance Overall our findings call into question the general role of miR-200 in suppressing invasion and metastasis, and highlight novel distinguishing characteristics of individual miR-200 family members.

Elson-Schwab, Ilan; Lorentzen, Anna; Marshall, Christopher J.

2010-01-01

230

The Ras-association domain family (RASSF) members and their role in human tumourigenesis.  

PubMed

Ras proteins play a direct causal role in human cancer with activating mutations in Ras occurring in approximately 30% of tumours. Ras effectors also contribute to cancer, as mutations occur in Ras effectors, notably B-Raf and PI3-K, and drugs blocking elements of these pathways are in clinical development. In 2000, a new Ras effector was identified, RAS-association domain family 1 (RASSF1), and expression of the RASSF1A isoform of this gene is silenced in tumours by methylation of its promoter. Since methylation is reversible and demethylating agents are currently being used in clinical trials, detection of RASSF1A silencing by promoter hypermethylation has potential clinical uses in cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. RASSF1A belongs to a new family of RAS effectors, of which there are currently 8 members (RASSF1-8). RASSF1-6 each contain a variable N-terminal segment followed by a Ras-association (RA) domain of the Ral-GDS/AF6 type, and a specialised coiled-coil structure known as a SARAH domain extending to the C-terminus. RASSF7-8 contain an N-terminal RA domain and a variable C-terminus. Members of the RASSF family are thought to function as tumour suppressors by regulating the cell cycle and apoptosis. This review will summarise our current knowledge of each member of the RASSF family and in particular what role they play in tumourigenesis, with a special focus on RASSF1A, whose promoter methylation is one of the most frequent alterations found in human tumours. PMID:17692468

van der Weyden, Louise; Adams, David J

2007-09-01

231

The Ras-association domain family (RASSF) members and their role in human tumourigenesis  

PubMed Central

Ras proteins play a direct causal role in human cancer with activating mutations in Ras occurring in ? 30% of tumours. Ras effectors also contribute to cancer, as mutations occur in Ras effectors, notably B-Raf and PI3-K, and drugs blocking elements of these pathways are in clinical development. In 2000, a new Ras effector was identified, RAS-association domain family 1 (RASSF1), and expression of the RASSF1A isoform of this gene is silenced in tumours by methylation of its promoter. Since methylation is reversible and demethylating agents are currently being used in clinical trials, detection of RASSF1A silencing by promoter hypermethylation has potential clinical uses in cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. RASSF1A belongs to a new family of RAS effectors, of which there are currently 8 members (RASSF1–8). RASSF1–6 each contain a variable N-terminal segment followed by a Ras-association (RA) domain of the Ral-GDS/AF6 type, and a specialised coiled-coil structure known as a SARAH domain extending to the C-terminus. RASSF7–8 contain an N-terminal RA domain and a variable C-terminus. Members of the RASSF family are thought to function as tumour suppressors by regulating the cell cycle and apoptosis. This review will summarise our current knowledge of each member of the RASSF family and in particular what role they play in tumourigenesis, with a special focus on RASSF1A, whose promoter methylation is one of the most frequent alterations found in human tumours.

van der Weyden, Louise; Adams, David J.

2007-01-01

232

Anomalous placement of introns in a member of the intermediate filament multigene family: an evolutionary conundrum.  

PubMed Central

The origin of introns and their role (if any) in gene expression, in the evolution of the genome, and in the generation of new expressed sequences are issues that are understood poorly, if at all. Multigene families provide a favorable opportunity for examining the evolutionary history of introns because it is possible to identify changes in intron placement and content since the divergence of family members from a common ancestral sequence. Here we report the complete sequence of the gene encoding the 68-kilodalton (kDa) neurofilament protein; the gene is a member of the intermediate filament multigene family that diverged over 600 million years ago. Five other members of this family (desmin, vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and type I and type II keratins) are encoded by genes with six or more introns at homologous positions. To our surprise, the number and placement of introns in the 68-kDa neurofilament protein gene were completely anomalous, with only three introns, none of which corresponded in position to introns in any characterized intermediate filament gene. This finding was all the more unexpected because comparative amino acid sequence data suggest a closer relationship of the 68-kDa neurofilament protein to desmin, vimentin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein than between any of these three proteins and the keratins. It appears likely that an mRNA-mediated transposition event was involved in the evolution of the 68-kDa neurofilament protein gene and that subsequent events led to the acquisition of at least two of the three introns present in the contemporary sequence.

Lewis, S A; Cowan, N J

1986-01-01

233

Characterization of three paralogous members of the Mammalian vaccinia related kinase family.  

PubMed

Members of the novel vaccinia related kinase (VRK) protein family are characterized by notable sequence homology to the vaccinia virus-encoded B1 kinase (vvB1). vvB1 plays an essential role in viral DNA replication, and Boyle and Traktman have demonstrated that VRK1 enzymes complement the replication defect of a temperature-sensitive viral mutant defective in vvB1 (Boyle, K., and Traktman, P. (2004) J. Virol. 78, 1992-2005). This mammalian kinase family comprises three members, VRK1, VRK2, and VRK3. We have annotated the gene structure for the members of this family and have characterized the enzyme activity and subcellular localization for the human and mouse proteins. VRK1 enzymes show robust autophosphorylation activity and will phosphorylate casein; VRK2 enzymes show modest autophosphorylation activity and will also phosphorylate casein. The VRK3 proteins have key amino acid substitutions that disrupt invariant motifs required for catalytic activity, rendering them enzymatically inert. The VRK1 and VRK2 proteins contain COOH-terminal extracatalytic sequences that mediate intracellular localization. VRK1 proteins possess a basic nuclear localization signal and are indeed nuclear; the extreme C termini of the VRK2 proteins are highly hydrophobic, and the proteins are membrane-associated and colocalize with markers of the endoplasmic reticulum. The NH(2)-terminal region of the VRK3s contains a bipartite nuclear localization signal, which directs these proteins to the nucleus. Our findings provide the basis for further studies of the structure and function of this newly discovered family of protein kinases. PMID:14645249

Nichols, R Jeremy; Traktman, Paula

2004-02-27

234

Mutation and Analysis of Dan, the Founding Member of the Dan Family of Transforming Growth Factor   Antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dan family of transforming growth factor b antagonists is a large, evolutionarily conserved family of proteins. Little is known about either the specificity of these antagonists or the biological roles of these proteins. We have characterized Dan, the founding member of this family, with regard to both its biochemical specificity and its biological roles. Although DAN is not an

MARC S. DIONNE; WILLIAM C. SKARNES; RICHARD M. HARLAND

2001-01-01

235

Distinct Roles of DBHS Family Members in the Circadian Transcriptional Feedback Loop  

PubMed Central

Factors interacting with core circadian clock components are essential to achieve transcriptional feedback necessary for metazoan clocks. Here, we show that all three members of the Drosophila behavior human splicing (DBHS) family of RNA-binding proteins play a role in the mammalian circadian oscillator, abrogating or altering clock function when overexpressed or depleted in cells. Although these proteins are members of so-called nuclear paraspeckles, depletion of paraspeckles themselves via silencing of the structural noncoding RNA (ncRNA) Neat1 did not affect overall clock function, suggesting that paraspeckles are not required for DBHS-mediated circadian effects. Instead, we show that the proteins bound to circadian promoter DNA in a fashion that required the PERIOD (PER) proteins and potently repressed E-box-mediated transcription but not cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter-mediated transcription when they were exogenously recruited. Nevertheless, mice with one or both copies of these genes deleted show only small changes in period length or clock gene expression in vivo. Data from transient transfections show that each of these proteins can either repress or activate, depending on the context. Taken together, our data suggest that all of the DBHS family members serve overlapping or redundant roles as transcriptional cofactors at circadian clock-regulated genes.

Kowalska, Elzbieta; Ripperger, Jurgen A.; Muheim, Christine; Maier, Bert; Kurihara, Yasuyuki; Fox, Archa H.; Kramer, Achim

2012-01-01

236

Calcium-dependent Phospholipid Scramblase Activity of TMEM16 Protein Family Members*  

PubMed Central

Asymmetrical distribution of phospholipids between the inner and outer plasma membrane leaflets is disrupted in various biological processes. We recently identified TMEM16F, an eight-transmembrane protein, as a Ca2+-dependent phospholipid scramblase that exposes phosphatidylserine (PS) to the cell surface. In this study, we established a mouse lymphocyte cell line with a floxed allele in the TMEM16F gene. When TMEM16F was deleted, these cells failed to expose PS in response to Ca2+ ionophore, but PS exposure was elicited by Fas ligand treatment. We expressed other TMEM16 proteins in the TMEM16F?/? cells and found that not only TMEM16F, but also 16C, 16D, 16G, and 16J work as lipid scramblases with different preference to lipid substrates. On the other hand, a patch clamp analysis in 293T cells indicated that TMEM16A and 16B, but not other family members, acted as Ca2+-dependent Cl? channels. These results indicated that among 10 TMEM16 family members, 7 members could be divided into two subfamilies, Ca2+-dependent Cl? channels (16A and 16B) and Ca2+-dependent lipid scramblases (16C, 16D, 16F, 16G, and 16J).

Suzuki, Jun; Fujii, Toshihiro; Imao, Takeshi; Ishihara, Kenji; Kuba, Hiroshi; Nagata, Shigekazu

2013-01-01

237

The Importance of Older Family Members in Providing Social Resources and Promoting Cancer Screening in Families with a Hereditary Cancer Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study evaluates the role of older family members as providers of social resources within familial network systems affected by an inherited cancer susceptibility syndrome. Design and Methods: Respondents who previously participated in a study that involved genetic counseling and testing for Lynch syndrome and their family network…

Ashida, Sato; Hadley, Donald W.; Goergen, Andrea F.; Skapinsky, Kaley F.; Devlin, Hillary C.; Koehly, Laura M.

2011-01-01

238

Utilization of and Barriers to HIV and MCH Services among Community ART Group Members and Their Families in Tete, Mozambique  

PubMed Central

Mozambique continues to face many challenges in HIV and maternal and child health care (MCH). Community-based antiretroviral treatment groups (CAG) enhance retention to care among members, but whether such benefits extend to their families and to MCH remains unclear. In 2011 we studied utilization of HIV and MCH services among CAG members and their family aggregates in Changara, Mozambique, through a mixed-method assessment. We systematically revised all patient-held health cards from CAG members and their non-CAG family aggregate members and conducted semistructured group discussions on MCH topics. Quantitative data were analysed in EPI-Info. Qualitative data were manually thematically analysed. Information was retrieved from 1,624 persons, of which 420 were CAG members (26%). Good compliance with HIV treatment among CAG members was shared with non-CAG HIV-positive family members on treatment, but many family aggregate members remained without testing, and, when HIV positive, without HIV treatment. No positive effects from the CAG model were found for MCH service utilization. Barriers for utilization mentioned centred on insufficient knowledge, limited community-health facility collaboration, and structural health system limitations. CAG members were open to include MCH in their groups, offering the possibility to extend patient involvement to other health needs. We recommend that lessons learnt from HIV-based activism, patient involvement, and community participation are applied to broader SRH services, including MCH care.

Dezembro, Sergio; Matias, Humberto; Muzila, Fausto; Brumana, Luisa; Capobianco, Emanuele

2013-01-01

239

[Informing members of families affected by fragile X syndrome of this diagnosis].  

PubMed

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder that may seriously affect the development of patients. One of the hardest tasks for the professionals of medicine is to tell the parents that their child is suffering a serious illness that may cause some permanent handicap. This normally implies drastic changes in live projects and expectations for the parents. The knowledge of diagnosis and the supply of information to the parents give rise to an important emotional impact on both parents and the rest of the family. In general terms, the patient implies more than a single ill person--a genetic illness such as FXS, which causes serious cognitive and behavioural disturbances, implies three situations that the family has to face: on one hand, the family has to accept a new world that had never been known; a son or daughter with a genetic disorder unknown not only for them, but also for most of the professionals they have visited before having a diagnosis, and in many cases with special needs and serious behavioural disturbances. On the other hand, the family must accept that the diagnosis may not be restricted to the patient, because some other members of the family could be suffering from the same illness. Finally, they have to face the fact that one of the parents has transmitted the illness, that is, 'the genetic guilt' in the illness of their son or daughter. PMID:12447818

Carrasco, M

2001-10-01

240

Members of the meloidogyne avirulence protein family contain multiple plant ligand-like motifs.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes engage in complex interactions with their host plants by secreting effector proteins. Some effectors of both root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) and cyst nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.) mimic plant ligand proteins. Most prominently, cyst nematodes secrete effectors that mimic plant CLAVATA3/ESR-related (CLE) ligand proteins. However, only cyst nematodes have been shown to secrete such effectors and to utilize CLE ligand mimicry in their interactions with host plants. Here, we document the presence of ligand-like motifs in bona fide root-knot nematode effectors that are most similar to CLE peptides from plants and cyst nematodes. We have identified multiple tandem CLE-like motifs conserved within the previously identified Meloidogyne avirulence protein (MAP) family that are secreted from root-knot nematodes and have been shown to function in planta. By searching all 12 MAP family members from multiple Meloidogyne spp., we identified 43 repetitive CLE-like motifs composing 14 unique variants. At least one CLE-like motif was conserved in each MAP family member. Furthermore, we documented the presence of other conserved sequences that resemble the variable domains described in Heterodera and Globodera CLE effectors. These findings document that root-knot nematodes appear to use CLE ligand mimicry and point toward a common host node targeted by two evolutionarily diverse groups of nematodes. As a consequence, it is likely that CLE signaling pathways are important in other phytonematode pathosystems as well. PMID:25014776

Rutter, William B; Hewezi, Tarek; Maier, Tom R; Mitchum, Melissa G; Davis, Eric L; Hussey, Richard S; Baum, Thomas J

2014-08-01

241

Sun protection and sunbathing practices among at-risk family members of patients with melanoma  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the increased level of familial risk, research indicates that family members of patients with melanoma engage in relatively low levels of sun protection and high levels of sun exposure. The goal of this study was to evaluate a broad range of demographic, medical, psychological, knowledge, and social influence correlates of sun protection and sunbathing practices among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of melanoma patients and to determine if correlates of sun protection and sunbathing were unique. Methods We evaluated correlates of sun protection and sunbathing among FDRs of melanoma patients who were at increased disease risk due to low compliance with sun protection and skin surveillance behaviors. Participants (N = 545) completed a phone survey. Results FDRs who reported higher sun protection had a higher education level, lower benefits of sunbathing, greater sunscreen self-efficacy, greater concerns about photo-aging and greater sun protection norms. FDRs who reported higher sunbathing were younger, more likely to be female, endorsed fewer sunscreen barriers, perceived more benefits of sunbathing, had lower image norms for tanness, and endorsed higher sunbathing norms. Conclusion Interventions for family members at risk for melanoma might benefit from improving sun protection self-efficacy, reducing perceived sunbathing benefits, and targeting normative influences to sunbathe.

2011-01-01

242

The 5S rRNA maturase, ribonuclease M5, is a Toprim domain family member  

PubMed Central

The maturation of 5S ribosomal RNA in low G+C Gram-positive bacteria is catalyzed by a highly conserved, ?190 residue, enzyme, called ribonuclease M5 (RNase M5). Sequence alignment had predicted that the N-terminal half of RNase M5 would consist of a Toprim domain, a protein fold found in type IA and type II topoisomerases, DnaG-like primases, OLD family nucleases and RecR proteins [L. Aravind, D. D. Leipe and E. V. Koonin (1998) Nucleic Acids Res., 26, 4205–4213]. Here, we present structural modelling data and a mutational analysis of RNase M5 that confirms this hypothesis. The N-terminal half of RNase M5 can be fitted to the Toprim domain of the DnaG catalytic core. Mutation of amino acid residues highly conserved among RNase M5 enzymes and members of the Toprim domain family showed that alteration of residues critical for topoisomerase and primase activity also had a dramatic effect on the cleavage of 5S rRNA precursor by RNase M5 both in vivo and in vitro. This suggests that the mechanisms of double-stranded RNA cleavage by RNase M5 and double-stranded DNA cleavage by members of the topoisomerase family are related.

Allemand, Frederic; Mathy, Nathalie; Brechemier-Baey, Dominique; Condon, Ciaran

2005-01-01

243

Testican-3: a brain-specific proteoglycan member of the BM-40/SPARC/osteonectin family.  

PubMed

The testicans are a three-member family of secreted proteoglycans structurally related to the BM-40/secreted protein acidic and rich in cystein (SPARC) osteonectin family of extracellular calcium-binding proteins. In vitro studies have indicated that testicans are involved in the regulation of extracellular protease cascades and in neuronal function. Here, we describe the biochemical characterization and tissue distribution of mouse testican-3 as well as the inactivation of the corresponding gene. The expression of testican-3 in adult mice is restricted to the brain, where it is located diffusely within the extracellular matrix, as well as associated with cells. Brain-derived testican-3 is a heparan sulphate proteoglycan. In cell culture, the core protein is detected in the supernatant and the extracellular matrix, whereas the proteoglycan form is restricted to the supernatant. This indicates possible interactions of the testican-3 core protein with components of the extracellular matrix which are blocked by addition of the glycosaminoglycan chains. Mice deficient in testican-3 are viable and fertile and do not show an obvious phenotype. This points to a functional redundancy among the different members of the testican family or between testican-3 and other brain heparan sulphate proteoglycans. PMID:23418755

Hartmann, Ursula; Hülsmann, Hanni; Seul, Judith; Röll, Sandra; Midani, Heven; Breloy, Isabelle; Hechler, Daniel; Müller, Regina; Paulsson, Mats

2013-05-01

244

Human Bop is a novel BH3-only member of the Bcl-2 protein family.  

PubMed

One group of Bcl-2 protein family, which shares only the BH3 domain (BH3-only), is critically involved in the regulation of programmed cell death. Herein we demonstrated a novel human BH3-only protein (designated as Bop) which could induce apoptosis in a BH3 domain-dependent manner. Further analysis indicated that Bop mainly localized to mitochondria and used its BH3 domain to contact the loop regions of voltage dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) in the outer mitochondrial membrane. In addition, purified Bop protein induced the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) and the release of cytochrome c. Furthermore, Bop used its BH3 domain to contact pro-survival Bcl-2 family members (Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), Mcl-1, A1 and Bcl-w), which could inhibit Bop-induced apoptosis. Bop would be constrained by pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins in resting cells, because Bop became released from phosphorylated Bcl-2 induced by microtubule-interfering agent like vincristine (VCR). Indeed, knockdown experiments indicated that Bop was partially required for VCR induced cell death. Finally, Bop might need to function through Bak and Bax, likely by releasing Bak from Bcl-X(L) sequestration. In conclusion, Bop may be a novel BH3-only factor that can engage with the regulatory network of Bcl-2 family members to process intrinsic apoptotic signaling. PMID:23055042

Zhang, Xiaoping; Weng, Changjiang; Li, Yuan; Wang, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Chunsun; Li, Xuemei; Xu, Youli; Chen, Quan; Pan, Lei; Tang, Hong

2012-10-01

245

Production of Reactive Oxygen Species by Polyhalogenated Cyclic Hydrocarbons (PCH).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of this research strongly support the hypothesis that polyhalogenated cyclic hydrocarbons (PCH) induce production of reactive oxygen species which may contribute to many of the toxic manifestations associated with these xenobiotics. A non-inva...

S. J. Stohs

1992-01-01

246

MicroRNA-99 Family Members Suppress Homeobox A1 Expression in Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

The miR-99 family is one of the evolutionarily most ancient microRNA families, and it plays a critical role in developmental timing and the maintenance of tissue identity. Recent studies, including reports from our group, suggested that the miR-99 family regulates various physiological processes in adult tissues, such as dermal wound healing, and a number of disease processes, including cancer. By combining 5 independent genome-wide expression profiling experiments, we identified a panel of 266 unique transcripts that were down-regulated in epithelial cells transfected with miR-99 family members. A comprehensive bioinformatics analysis using 12 different sequence-based microRNA target prediction algorithms revealed that 81 out of these 266 down-regulated transcripts are potential direct targets for the miR-99 family. Confirmation experiments and functional analyses were performed to further assess 6 selected miR-99 target genes, including mammalian Target of rapamycin (mTOR), Homeobox A1 (HOXA1), CTD small phosphatase-like (CTDSPL), N-myristoyltransferase 1 (NMT1), Transmembrane protein 30A (TMEM30A), and SWI/SNF-related matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin subfamily A member 5 (SMARCA5). HOXA1 is a known proto-oncogene, and it also plays an important role in embryonic development. The direct targeting of the miR-99 family to two candidate binding sequences located in the HOXA1 mRNA was confirmed using a luciferase reporter gene assay and a ribonucleoprotein-immunoprecipitation (RIP-IP) assay. Ectopic transfection of miR-99 family reduced the expression of HOXA1, which, in consequence, down-regulated the expression of its downstream gene (i.e., Bcl-2) and led to reduced proliferation and cell migration, as well as enhanced apoptosis. In summary, we identified a number of high-confidence miR-99 family target genes, including proto-oncogene HOXA1, which may play an important role in regulating epithelial cell proliferation and migration during physiological disease processes, such as dermal wound healing and tumorigenesis.

Chen, Dan; Chen, Zujian; Jin, Yi; Dragas, Dragan; Zhang, Leitao; Adjei, Barima S.; Wang, Anxun; Dai, Yang; Zhou, Xiaofeng

2013-01-01

247

Facilitators and barriers to hypertension self-management in urban African Americans: perspectives of patients and family members  

PubMed Central

Introduction We aimed to inform the design of behavioral interventions by identifying patients’ and their family members’ perceived facilitators and barriers to hypertension self-management. Materials and methods We conducted focus groups of African American patients with hypertension and their family members to elicit their views about factors influencing patients’ hypertension self-management. We recruited African American patients with hypertension (n = 18) and their family members (n = 12) from an urban, community-based clinical practice in Baltimore, Maryland. We conducted four separate 90-minute focus groups among patients with controlled (one group) and uncontrolled (one group) hypertension, as well as their family members (two groups). Trained moderators used open-ended questions to assess participants’ perceptions regarding patient, family, clinic, and community-level factors influencing patients’ effective hypertension self-management. Results Patient participants identified several facilitators (including family members’ support and positive relationships with doctors) and barriers (including competing health priorities, lack of knowledge about hypertension, and poor access to community resources) that influence their hypertension self-management. Family members also identified several facilitators (including their participation in patients’ doctor’s visits and discussions with patients’ doctors outside of visits) and barriers (including their own limited health knowledge and patients’ lack of motivation to sustain hypertension self-management behaviors) that affect their efforts to support patients’ hypertension self-management. Conclusion African American patients with hypertension and their family members reported numerous patient, family, clinic, and community-level facilitators and barriers to patients’ hypertension self-management. Patients’ and their family members’ views may help guide efforts to tailor behavioral interventions designed to improve hypertension self-management behaviors and hypertension control in minority populations.

Flynn, Sarah J; Ameling, Jessica M; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Wolff, Jennifer L; Bone, Lee R; Levine, David M; Roter, Debra l; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Fisher, Annette R; Purnell, Leon; Ephraim, Patti L; Barbers, Jeffrey; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Albert, Michael C; Cooper, Lisa A; Fagan, Peter J; Martin, Destiny; Ramamurthi, Hema C; Boulware, L Ebony

2013-01-01

248

Maximal sequence length of exact match between members from a gene family during early evolution*  

PubMed Central

Mutation (substitution, deletion, insertion, etc.) in nucleotide acid causes the maximal sequence lengths of exact match (MALE) between paralogous members from a duplicate event to become shorter during evolution. In this work, MALE changes between members of 26 gene families from four representative species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens) were investigated. Comparative study of paralogous’ MALE and amino acid substitution rate (d A<0.5) indicated that a close relationship existed between them. The results suggested that MALE could be a sound evolutionary scale for the divergent time for paralogous genes during their early evolution. A reference table between MALE and divergent time for the four species was set up, which would be useful widely, for large-scale genome alignment and comparison. As an example, detection of large-scale duplication events of rice genome based on the table was illustrated.

Wen, Xiao; Guo, Xing-yi; Fan, Long-jiang

2005-01-01

249

Structure and expression of B-myc, a new member of the myc gene family.  

PubMed Central

The myc family of genes contains five functional members. We describe the cloning of a new member of the myc family from rat genomic and cDNA libraries, designated B-myc. A fragment of cloned B-myc was used to map the corresponding rat locus by Southern blotting of DNA prepared from rat X mouse somatic cell hybrids. B-myc mapped to rat chromosome 3. We have previously mapped the c-myc to rat chromosome 7 (J. Sümegi, J. Spira, H. Bazin, J. Szpirer, G. Levan, and G. Klein, Nature [London] 306:497-498, 1983) and N-myc and L-myc to rat chromosomes 6 and 5, respectively (S. Ingvarsson, C. Asker, Z. Wirschubsky, J. Szpirer, G. Levan, G. Klein, and J. Sümegi, Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. 13:335-339, 1987). A partial sequence of B-myc had extensive sequence homology to the c-myc protein-coding region, and the detection of intron homology further indicated that these two genes are closely related. The DNA regions conserved among the myc family members, designated myc boxes, were highly conserved between c-myc and B-myc. A lower degree of homology was detected in other parts of the coding region in c-myc and B-myc not present in N-myc and L-myc. A 1.3-kilobase B-myc-specific mRNA was detected in most rat tissues, with the highest expression in the brain. This resembled the expression pattern of c-myc, although at different relative levels, and was in contrast to the more tissue-specific expression of N-myc and L-myc. B-myc was expressed at uniformly high levels in all fetal tissues and during subsequent postnatal development, in contrast to the stage-specific expression of c-myc. Images

Ingvarsson, S; Asker, C; Axelson, H; Klein, G; Sumegi, J

1988-01-01

250

The Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin Family Member Ezrin Regulates Stable Microtubule Formation and Retroviral Infection?  

PubMed Central

We recently identified the cytoskeletal regulatory protein moesin as a novel gene that inhibits retroviral replication prior to reverse transcription by downregulation of stable microtubule formation. Here, we provide evidence that overexpression of ezrin, another closely related ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family member, also blocks replication of both murine leukemia viruses and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Rat2 fibroblasts before reverse transcription, while knockdown of endogenous ezrin increases the susceptibility of human cells to HIV-1 infection. Together, these results suggest that ERM proteins may be important determinants of retrovirus susceptibility through negative regulation of stable microtubule networks.

Haedicke, Juliane; de los Santos, Kenia; Goff, Stephen P.; Naghavi, Mojgan H.

2008-01-01

251

The Ezrin-radixin-moesin family member ezrin regulates stable microtubule formation and retroviral infection.  

PubMed

We recently identified the cytoskeletal regulatory protein moesin as a novel gene that inhibits retroviral replication prior to reverse transcription by downregulation of stable microtubule formation. Here, we provide evidence that overexpression of ezrin, another closely related ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family member, also blocks replication of both murine leukemia viruses and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Rat2 fibroblasts before reverse transcription, while knockdown of endogenous ezrin increases the susceptibility of human cells to HIV-1 infection. Together, these results suggest that ERM proteins may be important determinants of retrovirus susceptibility through negative regulation of stable microtubule networks. PMID:18305045

Haedicke, Juliane; de Los Santos, Kenia; Goff, Stephen P; Naghavi, Mojgan H

2008-05-01

252

Genomic sequence and organization of two members of a human lectin gene family  

SciTech Connect

The authors have isolated and sequenced the genomic DNA encoding a human dimeric soluble lactose-binding lectin. The gene has four exons, and its upstream region contains sequences that suggest control by glucocorticoids, heat (environmental) shock, metals, and other factors. They have also isolated and sequenced three exons of the gene encoding another human putative lectin, the existence of which was first indicated by isolation of its cDNA. Comparisons suggest a general pattern of genomic organization of members of this lectin gene family.

Gitt, M.A.; Barondes, S.H. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

1991-01-01

253

Sphinganase, a new endoglycanase that cleaves specific members of the gellan family of polysaccharides.  

PubMed Central

A sporeforming gram-positive aerobic bacterium was isolated from soil and shown to secrete an endoglycanase that cleaves the tetrasaccharide backbone structure of specific members within the gellan family of related bacterial exopolysaccharides. We refer to these polysaccharides as sphingans. The structures of the sphingans differ by the type and position of side groups that are attached to the backbone. The new enzyme named sphinganase degrades welan, gellan, deacylated gellan, and polysaccharides S-88, S-7, and S-198. However, the enzyme does not attack rhamsan or polysaccharide NW11. Methods for growing the bacteria, isolating the enzyme, and assaying sphinganase activity are presented, and uses for the enzyme are proposed. Images

Mikolajczak, M J; Thorne, L; Pollock, T J; Armentrout, R W

1994-01-01

254

Induction of BCL2 family member MCL1 as an early response to DNA damage.  

PubMed

When ML-1 human myeloid leukemia cells are exposed to DNA damaging agents, they exhibit dramatic changes in the expression of a variety of gene products. This includes an increase in p53 (wild-type), a decrease in BCL2, a p53-dependent increase in the BCL2 family member BAX, and increases in Growth Arrest and DNA Damage-inducible (GADD) genes such as GADD45; these changes occur as early events in a sequence that culminates in DNA damage-induced apoptosis. DNA damaging agents have now been tested for effects on expression of another BCL2 family member, MCL1, a gene expressed during ML-1 cell differentiation. Expression of MCL1 was found to increase upon exposure of ML-1 cells to various types of DNA damaging agents, including ionizing radiation, ultraviolet radiation, and alkylating drugs. The increase in MCL1 occurred rapidly and was transient, levels of the MCL1 mRNA being elevated within 4 h and having returned to near baseline within 24 h. An increase in the Mcl1 protein was also seen, with the maximal increase occurring at an intermediate dose of IR (5 Gray) and lesser increases occurring at either lower or higher doses. The increase in expression of MCL1 was further studied using a panel of human cell lines that includes cells containing or not containing alterations in p53 as well as cells sensitive or insensitive to the apoptosis-inducing effects of DNA damage. The DNA damage-induced increase in MCL1 mRNA did not depend upon p53 as it was seen in cells lacking functional p53. However, the increase did depend upon susceptibility to apoptosis as it was not seen in cells insensitive to apoptosis-induction by DNA damaging agents. These findings demonstrate that cytotoxic DNA damage causes an increase in the expression of MCL1 along with increases in GADD45 and BAX and a decrease in BCL2. Furthermore, while the increase in GADD45 is seen both in cells that undergo growth arrest and in cells that undergo apoptosis in response to DNA damage, alterations in the profile of expression of BCL2 family members occur exclusively in cells that undergo the apoptotic response, with some family members increasing through p53-dependent (BAX) and others through p53-independent (MCL1) pathways. Overall, expression MCL1 can increase during the induction of cell death as well as during the induction of differentiation. PMID:9070651

Zhan, Q; Bieszczad, C K; Bae, I; Fornace, A J; Craig, R W

1997-03-01

255

Characterization of a new TSPY gene family member in Yq (TSPYq1).  

PubMed

We investigated subinterval 6E on the human Y chromosome, a region frequently deleted in infertile males. YAC yOX17, mapped within subinterval 6E by STS-PCR, was analyzed for the presence of new genes. TSPYq1, a member of the TSPY multi-copy gene family, was isolated and characterized from a yOX17 cosmid subclone. PCR and FISH analysis performed on normal subjects and on patients with microdeletions of Yq suggested the presence of multiple copies of TSPY in Yq. PMID:10773691

Ratti, A; Stuppia, L; Gatta, V; Fogh, I; Calabrese, G; Pizzuti, A; Palka, G

2000-01-01

256

Function of members of the neuropilin family as essential pleiotropic cell surface receptors.  

PubMed

The neuropilin (Nrp) family consists of essential multifunctional vertebrate cell surface receptors. Nrps were initially characterized as receptors for class III Semaphorin (Sema3) family members, functioning in axon guidance. Nrps have also been shown to be critical for vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent angiogenesis. Intriguingly, recent data show that Nrp function in these seemingly divergent pathways is critically determined by ligand-mediated cross-talk, which underlies Nrp function in both physiological and pathological processes. In addition to functioning in these two pathways, Nrps have been shown to specifically function in a number of other fundamental signaling pathways as well. Multiple general mechanisms have been found to directly contribute to the pleiotropic function of Nrp. Here we review critical general features of Nrps that function as essential receptors integrating multiple molecular cues into diverse cellular signaling. PMID:23116416

Parker, Matthew W; Guo, Hou-Fu; Li, Xiaobo; Linkugel, Andrew D; Vander Kooi, Craig W

2012-11-27

257

Isolation of an additional member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, FGFR-3  

SciTech Connect

The fibroblast growth factors are a family of polypeptide growth factors involved in a variety of activities including mitogenesis, angiogenesis, and wound healing. Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) have previously been identified in chicken, mouse, and human and have been shown to contain an extracellular domain with either two or three immunoglobulin-like domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain. The authors have isolated a human cDNA for another tyrosine kinase receptor that is highly homologous to the previously described FGFR. Expression of this receptor cDNA in COS cells directs the expression of a 125-kDa glycoprotein. They demonstrate that this cDNA encodes a biologically active receptor by showing that human acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors activate this receptor as measured by {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} efflux assays. These data establish the existence of an additional member of the FGFR family that they have named FGFR-3.

Keegan, K.; Hayman, M.J. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (United States)); Johnson, D.E.; Williams, L.T. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States))

1991-02-15

258

Six members of the mouse forkhead gene family are developmentally regulated.  

PubMed Central

The 110-aa forkhead domain defines a class of transcription factors that have been shown to be developmentally regulated in Drosophila melanogaster and Xenopus laevis. The forkhead domain is necessary and sufficient for target DNA binding as shown for the rat hepatic nuclear factor 3 (HNF3) gene family. We have cloned six forkhead gene family members from a mouse genomic library in addition to the mouse equivalents of the genes for HNF3 alpha, -beta, and -gamma. The six genes, termed fkh-1 to fkh-6, share a high degree of similarity with the Drosophila forkhead gene, having 57-67% amino acid identity within the forkhead domain. fkh-1 seems to be the mammalian homologue of the Drosophila FD1 gene, as the sequences are 86% identical. fkh-1 to fkh-6 show distinct spatial patterns of expression in adult tissues and are expressed during embryogenesis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Kaestner, K H; Lee, K H; Schlondorff, J; Hiemisch, H; Monaghan, A P; Schutz, G

1993-01-01

259

The Importance of Older Family Members in Providing Social Resources and Promoting Cancer Screening in Families With a Hereditary Cancer Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose:?This study evaluates the role of older family members as providers of social resources within familial network systems affected by an inherited cancer susceptibility syndrome.?Design and Methods:?Respondents who previously participated in a study that involved genetic counseling and testing for Lynch syndrome and their family network members were invited to participate in a onetime telephone interview about family communication.?Results:?A total of 206 respondents from 33 families identified 2,051 social relationships (dyads). Nineteen percent of the respondents and 25% of the network members were older (?60 years). Younger respondents (?59 years) were more likely to nominate older network members as providers of social resources than younger members: instrumental support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.68), emotional support (OR = 1.71), help in crisis situation (OR = 2.04), and dependability when needed (OR = 2.15). Compared with younger network members, older members were more likely to be listed as encouragers of colon cancer screening by both younger (OR = 3.40) and older respondents (OR = 1.90) independent of whether support exchange occurred in the relationship.?Implications:?Engaging older network members in health interventions to facilitate screening behaviors and emotional well-being of younger members within families affected by inherited conditions may be beneficial. Findings can be used to empower older individuals about their important social roles in enhancing the well-being of their family members and to inform younger individuals about their older relatives’ resourcefulness to facilitate positive social interactions.

Ashida, Sato; Hadley, Donald W.; Goergen, Andrea F.; Skapinsky, Kaley F.; Devlin, Hillary C.; Koehly, Laura M.

2011-01-01

260

41 CFR 302-3.203 - If I am transferring in the interest of the Government and my employed immediate family member(s...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true If I am transferring in the interest of the Government and my employed...More Employed Immediate Family Members § 302-3.203 If I am transferring in the interest of the Government and my...

2013-07-01

261

Evolution of Mammalian Chitinase(-Like) Members of Family 18 Glycosyl Hydrolases  

PubMed Central

Family 18 of glycosyl hydrolases encompasses chitinases and so-called chi-lectins lacking enzymatic activity due to amino acid substitutions in their active site. Both types of proteins widely occur in mammals although these organisms lack endogenous chitin. Their physiological function(s) as well as evolutionary relationships are still largely enigmatic. An overview of all family members is presented and their relationships are described. Molecular phylogenetic analyses suggest that both active chitinases (chitotriosidase and AMCase) result from an early gene duplication event. Further duplication events, followed by mutations leading to loss of chitinase activity, allowed evolution of the chi-lectins. The homologous genes encoding chitinase(-like) proteins are clustered in two distinct loci that display a high degree of synteny among mammals. Despite the shared chromosomal location and high homology, individual genes have evolved independently. Orthologs are more closely related than paralogues, and calculated substitution rate ratios indicate that protein-coding sequences underwent purifying selection. Substantial gene specialization has occurred in time, allowing for tissue-specific expression of pH optimized chitinases and chi-lectins. Finally, several family 18 chitinase-like proteins are present only in certain lineages of mammals, exemplifying recent evolutionary events in the chitinase protein family.

Bussink, Anton P.; Speijer, Dave; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.; Boot, Rolf G.

2007-01-01

262

Regulation of the ovarian reserve by members of the transforming growth factor beta family  

PubMed Central

Genetic or environmental factors that affect the endowment of oocytes, their assembly nto primordial follicles, or their subsequent entry into the growing follicle pool can disrupt reproductive function and may underlie disorders such as primary ovarian insufficiency. Mouse models have been instrumental in identifying genes important in ovarian development, and a number of genes now associated with ovarian dysfunction in women were first identified as causing reproductive defects in knockout mice. The transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) family consists of developmentally important growth factors that include the TGFBs, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), activins, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and growth and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9). The ovarian primordial follicle pool is the source of oocytes in adults. Development of this pool can be grossly divided into three key processes: (1) establishment of oocytes during embryogenesis followed by (2) assembly and (3) activation of the primordial follicle. Disruptions in any of these processes may cause reproductive dysfunction. Most members of the TGFB family show pivotal roles in each of these areas. Understanding the phenotypes of various mouse models for this protein family will be directly relevant to understanding how disruptions in TGFB family signaling result in reproductive diseases in women and will present new areas for development of tailored diagnostics and interventions for infertility.

Pangas, Stephanie A.

2012-01-01

263

Essential PchG-Dependent Reduction in Pyochelin Biosynthesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

The biosynthetic genes pchDCBA and pchEF, which are known to be required for the formation of the siderophore pyochelin and its precursors salicylate and dihydroaeruginoate (Dha), are clustered with the pchR regulatory gene on the chromosome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The 4.6-kb region located downstream of the pchEF genes was found to contain three additional, contiguous genes, pchG, pchH, and pchI, probably forming a pchEFGHI operon. The deduced amino acid sequences of PchH and PchI are similar to those of ATP binding cassette transport proteins with an export function. PchG is a homolog of the Yersinia pestis and Y. enterocolitica proteins YbtU and Irp3, which are involved in the biosynthesis of yersiniabactin. A null mutation in pchG abolished pyochelin formation, whereas mutations in pchH and pchI did not affect the amounts of salicylate, Dha, and pyochelin produced. The pyochelin biosynthetic genes were expressed from a vector promoter, uncoupling them from Fur-mediated repression by iron and PchR-dependent induction by pyochelin. In a P. aeruginosa mutant lacking the entire pyochelin biosynthetic gene cluster, the expressed pchDCBA and pchEFG genes were sufficient for salicylate, Dha, and pyochelin production. Pyochelin formation was also obtained in the heterologous host Escherichia coli expressing pchDCBA and pchEFG together with the E. coli entD gene, which provides a phosphopantetheinyl transferase necessary for PchE and PchF activation. The PchG protein was purified and used in combination with PchD and phosphopantetheinylated PchE and PchF in vitro to produce pyochelin from salicylate, l-cysteine, ATP, NADPH, and S-adenosylmethionine. Based on this assay, a reductase function was attributed to PchG. In summary, this study completes the identification of the biosynthetic genes required for pyochelin formation from chorismate in P. aeruginosa.

Reimmann, Cornelia; Patel, Hiten M.; Serino, Laura; Barone, Mario; Walsh, Christopher T.; Haas, Dieter

2001-01-01

264

Living and dying with heart failure in long-term care: experiences of residents and their family members.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of long-term care (LTC) residents living and dying with heart failure (HF)and their family members. An exploratory descriptive design was used to collect data from seven LTC residents and seven family members. The data was analysed using thematic content analysis. The main themes that emerged from the data were: limited understanding of the HF diagnosis, living with restrictions and other comorbidities, making decisions about transitioning to end-of-life care, and learning and negotiating the lines of communication. Residents and family members communicated with many health-care providers about managing the HF symptoms but most often worked through the nurse when problems arose or decisions about care needed to be made. The findings from this study contribute to our understanding of residents' and family members' experiences in managing residents' HF in LTC. PMID:23970293

Kaasalainen, Sharon; Strachan, Patricia H; Heckman, George A; D'Elia, Teresa; McKelvie, Robert S; McAiney, Carrie; Stolee, Paul; van der Horst, Mary Lou; Kelley, Mary Lou; Demers, Catherine

2013-08-01

265

Differential Spatial Expression and Subcellular Localization of CtBP Family Members in Rodent Brain  

PubMed Central

C-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs) are well-characterized nuclear transcriptional co-regulators. In addition, cytoplasmic functions were discovered for these ubiquitously expressed proteins. These include the involvement of the isoform CtBP1-S/BARS50 in cellular membrane-trafficking processes and a role of the isoform RIBEYE as molecular scaffolds in ribbons, the presynaptic specializations of sensory synapses. CtBPs were suggested to regulate neuronal differentiation and they were implied in the control of gene expression during epileptogenesis. However, the expression patterns of CtBP family members in specific brain areas and their subcellular localizations in neurons in situ are largely unknown. Here, we performed comprehensive assessment of the expression of CtBP1 and CtBP2 in mouse brain at the microscopic and the ultra-structural levels using specific antibodies. We quantified and compared expression levels of both CtBPs in biochemically isolated brain fractions containing cellular nuclei or synaptic compartment. Our study demonstrates differential regional and subcellular expression patterns for the two CtBP family members in brain and reveals a previously unknown synaptic localization for CtBP2 in particular brain regions. Finally, we propose a mechanism of differential synapto-nuclear targeting of its splice variants CtBP2-S and CtBP2-L in neurons.

Richter, Karin; Lazarevic, Vesna; Altrock, Wilko D.; Fischer, Klaus-Dieter; Gundelfinger, Eckart D.; Fejtova, Anna

2012-01-01

266

Attitudes of cancer patients, their family members and health professionals toward active euthanasia.  

PubMed

This qualitative study describes the attitudes of four groups of people in cancer care toward active euthanasia. Patients (32) with incurable cancer, their family members (13), nurses (13) and physicians (13) participated in the study which was carried out in two central hospitals and in four health centres in Finland. The data was collected by means of focused interviews which were taped, transcribed and then analysed by content analysis. More than half of the participants said that they could ethically justify active euthanasia. Most of these were family members and nurses. The main reasons for their ethical justification were the terminal illness of the patient, the presence of suffering and pain and the patient's own request. Those who could not justify active euthanasia said that one human being has no right to decide death of another. Potential abuse, uncertainty about the finality of the situation, the possibility of effective alleviation of symptoms and the effects which the practice might have on medical staff were also mentioned by this group. The results of this study support the assumption given in the earlier literature that attitudes toward active euthanasia are most positive where terminally ill cancer patients are concerned. PMID:11051938

Kuuppelomäki, M

2000-03-01

267

Two members of the Ustilago maydis velvet family influence teliospore development and virulence on maize seedlings.  

PubMed

Members of the fungal-specific velvet protein family regulate sexual and asexual spore production in the Ascomycota. We predicted, therefore, that velvet homologs in the basidiomycetous plant pathogen Ustilago maydis would regulate sexual spore development, which is also associated with plant disease progression in this fungus. To test this hypothesis, we studied the function of three U. maydis velvet genes, umv1, umv2 and umv3. Using a gene replacement strategy, deletion mutants were made in all three genes in compatible haploid strains, and additionally for umv1 and umv2 in the solopathogenic strain, SG200. None of the mutants showed novel morphological phenotypes during yeast-like, in vitro growth. However, the ?umv1 mutants failed to induce galls or teliospores in maize. Chlorazol black E staining of leaves infected with ?umv1 dikaryons revealed that the ?umv1 hyphae did not proliferate normally and were blocked developmentally before teliospore formation. The ?umv2 mutants were able to induce galls and teliospores in maize, but were slow to do so and thus reduced in virulence. The ?umv3 mutants were not affected in teliospore formation or disease progression. Complementation of the ?umv1 and ?umv2 mutations in the SG200 background produced disease indices similar to those of SG200. These results indicate that two U. maydis velvet family members, umv1 and umv2, are important for normal teliospore development and disease progression in maize seedlings. PMID:24064149

Karakkat, Brijesh B; Gold, Scott E; Covert, Sarah F

2013-12-01

268

[Therapeutic education for diabetics: foot care in the reality of patients and family members].  

PubMed

Knowing the reality of foot care practice taught in educational programs for diabetics can enhance the therapeutic education success. This study presents the perceptions of diabetics and their family members about primary cares to prevent complications on foot. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted in an intentional sample of 30 diabetic with neuropathic risk of foot injuries as well as 11 of their family members, participants of a preventive program offered in a public health center in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A semi-structured interview with open-ended questions about experiences of foot care was conducted. The material transcribed was submitted to qualitative content analyses. Patients need assistance to foot care practice. A cooperative and interactive network is formed behind patients, perceived as a support or a threat to freedom. The importance of preventive measures becomes evident from their personal experiences of a complication or those of others'. Therapeutic education to prevent diabetic foot complications must consider the relations of assistance formed around the patient. It is necessary to break the silence of the evolution of the disease in order to motivate the patient to the adoption of preventive measures. PMID:21503502

Cisneros, Ligia de Loiola; Gonçalves, Luiz Alberto Oliveira

2011-01-01

269

The role of lysyl oxidase family members in the stabilization of abdominal aortic aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States today. We employed a model for AAA development using apolipoprotein E knock out mice fed a high-fat diet and treated with ANG II and ?-aminopropionitrile (?-APN) for 4 wk. ANG II induces hypertension and atherosclerotic disease, whereas ?-APN inhibits the activity of the lysyl oxidase/ lysyl oxidase-like protein (LOX/LOXL) family members. LOX/LOXL family members crosslink collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix and therefore contribute to the integrity and stabilization of a healthy vessel wall. In this model, cotreatment with ANG II and ?-APN caused a 90% AAA incidence and increased atherosclerotic lesion formation from less than 5% to greater than 25% after 4 wk. In more atheroprotected mouse strains (C57BL/6 and BalbC), cotreatment with ANG II and ?-APN caused 50% and 40% AAA incidence, respectively. These data demonstrate the importance of LOX/LOXL to the stability of the vessel wall. Therapeutic strategies to overexpress LOX/LOXL enzymes or to support the crosslinking of soluble matrix proteins in a polymeric scaffold are a promising opportunity to achieve stabilization of AAAs.

Remus, Ebony Washington; O'Donnell, Robert E.; Rafferty, Kathryn; Weiss, Daiana; Joseph, Giji; Csiszar, Katalin; Fong, Sheri F. T.

2012-01-01

270

Thrombospondin 3 (Thbs3), a new member of the thrombospondin gene family.  

PubMed

A third member of the thrombospondin gene family (Thbs3) has been partially characterized in the mouse. In both the mouse and humans, the Thbs3/THBS3 gene is located immediately upstream from the Muc1/MUC1 (episialin) gene; less than 3 kilobases separate the polyadenylation signal of one gene from the start of transcription of the other. The available coding sequence in Thbs3 shows a high degree of amino acid sequence identity to Thbs1 and Thbs2 (58 and 59%, respectively, in exons 15 and 16), but the exon/intron organization of Thbs3 appears to be more disparate than that of the two previously described members of the family. The shorter length of the Thbs3 mRNA (3.5 kilobases) can be attributed largely to a shorter 3'-untranslated region. The Thbs3 gene is expressed in a distinctive pattern in mouse tissues, with the highest level of expression in lung. This pattern suggests a unique function for the translation product of the Thbs3 gene. PMID:1601886

Vos, H L; Devarayalu, S; de Vries, Y; Bornstein, P

1992-06-15

271

Functional relationship between protein disulfide isomerase family members during the oxidative folding of human secretory proteins.  

PubMed

To examine the relationship between protein disulfide isomerase family members within the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum, PDI, ERp57, ERp72, and P5 were depleted with high efficiency in human hepatoma cells, either singly or in combination. The impact was assessed on the oxidative folding of several well-characterized secretory proteins. We show that PDI plays a predominant role in oxidative folding because its depletion delayed disulfide formation in all secretory proteins tested. However, the phenotype was surprisingly modest suggesting that other family members are able to compensate for PDI depletion, albeit with reduced efficacy. ERp57 also exhibited broad specificity, overlapping with that of PDI, but with preference for glycosylated substrates. Depletion of both PDI and ERp57 revealed that some substrates require both enzymes for optimal folding and, furthermore, led to generalized protein misfolding, impaired export from the ER, and degradation. In contrast, depletion of ERp72 or P5, either alone or in combination with PDI or ERp57 had minimal impact, revealing a narrow substrate specificity for ERp72 and no detectable role for P5 in oxidative protein folding. PMID:20660153

Rutkevich, Lori A; Cohen-Doyle, Myrna F; Brockmeier, Ulf; Williams, David B

2010-09-15

272

Immunohistochemical analysis of epidermal growth factor receptor family members in stage I non-small cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. To elucidate the relationship between the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor family members (ErbB-1, neu\\/ErbB-2, ErbB-3, and ErbB-4) and tumor recurrence.Methods. We used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of four epidermal growth factor receptor family members in 73 patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer.Results. Using Cox univariate analysis, we determined that angiolymphatic tumor emboli and non-well-differentiated

Wu-Wei Lai; Fen-Fen Chen; Ming-Ho Wu; Nan-Haw Chow; Wu-Chou Su; Mi-Chia Ma; Pei-Fang Su; Helen Chen; Mu-Yen Lin; Yau-Lin Tseng

2001-01-01

273

TALL1 is a novel member of the TNF family that is down-regulated by mitogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family play important roles in modulation of immune responses. We describe the identification and cloning of a novel TNF family member that has been designated as TALL-1. TALL-1 is a 285-amino acid type II transmembrane protein. Its carboxy terminus shares D35% sequence identity with the recently identified APRIL and D20-25% with TNF, FasL,

Hong-Bing Shu; Wen-Hui Hu; Holly Johnson

274

Evolutionary, Structural and Functional Interplay of the I?B Family Members  

PubMed Central

A primary level of control for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) is effected through its interactions with the inhibitor protein, inhibitor of kappa B (I?B). Several lines of evidence confirm the existence of multiple forms of I?B that appear to regulate NF-?B by distinct mechanisms. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis to understand the evolutionary history and intrinsic functional diversity of I?B family members. Phylogenetic relationships were constructed to trace the evolution of the I?B family genes. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed 10 I?B subfamily members that clustered into 5 major clades. Since the ankyrin (ANK) domain appears to be more ancient than the Rel homology domain (RHD), our phylogenetic analysis suggests that some undefined ancestral set of ANK repeats acquired an RHD before any duplication and was later duplicated and then diverged into the different I?B subfamilies. Functional analysis identified several functionally divergent sites in the ANK repeat domains (ARDs) and revealed that this region has undergone strong purifying selection, suggesting its functional importance in I?B genes. Structural analysis showed that the major variations in the number of ANK repeats and high conformational changes in the finger loop ARD region contribute to the differing binding partner specificities, thereby leading to distinct I?B functions. In summary, our study has provided useful information about the phylogeny and structural and functional divergence of the I?B family. Additionally, we identified a number of amino acid sites that contribute to the predicted functional divergence of these proteins.

Gosu, Vijayakumar; Choi, Sangdun

2013-01-01

275

Biochemical properties of human dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 7.  

PubMed

Dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 7 (DHRS7, retSDR4, SDR34C1) is a previously uncharacterized member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. While human SDR members are known to play an important role in various (patho)biochemical pathways including intermediary metabolism and biotransformation of xenobiotics, only 20% of them are considered to be well characterized. Based on phylogenetic tree and SDR sequence clusters analysis DHRS7 is a close relative to well-known SDR member 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11?-HSD1) that participates in metabolism of endogenous and xenobiotic substances with carbonyl group. The aim of present study is to determine the basic biochemical properties of DHRS7 and its possible involvement in metabolism of substrates with carbonyl group. For the first time the computational predictions of this membrane protein and membrane topology were experimentally confirmed. DHRS7 has been demonstrated to be an integral protein facing the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum with lack of posttranscriptional glycosylation modification. Subsequently, NADP(H) cofactor preference and enzymatic reducing activity of DHRS7 was determined towards endogenous substrates with a steroid structure (cortisone, 4-androstene-3,17-dion) and also toward relevant exogenous substances bearing a carbonyl group harmful to human health (1,2-naphtoquinone, 9,10-phenantrenequinone). In addition to 11?-HSD1, DHRS7 is another enzyme from SDR superfamily that have been proved, at least in vitro, to contribute to the metabolism of xenobiotics with carbonyl group. PMID:24246760

Stambergova, Hana; Skarydova, Lucie; Dunford, James E; Wsol, Vladimir

2014-01-25

276

Tensin1 and a previously undocumented family member, tensin2, positively regulate cell migration  

PubMed Central

Tensin is a focal adhesion molecule that binds to actin filaments and participates in signaling pathways. In this study, we have characterized a previously undocumented tensin family member, tensin2/KIAA 1075. Human tensin2 cDNA encodes a 1,285-aa sequence that shares extensive homology with tensin1 at its amino- and carboxyl-terminal ends, which include the actin-binding domain, the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, and the phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain. Analysis of the genomic structures of tensin1 and tensin2 further confirmed that they represent a single gene family. Examination of tensin2 mRNA distribution revealed that heart, kidney, skeletal muscle, and liver were tissues of high expression. The endogenous and recombinant tensin2 were expressed as a 170-kDa protein in NIH 3T3 cells. The subcellular localization of tensin2 was determined by transfection of green fluorescence protein (GFP)–tensin2 fusion construct. The results indicated that tensin2 is also localized to focal adhesions. Finally, functional analysis of tensin genes has demonstrated that expression of tensin genes is able to promote cell migration on fibronectin, indicating that the tensin family plays a role in regulating cell motility.

Chen, Huaiyang; Duncan, Ian C.; Bozorgchami, Hormozd; Lo, Su Hao

2002-01-01

277

Fetuin-B, a second member of the fetuin family in mammals.  

PubMed Central

A set of orthologous plasma proteins found in human, sheep, pig, cow and rodents, now collectively designated fetuin-A, constitutes the fetuin family. Fetuin-A has been identified as a major protein during fetal life and is also involved in important functions such as inhibition of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity, protease inhibitory activities and development-associated regulation of calcium metabolism and osteogenesis. Furthermore, fetuin-A is a key partner in the recovery phase of an acute inflammatory response. We now describe a second protein of the fetuin family, called fetuin-B, which is found at least in human and rodents. On grounds of domain homology, overall conservation of cysteine residues and chromosomal assignments of the corresponding genes in these species, fetuin-B is unambiguously a paralogue of fetuin-A. Yet, fetuin-A and fetuin-B exhibit significant differences at the amino acid sequence level, notably including variations with respect to the archetypal fetuin-specific signature. Differences and similarities in terms of gene regulation were also observed. Indeed, studies performed during development in rat and mouse showed for the first time high expression of a member of the fetuin family in adulthood, as shown with the fetuin-B mRNA in rat. However, like its fetuin-A counterpart, the fetuin-B mRNA level is down-regulated during the acute phase of experimentally induced inflammation in rat.

Olivier, E; Soury, E; Ruminy, P; Husson, A; Parmentier, F; Daveau, M; Salier, J P

2000-01-01

278

41 CFR 302-3.200 - When a member of my immediate family who is also an employee and I are transferring to the same...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... true When a member of my immediate family who is also an employee and I are transferring...Relocation of Two Or More Employed Immediate Family Members § 302-3.200 When a member of my immediate family who is also an employee and I are...

2013-07-01

279

41 CFR 302-3.202 - If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same official station, may we both claim...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2012-07-01 true If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same...allowances for the same non-employee family member? 302-3.202 Section 302-3...Relocation of Two Or More Employed Immediate Family Members § 302-3.202 If my...

2013-07-01

280

Aberrant over-expression of a forkhead family member, FOXO1A, in a brain tumor cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The mammalian FOXO (forkhead box, O subclass) proteins are a family of pleiotropic transcription factors involved in the regulation of a broad range of cellular processes critical for survival. Despite the essential and diverse roles of the FOXO family members in human cells and their involvement in tumor pathogenesis, the regulation of FOXO expression remains poorly understood. We have

Peter B Dallas; Simone Egli; Philippa A Terry; Ursula R Kees

2007-01-01

281

UNC study finds cancer gene family member functions key to cell adhesion and migration  

Cancer.gov

While cancer researchers are learning more of WTX and how its loss contributes to cancer formation, virtually nothing is known of FAM123C or FAM123A, the latter of which is a highly abundant protein within neurons, cells that receive and send messages from the body to the brain and back to the body. A UNC-led team of scientists used sophisticated technologies to identify and describe the protein interactions that distinguish each member of the WTX family. They found that unlike WTX and FAM123C, FAM123A interacts with a specific set of proteins that regulates cell adhesion and migration, processes essential to normal cell functioning and which, when mutated, contribute to human diseases such as cancer or Alzheimer’s.

282

Lizards Cooperatively Tunnel to Construct a Long-Term Home for Family Members  

PubMed Central

Constructing a home to protect offspring while they mature is common in many vertebrate groups, but has not previously been reported in lizards. Here we provide the first example of a lizard that constructs a long-term home for family members, and a rare case of lizards behaving cooperatively. The great desert skink, Liopholis kintorei from Central Australia, constructs an elaborate multi-tunnelled burrow that can be continuously occupied for up to 7 years. Multiple generations participate in construction and maintenance of burrows. Parental assignments based on DNA analysis show that immature individuals within the same burrow were mostly full siblings, even when several age cohorts were present. Parents were always captured at burrows containing their offspring, and females were only detected breeding with the same male both within- and across seasons. Consequently, the individual investments made to construct or maintain a burrow system benefit their own offspring, or siblings, over several breeding seasons.

McAlpin, Steve; Duckett, Paul; Stow, Adam

2011-01-01

283

S6K2: The Neglected S6 Kinase Family Member  

PubMed Central

S6 kinase 2 (S6K2) is a member of the AGC kinases super-family. Its closest homolog, S6K1, has been extensively studied along the years. However, due to the belief in the community that the high degree of identity between these two isoforms would translate in essentially identical biological functions, S6K2 has been largely neglected. Nevertheless, recent research has clearly highlighted that these two proteins significantly differ in their roles in vitro as well as in vivo. These findings are significant to our understanding of S6 kinase signaling and the development of therapeutic strategies for several diseases including cancer. Here, we will focus on S6K2 and review the protein–protein interactions and specific substrates that determine the selective functions of this kinase.

Pardo, Olivier E.; Seckl, Michael J.

2013-01-01

284

Yip1 domain family, member 6 (Yipf6) mutation induces spontaneous intestinal inflammation in mice  

PubMed Central

Using an environmentally sensitized genetic screen we identified mutations that cause inflammatory colitis in mice. The X-linked Klein-Zschocher (KLZ) mutation created a null allele of Yipf6, a member of a gene family believed to regulate vesicular transport in yeast, but without known functions in mammals. Yipf6 is a five transmembrane-spanning protein associated with Golgi compartments. Klein-Zschocher mutants were extremely sensitive to colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and developed spontaneous ileitis and colitis after 16 mo of age in specific pathogen-free housing conditions. Electron microscopy, gene expression, and immunocytochemistry analyses provided evidence that impaired intestinal homeostasis stemmed from defective formation and secretion of large secretory granules from Paneth and goblet cells. These studies support a tissue- and organ-specific function for Yipf6 in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and implicate the orthologous human gene as a disease susceptibility locus.

Brandl, Katharina; Tomisato, Wataru; Li, Xiaohong; Neppl, Christina; Pirie, Elaine; Falk, Werner; Xia, Yu; Moresco, Eva Marie Y.; Baccala, Roberto; Theofilopoulos, Argyrios N.; Schnabl, Bernd; Beutler, Bruce

2012-01-01

285

Plant members of a family of sulfate transporters reveal functional subtypes.  

PubMed

Three plant sulfate transporter cDNAs have been isolated by complementation of a yeast mutant with a cDNA library derived from the tropical forage legume Stylosanthes hamata. Two of these cDNAs, shst1 and shst2, encode high-affinity H+/sulfate cotransporters that mediate the uptake of sulfate by plant roots from low concentrations of sulfate in the soil solution. The third, shst3, represents a different subtype encoding a lower affinity H+/sulfate cotransporter, which may be involved in the internal transport of sulfate between cellular or subcellular compartments within the plant. The steady-state level of mRNA corresponding to both subtypes is subject to regulation by signals that ultimately respond to the external sulfate supply. These cDNAs represent the identification of plant members of a family of related sulfate transporter proteins whose sequences exhibit significant amino acid conservation in filamentous fungi, yeast, plants, and mammals. PMID:7568135

Smith, F W; Ealing, P M; Hawkesford, M J; Clarkson, D T

1995-09-26

286

STS-95 crew members greet families at Launch Pad 39B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-95 crew members greet their families from Launch Pad 39B. From left, they are Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., and Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, with the European Space Agency (ESA). The crew were making final preparations for launch, targeted for liftoff at 2 p.m. on Oct. 29. The mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, returning to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

1998-01-01

287

Another member of the cyclic nucleotide-gated channel family, expressed in testis, kidney, and heart.  

PubMed Central

Cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels are essential in visual and olfactory signal transduction. An additional member of the cGMP-gated channel family, termed CNG-3, has been cloned from bovine kidney. Its deduced amino acid sequence is 60% and 62% identical with the CNG-channel proteins from bovine rod outer segment and bovine olfactory epithelium, respectively. Northern analysis and sequences amplified by the PCR showed that the CNG-3 mRNA is present in testis, kidney, and heart. Calcium permeated the expressed channel in the presence of extracellular Mg2+ and Na+ at membrane potentials from -100 to +45 mV. It is likely that CNG-3 protein is responsible for cGMP-induced Ca2+ entry in cells other than sensory cells. Images

Biel, M; Zong, X; Distler, M; Bosse, E; Klugbauer, N; Murakami, M; Flockerzi, V; Hofmann, F

1994-01-01

288

Usability of a CKD Educational Website Targeted to Patients and Their Family Members  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives Web-based technology is critical to the future of healthcare. As part of the Safe Kidney Care cohort study evaluating patient safety in CKD, this study determined how effectively a representative sample of patients with CKD or family members could interpret and use the Safe Kidney Care website (www.safekidneycare.org), an informational website on safety in CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Between November of 2011 and January of 2012, persons with CKD or their family members underwent formal usability testing administered by a single interviewer with a second recording observer. Each participant was independently provided a list of 21 tasks to complete, with each task rated as either easily completed/noncritical error or critical error (user cannot complete the task without significant interviewer intervention). Results Twelve participants completed formal usability testing. Median completion time for all tasks was 17.5 minutes (range=10–44 minutes). In total, 10 participants had greater than or equal to one critical error. There were 55 critical errors in 252 tasks (22%), with the highest proportion of critical errors occurring when participants were asked to find information on treatments that may damage kidneys, find the website on the internet, increase font size, and scroll to the bottom of the webpage. Participants were generally satisfied with the content and usability of the website. Conclusions Web-based educational materials for patients with CKD should target a wide range of computer literacy levels and anticipate variability in competency in use of the computer and internet.

Zuckerman, Marni; Fink, Wanda; Hu, Peter; Yang, Shiming; Fink, Jeffrey C.

2012-01-01

289

Novel plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae from Ohio.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic studies of plasmid-mediated resistance at the Cleveland Veterans Administration Medical Center revealed that related plasmids had disseminated among members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. We studied the beta-lactamases encoded by these plasmids in Escherichia coli C600 transformants or transconjugants. Substrate and inhibition profiles of the enzymes determined by two of these plasmids suggested an activity resembling TEM-1; however, isoelectric focusing revealed a pI of 7.0. These two plasmids were originally found in a Serratia marcescens (pDS076) and an Enterobacter cloacae (pDS075) strain isolated from the same sink in the medical intensive care unit and later, in an Enterobacter cloacae (pDS142 identical to pDS076) isolate colonizing a patient in the same unit. The plasmids also carried the aminoglycoside resistance determinant, 2"-aminoglycoside nucleotidyl transferase. A 2-kilobase AvaI restriction endonuclease digestion fragment of pSD075 known to carry the beta-lactamase determinant was used as a molecular probe. This probe did not recognize sequences of any plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase tested including the recently described determinants ROB-1, TLE-1, and OXA-4-7. A TEM-1 probe derived from the 0.7-kilobase PstI-EcoRI fragment of pBR322 failed to recognize the new beta-lactamase gene. Four additional Enterobacter cloacae and two Enterobacter aerogenes strains isolated in Columbus, Ohio, have been shown to produce a pI 7.0 beta-lactamase and to carry plasmids recognized by the 2-kilobase probe. These data suggest dissemination of a novel plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase among members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in Ohio and demonstrate the development and utility of a molecular probe for the new determinant. We suggest that the novel beta-lactamase be named OHIO-1. Images

Shlaes, D M; Medeiros, A A; Kron, M A; Currie-McCumber, C; Papa, E; Vartian, C V

1986-01-01

290

Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B)  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Impaired trafficking of kAE1 causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). {yields} The interaction between kAE1 and kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is reported. {yields} The co-localization between kAE and KIF3B was detected in human kidney tissues. {yields} A marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane was observed when KIF3B was knockdown. {yields} KFI3B plays an important role in trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of {alpha}-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange and the failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells.

Duangtum, Natapol [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand) [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)] [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)] [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Limjindaporn, Thawornchai, E-mail: limjindaporn@yahoo.com [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)] [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai, E-mail: grpye@mahidol.ac.th [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)] [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

2011-09-16

291

Specific members of the Jun protein family regulate collagenase expression in response to various extracellular stimuli.  

PubMed

The transcription factor AP1 which regulates expression of collagenase in response to various extracellular signals is a multimeric complex composed of members of the Jun- and Fos families. To examine the biological role of the various components in signal transduction we analyzed the expression of two of them (cJun, JunB) and collagenase in response to phorbol esters, cAMP and TGF-beta. While all three genes are induced by phorbol ester and TGF-beta only JunB is induced by cAMP. In contrast expression of cJun and collagenase is reduced by cAMP indicating that cJun and JunB are not coordinately regulated. In addition JunB is not an efficient activator of the cJun and collagenase promoters although both cJun and JunB exhibit similar DNA binding properties, indicating that the differences in biological activity is due to differences in their activation domains. Our results imply that enhanced expression of collagenase (and cJun) depends on the activation of cJun. Expression of cJun and collagenase is inhibited under certain conditions of high levels of JunB. This suggests a negative regulatory function of JunB which greatly expands the potential of the Jun protein family in changing the transcription of specific genes involved in triggering complex biological processes. PMID:1336108

Angel, P; Karin, M

1992-01-01

292

Neutral lipids in the study of relationships of members of the family micrococcaceae.  

PubMed

The organisms studied were those of the family Micrococcaceae which cannot participate in genetic exchange with Micrococcus luteus and those whose biochemical and physiological characteristics appear to bridge the genera Staphylococcus and Micrococcus. The hydrocarbon compositions of M. luteus ATCC 4698 and Micrococcus sp. ATCC 398 were shown to be similar to those previously reported for many M. luteus strains, consisting of isomers of branched monoolefins in the range C25 to C31. However, Micrococcus sp. ATCC 398 differed somewhat by having almost all C29 isomers (approximately 88% of the hydrocarbon composition). Micrococcus spp. ATCC 401 and ATCC 146 and M. roseus strains ATCC 412, ATCC 416, and ATCC 516 contained the same type of hydrocarbon patterns, but the predominant hydrocarbons were within a lower distribution range (C23 to C27), similar to Micrococcus sp. ATCC 533 previously reported. The chromatographic profile and carbon range of the hydrocarbons of an atypical strain designated M. candicans ATCC 8456 differed significantly from the hydrocarbon pattern presented above. The hydrocarbons were identified as branched and normal olefins in the range C16 to C22. Studies of several different strains of staphylococci revealed that these organisms do not contain readily detectable amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The members of the family Micrococcaceae have been divided into two major groups based on the presence or absence of hydrocarbons. With the exception of M. candicans ATCC 8456, this division corresponded to the separation of these organisms according to their deoxyribonucleic acid compositions. PMID:5122809

Morrison, S J; Tornabene, T G; Kloos, W E

1971-10-01

293

NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase: Prototypic Member of the Diflavin Reductase Family  

PubMed Central

NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), two members of the diflavin oxidoreductase family, are multi-domain enzymes containing distinct FAD and FMN domains connected by a flexible hinge. FAD accepts a hydride ion from NADPH, and reduced FAD donates electrons to FMN, which in turn transfers electrons to the heme center of cytochrome P450 or NOS oxygenase domain. Structural analysis of CYPOR, the prototype of this enzyme family, has revealed the exact nature of the domain arrangement and the role of residues involved in cofactor binding. Recent structural and biophysical studies of CYPOR have shown that the two flavin domains undergo large domain movements during catalysis. NOS isoforms contain additional regulatory elements within the reductase domain that control electron transfer through Ca2+-dependent calmodulin (CaM) binding. The recent crystal structure of an iNOS Ca2+/CaM-FMN construct, containing the FMN domain in complex with Ca2+/CaM, provided structural information on the linkage between the reductase and oxgenase domains of NOS, making it possible to model the holo iNOS structure. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the dynamics of domain movements during CYPOR catalysis and the role of the NOS diflavin reductase domain in the regulation of NOS isozyme activities.

Iyanagi, Takashi; Xia, Chuanwu; Kim, Jung-Ja P.

2012-01-01

294

SLE like syndrome and functional deficiency of C1q in members of a large family.  

PubMed Central

Two sisters and a brother from one family are described whose sera were deficient in haemolytic complement function. This defect was restored by addition of purified C1q. In their sera, C1q like material was found, whereas C1r and C1s were normal or increased in concentration, as were the other complement components tested. All three had suffered from glomerulonephritis during childhood. A renal biopsy in the brother recently disclosed a membranous glomerulopathy stage 1; otherwise, he is apparently healthy. In both sisters, a systemic lupus erythematosus like disease became manifest at the age of 20 and 23, respectively, resulting in the death of one of them. In the serum of these three family members, the C1q like material was antigenically deficient compared with normal C1q and had, on sucrose gradient analysis, a molecular weight of approximately 65,000 daltons. It did not bind to C1r and C1s. Binding of the dysfunctional C1q to aggregated human gammaglobulin could be demonstrated. On double immunodiffusion analysis, the abnormal C1q was identical with reduced and alkylated C1q. The possible structure of the abnormal C1q molecule is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2

Hannema, A J; Kluin-Nelemans, J C; Hack, C E; Eerenberg-Belmer, A J; Mallee, C; van Helden, H P

1984-01-01

295

Organic anion transporter (Slc22a) family members as mediators of toxicity.  

PubMed

Exposure of the body to toxic organic anions is unavoidable and occurs from both intentional and unintentional sources. Many hormones, neurotransmitters, and waste products of cellular metabolism, or their metabolites, are organic anions. The same is true for a wide variety of medications, herbicides, pesticides, plant and animal toxins, and industrial chemicals and solvents. Rapid and efficient elimination of these substances is often the body's best defense for limiting both systemic exposure and the duration of their pharmacological or toxicological effects. For organic anions, active transepithelial transport across the renal proximal tubule followed by elimination via the urine is a major pathway in this detoxification process. Accordingly, a large number of organic anion transport proteins belonging to several different gene families have been identified and found to be expressed in the proximal nephron. The function of these transporters, in combination with the high volume of renal blood flow, predisposes the kidney to increased toxic susceptibility. Understanding how the kidney mediates the transport of organic anions is integral to achieving desired therapeutic outcomes in response to drug interactions and chemical exposures, to understanding the progression of some disease states, and to predicting the influence of genetic variation upon these processes. This review will focus on the organic anion transporter (OAT) family and discuss the known members, their mechanisms of action, subcellular localization, and current evidence implicating their function as a determinant of the toxicity of certain endogenous and xenobiotic agents. PMID:15845414

Sweet, Douglas H

2005-05-01

296

Expressed emotion and interdependence in White and Latino/Hispanic family members of patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

This study examined associations among ethnicity, expressed emotion (EE) and interdependence in a sample of 41 Latino/Hispanic and White family members of patients with schizophrenia. EE was assessed using both the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI) and the Five Minute Speech Sample (FMSS). These measures were found to be highly concordant for rating EE. However, the CFI appears to identify high EE more often than does the FMSS. Whites were designated as high EE significantly more often than were Latinos/Hispanics, regardless of assessment method. Using the interdependence subscale of the Self-Construal Scale, we found a strong trend for Latino/Hispanics to report a more interdependent self-construal than did Whites. However, contrary to expectations, interdependence was not found to mediate the relationship between ethnicity and EE. EE and interdependence may both play a role in the better course of illness observed for patients from traditional cultures. However, these two constructs may relate to patient functioning through different mechanisms. PMID:17391775

Weisman de Mamani, Amy G; Kymalainen, Jennifer A; Rosales, Grace A; Armesto, Jorge C

2007-05-30

297

Expressed emotion and interdependence in White and Latino/Hispanic family members of patients with schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

This study examined associations among ethnicity, expressed emotion (EE) and interdependence in a sample of 41 Latino/Hispanic and White family members of patients with schizophrenia. EE was assessed using both the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI) and the Five Minute Speech sample (FMSS). These measures were found to be highly concordant for rating EE. However, the CFI appears to identify high EE more often than does the FMSS. Whites were designated as high EE significantly more often than were Latinos/Hispanics, regardless of assessment method. Using the interdependence subscale of the Self Construal Scale, we found a strong trend for Latino/Hispanics to report a more interdependent self-construal than did Whites. However, contrary to expectations, interdependence was not found to mediate the relationship between ethnicity and EE. EE and interdependence may both play a role in the better course of illness observed for patients from traditional cultures. However, these two constructs may relate to patient functioning through different mechanisms.

Weisman d Mamani, Amy G.; Kymalainen, Jennifer A.; Rosales, Grace A.; Armesto, Jorge C.

2007-01-01

298

Two molluscan BCL-2 family members from Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum: molecular characterization and immune responses.  

PubMed

Apoptosis based immune responses are important component of host defense in mollusks. In this study, we have identified two novel molluscan BCL-2 cDNAs from Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum and named as RpBCL-2A and RpBCL-2B. There were four and three highly conserved BCL-2 homology (BH) regions in RpBCL-2A and RpBCL-2B, respectively suggesting these two genes could be different isoforms of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family. Phylogenetic results revealed that Manila clam BCL-2 genes were clustered closely with invertebrate BCL-2 members. It gives evidence of their common origin and conserved features of invertebrate BCL-2 family. RpBCL-2A and 2B were expressed in tissue-specific manner showing the highest and lowest level of expression in gills and hemocytes, respectively. However there was no clear expression profile difference between two genes. After Vibrio tapetis challenge, transcriptional responses of RpBCL-2A and RpBCL-2B were induced in gills and hemocytes with high variation that could be due to effects of immune reactions of other host defense molecules. PMID:23558058

Lee, Youngdeuk; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Sukkyoung; Menike, Udeni; Oh, Chulhong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Heo, Gang-Joon; Lee, Jehee; De Zoysa, Mahanama

2013-06-01

299

The expression of leucine-rich repeat gene family members in colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the association of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) gene family with colorectal cancer (CRC). The expression of members of the LRR gene family were analyzed in 17 CRC specimens and in 59 healthy colorectal tissues by using Human Exon1.0ST microarray, and in 25 CRC specimens and 32 healthy colorectal tissues by U133Plus2.0 microarray. An association was found for 25 genes belonging to the plant-specific (PS) class of LRR genes (P = 0.05 for Exon1.0 ST and P = 0.04 for U133Plus2.0). In both data-sets, in CRC, we found down-regulation of SHOC2 (P < 0.00003) and LRRC28 (P < 0.01) and up-regulation of LRSAM1 (P < 0.000001), while up-regulation of MFHAS1 (P = 0.0005) and down-regulation of WDFY3 (P = 0.026) were found only in the Exon1.0 ST data-set. The PS LLR gene class encodes proteins that activate immune cells and might play a key role in programmed cell death and autophagy. SHOC2 and LRRC28 genes involved in RAS-mediated signaling, which hinders nutrient deprivation-induced autophagy, might be a possible link between the negative control of autophagy and tumorigenesis. PMID:23045723

Piepoli, Ada; Palmieri, Orazio; Maglietta, Rosalia; Panza, Anna; Cattaneo, Elisa; Latiano, Anna; Laczko, Endre; Gentile, Annamaria; Carella, Massimo; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Ancona, Nicola; Marra, Giancarlo; Andriulli, Angelo

2012-10-01

300

Crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima 0065, a member of the IclR transcriptional factor family.  

PubMed

Members of the IclR family of transcription regulators modulate signal-dependent expression of genes involved in carbon metabolism in bacteria and archaea. The Thermotoga maritima TM0065 gene codes for a protein (TM-IclR) that is homologous to the IclR family. We have determined the crystal structure of TM-IclR at 2.2 A resolution using MAD phasing and synchrotron radiation. The protein is composed of two domains: the N-terminal DNA-binding domain contains the winged helix-turn-helix motif, and the C-terminal presumed regulatory domain is involved in binding signal molecule. In a proposed signal-binding site, a bound Zn(2+) ion was found. In the crystal, TM-IclR forms a dimer through interactions between DNA-binding domains. In the dimer, the DNA-binding domains are 2-fold related, but the dimer is asymmetric with respect to the orientation of signal-binding domains. Crystal packing analysis showed that TM-IclR dimers form a tetramer through interactions exclusively by signal-binding domains. A model is proposed for binding of IclR-like factors to DNA, and it suggests that signal-dependent transcription regulation is accomplished by affecting an oligomerization state of IclR and therefore its affinity for DNA target. PMID:11877432

Zhang, Rong-Guang; Kim, Youngchang; Skarina, Tatiana; Beasley, Steven; Laskowski, Roman; Arrowsmith, Cheryl; Edwards, Aled; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Savchenko, Alexei

2002-05-24

301

Structure and T-cell inhibition properties of B7 family member, B7-H3  

PubMed Central

Summary T-cell activity is controlled by a combination of antigen-dependent signaling through the T-cell receptor and a set of auxiliary signals delivered through antigen-independent interactions, including the recognition of the B7 family of ligands. B7-H3 is a recently identified B7 family member that is strongly overexpressed in a range of cancers and correlates with poor prognosis. We report the crystal structure of murine B7-H3 at a 3-Ĺ resolution, which provides a model for the organization of the IgV and IgC domains within the ectodomain. We demonstrate that B7-H3 inhibits T-cell proliferation and show that the FG loop of the IgV domain plays a critical role in this function. B7-H3 crystallized as an unusual dimer arising from the exchange of the G strands in the IgV domains of partner molecules. This arrangement, in combination with previous reports, highlights the dynamic nature and plasticity of the immunoglobulin fold.

Vigdorovich, Vladimir; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Lazar-Molnar, Eszter; Sylvestre, Eliezer; Lee, Jun Sik; Hofmeyer, Kimberly A.; Zang, Xingxing; Nathenson, Stanley G.; Almo, Steven C.

2013-01-01

302

Exploring the nature of interprofessional collaboration and family member involvement in an intensive care context.  

PubMed

Little is known about the nature of interprofessional collaboration on intensive care units (ICUs), despite its recognition as a key component of patient safety and quality improvement initiatives. This comparative ethnographic study addresses this gap in knowledge and explores the different factors that influence collaborative work in the ICU. It aims to develop an empirically grounded team diagnostic tool, and associated interventions to strengthen team-based care and patient family involvement. This iterative study is comprised of three phases: a scoping review, a multi-site ethnographic study in eight ICUs over 2 years; and the development of a diagnostic tool and associated interprofessional intervention-development. This study's multi-site design and the richness and breadth of its data maximize its potential to improve clinical outcomes through an enhanced understanding of interprofessional dynamics and how patient family members in ICU settings are best included in care processes. Our research dissemination strategy, as well as the diagnostic tool and associated educational interventions developed from this study will help transfer the study's findings to other settings. PMID:23672585

Paradis, Elise; Reeves, Scott; Leslie, Myles; Aboumatar, Hanan; Chesluk, Ben; Clark, Philip; Courtenay, Molly; Franck, Linda; Lamb, Gerri; Lyndon, Audrey; Mesman, Jessica; Puntillo, Kathleen; Schmitt, Mattie; van Soeren, Mary; Wachter, Bob; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Gropper, Michael; Kitto, Simon

2014-01-01

303

Sinibacillus soli gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately thermotolerant member of the family Bacillaceae.  

PubMed

Two Gram-staining-positive, rod-shaped and endospore-forming bacteria that represent a single species, designated strains GD05(T) and GD051, were isolated from a tropical forest soil and a hot spring sediment, respectively. Cells of both strains were facultatively anaerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, and could grow optimally at 50 °C, pH 8.0 and with 1?% (w/v) NaCl. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that these two isolates belonged to the family Bacillaceae, but did not show sequence similarities of more than 95?% to members of other related genera. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 43.7-44.1 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15?:?0, iso-C15?:?0, iso-C16?:?0 and anteiso-C17?:?0. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol, and the major menaquinone was MK-7. The peptidoglycan type was A1? (meso-diaminopimelic acid direct). On the basis of this polyphasic taxonomic analysis, the novel strains represent a novel species of a new genus in the family Bacillaceae, order Bacillales, for which the name Sinibacillus soli gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is GD05(T) (?=?CCTCC AB 2013105(T)?=?KCTC 33117(T)). PMID:24510979

Yang, Guiqin; Zhou, Shungui

2014-05-01

304

Neutral Lipids in the Study of Relationships of Members of the Family Micrococcaceae1  

PubMed Central

The organisms studied were those of the family Micrococcaceae which cannot participate in genetic exchange with Micrococcus luteus and those whose biochemical and physiological characteristics appear to bridge the genera Staphylococcus and Micrococcus. The hydrocarbon compositions of M. luteus ATCC 4698 and Micrococcus sp. ATCC 398 were shown to be similar to those previously reported for many M. luteus strains, consisting of isomers of branched monoolefins in the range C25 to C31. However, Micrococcus sp. ATCC 398 differed somewhat by having almost all C29 isomers (approximately 88% of the hydrocarbon composition). Micrococcus spp. ATCC 401 and ATCC 146 and M. roseus strains ATCC 412, ATCC 416, and ATCC 516 contained the same type of hydrocarbon patterns, but the predominant hydrocarbons were within a lower distribution range (C23 to C27), similar to Micrococcus sp. ATCC 533 previously reported. The chromatographic profile and carbon range of the hydrocarbons of an atypical strain designated M. candicans ATCC 8456 differed significantly from the hydrocarbon pattern presented above. The hydrocarbons were identified as branched and normal olefins in the range C16 to C22. Studies of several different strains of staphylococci revealed that these organisms do not contain readily detectable amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The members of the family Micrococcaceae have been divided into two major groups based on the presence or absence of hydrocarbons. With the exception of M. candicans ATCC 8456, this division corresponded to the separation of these organisms according to their deoxyribonucleic acid compositions.

Morrison, Susan J.; Tornabene, T. G.; Kloos, Wesley E.

1971-01-01

305

Characterization of a novel ?-L-arabinofuranosidase in Bifidobacterium longum: functional elucidation of a DUF1680 protein family member.  

PubMed

Pfam DUF1680 (PF07944) is an uncharacterized protein family conserved in many species of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, and plants. Previously, we cloned and characterized the hypBA2 gene as a ?-L-arabinobiosidase in Bifidobacterium longum JCM 1217. In this study, we cloned a DUF1680 family member, the hypBA1 gene, which constitutes a gene cluster with hypBA2. HypBA1 is a novel ?-L-arabinofuranosidase that liberates L-arabinose from the L-arabinofuranose (Araf)-?1,2-Araf disaccharide. HypBA1 also transglycosylates 1-alkanols with retention of the anomeric configuration. Mutagenesis and azide rescue experiments indicated that Glu-338 is a critical residue for catalytic activity. This study provides the first characterization of a DUF1680 family member, which defines a new family of glycoside hydrolases, the glycoside hydrolase family 127. PMID:24385433

Fujita, Kiyotaka; Takashi, Yukari; Obuchi, Eriko; Kitahara, Kanefumi; Suganuma, Toshihiko

2014-02-21

306

Characterization of a novel ?-L-Arabinofuranosidase in Bifidobacterium longum: functional elucidation of A DUF1680 family member.  

PubMed

Pfam DUF1680 (PF07944) is an uncharacterized protein family conserved in many species of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, and plants. In a previous article, we cloned and characterized the hypBA2 gene as a ?-l-arabinobiosidase in Bifidobacterium longum JCM 1217. In this study, we cloned a DUF1680 family member, the hypBA1 gene, which constitutes a gene cluster with hypBA2. HypBA1 is a novel ?-l-arabinofuranosidase that liberates l-arabinose from the l-arabinofuranose (Araf)-?1,2-Araf disaccharide. HypBA1 also transglycosylates 1-alkanols with retention of the anomeric configuration. Mutagenesis and azide rescue experiments indicated that Glu-366 is a critical residue for catalytic activity. This report provides the first characterization of a DUF1680 family member, which defines a new family of glycoside hydrolases, the GH family 127. PMID:21914802

Fujita, Kiyotaka; Takashi, Yukari; Obuchi, Eriko; Kitahara, Kanefumi; Suganuma, Toshihiko

2011-11-01

307

Ultrastructural Analysis of the Rugose Cell Envelope of a Member of the Pasteurellaceae Family  

PubMed Central

Bacterial membranes serve as selective environmental barriers and contain determinants required for bacterial colonization and survival. Cell envelopes of Gram-negative bacteria consist of an outer and an inner membrane separated by a periplasmic space. Most Gram-negative bacteria display a smooth outer surface (e.g., Enterobacteriaceae), whereas members of the Pasteurellaceae and Moraxellaceae families show convoluted surfaces. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, an oral pathogen representative of the Pasteurellaceae family, displays a convoluted membrane morphology. This phenotype is associated with the presence of morphogenesis protein C (MorC). Inactivation of the morC gene results in a smooth membrane appearance when visualized by two-dimensional (2D) electron microscopy. In this study, 3D electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy of whole-mount bacterial preparations as well as 3D electron microscopy of ultrathin sections of high-pressure frozen and freeze-substituted specimens were used to characterize the membranes of both wild-type and morC mutant strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Our results show that the mutant strain contains fewer convolutions than the wild-type bacterium, which exhibits a higher curvature of the outer membrane and a periplasmic space with 2-fold larger volume/area ratio than the mutant bacterium. The inner membrane of both strains has a smooth appearance and shows connections with the outer membrane, as revealed by visualization and segmentation of 3D tomograms. The present studies and the availability of genetically modified organisms with altered outer membrane morphology make A. actinomycetemcomitans a model organism for examining membrane remodeling and its implications in antibiotic resistance and virulence in the Pasteurellaceae and Moraxellaceae bacterial families.

Azari, Fereshteh; Nyland, Lori; Yu, Chunxiao; Radermacher, Michael; Mintz, Keith P.

2013-01-01

308

Members of the Hyposoter didymator Ichnovirus repeat element gene family are differentially expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda  

PubMed Central

Background The abundance and the conservation of the repeated element (rep) genes in Ichnoviruses genomes suggest that this gene family plays an important role in viral cycles. In the Ichnovirus associated with the wasp Hyposoter didymator, named HdIV, 10 rep genes were identified to date. In this work, we report a relative quantitative transcription study of these HdIV rep genes in several tissues of the lepidopteran host Spodoptera frugiperda as well as in the H. didymator wasps. Results The data obtained in this work indicate that, in the early phases of infection (24 hours), HdIV rep genes each display different levels of transcripts in parasitized 2nd instar or HdIV-injected last instar S. frugiperda larvae. Only one, rep1, is significantly transcribed in female wasps. Transcript levels of the HdIV rep genes were found as not correlated to their copy number in HdIV genome. Our results also show that HdIV rep genes display different tissue specificity, and that they are primarily transcribed in S. frugiperda fat body and cuticular epithelium. Conclusion This work is the first quantitative analysis of transcription of the ichnovirus rep gene family, and the first investigation on a correlation between transcript levels and gene copy numbers in Ichnoviruses. Our data indicate that, despite similar gene copy numbers, not all the members of this gene family are significantly transcribed 24 hours after infection in lepidopteran larvae. Additionally, our data show that, as opposed to other described HdIV genes, rep genes are little transcribed in hemocytes, thus suggesting that they are not directly associated with the disruption of the immune response but rather involved in other physiological alterations of the infected lepidopteran larva.

Galibert, L; Devauchelle, G; Cousserans, F; Rocher, J; Cerutti, P; Barat-Houari, M; Fournier, P; Volkoff, AN

2006-01-01

309

The psychological consequences of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training for family members of patients at risk for sudden death.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine psychological consequences of teaching cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to family members of patients at risk for sudden death. METHODS: Patient-family pairs (n = 337) were randomized into one of four groups: control, CPR only, CPR with cardiac risk factor education, and CPR with a social support intervention. Only family members received CPR training. Data on emotional state and psychosocial adjustment to illness were collected at baseline, 2 weeks, and 3 and 6 months following CPR training. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the emotional states of family members across the four groups. However, significant differences in psychosocial adjustment and emotional states occurred in patients across treatment groups following CPR training. Patients whose family members learned CPR with the social support intervention reported better psychosocial adjustment and less anxiety and hostility than patients in the other groups. Control patients reported better psychosocial adjustment and less emotional distress than patients in the CPR-only and CPR-education groups. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support tailoring family CPR training so that instruction does not result in negative psychological states in patients. The findings also illustrate the efficacy of a simple intervention that combines CPR training with social support.

Dracup, K; Moser, D K; Taylor, S E; Guzy, P M

1997-01-01

310

Co-ordinate regulation of cytokinin gene family members during flag leaf and reproductive development in wheat  

PubMed Central

Background As the global population continues to expand, increasing yield in bread wheat is of critical importance as 20% of the world’s food supply is sourced from this cereal. Several recent studies of the molecular basis of grain yield indicate that the cytokinins are a key factor in determining grain yield. In this study, cytokinin gene family members in bread wheat were isolated from four multigene families which regulate cytokinin synthesis and metabolism, the isopentenyl transferases (IPT), cytokinin oxidases (CKX), zeatin O-glucosyltransferases (ZOG), and ?-glucosidases (GLU). As bread wheat is hexaploid, each gene family is also likely to be represented on the A, B and D genomes. By using a novel strategy of qRT-PCR with locus-specific primers shared among the three homoeologues of each family member, detailed expression profiles are provided of family members of these multigene families expressed during leaf, spike and seed development. Results The expression patterns of individual members of the IPT, CKX, ZOG, and GLU multigene families in wheat are shown to be tissue- and developmentally-specific. For instance, TaIPT2 and TaCKX1 were the most highly expressed family members during early seed development, with relative expression levels of up to 90- and 900-fold higher, respectively, than those in the lowest expressed samples. The expression of two cis-ZOG genes was sharply increased in older leaves, while an extremely high mRNA level of TaGLU1-1 was detected in young leaves. Conclusions Key genes with tissue- and developmentally-specific expression have been identified which would be prime targets for genetic manipulation towards yield improvement in bread wheat breeding programmes, utilising TILLING and MAS strategies.

2012-01-01

311

Identification of a novel member of the CLIC family, CLIC6, mapping to 21q22.12.  

PubMed

Five members of the newly identified chloride intracellular channel (CLIC) gene family of intracellular chloride channels (CLIC1-CLIC5) have previously been described in humans. Here we report the molecular cloning and initial characterisation of two splice forms of a novel member of this family, CLIC6, mapping to human chromosome 21. Two essential features distinguish CLIC6 from other members of the family. The CLIC6 protein is significantly longer and the CLIC6 gene contains a GC rich segment, which encodes a 10 amino acid motif repeated 14 times in the amino-terminus. Surprisingly, the repeat is conserved in the lagomorphs, but not in the rodents lineage. The putative bovine orthologue of CLIC5, p64, also exhibits a repeated motif, which is different from that of CLIC6. Attempts to functionally characterise CLIC6 by voltage clamp failed to show any chloride channel activity. Hence, the exact function of this protein remains unknown. PMID:14597386

Friedli, Marc; Guipponi, Michel; Bertrand, Sonia; Bertrand, Daniel; Neerman-Arbez, Marguerite; Scott, Hamish S; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Reymond, Alexandre

2003-11-27

312

Noxa, a BH3Only Member of the Bcl2 Family and Candidate Mediator of p53Induced Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical function of tumor suppressor p53 is the induction of apoptosis in cells exposed to noxious stresses. We report a previously unidentified pro-apoptotic gene, Noxa. Expression of Noxa induction in primary mouse cells exposed to x-ray irradiation was dependent on p53. Noxa encodes a Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins; this member contains the

Eri Oda; Rieko Ohki; Hideki Murasawa; Jiro Nemoto; Tsukasa Shibue; Toshiharu Yamashita; Takashi Tokino; Tadatsugu Taniguchi; Nobuyuki Tanaka

2000-01-01

313

PchC thioesterase optimizes nonribosomal biosynthesis of the peptide siderophore pyochelin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the antibiotic dihydroaeruginoate (Dha) and the siderophore pyochelin are produced from salicylate and cysteine by a thiotemplate mechanism involving the peptide synthetases PchE and PchF. A thioesterase encoded by the pchC gene was found to be necessary for maximal production of both Dha and pyochelin, but it was not required for Dha release from PchE and could not replace the thioesterase function specified by the C-terminal domain of PchF. In vitro, 2-aminobutyrate, a cysteine analog, was adenylated by purified PchE and PchF proteins. In vivo, this analog strongly interfered with Dha and pyochelin formation in a pchC deletion mutant but affected production of these metabolites only slightly in the wild type. Exogenously supplied cysteine overcame the negative effect of a pchC mutation to a large extent, whereas addition of salicylate did not. These data are in agreement with a role for PchC as an editing enzyme that removes wrongly charged molecules from the peptidyl carrier protein domains of PchE and PchF. PMID:15375116

Reimmann, Cornelia; Patel, Hiten M; Walsh, Christopher T; Haas, Dieter

2004-10-01

314

PchC Thioesterase Optimizes Nonribosomal Biosynthesis of the Peptide Siderophore Pyochelin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the antibiotic dihydroaeruginoate (Dha) and the siderophore pyochelin are produced from salicylate and cysteine by a thiotemplate mechanism involving the peptide synthetases PchE and PchF. A thioesterase encoded by the pchC gene was found to be necessary for maximal production of both Dha and pyochelin, but it was not required for Dha release from PchE and could not replace the thioesterase function specified by the C-terminal domain of PchF. In vitro, 2-aminobutyrate, a cysteine analog, was adenylated by purified PchE and PchF proteins. In vivo, this analog strongly interfered with Dha and pyochelin formation in a pchC deletion mutant but affected production of these metabolites only slightly in the wild type. Exogenously supplied cysteine overcame the negative effect of a pchC mutation to a large extent, whereas addition of salicylate did not. These data are in agreement with a role for PchC as an editing enzyme that removes wrongly charged molecules from the peptidyl carrier protein domains of PchE and PchF.

Reimmann, Cornelia; Patel, Hiten M.; Walsh, Christopher T.; Haas, Dieter

2004-01-01

315

Global analysis of target genes of 21 members of the ZAD transcription factor family in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

The zinc-finger associated domain (ZAD) family is the largest transcription factor family in dipteran insects. Still, their functional significance is barely recognized in the literature due in part to their resistance to mutagenesis screens in genetic studies. Therefore, we employed in vitro techniques to identify the DNA-binding characteristics of several members of the Drosophila melanogaster ZAD family in an effort to study their target genes. In this comprehensive investigation, we constructed a panel of GST-Zinc finger (ZnF) array chimera from 21 selected ZAD proteins and used them to select binding sites from an oligonucleotide library by employing electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). Samples of the binding population were sequenced and used to derive DNA-binding consensus sequence for each member. These consensus sequences were tested for complex formation with their respective protein chimera and the specificity of binding ascertained by competition EMSA. Bioinformatics tools were used to identify potential genetic targets. The identified consensus sequences were distinct for each member and the putative genomic targets were clustered in the regulatory regions of specific genes. This appears to be consistent with a conservation of function between members and also suggests that the overlapping functions of ZAD proteins are the result of positive selection to maintain redundancy and not simply artifacts of recent expansion. Putative target genes suggest a major role of the ZAD family members in the regulation of several early developmental genes including homeobox transcription factors.

Krystel, Joseph; Ayyanathan, Kasirajan

2012-01-01

316

A new member of the cytokine receptor gene family maps on chromosome 21 at less than 35 kb from IFNAR  

SciTech Connect

A full-length cDNA corresponding to a gene mapping to the D21S58 locus was cloned. The encoded protein, called CRF2-4, was shown to be a typical class II member of the cytokine receptor family. The gene encoding CRF2-4 spans more than 30 kb. Its intron/exon structure was determined and shown to be conserved with all other members of the cytokine receptor family. The physical distance between the CRF2-4 gene and its IFNAR neighbor has been narrowed to less than 35 kb. 41 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Lutfalla, G.; Uze, G. [Lab. of Viral Oncology, Villejuif (France)] [Lab. of Viral Oncology, Villejuif (France); Gardiner, K. [Eleanor Roosevelt Institute for Cancer Research, Denver, CO (United States)] [Eleanor Roosevelt Institute for Cancer Research, Denver, CO (United States)

1993-05-01

317

Financial abuse of older people by a family member: a difficult terrain for service providers in australia.  

PubMed

Financial abuse by a family member is the most common form of abuse experienced by older Australians, and early intervention is required. National online surveys of 228 chief executive officers and 214 aged care service providers found that, while they were well placed to recognize financial abuse, it was often difficult to intervene successfully. Problems providers encountered included difficulties in detecting abuse, the need for consent before they could take action, the risk that the abusive family member would withdraw the client from the service, and a lack of resources to deal with the complexities inherent in situations of financial abuse. PMID:24779540

Adams, Valerie Margaret; Bagshaw, Dale; Wendt, Sarah; Zannettino, Lana

2014-01-01

318

Complete sequence and genetic characterization of Raspberry latent virus, a novel member of the family Reoviridae.  

PubMed

A new virus isolated from red raspberry plants and detected in the main production areas in northern Washington State, USA and British Columbia, Canada was fully sequenced and found to be a novel member of the family Reoviridae. The virus was designated as Raspberry latent virus (RpLV) based on the fact that it is symptomless when present in single infections in several Rubus virus indicators and commercial raspberry cultivars. RpLV genome is 26,128 nucleotides (nt) divided into 10 dsRNA segments. The length of the genomic segments (S) was similar to those of other reoviruses ranging from 3948 nt (S1) to 1141 nt (S10). All of the segments, except S8, have the conserved terminal sequences 5'-AGUU----GAAUAC-3'. A point mutation at each terminus of S8 resulted in the sequences 5'-AGUA----GAUUAC-3'. Inverted repeats adjacent to each conserved terminus as well as stem loops and extended pan handles were identified by analyses of secondary structures of the non-coding sequences. All segments, except S3 and S10, contained a single open reading frame (ORF) on the positive sense RNAs. Two out-of-frame overlapping ORFs were identified in segments S3 (ORF S3a and S3b) and S10 (ORF S10a and S10b). Amino acid (aa) alignments of the putative proteins encoded by the main ORF in each segment revealed a high identity to several proteins encoded by reoviruses from different genera including Oryzavirus, Cypovirus, and Dinovernavirus. Alignments of the polymerase, the most conserved protein among reoviruses, revealed a 36% aa identity between RpLV and Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV), the type member of the genus Oryzavirus, indicating that these two viruses are closely related. Phylogenetic analyses showed that RpLV clusters with members of the genera Oryzavirus, Cypovirus, Dinovernavirus and Fijivirus. These genera belong to the subfamily Spinareovirinae which includes reoviruses with spiked core particles ('turreted' reoviruses). In addition, two nucleotide binding motifs, regarded as 'signature' sequences among turreted reoviruses, were also found in RpLV P8, suggesting that RpLV is a novel dicot-infecting reovirus in the subfamily Spinareovirinae. PMID:21144872

Quito-Avila, Diego F; Jelkmann, Wilhelm; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E; Keller, Karen; Martin, Robert R

2011-02-01

319

A Conserved Role for Syndecan Family Members in the Regulation of Whole-Body Energy Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Syndecans are a family of type-I transmembrane proteins that are involved in cell-matrix adhesion, migration, neuronal development, and inflammation. Previous quantitative genetic studies pinpointed Drosophila Syndecan (dSdc) as a positional candidate gene affecting variation in fat storage between two Drosophila melanogaster strains. Here, we first used quantitative complementation tests with dSdc mutants to confirm that natural variation in this gene affects variability in Drosophila fat storage. Next, we examined the effects of a viable dSdc mutant on Drosophila whole-body energy metabolism and associated traits. We observed that young flies homozygous for the dSdc mutation had reduced fat storage and slept longer than homozygous wild-type flies. They also displayed significantly reduced metabolic rate, lower expression of spargel (the Drosophila homologue of PGC-1), and reduced mitochondrial respiration. Compared to control flies, dSdc mutants had lower expression of brain insulin-like peptides, were less fecund, more sensitive to starvation, and had reduced life span. Finally, we tested for association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human SDC4 gene and variation in body composition, metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and sleep traits in a cohort of healthy early pubertal children. We found that SNP rs4599 was significantly associated with resting energy expenditure (P?=?0.001 after Bonferroni correction) and nominally associated with fasting glucose levels (P?=?0.01) and sleep duration (P?=?0.044). On average, children homozygous for the minor allele had lower levels of glucose, higher resting energy expenditure, and slept shorter than children homozygous for the common allele. We also observed that SNP rs1981429 was nominally associated with lean tissue mass (P?=?0.035) and intra-abdominal fat (P?=?0.049), and SNP rs2267871 with insulin sensitivity (P?=?0.037). Collectively, our results in Drosophila and humans argue that syndecan family members play a key role in the regulation of body metabolism.

De Luca, Maria; Klimentidis, Yann C.; Casazza, Krista; Moses Chambers, Michelle; Cho, Ruth; Harbison, Susan T.; Jumbo-Lucioni, Patricia; Zhang, Shaoyan; Leips, Jeff; Fernandez, Jose R.

2010-01-01

320

Identification and Characterization of Genetically Divergent Members of the Newly Established Family Mesoniviridae  

PubMed Central

The recently established family Mesoniviridae (order Nidovirales) contains a single species represented by two closely related viruses, Cavally virus (CavV) and Nam Dinh virus (NDiV), which were isolated from mosquitoes collected in Côte d'Ivoire and Vietnam, respectively. They represent the first nidoviruses to be discovered in insects. Here, we report the molecular characterization of four novel mesoniviruses, Hana virus, Méno virus, Nsé virus, and Moumo virus, all of which were identified in a geographical region in Côte d'Ivoire with high CavV prevalence. The viruses were found with prevalences between 0.5 and 2.8%, and genome sequence analyses and phylogenetic studies suggest that they represent at least three novel species. Electron microscopy revealed prominent club-shaped surface projections protruding from spherical, enveloped virions of about 120 nm. Northern blot data show that the four mesoniviruses analyzed in this study produce two major 3?-coterminal subgenomic mRNAs containing two types of 5? leader sequences resulting from the use of different pairs of leader and body transcription-regulating sequences that are conserved among mesoniviruses. Protein sequencing, mass spectroscopy, and Western blot data show that mesonivirus particles contain eight major structural protein species, including the putative nucleocapsid protein (25 kDa), differentially glycosylated forms of the putative membrane protein (20, 19, 18, and 17 kDa), and the putative spike (S) protein (77 kDa), which is proteolytically cleaved at a conserved site to produce S protein subunits of 23 and 57 kDa. The data provide fundamental new insight into common and distinguishing biological properties of members of this newly identified virus family.

Zirkel, Florian; Roth, Hanna; Kurth, Andreas; Drosten, Christian; Ziebuhr, John

2013-01-01

321

Prevalence and Frequency of Problems of Concerned Family Members with a Substance Using Loved One  

PubMed Central

Background Limited research has examined the prevalence and frequency of specific problems of concerned family members and significant others (CSOs) of alcohol or substance using individuals (SUIs). Objectives We surveyed CSOs of SUIs to determine the prevalence and frequency of their problems and explored whether relationship to the SUI, gender of the CSO, or living arrangements altered problem prevalence and frequency. Method Non-substance using CSOs (N = 110) completed the Significant Other Survey, which asks about problems in seven domains (emotional; family; relationship; financial; health; violence; legal). Problem outcomes were compared based on the CSO’s relationship to the SUI (partner or spouse vs. parent), gender of the CSO (male vs. female), and living arrangements of the CSO and SUI (residing together vs. residing apart). Results Problems were prevalent with at least two-thirds of the participants endorsing one or more problems in all but the legal domain. They also occurred frequently, with CSOs reporting problems on one-third to one-half of the past 30 days, in all but the violence and legal domains. Problems tended to be greater for CSOs who were partners, females, or living with the SUI. Conclusion CSOs experience frequent problems in a wide range of life domains and the types of difficulties they experience appear to differ based on type of relationship, gender, and their living arrangement relative to the SUI. Scientific Significance This investigation expands our understanding of the specific problems that CSOs face. The findings have important implications for treatment and health policy regarding these individuals.

Benishek, Lois A.; Kirby, Kimberly C.; Dugosh, Karen Leggett

2011-01-01

322

Siphonobacter aquaeclarae gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family 'Flexibacteraceae', phylum Bacteroidetes.  

PubMed

A Gram-negative bacterium, designated P2(T), was isolated from the biofilm developed on the inner surface of an ultrapure cooling water system in a Hungarian power plant and was characterized by a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain P2(T) was affiliated with the family 'Flexibacteraceae' in the phylum Bacteroidetes. Its closest relative was Flectobacillus lacus CL-GP79(T) (88.7?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) followed by Arcicella rosea TW5(T) (86.5?%), Arcicella aquatica NO-502(T) (86.4?%), Flectobacillus roseus GFA-11(T) (86.3?%) and Flectobacillus major DSM 103(T) (85.4?%). Cells of strain P2(T) were facultatively anaerobic, non-motile rods. The major fatty acids were C(16?:?1)?5c (42.5?%), iso-C(15?:?0) 2-OH (17.2?%), iso-C(17?:?0) 3-OH (16.1?%) and iso-C(15?:?0) (8.5?%). The major menaquinone was MK-7 and the predominant polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The DNA G+C content was 54.5 mol%. Thus, the phenotypic and genotypic analyses clearly showed that strain P2(T) is considerably different from members of other genera in the family 'Flexibacteraceae'. Based on these results, it is concluded that strain P2(T) represents a novel species in a new genus, for which the name Siphonobacter aquaeclarae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain P2(T) (=DSM 21668(T) =NCAIM B 02328(T)). PMID:20008110

Táncsics, András; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Schumann, Peter; Tóth, Erika M

2010-11-01

323

Trichophyton tonsurans tinea capitis and tinea corporis: treatment and follow-up of four affected family members.  

PubMed

We report a Caucasian family of two veterinary practitioners and their two children, ages 2 years and 6 months, simultaneously infected with the dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans, causing tinea capitis and tinea corporis in the children and tinea corporis in the parents. The parents and older child were successfully treated with oral terbinafine. The infant clinically responded to treatment with topical terbinafine and ketoconazole shampoo but presented with recurrent tinea capitis 12 months later, from which T. tonsurans was cultured. At this time, scalpbrush samples from the other family members failed to culture any fungi, and neither were fungi isolated from the family hairbrushes. The infant then received oral terbinafine, resulting in clinical and mycologic cure. After a further 12 months follow-up, there has been no mycologic evidence of recurrence in any family member. PMID:11085674

Ravenscroft, J; Goodfield, M J; Evans, E G

2000-01-01

324

TBC domain family, member 15 is a novel mammalian Rab GTPase-activating protein with substrate preference for Rab7  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ypt\\/Rabs are Ras-related GTPases that function as key regulators of intracellular vesicular trafficking. Their slow intrinsic rates of GTP hydrolysis are catalyzed by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Ypt\\/Rab-GAPs constitute a family of proteins that contain a TBC (Tre-2\\/Bub2\\/Cdc16) domain. Only three of the 51 family members predicted in the human genome are confirmed Ypt\\/Rab-GAPs. Here, we report the identification and characterization

Xiang-Ming Zhang; Bong Walsh; Christina A. Mitchell; Tony Rowe

2005-01-01

325

Interactions Among Members of the Bcl2 Protein Family Analyzed with a Yeast Two-Hybrid System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions of the Bcl-2 protein with itself and other members of the Bcl-2 family, including Bcl-X-L, Bcl-X-S, Mcl-1, and Bax, were explored with a yeast two-hybrid system. Fusion proteins were created by linking Bcl-2 family proteins to a LexA DNA-binding domain or a B42 trans-activation domain. Protein-protein interactions were examined by expression of these fusion proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae having

Takaaki Sato; Motoi Hanada; Sharon Bodrug; Shinji Irie; Natsuko Iwama; Lawrence H. Boise; Craig B. Thompson; Erica Golemis; Linda Fong; Hong-Gang Wang; John C. Reed

1994-01-01

326

Molecular Cloning of ILP-2, a Novel Member of the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein Family  

PubMed Central

Inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP)-like protein-1 (ILP-1) (also known as X-linked IAP [XIAP] and mammalian IAP homolog A [MIHA]) is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis and exerts its effects, at least in part, by the direct association with and inhibition of specific caspases. Here, we describe the molecular cloning and characterization of a human gene related to ILP-1, termed ILP-2. Despite high homology to ILP-1, ILP-2 is encoded by a distinct gene, which in normal tissues is expressed solely in testis. In contrast to ILP-1, overexpression of ILP-2 had no protective effect on apoptosis mediated by Fas (also known as CD95) or tumor necrosis factor. However, ILP-2 potently inhibited apoptosis induced by overexpression of Bax or by coexpression of caspase 9 with Apaf-1, and preincubation of cytosolic extracts with ILP-2 abrogated caspase activation in vitro. A processed form of caspase 9 could be coprecipitated with ILP-2 from cells, suggesting a physical interaction between ILP-2 and caspase 9. Thus, ILP-2 is a novel IAP family member with restricted specificity for caspase 9.

Richter, Bettina W. M.; Mir, Samy S.; Eiben, Lisa J.; Lewis, Jennifer; Reffey, Stephanie Birkey; Frattini, Annalisa; Tian, Lan; Frank, Stephan; Youle, Richard J.; Nelson, David L.; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Vezzoni, Paolo; Fearnhead, Howard O.; Duckett, Colin S.

2001-01-01

327

Expression pattern and targeting of HER family members and IGF-IR in pancreatic cancer.  

PubMed

Pancreatic cancer is still one of the most aggressive and fatal types of human cancer . Survival rates for patients with pancreatic cancer are extremely poor and one major contributing factor is the lack of specific marker(s) for the early detection of pancreatic cancer. Indeed, the great majority of pancreatic cancer cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease and these patients often have a poor response to treatment with conventional forms of therapy. In this article, we conduct a comprehensive review of the literature on the expression pattern, prognostic significance and predictive value of EGFR family members, IGF-IR and their ligands in pancreatic cancer. We also discuss recent advances in pancreatic cancer treatments and highlight the remaining challenges as well as future opportunities for more effective targeting of such receptors using a combination of growth factor receptor specific monoclonal antibodies, small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors and other therapeutic strategies. Such strategies could ultimately help to overcome the development of drug resistance and improve the overall survival rates for patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:22652808

Ioannou, Nikolaos; Seddon, Alan M; Dalgleish, Angus; Mackintosh, David; Modjtahedi, Helmout

2012-01-01

328

Plant members of a family of sulfate transporters reveal functional subtypes.  

PubMed Central

Three plant sulfate transporter cDNAs have been isolated by complementation of a yeast mutant with a cDNA library derived from the tropical forage legume Stylosanthes hamata. Two of these cDNAs, shst1 and shst2, encode high-affinity H+/sulfate cotransporters that mediate the uptake of sulfate by plant roots from low concentrations of sulfate in the soil solution. The third, shst3, represents a different subtype encoding a lower affinity H+/sulfate cotransporter, which may be involved in the internal transport of sulfate between cellular or subcellular compartments within the plant. The steady-state level of mRNA corresponding to both subtypes is subject to regulation by signals that ultimately respond to the external sulfate supply. These cDNAs represent the identification of plant members of a family of related sulfate transporter proteins whose sequences exhibit significant amino acid conservation in filamentous fungi, yeast, plants, and mammals. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 6

Smith, F W; Ealing, P M; Hawkesford, M J; Clarkson, D T

1995-01-01

329

Cohabiting family members share microbiota with one another and with their dogs  

PubMed Central

Human-associated microbial communities vary across individuals: possible contributing factors include (genetic) relatedness, diet, and age. However, our surroundings, including individuals with whom we interact, also likely shape our microbial communities. To quantify this microbial exchange, we surveyed fecal, oral, and skin microbiota from 60 families (spousal units with children, dogs, both, or neither). Household members, particularly couples, shared more of their microbiota than individuals from different households, with stronger effects of co-habitation on skin than oral or fecal microbiota. Dog ownership significantly increased the shared skin microbiota in cohabiting adults, and dog-owning adults shared more ‘skin’ microbiota with their own dogs than with other dogs. Although the degree to which these shared microbes have a true niche on the human body, vs transient detection after direct contact, is unknown, these results suggest that direct and frequent contact with our cohabitants may significantly shape the composition of our microbial communities. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00458.001

Song, Se Jin; Lauber, Christian; Costello, Elizabeth K; Lozupone, Catherine A; Humphrey, Gregory; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knights, Dan; Clemente, Jose C; Nakielny, Sara; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Fierer, Noah; Knight, Rob

2013-01-01

330

Three Members of the Arabidopsis Glycosyltransferase Family 8 Are Xylan Glucuronosyltransferases1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Xylan is a major component of the plant cell wall and the most abundant noncellulosic component in the secondary cell walls that constitute the largest part of plant biomass. Dicot glucuronoxylan consists of a linear backbone of ?(1,4)-linked xylose residues substituted with ?(1,2)-linked glucuronic acid (GlcA). Although several genes have been implicated in xylan synthesis through mutant analyses, the biochemical mechanisms responsible for synthesizing xylan are largely unknown. Here, we show evidence for biochemical activity of GUX1 (for GlcA substitution of xylan 1), a member of Glycosyltransferase Family 8 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that is responsible for adding the glucuronosyl substitutions onto the xylan backbone. GUX1 has characteristics typical of Golgi-localized glycosyltransferases and a Km for UDP-GlcA of 165 ?m. GUX1 strongly favors xylohexaose as an acceptor over shorter xylooligosaccharides, and with xylohexaose as an acceptor, GlcA is almost exclusively added to the fifth xylose residue from the nonreducing end. We also show that several related proteins, GUX2 to GUX5 and Plant Glycogenin-like Starch Initiation Protein6, are Golgi localized and that only two of these proteins, GUX2 and GUX4, have activity as xylan ?-glucuronosyltransferases.

Rennie, Emilie A.; Hansen, Sara Fasmer; Baidoo, Edward E.K.; Hadi, Masood Z.; Keasling, Jay D.; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

2012-01-01

331

Grifolisin, a member of the sedolisin family produced by the fungus Grifola frondosa.  

PubMed

The pepstatin-insensitive carboxyl proteinase grifolisin was purified from fruiting bodies of the fungus Grifola frondosa, a maitake mushroom. The enzyme had an optimum pH of 3.0 for the digestion of hemoglobin and 2.8 for milk casein digestion. Its molecular mass was determined to be 43kDa by SDS-PAGE and 40kDa by gel chromatography on Superose 12, and its isoelectric point was found to be 4.6 by isoelectric focusing. The enzyme hydrolyzed four major bonds in the oxidized insulin B-chain: Phe1-Val2, Ala14-Leu15, Gly20-Glu21 and Phe24-Phe25 at pH 3.0. The first 15 amino acid residues in the N-terminal region were AVPSSCASTITPACL, and the coding region of the grifolisin gene (gfrF) has a 1960-base pair cDNA. The predicted mature grifolisin protein consisted of 365 residues and was 26% identical to that of sedolisin from Pseudomonas sp. 101 and 34% identical to that of aorsin from Aspergillus oryzae. Grifolisin is a member of the sedolisin S53 family and is not inhibited by pepstatin. PMID:15896366

Suzuki, Norio; Nishibori, Kohzoh; Oodaira, Yasuo; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Michigami, Kenji; Nagata, Keiko; Tatara, Yota; Lee, Byung Rho; Ichishima, Eiji

2005-05-01

332

Concern about family members' drinking and cultural consistency: A Multi-Country GENACIS Study  

PubMed Central

The data analysed come from the GENACIS project (Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study) and involve population surveys for 18 countries (total N = 34,916) from five WHO Regions: African (Nigeria and Uganda); Americas (Argentina, Costa Rica, Uruguay and United States); European (Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Spain, Sweden, and UK); South-East Asian (India, Sri Lanka); and Western Pacific (Japan). The paper studies gender and country differences in the relationship between social pressure to drink less experienced by individuals, considering seeking help for alcohol problems, and alcohol consumption and problem levels (AUDIT). In most countries for both men and women, informal control was applied most often by the spouse or partner, while reporting such controls from any source seemed more common in low- and middle-income countries. In all countries studied, men reported substantially more social control efforts than women. The hypothesis was not maintained that drinking control and help seeking was more common for heavier drinkers and those with more drinking-related harms. However, there appeared to be a relationship between a country's aggregate level of drinking and the extent to which social control efforts were reported. Higher correlations between drinking and problem levels on the one hand, and spouses' and other family members' concerns on the other, may be suggestive of a cultural consistency in societal responses to drinking and alcohol-related problems.

Olafsdottir, Hildigunnur; Raitasalo, Kirsimarja; Greenfield, Tom K.; Allamani, Allaman

2009-01-01

333

Immune factor Gambif1, a new rel family member from the human malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae.  

PubMed Central

A novel rel family member, Gambif1 (gambiae immune factor 1), has been cloned from the human malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, and shown to be most similar to Drosophila Dorsal and Dif. Gambif1 protein is translocated to the nucleus in fat body cells in response to bacterial challenge, although the mRNA is present at low levels at all developmental stages and is not induced by infection. DNA binding activity to the kappaB-like sites in the A.gambiae Defensin and the Drosophila Diptericin and Cecropin promoters is also induced in larval nuclear extracts following infection. Gambif1 has the ability to bind to kappaB-like sites in vitro. Co-transfection assays in Drosophila mbn-2 cells show that Gambif1 can activate transcription by interacting with the Drosophila Diptericin regulatory elements, but is not functionally equivalent to Dorsal in this assay. Gambif1 protein translocation to the nucleus and the appearance of kappaB-like DNA binding activity can serve as molecular markers of activation of the immune system and open up the possibility of studying the role of defence reactions in determining mosquito susceptibility/refractoriness to malaria infection. Images

Barillas-Mury, C; Charlesworth, A; Gross, I; Richman, A; Hoffmann, J A; Kafatos, F C

1996-01-01

334

Platelet-derived S100 family member myeloid-related protein-14 regulates thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Expression of the gene encoding the S100 calcium–modulated protein family member MRP-14 (also known as S100A9) is elevated in platelets from patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (MI) compared with those from patients with stable coronary artery disease; however, a causal role for MRP-14 in acute coronary syndromes has not been established. Here, using multiple models of vascular injury, we found that time to arterial thrombotic occlusion was markedly prolonged in Mrp14–/– mice. We observed that MRP-14 and MRP-8/MRP-14 heterodimers (S100A8/A9) are expressed in and secreted by platelets from WT mice and that thrombus formation was reduced in whole blood from Mrp14–/– mice. Infusion of WT platelets, purified MRP-14, or purified MRP-8/MRP-14 heterodimers into Mrp14–/– mice decreased the time to carotid artery occlusion after injury, indicating that platelet-derived MRP-14 directly regulates thrombosis. In contrast, infusion of purified MRP-14 into mice deficient for both MRP-14 and CD36 failed to reduce carotid occlusion times, indicating that CD36 is required for MRP-14–dependent thrombosis. Our data identify a molecular pathway of thrombosis that involves platelet MRP-14 and CD36 and suggest that targeting MRP-14 has potential for treating atherothrombotic disorders, including MI and stroke.

Wang, Yunmei; Fang, Chao; Gao, Huiyun; Bilodeau, Matthew L.; Zhang, Zijie; Croce, Kevin; Liu, Shijian; Morooka, Toshifumi; Sakuma, Masashi; Nakajima, Kohsuke; Yoneda, Shuichi; Shi, Can; Zidar, David; Andre, Patrick; Stephens, Gillian; Silverstein, Roy L.; Hogg, Nancy; Schmaier, Alvin H.; Simon, Daniel I.

2014-01-01

335

Izumo is part of a multiprotein family whose members form large complexes on mammalian sperm  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Izumo, a sperm membrane protein, is essential for gamete fusion in the mouse. It has an Ig (Immunoglobulin) domain and an N-terminal domain for which neither the functions nor homologous sequences are known. In the present work we identified three novel proteins showing an N-terminal domain with significant homology to the N-terminal domain of Izumo. We named this region "Izumo domain", and the novel proteins “Izumo 2”,”Izumo 3” and “Izumo 4”, retaining “Izumo 1” for the first described member of the family. Izumo 1, 2 and 3 are transmembrane proteins expressed specifically in the testis, and Izumo 4 is a soluble protein expressed in the testis and in other tissues. Electrophoresis under mildly denaturing conditions, followed by Western blot analysis, showed that Izumo 1, 3 and 4 formed protein complexes on sperm, Izumo 1 forming several larger complexes and Izumo 3 and 4 forming a single larger complex. Studies using different recombinant Izumo constructs suggested the Izumo domain possesses the ability to form dimers, whereas the transmembrane domain or the cytoplasmic domain or both of Izumo 1 are required for the formation of multimers of higher order. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed the presence of other sperm proteins associated with Izumo-1, suggesting Izumo 1 forms a multi-protein membrane complex. Our results raise the possibility that Izumo 1 might be involved in organizing or stabilizing a multi-protein complex essential for the function of the membrane fusion machinery.

Ellerman, Diego A; Pei, Jimin; Gupta, Surabhi; Snell, William J; Myles, Diana; Primakoff, Paul

2013-01-01

336

Spatial expression of claudin family members in various organs of mice.  

PubMed

Claudins (CLDNs) are tetraspan transmembrane proteins, which are components of tight junctions. The CLDN family is composed of 27 members that are responsible for paracellular transport and certain CLDNs form charge-selective ion channels. CLDNs have two extracellular loops, and the charge of the first extracellular loop determines the ion selectivity of each CLDN. Although the expression and function of each CLDN have been previously investigated, the distribution of CLDNs in various target organs remains to be determined. In the present study, the tissue-specific mRNA distribution of CLDNs (1-5, 7-8, 10a and b, 11-12, 14-17 and 19) in the duodenum, ileum, colon, kidney, liver and lung were defined. Among the tested CLDNs, CLDN1, 2, 12 and 16 were selected for further investiagtion. It was observed that CLDN1, CLDN2 and CLDN12 transcripts and proteins were particularly abundant in the investigated organs. Notably, immune-reactive CLDN16 was detected in a tissue-specific manner and shown in the renal tubules and portal vein. The tested CLDNs were localized to intercellular apical junctions in the epithelium of the intestine, renal tubule and bronchus. Based on this novel information, the presence of several types of CLDNs is of interest as CLDNs may promote or dampen the paracellular diffusion of specific ions. PMID:24626855

Hwang, Inho; Yang, Hyun; Kang, Hong-Seok; Ahn, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Geun-Shik; Hong, Eui-Ju; An, Beum-Soo; Jeung, Eui-Bae

2014-05-01

337

Characterization of bone morphogenetic protein family members as neurotrophic factors for cultured sensory neurons.  

PubMed

The bone morphogenetic proteins have been implicated in several inductive processes throughout vertebrate development including nervous system patterning. Recently, these proteins have also emerged as candidates for regulating survival of mesencephalic dopaminergic and sympathetic neurons. Interestingly, we have found that several bone morphogenetic proteins can be detected in developing embryonic day 14 rat dorsal root ganglia by means of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. To further elucidate their potential role during the period of ontogenetic neuron death, serum-free cultures of dorsal root sensory neurons from developing chick and rat embryos were treated with distinct bone morphogenetic proteins with or without simultaneous addition of other "established" neurotrophic factors. Our results show that bone morphogenetic proteins exert survival promoting effects on their own, and that they can positively modulate the effects of neurotrophins on sensory neurons. In particular, growth/differentiation factor-5, bone morphogenetic protein-2, -4, -7 and -12 significantly increased the survival promoting effects of neurotrophin-3 and nerve growth factor on cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons. These results fit well into the current concept that neurotrophic factors may act synergistically in ensuring neuronal survival. Moreover, these data suggest potential instructive interactions of bone morphogentic proteins and neurotrophins during sensory neuron development. Finally, the documented neurotrophic capacity of bone morphogenetic protein family members may have potential relevance for the treatment of peripheral neuropathies. PMID:10392845

Farkas, L M; Jászai, J; Unsicker, K; Krieglstein, K

1999-01-01

338

Intracellular localization of the BCL-2 family member BOK and functional implications  

PubMed Central

The pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BOK is widely expressed and resembles the multi-BH domain proteins BAX and BAK based on its amino acid sequence. The genomic region encoding BOK was reported to be frequently deleted in human cancer and it has therefore been hypothesized that BOK functions as a tumor suppressor. However, little is known about the molecular functions of BOK. We show that enforced expression of BOK activates the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway in BAX/BAK-proficient cells but fails to kill cells lacking both BAX and BAK or sensitize them to cytotoxic insults. Interestingly, major portions of endogenous BOK are localized to and partially inserted into the membranes of the Golgi apparatus as well as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and associated membranes. The C-terminal transmembrane domain of BOK thereby constitutes a ‘tail-anchor' specific for targeting to the Golgi and ER. Overexpression of full-length BOK causes early fragmentation of ER and Golgi compartments. A role for BOK on the Golgi apparatus and the ER is supported by an abnormal response of Bok-deficient cells to the Golgi/ER stressor brefeldin A. Based on these results, we propose that major functions of BOK are exerted at the Golgi and ER membranes and that BOK induces apoptosis in a manner dependent on BAX and BAK.

Echeverry, N; Bachmann, D; Ke, F; Strasser, A; Simon, H U; Kaufmann, T

2013-01-01

339

Disruption of forkhead transcription factor (FOXO) family members in mice reveals their functional diversification  

PubMed Central

Genetic analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans has uncovered essential roles for DAF-16 in longevity, metabolism, and reproduction. The mammalian orthologs of DAF-16, the closely-related FOXO subclass of forkhead transcription factors (FKHR/FOXO1, FKHRL1/FOXO3a, and AFX/FOXO4), also have important roles in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and stress responses in vitro, but their in vivo physiological roles are largely unknown. To elucidate their role in normal development and physiology, we disrupted each of the Foxo genes in mice. Foxo1-null embryos died on embryonic day 10.5 as a consequence of incomplete vascular development. Foxo1-null embryonic and yolk sac vessels were not well developed at embryonic day 9.5, and Foxo1 expression was found in a variety of embryonic vessels, suggesting a crucial role of this transcription factor in vascular formation. On the other hand, both Foxo3a- and Foxo4-null mice were viable and grossly indistinguishable from their littermate controls, indicating dispensability of these two members of the Foxo transcription factor family for normal vascular development. Foxo3a-null females showed age-dependent infertility and had abnormal ovarian follicular development. In contrast, histological analyses of Foxo4-null mice did not identify any consistent abnormalities. These results demonstrate that the physiological roles of Foxo genes are functionally diverse in mammals.

Hosaka, Taisuke; Biggs, William H.; Tieu, David; Boyer, Antonia D.; Varki, Nissi M.; Cavenee, Webster K.; Arden, Karen C.

2004-01-01

340

Human lymphocyte-specific pp52 gene is a member of a highly conserved dispersed family  

SciTech Connect

For a better understanding of genes that potentially function in B lymphocyte cell signaling, the authors isolated the human genomic counterpart of the murine pp52 or LSP1 gene. They unexpectedly found that the human pp52 gene is one of four closely related loci. Representative cosmids from each of the four family members were isolated and chromosomally localized by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Nucleotide sequence was obtained from an exon common to each locus and demonstrated very close similarity among all four loci. Two of the four loci harbored dysfunctional frameshift mutations or premature translation stop sites. The exon of one locus was flanked by an 80-bp perfect inverted repeat, suggesting that it may have originated through a looped intermediate DNA structure. Through a series of cDNA hybridization studies and nucleotide sequence analyses the authors were able to unambiguously link the lymphocyte-expressed gene to the locus mapped to chromosome 11p15.5. This same chromosomal band has been involved in tumor-related chromosomal translocations found in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. 21 refs., 4 figs.

May, W.; Korenberg, J.R.; Xiao Ning Chen; Lunsford, L.; Wood, W.J.; Thompson, A.; Wall, R.; Denny, C.T. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

1993-03-01

341

Development of a Simple and Rapid Fluorogenic Procedure for Identification of Vibrionaceae Family Members  

PubMed Central

We describe a simple colony overlay procedure for peptidases (COPP) for the rapid fluorogenic detection and quantification of Vibrionaceae from seawater, shellfish, sewage, and clinical samples. The assay detects phosphoglucose isomerase with a lysyl aminopeptidase activity that is produced by Vibrionaceae family members. Overnight cultures are overlaid for 10 min with membranes containing a synthetic substrate, and the membranes are examined for fluorescent foci under UV illumination. Fluorescent foci were produced by all the Vibrionaceae tested, including Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., and Plesiomonas spp. Fluorescence was not produced by non-Vibrionaceae pathogens. Vibrio cholerae strains O1, O139, O22, and O155 were strongly positive. Seawater and oysters were assayed, and 87 of 93 (93.5%) of the positive isolates were identified biochemically as Vibrionaceae, principally Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Photobacterium damselae, and Shewanella putrefaciens. None of 50 nonfluorescent isolates were Vibrionaceae. No Vibrionaceae were detected in soil, and only A. hydrophila was detected in sewage. The COPP technique may be particularly valuable in environmental and food-testing laboratories and for monitoring water quality in the aquaculture industry.

Richards, Gary P.; Watson, Michael A.; Parveen, Salina

2005-01-01

342

Development of a simple and rapid fluorogenic procedure for identification of vibrionaceae family members.  

PubMed

We describe a simple colony overlay procedure for peptidases (COPP) for the rapid fluorogenic detection and quantification of Vibrionaceae from seawater, shellfish, sewage, and clinical samples. The assay detects phosphoglucose isomerase with a lysyl aminopeptidase activity that is produced by Vibrionaceae family members. Overnight cultures are overlaid for 10 min with membranes containing a synthetic substrate, and the membranes are examined for fluorescent foci under UV illumination. Fluorescent foci were produced by all the Vibrionaceae tested, including Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., and Plesiomonas spp. Fluorescence was not produced by non-Vibrionaceae pathogens. Vibrio cholerae strains O1, O139, O22, and O155 were strongly positive. Seawater and oysters were assayed, and 87 of 93 (93.5%) of the positive isolates were identified biochemically as Vibrionaceae, principally Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Photobacterium damselae, and Shewanella putrefaciens. None of 50 nonfluorescent isolates were Vibrionaceae. No Vibrionaceae were detected in soil, and only A. hydrophila was detected in sewage. The COPP technique may be particularly valuable in environmental and food-testing laboratories and for monitoring water quality in the aquaculture industry. PMID:16000757

Richards, Gary P; Watson, Michael A; Parveen, Salina

2005-07-01

343

STS-103 crew members and their families pose for a portrait before DEPARTing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-103 crew pose for a group portrait with their families and loved ones on the runway at Patrick Air Force Base in Cocoa Beach, Fla. They are preparing to board an airplane that will return them to their home base at the Johnson Space Center in Houston following the successful completion of their mission. From left to right, the crew members are Mission Specialists John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, and Steven L. Smith; Pilot Scott J. Kelly; and Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. Discovery landed in darkness the previous evening, Dec. 27, on runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. This was the first time that a Shuttle crew spent the Christmas holiday in space. The STS-103 mission accomplished outfitting the Hubble Space Telescope with six new gyroscopes, six new voltage/temperature improvement kits, a new onboard computer, a new solid state recorder and new data transmitter, a new fine guidance sensor along with new insulation on parts of the orbiting telescope. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery.

1999-01-01

344

Assessment of Premutation in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 Affected Family Members by TP-PCR and Genetic Counseling  

PubMed Central

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by the expansion of an unstable CTG repeat located in the 3?-UTR of (DMPK) the DM protein kinase gene. Patients with DM1 have expansions of greater than 50 repeats and up to many thousands. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the utility of TP-PCR in diagnostics as well as the assessment of premutation carriers in proband families. Twenty-seven DM1 cases were enrolled (from twenty-six families) and the 13 families of these cases came forward for family screening. The patient group constitute 22 males and 5 females and the average age of onset was 32.8 years (range 17 to 52). All clinically diagnosed DM1 cases and their family members DNA samples were analyzed by TP-PCR. All the cases were found to be positive for the CTG repeat expansion. Among those five families, four had at least an asymptomatic carrier. In the remaining one family other than the proband none was found to be neither affected nor asymptomatic. We reconfirmed the utility of PCR based screening for DM1 as being reliable and rapid molecular test and it should be used as an initial screening test for all patients with DM and their family members for initial screening purpose.

Kumar, Ashok; Agarwal, Sarita; Pradhan, Sunil

2014-01-01

345

In the aftermath of teenage suicide: A qualitative study of the psychosocial consequences for the surviving family members  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of family reactions following teenage suicide are hampered by the psychological difficulties of approaching families and recruiting an unbiased sample of study subjects. By using a small but consecutive series of cases, we examined the qualitative aspects of loosing a teenage family member due to suicide. Such an understanding is important for future organisation of proper programs that provide professional support in the grief process. Methods From a large project on teenage unnatural death in northern Sweden 1981–2000 (including 88 suicides), 13 cases from 1995 through 1998 were retrospectively identified and consecutively analysed. Ten families agreed to participate. The open interviews took place 15 to 25 months after the suicide. The information gathered was manually analysed according to a grounded theory model, resulting in allocation of data into one of three domains: post-suicidal reactions, impact on daily living, and families' need for support. Results Teenager suicide is a devastating trauma for the surviving family and the lack of sustainable explanations for the suicide is a predominant issue in the grief process. The prolonged social and psychological isolation of the families in grief should be challenged. At the time of the interview, the families were still struggling with explaining why the suicide occurred, especially since most suicides had occurred without overt premonitory signs. The bereaved family members were still profoundly affected by the loss, but all had returned to an ostensibly normal life. Post-suicide support was often badly timed and insufficient, especially for younger siblings. Conclusion Family doctors can organise a long-term, individually formulated support scheme for the bereaved, including laymen who can play a most significant role in the grief process. There is also a need for better understanding of the families who have lost a teenager whom committed suicide and for the development and testing of treatment schemes for the bereaved family.

Lindqvist, Per; Johansson, Lars; Karlsson, Urban

2008-01-01

346

[Alcohol dependence syndrome and BDIM (before-discharge intervention method)--report 4, the family members' self-reports about BDIM].  

PubMed

One hundred fifty-three inpatients with alcohol dependence syndrome were treated with the structured BDIM (Before-Discharge Intervention Method). 82 patients of them have participated to self-help group meetings or kept having therapy as our outpatients or inpatients during the study period. We chose the families of the 82 patients as our study subject Out of the study subjects who took part in BDIM, 64 families (117 persons) answered our questionnaire. Among them 63 families (101 persons) gave their described answers of impressions and opinions about BDIM, which were summarized as follows. (1) Through BDIM the family members gained second thought on their alcoholic family member (IP: identified patient) and they could tell their new view to IP. BDIM enabled them to tell IP their sincere feeling and hope for recovery of IP. BDIM empowered both IP and IP's family members. (2) The family members became to know IP's orientation on his or her disease. They came to know IP's denial and understand him or her as he or she was. (3) The family members felt emotional ties among themselves and IP through BDIM. When the family members of a dysfunctional family took part together in BDIM, they could know the feelings, thoughts, experiences and hopes one another. The family members had a precious experience of mutual understanding among themselves and IP to hope for recovery together. (4) The family members appreciated BDIM as a effective therapy. In BDIM many of them regarded highly of giving their letters to IP as a useful method to convey their feeling and thoughts calmly to IP. (5) On the other hand some family members pointed out the difficulty for themselves to write on BDIM. For family members who are not good at writing a letter or tend only to blame IP through their letters, writing and giving letters to IP is not appropriate as a therapy. If family members feel strong anxiety or fear, it is safe not to practice BDIM. PMID:15782581

Ino, Aro; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Yamashiro, Kazunori; Cho, Tetsuji; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

2005-02-01

347

An Investigation of Violent and Nonviolent Adolescents' Family Functioning, Problems Concerning Family Members, Anger and Anger Expression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to (a) investigate the families of violent and nonviolent adolescents in terms of family functioning, trait anger and anger expression, and (b) compare incidence of psychological problems, alcohol usage and delinquent behaviors. The sample consisted of families of both violent (n = 54) and nonviolent adolescents (n =…

Avci, Rasit; Gucray, Songul Sonay

2010-01-01

348

Conservation of RNA secondary structures in two intron families including mitochondrial-, chloroplast- and nuclear-encoded members.  

PubMed Central

Two families of fungal mitochondrial introns that include all known sequences have been recognized. These families are now extended to incorporate a plant mitochondrial intron and several introns in chloroplast- and nuclear-encoded rRNA and tRNA precursors. Members of the same family share distinctive sequence stretches and a number of potential RNA secondary structures that would bring these stretches and the intron-exon junctions into relatively close proximity. Using several of these introns which have been extensively studied by either biochemical or genetic means, an attempt is made to integrate the available data into a common picture.

Michel, F; Dujon, B

1983-01-01

349

Resilience in Families with Children and Adult Members with Intellectual Disabilities: Tracing Elements of a Psycho-Social Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: This paper seeks to illumine how families with children and adult members with intellectual disabilities manage to manifest a buoyant and durable capacity over time. It is therefore concerned centrally with the idea of resilience. Method: Drawing from diverse theoretical literatures from child development and protection and gerontology, the…

Grant, Gordon; Ramcharan, Paul; Flynn, Margaret

2007-01-01

350

Expression and co-expression of the members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family in invasive breast carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family plays an important role in breast carcinogenesis. Much interest has been focused recently on its members because of their potential role as prognostic indicators in breast cancer and their involvement in cancer therapy. We have evaluated more than 1500 cases of invasive breast carcinoma immunohistochemically using tissue microarray technology to examine the expression

D M Abd El-Rehim; S E Pinder; C E Paish; J A Bell; R S Rampaul; R W Blamey; J F R Robertson; R I Nicholson; I O Ellis

2004-01-01

351

Distribution of mRNA for human epiregulin, a differentially expressed member of the epidermal growth factor family.  

PubMed Central

We have recently identified epiregulin as a new growth regulator and a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family. Epiregulin has certain characteristics that are different from those of the classical members of the EGF family, EGF and transforming growth factor alpha, including mitogenic responses on several normal cells and binding to EGF receptors on epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. In the present study we cloned and identified the expression of human epiregulin transcript. The human epiregulin gene encoded a 163-residue putative transmembrane precursor containing an EGF-like domain in the internal segment, and the structural organization was similar to that of other members of the EGF family that bind to EGF receptors. Northern blot analysis showed the expression of human epiregulin to be mainly on peripheral blood macrophages and the placenta in normal tissues, and was highest on epithelial tumour cell lines in various types of tumour cell lines. The expression profile was quite different from that of other members of the EGF family in normal and tumour cells. Recombinant expression in mammalian cells also showed that human epiregulin was secreted as a soluble form of approx. 5 kDa that is biologically active on the basis of the stimulation of DNA synthesis. Our findings suggest that epiregulin is involved in certain physiological processes such as maintenance or development of normal cell growth, and the progression of carcinomas.

Toyoda, H; Komurasaki, T; Uchida, D; Morimoto, S

1997-01-01

352

University Research: U.S. Reimbursement of Tuition Costs for University Employee Family Members. Report to Congressional Requesters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report examines tuition assistance costs being charged to the federal government for family members of employees at educational institutions performing government-funded research. The study involved visits to 5 of the 10 universities receiving the most federal government-funded contracts and grants. The report addresses: (1) comparison of…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of National Security and International Affairs.

353

Supporting Extended Family Members (SEFAM) Program. An HCEEP Demonstration Project. Final Report, August 1, 1981-October 30, 1984.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report documents the progress and accomplishments of the SEFAM (Supporting Extended Family Members) Program, which developed model programs for fathers, siblings, and grandparents. The first section summarizes staff efforts for five project objectives: (1) to develop, expand, test, and refine the pilot "Fathers and Infants/Toddlers" program to…

Washington Univ., Seattle. Child Development and Mental Retardation Center.

354

The pain experience of cognitively impaired nursing home residents: Perceptions of family members and certified nursing assistants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain in cognitively impaired nursing home (NH) elders is difficult to detect. We report the results of the qualitative interview portion of a larger study that characterized the pain experience of cognitively impaired NH residents. Interviews were conducted with 16 family members or friends and 11 certified nursing assistants (CNAs) of 20 cognitively impaired NH residents experiencing pain. Analysis of

Janet C. Mentes; Julie Teer; Mary P. Cadogan

2004-01-01

355

Three Critical Views of Functioning: Comparisons of Assessments Made by Individuals with Mental Illness, Their Case Managers, and Family Members.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessments of 41 mentally ill adults (consumers of mental health services) of their level of functioning were compared with assessments by family members and mental health services case managers. Moderate correlations are found among the perspectives, and the relevance of the three perspectives for community-based service provision is discussed.…

Massey, Oliver T.; Wu, Liang

1994-01-01

356

Heterodimerization and functional interaction between EGF receptor family members: a new signaling paradigm with implications for breast cancer research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EGF receptor (EGFR) and HER2 are members of a growth factor receptor family. Overexpression of either protein in advanced breast cancer correlates with poor prognosis. EGF stimulates growth by binding to EGFR, activating the receptor's intracellular tyrosine kinase. The initial consequence is phosphorylation of specific tyrosine-containing sequences in the receptor's carboxyl terminus. These phosphotyrosines serve as high affinity recognition

H. Shelton Earp; Thomas L. Dawson; Xiong Li; Hong Yu

1995-01-01

357

Culturally and linguistically diverse carers’ experience of caring for a family member with dementia : an Italian Australian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dementia is a gradual and progressive disease that is often accompanied by challenging emotional and behavioural change in addition to physical degeneration (Cahill, 1999). The process of caring for a family member with dementia has been recognised as a highly challenging and potentially stressful experience (Donaldson, Tarrier, & Burns, 1998; Papastavrou et al., 2011; Pinquart & Sorenson, 2007). The adverse

Renée Benedetti

2011-01-01

358

Expression of most matrix metalloproteinase family members in breast cancer represents a tumor-induced host response.  

PubMed Central

Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family members have been associated with advanced-stage cancer and contribute to tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis as determined by inhibitor studies. In situ hybridization was performed to analyze the expression and localization of all known MMPs in a series of human breast cancer biopsy specimens. Most MMPs were localized to tumor stroma, and all MMPs had very distinct expression patterns. Matrilysin was expressed by morphologically normal epithelial ducts within tumors and in tissue from reduction mammoplasties, and by epithelial-derived tumor cells. Many family members, including stromelysin-3, gelatinase A, MT-MMP, interstitial collagenase, and stromelysin-1 were localized to fibroblasts of tumor stroma of invasive cancers but in quite distinct, and generally widespread, patterns. Gelatinase B, collagenase-3, and metalloelastase expression were more focal; gelatinase B was primarily localized to endothelial cells, collagenase-3 to isolated tumor cells, and metalloelastase to cytokeratin-negative, macrophage-like cells. The MMP inhibitor, TIMP-1, was expressed in both stromal and tumor components in most tumors, and neither stromelysin-2 nor neutrophil collagenase were detected in any of the tumors. These results indicate that there is very tight and complex regulation in the expression of MMP family members in breast cancer that generally represents a host response to the tumor and emphasize the need to further evaluate differential functions for MMP family members in breast tumor progression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

Heppner, K. J.; Matrisian, L. M.; Jensen, R. A.; Rodgers, W. H.

1996-01-01

359

Pch2 is a hexameric ring ATPase that remodels the chromosome axis protein Hop1  

PubMed Central

In budding yeast the pachytene checkpoint 2 (Pch2) protein regulates meiotic chromosome axis structure by maintaining the domain-like organization of the synaptonemal complex proteins homolog pairing 1 (Hop1) and molecular zipper 1 (Zip1). Pch2 has also been shown to modulate meiotic double-strand break repair outcomes to favor recombination between homologs, play an important role in the progression of meiotic recombination, and maintain ribosomal DNA stability. Pch2 homologs are present in fruit flies, worms, and mammals, however the molecular mechanism of Pch2 function is unknown. In this study we provide a unique and detailed biochemical analysis of Pch2. We find that purified Pch2 is an AAA+ (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) protein that oligomerizes into single hexameric rings in the presence of nucleotides. In addition, we show Pch2 binds to Hop1, a critical axial component of the synaptonemal complex that establishes interhomolog repair bias, in a nucleotide-dependent fashion. Importantly, we demonstrate that Pch2 displaces Hop1 from large DNA substrates and that both ATP binding and hydrolysis by Pch2 are required for Pch2–Hop1 transactions. Based on these and previous cell biological observations, we suggest that Pch2 impacts meiotic chromosome function by directly regulating Hop1 localization.

Chen, Cheng; Jomaa, Ahmad; Ortega, Joaquin; Alani, Eric E.

2014-01-01

360

Pch2 is a hexameric ring ATPase that remodels the chromosome axis protein Hop1.  

PubMed

In budding yeast the pachytene checkpoint 2 (Pch2) protein regulates meiotic chromosome axis structure by maintaining the domain-like organization of the synaptonemal complex proteins homolog pairing 1 (Hop1) and molecular zipper 1 (Zip1). Pch2 has also been shown to modulate meiotic double-strand break repair outcomes to favor recombination between homologs, play an important role in the progression of meiotic recombination, and maintain ribosomal DNA stability. Pch2 homologs are present in fruit flies, worms, and mammals, however the molecular mechanism of Pch2 function is unknown. In this study we provide a unique and detailed biochemical analysis of Pch2. We find that purified Pch2 is an AAA+ (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) protein that oligomerizes into single hexameric rings in the presence of nucleotides. In addition, we show Pch2 binds to Hop1, a critical axial component of the synaptonemal complex that establishes interhomolog repair bias, in a nucleotide-dependent fashion. Importantly, we demonstrate that Pch2 displaces Hop1 from large DNA substrates and that both ATP binding and hydrolysis by Pch2 are required for Pch2-Hop1 transactions. Based on these and previous cell biological observations, we suggest that Pch2 impacts meiotic chromosome function by directly regulating Hop1 localization. PMID:24367111

Chen, Cheng; Jomaa, Ahmad; Ortega, Joaquin; Alani, Eric E

2014-01-01

361

Implication of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene in infertile family members of Indian CF patients.  

PubMed

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the CFTR gene. Among males with CF, 95% are infertile due to congenital absence of the vas deferens. We investigated the role of family history of infertility among CF subjects and characterized mutations in them. Among 50 CF subjects, four had a family history of infertility. A homozygous c.1521_1523delCTT mutation was detected in one, two had a compound heterozygous genotype (c.1521_1523delCTT/c.3717 + 10 kbC>T), and c.1521_1523delCTT mutation was identified on one allele of fourth CF subject. Genetic analysis of each infertile family members of CF subjects revealed the c.1521_1523delCTT mutation on one allele; however, no mutation could be identified on other allele. Haplotype analysis of the infertile family members showed that at least one of the alleles shared the same haplotype as that of the index case. It is suggested that the CFTR gene is implicated in the infertile members of the CF families. Failure to detect mutations on the other allele by SSCP analysis demands direct gene sequencing to detect mutations in the intronic or promoter region. PMID:18810634

Sharma, Neeraj; Singh, Meenu; Acharya, Naveen; Singh, Shrawan K; Thapa, Babu R; Kaur, Gurjeet; Prasad, Rajendra

2008-12-01

362

Shame and guilt/self-blame as predictors of expressed emotion in family members of patients with schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Expressed emotion (EE) is a measure of the family environment reflecting the amount of criticism and emotional over-involvement expressed by a key relative towards a family member with a disorder or impairment. Patients from high EE homes have a poorer illness prognosis than do patients from low EE homes. Despite EE's well-established predictive validity, questions remain regarding why some family members express high levels of EE attitudes while others do not. Based on indirect evidence from previous research, the current study tested whether shame and guilt/self-blame about having a relative with schizophrenia serve as predictors of EE. A sample of 72 family members of patients with schizophrenia completed the Five Minute Speech Sample to measure EE, along with questionnaires assessing self-directed emotions. In line with the hypotheses, higher levels of both shame and guilt/self-blame about having a relative with schizophrenia predicted high EE. Results of the current study elucidate the EE construct and have implications for working with families of patients with schizophrenia.

Wasserman, Stephanie; Weisman de Mamani, Amy; Suro, Giulia

2012-01-01

363

Shame and guilt/self-blame as predictors of expressed emotion in family members of patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Expressed emotion (EE) is a measure of the family environment reflecting the amount of criticism and emotional over-involvement expressed by a key relative towards a family member with a disorder or impairment. Patients from high EE homes have a poorer illness prognosis than do patients from low EE homes. Despite EE's well-established predictive validity, questions remain regarding why some family members express high levels of EE attitudes while others do not. Based on indirect evidence from previous research, the current study tested whether shame and guilt/self-blame about having a relative with schizophrenia serve as predictors of EE. A sample of 72 family members of patients with schizophrenia completed the Five Minute Speech Sample to measure EE, along with questionnaires assessing self-directed emotions. In line with the hypotheses, higher levels of both shame and guilt/self-blame about having a relative with schizophrenia predicted high EE. Results of the current study elucidate the EE construct and have implications for working with families of patients with schizophrenia. PMID:22357355

Wasserman, Stephanie; de Mamani, Amy Weisman; Suro, Giulia

2012-03-30

364

Unique translational modification of an invertebrate neuropeptide: a phosphorylated member of the adipokinetic hormone peptide family  

PubMed Central

Separation of an extract of corpora cardiaca from the protea beetle, Trichostetha fascicularis, by single-step RP (reverse-phase)-HPLC and monitoring of tryptophan fluorescence resulted in two distinctive peaks, the material of which mobilized proline and carbohydrates in a bioassay performed using the beetle. Material from one of these peaks was; however, inactive in the classical bioassays of locusts and cockroaches that are used for detecting peptides belonging to the AKH (adipokinetic hormone) family. After enzymatically deblocking the N-terminal pyroglutamic acid (pGlu) residue in the peptide material and sequencing by Edman degradation, a partial sequence was obtained: (pGlu)-Ile-Asn-Met-Thr-Xaa-Gly-Trp. The complete sequence was deduced from ESI-MSn (electrospray ionization multi-stage-MS); position six was identified as a phosphothreonine residue and the C-terminus is amidated. The peptide, code-named Trifa-CC, was chemically synthesized and used in confirmatory experiments to show that the primary structure had been correctly assigned. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a phosphorylated invertebrate neuropeptide. Synthetic Trifa-CC co-elutes with the natural peptide, found in the gland of the protea beetle, after RP-HPLC. Moreover, the natural peptide can be dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase and the product of that reaction has the same retention time as a synthetic nonphosphorylated octapeptide which has the same sequence as Trifa-CC. Finally, synthetic Trifa-CC has hypertrehalosaemic and hyperprolinaemic biological activity in the protea beetle, but even high concentrations of synthetic Trifa-CC are inactive in locusts and cockroaches. Hence, the correct peptide structure has been assigned. Trifa-CC of the protea beetle is an unusual member of the AKH family that is unique in its post-translational modification. Since it increases the concentration of carbohydrates and proline in the haemolymph when injected into the protea beetle, and since these substrates are also used during flight, we hypothesize that Trifa-CC controls the mobilization of these metabolites in the protea beetle.

2005-01-01

365

Unique translational modification of an invertebrate neuropeptide: a phosphorylated member of the adipokinetic hormone peptide family.  

PubMed

Separation of an extract of corpora cardiaca from the protea beetle, Trichostetha fascicularis, by single-step RP (reverse-phase)-HPLC and monitoring of tryptophan fluorescence resulted in two distinctive peaks, the material of which mobilized proline and carbohydrates in a bioassay performed using the beetle. Material from one of these peaks was; however, inactive in the classical bioassays of locusts and cockroaches that are used for detecting peptides belonging to the AKH (adipokinetic hormone) family. After enzymatically deblocking the N-terminal pyroglutamic acid (pGlu) residue in the peptide material and sequencing by Edman degradation, a partial sequence was obtained: (pGlu)-Ile-Asn-Met-Thr-Xaa-Gly-Trp. The complete sequence was deduced from ESI-MS(n) (electrospray ionization multi-stage-MS); position six was identified as a phosphothreonine residue and the C-terminus is amidated. The peptide, code-named Trifa-CC, was chemically synthesized and used in confirmatory experiments to show that the primary structure had been correctly assigned. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a phosphorylated invertebrate neuropeptide. Synthetic Trifa-CC co-elutes with the natural peptide, found in the gland of the protea beetle, after RP-HPLC. Moreover, the natural peptide can be dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase and the product of that reaction has the same retention time as a synthetic nonphosphorylated octapeptide which has the same sequence as Trifa-CC. Finally, synthetic Trifa-CC has hypertrehalosaemic and hyperprolinaemic biological activity in the protea beetle, but even high concentrations of synthetic Trifa-CC are inactive in locusts and cockroaches. Hence, the correct peptide structure has been assigned. Trifa-CC of the protea beetle is an unusual member of the AKH family that is unique in its post-translational modification. Since it increases the concentration of carbohydrates and proline in the haemolymph when injected into the protea beetle, and since these substrates are also used during flight, we hypothesize that Trifa-CC controls the mobilization of these metabolites in the protea beetle. PMID:16271039

Gäde, Gerd; Simek, Petr; Clark, Kevin D; Auerswald, Lutz

2006-02-01

366

Dementia and its influence on quality of life and what it means to be valued: Family members' perceptions.  

PubMed

This pragmatic, exploratory qualitative study, as part of a larger funded research project, sought to explore families' perspectives on what it means to value a person with dementia and how this value might influence the quality of life of people with dementia. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 family members who used one long-term care service provider in Australia. Families described the factors influencing a positive quality of life for the person with dementia as being related to the environment and, in particular, to the resident's room, supportive staff and individualised care that valued the person's life experience. Family also reported a negative impact on quality of life when staff and the care facility neglected to provide an individualised approach. This study highlights the importance of demonstrating the value of the person with dementia, the family role and partnerships of care. PMID:24339065

Moyle, Wendy; Murfield, Jenny; Venturto, Lorraine; Griffiths, Susan; Grimbeek, Peter; McAllister, Margaret; Marshall, Jenni

2014-05-01

367

Molecular Interactions of Prodiginines with the BH3 Domain of Anti-Apoptotic Bcl-2 Family Members  

PubMed Central

Prodigiosin and obatoclax, members of the prodiginines family, are small molecules with anti-cancer properties that are currently under preclinical and clinical trials. The molecular target(s) of these agents, however, is an open question. Combining experimental and computational techniques we find that prodigiosin binds to the BH3 domain in some BCL-2 protein families, which play an important role in the apoptotic programmed cell death. In particular, our results indicate a large affinity of prodigiosin for MCL-1, an anti-apoptotic member of the BCL-2 family. In melanoma cells, we demonstrate that prodigiosin activates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by disrupting MCL-1/BAK complexes. Computer simulations with the PELE software allow the description of the induced fit process, obtaining a detailed atomic view of the molecular interactions. These results provide new data to understand the mechanism of action of these molecules, and assist in the development of more specific inhibitors of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins.

Soto-Cerrato, Vanessa; Quesada, Roberto; Perez-Tomas, Ricardo; Guallar, Victor

2013-01-01

368

Expression of the ammonia transporter family member, Rh B Glycoprotein, in the human kidney  

PubMed Central

The ammonia transporter family member, Rh B Glycoprotein (RhBG/Rhbg), is essential for ammonia transport by the rodent kidney, but in the human kidney mRNA but not protein expression has been reported. Because ammonia transport is fundamental for acid-base homeostasis, the current study addressed RhBG expression in the human kidney. Two distinct RhBG mRNA sequences have been reported, with different numbers of consecutive cytosines at nt1265 and thus encoding different carboxy-tails. Sequencing the region of difference in both human kidney and liver mRNA showed eight sequential cytosines, not seven as in some reports. Knowing the correct mRNA sequence for RhBG, we then assessed RhBG protein expression using antibodies against the correct amino acid sequence. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated RhBG protein expression in human kidney and immunohistochemistry identified basolateral RhBG in connecting segment (CNT) and the cortical and outer medullary collecting ducts. Colocalization of RhBG with multiple cell-specific markers demonstrated that that CNT cells and collecting duct type A intercalated cells express high levels of RhBG, and type B intercalated cells and principal cells do not express detectable RhBG. Thus, these studies identify the correct mRNA and thus protein sequence for human RhBG and show that the human kidney expresses basolateral RhBG protein in CNT, type A intercalated cells, and non-A, non-B cells. We conclude that RhBG can mediate an important role in human renal ammonia transport.

Han, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Handlogten, Mary E.; Whitehill, Florence; Osis, Gunars; Croker, Byron P.; Clapp, William L.; Verlander, Jill W.

2013-01-01

369

LRAD3, a Novel LDL Receptor Family Member that Modulates Amyloid Precursor Protein Trafficking  

PubMed Central

We have identified a novel LDL receptor family member, termed LDL receptor class A domain containing 3 (LRAD3), which is expressed in neurons. The LRAD3 gene encodes an approximately 50 kDa type I transmembrane receptor with an ectodomain containing three LDLa repeats, a transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic domain containing a conserved dileucine internalization motif and two polyproline motifs with potential to interact with WW domain containing proteins. Immunohistochemical analysis of mouse brain reveals LRAD3 expression in the cortex and hippocampus. In the mouse hippocampal derived cell line, HT22, LRAD3 partially co-localizes with amyloid precursor protein (APP), and interacts with APP as revealed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. To identify the portion of APP that interacts with LRAD3, we employed solid phase binding assays which demonstrated that LRAD3 failed to bind to a soluble APP fragment (sAPP?) released following ?-secretase cleavage. In contrast, C99, the ?-secretase product that remains cell associated, co-precipitated with LRAD3, confirming that regions within this portion of APP are important for associating with LRAD3. The association of LRAD3 with APP increases the amyloidogenic pathway of APP processing, resulting in a decrease in sAPP? production and increased A? peptide production. Pulse-chase experiments confirm that LRAD3 expression significantly decreases the cellular half-live of mature APP. These results reveal that LRAD3 influences APP processing and raises the possibility that LRAD3 alters APP function in neurons including its downstream signaling.

Ranganathan, Sripriya; Noyes, Nathaniel C.; Migliorini, Mary; Winkles, Jeffrey A.; Battey, Frances D.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Smith, Elizabeth; Yepes, Manuel; Mikhailenko, Irina; Strickland, Dudley K.

2011-01-01

370

A Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein with a high activity against members of the family Noctuidae.  

PubMed Central

The full characterization of a novel insecticidal crystal protein, named Cry9Ca1 according to the revised nomenclature for Cry proteins, from Bacillus thuringiensis serovar tolworthi is reported. The crystal protein has 1,157 amino acids and a molecular mass of 129.8 kDa. It has the typical features of the Lepidoptera-active crystal proteins such as five conserved sequence blocks. Also, it is truncated upon trypsin digestion to a toxic fragment of 68.7 kDa by removal of 43 amino acids at the N terminus and the complete C-terminal half after conserved sequence block 5. The 68.7-kDa fragment is further degraded to a nontoxic 55-kDa fragment. The crystal protein has a fairly broad spectrum of activity against lepidopteran insects, including members of the families Pyralidae, Plutellidae, Sphingidae, and Noctuidae. A 50% lethal concentration of less than 100 ng/cm2 of diet agar was found for diamondback moth, European corn borer, cotton bollworm, and beet armyworm. It is the first insecticidal crystal protein with activity against cutworms. No activity was observed against some beetles, such as Colorado potato beetle. The protein recognizes a receptor different from that recognized by Cry1Ab5 in Ostrinia nubilalis and Plutella xylostella. In Spodoptera exigua and P. xylostella, it binds to a receptor which is also recognized by Cry1Cax but with a lower affinity. In these insects, Cry1Cax probably binds with a higher affinity to an additional receptor which is not recognized by Cry9Ca1. Elimination of a trypsin cleavage site which is responsible for the degradation to a nontoxic fragment did result in protease resistance but not in increased toxicity against O. nubilalis.

Lambert, B; Buysse, L; Decock, C; Jansens, S; Piens, C; Saey, B; Seurinck, J; Van Audenhove, K; Van Rie, J; Van Vliet, A; Peferoen, M

1996-01-01

371

Microarray identifies ADAM family members as key responders to TGF-?1 in alveolar epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanisms of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) remain elusive. Transforming Growth Factor beta 1(TGF-?1) is a key effector cytokine in the development of lung fibrosis. We used microarray and computational biology strategies to identify genes whose expression is significantly altered in alveolar epithelial cells (A549) in response to TGF-?1, IL-4 and IL-13 and Epstein Barr virus. A549 cells were exposed to 10 ng/ml TGF-?1, IL-4 and IL-13 at serial time points. Total RNA was used for hybridisation to Affymetrix Human Genome U133A microarrays. Each in vitro time-point was studied in duplicate and an average RMA value computed. Expression data for each time point was compared to control and a signal log ratio of 0.6 or greater taken to identify significant differential regulation. Using normalised RMA values and unsupervised Average Linkage Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, a list of 312 extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins or modulators of matrix turnover was curated via Onto-Compare and Gene-Ontology (GO) databases for baited cluster analysis of ECM associated genes. Interrogation of the dataset using ontological classification focused cluster analysis revealed coordinate differential expression of a large cohort of extracellular matrix associated genes. Of this grouping members of the ADAM (A disintegrin and Metalloproteinase domain containing) family of genes were differentially expressed. ADAM gene expression was also identified in EBV infected A549 cells as well as IL-13 and IL-4 stimulated cells. We probed pathologenomic activities (activation and functional activity) of ADAM19 and ADAMTS9 using siRNA and collagen assays. Knockdown of these genes resulted in diminished production of collagen in A549 cells exposed to TGF-?1, suggesting a potential role for these molecules in ECM accumulation in IPF.

Keating, Dominic T; Sadlier, Denise M; Patricelli, Andrea; Smith, Sinead M; Walls, Dermot; Egan, Jim J; Doran, Peter P

2006-01-01

372

Claudin 13, a Member of the Claudin Family Regulated in Mouse Stress Induced Erythropoiesis  

PubMed Central

Mammals are able to rapidly produce red blood cells in response to stress. The molecular pathways used in this process are important in understanding responses to anaemia in multiple biological settings. Here we characterise the novel gene Claudin 13 (Cldn13), a member of the Claudin family of tight junction proteins using RNA expression, microarray and phylogenetic analysis. We present evidence that Cldn13 appears to be co-ordinately regulated as part of a stress induced erythropoiesis pathway and is a mouse-specific gene mainly expressed in tissues associated with haematopoietic function. CLDN13 phylogenetically groups with its genomic neighbour CLDN4, a conserved tight junction protein with a putative role in epithelial to mesenchymal transition, suggesting a recent duplication event. Mechanisms of mammalian stress erythropoiesis are of importance in anaemic responses and expression microarray analyses demonstrate that Cldn13 is the most abundant Claudin in spleen from mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense. In mice prone to anaemia (C57BL/6), its expression is reduced compared to strains which display a less severe anaemic response (A/J and BALB/c) and is differentially regulated in spleen during disease progression. Genes clustering with Cldn13 on microarrays are key regulators of erythropoiesis (Tal1, Trim10, E2f2), erythrocyte membrane proteins (Rhd and Gypa), associated with red cell volume (Tmcc2) and indirectly associated with erythropoietic pathways (Cdca8, Cdkn2d, Cenpk). Relationships between genes appearing co-ordinately regulated with Cldn13 post-infection suggest new insights into the molecular regulation and pathways involved in stress induced erythropoiesis and suggest a novel, previously unreported role for claudins in correct cell polarisation and protein partitioning prior to erythroblast enucleation.

Brass, Andy; Noyes, Harry; Kemp, Steve; Naessens, Jan; Tassabehji, May

2010-01-01

373

Antimicrobial activity of omwaprin, a new member of the waprin family of snake venom proteins  

PubMed Central

We have isolated and characterized omwaprin, a 50-amino-acid cationic protein from the venom of inland taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus). It is a new member of the waprin family of snake venom proteins. A synthetic gene was designed and constructed for expressing the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. Recombinant omwaprin was used for carrying out functional analyses. The protein is non-toxic to Swiss albino mice at doses of up to 10 mg/kg when administered intraperitoneally. However, it shows selective and dose-dependant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The minimum inhibitory doses were in the range 2–10 ?g for selected species of bacteria in radial diffusion assays. The antibacterial activity is salt-tolerant up to 350 mM NaCl. However, omwaprin lost its antibacterial activity upon reduction and alkylation of its cysteine residues, or upon deletion of six N-terminal amino acid residues, four of which are positively charged. These observations indicate that the three-dimensional structure constrained by four disulfide bonds and the N-terminal residues are essential for its activity. The mechanism of action is via membrane disruption, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. Importantly, omwaprin lacks haemolytic activity on human erythrocytes. This demonstrates the specificity of omwaprin for bacterial membranes. Unlike other reported WAP (whey acidic protein) domain-containing antibacterial proteins, including elafin, EPPIN (epididymal proteinase inhibitor), SWAM1 and SWAM2 [single WAP (whey acidic protein) motif proteins 1 and 2] and SLPI (secretory leucocyte proteinase inhibitor), omwaprin shows species-specific activity on the Gram-positive bacteria tested.

Nair, Dileep G.; Fry, Bryan G.; Alewood, Paul; Kumar, Prakash P.; Kini, R. Manjunatha

2006-01-01

374

MicroRNA-183 family members regulate sensorineural fates in the inner ear  

PubMed Central

Members of the microRNA (miRNA) 183 family (miR-183, miR-96 and miR-182) are expressed abundantly in specific sensory cell types in the eye, nose and inner ear. In the inner ear, expression is robust in the mechanosensory hair cells and weak in the associated statoacoustic ganglion (SAG) neurons; both cell types can share a common lineage during development. Recently, dominant progressive hearing loss in humans and mice was linked to mutations in the seed region of miR-96, with associated defects in both development and maintenance of hair cells in the mutant mice. To understand how the entire triplet functions in the development of mechanosensory hair cells and neurons of the inner ear, we manipulated the levels of these miRNAs in zebrafish embryos using synthesized miRNAs and antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs). Over-expression of miR-96 or miR-182 induces duplicated otocysts, ectopic or expanded sensory patches and extra hair cells, while morphogenesis of the SAG is adversely affected to different degrees. In contrast, knockdown of miR-183, miR-96 and miR-182 causes reduced numbers of hair cells in the inner ear, smaller SAGs, defects in semicircular canals, and abnormal neuromasts on the posterior lateral line. However, the prosensory region of the posterior macula (PM), where the number of hair cells is reduced by ?50%, is not significantly impaired. Our findings suggest both distinct and common roles for the three miRNAs in cell fate determination in the inner ear, and these principles might apply to development of other sensory organs.

Li, Haiqiong; Kloosterman, Wigard; Fekete, Donna M.

2010-01-01

375

Spider glue proteins have distinct architectures compared with traditional spidroin family members.  

PubMed

Adhesive spider glues are required to perform a variety of tasks, including web construction, prey capture, and locomotion. To date, little is known regarding the molecular and structural features of spider glue proteins, in particular bioadhesives that interconnect dragline or scaffolding silks during three-dimensional web construction. Here we use biochemical and structural approaches to identify and characterize two aggregate gland specific gene products, AgSF1 and AgSF2, and demonstrate that these proteins co-localize to the connection joints of both webs and wrapping silks spun from the black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus. Protein architectures are markedly divergent between AgSF1 and AgSF2, as well as traditional spider silk fibroin family members, suggesting connection joints consist of a complex proteinaceous network. AgSF2 represents a nonglycosylated 40-kDa protein that has novel internal amino acid block repeats with the consensus sequence NVNVN embedded in a glycine-rich matrix. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of AgSF1 reveals pentameric QPGSG iterations that are similar to conserved modular elements within mammalian elastin, a rubber-like elastomeric protein that interfaces with collagen. Wet-spinning methodology using purified recombinant proteins show AgSF1 has the potential to self-assemble into fibers. X-ray fiber diffraction studies performed on these synthetic fibers reveal the presence of noncrystalline domains that resemble classical rubber networks. Collectively, these data support that the aggregate gland serves to extrude a protein mixture that contains substances that allow for the self-assembly of fiber-like structures that interface with dragline silks to mediate prey capture. PMID:22927444

Vasanthavada, Keshav; Hu, Xiaoyi; Tuton-Blasingame, Tiffany; Hsia, Yang; Sampath, Sujatha; Pacheco, Ryan; Freeark, Jordan; Falick, Arnold M; Tang, Simon; Fong, Justine; Kohler, Kristin; La Mattina-Hawkins, Coby; Vierra, Craig

2012-10-19

376

Role of nutrient-sensing taste 1 receptor (T1R) family members in gastrointestinal chemosensing.  

PubMed

Luminal nutrient sensing by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) expressed on the apical domain of enteroendocrine cells activates intracellular pathways leading to secretion of gut hormones that control vital physiological processes such as digestion, absorption, food intake and glucose homeostasis. The taste 1 receptor (T1R) family of GPCR consists of three members: T1R1; T1R2; T1R3. Expression of T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3 at mRNA and protein levels has been demonstrated in the intestinal tissue of various species. It has been shown that T1R2-T1R3, in association with G-protein gustducin, is expressed in intestinal K and L endocrine cells, where it acts as the intestinal glucose (sweet) sensor. A number of studies have demonstrated that activation of T1R2-T1R3 by natural sugars and artificial sweeteners leads to secretion of glucagon-like peptides 1&2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2) and glucose dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). GLP-1 and GIP enhance insulin secretion; GLP-2 increases intestinal growth and glucose absorption. T1R1-T1R3 combination co-expressed on the apical domain of cholecystokinin (CCK) expressing cells is a luminal sensor for a number of L-amino acids; with amino acid-activation of the receptor eliciting CCK secretion. This article focuses on the role of the gut-expressed T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3 in intestinal sweet and L-amino acid sensing. The impact of exploiting T1R2-T1R3 as a nutritional target for enhancing intestinal glucose absorption and gut structural maturity in young animals is also highlighted. PMID:24382171

Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P; Daly, Kristian; Al-Rammahi, Miran; Moran, Andrew W; Bravo, David

2014-06-01

377

Antimicrobial activity of omwaprin, a new member of the waprin family of snake venom proteins.  

PubMed

We have isolated and characterized omwaprin, a 50-amino-acid cationic protein from the venom of inland taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus). It is a new member of the waprin family of snake venom proteins. A synthetic gene was designed and constructed for expressing the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. Recombinant omwaprin was used for carrying out functional analyses. The protein is non-toxic to Swiss albino mice at doses of up to 10 mg/kg when administered intraperitoneally. However, it shows selective and dose-dependant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The minimum inhibitory doses were in the range 2-10 microg for selected species of bacteria in radial diffusion assays. The antibacterial activity is salt-tolerant up to 350 mM NaCl. However, omwaprin lost its antibacterial activity upon reduction and alkylation of its cysteine residues, or upon deletion of six N-terminal amino acid residues, four of which are positively charged. These observations indicate that the three-dimensional structure constrained by four disulfide bonds and the N-terminal residues are essential for its activity. The mechanism of action is via membrane disruption, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. Importantly, omwaprin lacks haemolytic activity on human erythrocytes. This demonstrates the specificity of omwaprin for bacterial membranes. Unlike other reported WAP (whey acidic protein) domain-containing antibacterial proteins, including elafin, EPPIN (epididymal proteinase inhibitor), SWAM1 and SWAM2 [single WAP (whey acidic protein) motif proteins 1 and 2] and SLPI (secretory leucocyte proteinase inhibitor), omwaprin shows species-specific activity on the Gram-positive bacteria tested. PMID:17044815

Nair, Dileep G; Fry, Bryan G; Alewood, Paul; Kumar, Prakash P; Kini, R Manjunatha

2007-02-15

378

Members of the NAP/SET family of proteins interact specifically with B- type cyclins  

PubMed Central

Cyclin-dependent kinase complexes that contain the same catalytic subunit are able to induce different events at different times during the cell cycle, but the mechanisms by which they do so remain largely unknown. To address this problem, we have used affinity chromatography to identify proteins that bind specifically to mitotic cyclins, with the goal of finding proteins that interact with mitotic cyclins to carry out the events of mitosis. This approach has led to the identification of a 60-kD protein called NAP1 that interacts specifically with members of the cyclin B family. This interaction has been highly conserved during evolution: NAP1 in the Xenopus embryo interacts with cyclins B1 and B2, but not with cyclin A, and the S. cerevisiae homolog of NAP1 interacts with Clb2 but not with Clb3. Genetic experiments in budding yeast indicate that NAP1 plays an important role in the function of Clb2, while biochemical experiments demonstrate that purified NAP1 can be phosphorylated by cyclin B/p34cdc2 kinase complexes, but not by cyclin A/p34cdc2 kinase complexes. These results suggest that NAP1 is a protein involved in the specific functions of cyclin B/p34cdc2 kinase complexes. In addition to NAP1, we found a 43-kD protein in Xenopus that is homologous to NAP1 and also interacts specifically with B-type cyclins. This protein is the Xenopus homolog of the human SET protein, which was previously identified as part of a putative oncogenic fusion protein (Von Lindern et al., 1992).

1995-01-01

379

Crystal structure of Aspergillus niger isopullulanase, a member of glycoside hydrolase family 49.  

PubMed

An isopullulanase (IPU) from Aspergillus niger ATCC9642 hydrolyzes alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages of pullulan to produce isopanose. Although IPU does not hydrolyze dextran, it is classified into glycoside hydrolase family 49 (GH49), major members of which are dextran-hydrolyzing enzymes. IPU is highly glycosylated, making it difficult to obtain its crystal. We used endoglycosidase H(f) to cleave the N-linked oligosaccharides of IPU, and we here determined the unliganded and isopanose-complexed forms of IPU, both solved at 1.7-A resolution. IPU is composed of domains N and C joined by a short linker, with electron density maps for 11 or 12 N-acetylglucosamine residues per molecule. Domain N consists of 13 beta-strands and forms a beta-sandwich. Domain C, where the active site is located, forms a right-handed beta-helix, and the lengths of the pitches of each coil of the beta-helix are similar to those of GH49 dextranase and GH28 polygalacturonase. The entire structure of IPU resembles that of a GH49 enzyme, Penicillium minioluteum dextranase (Dex49A), despite a difference in substrate specificity. Compared with the active sites of IPU and Dex49A, the amino acid residues participating in subsites +2 and +3 are not conserved, and the glucose residues of isopanose bound to IPU completely differ in orientation from the corresponding glucose residues of isomaltose bound to Dex49A. The shape of the catalytic cleft characterized by the seventh coil of the beta-helix and a loop from domain N appears to be critical in determining the specificity of IPU for pullulan. PMID:18155243

Mizuno, Masahiro; Koide, Atsushi; Yamamura, Akihiro; Akeboshi, Hiromi; Yoshida, Hiromi; Kamitori, Shigehiro; Sakano, Yoshiyuki; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Tonozuka, Takashi

2008-02-01

380

As the planning for a memorial to Eisenhower moves forward, members of his family raise concerns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eisenhower as a Barefoot Boy? Family Objects to a Memorial http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/07/arts/design/eisenhower-memorial-by-frank-gehry-draws-objections-from-family.htmlGehry's design for Eisenhower memorial misses the markhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/realestate/gehrys-design-for-eisenhower-memorial-misses-the-mark/2012/01/23/gIQAy22jVQ_story.htmlA Q&A With Susan Eisenhower About the Fight Over Her Grandfather's Memorialhttp://www.washingtonian.com/blogarticles/people/capitalcomment/22381.htmlIn Defense of Frank Gehryhttp://www.washingtonian.com/blogarticles/people/capitalcomment/22617.htmlDwight D. Eisenhower Memorial Commissionhttp://eisenhowermemorial.org/U.S. Commission of Fine Artshttp://www.cfa.gov/Memorials to great men and women can be controversial affairs, and the recent dispute over the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial in Washington, DC serves as a reminder of such issues. Another planned memorial is coming under close scrutiny, and once again, the proverbial battleground is in the United States capital. Over the past couple of years, the noted designer and architect Frank Gehry has been working on the design for the memorial to President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and the groundbreaking is scheduled to take place this year on the Washington Mall. The current design features Eisenhower as a young boy in Kansas looking at some of his later accomplishments, with a backdrop of the plains of the Sunflower State. These proposed plans do not sit well with some, including his granddaughter, Susan Eisenhower, and the National Civic Art Society, which remarked that "The statue of Ike as a Kansas farmer-boy mocks the president as cornpone in chief, the supreme allied bumpkin." In January, members of the Eisenhower family made their concerns about the design public, and it remains to be seen whether there might be an extension of the comment period regarding the memorial. The preliminary design has already been approved by the United States Commission of Fine Arts, but it must also be approved by the National Capital Planning Commission. As of this writing, Frank Gehry had yet to offer comment on this recent turn of events and public discussion. The first link leads to a nice article from this Tuesday's New York Times about the proposed memorial to President Eisenhower. The second link will take users to a piece of architectural criticism by Roger K. Lewis, published in the Washington Post. Moving on, the third link will take interested parties to an interview with Susan Eisenhower about the memorial to her grandfather. The fourth link leads to follow-up exchange with Daniel J. Feil, the executive architect for the Eisenhower Memorial Commission over the past six years. The fifth link leads to the website of the Eisenhower Memorial Commission. Here visitors can learn about the commission, the designs for the proposed memorial, and also read press releases. The final link will take visitors to the homepage of the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts, where they can learn about the work of the Commission and the ways in which the Commission gives expert advice on "matters of design and aesthetics."

Grinnell, Max

2012-02-10

381

Limited family members/staff communication in intensive care units in the Czech and Slovak Republics considerably increases anxiety in patients ? relatives - the DEPRESS study  

PubMed Central

Background Symptoms of anxiety and depression are common among family members of ICU patients and are culturally dependent. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression and associated factors in family members of ICU patients in two Central European countries. Methods We conducted a prospective multicenter study involving 22 ICUs (250 beds) in the Czech and Slovak Republics. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression in family members of ICU patients. Family member understanding of the patient’s condition was assessed using a structured interview and a questionnaire was used to assess satisfaction with family member/ICU staff communication. Results Twenty two intensive care units (both adult and pediatric) in academic medical centers and community hospitals participated in the study. During a 6 month period, 405 family members of 293 patients were enrolled. We found a high prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms – 78% and 54%, respectively. Information leaflets distributed to family members did not lower incidences of anxiety/depression. Family members with symptoms of depression reported higher levels of satisfaction according to the modified Critical Care Family Needs Inventory. Extended contact between staff and family members was the only related factor associated with anxiety reduction (p?=?0.001). Conclusion Family members of ICU patients in East European countries suffer from symptoms of anxiety and depression. We identified limited family member/ICU staff communication as an important health care professional-related factor associated with a higher incidence of symptoms of anxiety. This factor is potentially amenable to improvement and may serve as a target for proactive intervention proactive intervention.

2014-01-01

382

A model of genetic guidance for hemoglobinopathy patients and laboratory diagnosis of family members as educational and preventive measures  

PubMed Central

Background: The high frequency of hemoglobinopathies in Brazil constitutes a public health problem and thus educational and preventive measures are necessary to reduce the incidence. Genetic guidance, a modality of genetic counseling, and family screening are measures that can assist in reproductive decisions and mitigate clinical, psychological and social problems of families with these disorders. Objetive: The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of educational and preventive measures for hemoglobinopathies using genetic guidance and laboratory screening of families. Methods: The diagnoses of patients with hemoglobinopathies were confirmed and then the level of knowledge about their disease was evaluated and genetic guidance was provided. Three months later, the level of assimilated information of these patients was evaluated. In addition, laboratory diagnosis of family members was carried out. Results: Diagnosis of sickle cell anemia was confirmed for most patients. Moreover, the majority of the patients who had a low level of knowledge before genetic guidance (68.8%) demonstrated a higher level of assimilated information after the process (81.8%). Almost 70% of the family members had hemoglobin changes and some had hemoglobinopathies(2.6%). They were duly informed about the results of the examinations, which made it possible to investigate further. Conclusion: Genetic guidance and family screening were effective preventive and educational measures that improved the quality of life of patients, preventing complications and sequels and allowed the referral of those who may transmit altered genes for clinical diagnosis and to genetic counseling services.

Ferreira, Tatiana Dela-Savia; Freire, Adriana Sousa; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisangela de Paula; Garcia-Zapata, Marco Tulio Antonio

2012-01-01

383

The RASSF gene family members RASSF5, RASSF6 and RASSF7 show frequent DNA methylation in neuroblastoma  

PubMed Central

Background Hypermethylation of promotor CpG islands is a common mechanism that inactivates tumor suppressor genes in cancer. Genes belonging to the RASSF gene family have frequently been reported as epigenetically silenced by promotor methylation in human cancers. Two members of this gene family, RASSF1A and RASSF5A have been reported as methylated in neuroblastoma. Data from our previously performed genome-wide DNA methylation array analysis indicated that other members of the RASSF gene family are targeted by DNA methylation in neuroblastoma. Results In the current study, we found that several of the RASSF family genes (RASSF2, RASSF4, RASSF5, RASSF6, RASSF7, and RASSF10) to various degrees were methylated in neuroblastoma cell lines and primary tumors. In addition, several of the RASSF family genes showed low or absent mRNA expression in neuroblastoma cell lines. RASSF5 and RASSF6 were to various degrees methylated in a large portion of neuroblastoma tumors and RASSF7 was heavily methylated in most tumors. Further, CpG methylation sites in the CpG islands of some RASSF family members could be used to significantly discriminate between biological subgroups of neuroblastoma tumors. For example, RASSF5 methylation highly correlated to MYCN amplification and INRG stage M. Furthermore, high methylation of RASSF6 was correlated to unfavorable outcome, 1p deletion and MYCN amplification in our tumor material. In conclusion This study shows that several genes belonging to the RASSF gene family are methylated in neuroblastoma. The genes RASSF5, RASSF6 and RASSF7 stand out as the most promising candidate genes for further investigations in neuroblastoma.

2012-01-01

384

Building on the Hopes and Dreams of Latino Families with Young Children: Findings from Family Member Focus Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past, Latino families were often regarded as being uninvolved in their child's education, particularly within the parent involvement literature. More recently, authors are encouraging educational professionals to look at a family's "funds of knowledge" to encourage their involvement. This expression takes into account the knowledge a…

Gregg, Katy; Rugg, Mary; Stoneman, Zolinda

2012-01-01

385

Novel interactions of the TRTK12 peptide with S100 protein family members: specificity and thermodynamic characterization.  

PubMed

The S100 protein family consists of small, dimeric proteins that exert their biological functions in response to changing calcium concentrations. S100B is the best-studied member and has been shown to interact with more than 20 binding partners in a calcium-dependent manner. The TRTK12 peptide, derived from the consensus binding sequence for S100B, has previously been found to interact with S100A1 and has been proposed to be a general binding partner of the S100 family. To test this hypothesis and gain a better understanding of the specificity of binding for the S100 proteins, 16 members of the human S100 family were screened against this peptide and its alanine variants. Novel interactions were found with only two family members, S100P and S100A2, indicating that TRTK12 selectively interacts with a small subset of the S100 proteins. Substantial promiscuity was observed in the binding site of S100B thereby accommodating variations in the peptide sequence, while S100A1, S100A2, and S100P exhibited larger differences in the binding constants for the TRTK12 alanine variants. This suggests that single-point substitutions can be used to selectively modulate the affinity of TRTK12 peptides for individual S100 proteins. This study has important implications for the rational drug design of inhibitors for the S100 proteins, which are involved in a variety of cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23899389

Wafer, Lucas N; Tzul, Franco O; Pandharipande, Pranav P; Makhatadze, George I

2013-08-27

386

Vstm3 is a Member of the CD28 Family and an Important Modulator of T Cell Function  

PubMed Central

Summary Members of the CD28 family play important roles in regulating T cell functions and share a common gene structure profile. We have identified VSTM3 as a protein whose gene structure matches that of the other CD28 family members. This protein (also known as TIGIT and WUCAM) has been previously shown to affect immune responses and is expressed on NK cells, activated and memory T cells, and regulatory T cells. The nectin-family proteins CD155 and CD112 serve as counter-structures for VSTM3 and CD155 and CD112 also bind to the activating receptor CD226 on T cells and NK cells. Hence, this group of interacting proteins forms a network of molecules similar to the well-characterized CD28-CTLA4-CD80-CD86 network. In the same way that soluble CTLA4 can be used to block T cell responses, we show that soluble Vstm3 attenuates T cell responses in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, animals deficient in Vstm3 are more sensitive to autoimmune challenges indicating that this new member of the CD28 family is an important regulator of T cell responses.

Taft, David W.; Brandt, Cameron S.; Bucher, Christoph; Howard, Edward D.; Chadwick, Eric M.; Johnston, Janet; Hammond, Angela; Bontadelli, Kristen; Ardourel, Daniel; Hebb, LuAnn; Wolf, Anitra; Bukowski, Thomas R.; Rixon, Mark W.; Kuijper, Joseph L.; Ostrander, Craig D.; West, James W.; Bilsborough, Janine; Fox, Brian; Gao, Zeren; Xu, Wenfeng; Ramsdell, Fred; Blazar, Bruce R.; Lewis, Katherine E.

2013-01-01

387

The arabinose kinase, ARA1, gene of Arabidopsis is a novel member of the galactose kinase gene family.  

PubMed

The arabinose-sensitive ara1-1 mutant of Arabidopsis is deficient in arabinose kinase activity. A candidate for the ARA1 gene. ISA1, has been previously identified through the Arabidopsis genome sequencing initiative. Here we demonstrate that (1) the ARA1 gene coincides with ISA1 in a positional cloning strategy; (2) there are mutations in the ISA1 gene in both the ara1-1 mutant and an intragenic suppressor mutant; and (3) the ara1-1 and suppressor mutant phenotypes can be complemented by the expression of the ISA1 cDNA in transgenic plants. Together these observations confirm that ISA1 is the ARA1 gene. ARA1 is a member of the galactose kinase family of genes and represents a new substrate specificity among this and other families of sugar kinases. A second gene with similarities to members of the galactose kinase gene family has been identified in the EST database. A 1.8 kb cDNA contained an open reading-frame predicted to encode a 496 amino acid polypeptide. The GAL1 cDNA was expressed in a galK mutant of Escherichia coli and in vitro assays of extracts of the strain expressing GAL1 confirmed that the cDNA encodes a galactose kinase activity. Both GAL1 and ARA1 cross-hybridise at low stringency to other sequences suggesting the presence of additional members of the galactose kinase gene family. PMID:10344205

Sherson, S; Gy, I; Medd, J; Schmidt, R; Dean, C; Kreis, M; Lecharny, A; Cobbett, C

1999-03-01

388

Biological Functionalities of Transglutaminase 2 and the Possibility of Its Compensation by Other Members of the Transglutaminase Family  

PubMed Central

Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is the most widely distributed and most abundantly expressed member of the transglutaminase family of enzymes, a group of intracellular and extracellular proteins that catalyze the Ca2+-dependent posttranslational modification of proteins. It is a unique member of the transglutaminase family owing to its specialized biochemical, structural and functional elements, ubiquitous tissue distribution and subcellular localization, and substrate specificity. The broad substrate specificity of TG2 and its flexible interaction with numerous other gene products may account for its multiple biological functions. In addition to the classic Ca2+-dependent transamidation of proteins, which is a hallmark of transglutaminase enzymes, additional Ca2+-independent enzymatic and nonenzymatic activities of TG2 have been identified. Many such activities have been directly or indirectly implicated in diverse cellular physiological events, including cell growth and differentiation, cell adhesion and morphology, extracellular matrix stabilization, wound healing, cellular development, receptor-mediated endocytosis, apoptosis, and disease pathology. Given the wide range of activities of the transglutaminase gene family it has been suggested that, in the absence of active versions of TG2, its function could be compensated for by other members of the transglutaminase family. It is in the light of this assertion that we review, herein, TG2 activities and the possibilities and premises for compensation for its absence.

Coussons, Peter

2014-01-01

389

The sodium/iodide symporter NIS is a transcriptional target of the p53-family members in liver cancer cells.  

PubMed

Thyroid iodide accumulation via the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS; SLC5A5) has been the basis for the longtime use of radio-iodide in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancers. NIS is also expressed, but poorly functional, in some non-thyroid human cancers. In particular, it is much more strongly expressed in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines than in primary human hepatocytes (PHH). The transcription factors and signaling pathways that control NIS overexpression in these cancers is largely unknown. We identified two putative regulatory clusters of p53-responsive elements (p53REs) in the NIS core promoter, and investigated the regulation of NIS transcription by p53-family members in liver cancer cells. NIS promoter activity and endogenous NIS mRNA expression are stimulated by exogenously expressed p53-family members and significantly reduced by member-specific siRNAs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis shows that the p53-REs clusters in the NIS promoter are differentially occupied by the p53-family members to regulate basal and DNA damage-induced NIS transcription. Doxorubicin strongly induces p53 and p73 binding to the NIS promoter, leading to an increased expression of endogenous NIS mRNA and protein in HCC and CCA cells, but not in PHH. Silencing NIS expression reduced doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in HCC cells, pointing to a possible role of a p53-family-dependent expression of NIS in apoptotic cell death. Altogether, these results indicate that the NIS gene is a direct target of the p53 family and suggests that the modulation of NIS by DNA-damaging agents is potentially exploitable to boost NIS upregulation in vivo. PMID:24052075

Guerrieri, F; Piconese, S; Lacoste, C; Schinzari, V; Testoni, B; Valogne, Y; Gerbal-Chaloin, S; Samuel, D; Bréchot, C; Faivre, J; Levrero, M

2013-01-01

390

The sodium/iodide symporter NIS is a transcriptional target of the p53-family members in liver cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Thyroid iodide accumulation via the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS; SLC5A5) has been the basis for the longtime use of radio-iodide in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancers. NIS is also expressed, but poorly functional, in some non-thyroid human cancers. In particular, it is much more strongly expressed in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines than in primary human hepatocytes (PHH). The transcription factors and signaling pathways that control NIS overexpression in these cancers is largely unknown. We identified two putative regulatory clusters of p53-responsive elements (p53REs) in the NIS core promoter, and investigated the regulation of NIS transcription by p53-family members in liver cancer cells. NIS promoter activity and endogenous NIS mRNA expression are stimulated by exogenously expressed p53-family members and significantly reduced by member-specific siRNAs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis shows that the p53–REs clusters in the NIS promoter are differentially occupied by the p53-family members to regulate basal and DNA damage-induced NIS transcription. Doxorubicin strongly induces p53 and p73 binding to the NIS promoter, leading to an increased expression of endogenous NIS mRNA and protein in HCC and CCA cells, but not in PHH. Silencing NIS expression reduced doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in HCC cells, pointing to a possible role of a p53-family-dependent expression of NIS in apoptotic cell death. Altogether, these results indicate that the NIS gene is a direct target of the p53 family and suggests that the modulation of NIS by DNA-damaging agents is potentially exploitable to boost NIS upregulation in vivo.

Guerrieri, F; Piconese, S; Lacoste, C; Schinzari, V; Testoni, B; Valogne, Y; Gerbal-Chaloin, S; Samuel, D; Brechot, C; Faivre, J; Levrero, M

2013-01-01

391

Paxillin family members function as Csk-binding proteins that regulate Lyn activity in human and murine platelets  

PubMed Central

SFKs (Src family kinases) contribute importantly to platelet function in haemostasis. SFK activity is controlled by Csk (C-terminal Src kinase), which phosphorylates a C-terminal tyrosine residue on SFKs, resulting in inhibition of SFK activity. Csk is recruited to sites of SFK activity by tyrosine-phosphorylated Csk-binding proteins. Paxillin, a multidomain adaptor protein, has been shown to act as a Csk-binding protein and to inhibit Src activity during growth factor signalling. Human platelets express Hic-5, a member of the paxillin family; however, its ability to act as a Csk-binding protein has not been characterized. We sought to identify and characterize the ability of paxillin family members to act as Csk-binding proteins during platelet activation. We found that murine and human platelets differ in the complement of paxillin family members expressed. Human platelets express Hic-5, whereas murine platelets express paxillin and leupaxin in addition to Hic-5. In aggregating human platelets, Hic-5 was tyrosine phosphorylated and recruited Csk via its SH2 domains. In aggregating murine platelets, however, Csk bound preferentially to paxillin, even though both paxillin and Hic-5 were abundantly present and became tyrosine phosphorylated. The SFK Lyn, but not Src or Fyn, was associated with paxillin family members in resting and aggregated human and murine platelets. Lyn, however, was phosphorylated on its C-terminal inhibitory tyrosine residue only following platelet aggregation, which was coincident with recruitment of Csk to paxillin and/or Hic-5 in a manner dependent on prior ?IIb?3 engagement. These observations support the notion that Hic-5 and paxillin function as negative feedback regulators of SFKs in aggregated platelets and that, when both are present, paxillin is preferentially used.

Rathore, Vipul B.; Okada, Masato; Newman, Peter J.; Newman, Debra K.

2007-01-01

392

The relationship between religion, illness and death in life histories of family members of children with life-threatening diseases.  

PubMed

This qualitative study aimed to get to know the relationship between the experiences of families of children with a life-threatening disease and their religion, illness and life histories. The methodological framework was based on Oral History. The data were collected through interviews and the participants were nine families from six different religions who had lived the experience of having a child with a life-threatening disease. The interviews, held with one or two family members, were transcribed, textualized and, through their analysis, the Vital Tone was elaborated, representing the moral synthesis of each narrative. Three dimensions of spirituality were related to illness and death in their life histories: a Higher Being with a healing power; Development and Maintenance of a Connection with God and Faith Encouraging Optimism. The narratives demonstrated the family's search to attribute meanings to their experiences, based on their religious beliefs. PMID:20549112

Bousso, Regina Szylit; Serafim, Taís de Souza; Misko, Maira Deguer

2010-01-01

393

Molecular cloning and expression of Ehf, a new member of the ets transcription factor/oncoprotein gene family.  

PubMed

The ets family is a large multigene family of transcription factors that share a conserved DNA-binding "ETS" domain and include several oncoproteins that induce tumorigenesis when overexpressed. Here we report the cDNA cloning from mouse pituitary somatotroph tumors, sequence characterization and tissue-specific expression pattern in mice of a novel ets family gene, "Ehf" ("ets homologous factor"). The putative 300 amino acid Ehf protein is a highly divergent ets family member, but is most related to the recently identified oncoprotein ESX (36% overall and 84% ETS domain amino acid identity). Thus, Ehf and ESX comprise a new ets subfamily. Ehf is a single-copy gene, but produces four distinct mRNA transcripts. Ehf transcripts are abundant in mouse kidney and lung, less so in muscle and liver, and not detected in brain, spleen or testes. Because of its presence in somatotroph tumors and its relationship to ESX, Ehf may represent a new oncoprotein. PMID:9600089

Bochert, M A; Kleinbaum, L A; Sun, L Y; Burton, F H

1998-05-01

394

Tatumella ptyseos gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae found in clinical specimens.  

PubMed Central

The name Tatumella ptyseos gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed for a group of organisms (previously called group EF-9) isolated from clinical sources in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico. A total of 68% of these isolates were from sputum specimens. T. ptyseos strains are gram-negative, oxidase-negative, fermentative rods that grow on MacConkey agar. The distinctive biochemical characteristics of 44 T. ptyseos isolates were as follows: acid but no gas from D-glucose, sucrose, and, usually (71%), D-xylose (62% delayed); no acid from lactose, maltose, or D-mannitol; negative tests for indole, urea, methyl red, gelatin, L-lysine decarboxylase, and L-ornithine decarboxylase; L-arginine dihydrolase variable; phenylalanine deaminase positive; Voges-Proskauer positive by the Coblentz method but negative by the O'Meara method; nonmotile at 36 degrees C but 66% weakly motile (30% delayed) at 25 degrees C; Simmons citrate positive at 25 degrees C (89%) but Simmons citrate negative at 36 degrees C. Deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness studies on 26 T. ptyseos strains showed that they were 80 to 100% related at 60 degrees C, which indicated that they comprise a single species. The deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness to other species within the Enterobacteriaceae was 7 to 38%. This is evidence that this species belongs in this family, is distinct from all described species and is best placed in a new genus. The T. ptyseos isolates studied were susceptible to all of the antimicrobial agents tested by broth dilution; these antimicrobial agents were amikacin, ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, tetracycline, and tobramycin. Three striking differences between T. ptyseos and other members of the Enterobacteriaceae were its large zone of inhibition around penicillin (mean diameter 24 mm), its tendency to die on some laboratory media (such as blood agar) within 7 days, and its small number (usually one) of flagella. Strain H36 (=ATCC 33301, =CDC D6168, =CDC 9591-78) is the type strain of this new species. T. ptyseos is the type species for the genus Tatumella. Images

Hollis, D G; Hickman, F W; Fanning, G R; Farmer, J J; Weaver, R E; Brenner, D J

1981-01-01

395

A novel member of the family Hepeviridae from cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beginning in 1988, the Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cell line was used to isolate a novel virus from spawning adult trout in the state of California, USA. Termed the cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) virus (CTV), the small, round virus was not associated with disease, but was subsequently found to be present in an increasing number of trout populations in the western USA, likely by a combination of improved surveillance activities and the shipment of infected eggs to new locations. Here, we report that the full length genome of the 1988 Heenan Lake isolate of CTV consisted of 7269 nucleotides of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA beginning with a 5' untranslated region (UTR), followed by three open reading frames (ORFs), a 3' UTR and ending in a polyA tail. The genome of CTV was similar in size and organization to that of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) with which it shared the highest nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities. Similar to the genomes of human, rodent or avian hepeviruses, ORF 1 encoded a large, non-structural polyprotein that included conserved methyltransferase, protease, helicase and polymerase domains, while ORF 2 encoded the structural capsid protein and ORF 3 the phosphoprotein. Together, our data indicated that CTV was clearly a member of the family Hepeviridae, although the level of amino acid sequence identity with the ORFs of mammalian or avian hepeviruses (13-27%) may be sufficiently low to warrant the creation of a novel genus. We also performed a phylogenetic analysis using a 262. nt region within ORF 1 for 63 isolates of CTV obtained from seven species of trout reared in various geographic locations in the western USA. While the sequences fell into two genetic clades, the overall nucleotide diversity was low (less than 8.4%) and many isolates differed by only 1-2 nucleotides, suggesting an epidemiological link. Finally, we showed that CTV was able to form persistently infected cultures of the CHSE-214 cell line that may have use in research on the biology or treatment of hepevirus infections of humans or other animals.

Batts, William; Yun, Susan; Hedrick, Ronald; Winton, James

2011-01-01

396

[Three elderly patient cases maintained by home hypodermoclysis--a practical hydrating method performed by family members].  

PubMed

Hypodermoclysis, the subcutaneous infusion of fluids, has been reevaluated as a useful hydration technique for elderly patients. In the care of end-of-life elderly patients who are unable to take adequate fluids orally, hypodermoclysis is a less stressful means for patients and family than an intravenous hydration. Further more, it shortens the duration of hospitalization. We report three cases of patients who could remain at home stably for a relatively long period of time because of hypodermoclysis administered by family members. PMID:20443317

Sato, Kyoko; Karino, Mayumi; Nishi, Tomohiro; Ando, Takashi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Sachiko; Tsutazawa, Tomomi; Nito, Noriko; Oi, Fumiko; Miyamori, Tadashi

2008-12-01

397

Description and evaluation of the semiautomated 4-hour ATB 32E method for identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.  

PubMed Central

A study was performed to compare the rapid identification system ATB 32E (API-bioMérieux SA, La Balme-les-Grottes, France) with conventional biochemical methods for identifying 414 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae and the genus Aeromonas, mainly of clinical origin. Overall, 395 strains (95.4%) were correctly identified, with 48 (11.6%) requiring extra tests for complete identification. Ten strains (2.4%) were not identified, and nine (2.9%) were misidentified. The ATB 32E is a suitable alternative for rapid identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

Freney, J; Herve, C; Desmonceaux, M; Allard, F; Boeufgras, J M; Monget, D; Fleurette, J

1991-01-01

398

Identification of the fertility restoration locus, Rfo, in radish, as a member of the pentatricopeptide-repeat protein family  

PubMed Central

Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in radish (Raphanus sativus) is caused by an aberrant mitochondrial gene, Orf138, that prevents the production of functional pollen without affecting female fertility. Rfo, a nuclear gene that restores male fertility, alters the expression of Orf138 at the post-transcriptional level. The Ogura CMS/Rfo two-component system is a useful model for investigating nuclear–cytoplasmic interactions, as well as the physiological basis of fertility restoration. Using a combination of positional cloning and microsynteny analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana and radish, we genetically and physically delimited the Rfo locus to a 15-kb DNA segment. Analysis of this segment shows that Rfo is a member of the pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) family. In Arabidopsis, this family contains more than 450 members of unknown function, although most of them are predicted to be targeted to mitochondria and chloroplasts and are thought to have roles in organellar gene expression.

Desloire, Sophie; Gherbi, Hassen; Laloui, Wassila; Marhadour, Sylvie; Clouet, Vanessa; Cattolico, Laurence; Falentin, Cyril; Giancola, Sandra; Renard, Michel; Budar, Francoise; Small, Ian; Caboche, Michel; Delourme, Regine; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid

2003-01-01

399

A pilot study of adaptation of the transtheoretical model to narratives of bereaved family members in the bereavement life review.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the possibility of adaptation of the transtheoretical model (TTM) to narratives from the Bereavement Life Review. Narratives from 19 bereaved family members were recorded, transcribed into sentences, and allocated into stages based on the TTM criteria. Those who lived in fantasy were allocated to the precontemplation stage and who recognized the patient's death but could not adjust to the death were allocated to the contemplation stage. Those who understood the need for changes and had new plans were allocated to the preparation stage, and those who were coping were allocated to the action stage, and those who had confidence to remember the loved one who died were allocated to the maintenance stage. These results provide deeper understanding of a bereaved family member and suggest that a different intervention method may be useful in each stage. PMID:23689366

Ando, Michiyo; Tsuda, Akira; Morita, Tatsuya; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Sanjo, Makiko; Shima, Yasuo

2014-06-01

400

The aging-associated enzyme CLK-1 is a member of the carboxylate-bridged diiron family of proteins.  

PubMed

The aging-associated enzyme CLK-1 is proposed to be a member of the carboxylate-bridged diiron family of proteins. To evaluate this hypothesis and characterize the protein, we expressed soluble mouse CLK-1 (MCLK1) in Escherichia coli as a heterologous host. Using Mo?ssbauer and EPR spectroscopy, we established that MCLK1 indeed belongs to this protein family. Biochemical analyses of the in vitro activity of MCLK1 with quinone substrates revealed that NADH can serve directly as a reductant for catalytic activation of dioxygen and substrate oxidation by the enzyme, with no requirement for an additional reductase protein component. The direct reaction of NADH with a diiron-containing oxidase enzyme has not previously been encountered for any member of the protein superfamily. PMID:20923139

Behan, Rachel K; Lippard, Stephen J

2010-11-16

401

Modulation of T cell development and activation by novel members of the Schlafen (slfn) gene family harbouring an RNA helicase-like motif  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulatory networks governing development and differentiation of hematopoietic cells are incompletely understood. Members of the Schlafen (Slfn) protein family have been implicated in the regulation of cell growth and T cell development. We have identified and chromosomally mapped four new members, slfn5, slfn8, slfn9 and slfn10, which belong to a distinct subgroup within this gene family. The characteristic feature

Peter Geserick; Frank Kaiser; Uwe Klemm; Stefan H. E. Kaufmann; Jens Zerrahn

2004-01-01

402

Evolutionary Origin of the Scombridae (Tunas and Mackerels): Members of a Paleogene Adaptive Radiation with 14 Other Pelagic Fish Families  

PubMed Central

Uncertainties surrounding the evolutionary origin of the epipelagic fish family Scombridae (tunas and mackerels) are symptomatic of the difficulties in resolving suprafamilial relationships within Percomorpha, a hyperdiverse teleost radiation that contains approximately 17,000 species placed in 13 ill-defined orders and 269 families. Here we find that scombrids share a common ancestry with 14 families based on (i) bioinformatic analyses using partial mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences from all percomorphs deposited in GenBank (10,733 sequences) and (ii) subsequent mitogenomic analysis based on 57 species from those targeted 15 families and 67 outgroup taxa. Morphological heterogeneity among these 15 families is so extraordinary that they have been placed in six different perciform suborders. However, members of the 15 families are either coastal or oceanic pelagic in their ecology with diverse modes of life, suggesting that they represent a previously undetected adaptive radiation in the pelagic realm. Time-calibrated phylogenies imply that scombrids originated from a deep-ocean ancestor and began to radiate after the end-Cretaceous when large predatory epipelagic fishes were selective victims of the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. We name this clade of open-ocean fishes containing Scombridae “Pelagia” in reference to the common habitat preference that links the 15 families.

Miya, Masaki; Friedman, Matt; Satoh, Takashi P.; Takeshima, Hirohiko; Sado, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Wataru; Yamanoue, Yusuke; Nakatani, Masanori; Mabuchi, Kohji; Inoue, Jun G.; Poulsen, Jan Yde; Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Sato, Yukuto; Nishida, Mutsumi

2013-01-01

403

Expression analysis of Arabidopsis XH/XS-domain proteins indicates overlapping and distinct functions for members of this gene family  

PubMed Central

RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is essential for de novo DNA methylation in higher plants, and recent reports established novel elements of this silencing pathway in the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. INVOLVED IN DE NOVO DNA METHYLATION 2 (IDN2) and the closely related FACTOR OF DNA METHYLATION (FDM) are members of a plant-specific family of dsRNA-binding proteins characterized by conserved XH/XS domains and implicated in the regulation of RdDM at chromatin targets. Genetic analyses have suggested redundant as well as non-overlapping activities for different members of the gene family. However, detailed insights into the function of XH/XS-domain proteins are still elusive. By the generation and analysis of higher-order mutant combinations affected in IDN2 and further members of the gene family, we have provided additional evidence for their redundant activity. Distinct roles for members of the XH/XS-domain gene family were indicated by differences in their expression and subcellular localization. Fluorescent protein-tagged FDM genes were expressed either in nuclei or in the cytoplasm, suggestive of activities of XH/XS-domain proteins in association with chromatin as well as outside the nuclear compartment. In addition, we observed altered location of a functional FDM1–VENUS reporter from the nucleus into the cytoplasm under conditions when availability of further FDM proteins was limited. This is suggestive of a mechanism by which redistribution of XH/XS-domain proteins could compensate for the loss of closely related proteins.

Butt, Haroon; Luschnig, Christian

2014-01-01

404

Expression analysis of Arabidopsis XH/XS-domain proteins indicates overlapping and distinct functions for members of this gene family.  

PubMed

RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is essential for de novo DNA methylation in higher plants, and recent reports established novel elements of this silencing pathway in the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. Involved in de novo DNA methylation 2 (IDN2) and the closely related factor of DNA methylation (FDM) are members of a plant-specific family of dsRNA-binding proteins characterized by conserved XH/XS domains and implicated in the regulation of RdDM at chromatin targets. Genetic analyses have suggested redundant as well as non-overlapping activities for different members of the gene family. However, detailed insights into the function of XH/XS-domain proteins are still elusive. By the generation and analysis of higher-order mutant combinations affected in IDN2 and further members of the gene family, we have provided additional evidence for their redundant activity. Distinct roles for members of the XH/XS-domain gene family were indicated by differences in their expression and subcellular localization. Fluorescent protein-tagged FDM genes were expressed either in nuclei or in the cytoplasm, suggestive of activities of XH/XS-domain proteins in association with chromatin as well as outside the nuclear compartment. In addition, we observed altered location of a functional FDM1-VENUS reporter from the nucleus into the cytoplasm under conditions when availability of further FDM proteins was limited. This is suggestive of a mechanism by which redistribution of XH/XS-domain proteins could compensate for the loss of closely related proteins. PMID:24574485

Butt, Haroon; Graner, Sonja; Luschnig, Christian

2014-03-01

405

Functional genomic analysis of the AUXIN\\/INDOLE3ACETIC ACID gene family members in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auxin regulates various aspects of plant growth and development. The AUXIN\\/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux\\/IAA) genes encode short-lived transcriptional repressors that are targeted by the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1\\/AUXIN RECEPTOR F-BOX proteins. The Aux\\/IAA proteins regulate auxin-mediated gene expression by interacting with members of the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR protein family. Aux\\/IAA function is poorly understood; herein, we report the identification and characterization of

Paul J. Overvoorde; Yoko Okushima; Jose M. Alonso

2005-01-01

406

Molecular Characterization and Human T-Cell Responses to a Member of a Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis mtb39 Gene Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used expression screening of a genomic Mycobacterium tuberculosis library with tuberculosis (TB) patient sera to identify novel genes that may be used diagnostically or in the development of a TB vaccine. Using this strategy, we have cloned a novel gene, termed mtb39a, that encodes a 39-kDa protein. Molecular characterization revealed that mtb39a is a member of a family