Science.gov

Sample records for pch family members

  1. Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the urine. PCH has been linked to secondary syphilis, tertiary syphilis, and other viral or bacterial infections. Sometimes the ... help. For example, if PCH is caused by syphilis, symptoms may get better when the syphilis is ...

  2. PCH-2 regulates Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hong; Xu, Xiangru; Niklason, Laura E

    2015-01-01

    Components or downstream targets of many signaling pathways such as Insulin/IGF-1 and TOR, as well as genes involved in cellular metabolism and bioenergetics can extend worm lifespan 20% or more. The C. elegans gene pch-2 and its homologs, including TRIP13 in humans, have been studied for their functions in cell mitosis and meiosis, but have never been implicated in lifespan regulation. Here we show that over-expression of TRIP13 in human fibroblasts confers resistance to environmental stressors such as UV radiation and oxidative stress. Furthermore, pch-2 overexpression in C. elegans extends worm lifespan, and enhances worm survival in response to various stressors. Conversely, reducing pch-2 expression with RNAi shortens worm lifespan. Additional genetic epistasis analysis indicates that the molecular mechanism of pch-2 in worm longevity is tied to functions of the sirtuin family, implying that pch-2 is another chromatin regulator for worm longevity. These findings suggest a novel function of the pch-2 gene involved in lifespan determination. PMID:25635513

  3. 7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Family members. 1400.208 Section 1400.208 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.208 Family members. (a) Notwithstanding... persons, a majority of whom are family members, an adult family member who makes a...

  4. 7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Family members. 1400.208 Section 1400.208 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.208 Family members. (a) Notwithstanding... persons, a majority of whom are family members, an adult family member who makes a...

  5. 7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Family members. 1400.208 Section 1400.208 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.208 Family members. (a) Notwithstanding... persons, a majority of whom are family members, an adult family member who makes a...

  6. 7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Family members. 1400.208 Section 1400.208 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.208 Family members. (a) Notwithstanding... persons, a majority of whom are family members, an adult family member who makes a...

  7. 7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Family members. 1400.208 Section 1400.208 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.208 Family members. (a) Notwithstanding... persons, a majority of whom are family members, an adult family member who makes a...

  8. Principal Components of Heritability From Neurocognitive Domains Differ Between Families With Schizophrenia and Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Howard; Klei, Lambertus; Calkins, Monica; Wood, Joel; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Gur, Ruben; Bradford, L. DiAnne; Richard, Jan; Edwards, Neil; Savage, Robert; Kwentus, Joseph; Allen, Trina; McEvoy, Joseph; Santos, Alberto; Gur, Raquel; Devlin, Bernie; Go, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Various measures of neurocognitive function show mean differences among individuals with schizophrenia (SZ), their relatives, and population controls. We use eigenvector transformations that maximize heritability of multiple neurocognitive measures, namely principal components of heritability (PCH), and evaluate how they distribute in SZ families and controls. Methods: African-Americans with SZ or schizoaffective disorder (SZA) (n = 514), their relatives (n = 1092), and adult controls (n = 300) completed diagnostic interviews and computerized neurocognitive tests. PCH were estimated from 9 neurocognitive domains. Three PCH, PCH1–PCH3, were modeled to determine if status (SZ, relative, and control), other psychiatric covariates, and education were significant predictors of mean values. A small-scale linkage analysis was also conducted in a subset of the sample. Results: PCH1, PCH2, and PCH3 account for 72% of the genetic variance. PCH1 represents 8 of 9 neurocognitive domains, is most highly correlated with spatial processing and emotion recognition, and has unadjusted heritability of 68%. The means for PCH1 differ significantly among SZ, their relatives, and controls. PCH2, orthogonal to PCH1, is most closely correlated with working memory and has an unadjusted heritability of 45%. Mean PCH2 is different only between SZ families and controls. PCH3 apparently represents a heritable component of neurocognition similar across the 3 diagnostic groups. No significant linkage evidence to PCH1–PCH3 or individual neurocognitive measures was discovered. Conclusions: PCH1 is highly heritable and genetically correlated with SZ. It should prove useful in future genetic analyses. Mean PCH2 differentiates SZ families and controls but not SZ and unaffected family members. PMID:22234486

  9. 7 CFR 795.4 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Family members. 795.4 Section 795.4 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.4 Family members. Effective for... was a “person” solely on the basis that: (a) A family member cosigns for, or makes a loan to,...

  10. 7 CFR 795.4 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Family members. 795.4 Section 795.4 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.4 Family members. Effective for... was a “person” solely on the basis that: (a) A family member cosigns for, or makes a loan to,...

  11. Family Member Involvement in Hastened Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starks, Helene; Back, Anthony L.; Pearlman, Robert A.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Hsu, Clarissa; Gordon, Judith R.; Bharucha, Ashok J.

    2007-01-01

    When patients pursue a hastened death, how is the labor of family caregiving affected? The authors examined this question in a qualitative study of 35 families. Four cases reveal the main themes: "taking care" included mutual protection between patients and family members; "midwifing the death" without professional support left families unprepared…

  12. Conducting a multi family member interview study.

    PubMed

    Reczek, Corinne

    2014-06-01

    Family researchers have long recognized the utility of incorporating interview data from multiple family members. Yet, relatively few contemporary scholars utilize such an approach due to methodological underdevelopment. This article contributes to family scholarship by providing a roadmap for developing and executing in-depth interview studies that include more than one family member. Specifically, it outlines the epistemological frames that most commonly underlie this approach, illustrates thematic research questions that it best addresses, and critically reviews the best methodological practices of conducting research with this approach. The three most common approaches are addressed in depth: separate interviews with each family member, dyadic or group interviews with multiple family members, and a combined approach that uses separate and dyadic or group interviews. This article speaks to family scholars who are at the beginning stages of their research project but are unsure of the best qualitative approach to answer a given research question. PMID:24410452

  13. 7 CFR 795.4 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Family members. 795.4 Section 795.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.4 Family members. Effective...

  14. 7 CFR 795.4 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Family members. 795.4 Section 795.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.4 Family members. Effective...

  15. 7 CFR 795.4 - Family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Family members. 795.4 Section 795.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.4 Family members. Effective...

  16. Methods of Assessment for Affected Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Velleman, Richard; Copello, Alex

    2010-01-01

    The article begins by making the point that a good assessment of the needs and circumstances of family members is important if previous neglect of affected family members is to be reversed. The methods we have used in research studies are then described. They include a lengthy semi-structured interview covering seven topic areas and standard…

  17. Methods of Assessment for Affected Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Velleman, Richard; Copello, Alex

    2010-01-01

    The article begins by making the point that a good assessment of the needs and circumstances of family members is important if previous neglect of affected family members is to be reversed. The methods we have used in research studies are then described. They include a lengthy semi-structured interview covering seven topic areas and standard…

  18. Helping Older Family Members Become More Active

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and you can get the same benefits, too. Download the Tip Sheet Helping Older Family Members Become ... Health and Human Services. About Go4Life Policies & Disclaimer Download Acrobat Reader En Español United States Department of ...

  19. 42 CFR 435.119 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualified family members. 435.119 Section 435.119... Family Members § 435.119 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under § 435.116 of...

  20. 42 CFR 435.119 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified family members. 435.119 Section 435.119... Family Members § 435.119 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under § 435.116 of...

  1. 42 CFR 435.119 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified family members. 435.119 Section 435.119... Family Members § 435.119 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under § 435.116 of...

  2. Metabolic Regulation by p53 Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Berkers, Celia R.; Maddocks, Oliver D.K.; Cheung, Eric C.; Mor, Inbal; Vousden, Karen H.

    2013-01-01

    The function of p53 is best understood in response to genotoxic stress, but increasing evidence suggests that p53 also plays a key role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. p53 and its family members directly influence various metabolic pathways, enabling cells to respond to metabolic stress. These functions are likely to be important for restraining the development of cancer but could also have a profound effect on the development of metabolic diseases, including diabetes. A better understanding of the metabolic functions of p53 family members may aid in the identification of therapeutic targets and reveal novel uses for p53-modulating drugs. PMID:23954639

  3. Family Members as Participants on Craniofacial Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, James; Seaver, Earl; Stevens, George; Whiteley, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    Family members (N=83) who participated in professional team staffing concerning treatment plans for their child with a craniofacial difference (typically, cleft lip and/or palate) were surveyed. Ninety-seven percent of respondents said they would choose to meet with the team on their next visit to the clinic. The role of early interventionists on…

  4. Family Members as Participants on Craniofacial Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, James; Seaver, Earl; Stevens, George; Whiteley, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    Family members (N=83) who participated in professional team staffing concerning treatment plans for their child with a craniofacial difference (typically, cleft lip and/or palate) were surveyed. Ninety-seven percent of respondents said they would choose to meet with the team on their next visit to the clinic. The role of early interventionists on…

  5. Fort Lewis Exceptional Family Member Program (EFMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebdon, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Located in the shadow of Mt. Rainier, Fort Lewis is the home of the highest per capita exceptional family member population in the Army. Ideally located on the Northwest coast of Washington State, Fort Lewis is home to the Strykers and First Brigade. Combined with its close proximity to McChord Air Force Base, the installation is ideally suited to…

  6. 42 CFR 436.121 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualified family members. 436.121 Section 436.121... Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.121 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under §...

  7. 42 CFR 436.121 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Qualified family members. 436.121 Section 436.121... Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.121 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under §...

  8. 42 CFR 436.121 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified family members. 436.121 Section 436.121... Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.121 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A qualified family member is any member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under §...

  9. 20 CFR 653.104 - Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Services to MSFW family members, farm labor... Farmworkers (MSFWs) § 653.104 Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members. (a... for services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors and crew members. Except as provided...

  10. 20 CFR 653.104 - Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Services to MSFW family members, farm labor... Farmworkers (MSFWs) § 653.104 Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members. (a... for services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors and crew members. Except as provided...

  11. 20 CFR 653.104 - Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services to MSFW family members, farm labor... Farmworkers (MSFWs) § 653.104 Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members. (a... for services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors and crew members. Except as provided...

  12. 20 CFR 653.104 - Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Services to MSFW family members, farm labor... Farmworkers (MSFWs) § 653.104 Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members. (a... for services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors and crew members. Except as provided...

  13. 20 CFR 653.104 - Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Services to MSFW family members, farm labor... Farmworkers (MSFWs) § 653.104 Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members. (a... for services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors and crew members. Except as provided...

  14. Apollo 15 Crew and Family Members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The three Apollo 15 crew receive a welcome on their arrival at Ellington Air Force Base, Houston, Texas, after en eight-hour flight aboard a U.S. Air Force C-141 jet aircraft from Hawaii. Left to right are: Astronauts David R. Scott, Alfred M. Worden and James B. Irwin. Members of the astronaut's families identified in picture are left to right: Scott's daughter, Tracy; Worden's father, Merrill Worden; Worden's daughter, Merrill; and Irwin's two daughters, Joy and Jill.

  15. 5 CFR 890.302 - Coverage of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage of family members. 890.302... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Enrollment § 890.302 Coverage of family members. (a)(1) An enrollment for self and family includes all family members who are eligible to...

  16. 5 CFR 890.302 - Coverage of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage of family members. 890.302... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Enrollment § 890.302 Coverage of family members. (a)(1) An enrollment for self and family includes all family members who are eligible to...

  17. 5 CFR 890.302 - Coverage of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage of family members. 890.302... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Enrollment § 890.302 Coverage of family members. (a)(1) An enrollment for self and family includes all family members who are eligible to...

  18. 5 CFR 890.302 - Coverage of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage of family members. 890.302... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Enrollment § 890.302 Coverage of family members. (a)(1) An enrollment for self and family includes all family members who are eligible to...

  19. An Unusually Shaped Haumea Family Member

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacerda, P.; McNeill, A.

    2013-09-01

    2013 EL61 Haumea is a 2000 km-scale, fast-spinning Kuiper belt object covered in water ice, but with a bulk density near 2.5 g cm-3 implying a rocky interior (Rabinowitz et al. 2006; Trujillo et al. 2007). Approximately a dozen Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) have been identified as possibly related to Haumea as they share similar orbital properties and unusually fresh, icy surfaces similar to the mantle covering Haumea (Carry et al. 2012). These KBOs are usually referred to as the Haumea family. The formation of the family is the subject of intense speculation (Brown et al. 2007, Schlichting & Sari 2009, Leinhardt et al. 2010). Sparse photometry of one of the family members, 2003 SQ317, revealed an interesting high photometric variability (Snodgrass et al. 2009). We followed up on those observation and used the NTT in La Silla to obtain dense, time-resolved photometry of SQ317 over two semesters. Analysis of the lightcurve (Fig. 1) indicates a spin period P = 7.2 hr and a photometric range m = 0.9 mag. We will present implications of this lightcurve to the object's shape and bulk density.

  20. 42 CFR 31.9 - Dependent members of families; treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dependent members of families; treatment. 31.9... Public Health Service § 31.9 Dependent members of families; treatment. To the extent and under the... the dependent members of families of the following persons: (a) Coast Guard. Commissioned...

  1. 42 CFR 31.9 - Dependent members of families; treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dependent members of families; treatment. 31.9... Public Health Service § 31.9 Dependent members of families; treatment. To the extent and under the... the dependent members of families of the following persons: (a) Coast Guard. Commissioned...

  2. 42 CFR 31.9 - Dependent members of families; treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dependent members of families; treatment. 31.9... Public Health Service § 31.9 Dependent members of families; treatment. To the extent and under the... the dependent members of families of the following persons: (a) Coast Guard. Commissioned...

  3. 42 CFR 31.9 - Dependent members of families; treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dependent members of families; treatment. 31.9... Public Health Service § 31.9 Dependent members of families; treatment. To the extent and under the... the dependent members of families of the following persons: (a) Coast Guard. Commissioned...

  4. 42 CFR 31.9 - Dependent members of families; treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dependent members of families; treatment. 31.9... Public Health Service § 31.9 Dependent members of families; treatment. To the extent and under the... the dependent members of families of the following persons: (a) Coast Guard. Commissioned...

  5. Family Members' Reports of the Technology Use of Family Members with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, S. B.; Wehmeyer, M. L.; Davies, D. K.; Stock, S. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A nationwide survey of family members of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities ranging in age from birth through adulthood was conducted to replicate a similar effort by Wehmeyer and update the knowledge base concerning technology use by people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Method: Survey responses…

  6. Family Members' Reports of the Technology Use of Family Members with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, S. B.; Wehmeyer, M. L.; Davies, D. K.; Stock, S. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A nationwide survey of family members of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities ranging in age from birth through adulthood was conducted to replicate a similar effort by Wehmeyer and update the knowledge base concerning technology use by people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Method: Survey responses…

  7. An Unusually Shaped Haumea Family Member

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacerda, Pedro

    2013-10-01

    2013 EL61 Haumea is a 2000 km-scale, fast-spinning Kuiper belt object covered in water ice, but with a bulk density near 2.5 g/cc implying a rocky interior. Approximately a dozen Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) have been identified as possibly related to Haumea in that they share similar orbital properties and have unusually fresh, icy surfaces similar to the water-ice mantle covering the latter. These KBOs are usually referred to as the Haumea family. Sparse photometry of one of the family members, 2003 SQ317, revealed an interesting high photometric variability. We followed up on those observations and used the NTT in La Silla to obtain dense, time-resolved photometry of SQ317 over two semesters. Analysis of the lightcurve indicates a spin period P=7.2 hr and a photometric range equal to 0.9 mag. We will present implications of this lightcurve to the object's shape and bulk density.

  8. Developmental roles of tribbles protein family members.

    PubMed

    Dobens, Leonard L; Bouyain, Samuel

    2012-08-01

    The gene tribbles (trbl), identified 12 years ago in genetic screens for mutations that control both cell division and cell migration during embryonic Drosophila development, is the founding member of the Tribbles (Trib) family of kinase-like proteins that have diverse roles in cell signaling, tissue homeostasis, and cancer. Trib proteins share three motifs: (1) a divergent kinase region (Trib domain) with undetermined catalytic activity, (2) a COP1 site used to direct key target proteins to the proteosome for degradation, and (3) a MEK1 site that binds and modulates MAPKK kinase activity. The notion that Tribs act as scaffolding proteins to balance signaling levels in multiple pathways retains an attractive simplicity, but given recent data showing that divergent kinases act by means of novel catalytic mechanisms, the enzymatic activity of Tribs remains untested. Here, we focus on the role of Tribs during development. Developmental analysis of Drosophila trbl phenotypes reveals tissue-specific, sometimes contradictory roles. In mammals, multiple Trib isoforms exhibit overlapping and tissue-specific functions. Recent data indicate the mechanism of Trib activity is conserved and requires the Trib domain. Finally, we discuss the connections between Tribs in disease and cancer that have implications for their normal roles during organogenesis. PMID:22711497

  9. Perceived Family Resources Based on Number of Members with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Melinda; Mulsow, Miriam; Feng, Du

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the number of family members with ADHD affects other family members' perceived resources. Method: A total of 40 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and their mothers, fathers, and adolescent siblings living in the household participated. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze family-level data from a total…

  10. Perceived Family Resources Based on Number of Members with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Melinda; Mulsow, Miriam; Feng, Du

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the number of family members with ADHD affects other family members' perceived resources. Method: A total of 40 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and their mothers, fathers, and adolescent siblings living in the household participated. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze family-level data from a total…

  11. Family Members' Experience With Hospice in Nursing Homes.

    PubMed

    Gage, L Ashley; Washington, Karla; Oliver, Debra Parker; Kruse, Robin; Lewis, Alexandra; Demiris, George

    2016-05-01

    Research has documented numerous benefits and challenges associated with receipt of hospice care in nursing homes; however, study of this partnership from the perspective of residents' family members has been limited. The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to explore family members' experience with hospice services received in the nursing home setting. Researchers conducted a secondary data analysis of 175 family member interviews using a thematic analytic approach. Findings highlighted the critical role of communication in supporting residents and their family members. Care coordination, support and oversight, and role confusion also impacted family members' experience of hospice care in the nursing home. Efforts directed at enhancing communication and more clearly articulating the roles of members of the health care team are indicated. PMID:25422516

  12. GATA family members as inducers for cellular reprogramming to pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Jian; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Minjie; Yao, Anzhi; Shao, Sida; Du, Fengxia; Yang, Caiyun; Chen, Wenhan; Wu, Chen; Yang, Weifeng; Sun, Yingli; Deng, Hongkui

    2015-01-01

    Members of the GATA protein family play important roles in lineage specification and transdifferentiation. Previous reports show that some members of the GATA protein family can also induce pluripotency in somatic cells by substituting for Oct4, a key pluripotency-associated factor. However, the mechanism linking lineage-specifying cues and the activation of pluripotency remains elusive. Here, we report that all GATA family members can substitute for Oct4 to induce pluripotency. We found that all members of the GATA family could inhibit the overrepresented ectodermal-lineage genes, which is consistent with previous reports indicating that a balance of different lineage-specifying forces is important for the restoration of pluripotency. A conserved zinc-finger DNA-binding domain in the C-terminus is critical for the GATA family to induce pluripotency. Using RNA-seq and ChIP-seq, we determined that the pluripotency-related gene Sall4 is a direct target of GATA family members during reprogramming and serves as a bridge linking the lineage-specifying GATA family to the pluripotency circuit. Thus, the GATA family is the first protein family of which all members can function as inducers of the reprogramming process and can substitute for Oct4. Our results suggest that the role of GATA family in reprogramming has been underestimated and that the GATA family may serve as an important mediator of cell fate conversion. PMID:25591928

  13. GATA family members as inducers for cellular reprogramming to pluripotency.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jian; Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Minjie; Yao, Anzhi; Shao, Sida; Du, Fengxia; Yang, Caiyun; Chen, Wenhan; Wu, Chen; Yang, Weifeng; Sun, Yingli; Deng, Hongkui

    2015-02-01

    Members of the GATA protein family play important roles in lineage specification and transdifferentiation. Previous reports show that some members of the GATA protein family can also induce pluripotency in somatic cells by substituting for Oct4, a key pluripotency-associated factor. However, the mechanism linking lineage-specifying cues and the activation of pluripotency remains elusive. Here, we report that all GATA family members can substitute for Oct4 to induce pluripotency. We found that all members of the GATA family could inhibit the overrepresented ectodermal-lineage genes, which is consistent with previous reports indicating that a balance of different lineage-specifying forces is important for the restoration of pluripotency. A conserved zinc-finger DNA-binding domain in the C-terminus is critical for the GATA family to induce pluripotency. Using RNA-seq and ChIP-seq, we determined that the pluripotency-related gene Sall4 is a direct target of GATA family members during reprogramming and serves as a bridge linking the lineage-specifying GATA family to the pluripotency circuit. Thus, the GATA family is the first protein family of which all members can function as inducers of the reprogramming process and can substitute for Oct4. Our results suggest that the role of GATA family in reprogramming has been underestimated and that the GATA family may serve as an important mediator of cell fate conversion. PMID:25591928

  14. The After-Death Call to Family Members: Academic Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoboPrabhu, Sheila; Molinari, Victor; Pate, Jennifer; Lomax, James

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss clinical and teaching aspects of a telephone call by the treating clinician to family members after a patient dies. Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted for references to an after-death call made by the treating clinician to family members. A review of this literature is summarized. Results: A clinical application…

  15. Distribution of Candida albicans genotypes among family members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Stevens, D. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Feroze, F.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Thirty-three families (71 subjects) were screened for the presence of Candida albicans in mouthwash or stool specimens; 12 families (28 subjects) were culture-positive for this yeast. An enrichment procedure provided a twofold increase in the recovery of C. albicans from mouthwash specimens. Nine of the twelve culture-positive families had two positive members each, two families had three positive members each, and one family had four positive members. Genetic profiles were obtained by three methods: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; restriction endonuclease analysis, and random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis. DNA fingerprinting of C. albicans isolated from one body site three consecutive times revealed that each of the 12 families carried a distinct genotype. No two families shared the same strain, and two or more members of a family commonly shared the same strain. Intrafamily genotypic identity (i.e., each member within the family harbored the same strain) was demonstrated in six families. Genotypes of isolates from husband and wife differed from one another in five families. All three methods were satisfactory in determining genotypes; however, we concluded that restriction endonuclease analysis provided adequate resolving power.

  16. Interventions for Family Members of Adolescents with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Draucker, Claire; Alkhattab, Halima; Knopf, Amy; Mazurcyk, Jill

    2014-01-01

    PROBLEM The family members of adolescents diagnosed with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) experience profound stress and burden. Despite the need for empirically supported interventions that address the challenges faced by these family members, few such interventions are available. METHODS In this qualitative descriptive study, we conducted in-depth interviews with 15 families of adolescents diagnosed with DBD. We asked the family members to identify what types of mental health services they needed and to describe the ‘ideal” program that would best address their concerns. FINDINGS Family members identified several intervention modalities that would fit their needs including multi-family groups, family therapy, individual therapy, and community-based hotlines. They indicated that programs should address the following topics: family communication, conflict resolution, education about DBD, and strategies to improve interactions with child service agencies. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians should recognize that all family members may need support to manage the stressors associated with caring for or living with adolescents with DBD. When working with families, clinicians should provide information about the etiology and management of DBD, help navigate interactions with child service agencies, and employ strategies to improve family communication and functioning. PMID:24934181

  17. Death at the Worksite: Helping Grieving Family Members

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Grief at Work Working Through Grief About Us Death at the Worksite: Helping Grieving Family Members By ... fatal heart attacks occur in the workplace. Other deaths — from accidents, for example — can also happen during ...

  18. Myocardin Family Members Drive Formation of Caveolae

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Katarzyna K.; Yao Mattisson, Ingrid; Ekman, Mari; Oskolkov, Nikolay; Grantinge, Rebecka; Kotowska, Dorota; Olde, Björn; Hansson, Ola; Albinsson, Sebastian; Miano, Joseph M.; Rippe, Catarina; Swärd, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Caveolae are membrane organelles that play roles in glucose and lipid metabolism and in vascular function. Formation of caveolae requires caveolins and cavins. The make-up of caveolae and their density is considered to reflect cell-specific transcriptional control mechanisms for caveolins and cavins, but knowledge regarding regulation of caveolae genes is incomplete. Myocardin (MYOCD) and its relative MRTF-A (MKL1) are transcriptional coactivators that control genes which promote smooth muscle differentiation. MRTF-A communicates changes in actin polymerization to nuclear gene transcription. Here we tested if myocardin family proteins control biogenesis of caveolae via activation of caveolin and cavin transcription. Using human coronary artery smooth muscle cells we found that jasplakinolide and latrunculin B (LatB), substances that promote and inhibit actin polymerization, increased and decreased protein levels of caveolins and cavins, respectively. The effect of LatB was associated with reduced mRNA levels for these genes and this was replicated by the MRTF inhibitor CCG-1423 which was non-additive with LatB. Overexpression of myocardin and MRTF-A caused 5-10-fold induction of caveolins whereas cavin-1 and cavin-2 were induced 2-3-fold. PACSIN2 also increased, establishing positive regulation of caveolae genes from three families. Full regulation of CAV1 was retained in its proximal promoter. Knock down of the serum response factor (SRF), which mediates many of the effects of myocardin, decreased cavin-1 but increased caveolin-1 and -2 mRNAs. Viral transduction of myocardin increased the density of caveolae 5-fold in vitro. A decrease of CAV1 was observed concomitant with a decrease of the smooth muscle marker calponin in aortic aneurysms from mice (C57Bl/6) infused with angiotensin II. Human expression data disclosed correlations of MYOCD with CAV1 in a majority of human tissues and in the heart, correlation with MKL2 (MRTF-B) was observed. The myocardin family of transcriptional coactivators therefore drives formation of caveolae and this effect is largely independent of SRF. PMID:26244347

  19. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... from overseas. 884.10 Section 884.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects persons overseas wanted by Federal or state authorities to make themselves available to those authorities...

  20. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from overseas. 884.10 Section 884.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects persons overseas wanted by Federal or state authorities to make themselves available to those authorities...

  1. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... from overseas. 884.10 Section 884.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects persons overseas wanted by Federal or state authorities to make themselves available to those authorities...

  2. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... from overseas. 884.10 Section 884.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects persons overseas wanted by Federal or state authorities to make themselves available to those authorities...

  3. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... from overseas. 884.10 Section 884.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects persons overseas wanted by Federal or state authorities to make themselves available to those authorities...

  4. Family Members' Influence on Family Meal Vegetable Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenrich, Tionni R.; Brown, J. Lynne; Miller-Day, Michelle; Kelley, Kevin J.; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Characterize the process of family vegetable selection (especially cruciferous, deep orange, and dark green leafy vegetables); demonstrate the usefulness of Exchange Theory (how family norms and experiences interact with rewards and costs) for interpreting the data. Design: Eight focus groups, 2 with each segment (men/women vegetable…

  5. Being Socialised into Language Shift: The Impact of Extended Family Members on Family Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Christmas, Cassie

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a family language policy (FLP) in the context of an extended bilingual Gaelic-English family on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. It demonstrates how certain family members (namely, the children's mother and paternal grandmother) negotiate and reify a strongly Gaelic-centred FLP. It then discusses how other extended family

  6. New Insights in the Immunobiology of IL-1 Family Members.

    PubMed

    van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Netea, Mihai G

    2013-01-01

    The interleukin-1 (IL 1) family of ligands is associated with acute and chronic inflammation, and plays an essential role in the non-specific innate response to infection. The biological properties of IL 1 family ligands are typically pro-inflammatory. The IL 1 family has 11 family members and can be categorized into subfamilies according to the length of their precursor and the length of the propiece for each precursor (Figure 1). The IL 1 subfamily consists of IL 1?, IL 1?, and IL 33, with the longest propieces of the IL 1 family. IL 18 and IL 37 belong to the IL 18 subfamily and contain smaller propieces than IL 1 and IL-33. Since IL 37 binds to the IL 18R? chain it is part of the IL 18 subfamily, however it remains to be elucidated how the propiece of IL 37 is removed. IL 36?, ?, and ? as well as IL 36 Ra belong to the IL 36 subfamily. In addition, IL 38 likely belongs to this family since it has the ability to bind to the IL 36R. The IL 36 subfamily has the shortest propiece. The one member of the IL 1 family that cannot be categorized in these subfamilies is IL 1 receptor antagonist (IL 1Ra), which has a signal peptide and is readily secreted. In the present review we will describe the biological functions of the IL-1F members and new insights in their biology. PMID:23847614

  7. Trauma Patients' Family Members' Perceptions of Nurses' Caring Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Nantz, Sarah; Hines, Annette

    2015-01-01

    A mixed methods study was conducted to identify trauma patients' family members' perceptions of nurses' caring behaviors on a trauma step-down unit at a level I trauma center. Family members completed Caring Behaviors Inventory-Short Form 24 and a qualitative section. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. On a scale of 1 to 6, the mean score for individual items was 5.2 (median = 5.3). Participants considered the nurses' behaviors to be indicative of caring in each of the 4 areas measured-assurance, knowledge/skills, respectfulness, and connectedness. Four themes were identified-technical, nonverbal, personal connections, and addressing comfort. PMID:26352655

  8. Service Members' Experiences in Staying Connected With Family While Deployed.

    PubMed

    Durham, Susan W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the communication issues experienced by service members staying connected with families while deployed. Qualitative design guided data collection using interviews with 20 key informants who had been deployed in Iraq or Afghanistan. Inductive content analysis and NVivo software enabled data analysis. From the data, 5 main themes emerged: Creating Normalcy Through Connecting With Others; Understanding the Spoken and Unspoken; Connecting and Disconnecting; Changing Sense of Self; and Sustaining a Common Bond. A collective understanding of common communication challenges emerged that had an impact on service member/family relationships, mission focus, and safety. PMID:26517340

  9. [Psychoeducation of patients and their family members during episode psychosis].

    PubMed

    Hodé, Y

    2013-09-01

    The concept of psychoeducation is close to the concept of therapeutic education and refers to a kind of education intervention targeting people with a mental health condition. In the framework of psychosis, psychoeducation can be offered to patients, family members or both. The efficacy of patient psychoeducation on treatment adherence or social functioning is well-established but only if the family benefits of a joint psychoeducational intervention. Family psychoeducation, even without patient psychoeducation has proven efficacy in reducing relapse rate. This reduction is of the same order of magnitude as that obtained with an antipsychotic medication. PMID:24084420

  10. Working with Black Families Having Mentally Retarded Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utley, Cheryl A.; Marion, Robert

    The paper examines culture as an influential variable in the shaping of the value system within the sturcture of black families specifically those with mentally retarded members. Typical negative views of the black culture included such characteristics as matriarchal, unstable, and pathological. More recent views have focused on strengths,…

  11. 42 CFR 436.121 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Qualified family members. 436.121 Section 436.121 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN GUAM, PUERTO RICO, AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS...

  12. 42 CFR 436.121 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified family members. 436.121 Section 436.121 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN GUAM, PUERTO RICO, AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS...

  13. Family Decision Making: Benefits to Persons with Developmental Disabilities and Their Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely-Barnes, Susan; Graff, J. Carolyn; Marcenko, Maureen; Weber, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Family involvement in planning and choosing services has become a key intervention concept in developmental disability services. This study (N = 547) modeled patterns of family decision making and assessed benefits to persons with developmental disabilities (DDs) and their family members. A latent profile analysis identified 4 classes that were…

  14. Family Decision Making: Benefits to Persons with Developmental Disabilities and Their Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely-Barnes, Susan; Graff, J. Carolyn; Marcenko, Maureen; Weber, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Family involvement in planning and choosing services has become a key intervention concept in developmental disability services. This study (N = 547) modeled patterns of family decision making and assessed benefits to persons with developmental disabilities (DDs) and their family members. A latent profile analysis identified 4 classes that were…

  15. Being Socialised into Language Shift: The Impact of Extended Family Members on Family Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Christmas, Cassie

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a family language policy (FLP) in the context of an extended bilingual Gaelic-English family on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. It demonstrates how certain family members (namely, the children's mother and paternal grandmother) negotiate and reify a strongly Gaelic-centred FLP. It then discusses how other extended family…

  16. Identification of members of the P-glycoprotein multigene family

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, W.F.; Sarangi, F.; Zastawny, R.L.; Veinot-Drebot, L.; Ling, V. )

    1989-03-01

    Overproduction of P-glycoprotein is intimately associated with multidrug resistance. This protein appears to be encoded by a multigene family. Thus, differential expression of different members of this family may contribute to the complexity of the multidrug resistance phenotype. Three lambda genomic clones isolated from a hamster genomic library represent different members of the hamster P-glycoprotein gene family. Using a highly conserved exon probe, the authors found that the hamster P-glycoprotein gene family consists of three genes. They also found that the P-glycoprotein gene family consists of three genes in mice but has only two genes in humans and rhesus monkeys. The hamster P-glycoprotein genes have similar exon-intron organizations within the 3' region encoding the cytoplasmic domains. The propose that the hamster P-glycoprotein gene family arose from gene duplication. The hamster pgpl and pgp2 genes appear to be more closely related to each other than either gene is to the pgp3 gene. They speculate that the hamster pgpl and pgp2 genes arose from a recent gene duplication event and that primates did not undergo this duplication and therefore contain only two P-glycoprotein genes.

  17. Structure and variability of recently inserted Alu family members.

    PubMed Central

    Batzer, M A; Kilroy, G E; Richard, P E; Shaikh, T H; Desselle, T D; Hoppens, C L; Deininger, P L

    1990-01-01

    The HS subfamily of Alu sequences is comprised of a group of nearly identical members. Individual subfamily members share 97.7% nucleotide identity with each other and 98.9% nucleotide identity with the HS consensus sequence. Individual subfamily members are on the average 2.8 million years old, and were probably derived from a single source 'master' gene sometime after the human/great ape divergence. The recent Alu family member insertions provide a better image of the structure of Alu retroposons before they have had the opportunity to change significantly. All of the HS subfamily members are flanked by perfect direct repeats as a result of insertion at staggered nicks. The 'master' gene from which the HS subfamily members were derived had an oligo-dA rich tail at least 40 bases long. The 'master' gene is very rich in CpG dinucleotides, but nucleotide substitutions within subfamily members accumulated in a random manner typical for Alu sequence with CpG substitutions occurring 9.2 fold faster than non-CpG substitutions. PMID:2175877

  18. The serendipitous origin of chordate secretin peptide family members

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The secretin family is a pleotropic group of brain-gut peptides with affinity for class 2 G-protein coupled receptors (secretin family GPCRs) proposed to have emerged early in the metazoan radiation via gene or genome duplications. In human, 10 members exist and sequence and functional homologues and ligand-receptor pairs have been characterised in representatives of most vertebrate classes. Secretin-like family GPCR homologues have also been isolated in non-vertebrate genomes however their corresponding ligands have not been convincingly identified and their evolution remains enigmatic. Results In silico sequence comparisons failed to retrieve a non-vertebrate (porifera, cnidaria, protostome and early deuterostome) secretin family homologue. In contrast, secretin family members were identified in lamprey, several teleosts and tetrapods and comparative studies revealed that sequence and structure is in general maintained. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis revealed that PACAP, VIP and GCG are the most highly conserved members and two major peptide subfamilies exist; i) PACAP-like which includes PACAP, PRP, VIP, PH, GHRH, SCT and ii) GCG-like which includes GCG, GLP1, GLP2 and GIP. Conserved regions flanking secretin family members were established by comparative analysis of the Takifugu, Xenopus, chicken and human genomes and gene homologues were identified in nematode, Drosophila and Ciona genomes but no gene linkage occurred. However, in Drosophila and nematode genes which flank vertebrate secretin family members were identified in the same chromosome. Conclusions Receptors of the secretin-like family GPCRs are present in protostomes but no sequence homologues of the vertebrate cognate ligands have been identified. It has not been possible to determine when the ligands evolved but it seems likely that it was after the protostome-deuterostome divergence from an exon that was part of an existing gene or gene fragment by rounds of gene/genome duplication. The duplicate exon under different evolutionary pressures originated the chordate PACAP-like and GCG-like subfamily groups. This event occurred after the emergence of the metazoan secretin GPCRs and led to the establishment of novel peptide-receptor interactions that contributed to the generation of novel physiological functions in the chordate lineage. PMID:20459630

  19. 76 FR 67363 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 31 and 301 RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA...)(3) (concerning individuals who work for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of...) to extend the FICA and FUTA exceptions for family members and religious sect members to...

  20. Acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Family Members in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Yvonne; Montoya, Jose G.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated 32 families of persons with acute toxoplasmosis in which >1 other family member was tested for Toxoplasma gondii infection; 18 (56%) families had >1 additional family member with acute infection. Family members of persons with acute toxoplasmosis should be screened for infection, especially pregnant women and immunocompromised persons. PMID:24274896

  1. Genochondromatosis type I: A clinicoradiological study of four family members.

    PubMed

    Sareen, Atul; D'souza, Maria M; Reddy, Kanakeya Bachha; Kanojia, Rajesh Kumar; Kumar, Ajay

    2015-11-01

    Genochondromatosis is an extremely rare autosomal dominant disorder, which manifests during childhood and tends to regress in adult life. The bony lesions are symmetrically distributed with characteristic localization at the metaphysis of proximal humerus and distal femur. Two types have been described based on the involvement of clavicle. Usually asymptomatic, sometimes patients may present with pathological fractures. In this communication, we describe four members of a family with Genochondromatosis type I, with some additional clinical and radiological findings not reported previously. PMID:26174433

  2. Distinct Functions of Egr Gene Family Members in Cognitive Processes

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Roseline; Cheval, Hélène; Mailhes, Caroline; Garel, Sonia; Charnay, Patrick; Davis, Sabrina; Laroche, Serge

    2008-01-01

    The different gene members of the Egr family of transcriptional regulators have often been considered to have related functions in brain, based on their co-expression in many cell-types and structures, the relatively high homology of the translated proteins and their ability to bind to the same consensus DNA binding sequence. Recent research, however, suggest this might not be the case. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of the functional roles of the different Egr family members in learning and memory. We briefly outline evidence from mutant mice that Egr1 is required specifically for the consolidation of long-term memory, while Egr3 is primarily essential for short-term memory. We also review our own recent findings from newly generated forebrain-specific conditional Egr2 mutant mice, which revealed that Egr2, as opposed to Egr1 and Egr3, is dispensable for several forms of learning and memory and on the contrary can act as an inhibitory constraint for certain cognitive functions. The studies reviewed here highlight the fact that Egr family members may have different, and in certain circumstances antagonistic functions in the adult brain. PMID:18982106

  3. Manipulating plant architecture with members of the CETS gene family.

    PubMed

    McGarry, Roisin C; Ayre, Brian G

    2012-06-01

    The shape or architecture of a plant is specified through the activities of indeterminate and determinate meristems, and the sum of these events sharply impacts plant growth habit, productivity, and crop management. The CENTRORADIALIS/TERMINAL FLOWER 1/SELF-PRUNING (CETS) gene family shares homology to phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein (PEBP) genes and is prominent in controlling the timing and location of the developmental transition from indeterminate to determinate growth, with different family members balancing the activities of others through antagonistic functions. The CETS members FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) of Arabidopsis and related genes (e.g. SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS, SFT, in tomato) are important in promoting the transition to determinate growth while TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) and its homologs (e.g. tomato SELF PRUNING, SP) oppose this activity by maintaining meristems in an indeterminate state. FT orthologs, and perhaps other CETS family members, act as mobile proteinaceous hormones, and can amplify their impact by accumulating in recipient organs. A universal model is emerging for the timing and placement of determinate and indeterminate growth through a balance of FT-like and TFL1-like gene activities, and it is now clear that the domestication of many wild exotics into crops with desired growth habits resulted from selection of altered FT/TFL1 balances. Manipulating this ratio further, through transgenic or viral-based technologies, holds promise for improved agricultural sustainability. PMID:22525246

  4. Distribution of transglutaminase family members in mouse whole body sections.

    PubMed

    Tatsukawa, Hideki; Abe, Natsumi; Ohashi, Shintaro; Hitomi, Kiyotaka

    2015-11-27

    Transglutaminases (TGs) comprise a protein family in which the members catalyze the formation of isopeptide bonds between glutamine and lysine residues in various proteins. Eight enzymes have been identified and designated as factor XIII (FXIII) and TG1-7. Expression studies of four major members, i.e., FXIII, TG1, TG2, and TG3, have been performed in a relatively large number of mammalian tissues in comparison with those on the other isozymes. The structural and biochemical characteristics of these individual isozymes and expression analyses of TG family in some tissue extracts have been reported, but there have been no simultaneous comparative analyses of both their mRNA and protein expression patterns in tissues distributions. Thus, we developed novel experimental systems for in situ hybridization using cryofilm attached to whole body sections of neonatal mice, thereby obtaining data regarding the tissue distributions of the major TG isozymes. In this study, we performed the first detailed comparative analysis of the mRNA and protein distribution studies of TG family members in a wide range of mouse tissues. These data will be helpful for elucidating the unknown physiological and pathological functions of TGs. PMID:26456644

  5. Organ Donation Campaigns: Perspective of Dialysis Patient's Family Members

    PubMed Central

    TUMIN, Makmor; RAJA ARIFFIN, Raja Noriza; MOHD SATAR, NurulHuda; NG, Kok-Peng; LIM, Soo-Kun; CHONG, Chin-Sieng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Solving the dilemma of the organ shortage in Malaysia requires educating Malaysians about organ donation and transplantation. This paper aims at exploring the average Malaysian households ’ preferred channels of campaigns and the preferred campaigners in a family setting, targeting at the dialysis family members. Methods We analyzed the responses of 350 respondents regarding organ donation campaigns. The respondents are 2 family members of 175 dialysis patients from 3 different institutions. The information on respondents’ willingness to donate and preferred method and channel of organ donation campaign were collected through questionnaire. Results Malaysian families have a good tendency to welcome campaigns in both the public and private (their homes) spheres. We also found that campaigns facilitated by the electronic media (Television and Radio) and executed by experienced doctors are expected to optimize the outcomes of organ donation, in general. Chi-square tests show that there are no significant differences in welcoming campaigns among ethnics. However, ethnics preferences over the campaign methods and campaigners are significantly different (P <0.05). Conclusion Ethnic differences imply that necessary modifications on the campaign channels and campaigners should also be taken under consideration. By identifying the preferred channel and campaigners, this study hopes to shed some light on the ways to overcome the problem of organ shortage in Malaysia. PMID:25909060

  6. Stromal-dependent tumor promotion by MIF family members

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Robert A.; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha

    2014-01-01

    Solid tumors are composed of a heterogeneous population of cells that interact with each other and with soluble and insoluble factors that, when combined, strongly influence the relative proliferation, differentiation, motility, matrix remodeling, metabolism and microvessel density of malignant lesions. One family of soluble factors that is becoming increasingly associated with pro-tumoral phenotypes within tumor microenvironments is that of the migration inhibitory factor family which includes its namesake, MIF, and its only known family member, D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT). This review seeks to highlight our current understanding of the relative contributions of a variety of immune and non-immune tumor stromal cell populations and, within those contexts, will summarize the literature associated with MIF and/or D-DT. PMID:25277536

  7. The Lost Boys of Sudan: Ambiguous Loss, Search for Family, and Reestablishing Relationships with Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Qin, Desiree B.; Bates, Laura; Johnson, Deborah J.; Rana, Meenal

    2008-01-01

    The "Lost Boys of Sudan" were separated from their families by civil war and subsequently lived in 3 other countries--Ethiopia, Kenya, and the United States. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 refugees who located surviving family members in Sudan after an average separation of 13.7 years. The interviews probed their experiences of…

  8. The Lost Boys of Sudan: Ambiguous Loss, Search for Family, and Reestablishing Relationships with Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Qin, Desiree B.; Bates, Laura; Johnson, Deborah J.; Rana, Meenal

    2008-01-01

    The "Lost Boys of Sudan" were separated from their families by civil war and subsequently lived in 3 other countries--Ethiopia, Kenya, and the United States. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 refugees who located surviving family members in Sudan after an average separation of 13.7 years. The interviews probed their experiences of…

  9. "You Needed to Rehab...Families as Well": Family Members' Own Goals for Aphasia Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Tami; Davidson, Bronwyn; Worrall, Linda; Hersh, Deborah; Ferguson, Alison; Sherratt, Sue; Gilbert, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aphasia affects family members in addition to the individuals with the communication disorder. In order to develop appropriate services for the relatives of people with aphasia post-stroke, their rehabilitation goals need to be identified. Aim: The aim of the current investigation was to identify the rehabilitation goals that family

  10. Moderating the covariance between family member's substance use behavior.

    PubMed

    Verhulst, Brad; Eaves, Lindon J; Neale, Michael C

    2014-07-01

    Twin and family studies implicitly assume that the covariation between family members remains constant across differences in age between the members of the family. However, age-specificity in gene expression for shared environmental factors could generate higher correlations between family members who are more similar in age. Cohort effects (cohort × genotype or cohort × common environment) could have the same effects, and both potentially reduce effect sizes estimated in genome-wide association studies where the subjects are heterogeneous in age. In this paper we describe a model in which the covariance between twins and non-twin siblings is moderated as a function of age difference. We describe the details of the model and simulate data using a variety of different parameter values to demonstrate that model fitting returns unbiased parameter estimates. Power analyses are then conducted to estimate the sample sizes required to detect the effects of moderation in a design of twins and siblings. Finally, the model is applied to data on cigarette smoking. We find that (1) the model effectively recovers the simulated parameters, (2) the power is relatively low and therefore requires large sample sizes before small to moderate effect sizes can be found reliably, and (3) the genetic covariance between siblings for smoking behavior decays very rapidly. Result 3 implies that, e.g., genome-wide studies of smoking behavior that use individuals assessed at different ages, or belonging to different birth-year cohorts may have had substantially reduced power to detect effects of genotype on cigarette use. It also implies that significant special twin environmental effects can be explained by age-moderation in some cases. This effect likely contributes to the missing heritability paradox. PMID:24647834

  11. Asteroid (90) Antiope: Another icy member of the Themis family?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, Kelsey D.; Emery, Joshua P.; Campins, Humberto; Kelley, Michael S. P.

    2015-07-01

    Many members of the Themis family show evidence of hydration in the form of oxidized iron in phyllosilicates (Florczak, M. et al. [1999]. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 134, 463-471), and OH-bearing minerals (Takir, D., Emery, J.P. [2012]. Icarus 219, 641-654). The largest member, (24) Themis, has H2O ice covering its surface (Campins, H. et al. [2010]. Nature 464, 1320-1321; Rivkin, A.S., Emery, J.P. [2010]. Nature 464, 1322-1323). We have investigated the second largest Themis-family asteroid, (90) Antiope, which Castillo-Rogez and Schmidt (Castillo-Rogez, J.C., Schmidt, B.E. [2010]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L10202) predict to have a composition that includes water ice and organics. We obtained 2-4-μm spectroscopy of (90) Antiope in 2006 and 2008, and we find an absorption in the 3-μm region clearly present in our 2008 spectrum and likely in our 2006 spectrum. Both spectra have rounded, bowl-shaped absorptions consistent with those ascribed to water ice as in the spectrum of Asteroid (24) Themis. We also present and compare Spitzer 8-12-μm mid-infrared spectra of (24) Themis and (90) Antiope. We find that (90) Antiope is lacking a "fairy castle" dusty surface, which is in contrast to (24) Themis, other Themis family members (Licandro, J. et al. [2012]. Astron. Astrophys. 537, A73), and Jupiter Trojans (e.g. Emery, J.P., Cruikshank, D.P., Van Cleve, J. [2006]. Icarus 182, 496-512). We conclude that the surface structure of (90) Antiope is most similar to Cybele Asteroid (121) Hermione (Hargrove, K.D. et al. [2012]. Icarus 221, 453-455).

  12. Family health information sharing among older adults: reaching more family members.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Sato; Schafer, Ellen J

    2015-01-01

    Although family health history (FHH) information has tremendous potential in the prevention of common complex diseases such as heart disease and cancer, lack of knowledge about one's own FHH among the public hinders its utility. Older individuals often desire to contribute to the well-being of younger generations and also play critical roles in disseminating this information. This study evaluated psychosocial factors associated with the extent of FHH communication within families. Older adults (N?=?110) were interviewed at three senior centers in an urban community. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis showed that respondents who received FHH from a parent reported 41 % more family members with whom they shared FHH (b?=?0.34, p?family network size. Furthermore, one unit increase in the number of family members with whom respondents exchange reciprocal emotional support (b?=?0.04, p?family members with whom respondents shared FHH, respectively. Future efforts may inform older adults about their important role in modeling FHH communication behavior to encourage information sharing in future generations while providing information about how to collect and disseminate FHH to increase their familiarity and ability to share FHH within the family. PMID:25074679

  13. Characterization of Lamprey IL-17 Family Members and Their Receptors.

    PubMed

    Han, Qifeng; Das, Sabyasachi; Hirano, Masayuki; Holland, Stephen J; McCurley, Nathanael; Guo, Peng; Rosenberg, Charles S; Boehm, Thomas; Cooper, Max D

    2015-12-01

    IL-17 is an ancient cytokine implicated in a variety of immune defense reactions. We identified five members of the sea lamprey IL-17 family (IL-17D.1, IL-17D.2, IL-17E, IL-17B, and IL-17C) and six IL-17R genes (IL-17RA.1, IL-17RA.2, IL-17RA.3, IL-17RF, IL-17RE/RC, and IL-17RD), determined their relationship with mammalian orthologs, and examined their expression patterns and potential interactions to explore their roles in innate and adaptive immunity. The most highly expressed IL-17 family member is IL-17D.1 (mammalian IL-17D like), which was found to be preferentially expressed by epithelial cells of skin, intestine, and gills and by the two types of lamprey T-like cells. IL-17D.1 binding to rIL-17RA.1 and to the surface of IL-17RA.1-expressing B-like cells and monocytes of lamprey larvae was demonstrated, and treatment of lamprey blood cells with rIL-17D.1 protein enhanced transcription of genes expressed by the B-like cells. These findings suggest a potential role for IL-17 in coordinating the interactions between T-like cells and other cells of the adaptive and innate immune systems in jawless vertebrates. PMID:26491201

  14. 77 FR 27542 - Agency Information Collection Activities (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activities (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB... INFORMATION: Title: Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey, VA Form 10- 21081(NR). OMB Control Number... VA Form 10-21081(NR) will be use to survey family members of deceased veterans on their...

  15. 75 FR 5873 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for the HCTC Family Member Eligibility Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for the HCTC Family Member Eligibility Form..., HCTC Family Member Eligibility Form. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before April 5...: HCTC Family Member Eligibility Form. OMB Number: 1545-2163. Form Number: 14116. Abstract: This...

  16. 75 FR 5870 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for the HCTC Medicare Family Member Registration Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for the HCTC Medicare Family Member... Medicare Family Member Registration Form. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before April 5...: HCTC Medicare Family Member Registration Form. OMB Number: 1545-2162. Form Number: 14117....

  17. A member of the wedding? Heterosexism and family ritual.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Ramona Faith

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY Heterosexism as an interpersonal dynamic at weddings was examined using feminist critical science. Data were collected from 45 gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender people who attended focus groups. Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender participants described multiple interactions in which they were devalued or hidden while het-erosexuality was elevated, as well as interactions in which they or another family member resisted heterosexism. Weddings were perceived to be difficult, and participation in them was questioned. As part of their critique of weddings, participants offered a vision of relationships that was based on commitment, rather than heterosexuality or material benefits. Results of this study were used to create a brochure and Website for educating heterosexual people planning weddings. PMID:24815897

  18. Muscarinic Toxicity Among Family Members After Consumption of Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    George, Peter; Hegde, Narasimha

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are commercially cultivated over the world and safe for human consumption, except in those with known allergies. Among the thousands of mushroom species identified, few are considered to be edible. Mushroom hunting has emerged as an adventure and recreational activity in recent decades. Wild forms of mushrooms are often poisonous and visually mimic the edible ones, thus leading to mistaken harvesting, consumption, and toxicities. In literature, various systemic toxic syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning have been described. We report four members of a family with muscarinic manifestations after accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. The Clitocybe species of mushrooms they consumed resulted in their muscarinic toxicity. Patients with muscarinic mushroom toxicity have early onset of symptoms and they respond well to atropine and symptomatic supportive care. PMID:23833447

  19. The TNF family member APRIL promotes colorectal tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lascano, V; Zabalegui, L F; Cameron, K; Guadagnoli, M; Jansen, M; Burggraaf, M; Versloot, M; Rodermond, H; van der Loos, C; Carvalho-Pinto, C E; Kalthoff, H; Medema, J P; Hahne, M

    2012-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member APRIL (A proliferation inducing ligand) is a disease promoter in B-cell malignancies. APRIL has also been associated with a wide range of solid malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC). As evidence for a supportive role of APRIL in solid tumor formation was still lacking, we studied the involvement of APRIL in CRC. We observed that ectopic APRIL expression exacerbates the number and size of adenomas in ApcMin mice and in a mouse model for colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis. Furthermore, knockdown of APRIL in primary spheroid cultures of colon cancer cells and both mouse and human CRC cell lines reduced tumor clonogenicity and in vivo outgrowth. Taken together, our data therefore indicate that both tumor-derived APRIL and APRIL produced by non-tumor cells is supportive in colorectal tumorigenesis. PMID:22705846

  20. 5 CFR 734.307 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Campaigning for a spouse or family member... Campaigning for a spouse or family member. An employee covered under this subpart who is the spouse or family... candidate for partisan political office may appear in a family photograph which is printed in a...

  1. 29 CFR 825.124 - Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transfer to a nursing home. The employee need not be the only individual or family member available to care... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and...

  2. 29 CFR 825.124 - Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transfer to a nursing home. The employee need not be the only individual or family member available to care... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and...

  3. Faustoviruses: Comparative Genomics of New Megavirales Family Members.

    PubMed

    Benamar, Samia; Reteno, Dorine G I; Bandaly, Victor; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    An emerging interest for the giant virus discovery process, genome sequencing and analysis has allowed an expansion of the number of known Megavirales members. Using the protist Vermamoeba sp. as cell support, a new giant virus named Faustovirus has been isolated. In this study, we describe the genome sequences of nine Faustoviruses and build a genomic comparison in order to have a comprehensive overview of genomic composition and diversity among this new virus family. The average sequence length of these viruses is 467,592.44 bp (ranging from 455,803 to 491,024 bp), making them the fourth largest Megavirales genome after Mimiviruses, Pandoraviruses, and Pithovirus sibericum. Faustovirus genomes displayed an average G+C content of 37.14 % (ranging from 36.22 to 39.59%) which is close to the G+C content range of the Asfarviridae genomes (38%). The proportion of best matches and the phylogenetic analysis suggest a shared origin with Asfarviridae without belonging to the same family. The core-gene-based phylogeny of Faustoviruses study has identified four lineages. These results were confirmed by the analysis of amino acids and COGs category distribution. The diversity of the gene composition of these lineages is mainly explained by gene deletion or acquisition and some exceptions for gene duplications. The high proportion of best matches from Bacteria and Phycodnaviridae on the pan-genome and unique genes may be explained by an interaction occurring after the separation of the lineages. The Faustovirus core-genome appears to consolidate the surrounding of 207 genes whereas the pan-genome is described as an open pan-genome, its enrichment via the discovery of new Faustoviruses is required to better seize all the genomic diversity of this family. PMID:26903952

  4. Faustoviruses: Comparative Genomics of New Megavirales Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Benamar, Samia; Reteno, Dorine G. I.; Bandaly, Victor; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    An emerging interest for the giant virus discovery process, genome sequencing and analysis has allowed an expansion of the number of known Megavirales members. Using the protist Vermamoeba sp. as cell support, a new giant virus named Faustovirus has been isolated. In this study, we describe the genome sequences of nine Faustoviruses and build a genomic comparison in order to have a comprehensive overview of genomic composition and diversity among this new virus family. The average sequence length of these viruses is 467,592.44 bp (ranging from 455,803 to 491,024 bp), making them the fourth largest Megavirales genome after Mimiviruses, Pandoraviruses, and Pithovirus sibericum. Faustovirus genomes displayed an average G+C content of 37.14 % (ranging from 36.22 to 39.59%) which is close to the G+C content range of the Asfarviridae genomes (38%). The proportion of best matches and the phylogenetic analysis suggest a shared origin with Asfarviridae without belonging to the same family. The core-gene-based phylogeny of Faustoviruses study has identified four lineages. These results were confirmed by the analysis of amino acids and COGs category distribution. The diversity of the gene composition of these lineages is mainly explained by gene deletion or acquisition and some exceptions for gene duplications. The high proportion of best matches from Bacteria and Phycodnaviridae on the pan-genome and unique genes may be explained by an interaction occurring after the separation of the lineages. The Faustovirus core-genome appears to consolidate the surrounding of 207 genes whereas the pan-genome is described as an open pan-genome, its enrichment via the discovery of new Faustoviruses is required to better seize all the genomic diversity of this family. PMID:26903952

  5. Discovery of a Satellite to Asteroid Family Member (702) Alauda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, Jean-Luc; Rojo, P.

    2007-10-01

    Rojo and Margot [1] reported the discovery of a satellite to (702) Alauda from adaptive-optics imaging with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) 8-m Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Cerro Paranal, Chile. (702) Alauda (a = 3.2 AU, e = 0.02, i = 21 deg) has been identified as the largest member of a dynamical family [2,3], suggesting a possible origin of the satellite in the family formation event. The diameter of (702) Alauda is given in the IRAS Minor Planet Survey (IMPS) as 194.73 +/- 3.2 km [4]. If the primary and secondary have similar albedoes, the diameter of the satellite is about 5.5 km. This is based on the measured flux ratio between primary and secondary of 1250, possibly the largest ever observed for solar system binaries with adaptive optics. This is the first satellite discovered to a large minor planet of type B in the SMASSII taxonomy, which is defined by a linear featureless spectrum with bluish to neutral slope [5]. B-types are carbonaceous asteroids that are not well characterized. The mass and density estimates of B-type (2) Pallas vary by 50% [6,7]. Our ongoing determination of the satellite orbit will provide mass and density estimates for (702) Alauda. [1] Rojo and Margot, CBET 1016, 2007. [2] Foglia and Masi 2004, Minor Planet Bull. 41, 100. [3] Gil-Hutton 2006, Icarus 183, 93. [4] Tedesco 2002, AJ 123, 1056. [5] Bus and Binzel 2002, Icarus 158, 146. [6] Hilton 2002, Asteroids III, 103. [7] Britt et al. 2002, Asteroids III, 485.

  6. 76 FR 71259 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... Register on Tuesday, November 1, 2011 (76 FR 67363). DATES: This correction is effective on November 17... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA... for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of religious faiths), and 3306(c)(5)...

  7. 76 FR 76037 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Register on Tuesday, November 1, 2011 (76 FR 67363). DATES: This correction is effective on December 6... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA... for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of religious faiths), and 3306(c)(5)...

  8. Mental health outcomes of family members of Oregonians who request physician aid in dying.

    PubMed

    Ganzini, Linda; Goy, Elizabeth R; Dobscha, Steven K; Prigerson, Holly

    2009-12-01

    Oregon legalized physician aid in dying over 10 years ago but little is known about the effects of this choice on family members' mental health. We surveyed 95 family members of decedent Oregonians who had explicitly requested aid in dying, including 59 whose loved one received a lethal prescription and 36 whose loved one died by lethal ingestion. For comparison purposes, family members of Oregonians who died of cancer or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also were surveyed. A mean of 14 months after death, 11% of family members whose loved one requested aid in dying had major depressive disorder, 2% had prolonged grief, and 38% had received mental health care. Among those whose family member requested aid in dying, whether or not the patient accessed a lethal prescription had no influence on subsequent depression, grief, or mental health services use; however, family members of Oregonians who received a lethal prescription were more likely to believe that their loved one's choices were honored and less likely to have regrets about how the loved one died. Comparing family members of those who requested aid in dying to those who did not revealed no differences in primary mental health outcomes of depression, grief, or mental health services use. Family members of Oregonians who requested aid in dying felt more prepared and accepting of the death than comparison family members. In summary, pursuit of aid in dying does not have negative effects on surviving family members and may be associated with greater preparation and acceptance of death. PMID:19783401

  9. Emotional Disorders in Pairs of Patients and Their Family Members during and after ICU Stay

    PubMed Central

    Fumis, Renata Rego Lins; Ranzani, Otavio T.; Martins, Paulo Sérgio; Schettino, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients and family members undergo different experiences of suffering from emotional disorders during ICU stay and after ICU discharge. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in pairs (patient and respective family member), during stay at an open visit ICU and at 30 and 90-days post-ICU discharge. We hypothesized that there was a positive correlation with the severity of symptoms among pairs and different patterns of suffering over time. Methods A prospective study was conducted in a 22-bed adult general ICU including patients with >48 hours stay. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was completed by the pairs (patients/respective family member). Interviews were made by phone at 30 and 90-days post-ICU discharge using the Impact of Event Scale (IES) and the HADS. Multivariate models were constructed to predict IES score at 30 days for patients and family members. Results Four hundred and seventy one family members and 289 patients were interviewed in the ICU forming 184 pairs for analysis. Regarding HADS score, patients presented less symptoms than family members of patients who survived and who deceased at 30 and 90-days (p<0.001). However, family members of patients who deceased scored higher anxiety and depression symptoms (p = 0.048) at 90-days when compared with family members of patients who survived. Patients and family members at 30-days had a similar IES score, but it was higher in family members at 90-days (p = 0.019). For both family members and patients, age and symptoms of anxiety and depression during ICU were the major determinants for PTSD at 30-days. Conclusions Anxiety, depression and PTSD symptoms were higher in family members than in the patients. Furthermore, these symptoms in family members persisted at 3 months, while they decreased in patients. PMID:25616059

  10. Interventions for family members caring for an elder with dementia.

    PubMed

    Acton, Gayle J; Winter, Mary A

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews 73 published and unpublished research reports of interventions for family members caring for an elder with dementia by nurse researchers and researchers from other disciplines. Reports were identified through searches of MEDLINE, CINAHL, Social Science Index, PsycINFO, ERIC, Social Work Abstracts, American Association of Retired Persons database, CRISP index of the National Institutes of Health, Cochrane Center database, and Dissertation Abstracts using the following search terms: caregiver, caregiving, dementia, Alzheimer's, intervention study, evaluation study, experimental, and quasi-experimental design. Additional keywords were used to narrow or expand the search as necessary. All nursing research was included in the review and nonnursing research was included if published between 1991 and 2001. Studies were included if they used a design that included a treatment and control group or a one-group, pretest-posttest design (ex post facto designs were included if they used a comparison group). Key findings show that approximately 32% of the study outcomes (e.g., burden, depression, knowledge) were changed after intervention in the desired direction. In addition, several problematic issues were identified including small, diverse samples; lack of intervention specificity; diversity in the length, duration, and intensity of the intervention strategies; and problematic outcome measures. PMID:12092509

  11. Post-Genomic Analysis of Members of the Family Vibrionaceae.

    PubMed

    Boyd, E Fidelma; Carpenter, Megan R; Chowdhury, Nityananda; Cohen, Analuisa L; Haines-Menges, Brandy L; Kalburge, Sai S; Kingston, Joseph J; Lubin, J B; Ongagna-Yhombi, Serge Y; Whitaker, W Brian

    2015-10-01

    Similar to other genera and species of bacteria, whole genomic sequencing has revolutionized how we think about and address questions of basic Vibrio biology. In this review we examined 36 completely sequenced and annotated members of the Vibrionaceae family, encompassing 12 different species of the genera Vibrio, Aliivibrio, and Photobacterium. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships among representatives of this group of bacteria by using three housekeeping genes and 16S rRNA sequences. With an evolutionary framework in place, we describe the occurrence and distribution of primary and alternative sigma factors, global regulators present in all bacteria. Among Vibrio we show that the number and function of many of these sigma factors differs from species to species. We also describe the role of the Vibrio-specific regulator ToxRS in fitness and survival. Examination of the biochemical capabilities was and still is the foundation of classifying and identifying new Vibrio species. Using comparative genomics, we examine the distribution of carbon utilization patterns among Vibrio species as a possible marker for understanding bacteria-host interactions. Finally, we discuss the significant role that horizontal gene transfer, specifically, the distribution and structure of integrons, has played in Vibrio evolution. PMID:26542048

  12. STS-106 crew gathers to greet family members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    While meeting with family on the day before launch, the STS-106 crew poses for a photo. Waving, left to right, are Mission Specialist Richard A. Mastracchio, Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Edward T. Lu, Yuri I. Malenchenko, Boris V. Morukov and Daniel C. Burbank. Malenchenko and Morukov are with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. In the background (left) is Launch Pad 39B and Space Shuttle Atlantis, with the Rotating Service Structure still in place. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8, 2000, at 8:45 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. On the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long-duration crew, dubbed '''Expedition One,''' is due to arrive at the Station in late fall. Landing is targeted for Sept. 19 at 4:59 a.m. EDT at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility.

  13. New Members of the Mammalian Glycerophosphodiester Phosphodiesterase Family

    PubMed Central

    Ohshima, Noriyasu; Kudo, Takahiro; Yamashita, Yosuke; Mariggiò, Stefania; Araki, Mari; Honda, Ayako; Nagano, Tomomi; Isaji, Chiaki; Kato, Norihisa; Corda, Daniela; Izumi, Takashi; Yanaka, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    The known mammalian glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases (GP-PDEs) hydrolyze glycerophosphodiesters. In this study, two novel members of the mammalian GP-PDE family, GDE4 and GDE7, were isolated, and the molecular basis of mammalian GP-PDEs was further explored. The GDE4 and GDE7 sequences are highly homologous and evolutionarily close. GDE4 is expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, spermatids, and macrophages, whereas GDE7 is particularly expressed in gastro-esophageal epithelial cells. Unlike other mammalian GP-PDEs, GDE4 and GDE7 cannot hydrolyze either glycerophosphoinositol or glycerophosphocholine. Unexpectedly, both GDE4 and GDE7 show a lysophospholipase D activity toward lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC). We purified the recombinant GDE4 and GDE7 proteins and show that these enzymes can hydrolyze lyso-PC to produce lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Further characterization of purified recombinant GDE4 showed that it can also convert lyso-platelet-activating factor (1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine; lyso-PAF) to alkyl-LPA. These data contribute to our current understanding of mammalian GP-PDEs and of their physiological roles via the control of lyso-PC and lyso-PAF metabolism in gastrointestinal epithelial cells and macrophages. PMID:25528375

  14. A new family member for gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, N M; Sower, S A

    1985-06-01

    The two living representatives of the most ancient vertebrates, Agnathans, are lamprey and hagfish. Using immunological methods, we identified gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-like molecules in the lamprey brain, but not hagfish. The lamprey GnRH was detected poorly by antisera directed at the C-terminus, suggesting that a C-terminal amino acid substitution may have occurred in the lamprey molecule compared with mammalian GnRH. In spite of this, lamprey and mammalian GnRH-like molecules have the same retention time on an isocratic HPLC system and parallel inhibition of mammalian 125I-GnRH in a radioimmunoassay. The lamprey GnRH-like molecule has a distinct HPLC elution pattern compared with dogfish shark, salmon, trout and probably birds. Thus lamprey GnRH represents another member of the growing family of GnRH molecules. Additionally, lamprey GnRH may be a stem molecule in the vertebrate evolution of GnRH. PMID:3895023

  15. Experiences of the families concerning organ donation of a family member with brain death

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Hojatollah; Roshani, Asieh; Nazari, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent years, the lack of organ for transplantation has resulted in health planners and authorities in all countries, including Iran, paying serious attention to the issue. Despite the above-mentioned fact, families with a member affected by brain death are not interested in organ donation. Objective: This study is aimed at making an investigation into the decision-making process of organ donation in families with brain death. Also, the research is aimed at investigating how the deterrent and facilitating factors in the process of organ donation can be made. Materials and Methods: The current research is a qualitative study with descriptive exploratory approach. Data were collected through unstructured interviews with 10 family members who gave consent to organ donation of their family members in 2012. Purposeful sampling processes began in March 2012 and lasted up to June 2012. Simultaneously, thematic approach was used in analyzing the data. Results: Data analysis led to finding 24 categories and 11 themes, which fell into two categories: facilitating and deterrent factors. The five main deterrent themes included the five themes of prohibiting factors that were shock, hope for recovery, unknown process, and conflict of opinions, and worrying association. The six main facilitating themes included humanistic desires, immortality, culture making, satisfaction of the deceased, assurance, and eternal honor. Conclusion: The findings indicated that there is ambiguity and different interpretations on brain death. The research also showed that using the experiences of donator families can provide practical and applied solutions to facilitate the process of organ donation and solve the problems faced by the health care system. PMID:24949074

  16. How Can I Tell You? Secrecy and Disclosure with Children When a Family Member Has AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasker, Mary

    This book addresses issues of secrecy and disclosure when a child or other family member has AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), and offers examples of how some families have resolved these issues. After an introduction which notes the involvement of many families with an AIDS-infected member, the first chapter addresses the common first…

  17. Family Members as Case Managers: Partnership Between the Formal and Informal Support Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Randomly assigned elderly persons to either experimental group (N=81) in which family members participated in case management training program, or to control group (N=76). Following training, family members in experimental group performed significantly greater number of case management tasks on behalf of elderly relatives than did family members…

  18. Racial disparity in capital punishment and its impact on family members of capital defendants.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A review of the literature was conducted to explore the continuing racial disparity in capital punishment and its effects on family members of African American capital defendants. Statistical studies conducted on both the state and national level conclude that racial bias influences all stages of the death penalty process, with race of the victim being one of the most significant factors. This racial bias places an added burden on family members of African American capital defendants. While research has explored the impact of capital punishment on family members of capital defendants, the unique experiences of family members of African American defendants has not been addressed in the research literature. PMID:23581803

  19. How are health care chaplains helpful to bereaved family members? Telephone survey results.

    PubMed

    Broccolo, Gerard T; VandeCreek, Larry

    2004-01-01

    After conducting telephone interviews with 130 next-of-kin whose loved one died, the authors report whether and how chaplains were helpful to these family members. Analysis of their responses indicated that chaplains were helpful in five ways. They provided comfort and support; they helped family members with details before, during, and after death; they acted as surrogate family members until other loved ones arrived; their availability provided a safety net even if contact was limited; and they functioned as a spiritual figure who provided the transition of the patient from earth to heaven. Family members rated the helpfulness of chaplains as midway between very good and excellent. PMID:15162655

  20. Family members as third parties in dyadic family conflict: strategies, alliances, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Vuchinich, S; Emery, R E; Cassidy, J

    1988-10-01

    Systems theorists have argued that triads rather than dyads need to be considered as a basic interaction unit, particularly in regard to episodes of conflict. While theoretically appealing, the description of the strategies used and alliances formed when third parties intervene in dyadic conflict presents a number of conceptual and empirical challenges. In the present report, a reliable system for coding such third-party participation in verbal conflicts is described and is used to analyze routine family conflicts that were observed during dinner. A number of specific findings of interest are reported, including that girls were more likely than boys to intervene in all family disputes except marital conflicts, that mothers and fathers rarely sided against each other when intervening as third parties, and that the third-party strategies most commonly used corresponded with family roles: fathers used authority strategies, mothers used mediational tactics, and children used distraction. Of greater importance, however, are the general findings that document the influence of third parties on dyadic conflict. Additional family members frequently joined dyadic family conflicts, they were about equally likely to attempt to end or to continue the conflict, they formed alliances about half of the time, and their intervention strategies were related to the outcome of the conflict as well as its patterning. PMID:3168641

  1. 41 CFR 302-11.104 - When must I and/or a member(s) of my immediate family have acquired title interest in my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... member(s) of my immediate family have acquired title interest in my residence to be eligible for the... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE... Requirements § 302-11.104 When must I and/or a member(s) of my immediate family have acquired title interest...

  2. 41 CFR 302-3.511 - What must we consider when determining return travel for immediate family member(s) for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... when determining return travel for immediate family member(s) for compassionate reasons prior to... determining return travel for immediate family member(s) for compassionate reasons prior to completion of the... Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES 3-RELOCATION ALLOWANCE...

  3. 41 CFR 302-11.104 - When must I and/or a member(s) of my immediate family have acquired title interest in my...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... member(s) of my immediate family have acquired title interest in my residence to be eligible for the... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE... Requirements § 302-11.104 When must I and/or a member(s) of my immediate family have acquired title interest...

  4. Screening of Household Family Members of Brucellosis Cases and Neighboring Community Members in Azerbaijan

    PubMed Central

    Ismayilova, Rita; Mody, Rupal; Abdullayev, Rakif; Amirova, Kamala; Jabbarova, Latafat; Ustun, Narmin; Jahanov, Musa; Nasirova, Emilya; Powers, Marilyn; Rivard, Robert; Hepburn, Matthew; Bautista, Christian T.

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic zoonotic disease in Azerbaijan. The first human brucellosis case reported in 1922 was in Pardabil village of a region currently named Shabran. Household members of brucellosis index cases are a population at risk for brucellosis infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of seropositivity of brucellosis among household and neighboring community members of brucellosis index cases in Azerbaijan. Twenty-one household members of 8 index brucellosis cases and 27 community neighbors were serologically tested for evidence of exposure by the serum agglutination test. Of these, the brucellosis seropositivity rate was 9.5% and 7.4%, respectively. Screening of household members of index cases and individuals who live in proximity to infected household members is a practical approach to increase the detection of brucellosis exposure. PMID:23478582

  5. Counselling for Patients and Family Members: A Follow-Up Study in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Paavilainen, Eija; Salminen-Tuomaala, Mari; Leikkola, Päivi

    2012-01-01

    Although the research indicates that patients and family members are not fully satisfied with the counselling they receive, little is known about the quality of counselling in more detail. The purpose of the study was to describe patients' and their family members' experiences about counselling in emergency department, and follow how these experiences possibly change after the educational intervention for the whole nursing staff of the ED ward. The pre-test-post-test follow-up design was implemented including online continuing education for ED staff. The data were collected via questionnaires from patients and their family members in two phases and analyzed statistically. After online education of staff, experiences of patients and family members concerning counselling were better than before the education. Especially, family members' satisfaction had increased. However, our results also indicated that patients and family members desire more information for example, regarding medications. Care practices had developed towards family-centeredness, which patients and family members appreciate. Online education proved also in some degree its usefulness in educating ED staff, by offering the same education to a staff which works in shifts. Furthermore, family presence and participation practices should be developed by offering possibilities for families to stay with each other on ED ward. PMID:23008782

  6. Familial idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Evidence of lung inflammation in unaffected family members

    SciTech Connect

    Bitterman, P.B.; Rennard, S.I.; Keogh, B.A.; Wewers, M.D.; Adelberg, S.; Crystal, R.G.

    1986-05-22

    We evaluated 17 clinically unaffected members of three families with an autosomal dominant form of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis for evidence of alveolar inflammation. Each person in the study was examined by gallium-67 scanning for a general estimate of pulmonary inflammation, and by bronchoalveolar lavage for characterization of the types of recovered cells and their state of activation. Eight of the 17 subjects had evidence of alveolar inflammation on the lavage studies. Supporting data included increased numbers of neutrophils and activated macrophages that released one or more neutrophil chemoattractants, and growth factors for lung fibroblasts--findings similar to those observed in patients with overt idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Four of these eight also had a positive gallium scan; in all the other clinically unaffected subjects the scan was normal. During a follow-up of two to four years in seven of the eight subjects who had evidence of inflammation, no clinical evidence of pulmonary fibrosis has appeared. These results indicate that alveolar inflammation occurs in approximately half the clinically unaffected family members at risk of inheriting autosomal dominant idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Whether these persons with evidence of pulmonary inflammation but no fibrosis will proceed to have clinically evident pulmonary fibrosis is not yet known.

  7. Experiences of Military Youth during a Family Member's Deployment: Changes, Challenges, and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Leanne K.; Pusateri, Kimberly B.; Ebata, Aaron T.; McGlaughlin, Patricia C.

    2015-01-01

    The deployment of a family member can be very distressing for military children, but it also can supply opportunities for growth. This study addresses calls for research on the changes, challenges, and opportunities facing youth during a family member's tour of duty. It uses the relational turbulence model to frame research questions about how…

  8. Catapulting Shifts in Images, Understandings, and Actions for Family Members through Research-Based Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Sherry L.; Gillies, Jennifer; Mitchell, Gail J.; Jonas-Simpson, Christine; Whyte, Colleen; Carson, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This article examined how images, understandings, and actions change for family members of persons with dementia after the introduction of a research-based drama called I'm Still Here. Guided by interpretivist phenomenology, a set of seven pre- and post-performance focus groups were conducted with family members (n = 48) in four cities. Findings…

  9. The Effect of Home Caregiving Program for Family Members Providing Care for Chronically Ill Relative Client

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Hussein Jassim; Kamel, Andaleeb Abu

    2015-01-01

    Health care systems in many countries are moving towards outpatient care in which family members are central in providing care for patients with life-threatening illness. Family members and friends haven't knowledge and skills to become caregivers as many studies found that, the need to involve in such program to enhance their ability to be…

  10. Measuring Resident and Family Member Determinants of Satisfaction with Assisted Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelman, Perry; Guihan, Marylou; Bryant, Fred B.; Munroe, Donna J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study developed measures of satisfaction with assisted living from residents' and family members' perspectives. Design and Methods: We collected survey data from 204 residents and 232 family members associated with 11 assisted living facilities. We used confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate the goodness of fit of a priori…

  11. Experiences of Military Youth during a Family Member's Deployment: Changes, Challenges, and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Leanne K.; Pusateri, Kimberly B.; Ebata, Aaron T.; McGlaughlin, Patricia C.

    2015-01-01

    The deployment of a family member can be very distressing for military children, but it also can supply opportunities for growth. This study addresses calls for research on the changes, challenges, and opportunities facing youth during a family member's tour of duty. It uses the relational turbulence model to frame research questions about how…

  12. Catapulting Shifts in Images, Understandings, and Actions for Family Members through Research-Based Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Sherry L.; Gillies, Jennifer; Mitchell, Gail J.; Jonas-Simpson, Christine; Whyte, Colleen; Carson, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This article examined how images, understandings, and actions change for family members of persons with dementia after the introduction of a research-based drama called I'm Still Here. Guided by interpretivist phenomenology, a set of seven pre- and post-performance focus groups were conducted with family members (n = 48) in four cities. Findings…

  13. 78 FR 33699 - Visas: Classification of Immediate Family Members as G Nonimmigrants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... Part 41 RIN 1400-AD21 Visas: Classification of Immediate Family Members as G Nonimmigrants AGENCY...-1 or A-2 nonimmigrants to be independently classified as G-1, G-2, G-3, or G-4 nonimmigrants. It also clarifies that immediate family members of G-1, G-2, G-3, and G-4 nonimmigrants who...

  14. 41 CFR 302-4.100 - What PCS travel expenses will my immediate family members receive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Expenses § 302-4.100 What PCS travel expenses will my immediate family members receive? Except as... payment of the travel expenses of your immediate family members. ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What PCS travel...

  15. 41 CFR 302-3.510 - When must we pay return travel for immediate family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... travel for immediate family members? 302-3.510 Section 302-3.510 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES 3-RELOCATION ALLOWANCE BY... travel for immediate family members? You must pay transportation expenses for one-way return travel...

  16. 41 CFR 302-4.100 - What PCS travel expenses will my immediate family members receive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Expenses § 302-4.100 What PCS travel expenses will my immediate family members receive? Except as... payment of the travel expenses of your immediate family members. Effective Date Note: By FTR Amdt. 2011-01... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What PCS travel...

  17. 41 CFR 302-3.510 - When must we pay return travel for immediate family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... travel for immediate family members? 302-3.510 Section 302-3.510 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES 3-RELOCATION ALLOWANCE BY... travel for immediate family members? You must pay transportation expenses for one-way return travel...

  18. 49 CFR 805.735-8 - Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises. 805.735-8 Section 805.735-8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises. (a) No individual will be employed...

  19. 49 CFR 805.735-8 - Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises. 805.735-8 Section 805.735-8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises. (a) No individual will be employed...

  20. Television in Indian Adolescents' Lives: A Member of the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verma, Suman; Larson, Reed W.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the context in which eighth graders in India watch television through an experience sampling study of 100 urban middle-class Indian families. As a whole, findings indicate that the television viewing of middle-class Indian youth is typically a relaxed antidote to the stresses of the day that they share with their families. (SLD)

  1. Hospice family members’ perceptions and experiences with end-of-life care in the nursing home

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Karla; Kruse, Robin L.; Albright, David L; Lewis, Alexandria; Demiris, George

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite the fact that more than 25% of Americans die in nursing homes, end-of-life care has consistently been found to be less than adequate in this setting. Even for those residents on hospice, end-of-life care has been found to be problematic. This study had two research questions; 1) How do family members of hospice nursing home residents differ in their anxiety, depression, quality of life, social networks, perceptions of pain medication, and health compared to family members of community dwelling hospice patients? 2) What are family members’ perceptions of and experiences with end-of-life care in the nursing home setting? Methods This study is a secondary mixed methods analysis of interviews with family members of hospice nursing home residents and a comparative statistical analysis of standard outcome measures between family members of hospice patients in the nursing home and family member of hospice patients residing in the community. Results Outcome measures for family members of nursing home residents were compared (n=176) with family members of community dwelling hospice patients (n=267). The family members of nursing home residents reported higher quality of life however, levels of anxiety, depression, perceptions of pain medicine, and health were similar for hospice family members in the nursing home and in the community. Lending an understanding to the stress for hospice family members of nursing home residents concerns were found with collaboration between the nursing home and the hospice, nursing home care that did not meet family expectations, communication problems, and resident care concerns including pain management. Some family members reported positive end-of-life care experiences in the nursing home setting. Conclusion These interviews identify a multitude of barriers to quality end-of-life care in the nursing home setting, and demonstrate that support for family members is an essential part of quality end-of-life care for residents. This study suggests that nursing homes should embrace the opportunity to demonstrate the value of family participation in the care planning process. PMID:25017391

  2. Effects of anxiety on family members of patients with cardiac disease learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Sigsbee, M; Geden, E A

    1990-11-01

    The effects of anxiety on learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by family members of patients with cardiac disease was examined. Family members of hospitalized patients (n = 17), family members of nonhospitalized patients (n = 12), and a control group (n = 21) all took one of nine Heart Saver programs in which CPR was taught and performance evaluated. Subjects took the State Anxiety Inventory three times: immediately before the program, immediately after the performance test, and 2 months after completion of the program. Family members of hospitalized patients had significantly higher before-program anxiety scores than the other groups. This difference was not present immediately after the program or 2 months later. Family members of hospitalized patients showed a significant decline in anxiety over the three testing times. These outcomes support the benefit of teaching CPR to this group. PMID:2228657

  3. Coping with colorectal cancer: a qualitative exploration with patients and their family members

    PubMed Central

    Asiedu, Gladys B; Eustace, Rosemary W; Eton, David T

    2014-01-01

    Background. Extensive family coping research has been conducted among breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma with lesser emphasis on the coping experiences of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and their family members. Objective. To examine ways in which patients and their family members cope with the diagnosis of CRC. Methods. A total of 73 participants (21 patients, 52 family members) from 23 families described their experiences during and after a CRC diagnosis, including their coping experiences with the diagnosis. Data from semi-structured interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed utilizing content analysis with inductive coding methods. Results. Eight major themes were identified: positive reframing, holding on to a sense of normalcy, religion and spirituality, joining a group, creating awareness of CRC, lifestyle change, seeking information and alternative treatments. Maintaining an emotional sense of normalcy through positive thinking, engaging in activities to take one’s mind off the diagnosis and believing that there is a higher authority which has control over the diagnosis and life were vital for the patients and their family members. Patients and family members used similar coping strategies. Conclusion. Findings from this study have implications for understanding how families blend emotion-based and problem-focused coping strategies in the face of a CRC diagnosis. Further developing evidence-based interventions that target coping and well-being in cancer patients and extending them to family members is necessary and holds great promise for providers who care for patients with familial cancers. PMID:25080507

  4. Empowerment in outpatient care for patients with chronic kidney disease - from the family member's perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Family members of persons with pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease may experience feelings of vulnerability and insecurity as the disease follows its course. Against this background, the aim of the present study was to explore empowerment in outpatient care as experienced by these family members. Methods An inductive approach for qualitative data analysis was chosen. The study sample comprised 12 family members of pre-dialysis patients at an outpatient kidney clinic. Two interviews with each family member were subjected to content analysis to gain an understanding of empowerment from the family members' perspective. Results Having strength to assume the responsibility was the main theme that emerged from the following five sub-themes: Being an involved participant, Having confirming encounters, Trusting in health-care staff, Comprehending through knowledge, and Feeling left out. Four of these five sub-themes were positive. The fifth subtheme illuminated negative experience, indicating the absence of empowerment. Conclusions Family members' experience of empowerment is dependent on their ability to assume the responsibility for a relative with chronic kidney disease when needed. The findings emphasise the need for a family perspective and the significance of a supportive environment for family members of persons in outpatient care. PMID:22035275

  5. Time travel: the lived experience of providing feeding assistance to a family member with dementia.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Ruth Palan; Amella, Elaine J

    2011-04-01

    A major concern facing family members of people with advanced dementia is deciding how to provide food and water. Nurses play a significant role in supporting mealtimes, yet little is known about the meaning of mealtime for family caregivers of people with dementia. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the experience of providing feeding assistance to a family member with dementia from the perspective of community and nursing home family caregivers. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 16 family caregivers of individuals with advanced dementia. Analysis revealed that the experience was likened to living in a time warp whereby family caregivers were propelled from pleasant memories of the past, to the stark reality of the present, to a foreboding and uncertain future. Findings can guide nurses to dialogue with family members and to ensure that the full spectrum of mealtime is preserved. PMID:20795582

  6. Patients' and family members' experiences of a psychoeducational family intervention after a first episode psychosis: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Liv; Frich, Jan C; Friis, Svein; Røssberg, Jan Ivar

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore patients' and family members' experiences of the different elements of a psychoeducational family intervention. A qualitative, explorative study was performed based on digitally recorded in-depth interviews with 12 patients and 14 family members. The interview data were transcribed in a slightly modified verbatim mode and analysed using systematic text condensation. Six themes that both patients and family members experienced as important in the family intervention were identified: alliance, support, anxiety and tension, knowledge and learning, time, and structure. A good relationship between the group leaders and participants was essential in preventing dropout. Meeting with other people in the same situation reduced feelings of shame and increased hope for the future. Hearing real life stories was experienced as being more important for gaining new knowledge about psychosis than lectures and workshops. However, many patients experienced anxiety and tension during the meetings. The group format could be demanding for patients immediately after a psychotic episode and for those still struggling with distressing psychotic symptoms. Group leaders need to recognise patients' levels of anxiety before, and during, the intervention, and consider the different needs of patients and family members in regards to when the intervention starts, the group format, and the patients' level of psychotic symptoms. The findings in the present study may help to tailor family work to better meet the needs of both patients and family members. PMID:24350752

  7. Family Members Affected by a Close Relative's Addiction: The Stress-Strain-Coping-Support Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Templeton, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines the stress-strain-coping-support (SSCS) model which underpins the whole programme of work described in this supplement. The need for such a model is explained: previous models of substance misuse and the family have attributed dysfunction or deficiency to families or family members. In contrast, the SSCS model assumes that…

  8. Family Members Affected by a Close Relative's Addiction: The Stress-Strain-Coping-Support Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Templeton, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines the stress-strain-coping-support (SSCS) model which underpins the whole programme of work described in this supplement. The need for such a model is explained: previous models of substance misuse and the family have attributed dysfunction or deficiency to families or family members. In contrast, the SSCS model assumes that…

  9. Using focus groups to design a psychoeducation program for patients with schizophrenia and their family members

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yan; Liu, Dan; Chen, Yuxiang; He, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine what factors to be considered in planning a psychoeducation program to better meet the needs of patients with schizophrenia and their family members. Methods: Three focus group sessions were conducted and recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by members of the research team. Results: Patients hoped to grasp the fullest possible knowledge about schizophrenia, whereas the factors influencing the efficacy of the schizophrenia health education curriculum included: discrimination, non-understanding of family members, easy to forget, unreasonable timetable. Health education was mainly in the form of classroom teaching. Conclusions: 1. At present, there are a few psychiatric education courses in China; 2. Patients and their family members are eager to acquire knowledge about the contents of schizophrenia; 3. Misconceptions would hinder the rehabilitation of patients; 4. Worry about being discriminated; 5. There is a different knowledge demand between the patients and their family members. PMID:24482705

  10. Screening of family members of patients with acute brucellosis in an endemic area of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sofian, Masoomeh; Safaeipour, Leila; Aghakhani, Arezoo; Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Banifazl, Mohammad; Sharif, Alireza; Farazi, Ali-Asghar; Eslamifar, Ali; Didgar, Farshideh; Ramezani, Amitis

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease and it's still endemic in Iran. There are some reports regarding brucellosis infection in family members sharing same risk factors and remain unrecognized. However, few studies on the importance of family screening are available. We aimed to screen household members of index cases with acute brucellosis for detecting additional unrecognized cases in central province of Iran. Patients and Methods 163 family members of 50 index cases were enrolled in the study. Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STA) and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) agglutination were checked in all samples. A case with STA titer ? 1:80, 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) agglutination ? 40 and compatible signs and symptoms was considered positive for brucellosis. Results 15 (9.2%) of family members were seropositive for Brucella agglutinin and among them, 8 (53.3%) were asymptomatic and 7 (46.7%) were symptomatic. STA titer ranged from 1:80 to 1:640 in seropositive members. 4 of the 15 seropositive cases who identified by screening came from one index case with 6 family members. All symptomatic seropositive cases treated for Brucella infection and recovered without any complications in 6 months follow up. Conclusion On the basis of our data, family members of brucellosis patients are at risk of disease acquisition, and screening of household members provides an effective way for early diagnosis and prompt treatment. However cost benefit of screening should be evaluated to reach definite decision for the implementation of the screening as a nationwide program. PMID:24475326

  11. Nursing Strategies to Support Family Members of ICU Patients at High Risk of Dying

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Judith A.; Anderson, Ruth A.; Docherty, Sharron L.; Tulsky, James A.; Steinhauser, Karen E.; Bailey, Donald E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To explore how family members of ICU patients at high risk of dying respond to nursing communication strategies. Background: Family members of ICU patients may face difficult decisions. Nurses are in a position to provide support. Evidence of specific strategies that nurses use to support decision-making and how family members respond to these strategies is lacking. Methods: This is a prospective, qualitative descriptive study involving the family members of ICU patients identified as being at high risk of dying. Results: Family members described five nursing approaches: Demonstrating concern, building rapport, demonstrating professionalism, providing factual information, and supporting decision-making. This study provides evidence that when using these approaches, nurses helped family members to cope; to have hope, confidence, and trust; to prepare for and accept impending death; and to make decisions. Conclusion: Knowledge lays a foundation for interventions targeting the areas important to family members and most likely to improve their ability to make decisions and their well-being. PMID:24655938

  12. A unified nomenclature of NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER family members in plants.

    PubMed

    Léran, Sophie; Varala, Kranthi; Boyer, Jean-Christophe; Chiurazzi, Maurizio; Crawford, Nigel; Daniel-Vedele, Françoise; David, Laure; Dickstein, Rebecca; Fernandez, Emilio; Forde, Brian; Gassmann, Walter; Geiger, Dietmar; Gojon, Alain; Gong, Ji-Ming; Halkier, Barbara A; Harris, Jeanne M; Hedrich, Rainer; Limami, Anis M; Rentsch, Doris; Seo, Mitsunori; Tsay, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Mingyong; Coruzzi, Gloria; Lacombe, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    Members of the plant NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER (NRT1/PTR) family display protein sequence homology with the SLC15/PepT/PTR/POT family of peptide transporters in animals. In comparison to their animal and bacterial counterparts, these plant proteins transport a wide variety of substrates: nitrate, peptides, amino acids, dicarboxylates, glucosinolates, IAA, and ABA. The phylogenetic relationship of the members of the NRT1/PTR family in 31 fully sequenced plant genomes allowed the identification of unambiguous clades, defining eight subfamilies. The phylogenetic tree was used to determine a unified nomenclature of this family named NPF, for NRT1/PTR FAMILY. We propose that the members should be named accordingly: NPFX.Y, where X denotes the subfamily and Y the individual member within the species. PMID:24055139

  13. 41 CFR 302-3.203 - If I am transferring in the interest of the Government and my employed immediate family member(s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the interest of the Government and my employed immediate family member(s) transfer is not in the... Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION... Immediate Family Members § 302-3.203 If I am transferring in the interest of the Government and my...

  14. 41 CFR 302-3.226 - Will the Government reimburse me if I am not eligible to return with my immediate family member(s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reimburse me if I am not eligible to return with my immediate family member(s) to the U.S. and choose to... Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES 3-RELOCATION ALLOWANCE BY SPECIFIC TYPE Types of Transfers Prior Return of Immediate Family Members § 302-3.226 Will the...

  15. 41 CFR 302-3.226 - Will the Government reimburse me if I am not eligible to return with my immediate family member(s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reimburse me if I am not eligible to return with my immediate family member(s) to the U.S. and choose to... Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION ALLOWANCES 3-RELOCATION ALLOWANCE BY SPECIFIC TYPE Types of Transfers Prior Return of Immediate Family Members § 302-3.226 Will the...

  16. 41 CFR 302-3.203 - If I am transferring in the interest of the Government and my employed immediate family member(s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the interest of the Government and my employed immediate family member(s) transfer is not in the... Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RELOCATION... Immediate Family Members § 302-3.203 If I am transferring in the interest of the Government and my...

  17. To tell or not to tell: HIV disclosure to family members in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Wu, Zunyou; Lord, Lynwood; Wu, Sheng

    2008-12-01

    Laws in China relating to HIV disclosure are inconsistent. After a patient has tested HIV-positive, service providers struggle to decide who should be informed first: patients, family members, or both. To understand service providers' attitudes and practices regarding the HIV notification process in China, 1101 service providers from a southwestern province of China were surveyed. Opinions were gathered from providers at five different levels of health care facilities (provincial, city, county, township and village). A mixed methods approach was used to analyze perceptions of informing family members of a patient's HIV status. Quantitative analysis was used to examine whether providers held a favorable attitude toward notifying family members first and qualitative analysis was used to explore the reasons and consequences of notifying family members first. Nearly half of service providers felt family members should be informed of a patient's HIV status first. Providers who were older, had contact with HIV patients, or had less medical education were more likely to agree with a family-first notification practice. Psychological pressure, concern about protecting family members, the need for family support, and consideration for local regulations were cited as the main reasons for this practice. There is an immediate need to re-examine HIV notification policies so that there are consistent guidelines and procedures for providers throughout China. PMID:18370936

  18. The Psychological Effects of a Stillbirth on Surviving Family Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFrain, John; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Interview and written testimony from over 300 mothers and fathers who had experienced a stillbirth suggest themes common to these bereaved families: shock, blame, guilt and hardship; desperate need to remember; utility of autopsies and funerals; irrational and terrifying thoughts; need for support systems; issues surrounding surviving siblings and…

  19. Potential phylogenetic utility of WRKY gene family members

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single and low copy nuclear genes represent a source of multiple, unlinked and independently-evolving loci, the ideal data set for molecular phylogenetic inference due to their high rate of synonymous substitution compared to chloroplast or mitochondrial genes. The WRKY gene family of transcription ...

  20. Psychiatric Worker and Family Members: Pathways Towards Co-Operation Networks within Psychiatric Assistance Services

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The family’s role in patient care was greatly altered by Law 180. This law, introduced in Italy in 1978, led to a gradual phasing out of custodial treatment for psychiatric patients. This different mindset, which views the family as an alternative to institutionalization, leads to it being seen as an essential entity in the setting up of community service dynamics. We interviewed health professionals in order to understand obstacles of collaboration between family members and mental health care workers. The goal was to uncover actions that promote collaboration and help build alliances between families and psychiatric workers. Results showed that health professionals view the family as a therapeutic resource. Despite this view, family members were rarely included in patient treatment. The reasons is: the structures have a theoretical orientation of collaboration with the family but, for nurses not are organized a few meeting spaces with family members. Services should create moments, such as multi-family groups or groups of information, managed by nurses and not only by doctors. These occasions it might facilitate the knowledge between professionals and family members. PMID:25478137

  1. Associative stigma in family members of psychotic patients in Flanders: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Catthoor, Kirsten; Schrijvers, Didier; Hutsebaut, Joost; Feenstra, Dineke; Persoons, Philippe; De Hert, Marc; Peuskens, Jozef; Sabbe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess presence and severity of associative stigma in family members of psychotic patients and factors for higher associative stigma. METHODS: Standardized semi-structured interview of 150 family members of psychotic patients receiving full time treatment. This study on associative stigma in family members of psychotic patients was part of a larger research program on the burden of the family, using “Interview for the Burden of the Family” and the chapters stigma, treatment and attribution from the “Family interview Schedule”. The respondents were relatives, one per patient, either partner or parent. The patients had been diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder. All contacts with patients and relatives were in Dutch. Relatives were deemed suitable to participate in this research if they saw the patient at least once a week. Recruitment took place in a standardized way: after obtaining the patient’s consent, the relatives were approached to participate. The results were analyzed using SPSS Version 18.0. RESULTS: The prevalence of associative stigma in this sample is 86%. Feelings of depression in the majority of family members are prominent. Twenty-one point three percent experienced guilt more or less frequent, while shame was less pronounced. Also, 18.6% of all respondents indicated that they tried to hide the illness of their family member for others regularly or more. Three six point seven percent really kept secret about it in certain circumstances and 29.3% made efforts to explain what the situation or psychiatric condition of their family member really is like. Factors with marked significance towards higher associative stigma are a worsened relationship between the patient and the family member, conduct problems to family members, the patients’ residence in a residential care setting, and hereditary attributional factors like genetic hereditability and character. The level of associative stigma has significantly been predicted by the burden of aggressive disruptions to family housemates of the psychotic patient. CONCLUSION: Family members of psychotic patients in Flanders experience higher associative stigma compared to previous international research. Disruptive behavior by the patient towards in-housing family members is the most accurate predictor of higher associative stigma. PMID:25815261

  2. Perceived Intrafamilial Connectedness and Autonomy in Families with and without an Anxious Family Member: A Multiple Informant Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Albuquerque, Jiske E. G.; Schneider, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Perceived intrafamilial "emotional connectedness" and "autonomy" were investigated within families with and without an anxious family member using a multiple informant approach. The sample consisted of 32 mothers with a current anxiety disorder and 56 controls, their partners, and their anxious and nonanxious teenage children. No differences were…

  3. Perceived Intrafamilial Connectedness and Autonomy in Families with and without an Anxious Family Member: A Multiple Informant Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Albuquerque, Jiske E. G.; Schneider, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Perceived intrafamilial "emotional connectedness" and "autonomy" were investigated within families with and without an anxious family member using a multiple informant approach. The sample consisted of 32 mothers with a current anxiety disorder and 56 controls, their partners, and their anxious and nonanxious teenage children. No differences were…

  4. The Effects of Having a Child with ADHD on Family Members and Family Management. Data Trends #98

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The articles summarized in this "Data Trends" discuss how members of families including children with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) are greatly affected in their daily lives and functioning by symptoms…

  5. Family Quality of Life before and after Out-of-Home Placement of a Family Member with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Shirli; Edwards, Meaghan; Baum, Nehama T.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of out-of-home residential placement on families has been previously studied. However, no study has examined this issue through the lens of "family quality of life" (FQoL). The aim of this study was to produce a picture of FQoL among families with a member with an intellectual disability (ID) who has multiple diagnoses (i.e., an…

  6. 5 CFR 734.405 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in a political advertisement, a broadcast, campaign literature, or similar material. A spouse or a... the candidate. However, the spouse or family member may not distribute campaign literature or...

  7. 5 CFR 734.405 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in a political advertisement, a broadcast, campaign literature, or similar material. A spouse or a... the candidate. However, the spouse or family member may not distribute campaign literature or...

  8. 5 CFR 734.405 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in a political advertisement, a broadcast, campaign literature, or similar material. A spouse or a... the candidate. However, the spouse or family member may not distribute campaign literature or...

  9. 5 CFR 734.405 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in a political advertisement, a broadcast, campaign literature, or similar material. A spouse or a... the candidate. However, the spouse or family member may not distribute campaign literature or...

  10. 5 CFR 734.405 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in a political advertisement, a broadcast, campaign literature, or similar material. A spouse or a... the candidate. However, the spouse or family member may not distribute campaign literature or...

  11. Complete nucleotide sequence of rose yellow mosaic virus, a novel member of the family Potyviridae.

    PubMed

    Mollov, Dimitre; Lockhart, Ben; Zlesak, David

    2013-09-01

    The complete genomic sequence of rose yellow mosaic virus (RoYMV) was determined and found to have all the features that are characteristic of members of the family Potyviridae. The RoYMV genome is 9508 nucleotides long excluding the 3'-poly-(A) tail and contains a single open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 3067 amino acids. The RoYMV P3 and CI cistrons are shorter than those of other members of the family Potyviridae, and the 6K1 cistron is completely absent. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that RoYMV had highest amino acid sequence identity across the entire genome sequence to brome streak mosaic virus (33 %) and to turnip mosaic virus (30 %) at the coat protein level. Based on its low sequence similarity to known members of the family Potyviridae and phylogenetic analysis, RoYMV appears to be a distinct, previously undescribed, member of this family. PMID:23553457

  12. Motives for residential mobility in later life: post-move perspectives of elders and family members.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, Julie F; Ekerdt, David J

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study delineates motives for residential mobility, describes dynamics between the elder and family members during the move decision process, and locates the move decision within ecological layers of the aging context. Interviews were conducted with 30 individuals and couples (ages 60-87) who experienced a community-based move within the past year, and with 14 extended family members. Reasons for moving (from perspectives of both elders who moved and their family members) were grouped into four themes and eleven issues that influenced the move decision. These themes parallel the ecological context of individual health and functioning, beliefs and attitudes, physical environment, and social pressures. Late-life mobility is a significant life transition that is the outcome of an ongoing appraisal and reappraisal of housing fit with individual functioning, needs, and aspirations. Family members are an integral part of these decision and residential mobility processes. PMID:18453180

  13. TRPV3: time to decipher a poorly understood family member!

    PubMed Central

    Nilius, Bernd; Bíró, Tamás; Owsianik, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The vanilloid transient receptor potential channel TRPV3 differs in several aspects from other members of the TRPV subfamily. This Ca2+-, ATP- and calmodulin-regulated channel constitutes a target for many natural compounds and has a unique expression pattern as the most prominent and important TRP channel in keratinocytes of the skin. Although TRPV3 is considered as a thermosensitive channel, its function as a thermosensor in the skin is challenged. Nevertheless, it plays important roles in other skin functions such as cutaneous sensations, hair development and barrier function. More recently, mutations in TRPV3 were linked with a rare genodermatosis known as the Olmsted syndrome. This review gives an overview on properties of TRPV3 and its functions in the skin and skin diseases. PMID:23836684

  14. Mexican American Fathers' Occupational Conditions: Links to Family Members' Psychological Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Crouter, Ann C; Davis, Kelly D; Updegraff, Kimberly; Delgado, Melissa; Fortner, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    To examine the implications of fathers' occupational conditions (i.e., income, work hours, shift work, pressure, workplace racism, and underemployment) for family members' psychological adjustment, home interviews were conducted with fathers, mothers, and two adolescent offspring in each of 218 Mexican American families. Results underscored the importance of acculturation as a moderator. Fathers' income was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in highly acculturated families but not in less acculturated families. In contrast, fathers' reports of workplace racism were positively associated with depressive symptoms in less acculturated families but not in more acculturated family contexts. These findings were consistent across all 4 family members, suggesting that the "long arm" of the jobs held by Mexican American fathers extends to mothers and adolescent offspring. PMID:18414596

  15. Experiences of family members of patients with colostomies and expectations about professional intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Umpiérrez, Augusto; Fort-Fort, Zoraida

    2014-01-01

    Objective the objective was to understand the experience of a group of family members of patients with colostomies, revealing their expectations regarding the intervention of health professionals. Method qualitative research, with the social phenomenological approach of Alfred Schütz, conducted in Montevideo in 2012; twelve family members of patients with colostomies participated, from an ostomy service of a health institution. Results the following categories were identified: family ties, trust in the health care team, the nurse as the articulator of the process, the desire to humanize care, and adaptation to new family life. Conclusions knowing the experience and expectations of the families of colostomy patients was achieved, emphasizing the previous family relationships to build upon them, and the trust in the health team, emphasizing the nurse as articulator of the process. Expectations focused on the desire for humanized care, enhancing adaptation of the nuclear family to the new way of life, restoring and enhancing its strengths, and collaborating in overcoming its weaknesses. PMID:26107831

  16. Family members' experiences of personal assistance given to a relative with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ahlström, Gerd; Wadensten, Barbro

    2011-11-01

    Personal assistance is a type of home care common to many countries even though entitlement and legislative framework may vary from country to country. At present, there exists no knowledge about the family members' experiences of such assistance; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate family members' experiences of personal assistance given to a relative of working age with a functional disability. Twenty-five family members who had a relative with a severe neurological disease in Sweden were interviewed about the significance of personal assistance, and the qualitative interviews were subjected to qualitative latent content analysis. The overall findings verify the close connection between the family members' experiences and their perception of the quality of the caring relationship between the personal assistant and the person with disability. The main finding was an appreciation of the personal assistance on the part of the family members. However, in situations where the encounter between the assistant and the relative with disability was perceived negatively, the family members experienced great anxiety. The shortcomings were the inability to maintain a private life with assistance and the limitation of choice because of the shortage of personal assistants. Beyond these general findings, this study found that personal assistance was experienced by the family members in terms of dignity and empowering care. This theme was generated from seven subthemes: Insight into private life, Security through the close relation, Social life through freedom of movement, Influence over the organisation of assistance, Self-determination and understanding, Friendship and mutual respect and Adaption to the dependency on assistance. The findings indicate that responsible officials, work leaders and assistants need constantly to improve the implementation of the law. In such efforts, the experiences of family members described in this study are a source of knowledge. PMID:21651637

  17. The Many Faces of Military Families: Unique Features of the Lives of Female Service Members.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Kenona H; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley M

    2016-01-01

    Female service members' family structures differ from the traditional male service member-female spouse composition of military families. Consequently, this mixed-methods study reviewed demographic data, empirical evidence, and presented findings from secondary analyses of the 2010 wave of the Military Family Life Project regarding structural differences in male and female service members' families and perceptions and experiences of military spouses. In addition, to gain an understanding of the influence of women's service on their family functioning, we conducted in-depth telephone interviews with 20 civilian husbands residing in 11 states around the United States. Empirical evidence suggests service women had higher rates or remarriage and divorce than service men. Women were also more likely than men to be part of nontraditional family forms. Civilian husbands of female service members, however, reported lower marital satisfaction, less support from the community, and less satisfaction with the military lifestyle than military wives. Husbands' accounts indicated that their families experienced both benefits and challenges from wives' service. Integration in the military community and separation presented major challenges for women's families. Implications of benefits and challenges of women's service for their families are discussed. PMID:26741904

  18. Anterior Urethral Stricture Disease Negatively Impacts the Quality of Life of Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Weese, Jonathan R.; Eswara, Jairam R.; Marshall, Stephen D.; Chang, Andrew J.; Vetter, Joel; Brandes, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To quantify the quality of life (QoL) distress experienced by immediate family members of patients with urethral stricture via a questionnaire given prior to definitive urethroplasty. The emotional, social, and physical effects of urethral stricture disease on the QoL of family members have not been previously described. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire was administered prospectively to an immediate family member of 51 patients undergoing anterior urethroplasty by a single surgeon (SBB). The survey was comprised of twelve questions that addressed the emotional, social, and physical consequences experienced as a result of their loved one. Results. Of the 51 surveyed family members, most were female (92.2%), lived in the same household (86.3%), and slept in the same room as the patient (70.6%). Respondents experienced sleep disturbances (56.9%) and diminished social lives (43.1%). 82.4% felt stressed by the patient's surgical treatment, and 83.9% (26/31) felt that their intimacy was negatively impacted. Conclusions. Urethral stricture disease has a significant impact on the family members of those affected. These effects may last decades and include sleep disturbance, decreased social interactions, emotional stress, and impaired sexual intimacy. Treatment of urethral stricture disease should attempt to mitigate the impact of the disease on family members as well as the patient.

  19. Pch2 is a hexameric ring ATPase that remodels the chromosome axis protein Hop1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng; Jomaa, Ahmad; Ortega, Joaquin; Alani, Eric E.

    2014-01-01

    In budding yeast the pachytene checkpoint 2 (Pch2) protein regulates meiotic chromosome axis structure by maintaining the domain-like organization of the synaptonemal complex proteins homolog pairing 1 (Hop1) and molecular zipper 1 (Zip1). Pch2 has also been shown to modulate meiotic double-strand break repair outcomes to favor recombination between homologs, play an important role in the progression of meiotic recombination, and maintain ribosomal DNA stability. Pch2 homologs are present in fruit flies, worms, and mammals, however the molecular mechanism of Pch2 function is unknown. In this study we provide a unique and detailed biochemical analysis of Pch2. We find that purified Pch2 is an AAA+ (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) protein that oligomerizes into single hexameric rings in the presence of nucleotides. In addition, we show Pch2 binds to Hop1, a critical axial component of the synaptonemal complex that establishes interhomolog repair bias, in a nucleotide-dependent fashion. Importantly, we demonstrate that Pch2 displaces Hop1 from large DNA substrates and that both ATP binding and hydrolysis by Pch2 are required for Pch2–Hop1 transactions. Based on these and previous cell biological observations, we suggest that Pch2 impacts meiotic chromosome function by directly regulating Hop1 localization. PMID:24367111

  20. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-101 Commander James D. Halsell Jr. waves as he stands with his wife Kathy during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  1. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-101 Mission Specialist Yuri Vladimirovich Usachev, a Russian cosmonaut, and his wife Vera Sergeevna Usacheva during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  2. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The STS-101 crew gather during a meeting with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. From left, Mission Specialist Susan J. Helms, Commander James D. Halsell Jr., Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber, Pilot Scott J. Horowitz and Mission Specialists Yuri Vladimirovich Usachev, Jeffery N. Williams and James S. Voss. In the background is the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the pad. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  3. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A light-hearted moment during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. From left, Commander James D. Halsell Jr., Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber and Pilot Scott J. Horowitz. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  4. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-101 Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber and her husband Jerome Elkind during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  5. Marfan syndrome in a large family: response of family members to a screening programme.

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, A B; Faed, M; Boxer, M; Gray, J R; Bundy, C; Murray, A

    1992-01-01

    Reaction to medical, social, and genetic implications of Marfan syndrome was evaluated by means of two questionnaires, the first after various tests before discussion of the diagnosis, the second after full discussion of the patient's diagnosis. Thirty-seven members of a family known to be at risk for Marfan syndrome attended for both questionnaires. All patients claimed to be satisfied with the way they were informed of the results of screening; 41% of patients were more worried about their health and 48% were more worried about the future after diagnosis. Apart from 50% of the smokers reducing or stopping their intake of cigarettes there were only very minor changes in lifestyle over the first month despite the increased level of expressed anxiety. If a definitive screening test was available, 96% of patients claimed they would have chosen it, 45% felt it would have an influence on their future plans, and 78% would choose to use a method of prenatal diagnosis for Marfan syndrome if it were available. PMID:1613770

  6. Strange Stars : An interesting member of the compact object family

    SciTech Connect

    Bagchi, Manjari; Ray, Subharthi; Dey, Jishnu; Dey, Mira

    2008-01-10

    We have studied strange star properties both at zero temperature and at finite temperatures and searched signatures of strange stars in gamma-ray, x-ray and radio astronomy. We have a set of Equations of State (EoS) for strange quark matter (SQM) and solving the TOV equations, we get the structure of strange stars. The maximum mass for a strange star decreases with the increase of temperature, because at high temperatures, the EoS become softer. One important aspect of strange star is that, surface tension depends on the size and structure of the star and is significantly larger than the conventional values. Moment of inertia is another important parameter for compact stars as by comparing theoretical values with observed estimate, it is possible to constrain the dense matter Equation of State. We hope that this approach will help us to decide whether the members of the double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039 are neutron stars or strange stars.

  7. The Relationship Between the Perceived Risk of Harm by a Family Member with Mental Illness and the Family Experience.

    PubMed

    Katz, Judith; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Li Juan; Dixon, Lisa B

    2015-10-01

    Family members of people with serious mental illness (SMI) at times report that they act to stop their ill relative from self harm or harming others. This study examines the relationship between the perception of risk of harm and family distress, burden, empowerment, coping, physical and mental health, appraisal of the caregiving experience, family communication, and family functioning. The study is a secondary analysis of baseline data collected for a randomized study of the family-to-family peer driven education program (FTF). Four hundred thirty-four enrolled individuals who were seeking to participate in FTF completed survey items that asked if they had tried to stop or prevent their ill family member from harming themselves or others in the last 30 days. Participants who perceived a recent risk of harm by their ill relative reported more negative appraisals of caregiving, greater psychological distress, poorer mental health and greater objective burden compared with those who did not perceive a recent risk of harm. The results suggest that families of persons with SMI should be asked about perceived risk of harm to self and others, and the presence of perceived risk of harm should serve as a red flag indicating the need for further evaluation of the family experience and additional support for the family. PMID:25535047

  8. Characterization of Members of the Legionellaceae Family by Automated Ribotyping

    PubMed Central

    Cordevant, Christophe; Tang, Jane S.; Cleland, David; Lange, Marc

    2003-01-01

    In order to implement a new and reliable method for characterizing different species of Legionella, a genetic fingerprinting study with an automated ribotyping system (RiboPrinter) was completed with members of this genus which were deposited at the American Type Culture Collection. The RiboPrinter examined the different patterns of EcoRI digestion fragments from the rRNA operons of 110 strains, representing 48 of the 49 described Legionella species as well as 70 serogroups of those species. Distinctive and consistent patterns were obtained for the type strains of the 48 species investigated. Legionella pneumophila subsp. fraseri and L. pneumophila subsp. pascullei each generated a specific pattern, whereas L. pneumophila subsp. pneumophila produced six different fingerprint patterns. No correlation seemed to exist between the ribotypes obtained and the 15 serotypes of L. pneumophila. For the other species, those with two known serogroups presented two distinctive patterns with the RiboPrinter with the exception of L. hackeliae and L. quinlivanii, which yielded only one pattern. We also encountered ribotypes for strains which were not identified to the species level. The ribotypes generated for these strains with the RiboPrinter did not match those generated for known type strains, suggesting the putative description of new serogroups or species. Although the automated system did not have sufficient discriminatory ability to serve as an epidemiological tool in a clinical setting, it appeared to be a powerful tool for general genomic analysis of the Legionella isolates (e.g., determination of new species) and assessment of the interrelationship among Legionella strains through the RiboPrinter database connection. PMID:12517822

  9. Mexican American Fathers' Occupational Conditions: Links to Family Members' Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouter, Ann C.; Davis, Kelly D.; Updegraff, Kimberly; Delgado, Melissa; Fortner, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    To examine the implications of fathers' occupational conditions (i.e., income, work hours, shift work, pressure, workplace racism, and underemployment) for family members' psychological adjustment, home interviews were conducted with fathers, mothers, and two adolescent offspring in each of 218 Mexican American families. Results underscored the…

  10. Using Picture Books to Help Children Cope with a Family Member's Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Marna

    2005-01-01

    A diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the resulting behavioral changes in a loved one can cause intense emotional reactions from all family members, including children. Sharing and discussing relevant picture books can be an effective strategy to help the children in such families understand and deal with their emotions. Picture books can…

  11. An Endangered Species: The Female as Addict or Member of an Addict Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Sandra B.

    1981-01-01

    Surveys some of the representative literature reflecting attitudes and practices imposed on women addicts or female members of drug/alcohol abusing family systems. Explanations based on a study of healthy family systems are given with interpretations anchored in cultural rather than sexist phenomena. (Author)

  12. Family Members Providing Home-Based Palliative Care to Older Adults: The Enactment of Multiple Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemmer, Sarah J.; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Forbes, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    Canadians are experiencing increased life expectancy and chronic illness requiring end-of-life care. There is limited research on the multiple roles for family members providing home-based palliative care. Based on a larger ethnographic study of client-family-provider relationships in home-based palliative care, this qualitative secondary analysis…

  13. Using Picture Books to Help Children Cope with a Family Member's Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Marna

    2005-01-01

    A diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the resulting behavioral changes in a loved one can cause intense emotional reactions from all family members, including children. Sharing and discussing relevant picture books can be an effective strategy to help the children in such families understand and deal with their emotions. Picture books can…

  14. Family Members Providing Home-Based Palliative Care to Older Adults: The Enactment of Multiple Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemmer, Sarah J.; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Forbes, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    Canadians are experiencing increased life expectancy and chronic illness requiring end-of-life care. There is limited research on the multiple roles for family members providing home-based palliative care. Based on a larger ethnographic study of client-family-provider relationships in home-based palliative care, this qualitative secondary analysis…

  15. An unusual member of the Cdk family: Cdk5.

    PubMed

    Dhariwala, Fatema A; Rajadhyaksha, Medha S

    2008-05-01

    The proline-directed serine threonine kinase, Cdk5, is an unusual molecule that belongs to the well-known large family of proteins, cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks). While it has significant homology with the mammalian Cdk2 and yeast cdc2, unlike the other Cdks, it has little role to play in cell cycle regulation and is activated by non-cyclin proteins, p35 and p39. It phosphorylates a spectrum of proteins, most of them associated with cell morphology and motility. A majority of known substrates of Cdk5 are cytoskeletal elements, signalling molecules or regulatory proteins. It also appears to be an important player in cell-cell communication. Highly conserved, Cdk5 is most abundant in the nervous system and is of special interest to neuroscientists as it appears to be indispensable for normal neural development and function. In normal cells, transcription and activity of Cdk5 is tightly regulated. Present essentially in post-mitotic neurons, its normal activity is obligatory for migration and differentiation of neurons in developing brain. Deregulation of Cdk5 has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and acute neuronal injury. Regulators of Cdk5 activity are considered as potential therapeutic molecules for degenerative diseases. This review focuses on the role of Cdk5 in neural cells as regulator of cytoskeletal elements, axonal guidance, membrane transport, synaptogenesis and cell survival in normal and pathological conditions. PMID:18183483

  16. Leiomodins: larger members of the tropomodulin (Tmod) gene family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, C. A.; Fritz-Six, K. L.; Almenar-Queralt, A.; Fowler, V. M.

    2001-01-01

    The 64-kDa autoantigen D1 or 1D, first identified as a potential autoantigen in Graves' disease, is similar to the tropomodulin (Tmod) family of actin filament pointed end-capping proteins. A novel gene with significant similarity to the 64-kDa human autoantigen D1 has been cloned from both humans and mice, and the genomic sequences of both genes have been identified. These genes form a subfamily closely related to the Tmods and are here named the Leiomodins (Lmods). Both Lmod genes display a conserved intron-exon structure, as do three Tmod genes, but the intron-exon structure of the Lmods and the Tmods is divergent. mRNA expression analysis indicates that the gene formerly known as the 64-kDa autoantigen D1 is most highly expressed in a variety of human tissues that contain smooth muscle, earning it the name smooth muscle Leiomodin (SM-Lmod; HGMW-approved symbol LMOD1). Transcripts encoding the novel Lmod gene are present exclusively in fetal and adult heart and adult skeletal muscle, and it is here named cardiac Leiomodin (C-Lmod; HGMW-approved symbol LMOD2). Human C-Lmod is located near the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy locus CMH6 on human chromosome 7q3, potentially implicating it in this disease. Our data demonstrate that the Lmods are evolutionarily related and display tissue-specific patterns of expression distinct from, but overlapping with, the expression of Tmod isoforms. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  17. STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Pilot Dominic Gorie enjoys a reunion with his wife, Wendy, near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

  18. STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Mission Specialist Janet Lynn Kavandi poses for photographers near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

  19. STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Mission Specialist Gerhard Thiele enjoys a reunion with his wife near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

  20. STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Commander Kevin Kregel enjoys a reunion with his wife, Jeanne, near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

  1. Cyclic beta-glucans of members of the family Rhizobiaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Breedveld, M W; Miller, K J

    1994-01-01

    Cyclic beta-glucans are low-molecular-weight cell surface carbohydrates that are found almost exclusively in bacteria of the Rhizobiaceae family. These glucans are major cellular constituents, and under certain culture conditions their levels may reach up to 20% of the total cellular dry weight. In Agrobacterium and Rhizobium species, these molecules contain between 17 and 40 glucose residues linked solely by beta-(1,2) glycosidic bonds. In Bradyrhizobium species, the cyclic beta-glucans are smaller (10 to 13 glucose residues) and contain glucose linked by both beta-(1,6) and beta-(1,3) glycosidic bonds. In some rhizobial strains, the cyclic beta-glucans are unsubstituted, whereas in other rhizobia these molecules may become highly substituted with moieties such as sn-1-phosphoglycerol. To date, two genetic loci specifically associated with cyclic beta-glucan biosynthesis have been identified in Rhizobium (ndvA and ndvB) and Agrobacterium (chvA and chvB) species. Mutants with mutations at these loci have been shown to be impaired in their ability to grow in hypoosmotic media, have numerous alterations in their cell surface properties, and are also impaired in their ability to infect plants. The present review will examine the structure and occurrence of the cyclic beta-glucans in a variety of species of the Rhizobiaceae. The possible functions of these unique molecules in the free-living bacteria as well as during plant infection will be discussed. PMID:8078434

  2. A Brazilian Marseillevirus Is the Founding Member of a Lineage in Family Marseilleviridae.

    PubMed

    Dornas, Fábio P; Assis, Felipe L; Aherfi, Sarah; Arantes, Thalita; Abrahão, Jônatas S; Colson, Philippe; La Scola, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In 2003, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV) was discovered as parasitizing Acanthamoeba. It was revealed to exhibit remarkable features, especially odd genomic characteristics, and founded viral family Mimiviridae. Subsequently, a second family of giant amoebal viruses was described, Marseilleviridae, whose prototype member is Marseillevirus, discovered in 2009. Currently, the genomes of seven different members of this family have been fully sequenced. Previous phylogenetic analysis suggested the existence of three Marseilleviridae lineages: A, B and C. Here, we describe a new member of this family, Brazilian Marseillevirus (BrMV), which was isolated from a Brazilian sample and whose genome was fully sequenced and analyzed. Surprisingly, data from phylogenetic analyses and comparative genomics, including mean amino acid identity between BrMV and other Marseilleviridae members and the analyses of the core genome and pan-genome of marseilleviruses, indicated that this virus can be assigned to a new Marseilleviridae lineage. Even if the BrMV genome is one of the smallest among Marseilleviridae members, it harbors the second largest gene content into this family. In addition, the BrMV genome encodes 29 ORFans. Here, we describe the isolation and genome analyses of the BrMV strain, and propose its classification as the prototype virus of a new lineage D within the family Marseilleviridae. PMID:26978387

  3. Personal attributions for melanoma risk in melanoma-affected patients and family members

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jennifer; DiBonaventura, Marco; Baser, Raymond; Press, Nancy; Shoveller, Jeanne; Bowen, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Personal attributions for cancer risk involve factors that individuals believe contribute to their risk for developing cancer. Understanding personal risk attributions for melanoma may dictate gene-environment melanoma risk communication strategies. We examined attributions for melanoma risk in a population-based sample of melanoma survivors, first degree family members, and family members who are also parents (N=939). We conducted qualitative examination of open-ended risk attributions and logistic regression examining predictors (demographics, family member type, perceived risk) of the attributions reported (ultraviolet radiation [UVR] exposure, heredity/genetics, phenotype, personal melanoma history, miscellaneous). We found a predominance of risk attributions to UVR and heredity/genetics (80% and 45% of the sample, respectively). Those reporting higher education levels were more likely to endorse attributions to heredity/genetics, as well as to phenotype, than those of lower education levels. First-degree relatives and parent family members were more likely to endorse heredity/genetic attributions than melanoma survivors; melanoma survivors were more likely to endorse personal history of melanoma attributions compared to first-degree relatives and parent family members. These findings inform the development of risk communication interventions for melanoma families. PMID:20809355

  4. Holding blame at bay? ‘Gene talk' in family members' accounts of schizophrenia aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Callard, Felicity; Rose, Diana; Hanif, Emma-Louise; Quigley, Jody; Greenwood, Kathryn; Wykes, Til

    2012-01-01

    We provide the first detailed analysis of how, for what purposes and with what consequences people related to someone with a diagnosis of schizophrenia use ‘gene talk'. The article analyses findings from a qualitative interview study conducted in London and involving 19 participants (mostly women). We transcribed the interviews verbatim and analysed them using grounded theory methods. We analyse how and for what purposes participants mobilized ‘gene talk' in their affectively freighted encounter with an unknown interviewer. Gene talk served to (re)position blame and guilt, and was simultaneously used imaginatively to forge family history narratives. Family members used ‘gene talk' to recruit forebears with no psychiatric diagnosis into a family history of mental illness, and presented the origins of the diagnosed family member's schizophrenia as lying temporally before, and hence beyond the agency of the immediate family. Gene talk was also used in attempts to dislodge the distressing figure of the schizophrenia-inducing mother. ‘Gene talk', however, ultimately displaced, rather than resolved, the (self-)blame of many family members, particularly mothers. Our article challenges the commonly expressed view that genetic accounts will absolve family members' sense of (self-)blame in relation to their relative's/relatives' diagnosis. PMID:23227107

  5. Perceptions of barriers in managing diabetes: perspectives of Hispanic immigrant patients and family members

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jie; Amirehsani, Karen; Wallace, Debra; Letvak, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Hispanics show poorer self-management of type 2 diabetes than non-Hispanic Whites. Although previous studies have reported socioeconomic and cultural barriers to diabetes self-management by Hispanics, little is known about perceived barriers to diabetes self-management from the perspectives of both Hispanics and their family members. Purpose The purpose of the study was to explore perceived barriers among Hispanic immigrants with diabetes and their family members. Methods A qualitative study using five focus groups was conducted. A total of 73 Hispanic immigrants with type 2 diabetes (n=36) and family members (n=37) were recruited in the southeastern United States for a family-based intervention study of diabetes-self management. Participants were asked to describe their perceptions of barriers to self-management. The five sessions were audiotaped and transcribed, translated from Spanish into English, and analyzed using standard content analysis. Demographics, hemoglobin A1C levels, blood pressure and BMI were obtained both for participants with diabetes and for their family members. Results Barriers to diabetes self-management themes identified by participants with diabetes were in three major themes categorize: suffering from diabetes, difficulties in managing the disease, and lack of resources/support. Two key themes emerged pertaining to family members: we can provide support and we lack knowledge. Conclusions Perceived barriers to diabetes self-management described by Hispanic immigrants with diabetes and family members indicate a lack of intervention strategies to meet their needs. Interventions should include culturally relevant resources, family support, and diabetes self-management skills education. PMID:23640301

  6. The impact of disease on family members: a critical aspect of medical care.

    PubMed

    Golics, Catherine Jane; Basra, Mohammad Khurshid Azam; Finlay, Andrew Yule; Salek, Sam

    2013-10-01

    Most existing health-related quality of life research concerns the impact of disease on patients. However, in several medical specialties including dermatology, oncology, and physical and mental disability, studies have been carried out investigating the impact of disease on the lives of families of patients. The aim of this paper is to review the literature which relates to the impact of disease on family members of patients. The OVIDSP Medline was selected as the primary database, Searches were limited to sources published in English. 158 papers were identified for review. The definition of "family" varied across the literature, and a broad definition was accepted in this review. This review shows that a wide variety of aspects of family members' lives can be affected, including emotional, financial, family relationships, education and work, leisure time, and social activities. Many of these themes are linked to one another, with themes including financial impact and social impact being linked to emotional impact. Some positive aspects were also identified from the literature, including family relationships growing stronger. Several instruments exist to measure the impact of illness on the family, and most are disease or specialty- specific. The impact of disease on families of patients is often unrecognised and underestimated. Taking into account the quality of life of families as well as patients can offer the clinician a unique insight into issues such as family relationships and the effect of treatment decisions on the patient's close social group of partner and family. PMID:23759884

  7. 41 CFR 302-3.225 - If my immediate family member(s) return to the U.S. before me, will I be reimbursed for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If my immediate family member(s) return to the U.S. before me, will I be reimbursed for transporting part of my household goods with my family and the rest of my household goods when I return? 302-3.225 Section 302-3.225...

  8. 41 CFR 302-3.225 - If my immediate family member(s) return to the U.S. before me, will I be reimbursed for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false If my immediate family member(s) return to the U.S. before me, will I be reimbursed for transporting part of my household goods with my family and the rest of my household goods when I return? 302-3.225 Section 302-3.225...

  9. 41 CFR 302-3.225 - If my immediate family member(s) return to the U.S. before me, will I be reimbursed for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false If my immediate family member(s) return to the U.S. before me, will I be reimbursed for transporting part of my household goods with my family and the rest of my household goods when I return? 302-3.225 Section 302-3.225...

  10. 41 CFR 302-3.225 - If my immediate family member(s) return to the U.S. before me, will I be reimbursed for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true If my immediate family member(s) return to the U.S. before me, will I be reimbursed for transporting part of my household goods with my family and the rest of my household goods when I return? 302-3.225 Section 302-3.225...

  11. 41 CFR 302-3.225 - If my immediate family member(s) return to the U.S. before me, will I be reimbursed for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false If my immediate family member(s) return to the U.S. before me, will I be reimbursed for transporting part of my household goods with my family and the rest of my household goods when I return? 302-3.225 Section 302-3.225...

  12. Rotational properties of the Haumea family members and candidates: Short-term variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirouin, Audrey; Sheppard, Scott S.; Noll, Keith S.; Moskovitz, Nicholas A.; Doressoundiram, Alain

    2015-11-01

    Haumea is one of the largest known Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) with several anomalous characteristics. It is a fast rotator with a double-peak period of 3.92 h. Its spectrum is dominated by water ice features and the high albedo suggests nearly pure water ice on the surface. It has two known satellites and a family of at least ten TNOs with very similar proper orbital parameters and spectral properties. The formation of this peculiar family (Haumea, its two moons and, dynamically related bodies) is not well understood despite various models that have been proposed during the past few years.In order to improve our understanding of the formation of this family, we have examined the rotational properties of the family members and candidates (i.e. objects with similar proper orbital elements to the family members but without water ice on their surface or without observations to detect surface water). We report new short-term variability for 5 family members and 7 candidates from data collected over the past five years using multiple ground-based facilities. Thanks to our study, all the Haumea family members have a short-term variability study.From rotational data, assuming fluid-like rubble-pile structure, we constrain ellipsoidal axis ratios for individual objects and set a lower limit to densities. We also compared lightcurve amplitude and rotational frequency distributions for the family members, candidates, and unrelated TNOs to search for additional clues to the progenitor and the formation of this family.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary origins of DNA polymerase X-family members

    PubMed Central

    Bienstock, Rachelle J.; Beard, William A.; Wilson, Samuel H.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian DNA polymerase (pol) ? is the founding member of a large group of DNA polymerases now termed the X-family. DNA polymerase ? has been kinetically, structurally, and biologically well characterized and can serve as a phylogenetic reference. Accordingly, we have performed a phylogenetic analysis to understand the relationship between pol ? and other members of the X-family of DNA polymerases. The bacterial X-family DNA polymerases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae pol IV, and four mammalian X-family polymerases appear to be directly related. These enzymes originated from an ancient common ancestor characterized in two Bacillus species. Understanding distinct functions for each of the X-family polymerases, evolving from a common bacterial ancestor is of significant interest in light of the specialized roles of these enzymes in DNA metabolism. PMID:25112931

  14. Differences between Anglo and Mexican American Family Members on Satisfaction with Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumm, Walter R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Compares perceptions of rural and urban Mexican American and Anglo families in 14 states on four aspects of family life satisfaction. Hispanics reported higher satisfaction in most areas, allowing for duration of residence in state, area of residence, education, income and family size. Includes 49 references. (Author/TES)

  15. Parents and Children Only? Acculturation and the Influence of Extended Family Members among Vietnamese Refugees.

    PubMed

    Tingvold, Laila; Middelthon, Anne-Lise; Allen, James; Hauff, Edvard

    2012-03-01

    The nuclear family is often the point of departure in much of the existing acculturation research on refugee youth and children of refugees. The influence of other extended family members appears to receive less attention in understanding acculturation processes and intergenerational perspectives. This qualitative study explores the influence of extended family members upon a small sample of Vietnamese refugee parents and their adolescents while they undergo acculturation through their long-term resettlement process in Norway. With repeated interviews over a time span of 3 years, we identified situations and processes in family life in which extended kin become particularly activated and influential. Vietnamese refugee families in Norway keep close contact with extended kin even in the face of geographical distance to kin remaining in Vietnam, or globally dispersed. Aunts, uncles, and cousins are experienced as significant persons in the lives of many adolescents. Additionally, birth order of parents can often influence relationship dynamics among siblings and siblings children. Extended kin surfaced as especially important and influential at critical stages and crisis situations in family life. Extended family, and in particular, parental siblings play important roles in the acculturation experience and family functioning of Vietnamese refugee families in Norway. This has important implications for the study of Vietnamese and other refugee and immigrant families in acculturation research. PMID:24510190

  16. Parents and Children Only? Acculturation and the Influence of Extended Family Members among Vietnamese Refugees

    PubMed Central

    Tingvold, Laila; Middelthon, Anne-Lise; Allen, James; Hauff, Edvard

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear family is often the point of departure in much of the existing acculturation research on refugee youth and children of refugees. The influence of other extended family members appears to receive less attention in understanding acculturation processes and intergenerational perspectives. This qualitative study explores the influence of extended family members upon a small sample of Vietnamese refugee parents and their adolescents while they undergo acculturation through their long-term resettlement process in Norway. With repeated interviews over a time span of 3 years, we identified situations and processes in family life in which extended kin become particularly activated and influential. Vietnamese refugee families in Norway keep close contact with extended kin even in the face of geographical distance to kin remaining in Vietnam, or globally dispersed. Aunts, uncles, and cousins are experienced as significant persons in the lives of many adolescents. Additionally, birth order of parents can often influence relationship dynamics among siblings and siblings children. Extended kin surfaced as especially important and influential at critical stages and crisis situations in family life. Extended family, and in particular, parental siblings play important roles in the acculturation experience and family functioning of Vietnamese refugee families in Norway. This has important implications for the study of Vietnamese and other refugee and immigrant families in acculturation research. PMID:24510190

  17. Migrant and minority family members in the intensive care unit. A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Quindemil, KettyElena; Anderson, Kathryn Hoehn; Mayer, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Statistics show that people with migrant and minority background as patients are significant in numbers in the intensive care unit. This also puts family members in the perspective of nursing because family members are an inherent part of the intensive care unit. Family-centered care is perhaps most applicable to vulnerable populations like migrant family in the intensive care unit to meet family member’s needs. But very little is known about the situation of migrant and minority family members in the intensive care unit. The aim of the study was to explore the state of the science regarding family-centered care in the intensive care unit of patients with migration background in general and with a possible focus on major migrant populations in Austria—Former Yugoslavian und Turkish origin. A literature review investigated research articles that contained information on migrant and minority family members in the intensive care unit. Key points in the relevant articles were identified and categorized into themes with an explanation of findings at the end. Seventeen articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. No article was found regarding groups of major migrant population groups in Austria. The included articles uncovered five predominant themes: importance of cultural norms, communication, family dynamics, universal caring, and nursing/provider deficit in culturally competent care. In order to provide adequate nursing care a more cohesive body of information on more specific geographic and cultural populations is recommended. Because of the complete lack of research regarding migrant families of Former Yugoslavian and Turkish origin into Austria, an exploration of this population is recommended. PMID:24860716

  18. Children exposed to the arrest of a family member: Associations with mental health

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Frank J.; Kaufman, Joy S.; Finley, Meghan K.; Griffin, Amy; Anderson, Janet; Marshall, Tim; Radway, Susan; Stack, Virginia; Crusto, Cindy A.

    2013-01-01

    The arrest of a parent or other family member can be detrimental to children’s health. To study the impact of exposure to the arrest of a family member on children’s mental health and how said association may change across developmental periods, we examined baseline data for children (birth through 11 years) entering family-based systems of care (SOC). Children exposed to the arrest of a family member had experienced significantly more 5.38 (SD = 2.59) different types of potentially traumatic events (PTE) than children not exposed to arrest 2.84 (SD = 2.56). Multiple regression model results showed that arrest exposure was significantly associated with greater behavioral and emotional challenges after controlling for children’s age, gender, race/ethnicity, household income, caregiver’s education, parenting factors, and other PTE exposure. Further analyses revealed differences in internalizing and externalizing behaviors associated with arrest exposure across developmental levels. This study highlights some of the mental health challenges for children exposed to the arrest of a family member, while adding to our knowledge of how such an event affects children across different developmental periods. More trauma-informed, developmentally appropriate systems need to be in place at all levels to assist children and families experiencing arrest. PMID:24829537

  19. [Experiences and ethical questions of family members of patients with dementia].

    PubMed

    González Paniagua, M Cruz

    2012-01-01

    There are many decisions that family members of sufferers of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia are forced to take to guarantee the well-being and quality of life of their loved ones and, of course, themselves. A little more than 12 years ago in Medina del Campo, Valladolid, there arose the need to inform and, what's more, to support a large number of people whose family members had been diagnosed with a devastating type of dementia that was practically unknown. The illness presented these families with a growing number of difficult-to-resolve ethical dilemmas. This was the genesis of the Asociación de Familiares de enfermos de Alzheimer (Association of Family Members of Sufferers of Alzheimer's), where baffled family members searching for responsible answers came looking for help to their practical problems that they felt unable to solve using only common sense. What follows are the details of several real situations, the most delicate of which, as the Association psychologist, I shared with the affected families. The cases below involved a dilemma when applying the basic principles of bioethics: non-maleficence, beneficence and respect for the autonomy of the diseased. PMID:22548668

  20. Payment or reimbursement for certain medical expenses for Camp Lejeune family members. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-09-24

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is promulgating regulations to implement statutory authority to provide payment or reimbursement for hospital care and medical services provided to certain veterans' family members who resided at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, for at least 30 days during the period beginning on January 1, 1957, and ending on December 31, 1987. Under this rule, VA will reimburse family members, or pay providers, for medical expenses incurred as a result of certain illnesses and conditions that may be attributed to exposure to contaminated drinking water at Camp Lejeune during this time period. Payment or reimbursement will be made within the limitations set forth in statute and Camp Lejeune family members will receive hospital care and medical services that are consistent with the manner in which we provide hospital care and medical services to Camp Lejeune veterans. PMID:25255501

  1. The role and experiences of family members during the rehabilitation of mentally ill offenders.

    PubMed

    Rowaert, Sara; Vandevelde, Stijn; Lemmens, Gilbert; Vanderplasschen, Wouter; Vander Beken, Tom; Vander Laenen, Freya; Audenaert, Kurt

    2016-03-01

    Taking care of a family member with a mental illness imposes a burden on various aspects of family life. This burden may be enhanced if the mentally ill individual has a criminal history. This paper aims to summarize the scientific literature dealing with the experiences, needs and burdens of families of mentally ill offenders. We aim to explore the roles that family members play in the rehabilitation of their relative and review the families' needs and burdens. Finally, we aim to investigate whether or not the family strengths are considered in the literature. A literature search in line with the PRISMA statement for systematic reviews and with the recommendations for an integrative review was performed in the ISI Web of Science, PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct and ProQuest databases. Limited research has been carried out into the experiences, needs and burdens of families of mentally ill offenders, with only eight studies fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Families of mentally ill offenders experience more stress than those of mentally ill individuals with no judicial involvement. This is because of the fact that these family members have to deal with both mental health services and judicial systems. The eight retrieved studies focus on needs and burdens, with little reference to strengths or capabilities. The review has highlighted the need for further research into the needs and burdens of families with mentally ill offenders, with a focus on strengths rather than an exclusively problem-oriented perspective. It is important that families become more involved in the health and social care of their relatives to avoid being considered 'second patients'. PMID:26756851

  2. Egocentrism and inefficiency in the communication of families containing schizophrenic members.

    PubMed

    Mossige, S; Pettersen, R B; Blakar, R M

    1979-12-01

    Conceptual and methodological shortcomings of research on family and interactional psychopathology are owing mainly to the use of vague and ill-defined concepts of communication. Based on a theory of language use and communication within general social and cognitive psychology (e.g., Heider, Mead, Piaget, Rometvet) Blakar has outlined a methodology by which interaction is analyzed in terms of how and to what extent the participants (families) manage or fail to cope with the various prerequisites for successful communication under varying situational conditions. A study illustrating this program is presented: The interaction of twelve families, six with (Group S) and six without (Group N) a schizophrenic member, is analyzed in Blakar's communication conflict situation with respect to the members' ability to decenter and take the perspective of each other. Group S proved significantly more egocentric, their egocentric attitudes resulting, as would be expected, in very inefficient communication. Moreover, Group S were not able to adapt their pattern of communication to the changing situational requirements. Finally, the subtle interplay between the capacities and behavior of the individual members and the family system is illustrated: the egocentrism of the members resulted in "closed systems," and the closed systems hindered adequate feedback, forcing the members to decenter. PMID:527700

  3. Responding to a suicidal friend or family member: A qualitative study of college students.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Williams, Amanda G; McGee, Robin E

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand how college students have responded, at any point in their lifetime, to a suicidal friend or family member. College students completed an online survey in which they described, in their own words, what they have done when a friend or family member disclosed being suicidal. These responses included providing social support, information, telling someone, and crisis support. Future studies are needed to determine how common these responses are, identify factors that predict certain responses, and examine the impact responding to a suicidal person can have on college student wellbeing. PMID:26207438

  4. Opposing Functions of Classic and Novel IL-1 Family Members in Gut Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lopetuso, Loris R.; Chowdhry, Saleem; Pizarro, Theresa T.

    2013-01-01

    In addition to their well-established role(s) in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI)-related inflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and inflammation-associated colorectal cancer (CRC), emerging evidence confirms the critical involvement of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) cytokine family and their ligands in the maintenance of normal gut homeostasis. In fact, the paradigm that IBD occurs in two distinct phases is substantiated by the observation that classic IL-1 family members, such as IL-1, the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and IL-18, possess dichotomous functions depending on the phase of disease, as well as on their role in initiating vs. sustaining chronic gut inflammation. Another recently characterized IL-1 family member, IL-33, also possesses dual functions in the gut. IL-33 is upregulated in IBD and potently induces Th2 immune responses, while also amplifying Th1-mediated inflammation. Neutralization studies in acute colitis models, however, have yielded controversial results and recent reports suggest a protective role of IL-33 in epithelial regeneration and mucosal wound healing. Finally, although little is currently known regarding the potential contribution of IL-36 family members in GI inflammation/homeostasis, another IL-1 family member, IL-37, is emerging as a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine with the ability to down-regulate colitis. This new body of information has important translational implications for both the prevention and treatment of patients suffering from IBD and inflammation-associated CRC. PMID:23847622

  5. Opposing Functions of Classic and Novel IL-1 Family Members in Gut Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Lopetuso, Loris R; Chowdhry, Saleem; Pizarro, Theresa T

    2013-01-01

    In addition to their well-established role(s) in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI)-related inflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and inflammation-associated colorectal cancer (CRC), emerging evidence confirms the critical involvement of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) cytokine family and their ligands in the maintenance of normal gut homeostasis. In fact, the paradigm that IBD occurs in two distinct phases is substantiated by the observation that classic IL-1 family members, such as IL-1, the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and IL-18, possess dichotomous functions depending on the phase of disease, as well as on their role in initiating vs. sustaining chronic gut inflammation. Another recently characterized IL-1 family member, IL-33, also possesses dual functions in the gut. IL-33 is upregulated in IBD and potently induces Th2 immune responses, while also amplifying Th1-mediated inflammation. Neutralization studies in acute colitis models, however, have yielded controversial results and recent reports suggest a protective role of IL-33 in epithelial regeneration and mucosal wound healing. Finally, although little is currently known regarding the potential contribution of IL-36 family members in GI inflammation/homeostasis, another IL-1 family member, IL-37, is emerging as a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine with the ability to down-regulate colitis. This new body of information has important translational implications for both the prevention and treatment of patients suffering from IBD and inflammation-associated CRC. PMID:23847622

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis beyond IL-1? role of additional family members.

    PubMed

    Worm, Margitta

    2014-03-01

    Contact dermatitis is one of the most frequent pathological manifestations of the skin and plays a central role in clinical dermatology. The IL-1 family consists a large group of cytokines, which currently contains 11 members with different pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. Among the more pro-inflammatory-acting cytokines from the IL-1 family, IL-1?, IL-18, IL-33 and IL-36 have been shown to be upregulated in different inflammatory mouse experimental models or skin diseases. The article by Mattii et al. represents a thorough analysis of the expression of IL-1 family members including IL-33 in skin samples from patients with allergic contact dermatitis. Although a lot of research is performed in this area, data from human samples are rather scarce. Therefore, Mattii et al. support the development of novel therapeutic concepts, which might include the use of antagonistic molecules targeting the IL-1 family network. PMID:24372765

  7. Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Post-ICU Family Members: Review and Methodological Challenges.

    PubMed

    Petrinec, Amy B; Daly, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    Family members of intensive care unit (ICU) patients are at risk for symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following ICU discharge. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the current literature regarding post-ICU family PTSD symptoms with an emphasis on methodological issues in conducting research on this challenging phenomenon. An extensive review of the literature was performed confining the search to English language studies reporting PTSD symptoms in adult family members of adult ICU patients. Ten studies were identified for review published from 2004 to 2012. Findings demonstrate a significant prevalence of family PTSD symptoms in the months following ICU hospitalization. However, there are several methodological challenges to the interpretation of existing studies and to the conduct of future research including differences in sampling, identification of risk factors and covariates of PTSD, and lack of consensus regarding the most appropriate PTSD symptom measurement tools and timing. PMID:25061017

  8. Religious Coping Among Adults Caring for Family Members with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Michelle J; Medoff, Deborah; Lawrence, Ryan E; Dixon, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the use of religious coping strategies among family members of adults with serious mental illness. A sample of 436 individuals caring for a family member with serious mental illness were recruited into a randomized clinical trial for the National Alliance on Mental Illness Family to Family Education Program. Relationships are reported between religious coping and caregiving, care recipient, and mental health services outcomes. Religious coping was associated with more objective caregiving burden, greater care recipient need, less mental health knowledge, and less receipt of mental health services after adjusting for non-religious types of coping. At the same time, religious coping was associated with a positive caregiving experience and greater religious support. Religious coping plays an important role for many caregivers of persons with serious mental illness. Caregivers who use more religious coping may have an especially high need for mental health education and mental health services. PMID:25895855

  9. Dependents' Education. Educational Assistance and Opportunities Information for Army Family Members. Department of the Army Pamphlet No. 352-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    Information on educational assistance and opportunities for family members of active duty, retired, or deceased Army service members is provided. Eligibility and types of benefits and programs described are grouped in the following categories: educational financial aid for family members of veterans; educational opportunities for active duty…

  10. A muslim family with several members with celiac disease and other autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Treister-Goltzman, Yulia; Peleg, Roni

    2015-04-01

    The Bedouin community of Israel is a traditional Muslim society. It is characterized by one of the highest rates of population growth in the world. The custom of intermarriage, especially among cousins or within the extended family, is very common because of the community's tribal structure. The rate of genetic disease in this population is high. We present a Bedouin family in which the father suffers from celiac disease and Hashimoto's disease, his daughter has celiac and Crohn's disease, three other children have IgA deficiency, and a half uncle has Crohn's disease. In describing this family we present the familial nature of these diseases, the age at diagnosis, the marital relationships of the family members and co-morbid diseases and medical conditions. Family doctors can develop and use genograms that can facilitate their understanding of the situation and enable them to develop plans for health promotion and disease prevention counseling in the community. PMID:24242154

  11. Pharmacological manipulation of Bcl-2 family members to control cell death

    PubMed Central

    Letai, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    The commitment to programmed cell death involves complex interactions among pro- and antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins. The physiological result of a decision by these proteins to undergo cell death is permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Pharmacologic manipulation of proteins in this family appears both feasible and efficacious, whether the goal is decreased cell death, as in ischemia of the myocardium or brain, or increased cell death, as in cancer. PMID:16200198

  12. Genetic aspects of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in a family with multiple affected members: a research article

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The etiology of idiopathic scoliosis remains unknown and different factors have been suggested as causal. Hereditary factors can also determine the etiology of the disease; however, the pattern of inheritance remains unknown. Autosomal dominant, X-linked and multifactorial patterns of inheritances have been reported. Other studies have suggested possible chromosome regions related to the etiology of idiopathic scoliosis. We report the genetic aspects of and investigate chromosome regions for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in a Brazilian family. Methods Evaluation of 57 family members, distributed over 4 generations of a Brazilian family, with 9 carriers of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The proband presented a scoliotic curve of 75 degrees, as determined by the Cobb method. Genomic DNA from family members was genotyped. Results Locating a chromosome region linked to adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was not possible in the family studied. Conclusion While it was not possible to determine a chromosome region responsible for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis by investigation of genetic linkage using microsatellites markers during analysis of four generations of a Brazilian family with multiple affected members, analysis including other types of genomic variations, like single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could contribute to the continuity of this study. PMID:20374654

  13. Members of the PpaA/AerR Antirepressor Family Bind Cobalamin

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Arjan J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT PpaA from Rhodobacter sphaeroides is a member of a family of proteins that are thought to function as antirepressors of PpsR, a widely disseminated repressor of photosystem genes in purple photosynthetic bacteria. PpaA family members exhibit sequence similarity to a previously defined SCHIC (sensor containing heme instead of cobalamin) domain; however, the tetrapyrrole-binding specificity of PpaA family members has been unclear, as R. sphaeroides PpaA has been reported to bind heme while the Rhodobacter capsulatus homolog has been reported to bind cobalamin. In this study, we reinvestigated tetrapyrrole binding of PpaA from R. sphaeroides and show that it is not a heme-binding protein but is instead a cobalamin-binding protein. We also use bacterial two-hybrid analysis to show that PpaA is able to interact with PpsR and activate the expression of photosynthesis genes in vivo. Mutations in PpaA that cause loss of cobalamin binding also disrupt PpaA antirepressor activity in vivo. We also tested a number of PpaA homologs from other purple bacterial species and found that cobalamin binding is a conserved feature among members of this family of proteins. IMPORTANCE Cobalamin (vitamin B12) has only recently been recognized as a cofactor that affects gene expression by interacting in a light-dependent manner with transcription factors. A group of related antirepressors known as the AppA/PpaA/AerR family are known to control the expression of photosynthesis genes in part by interacting with either heme or cobalamin. The specificity of which tetrapyrroles that members of this family interact with has, however, remained cloudy. In this study, we address the tetrapyrrole-binding specificity of the PpaA/AerR subgroup and establish that it preferentially binds cobalamin over heme. PMID:26055116

  14. Promoter Methylation Status of Ras-Association Domain Family Members in Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Antje M.; Zimmermann, Tobias; Haag, Tanja; Walesch, Sara K.; Dammann, Reinhard H.

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) are rare neuroendocrine tumors that arise from the medulla of the adrenal gland or the sympathetic ganglia and are characterized by the secretion of catecholamines. In 30–40% of patients, PCCs are genetically determined by susceptibility genes as various as RET, VHL, and NF1. We have analyzed the Ras-association domain family members (RASSFs) in PCCs regarding their inactivating promoter hypermethylation status. Previously, we reported a promoter methylation in PCC for the first family member RASSF1A. Promoter hypermethylation of CpG islands leads to the silencing of the according transcript and is a common mechanism for inactivation of tumor suppressors. In this study, we observed inactivating DNA modifications for the RASSF members RASSF2, RASSF5A, RASSF9, and RASSF10, but not for the members RASSF3, RASSF4, RASSF5C, RASSF6, RASSF7, and RASSF8. The degree of promoter methylation was 19% for RASSF2, 67% for RASSF5A, 18% for RASSF9, and 74% for RASSF10. Interestingly, the degree of hypermethylation for RASSF10 in hereditary PCCs was 89 vs. 60% in sporadic PCCs. A similar but less dramatic effect was observed in RASSF5A and RASSF9. Including all RASSF members, we found that of 25 PCCs, 92% show promoter methylation in at least in one RASSF member. In 75% of the hereditary PCC samples, we found two or more methylated RASSF promoters, whereas in sporadic PCCs only 46% were observed. In summary, we could show that in PCC several RASSF members are strongly hypermethylated in their promoter regions and methylation of more than one RASSF member occurs in the majority of PCCs. This adds the inactivation of genes of the RASSF tumor suppressor family to the already known deregulated genes of PCC. PMID:25750636

  15. Two members of the Ustilago maydis velvet family influence teliospore development and virulence on maize seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the fungal-specific velvet protein family regulate sexual and asexual spore production in the Ascomycota. We predicted, therefore, that velvet homologs in the basidiomycetous plant pathogen Ustilago maydis would regulate sexual spore development, which is also associated with plant disea...

  16. Differential expression of sirtuin family members in the developing, adult, and aged rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Sidorova-Darmos, Elena; Wither, Robert G.; Shulyakova, Natalya; Fisher, Carl; Ratnam, Melanie; Aarts, Michelle; Lilge, Lothar; Monnier, Philippe P.; Eubanks, James H.

    2014-01-01

    The sirtuins are NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases and/or ADP-ribosyltransferases that play roles in metabolic homeostasis, stress response and potentially aging. This enzyme family resides in different subcellular compartments, and acts on a number of different targets in the nucleus, cytoplasm and in the mitochondria. Despite their recognized ability to regulate metabolic processes, the roles played by specific sirtuins in the brain—the most energy demanding tissue in the body—remains less well investigated and understood. In the present study, we examined the regional mRNA and protein expression patterns of individual sirtuin family members in the developing, adult, and aged rat brain. Our results show that while each sirtuin is expressed in the brain at each of these different stages, they display unique spatial and temporal expression patterns within the brain. Further, for specific members of the family, the protein expression profile did not coincide with their respective mRNA expression profile. Moreover, using primary cultures enriched for neurons and astrocytes respectively, we found that specific sirtuin members display preferential neural lineage expression. Collectively, these results provide the first composite illustration that sirtuin family members display differential expression patterns in the brain, and provide evidence that specific sirtuins could potentially be targeted to achieve cell-type selective effects within the brain. PMID:25566066

  17. Triticum Mosaic Virus: A Distinct Member of the Family Potyviridae with an Unusually Long Leader Sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome sequence of Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), a member in the family Potyviridae, has been determined to be 10,266 nucleotides excluding the 3’-polyadenylated tail. The genome encodes a large polyprotein of 3,112 amino acids with the ‘hall-mark proteins’ of potyviruses including a s...

  18. Working with Teams and Organizations to Help Them Involve Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Ibanga, Akanidomo

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe our work in trying to influence whole service teams to move their practice towards greater involvement of affected family members. Work with five teams is described. The process varied but in all cases it included recruitment of the team, training, continued support and evaluation of results. Use of a standard…

  19. Family Members as Partners in an After-School and Summer Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayroe, Teresa B.; Brenner, Devon

    2005-01-01

    If educators expect more children to be successful in literacy experiences at school, then they must strive to form lasting partnerships with parents (Fried, 2001). The educators working with the after-school and summer literacy program actively sought to form partnerships with family members at a small rural elementary school in a southern state.…

  20. Self-Concept and Depression among Children Who Experienced the Death of a Family Member

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Hong T.; Scott, Amy N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the moderating effects of physical and academic self-concept on depression among children who experienced the death of a family member. Data from Phase III of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care was used in the present study. Having a higher physical self-concept…

  1. Characterization of poplar ZIP family members ZIP1 and ZNT1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A plant must regulate heavy metals to maintain adequate resources for plant processes while protecting against excess metal damage. Regulation of heavy metals such as zinc (Zn) has been attributed to the Zn transporter ZNT1 gene and other members of its larger ZIP transporter family. However, these ...

  2. Study of Essential Living Skills for Members of Families in Multiple Roles. Final Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    A study was performed to identify empirically those essential living skills (ELS) perceived as important by men and women in their roles as a family member, an individual, and as an employee. Data was collected on a voluntary basis from 4,929 employed persons contacted through businesses, and 124 homemakers surveyed door-to-door. The ELS…

  3. College Adjustment and Subjective Well-Being when Coping with a Family Member's Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Christa K.; Welsh, Anne C.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals coping with the chronic or terminal illness of a family member are presented with a unique challenge that may influence their adjustment and overall well-being. This study investigated variables that relate to college adjustment and subjective well-being, including attachment, social support, coping, and illness-related constructs, in…

  4. Working with Teams and Organizations to Help Them Involve Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Ibanga, Akanidomo

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe our work in trying to influence whole service teams to move their practice towards greater involvement of affected family members. Work with five teams is described. The process varied but in all cases it included recruitment of the team, training, continued support and evaluation of results. Use of a standard…

  5. College Adjustment and Subjective Well-Being when Coping with a Family Member's Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Christa K.; Welsh, Anne C.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals coping with the chronic or terminal illness of a family member are presented with a unique challenge that may influence their adjustment and overall well-being. This study investigated variables that relate to college adjustment and subjective well-being, including attachment, social support, coping, and illness-related constructs, in…

  6. 76 FR 70057 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... were published in the Federal Register on Tuesday, November 1, 2011 (76 FR 67363). DATES: This... publication of final and temporary regulations (TD 9554), which was the subject of FR Doc. 2011-28176, is... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and...

  7. Suicides among Family Members of Elderly Suicide Victims: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waern, Margda

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study compares elderly suicides with (n = 13) and without (n = 72) family member suicide. Previous episodes of suicidal behavior were more common among suicides who lost first-degree relatives by suicide (100% vs. 65%, p = 0.009). Six persons had lost an offspring by suicide prior to their own deaths. Substance use disorder was…

  8. Photo of family members of STS-5 commander, Vance D. Brand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Erik Brand and his mother Beverly are seen in a photo of family members of STS-5 commander Vance D. Brand. Erik holds a small model of the space shuttle with its solid rocket boosters and external fuel tank still attached.

  9. 5 CFR 6801.108 - Restrictions resulting from employment of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... forth in the Office of Government Ethics' Standards of Ethical Conduct at 5 CFR 2635.502(d). ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restrictions resulting from employment of... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM § 6801.108 Restrictions resulting from employment of family members. A...

  10. 5 CFR 6801.108 - Restrictions resulting from employment of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... forth in the Office of Government Ethics' Standards of Ethical Conduct at 5 CFR 2635.502(d). ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restrictions resulting from employment of... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM § 6801.108 Restrictions resulting from employment of family members. A...

  11. 5 CFR 6801.108 - Restrictions resulting from employment of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... forth in the Office of Government Ethics' Standards of Ethical Conduct at 5 CFR 2635.502(d). ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restrictions resulting from employment of... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM § 6801.108 Restrictions resulting from employment of family members. A...

  12. 5 CFR 6801.108 - Restrictions resulting from employment of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... forth in the Office of Government Ethics' Standards of Ethical Conduct at 5 CFR 2635.502(d). ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restrictions resulting from employment of... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM § 6801.108 Restrictions resulting from employment of family members. A...

  13. 5 CFR 6801.108 - Restrictions resulting from employment of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... forth in the Office of Government Ethics' Standards of Ethical Conduct at 5 CFR 2635.502(d). ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions resulting from employment of... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM § 6801.108 Restrictions resulting from employment of family members. A...

  14. The Experiences of Affected Family Members: A Summary of Two Decades of Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Velleman, Richard; Copello, Alex; Templeton, Lorna; Ibanga, Akanidomo

    2010-01-01

    This article is based upon the collective findings of a number of studies conducted in a number of countries during the past 20 years. Female partners and mothers are the family members who have been most represented in the study samples, but the latter also included sizeable numbers of male partners, fathers, sisters, brothers and adult sons and…

  15. Aggressive Behavior Directed at Nursing Home Personnel by Residents' Family Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinton, Linda; Mazza, Nicholas

    1994-01-01

    Surveyed administrators from 70 Florida nursing homes. Administrators reported 1,193 acts of verbal aggression and 13 acts of physical aggression directed at nursing home personnel by residents' family members over 6-month period. Dissatisfaction over how specific and overall care needs of residents were being met was most frequently cited as…

  16. Posttraumatic Symptoms in Japanese Bereaved Family Members with Special Regard to Suicide and Homicide Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogata, Kohske; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Nishi, Yuko; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members using a questionnaire. Participants were bereaved as a result of suicide and homicide (n = 51 and 49, respectively), with natural death (n = 56) as a control; and their relationships to the deceased were parent-child (n = 79), conjugal (n =…

  17. Self-Concept and Depression among Children Who Experienced the Death of a Family Member

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Hong T.; Scott, Amy N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the moderating effects of physical and academic self-concept on depression among children who experienced the death of a family member. Data from Phase III of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care was used in the present study. Having a higher physical self-concept…

  18. Posttraumatic Symptoms in Japanese Bereaved Family Members with Special Regard to Suicide and Homicide Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogata, Kohske; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Nishi, Yuko; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members using a questionnaire. Participants were bereaved as a result of suicide and homicide (n = 51 and 49, respectively), with natural death (n = 56) as a control; and their relationships to the deceased were parent-child (n = 79), conjugal (n =…

  19. 5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are foster children eligible as family members? 894.306 Section 894.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility §...

  20. 5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are foster children eligible as family members? 894.306 Section 894.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility §...

  1. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  2. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  3. 5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are foster children eligible as family members? 894.306 Section 894.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility §...

  4. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  5. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  6. 5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Are foster children eligible as family members? 894.306 Section 894.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility §...

  7. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  8. 5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Are foster children eligible as family members? 894.306 Section 894.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility §...

  9. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  10. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The agency must...

  11. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The agency must...

  12. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  13. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  14. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  15. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The agency must...

  16. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  17. Communication Education as Social Support: Teaching Families with a Dying Member.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Steven D.

    Teaching communication skills to families with a dying member presents unique challenges. As M. R. Parks' critique of interpersonal communication literature suggests, it is important to keep in mind the larger social context surrounding the person dying and to maintain a balanced perspective of information exchange (e.g., self-disclosure) and…

  18. How Social Security Can Help You When a Family Member Dies

    MedlinePLUS

    How Social Security Can Help You When a Family Member Dies Y ou should let Social Security know when a person dies as soon as ... director will report the person’s death to Social Security. You’ll need to give the deceased’s Social ...

  19. Psychoeducational Intervention for Sexuality with the Aged, Family Members of the Aged, and People Who Work with the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles B.; Catania, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    Conducted and evaluated a sexual psychoeducational intervention with older persons, adult family members of older persons, and staff members of nursing homes. Results indicated significant changes in attitudes toward and knowledge about sexuality and aging and sexual behavior. (Author)

  20. Relationship of service members' deployment trauma, PTSD symptoms, and experiential avoidance to postdeployment family reengagement.

    PubMed

    Brockman, Callie; Snyder, James; Gewirtz, Abigail; Gird, Suzanne R; Quattlebaum, Jamie; Schmidt, Nicole; Pauldine, Michael R; Elish, Katie; Schrepferman, Lynn; Hayes, Charles; Zettle, Robert; DeGarmo, David

    2016-02-01

    This research examined whether military service members' deployment-related trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and experiential avoidance are associated with their observed levels of positive social engagement, social withdrawal, reactivity-coercion, and distress avoidance during postdeployment family interaction. Self reports of deployment related trauma, postdeployment PTSD symptoms, and experiential avoidance were collected from 184 men who were deployed to the Middle East conflicts, were partnered, and had a child between 4 and 13 years of age. Video samples of parent-child and partner problem solving and conversations about deployment issues were collected, and were rated by trained observers to assess service members' positive engagement, social withdrawal, reactivity-coercion, and distress avoidance, as well as spouse and child negative affect and behavior. Service members' experiential avoidance was reliably associated with less observed positive engagement and more observed withdrawal and distress avoidance after controlling for spouse and child negative affect and behavior during ongoing interaction. Service members' experiential avoidance also diminished significant associations between service members' PTSD symptoms and their observed behavior. The results are discussed in terms of how service members' psychological acceptance promotes family resilience and adaption to the multiple contextual challenges and role transitions associated with military deployment. Implications for parenting and marital interventions are described. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26437144

  1. Caring for family members with Alzheimer's disease: perspectives from Chinese American caregivers.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Lin

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of Chinese American caregivers who provide care for family members with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Individual interviews were conducted with four family caregivers. Results revealed ethnocultural and structural barriers that Chinese family caregivers experienced, including stigmatization of AD in the Chinese community, a lack of knowledge about AD, a lack of culturally and linguistically appropriate AD services, nega tive interactions with health-care providers, and difficulty with English. This study vides cultural knowledge and insights nurses who care for AD clients and their fam ilies. Overcoming barriers and working with Chinese American families and their community are needed to improve access and dementia services for Chinese American patients and their families. PMID:15359526

  2. Signaling by epithelial members of the CEACAM family – mucosal docking sites for pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) comprise a group of immunoglobulin-related vertebrate glycoproteins. Several family members, including CEACAM1, CEA, and CEACAM6, are found on epithelial tissues throughout the human body. As they modulate diverse cellular functions, their signaling capacity is in the focus of current research. In this review we will summarize the knowledge about common signaling processes initiated by epithelial CEACAMs and suggest a model of signal transduction by CEACAM family members lacking significant cytoplasmic domains. As pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria exploit these receptors during mucosal colonization, we try to highlight the connection between CEACAMs, microbes, and cellular responses. Special emphasis in this context is placed on the functional interplay between CEACAMs and integrins that influences matrix adhesion of epithelial cells. The cooperation between these two receptor families provides an intriguing example of the fine tuning of cellular responses and their manipulation by specialized microorganisms. PMID:24735478

  3. 41 CFR 302-3.511 - What must we consider when determining return travel for immediate family member(s) for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must we consider when determining return travel for immediate family member(s) for compassionate reasons prior to completion of the service agreement? 302-3.511 Section 302-3.511 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System...

  4. 41 CFR 302-3.303 - May I claim reimbursement for the return of my immediate family member(s) or household goods more...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I claim reimbursement for the return of my immediate family member(s) or household goods more than once under one service agreement? 302-3.303 Section 302-3.303 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  5. 41 CFR 302-3.302 - May my agency pay for my immediate family member(s) and my household goods to be returned to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true May my agency pay for my immediate family member(s) and my household goods to be returned to the U.S. before I complete my service agreement? 302-3.302 Section 302-3.302 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel...

  6. 41 CFR 302-3.303 - May I claim reimbursement for the return of my immediate family member(s) or household goods more...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true May I claim reimbursement for the return of my immediate family member(s) or household goods more than once under one service agreement? 302-3.303 Section 302-3.303 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel...

  7. 41 CFR 302-3.303 - May I claim reimbursement for the return of my immediate family member(s) or household goods more...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I claim reimbursement for the return of my immediate family member(s) or household goods more than once under one service agreement? 302-3.303 Section 302-3.303 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  8. 41 CFR 302-3.302 - May my agency pay for my immediate family member(s) and my household goods to be returned to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May my agency pay for my immediate family member(s) and my household goods to be returned to the U.S. before I complete my service agreement? 302-3.302 Section 302-3.302 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel...

  9. 41 CFR 302-3.302 - May my agency pay for my immediate family member(s) and my household goods to be returned to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May my agency pay for my immediate family member(s) and my household goods to be returned to the U.S. before I complete my service agreement? 302-3.302 Section 302-3.302 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel...

  10. 41 CFR 302-3.302 - May my agency pay for my immediate family member(s) and my household goods to be returned to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May my agency pay for my immediate family member(s) and my household goods to be returned to the U.S. before I complete my service agreement? 302-3.302 Section 302-3.302 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel...

  11. 41 CFR 302-3.303 - May I claim reimbursement for the return of my immediate family member(s) or household goods more...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I claim reimbursement for the return of my immediate family member(s) or household goods more than once under one service agreement? 302-3.303 Section 302-3.303 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  12. 41 CFR 302-3.303 - May I claim reimbursement for the return of my immediate family member(s) or household goods more...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I claim reimbursement for the return of my immediate family member(s) or household goods more than once under one service agreement? 302-3.303 Section 302-3.303 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  13. 41 CFR 302-3.302 - May my agency pay for my immediate family member(s) and my household goods to be returned to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May my agency pay for my immediate family member(s) and my household goods to be returned to the U.S. before I complete my service agreement? 302-3.302 Section 302-3.302 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel...

  14. 41 CFR 302-4.101 - Must my immediate family member(s) and I begin PCS travel at the old official station and end at...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must my immediate family member(s) and I begin PCS travel at the old official station and end at the new official station? 302-4.101 Section 302-4.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation...

  15. 41 CFR 302-4.101 - Must my immediate family member(s) and I begin PCS travel at the old official station and end at...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Must my immediate family member(s) and I begin PCS travel at the old official station and end at the new official station? 302-4.101 Section 302-4.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation...

  16. Family Supports for Families with a Disabled Member. Monograph No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsky, Dorothy Kerzner, Ed.; And Others

    Five articles address issues in family support systems for persons with disabilities. Peter Mittler, Hellie Mittler and Helen McConachie present a set of general principles designed to encourage the development of genuine partnerships between professionals and parents in "Working Together: Guidelines for Partnership between Professionals and…

  17. Cancer in the Family: Review of the Psychosocial Perspectives of Patients and Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitschke, Diane B.

    2008-01-01

    As advances in cancer care have led to more treatment options and longer survival for cancer patients, a focus on quality of life for patients and their families has gained importance. This review provides a discussion of stress and coping theory, documents the relevance of this topic area for social work practice, and illuminates the results of a…

  18. Cancer in the Family: Review of the Psychosocial Perspectives of Patients and Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitschke, Diane B.

    2008-01-01

    As advances in cancer care have led to more treatment options and longer survival for cancer patients, a focus on quality of life for patients and their families has gained importance. This review provides a discussion of stress and coping theory, documents the relevance of this topic area for social work practice, and illuminates the results of a…

  19. 77 FR 18143 - Members of a Family for Purpose of Filing a CBP Family Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ..., marriage, or adoption;'' live together in the same household at their last permanent residence; and intend... related by blood, marriage, domestic relationship, or adoption cannot be included in the family... not related by blood, marriage, domestic relationship, or adoption will not be included in the...

  20. The discoidin domain family revisited: new members from prokaryotes and a homology-based fold prediction.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, S; Hofmann, K; Chiquet-Ehrismann, R; Bucher, P

    1998-07-01

    Members of the discoidin (DS) domain family, which includes the C1 and C2 repeats of blood coagulation factors V and VIII, occur in a great variety of eukaryotic proteins, most of which have been implicated in cell-adhesion or developmental processes. So far, no three-dimensional structure of a known example of this extracellular module has been determined, limiting the usefulness of identifying a new sequence as member of this family. Here, we present results of a recent search of the protein sequence database for new DS domains using generalized profiles, a sensitive multiple alignment-based search technique. Several previously unrecognized DS domains could be identified by this method, including the first examples from prokaryotic species. More importantly, we present statistical, structural, and functional evidence that the D1 domain of galactose oxidase whose three-dimensional structure has been determined at 1.7 A resolution, is a distant member of this family. Taken together, these findings significantly expand the concept of the DS domain, by extending its taxonomic range and by implying a fold prediction for all its members. The proposed alignment with the galactose oxidase sequence makes it possible to construct homology-based three-dimensional models for the most interesting examples, as illustrated by an accompanying paper on the C1 and C2 domains of factor V. PMID:9684896

  1. New members of the 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene family.

    PubMed

    McBride, M W; Russell, A J; Vass, K; Forster, V; Burridge, S M; Morrison, N; Boyd, E; Ponder, B A; Sutcliffe, R G

    1995-04-01

    Several bands of hydridization are detected when southern blots of human genomic DNA are proved with cDNA of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) type I. Two experimental approaches were adopted to estimate the size of the 3 beta-HSD gene family. Firstly, primer designed to amplify 3 beta-HSD type I and II genes were found on occasion to amplify DNA products of appropriate length but which were resolved as distinct sequences by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Five of these novel bands were cloned and their sequences were found to be closely related to 3 beta-HSD types I and II. Secondly, 57 genomic clones were selected from two lambda genomic libraries by hybridization with exonic probes of 3 beta -HSD type I. These were screened for novel members of the gene family by pcr amplification using various combinations of PCR primers to the type I and II genes, particularly those primers that previously amplified novel PCR products from genomic DNA. Amplification products from (lambda) clones were screened for novel sequences by DGGE. As a result of these approaches, at least five new members of the 3 beta-HSD gene family were found, one of which locates to the 3 beta -HSD type I and II gene cluster on 1p13. The existence of additional closely related but distinct members of the gene family should be recognized as a potential complication when screening PCR fragments for mutations in the type I and II genes. DGGE was found to be an exceedingly rapid means of screening amplification products from (lambda) clones to search for novel members of the gene family. PMID:7603471

  2. Prosurvival Bcl-2 family members affect autophagy only indirectly, by inhibiting Bax and Bak.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Lisa M; Heinlein, Melanie; Huang, David C S; Vaux, David L

    2014-06-10

    Antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family members such as Bcl-2, myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), and B-cell lymphoma-X large (Bcl-xL) are proposed to inhibit autophagy by directly binding to the BH3 domain of Beclin 1/Atg6. However, these Bcl-2 family proteins also block the proapoptotic activity of Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak), and many inducers of autophagy also cause cell death. Therefore, when the mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis pathway is functional, interpretation of such experiments is complicated. To directly test the impact of the endogenous antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members on autophagy in the absence of apoptosis, we inhibited their activity in cells lacking the essential cell death mediators Bax and Bak. We also used inducible lentiviral vectors to overexpress Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, or Mcl-1 in cells and subjected them to treatments that promote autophagy. In the absence of Bax and Bak, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 had no detectable effect on autophagy or cell death in myeloid or fibroblast cell lines. On the other hand, when Bax and Bak were present, inhibiting the prosurvival Bcl-2 family members stimulated autophagy, but this correlated with increased cell death. In addition, inhibition of autophagy induced by amino acid starvation, etoposide, or interleukin-3 withdrawal did not affect cell death in the absence of Bax and Bak. These results demonstrate that the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members do not directly inhibit components of the autophagic pathway but instead affect autophagy indirectly, owing to their inhibition of Bax and Bak. PMID:24912196

  3. Psychological crisis intervention for the family members of patients in a vegetative state

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya-Hong; Xu, Zhi-Peng

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Family members of patients in a vegetative state have relatively high rates of anxiety and distress. It is important to recognize the problems faced by this population and apply psychological interventions to help them. This exploratory study describes the psychological stress experienced by family members of patients in a vegetative state. We discuss the effectiveness of a psychological crisis intervention directed at this population and offer suggestions for future clinical work. METHODS: A total of 107 family members of patients in a vegetative state were included in the study. The intervention included four steps: acquisition of facts about each family, sharing their first thoughts concerning the event, assessment of their emotional reactions and developing their coping abilities. The Symptom Check List-90 was used to evaluate the psychological distress of the participants at baseline and one month after the psychological intervention. Differences between the Symptom Check List-90 scores at the baseline and follow-up evaluations were analyzed. RESULTS: All participants in the study had significantly higher Symptom Check List-90 factor scores than the national norms at baseline. There were no significant differences between the intervention group and the control group at baseline. Most of the Symptom Check List-90 factor scores at the one-month follow-up evaluation were significantly lower than those at baseline for both groups; however, the intervention group improved significantly more than the control group on most subscales, including somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, depression, and anxiety. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that the four-step intervention method effectively improves the mental health of the family members who received this treatment and lessens the psychological symptoms of somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, depression and anxiety. PMID:22522759

  4. Four Members of Heat Shock Protein 70 Family in Korean Rose Bitterling (Rhodeus uyekii)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Hyun; Dong, Chun Mae; Kim, Julan; An, Cheul Min; Baek, Hae Ja; Kong, Hee Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein (HSP) 70, the highly conserved stress protein families, plays important roles in protecting cells against heat and other stresses in most animal species. In the present study, we identified and characterized four Hsp70 (RuHSP4, RuHSC70, RuHSP12A, RuGRP78) family proteins based on the expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis of the Korean rose bitterling R. uyekii cDNA library. The deduced RuHSP70 family has high amino acid identities of 72-99% with those of other species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RuHsp70 family clustered with fish groups (HSP4, HSC70, HSP12A, GRP78) proteins. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed the specific expression patterns of RuHsp70 family members in the early developmental stages and several tissues in Korean rose bitterling. The expression of 4 groups of Hsp70 family was detected in all tested tissue. Particularly, Hsp70 family of Korean rose bitterling is highly expressed in hepatopancreas and sexual gonad (testis and ovary). The expression of Hsp70 family was differentially regulated in accordance with early development stage of Rhodeus uyekii. PMID:27004270

  5. Quality of powdered substitutes for breast milk with regard to members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Muytjens, H L; Roelofs-Willemse, H; Jaspar, G H

    1988-01-01

    Members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were cultured from 52.5% of 141 milk substitute infant formulas which were obtained in 35 countries. The concentration did not exceed a level of 1 CFU/g in any product. The species which were isolated most frequently were Enterobacter agglomerans, cloacae, Enterobacter sakazakii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. If infections due to these organisms occur, it can be useful to include a check of the hygienic precautions which are taken during the preparation and storage of the formula. Milk powders without members of the Enterobacteriaceae might offer extra protection to the newborn if some multiplication does occur in the formula. PMID:3284901

  6. A Quick Test on Rotation Period Clustering for the Small Members of the Koronis Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chan-Kao; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Ip, Wing-Huen

    2016-01-01

    Rotation period clustering in prograde/retrograde rotators might be the preliminary indication of the Slivan state in the Koronis family as a result of the Yarkovsky-O’Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack effect. We follow the general scenario of dispersion in the semimajor axis of the asteroid family members to separate prograde and retrograde rotators in the Koronis family. From the available rotation periods obtained from PTF/iPTF, we were unable to find the rotation period clustering of objects with H ? 12 mag in the Koronis family. This could be the result of the intermittent collisional process of small asteroids (D ? 20 km) which leads to astray Yarkovsky drifting. Measurement of the pole orientations of our sample will verify our preliminary result and validate our method.

  7. Giving information to family members of patients in the intensive care unit: Iranian nurses’ ethical approaches

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Mansoureh A; Gaeeni, Mina; Mohammadi, Nooreddin; Seyedfatemi, Naima

    2014-01-01

    Receiving information related to patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit is among the most important needs of the family members of such patients. When health care professionals should decide whether to be honest or to give hope, giving information becomes an ethical challenge We conducted a research to study the ethical approaches of Iranian nurses to giving information to the family members of patients in the intensive care units. This research was conducted in the intensive care units of three teaching hospitals in Iran. It employed a qualitative approach involving semi-structured and in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 12 nurses to identify the ethical approaches to giving information to family members of the intensive care unit patients. A conventional content analysis of the data produced two categories and five subcategories. The two categories were as follows: a) informational support, and b) emotional support. Informational support had 2 subcategories consisting of being honest in giving information, and providing complete and understandable information. Emotional support in giving information had 3 sub-categories consisting of gradual revelation, empathy and assurance. Findings of the study indicated that ethical approaches to giving information can be in the form of either informational support or emotional support, based on patients’ conditions and prognoses, their families’ emotional state, the necessity of providing a calm atmosphere in the ICU and the hospital, and other patients and their families’ peace. Findings of the present study can be used as a basis for further studies and for offering ethical guidelines in giving information to the families of patients hospitalized in the ICU. PMID:25512830

  8. Giving information to family members of patients in the intensive care unit: Iranian nurses' ethical approaches.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Mansoureh A; Gaeeni, Mina; Mohammadi, Nooreddin; Seyedfatemi, Naima

    2014-01-01

    Receiving information related to patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit is among the most important needs of the family members of such patients. When health care professionals should decide whether to be honest or to give hope, giving information becomes an ethical challenge We conducted a research to study the ethical approaches of Iranian nurses to giving information to the family members of patients in the intensive care units. This research was conducted in the intensive care units of three teaching hospitals in Iran. It employed a qualitative approach involving semi-structured and in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 12 nurses to identify the ethical approaches to giving information to family members of the intensive care unit patients. A conventional content analysis of the data produced two categories and five subcategories. The two categories were as follows: a) informational support, and b) emotional support. Informational support had 2 subcategories consisting of being honest in giving information, and providing complete and understandable information. Emotional support in giving information had 3 sub-categories consisting of gradual revelation, empathy and assurance. Findings of the study indicated that ethical approaches to giving information can be in the form of either informational support or emotional support, based on patients' conditions and prognoses, their families' emotional state, the necessity of providing a calm atmosphere in the ICU and the hospital, and other patients and their families' peace. Findings of the present study can be used as a basis for further studies and for offering ethical guidelines in giving information to the families of patients hospitalized in the ICU. PMID:25512830

  9. Family Quality of Life from the Perspectives of Individual Family Members: A Korean-American Family and Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Joo Young; Turnbull, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in the mid-to-late 1980s, the focus on individual quality of life expanded to family quality of life (FQOL) in the field of intellectual disabilities. However, few studies examined FQOL for families who have children with hearing loss. Furthermore, most studies focused on mothers' perceptions of FQOL. The purpose of this study is to…

  10. Pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 1 (PHLDA1) and cancer

    PubMed Central

    NAGAI, MARIA APARECIDA

    2016-01-01

    Pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 1 (PHLDA1) encodes a member of an evolutionarily conserved pleckstrin homology-related domain protein family. It was first identified as a potential transcription factor required for Fas expression and activation-induced apoptosis in mouse T cell hybridomas. The exact molecular and biological functions of PHLDA1 remain to be elucidated. However, its expression is induced by a variety of external stimuli and there is evidence that it may function as a transcriptional activator that acts as a mediator of apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation and cell migration dependent on the cellular type and context. Recently, PHLDA1 has received attention due to its association with cancer. In the present review, the current knowledge of PHLDA1 protein structure, expression regulation and function is summarized. In addition, the current data in the literature is reviewed with regards to the role of PHLDA1 in cancer pathogenesis.

  11. Compassion Fatigue: An Application of the Concept to Informal Caregivers of Family Members with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Day, Jennifer R.; Anderson, Ruth A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Compassion fatigue is a concept used with increasing frequency in the nursing literature. The objective of this paper is to identify common themes across the literature and to apply these themes, and an existing model of compassion fatigue, to informal caregivers for family members with dementia. Findings. Caregivers for family members with dementia may be at risk for developing compassion fatigue. The model of compassion fatigue provides an informative framework for understanding compassion fatigue in the informal caregiver population. Limitations of the model when applied to this population were identified as traumatic memories and the emotional relationship between parent and child, suggesting areas for future research. Conclusions. Research is needed to better understand the impact of compassion fatigue on informal caregivers through qualitative interviews, to identify informal caregivers at risk for compassion fatigue, and to provide an empirical basis for developing nursing interventions for caregivers experiencing compassion fatigue. PMID:22229086

  12. Reconstructing meaning through occupation after the death of a family member: accommodation, assimilation, and continuing bonds.

    PubMed

    Hoppes, Steve; Segal, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Reactions to death have been studied extensively from psychological, behavioral, and physiological perspectives. Occupational adaptation to loss has received scant attention. Qualitative research was undertaken to identify and describe occupational responses in bereavement. The constant comparative approach was used to analyze and interpret the occupational responses. Adaptive strategies of occupational accommodation and assimilation were used after the death of a family member. Desire to sustain bonds with the deceased motivated specific occupational engagements. These occupational responses served to reconstruct meaning after the death of a family member. These findings contribute to understanding adaptation after death by adding an occupational perspective to previous theories. Occupational therapists' abilities to support clients after loss can be enhanced through appreciation of occupational accommodation and assimilation and the role of continuing occupational bonds after the death of a loved one. PMID:20131573

  13. Marriage and family therapy faculty members' balance of work and personal life.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Jennifer L; Rosen, Karen H

    2012-04-01

    A sense of imbalance is common among both professors and therapists, though few studies have been published examining the work and personal life balance of those who work in both professions simultaneously. Using in-depth telephone interviews, this study examined the work and personal life balance of 16 marriage and family therapy (MFT) faculty members. Results showed that six were satisfied with their balance, six were dissatisfied, and four were "middle of the road." Men, older participants, and those who were in their career longer were more likely to report feeling satisfied with their balance. Internal indicators of their balance included family and workplace messages, health indicators, feelings of contentment, and congruence with personal values. Child and relationship status, tenure status, and gender issues also impacted their sense of balance. Specific balance enhancers and reducers were highlighted, and participants discussed coping strategies and recommendations for other MFT faculty members. Clinical, training, and career implications are discussed. PMID:22512300

  14. Lentivirus-Mediated knockdown of tectonic family member 1 inhibits medulloblastoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Junjie; Wang, Chengfeng; Liang, Qinchuan; Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Qingshuang; Wang, Shousen; Ma, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Tectonic family member 1 (TCTN1) encodes a member of the tectonic family which are evolutionarily conserved secreted and transmembrane proteins, involving in a diverse variety of developmental processes. It has been demonstrated that tectonics expressed in regions that participate in Hedgehog (Hh) signaling during mouse embryonic development and was imperative for Hh-mediated patterning of the ventral neural tube. However, the expression and regulation of tectonics in human tumor is still not clear. In this study, shRNA-expressing lentivirus was constructed to knockdown TCTN1 in medulloblastoma cell line Daoy. The results showed that knockdown of TCTN1 inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in Daoy cell line, also caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M boundary. Taken all together, our data suggest that TCTN1 might play an important role in the progression of medulloblastoma. PMID:26550235

  15. VapI, a new member of the Rhodococcus equi Vap family.

    PubMed

    Polidori, Marco; Haas, Albert

    2006-10-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular bacterium which can cause bronchopneumonia in foals and AIDS patients. In this report we show that the ORF13-protein coded by the virulence associated plasmid of R. equi is clearly homologous to VapE. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed frame shift mutations that shorten the sequence of the ORF13-protein. A theoretical extension of the sequence of ORF13 by the introduction of a single nucleotide yields a translated amino acid sequence that is highly homologous to VapE and other members of the Vap family. The data provided in this study indicate that the ORF13-protein is a novel member of the Vap family and is therefore designated VapI. PMID:16871422

  16. Morphological manifestations of the Dandy-Walker syndrom in female members of a family.

    PubMed

    Titli?, Marina; Alfirevi?, Stanko; Koli?, Krešimir; Soldo, Anamarija; Tripalol, Ana Batoš

    2015-03-01

    The Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a hereditary disorder, appearing somewhat more frequently in women. The most important characteristics of the DWS are the lack of the cerebellar vermis, varying from a partial lack to a complete agenesis, and enlargement of the cerebrospinal spaces, especially in the fourth ventricle. The above mentioned morphological changes clinically manifest in ataxia, increased intracranial pressure and hydrocephalus. Here is presented a family with DWS, where the disease is contracted only by female members, in two generations, whereas no signs of DWS have been noticed in male family members. DWS is clinically manifested from early childhood to middle age, with the morphological changes varying from hypoplastic cerebellar vermis to widening of the brain ventricles and hydrocephalus and arachnoid cyst in the occipital part. PMID:26040095

  17. Lentivirus-Mediated knockdown of tectonic family member 1 inhibits medulloblastoma cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Junjie; Wang, Chengfeng; Liang, Qinchuan; Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Qingshuang; Wang, Shousen; Ma, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Tectonic family member 1 (TCTN1) encodes a member of the tectonic family which are evolutionarily conserved secreted and transmembrane proteins, involving in a diverse variety of developmental processes. It has been demonstrated that tectonics expressed in regions that participate in Hedgehog (Hh) signaling during mouse embryonic development and was imperative for Hh-mediated patterning of the ventral neural tube. However, the expression and regulation of tectonics in human tumor is still not clear. In this study, shRNA-expressing lentivirus was constructed to knockdown TCTN1 in medulloblastoma cell line Daoy. The results showed that knockdown of TCTN1 inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in Daoy cell line, also caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M boundary. Taken all together, our data suggest that TCTN1 might play an important role in the progression of medulloblastoma. PMID:26550235

  18. Al-Anon Family Groups’ Newcomers and Members: Concerns about the Drinkers in their Lives

    PubMed Central

    Timko, Christine; Cronkite, Ruth; Laudet, Alexandre; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Roth, Jeffrey; Moos, Rudolf H

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Despite Al-Anon’s widespread availability and use, knowledge is lacking about the drinkers in attendees’ lives. We filled this gap by describing and comparing Al-Anon newcomers’ and members’ reports about their “main drinker” (main person prompting initial attendance). Methods Al-Anon’s World Service Office mailed a random sample of groups, yielding completed surveys from newcomers (N = 362) and stable members (N = 265). Results Newcomers’ and members’ drinkers generally were comparable. They had known their drinker for an average of 22 years and been concerned about his or her’s drinking for 9 years; about 50% had daily contact with the drinker. Most reported negative relationship aspects (drinker gets on your nerves; you disagree about important things). Newcomers had more concern about the drinker’s alcohol use than members did, and were more likely to report their drinkers’ driving under the influence. Drinkers’ most frequent problem due to drinking was family arguments, and most common source of help was 12-step groups, with lower rates among drinkers of newcomers. Concerns spurring initial Al-Anon attendance were the drinker’s poor quality of life, relationships, and psychological status; goals for initial attendance reflected these concerns. Discussion and Conclusions The drinker’s alcohol use was of less concern in prompting initial Al-Anon attendance, and, accordingly, the drinker’s reduced drinking was a less frequently endorsed goal of attendance. Scientific Significance Family treatments for substance use problems might expand interventions and outcome domains beyond abstinence and relationship satisfaction to include the drinker’s quality of life and psychological symptoms and in turn relieve concerns of family members. PMID:24628725

  19. GASA4, One of the 14-Member Arabidopsis GASA Family of Small Polypeptides, Regulates Flowering and Seed Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the plant-specific gibberellic acid-stimulated Arabidopsis (GASA) gene family play roles in hormone response, defense and development. We have identified six new Arabidopsis GASA genes, bringing the total number of family members to 14. Here we show that these genes all encode small polyp...

  20. Those Who Are Left behind: An Estimate of the Number of Family Members of Suicide Victims in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Joe; Choi, Yun Jeong; Mori, Kohta; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Sugano, Saki

    2009-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature of suicide studies by presenting procedures and its estimates of the number of family members who lose their loved ones to suicide. Using Japanese aggregate level data, three main findings emerge: first, there are approximately five bereaved family members per suicide; second, in 2006, there were about…

  1. IL-36 a new member of the IL-1 family cytokines.

    PubMed

    Tripodi, D; Conti, F; Rosati, M; Maccauro, G; Saggini, A; Cianchetti, E; Angelucci, D; Fulcheri, M; Tetè, S; Salini, V; Caraffa, A; Antinolfi, P; Toniato, E; Castellani, M L; Conti, P; Theoharides, T C

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin-36 (IL-36) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunity. IL-36 activates MAPK and NF-kB pathways and is produced by many different cells. This cytokine is a family member of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several diseases. Here we summarise and review the new aspects of this important pro-inflammatory cytokine. PMID:22475093

  2. Assessment of Satisfaction with Care Among Family Members of Survivors in a Neuroscience Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, David Y.; Yagoda, Daniel; Perrey, Hilary M.; Tehan, Tara M.; Guanci, Mary; Ananian, Lillian; Currier, Paul F.; Cobb, J. Perren; Rosand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Many prior nursing studies regarding family members specifically of neuroscience intensive care unit (Neuro ICU) patients have focused on identifying their primary needs. A concept related to identifying these needs and assessing whether they have been met is determining whether families explicitly report satisfaction with the care that both they and their loved ones have received. The objective of this study was to explore family satisfaction with care in an academic Neuro ICU and compare results with concurrent data from same hospital’s medical ICU (MICU). Over 38 days, we administered the Family Satisfaction-ICU instrument to Neuro ICU and MICU patients’ families at time of ICU discharge. Those whose loved ones passed away during ICU admission were excluded. When asked about the respect and compassion that they received from staff, 76.3% (95% CI 66.5–86.1) of Neuro ICU families were completely satisfied, as opposed to 92.7% in the MICU (84.4–101.0, p = 0.04). Respondents were less likely to be completely satisfied with the courtesy of staff if they reported participation in zero formal family meetings. Less than 60% of Neuro ICU families were completely satisfied by: (1) frequency of physician communication, (2) inclusion and (3) support during decision making, and (4) control over the care of their loved ones. Parents of patients were more likely than other relatives to feel very included and supported in the decision-making process. Future studies may focus on evaluating strategies for Neuro ICU nurses and physicians to provide better decision-making support and to implement more frequent family meetings even for those patients who may not seem medically or socially complicated to the team. Determining satisfaction with care for those families whose loved ones passed away during their Neuro ICU admission is another potential avenue for future investigation. PMID:24556658

  3. Sources of hope: Perception of Iranian family members of patients in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Gaeeni, Mina; Farahani, Mansoureh A; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Seyedfatemi, Naima

    2014-01-01

    Background: Admission to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is recognized as a situation with emotional strain, uncertainty, and fear of losing the patient. In such stressful situations, it is hope that can promote psychological stability in the patient's family members. Related literature revealed that sources of hope in this situation have still not been discussed well in studies. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the sources of hope from the perspective of families of ICU patients in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study that was carried out adopting the conventional qualitative content analysis approach, 19 family members of 13 patients hospitalized in the ICU from three teaching hospitals were selected, through purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using conventional content analysis, through the process of data reduction and condensation, coding, and also generating categories and subcategories. Results: Analysis of the data revealed sources of hope in families of ICU patients. These sources appeared as two main categories- internal sources and external sources. The internal sources had two subcategories consisting of ’religious-spirituality beliefs’ and ’positive attitude’. The external sources had four subcategories consisting of healthcare professionals’ interactions, empathy of families and friends, patient's condition, and participation in care. Conclusions: The results of this study showed the sources of hope in the families of the patients in the ICU. These sources, as moderating factors, could reduce physical and psychological damages caused to the families. In the present study, the categorizations of the participants’ in-depth experience could develop a new horizon for healthcare professionals, especially nurses, on the sources of hope, based on culture. PMID:25558262

  4. Demographic and clinical characteristics associated with treatment status in family members with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Bernadette; Samuels, Jack F; Pinto, Anthony; Fyer, Abby J; McCracken, James T; Rauch, Scott L; Murphy, Dennis L; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Knowles, James A; Piacentini, John; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Grados, Marco A; Riddle, Mark A; Rasmussen, Steven A; Pauls, David L; Willour, Virginia L; Shugart, Yin Y; Liang, Kung-Yee; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf; Nestadt, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the demographic and clinical factors that influence treatment status in family members with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Six hundred and two subjects from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) to diagnose Axis I disorders, and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) for assessment of OCD symptoms. The demographic and clinical data were compared between subjects who had received treatment and those who had not. A precipitous onset of symptoms, severe illness, multiple obsessions and compulsions, and co-morbid affective disorders were all positively associated with receiving treatment. Older age and the presence of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) or OCPD traits were negatively associated with treatment. Gender and age at onset of symptoms did not predict treatment history. The mean duration from onset of symptoms to receiving treatment was 13.8+/-SD 11.9 years, but there was a direct relationship between current age and time to treatment, with younger subjects receiving treatment sooner. Clinical factors are predominant in predicting treatment status in family members with OCD. Although the mean duration from onset of symptoms to treatment was long, younger family members appear to receive treatment sooner. PMID:17345603

  5. Exposure of Phosphatidylserine by Xk-related Protein Family Members during Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Jun; Imanishi, Eiichi; Nagata, Shigekazu

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic cells expose phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) on their surface as an “eat me” signal. Mammalian Xk-related (Xkr) protein 8, which is predicted to contain six transmembrane regions, and its Caenorhabditis elegans homolog CED-8 promote apoptotic PtdSer exposure. The mouse and human Xkr families consist of eight and nine members, respectively. Here, we found that mouse Xkr family members, with the exception of Xkr2, are localized to the plasma membrane. When Xkr8-deficient cells, which do not expose PtdSer during apoptosis, were transformed by Xkr family members, the transformants expressing Xkr4, Xkr8, or Xkr9 responded to apoptotic stimuli by exposing cell surface PtdSer and were efficiently engulfed by macrophages. Like Xkr8, Xkr4 and Xkr9 were found to possess a caspase recognition site in the C-terminal region and to require its direct cleavage by caspases for their function. Site-directed mutagenesis of the amino acid residues conserved among CED-8, Xkr4, Xkr8, and Xkr9 identified several essential residues in the second transmembrane and second cytoplasmic regions. Real time PCR analysis indicated that unlike Xkr8, which is ubiquitously expressed, Xkr4 and Xkr9 expression is tissue-specific. PMID:25231987

  6. Kinesin 6 family member Subito participates in mitotic spindle assembly and interacts with mitotic regulators.

    PubMed

    Cesario, Jeff M; Jang, Janet K; Redding, Bethany; Shah, Nishit; Rahman, Taslima; McKim, Kim S

    2006-11-15

    Drosophila Subito is a kinesin 6 family member and ortholog of mitotic kinesin-like protein (MKLP2) in mammalian cells. Based on the previously established requirement for Subito in meiotic spindle formation and for MKLP2 in cytokinesis, we investigated the function of Subito in mitosis. During metaphase, Subito localized to microtubules at the center of the mitotic spindle, probably interpolar microtubules that originate at the poles and overlap in antiparallel orientation. Consistent with this localization pattern, subito mutants improperly assembled microtubules at metaphase, causing activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint and lagging chromosomes at anaphase. These results are the first demonstration of a kinesin 6 family member with a function in mitotic spindle assembly, possibly involving the interpolar microtubules. However, the role of Subito during mitotic anaphase resembles other kinesin 6 family members. Subito localizes to the spindle midzone at anaphase and is required for the localization of Polo, Incenp and Aurora B. Genetic evidence suggested that the effects of subito mutants are attenuated as a result of redundant mechanisms for spindle assembly and cytokinesis. For example, subito double mutants with ncd, polo, Aurora B or Incenp mutations were synthetic lethal with severe defects in microtubule organization. PMID:17077127

  7. Protecting the health of employees caring for family members with special health care needs.

    PubMed

    Earle, Alison; Heymann, Jody

    2011-07-01

    Over half of American workers are holding a paid job while also providing unpaid assistance and support to a family member. Research shows that family members who provide care to children or adults with special health care needs are themselves at risk of physical and mental health problems. Yet, little research has explored how the work environment mediates the effects of caregiving on caregivers' mental and physical health. With a sample of 2455 currently employed U.S. adults from the Work, Family, Community Nexus (WFCN) survey, a random-digit dial, nationally representative survey of Americans aged 18-69, we examine whether paid leave and flexibility policies mediate the relationship between caregiving and health. In Ordinary Least Squares regression models, we find that paid leave to address family members' health was associated with better mental health status as measured by the 5-item Mental Health Inventory and paid sick leave with better physical health status as measured by self-rated overall health status. A supportive supervisor was also associated with improvements in mental and physical health. For both men and women, paid leave and a supervisor's support offset some or all of the negative effects of caregiving, but for women, the buffering effects of working conditions are slightly larger. Enhancing the unpaid leave guaranteed in the U.S. Family and Medical Leave Act so that it is paid and passing national paid sick days legislation will help ensure that employed caregivers can retain their jobs, receive needed income, and meet their own mental and physical health needs. PMID:21669484

  8. Computing with certainty individual members of families of periodic orbits of a given period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalantonis, V. S.; Perdios, E. A.; Perdiou, A. E.; Vrahatis, M. N.

    2001-07-01

    The accurate computation of families of periodic orbits is very important in the analysis of various celestial mechanics systems. The main difficulty for the computation of a family of periodic orbits of a given period is the determination within a given region of an individual member of this family which corresponds to a periodic orbit. To compute with certainty accurate individual members of a specific family we apply an efficient method using the Poincaré map on a surface of section of the considered problem. This method converges rapidly, within relatively large regions of the initial conditions. It is also independent of the local dynamics near periodic orbits which is especially useful in the case of conservative dynamical systems that possess many periodic orbits, often of the same period, close to each other in phase space. The only computable information required by this method is the signs of various function evaluations carried out during the integration of the equations of motion. This method can be applied to any system of celestial mechanics. In this contribution we apply it to the photogravitational problem.

  9. Teleocortin: A Novel Member of the CRH Family in Teleost Fish.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Kohei; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Miyanishi, Hiroshi; Hiraki-Kajiyama, Towako; Takeuchi, Akio; Nakasone, Kiyoshi; Maehiro, Sayaka; Okubo, Kataaki

    2015-08-01

    The CRH family of neuropeptides, including CRH and urocortins, plays pivotal roles in the regulation of physiological and behavioral stress responses in vertebrates. In this study, we identified a previously undescribed member of the CRH family of peptides in a teleost fish species (medaka; Oryzias latipes) and named this peptide teleocortin (Tcn). Medaka Tcn is a 41-amino acid polypeptide derived from the C terminus of a larger precursor protein that is encoded by a 2-exon gene, thus sharing common structural features with known CRH family peptides. tcn was found exclusively in teleost fish. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that tcn probably has an ancient origin but was lost from the tetrapod lineage shortly after the divergence of the teleost and tetrapod lineages. In the medaka brain, tcn was expressed in nuclei of the telencephalon, preoptic area, hypothalamus, tegmentum, and isthmic region. Because none of these nuclei have been implicated in the control of ACTH secretion from the pituitary, Tcn may exert its effects centrally in the brain rather than via stimulation of the pituitary-adrenal/interrenal axis. Most, if not all, tcn-expressing neurons also expressed crh, suggesting that Tcn and Crh share common physiological functions. Moreover, Tcn activated Crh receptors 1 and 2 with equivalent or slightly higher potency than Crh, further suggesting that these peptides share common functions. Taken together, these data identified Tcn as a novel, teleost-specific member of the CRH family of peptides that may act centrally with Crh to regulate physiological and behavioral stress responses. PMID:26030477

  10. Elucidation of the structures of all members of the Avsunviroidae family.

    PubMed

    Giguère, Tamara; Adkar-Purushothama, Charith Raj; Bolduc, François; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2014-10-01

    Viroids are small single-stranded RNA pathogens which cause significant damage to plants. As their nucleic acids do not encode for any proteins, they are dependant solely on their structure for their propagation. The elucidation of the secondary structures of viroids has been limited because of the exhaustive and time consuming nature of classic approaches. Here, the method of high-throughput selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analysed by primer extension (hSHAPE) has been adapted to probe the viroid structure. The data obtained using this method were then used as input for computer-assisted structure prediction using RNA structure software in order to determine the secondary structures of the RNA strands of both (+) and (–) polarities of all Avsunviroidae members, one of the two families of viroids. The resolution of the structures of all of the members of the family provides a global view of the complexity of these RNAs. The structural differences between the two polarities, and any plausible tertiary interactions, were also analysed. Interestingly, the structures of the (+) and (–) strands were found to be different for each viroid species. The structures of the recently isolated grapevine hammerhead viroid-like RNA strands were also solved. This species shares several structural features with the Avsunviroidae family, although its infectious potential remains to be determined.To our knowledge, this article represents the first report of the structural elucidation of a complete family of viroids. PMID:25346967

  11. [The caring of family members in the intensive care units from the Jean Watson perspective].

    PubMed

    Vázquez Calatayud, M; Eseverri Azcoiti, M C

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a brief reflection on the caring of families in the Intensive Care Units. To address this issue, Jean Watson, one of the most important theoreticians on nursing of our days, has been taken as a reference. Watson was chosen because it is possible to understand perfectly the need to contemplate the family within the holistic care of critical patients from his theory. Thus, it is proposed to carry out an investigation that studies the care of the family members of the critical patient based on the idea of Watson's caring theory. To understand this approach, the theory of caring is analyzed and evaluated according to the guide produced by McEwen in 2007. PMID:20833570

  12. MUTYH the base excision repair gene family member associated with colorectal cancer polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Kashfi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Golmohammadi, Mina; Behboudi, Faeghe; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is classified in to three forms: sporadic (70–75%), familial (20–25%) and hereditary (5–10%). hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes classified into two different subtypes: polyposis and non polyposis. Familial Adenomatous polyposis (FAP; OMIM #175100) is the most common polyposis syndrome, account for <1% of colorectal cancer incidence and characterized by germline mutations in the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC, 5q21- q22; OMIM #175100). FAP is a dominant cancer predisposing syndrome which 20–25% cases are de novo. There is also another polyposis syndrome; MUTYH associated polyposis (MAP, OMIM 608456) which it is caused by mutation in human Mut Y homologue MUTYH (MUTYH; OMIM 604933) and it is associated with multiple (15–100) colonic adenomas. In this paper we discuss MUTYH mechanism as an important member of Base Excision Repair (BER) family and its important role in polyposis condition. PMID:24834277

  13. Anoctamin/TMEM16 family members are Ca2+-activated Cl− channels

    PubMed Central

    Hartzell, H Criss; Yu, Kuai; Xiao, Qinhuan; Chien, Li-Ting; Qu, Zhiqiang

    2009-01-01

    Ca2+-activated Cl− channels (CaCCs) perform many important functions in cell physiology including secretion of fluids from acinar cells of secretory glands, amplification of olfactory transduction, regulation of cardiac and neuronal excitability, mediation of the fast block to polyspermy in amphibian oocytes, and regulation of vascular tone. Although a number of proteins have been proposed to be responsible for CaCC currents, the anoctamin family (ANO, also known as TMEM16) exhibits characteristics most similar to those expected for the classical CaCC. Interestingly, this family of proteins has previously attracted the interest of both developmental and cancer biologists. Some members of this family are up-regulated in a number of tumours and functional deficiency in others is linked to developmental defects. PMID:19015192

  14. Informing family members of individuals with Lynch syndrome: a guideline for clinical geneticists.

    PubMed

    Menko, Fred H; Aalfs, Cora M; Henneman, Lidewij; Stol, Yrrah; Wijdenes, Miranda; Otten, Ellen; Ploegmakers, Marleen M J; Legemaate, Johan; Smets, Ellen M A; de Wert, Guido M W R; Tibben, Aad

    2013-06-01

    The diagnosis of Lynch syndrome can lead to the prevention of colorectal cancer through periodic colonoscopies and removal of premalignant lesions in susceptible individuals. Therefore, predisposed individuals identified by mutation analysis are advised to inform their at-risk relatives about the options of predictive DNA testing and preventive measures. However, it has now been established that more than half of these relatives do not receive the necessary information. Barriers in conveying information include family communication problems and variable attitudes and practice among clinical geneticists. In this complex field, both medical, psychological, ethical and juridical aspects deserve consideration. Here we summarize the development of a revised guideline for clinical geneticists that allows a more active role of the geneticist, aimed at improving procedures to inform family members in Lynch syndrome and other hereditary and familial cancer syndromes. PMID:23535968

  15. Assessing family members' motivational readiness and decision making for consenting to cadaveric organ donation.

    PubMed

    Robbins, M L; Levesque, D A; Redding, C A; Johnson, J L; Prochaska, J O; Rohr, M S; Peters, T G

    2001-09-01

    This study assessed the applicability of two important components of the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM) to family consent for cadaveric organ donation. Men and women (N = 169), who consented or refused to donate the organs of a family member, completed a telephone survey reflecting the stage of change and decisional balance constructs. Psychometric analyses resulted in a two-factor decisional balance scale: a seven-item scale representing negative perceptions of consent (cons), and a seven-item scale representing positive perceptions of consent (pros). The pros and cons were significantly associated with stage of readiness for donation consent and with the family consent decision. Research utilizing this measure has the potential to enhance intervention programs to increase donation consent rates. PMID:22049451

  16. Developmental and functional studies of the SLC12 gene family members from Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qifei; Tian, E; Turner, R James; Ten Hagen, Kelly G

    2010-01-01

    The electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporter gene family, SLC12, contains nine members in vertebrates. These include seven sodium and/or potassium-coupled chloride transporters and two membrane proteins of unknown function. Although SLC12 family members have been identified in a number of lower species, the functional properties of these proteins are unknown. There are five SLC12 homologues in Drosophila melanogaster, including at least one member on each of the four main branches of the vertebrate phylogenetic tree. We have employed in situ hybridization to study the expression patterns of the Drosophila SLC12 proteins during embryonic development. Our studies indicate that all five members of this family are expressed during early embryogenesis (stages 1-6), but that spatial and temporal expression patterns become more refined as development proceeds. Expression during late embryogenesis was seen predominantly in the ventral nerve cord, salivary gland, gut, and anal pad. In parallel studies, we have carried out transport assays on each of the five Drosophila homologues, expressed as recombinant proteins in the cultured insect cell line High Five. Under our experimental conditions, we found that only one of these proteins, CG4357, transported the potassium congener (86)Rb. Additional experiments established that rubidium transport via CG4357 was saturable (K(m) = 0.29 +/- 0.05 mM), sodium-dependent (half-saturation constant = 53 +/- 11 mM), chloride-dependent (half-saturation constant = 48 +/- 5 mM), and potently inhibited by bumetanide (inhibitor constant = 1.17 +/- 0.08 muM), a specific inhibitor of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters. Taken together, our results provide strong evidence that CG4357 is an insect ortholog of the vertebrate Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters. PMID:19828839

  17. The Ras-association domain family (RASSF) members and their role in human tumourigenesis

    PubMed Central

    van der Weyden, Louise; Adams, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Ras proteins play a direct causal role in human cancer with activating mutations in Ras occurring in ? 30% of tumours. Ras effectors also contribute to cancer, as mutations occur in Ras effectors, notably B-Raf and PI3-K, and drugs blocking elements of these pathways are in clinical development. In 2000, a new Ras effector was identified, RAS-association domain family 1 (RASSF1), and expression of the RASSF1A isoform of this gene is silenced in tumours by methylation of its promoter. Since methylation is reversible and demethylating agents are currently being used in clinical trials, detection of RASSF1A silencing by promoter hypermethylation has potential clinical uses in cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. RASSF1A belongs to a new family of RAS effectors, of which there are currently 8 members (RASSF1–8). RASSF1–6 each contain a variable N-terminal segment followed by a Ras-association (RA) domain of the Ral-GDS/AF6 type, and a specialised coiled-coil structure known as a SARAH domain extending to the C-terminus. RASSF7–8 contain an N-terminal RA domain and a variable C-terminus. Members of the RASSF family are thought to function as tumour suppressors by regulating the cell cycle and apoptosis. This review will summarise our current knowledge of each member of the RASSF family and in particular what role they play in tumourigenesis, with a special focus on RASSF1A, whose promoter methylation is one of the most frequent alterations found in human tumours. PMID:17692468

  18. The Importance of Older Family Members in Providing Social Resources and Promoting Cancer Screening in Families with a Hereditary Cancer Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashida, Sato; Hadley, Donald W.; Goergen, Andrea F.; Skapinsky, Kaley F.; Devlin, Hillary C.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates the role of older family members as providers of social resources within familial network systems affected by an inherited cancer susceptibility syndrome. Design and Methods: Respondents who previously participated in a study that involved genetic counseling and testing for Lynch syndrome and their family network…

  19. The Importance of Older Family Members in Providing Social Resources and Promoting Cancer Screening in Families with a Hereditary Cancer Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashida, Sato; Hadley, Donald W.; Goergen, Andrea F.; Skapinsky, Kaley F.; Devlin, Hillary C.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates the role of older family members as providers of social resources within familial network systems affected by an inherited cancer susceptibility syndrome. Design and Methods: Respondents who previously participated in a study that involved genetic counseling and testing for Lynch syndrome and their family network…

  20. The Influence of Family Therapy on Flexibility and Cohesion among Family Members Seeking Male Residential Treatment for Adolescent and Young Adult Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Stephanie L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated within a substance abuse treatment center the influence of family therapy on flexibility and cohesion among family members. Past studies have suggested adolescents who abuse substances exist in families who have a lack of balance of flexibility and cohesion. Unfortunately, few studies have examined the influence of…

  1. The Influence of Family Therapy on Flexibility and Cohesion among Family Members Seeking Male Residential Treatment for Adolescent and Young Adult Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Stephanie L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated within a substance abuse treatment center the influence of family therapy on flexibility and cohesion among family members. Past studies have suggested adolescents who abuse substances exist in families who have a lack of balance of flexibility and cohesion. Unfortunately, few studies have examined the influence of…

  2. Calcium-dependent Phospholipid Scramblase Activity of TMEM16 Protein Family Members*

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Jun; Fujii, Toshihiro; Imao, Takeshi; Ishihara, Kenji; Kuba, Hiroshi; Nagata, Shigekazu

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetrical distribution of phospholipids between the inner and outer plasma membrane leaflets is disrupted in various biological processes. We recently identified TMEM16F, an eight-transmembrane protein, as a Ca2+-dependent phospholipid scramblase that exposes phosphatidylserine (PS) to the cell surface. In this study, we established a mouse lymphocyte cell line with a floxed allele in the TMEM16F gene. When TMEM16F was deleted, these cells failed to expose PS in response to Ca2+ ionophore, but PS exposure was elicited by Fas ligand treatment. We expressed other TMEM16 proteins in the TMEM16F−/− cells and found that not only TMEM16F, but also 16C, 16D, 16G, and 16J work as lipid scramblases with different preference to lipid substrates. On the other hand, a patch clamp analysis in 293T cells indicated that TMEM16A and 16B, but not other family members, acted as Ca2+-dependent Cl− channels. These results indicated that among 10 TMEM16 family members, 7 members could be divided into two subfamilies, Ca2+-dependent Cl− channels (16A and 16B) and Ca2+-dependent lipid scramblases (16C, 16D, 16F, 16G, and 16J). PMID:23532839

  3. Functional redundancy between trans-Golgi network SNARE family members in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vesicle fusion is an essential process for maintaining the structure and function of the endomembrane system. Fusion is mediated by t-SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) fusion proteins on the target membrane and v-SNAREs on the vesicle membrane; v-and t-SNAREs interact with each other, driving vesicle fusion with the target membrane. The Arabidopsis thaliana trans-Golgi network resident SNAREs SYP41 and VTI12, along with YKT61/62, have been shown to function in vesicle fusion in vitro, consistent with immunoprecipitation results showing their interaction in Arabidopsis cell extracts. Conflicting published results have indicated that SYP4 family members are either functionally redundant or have distinct and essential functions; the reason for this discrepancy is unclear. Results Here we used a proteoliposome fusion assay to demonstrate that SYP42 and SYP43 can substitute for SYP41 in driving lipid mixing, providing support for functional overlap between family members. Previous reports have also suggested that VTI11 and VTI12 SNAREs show partial overlap in function, despite having mostly distinct localizations and binding partners. We show that VTI11 can substitute for VTI12 in in vitro lipid mixing reactions, providing molecular support for the genetic evidence for partial functional redundancy in vivo. Conclusions Our data provide biochemical evidence for functional overlap in membrane fusion between members of the SYP4 or VTI1 SNARE groups, supporting previous genetic data suggesting redundancy. PMID:24021022

  4. A family study of atopic dermatitis. Clinical and genetic characteristics of 188 patients and 2,151 family members.

    PubMed

    Küster, W; Petersen, M; Christophers, E; Goos, M; Sterry, W

    1990-01-01

    The history of 188 caucasian patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and of 2,151 family members has been analyzed. Of the AD patients 48% suffered from respiratory atopy (36% rhinitis, 28% asthma, and 15% both). AD showed by far the earliest onset of all atopic diseases: 50% of our patients had skin lesions before the age of 2 years and 60% before the age of 5 years. In contrast, symptoms of allergic asthma developed in 40% of AD patients before the age of 5 years in comparison with only 25% who had allergic rhinitis. AD affects females more frequently than males (male to female ratio 1:1.5), regardless of whether additional respiratory atopies are present or not. In contrast, respiratory atopies develop more frequently in males than in females (male to female ratio 1.5:1). Mothers with respiratory atopy more often have atopic children (26%) than do fathers with respiratory atopy (13%). Finally, risk figures for genetic counselling are given. In short, the general risk of developing AD (3%) and atopy (7%) increases by a factor of two with each first-degree family member already suffering from atopy. PMID:2353830

  5. Sun protection and sunbathing practices among at-risk family members of patients with melanoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the increased level of familial risk, research indicates that family members of patients with melanoma engage in relatively low levels of sun protection and high levels of sun exposure. The goal of this study was to evaluate a broad range of demographic, medical, psychological, knowledge, and social influence correlates of sun protection and sunbathing practices among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of melanoma patients and to determine if correlates of sun protection and sunbathing were unique. Methods We evaluated correlates of sun protection and sunbathing among FDRs of melanoma patients who were at increased disease risk due to low compliance with sun protection and skin surveillance behaviors. Participants (N = 545) completed a phone survey. Results FDRs who reported higher sun protection had a higher education level, lower benefits of sunbathing, greater sunscreen self-efficacy, greater concerns about photo-aging and greater sun protection norms. FDRs who reported higher sunbathing were younger, more likely to be female, endorsed fewer sunscreen barriers, perceived more benefits of sunbathing, had lower image norms for tanness, and endorsed higher sunbathing norms. Conclusion Interventions for family members at risk for melanoma might benefit from improving sun protection self-efficacy, reducing perceived sunbathing benefits, and targeting normative influences to sunbathe. PMID:21338483

  6. Operator recognition by the ROK transcription factor family members, NagC and Mlc

    PubMed Central

    Bréchemier-Baey, Dominique; Domínguez-Ramírez, Lenin; Oberto, Jacques; Plumbridge, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    NagC and Mlc, paralogous members of the ROK family of proteins with almost identical helix-turn-helix DNA binding motifs, specifically regulate genes for transport and utilization of N-acetylglucosamine and glucose. We previously showed that two amino acids in a linker region outside the canonical helix-turn-helix motif are responsible for Mlc site specificity. In this work we identify four amino acids in the linker, which are required for recognition of NagC targets. These amino acids allow Mlc and NagC to distinguish between a C/G and an A/T bp at positions ±11 of the operators. One linker position, glycine in NagC and arginine in Mlc, corresponds to the major specificity determinant for the two proteins. In certain contexts it is possible to switch repression from Mlc-style to NagC-style, by interchanging this glycine and arginine. Secondary determinants are supplied by other linker positions or the helix-turn-helix motif. A wide genomic survey of unique ROK proteins shows that glycine- and arginine-rich sequences are present in the linkers of nearly all ROK family repressors. Conserved short sequence motifs, within the branches of the ROK evolutionary tree, suggest that these sequences could also be involved in operator recognition in other ROK family members. PMID:25452338

  7. Identification of novel members of the bacterial azoreductase family in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Crescente, Vincenzo; Holland, Sinead M; Kashyap, Sapna; Polycarpou, Elena; Sim, Edith; Ryan, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Azoreductases are a family of diverse enzymes found in many pathogenic bacteria as well as distant homologues being present in eukarya. In addition to having azoreductase activity, these enzymes are also suggested to have NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) activity which leads to a proposed role in plant pathogenesis. Azoreductases have also been suggested to play a role in the mammalian pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In view of the importance of P. aeruginosa as a pathogen, we therefore characterized recombinant enzymes following expression of a group of putative azoreductase genes from P. aeruginosa expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzymes include members of the arsenic-resistance protein H (ArsH), tryptophan repressor-binding protein A (WrbA), modulator of drug activity B (MdaB) and YieF families. The ArsH, MdaB and YieF family members all show azoreductase and NQO activities. In contrast, WrbA is the first enzyme to show NQO activity but does not reduce any of the 11 azo compounds tested under a wide range of conditions. These studies will allow further investigation of the possible role of these enzymes in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa. PMID:26621870

  8. An ancestral member of the polysaccharide lyase family 2 displays endolytic activity and magnesium dependence.

    PubMed

    Abbott, D Wade; Thomas, Dallas; Pluvinage, Benjamin; Boraston, Alisdair B

    2013-12-01

    Polysaccharide lyases (PLs) are enzymes that cleave glycosidic linkages in hexuronate polysaccharides, such as homogalacturonan (HG), using a ?-elimination mechanism. Traditionally, PL activities on HG have been associated with catalytic calcium cofactors, unusually high pH optima, and arginine Brønstead bases. Recently, however, PL families that harness transition metal cofactors, utilize lysine and histidine Brønstead bases, and display more neutral pH optima have been described. One such family is PL2, which has members found primarily in phytopathogenic (e.g., Dickeya spp. and Pectobacterium spp.) or enteropathogenic (e.g., Yersinia spp.) bacterial species. PL2 is divided into two major subfamilies that are correlated with either an endolytic or exolytic activity. This study has focused on the activity of a PL2 member, which is not classified within either subfamily and helps to illuminate the origin of enzyme activities within the family. In addition, the role of Mg(2+) as a preferential catalytic metal for an intracellular PL2 (PaePL2) is described. The implications for the relationship between catalytic metal selectivity and the cellular location of pectate lyase-mediated catalysis are discussed. PMID:24013861

  9. A functionally distinct member of the DP family of E2F subunits.

    PubMed

    Milton, A; Luoto, K; Ingram, L; Munro, S; Logan, N; Graham, A L; Brummelkamp, T R; Hijmans, E M; Bernards, R; La Thangue, N B

    2006-05-25

    E2F transcription factors regulate genes involved in cell-cycle progression. In mammalian cells, physiological E2F exists as an E2F/DP heterodimer. Currently, eight E2F and two DP subunits have been characterized. We report here the characterization of a new member of the DP family, DP-4. While DP-4 exhibits certain similarities with members of the DP family, it also possesses a number of significant differences. Thus, DP-4 forms a heterodimer with E2F subunits, binds to the E2F site and associates with pocket proteins including pRb. In contrast to DP-1, however, DP-4/E2F-1 complexes exhibit reduced DNA binding activity. Furthermore, DP-4 interferes with E2F-1-dependent transcription and delays cell-cycle progression. These results highlight an emerging complexity in the DP family of E2F subunits, and suggest that DP-4 may endow E2F heterodimers with distinct transcription properties. PMID:16418725

  10. Merkel cell carcinoma dependence on bcl-2 family members for survival.

    PubMed

    Verhaegen, Monique E; Mangelberger, Doris; Weick, Jack W; Vozheiko, Tracy D; Harms, Paul W; Nash, Kevin T; Quintana, Elsa; Baciu, Paul; Johnson, Timothy M; Bichakjian, Christopher K; Dlugosz, Andrzej A

    2014-08-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare but aggressive cutaneous neoplasm with high metastatic potential, has a poor prognosis at late stages of disease with no proven chemotherapeutic regimens. Using an enriched culture medium, we established and characterized 11 MCC cell lines for Bcl-2 family profiling and functional studies. Immunoblot analysis revealed collectively high protein levels of prosurvival Bcl-2 members in cell lines and a panel of MCC tumors. Downregulation of individual Bcl-2 proteins by RNAi promoted death in a subset of MCC cell lines, whereas simultaneous inhibition of multiple family members by using the small-molecule antagonist ABT-263 led to a marked induction of cell death in 10 of 11 lines. ABT-263 induced Bax-dependent apoptosis with rapid cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP, regardless of Bcl-2 family profile or the presence of Merkel cell polyomavirus. Furthermore, ABT-263 treatment led to rapid and sustained growth suppression of MCC xenografts from a representative cell line, accompanied by a striking increase in apoptosis. Our results establish that concurrent inhibition of multiple prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins leads to effective induction of apoptosis, and strongly support the concept that targeting MCC dependence on these molecules may be useful therapeutically by reversing an intrinsic resistance to cell death. PMID:24614157

  11. Merkel Cell Carcinoma Dependence on Bcl-2 Family Members for Survival

    PubMed Central

    Verhaegen, Monique E.; Mangelberger, Doris; Weick, Jack W.; Vozheiko, Tracy D.; Harms, Paul W.; Nash, Kevin T.; Quintana, Elsa; Baciu, Paul; Johnson, Timothy M.; Bichakjian, Christopher K.; Dlugosz, Andrzej A.

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare but aggressive cutaneous neoplasm with high metastatic potential, has a poor prognosis at late stages of disease with no proven chemotherapeutic regimens. Using an enriched culture medium, we established and characterized 11 MCC cell lines for Bcl-2 family profiling and functional studies. Immunoblot analysis revealed collectively high protein levels of pro-survival Bcl-2 members in cell lines and a panel of MCC tumors. Down-regulation of individual Bcl-2 proteins by RNAi promoted death in a subset of MCC cell lines, whereas simultaneous inhibition of multiple family members using the small molecule antagonist ABT-263 led to dramatic induction of cell death in 10 of 11 lines. ABT-263 induced Bax-dependent apoptosis with rapid cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP, regardless of Bcl-2 family profile or presence of Merkel cell polyomavirus. Furthermore, ABT-263 treatment led to rapid and sustained growth suppression of MCC xenografts from a representative cell line, accompanied by a striking increase in apoptosis. Our results establish that concurrent inhibition of multiple pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins leads to effective induction of apoptosis, and strongly support the concept that targeting MCC addiction to these molecules may be useful therapeutically by reversing an intrinsic resistance to cell death. PMID:24614157

  12. Structural organization, mapping, characterization and evolutionary relationships of CDKN2 gene family members in Xiphophorus fishes.

    PubMed

    Kazianis, Steven; Khanolkar, Vandeeta A; Nairn, Rodney S; Rains, J Douglas; Trono, David; Garcia, Rachel; Williams, Earlanda L; Walter, Ronald B

    2004-07-01

    Xiphophorus fishes and their hybrids are used as models for the study of melanoma and other diseases. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor gene family in humans is comprised of four members, including CDKN2A (P16), and dysregulation of this gene is implicated in numerous neoplasms including melanomas. We have investigated the status of the gene family in the southern platyfish X. maculatus. Xiphophorus harbors at least two such loci, which we now term CDKN2A/B and CDKN2D. Both loci map to Xiphophorus linkage group 5, a genomic area that has long been known to harbor the DIFF tumor suppressor locus. Within this report, we report on the complete cloning, genomic exon/intron boundary delineation, linkage mapping and expressional characteristics of Xiphophorus CDKN2D. We also compare and contrast this expression to that of the previously isolated CDKN2AB locus in normal and neoplastic tissues derived from non-hybrid and hybrid fishes. The hypothetical evolutionary relationships of gene family members and their involvement in melanoma is evaluated. In comparison to CDKN2A/B, the RNA expression of Xiphophorus CDKN2D differs in normal tissues and is not associated with melanotic/pathologic tissues, confirming functional divergence between obvious homologues. PMID:15533787

  13. Identification and Functional Analysis of Light-Responsive Unique Genes and Gene Family Members in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ki-Hong; Lee, Jinwon; Dardick, Chris; Seo, Young-Su; Cao, Peijian; Canlas, Patrick; Phetsom, Jirapa; Xu, Xia; Ouyang, Shu; An, Kyungsook; Cho, Yun-Ja; Lee, Geun-Cheol; Lee, Yoosook; An, Gynheung; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2008-01-01

    Functional redundancy limits detailed analysis of genes in many organisms. Here, we report a method to efficiently overcome this obstacle by combining gene expression data with analysis of gene-indexed mutants. Using a rice NSF45K oligo-microarray to compare 2-week-old light- and dark-grown rice leaf tissue, we identified 365 genes that showed significant 8-fold or greater induction in the light relative to dark conditions. We then screened collections of rice T-DNA insertional mutants to identify rice lines with mutations in the strongly light-induced genes. From this analysis, we identified 74 different lines comprising two independent mutant lines for each of 37 light-induced genes. This list was further refined by mining gene expression data to exclude genes that had potential functional redundancy due to co-expressed family members (12 genes) and genes that had inconsistent light responses across other publicly available microarray datasets (five genes). We next characterized the phenotypes of rice lines carrying mutations in ten of the remaining candidate genes and then carried out co-expression analysis associated with these genes. This analysis effectively provided candidate functions for two genes of previously unknown function and for one gene not directly linked to the tested biochemical pathways. These data demonstrate the efficiency of combining gene family-based expression profiles with analyses of insertional mutants to identify novel genes and their functions, even among members of multi-gene families. PMID:18725934

  14. [The development of an instrument for the "evaluation of hospices from the bereaved family members perspective"].

    PubMed

    Lohe, Mandy; Zimmermann, Manja; Luderer, Christiane; Sadowski, Katharina

    2011-06-01

    Inpatient hospice settings as facilities of health services are obliged to the quality assurance and internal quality development in Germany. The meaning of the patient's satisfaction as one of the indirect indicators for the judgement of nursing and care quality is indisputable by now. However, a subjective evaluation of the hospices by guests is practically and ethically problematic. An alternative approach is to investigate the views of bereaved relatives and close friends after the guest's death. The present article describes the development of an inventory for the evaluation of inpatient hospice settings from the bereaved relatives' point of view in order to examine the satisfaction of family members with the end-of-life care their loved ones received. With help of the inventory the question should be answered how family members judge the end-of-life care which was given to them and their late family members by the hospice. The construction of the questions results from the basis of existing concepts to the assessment of the end-of-life care and an analysis of all identified instruments to the evaluation of inpatient hospice settings from the perspective of bereaved relatives. The development of the questionnaire enclosed the formation of an item pool, the item choice, the critical discussion of the questions in the body of experts as well as a standardised and cognitive pretest beside a comprehensive literature research. A five-dimension questionnaire was developed that integrates physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and organisational aspects of the care at the end of life. The instrument encompasses 53 items, predominantly closed questions. PMID:21638257

  15. Negative Regulation of Phagocytosis in Murine Macrophages by the Src Kinase Family Member, Fgr

    PubMed Central

    Gresham, Hattie D.; Dale, Benjamin M.; Potter, Jeffrey W.; Chang, Peter W.; Vines, Charlotte M.; Lowell, Clifford A.; Lagenaur, Carl F.; Willman, Cheryl L.

    2000-01-01

    Ingestion of opsonized pathogens by professional phagocytes results in the generation and release of microbicidal products that are essential for normal host defense. Because these products can result in significant tissue injury, phagocytosis must be regulated to limit damage to the host while allowing for optimal clearance and destruction of opsonized pathogens. To pursue negative regulation of phagocytosis, we assessed the effect of the Src kinase family member, Fgr, on opsonin-dependent phagocytosis by mouse macrophages. We chose Fgr because it is present in high concentrations in circulating phagocytes but is not essential for Fcγ receptor–mediated ingestion by mouse macrophages. Although expression of Fgr both in a macrophage cell line and in primary macrophages significantly attenuates ingestion mediated by Fcγ receptors and CR3, it does not affect macropinocytosis or receptor-mediated endocytosis. This selective effect of Fgr is independent of its tyrosine kinase function. After Fcγ receptor cross-linking, Fgr becomes associated with the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM)–containing receptor, SIRPα (a member of the signal-regulatory protein family, also known as Src homology 2 domain–containing protein tyrosine phosphatase [SHP] substrate 1 [SHPS-1], brain immunoglobulin-like molecule with tyrosine-based activation motifs [BIT], and P84) and potentiates the association of the phosphatase SHP-1 with SIRPα. This association is responsible, at least in part, for decreasing positive signaling essential for optimal phagocytosis. These data demonstrate an important negative regulatory role for this Src kinase family member and suggest that this homeostatic function must be overcome for optimal uptake and clearance of opsonized pathogens. PMID:10662797

  16. "At wits' end!": perspectives of Hispanic caregivers of a family member with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Jana

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative exploratory study was to explore the perspectives of Hispanic caregivers as they provide the day-to-day care for their family member with schizophrenia. Interviews were conducted by a promotora (a Spanish speaking trained community health worker) with ten Hispanic caregivers at a large community center in a southwest border city over a six month period. Sixty interviews were audio recorded, translated into English, transcribed, and then interpreted using content analysis. One main overarching perspective emerged: "at wits' end." The following four supportive themes emerged: feeling marginalized, seeking answers, relying on God, and lacking support. PMID:23805930

  17. Differential expression of members of the E2F family of transcription factors in rodent testes

    PubMed Central

    El-Darwish, Kame S; Parvinen, Martti; Toppari, Jorma

    2006-01-01

    Background The E2F family of transcription factors is required for the activation or repression of differentially expressed gene programs during the cell cycle in normal and abnormal development of tissues. We previously determined that members of the retinoblastoma protein family that interacts with the E2F family are differentially expressed and localized in almost all the different cell types and tissues of the testis and in response to known endocrine disruptors. In this study, the cell-specific and stage-specific expression of members of the E2F proteins has been elucidated. Methods We used immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of tissue sections and Western blot analysis of proteins, from whole testis and microdissected stages of seminiferous tubules to study the differential expression of the E2F proteins. Results For most of the five E2F family members studied, the localizations appear conserved in the two most commonly studied rodent models, mice and rats, with some notable differences. Comparisons between wild type and E2F-1 knockout mice revealed that the level of E2F-1 protein is stage-specific and most abundant in leptotene to early pachytene spermatocytes of stages IX to XI of mouse while strong staining of E2F-1 in some cells close to the basal lamina of rat tubules suggest that it may also be expressed in undifferentiated spermatogonia. The age-dependent development of a Sertoli-cell-only phenotype in seminiferous tubules of E2F-1 knockout males corroborates this, and indicates that E2F-1 is required for spermatogonial stem cell renewal. Interestingly, E2F-3 appears in both terminally differentiated Sertoli cells, as well as spermatogonial cells in the differentiative pathway, while the remaining member of the activating E2Fs, E2F-2 is most concentrated in spermatocytes of mid to late prophase of meiosis. Comparisons between wildtype and E2F-4 knockout mice demonstrated that the level of E2F-4 protein displays a distinct profile of stage-specificity compared to E2F-1, which is probably related to its prevalence and role in Sertoli cells. IHC of rat testis indicates that localization of E2F-5 is distinct from that of E2F-4 and overlaps those of E2F-1 and E2F-2. Conclusion The E2F-1 represents the subfamily of transcription factors required during stages of DNA replication and gene expression for development of germ cells and the E2F-4 represents the subfamily of transcription factors that help maintain gene expression for a terminally differentiated state within the testis. PMID:17147820

  18. A Common Genetic Variant in the Neurexin Superfamily Member CNTNAP2 Increases Familial Risk of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Arking, Dan E.; Cutler, David J.; Brune, Camille W.; Teslovich, Tanya M.; West, Kristen; Ikeda, Morna; Rea, Alexis; Guy, Moltu; Lin, Shin; Cook, Edwin H.; Chakravarti, Aravinda

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a childhood neuropsychiatric disorder that, despite exhibiting high heritability, has largely eluded efforts to identify specific genetic variants underlying its etiology. We performed a two-stage genetic study in which genome-wide linkage and family-based association mapping was followed up by association and replication studies in an independent sample. We identified a common polymorphism in contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2), a member of the neurexin superfamily, that is significantly associated with autism susceptibility. Importantly, the genetic variant displays a parent-of-origin and gender effect recapitulating the inheritance of autism. PMID:18179894

  19. NEDD4: The founding member of a family of ubiquitin-protein ligases.

    PubMed

    Boase, Natasha Anne; Kumar, Sharad

    2015-02-25

    Ubiquitination plays a crucial role in regulating proteins post-translationally. The focus of this review is on NEDD4, the founding member of the NEDD4 family of ubiquitin ligases that is evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes. Many potential substrates of NEDD4 have been identified and NEDD4 has been shown to play a critical role in the regulation of a number of membrane receptors, endocytic machinery components and the tumour suppressor PTEN. In this review we will discuss the diverse pathways in which NEDD4 is involved, and the patho-physiological significance of this important ubiquitin ligase. PMID:25527121

  20. Low Members of the Intergrowth Tungsten Bronze Family by Partial Substitution of Molybdenum for Tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihlborg, Lars; Blomqvist, Helen; Sundberg, Margareta

    2001-12-01

    Potassium and cesium intergrowth tungsten bronzes AxMoyW1-yO3 with x?0.25 and y?0.65 have been prepared. By substitution of molybdenum for tungsten the synthesis temperature can be decreased to 600°C and new phases of the structure family prepared. The ITB members designated (1, 3) and (1, 1, 3) have been prepared in relatively phase-pure form, while individual crystals of (1, 2) and (1, 1, 2) have been identified by electron microscopy. These four phases have not been found previously in the ITB bronze systems.

  1. Aggressive behavior directed at nursing home personnel by residents' family members.

    PubMed

    Vinton, L; Mazza, N

    1994-08-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests there is a significant amount of aggressive behavior directed at nursing home personnel by residents' family members. This exploratory study describes a random sample survey of 70 Florida nursing homes. Administrators reported 1,193 acts of verbal aggression and 13 acts of physical aggression for a 6-month period. Dissatisfaction over how the specific and overall care needs of residents were being met was most frequently cited as the contributing factor. Social work staff and directors of nursing were most often called on to resolve these conflicts. The authors conclude with recommendations for research and conflict resolution. PMID:7959112

  2. Race-related differences in the experiences of family members of persons with mental illness participating in the NAMI Family to Family Education Program.

    PubMed

    Smith, Melissa Edmondson; Lindsey, Michael A; Williams, Crystal D; Medoff, Deborah R; Lucksted, Alicia; Fang, Li Juan; Schiffman, Jason; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Dixon, Lisa B

    2014-12-01

    Families play an important role in the lives of individuals with mental illness. Coping with the strain of shifting roles and multiple challenges of caregiving can have a huge impact. Limited information exists regarding race-related differences in families' caregiving experiences, their abilities to cope with the mental illness of a loved one, or their interactions with mental health service systems. This study examined race-related differences in the experiences of adults seeking to participate in the National Alliance on Mental Illness Family-to-Family Education Program due to mental illness of a loved one. Participants were 293 White and 107 African American family members who completed measures of problem- and emotion-focused coping, knowledge about mental illness, subjective illness burden, psychological distress, and family functioning. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine race-related differences. African American caregivers reported higher levels of negative caregiving experiences, less knowledge of mental illness, and higher levels of both problem-solving coping and emotion-focused coping, than White caregivers. Mental health programs serving African American families should consider targeting specific strategies to address caregiving challenges, support their use of existing coping mechanisms and support networks, and increase their knowledge of mental illness. PMID:25213395

  3. Posttraumatic symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members with special regard to suicide and homicide cases.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Kohske; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Nishi, Yuko; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2011-07-01

    The authors investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members using a questionnaire. Participants were bereaved as a result of suicide and homicide (n = 51 and 49, respectively), with natural death (n = 56) as a control; and their relationships to the deceased were parent-child (n = 79), conjugal (n = 42), and others (n = 35). With regard to the 3 main PTSD-related criteria, (a) re-experiencing symptoms were not dependent on the manner of death or the relationship to the deceased; (b) avoidance behaviors were more highly related to homicide than natural death for relatives other than parent-child and conjugal relationships; and (c) hyperarousal and maladaptation symptoms were more serious for conjugal loss. These findings suggest that avoidance behaviors in homicidal cases are more closely associated with a distant family relationship, whereas conjugal loss is traumatic, irrespective of the manner of death, often causing hyperarousal and maladaptation symptoms. PMID:24501828

  4. The impact of childhood experiences and family members outside the household on residential environment choices.

    PubMed

    Blaauboer, Marjolein

    2011-01-01

    Choices of urban, suburban or rural residential environments have often been studied from a life-course perspective. In this paper, an examination is made of the influence of childhood experiences and of residential environment choices of family members outside the household. It is argued that socialisation, location-specific capital and the wish to maintain close family ties may result in living in a similar residential environment later in life and in similar environments to siblings and parents. Results of multinomial logistic regression analyses of data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study show that the residential environment during childhood is indeed strongly associated with the current residential environment. Moreover, individuals show a strong similarity to their parents and siblings in their residential environment, even after accounting for residential inertia and return migration. PMID:21954484

  5. Regulation of the ovarian reserve by members of the transforming growth factor beta family

    PubMed Central

    Pangas, Stephanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic or environmental factors that affect the endowment of oocytes, their assembly nto primordial follicles, or their subsequent entry into the growing follicle pool can disrupt reproductive function and may underlie disorders such as primary ovarian insufficiency. Mouse models have been instrumental in identifying genes important in ovarian development, and a number of genes now associated with ovarian dysfunction in women were first identified as causing reproductive defects in knockout mice. The transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) family consists of developmentally important growth factors that include the TGFBs, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), activins, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and growth and differentiation factor 9 (GDF9). The ovarian primordial follicle pool is the source of oocytes in adults. Development of this pool can be grossly divided into three key processes: (1) establishment of oocytes during embryogenesis followed by (2) assembly and (3) activation of the primordial follicle. Disruptions in any of these processes may cause reproductive dysfunction. Most members of the TGFB family show pivotal roles in each of these areas. Understanding the phenotypes of various mouse models for this protein family will be directly relevant to understanding how disruptions in TGFB family signaling result in reproductive diseases in women and will present new areas for development of tailored diagnostics and interventions for infertility. PMID:22847922

  6. Exploitation and characterization of three versatile amidase super family members from Delftia tsuruhatensis ZJB-05174.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhe-Ming; Zheng, Ren-Chao; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2016-05-01

    Amidases can be assigned into two families according to their amino acid sequences. Three amidases (Dt-Amis) were mined and identified from genome of Delftia tsuruhatensis. Homology analysis demonstrated that Dt-Ami 2 and Dt-Ami 6 belonged to amidase signature (AS) family, while Dt-Ami 7 belonged to nitrilase superfamily. AS amidases were shown to hydrolyze a wide spectrum of amides. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that the extension of chain length of aliphatic amides considerably decreased the Km values, and the turnover numbers (kcat) were high with linear aliphatic amides as substrates. Dt-Ami 2 showed maximum activity near a quite alkaline pH (11.0) and exhibited opposite enantioselectivity to Dt-Ami 6. Furthermore, a novel bioprocess for hydrolysis of 1-cyanocyclohexaneacetamide was developed using Dt-Ami 6 as biocatalyst, resulting in >99% conversion within 1.5h at a substrate loading of 100g/L by 0.5g/L of Escherichia coli cells. On the other hand, nitrilase superfamily amidase only hydrolyzed aliphatic amides. The Km values of Dt-Ami 7 were considerably increased with the extension of chain length of aliphatic amides. The characterized enzymes from different families showed distinct biochemical characteristics and catalytic properties, leading to a better understanding of the two super amidase family members. PMID:26992798

  7. The anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family are attractive tumor-associated antigens

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2010-01-01

    Anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family (Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L) and Mcl-2) are pivotal regulators of apoptotic cell death. They are all highly overexpressed in cancers of different origin in which they enhance the survival of the cancer cells. Consequently, they represent prime candidates for anti-cancer therapy and specific antisense oligonucleotides or small molecule inhibitors have shown broad anti-cancer activities in pre-clinical models and are currently tested in clinical trials. In addition, immune-mediated tumor destruction is emerging as an interesting modality to treat cancer patients. Notably, spontaneous cellular immune responses against the Bcl-2 family proteins have been identified as frequent features in cancer patients underscoring that these proteins are natural targets for the immune system. Thus, Bcl-2 family may serve as an important and widely applicable target for anti-cancer immunotherapeutic strategies, alone or in the combination with conventional therapy. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of Bcl-2 family proteins as T-cell antigens, which has set the stage for the first explorative trial using these antigens in therapeutic vaccinations against cancer, and discuss future opportunities. PMID:21304176

  8. ETO-2, a new member of the ETO-family of nuclear proteins.

    PubMed

    Davis, J N; Williams, B J; Herron, J T; Galiano, F J; Meyers, S

    1999-02-11

    The t(8;21) is associated with 12-15% of acute myelogenous leukemias of the M2 subtype. The translocation results in the fusion of two genes, AML1 (CBFA2) on chromosome 21 and ETO (MTG8) on chromosome 8. AML1 encodes a DNA binding factor; the ETO protein product is less well characterized, but is thought to be a transcription factor. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of ETO-2, a murine cDNA that encodes a new member of the ETO family of proteins. ETO-2 is 75% identical to murine ETO and shares very high sequence identities over four regions of the protein with ETO (domain I-III and zinc-finger). Northern analysis identifies ETO-2 transcripts in many of the murine tissues analysed and in the developing mouse embryo. ETO-2 is also expressed in myeloid and erythroid cell lines. We confirmed the nuclear localization of ETO-2 and demonstrated that domain III and the zinc-finger region are not required for nuclear localization. We further showed that a region within ETO, containing domain II, mediates dimerization among family members. This region is conserved in the oncoprotein AML-1/ETO. The recent identification of another ETO-like protein, myeloid translocation gene-related protein 1, together with the data presented here, demonstrates that at least three ETO proteins exist with the potential to form dimers in the cell nucleus. PMID:10022820

  9. Functional Relationship between Protein Disulfide Isomerase Family Members during the Oxidative Folding of Human Secretory Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rutkevich, Lori A.; Cohen-Doyle, Myrna F.; Brockmeier, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    To examine the relationship between protein disulfide isomerase family members within the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum, PDI, ERp57, ERp72, and P5 were depleted with high efficiency in human hepatoma cells, either singly or in combination. The impact was assessed on the oxidative folding of several well-characterized secretory proteins. We show that PDI plays a predominant role in oxidative folding because its depletion delayed disulfide formation in all secretory proteins tested. However, the phenotype was surprisingly modest suggesting that other family members are able to compensate for PDI depletion, albeit with reduced efficacy. ERp57 also exhibited broad specificity, overlapping with that of PDI, but with preference for glycosylated substrates. Depletion of both PDI and ERp57 revealed that some substrates require both enzymes for optimal folding and, furthermore, led to generalized protein misfolding, impaired export from the ER, and degradation. In contrast, depletion of ERp72 or P5, either alone or in combination with PDI or ERp57 had minimal impact, revealing a narrow substrate specificity for ERp72 and no detectable role for P5 in oxidative protein folding. PMID:20660153

  10. Molecular diversity in zebrafish NCAM family: three members with different VASE usage and distinct localization.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, T; Kawasaki, M; Nakahira, M; Kagamiyama, H; Kikuchi, Y; Okamoto, H; Mori, K; Yoshihara, Y

    2001-07-01

    NCAM in vertebrates and its related molecules, apCAM in Aplysia, fasciclin II in Drosophila, and OCAM in mammals, play key roles in various aspects of brain development and functions. In this study, we have identified and characterized three members of the NCAM gene family in zebrafish, designated as zNCAM, zOCAM, and zPCAM. Three molecules exhibit similar domain organization: an amino-terminal signal peptide, five immunoglobulin-like domains, two fibronectin type III-like domains, a transmembrane segment, and a carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic region. A novel molecule zPCAM is most closely related to zNCAM with 66% amino acid identity. Diversity in the extracellular region of zPCAM is generated by insertion of two different types of variable alternatively spliced exons. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that three molecules were specifically expressed by the central and peripheral nervous systems from early developmental stages in region-specific and cell-type-specific manners. For example, zPCAM showed a neuromere-specific segmental expression pattern, while zOCAM first appeared in specific clusters of secondary neurons in the forebrain. These results suggest that each member of the NCAM gene family plays distinct roles in the formation and maintenance of functional neuronal networks in the zebrafish nervous system. PMID:11461158

  11. Prosurvival Bcl-2 family members reveal a distinct apoptotic identity between conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Carrington, Emma M; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Sutherland, Robyn M; Vikstrom, Ingela B; Brady, Jamie L; Soo, Priscilla; Vremec, David; Allison, Cody; Lee, Erinna F; Fairlie, W Douglas; Bouillet, Philippe; Grabow, Stephanie; Ottina, Eleonora; Herold, Marco J; Pellegrini, Marc; Huang, David C S; Tarlinton, David M; Strasser, Andreas; Lew, Andrew M; Zhan, Yifan

    2015-03-31

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are heterogeneous, comprising subsets with functional specializations that play distinct roles in immunity as well as immunopathology. We investigated the molecular control of cell survival of two main DC subsets: plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and conventional DCs (cDCs) and their dependence on individual antiapoptotic BCL-2 family members. Compared with cDCs, pDCs had higher expression of BCL-2, lower A1, and similar levels of MCL-1 and BCL-XL. Transgenic overexpression of BCL-2 increased the pDC pool size in vivo with only minor impact on cDCs. With a view to immune intervention, we tested BCL-2 inhibitors and found that ABT-199 (the BCL-2 specific inhibitor) selectively killed pDCs but not cDCs. Conversely, genetic knockdown of A1 profoundly reduced the proportion of cDCs but not pDCs. We also found that conditional ablation of MCL-1 significantly reduced the size of both DC populations in mice and impeded DC-mediated immune responses. Thus, we revealed that the two DC types have different cell survival requirements. The molecular basis of survival of different DC subsets thus advocates the antagonism of selective BCL-2 family members for treating diseases pertaining to distinct DC subsets. PMID:25775525

  12. Evidence for Distinct Substrate Specificities of Importin α Family Members in Nuclear Protein Import

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, Matthias; Speck, Christian; Christiansen, Marret; Bischoff, F. Ralf; Prehn, Siegfried; Haller, Hermann; Görlich, Dirk; Hartmann, Enno

    1999-01-01

    Importin α plays a pivotal role in the classical nuclear protein import pathway. Importin α shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm, binds nuclear localization signal-bearing proteins, and functions as an adapter to access the importin β-dependent import pathway. In contrast to what is found for importin β, several isoforms of importin α, which can be grouped into three subfamilies, exist in higher eucaryotes. We describe here a novel member of the human family, importin α7. To analyze specific functions of the distinct importin α proteins, we recombinantly expressed and purified five human importin α’s along with importin α from Xenopus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Binding affinity studies showed that all importin α proteins from humans or Xenopus bind their import receptor (importin β) and their export receptor (CAS) with only marginal differences. Using an in vitro import assay based on permeabilized HeLa cells, we compared the import substrate specificities of the various importin α proteins. When the substrates were tested singly, only the import of RCC1 showed a strong preference for one family member, importin α3, whereas most of the other substrates were imported by all importin α proteins with similar efficiencies. However, strikingly different substrate preferences of the various importin α proteins were revealed when two substrates were offered simultaneously. PMID:10523667

  13. Prosurvival Bcl-2 family members reveal a distinct apoptotic identity between conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Carrington, Emma M.; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Sutherland, Robyn M.; Vikstrom, Ingela B.; Brady, Jamie L.; Soo, Priscilla; Vremec, David; Allison, Cody; Lee, Erinna F.; Fairlie, W. Douglas; Bouillet, Philippe; Grabow, Stephanie; Ottina, Eleonora; Herold, Marco J.; Pellegrini, Marc; Huang, David C. S.; Tarlinton, David M.; Strasser, Andreas; Lew, Andrew M.; Zhan, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are heterogeneous, comprising subsets with functional specializations that play distinct roles in immunity as well as immunopathology. We investigated the molecular control of cell survival of two main DC subsets: plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and conventional DCs (cDCs) and their dependence on individual antiapoptotic BCL-2 family members. Compared with cDCs, pDCs had higher expression of BCL-2, lower A1, and similar levels of MCL-1 and BCL-XL. Transgenic overexpression of BCL-2 increased the pDC pool size in vivo with only minor impact on cDCs. With a view to immune intervention, we tested BCL-2 inhibitors and found that ABT-199 (the BCL-2 specific inhibitor) selectively killed pDCs but not cDCs. Conversely, genetic knockdown of A1 profoundly reduced the proportion of cDCs but not pDCs. We also found that conditional ablation of MCL-1 significantly reduced the size of both DC populations in mice and impeded DC-mediated immune responses. Thus, we revealed that the two DC types have different cell survival requirements. The molecular basis of survival of different DC subsets thus advocates the antagonism of selective BCL-2 family members for treating diseases pertaining to distinct DC subsets. PMID:25775525

  14. Identification and characterization of interactions between abscisic acid and human heat shock protein 70 family members.

    PubMed

    Kharenko, Olesya A; Polichuk, Devin; Nelson, Ken M; Abrams, Suzanne R; Loewen, Michele C

    2013-10-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a stress-inducible plant hormone comprising an inevitable component of the human diet. Recently, stress-induced accumulation of autocrine ABA was shown in humans, as well as ABA-mediated modulation of a number of disease-associated systems. Now, the application of a chemical proteomics approach to gain further insight into ABA mechanisms of action in mammalian cells is reported. An ABA mimetic photoaffinity probe was applied to intact mammalian insulinoma and embryonic cells, leading to the identification of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family members, (including GRP78 and HSP70-2) as putative human ABA-binding proteins. In vitro characterization of the ABA-HSP70 interactions yielded K(d)s in the 20-60 µM range, which decreased several fold in the presence of co-chaperone. However, ABA was found to have only variable- and co-chaperone-independent effects on the ATPase activity of these proteins. The potential implications of these ABA-HSP70 interactions are discussed with respect to the intracellular protein folding and extracellular receptor-like activities of these stress-inducible proteins. While mechanistic and functional relevance remain enigmatic, we conclude that ABA can bind to human HSP70 family members with physiologically relevant affinities and in a co-chaperone-dependent manner. PMID:23975754

  15. ROLE OF ATP BINDING CASSETTE SUB-FAMILY MEMBER 2 (ABCG2) IN MOUSE EMBRYONIC STEM CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    ATP binding cassette sub-family member 2 (ABCG2), is a member of the ABC transporter superfamily and a principal xenobiotic transporter. ABCG2 is also highly expressed in certain stem cell populations where it is thought to be related to stem cell plasticity, although the role o...

  16. Molecular cloning, expression, and initial characterization of members of the CYP3A family in horses.

    PubMed

    Knych, Heather K DiMaio; McKemie, Daniel S; Stanley, Scott D

    2010-10-01

    The use of performance-enhancing drugs in the horse racing industry combined with the need for more rational approaches in the use of therapeutic agents in equids necessitates additional studies on the spectrum, content, and catalytic activities of hepatic cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in this species. In this study, three cytochrome P450 (P450) monooxygenases in the 3A family were cloned from, sequenced, and expressed in a baculovirus expression system. The proteins were designated CYP3A89, CYP3A96, and CYP3A97. Expression studies produced various results among the three proteins. CYP3A89 appears to undergo post-translational modification, producing a truncated protein, and although metabolically active, CYP3A97 did not have a detectable P450 spectrum. Expression of CYP3A96 produced a full-length, catalytically active protein. CYP3A96 catalyzed testosterone, and nifedipine metabolism was 20- and 10-fold slower, respectively, compared with the human counterpart, CYP3A4. Relative hepatic expression levels of each member of the CYP3A family, determined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, varied more than 1000-fold in individual horses. The results demonstrate substantial interspecies variability in metabolism of substrates by members of the CYP3A family in the horse and human and support the need to fully characterize 450-mediated metabolism in equids. These studies provide a framework for screening therapeutically useful drugs and provide a method for determination of metabolites of illegal performance-enhancing drugs without the time and expense of either in vivo studies or obtaining liver samples for in vitro analysis. PMID:20587621

  17. Plant cells contain a novel member of the retinoblastoma family of growth regulatory proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Q; Sanz-Burgos, A P; Hannon, G J; Gutiérrez, C

    1996-01-01

    The product of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (Rb) controls the passage of mammalian cells through G1 phase. Animal virus oncoproteins interact with the Rb protein via an LXCXE motif and disrupt Rb-E2F complexes, driving cells into S-phase. Recently, we found that the RepA protein of a plant geminivirus contains an LXCXE motif that is essential for its function, a finding that predicts the existence of Rb-related proteins in plant cells. Here we report the isolation of a maize cDNA clone encoding a protein (ZmRb1) which, based on structural and functional studies, is closely related to the mammalian Rb family of growth regulatory proteins. ZmRb1 shows a high degree of amino acid conservation when compared with animal Rb members, particularly in the A/B 'pocket' domain, but ZmRb1 has a shorter N-terminal domain. ZmRb1 forms stable complexes with plant LXCXE-containing proteins, e.g. geminivirus RepA protein. Geminivirus DNA replication is reduced in plant cells transfected with plasmids encoding either ZmRb1 or human p130, a member of the Rb family. This suggests that ZmRb1 controls the G1/S transit in plant cells and is consistent with the fact that geminiviruses need an S-phase environment for DNA replication, as animal DNA tumor viruses do. Our results allow the extension of the Rb family of tumor suppressor proteins to plants and have implications on animal and plant strategies for cell growth control. Images PMID:8890163

  18. Cold-Specific Induction of a Dehydrin Gene Family Member in Barley.

    PubMed Central

    Van Zee, K.; Chen, F. Q.; Hayes, P. M.; Close, T. J.; Chen, THH.

    1995-01-01

    An interval on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) chromosome 7 accounting for significant quantitative trait locus effects for winter hardiness were detected in a winter (Dicktoo) x spring (Morex) barley population (P.M. Hayes, T. Blake, T.H.H. Chen, S. Tragoonrung, F. Chen, A. Pan, and B. Liu [1993] Genome 36: 66-71). Two members of the barley dehydrin gene family, Dhn1 and Dhn2, were located within the region defining the winter hardiness quantitative trait locus effect (A. Pan, P.M. Hayes, F. Chen, T. Blake, T.H.H. Chen, T.T.S. Wright, I. Karsai, Z. Bedo [1994] Theor Appl Genet 89: 900-910). To investigate the possible role of Dhn1 and Dhn2 in winter hardiness, we examined the expression pattern of six barley dehydrin gene family members in shoot tissue in response to cold temperature. Incubation of 3-week-old barley plants at 2[deg]C resulted in a rapid induction of a single 86-kD polypeptide that was recognized by an antiserum against a peptide conserved in the dehydrin gene family. Northern blot analysis confirmed the induction of an mRNA corresponding to Dhn5. The expression patterns of cold-induced dehydrins in shoot tissue for Dicktoo and Morex were identical under the conditions studied, in spite of the known phenotypic differences in their winter hardiness. These results, together with the allelic structure of selected high- and low-survival lines, suggest that the Dicktoo alleles at the Dhn1 and Dhn2 may not be the primary determinants of winter hardiness in barley. PMID:12228540

  19. Cloning, sequence characterization, and expression patterns of members of the porcine TSSK family.

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Huo, H L; Wang, S Y; Miao, Y W; Zhang, Y Y; Zhang, Q L; Li, F Q; Liu, L X; Li, W Z; Zeng, Y Z; Huo, J L; Xiao, H

    2015-01-01

    Testis-specific serine kinases (TSSKs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases highly expressed in the testes that are responsible for regulating many spermatogenesis-related protein activities. Mutations in this family have a positive relationship with oligospermia and azoospermia in human and mouse. Here, five members of the TSSK family from a Banna mini-pig inbred line (BMI) were cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The full-length coding sequences of BMI TSSKs varied from 807 (TSSK3) to 1095 bp (TSSK1) and encoded 268 to 364 amino acids with molecular weights in the range 30.11 to 41.34 kDa. Following comparison with TSSK4 genes in other species, BMI TSSK4 was found to contain three alternatively spliced variants, inform1, inform 3, and inform 4. BMI TSSK1 and TSSK2 are co-localized on the Sus scrofa chromosome (SSC) 14, and consist of a single exon; TSSK3, TSSK4, and TSSK6 are on SSC6, SSC7, and SSC2, and consist of two, four, and one exon, respectively. Multiple protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that the regions spanning the S_TKc domains were more conserved between pig and other animals: with TSSK1 and TSSK2 and TSSK3 and TSSK6 displaying the greatest degree of homology across species, and the TSSK4 protein clearly distinct from other members. Multi-tissue RT-PCR showed BMI TSSK1, TSSK3, and TSSK4 were only expressed in the testes and seminal vesicle, TSSK2 was confined to testes only, while TSSK6 was expressed widely in adult tissues but was highest in the testes. PMID:26600552

  20. Fetuin-B, a second member of the fetuin family in mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, E; Soury, E; Ruminy, P; Husson, A; Parmentier, F; Daveau, M; Salier, J P

    2000-01-01

    A set of orthologous plasma proteins found in human, sheep, pig, cow and rodents, now collectively designated fetuin-A, constitutes the fetuin family. Fetuin-A has been identified as a major protein during fetal life and is also involved in important functions such as inhibition of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity, protease inhibitory activities and development-associated regulation of calcium metabolism and osteogenesis. Furthermore, fetuin-A is a key partner in the recovery phase of an acute inflammatory response. We now describe a second protein of the fetuin family, called fetuin-B, which is found at least in human and rodents. On grounds of domain homology, overall conservation of cysteine residues and chromosomal assignments of the corresponding genes in these species, fetuin-B is unambiguously a paralogue of fetuin-A. Yet, fetuin-A and fetuin-B exhibit significant differences at the amino acid sequence level, notably including variations with respect to the archetypal fetuin-specific signature. Differences and similarities in terms of gene regulation were also observed. Indeed, studies performed during development in rat and mouse showed for the first time high expression of a member of the fetuin family in adulthood, as shown with the fetuin-B mRNA in rat. However, like its fetuin-A counterpart, the fetuin-B mRNA level is down-regulated during the acute phase of experimentally induced inflammation in rat. PMID:10947975

  1. Consumption and Sources of Dietary Salt in Family Members in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fang; Zhang, Puhong; Zhang, Lu; Niu, Wenyi; Gao, Jianmei; Lu, Lixin; liu, Caixia; Gao, Xian

    2015-01-01

    In China, few people are aware of the amount and source of their salt intake. We conducted a survey to investigate the consumption and sources of dietary salt using the “one-week salt estimation method” by weighing cooking salt and major salt-containing food, and estimating salt intake during dining out based on established evidence. Nine hundred and three families (1981 adults and 971 children) with students in eight primary or junior high schools in urban and suburban Beijing were recruited. On average, the daily dietary salt intake of family members in Beijing was 11.0 (standard deviation: 6.2) g for children and adolescents (under 18 years old), 15.2 (9.1) g for adults (18 to 59 years old), and 10.2 (4.8) g for senior citizens (60 years old and over), respectively. Overall, 60.5% of dietary salt was consumed at home, and 39.5% consumed outside the home. Approximately 90% of the salt intake came from cooking (household cooking and cafeteria or restaurant cooking), while less than 10% came from processed food. In conclusion, the dietary salt intake in Beijing families far surpassed the recommended amounts by World Health Organization, with both household cooking and dining-out as main sources of salt consumption. More targeted interventions, especially education about major sources of salt and corresponding methods for salt reduction should be taken to reduce the risks associated with a high salt diet. PMID:25867952

  2. A Preliminary Investigation of the Role of Religion for Family Members of Lesbian, Gay Male, or Bisexual Male and Female Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lease, Suzanne H.; Shulman, Julie L.

    2003-01-01

    Surveys family members of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals regarding the role of religion in acceptance of their family member and how they reconciled any conflicts between religious beliefs and family member's sexual orientation. The most commonly identified theme was believing that the unconditional love associated with God extended…

  3. Transport properties for members of the ZIP family in plants and their role in Zn and Mn homeostasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A better understanding of the role of the Arabidopsis ZIP family of micronutrient transporters is necessary in order to advance our understanding of plant Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu homeostasis. In the current study, the eleven Arabidopsis ZIP family members not yet well characterized were studied for thei...

  4. One Family's Perspective of Their Experiences with School and District Personnel over Time Related to Inclusive Educational Services for a Family Member with Significant Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryndak, Diane Lea; Storch, Jill Frenchman; Hoppey, David

    2008-01-01

    This phenomenological case study examines one family's lived experience as they advocated for appropriate and effective services in inclusive classes for a member of their family who had significant disabilities. Findings suggest the need for effective professional development if school personnel are to effectively educate students with…

  5. In silico identification and characterization of the MAPK family members of unicellular model eukaryote Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Y?ld?z, Mehmet Taha; Arslanyolu, Muhittin

    2014-10-01

    The biological function and evolutionary diversity of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family have mostly been studied in fungi, animals and plants, with very limited information from lower eukaryotes. This study aimed to describe the MAPKs of unicellular Tetrahymena thermophila. Eight members of the T. thermophila MAPK (TtMPK) gene family, in addition to previously reported TtMPK1, TtMPK2 and TtMPK3, were identified bioinformatically using a T. thermophila genome database. Phylogenetic analysis assigned the TtMPKs into two major groups, ERK1/2-like (TtMPK1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9) as stress-responsive MAPKs for biotic and abiotic stresses, and ERK7/8-like (TtMPK4, 10, and 11) as cell-cycle-associated protein kinases for biotic factors. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the TtMPKs showed high mRNA expression at 30°C; however, only TtMPK5 and TtMPK6 showed high expression at 37°C. Osmotic shock by 100mM NaCl only increased the expression of TtMPK2, whereas 20mM NaCl reduced the expression of all MPKs to almost zero. The results suggested that T. thermophila MAPKs are among the closest representatives of the ancestors of the eukaryotic MAPK family. Although no functional characterization of MPKs was performed, this study is the first report of the genome-wide MAPK family in T. thermophila. PMID:25286252

  6. Youth’s narratives about family members smoking: parenting the parent- it’s not fair!

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Successful cancer prevention policies and programming for youth must be based on a solid understanding of youth’s conceptualization of cancer and cancer prevention. Accordingly, a qualitative study examining youth’s perspectives of cancer and its prevention was undertaken. Not surprisingly, smoking (i.e., tobacco cigarette smoking) was one of the dominant lines of discourse in the youth’s narratives. This paper reports findings of how youth conceptualize smoking with attention to their perspectives on parental and family-related smoking issues and experiences. Methods Seventy-five Canadian youth ranging in age from 11–19 years participated in the study. Six of the 75 youth had a history of smoking and 29 had parents with a history of smoking. Youth were involved in traditional ethnographic methods of interviewing and photovoice. Data analysis involved multiple levels of analysis congruent with ethnography. Results Youth’s perspectives of parents and other family members’ cigarette smoking around them was salient as represented by the theme: It’s not fair. Youth struggled to make sense of why parents would smoke around their children and perceived their smoking as an unjust act. The theme was supported by four subthemes: 1) parenting the parent about the dangers of smoking; 2) the good/bad parent; 3) distancing family relationships; and 4) the prisoner. Instead of being talked to about smoking it was more common for youth to share stories of talking to their parents about the dangers of smoking. Parents who did not smoke were seen by youth as the good parent, as opposed to the bad parent who smoked. Smoking was an agent that altered relationships with parents and other family members. Youth who lived in homes where they were exposed to cigarette smoke felt like a trapped prisoner. Conclusions Further research is needed to investigate youth’s perceptions about parental cigarette smoking as well as possible linkages between youth exposed to second hand smoke in their home environment and emotional and lifestyle-related health difficulties. Results emphasize the relational impact of smoking when developing anti-tobacco and cancer prevention campaigns. Recognizing the potential toll that second-hand smoke can have on youth’s emotional well-being, health care professionals are encouraged to give youth positive messages in coping with their parents’ smoking behaviour. PMID:23140551

  7. Lizards Cooperatively Tunnel to Construct a Long-Term Home for Family Members

    PubMed Central

    McAlpin, Steve; Duckett, Paul; Stow, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Constructing a home to protect offspring while they mature is common in many vertebrate groups, but has not previously been reported in lizards. Here we provide the first example of a lizard that constructs a long-term home for family members, and a rare case of lizards behaving cooperatively. The great desert skink, Liopholis kintorei from Central Australia, constructs an elaborate multi-tunnelled burrow that can be continuously occupied for up to 7 years. Multiple generations participate in construction and maintenance of burrows. Parental assignments based on DNA analysis show that immature individuals within the same burrow were mostly full siblings, even when several age cohorts were present. Parents were always captured at burrows containing their offspring, and females were only detected breeding with the same male both within- and across seasons. Consequently, the individual investments made to construct or maintain a burrow system benefit their own offspring, or siblings, over several breeding seasons. PMID:21589923

  8. Utilization of Hospice Bereavement Support by At-Risk Family Members.

    PubMed

    Ghesquiere, Angela; Thomas, Julie; Bruce, Martha L

    2016-03-01

    Approximately 10% of the bereaved are at risk of bereavement-related mental health disorders. Hospices' bereavement services could potentially address needs of many at risk, but little is known about their service use. We analyzed data from 6160 bereaved family members of hospice patients. Risk of mental health problems was identified by hospice providers postloss. Of those characterized as "at-risk," 52% used services compared to 18% of the "low risk." Factors associated with service use among at-risk were female gender and younger age of death. Those who lost a child used services less than other bereaved. Although hospices appear to be skilled at identifying and providing bereavement services to the at-risk, services do not reach almost half. Results suggest the need to improve care access, especially among men and those losing a child. PMID:25326490

  9. Complete sequence and genetic characterization of pigeon avian nephritis virus, a member of the family Astroviridae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, W; Zhu, A L; Yu, Y; Yuan, C L; Zhu, C X; Yang, Z B; Cui, L; Hua, X G

    2011-09-01

    In the current study, the complete genome sequence of a member of the family Astroviridae isolated from pigeons was determined through genetic characterization and phylogeny analysis. The isolated genome sequence was proposed to be that of pigeon avian nephritis virus (ANV), whose genome structure and characteristics were similar to previously reported avian astroviruses. The sequenced ssRNA genome comprises 6928 nucleotides, excluding the poly(A) tail, and contains three open reading frames. Phylogenetic analysis using a partial nucleotide sequence of the polymerase gene and the entire amino acid sequence of the full-length capsid protein revealed that pigeon avian nephritis virus is closely related to the previously published ANV, especially to the Japanese G-4260 and Chinese strains. This investigation provides information on the sequence and genetic characteristics of this virus and contributes to a better understanding of pigeon ANV and the possible occurrence of astrovirus transmission between chickens and pigeons. PMID:21618030

  10. Recent progress in engineering alpha/beta hydrolase-fold family members.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhen; Fields, Christina J; Yu, Ying; Lutz, Stefan

    2007-02-01

    The members of the alpha/beta hydrolase-fold family represent a functionally versatile group of enzymes with many important applications in biocatalysis. Given the technical significance of alpha/beta hydrolases in processes ranging from the kinetic resolution of enantiomeric precursors for pharmaceutical compounds to bulk products such as laundry detergent, optimizing and tailoring enzymes for these applications presents an ongoing challenge to chemists, biochemists, and engineers alike. A review of the recent literature on alpha/beta hydrolase engineering suggests that the early successes of "random processes" such as directed evolution are now being slowly replaced by more hypothesis-driven, focused library approaches. These developments reflect a better understanding of the enzymes' structure-function relationship and improved computational resources, which allow for more sophisticated search and prediction algorithms, as well as, in a very practical sense, the realization that bigger is not always better. PMID:17183507

  11. Raver2, a new member of the hnRNP family.

    PubMed

    Kleinhenz, Berenike; Fabienke, Manuela; Swiniarski, Sascha; Wittenmayer, Nina; Kirsch, Joachim; Jockusch, Brigitte M; Arnold, Hans Henning; Illenberger, Susanne

    2005-08-15

    Raver2 was identified as a novel member of the hnRNP family based on sequence homology within three RNA recognition motifs and its general domain organization reminiscent of the previously described raver1 protein. Like raver1, raver2 contains two putative nuclear localization signals and a potential nuclear export sequence, and also displays nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling in a heterokaryon assay. In glia cells and neurons, raver2 localizes to the nucleus. Moreover, the protein interacts with polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) suggesting that it may participate in PTB-mediated nuclear functions. In contrast to ubiquitously expressed raver1, raver2 exerts a distinct spatio-temporal expression pattern during embryogenesis and is essentially restricted to brain, lung, and kidney in the adult mouse. PMID:16051233

  12. Two FLX family members are non-redundantly required to establish the vernalization requirement in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joohyun; Amasino, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of natural genetic variation for the vernalization requirement in Arabidopsis have revealed two genes, FRIGIDA (FRI) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), that are determinants of the vernalization-requiring, winter-annual habit. In this study, we show that FLC EXPRESSOR LIKE 4 (FLL4) is essential for up-regulation of FLC in winter-annual Arabidopsis accessions and establishment of a vernalization requirement. FLL4 is part of the FLC EXPRESSOR (FLX) gene family and both are non-redundantly involved in flowering-time control. Epistasis analysis among FRI, FLL4, FLX and autonomous-pathway genes reveals that FRI fve exhibits an extreme delay of flowering compared to fri fve, but mutants in other autonomous-pathway genes do not, indicating that FVE acts most antagonistically to FRI. FLL4 may represent a new member of a FRI-containing complex that activates FLC. PMID:23864009

  13. Multiple roles of TNF super family members in corpus luteum function

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Kiyoshi; Sakumoto, Ryosuke

    2003-01-01

    The main function of the corpus luteum (CL) is the production of progesterone. Adequate luteal progesterone is crucial for determining the physiological duration of the estrous cycle and for achieving a successful pregnancy. The CL is regulated not only by hypophyseal gonadotropin, but also by a number of cytokines that are locally produced. Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) and its specific receptors (TNFR) are present in the CL of many species. TNF plays multiple and likely important roles in CL function throughout the estrous cycle. TNF appears to have luteotropic and luteolytic roles in the CLs. In contrast, Fas ligand (Fas L), another member of TNF super family (TNF-SF), is primarily recognized for its apoptotic actions. Presumably, Fas L binds its cognate receptor (Fas) to induce structural luteolysis. This review is designed to focus on recent studies documenting the expression of TNF and Fas L, their receptors, and intracellular signaling mechanisms in the CL. PMID:14613529

  14. STS-95 crew members greet families at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 crew members greet their families from Launch Pad 39B. From left, they are Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., and Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, with the European Space Agency (ESA). The crew were making final preparations for launch, targeted for liftoff at 2 p.m. on Oct. 29. The mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, returning to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  15. Emerging Roles for FCRL Family Members in Lymphocyte Biology and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, F.J.; Won, W.J.; Becker, E.J.; Easlick, J.L.; Tabengwa, E.; Li, R.; Shakhmatov, M.; Burrows, P.D.; Davis, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the extended Fc receptor-like (FCRL) family in humans and mice are preferentially expressed by B cells and possess tyrosine-based immunoregulatory function. Although the majority of these proteins repress B cell receptor-mediated activation, there is emerging evidence for their bifunctionality and capacity to counter-regulate adaptive and innate signaling pathways. In light of these findings, the recent discovery of ligands for several of these molecules has begun to reveal exciting potential for them in normal lymphocyte biology and is launching a new phase of FCRL investigation. Importantly, these fundamental developments are also setting the stage for defining their altered roles in the pathogenesis of a growing number of immune-mediated diseases. Here we review recent advances in the FCRL field and highlight the significance of these intriguing receptors in normal and perturbed immunobiology. PMID:25116094

  16. Plant members of a family of sulfate transporters reveal functional subtypes.

    PubMed

    Smith, F W; Ealing, P M; Hawkesford, M J; Clarkson, D T

    1995-09-26

    Three plant sulfate transporter cDNAs have been isolated by complementation of a yeast mutant with a cDNA library derived from the tropical forage legume Stylosanthes hamata. Two of these cDNAs, shst1 and shst2, encode high-affinity H+/sulfate cotransporters that mediate the uptake of sulfate by plant roots from low concentrations of sulfate in the soil solution. The third, shst3, represents a different subtype encoding a lower affinity H+/sulfate cotransporter, which may be involved in the internal transport of sulfate between cellular or subcellular compartments within the plant. The steady-state level of mRNA corresponding to both subtypes is subject to regulation by signals that ultimately respond to the external sulfate supply. These cDNAs represent the identification of plant members of a family of related sulfate transporter proteins whose sequences exhibit significant amino acid conservation in filamentous fungi, yeast, plants, and mammals. PMID:7568135

  17. Screening of a healthy newborn identifies three adult family members with symptomatic glutaric aciduria type I

    PubMed Central

    MCH, Janssen; LAJ, Kluijtmans; S.B., Wortmann

    2014-01-01

    We report three adult sibs (one female, two males) with symptomatic glutaric acidura type I, who were diagnosed after a low carnitine level was found by newborn screening in a healthy newborn of the women. All three adults had low plasma carnitine, elevated glutaric acid levels and pronounced 3-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. The diagnosis was confirmed by undetectable glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity in lymphocytes and two pathogenic heterozygous mutations in the GCDH gene (c.1060A > G, c.1154C > T). These results reinforce the notion that abnormal metabolite levels in newborns may lead to the diagnosis of adult metabolic disease in the mother and potentially other family members. PMID:26674492

  18. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B)

    SciTech Connect

    Duangtum, Natapol; Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 ; Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} Impaired trafficking of kAE1 causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). {yields} The interaction between kAE1 and kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is reported. {yields} The co-localization between kAE and KIF3B was detected in human kidney tissues. {yields} A marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane was observed when KIF3B was knockdown. {yields} KFI3B plays an important role in trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of {alpha}-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange and the failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells.

  19. Differential Inhibition of Signal Peptide Peptidase Family Members by Established ?-Secretase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Yong; Ladd, Gabriela Z.; Ceballos-Diaz, Carolina; Jung, Joo In; Greenbaum, Doron; Felsenstein, Kevin M.; Golde, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    The signal peptide peptidases (SPPs) are biomedically important proteases implicated as therapeutic targets for hepatitis C (human SPP, (hSPP)), plasmodium (Plasmodium SPP (pSPP)), and B-cell immunomodulation and neoplasia (signal peptide peptidase like 2a, (SPPL2a)). To date, no drug-like, selective inhibitors have been reported. We use a recombinant substrate based on the amino-terminus of BRI2 fused to amyloid ? 1-25 (A?1-25) (FBA) to develop facile, cost-effective SPP/SPPL protease assays. Co-transfection of expression plasmids expressing the FBA substrate with SPP/SPPLs were conducted to evaluate cleavage, which was monitored by ELISA, Western Blot and immunoprecipitation/MALDI-TOF Mass spectrometry (IP/MS). No cleavage is detected in the absence of SPP/SPPL overexpression. Multiple ?-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) and (Z-LL)2 ketone differentially inhibited SPP/SPPL activity; for example, IC50 of LY-411,575 varied from 51±79 nM (on SPPL2a) to 5499±122 nM (on SPPL2b), while Compound E showed inhibition only on hSPP with IC50 of 1465±93 nM. Data generated were predictive of effects observed for endogenous SPPL2a cleavage of CD74 in a murine B-Cell line. Thus, it is possible to differentially inhibit SPP family members. These SPP/SPPL cleavage assays will expedite the search for selective inhibitors. The data also reinforce similarities between SPP family member cleavage and cleavage catalyzed by ?-secretase. PMID:26046535

  20. Differential Inhibition of Signal Peptide Peptidase Family Members by Established ?-Secretase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ran, Yong; Ladd, Gabriela Z; Ceballos-Diaz, Carolina; Jung, Joo In; Greenbaum, Doron; Felsenstein, Kevin M; Golde, Todd E

    2015-01-01

    The signal peptide peptidases (SPPs) are biomedically important proteases implicated as therapeutic targets for hepatitis C (human SPP, (hSPP)), plasmodium (Plasmodium SPP (pSPP)), and B-cell immunomodulation and neoplasia (signal peptide peptidase like 2a, (SPPL2a)). To date, no drug-like, selective inhibitors have been reported. We use a recombinant substrate based on the amino-terminus of BRI2 fused to amyloid ? 1-25 (A?1-25) (FBA) to develop facile, cost-effective SPP/SPPL protease assays. Co-transfection of expression plasmids expressing the FBA substrate with SPP/SPPLs were conducted to evaluate cleavage, which was monitored by ELISA, Western Blot and immunoprecipitation/MALDI-TOF Mass spectrometry (IP/MS). No cleavage is detected in the absence of SPP/SPPL overexpression. Multiple ?-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) and (Z-LL)2 ketone differentially inhibited SPP/SPPL activity; for example, IC50 of LY-411,575 varied from 51±79 nM (on SPPL2a) to 5499±122 nM (on SPPL2b), while Compound E showed inhibition only on hSPP with IC50 of 1465±93 nM. Data generated were predictive of effects observed for endogenous SPPL2a cleavage of CD74 in a murine B-Cell line. Thus, it is possible to differentially inhibit SPP family members. These SPP/SPPL cleavage assays will expedite the search for selective inhibitors. The data also reinforce similarities between SPP family member cleavage and cleavage catalyzed by ?-secretase. PMID:26046535

  1. Characterization of three novel members of the Arabidopsis SHAGGY-related protein kinase (ASK) multigene family.

    PubMed

    Dornelas, M C; Wittich, P; von Recklinghausen, I; van Lammeren, A; Kreis, M

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we report the characterization of three novel members of the Arabidopsis shaggy-related protein kinase (ASK) multigene family, named ASKdzeta (ASKzeta), ASKetha (ASKeta) and ASKiota (ASKiota). The proteins encoded by the ASK genes share a highly conserved catalytic protein kinase domain and show about 70% identity to SHAGGY (SGG) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) from Drosophila and rat respectively. SGG is an ubiquitous intracellular component of the wingless signalling pathway that establishes cell fate and/or pattern formation in Drosophila. At least ten different ASK genes are expected to be present per haploid genome of A. thaliana. Different amino- and carboxy-terminal extensions distinguish different ASK family members. Five ASK gene sequences were analysed and shown to be present as single-copy genes in the Arabidopsis genome. A comparison based on the highly conserved catalytic domain sequences of all known sequences of the GSK-3 subfamily of protein kinases demonstrated a clear distinction between the plant and the animal kinases. Furthermore, we established the presence of at least three distinct groups of plant homologues of SGG/GSK-3. These different groups probably reflect biochemical and/or biological properties of these kinases. The differential expression patterns of five ASK genes were accessed by northern and in situ hybridization experiments using gene-specific probes. While ASKzeta is expressed in the whole embryo during its development, ASKeta expression is limited to the suspensor cells. No signal was detected for ASKalpha, ASKgamma and ASKiota in developing embryos. PMID:10080716

  2. Basis for the Essentiality of H-NS Family Members in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Castang, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Members of the histone-like nucleoid-structuring (H-NS) family of proteins have been shown to play important roles in silencing gene expression and in nucleoid compaction. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the two H-NS family members MvaT and MvaU are thought to bind the same AT-rich regions of the chromosome and function coordinately to control a common set of genes. Here we present evidence that the loss of both MvaT and MvaU cannot be tolerated because it results in the production of Pf4 phage that superinfect and kill cells or inhibit their growth. Using a ClpXP-based protein depletion system in combination with transposon mutagenesis, we identify mutants of P. aeruginosa that can tolerate the depletion of MvaT in an ?mvaU mutant background. Many of these mutants contain insertions in genes encoding components, assembly factors, or regulators of type IV pili or contain insertions in genes of the prophage Pf4. We demonstrate that cells that no longer produce type IV pili or that no longer produce the replicative form of the Pf4 genome can tolerate the loss of both MvaT and MvaU. Furthermore, we show that the loss of both MvaT and MvaU results in an increase in expression of Pf4 genes and that cells that cannot produce type IV pili are resistant to infection by Pf4 phage. Our findings suggest that type IV pili are the receptors for Pf4 phage and that the essential activities of MvaT and MvaU are to repress the expression of Pf4 genes. PMID:22821971

  3. Direct Observation of Treatment Provided by a Family Member as Compared to Non-Family Member among Children with New Tuberculosis: A Pragmatic, Non-Inferiority, Cluster-Randomized Trial in Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Bhavesh B.; Pujara, Kirit R.; Patel, Pradip; Mehariya, Keshabhai; Rade, Kiran Vaman; Shekar, Soma; Sachdeva, Kuldeep S.; Oeltmann, John E.; Kumar, Ajay M. V.

    2016-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization recommends direct observation of treatment (DOT) to support patients with tuberculosis (TB) and to ensure treatment completion. As per national programme guidelines in India, a DOT provider can be anyone who is acceptable and accessible to the patient and accountable to the health system, except a family member. This poses challenges among children with TB who may be more comfortable receiving medicines from their parents or family members than from unfamiliar DOT providers. We conducted a non-inferiority trial to assess the effect of family DOT on treatment success rates among children with newly diagnosed TB registered for treatment during June–September 2012. Methods We randomly assigned all districts (n = 30) in Gujarat to the intervention (n = 15) or usual-practice group (n = 15). Adult family members in the intervention districts were given the choice to become their child’s DOT provider. DOT was provided by a non-family member in the usual-practice districts. Using routinely collected clinic-based TB treatment cards, we compared treatment success rates (cured and treatment completed) between the two groups and the non-inferiority limit was kept at 5%. Results Of 624 children with newly diagnosed TB, 359 (58%) were from intervention districts and 265 (42%) were from usual-practice districts. The two groups were similar with respect to baseline characteristics including age, sex, type of TB, and initial body weight. The treatment success rates were 344 (95.8%) and 247 (93.2%) (p = 0.11) among the intervention and usual-practice groups respectively. Conclusion DOT provided by a family member is not inferior to DOT provided by a non-family member among new TB cases in children and can attain international targets for treatment success. Trial Registration Clinical Trials Registry–India, National Institute of Medical Statistics (Indian Council of Medical Research) CTRI/2015/09/006229 PMID:26849442

  4. Different Members of the IL-1 Family Come Out in Different Ways: DAMPs vs. Cytokines?

    PubMed Central

    Carta, Sonia; Lavieri, Rosa; Rubartelli, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Intercellular communications control fundamental biological processes required for the survival of multicellular organisms. Secretory proteins are among the most important messengers in this network of information. Proteins destined to the extracellular environment contain a signal sequence with the necessary information to target them to the Endoplasmic Reticulum, and are released by a “classical” pathway of secretion. However, in the early 1990s it became evident that non-classical mechanisms must exist for the secretion of some proteins, which in spite of their extracellular localization and function, lack a signal peptide. Indeed, the group of leaderless secretory proteins rapidly grew and is still growing. Many of them are implicated in the regulation of the inflammatory response. Interestingly, most members of the IL-1 family (IL-1F), including the master pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1?, are leaderless proteins and find their way out of the cells in different manners. In this article, we will review current hypotheses on the mechanisms of externalization of IL-1F members and discuss their relevance with respect to the different functions (as cytokines or as DAMPs) played by the different IL-1 proteins. PMID:23745123

  5. Genome organization and phylogenetic relationship of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-3 with family Closteroviridae members.

    PubMed

    Sether, Diane M; Melzer, Michael J; Borth, Wayne B; Hu, John S

    2009-06-01

    The nucleotide sequence of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-3 (PMWaV-3) (Closteroviridae: Ampelovirus), spanning seven open reading frames (ORFs) and the untranslatable region of the 3' end was determined. Based on the amino acid identities with orthologous ORFs of PMWaV-1 (54%-73%) and PMWaV-2 (13%-35%), we propose PMWaV-3 is a new species in the PMWaV complex. PMWaV-3 lacks an intergenic region between ORF1b and ORF2, encodes a relatively small, 28.8 kDa, coat protein, and lacks a coat protein duplicate. Phylogenetic analyses were used to analyze seven different domains and ORFs from members of the family Closteroviridae. Two distinct clades within the recognized genus Ampelovirus were observed; one that includes PMWaV-3 and PMWaV-1 and several GLRaVs and another that includes PMWaV-2 and GLRaV-3, the type member of the genus Ampelovirus. PMID:19225875

  6. Improved method for distinguishing the human source of mosquito blood meals between close family members.

    PubMed

    Ansell, J; Hu, J T; Gilbert, S C; Hamilton, K A; Hill, A V; Lindsay, S W

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a simple and relatively cheap method to distinguish the origin of mosquito blood meals between close family members, effective for both laboratory and field samples. Each blood meal was squashed on to filter paper and eluted overnight with 0.5 mL phosphate-buffered saline. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted using a chemical matrix (Insta-gene) which bound to everything from the blood meal except DNA, which remained in the supernatant. Following extractions, reference DNA samples taken directly from finger-prick blood of human subjects and those from blood meals of unknown origin were amplified with human microsatellite markers using a thermal cycler. Polymerase chain reaction products were then run on an ABI gel (Automated Biosystems) to obtain a genotype for each sample. The DNA from each mosquito blood meal was then matched to an individual host. With laboratory samples, human DNA which had been extracted from mosquito blood meals up to 12 h after feeding could be used. One important application of this method will be to identify which members of a community are most at risk from vector-borne diseases. It also has numerous potential applications in studies of insect biting behaviour in both human and veterinary science. PMID:11132392

  7. A nonpyrrolysine member of the widely distributed trimethylamine methyltransferase family is a glycine betaine methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Ticak, Tomislav; Kountz, Duncan J.; Girosky, Kimberly E.; Krzycki, Joseph A.; Ferguson, Donald J.

    2014-01-01

    COG5598 comprises a large number of proteins related to MttB, the trimethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase. MttB has a genetically encoded pyrrolysine residue proposed essential for catalysis. MttB is the only known trimethylamine methyltransferase, yet the great majority of members of COG5598 lack pyrrolysine, leaving the activity of these proteins an open question. Here, we describe the function of one of the nonpyrrolysine members of this large protein family. Three nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs are encoded in Desulfitobacterium hafniense, a Gram-positive strict anaerobe present in both the environment and human intestine. D. hafniense was found capable of growth on glycine betaine with electron acceptors such as nitrate or fumarate, producing dimethylglycine and CO2 as products. Examination of the genome revealed genes for tetrahydrofolate-linked oxidation of a methyl group originating from a methylated corrinoid protein, but no obvious means to carry out corrinoid methylation with glycine betaine. DSY3156, encoding one of the nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs, was up-regulated during growth on glycine betaine. The recombinant DSY3156 protein converts glycine betaine and cob(I)alamin to dimethylglycine and methylcobalamin. To our knowledge, DSY3156 is the first glycine betaine:corrinoid methyltransferase described, and a designation of MtgB is proposed. In addition, DSY3157, an adjacently encoded protein, was shown to be a methylcobalamin:tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase and is designated MtgA. Homologs of MtgB are widely distributed, especially in marine bacterioplankton and nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts. They are also found in multiple members of the human microbiome, and may play a beneficial role in trimethylamine homeostasis, which in recent years has been directly tied to human cardiovascular health. PMID:25313086

  8. Organic anion transporter (Slc22a) family members as mediators of toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, Douglas H. . E-mail: sweetd@musc.edu

    2005-05-01

    Exposure of the body to toxic organic anions is unavoidable and occurs from both intentional and unintentional sources. Many hormones, neurotransmitters, and waste products of cellular metabolism, or their metabolites, are organic anions. The same is true for a wide variety of medications, herbicides, pesticides, plant and animal toxins, and industrial chemicals and solvents. Rapid and efficient elimination of these substances is often the body's best defense for limiting both systemic exposure and the duration of their pharmacological or toxicological effects. For organic anions, active transepithelial transport across the renal proximal tubule followed by elimination via the urine is a major pathway in this detoxification process. Accordingly, a large number of organic anion transport proteins belonging to several different gene families have been identified and found to be expressed in the proximal nephron. The function of these transporters, in combination with the high volume of renal blood flow, predisposes the kidney to increased toxic susceptibility. Understanding how the kidney mediates the transport of organic anions is integral to achieving desired therapeutic outcomes in response to drug interactions and chemical exposures, to understanding the progression of some disease states, and to predicting the influence of genetic variation upon these processes. This review will focus on the organic anion transporter (OAT) family and discuss the known members, their mechanisms of action, subcellular localization, and current evidence implicating their function as a determinant of the toxicity of certain endogenous and xenobiotic agents.

  9. [Disclosure of aids diagnosis to children from the family members' perspective].

    PubMed

    Schaurich, Diego

    2011-04-01

    This phenomenological study aimed at understanding how the care-giving family sees the disclosure of the AIDS diagnosis to the infected child, founded on the philosophy of Martin Buber. This study was performed at a teaching hospital in Porto Alegre, with seven family members of children with AIDS. Data collection was performed through phenomenological interviews and interpreted guided by hermeneutics. The dialogues for disclosing of the diagnosis to YOU child with AIDS show that this situation occurs in the experience lived by those caregivers and interferes in their existentiality, as it when they establish relationships with the other, in the world. The disclosing of the AIDS diagnosis to the child is a complex phenomenon that generates dialogues related to the everyday situations shared by the caregivers and the children. Further studies are needed on this theme that is constantly increasing in health services, which would take into consideration the dynamicity and singularity of the rumors taken by this epidemics in the Brazilian context. PMID:21655801

  10. Cloning and analysis of DnaJ family members in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinü; Bu, Cuiyu; Li, Tiantian; Wang, Shibao; Jiang, Feng; Yi, Yongzhu; Yang, Huipeng; Zhang, Zhifang

    2016-01-15

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are involved in a variety of critical biological functions, including protein folding, degradation, and translocation and macromolecule assembly, act as molecular chaperones during periods of stress by binding to other proteins. Using expressed sequence tag (EST) and silkworm (Bombyx mori) transcriptome databases, we identified 27 cDNA sequences encoding the conserved J domain, which is found in DnaJ-type Hsps. Of the 27 J domain-containing sequences, 25 were complete cDNA sequences. We divided them into three types according to the number and presence of conserved domains. By analyzing the gene structures, intron numbers, and conserved domains and constructing a phylogenetic tree, we found that the DnaJ family had undergone convergent evolution, obtaining new domains to expand the diversity of its family members. The acquisition of the new DnaJ domains most likely occurred prior to the evolutionary divergence of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The expression of DnaJ genes in the silkworm was generally higher in the fat body. The tissue distribution of DnaJ1 proteins was detected by western blotting, demonstrating that in the fifth-instar larvae, the DnaJ1 proteins were expressed at their highest levels in hemocytes, followed by the fat body and head. We also found that the DnaJ1 transcripts were likely differentially translated in different tissues. Using immunofluorescence cytochemistry, we revealed that in the blood cells, DnaJ1 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. PMID:26434795

  11. Structure and T-cell inhibition properties of B7 family member, B7-H3

    PubMed Central

    Vigdorovich, Vladimir; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Lázár-Molnár, Eszter; Sylvestre, Eliezer; Lee, Jun Sik; Hofmeyer, Kimberly A.; Zang, Xingxing; Nathenson, Stanley G.; Almo, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary T-cell activity is controlled by a combination of antigen-dependent signaling through the T-cell receptor and a set of auxiliary signals delivered through antigen-independent interactions, including the recognition of the B7 family of ligands. B7-H3 is a recently identified B7 family member that is strongly overexpressed in a range of cancers and correlates with poor prognosis. We report the crystal structure of murine B7-H3 at a 3-Å resolution, which provides a model for the organization of the IgV and IgC domains within the ectodomain. We demonstrate that B7-H3 inhibits T-cell proliferation and show that the FG loop of the IgV domain plays a critical role in this function. B7-H3 crystallized as an unusual dimer arising from the exchange of the G strands in the IgV domains of partner molecules. This arrangement, in combination with previous reports, highlights the dynamic nature and plasticity of the immunoglobulin fold. PMID:23583036

  12. Phenotypic Variation Among Seven Members of One Family with Deficiency of Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos-Picot, Irène; Augé, Franck; Fu, Rong; Olivier-Bandini, Anne; Cahu, Julie; Chabrol, Brigitte; Aral, Bernard; de Martinville, Bérengère; Lecain, Jean-Paul; Jinnah, H. A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a family of seven boys affected by Lesch-Nyhan disease with various phenotypes. Further investigations revealed a mutation c.203T>C in the gene encoding HGprt of all members, with substitution of leucine to proline at residue 68 (p.Leu68Pro). Thus patients from this family display a wide variety of symptoms although sharing the same mutation. Mutant HGprt enzyme was prepared by site-directed mutagenesis and the kinetics of the enzyme revealed that the catalytic activity of the mutant was reduced, in association with marked reductions in the affinity towards phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP). Its Km for PRPP was increased 215-fold with hypoxanthine as substrate and 40-fold with guanine as substrate with associated reduced catalytic potential. Molecular modeling confirmed that the most prominent defect was the dramatically reduced affinity towards PRPP. Our studies suggest that the p.Leu68Pro mutation has a strong impact on PRPP binding and on stability of the active conformation. This suggests that factors other than HGprt activity per se may influence the phenotype of Lesch-Nyhan patients. PMID:24075303

  13. Cloning and functional characterization of HDAC11, a novel member of the human histone deacetylase family.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin; Cueto, Maria A; Asselbergs, Fred; Atadja, Peter

    2002-07-12

    We have cloned and characterized a human cDNA that belongs to the histone deacetylase family, which we designate as HDAC11. The predicted HDAC11 amino acid sequence reveals an open reading frame of 347 residues with a corresponding molecular mass of 39 kDa. Sequence analyses of the putative HDAC11 protein indicate that it contains conserved residues in the catalytic core regions shared by both class I and II mammalian HDAC enzymes. Putative orthologues of HDAC11 exist in primate, mouse, Drosophila, and plant. Epitope-tagged HDAC11 protein expressed in mammalian cells displays histone deacetylase activity in vitro. Furthermore, HDAC11's enzymatic activity is inhibited by trapoxin, a known histone deacetylase inhibitor. Multiple tissue Northern blot and real-time PCR experiments show that the high expression level of HDAC11 transcripts is limited to kidney, heart, brain, skeletal muscle, and testis. Epitope-tagged HDAC11 protein localizes predominantly to the cell nucleus. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that HDAC11 may be present in protein complexes that also contain HDAC6. These results indicate that HDAC11 is a novel and unique member of the histone deacetylase family and it may have distinct physiological roles from those of the known HDACs. PMID:11948178

  14. Paying family members to provide home care: an evaluation of one program.

    PubMed

    Vinton, L; Kim, Y S

    1996-01-01

    Paying family members for caregiving has received mixed reviews, but most agree that elders tend to prefer community to institutional living. This study describes an evaluation of a program that paid family caregivers to provide home care to elders from the perspective of care receivers (n = 151), caregivers (n = 211), and case managers (n = 71). The care recipients were primarily older, low-income individuals who were assessed to be at medium to high risk with respect to psychosocial functioning. Results indicated that caregiver subsidies were primarily used to pay for basic necessities, but few caregivers would cease caregiving in the absence of subsidies. The vast majority of care receivers and caregivers were very satisfied with case management services, and 42% of the care receivers named their case manager when asked whom they would contact if they had a problem with their caregiver. Case managers stressed the importance of formal care providers making home visits and referrals to other resources in order to lessen isolation and prevent institutionalization. PMID:9257624

  15. Phenotypic variation among seven members of one family with deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Ceballos-Picot, Irène; Augé, Franck; Fu, Rong; Olivier-Bandini, Anne; Cahu, Julie; Chabrol, Brigitte; Aral, Bernard; de Martinville, Bérengère; Lecain, Jean-Paul; Jinnah, H A

    2013-11-01

    We describe a family of seven boys affected by Lesch-Nyhan disease with various phenotypes. Further investigations revealed a mutation c.203T>C in the gene encoding HGprt of all members, with substitution of leucine to proline at residue 68 (p.Leu68Pro). Thus patients from this family display a wide variety of symptoms although sharing the same mutation. Mutant HGprt enzyme was prepared by site-directed mutagenesis and the kinetics of the enzyme revealed that the catalytic activity of the mutant was reduced, in association with marked reductions in the affinity towards phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP). Its Km for PRPP was increased 215-fold with hypoxanthine as substrate and 40-fold with guanine as substrate with associated reduced catalytic potential. Molecular modeling confirmed that the most prominent defect was the dramatically reduced affinity towards PRPP. Our studies suggest that the p.Leu68Pro mutation has a strong impact on PRPP binding and on stability of the active conformation. This suggests that factors other than HGprt activity per se may influence the phenotype of Lesch-Nyhan patients. PMID:24075303

  16. Targeted disruption of the CP2 gene, a member of the NTF family of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, L; Barbour, V; Tuckfield, A; Clouston, D R; Topham, D; Cunningham, J M; Jane, S M

    2001-03-16

    The NTF-like family of transcription factors have been implicated in developmental regulation in organisms as diverse as Drosophila and man. The two mammalian members of this family, CP2 (LBP-1c/LSF) and LBP-1a (NF2d9), are highly related proteins sharing an overall amino acid identity of 72%. CP2, the best characterized of these factors, is a ubiquitously expressed 66-kDa protein that binds the regulatory regions of many diverse genes. Consequently, a role for CP2 has been proposed in globin gene expression, T-cell responses to mitogenic stimulation, and several other cellular processes. To elucidate the in vivo role of CP2, we have generated mice nullizygous for the CP2 allele. These animals were born in a normal Mendelian distribution and displayed no defects in growth, behavior, fertility, or development. Specifically, no perturbation of hematopoietic differentiation, globin gene expression, or immunological responses to T- and B-cell mitogenic stimulation was observed. RNA and protein analysis confirmed that the nullizygous mice expressed no full-length or truncated version of CP2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with nuclear extracts from multiple tissues demonstrated loss of CP2 DNA binding activity in the -/- lines. However, a slower migrating complex that was ablated with antiserum to NF2d9, the murine homologue of LBP-1a, was observed with these extracts. Furthermore, we demonstrate that recombinant LBP-1a can bind to known CP2 consensus sites and form protein complexes with previously defined heteromeric partners of CP2. These results suggest that LBP-1a/NF2d9 may compensate for loss of CP2 expression in vivo and that further analysis of the role of the NTF family of proteins requires the targeting of the NF2d9 gene. PMID:10995745

  17. Plant, Animal, and Fungal Micronutrient Queuosine Is Salvaged by Members of the DUF2419 Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Queuosine (Q) is a modification found at the wobble position of tRNAs with GUN anticodons. Although Q is present in most eukaryotes and bacteria, only bacteria can synthesize Q de novo. Eukaryotes acquire queuine (q), the free base of Q, from diet and/or microflora, making q an important but under-recognized micronutrient for plants, animals, and fungi. Eukaryotic type tRNA-guanine transglycosylases (eTGTs) are composed of a catalytic subunit (QTRT1) and a homologous accessory subunit (QTRTD1) forming a complex that catalyzes q insertion into target tRNAs. Phylogenetic analysis of eTGT subunits revealed a patchy distribution pattern in which gene losses occurred independently in different clades. Searches for genes co-distributing with eTGT family members identified DUF2419 as a potential Q salvage protein family. This prediction was experimentally validated in Schizosaccharomyces pombe by confirming that Q was present by analyzing tRNAAsp with anticodon GUC purified from wild-type cells and by showing that Q was absent from strains carrying deletions in the QTRT1 or DUF2419 encoding genes. DUF2419 proteins occur in most Eukarya with a few possible cases of horizontal gene transfer to bacteria. The universality of the DUF2419 function was confirmed by complementing the S. pombe mutant with the Zea mays (maize), human, and Sphaerobacter thermophilus homologues. The enzymatic function of this family is yet to be determined, but structural similarity with DNA glycosidases suggests a ribonucleoside hydrolase activity. PMID:24911101

  18. The experience of Chinese immigrant women in caring for a terminally ill family member in Australia.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Mary T; Koo, Fung Kuen; White, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese community, a heterogeneous, highly visible non-English speaking ethnic group in Australia, remains mostly hidden and underrepresented in palliative care service delivery along with participation in health research despite being the fastest growing such group in the country. There is a lack of Australian research information concerning the impact of migration on the caregiving experience of women carers within the Chinese cultural framework and the Australian palliative care context. This paper aims to explore the influence of Chinese cultural norms and immigration on the experience of immigrant women of Chinese ancestry caring for a terminally ill family member at home in Sydney. This study also seeks to identify factors that may present access barriers to palliative care support services. A qualitative approach was used in this study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with five home-based Chinese women carers and were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings identified that the participants found being a carer is a lonely and isolating experience. Sources of isolation and loneliness included social isolation experienced as a solitary carer without meaningful family and social relationships; loss of familiar cultural understandings and family values; and emotional isolators expressed in response to the physical and emotional role commitment and other constraints. The study results suggest the need for palliative care educational programmes designed to help nurses to understand the impact of cultural background within the palliative care context. Results also indicate that health care professionals should provide culturally appropriate and competent palliative care services, sensitive to the diverse socio-cultural influences and individual needs of Chinese migrants. PMID:25632724

  19. Plant, animal, and fungal micronutrient queuosine is salvaged by members of the DUF2419 protein family.

    PubMed

    Zallot, Rémi; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Gaston, Kirk W; Forouhar, Farhad; Limbach, Patrick A; Hunt, John F; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2014-08-15

    Queuosine (Q) is a modification found at the wobble position of tRNAs with GUN anticodons. Although Q is present in most eukaryotes and bacteria, only bacteria can synthesize Q de novo. Eukaryotes acquire queuine (q), the free base of Q, from diet and/or microflora, making q an important but under-recognized micronutrient for plants, animals, and fungi. Eukaryotic type tRNA-guanine transglycosylases (eTGTs) are composed of a catalytic subunit (QTRT1) and a homologous accessory subunit (QTRTD1) forming a complex that catalyzes q insertion into target tRNAs. Phylogenetic analysis of eTGT subunits revealed a patchy distribution pattern in which gene losses occurred independently in different clades. Searches for genes co-distributing with eTGT family members identified DUF2419 as a potential Q salvage protein family. This prediction was experimentally validated in Schizosaccharomyces pombe by confirming that Q was present by analyzing tRNA(Asp) with anticodon GUC purified from wild-type cells and by showing that Q was absent from strains carrying deletions in the QTRT1 or DUF2419 encoding genes. DUF2419 proteins occur in most Eukarya with a few possible cases of horizontal gene transfer to bacteria. The universality of the DUF2419 function was confirmed by complementing the S. pombe mutant with the Zea mays (maize), human, and Sphaerobacter thermophilus homologues. The enzymatic function of this family is yet to be determined, but structural similarity with DNA glycosidases suggests a ribonucleoside hydrolase activity. PMID:24911101

  20. Characterization of a novel β-L-arabinofuranosidase in Bifidobacterium longum: functional elucidation of a DUF1680 protein family member.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kiyotaka; Takashi, Yukari; Obuchi, Eriko; Kitahara, Kanefumi; Suganuma, Toshihiko

    2014-02-21

    Pfam DUF1680 (PF07944) is an uncharacterized protein family conserved in many species of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, and plants. Previously, we cloned and characterized the hypBA2 gene as a β-L-arabinobiosidase in Bifidobacterium longum JCM 1217. In this study, we cloned a DUF1680 family member, the hypBA1 gene, which constitutes a gene cluster with hypBA2. HypBA1 is a novel β-L-arabinofuranosidase that liberates L-arabinose from the L-arabinofuranose (Araf)-β1,2-Araf disaccharide. HypBA1 also transglycosylates 1-alkanols with retention of the anomeric configuration. Mutagenesis and azide rescue experiments indicated that Glu-338 is a critical residue for catalytic activity. This study provides the first characterization of a DUF1680 family member, which defines a new family of glycoside hydrolases, the glycoside hydrolase family 127. PMID:24385433

  1. Interprofessional collaboration and family member involvement in intensive care units: emerging themes from a multi-sited ethnography.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Scott; McMillan, Sarah E; Kachan, Natasha; Paradis, Elise; Leslie, Myles; Kitto, Simon

    2015-05-01

    This article presents emerging findings from the first year of a two-year study, which employed ethnographic methods to explore the culture of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) and family member involvement in eight North American intensive care units (ICUs). The study utilized a comparative ethnographic approach - gathering observation, interview and documentary data relating to the behaviors and attitudes of healthcare providers and family members across several sites. In total, 504 hours of ICU-based observational data were gathered over a 12-month period in four ICUs based in two US cities. In addition, 56 semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a range of ICU staff (e.g. nurses, doctors and pharmacists) and family members. Documentary data (e.g. clinical guidelines and unit policies) were also collected to help develop an insight into how the different sites engaged organizationally with IPC and family member involvement. Directed content analysis enabled the identification and categorization of major themes within the data. An interprofessional conceptual framework was utilized to help frame the coding for the analysis. The preliminary findings presented in this paper illuminate a number of issues related to the nature of IPC and family member involvement within an ICU context. These findings are discussed in relation to the wider interprofessional and health services literature. PMID:25238573

  2. Facebook as a tool for communication, collaboration, and informal knowledge exchange among members of a multisite family health team

    PubMed Central

    Lofters, Aisha K; Slater, Morgan B; Nicholas Angl, Emily; Leung, Fok-Han

    2016-01-01

    Objective To implement and evaluate a private Facebook group for members of a large Ontario multisite Family Health Team (FHT) to facilitate improved communication and collaboration. Design Program implementation and subsequent survey of team members. Setting A large multisite FHT in Toronto, Ontario. Participants Health professionals of the FHT. Main outcome measures Usage patterns and self-reported perceptions of the Facebook group by team members. Results At the time of the evaluation survey, the Facebook group had 43 members (37.4% of all FHT members). Activity in the group was never high, and posts by team members who were not among the researchers were infrequent throughout the study period. The content of posts fell into two broad categories: 1) information that might be useful to various team members and 2) questions posed by team members that others might be able to answer. Of the 26 team members (22.6%) who completed the evaluation survey, many reported that they never logged into the Facebook page (16 respondents), and never used it to communicate with team members outside of their own site of practice (19 respondents). Only six respondents reported no concerns with using Facebook as a professional communication tool; the most frequent concerns were regarding personal and patient privacy. Conclusion The use of social media by health care practitioners is becoming ubiquitous. However, the issues of privacy concerns and determining how to use social media without adding to provider workload must be addressed to make it a useful tool in health care. PMID:26869796

  3. Entamoeba histolytica: a unicellular organism containing two active genes encoding for members of the TBP family.

    PubMed

    Castañon-Sanchez, Carlos Alberto; Luna-Arias, Juan Pedro; de Dios-Bravo, Ma Guadalupe; Herrera-Aguirre, Maria Esther; Olivares-Trejo, Jose J; Orozco, Esther; Hernandez, Jose Manuel

    2010-03-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite which causes human amoebiasis. In this parasite, few encoding genes for transcription factors have been cloned and characterized. The E. histolytica TATA-box binding protein (EhTBP) is the first basal transcription factor that has been studied. To continue with the identification of other members of the basal transcription machinery, we performed an in silico analysis of the E. histolytica genome and found three loci encoding for polypeptides with similarity to EhTBP. One locus has a 100% identity to the previously Ehtbp gene reported by our group. The second locus encodes for a 212 aa polypeptide that is 100% identical to residues 23-234 from EhTBP. The third one encodes for a 216 aa polypeptide of 24kDa that showed 42.6% identity and 73.7% similarity to EhTBP. This protein was named E. histolytica TBP-related factor 1 (EhTRF1). Ehtrf1 gene was expressed in bacteria and the purified 28kDa recombinant polypeptide showed the capacity to bind to TATTTAAA-box by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. K(D) values for rEhTBP and rEhTRF1 were (1.71+/-2.90)x10(-12)M and (1.12+/-0.160)x10(-11)M, respectively. Homology modeling of EhTRF1 and EhTBP revealed that, although they were very similar, they showed some differences on their surfaces. Thus, E. histolytica is a unicellular organism having two members of the TBP family. PMID:20026212

  4. Role of ?-Catenin and TCF/LEF Family Members in Transcriptional Activity of HIV in Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Narasipura, Srinivas D.; Henderson, Lisa J.; Fu, Sidney W.; Chen, Liang; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2012-01-01

    The Wnt/?-catenin pathway is involved in diverse cell functions governing development and disease. ?-Catenin, a central mediator of this pathway, binds to members of the TCF/LEF family of transcription factors to modulate hundreds of genes. Active Wnt/?-catenin/TCF-4 signaling plays a significant role in repression of HIV-1 replication in multiple cell targets, including astrocytes. To determine the mechanism by which active ?-catenin/TCF-4 leads to inhibition of HIV replication, we knocked down ?-catenin or TCF/LEF members in primary astrocytes and astrocytomas transiently transfected with an HIV long terminal repeat (LTR)-luciferase reporter that contained an integrated copy of the HIV LTR-luciferase construct. Knockdown of either ?-catenin or TCF-4 induced LTR activity by 2- to 3-fold under both the episomal and integrated conditions. This knockdown also increased presence of serine 2-phosphorylated RNA polymerase II (Pol II) on the HIV LTR as well as enhanced its processivity. Knockdown of ?-catenin/TCF-4 also impacted tethering of other transcription factors on the HIV promoter. Specifically, knockdown of TCF-4 enhanced binding of C/EBP?, C/EBP?, and NF-?B to the HIV LTR, while ?-catenin knockdown increased binding of C/EBP? and C/EBP? but had no effect on NF-?B. Approximately 150 genes in astrocytes were impacted by ?-catenin knockdown, including genes involved in inflammation/immunity, uptake/transport, vesicular transport/exocytosis, apoptosis/cellular stress, and cytoskeleton/trafficking. These findings indicate that modulation of the ?-catenin/TCF-4 axis impacts the basal level of HIV transcription in astrocytes, which may drive low level/persistent HIV in astrocytes that can contribute to ongoing neuroinflammation, and this axis also has profound effects on astrocyte biology. PMID:22156527

  5. Concerns regarding the financial aspects of kidney transplantation: perspectives of pre-transplant patients and their family members

    PubMed Central

    Ganji, Sumitha; Ephraim, Patti L.; Ameling, Jessica M.; Purnell, Tanjala S.; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia L.; Boulware, L. Ebony

    2015-01-01

    Background African American and non-African American pre-transplant patients’ and their families’ concerns about the financial costs of kidney transplantation have not been well studied. Methods We conducted structured group interviews among pre-transplant patients (seven African American, five non-African American) and their family members (six African American, five non-African American) to identify their concerns about transplant health insurance coverage, out-of-pocket expenses, and living donor expenses. We reviewed transcribed group audio recordings and identified common discussion themes. Results African American and non-African American patients and family members expressed uncertainty about which transplant-related costs were covered by health insurance and wanted information about how to choose insurance policies accordingly. Patients were particularly concerned about the impact of pre-existing illness on securing optimal health insurance, while family members wanted information about non-insurance-based financial resources. Both patients and family members expressed concern about paying for immunosuppressant medications and about gradual loss of insurance benefits after transplantation. Both patients and family members also expressed concern about potential financial hardships for living donors. Conclusion African American and non-African American pre-transplant patients and families expressed a broad range of concerns about transplant health insurance policies, out-of-pocket expenses, non-insurance-based financial resources, and resources to address donors’ financial burden. Efforts to improve education and develop more comprehensive transplant insurance policies are needed to facilitate informed decision-making for potential transplant recipients and donors. PMID:25066730

  6. Members of the Chloride Intracellular Ion Channel Protein Family Demonstrate Glutaredoxin-Like Enzymatic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Al Khamici, Heba; Brown, Louise J.; Hossain, Khondker R.; Hudson, Amanda L.; Sinclair-Burton, Alxcia A.; Ng, Jane Phui Mun; Daniel, Elizabeth L.; Hare, Joanna E.; Cornell, Bruce A.; Curmi, Paul M. G.; Davey, Mary W.; Valenzuela, Stella M.

    2015-01-01

    The Chloride Intracellular Ion Channel (CLIC) family consists of six evolutionarily conserved proteins in humans. Members of this family are unusual, existing as both monomeric soluble proteins and as integral membrane proteins where they function as chloride selective ion channels, however no function has previously been assigned to their soluble form. Structural studies have shown that in the soluble form, CLIC proteins adopt a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fold, however, they have an active site with a conserved glutaredoxin monothiol motif, similar to the omega class GSTs. We demonstrate that CLIC proteins have glutaredoxin-like glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase enzymatic activity. CLICs 1, 2 and 4 demonstrate typical glutaredoxin-like activity using 2-hydroxyethyl disulfide as a substrate. Mutagenesis experiments identify cysteine 24 as the catalytic cysteine residue in CLIC1, which is consistent with its structure. CLIC1 was shown to reduce sodium selenite and dehydroascorbate in a glutathione-dependent manner. Previous electrophysiological studies have shown that the drugs IAA-94 and A9C specifically block CLIC channel activity. These same compounds inhibit CLIC1 oxidoreductase activity. This work for the first time assigns a functional activity to the soluble form of the CLIC proteins. Our results demonstrate that the soluble form of the CLIC proteins has an enzymatic activity that is distinct from the channel activity of their integral membrane form. This CLIC enzymatic activity may be important for protecting the intracellular environment against oxidation. It is also likely that this enzymatic activity regulates the CLIC ion channel function. PMID:25581026

  7. Upolu virus and Aransas Bay virus, Two Presumptive Bunyaviruses, Are Novel Members of the Family Orthomyxoviridae

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Rashmi; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Popov, Vsevolod; Street, Craig; Tesh, Robert B.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Emerging and zoonotic pathogens pose continuing threats to human health and ongoing challenges to diagnostics. As nucleic acid tests are playing increasingly prominent roles in diagnostics, the genetic characterization of molecularly uncharacterized agents is expected to significantly enhance detection and surveillance capabilities. We report the identification of two previously unrecognized members of the family Orthomyxoviridae, which includes the influenza viruses and the tick-transmitted Thogoto and Dhori viruses. We provide morphological, serologic, and genetic evidence that Upolu virus (UPOV) from Australia and Aransas Bay virus (ABV) from North America, both previously considered potential bunyaviruses based on electron microscopy and physicochemical features, are orthomyxoviruses instead. Their genomes show up to 68% nucleotide sequence identity to Thogoto virus (segment 2; ?74% at the amino acid level) and a more distant relationship to Dhori virus, the two prototype viruses of the recognized species of the genus Thogotovirus. Despite sequence similarity, the coding potentials of UPOV and ABV differed from that of Thogoto virus, instead being like that of Dhori virus. Our findings suggest that the tick-transmitted viruses UPOV and ABV represent geographically distinct viruses in the genus Thogotovirus of the family Orthomyxoviridae that do not fit in the two currently recognized species of this genus. IMPORTANCE Upolu virus (UPOV) and Aransas Bay virus (ABV) are shown to be orthomyxoviruses instead of bunyaviruses, as previously thought. Genetic characterization and adequate classification of agents are paramount in this molecular age to devise appropriate surveillance and diagnostics. Although more closely related to Thogoto virus by sequence, UPOV and ABV differ in their coding potentials by lacking a proposed pathogenicity factor. In this respect, they are similar to Dhori virus, which, despite the lack of a pathogenicity factor, can cause disease. These findings enable further studies into the evolution and pathogenicity of orthomyxoviruses. PMID:24574415

  8. Comparative analysis of three hyperthermophilic GH1 and GH3 family members with industrial potential.

    PubMed

    Cota, Junio; Corrêa, Thamy L R; Damásio, André R L; Diogo, José A; Hoffmam, Zaira B; Garcia, Wanius; Oliveira, Leandro C; Prade, Rolf A; Squina, Fabio M

    2015-01-25

    Beta-glucosidases (BGLs) are enzymes of great potential for several industrial processes, since they catalyze the cleavage of glucosidic bonds in cellobiose and other short cellooligosaccharides. However, features such as good stability to temperature, pH, ions and chemicals are required characteristics for industrial applications. This work aimed to provide a comparative biochemical analysis of three thermostable BGLs from Pyrococcus furiosus and Thermotoga petrophila. The genes PfBgl1 (GH1 from P. furiosus), TpBgl1 (GH1 from T. petrophila) and TpBgl3 (GH3 from T. petrophila) were cloned and proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzymes are hyperthermophilic, showing highest activity at temperatures above 80°C at acidic (TpBgl3 and PfBgl1) and neutral (TpBgl1) pHs. The BGLs showed greatest stability to temperature mainly at pH 6.0. Activities using a set of different substrates suggested that TpBgl3 (GH3) is more specific than GH1 family members. In addition, the influence of six monosaccharides on BGL catalysis was assayed. While PfBgl1 and TpBgl3 seemed to be weakly inhibited by monosaccharides, TpBgl1 was activated, with xylose showing the strongest activation. Under the conditions tested, TpBgl1 showed the highest inhibition constant (Ki=1100.00mM) when compared with several BGLs previously characterized. The BGLs studied have potential for industrial use, specifically the enzymes belonging to the GH1 family, due to its broad substrate specificity and weak inhibition by glucose and other saccharides. PMID:25102284

  9. Identification and Characterization of Genetically Divergent Members of the Newly Established Family Mesoniviridae

    PubMed Central

    Zirkel, Florian; Roth, Hanna; Kurth, Andreas; Drosten, Christian; Ziebuhr, John

    2013-01-01

    The recently established family Mesoniviridae (order Nidovirales) contains a single species represented by two closely related viruses, Cavally virus (CavV) and Nam Dinh virus (NDiV), which were isolated from mosquitoes collected in Côte d'Ivoire and Vietnam, respectively. They represent the first nidoviruses to be discovered in insects. Here, we report the molecular characterization of four novel mesoniviruses, Hana virus, Méno virus, Nsé virus, and Moumo virus, all of which were identified in a geographical region in Côte d'Ivoire with high CavV prevalence. The viruses were found with prevalences between 0.5 and 2.8%, and genome sequence analyses and phylogenetic studies suggest that they represent at least three novel species. Electron microscopy revealed prominent club-shaped surface projections protruding from spherical, enveloped virions of about 120 nm. Northern blot data show that the four mesoniviruses analyzed in this study produce two major 3?-coterminal subgenomic mRNAs containing two types of 5? leader sequences resulting from the use of different pairs of leader and body transcription-regulating sequences that are conserved among mesoniviruses. Protein sequencing, mass spectroscopy, and Western blot data show that mesonivirus particles contain eight major structural protein species, including the putative nucleocapsid protein (25 kDa), differentially glycosylated forms of the putative membrane protein (20, 19, 18, and 17 kDa), and the putative spike (S) protein (77 kDa), which is proteolytically cleaved at a conserved site to produce S protein subunits of 23 and 57 kDa. The data provide fundamental new insight into common and distinguishing biological properties of members of this newly identified virus family. PMID:23536661

  10. Smoking Pattern in Family Members of Smokers in Slums of Surat City, Western India

    PubMed Central

    Gharat, Vaibhav; Nayak, Sunil; Bansal, Rajkumar

    2012-01-01

    Background The relationship between becoming a smoker and having smoker parents, siblings, and relatives is still uncovered in India. The influences of a smoking role model in a family on smoking habits of individuals are yet to be revealed. This study aimed to understand the relationship of smoking abuse of a person with smoking of their family members. Methods This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the slums of 20 urban health centers (UHCs) of Surat city (India). A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The data was analyzed using Epi-Info software. Findings Among 281 smoker participants, 168 (59.8%), 55 (19.6%), 95 (33.8%), and 50 (17.8%) had smoking fathers, grandparents, siblings, and other relatives, respectively. While 131 participants (44.6%) had correct information about the law of banned smoking, 249 participants (88.6%) were in favor of this law. The association of smoking abuse in fathers with smoking abuse in siblings came out to be odds ratio (OR) = 3.75 (95% CI: 2.11-6.63) and grandparents to be odds ratio 16.43 (95% CI: 4.98-54.17), respectively. The association between education and following the law of banned smoking was statistically significant OR = 2.98 (95% CI: 1.43-6.00). Conclusion Substance abuse in parents, siblings, and other relatives is likely to influence the behavior of the person towards it. Persons living in the same vicinity may also greatly influence the behavior of an individual. PMID:24494146

  11. The ts111 Mutation of Paramecium tetraurelia Affects a Member of the Protein Palmitoylation Family.

    PubMed

    Prajer, Ma?gorzata; Tarcz, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The thermosensitive ts111 mutant of Parameciun tetraurelia carries a recessive mutation which causes cell death after 2-8 divisions at the restrictive temperature of 35 degrees C. Expression at 35 degrees C induces disassembly of the infraciliary lattice (ICL). In this study, we found that the ts111 mutation also results in significant abnormalities in the number and structure of contractile vacuole complexes (CVCs) and in their functioning at the restrictive temperature. In order to characterize the ts111 gene, the complementation cloning was performed by microinjection into the macronucleus of an indexed genomic DNA library. The mutation was complemented by a sequence of 852 bp, which differed from the mutant sequence by a single nucleotide substitution. The deduced protein sequence is 284 amino acids long. It contains a domain referred to as the DHHC domain, associated with 2 trans-membrane helices. The DHHC proteins belong to the Palmitoyl-Acyl Transferases (PATs) protein family, which is implicated in the protein palmitoylation process playing the role in protein addressing. The ts111 mutation induces the amino acid change, localized before the first membrane helix. Transformation of ts111 mutant cells with the TS111-GFP gene fusion showed the expected reparation restoring thermoresistance and also demonstrated a localization of the protein in contractile vacuoles, but not in the ICL. The entire gene silencing in wild type cells at restrictive temperature caused the same effect as the expression of a point mutation in ts111 mutant. The authors propose the following hypotheses: (i) function of CVCs at the restrictive temperature depends in Paramecium on the TS111 protein--a member of the PAT family, and the primary effect of the termosensitive ts111 mutation are morphological abnormalities and dysfunction of CVCs, (ii) disassembly of the ICL is a secondary effect of the ts111 mutation, which results from disturbed regulation of the intracellular concentration of Ca(+2) ions caused by the abnormal functioning of CVC. PMID:26462332

  12. Identification of four new members of the internalin multigene family of Listeria monocytogenes EGD.

    PubMed Central

    Dramsi, S; Dehoux, P; Lebrun, M; Goossens, P L; Cossart, P

    1997-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterial pathogen that is able to invade nonphagocytic cells. Two surface proteins, internalin, the inlA gene product, and InlB, play important roles in the entry into cultured mammalian cells. These proteins also have extensive sequence similarities. Previously, Southern hybridization predicted the existence of an internalin multigene family. Recently, InlC, a secreted protein of 30 kDa homologous to InlA and InlB, was identified. In this work, we identified and characterized four new members of the internalin multigene family, inlC2, inlD, inlE, and inlF which encode proteins of 548, 567, 499, and 821 amino acids respectively. inlC2, inlD, and inlE are contiguous on the chromosome of L. monocytogenes EGD, whereas inlF is located in a different chromosomal region. These four inl gene products display the principal features of internalin, namely, a signal sequence, two regions of repeats (or LRR and B repeats), and a putative cell wall anchor sequence containing the sorting motif LPXTG. The four inl genes were maximally expressed albeit at a low level during early exponential growth in bacterial medium at 37 degrees C. The role of these inl genes in L. monocytogenes invasion was assessed by constructing isogenic chromosomal deletion mutants and testing them for entry into various nonphagocytic cells. Unexpectedly, the inlC2, inlD, inlE, and inlF null mutants were not affected for entry into any of the cell lines tested, raising the possibility that these genes are needed for an aspect of pathogenicity other than invasion. The identity of such an aspect remains to be determined. PMID:9125538

  13. 41 CFR 303-70.403 - When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's duty station outside CONUS... Members § 303-70.403 When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or...

  14. 41 CFR 303-70.403 - When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's duty station outside CONUS... Members § 303-70.403 When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or...

  15. Functional Specialization Among Members Of Knickkopf Family Of Proteins In Insect Cuticle Organization

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Sujata S.; Moussian, Bernard; Specht, Charles A.; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Kramer, Karl J.; Beeman, Richard W.; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam

    2014-01-01

    Our recent study on the functional analysis of the Knickkopf protein from T. castaneum (TcKnk), indicated a novel role for this protein in protection of chitin from degradation by chitinases. Knk is also required for the laminar organization of chitin in the procuticle. During a bioinformatics search using this protein sequence as the query, we discovered the existence of a small family of three Knk-like genes (including the prototypical TcKnk) in the T. castaneum genome as well as in all insects with completed genome assemblies. The two additional Knk-like genes have been named TcKnk2 and TcKnk3. Further complexity arises as a result of alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation of transcripts of TcKnk3, leading to the production of three transcripts (and by inference, three proteins) from this gene. These transcripts are named TcKnk3-Full Length (TcKnk3-FL), TcKnk3-5′ and TcKnk3-3′. All three Knk-family genes appear to have essential and non-redundant functions. RNAi for TcKnk led to developmental arrest at every molt, while down-regulation of either TcKnk2 or one of the three TcKnk3 transcripts (TcKnk3-3′) resulted in specific molting arrest only at the pharate adult stage. All three Knk genes appear to influence the total chitin content at the pharate adult stage, but to variable extents. While TcKnk contributes mostly to the stability and laminar organization of chitin in the elytral and body wall procuticles, proteins encoded by TcKnk2 and TcKnk3-3′ transcripts appear to be required for the integrity of the body wall denticles and tracheal taenidia, but not the elytral and body wall procuticles. Thus, the three members of the Knk-family of proteins perform different essential functions in cuticle formation at different developmental stages and in different parts of the insect anatomy. PMID:25144557

  16. Impact of conditional deletion of the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BIM in mice.

    PubMed

    Herold, M J; Stuchbery, R; Mérino, D; Willson, T; Strasser, A; Hildeman, D; Bouillet, P

    2014-01-01

    The pro-apoptotic BH3-only BCL-2 family member BIM is a critical determinant of hematopoietic cell development and homeostasis. It has been argued that the striking hematopoietic abnormalities of BIM-deficient mice (accumulation of lymphocytes and granulocytes) may be the result of the loss of the protein throughout the whole animal rather than a consequence intrinsic to the loss of BIM in hematopoietic cells. To address this issue and allow the deletion of BIM in specific cell types in future studies, we have developed a mouse strain with a conditional Bim allele as well as a new Cre transgenic strain, Vav-CreER, in which the tamoxifen-inducible CreER recombinase (fusion protein) is predominantly expressed in the hematopoietic system. We show that acute loss of BIM in the adult mouse rapidly results in the hematopoietic phenotypes previously observed in mice lacking BIM in all tissues. This includes changes in thymocyte subpopulations, increased white blood cell counts and resistance of lymphocytes to BIM-dependent apoptotic stimuli, such as cytokine deprivation. We have validated this novel conditional Bim knockout mouse model using established and newly developed CreER strains (Rosa26-CreER and Vav-CreER) and will make these exciting new tools for studies on cell death and cancer available. PMID:25299771

  17. Differential Expression of Two Novel Members of the Tomato Ethylene-Receptor Family

    PubMed Central

    Tieman, Denise M.; Klee, Harry J.

    1999-01-01

    The phytohormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development, and environmental responses. Much of the developmental regulation of ethylene responses in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) occurs at the level of hormone sensitivity. In an effort to understand the regulation of ethylene responses, we isolated and characterized tomato genes with sequence similarity to the Arabidopsis ETR1 (ethylene response 1) ethylene receptor. Previously, we isolated three genes that exhibit high similarity to ETR1 and to each other. Here we report the isolation of two additional genes, LeETR4 and LeETR5, that are only 42% and 40% identical to ETR1, respectively. Although the amino acids known to be involved in ethylene binding are conserved, LeETR5 lacks the histidine within the kinase domain that is predicted to be phosphorylated. This suggests that histidine kinase activity is not necessary for an ethylene response, because mutated forms of both LeETR4 and LeETR5 confer dominant ethylene insensitivity in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression analysis indicates that LeETR4 accounts for most of the putative ethylene-receptor mRNA present in reproductive tissues, but, like LeETR5, it is less abundant in vegetative tissues. Taken together, ethylene perception in tomato is potentially quite complex, with at least five structurally divergent, putative receptor family members exhibiting significant variation in expression levels throughout development. PMID:10318694

  18. Structure and Cancer Immunotherapy of the B7 Family Member B7x

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyungjun; Vigdorovich, Vladimir; Garrett-Thomson, Sarah C.; Janakiram, Murali; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Abadi, Yael M.; Lee, Jun Sik; Scandiuzzi, Lisa; Ohaegbulam, Kim C; Chinai, Jordan M; Zhao, Ruihua; Yao, Yu; Mao, Ying; Sparano, Joseph A.; Almo, Steven C.; Zang, Xingxing

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY B7x (B7-H4 or B7S1) is a member of the B7 family that can inhibit T cell function. B7x protein is absent in most normal human tissues and immune cells, but is overexpressed in human cancers and often correlates with negative clinical outcome. The expression pattern and function of B7x suggest that it may be a potent immunosuppressive pathway in human cancers. Here we determined the crystal structure of human B7x IgV domain at 1.59Ã… resolution and mapped the epitopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies. We developed a new in vivo system to screen therapeutic monoclonal antibodies against B7x, and found that the clone 1H3 significantly inhibited growth of B7x-expressing tumor in vivo via multiple mechanisms. Furthermore, the surviving mice given 1H3 treatment were resistant to tumor re-challenge. Our data suggest that targeting B7x on tumors is a promising cancer immunotherapy and humanized 1H3 may be efficacious for immunotherapy of human cancers. PMID:25437562

  19. Immune factor Gambif1, a new rel family member from the human malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed Central

    Barillas-Mury, C; Charlesworth, A; Gross, I; Richman, A; Hoffmann, J A; Kafatos, F C

    1996-01-01

    A novel rel family member, Gambif1 (gambiae immune factor 1), has been cloned from the human malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, and shown to be most similar to Drosophila Dorsal and Dif. Gambif1 protein is translocated to the nucleus in fat body cells in response to bacterial challenge, although the mRNA is present at low levels at all developmental stages and is not induced by infection. DNA binding activity to the kappaB-like sites in the A.gambiae Defensin and the Drosophila Diptericin and Cecropin promoters is also induced in larval nuclear extracts following infection. Gambif1 has the ability to bind to kappaB-like sites in vitro. Co-transfection assays in Drosophila mbn-2 cells show that Gambif1 can activate transcription by interacting with the Drosophila Diptericin regulatory elements, but is not functionally equivalent to Dorsal in this assay. Gambif1 protein translocation to the nucleus and the appearance of kappaB-like DNA binding activity can serve as molecular markers of activation of the immune system and open up the possibility of studying the role of defence reactions in determining mosquito susceptibility/refractoriness to malaria infection. Images PMID:8887560

  20. Evolutionary study of vertebrate and invertebrate members of the dystrophin and utrophin gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.G.; Nicholson, L.; Bobrow, M.

    1994-09-01

    Vertebrates express two members of the dystrophin gene family. The prototype, dystrophin, is expressed in muscle and neural tissue, and is defective in the human disorders Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD, BMD). The dystrophin homologue utrophin is more generally expressed but has not yet been associated with a genetic disorder. The function of neither protein is clear. A comparison of human utrophin with the known dystrophins (human, mouse, chicken, Torpedo) suggests that dystrophin and utrophin diverged before the vertebrate radiation. We have used reverse-transcript PCR (RT-PCR) directed by degenerate primers to characterize dystrophin and utrophin transcripts from a range of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Our results suggest that the duplication leading to distinct dystrophin and utrophin genes occurred close to the point of divergence of urochordates from the cephalochordate-vertebrate lineage. This divergence may have occurred to fulfill a novel role which arose at this point, or may reflect a need for separate regulation of the neuromuscular and other functions of the ancient dystrophin. Our data include sequences of the first non-human utrophins to be characterized, and show these to be substantially more divergent than their cognate dystrophins. In addition, our results provide a large body of information regarding the tolerance of amino acid positions in the cysteine-rich and C-terminal domains to substitution. This will aid the interpretations of DMD and BMD missense mutations in these regions.

  1. Rapid detection of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae by a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Levasseur, S; Husson, M O; Leitz, R; Merlin, F; Laurent, F; Peladan, F; Drocourt, J L; Leclerc, H; Van Hoegaerden, M

    1992-01-01

    Six monoclonal antibodies directed against enterobacteria were produced and characterized. The specificity of one of these antibodies (CX9/15; immunoglobulin G2a) was studied by indirect immunofluorescence against 259 enterobacterial strains and 125 other gram-negative bacteria. All of the enterobacteria were specifically recognized, the only exception being Erwinia chrysanthemi (one strain tested). Bacteria not belonging to members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were not detected, except for Plesiomonas shigelloides (two strains tested), Aeromonas hydrophila (five strains tested), and Aeromonas sobria (one strain tested). This recognition spectrum strongly suggested that CX9/15 recognized the enterobacterial common antigen. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot (immunoblot) experiments, the six antienterobacteria antibodies presented similar specificities; they all revealed only one band with an apparent molecular weight of about 20,000 from the crude extract of an enterobacterium. The six monoclonal antibodies, and especially CX9/15, can be used to develop new tests for rapid and specific detection of enterobacteria. Images PMID:1622220

  2. Structure and cancer immunotherapy of the B7 family member B7x.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyungjun; Vigdorovich, Vladimir; Garrett-Thomson, Sarah C; Janakiram, Murali; Ramagopal, Udupi A; Abadi, Yael M; Lee, Jun Sik; Scandiuzzi, Lisa; Ohaegbulam, Kim C; Chinai, Jordan M; Zhao, Ruihua; Yao, Yu; Mao, Ying; Sparano, Joseph A; Almo, Steven C; Zang, Xingxing

    2014-11-01

    B7x (B7-H4 or B7S1) is a member of the B7 family that can inhibit T cell function. B7x protein is absent in most normal human tissues and immune cells, but it is overexpressed in human cancers and often correlates with negative clinical outcome. The expression pattern and function of B7x suggest that it may be a potent immunosuppressive pathway in human cancers. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the human B7x immunoglobulin variable (IgV) domain at 1.59 Å resolution and mapped the epitopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies. We developed an in vivo system to screen therapeutic monoclonal antibodies against B7x and found that the clone 1H3 significantly inhibited growth of B7x-expressing tumors in vivo via multiple mechanisms. Furthermore, the surviving mice given 1H3 treatment were resistant to tumor rechallenge. Our data suggest that targeting B7x on tumors is a promising cancer immunotherapy and humanized 1H3 may be efficacious for immunotherapy of human cancers. PMID:25437562

  3. Cage-Like B41 (+) and B42 (2+) : New Chiral Members of the Borospherene Family.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Su-Yan; Bai, Hui; Tian, Wen-Juan; Gao, Ting; Li, Hai-Ru; Miao, Chang-Qing; Mu, Yue-Wen; Lu, Hai-Gang; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian

    2015-07-01

    The newly discovered borospherenes B40 (-/0) and B39 (-) mark the onset of a new class of boron nanostructures. Based on extensive first-principles calculations, we introduce herein two new chiral members to the borospherene family: the cage-like C1 B41 (+) (1) and C2 B42 (2+) (2), both of which are the global minima of the systems with degenerate enantiomers. These chiral borospherene cations are composed of twelve interwoven boron double chains with six hexagonal and heptagonal faces and may be viewed as the cuborenes analogous to cubane (C8 H8 ). Chemical bonding analyses show that there exists a three-center two-electron ??bond on each B3 triangle and twelve multicenter two-electron ??bonds over the ??skeleton. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that C1 B41 (+) (1) fluctuates above 300?K, whereas C2 B42 (2+) (2) remains dynamically stable. The infrared and Raman spectra of these borospherene cations are predicted to facilitate their experimental characterizations. PMID:26014224

  4. Synthesis of Some Members of the Hydroxylated Phenanthridone Sub-class of the Amaryllidaceae Alkaloid Family

    PubMed Central

    Padwa, Albert; Zhang, Hongjun

    2008-01-01

    The total synthesis of several members of the hydroxylated phenanthridone sub-class of the Amaryllidaceae alkaloid family has been carried out. (±)-Lycoricidine and (±)-7-deoxypancratistatin were assembled through a one-pot Stille/intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition cascade to construct the core skeleton. The initially formed [4+2]-cycloadduct undergoes nitrogen-assisted ring opening followed by a deprotonation/reprotonation of the resulting zwitterion to give a rearranged hexahydroindolinone on further heating at 160 °C. The stereochemical outcome of the IMDAF cycloaddition has the side arm of the tethered vinyl group oriented exo with respect to the oxygen bridge. The resulting cycloadduct was used for the stereocontrolled installation of the remaining functionality present in the C-ring of the target molecules. Key features of the synthetic strategy include (1) a lithium-hydroxide induced tandem hydrolysis/decarboxylation/elimination sequence to introduce the required ?-bond in the C-ring of (±)-lycoricidine; and (2) conversion of the initially formed Diels-Alder adduct into an aldehyde intermediate which then undergoes a stereospecific decarbonylation reaction mediated by Wilkinson’s catalyst to set the trans B-C ring junction of (±)-7-deoxypancratistatin. PMID:17338575

  5. Impact of conditional deletion of the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BIM in mice

    PubMed Central

    Herold, M J; Stuchbery, R; Mérino, D; Willson, T; Strasser, A; Hildeman, D; Bouillet, P

    2014-01-01

    The pro-apoptotic BH3-only BCL-2 family member BIM is a critical determinant of hematopoietic cell development and homeostasis. It has been argued that the striking hematopoietic abnormalities of BIM-deficient mice (accumulation of lymphocytes and granulocytes) may be the result of the loss of the protein throughout the whole animal rather than a consequence intrinsic to the loss of BIM in hematopoietic cells. To address this issue and allow the deletion of BIM in specific cell types in future studies, we have developed a mouse strain with a conditional Bim allele as well as a new Cre transgenic strain, Vav-CreER, in which the tamoxifen-inducible CreER recombinase (fusion protein) is predominantly expressed in the hematopoietic system. We show that acute loss of BIM in the adult mouse rapidly results in the hematopoietic phenotypes previously observed in mice lacking BIM in all tissues. This includes changes in thymocyte subpopulations, increased white blood cell counts and resistance of lymphocytes to BIM-dependent apoptotic stimuli, such as cytokine deprivation. We have validated this novel conditional Bim knockout mouse model using established and newly developed CreER strains (Rosa26-CreER and Vav-CreER) and will make these exciting new tools for studies on cell death and cancer available. PMID:25299771

  6. Caspase cleavage of members of the amyloid precursor family of proteins.

    PubMed

    Galvan, Veronica; Chen, Sylvia; Lu, Daniel; Logvinova, Anna; Goldsmith, Paul; Koo, Edward H; Bredesen, Dale E

    2002-07-01

    The synapse loss and neuronal cell death characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are believed to result in large part from the neurotoxic effects of beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta), a 40-42 amino acid peptide(s) derived proteolytically from beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP). However, APP is also cleaved intracellularly to generate a second cytotoxic peptide, C31, and this cleavage event occurs in vivo as well as in vitro and preferentially in the brains of AD patients (Lu et al. 2000). Here we show that APPC31 is toxic to neurons in primary culture, and that like APP, the APP family members APLP1 and possibly APLP2 are cleaved by caspases at their C-termini. The carboxy-terminal peptide derived from caspase cleavage of APLP1 shows a degree of neurotoxicity comparable to APPC31. Our results suggest that even though APLP1 and APLP2 cannot generate Abeta, they may potentially contribute to the pathology of AD by generating peptide fragments whose toxicity is comparable to that of APPC31. PMID:12124429

  7. Do Family Members of Dialysis Patients Have a Positive Attitude Toward Organ Donation?

    PubMed

    Tumin, Makmor; Tafran, Khaled; Zakaria, Roza Hazli; Mohd Satar, NurulHuda; Ng, Kok Peng; Lim, Soo Kun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Malaysia, which currently uses the informed consent system (ICS), is suffering from a severe shortage of organs for transplantation. Family members of dialysis patients (FMDPs) are expected to have a positive attitude toward deceased organ donation (DOD) because they have a close relative in need of a kidney donation. This study explores FMDPs' attitude toward DOD under the ICS and the presumed consent system (PCS). MATERIAL AND METHODS The attitude of 350 FMDPs toward DOD under the ICS and PCS were sought between June and October 2013 in 3 dialysis institutions in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. RESULTS Under the ICS, 6.6% of respondents were registered donors, 6.6% were ready to register at the time of the survey, 38.6% were willing to donate but not ready to register at the time of the survey, and 48.2% were unwilling to donate organs upon death. If the PCS were implemented, 57.7% of respondents (28.7% of the willing donors and 88.7% of the unwilling respondents) stated that they would officially object to organ donation. CONCLUSIONS FMDPs' attitude toward DOD is not more positive or significantly better than that of the general public (based on earlier studies). The PCS may increase the number of donors, but it may also worsen the attitude of FMDPs toward DOD. Strategies aiming to promote DOD in Malaysia should be revised, and should perhaps be focused on enhancing trust of the medical system. PMID:26690676

  8. Mice Lacking the SLAM Family Member CD84 Display Unaltered Platelet Function in Hemostasis and Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Sebastian; Braun, Attila; Pozgaj, Rastislav; Morowski, Martina; Vögtle, Timo; Nieswandt, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Background Platelets are anuclear cell fragments derived from bone marrow megakaryocytes that safeguard vascular integrity by forming thrombi at sites of vascular injury. Although the early events of thrombus formation—platelet adhesion and aggregation—have been intensively studied, less is known about the mechanisms and receptors that stabilize platelet-platelet interactions once a thrombus has formed. One receptor that has been implicated in this process is the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family member CD84, which can undergo homophilic interactions and becomes phosphorylated upon platelet aggregation. Objective The role of CD84 in platelet physiology and thrombus formation was investigated in CD84-deficient mice. Methods and Results We generated CD84-deficient mice and analyzed their platelets in vitro and in vivo. Cd84?/? platelets exhibited normal activation and aggregation responses to classical platelet agonists. Furthermore, CD84 deficiency did not affect integrin-mediated clot retraction and spreading of activated platelets on fibrinogen. Notably, also the formation of stable three-dimensional thrombi on collagen-coated surfaces under flow ex vivo was unaltered in the blood of Cd84?/? mice. In vivo, Cd84?/? mice exhibited unaltered hemostatic function and arterial thrombus formation. Conclusion These results show that CD84 is dispensable for thrombus formation and stabilization, indicating that its deficiency may be functionally compensated by other receptors or that it may be important for platelet functions different from platelet-platelet interactions. PMID:25551754

  9. Associations between violent video gaming, empathic concern, and prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends, and family members.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Ashley M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, Larry J; Stockdale, Laura A

    2012-05-01

    Exposure to media violence, including violent video gaming, can have a cognitive desensitization effect, lowering empathic concern for others in need. Since emerging adulthood offers increased opportunities to volunteer, strengthen relationships, and initiate new relationships, decreases in empathic concern and prosocial behavior may prove inhibitive to optimal development during this time. For these reasons, the current study investigated associations between violent video gaming, empathic responding, and prosocial behavior enacted toward strangers, friends, and family members. Participants consisted of 780 emerging adults (M age = 19.60, SD = 1.86, range = 18–29, 69% female, 69% Caucasian) from four universities in the United States. Results showed small to moderate effects between playing violent video gaming and lowered empathic concern for both males and females. In addition, lowered empathic concern partially mediated the pathways between violent video gaming and prosocial behavior toward all three targets (at the level of a trend for females), but was most strongly associated with lower prosocial behavior toward strangers. Discussion highlights how violent video gaming is associated with lower levels of prosocial behavior through the mechanism of decreased empathic concern, how this association can affect prosocial behavior differently across target, and finally what implications this might have for development during emerging adulthood. PMID:22302216

  10. Cohabiting family members share microbiota with one another and with their dogs

    PubMed Central

    Song, Se Jin; Lauber, Christian; Costello, Elizabeth K; Lozupone, Catherine A; Humphrey, Gregory; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knights, Dan; Clemente, Jose C; Nakielny, Sara; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Fierer, Noah; Knight, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Human-associated microbial communities vary across individuals: possible contributing factors include (genetic) relatedness, diet, and age. However, our surroundings, including individuals with whom we interact, also likely shape our microbial communities. To quantify this microbial exchange, we surveyed fecal, oral, and skin microbiota from 60 families (spousal units with children, dogs, both, or neither). Household members, particularly couples, shared more of their microbiota than individuals from different households, with stronger effects of co-habitation on skin than oral or fecal microbiota. Dog ownership significantly increased the shared skin microbiota in cohabiting adults, and dog-owning adults shared more ‘skin’ microbiota with their own dogs than with other dogs. Although the degree to which these shared microbes have a true niche on the human body, vs transient detection after direct contact, is unknown, these results suggest that direct and frequent contact with our cohabitants may significantly shape the composition of our microbial communities. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00458.001 PMID:23599893

  11. A Novel Member of GH16 Family Derived from Sugarcane Soil Metagenome.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Thabata Maria; Liberato, Marcelo Vizoná; Cairo, João Paulo L Franco; Paixão, Douglas A A; Campos, Bruna M; Ferreira, Marcel R; Almeida, Rodrigo F; Pereira, Isabela O; Bernardes, Amanda; Ematsu, Gabriela C G; Chinaglia, Mariana; Polikarpov, Igor; de Oliveira Neto, Mario; Squina, Fabio Marcio

    2015-09-01

    Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are enzymes found in all living kingdoms that are involved in multiple physiological functions. Due to their multiple enzymatic activities, GHs are broadly applied in bioethanol, food, and paper industry. In order to increase the productivity of these industrial processes, a constant search for novel and efficient enzymes has been proved to be necessary. In this context, metagenomics is a powerful approach to achieve this demand. In the current study, we describe the discovery and characterization of a novel member of GH16 family derived from the sugarcane soil metagenome. The enzyme, named SCLam, has 286 amino acid residues and displays sequence homology and activity properties that resemble known laminarases. SCLam is active against barley beta-glucan, laminarin, and lichenan (72, 33, and 10 U mg(-1), respectively). The optimal reaction conditions were identified as 40 °C and pH 6.5. The low-resolution structure was determined using the small-angle X-ray scattering technique, revealing that SCLam is a monomer in solution with a radius of gyration equal to 19.6 Å. To the best of our knowledge, SCLam is the first nonspecific (1,3/1,3:1,4)-?-D-glucan endohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.6) recovered by metagenomic approach to be characterized. PMID:26242386

  12. Members of a dinoflagellate luciferase gene family differ in synonymous substitution rates.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, O K; Liu, L; Robertson, D L; Hastings, J W

    2001-12-25

    Regulation and evolution of dinoflagellate luciferases are of particular interest since the enzyme is structurally unique and bioluminescence is under circadian control. In this study, three new members of the dinoflagellate luciferase gene family were identified and characterized from Pyrocystis lunula. These genes, lcfA, lcfB, and lcfC, also exhibit the unusual structure and organization previously reported for the luciferase gene of a related dinoflagellate, Lingulodinium polyedrum: three repeated domains, each encoding an active catalytic site, multiple gene copies, and tandem organization. The histidine residues involved in the pH regulation of L. polyedrum luciferase activity, and implicated in the regulation of flashing, are also fully conserved in P. lunula. The interspecific conservation between the individual luciferase domains of P. lunula and L. polyedrum is higher than among domains intramolecularly, indicating that this unique gene structure arose through duplication events that occurred prior to the divergence of these dinoflagellates. However, P. lunula luciferase genes differ from L. polyedrum in several respects, notably, the occurrence of an intron in one gene (lcfC), a 2.25-kb intergenic region connecting lcfA and lcfB, and, of particular interest, an invariant rate of synonymous (silent) substitutions along the repeat domains, in contrast to L. polyedrum luciferase, where the occurrence of synonymous substitutions is practically absent in the central region of the domains. PMID:11747464

  13. Left-right asymmetric expression of the TGF beta-family member lefty in mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Meno, C; Saijoh, Y; Fujii, H; Ikeda, M; Yokoyama, T; Yokoyama, M; Toyoda, Y; Hamada, H

    1996-05-01

    Examples of lateral asymmetry are often found in vertebrates, such as the heart being on the left side, but the molecular mechanism governing the establishment of this left-right (L-R) handedness is unknown. A diffusible morphogen may determine L-R polarity, but a likely molecule has not so far been identified. Here we report on the gene lefty, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta family, which may encode a morphogen for L-R determination. Lefty protein contains the cysteine-knot motif characteristic of this superfamily and is secreted as a processed form of relative molecular mass 25K-32K. Surprisingly, lefty is expressed in the left half of gastrulating mouse embryos. This asymmetric expression is very transient and occurs just before the first sign of lateral asymmetry appears. In the mouse mutants iv and inv, which cause situs inversus, the sites of lefty expression are inverted, indicating that lefty is downstream of iv and inv. These results suggest that lefty may be involved in setting up L-R asymmetry in the organ systems of mammals. PMID:8610011

  14. Xhe2 is a member of the astacin family of metalloproteases that promotes Xenopus hatching.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang-Soo; Saint-Jeannet, Jean-Pierre

    2014-12-01

    Transcription factors Pax3 and Zic1 are among the earliest genes activated at the neural plate border. In Xenopus, they are necessary and sufficient to promote the formation of multiple neural plate border cell types, including the neural crest, cranial placodes, and hatching gland. Pax3 is especially critical for the formation of the hatching gland, a group of cells that produce proteolytic enzymes essential to digest the egg vitelline envelope and jelly coat in order to release the tadpole into the environment. In a screen designed to identify downstream targets of Pax3, we isolated a member of the astacin family of metalloproteases, related to Xenopus hatching enzyme (Xhe), that we named Xhe2. Xhe2 is exclusively expressed in hatching gland cells as they first emerge at the lateral edge of the anterior neural plate, and persists in this tissue up to the tadpole stage. Knockdown experiments show that Xhe2 expression depends entirely on Pax3 function. Gain-of-function studies demonstrate that Pax3 can induce premature hatching through the upregulation of several proteolytic enzymes including Xhe2. Interestingly, Xhe2 overexpression is sufficient to induce early hatching, indicating that Xhe2 is one of the key components of the degradation mechanism responsible for breaking down the vitelline membrane. PMID:25399671

  15. Drosophila Follistatin Exhibits Unique Structural Modifications and Interacts with Several TGF-Beta Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, Daniela; Shah, Ripal; Gesualdi, Scott C.; Haerry, Theodor E.

    2008-01-01

    Follistatin (FS) is one of several secreted proteins that modulate the activity of TGF-β family members during development. The structural and functional analysis of Drosophila Follistatin (dFS) reveals important differences between dFS and its vertebrate orthologues: it is larger, more positively charged, and proteolytically processed. dFS primarily inhibits signaling of Drosophila Activin (dACT) but can also inhibit other ligands like Decapentaplegic (DPP). In contrast, the presence of dFS enhances signaling of the Activin-like protein Dawdle (DAW), indicating that dFS exhibits a dual function in facilitating and inhibiting signaling of TGF-β ligands. In addition, FS proteins may also function in facilitating ligand diffusion. We find that mutants of daw are rescued in significant numbers by expression of vertebrate FS proteins. Since two PiggyBac insertions in dfs are not lethal, it appears that the function of dFS is non-essential or functionally redundant. PMID:18077144

  16. Characterization of Alzheimer's beta -secretase protein BACE. A pepsin family member with unusual properties.

    PubMed

    Haniu, M; Denis, P; Young, Y; Mendiaz, E A; Fuller, J; Hui, J O; Bennett, B D; Kahn, S; Ross, S; Burgess, T; Katta, V; Rogers, G; Vassar, R; Citron, M

    2000-07-14

    The cerebral deposition of amyloid beta-peptide is an early and critical feature of Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid beta-peptide is released from the amyloid precursor protein by the sequential action of two proteases, beta-secretase and gamma-secretase, and these proteases are prime targets for therapeutic intervention. We have recently cloned a novel aspartic protease, BACE, with all the known properties of beta-secretase. Here we demonstrate that BACE is an N-glycosylated integral membrane protein that undergoes constitutive N-terminal processing in the Golgi apparatus. We have used a secreted Fc fusion-form of BACE (BACE-IgG) that contains the entire ectodomain for a detailed analysis of posttranslational modifications. This molecule starts at Glu(46) and contains four N-glycosylation sites (Asn(153), Asn(172), Asn(223), and Asn(354)). The six Cys residues in the ectodomain form three intramolecular disulfide linkages (Cys(216)-Cys(420), Cys(278)-Cys(443), and Cys(330)-Cys(380)). Despite the conservation of the active site residues and the 30-37% amino acid homology with known aspartic proteases, the disulfide motif is fundamentally different from that of other aspartic proteases. This difference may affect the substrate specificity of the enzyme. Taken together, both the presence of a transmembrane domain and the unusual disulfide bond structure lead us to conclude that BACE is an atypical pepsin family member. PMID:10887202

  17. All members in the sphingomyelin synthase gene family have ceramide phosphoethanolamine synthase activity[S

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Tingbo; Kabir, Inamul; Li, Yue; Lou, Caixia; Yazdanyar, Amirfarbod; Xu, Jiachen; Dong, Jibin; Zhou, Hongwen; Park, Taesik; Boutjdir, Mohamed; Li, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Xian-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomyelin synthase-related protein (SMSr) synthesizes the sphingomyelin analog ceramide phosphoethanolamine (CPE) in cells. Previous cell studies indicated that SMSr is involved in ceramide homeostasis and is crucial for cell function. To further examine SMSr function in vivo, we generated Smsr KO mice that were fertile and had no obvious phenotypic alterations. Quantitative MS analyses of plasma, liver, and macrophages from the KO mice revealed only marginal changes in CPE and ceramide as well as other sphingolipid levels. Because SMS2 also has CPE synthase activity, we prepared Smsr/Sms2 double KO mice. We found that CPE levels were not significantly changed in macrophages, suggesting that CPE levels are not exclusively dependent on SMSr and SMS2 activities. We then measured CPE levels in Sms1 KO mice and found that Sms1 deficiency also reduced plasma CPE levels. Importantly, we found that expression of Sms1 or Sms2 in SF9 insect cells significantly increased not only SM but also CPE formation, indicating that SMS1 also has CPE synthase activity. Moreover, we measured CPE synthase Km and Vmax for SMS1, SMS2, and SMSr using different NBD ceramides. Our study reveals that all mouse SMS family members (SMSr, SMS1, and SMS2) have CPE synthase activity. However, neither CPE nor SMSr appears to be a critical regulator of ceramide levels in vivo. PMID:25605874

  18. STS-103 crew members and their families pose for a portrait before DEPARTing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-103 crew pose for a group portrait with their families and loved ones on the runway at Patrick Air Force Base in Cocoa Beach, Fla. They are preparing to board an airplane that will return them to their home base at the Johnson Space Center in Houston following the successful completion of their mission. From left to right, the crew members are Mission Specialists John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, and Steven L. Smith; Pilot Scott J. Kelly; and Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. Discovery landed in darkness the previous evening, Dec. 27, on runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. This was the first time that a Shuttle crew spent the Christmas holiday in space. The STS-103 mission accomplished outfitting the Hubble Space Telescope with six new gyroscopes, six new voltage/temperature improvement kits, a new onboard computer, a new solid state recorder and new data transmitter, a new fine guidance sensor along with new insulation on parts of the orbiting telescope. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery.

  19. New functions of the chloroplast Preprotein and Amino acid Transporter (PRAT) family members in protein import.

    PubMed

    Rossig, Claudia; Reinbothe, Christiane; Gray, John; Valdes, Oscar; von Wettstein, Diter; Reinbothe, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Plant cells contain distinct compartments such as the nucleus, the endomembrane system comprising the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, peroxisomes, vacuoles, as well as mitochondria and chloroplasts. All of these compartments are surrounded by 1 or 2 limiting membranes and need to import proteins from the cytosol. Previous work led to the conclusion that mitochondria and chloroplasts use structurally different protein import machineries in their outer and inner membranes for the uptake of cytosolic precursor proteins. Our most recent data show that there is some unexpected overlap. Three members of the family of preprotein and amino acid transporters, PRAT, were identified in chloroplasts that mediate the uptake of transit sequence-less proteins into the inner plastid envelope membrane. By analogy, mitochondria contain with TIM22 a related PRAT protein that is involved in the import of transit sequence-less proteins into the inner mitochondrial membrane. Both mitochondria and chloroplasts thus make use of similar import mechanisms to deliver some of their proteins to their final place. Because single homologs of HP20- and HP30-like proteins are present in algae such as Chlamydomonas, Ostreococcus, and Volvox, which diverged from land plants approximately 1 billion years ago, it is likely that the discovered PRAT-mediated mechanism of protein translocation evolved concomitantly with the secondary endosymbiotic event that gave rise to green plants. PMID:24476934

  20. Intracellular localization of the BCL-2 family member BOK and functional implications

    PubMed Central

    Echeverry, N; Bachmann, D; Ke, F; Strasser, A; Simon, H U; Kaufmann, T

    2013-01-01

    The pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BOK is widely expressed and resembles the multi-BH domain proteins BAX and BAK based on its amino acid sequence. The genomic region encoding BOK was reported to be frequently deleted in human cancer and it has therefore been hypothesized that BOK functions as a tumor suppressor. However, little is known about the molecular functions of BOK. We show that enforced expression of BOK activates the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway in BAX/BAK-proficient cells but fails to kill cells lacking both BAX and BAK or sensitize them to cytotoxic insults. Interestingly, major portions of endogenous BOK are localized to and partially inserted into the membranes of the Golgi apparatus as well as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and associated membranes. The C-terminal transmembrane domain of BOK thereby constitutes a ‘tail-anchor' specific for targeting to the Golgi and ER. Overexpression of full-length BOK causes early fragmentation of ER and Golgi compartments. A role for BOK on the Golgi apparatus and the ER is supported by an abnormal response of Bok-deficient cells to the Golgi/ER stressor brefeldin A. Based on these results, we propose that major functions of BOK are exerted at the Golgi and ER membranes and that BOK induces apoptosis in a manner dependent on BAX and BAK. PMID:23429263

  1. Identification and functional characterization of a solute carrier family 15, member 4 gene in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Gui; Yuan, Kai; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Yuan, Feng-Hua; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yue, Hai-Tao; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

    2016-04-01

    Innate immunity in shrimp is important in resisting bacterial infection. The NF-κB pathway is pivotal in such an immune response. This study cloned and functionally characterized the solute carrier family (SLC) 15 member A 4 (LvSLC15A4) gene in Litopenaeus vannamei. The open reading frame of LvSLC15A4 is 1, 902 bp long and encodes a putative 633-amino acid protein, which is localized in the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicular compartments. Results of the reporter gene assay showed that LvSLC15A4 upregulated NF-κB target genes, including the immediate-early gene 1 of white spot syndrome virus, as well as several antimicrobial peptide genes, such as pen4, CecA, AttA, and Mtk in S2 cells. Moreover, knocked-down expression of LvSLC15A4 reduced pen4 expression in L. vannamei. LvSLC15A4 down-regulation also increased the cumulative mortality of Vibrio parahemolyticus-infected L. vannamei. Furthermore, LvSLC15A4 expression was induced by unfolded protein response (UPR) in L. vannamei hematocytes. These results suggest that LvSLC15A4 participates in L. vannamei innate immunity via the NF-κB pathway and thus may be related to UPR. PMID:26691577

  2. Prenylated Rab acceptor domain family member 1 is involved in stimulated ACTH secretion and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Compton, Shannon L; Kemppainen, Robert J; Behrend, Ellen N

    2009-12-01

    Dexamethasone (Dex) inhibits stimulated adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion in AtT-20 cells, a mouse corticotroph tumor cell line. Dexras1 protein expression is induced in corticotrophs by Dex. The function of Dexras1 is unknown; however, it may be involved in corticotrophic negative feedback. Here we report the identification of a Dexras1 interactor, prenylated Rab acceptor domain family member 1 (PRAF1), a protein that localizes to the Golgi complex, post-Golgi vesicles, and endosomes. We determined that amino acids 54-175 of PRAF1 are essential for interaction with Dexras1 and that specific point mutations located within this region enhance PRAF1-Dexras1 interactions. AtT-20 cells stably transfected with truncated or mutated PRAF1 constructs had altered responses to corticotrophin-releasing hormone and Dex, upregulated expression of the ACTH prohormone pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), altered POMC processing, and altered Golgi complex morphology with decreased intra-Golgi and intracellular co-localization of PRAF1 and ACTH proteins. Our findings indicate that PRAF1 plays a novel role in ACTH stimulated secretion. We propose a model whereby Dexras1 interaction with PRAF1 may lock the sites necessary for PRAF1-Rab3A-VAMP2 interaction resulting in Dex-mediated inhibition of ACTH secretion. PMID:19733236

  3. Characterization of an M28 metalloprotease family member residing in the yeast vacuole

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Karen A.; Wytiaz, Victoria A.; Ast, Tslil; Schuldiner, Maya; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    The systematic and complete characterization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome and proteome has been stalled in some cases by misannotated genes. One such gene is YBR074W, which was initially annotated as two independent open reading frames (ORFs). We now report on Ybr074, a metalloprotease family member that was initially predicted to reside in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that Ybr074 may be an ER quality control protease. Instead, indirect immunofluorescence images indicate that Ybr074 is a vacuolar protein, and by employing protease protection assays, we demonstrate that a conserved M28 metalloprotease domain is oriented within the lumen. Involvement of Ybr074 in ER protein quality control was ruled out by examining the stabilities of several well-characterized substrates in strains lacking Ybr074. Finally, using a proteomic approach, we show that disrupting Ybr074 function affects the levels of select factors implicated in vacuolar trafficking and osmoregulation. Together, our data indicate that Ybr074 is the only multi-spanning vacuolar membrane protease found in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:23679341

  4. Multiple Members of the UDP-GalNAc: Polypeptide N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase Family Are Essential for Viability in Drosophila*

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Duy T.; Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Ying; Tian, E; Earl, Lesley A.; Ten Hagen, Kelly G.

    2012-01-01

    Mucin-type O-glycosylation represents a major form of post-translational modification that is conserved across most eukaryotic species. This type of glycosylation is initiated by a family of enzymes (GalNAc-Ts in mammals and PGANTs in Drosophila) whose members are expressed in distinct spatial and temporal patterns during development. Previous work from our group demonstrated that one member of this family is essential for viability and another member modulates extracellular matrix composition and integrin-mediated cell adhesion during development. To investigate whether other members of this family are essential, we employed RNA interference (RNAi) to each gene in vivo. Using this approach, we identified 4 additional pgant genes that are required for viability. Ubiquitous RNAi to pgant4, pgant5, pgant7, or the putative glycosyltransferase CG30463 resulted in lethality. Tissue-specific RNAi was also used to define the specific organ systems and tissues in which each essential family member is required. Interestingly, each essential pgant had a unique complement of tissues in which it was required. Additionally, certain tissues (mesoderm, digestive system, and tracheal system) required more than one pgant, suggesting unique functions for specific enzymes in these tissues. Expanding upon our RNAi results, we found that conventional mutations in pgant5 resulted in lethality and specific defects in specialized cells of the digestive tract, resulting in loss of proper digestive system acidification. In summary, our results highlight essential roles for O-glycosylation and specific members of the pgant family in many aspects of development and organogenesis. PMID:22157008

  5. 41 CFR 303-70.400 - When an immediate family member, residing with the employee, dies while the employee is stationed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When an immediate family... mortuary services? 303-70.400 Section 303-70.400 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... Expenses for Remains of Immediate Family Members § 303-70.400 When an immediate family member,...

  6. 41 CFR 303-70.400 - When an immediate family member, residing with the employee, dies while the employee is stationed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When an immediate family... mortuary services? 303-70.400 Section 303-70.400 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... Expenses for Remains of Immediate Family Members § 303-70.400 When an immediate family member,...

  7. An Investigation of Violent and Nonviolent Adolescents' Family Functioning, Problems Concerning Family Members, Anger and Anger Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Rasit; Gucray, Songul Sonay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to (a) investigate the families of violent and nonviolent adolescents in terms of family functioning, trait anger and anger expression, and (b) compare incidence of psychological problems, alcohol usage and delinquent behaviors. The sample consisted of families of both violent (n = 54) and nonviolent adolescents (n =…

  8. 29 CFR 779.234 - Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner or members of his immediate family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner... Arrangements § 779.234 Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner or members of his immediate family. Section 3(s) provides that any “establishment which has as its only regular employees the...

  9. 29 CFR 779.234 - Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner or members of his immediate family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner... Arrangements § 779.234 Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner or members of his immediate family. Section 3(s) provides that any “establishment which has as its only regular employees the...

  10. 29 CFR 779.234 - Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner or members of his immediate family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner... Arrangements § 779.234 Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner or members of his immediate family. Section 3(s) provides that any “establishment which has as its only regular employees the...

  11. 29 CFR 779.234 - Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner or members of his immediate family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner... Arrangements § 779.234 Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner or members of his immediate family. Section 3(s) provides that any “establishment which has as its only regular employees the...

  12. 29 CFR 779.234 - Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner or members of his immediate family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner... Arrangements § 779.234 Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner or members of his immediate family. Section 3(s) provides that any “establishment which has as its only regular employees the...

  13. Long-Term Outcomes of War-Related Death of Family Members in Kosovar Civilian War Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Reschke, Konrad; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to war-related experiences can comprise a broad variety of experiences and the very nature of certain war-related events has generally been neglected. To examine the long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members, the authors investigated the prevalence rates of major depressive episode (MDE), anxiety disorders, and quality of…

  14. Long-Term Outcomes of War-Related Death of Family Members in Kosovar Civilian War Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Reschke, Konrad; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to war-related experiences can comprise a broad variety of experiences and the very nature of certain war-related events has generally been neglected. To examine the long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members, the authors investigated the prevalence rates of major depressive episode (MDE), anxiety disorders, and quality of…

  15. 41 CFR 302-4.702 - What PCS travel expenses must we pay for the employee's immediate family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What PCS travel expenses must we pay for the employee's immediate family members? 302-4.702 Section 302-4.702 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES PERMANENT CHANGE...

  16. 41 CFR 302-4.702 - What PCS travel expenses must we pay for the employee's immediate family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What PCS travel expenses must we pay for the employee's immediate family members? 302-4.702 Section 302-4.702 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES PERMANENT CHANGE...

  17. Differential expression of three members of the multidomain adhesion CCp family in babesia bigemina, babesia bovis and theileria equi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the CCp protein family have been previously described to be expressed on gametocytes of apicomplexan Plasmodium parasites. Knocking out Plasmodium CCp genes blocks the development of the parasite in the mosquito vector, making the CCp proteins potential targets for the development of a tr...

  18. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL WHITEFLY-TRANSMITTED MEMBER OF THE FAMILY POTYVIRIDAE ISOLATED FROM CUCURBITS IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel whitefly-transmitted member of the family Potyviridae was isolated from a squash plant (Cucurbita pepo) with vein yellowing symptoms in Florida. The virus, for which the name Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is proposed, has flexuous rod-shaped particles of ~840 nm in length. Koch’s pos...

  19. 5 CFR 894.202 - If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover? 894.202 Section 894.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  20. 5 CFR 894.202 - If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover? 894.202 Section 894.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  1. 5 CFR 894.202 - If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover? 894.202 Section 894.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  2. 5 CFR 894.202 - If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover? 894.202 Section 894.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  3. 5 CFR 894.202 - If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover? 894.202 Section 894.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  4. Resilience in Families with Children and Adult Members with Intellectual Disabilities: Tracing Elements of a Psycho-Social Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Gordon; Ramcharan, Paul; Flynn, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Aim: This paper seeks to illumine how families with children and adult members with intellectual disabilities manage to manifest a buoyant and durable capacity over time. It is therefore concerned centrally with the idea of resilience. Method: Drawing from diverse theoretical literatures from child development and protection and gerontology, the…

  5. The Millennium Cohort Family Study: a prospective evaluation of the health and well-being of military service members and their families.

    PubMed

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Fairbank, John A; Marmar, Charlie R; Schlenger, William

    2014-09-01

    The need to understand the impact of war on military families has never been greater than during the past decade, with more than three million military spouses and children affected by deployments to Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom. Understanding the impact of the recent conflicts on families is a national priority, however, most studies have examined spouses and children individually, rather than concurrently as families. The Department of Defense (DoD) has recently initiated the largest study of military families in US military history (the Millennium Cohort Family Study), which includes dyads of military service members and their spouses (n?>?10,000). This study includes US military families across the globe with planned follow-up for 21+ years to evaluate the impact of military experiences on families, including both during and after military service time. This review provides a comprehensive description of this landmark study including details on the research objectives, methodology, survey instrument, ancillary data sets, and analytic plans. The Millennium Cohort Family Study offers a unique opportunity to define the challenges that military families experience, and to advance the understanding of protective and vulnerability factors for designing training and treatment programs that will benefit military families today and into the future. PMID:24912670

  6. Paradoxical Role of an Egr Transcription Factor Family Member, Egr2/Krox20, in Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Roseline; Cheval, Hélène; Mailhes, Caroline; Charnay, Patrick; Davis, Sabrina; Laroche, Serge

    2007-01-01

    It is well established that Egr1/zif268, a member of the Egr family of transcription factors, is critical for the consolidation of several forms of memories. Recently, the Egr3 family member has also been implicated in learning and memory. Because Egr family members encode closely related zinc-finger transcription factors sharing a highly homologous DNA binding domain that recognises the same DNA sequence, they may have related functions in brain. Another Egr family member expressed in brain, Egr2/Krox20 is known to be crucial for normal hindbrain development and has been implicated in several inherited peripheral neuropathies; however, due to Egr2-null mice perinatal lethality, its potential role in cognitive functions in the adult has not been yet explored. Here, we generated Egr2 conditional mutant mice allowing postnatal, forebrain-specific Cre-mediated Egr2 excision and tested homozygous, heterozygous and control littermates on a battery of behavioural tasks to evaluate motor capacity, exploratory behaviour, emotional reactivity and learning and memory performance in spatial and non-spatial tasks. Egr2-deficient mice had no sign of locomotor, exploratory or anxiety disturbances. Surprisingly, they also had no impairment in spatial learning and memory, taste aversion memory or fear memory using a trace conditioning paradigm. On the contrary, Egr2-deficient mice had improved performance in motor learning on a rotarod, and in object recognition memory. These results clearly do not extend the phenotypic consequences resulting from either Egr1 or Egr3 loss-of-function to Egr2. In contrast, they indicate that Egr family members may have different, and in certain circumstances antagonistic functions in the adult brain. PMID:18958188

  7. Members of the XB3 family from diverse plant species induce programmed cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoen; Liu, Xueying; Chen, Xiuhua; Snyder, Anita; Song, Wen-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Programmed cell death has been associated with plant immunity and senescence. The receptor kinase XA21 confers resistance to bacterial blight disease of rice (Oryza sativa) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Here we show that the XA21 binding protein 3 (XB3) is capable of inducing cell death when overexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. XB3 is a RING finger-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase that has been positively implicated in XA21-mediated resistance. Mutation abolishing the XB3 E3 activity also eliminates its ability to induce cell death. Phylogenetic analysis of XB3-related sequences suggests a family of proteins (XB3 family) with members from diverse plant species. We further demonstrate that members of the XB3 family from rice, Arabidopsis and citrus all trigger a similar cell death response in Nicotiana benthamiana, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved role for these proteins in regulating programmed cell death in the plant kingdom. PMID:23717500

  8. Consequences of Family Member Incarceration: Impacts on Civic Participation and Perceptions of the Legitimacy and Fairness of Government

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hedwig; Porter, Lauren C.; Comfort, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Political participation and citizens' perceptions of the legitimacy and fairness of government are central components of democracy. In this article, we examine one possible threat to these markers of a just political system: family member incarceration. We offer a unique glimpse into the broader social consequences of punishment that are brought on by a partner's or parent's incarceration. We argue that the criminal justice system serves as an important institution for political socialization for the families of those imprisoned, affecting their attitudes and orientations toward the government and their will and capacity to become involved in political life. We draw from ethnographic data collected by one of the authors, quantitative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and interviews with recently released male prisoners and their female partners. Our findings suggest that experiences of a family member's incarceration complicate perceptions of government legitimacy and fairness and serve as a barrier to civic participation. PMID:26185334

  9. Spider glue proteins have distinct architectures compared with traditional spidroin family members.

    PubMed

    Vasanthavada, Keshav; Hu, Xiaoyi; Tuton-Blasingame, Tiffany; Hsia, Yang; Sampath, Sujatha; Pacheco, Ryan; Freeark, Jordan; Falick, Arnold M; Tang, Simon; Fong, Justine; Kohler, Kristin; La Mattina-Hawkins, Coby; Vierra, Craig

    2012-10-19

    Adhesive spider glues are required to perform a variety of tasks, including web construction, prey capture, and locomotion. To date, little is known regarding the molecular and structural features of spider glue proteins, in particular bioadhesives that interconnect dragline or scaffolding silks during three-dimensional web construction. Here we use biochemical and structural approaches to identify and characterize two aggregate gland specific gene products, AgSF1 and AgSF2, and demonstrate that these proteins co-localize to the connection joints of both webs and wrapping silks spun from the black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus. Protein architectures are markedly divergent between AgSF1 and AgSF2, as well as traditional spider silk fibroin family members, suggesting connection joints consist of a complex proteinaceous network. AgSF2 represents a nonglycosylated 40-kDa protein that has novel internal amino acid block repeats with the consensus sequence NVNVN embedded in a glycine-rich matrix. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of AgSF1 reveals pentameric QPGSG iterations that are similar to conserved modular elements within mammalian elastin, a rubber-like elastomeric protein that interfaces with collagen. Wet-spinning methodology using purified recombinant proteins show AgSF1 has the potential to self-assemble into fibers. X-ray fiber diffraction studies performed on these synthetic fibers reveal the presence of noncrystalline domains that resemble classical rubber networks. Collectively, these data support that the aggregate gland serves to extrude a protein mixture that contains substances that allow for the self-assembly of fiber-like structures that interface with dragline silks to mediate prey capture. PMID:22927444

  10. Biological and regulatory properties of Vav-3, a new member of the Vav family of oncoproteins.

    PubMed

    Movilla, N; Bustelo, X R

    1999-11-01

    We report here the identification and characterization of a novel Vav family member, Vav-3. Signaling experiments demonstrate that Vav-3 participates in pathways activated by protein tyrosine kinases. Vav-3 promotes the exchange of nucleotides on RhoA, on RhoG and, to a lesser extent, on Rac-1. During this reaction, Vav-3 binds physically to the nucleotide-free states of those GTPases. These functions are stimulated by tyrosine phosphorylation in wild-type Vav-3 and become constitutively activated upon deletion of the entire calponin-homology region. Expression of truncated versions of Vav-3 leads to drastic actin relocalization and to the induction of stress fibers, lamellipodia, and membrane ruffles. Moreover, expression of Vav-3 alters cytokinesis, resulting in the formation of binucleated cells. All of these responses need only the expression of the central region of Vav-3 encompassing the Dbl homology (DH), pleckstrin homology (PH), and zinc finger (ZF) domains but do not require the presence of the C-terminal SH3-SH2-SH3 regions. Studies conducted with Vav-3 proteins containing loss-of-function mutations in the DH, PH, and ZF regions indicate that only the DH and ZF regions are essential for Vav-3 biological activity. Finally, we show that one of the functions of the Vav-3 ZF region is to work coordinately with the catalytic DH region to promote both the binding to GTP-hydrolases and their GDP-GTP nucleotide exchange. These results highlight the role of Vav-3 in signaling and cytoskeletal pathways and identify a novel functional cross-talk between the DH and ZF domains of Vav proteins that is imperative for the binding to, and activation of, Rho GTP-binding proteins. PMID:10523675

  11. Trichinella spiralis: genome database searches for the presence and immunolocalization of protein disulphide isomerase family members.

    PubMed

    Freitas, C P; Clemente, I; Mendes, T; Novo, C

    2016-01-01

    The formation of nurse cells in host muscle cells during Trichinella spiralis infection is a key step in the infective mechanism. Collagen trimerization is set up via disulphide bond formation, catalysed by protein disulphide isomerase (PDI). In T. spiralis, some PDI family members have been identified but no localization is described and no antibodies specific for T. spiralis PDIs are available. In this work, computational approaches were used to search for non-described PDIs in the T. spiralis genome database and to check the cross-reactivity of commercial anti-human antibodies with T. spiralis orthologues. In addition to a previously described PDI (PDIA2), endoplasmic reticulum protein (ERp57/PDIA3), ERp72/PDIA4, and the molecular chaperones calreticulin (CRT), calnexin (CNX) and immunoglobulin-binding protein/glucose-regulated protein (BIP/GRP78), we identified orthologues of the human thioredoxin-related-transmembrane proteins (TMX1, TMX2 and TMX3) in the genome protein database, as well as ERp44 (PDIA10) and endoplasmic reticulum disulphide reductase (ERdj5/PDIA19). Immunocytochemical staining of paraffin sections of muscle infected by T. spiralis enabled us to localize some orthologues of the human PDIs (PDIA3 and TMX1) and the chaperone GRP78. A theoretical three-dimensional model for T. spiralis PDIA3 was constructed. The localization and characteristics of the predicted linear B-cell epitopes and amino acid sequence of the immunogens used for commercial production of anti-human PDIA3 antibodies validated the use of these antibodies for the immunolocalization of T. spiralis PDIA3 orthologues. These results suggest that further study of the role of the PDIs and chaperones during nurse cell formation is desirable. PMID:25475092

  12. Genetic Structure and Distribution of the Colibactin Genomic Island among Members of the Family Enterobacteriaceae? †

    PubMed Central

    Putze, Johannes; Hennequin, Claire; Nougayrède, Jean-Philippe; Zhang, Wenlan; Homburg, Stefan; Karch, Helge; Bringer, Marie-Agnés; Fayolle, Corinne; Carniel, Elisabeth; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A.; Oswald, Eric; Forestier, Christiane; Hacker, Jörg; Dobrindt, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    A genomic island encoding the biosynthesis and secretion pathway of putative hybrid nonribosomal peptide-polyketide colibactin has been recently described in Escherichia coli. Colibactin acts as a cyclomodulin and blocks the eukaryotic cell cycle. The origin and prevalence of the colibactin island among enterobacteria are unknown. We therefore screened 1,565 isolates of different genera and species related to the Enterobacteriaceae by PCR for the presence of this DNA element. The island was detected not only in E. coli but also in Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Citrobacter koseri isolates. It was highly conserved among these species and was always associated with the yersiniabactin determinant. Structural variations between individual strains were only observed in an intergenic region containing variable numbers of tandem repeats. In E. coli, the colibactin island was usually restricted to isolates of phylogenetic group B2 and inserted at the asnW tRNA locus. Interestingly, in K. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes, C. koseri, and three E. coli strains of phylogenetic group B1, the functional colibactin determinant was associated with a genetic element similar to the integrative and conjugative elements ICEEc1 and ICEKp1 and to several enterobacterial plasmids. Different asn tRNA genes served as chromosomal insertion sites of the ICE-associated colibactin determinant: asnU in the three E. coli strains of ECOR group B1, and different asn tRNA loci in K. pneumoniae. The detection of the colibactin genes associated with an ICE-like element in several enterobacteria provides new insights into the spread of this gene cluster and its putative mode of transfer. Our results shed light on the mechanisms of genetic exchange between members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:19720753

  13. Crystal Structure and Mutational Analysis of Isomalto-dextranase, a Member of Glycoside Hydrolase Family 27.

    PubMed

    Okazawa, Yuka; Miyazaki, Takatsugu; Yokoi, Gaku; Ishizaki, Yuichi; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Tonozuka, Takashi

    2015-10-23

    Arthrobacter globiformis T6 isomalto-dextranase (AgIMD) is an enzyme that liberates isomaltose from the non-reducing end of a polymer of glucose, dextran. AgIMD is classified as a member of the glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 27, which comprises mainly ?-galactosidases and ?-N-acetylgalactosaminidases, whereas AgIMD does not show ?-galactosidase or ?-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activities. Here, we determined the crystal structure of AgIMD. AgIMD consists of the following three domains: A, C, and D. Domains A and C are identified as a (?/?)8-barrel catalytic domain and an antiparallel ?-structure, respectively, both of which are commonly found in GH27 enzymes. However, domain A of AgIMD has subdomain B, loop-1, and loop-2, all of which are not found in GH27 human ?-galactosidase. AgIMD in a complex with trisaccharide panose shows that Asp-207, a residue in loop-1, is involved in subsite +1. Kinetic parameters of the wild-type and mutant enzymes for the small synthetic saccharide p-nitrophenyl ?-isomaltoside and the polysaccharide dextran were compared, showing that Asp-207 is important for the catalysis of dextran. Domain D is classified as carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) 35, and an isomaltose molecule is seen in this domain in the AgIMD-isomaltose complex. Domain D is highly homologous to CBM35 domains found in GH31 and GH66 enzymes. The results here indicate that some features found in GH13, -31, and -66 enzymes, such as subdomain B, residues at the subsite +1, and the CBM35 domain, are also observed in the GH27 enzyme AgIMD and thus provide insights into the evolutionary relationships among GH13, -27, -31, -36, and -66 enzymes. PMID:26330557

  14. Phosphorylation of Synucleins by Members of the Polo-like Kinase Family*

    PubMed Central

    Mbefo, Martial K.; Paleologou, Katerina E.; Boucharaba, Ahmed; Oueslati, Abid; Schell, Heinrich; Fournier, Margot; Olschewski, Diana; Yin, Guowei; Zweckstetter, Markus; Masliah, Eliezer; Kahle, Philipp J.; Hirling, Harald; Lashuel, Hilal A.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorylation of ?-synuclein (?-syn) at Ser-129 is a hallmark of Parkinson disease and related synucleinopathies. However, the identity of the natural kinases and phosphatases responsible for regulating ?-syn phosphorylation remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that three closely related members of the human Polo-like kinase (PLK) family (PLK1, PLK2, and PLK3) phosphorylate ?-syn and ?-syn specifically at Ser-129 and Ser-118, respectively. Unlike other kinases reported to partially phosphorylate ?-syn at Ser-129 in vitro, phosphorylation by PLK2 and PLK3 is quantitative (>95% conversion). Only PLK1 and PLK3 phosphorylate ?-syn at Ser-118, whereas no phosphorylation of ?-syn was detected by any of the four PLKs (PLK1 to -4). PLK-mediated phosphorylation was greatly reduced in an isolated C-terminal fragment (residues 103–140) of ?-syn, suggesting substrate recognition via the N-terminal repeats and/or the non-amyloid component domain of ?-syn. PLKs specifically co-localized with phosphorylated Ser-129 (Ser(P)-129) ?-syn in various subcellular compartments (cytoplasm, nucleus, and membranes) of mammalian cell lines and primary neurons as well as in ?-syn transgenic mice, especially cortical brain areas involved in synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, we report that the levels of PLK2 are significantly increased in brains of Alzheimer disease and Lewy body disease patients. Taken together, these results provide biochemical and in vivo evidence of ?-syn and ?-syn phosphorylation by specific PLKs. Our results suggest a need for further studies to elucidate the potential role of PLK-syn interactions in the normal biology of these proteins as well as their involvement in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease and other synucleinopathies. PMID:19889641

  15. IRES-mediated translation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member PUMA

    PubMed Central

    Shaltouki, Atossa; Harford, Terri J.; Komar, Anton A.; Weyman, Crystal M.

    2013-01-01

    The proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member PUMA is a critical regulator of apoptosis. We have previously shown that PUMA plays a pivotal role in the apoptosis associated with skeletal myoblast differentiation and that a MyoD-dependent mechanism is responsible for the increased expression of PUMA in these cells. Herein, we report that the increased expression of PUMA under these conditions involves regulation at the level of translation. Specifically, we have found that the increase in PUMA protein levels occurs under conditions of decreased total protein synthesis, eIF2-alpha phosphorylation and hypophosphorylation of eIF4E-BP, suggesting that PUMA translation is proceeding via an alternative initiation mechanism. Polyribosome analysis of PUMA mRNA further corroborated this suggestion. A combination of in vitro and ex vivo (cellular) approaches has provided evidence suggesting that PUMA mRNA 5'UTR harbors an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) element. Using mono- and bi-cistronic reporter constructs, we have delineated an mRNA fragment that allows for cap-independent translation in vitro and ex vivo (in skeletal myoblasts) in response to culture in differentiation media (DM), or in response to treatment with the DNA-damaging agent, etoposide. This mRNA fragment also supports translation in HeLa and 293T cells. Thus, our data has revealed a novel IRES-mediated regulation of PUMA expression in several cell types and in response to several stimuli. These findings contribute to our understanding and potential manipulation of any developmental or therapeutic scenario involving PUMA.

  16. Evolution of the bovine TLR gene family and member associations with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Colleen A; Bhattarai, Eric K; Osterstock, Jason B; Dowd, Scot E; Seabury, Paul M; Vikram, Meenu; Whitlock, Robert H; Schukken, Ynte H; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Womack, James E; Seabury, Christopher M

    2011-01-01

    Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) gene family occupy key roles in the mammalian innate immune system by functioning as sentries for the detection of invading pathogens, thereafter provoking host innate immune responses. We utilized a custom next-generation sequencing approach and allele-specific genotyping assays to detect and validate 280 biallelic variants across all 10 bovine TLR genes, including 71 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one putative nonsense SNP. Bayesian haplotype reconstructions and median joining networks revealed haplotype sharing between Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus breeds at every locus, and specialized beef and dairy breeds could not be differentiated despite an average polymorphism density of 1 marker/158 bp. Collectively, 160 tagSNPs and two tag insertion-deletion mutations (indels) were sufficient to predict 100% of the variation at 280 variable sites for both Bos subspecies and their hybrids, whereas 118 tagSNPs and 1 tagIndel predictively captured 100% of the variation at 235 variable sites for B. t. taurus. Polyphen and SIFT analyses of amino acid (AA) replacements encoded by bovine TLR SNPs indicated that up to 32% of the AA substitutions were expected to impact protein function. Classical and newly developed tests of diversity provide strong support for balancing selection operating on TLR3 and TLR8, and purifying selection acting on TLR10. An investigation of the persistence and continuity of linkage disequilibrium (r2?0.50) between adjacent variable sites also supported the presence of selection acting on TLR3 and TLR8. A case-control study employing validated variants from bovine TLR genes recognizing bacterial ligands revealed six SNPs potentially eliciting small effects on susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium spp paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle. The results of this study will broadly impact domestic cattle research by providing the necessary foundation to explore several avenues of bovine translational genomics, and the potential for marker-assisted vaccination. PMID:22164200

  17. rbCLCA1 is a putative metalloprotease family member: localization and catalytic domain identification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ra Mi; Han, Kyu Ho; Han, Jin Soo

    2016-03-01

    Here, we identify the rat brain (rb) CLCA1 metalloprotease motif and its role in rbCLCA1 processing. GFP tagging or c-myc tagging adjacent to the rbCLCA1 signal sequence was used to detect rbCLCA1 expression and localization patterns if they matched those of other CLCA family members. Immunoblot analysis revealed that massive deletion of the metalloprotease motif affects the protein cleavage process by restricting two cleavage products to only one product. rbCLCA1 as well as the mutant proteins H155A, E156Q, H159A, D166A, E167A, E170A, and D171A overexpressed in HEK293T cells showed plasma membrane localization; and intracellular localizations of H159A and E167A were observed in permeabilized and non-permeabilized conditions. C-terminally GFP-tagged rbCLCA1 showed either ER localization or overall signal within the cells rather than on the cell surface. Cell surface biotinylation analysis was used to show that rbCLCA1, H155A, E156Q, D166A, E170A, and D171A reach the cell surface while little H159A and E167A reach the cell surface. Taken together, our findings indicate that the amino acids H159 and E167 in the rbCLCA1 metalloprotease motif are important in rbCLCA1 processing for localization to the cell surface. Our data demonstrate that rbCLCA1 localization is dependent on the H159 and E167, suggesting either the metalloprotease motif including H159 and E167 may be the key site for rbCLCA1 cellular processing or that a novel rbCLCA1 regulation mechanism exists with a metalloprotease activity. PMID:26510883

  18. Regulation of IL-17 Family Members by Adrenal Hormones During Experimental Sepsis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bosmann, Markus; Meta, Fabien; Ruemmler, Robert; Haggadone, Mikel D.; Sarma, J. Vidya; Zetoune, Firas S.; Ward, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Severe sepsis is a life-threatening disease that causes major morbidity and mortality. Catecholamines and glucocorticoids often have been used for the treatment of sepsis. Several recent studies have suggested a potential role of IL-17 during the development and progression of sepsis in small animal models. In this study, the cross-talk of catecholamines and glucocorticoids with members of the IL-17 family was investigated during sepsis in C57BL/6 mice. The concentrations in plasma of IL-17A, IL-17F, and the IL-17AF heterodimer all were increased greatly in mice after endotoxemia or cecal ligation and puncture as compared with sham mice. Surprisingly, when compared with IL-17A (487 pg/mL), the concentrations of IL-17F (2361 pg/mL) and the heterodimer, IL-17AF (5116 pg/mL), were much higher 12 hours after endotoxemia. After surgical removal of the adrenal glands, mice had much higher mortality after endotoxemia or cecal ligation and puncture. The absence of endogenous adrenal gland hormones (cortical and medullary) was associated with 3- to 10-fold higher concentrations of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-17AF, and IL-23. The addition of adrenaline, noradrenaline, hydrocortisone, or dexamethasone to lipopolysaccharide-activated peritoneal macrophages dose-dependently suppressed the expression and release of IL-17s. The production of IL-17s required activation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase, which was antagonized by both catecholamines and glucocorticoids. These data provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of immune modulation by catecholamines and glucocorticoids during acute inflammation. PMID:23499051

  19. Evolution of the Bovine TLR Gene Family and Member Associations with Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Colleen A.; Bhattarai, Eric K.; Osterstock, Jason B.; Dowd, Scot E.; Seabury, Paul M.; Vikram, Meenu; Whitlock, Robert H.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Womack, James E.; Seabury, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) gene family occupy key roles in the mammalian innate immune system by functioning as sentries for the detection of invading pathogens, thereafter provoking host innate immune responses. We utilized a custom next-generation sequencing approach and allele-specific genotyping assays to detect and validate 280 biallelic variants across all 10 bovine TLR genes, including 71 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one putative nonsense SNP. Bayesian haplotype reconstructions and median joining networks revealed haplotype sharing between Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus breeds at every locus, and specialized beef and dairy breeds could not be differentiated despite an average polymorphism density of 1 marker/158 bp. Collectively, 160 tagSNPs and two tag insertion-deletion mutations (indels) were sufficient to predict 100% of the variation at 280 variable sites for both Bos subspecies and their hybrids, whereas 118 tagSNPs and 1 tagIndel predictively captured 100% of the variation at 235 variable sites for B. t. taurus. Polyphen and SIFT analyses of amino acid (AA) replacements encoded by bovine TLR SNPs indicated that up to 32% of the AA substitutions were expected to impact protein function. Classical and newly developed tests of diversity provide strong support for balancing selection operating on TLR3 and TLR8, and purifying selection acting on TLR10. An investigation of the persistence and continuity of linkage disequilibrium (r2?0.50) between adjacent variable sites also supported the presence of selection acting on TLR3 and TLR8. A case-control study employing validated variants from bovine TLR genes recognizing bacterial ligands revealed six SNPs potentially eliciting small effects on susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium spp paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle. The results of this study will broadly impact domestic cattle research by providing the necessary foundation to explore several avenues of bovine translational genomics, and the potential for marker-assisted vaccination. PMID:22164200

  20. Geothermomicrobium terrae gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Thermoactinomycetaceae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, En-Min; Yu, Tian-Tian; Liu, Lan; Ming, Hong; Yin, Yi-Rui; Dong, Lei; Tseng, Min; Nie, Guo-Xing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-09-01

    Strains YIM 77562(T) and YIM 77580, two novel Gram-staining-positive, filamentous bacterial isolates, were recovered from the Rehai geothermal field, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. Good growth was observed at 50-55 °C and pH 7.0. Aerial mycelium was absent on all media tested. Substrate mycelium was well-developed, long and moderately flexuous, and formed abundant, single, warty, ornamented endospores. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains indicated that they belong to the family Thermoactinomycetaceae. Similarity levels between the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains and those of type strains of members of the Thermoactinomycetaceae were 88.33-93.24?%; the highest sequence similarity was with Hazenella coriacea DSM 45707(T). In both strains, the predominant menaquinone was MK-7, the diagnostic diamino acid was meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major cellular fatty acids were iso-C14?:?0, iso-C15?:?0 and iso-C16?:?0. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, unidentified polar lipids and unidentified phospholipids. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 77562(T) and YIM 77580 were 45.5 and 44.2 mol%, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness data suggest that the two isolates represent a single species. Based on phylogenetic analyses and physiological and biochemical characteristics, it is proposed that the two strains represent a single novel species in a new genus, Geothermomicrobium terrae gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Geothermomicrobium terrae is YIM 77562(T) (?=?CCTCC AA 2011022(T)?=?JCM 18057(T)). PMID:24907264