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1

Cloning and sequence analysis of a gene (pchR) encoding an AraC family activator of pyochelin and ferripyochelin receptor synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa K372 is deficient in the production of both the 75-kDa ferripyochelin receptor protein and pyochelin. A 1.8-kb EcoRI-SalI fragment which restored production of both the receptor protein and pyochelin was cloned. Nucleotide sequencing of the fragment revealed an open reading frame of 888 bp, designated pchR (pyochelin), capable of encoding a 296-amino-acid protein of a 32,339-Da molecular mass. By using a phage T7-based expression system, a protein of ca. 32 kDa was produced off the 1.8-kb fragment, confirming that this open reading frame was indeed expressed. A region exhibiting homology to the consensus Fur-binding site of Escherichia coli was identified upstream of the pchR coding region overlapping a putative promoter. In addition, the C-terminal 80 amino acid residues of PchR showed approximately 50% homology (identity, 31%; conserved changes, 19%) to the carboxy terminus of AraC, a known transcriptional activator of gene expression in E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Citrobacter freundii, and Erwinia chrysanthemi. Within the C-terminal region of PchR, AraC, and a number of other members of the AraC family of transcriptional activators, there exists a highly conserved 17-residue domain where, in fact, two residues are strictly maintained and two others exhibit only conserved changes, suggesting a common functional significance to this region in all of these proteins. These data are consistent with a role for PchR as a transcriptional activator of pyochelin and ferripyochelin receptor synthesis in P. aeruginosa. In agreement with this, a PchR mutant obtained by in vitro mutagenesis and gene replacement was deficient in production of the ferripyochelin receptor and pyochelin. Images PMID:8397186

Heinrichs, D E; Poole, K

1993-01-01

2

Principal Components of Heritability From Neurocognitive Domains Differ Between Families With Schizophrenia and Control Subjects  

PubMed Central

Objective: Various measures of neurocognitive function show mean differences among individuals with schizophrenia (SZ), their relatives, and population controls. We use eigenvector transformations that maximize heritability of multiple neurocognitive measures, namely principal components of heritability (PCH), and evaluate how they distribute in SZ families and controls. Methods: African-Americans with SZ or schizoaffective disorder (SZA) (n = 514), their relatives (n = 1092), and adult controls (n = 300) completed diagnostic interviews and computerized neurocognitive tests. PCH were estimated from 9 neurocognitive domains. Three PCH, PCH1–PCH3, were modeled to determine if status (SZ, relative, and control), other psychiatric covariates, and education were significant predictors of mean values. A small-scale linkage analysis was also conducted in a subset of the sample. Results: PCH1, PCH2, and PCH3 account for 72% of the genetic variance. PCH1 represents 8 of 9 neurocognitive domains, is most highly correlated with spatial processing and emotion recognition, and has unadjusted heritability of 68%. The means for PCH1 differ significantly among SZ, their relatives, and controls. PCH2, orthogonal to PCH1, is most closely correlated with working memory and has an unadjusted heritability of 45%. Mean PCH2 is different only between SZ families and controls. PCH3 apparently represents a heritable component of neurocognition similar across the 3 diagnostic groups. No significant linkage evidence to PCH1–PCH3 or individual neurocognitive measures was discovered. Conclusions: PCH1 is highly heritable and genetically correlated with SZ. It should prove useful in future genetic analyses. Mean PCH2 differentiates SZ families and controls but not SZ and unaffected family members. PMID:22234486

Wiener, Howard; Klei, Lambertus; Calkins, Monica; Wood, Joel; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Gur, Ruben; Bradford, L. DiAnne; Richard, Jan; Edwards, Neil; Savage, Robert; Kwentus, Joseph; Allen, Trina; McEvoy, Joseph; Santos, Alberto; Gur, Raquel; Devlin, Bernie; Go, Rodney

2013-01-01

3

Understanding family member suicide narratives by investigating family history.  

PubMed

The complex family environments in which a suicide death had previously occurred were explored in a qualitative study of narratives of suicide-bereaved participants. The participants searched for reasons why the suicide occurred in their family. Family patterning stories and the context of the environment in which the suicide death occurred provided an additional depth of meaning into the relational aspects of the family. Fractured families emerged as an important theme. Shared in the narratives were stories of conditions within the family that may have contributed to vulnerability towards persistent negative feelings about their lives, their family, and their future. The study also identifies the strengths of family culture that led to resilience in the suicide bereaved. These stories highlight the importance of support for those bereaved by the suicide of a close family member and the issues that places people in vulnerable situations that perhaps may explain the increased risk of suicide for those bereaved family members. PMID:25084708

Ratnarajah, Dorothy; Maple, Myfanwy; Minichiello, Victor

2014-01-01

4

Defining UML Family Members Using Prefaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Unified Modeling Language is extensible, and so can be regarded as a family of languages. Implicitly or explicitly, any particular UML model should be accompanied by a definition of the particular UML family member used for the model. The definition should cover syntactic and semantic issues. This paper proposes a mechanism for associating models with such definitions. Any particular

Steve Cook; Anneke Kleppe; Jos Warmer; Richard Mitchell; Bernhard Rumpe; Alan Cameron Wills

1999-01-01

5

7 CFR 1400.208 - Family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...through 1400.206, with respect to a farming operation conducted by persons...be considered to be actively engaged in farming if the adult family member meets the provisions...elects to be considered actively engaged in farming under this section must: (1)...

2010-01-01

6

32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR... § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family...9, Compliance of DoD Members, Employees, and Family Members Outside the United States With Court...

2010-07-01

7

Lysine221 is the general base residue of the isochorismate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PchA) in a reaction that is diffusion limited  

PubMed Central

The isochorismate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PchA) catalyzes the conversion of chorismate to isochorismate, which is subsequently converted by a second enzyme (PchB) to salicylate for incorporation into the salicylate-capped siderophore pyochelin. PchA is a member of the MST family of enzymes, which includes the structurally homologous isochorismate synthases from E. coli (EntC and MenF) and salicylate synthases from Yersinia enterocolitica (Irp9) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MbtI). The latter enzymes generate isochorismate as an intermediate before generating salicylate and pyruvate. General acid – general base catalysis has been proposed for isochorismate synthesis in all five enzymes, but the residues required for the isomerization are a matter of debate, with both lysine221 and glutamate313 proposed as the general base (PchA numbering). This work includes a classical characterization of PchA with steady state kinetic analysis, solvent kinetic isotope effect analysis and by measuring the effect of viscosogens on catalysis. The results suggest that isochorismate production from chorismate by the MST enzymes is the result of general acid – general base catalysis with a lysine as the base and a glutamic acid as the acid, in reverse protonation states. Chemistry is determined to not be rate limiting, favoring the hypothesis of a conformational or binding step as the slow step. PMID:23942051

Meneely, Kathleen M.; Luo, Qianyi; Dhar, Prajnaparamita; Lamb, Audrey L.

2013-01-01

8

Lysine221 is the general base residue of the isochorismate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PchA) in a reaction that is diffusion limited.  

PubMed

The isochorismate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PchA) catalyzes the conversion of chorismate to isochorismate, which is subsequently converted by a second enzyme (PchB) to salicylate for incorporation into the salicylate-capped siderophore pyochelin. PchA is a member of the MST family of enzymes, which includes the structurally homologous isochorismate synthases from Escherichia coli (EntC and MenF) and salicylate synthases from Yersinia enterocolitica (Irp9) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MbtI). The latter enzymes generate isochorismate as an intermediate before generating salicylate and pyruvate. General acid-general base catalysis has been proposed for isochorismate synthesis in all five enzymes, but the residues required for the isomerization are a matter of debate, with both lysine221 and glutamate313 proposed as the general base (PchA numbering). This work includes a classical characterization of PchA with steady state kinetic analysis, solvent kinetic isotope effect analysis and by measuring the effect of viscosogens on catalysis. The results suggest that isochorismate production from chorismate by the MST enzymes is the result of general acid-general base catalysis with a lysine as the base and a glutamic acid as the acid, in reverse protonation states. Chemistry is determined to not be rate limiting, favoring the hypothesis of a conformational or binding step as the slow step. PMID:23942051

Meneely, Kathleen M; Luo, Qianyi; Dhar, Prajnaparamita; Lamb, Audrey L

2013-10-01

9

Interleukin17 Family Members and Inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

IL-17A was cloned more than 10 years ago and six IL-17 family members (IL-17A-F) have subsequently been described. IL-17A is largely produced by activated memory T lymphocytes but stimulates innate immunity and host defense. IL-17A and IL-17F both mobilize neutrophils partly through granulopoeisis and CXC chemokine induction, as well as increased survival locally. IL-17A and IL-17F production by T lymphocytes

Jay K. Kolls; Anders Lindén

2004-01-01

10

20 CFR 653.104 - Services to MSFW family members, farm labor contractors, and crew members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...family members, farm labor contractors, and...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SERVICES OF THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Services for Migrant...family members, farm labor contractors, and...heads prior to the registration of all working...

2010-04-01

11

Reuniting Estranged Family Members: A Cognitive-Behavioral-Systemic Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the course of their clinical work, couple and family therapists may encounter situations in which family members have become estranged. While some of these estrangements have to do with reasons beyond family members’ control, such as adoptions, etc., many cases are primarily the result of deliberate separation over hurt feelings sparked by disputes. This article offers an integrated approach,

Frank M. Dattilio; Michael P. Nichols

2011-01-01

12

Identification of members of the P-glycoprotein multigene family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overproduction of P-glycoprotein is intimately associated with multidrug resistance. This protein appears to be encoded by a multigene family. Thus, differential expression of different members of this family may contribute to the complexity of the multidrug resistance phenotype. Three lambda genomic clones isolated from a hamster genomic library represent different members of the hamster P-glycoprotein gene family. Using a highly

W. F. Ng; F. Sarangi; R. L. Zastawny; L. Veinot-Drebot; V. Ling

1989-01-01

13

Perceived Family Resources Based on Number of Members with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examines how the number of family members with ADHD affects other family members' perceived resources. Method: A total of 40 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and their mothers, fathers, and adolescent siblings living in the household participated. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze family-level data from a total…

Corwin, Melinda; Mulsow, Miriam; Feng, Du

2012-01-01

14

Listening to the Voices of Family Members, Teachers, and Community Members  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigates the interrelationships between and among family members and community members who work with middle level children, and middle level teachers from the perspectives of the practitioners.

Musser, P. M.

2004-01-01

15

Coping Strategies of Family Members of Hospitalized Psychiatric Patients  

PubMed Central

This exploratory research paper investigated the coping strategies of families of hospitalized psychiatric patients and identified their positive and negative coping strategies. In this paper, the coping strategies of 45 family members were examined using a descriptive, correlational, mixed method research approach. Guided by the Neuman Systems Model and using the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales and semistructured interviews, this paper found that these family members used more emotion-focused coping strategies than problem-focused coping strategies. The common coping strategies used by family members were communicating with immediate family, acceptance of their situation, passive appraisal, avoidance, and spirituality. The family members also utilized resources and support systems, such as their immediate families, mental health care professionals, and their churches. PMID:21994826

Eaton, Phyllis M.; Davis, Bertha L.; Hammond, Pamela V.; Condon, Esther H.; McGee, Zina T.

2011-01-01

16

Resiliency in Families with a Member with a Psychological Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to identify resiliency factors in families with a mentally ill family member. The study population was composed of 30 families, where questionnaires were independently completed by both a parent and a child. The results indicate that family hardiness was an important resilience factor for both the parents and the children. According to the parents

Abraham P. Greeff; Alfons Vansteenwegen; Mieke Ide

2006-01-01

17

Validation of Toolkit After-Death Bereaved Family Member Interview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Toolkit After-Death Bereaved Family Member Interview to measure quality of care at the end of life from the unique perspective of family members. The survey included proposed problem scores (a count of the opportunity to improve the quality of care) and scales. Data were collected through

Joan M. Teno; Brian Clarridge; Virginia Casey; Susan Edgman-Levitan; Jack Fowler

2001-01-01

18

The After-Death Call to Family Members: Academic Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors discuss clinical and teaching aspects of a telephone call by the treating clinician to family members after a patient dies. Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted for references to an after-death call made by the treating clinician to family members. A review of this literature is summarized. Results: A clinical application…

LoboPrabhu, Sheila; Molinari, Victor; Pate, Jennifer; Lomax, James

2008-01-01

19

Actual and ideal professional support for African American family members.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to describe and compare, specifically, African American family members of critically ill adults' perceptions of the professional support they would like (ideal) to receive with the professional support they received (actual) from critical care nurses. The Professional Support Questionnaire for Critical Care Nurses Working With Family Members (PSQ) was administered by mail or telephone to 36 African American family members. The PSQ consists of three domains of support--information, comfort, and assurance. Paired t-test analyses indicated there were differences between the descriptions of professional nursing support expected (ideal) by family members and the professional support provided (actual) by critical care nurses. Although there was not an absence of professional nursing support, the degree and frequency to which African American family members wanted nurses to support them were not comparable to the support that nurses provided them. PMID:9842290

Waters, C M

1998-12-01

20

Coping with stigma by association and family burden among family members of people with mental illness.  

PubMed

In this study, we explored stigma by association, family burden, and their impact on the family members of people with mental illness. We also studied the ways in which family members coped with these phenomena. We conducted semistructured interviews with 23 immediate family members of people with mental illness. Participants reported various experiences of stigma by association and family burden. Social exclusion, being blamed, not being taken seriously, time-consuming caregiving activities, and exhaustion appeared to be the predominant forms of stigma by association and family burden experienced by the participants. The participants used problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies, separately or simultaneously, to cope with the negative impact of stigma by association and family burden. The results suggest that family members should have access to services to address these problems. Social, instrumental, and emotional support should be given to family members by community members and mental health professionals. PMID:25198703

van der Sanden, Remko L M; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Pryor, John B; Kok, Gerjo; Bos, Arjan E R

2014-10-01

21

Supportive Resources for Adult Patients, Family Members, and Friends  

E-print Network

with Loss ­ The Bereavement Program supports family members and friends following the death of a loved one. 617-632-2490 or www.dana-farber.org/bereavement Hats, Wigs, Scarves, and Prostheses ­ Visit Friends

Liu, Xiaole Shirley

22

Family Members' Influence on Family Meal Vegetable Choices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Characterize the process of family vegetable selection (especially cruciferous, deep orange, and dark green leafy vegetables); demonstrate the usefulness of Exchange Theory (how family norms and experiences interact with rewards and costs) for interpreting the data. Design: Eight focus groups, 2 with each segment (men/women vegetable…

Wenrich, Tionni R.; Brown, J. Lynne; Miller-Day, Michelle; Kelley, Kevin J.; Lengerich, Eugene J.

2010-01-01

23

The relationship between family history, gender role attitudes, and susceptibility to gender inequitable perceptions of family and family member functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined how family roles, gender of family leadership, beliefs about the consequences of maternal employment, and family history of parental division of responsibility related to young adults' perceptions of family and individual family member functioning. One hundred seven (107), predominantly Anglo American undergraduate students completing courses in educational psychology at a large midwestern university rated two videotaped family

David C. Ivey; Tamara Yaktus

1996-01-01

24

Concerns of family members of patients receiving palliative sedation therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeSymptomatic sedation is often required in terminally ill cancer patients and could cause significant distress to their families. The aim of this study was to gather vivid family descriptions about their experiences in palliative sedation therapy.MethodsThis report is an additional analysis of a multicenter questionnaire survey. We performed content analysis on 48 statements described by 185 bereaved family members of

Tatsuya Morita; Masayuki Ikenaga; Isamu Adachi; Itaru Narabayashi; Yoshiyuki Kizawa; Yoshifumi Honke; Hiroyuki Kohara; Taketo Mukaiyama; Tatsuo Akechi; Yukie Kurihara; Yosuke Uchitomi; Yasuo Kizawa

2004-01-01

25

Being Socialised into Language Shift: The Impact of Extended Family Members on Family Language Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines a family language policy (FLP) in the context of an extended bilingual Gaelic-English family on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. It demonstrates how certain family members (namely, the children's mother and paternal grandmother) negotiate and reify a strongly Gaelic-centred FLP. It then discusses how other extended family

Smith-Christmas, Cassie

2014-01-01

26

TRICARE; Reserve and Guard family member benefits. Final rule.  

PubMed

This final rule implements sections 704 and 705 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005. These provisions apply to eligible family members who become eligible for TRICARE as a result of their Reserve Component (RC) sponsor (including those with delayed effective date orders up to 90 days) being called or ordered to active duty for more than 30 days in support of a federal/contingency operation and choose to participate in TRICARE Standard or Extra, rather than enroll in TRICARE Prime. The first provision gives the Secretary the authority to waive the annual TRICARE Standard (or Extra) deductible, which is set by law (10 U.S.C. 1079(b)) at $150 per individual and $300 per family ($50/$100 for families of members in pay grades E-4 and below). The second provision gives the Secretary the authority to increase TRICARE payments up to 115 percent of the TRICARE maximum allowable charge, less the applicable patient cost share if not previously waived under the first provision, for covered inpatient and outpatient health services received from a provider that does not participate (accept assignment) with TRICARE. These provisions help ensure timely access to health care and maintain clinically appropriate continuity of health care to family members of Reservists and Guardsmen activated in support of a federal/contingency operation; limit the out-of-pocket health care expenses for those family members; and remove potential barriers to health care access by Guard and Reserve families. PMID:18956496

2008-08-12

27

Characterisation of candidate members of (136108) Haumea's family  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Ragozzine & Brown presented a list of candidate members of the first collisional family to be found among the trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), the one associated with (136108) Haumea (2003 EL61). Aims: We aim to identify which of the candidate members of the Haumea collisional family are true members, by searching for water ice on their surfaces. We also attempt to test the theory that the family members are made of almost pure water ice by using optical light-curves to constrain their densities. Methods: We use optical and near-infrared photometry to identify water ice, in particular using the (J - H_S) colour as a sensitive measure of the absorption feature at 1.6~? m. We use the CH_4 filter of the new Hawk-I instrument at the VLT as a short H-band (HS) for this as it is more sensitive to the water ice feature than the usual H filter. Results: We report colours for 22 candidate family members, including NIR colours for 15. We confirm that 2003 SQ317 and 2005 CB79 are family members, bringing the total number of confirmed family members to 10. We reject 8 candidates as having no water ice absorption based on our Hawk-I measurements, and 5 more based on their optical colours. The combination of the large proportion of rejected candidates and time lost to weather prevent us from putting strong constraints on the density of the family members based on the light-curves obtained so far; we can still say that none of the family members (except Haumea) require a large density to explain their light-curve. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla & Paranal, Chile - http://archive.eso.org/wdb/wdb/eso/sched_rep_arc/query?progid=81.C-0544>81.C-0544 & http://archive.eso.org/wdb/wdb/eso/sched_rep_arc/query?progid=82.C-0306">82.C-0306.

Snodgrass, C.; Carry, B.; Dumas, C.; Hainaut, O.

2010-02-01

28

When a family member has an intellectual handicap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral histories of ten close relatives of people over the age of 50 defined as intellectually handicapped have been collected as part of the New Zealand Ageing and Intellectual Handicap study. Many of the individuals with intellectual handicap were institutionalized from an early age; some had little or no contact with family members for a very long time; others lived

Jennifer E. Hand; Mary Trewby; Pat M. Reid

1994-01-01

29

Elderly Israelis and Their Family Members: Meanings towards Euthanasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to explore meanings of euthanasia, including the forms of active, passive, voluntary, involuntary, and physician-assisted death as described by 19 elderly Israelis and their 28 family members. The recorded personal interviews were analyzed using the phenomenological analysis method. The results demonstrated that participants distinguished between (a) accepting death (passive euthanasia) and seeking death (active

Ronit D. Leichtentritt; Kathryn D. Rettig

2000-01-01

30

Identification of members of the P-glycoprotein multigene family  

SciTech Connect

Overproduction of P-glycoprotein is intimately associated with multidrug resistance. This protein appears to be encoded by a multigene family. Thus, differential expression of different members of this family may contribute to the complexity of the multidrug resistance phenotype. Three lambda genomic clones isolated from a hamster genomic library represent different members of the hamster P-glycoprotein gene family. Using a highly conserved exon probe, the authors found that the hamster P-glycoprotein gene family consists of three genes. They also found that the P-glycoprotein gene family consists of three genes in mice but has only two genes in humans and rhesus monkeys. The hamster P-glycoprotein genes have similar exon-intron organizations within the 3' region encoding the cytoplasmic domains. The propose that the hamster P-glycoprotein gene family arose from gene duplication. The hamster pgpl and pgp2 genes appear to be more closely related to each other than either gene is to the pgp3 gene. They speculate that the hamster pgpl and pgp2 genes arose from a recent gene duplication event and that primates did not undergo this duplication and therefore contain only two P-glycoprotein genes.

Ng, W.F.; Sarangi, F.; Zastawny, R.L.; Veinot-Drebot, L.; Ling, V. (The Ontario Cancer Institute and Dept. of Medical Biophysics, Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (CA))

1989-03-01

31

The serendipitous origin of chordate secretin peptide family members  

PubMed Central

Background The secretin family is a pleotropic group of brain-gut peptides with affinity for class 2 G-protein coupled receptors (secretin family GPCRs) proposed to have emerged early in the metazoan radiation via gene or genome duplications. In human, 10 members exist and sequence and functional homologues and ligand-receptor pairs have been characterised in representatives of most vertebrate classes. Secretin-like family GPCR homologues have also been isolated in non-vertebrate genomes however their corresponding ligands have not been convincingly identified and their evolution remains enigmatic. Results In silico sequence comparisons failed to retrieve a non-vertebrate (porifera, cnidaria, protostome and early deuterostome) secretin family homologue. In contrast, secretin family members were identified in lamprey, several teleosts and tetrapods and comparative studies revealed that sequence and structure is in general maintained. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis revealed that PACAP, VIP and GCG are the most highly conserved members and two major peptide subfamilies exist; i) PACAP-like which includes PACAP, PRP, VIP, PH, GHRH, SCT and ii) GCG-like which includes GCG, GLP1, GLP2 and GIP. Conserved regions flanking secretin family members were established by comparative analysis of the Takifugu, Xenopus, chicken and human genomes and gene homologues were identified in nematode, Drosophila and Ciona genomes but no gene linkage occurred. However, in Drosophila and nematode genes which flank vertebrate secretin family members were identified in the same chromosome. Conclusions Receptors of the secretin-like family GPCRs are present in protostomes but no sequence homologues of the vertebrate cognate ligands have been identified. It has not been possible to determine when the ligands evolved but it seems likely that it was after the protostome-deuterostome divergence from an exon that was part of an existing gene or gene fragment by rounds of gene/genome duplication. The duplicate exon under different evolutionary pressures originated the chordate PACAP-like and GCG-like subfamily groups. This event occurred after the emergence of the metazoan secretin GPCRs and led to the establishment of novel peptide-receptor interactions that contributed to the generation of novel physiological functions in the chordate lineage. PMID:20459630

2010-01-01

32

Induction of Immunity and Inflammation by Interleukin12 Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interleukin (IL)-12 family is composed of three heterodimeric cytokines, IL-12 (p40p35), IL-23 (p40p19), and IL-27 (EBI3p28),\\u000a and of monomeric and homodimeric p40. This review focuses on the three heterodimeric members of the IL-12 family. The p40\\u000a and p40-like (EBI3) subunits have homology to the IL-6R, the other subunits (p35, p19, and p28) are homologous to each other\\u000a and to

G. Alber; S. Al-Robaiy; M. Kleinschek; J. Knauer; P. Krumbholz; J. Richter; S. Schoeneberger; N. Schuetze; S. Schulz; K. Toepfer; R. Voigtlaender; J. Lehmann; U. Mueller

33

Discovery of a Satellite to Asteroid Family Member (702) Alauda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rojo and Margot [1] reported the discovery of a satellite to (702) Alauda from adaptive-optics imaging with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) 8-m Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Cerro Paranal, Chile. (702) Alauda (a = 3.2 AU, e = 0.02, i = 21 deg) has been identified as the largest member of a dynamical family [2,3], suggesting a possible origin

Jean-Luc Margot; P. Rojo

2007-01-01

34

Family Members' Reports of Abuse in Michigan Nursing Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article is to describe abuse and neglect of adults age 65 and older in Michigan nursing homes, as reported by members of their families. Using list-assisted random-digit dialing, data on abuse and neglect for a 12-month period were collected from individuals who had a relative age 65 or older in a Michigan nursing home. Of the

Robert J. Griffore; Gia E. Barboza; Teresa Mastin; James Oehmke; Lawrence B. Schiamberg; Lori Ann Post

2009-01-01

35

Arabidopsis amidase 1, a member of the amidase signature family.  

PubMed

Amidase 1 (AMI1), a specific indole-3-acetamide amidohydrolase, is an Arabidopsis thaliana amidase signature enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid from indole-3-acetamide. Amidase signature family members catalyze a diverse range of enzymatic reactions and are found widespread in nature, for instance in bacteria, mammals, and plants. At the protein level, the family members share a conserved stretch of approximately 50-130 amino acids, the name-giving amidase signature. Elucidation of the crystal structures of a mammalian fatty acid amide hydrolase and the bacterial malonamidase E2 revealed an unusual Ser-cisSer-Lys catalytic triad in proteins of this family. In addition, other members, such as the amidase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain J1 or Sulfolobus solfataricus, seem to use an accessory Cys-cisSer-Lys center. AMI1 possesses all conserved amino-acid residues of the Ser-cisSer-Lys triad, but lacks the CX(3)C motif and therefore the Cys-cisSer-Lys catalytic site. Using a set of point-mutated variants of AMI1 and chemical modifications, we analyzed the relative importance of single amino-acid residues of AMI1 with respect to substrate conversion. These experiments revealed that a specific serine residue, Ser137, is essential for AMI1 enzymatic activity. We also report structural and functional differences of AMI1 from other amidase signature enzymes. PMID:17555521

Neu, Daniel; Lehmann, Thomas; Elleuche, Skander; Pollmann, Stephan

2007-07-01

36

Where are the small Kreutz-family members?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kreutz sungrazer family is one of the best-known comet families and contains some of the most spectacular comets in history. However, due to its extreme orbit geometry, most members in this family are either too faint or too close to the sun to be observed from the ground. Space-based coronagraphs launched in recent decades, notably the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), have detected over 2000 Kreutz members that come very close to the sun. The observations are limited to a very short time period 1-2 d) from the perihelion of these objects, and suffer from low astrometric/photometric precision; the states of these objects when they are away from the sun are still unconstrained. In this study, we use the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) to search for small Kreutz comets at low solar elongation 50 deg) on several nights from September 2012 to January 2013. We are able to cover ~10 sq. deg per night to 22.5, a limiting magnitude that should be able to reveal small SOHO-size Kreutz members, according to the brightening rate proposed by Knight et al. (2010, AJ, 139, 926). Preliminary result will be presented in this talk.

Ye, Quanzhi; Wiegert, P.; Hui, M.; Kracht, R.

2013-10-01

37

The Lost Boys of Sudan: Ambiguous Loss, Search for Family, and Reestablishing Relationships with Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Lost Boys of Sudan" were separated from their families by civil war and subsequently lived in 3 other countries--Ethiopia, Kenya, and the United States. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 refugees who located surviving family members in Sudan after an average separation of 13.7 years. The interviews probed their experiences of…

Luster, Tom; Qin, Desiree B.; Bates, Laura; Johnson, Deborah J.; Rana, Meenal

2008-01-01

38

Moderating the covariance between family member's substance use behavior.  

PubMed

Twin and family studies implicitly assume that the covariation between family members remains constant across differences in age between the members of the family. However, age-specificity in gene expression for shared environmental factors could generate higher correlations between family members who are more similar in age. Cohort effects (cohort × genotype or cohort × common environment) could have the same effects, and both potentially reduce effect sizes estimated in genome-wide association studies where the subjects are heterogeneous in age. In this paper we describe a model in which the covariance between twins and non-twin siblings is moderated as a function of age difference. We describe the details of the model and simulate data using a variety of different parameter values to demonstrate that model fitting returns unbiased parameter estimates. Power analyses are then conducted to estimate the sample sizes required to detect the effects of moderation in a design of twins and siblings. Finally, the model is applied to data on cigarette smoking. We find that (1) the model effectively recovers the simulated parameters, (2) the power is relatively low and therefore requires large sample sizes before small to moderate effect sizes can be found reliably, and (3) the genetic covariance between siblings for smoking behavior decays very rapidly. Result 3 implies that, e.g., genome-wide studies of smoking behavior that use individuals assessed at different ages, or belonging to different birth-year cohorts may have had substantially reduced power to detect effects of genotype on cigarette use. It also implies that significant special twin environmental effects can be explained by age-moderation in some cases. This effect likely contributes to the missing heritability paradox. PMID:24647834

Verhulst, Brad; Eaves, Lindon J; Neale, Michael C

2014-07-01

39

Characterization of zebrafish PSD-95 gene family members.  

PubMed

The PSD-95 family of membrane- associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) are thought to act as molecular scaffolds that regulate the assembly and function of the multiprotein signaling complex found at the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. Genetic analysis of PSD-95 family members in the mammalian nervous system has so far been difficult, but the zebrafish is emerging as an ideal vertebrate system for studying the role of particular genes in the developing and mature nervous system. Here we describe the cloning of the zebrafish orthologs of PSD-95, PSD-93, and two isoforms of SAP-97. Using in situ hybridization analysis we show that these zebrafish MAGUKs have overlapping but distinct patterns of expression in the developing nervous system and craniofacial skeleton. Using a pan-MAGUK antibody we show that MAGUK proteins localize to neurons within the developing hindbrain, cerebellum, visual and olfactory systems, and to skin epithelial cells. In the olfactory and visual systems MAGUK proteins are expressed strongly in synaptic regions, and the onset of expression in these areas coincides with periods of synapse formation. These data are consistent with the idea that PSD-95 family members are involved in synapse assembly and function, and provide a platform for future functional studies in vivo in a highly tractable model organism. PMID:15660367

Meyer, Martin P; Trimmer, James S; Gilthorpe, Jonathan D; Smith, Stephen J

2005-05-01

40

The Role of ZIP Family Members in Iron Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Role of ZIP Family Members in Iron Transport\\u000a \\u000a Brenda Parson Hall3 and Mary Lou Guerinot3 \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a (3) \\u000a Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, 03755 Hanover, New Hampshire, USA\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Without Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Mary Lou GuerinotEmail: guerinot@darmouth.edu

BRENDA PARSON HALL; MARY LOU GUERINOT

41

Children with Jailed Family Members More Likely to Have Poor Health Later  

MedlinePLUS

... whose childhood included having a family member in prison are about 15 percent more likely to have ... where an adult family member spent time in prison. This increased risk was independent of other types ...

42

Appraisal of the cancer experience by family members and survivors in long-term survivorship.  

PubMed

This study assessed the appraisal of the stressfulness of the cancer experience and its correlates for family members and older survivors living in the long-term survivorship phase of the disease. On average, family members appraised the cancer experience as more stressful than their surviving relatives. Beliefs about the effect of the diagnosis and treatment on family members were important correlates for both family members and survivors in the appraisal process. Cancer characteristics were not related to appraisal for survivors, but stage at diagnosis was associated with a more stressful appraisal for family members. Demographic characteristics were unrelated to appraisal for family members, but being African-American was linked to a less stressful appraisal for survivors. These findings highlight the stressful impact of the cancer experience on family members and can help guide health care interventions which include family members from African-American and White ethnicities. PMID:16521175

Bowman, Karen F; Rose, Julia H; Deimling, Gary T

2006-09-01

43

5 CFR 734.405 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...appear in a political advertisement, a broadcast, campaign literature, or similar material. A spouse or a family member who...However, the spouse or family member may not distribute campaign literature or solicit, accept, or receive political...

2010-01-01

44

Corneal topography in asymptomatic family members of a patient with pellucid marginal degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To report corneal topographic patterns in asymptomatic family members of a patient with pellucid marginal degeneration.METHODS: Computer-assisted corneal topography was used to study the corneas of five family members of a patient with pellucid marginal degeneration.RESULTS: In all five asymptomatic family members, corneal biomicroscopy was normal. Corneal topography, however, showed various abnormalities in different members of this family, particularly

Ruth M Santo; Samir J Bechara; Newton Kara-José

1999-01-01

45

SAMHSA's support of behavioral health systems serving service members, veterans, and their families  

E-print Network

SAMHSA's support of behavioral health systems serving service members, veterans, and their families Page 1 SAMHSA's support of behavioral health systems serving service members, veterans Aligata, SAMHSA's support of behavioral health systems serving service members, veterans

Mather, Patrick T.

46

Are bereaved family members a valid proxy for a patient's assessment of dying?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare assessments made retrospectively by bereaved family members (or the nearest carer to the patient) with assessments made before death by palliative staff and, where available, by patients themselves or the family member. Methods: Setting--two palliative care support teams. Assessments--were recorded prospectively by team staff, patients and their family members for consecutive patients referred, and then were recorde

Irene Higginson; Patricia Priest; Mark McCarthy

1994-01-01

47

29 CFR 825.124 - Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember...Medical Leave Act § 825.124 Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember...provision that an employee is needed to care for a family member or covered...

2014-07-01

48

32 CFR 884.14 - Compliance with court orders by civilian employees and family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES...employees and family members. (a) The Air...employees and family members to comply with orders issued by Federal or state court of competent...personnel and family members do not use assignments...outside the United States to avoid...

2010-07-01

49

Quality of Care in Services to Family Members of People with Serious Mental Illnesses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the current status, importance, and future directions of quality of care work regarding support and information services for family members of people with serious mental illnesses. In reviewing existing literature, it highlights the need for research that documents the services currently received by family members in more depth and detail, the importance of including family-member services in

Alicia Lucksted; Lisa Dixon

1999-01-01

50

Family Members' Reports of Non-Staff Abuse in Michigan Nursing Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research showed that mistreatment of nursing home residents by other residents may be highly prevalent. The present study examined the issue from family members' perspectives. The data came from the 2005 and 2007 random-digit dial telephone surveys of Michigan households with a family member in long-term care. Based on family members' reports, about 10% of nursing home residents aged

Zhenmei Zhang; Connie Page; Tom Conner; Lori A. Post

2012-01-01

51

Al-Anon Family Groups: Newcomers and Members  

PubMed Central

Objective: Empirical knowledge is lacking about Al-Anon Family Groups (Al-Anon), the most widely used form of help by people concerned about another’s drinking, partly because conducting research on 12-step groups is challenging. Our purpose was to describe a new method of obtaining survey data from 12-step group attendees and to examine influences on initial Al-Anon attendance and attendees’ recent life contexts and functioning. Method: Al-Anon’s World Service Office sent a mailing to a random sample of groups, which subsequently yielded surveys from newcomers (n = 359) and stable members (n = 264). Results: Reasons for groups’ nonparticipation included having infrequent newcomers and the study being seen as either contrary to the 12 Traditions or too uncomfortable for newcomers. Main concerns prompting initial Al-Anon attendance were problems with overall quality of life and with the Al-Anon trigger (a significant drinking individual), and being stressed and angry. Goals for Al-Anon attendance were related to the following concerns: better quality of life, fewer trigger-related problems, and less stress. Members reported better functioning in some of these domains (quality of life, relationship with the trigger) but did not differ from newcomers on physical and psychological health. Newcomers were more likely to have recently drunk alcohol and to have obtained treatment for their own substance misuse problems. Conclusions: This method of collecting data from 12-step group attendees yielded valid data and also was seen by many in Al-Anon as consistent with the Traditions. Both newcomers and members had aimed to improve their overall quality of life and well-being through Al-Anon, and, indeed, members were more satisfied with their quality of life than were newcomers. PMID:24172125

Timko, Christine; Cronkite, Ruth; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Laudet, Alexandre; Roth, Jeffrey; Moos, Rudolf H.

2013-01-01

52

Livin, a novel inhibitor of apoptosis protein family member.  

PubMed

A novel human inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family member termed Livin was identified, containing a single baculoviral IAP repeat (BIR) domain and a COOH-terminal RING finger domain. The mRNA for livin was not detectable by Northern blot in most normal adult tissues with the exception of the placenta, but was present in developmental tissues and in several cancer cell lines. Highest levels were observed in two melanoma-derived cell lines, G361 and SK-Mel29. Transfection of livin in HeLa cells resulted in protection from apoptosis induced by expression of FADD, Bax, RIP, RIP3, and DR6. Similar to other IAP family members, the anti-apoptotic activity of Livin was dependent on the BIR domain. Livin was also capable of inhibiting DEVD-like caspase activity triggered by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. In vitro binding studies demonstrated a direct interaction between Livin and the active form of the downstream caspases, caspase-3 and -7, that was dependent on the BIR domain of Livin. In addition, the unprocessed and cleaved forms of caspase-9 co-immunoprecipitated with Livin in vivo, and recombinant Livin could inhibit the activation of caspase-9 induced by Apaf-1, cytochrome c, and dATP. The subcellular distribution of the transfected Livin was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Both Livin and Survivin were expressed in the nucleus and in a filamentous pattern throughout the cytoplasm. In contrast to the apoptotic activity, the COOH-terminal RING domain mediated its subcellular localization patterning. Further studies found that transfection of an antisense construct against livin could trigger apoptosis specifically in cell lines expressing livin mRNA. This was associated with an increase in DNA fragmentation and in DEVD-like caspase activity. Thus, disruption of Livin may provide a strategy to induce apoptosis in certain cancer cells. PMID:11024045

Kasof, G M; Gomes, B C

2001-02-01

53

Functional and cancer genomics of ASXL family members  

PubMed Central

Additional sex combs-like (ASXL)1, ASXL2 and ASXL3 are human homologues of the Drosophila Asx gene that are involved in the regulation or recruitment of the Polycomb-group repressor complex (PRC) and trithorax-group (trxG) activator complex. ASXL proteins consist of ASXN, ASXH, ASXM1, ASXM2 and PHD domains. ASXL1 directly interacts with BAP1, KDM1A (LSD1), NCOA1 and nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs), such as retinoic acid receptors, oestrogen receptor and androgen receptor. ASXL family members are epigenetic scaffolding proteins that assemble epigenetic regulators and transcription factors to specific genomic loci with histone modifications. ASXL1 is involved in transcriptional repression through an interaction with PRC2 and also contributes to transcriptional regulation through interactions with BAP1 and/or NHR complexes. Germ-line mutations of human ASXL1 and ASXL3 occur in Bohring-Opitz and related syndromes. Amplification and overexpression of ASXL1 occur in cervical cancer. Truncation mutations of ASXL1 occur in colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI), malignant myeloid diseases, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and liver, prostate and breast cancers; those of ASXL2 occur in prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer and breast cancer and those of ASXL3 are observed in melanoma. EPC1-ASXL2 gene fusion occurs in adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma. The prognosis of myeloid malignancies with misregulating truncation mutations of ASXL1 is poor. ASXL family members are assumed to be tumour suppressive or oncogenic in a context-dependent manner. PMID:23736028

Katoh, M

2013-01-01

54

The star family member QKI and cell signaling.  

PubMed

The family of Signal Transduction and Activators of RNA (STAR) is named based on the intriguing potential for these proteins to connect cell signaling directly to the homeostasis of their mRNA ligands. Besides the commonly shared single RNA binding domain that displays heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K homology (KH), STAR proteins also harbor domains predicted to bind critical components in signal transduction pathways, in particular the Src-family protein tyrosine kinases (Src-PTKs). Indeed, accumulating evidence in recent years has demonstrated that the RNA-binding activity and the homeostasis of downstream mRNA targets of STAR proteins can be regulated by phosphorylation in response to various extracellular signals. This chapter provides a short review of the STAR member QKI, focusing on the essential role of QKI in development of the central nervous system, possible mechanisms by which QKI may link cell signaling to the cellular behavior of its mRNA targets and how QKI dysregulation may contribute to human diseases. PMID:21189683

Feng, Yue; Bankston, Andrew

2010-01-01

55

Discovery of a Satellite to Asteroid Family Member (702) Alauda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rojo and Margot [1] reported the discovery of a satellite to (702) Alauda from adaptive-optics imaging with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) 8-m Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Cerro Paranal, Chile. (702) Alauda (a = 3.2 AU, e = 0.02, i = 21 deg) has been identified as the largest member of a dynamical family [2,3], suggesting a possible origin of the satellite in the family formation event. The diameter of (702) Alauda is given in the IRAS Minor Planet Survey (IMPS) as 194.73 +/- 3.2 km [4]. If the primary and secondary have similar albedoes, the diameter of the satellite is about 5.5 km. This is based on the measured flux ratio between primary and secondary of 1250, possibly the largest ever observed for solar system binaries with adaptive optics. This is the first satellite discovered to a large minor planet of type B in the SMASSII taxonomy, which is defined by a linear featureless spectrum with bluish to neutral slope [5]. B-types are carbonaceous asteroids that are not well characterized. The mass and density estimates of B-type (2) Pallas vary by 50% [6,7]. Our ongoing determination of the satellite orbit will provide mass and density estimates for (702) Alauda. [1] Rojo and Margot, CBET 1016, 2007. [2] Foglia and Masi 2004, Minor Planet Bull. 41, 100. [3] Gil-Hutton 2006, Icarus 183, 93. [4] Tedesco 2002, AJ 123, 1056. [5] Bus and Binzel 2002, Icarus 158, 146. [6] Hilton 2002, Asteroids III, 103. [7] Britt et al. 2002, Asteroids III, 485.

Margot, Jean-Luc; Rojo, P.

2007-10-01

56

Syncope in Genotype-Negative Long QT Syndrome Family Members.  

PubMed

Unaffected long-QT syndrome family members (FMs) frequently experience syncope. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that syncope events in FMs are benign events and to compare clinical characteristics, triggers eliciting the syncope events, and long-term outcomes between FMs and those with LQT1 or LQT2 mutations from the international Long QT Syndrome Registry. A total of 679 FMs, 864 LQT1 patients, and 782 LQT2 patients were included. Seventy-eight FMs (11%) experienced cardiovascular events. Almost all cardiovascular events were nonfatal syncope; only 1 FM, with an additional mitral valve prolapse, experienced aborted cardiac arrest during exercise. The mean age at first syncope in FMs was 17 years, and female FMs experienced syncope more frequently than male FMs (14% vs 9%, p = 0.027). Syncope was more frequently triggered by exercise in LQT1 patients (43% in LQT1 patients vs 5% in FMs, p <0.001), while syncope triggered by a variety of other triggers was more frequent in FMs (54% in FMs vs 22% in LQT1 patients and 30% in LQT2 patients, p <0.001 for both). None of the FMs experienced aborted cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death after the first syncopal episode. In conclusion, syncope is frequently present in FMs, and these syncopal events occurred more frequently in female than in male FMs, with an increased incidence in midadolescence. Triggers eliciting the syncopal events were different between FMs and patients with long-QT syndrome mutations. Hence, the type of trigger is useful in distinguishing between high- and low-risk syncope. These data indicate that FMs from families with LQTS have a benign form of syncope, most likely related to vasovagal syncope and not ventricular tachyarrhythmic syncope. PMID:25173441

Olde Nordkamp, Louise R A; Ruwald, Martin H; Goldenberg, Ilan; Wieling, Wouter; McNitt, Scott; Polonsky, Bronislava; Wilde, Arthur A M; van Dijk, Nynke; Moss, Arthur J

2014-10-15

57

Diploid-tetraploid relationship among old-world members of the fish family Cyprinidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggesting that the goldfish and the carp of the family Cyprinidae are tetraploid species in relation to other members of the same family were presented. The two barb species, Barbus tetrazona and Barbus jasciatus, were chosen as representatives of diploid members of the family Cyprinidae. These barbs had the diploid chromosome number of 50 and 52 and the DNA

Susumu Ohno; Junichi Muramoto; Lawrence Christian; Niels B. Atkin

1967-01-01

58

Returning from the War Zone: A Guide for Families of Military Members  

MedlinePLUS

... times . ? Maintain routines and plan for upcoming events . Parents Parents and other family members of service members must ... to be aware of boundaries . It’s easy for parents and others who have cared for a service ...

59

Causes of schizophrenia reported by family members of urban African American hospitalized patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Family members often provide psychosocial support and assistance in seeking treatment for individuals with schizophrenia. It is crucial to understand what family members believe to be the causes of schizophrenia, as this likely influences the family's help-seeking decisions. The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate the causes of schizophrenia reported by family members of African Americans hospitalized with schizophrenia. Sixty-one family members of 38 patients with a first episode or an acute exacerbation of persistent illness were administered a survey containing 30 possible causes of schizophrenia from 5 categories. The sample endorsed predominantly biologic causes. Many family members also endorsed personality and societal causes, as well as family and esoteric causes. Compared with family members in the persistent group, family members in the first-episode group were more likely to select personality or societal causes in addition to biologic causes. These results provide insight into the etiologic beliefs of a sample of African American family members. Further research is needed to assess the potential influence of these beliefs on treatment seeking on the part of the family. PMID:16635652

Esterberg, Michelle L; Compton, Michael T

2006-01-01

60

Views on Physician-Assisted Suicide Among Family Members of Oregon Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-eight Oregonians with advanced cancer and their family members participated in a cross-sectional survey to understand agreement in views on physician-assisted suicide (PAS), which was a legal option for these patients. Half of the family members would support the patient's request for PAS, 30% would oppose it, and 19% were undecided. Low religiousness and the family member's personal health concerns

Linda Ganzini; Tomasz M. Beer; Matthew C. Brouns

2006-01-01

61

Racial disparity in capital punishment and its impact on family members of capital defendants.  

PubMed

A review of the literature was conducted to explore the continuing racial disparity in capital punishment and its effects on family members of African American capital defendants. Statistical studies conducted on both the state and national level conclude that racial bias influences all stages of the death penalty process, with race of the victim being one of the most significant factors. This racial bias places an added burden on family members of African American capital defendants. While research has explored the impact of capital punishment on family members of capital defendants, the unique experiences of family members of African American defendants has not been addressed in the research literature. PMID:23581803

Schweizer, Jennifer

2013-01-01

62

Depression, Anxiety and Somatization in Women with War Missing Family Members  

PubMed Central

Introduction: During the war circumstances, women and children are exposed to multiple traumatic experiences, one of which is an violent disappearance of a family member. Goal: The aim of this research was to establish the presence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatization in women in Bosnia and Herzegovina who have sought their war missing family members for 15 to 18 years. Subjects and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 120 women with war missing family member and 40 women without a war missing family member as a control group. For assessment of depression, anxiety and symptoms of somatization the self-rating Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Somatic Symptoms Index (SSI) questionnaire and a general questionnaire on the sociodemographic data and data on war missing family members were used. Results: A significantly higher intensity of symptoms of depression (p<0.001), anxiety (p<0.001) and somatization (p = 0.013) was present in women with, in comparison to women without a missing family member. In comparison of the kinship with the missing family members, statistically significantly higher intensity of symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatization was in women with a missing child (p<0.001) in comparison to other missing family members. Conclusion: A prolonged period of seeking, waiting and uncertainty of what happened in the war with the missing family member presents for those women a prolonged suffering manifested through depression, anxiety and symptoms of somatization. PMID:24167436

Barakovic, Devla; Avdibegovic, Esmina; Sinanovic, Osman

2013-01-01

63

41 CFR 302-3.511 - What must we consider when determining return travel for immediate family member(s) for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...immediate family member(s) for compassionate reasons prior to completion of the...return of the immediate family for compelling personal reasons of a humanitarian or compassionate...annulment of the employee's marriage; or (e) A...

2010-07-01

64

41 CFR 302-3.511 - What must we consider when determining return travel for immediate family member(s) for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...immediate family member(s) for compassionate reasons prior to completion of the...return of the immediate family for compelling personal reasons of a humanitarian or compassionate...annulment of the employee's marriage; or (e) A...

2011-07-01

65

41 CFR 302-3.511 - What must we consider when determining return travel for immediate family member(s) for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...immediate family member(s) for compassionate reasons prior to completion of the...return of the immediate family for compelling personal reasons of a humanitarian or compassionate...annulment of the employee's marriage; or (e) A...

2012-07-01

66

41 CFR 302-3.511 - What must we consider when determining return travel for immediate family member(s) for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...immediate family member(s) for compassionate reasons prior to completion of the...return of the immediate family for compelling personal reasons of a humanitarian or compassionate...annulment of the employee's marriage; or (e) A...

2013-07-01

67

MIF Family Members Cooperatively Inhibit p53 Expression and Activity  

PubMed Central

The tumor suppressor p53 is induced by genotoxic stress in both normal and transformed cells and serves to transcriptionally coordinate cell cycle checkpoint control and programmed cell death responses. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an autocrine and paracrine acting cytokine/growth factor that promotes lung adenocarcinoma cell motility, anchorage-independence and neo-angiogenic potential. Several recent studies indicate that the only known homolog of MIF, D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT - also referred to as MIF-2), has functionally redundant activities with MIF and cooperatively promotes MIF-dependent pro-tumorigenic phenotypes. We now report that MIF and D-DT synergistically inhibit steady state p53 phosphorylation, stabilization and transcriptional activity in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. The combined loss of MIF and D-DT by siRNA leads to dramatically reduced cell cycle progression, anchorage independence, focus formation and increased programmed cell death when compared to individual loss of MIF or D-DT. Importantly, p53 mutant and p53 null lung adenocarcinoma cell lines were only nominally rescued from the cell growth effects of MIF/D-DT combined deficiency suggesting only a minor role for p53 in these transformed cell growth phenotypes. Finally, increased p53 activation was found to be independent of aberrantly activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that occurs in response to MIF/D-DT-deficiency but is dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mediate aberrant AMPK activation in these cells. Combined, these findings suggest that both p53 wildtype and mutant human lung adenocarcinoma tumors rely on MIF family members for maximal cell growth and survival. PMID:24932684

Brock, Stephanie E.; Rendon, Beatriz E.; Xin, Dan; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha; Mitchell, Robert A.

2014-01-01

68

Distinct signaling of Drosophila Activin/TGF-beta family members.  

PubMed

Growth factors of the TGF-beta family signal through type I/II receptor complexes that phosphorylate SMAD transcription factors. In this study, we analyzed signaling of all seven TGF-beta members to identify those that mediate growth through the Drosophila type I receptor BABO. We find that two potential ligands of BABO, Myoglianin (MYO) and Maverick (MAV), do not activate dSMAD2. Only Drosophila Activin (dACT) and the Activin-like ligand Dawdle (DAW) signal through BABO in combination with the type II receptor PUNT and activate dSMAD2. Surprisingly, we find that activation of BABO can also lead to the phosphorylation of the "BMP-specific" MAD. In wing discs, expression of an activated form of dSMAD2 promotes growth similar to dACT and activated BABO. By itself, activated dSMAD2 does not affect DPP/GBB target genes. However, coexpression of activated forms of dSMAD2 and MAD additively induces the expression of spalt. In contrast to dACT, we find that DAW does not promote growth when expressed in wings. In fact, coexpression of DAW with MAD or dSMAD2 decreases growth. daw mutants die primarily during larval stages and exhibit anal pad phenotypes reminiscent of babo mutants. The rescue of daw mutants by restricted expression in neuroendocrine cells indicates that Activin-type ligands are likely distributed through the endocrine system. The distinct signaling of dACT, DAW and MYO through BABO suggests the existence of co-receptors that modulate the canonical SMAD pathway. PMID:18820452

Gesualdi, Scott C; Haerry, Theodor E

2007-01-01

69

77 FR 54783 - Improving Access to Mental Health Services for Veterans, Service Members, and Military Families  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Reserve alike), and their families receive the support they deserve...and Homeland Security to expand suicide prevention strategies and take...service members, and their families. Sec. 2. Suicide Prevention. (a) By...

2012-09-05

70

Understanding of advance care planning by family members of persons undergoing hemodialysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore hemodialysis patients' family members' understanding of end-of-life decision-making processes. The project aimed to address (a) family members' constructions of advance care planning (ACP), including their roles and responsibilities, and (b) family members' perceptions of health care providers' roles and responsibilities in ACP. Eighteen family members of persons undergoing hemodialysis were recruited primarily from outpatient dialysis facilities and interviewed individually. Confirmed transcript data were analyzed, coded, and compared, and categories were established. Interpretations were validated throughout the interviews and peer debriefing sessions were used at a later stage in the analysis. The overarching construct identified was one of Protection. Family members protect patients by (a) Sharing Burdens, (b) Normalizing Life, and (c) Personalizing Care. Recommendations for future research include the need to explore ACP of persons undergoing hemodialysis who do not have a family support system. PMID:24326309

Calvin, Amy O; Engebretson, Joan C; Sardual, S Alexander

2014-11-01

71

Family business Information Update Please list all members that would like to receive information about the Family Business Council events.  

E-print Network

Family business Information Update Please list all members that would like to receive information about the Family Business Council events. Name Company Mailing Address City State/Province ZipPhone #12;Thank you for helping us update our records. Please send information about the Family Business

de Lijser, Peter

72

Screening of household family members of brucellosis cases and neighboring community members in Azerbaijan.  

PubMed

Brucellosis is an endemic zoonotic disease in Azerbaijan. The first human brucellosis case reported in 1922 was in Pardabil village of a region currently named Shabran. Household members of brucellosis index cases are a population at risk for brucellosis infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of seropositivity of brucellosis among household and neighboring community members of brucellosis index cases in Azerbaijan. Twenty-one household members of 8 index brucellosis cases and 27 community neighbors were serologically tested for evidence of exposure by the serum agglutination test. Of these, the brucellosis seropositivity rate was 9.5% and 7.4%, respectively. Screening of household members of index cases and individuals who live in proximity to infected household members is a practical approach to increase the detection of brucellosis exposure. PMID:23478582

Ismayilova, Rita; Mody, Rupal; Abdullayev, Rakif; Amirova, Kamala; Jabbarova, Latafat; Ustun, Narmin; Jahanov, Musa; Nasirova, Emilya; Powers, Marilyn; Rivard, Robert; Hepburn, Matthew; Bautista, Christian T

2013-05-01

73

Screening of Household Family Members of Brucellosis Cases and Neighboring Community Members in Azerbaijan  

PubMed Central

Brucellosis is an endemic zoonotic disease in Azerbaijan. The first human brucellosis case reported in 1922 was in Pardabil village of a region currently named Shabran. Household members of brucellosis index cases are a population at risk for brucellosis infection. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of seropositivity of brucellosis among household and neighboring community members of brucellosis index cases in Azerbaijan. Twenty-one household members of 8 index brucellosis cases and 27 community neighbors were serologically tested for evidence of exposure by the serum agglutination test. Of these, the brucellosis seropositivity rate was 9.5% and 7.4%, respectively. Screening of household members of index cases and individuals who live in proximity to infected household members is a practical approach to increase the detection of brucellosis exposure. PMID:23478582

Ismayilova, Rita; Mody, Rupal; Abdullayev, Rakif; Amirova, Kamala; Jabbarova, Latafat; Ustun, Narmin; Jahanov, Musa; Nasirova, Emilya; Powers, Marilyn; Rivard, Robert; Hepburn, Matthew; Bautista, Christian T.

2013-01-01

74

Effective doses to family members of patients treated with radioiodine-131  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effective dose to family members of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroid patients treated with radioiodine-131, and also to compare the results with dose constraints proposed by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). For the estimation of the effective doses, sixty family members of sixty patients, treated with radioiodine-131, and thermoluminiscent dosimeters (Model TLD 100) were used. Thyroid cancer patients were hospitalized for three days, while hyperthyroid patients were treated on out-patient basis. The family members wore TLD in front of the torso for seven days. The radiation doses to family members of thyroid cancer patients were well below the recommended dose constraint of 1 mSv. The mean value of effective dose was 0.21 mSv (min 0.02 - max 0.51 mSv). Effective doses, higher than 1 mSv, were detected for 11 family members of hyperthyroid patients. The mean value of effective dose of family members of hyperthyroid patients was 0.87 mSv (min 0.12 - max 6.79). The estimated effective doses to family members of hyperthyroid patients were higher than the effective doses to family members of thyroid carcinoma patients. These findings may be considered when establishing new national guidelines concerning radiation protection and release of patients after a treatment with radioiodine therapy.

Zdraveska Kocovska, M.; Vaskova, O.; Majstorov, V.; Kuzmanovska, S.; Pop Gjorceva, D.; Spasic Jokic, V.

2011-09-01

75

Proteolytic Cleavage of the Ectodomain of the L1 CAM Family Member Tractin*  

E-print Network

Proteolytic Cleavage of the Ectodomain of the L1 CAM Family Member Tractin* Received (CAMs)1 consists of transmembrane proteins with 6 Ig-like domains and 4­5 FNIII-like domains that contains an ankyrin binding site. The L1 family currently has four members in vertebrates (L1, NrCAM, CHL1

Johansen, Jorgen

76

Dementia Management Strategies and Adjustment of Family Members of Older Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined how strategies to manage dementia problems in 152 older people were associated with adjustment of family members while providing assistance to relative. Identified three dementia management strategies (criticism, encouragement, and active management) that were associated with three indices of family members' emotional adjustment (burden,…

Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Niederehe, George

1994-01-01

77

Selective Amplification and Cloning of Four New Members of the G Protein-Coupled Receptor Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach based on the polymerase chain reaction has been devised to clone new members of the family of genes encoding guanosine triphosphate-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors. Degenerate primers corresponding to consensus sequences of the third and sixth transmembrane segments of available receptors were used to selectively amplify and clone members of this gene family from thyroid complementary DNA. Clones

Frederick Libert; Marc Parmentier; Anne Lefort; Christiane Dinsart; Jacqueline van Sande; Carine Maenhaut; Marie-Jeanne Simons; Jacques E. Dumont; Gilbert Vassart

1989-01-01

78

Genealogy of an ancient protein family: the Sirtuins, a family of disordered members  

PubMed Central

Background Sirtuins genes are widely distributed by evolution and have been found in eubacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. While prokaryotic and archeal species usually have one or two sirtuin homologs, in humans as well as in eukaryotes we found multiple versions and in mammals this family is comprised of seven different homologous proteins being all NAD-dependent de-acylases. 3D structures of human SIRT2, SIRT3, and SIRT5 revealed the overall conformation of the conserved core domain but they were unable to give a structural information about the presence of very flexible and dynamically disordered regions, the role of which is still structurally and functionally unclear. Recently, we modeled the 3D-structure of human SIRT1, the most studied member of this family, that unexpectedly emerged as a member of the intrinsically disordered proteins with its long disordered terminal arms. Despite clear similarities in catalytic cores between the human sirtuins little is known of the general structural characteristics of these proteins. The presence of disorder in human SIRT1 and the propensity of these proteins in promoting molecular interactions make it important to understand the underlying mechanisms of molecular recognition that reasonably should involve terminal segments. The mechanism of recognition, in turn, is a prerequisite for the understanding of any functional activity. Aim of this work is to understand what structural properties are shared among members of this family in humans as well as in other organisms. Results We have studied the distribution of the structural features of N- and C-terminal segments of sirtuins in all known organisms to draw their evolutionary histories by taking into account average length of terminal segments, amino acid composition, intrinsic disorder, presence of charged stretches, presence of putative phosphorylation sites, flexibility, and GC content of genes. Finally, we have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the putative phosphorylation sites in human sirtuins confirming those sites already known experimentally for human SIRT1 and 2 as well as extending their topology to all the family to get feedback of their physiological functions and cellular localization. Conclusions Our results highlight that the terminal segments of the majority of sirtuins possess a number of structural features and chemical and physical properties that strongly support their involvement in activities of recognition and interaction with other protein molecules. We also suggest how a multisite phosphorylation provides a possible mechanism by which flexible and intrinsically disordered segments of a sirtuin supported by the presence of positively or negatively charged stretches might enhance the strength and specificity of interaction with a particular molecular partner. PMID:23497088

2013-01-01

79

Young children’s perceptions of their relationships with family members: Links with family setting, friendships, and adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 258 children aged 4-7 years, from 192 families of diverse structure (stepfather, single parent, stepmother\\/complex stepfamilies, and nonstep families), participated in this study of young children’s perceptions of their family relationships. Children completed a Four Field Map, in which they placed their family members and friends in a series of concentric circles representing the closeness of the

Wendy Sturgess; Judy Dunn; Lisa Davies

2001-01-01

80

Impact of Chronic Critical Illness on the Psychological Outcomes of Family Members  

PubMed Central

The uncertain trajectory of chronic critical illness exposes the patient’s family to heightened levels of psychological distress. Symptoms of psychological distress affect more than half of family members exposed to the patient’s chronic critical illness. Although symptoms often dissipate over time, a significant proportion of family members will remain at moderate to high risk for psychological distress well after the patient’s death or discharge from the intensive care unit. Family members of chronically critically ill (CCI) patients are often involved in the decision making for the CCI. Irrational or uninformed decision making can occur when family members experience high levels of psychological distress. Attention to the psychological needs and provision of support to family members enhance the formulation of treatment decisions consistent with the patient’s preferences and mitigate unnecessary resource use. In this article, the impact of chronic critical illness on family members’ risk for depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder is described and a review of evidence-based strategies to support the psychological needs of family members coping with a patient’s chronic critical illness is provided. PMID:20118707

Hickman, Ronald L.; Douglas, Sara L.

2010-01-01

81

Embracing technology: patients', family members' and nurse specialists' experience of communicating using e-mail.  

PubMed

This paper reports on a study exploring the usefulness of e-mail as a means of communication between nurse specialists and patients with lung cancer and their families. The study involved two lung cancer nurse specialists and 16 patients and family members who used e-mail with them during the 6-month study period. Data were collected from three sources: (1) e-mail contact between the nurse specialists and patients/family members, (2) patient/family member questionnaire and (3) a focus group/reflective session with the nurse specialists. Quantitative data collected from the e-mails and the questionnaires were analysed descriptively and are presented as summary statistics. Text data from the questionnaires and e-mails were analysed using content analysis. Findings suggest that e-mail can be an effective and convenient means of communication between nurse specialists, and patients and family members. Patients and family members reported high levels of satisfaction with this method of communication. It was found to be quick and easy, and patients and family members were satisfied with both the response and the speed of response from the nurse specialists. Nurse specialists were also positive about e-mail use and found that the benefits of using e-mail with patients/family members outweighed any disadvantages. Further investigation is recommended involving other health care professionals and different patient groups to ensure the safe and appropriate use of e-mail within health care. PMID:18406667

Cornwall, Amanda; Moore, Sally; Plant, Hilary

2008-07-01

82

7 Counseling Options for Service Members and Their Families  

MedlinePLUS

... many options for getting the help they seek. Military counseling services Your installation's chaplain — The chaplains in ... WEBINAR All Webinars Dec. 10, 2014 Medicaid and Military Families: An Introduction Learn more and register for ...

83

Patients' and family members' experiences of a psychoeducational family intervention after a first episode psychosis: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to explore patients' and family members' experiences of the different elements of a psychoeducational family intervention. A qualitative, explorative study was performed based on digitally recorded in-depth interviews with 12 patients and 14 family members. The interview data were transcribed in a slightly modified verbatim mode and analysed using systematic text condensation. Six themes that both patients and family members experienced as important in the family intervention were identified: alliance, support, anxiety and tension, knowledge and learning, time, and structure. A good relationship between the group leaders and participants was essential in preventing dropout. Meeting with other people in the same situation reduced feelings of shame and increased hope for the future. Hearing real life stories was experienced as being more important for gaining new knowledge about psychosis than lectures and workshops. However, many patients experienced anxiety and tension during the meetings. The group format could be demanding for patients immediately after a psychotic episode and for those still struggling with distressing psychotic symptoms. Group leaders need to recognise patients' levels of anxiety before, and during, the intervention, and consider the different needs of patients and family members in regards to when the intervention starts, the group format, and the patients' level of psychotic symptoms. The findings in the present study may help to tailor family work to better meet the needs of both patients and family members. PMID:24350752

Nilsen, Liv; Frich, Jan C; Friis, Svein; Røssberg, Jan Ivar

2014-01-01

84

Family Members Affected by a Close Relative's Addiction: The Stress-Strain-Coping-Support Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines the stress-strain-coping-support (SSCS) model which underpins the whole programme of work described in this supplement. The need for such a model is explained: previous models of substance misuse and the family have attributed dysfunction or deficiency to families or family members. In contrast, the SSCS model assumes that…

Orford, Jim; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Templeton, Lorna

2010-01-01

85

Using focus groups to design a psychoeducation program for patients with schizophrenia and their family members  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this project was to determine what factors to be considered in planning a psychoeducation program to better meet the needs of patients with schizophrenia and their family members. Methods: Three focus group sessions were conducted and recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by members of the research team. Results: Patients hoped to grasp the fullest possible knowledge about schizophrenia, whereas the factors influencing the efficacy of the schizophrenia health education curriculum included: discrimination, non-understanding of family members, easy to forget, unreasonable timetable. Health education was mainly in the form of classroom teaching. Conclusions: 1. At present, there are a few psychiatric education courses in China; 2. Patients and their family members are eager to acquire knowledge about the contents of schizophrenia; 3. Misconceptions would hinder the rehabilitation of patients; 4. Worry about being discriminated; 5. There is a different knowledge demand between the patients and their family members. PMID:24482705

Song, Yan; Liu, Dan; Chen, Yuxiang; He, Guoping

2014-01-01

86

Perceptions of Communication With Gay and Lesbian Family Members: Predictors of Relational Satisfaction and Implications for Outgroup Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates perceptions of family communication among members with different sexual identities. Specifically, from the perspective of heterosexual family members (N = 129), the study takes an intergroup perspective to determine how accommodative and non-accommodative communication and attitudes toward homosexuality predict intergroup anxiety and relational satisfaction with gay or lesbian family members. Further, the manner in which family communication influences attitudes

Jordan Soliz; Elizabeth Ribarsky; Meredith Marko Harrigan; Stacy Tye-Williams

2010-01-01

87

Staff-family relationships in residential aged care facilities: the views of residents' family members and care staff.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine staff and family members' perceptions of each other's roles and responsibilities in the Australian residential aged care setting. Data was collected by interview and focus group from 27 staff and 14 family members at five residential aged care facilities in the state of Victoria, Australia. Findings highlight "communication" as the core category supporting the formation of constructive staff-family relationships, as described by three main themes; "building trust," "involvement," and "keeping the family happy." Staff attitudes, mutual cooperation, meaningful engagement, and shared expectations lay the foundation for relationships. Findings suggest that further efforts to establish and sustain good relationships with families are required by facilities. Characteristics, roles, and expectations of staff and family that can both promote and hinder the formation of constructive staff-family relationships are discussed. PMID:24652861

Bauer, Michael; Fetherstonhaugh, Deirdre; Tarzia, Laura; Chenco, Carol

2014-08-01

88

Letter From the President Dear Parents and Family Members,  

E-print Network

good of all society's members and thereby fulfill the expectations of USF's Jesuit Catholic education years, during which time it has g aduated thousands of men and women who have contributed signifi- cantly to the City's growth and development and to society at large. Together, the University

Galles, David

89

42 CFR 31.9 - Dependent members of families; treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL OCEAN SURVEY, PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, AND FORMER LIGHTHOUSE...National Ocean Survey and Public Health Service § 31.9 Dependent...Guard Reserve and members of the Women's Reserve of the Coast Guard...or retired. (c) Public Health Service. Commissioned...

2010-10-01

90

42 CFR 31.9 - Dependent members of families; treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NATIONAL OCEAN SURVEY, PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, AND FORMER LIGHTHOUSE...National Ocean Survey and Public Health Service § 31.9 Dependent...Guard Reserve and members of the Women's Reserve of the Coast Guard...or retired. (c) Public Health Service. Commissioned...

2011-10-01

91

42 CFR 31.9 - Dependent members of families; treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NATIONAL OCEAN SURVEY, PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, AND FORMER LIGHTHOUSE...National Ocean Survey and Public Health Service § 31.9 Dependent...Guard Reserve and members of the Women's Reserve of the Coast Guard...or retired. (c) Public Health Service. Commissioned...

2013-10-01

92

42 CFR 31.9 - Dependent members of families; treatment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NATIONAL OCEAN SURVEY, PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, AND FORMER LIGHTHOUSE...National Ocean Survey and Public Health Service § 31.9 Dependent...Guard Reserve and members of the Women's Reserve of the Coast Guard...or retired. (c) Public Health Service. Commissioned...

2012-10-01

93

The effect of an anger management program for family members of patients with alcohol use disorders.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to test the structured anger management nursing program for the family members of patients with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Families with the AUDs suffer from the dysfunctional family dynamic caused by the patients' deteriorative disease processes of alcohol dependence. Family members of AUDs feel bitter and angry about the uncontrolled behaviors and relapses of the patients in spite of great effort for a long time. This chronic anger threatens the optimal function of the family as well as obstructs the family to help the patients who are suffering from AUDs. Sixty three subjects were participated who were referred from community mental health centers, alcohol consultation centers, and an alcohol hospital in Korea. Pre-post scores of the Korean Anger Expression Inventory were used to test the program. An anger management program was developed and implemented to promote anger expression and anger management for the family members of the patients with AUDs. The total anger expression score of the experimental group was significantly more reduced as compared with that of the control group. Subjects in the experimental group reported after the program that they felt more comfortable and their life was changed in a better way. The anger management program was effective to promote anger expression and anger management for family members of AUDs. Nurses need to include family members in their nursing process as well as to care of patients with AUDs to maximize nursing outcome and patient satisfaction. PMID:20117687

Son, Ju-Young; Choi, Yun-Jung

2010-02-01

94

[Involving family members of chronically ill patients in physician-patient communication].  

PubMed

Involving family members in the patient's treatment is central for coping with chronic diseases. The family's functioning and their involvement in the treatment process have a significant influence on compliance as well as on the patient's coping and quality of life. This article illustrates this broad topic through selected aspects. First, the importance of the family for the patient's coping and quality of life is highlighted in certain examples. Criteria for the family's involvement and important topics for the doctor's encounter with family members are introduced. Second, the necessities, problems, and consequences of doctor-family communication are illustrated for the examples of stroke and dementia. Overall, there is only limited time to include the family in in-patient as well as out-patient care. As a result, physician-family communication is not integrated sufficiently in general care, even for chronic diseases. PMID:22936480

Wilz, G; Meichsner, F

2012-09-01

95

Perceived Intrafamilial Connectedness and Autonomy in Families with and without an Anxious Family Member: A Multiple Informant Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceived intrafamilial "emotional connectedness" and "autonomy" were investigated within families with and without an anxious family member using a multiple informant approach. The sample consisted of 32 mothers with a current anxiety disorder and 56 controls, their partners, and their anxious and nonanxious teenage children. No differences were…

de Albuquerque, Jiske E. G.; Schneider, Silvia

2012-01-01

96

Turkish Family Members’ Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined familial patterns of attitudes toward lesbians (AT-Lesbians) and toward gay men (AT-Gay) by using Herek’s\\u000a (1998) short-form of AT-Lesbian and AT-Gay scales. The participants were 116 college students (47 males, 69 females) and their\\u000a parents (116 mothers, 116 fathers) located in the West Anatolian region of Turkey. Results point to significant differences\\u000a between parents and their daughters,

Aynur Oksal

2008-01-01

97

5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?  

...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.307 Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? A...

2014-01-01

98

5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.307 Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? A...

2013-01-01

99

5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.307 Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? A...

2012-01-01

100

5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.306 Are foster children eligible as family members? Yes, foster children...

2010-01-01

101

5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.307 Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? A...

2011-01-01

102

5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.307 Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? A...

2010-01-01

103

5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.306 Are foster children eligible as family members? Yes, foster children...

2013-01-01

104

5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.306 Are foster children eligible as family members? Yes, foster children...

2012-01-01

105

5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?  

...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.306 Are foster children eligible as family members? Yes, foster children...

2014-01-01

106

5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.306 Are foster children eligible as family members? Yes, foster children...

2011-01-01

107

HOW THE DEATH PENALTY VIOLATES THE CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS OF THE FAMILY MEMBERS OF DEATH ROW PRISONERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that the death penalty violates the constitutional rights of the family members of death row prisoners. First, the article establishes that Americans are entitled to a fundamental \\

RACHEL KING

2005-01-01

108

Emotional responses of family members of a critically ill patient: a hermeneutic analysis.  

PubMed

This study used an exploratory design with a hermeneutic approach. The aim was to increase the understanding of the emotional responses of family members during the patient's critical care. Interviews from the main researcher's previous study about relatives of patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) were used. Two of these interviews were chosen, one with the mother and one with the father of an adult young patient, who became critically ill and admitted to a general ICU in south-west Sweden. The present study identified six feelings describing the emotional responses of the family members. The family members experienced feelings of uncertainty, feelings of abandonment, feelings of desertion from the loved one, feelings of being close to the deathbed, feelings of being in a no-man's-land and feelings of attachment. The experienced feelings described in this article can contribute to expanding healthcare professionals understanding of the family members' emotional responses during the patient's critical care. PMID:25345232

Rnanicmt, Ingrid Johansson

2014-01-01

109

42 CFR 31.10 - Dependent members of families; use of Service facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dependent members...families; use of Service facilities. 31.10 Section 31.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL...

2013-10-01

110

42 CFR 31.10 - Dependent members of families; use of Service facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dependent members...families; use of Service facilities. 31.10 Section 31.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL...

2010-10-01

111

42 CFR 31.10 - Dependent members of families; use of Service facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dependent members...families; use of Service facilities. 31.10 Section 31.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL...

2011-10-01

112

BERA Sports Clearance: Weight Room: Any contractor or family member wishing to use the Weight  

E-print Network

BERA Sports Clearance: Weight Room: Any contractor or family member wishing to use the Weight Room the Recreation Office (Bldg 400) a copy of their health insurance for fitness classes, league sports & weight

113

38 CFR 71.50 - Provision of certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...  

...training, and mental health services to certain...family members of veterans. 71.50 ...training, and mental health services to certain...family members of veterans. (a) Benefits...services to help the veteran address mental health issues,...

2014-07-01

114

38 CFR 71.50 - Provision of certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...training, and mental health services to certain...family members of veterans. 71.50 ...training, and mental health services to certain...family members of veterans. (a) Benefits...services to help the veteran address mental health issues,...

2013-07-01

115

38 CFR 71.50 - Provision of certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...training, and mental health services to certain...family members of veterans. 71.50 ...training, and mental health services to certain...family members of veterans. (a) Benefits...services to help the veteran address mental health issues,...

2012-07-01

116

38 CFR 71.50 - Provision of certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...training, and mental health services to certain...family members of veterans. 71.50 ...training, and mental health services to certain...family members of veterans. (a) Benefits...services to help the veteran address mental health issues,...

2011-07-01

117

Placental Growth Factor, a Member of the VEGF Family, Contributes to the Development of Choroidal Neovascularization  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. VEGF has been shown to be necessary, but not suffi- cient alone, for the development of subretinal pathologic an- giogenesis. In the current study, the influence of placental growth factor (PlGF), a member of the VEGF family, in human and experimental choroidal neovascularization (CNV) was in- vestigated. METHODS. The presence of VEGF family member mRNA was evaluated by RT-PCR

Jean-Marie Rakic; Vincent Lambert; Laetitia Devy; Aernout Luttun; Peter Carmeliet; Carel Claes; Laurent Nguyen; Jean-Michel Foidart; Agnes Noel; Carine Munaut

2003-01-01

118

Sources of Support for African-American Family Members of Homicide Victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates of homicide within the African-American community indicate a population overwhelmingly impacted by traumatic grief and loss. A qualitative study was conducted to: (1) discover the support networks that are utilized by African-American family members who are surviving the homicide of a loved one; (2) gain insight relative to understanding the post-homicide experience of African-American surviving family members. A

Tanya L. Sharpe

2008-01-01

119

Identification and characterization of a new member of the TNF family that induces apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member has been cloned and characterized. This protein, designated TNF-related apoptosis-Inducing ligand (TRAIL), consists of 281 and 291 as in the human and murine forms, respectively, which share 65% as identity. TRAIL is a type II membrane protein, whose C-terminal extracellular domain shows clear homology to other TNF family members. TRAIL transcripts are

Steven R. Wiley; Ken Schooley; Pamela J. Smolak; Wenie S. Din; Chang-Pin Huang; Jillian K. Nicholl; Grant R. Sutherland; Terri Davis Smith; Charles Rauch; Craig A. Smith; Raymond G. Goodwin

1995-01-01

120

End-of-life care: Perspectives of family members of deceased patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to determine the opinions of family members of deceased patients regarding end-of-life care. This multisite cross-sectional survey was administered to 969 volunteer participants during 1997 to 2000. Eligible participants included immediate family members of deceased patients at five local institutions in a regional health system. Among 969 respondents, most (84.4 percent) indicated that the care for

Catherine A. Marco; Nancy Buderer; Dorothy Thum

2005-01-01

121

Cornelia de Lange syndrome in several members of the same family  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family is reported in which several members have the Cornelia de Lange syndrome and other members show facial dysmorphism and other features reminiscent of this syndrome. The segregation pattern is consistent with the view that the dysmorphic features (variable) are the manifestation of a single gene in heterozygous form. Chromosome abnormality was not found.

D Kumar; C E Blank; B L Griffiths

1985-01-01

122

A Cooperative Communication Intervention for Nursing Home Staff and Family Members of Residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This article reports on a randomized, con- trolled study of Partners in Caregiving, an intervention designed to increase cooperation and effective communication between family members and nursing home staff. Design and Methods: Participants in- cluded 932 relatives and 655 staff members recruited from 20 nursing homes, randomly assigned to treatment and control conditions. Parallel training sessions on communication and

Karl Pillemer; J. Jill Suitor; Charles R. Henderson; Rhoda Meador; Leslie Schultz; Julie Robison; Carol Hegeman

123

Strengthening Family Members of Incarcerated Youth: A Productive Role for Extension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The challenge to provide incarcerated youth the skills needed to succeed and avoid recidivism has prompted the use of family-systems approaches in juvenile detention centers. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in northern Alabama to determine the impact of a conflict resolution workshop on the family members of incarcerated youth. Results…

Brandon, Dorothy P.; Wilson, Constance; Carter, Jannie; Johnson, LaKeisha

2014-01-01

124

Role of a New Rho Family Member in Cell Migration and Axon Guidance in C. elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rho family GTPases are thought to regulate actin-dependent processes, but their functions in vivo are still poorly understood. We have investigated the function of a new, widely expressed Rho family member in C. elegans by analyzing mutations in the endogenous gene. Activated and null alleles all inhibit cell migration, demonstrating that this protein is required for cell migration in vivo.

Ilan D Zipkin; Rachel M Kindt; Cynthia J Kenyon

1997-01-01

125

Family Members Providing Home-Based Palliative Care to Older Adults: The Enactment of Multiple Roles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Canadians are experiencing increased life expectancy and chronic illness requiring end-of-life care. There is limited research on the multiple roles for family members providing home-based palliative care. Based on a larger ethnographic study of client-family-provider relationships in home-based palliative care, this qualitative secondary analysis…

Clemmer, Sarah J.; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Forbes, Dorothy

2008-01-01

126

Family Members' Willingness to Care for People with AIDS: A Psychosocial Assessment Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents model for assessing psychosocial factors that may influence family members' willingness to care for people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): caregiver resources and coping characteristics, degree to which person with AIDS is held accountable, social support, familial obligation/affection, fears of acquiring human…

McDonell, James R.; And Others

1991-01-01

127

REQUEST TO ADD OR DELETE MEMBERS TO A CURRENT FAMILY FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS (FEHB) ENROLLMENT  

E-print Network

, attach copy of proof of birth/death For divorce, attach copy of divorce decree For marriage, attach copy of marriage certificate If you want to change from a self and family enrollment to a self Number Add the Following Family Members to My Coverage Name DOB Sex Relationship SSN Reason for Addition

128

Expressed Emotion and Subclinical Psychopathology Observable Within the Transactions Between Schizophrenic Patients and Their Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined whether young, recently discharged schizophrenic patients from high (n = 34) and low (n = 14) expressed emotion (EE) families differ in their level of subclinical symptomatology during a direct interaction task. Compared with patients from low-EE homes, patients from high-EE home showed significantly more odd and disruptive behavior with family members. High-EE relatives were more likely

Irwin S. Rosenfarb; Michael J. Goldstein; Jim Mintz; Keith H. Nuechterlein

1995-01-01

129

Attributions and Affective Reactions of Family Members and Course of Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors tested an attribution–affect model of schizophrenic relapse attending to the role of families’ positive affect (warmth) and negative affect (criticism). Coders listened to interviews of 40 family members taken from C. E. Vaughn, K. S. Synder, S. Jones, W. B. Freeman, and I. R. Falloon (1984) and rated their attributions of controllability for the symptoms and behaviors of

Steven R. López; Kathleen A. Nelson; Karen S. Snyder; Jim Mintz

1999-01-01

130

A new member of the frizzled family from Drosophila functions as a Wingless receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Receptors for Wingless and other signalling molecules of the Wnt gene family have yet to be identified. We show here that cultured Drosophila cells transfected with a novel member of the frizzled gene family in Drosophila, Dfz2, respond to added Wingless protein by elevating the level of the Armadillo protein. Moreover, Wingless binds to Drosophila or human cells expressing Dfz2.

Purnima Bhanot; Marcel Brink; Cindy Harryman Samos; Jen-Chih Hsieh; Yanshu Wang; Jennifer P. Macke; Deborah Andrew; Jeremy Nathans; Roel Nusse

1996-01-01

131

Efflux and compartmentalization of zinc by members of the SLC30 family of solute carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

All of the members of this family are thought to facilitate zinc efflux from the cytoplasm either into various intracellular compartments (endosomes, secretory granules, synaptic vesicles, Golgi apparatus, or trans-Golgi network) or across the plasma membrane. Thus, these transporters are thought to help maintain zinc homeostasis and facilitate transport of zinc into specialized intracellular compartments. Counterparts of the SLC30 family

Richard D. Palmiter; Liping Huang

2004-01-01

132

Parents and Family Members in the Era of ART: Evidence from Cambodia and Thailand  

PubMed Central

Ensuring treatment adherence is critical for the success of ART programs in developing countries. Enlisting NGOs or PLHA group members as treatment supporters is one common strategy. Less attention is given to family members and especially older-age parents. Yet ART patients often live with other family members who are highly motivated to ensure treatment success. This study examines the role of family members and especially parents in assisting adherence in Cambodia and Thailand among adult ART patients. Most have a living parent and many live with or near a parent. Family members including parents commonly remind patients to take medications, particularly if coresident in the same household. Parents also remind patients to get resupplies and accompany them to appointments. Some contrasts between Cambodia and Thailand emerged. Fewer Cambodian than Thai patients had a living parent. However, among those who did, equal shares lived with parents. Cambodian parents more commonly reminded patients to take medications and get resupplies and accompanied them when doing so. In both countries correct knowledge of ART among parents was associated with the amount of advice from program personnel. The results underscore both the need to more explicitly incorporate close family members, including parents, into efforts to promote adherence and need for PLHA peers and home based care teams to provide them with adequate information, training and resources to increase their effectiveness. PMID:21726159

Knodel, John; Hak, Sochanny; Khuon, Chandore; So, Dane; McAndrew, John

2011-01-01

133

Characterization of Members of the Legionellaceae Family by Automated Ribotyping  

PubMed Central

In order to implement a new and reliable method for characterizing different species of Legionella, a genetic fingerprinting study with an automated ribotyping system (RiboPrinter) was completed with members of this genus which were deposited at the American Type Culture Collection. The RiboPrinter examined the different patterns of EcoRI digestion fragments from the rRNA operons of 110 strains, representing 48 of the 49 described Legionella species as well as 70 serogroups of those species. Distinctive and consistent patterns were obtained for the type strains of the 48 species investigated. Legionella pneumophila subsp. fraseri and L. pneumophila subsp. pascullei each generated a specific pattern, whereas L. pneumophila subsp. pneumophila produced six different fingerprint patterns. No correlation seemed to exist between the ribotypes obtained and the 15 serotypes of L. pneumophila. For the other species, those with two known serogroups presented two distinctive patterns with the RiboPrinter with the exception of L. hackeliae and L. quinlivanii, which yielded only one pattern. We also encountered ribotypes for strains which were not identified to the species level. The ribotypes generated for these strains with the RiboPrinter did not match those generated for known type strains, suggesting the putative description of new serogroups or species. Although the automated system did not have sufficient discriminatory ability to serve as an epidemiological tool in a clinical setting, it appeared to be a powerful tool for general genomic analysis of the Legionella isolates (e.g., determination of new species) and assessment of the interrelationship among Legionella strains through the RiboPrinter database connection. PMID:12517822

Cordevant, Christophe; Tang, Jane S.; Cleland, David; Lange, Marc

2003-01-01

134

Characterisation of cathelicidin gene family members in divergent fish species.  

PubMed

Cathelicidins are antimicrobial peptides, well studied in mammals and found to be multifunctional proteins, important in the fight against bacterial invasion. Cathelicidins in fish have only recently been identified and little is known about their function and importance in the immune system of fish. In this study we have identified several novel cathelicidin proteins in far related fish species such as Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Atlantic cod was found to have at least three cathelicidin genes of which two are nearly identical except for a nine-amino acid duplication in the antimicrobial peptide region. The predicted mature peptides of cod were found to be unusual peptides, made mainly of arginine, glycine and serine (RGS) residues and form a novel class of antimicrobial peptides. Cathelicidin in Arctic charr and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were found to have an exon deletion in the cathelin region of the protein, which would lead to the deletion of the predicted loop 2 of cathelin and its adjacent beta-strands. This is the first report of a deletion of a whole exon in the family of the cathelicidins. Infection of fish with pathogenic bacteria caused an upregulation of the expression of the cathelicidins in Arctic charr and Atlantic cod and indicates a role of these proteins in fish innate immunity. PMID:18614236

Maier, Valerie H; Dorn, Karolin V; Gudmundsdottir, Bjarnheidur K; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H

2008-08-01

135

Leiomodins: larger members of the tropomodulin (Tmod) gene family  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 64-kDa autoantigen D1 or 1D, first identified as a potential autoantigen in Graves' disease, is similar to the tropomodulin (Tmod) family of actin filament pointed end-capping proteins. A novel gene with significant similarity to the 64-kDa human autoantigen D1 has been cloned from both humans and mice, and the genomic sequences of both genes have been identified. These genes form a subfamily closely related to the Tmods and are here named the Leiomodins (Lmods). Both Lmod genes display a conserved intron-exon structure, as do three Tmod genes, but the intron-exon structure of the Lmods and the Tmods is divergent. mRNA expression analysis indicates that the gene formerly known as the 64-kDa autoantigen D1 is most highly expressed in a variety of human tissues that contain smooth muscle, earning it the name smooth muscle Leiomodin (SM-Lmod; HGMW-approved symbol LMOD1). Transcripts encoding the novel Lmod gene are present exclusively in fetal and adult heart and adult skeletal muscle, and it is here named cardiac Leiomodin (C-Lmod; HGMW-approved symbol LMOD2). Human C-Lmod is located near the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy locus CMH6 on human chromosome 7q3, potentially implicating it in this disease. Our data demonstrate that the Lmods are evolutionarily related and display tissue-specific patterns of expression distinct from, but overlapping with, the expression of Tmod isoforms. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

Conley, C. A.; Fritz-Six, K. L.; Almenar-Queralt, A.; Fowler, V. M.

2001-01-01

136

STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Pilot Dominic Gorie enjoys a reunion with his wife, Wendy, near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

2000-01-01

137

STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Mission Specialist Gerhard Thiele enjoys a reunion with his wife near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

2000-01-01

138

STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Mission Specialist Janet Lynn Kavandi poses for photographers near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

2000-01-01

139

STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Commander Kevin Kregel enjoys a reunion with his wife, Jeanne, near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

2000-01-01

140

Family members of Hispanic military veterans: the risk of major depressive disorder.  

PubMed

The number of Hispanics serving in the US military is expected to grow substantially. Frequent deployments and combat assignments put significant stress on military families, increasing the risk of major depression. The family members of Hispanic military personnel may manifest depression differently than other ethnicities. Hispanics are also less likely to seek help, more likely to seek care from primary care physicians, and less likely to be appropriately diagnosed and treated. Thus, clinicians should be aware of the risk and presentation of major depressive disorder in family members of Hispanic US military veterans. PMID:20667286

Podawiltz, Alan; Culpepper, Larry

2010-07-01

141

Behind Family Lines : Family members? adaptations to military-induced separations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interrelation between work and family life has long been recognized and in many of today?s Western societies, both men and women face the challenges of combining work and family demands. Above and beyond the widespread prevalence of work affecting family, work is especially likely to bear upon family life in the course of job-induced separations. In such instances, work

Manon Daniëlle Andres

2010-01-01

142

Holding blame at bay? 'Gene talk' in family members' accounts of schizophrenia aetiology  

PubMed Central

We provide the first detailed analysis of how, for what purposes and with what consequences people related to someone with a diagnosis of schizophrenia use ‘gene talk'. The article analyses findings from a qualitative interview study conducted in London and involving 19 participants (mostly women). We transcribed the interviews verbatim and analysed them using grounded theory methods. We analyse how and for what purposes participants mobilized ‘gene talk' in their affectively freighted encounter with an unknown interviewer. Gene talk served to (re)position blame and guilt, and was simultaneously used imaginatively to forge family history narratives. Family members used ‘gene talk' to recruit forebears with no psychiatric diagnosis into a family history of mental illness, and presented the origins of the diagnosed family member's schizophrenia as lying temporally before, and hence beyond the agency of the immediate family. Gene talk was also used in attempts to dislodge the distressing figure of the schizophrenia-inducing mother. ‘Gene talk', however, ultimately displaced, rather than resolved, the (self-)blame of many family members, particularly mothers. Our article challenges the commonly expressed view that genetic accounts will absolve family members' sense of (self-)blame in relation to their relative's/relatives' diagnosis. PMID:23227107

Callard, Felicity; Rose, Diana; Hanif, Emma-Louise; Quigley, Jody; Greenwood, Kathryn; Wykes, Til

2012-01-01

143

Safety threats and opportunities to improve interfacility care transitions: insights from patients and family members  

PubMed Central

Aim To explore patients’ and family members’ perspectives on how safety threats are detected and managed across care transitions and strategies that improve care transitions from acute care hospitals to complex continuing care and rehabilitation health care organizations. Background Poorly executed care transitions can result in additional health care spending due to adverse outcomes and delays as patients wait to transfer from acute care to facilities providing different levels of care. Patients and their families play an integral role in ensuring they receive safe care, as they are the one constant in care transitions processes. However, patients’ and family members’ perspectives on how safety threats are detected and managed across care transitions from health care facility to health care facility remain poorly understood. Methods This qualitative study used semistructured interviews with patients (15) and family members (seven) who were transferred from an acute care hospital to a complex continuing care/rehabilitation care facility. Data were analyzed using a directed content analytical approach. Results Our results revealed three key overarching themes in the perceptions: lacking information, getting “funneled through” too soon, and difficulty adjusting to the shift from total care to almost self-care. Several patients and families described their expectations and experiences associated with their interfacility care transitions as being uninformed about their transfer or that transfer happened too early. In addition, study participants identified the need for having a coordinated approach to care transitions that engages patients and family members. Conclusion Study findings provide patients’ and family members’ perspectives on key safety threats and how to improve care transitions. Of particular importance is the need for patients and family members to play a more active role in their care transition planning and self-care management. PMID:23055704

Jeffs, Lianne; Kitto, Simon; Merkley, Jane; Lyons, Renee F; Bell, Chaim M

2012-01-01

144

Phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary origins of DNA polymerase X-family members.  

PubMed

Mammalian DNA polymerase (pol) ? is the founding member of a large group of DNA polymerases now termed the X-family. DNA polymerase ? has been kinetically, structurally, and biologically well characterized and can serve as a phylogenetic reference. Accordingly, we have performed a phylogenetic analysis to understand the relationship between pol ? and other members of the X-family of DNA polymerases. The bacterial X-family DNA polymerases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae pol IV, and four mammalian X-family polymerases appear to be directly related. These enzymes originated from an ancient common ancestor characterized in two Bacillus species. Understanding distinct functions for each of the X-family polymerases, evolving from a common bacterial ancestor is of significant interest in light of the specialized roles of these enzymes in DNA metabolism. PMID:25112931

Bienstock, Rachelle J; Beard, William A; Wilson, Samuel H

2014-10-01

145

Approval need in self-reports of addicts and family members.  

PubMed

Ample evidence documents the tendency of research subjects to attribute to themselves socially desirable traits and to deny having socially undesirable qualities. This tendency is particularly marked among subjects who are defensive, lacking in self-esteem, or sensitive to status differences. Drug addicts often have all of these characteristics. This paper examines the extent to which need for social approval is reflected in methadone patients' and family members' self-reports of personal and family functioning. Results demonstrate the importance of taking the approval motive into account when conducting research with this population. Addicts tend to deny negative things about themselves and their families, while family members tend to exaggerate their own and their families' positive qualities. Implications for drug treatment programs and researchers are discussed. PMID:3679641

Gibson, D; Wermuth, L; Sorensen, J L; Menicucci, L; Bernal, G

1987-09-01

146

Parents and Children Only? Acculturation and the Influence of Extended Family Members among Vietnamese Refugees  

PubMed Central

The nuclear family is often the point of departure in much of the existing acculturation research on refugee youth and children of refugees. The influence of other extended family members appears to receive less attention in understanding acculturation processes and intergenerational perspectives. This qualitative study explores the influence of extended family members upon a small sample of Vietnamese refugee parents and their adolescents while they undergo acculturation through their long-term resettlement process in Norway. With repeated interviews over a time span of 3 years, we identified situations and processes in family life in which extended kin become particularly activated and influential. Vietnamese refugee families in Norway keep close contact with extended kin even in the face of geographical distance to kin remaining in Vietnam, or globally dispersed. Aunts, uncles, and cousins are experienced as significant persons in the lives of many adolescents. Additionally, birth order of parents can often influence relationship dynamics among siblings and siblings children. Extended kin surfaced as especially important and influential at critical stages and crisis situations in family life. Extended family, and in particular, parental siblings play important roles in the acculturation experience and family functioning of Vietnamese refugee families in Norway. This has important implications for the study of Vietnamese and other refugee and immigrant families in acculturation research. PMID:24510190

Tingvold, Laila; Middelthon, Anne-Lise; Allen, James; Hauff, Edvard

2012-01-01

147

Sources of Stress for Family Members of Nursing Home Residents with Advanced Dementia  

PubMed Central

The sources of stress for families of nursing home (NH) residents with advanced dementia have not been well described. Semi--structured interviews were conducted with 16 family members previously enrolled in the Choices, Attitudes and Strategies for Care of Advanced Dementia at the End-of-Life (CASCADE) study, a prospective cohort of 323 NH residents with advanced dementia and their family members. Questions inquired about the experience of having a family member in the NH, communication with health care professionals, surrogate decision-making, emotional distress and recommendations for improvement in care. Transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method. The majority of participants were female (63%), children of the resident (94%) and white (94%). The average age was 62 years. Four themes emerged: 1) inadequate resident personal care, resulting in family member vigilance and participation in care; 2) stress at the time of NH admission; 3) lack of communication with NH physicians; and 4) challenges of surrogate decision making, including the need for education to support advance care planning and end-of-life decisions. Our results support the provision of emotional support to families upon resident admission, education regarding prognosis to guide decision making, improved resident care and greater communication with health care professionals. PMID:22037596

Givens, Jane L.; Lopez, Ruth Palan; Mazor, Kathleen M.; Mitchell, Susan L.

2011-01-01

148

Family Quality of Life of Australian Families with a Member with an Intellectual/Developmental Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Family quality of life (FQOL) is a recent concept in intellectual/developmental disability research. Outcomes for the family are important to the provision of services because families, rather than institutions, are increasingly considered the primary support unit. This article presents Australian findings using the international…

Rillotta, F.; Kirby, N.; Shearer, J.; Nettelbeck, T.

2012-01-01

149

Payment or reimbursement for certain medical expenses for Camp Lejeune family members. Interim final rule.  

PubMed

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is promulgating regulations to implement statutory authority to provide payment or reimbursement for hospital care and medical services provided to certain veterans' family members who resided at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, for at least 30 days during the period beginning on January 1, 1957, and ending on December 31, 1987. Under this rule, VA will reimburse family members, or pay providers, for medical expenses incurred as a result of certain illnesses and conditions that may be attributed to exposure to contaminated drinking water at Camp Lejeune during this time period. Payment or reimbursement will be made within the limitations set forth in statute and Camp Lejeune family members will receive hospital care and medical services that are consistent with the manner in which we provide hospital care and medical services to Camp Lejeune veterans. PMID:25255501

2014-09-24

150

Members of the EGF receptor family in normal and pathological epidermis.  

PubMed

Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and analogs bind to transmembrane receptors that exhibit tyrosine kinase activity in their cytoplasmic domain and which belong to the EGF receptor family. These growth factors and relevant receptors were named after initial identification of the functions of their founding members in the epidermis. However, since the EGF receptor was recognized as an oncogene, it has been mainly analyzed in cancer; the members of the receptor's family were also found and characterized initially in tumors and cancer cells. The present article reviews mainly the expression and function of EGF receptor family members in normal epidermis, together with the expression and function of their respective ligands, and we extend the review to potential involvement of these systems in epidermal disease. PMID:19957557

Poumay, Yves; Mitev, Vanio

2009-01-01

151

Most important needs of family members of critical patients in light of the critical care family needs inventory.  

PubMed

Objective. This work sought to identify the most important needs for family members of adult critical patients as described in the literature pursuant to the dimensions established in the "Critical Care Family Needs Inventory" (CCFNI) by Molter and Leske. Methodology. A literature review was carried out by using the CCFNI instrument. The databases used were: Pubmed, CINAHL, Proquest Nursing & Allied Health Source, Proquest Psychology Journals, LILACS, Science Direct, Ovid SP, PsyicINFO, and SciELO. The following limitations for the search were identified: adult patients, articles in English and Spanish, with abstract and complete text available and which had been published from 2003 to June 2013; 15 articles were included. Results. The family's hope on desired results and sincere communication with the healthcare staff turned out to be the most relevant needs, while the least important were related to comfort and having support structures or systems. Most of the studies were conducted in Asia and North America revealing differences in the order of importance assigned to each necessity. Certain sociodemographic and cultural characteristics impact upon how family members rank their needs; this also occurs with the nature of the most important needs for the family and the factors determining their prioritization. Conclusion. The articles included in this review mention the frequent interaction with the family and their holistic view of the person beyond the illness, determine that nurses are the most appropriate professionals to know and satisfy the family needs of critical patients. PMID:25230040

Padilla Fortunatti, Cristóbal Felipe

2014-07-01

152

Certification of Health Care Provider for Family Member's Serious Health Condition Family and Medical Leave Act ("FMLA") & California Family Rights Act ("CFRA")  

E-print Network

and Medical Leave Act ("FMLA") & California Family Rights Act ("CFRA") PURPOSE of FORM: The below-named employee has requested a leave of absence to care for a family member with a health condition, which may qualify as a protected leave under the FMLA and/or CFRA. This medical certification form will provide

Leistikow, Bruce N.

153

4-H Family Dog Score Sheet This class is designed for 4-H members enrolled in the Family Dog Project. While in the ring the dog will  

E-print Network

4-H Family Dog Score Sheet This class is designed for 4-H members enrolled in the Family Dog Project. While in the ring the dog will be on display and the member will demonstrate that the dog can sit, stay, come and walk calmly on a leash. The member should be able to discuss the dog's home care

New Hampshire, University of

154

Sun protection and sunbathing practices among at-risk family members of patients with melanoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Despite the increased level of familial risk, research indicates that family members of patients with melanoma engage in relatively\\u000a low levels of sun protection and high levels of sun exposure. The goal of this study was to evaluate a broad range of demographic,\\u000a medical, psychological, knowledge, and social influence correlates of sun protection and sunbathing practices among first-degree\\u000a relatives (FDRs)

Sharon L Manne; Elliot J Coups; Paul B Jacobsen; Michael Ming; Carolyn J Heckman; Stuart Lessin

2011-01-01

155

Integrating Spirituality into Family Therapy Training: An Exploration of Faculty Members’ Beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of marriage and family therapy (MFT) faculty as they relate\\u000a to the appropriateness of addressing spirituality in the context of therapy and training of future MFTs. Ninety-three MFT\\u000a faculty members at masters and doctoral level programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Marriage and Family\\u000a Therapy Education

Winnie A. Grams; Thomas Stone Carlson; Christi R. McGeorge

2007-01-01

156

Differential expression of five members of the ADAM family in the developing chicken brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) are a family of trans-membrane multi-domain metalloproteases with multiple functions. So far, more than 35 ADAM family members have been identified from mammalian and nonmammalian sources. Although some functions of ADAMs have been elucidated, their expression patterns remain poorly investigated, especially during CNS development. Here, we cloned the open reading frames or full-length cDNAs of

J. Lin; J. Luo; C. Redies

2008-01-01

157

Reducing Collusion Between Family Members and Clinicians of Patients Referred to the Palliative Care Team  

PubMed Central

Objective: Collusion refers to a secret agreement made between clinicians and family members to hide the diagnosis of a serious or life-threatening illness from the patient. Our goal was to reduce the rate of collusion among the family members of patients referred to our institution's palliative care service such that 80% of patients would be aware of their diagnosis within four weeks of referral to the service. We aimed to achieve this target within six months of starting the project. Methods: We undertook a clinical practice improvement project using the methodology of Brent James et al of Intermountain Health to see how we could reduce collusion among clinicians and family members of patients with advanced-stage cancers. This strategy included creating awareness among patients, family, and clinicians of the problems with collusion from the standpoint of each group; adopting an empathetic and compassionate approach to communication; using pamphlets; seeking patients’ views; empowering families to reveal the truth to patients; and supporting patients and families until the last moment of each patient's life. Results: Between December 2004 and June 2008, 655 patients with advanced-stage cancers were referred to us. We were able to maintain an average awareness rate of nearly 80% of patients starting in February 2005, when we implemented awareness measures. Conclusion: The deeply entrenched cultural practice of collusion can be changed with simple strategies based on the universal principles of medical ethics and best practices. PMID:20740097

Low, James Alvin; Kiow, Sim Lai; Main, Norhisham; Luan, Koh Kim; Sun, Pang Weng; Lim, May

2009-01-01

158

An Uncharacterized Member of the Ribokinase Family in Thermococcus kodakarensis Exhibits myo-Inositol Kinase Activity*  

PubMed Central

Here we performed structural and biochemical analyses on the TK2285 gene product, an uncharacterized protein annotated as a member of the ribokinase family, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. The three-dimensional structure of the TK2285 protein resembled those of previously characterized members of the ribokinase family including ribokinase, adenosine kinase, and phosphofructokinase. Conserved residues characteristic of this protein family were located in a cleft of the TK2285 protein as in other members whose structures have been determined. We thus examined the kinase activity of the TK2285 protein toward various sugars recognized by well characterized ribokinase family members. Although activity with sugar phosphates and nucleosides was not detected, kinase activity was observed toward d-allose, d-lyxose, d-tagatose, d-talose, d-xylose, and d-xylulose. Kinetic analyses with the six sugar substrates revealed high Km values, suggesting that they were not the true physiological substrates. By examining activity toward amino sugars, sugar alcohols, and disaccharides, we found that the TK2285 protein exhibited prominent kinase activity toward myo-inositol. Kinetic analyses with myo-inositol revealed a greater kcat and much lower Km value than those obtained with the monosaccharides, resulting in over a 2,000-fold increase in kcat/Km values. TK2285 homologs are distributed among members of Thermococcales, and in most species, the gene is positioned close to a myo-inositol monophosphate synthase gene. Our results suggest the presence of a novel subfamily of the ribokinase family whose members are present in Archaea and recognize myo-inositol as a substrate. PMID:23737529

Sato, Takaaki; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Yukika; Kuwata, Keiko; Kusaka, Eriko; Fujita, Haruo; Miki, Kunio; Atomi, Haruyuki

2013-01-01

159

Evolutionary study of vertebrate and invertebrate members of the dystrophin and utrophin gene family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrates express two members of the dystrophin gene family. The prototype, dystrophin, is expressed in muscle and neural tissue, and is defective in the human disorders Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD, BMD). The dystrophin homologue utrophin is more generally expressed but has not yet been associated with a genetic disorder. The function of neither protein is clear. A comparison

R. G. Roberts; L. Nicholson; M. Bobrow

1994-01-01

160

Suicides among Family Members of Elderly Suicide Victims: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study compares elderly suicides with (n = 13) and without (n = 72) family member suicide. Previous episodes of suicidal behavior were more common among suicides who lost first-degree relatives by suicide (100% vs. 65%, p = 0.009). Six persons had lost an offspring by suicide prior to their own deaths. Substance use disorder was…

Waern, Margda

2005-01-01

161

Complete Genome Sequence of Strain S85, a Novel Member of the Family Flavobacteriaceae  

PubMed Central

An agar-degrading marine bacterium identified as a novel member of the family Flavobacteriaceae (strain S85) was isolated from seawater in Micronesia. The sequenced strain S85 genome is composed of 3,384,629 bp in a circular chromosome, which includes 2,883 complete open reading frames. PMID:21994933

Oh, Chulhong; Kwon, Young-Kyung; Heo, Soo-Jin; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Affan, Abu; Lee, Youngdeuk; Lee, Jehee; Choi, Young-Ung; Park, Heung-Sik; Jung, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung

2011-01-01

162

Self-Concept and Depression among Children Who Experienced the Death of a Family Member  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the moderating effects of physical and academic self-concept on depression among children who experienced the death of a family member. Data from Phase III of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care was used in the present study. Having a higher physical self-concept…

Nguyen, Hong T.; Scott, Amy N.

2013-01-01

163

College Adjustment and Subjective Well-Being when Coping with a Family Member's Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals coping with the chronic or terminal illness of a family member are presented with a unique challenge that may influence their adjustment and overall well-being. This study investigated variables that relate to college adjustment and subjective well-being, including attachment, social support, coping, and illness-related constructs, in…

Schmidt, Christa K.; Welsh, Anne C.

2010-01-01

164

Approaches for analyzing the differential activities and functions of eIF4E family members.  

PubMed

The translational initiation factor eIF4E binds to the m(7)G-containing cap of mRNA and participates in recruitment of mRNA to ribosomes for protein synthesis. eIF4E also functions in nucleocytoplasmic transport of mRNA, sequestration of mRNA in a nontranslatable state, and stabilization of mRNA against decay in the cytosol. Multiple eIF4E family members have been identified in a wide range of organisms that includes plants, flies, mammals, frogs, birds, nematodes, fish, and various protists. This chapter reviews methods that have been applied to learn the biochemical properties and physiological functions that differentiate eIF4E family members within a given organism. Much has been learned to date about approaches to discover new eIF4E family members, their in vitro properties (cap binding, stimulation of cell-free translation systems), tissue and developmental expression patterns, protein-binding partners, and their effects on the translation or repression of specific subsets of mRNA. Despite these advances, new eIF4E family members continue to be found and new physiological roles discovered. PMID:17913628

Rhoads, Robert E; Dinkova, Tzvetanka D; Jagus, Rosemary

2007-01-01

165

Developing and Maintaining Mutual Aid Groups for Parents and Other Family Members: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 60-item bibliography, a compilation of abstracts of books, articles, handbooks, conference proceedings, and newsletters published from 1978 through 1989, addresses various aspects of groups, programs and other self-help resources for parents and other family members of people with disabilities. Literature in the first section provides…

Stuntzner-Gibson, Denise; And Others

166

NARRATIVES OF GRIEVING AFRICAN-AMERICANS ABOUT RACISM IN THE LIVES OF DECEASED FAMILY MEMBERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a comprehensive interview study on African-American grief, the authors explored how racism is incorporated into narratives about a deceased family member. To the extent that experiences of racism are pervasive in African-American life and to the extent that narratives about a person who has died generally account for the life experiences, achievements, character, and challenges faced by

PAUL C. ROSENBLATT; BEVERLY R. WALLACE

2005-01-01

167

Had my water gone bad? Family members have lived on our land  

E-print Network

Had my water gone bad? Family members have lived on our land for generations. Never had a problem with the well water as far as I know. But times have changed. The water could have gone bad. So, I got it tested, it made more sense and cost less to get the water tested. Now we know the water is safe. This protects our

Rhode Island, University of

168

Posttraumatic Symptoms in Japanese Bereaved Family Members with Special Regard to Suicide and Homicide Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members using a questionnaire. Participants were bereaved as a result of suicide and homicide (n = 51 and 49, respectively), with natural death (n = 56) as a control; and their relationships to the deceased were parent-child (n = 79), conjugal (n =…

Ogata, Kohske; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Nishi, Yuko; Maeda, Hitoshi

2011-01-01

169

William Albright Scholarship Endowed in 2006 by family members in memory of William  

E-print Network

) in memory of Professor Emeritus Dr. Revelli to provide support for a needy and deserving music educationWilliam Albright Scholarship Endowed in 2006 by family members in memory of William Albright to support music students majoring in composition. Arthur W. and Judith L. Angood Marching Band Scholarship

Shyy, Wei

170

Working with Teams and Organizations to Help Them Involve Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we describe our work in trying to influence whole service teams to move their practice towards greater involvement of affected family members. Work with five teams is described. The process varied but in all cases it included recruitment of the team, training, continued support and evaluation of results. Use of a standard…

Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Ibanga, Akanidomo

2010-01-01

171

The GH3 Acyl Adenylase Family Member PBS3 Regulates Salicylic Acid-Dependent Defense  

E-print Network

The GH3 Acyl Adenylase Family Member PBS3 Regulates Salicylic Acid-Dependent Defense Responses, suggesting it may impact basal disease resistance. Because induced salicylic acid (SA) is a critical mediator pro- duction of PR proteins and amplifying the oxidative burst is salicylic acid (SA; Ryals et al

Wildermuth, Mary C

172

Narratives of Grieving African-Americans about Racism in the Lives of Deceased Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a comprehensive interview study on African-American grief, the authors explored how racism is incorporated into narratives about a deceased family member. To the extent that experiences of racism are pervasive in African-American life and to the extent that narratives about a person who has died generally account for the life…

Rosenblatt, Paul C.; Wallace, Beverly R.

2005-01-01

173

Study of Essential Living Skills for Members of Families in Multiple Roles. Final Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was performed to identify empirically those essential living skills (ELS) perceived as important by men and women in their roles as a family member, an individual, and as an employee. Data was collected on a voluntary basis from 4,929 employed persons contacted through businesses, and 124 homemakers surveyed door-to-door. The ELS…

1978

174

The expression of lysyl-oxidase gene family members in myeloproliferative neoplasms.  

PubMed

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are malignant disorders originating from clonal expansion of a single neoplastic stem cell and characteristically show an increase in bone marrow reticulin fibers. Lysyl oxidases (LOXs) are copper-dependent amine oxidases that play a critical role in the biogenesis of connective tissue by crosslinking extracellular matrix proteins, collagen and elastin. Expression of LOX gene family members is increased in disorders associated with increased fibrosis. To evaluate involvement of LOX gene family in various MPNs. In-situ hybridization was used to detect Lysyl-Oxidase family members in bone marrow biopsies from patients with different MPNs. We compared normal bone marrows and those from patients with polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Serum levels of lysyl-oxidase from patients with PMF and healthy controls were also examined. LOX gene family was not detected in normal bone marrows. All members of the LOX gene family were over expressed in PMF. In other MPNs a differential pattern of expression was observed. Differences in gene expression were statistically significant (P < 0.010). The medianserum LOX levels in normal controls was 28.4 ± 2.5 ng\\ml and 44.6 ± 9.44 ng\\ml in PMF (P = 0.02). The varying pattern of expression of LOX genes may reflect differences in the pathophysiology of bone marrow fibrosis in these MPNs. These observations could be used as the basis for future targeted therapy directed against bone marrow fibrosis. PMID:23494965

Tadmor, T; Bejar, J; Attias, D; Mischenko, E; Sabo, E; Neufeld, G; Vadasz, Z

2013-05-01

175

Isolation of a member of ets gene family in the polychaete annelid Perinereis cultrifera.  

PubMed

Numerous genes belonging to the ets gene family have been described for a few years. The founder of this family is the v-ets proto-oncogene, which is the viral counterpart of the chicken c-ets-1 proto-oncogene. Main research was carried out both on Vertebrates, Drosophila and the nematod Caenorhabditis elegans. Previously, two genes of this family named Nd ets and Nd erg, were isolated in the polychaete annelid Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor. Here we have described the isolation of one gene from the ets family in another polychaete annelid named Perinereis cultrifera. By polymerase chain reaction using degenerated primers, we have amplified an approximatively 515 pb genomic region encoding the ETS domain and another domain designed as "R" domain by Qi et al. (1992) and which can mediate transactivation. By using this method for isolating members of the ets gene family, we are going to realize a phylogenetic study of the phylum of polychaete annelids. PMID:11761710

Bocquet-Muchembled, B; Leroux, R; Chotteau-Lelièvre, A; Fontaine, F

2001-01-01

176

Molecular evolution and selection pressure in alpha-class carbonic anhydrase family members.  

PubMed

Carbonic anhydrases (CA) are ubiquitous, and their involvement in diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and glaucoma is well known. Most members of this family of metalloenzymes convert carbon dioxide to bicarbonate with the help of a Zn(2+) cofactor. While the expression patterns and kinetic activities of many of these isozymes have been studied, little is known about the differences in the conservation patterns of individual residues. To better understand the molecular evolution of the CA gene family, we created multiple sequence alignments and analyzed the selection pressure (dN/dS ratios) on surface and active site residues in 248 mammalian sequences of the 14 known family members. Using the values found for amino acids of known functional importance (i.e. the three histidines that bind the zinc cofactor) as our baseline, we were able to identify other regions of possible structural and functional importance. PMID:21801860

McDevitt, Meghan E; Lambert, Lisa A

2011-12-01

177

Identifying family members who may struggle in the role of surrogate decision maker  

PubMed Central

Although acting as a surrogate decision maker can be highly distressing for some family members of intensive care unit patients, little is known about whether there are modifiable risk factors for the occurrence of such difficulties. Objectives To identify: 1) factors associated with lower levels of confidence among family members to function as surrogates and 2) whether the quality of clinician–family communication is associated with the timing of decisions to forego life support. Methods We conducted a prospective study of 230 surrogate decision makers for incapacitated, mechanically ventilated patients at high risk of death in four intensive care units at University of California San Francisco Medical Center from 2006 to 2007. Surrogates completed a questionnaire addressing their perceived ability to act as a surrogate and the quality of their communication with physicians. We used clustered multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of low levels of perceived ability to act as a surrogate and a Cox proportional hazard model to determine whether quality of communication was associated with the timing of decisions to withdraw life support. Results There was substantial variability in family members’ confidence to act as surrogate decision makers, with 27% rating their perceived ability as 7 or lower on a 10-point scale. Independent predictors of lower role confidence were the lack of prior experience as a surrogate (odds ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval [1.04–4.46], p = .04), no prior discussions with the patient about treatment preferences (odds ratio 3.7, 95% confidence interval [1.79–7.76], p < .001), and poor quality of communication with the ICU physician (odds ratio 1.2, 95% confidence interval [1.09–1.35] p < .001). Higher quality physician–family communication was associated with a significantly shorter duration of life-sustaining treatment among patients who died (? = 0.11, p = .001). Conclusions Family members without prior experience as a surrogate and those who had not engaged in advanced discussions with the patient about treatment preferences were at higher risk to report less confidence in carrying out the surrogate role. Better-quality clinician–family communication was associated with both more confidence among family members to act as surrogates and a shorter duration of use of life support among patients who died. PMID:22809903

Majesko, Alyssa; Hong, Seo Yeon; Weissfeld, Lisa; White, Douglas B.

2012-01-01

178

Proposed regulations could limit access to affordable health coverage for workers' children and family members.  

PubMed

Key Findings. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) is designed to offer premium subsidies to help eligible individuals and their families purchase insurance coverage when affordable job-based coverage is not available. However, the law is unclear on how this affordability protection is applied in those instances where self-only coverage offered by an employer is affordable but family coverage is not. Regulations recently proposed by the Department of the Treasury would make family members ineligible for subsidized coverage in the exchange if an employee is offered affordable self-only coverage by an employer, even if family coverage is unaffordable. This could have significant financial consequences for low- and moderate-income families that fall in this gap. Using an alternative interpretation of the law could allow the entire family to enter the exchange when family coverage is unaffordable, which would broaden access to coverage. However, this option has been cited as cost prohibitive. In this brief we consider a middle ground alternative that would base eligibility for the individual worker on the cost of self-only coverage, but would use the additional cost to the employee for family coverage as the basis for determining affordability and eligibility for subsidies for the remaining family members. We find that: Under the middle ground alternative scenario an additional 144,000 Californians would qualify for and use premium subsidies in the California Health Benefit Exchange, half of whom are children. Less than 1 percent of those with employer-based coverage would move to subsidized coverage in the California Health Benefit Exchange as a result of having unaffordable coverage on the job. PMID:23599987

Jacobs, Ken; Graham-Squire, Dave; Roby, Dylan H; Kominski, Gerald F; Kinane, Christina M; Needleman, Jack; Watson, Greg; Gans, Daphna

2011-12-01

179

Cancer in the Family: Review of the Psychosocial Perspectives of Patients and Family Members  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As advances in cancer care have led to more treatment options and longer survival for cancer patients, a focus on quality of life for patients and their families has gained importance. This review provides a discussion of stress and coping theory, documents the relevance of this topic area for social work practice, and illuminates the results of a…

Mitschke, Diane B.

2008-01-01

180

Individuals with a chemical-dependent family member. Does their health care use increase?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine health care utilization patterns of individuals who have a chemical-dependent family member (parent, spouse, or child). DESIGN: Morbidity and health care utilization patterns were examined for a 12-month period using the claims administrative data from the Alberta Health Care Insurance Plan (AHCIP). SETTING: General medical practice specializing in the treatment of addiction disorders. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred seventy-eight (73 male, 205 female) subjects were identified between 1987 and 1990. No members of the subject group were Natives, and none were dependent on chemicals during the study period. A control group, matched for age, sex, and family size, was randomly selected from AHCIP records. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and type of health care services and diagnoses listed in health care claims classified using the International Classification of Diseases. RESULTS: In 91% of cases, the chemical-dependent family member was male. Members of the subject group presented more often with mental disorders, digestive system problems, obstetrical problems, injuries, and poorly defined conditions. Also, they were more likely to have nonreferred visits, to have specialist visits, and to use laboratory services than population-matched controls. The subject group's use of specialists and laboratory services amounted to twice the cost of the control group's use of these services. CONCLUSIONS: Results show that individuals who have a chemical-dependent family member use more health care services than the general population. Morbidity among the subject group appears to be similar to that among chemical-dependent individuals; diagnoses related to stress and trauma are common. PMID:8520237

Svenson, L. W.; Forster, D. I.; Woodhead, S. E.; Platt, G. H.

1995-01-01

181

Informing family members about a hereditary predisposition to cancer: attitudes and practices among clinical geneticists.  

PubMed

If a hereditary predisposition to colorectal cancer or breast cancer is diagnosed, most guidelines state that clinical geneticists should request index patients to inform their at-risk relatives about the existence of this condition in their family, thus enabling them to consider presymptomatic genetic testing. Those identified as mutation carriers can undertake strategies to reduce their risk of developing the disease or to facilitate early diagnosis. This procedure of informing relatives through the index patient has been criticised, as it results in relatively few requests for genetic testing, conceivably because a certain number of relatives remain uninformed. This pilot study explored attitudes toward informing family members and relevant practices among clinical geneticists. In general, clinical geneticists consider it to be in the interests of family members to be informed and acknowledge that this goal is not accomplished by current procedures. The reasons given for maintaining present practices despite this include clinical 'mores', uncertainty about the legal right of doctors to inform family members themselves, and, importantly, a lack of resources. We discuss these reasons from an ethical point of view and conclude that they are partly uninformed and inconsistent. If informing relatives is considered to be in their best interests, clinical geneticists should consider informing relatives themselves. In the common situation in which index patients do not object to informing relatives, no legal obstacles prevent geneticists from doing so. An evaluation of these findings among professionals may lead to a more active approach in clinical practice. PMID:20605992

Stol, Yrrah H; Menko, Fred H; Westerman, Marjan J; Janssens, Rien M J P A

2010-07-01

182

"No one else sees the difference: "family members' perceptions of changes in persons with preclinical Huntington disease.  

PubMed

Manifestations of Huntington disease (HD) prior to clinical diagnosis are not well understood. This study documents adult family members' perceptions of changes and their attempts to manage these changes in persons who had received a positive predictive molecular HD test prior to clinical diagnosis. Data were obtained from 19 adult family members in six focus groups in the US and Canada and one individual interview in the US. Changes reported by family members included problems in cognition and behavior, which are consistent with prior reports. In addition, family members observed changes in motor functioning, the ability to complete usual activities at work or at home, and interpersonal relationships with family and friends. Family members attempted to manage these changes by taking on new responsibilities and preparing for future caregiving. Lack of information about preclinical HD, difficulty in understanding changes that may represent early stages of HD, and efforts to maintain secrecy of the preclinical HD situation contribute to compromising the abilities of family members to respond to changes in the person with preclinical HD. Findings provide insights into alterations in cognition, behavior, and functioning observed by the family members prior to clinical diagnosis. Findings further support the need for a more comprehensive assessment and management of early HD symptoms as well as support for family members. PMID:17219384

Williams, Janet K; Hamilton, Rebekah; Nehl, Carissa; McGonigal-Kenney, Meghan; Schutte, Debra L; Sparbel, Kathleen; Birrer, Emily; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Friedrich, Rose; Penziner, Elizabeth; Jarmon, Lori; Paulsen, Jane

2007-07-01

183

The dialysis facility's rights, responsibilities, and duties when there is conflict with family members.  

PubMed

The stressful effect that a chronic illness may have on a patient and his or her family can make the requirements of a chronic dialysis treatment program most difficult. There will be times when tensions arise between staff, patients, and family members, especially when the needs of the families and the patients are perceived as being unmet, unacknowledged, or otherwise lacking in importance to the staff. Frustrations, if not addressed and successfully resolved, can lead to conflict and the threat of or incidences of violence. Questions that dialysis unit administrators/managers should ask when considering or revoking visitation privileges are: What are the causes and contributory factors that resulted in the unresolved issues and conflict? Did we clearly communicate our policies and procedures and the consequences for failing to follow them to those accompanying the patient? Did we fail to maintain proper boundaries with the invitee (Allowing the family members to engage in inappropriate behaviors such as threats, cursing, name-calling)? Have we attempted to resolve the issues with the family members? If so, how and what was the outcome? Did we document our actions and the family members' responses? Is the revocation of the visitation privilege the only viable option? If so, why? If not, what else could be done? What steps should be taken to minimize the disruptive effect on the patient, whose family member is being disruptive? What are the reasonable and the required steps that a facility should take to ensure that the patients are properly cared for and free from abuse and neglect? What did we learn from this situation that we could use in future situations? The uncomfortable position that Sacred Heart Hospital found itself in is a difficult one and one that many other clinics have or may experience. The focus on continuing to meet the needs of a patient while dealing with issues, such as those presented here, depicts and represents professionalism at work. Answering these questions before problems arise will help unit administrators be prepared to deal effectively with conflict at the dialysis facility. Having a plan of action in place ensures a suitable, uniform response to unacceptable situations and reduces the risk of reacting inappropriately when those situations arise. PMID:12108957

Rau-Foster, M

2001-04-01

184

BadR, a New MarR Family Member, Regulates Anaerobic Benzoate Degradation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris in Concert with AadR, an Fnr Family Member  

PubMed Central

A cluster of genes for the anaerobic degradation of benzoate has been described for the phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Here we provide an initial analysis of the regulation of anaerobic benzoate degradation by examining the contributions of two regulators: a new regulator, BadR, encoded by the benzoate degradation gene cluster, and a previously described regulator, AadR, whose gene lies outside the cluster. Strains with single mutations in either badR or aadR grew slowly on benzoate but were relatively unimpaired in growth on succinate and several intermediates of benzoate degradation. A badR aadR double mutant was completely defective in anaerobic growth on benzoate. Effects of the regulators on transcriptional activation were monitored with an R. palustris strain carrying a chromosomal fusion of ?lacZ to the badE gene of the badDEFG operon. This operon encodes benzoyl-coenzyme A (benzoyl-CoA) reductase, an unusual oxygen-sensitive enzyme that catalyzes the benzene ring reduction reaction that is the rate-limiting step in anaerobic benzoate degradation. Expression of badE::?lacZ was induced 100-fold when cells grown aerobically on succinate were shifted to anaerobic growth on succinate plus benzoate. The aadR gene was required for a 20-fold increase in expression that occurred in response to anaerobiosis, and badR was responsible for a further 5-fold increase in expression that occurred in response to benzoate. Further studies with the badE::?lacZ fusion strain grown with various kinds of aromatic acids indicated that BadR probably responds to benzoyl-CoA acting as an effector molecule. Sequence information indicates that BadR is a member of the MarR family of transcriptional regulators. These studies expand the range of functions regulated by MarR family members to include anaerobic aromatic acid degradation and provide an example of a MarR-type protein that acts as a positive regulator rather than as a negative regulator, as do most MarR family members. AadR resembles the Escherichia coli Fnr regulator in sequence and contains cysteine residues that are spaced appropriately to serve in the capacity of a redox-sensing protein. PMID:10094687

Egland, Paul G.; Harwood, Caroline S.

1999-01-01

185

Those Who Are Left behind: An Estimate of the Number of Family Members of Suicide Victims in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper contributes to the literature of suicide studies by presenting procedures and its estimates of the number of family members who lose their loved ones to suicide. Using Japanese aggregate level data, three main findings emerge: first, there are approximately five bereaved family members per suicide; second, in 2006, there were about…

Chen, Joe; Choi, Yun Jeong; Mori, Kohta; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Sugano, Saki

2009-01-01

186

Page 1 of 2 To allow employees to be away from work upon the death of a family member.  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 2 Purpose To allow employees to be away from work upon the death of a family member. Policy Georgia Southern University allows funeral/bereavement time-off to all employees when a death to five (5) days of paid or unpaid leave in the event of the death of an immediate family member

Hutcheon, James M.

187

The method of nursing support in hospital and patients' and family members' experiences of the effectiveness of the support.  

PubMed

Nurses are an important source of support for patients and family members during hospitalization. It is unclear, however, what kinds of support methods are used in hospitals and how the support affects the patient and family member(s). This study describes methods of nursing support in hospital and adult patients' and their family members' experiences of this support. The data were collected in spring 2009 through essays written by and group interviews with nurses (n = 11) working at a Finnish university hospital. The data from patients (n = 9) and family members (n = 7) were collected in individual and group interviews. The material was interpreted by inductive content analysis. In their interaction with patients and family members, the hospital nurses used the methods of emotional and informational support. Patients' and family members' experiences of the effectiveness of this support were related to the establishment of a care relationship, their future outlook, mental well-being and experiences of getting well. The evidence from this research will be useful in developing methods of nursing support for patients and family members and family-oriented care in hospital. PMID:23773113

Mattila, Elina; Kaunonen, Marja; Aalto, Pirjo; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

2014-06-01

188

A new family of cyclophilins with an RNA recognition motif that interact with members of the trx\\/MLL protein family in Drosophila and human cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new family of cyclophilins with an RNA recognition motif (RRM) has members in vertebrates, roundworms and flatworms. We have identified a Drosophila cyclophilin, Dcyp33, with a high degree of amino acid sequence identity and similarity with other members of the family. Dcyp33 interacts through its RRM domain with the third PHD finger of trithorax. This interaction is conserved in

Melanie Anderson; Keri Fair; Sally Amero; Stephanie Nelson; Peter J. Harte; Manuel O. Diaz

2002-01-01

189

Phylogenetic analysis of eIF4E-family members  

PubMed Central

Background Translation initiation in eukaryotes involves the recruitment of mRNA to the ribosome which is controlled by the translation factor eIF4E. eIF4E binds to the 5'-m7Gppp cap-structure of mRNA. Three dimensional structures of eIF4Es bound to cap-analogues resemble 'cupped-hands' in which the cap-structure is sandwiched between two conserved Trp residues (Trp-56 and Trp-102 of H. sapiens eIF4E). A third conserved Trp residue (Trp-166 of H. sapiens eIF4E) recognizes the 7-methyl moiety of the cap-structure. Assessment of GenBank NR and dbEST databases reveals that many organisms encode a number of proteins with homology to eIF4E. Little is understood about the relationships of these structurally related proteins to each other. Results By combining sequence data deposited in the Genbank databases, we have identified sequences encoding 411 eIF4E-family members from 230 species. These sequences have been deposited into an internet-accessible database designed for sequence comparisons of eIF4E-family members. Most members can be grouped into one of three classes. Class I members carry Trp residues equivalent to Trp-43 and Trp-56 of H. sapiens eIF4E and appear to be present in all eukaryotes. Class II members, possess Trp?Tyr/Phe/Leu and Trp?Tyr/Phe substitutions relative to Trp-43 and Trp-56 of H. sapiens eIF4E, and can be identified in Metazoa, Viridiplantae, and Fungi. Class III members possess a Trp residue equivalent to Trp-43 of H. sapiens eIF4E but carry a Trp?Cys/Tyr substitution relative to Trp-56 of H. sapiens eIF4E, and can be identified in Coelomata and Cnidaria. Some eIF4E-family members from Protista show extension or compaction relative to prototypical eIF4E-family members. Conclusion The expansion of sequenced cDNAs and genomic DNAs from all eukaryotic kingdoms has revealed a variety of proteins related in structure to eIF4E. Evolutionarily it seems that a single early eIF4E gene has undergone multiple gene duplications generating multiple structural classes, such that it is no longer possible to predict function from the primary amino acid sequence of an eIF4E-family member. The variety of eIF4E-family members provides a source of alternatives on the eIF4E structural theme that will benefit structure/function analyses and therapeutic drug design. PMID:16191198

Joshi, Bhavesh; Lee, Kibwe; Maeder, Dennis L; Jagus, Rosemary

2005-01-01

190

Compassion Fatigue: An Application of the Concept to Informal Caregivers of Family Members with Dementia  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Compassion fatigue is a concept used with increasing frequency in the nursing literature. The objective of this paper is to identify common themes across the literature and to apply these themes, and an existing model of compassion fatigue, to informal caregivers for family members with dementia. Findings. Caregivers for family members with dementia may be at risk for developing compassion fatigue. The model of compassion fatigue provides an informative framework for understanding compassion fatigue in the informal caregiver population. Limitations of the model when applied to this population were identified as traumatic memories and the emotional relationship between parent and child, suggesting areas for future research. Conclusions. Research is needed to better understand the impact of compassion fatigue on informal caregivers through qualitative interviews, to identify informal caregivers at risk for compassion fatigue, and to provide an empirical basis for developing nursing interventions for caregivers experiencing compassion fatigue. PMID:22229086

Day, Jennifer R.; Anderson, Ruth A.

2011-01-01

191

[Brazilian experiences in the participation of users and family members in mental health research].  

PubMed

In this paper the authors describe and contextualize the participation of users and family members in mental health research in Brazil, addressing the recent tradition of the experiences of recovery and empowerment to define the analysis of some Brazilian experiences of evaluative research and intervention projects, which count on these social actors to act as researchers. The experiences of Self-Help Groups and the Guide to Autonomous Medication Management are described briefly, in order to analyze the limits and possibilities of participation of users and their family members in research, which is still incipient and sporadic in the Brazilian reality. The authors also recommend the creation of an agenda in public health policy that encourages this participation. PMID:24061010

Presotto, Rodrigo Fernando; Silveira, Marília; Delgado, Pedro Gabriel Godinho; Vasconcelos, Eduardo Mourão

2013-10-01

192

Elevated levels of members of the STAT family of transcription factors in breast carcinoma nuclear extracts.  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor, milk protein binding factor (MPBF/Stat5), is a member of the STAT family of signalling molecules which mediates prolactin signal transduction in lactating mammary gland by binding to GAS (gamma-interferon activation site) DNA elements. We have determined the levels of STAT factors in nuclear extracts from a variety of human breast tissues including carcinoma and normal 'resting' breast by electrophoretic mobility-shift assay. The results show that the level of STAT binding activity is low in normal 'resting' breast and benign lesions while carcinoma samples have significantly higher (P < 0.01) amounts of STAT binding activity. Supershift analysis suggests that Stat1 and possibly other members of the STAT family of signalling factors, including Stat3, are activated in breast cancer tissues. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:7710952

Watson, C. J.; Miller, W. R.

1995-01-01

193

Costimulatory TNFR family members in control of viral infection: outstanding questions.  

PubMed

Members of the TNFR family can play prominent roles in controlling the magnitude, duration and phenotype of the immune response to viruses. The importance of particular TNFRs in different viral infections and whether they contribute to viral control or pathology is dependent on the virus and the severity of the infection. TNFRs and their ligands are widely and differentially expressed on both adaptive and innate immune cell types. The cell types through which TNFRs exert their effects, the unique signals provided by each member of the family, and how these signals are ultimately integrated during an anti-viral immune response remain to be fully elucidated. Here we discuss the role of 4-1BB, OX40, CD27 and GITR and their ligands during viral infection and highlight some of the outstanding questions in the field. PMID:24910294

Mbanwi, Achire N; Watts, Tania H

2014-06-01

194

Proteome-wide identification of family member-specific natural substrate repertoire of caspases  

PubMed Central

Caspases are proteolytic enzymes that are essential for apoptosis. Understanding the many discrete and interacting signaling pathways mediated by caspases requires the identification of the natural substrate repertoire for each caspase of interest. Using an amplification-based protein selection technique called mRNA display, we developed a high-throughput screen platform for caspase family member specific substrates on a proteome-wide scale. A large number of both known and previously uncharacterized caspase-3 substrates were identified from the human proteome. The proteolytic features of these selected substrates, including their cleavage sites and specificities, were characterized. Substrates that were cleaved only by caspase-8 or granzyme B but not by caspase-3, were readily selected. The method can be widely applied for efficient and systematic identification of the family member specific natural substrate repertoire of any caspase in an organism of interest, in addition to that of numerous other proteases with high specificity. PMID:17728405

Ju, Wujian; Valencia, C. Alexander; Pang, Hao; Ke, Yan; Gao, Weiyi; Dong, Biao; Liu, Rihe

2007-01-01

195

Guidelines for Disclosing Genetic Information to Family Members: From Development to Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the existing legal frameworks, professional guidelines and other documents related to the conditions and\\u000a extent of the disclosure of genetic information by physicians to at-risk family members. Although the duty of a physician\\u000a regarding disclosure of genetic information to a patient’s relatives has only been addressed by few legal cases, courts have\\u000a found such a duty under

Béatrice Godard; Thierry Hurlimann; Martin Letendre; Nathalie Égalité

2006-01-01

196

Risk of Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms in Family Members of Intensive Care Unit Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Intensive care unit (ICU) admission of a relative is a stress- ful event that may cause symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objectives: Factors associated with these symptoms need to be identified. Methods: For patients admitted to 21 ICUs between March and November 2003, we studied the family member with the main potential decision-making role.Measurements: Ninety days after ICU

Elie Azoulay; Frederic Pochard; Nancy Kentish-Barnes; Sylvie Chevret; Jerome Aboab; Christophe Adrie; Djilali Annane; Gerard Bleichner; Michael Darmon; Thomas Fassier; Richard Galliot; Cyril Goulenok; Dany Goldgran-Toledano; Jan Hayon; Michel Kaidomar; Christian Laplace; Jerome Larche ´; Laurent Papazian; Jean Reignier; Faycal Saidi; Jérôme Liotier; Catherine Poisson; Benoît Schlemmer

2005-01-01

197

Intimacy and the Internet: Relationships with Friends, Romantic Partners, and Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Digital communication tools, such as email, instant messaging, text messaging, games, and social networking sites are very\\u000a popular among adolescents. Youth use them to interact and communicate with their peers as well as their family members. In\\u000a this chapter, we explore the role of technology in the third task facing adolescents: that of developing intimacy and interconnections\\u000a with the people

Kaveri Subrahmanyam; David Šmahel

198

Human mast cell migration in response to members of the transforming growth factor-b family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mast cells are known to accumulate at sites of inflammation, however, the chemotaxins involved remain largely undefined. Transforming growth factor-b (TGF-b) isoforms regulate numer- ous cellular functions, including cell growth and differentiation, formation of extracellular matrix, and the immune response. In this study we have compared the potency of different members of the TGF-b family as human mast cell chemotaxins,

Niclas Olsson; Ester Piek; Gunnar Nilsson

199

Gene structure and evolution of Tieg3, a new member of the Tieg family of proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

TGF?-inducible immediate early gene, Tieg, belongs to the superfamily of Sp1-like transcription factors containing three C2H2-zinc finger DNA binding motifs close to the C-terminus. So far, Tieg1 and Tieg2 have been identified in human and mouse. We identified Tieg3, a new member of the Tieg protein family by screening a mouse cDNA library. Tieg3 has almost all the known features

Ziyuan Wang; Björn Peters; Silke Klussmann; Herdis Bender; Anne Herb; Kerstin Krieglstein

2004-01-01

200

The neural EGF family member CALEB\\/NGC mediates dendritic tree and spine complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of dendritic arborizations and spines is essential for neuronal information processing, and abnor- mal dendritic structures and\\/or alterations in spine mor- phology are consistent features of neurons in patients with mental retardation. We identify the neural EGF family member CALEB\\/NGC as a critical mediator of dendritic tree complexity and spine formation. Overexpression of CALEB\\/NGC enhances dendritic branching and

Nicola Brandt; Kristin Franke; Mladen-Roko Rašin; Jan Baumgart; Johannes Vogt; Sergey Khrulev; Burkhard Hassel; Elena E Pohl; Nenad Šestan; Robert Nitsch; Stefan Schumacher

2007-01-01

201

The Effect of Family Member Migration on Education and Work Among Nonmigrant Youth in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

While academic and policy circles have given much attention to the assimilatory experiences of Mexican immigrants in the United\\u000a States, less is known about those who stay behind—an especially unfortunate oversight given the increasing number of Mexican\\u000a youth with migrant family members. Of the studies on this topic, most have sought to identify the effect that migration has\\u000a on youths’

Andrew Halpern-Manners

2011-01-01

202

A Novel TNF Receptor Family Member Binds TWEAK and Is Implicated in Angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

TWEAK is a member of the TNF ligand family that induces angiogenesis in vivo. We report cloning of a receptor for TWEAK (TweakR) from a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) library. The mature form of TweakR has only one hundred and two amino acids and six cysteine residues in its extracellular region. Five different assays demonstrate TWEAK-TweakR binding, and

Steven R Wiley; Linda Cassiano; Timothy Lofton; Terry Davis-Smith; Jeffrey A Winkles; Volkhard Lindner; Hua Liu; Thomas O Daniel; Craig A Smith; William C Fanslow

2001-01-01

203

Mucosal swabs detect HPV in laryngeal papillomatosis patients but not family members.  

PubMed

Seven patients, aged 2-7 years, with active recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) attending the University of Michigan Pediatric Otolaryngology Clinic were studied to determine if human papillomavirus (HPV) is harbored in sites of the upper aerodigestive tract other than in the laryngeal papilloma itself. We also determined if close family members had detectable virus in their oral cavities. Noninvasive swabs of buccal mucosa, posterior pharynx, nasal vestibule, and tonsillar pillar of patients, as well as buccal mucosa and posterior pharyngeal swabs of family members were studied. Swabs of the patients' papillomas served as the positive controls. HPV was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and Southern hybridization techniques. Six of seven patients had detectable HPV in papilloma and endolaryngeal swabs. Four were HPV type 6, and two were HPV type 11. The patient whose swab was negative for HPV was found to be biopsy negative for papilloma 3 weeks after a single laser excision which was performed 6 months prior to the endolaryngeal swab. HPV types 16, 18 and 31 were not found in any of the patients. No swabs from other sites in patients or family members were HPV positive despite the presence of adequate DNA in the swabbed material for successful amplification of beta-actin sequences. The absence of HPV (other than in the papilloma itself) in the upper aerodigestive tract of patients and caregivers is consistent with the absence of reported cases of horizontal transmission to siblings or other family members. The findings are also consistent with the conventional view that juvenile respiratory HPV is transmitted vertically from vaginal condylomas in the mother. PMID:10906514

Sun, J D; Weatherly, R A; Koopmann, C F; Carey, T E

2000-06-30

204

Confirmation From Family Members: Parent and Sibling Contributions to Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined the relationship between confirmation (i.e., validation, acceptance) by family members and adolescent psychosocial adjustment (i.e., self-esteem, strength of self-concept, and autonomy). Study 1 showed confirmation by parents was positively related to mid-adolescents' psychosocial adjustment. Study 2 showed that although late-adolescents perceived mothers as exhibiting greater confirmation than both fathers and siblings, a simultaneous assessment of mother, father,

René M. Dailey

2009-01-01

205

The perspectives of patients, family members and healthcare professionals on readmissions: preventable or inevitable?  

PubMed

Abstract An understanding of what complex medical patients with chronic conditions, family members and healthcare professionals perceive to be the key reasons for the readmission is important to preventing their occurrence. In this context, we undertook a study to understand the perceptions of patients, family members and healthcare professionals regarding the reasons for, and preventability of, readmissions. An exploratory case design with semi-structured interviews was conducted with 49 participants, including patients, family members, nurses, case managers, physicians, discharge planners from a general internal medicine unit at a large and academic hospital. Data were analyzed using a directed content analysis approach that involved three investigators. Two contrasting themes emerged from the analysis of interview data set. The first theme was readmissions as preventable occurrences. Our analyses elucidated contributing factors to readmissions during the patients' hospital stay and after the patients were discharged. The second theme was readmissions as inevitable, occurring due to the progression of disease. Our study findings indicate that some readmissions are perceived to be inevitable due to the burden of disease while others are perceived to be preventable and associated with factors both in hospital and post-discharge. Continued interprofessional efforts are required to identify patients at risk for readmission and to organize and deliver care to improve health outcomes after hospitalization. PMID:24913271

Jeffs, Lianne; Dhalla, Irfan; Cardoso, Roberta; Bell, Chaim M

2014-11-01

206

Cortical dysplasia resembling human type 2 lissencephaly in mice lacking all three APP family members.  

PubMed

The Alzheimer's disease beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a member of a larger gene family that includes the amyloid precursor-like proteins, termed APLP1 and APLP2. We previously documented that APLP2-/-APLP1-/- and APLP2-/-APP-/- mice die postnatally, while APLP1-/-APP-/- mice and single mutants were viable. We now report that mice lacking all three APP/APLP family members survive through embryonic development, and die shortly after birth. In contrast to double-mutant animals with perinatal lethality, 81% of triple mutants showed cranial abnormalities. In 68% of triple mutants, we observed cortical dysplasias characterized by focal ectopic neuroblasts that had migrated through the basal lamina and pial membrane, a phenotype that resembles human type II lissencephaly. Moreover, at E18.5 triple mutants showed a partial loss of cortical Cajal Retzius (CR) cells, suggesting that APP/APLPs play a crucial role in the survival of CR cells and neuronal adhesion. Collectively, our data reveal an essential role for APP family members in normal brain development and early postnatal survival. PMID:15385965

Herms, Jochen; Anliker, Brigitte; Heber, Sabine; Ring, Sabine; Fuhrmann, Martin; Kretzschmar, Hans; Sisodia, Sangram; Müller, Ulrike

2004-10-13

207

Moral injury: a mechanism for war-related psychological trauma in military family members.  

PubMed

Recent research has provided compelling evidence of mental health problems in military spouses and children, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), related to the war-zone deployments, combat exposures, and post-deployment mental health symptoms experienced by military service members in the family. One obstacle to further research and federal programs targeting the psychological health of military family members has been the lack of a clear, compelling, and testable model to explain how war-zone events can result in psychological trauma in military spouses and children. In this article, we propose a possible mechanism for deployment-related psychological trauma in military spouses and children based on the concept of moral injury, a model that has been developed to better understand how service members and veterans may develop PTSD and other serious mental and behavioral problems in the wake of war-zone events that inflict damage to moral belief systems rather by threatening personal life and safety. After describing means of adapting the moral injury model to family systems, we discuss the clinical implications of moral injury, and describe a model for its psychological treatment. PMID:23852334

Nash, William P; Litz, Brett T

2013-12-01

208

Conservation of the biochemical mechanisms of signal transduction among mammalian Notch family members.  

PubMed

Mouse Notch1, which plays an important role in cell fate determination in development, is proteolytically processed within its transmembrane domain by unidentified gamma-secretase-like activity that depends on presenilin. To study this proteolytic event, we established a cell-free Notch cleavage assay system using the membrane fraction of fibroblast transfectants of various Notch constructs with deletion of the extracellular portion (Notch DeltaE). The cytoplasmic portion of Notch1 DeltaE was released from the membrane upon incubation at 37 degrees C, which was inhibited by the specific gamma-secretase inhibitor, MW167, or by overexpression of dominant negative presenilin1. Likewise, other members of mouse Notch family were proteolytically cleaved in a presenilin-dependent, MW167-sensitive manner in vivo as well as in the cell-free Notch DeltaE cleavage assay system. All four members of the mouse Notch family migrated to the nucleus and activated the transcription from the promoter carrying the RBP-J consensus sequences after they were released from the membrane. These results demonstrate the conserved biochemical mechanism of signal transduction among mammalian Notch family members. PMID:11459941

Mizutani, T; Taniguchi, Y; Aoki, T; Hashimoto, N; Honjo, T

2001-07-31

209

What's at Stake? Genetic Information from the Perspective of People with Epilepsy and their Family Members  

PubMed Central

Substantial progress has been made in identifying genes that raise risk for epilepsy, and genetic testing for some of these genes is increasingly being used in clinical practice. However, almost no empirical data are available from the perspective of people with epilepsy and their family members about the impact of genetic information and potential benefits and harms of genetic testing. To address this gap we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 40 individuals (22 with epilepsy, 18 unaffected) in the USA from families containing multiple affected individuals who had participated in epilepsy genetics research. The interviews were coded and analyzed using the principles of grounded theory. Several major themes emerged from these interviews. Participants expressed “personal theories of inheritance” that emphasized commonalities among relatives and the idea that disease risk is most shared by family members who share physical or personality traits. Most participants said they would have genetic testing if it were offered. They cited many potential benefits, including learning what caused epilepsy in their family, being better able to care and advocate for children at risk, reducing guilt and blame, providing an increased sense of control, and relieving anxiety in unaffected individuals who test negative. The influence of genetic information on reproduction was a particularly salient theme. Although respondents believed genetic testing would be useful for informing their reproductive choices, they also expressed fear that it could lead to external pressures to modify these choices. Other concerns about the potential negative impact of genetic information included increased blame and guilt, increased stigma and discrimination in employment and insurance, self-imposed limitations on life goals, and alterations in fundamental conceptions of “what epilepsy is.” Consideration of the perspectives of people with epilepsy and their family members is critical to understanding the implications of contemporary epilepsy genetic research and testing. PMID:21831495

Shostak, Sara; Zarhin, Dana; Ottman, Ruth

2011-01-01

210

The Effect of Family Member Migration on Education and Work among Nonmigrant Youth in Mexico  

PubMed Central

While academic and policy circles have given much attention to the assimilatory experiences of Mexican immigrants in the United States, less is known about those who stay behind—an especially unfortunate oversight given the increasing number of Mexican youth with migrant family members. Of the studies that do exist, most have sought to identify the effect migration has on youths’ migratory and educational aspirations, often using qualitative methods in single sending communities. The present article supplements this research in two ways: (1) in addition to assessing educational outcomes, the scope of the analysis is expanded to include nonmigrants’ interaction with another homeland institution of upward mobility—the labor market; and (2) using a large demographic data set, statistical techniques are employed to adjust for unobserved selectivity into the migrant family-member population, thus accounting for a potentially serious source of bias. The results suggest that youth in migrant-sending families are less likely to complete the educational transitions leading up to post-secondary school, and have a lower probability of participating in the local economy. The results also indicate that unobserved factors play a “nonignorable” role in sorting youth into migrant and nonmigrant families. PMID:21347807

Halpern-Manners, Andrew

2013-01-01

211

Keepers of the Secret: Desires to Conceal a Family Member's HIV-Positive Status in Namibia, Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

When people learn that they have tested positive for HIV, they may share their news with a family member; and this family listener may want them to keep their diagnosis a secret. This study extends privacy management research (e.g., Petronio, 2002) by investigating variables related to family members' desires to keep HIV-status secrets. Two studies, 2 years apart, included adult-respondents

Rachel A. Smith; Angela J. Niedermyer

2009-01-01

212

Novel Members of Glycoside Hydrolase Family 13 Derived from Environmental DNA?  

PubMed Central

Starch and pullulan-modifying enzymes of the ?-amylase family (glycoside hydrolase family 13) have several industrial applications. To date, most of these enzymes have been derived from isolated organisms. To increase the number of members of this enzyme family, in particular of the thermophilic representatives, we have applied a consensus primer-based approach using DNA from enrichments from geothermal habitats. With this approach, we succeeded in isolating three new enzymes: a neopullulanase and two cyclodextrinases. Both cyclodextrinases displayed significant maltogenic amylase side activity, while one showed significant neopullulanase side activity. Specific motifs and domains that correlated with enzymatic activities were identified; e.g., the presence of the N domain was correlated with cyclodextrinase activity. The enzymes exhibited stability under thermophilic conditions and showed features appropriate for biotechnological applications. PMID:18223106

Labes, Antje; Karlsson, Eva Nordberg; Fridjonsson, Olafur H.; Turner, Pernilla; Hreggvidson, Gudmundur O.; Kristjansson, Jakob K.; Holst, Olle; Schonheit, Peter

2008-01-01

213

Informing family members of individuals with Lynch syndrome: a guideline for clinical geneticists.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of Lynch syndrome can lead to the prevention of colorectal cancer through periodic colonoscopies and removal of premalignant lesions in susceptible individuals. Therefore, predisposed individuals identified by mutation analysis are advised to inform their at-risk relatives about the options of predictive DNA testing and preventive measures. However, it has now been established that more than half of these relatives do not receive the necessary information. Barriers in conveying information include family communication problems and variable attitudes and practice among clinical geneticists. In this complex field, both medical, psychological, ethical and juridical aspects deserve consideration. Here we summarize the development of a revised guideline for clinical geneticists that allows a more active role of the geneticist, aimed at improving procedures to inform family members in Lynch syndrome and other hereditary and familial cancer syndromes. PMID:23535968

Menko, Fred H; Aalfs, Cora M; Henneman, Lidewij; Stol, Yrrah; Wijdenes, Miranda; Otten, Ellen; Ploegmakers, Marleen M J; Legemaate, Johan; Smets, Ellen M A; de Wert, Guido M W R; Tibben, Aad

2013-06-01

214

MUTYH the base excision repair gene family member associated with colorectal cancer polyposis  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer is classified in to three forms: sporadic (70–75%), familial (20–25%) and hereditary (5–10%). hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes classified into two different subtypes: polyposis and non polyposis. Familial Adenomatous polyposis (FAP; OMIM #175100) is the most common polyposis syndrome, account for <1% of colorectal cancer incidence and characterized by germline mutations in the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC, 5q21- q22; OMIM #175100). FAP is a dominant cancer predisposing syndrome which 20–25% cases are de novo. There is also another polyposis syndrome; MUTYH associated polyposis (MAP, OMIM 608456) which it is caused by mutation in human Mut Y homologue MUTYH (MUTYH; OMIM 604933) and it is associated with multiple (15–100) colonic adenomas. In this paper we discuss MUTYH mechanism as an important member of Base Excision Repair (BER) family and its important role in polyposis condition. PMID:24834277

Kashfi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Golmohammadi, Mina; Behboudi, Faeghe; Zali, Mohammad Reza

2013-01-01

215

PE-1, a novel ETS oncogene family member, localizes to chromosome 1q21-q23  

SciTech Connect

The v-ets oncogene family shares a conserved peptide motif called the ETS domain that mediates sequence-specific DNA binding. This motif is unique among transcription factor families. Using partially degenerate oligonucleotides from conserved regions of the ETS domain and the polymerase chain reaction, the authors isolated a new member of v-ets family designated PE-1 from HL60 cells. PE-1 was expressed as an approximately 7.5-kb transcript in most cell lines tested. In the hairy cell leukemia line Eskol, there was an additional 1.8-kb transcript observed. PE-1 was the most common ETS domain gene found in CD34[sup +]HLA-DR[sup [minus

Klemsz, M.; Hromas, R.; Bruno, E.; Hoffman, R. (Indiana Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States)); Raskind, W. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States))

1994-03-15

216

Relatives' perceptions of their interactional behavior with a schizophrenic family member.  

PubMed

Relatives' (N = 77) perceptions of their recent interactional behavior with a schizophrenic family member (N = 51), as measured by an adjective checklist, were compared with outside observer ratings of the relatives' Affective Style (AS) and the patients' Coping Style (CS) during a family interaction task. Results indicated that, overall, the relatives in the present sample perceived their own interactional behavior toward the patient, as well as the patients' behavior toward them, in a way that paralleled their affective behavior as assessed by outside raters. Moreover, the relatives' rated their relationship with the patient in a fashion that was more predictive of the observed interactional behavior of both the relatives and the patients than were the outside observers' ratings of the relatives' Expressed Emotion (EE) measured either at the patients' index hospitalization (using the Camberwell Family Interview, CFI-EE) or during the post-discharge period (assessed with a brief Five-Minute Speech Sample method, FMSS-EE). PMID:7698303

Friedmann, M S; Goldstein, M J

1994-12-01

217

Comparison of family functioning and social support between families with a member who has obsessive-compulsive disorder and control families in Shanghai  

PubMed Central

Background Family functioning plays an important role in the etiology and course of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) so understanding the types of problems families with OCD patients have will help in the creation of OCD-specific family interventions. Objective Compare family functioning and social support of OCD patients and their co-resident parents to that of community controls and their co-resident parents. Methods Thirty-two psychiatric outpatients at the Affiliated East Hospital of Tongji University (in Shanghai) who met DSM-IV criteria for OCD and one of their co-resident parents and 31 community controls matched for age and years of education with the patients and one of their co-resident parents independently completed Chinese versions of the self-administered McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD), which assesses seven dimensions of family functioning, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), which assesses perceived support from family members, from friends and from other associates. Results All of the FAD dimension scores for both patients and their parents were in the unhealthy range (based on cut-off scores used in the Western version of the scale). With the exception of the Affective Involvement dimension of the FAD, patients with OCD and their parents reported significantly more poor family functioning and more poor social support than community controls and their parents. The concordance of patients FAD scores of and their parents scores was significantly stronger than that of controls and their parents for the Problem Solving, Communication and Affective Involvement dimensions (all p<0.001) but significantly weaker for the Behavioral Control dimension (p=0.009). For all four groups of respondents the four measures of perceived social support were all positively correlated with each of the seven measures of family functioning, though several of the correlation coefficients did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions OCD, like several other psychiatric illnesses, is an illness that profoundly affects families in China. Interventions for OCD need to integrate family-based psychosocial approaches (e.g., family therapy) with individual-based biological and psychological interventions. Our finding that perceived social support—from family members and from others—are closely related to family functioning in all types of respondents highlights the central role of families in the personal identity and social networks of individuals in China.

Wang, Jikun; Zhao, Xudong

2012-01-01

218

Turnover of Amyloid Precursor Protein Family Members Determines Their Nuclear Signaling Capability  

PubMed Central

The amyloid precursor protein (APP) as well as its homologues, APP-like protein 1 and 2 (APLP1 and APLP2), are cleaved by ?-, ?-, and ?-secretases, resulting in the release of their intracellular domains (ICDs). We have shown that the APP intracellular domain (AICD) is transported to the nucleus by Fe65 where they jointly bind the histone acetyltransferase Tip60 and localize to spherical nuclear complexes (AFT complexes), which are thought to be sites of transcription. We have now analyzed the subcellular localization and turnover of the APP family members. Similarly to AICD, the ICD of APLP2 localizes to spherical nuclear complexes together with Fe65 and Tip60. In contrast, the ICD of APLP1, despite binding to Fe65, does not translocate to the nucleus. In addition, APLP1 predominantly localizes to the plasma membrane, whereas APP and APLP2 are detected in vesicular structures. APLP1 also demonstrates a much slower turnover of the full-length protein compared to APP and APLP2. We further show that the ICDs of all APP family members are degraded by the proteasome and that the N-terminal amino acids of ICDs determine ICD degradation rate. Together, our results suggest that different nuclear signaling capabilities of APP family members are due to different rates of full-length protein processing and ICD proteasomal degradation. Our results provide evidence in support of a common nuclear signaling function for APP and APLP2 that is absent in APLP1, but suggest that APLP1 has a regulatory role in the nuclear translocation of APP family ICDs due to the sequestration of Fe65. PMID:23874953

Trutzel, Annette; Bundschuh, Diana; Nitsch, Roger M.; Konietzko, Uwe

2013-01-01

219

Turnover of amyloid precursor protein family members determines their nuclear signaling capability.  

PubMed

The amyloid precursor protein (APP) as well as its homologues, APP-like protein 1 and 2 (APLP1 and APLP2), are cleaved by ?-, ?-, and ?-secretases, resulting in the release of their intracellular domains (ICDs). We have shown that the APP intracellular domain (AICD) is transported to the nucleus by Fe65 where they jointly bind the histone acetyltransferase Tip60 and localize to spherical nuclear complexes (AFT complexes), which are thought to be sites of transcription. We have now analyzed the subcellular localization and turnover of the APP family members. Similarly to AICD, the ICD of APLP2 localizes to spherical nuclear complexes together with Fe65 and Tip60. In contrast, the ICD of APLP1, despite binding to Fe65, does not translocate to the nucleus. In addition, APLP1 predominantly localizes to the plasma membrane, whereas APP and APLP2 are detected in vesicular structures. APLP1 also demonstrates a much slower turnover of the full-length protein compared to APP and APLP2. We further show that the ICDs of all APP family members are degraded by the proteasome and that the N-terminal amino acids of ICDs determine ICD degradation rate. Together, our results suggest that different nuclear signaling capabilities of APP family members are due to different rates of full-length protein processing and ICD proteasomal degradation. Our results provide evidence in support of a common nuclear signaling function for APP and APLP2 that is absent in APLP1, but suggest that APLP1 has a regulatory role in the nuclear translocation of APP family ICDs due to the sequestration of Fe65. PMID:23874953

Gersbacher, Manuel T; Goodger, Zoë V; Trutzel, Annette; Bundschuh, Diana; Nitsch, Roger M; Konietzko, Uwe

2013-01-01

220

The Ras-association domain family (RASSF) members and their role in human tumourigenesis  

PubMed Central

Ras proteins play a direct causal role in human cancer with activating mutations in Ras occurring in ? 30% of tumours. Ras effectors also contribute to cancer, as mutations occur in Ras effectors, notably B-Raf and PI3-K, and drugs blocking elements of these pathways are in clinical development. In 2000, a new Ras effector was identified, RAS-association domain family 1 (RASSF1), and expression of the RASSF1A isoform of this gene is silenced in tumours by methylation of its promoter. Since methylation is reversible and demethylating agents are currently being used in clinical trials, detection of RASSF1A silencing by promoter hypermethylation has potential clinical uses in cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. RASSF1A belongs to a new family of RAS effectors, of which there are currently 8 members (RASSF1–8). RASSF1–6 each contain a variable N-terminal segment followed by a Ras-association (RA) domain of the Ral-GDS/AF6 type, and a specialised coiled-coil structure known as a SARAH domain extending to the C-terminus. RASSF7–8 contain an N-terminal RA domain and a variable C-terminus. Members of the RASSF family are thought to function as tumour suppressors by regulating the cell cycle and apoptosis. This review will summarise our current knowledge of each member of the RASSF family and in particular what role they play in tumourigenesis, with a special focus on RASSF1A, whose promoter methylation is one of the most frequent alterations found in human tumours. PMID:17692468

van der Weyden, Louise; Adams, David J.

2007-01-01

221

After an Attempt: A Guide for Taking Care of Your Family Member After Treatment in the Emergency Department  

MedlinePLUS

... is admitted to an emergency department for a suicide 1 Family Guide for Your Family Member in the Emergency ... share with the emergency department staff include: • A family history of actual suicide—mental health professionals are taught to pay attention ...

222

Ethical Dilemmas in Testing for Late Onset Conditions: Reactions to Testing and Perceived Impact on Other Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines some of the ethical dilemmas that arise when testing for the late onset, untreatable condition of Huntington disease (HD) specifically now that technology allows us to test younger generations of the family for the mutant gene. Drawing on interview data from families with Huntington disease, the reactions to testing and perceived impact on other family members are

Elizabeth Chapman

2002-01-01

223

Calcium-dependent Phospholipid Scramblase Activity of TMEM16 Protein Family Members*  

PubMed Central

Asymmetrical distribution of phospholipids between the inner and outer plasma membrane leaflets is disrupted in various biological processes. We recently identified TMEM16F, an eight-transmembrane protein, as a Ca2+-dependent phospholipid scramblase that exposes phosphatidylserine (PS) to the cell surface. In this study, we established a mouse lymphocyte cell line with a floxed allele in the TMEM16F gene. When TMEM16F was deleted, these cells failed to expose PS in response to Ca2+ ionophore, but PS exposure was elicited by Fas ligand treatment. We expressed other TMEM16 proteins in the TMEM16F?/? cells and found that not only TMEM16F, but also 16C, 16D, 16G, and 16J work as lipid scramblases with different preference to lipid substrates. On the other hand, a patch clamp analysis in 293T cells indicated that TMEM16A and 16B, but not other family members, acted as Ca2+-dependent Cl? channels. These results indicated that among 10 TMEM16 family members, 7 members could be divided into two subfamilies, Ca2+-dependent Cl? channels (16A and 16B) and Ca2+-dependent lipid scramblases (16C, 16D, 16F, 16G, and 16J). PMID:23532839

Suzuki, Jun; Fujii, Toshihiro; Imao, Takeshi; Ishihara, Kenji; Kuba, Hiroshi; Nagata, Shigekazu

2013-01-01

224

Functional redundancy between trans-Golgi network SNARE family members in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background Vesicle fusion is an essential process for maintaining the structure and function of the endomembrane system. Fusion is mediated by t-SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) fusion proteins on the target membrane and v-SNAREs on the vesicle membrane; v-and t-SNAREs interact with each other, driving vesicle fusion with the target membrane. The Arabidopsis thaliana trans-Golgi network resident SNAREs SYP41 and VTI12, along with YKT61/62, have been shown to function in vesicle fusion in vitro, consistent with immunoprecipitation results showing their interaction in Arabidopsis cell extracts. Conflicting published results have indicated that SYP4 family members are either functionally redundant or have distinct and essential functions; the reason for this discrepancy is unclear. Results Here we used a proteoliposome fusion assay to demonstrate that SYP42 and SYP43 can substitute for SYP41 in driving lipid mixing, providing support for functional overlap between family members. Previous reports have also suggested that VTI11 and VTI12 SNAREs show partial overlap in function, despite having mostly distinct localizations and binding partners. We show that VTI11 can substitute for VTI12 in in vitro lipid mixing reactions, providing molecular support for the genetic evidence for partial functional redundancy in vivo. Conclusions Our data provide biochemical evidence for functional overlap in membrane fusion between members of the SYP4 or VTI1 SNARE groups, supporting previous genetic data suggesting redundancy. PMID:24021022

2013-01-01

225

[Informing members of families affected by fragile X syndrome of this diagnosis].  

PubMed

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder that may seriously affect the development of patients. One of the hardest tasks for the professionals of medicine is to tell the parents that their child is suffering a serious illness that may cause some permanent handicap. This normally implies drastic changes in live projects and expectations for the parents. The knowledge of diagnosis and the supply of information to the parents give rise to an important emotional impact on both parents and the rest of the family. In general terms, the patient implies more than a single ill person--a genetic illness such as FXS, which causes serious cognitive and behavioural disturbances, implies three situations that the family has to face: on one hand, the family has to accept a new world that had never been known; a son or daughter with a genetic disorder unknown not only for them, but also for most of the professionals they have visited before having a diagnosis, and in many cases with special needs and serious behavioural disturbances. On the other hand, the family must accept that the diagnosis may not be restricted to the patient, because some other members of the family could be suffering from the same illness. Finally, they have to face the fact that one of the parents has transmitted the illness, that is, 'the genetic guilt' in the illness of their son or daughter. PMID:12447818

Carrasco, M

2001-10-01

226

Different expression patterns of Phactr family members in normal and injured mouse brain.  

PubMed

Phosphatase and actin regulators (Phactrs) are a novel family of proteins expressed in the brain, and they exhibit both strong modulatory activity of protein phosphatase 1 and actin-binding activity. Phactrs are comprised of four family members (Phactr1-4), but their detailed expression patterns during embryonic and postnatal development are not well understood. We found that these family members exhibit different spatiotemporal mRNA expression patterns. Phactr4 mRNA was found in neural stem cells in the developing and adult brains, whereas Phactr1 and 3 appeared to be expressed in post-mitotic neurons. Following traumatic brain injury which promotes neurogenesis in the neurogenic region and gliogenesis in the injury penumbra, the mRNA expression of phactr2 and 4 was progressively increased in the injury penumbra, and phactr4 mRNA and protein induction was observed in reactive astrocytes. These differential expression patterns of phactrs imply specific functions for each protein during development, and the importance of Phactr4 in the reactive gliosis following brain injury. PMID:22766235

Kim, J Y; Choi, S Y; Moon, Y; Kim, H J; Chin, J H; Kim, H; Sun, W

2012-09-27

227

Members of the Meloidogyne avirulence protein family contain multiple plant ligand-like motifs.  

PubMed

Sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes engage in complex interactions with their host plants by secreting effector proteins. Some effectors of both root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) and cyst nematodes (Heterodera and Globodera spp.) mimic plant ligand proteins. Most prominently, cyst nematodes secrete effectors that mimic plant CLAVATA3/ESR-related (CLE) ligand proteins. However, only cyst nematodes have been shown to secrete such effectors and to utilize CLE ligand mimicry in their interactions with host plants. Here, we document the presence of ligand-like motifs in bona fide root-knot nematode effectors that are most similar to CLE peptides from plants and cyst nematodes. We have identified multiple tandem CLE-like motifs conserved within the previously identified Meloidogyne avirulence protein (MAP) family that are secreted from root-knot nematodes and have been shown to function in planta. By searching all 12 MAP family members from multiple Meloidogyne spp., we identified 43 repetitive CLE-like motifs composing 14 unique variants. At least one CLE-like motif was conserved in each MAP family member. Furthermore, we documented the presence of other conserved sequences that resemble the variable domains described in Heterodera and Globodera CLE effectors. These findings document that root-knot nematodes appear to use CLE ligand mimicry and point toward a common host node targeted by two evolutionarily diverse groups of nematodes. As a consequence, it is likely that CLE signaling pathways are important in other phytonematode pathosystems as well. PMID:25014776

Rutter, William B; Hewezi, Tarek; Maier, Tom R; Mitchum, Melissa G; Davis, Eric L; Hussey, Richard S; Baum, Thomas J

2014-08-01

228

Merkel cell carcinoma dependence on bcl-2 family members for survival.  

PubMed

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare but aggressive cutaneous neoplasm with high metastatic potential, has a poor prognosis at late stages of disease with no proven chemotherapeutic regimens. Using an enriched culture medium, we established and characterized 11 MCC cell lines for Bcl-2 family profiling and functional studies. Immunoblot analysis revealed collectively high protein levels of prosurvival Bcl-2 members in cell lines and a panel of MCC tumors. Downregulation of individual Bcl-2 proteins by RNAi promoted death in a subset of MCC cell lines, whereas simultaneous inhibition of multiple family members by using the small-molecule antagonist ABT-263 led to a marked induction of cell death in 10 of 11 lines. ABT-263 induced Bax-dependent apoptosis with rapid cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP, regardless of Bcl-2 family profile or the presence of Merkel cell polyomavirus. Furthermore, ABT-263 treatment led to rapid and sustained growth suppression of MCC xenografts from a representative cell line, accompanied by a striking increase in apoptosis. Our results establish that concurrent inhibition of multiple prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins leads to effective induction of apoptosis, and strongly support the concept that targeting MCC dependence on these molecules may be useful therapeutically by reversing an intrinsic resistance to cell death. PMID:24614157

Verhaegen, Monique E; Mangelberger, Doris; Weick, Jack W; Vozheiko, Tracy D; Harms, Paul W; Nash, Kevin T; Quintana, Elsa; Baciu, Paul; Johnson, Timothy M; Bichakjian, Christopher K; Dlugosz, Andrzej A

2014-08-01

229

Susceptibility of members of the family Legionellaceae to thermal stress: implications for heat eradication methods in water distribution systems.  

PubMed Central

To ascertain the feasibility of heat inactivation as an eradication method applicable to all members of the family Legionellaceae, we tested the heat resistance of 75 isolates which represented 19 members of this family of organisms. The ranges of thermal death times at 60, 70, and 80 degrees C were 1.3 to 10.6, 0.7 to 2.6, and 0.3 to 0.7 min, respectively. These data suggest that the method of heat eradication will be effective against all members of the family Legionellaceae. PMID:3752999

Stout, J E; Best, M G; Yu, V L

1986-01-01

230

Family members' obstructive behaviors appear to be more harmful among adults with type 2 diabetes and limited health literacy.  

PubMed

Family members' diabetes-specific obstructive behaviors (e.g., nagging/arguing or getting in the way of patients' self-care) are associated with adults having worse glycemic control (HbA1C), with diabetes-specific supportive family behaviors protecting against this detrimental effect. Given the role of family members in helping patients with limited health literacy, patients' health literacy status may moderate these relations. The authors tested this hypothesis with 192 adults with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-six percent had limited health literacy, and limited health literacy was associated with more supportive family behaviors (p < .05), but not with obstructive family behaviors or with patients' HbA1C. Adjusted stratified analyses indicated obstructive family behaviors were more strongly associated with worse HbA1C among participants with limited health literacy and low supportive family behaviors than for participants with adequate health literacy and low supportive family behaviors (adjusted simple slopes ? = 0.70, p = .05 vs. ? = 0.36, p = .009). However, there was no association between obstructive family behaviors and HbA1C in the context of high supportive family behaviors, regardless of health literacy status. Involving family members in adults' self-care without teaching them to avoid obstructive behaviors may be particularly harmful for patients with limited health literacy. Future research should identify intervention content to reduce obstructive family behaviors and identify which supportive family behaviors may be protective. PMID:25315589

Mayberry, Lindsay S; Rothman, Russell L; Osborn, Chandra Y

2014-10-01

231

Influence of posttraumatic stress disorder of the fathers on other family members.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to analyze the frequency of depression and anxiety and children behaviour in families whose heads of the family (father) suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The study was conducted from September 2005 until July 2006, with patients living in Mostar. The frequency of depression and anxiety in family members older than 18 years, and changes of the behaviour in children younger than 18 years of age were measured. The data were collected from 60 men and their families who had been diagnosed with PTSD by their psychiatrist. The control group was formed using matching criteria (age of the head of the family, his education, religion, family income and number of children). In this study, three questionnaires were used: one specially designed for this study, covering general information about family members, and a personal opinion of each family member about the family situation and relations within the family; Hopkins symptoms checklist - 25 (HSCL-25) for evaluation of depression and anxiety for subjects older than 18; and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) for children 5 to 18 years of age, which was completed by their mothers. More wives from the PTSD families had depression than wives from the controlled group (chi2=21,099; df=1; P<0,050). There was no difference between groups in frequency of depression and anxiety (chi2=0,003; df=1; P=0,959) for children older than 18 years. No difference in answers between groups of children younger than 18 years were found in the General Health Questionnaire. However, we found significant differences in separate questions. Mothers, who filled the questionnaire form, reported that children from fathers who had PTSD experienced stomach pain more often (chi2=10,474;df=2; P=0,005), eating problems (chi2=14,204;df=2; P=0,001) and breathing problems (chi2=9,748;df=2; P=0,008), than children from fathers who did not have PTSD. Children from fathers with PTSD were more easily upset (chi2=7,586; df=2; P=0,023) and worried more often (chi2=12,093; df=2; P=0,002), they were also more aggressive towards other children (chi2=6,156; df=1; P=0,013). The controlled group of children who wanted to help with the house work was larger than the tested group (chi2=10,383; df=2; P=0,006). More children from the controlled group missed school than from the other group of surveyed children (chi2=6,056; df=2; P=0,048). A significantly larger number of women, whose husbands had PTSD, were depressed, unlike women whose husbands were not ill. There was no significant difference in depression manifestation in a group of children older than 18, as well as in behaviour of a group of children younger than 18, but significant differences in some provided answers were found, that indicate the differences between controlled and tested groups. PMID:18318667

Zalihi?, Amra; Zalihi?, Dino; Pivi?, Gordana

2008-02-01

232

Apple procyanidins affect several members of the ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase family in vitro.  

PubMed

Complex polyphenol-rich extracts from apples are known to inhibit the activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in vitro. The aim of the present study was to identify the bioactive constituents of the apple juice extract which contribute substantially to this potentially chemopreventive effect and to address the question whether the effect is specific to the EGFR or whether other members of the ErbB-receptor family might also be affected. Apple-derived dihydrochalcones and their respective glycosides were found to decrease EGFR activity under cell-free conditions with IC50-values ranging from 0.4 ± 0.1 to 267.0 ± 50.0 ?M but showed no activity on human cancer cells. The concentration of quercetin or its glycosides in the extract was too low to contribute substantially to the EGFR-inhibitory properties. In contrast, fractions derived from the apple juice extract comprising ?86% oligomeric procyanidins (OPCs) suppressed the activity of the EGFR in cell culture with an IC50 ? 100 ?g mL(-1). In addition, the activity of further members of the ErbB-receptor family was potently inhibited, with ErbB3 receptor activity being most potently decreased (IC50 ? 10 ?g mL(-1)). From the apple polyphenols identified so far OPCs were found to add the highest contribution to the inhibitory effects towards members of the ErbB-receptor family. Considering the crucial role of the ErbB-receptors in carcinogenesis, these results support the hypothesis that apple-derived OPCs as well as OPC-rich apple preparations might be of interest with respect to chemoprevention. PMID:23403595

Teller, Nicole; Roth, Matthias; Esselen, Melanie; Fridrich, Diana; Boettler, Ute; Blust, Volker; Will, Frank; Dietrich, Helmut; Raul, Francis; Hümmer, Wolfgang; Richling, Elke; Schreier, Peter; Marko, Doris

2013-04-30

233

Association between family members of dialysis patients and chronic kidney disease: a multicenter study in China  

PubMed Central

Background Family members of patients with end stage renal disease were reported to have an increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, studies differentiated genetic and non-genetic family members are limited. We sought to investigate the prevalence of CKD among fist-degree relatives and spouses of dialysis patients in China. Methods Seventeen dialysis facilities from 4 cities of China including 1062 first-degree relatives and 450 spouses of dialysis patients were enrolled. Sex- and age- matched controls were randomly selected from a representative sample of general population in Beijing. CKD was defined as decreased estimated glomerular (eGFR?family members of dialysis patients and presence of CKD is different between first-degree relatives and spouses. The underlying mechanisms deserve further investigation. PMID:23331610

2013-01-01

234

TEDE per cumulated activity for family members exposed to adult patients treated with 131I.  

PubMed

In 1997, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission amended its criteria under which patients administered radioactive materials could be released from the hospital. The revised criteria ensures that the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to any individual exposed to the released patient will not likely exceed 5 mSv. Licensees are recommended to use one of the three options to release the patient in accordance with these regulatory requirements: administered activity, measured dose rate, or patient-specific dose calculation. The NRC's suggested calculation method is based on the assumption that the patient (source) and a family member (target) are each considered to be points in space. This point source/target assumption has been shown to be conservative in comparison to more realistic guidelines. In this present study, the effective doses to family members were calculated using a series of revised Oak Ridge National Laboratory stylised phantoms coupled with a Monte Carlo radiation transport code. A set of TEDE per cumulated activity values were calculated for three different distributions of (131)I (thyroid, abdomen and whole body), various separation distances and two exposure scenarios (face-to-face standing and side-by-side lying). The results indicate that an overestimation of TEDE per cumulated activity based on the point source/target method was >2-fold. The values for paediatric phantoms showed a strong age-dependency, which showed that dosimetry for children should be separately considered instead of using adult phantoms as a substitute. On the basis of the results of this study, a licensee may use less conservative patient-specific release criteria and provide the patient and the family members with more practical dose avoidance guidelines. PMID:22821723

Han, Eun Young; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley E

2013-01-01

235

Race-Related Differences in the Experiences of Family Members of Persons with Mental Illness Participating in the NAMI Family to Family Education Program.  

PubMed

Families play an important role in the lives of individuals with mental illness. Coping with the strain of shifting roles and multiple challenges of caregiving can have a huge impact. Limited information exists regarding race-related differences in families' caregiving experiences, their abilities to cope with the mental illness of a loved one, or their interactions with mental health service systems. This study examined race-related differences in the experiences of adults seeking to participate in the National Alliance on Mental Illness Family-to-Family Education Program due to mental illness of a loved one. Participants were 293 White and 107 African American family members who completed measures of problem- and emotion-focused coping, knowledge about mental illness, subjective illness burden, psychological distress, and family functioning. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine race-related differences. African American caregivers reported higher levels of negative caregiving experiences, less knowledge of mental illness, and higher levels of both problem-solving coping and emotion-focused coping, than White caregivers. Mental health programs serving African American families should consider targeting specific strategies to address caregiving challenges, support their use of existing coping mechanisms and support networks, and increase their knowledge of mental illness. PMID:25213395

Smith, Melissa Edmondson; Lindsey, Michael A; Williams, Crystal D; Medoff, Deborah R; Lucksted, Alicia; Fang, Li Juan; Schiffman, Jason; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Dixon, Lisa B

2014-12-01

236

Using beepers to keep family members involved in the patient's care.  

PubMed

The 1994 Veterans Health Administration (VHA) National Customer Feedback Survey of 43,594 recently discharged inpatients revealed that problems relating to emotional support were reported two to three more frequently by VHA patients than by patients in the private sector. The scores related to emotional support that were reported by 130 Oklahoma City Veterans Affairs Medical Center surgery respondents were the facility's least favorable scores in benchmark comparisons with all VHA surgery patients and with surgery patients at Picker Institute, a nonprofit, private sector research and education organization. These scores prompted the initiation of a successful program to loan radio and digital beepers to patients' family members. PMID:10167160

Morehead, K A; Hunt, D M

1997-01-01

237

Comparative transcriptome profiling of amyloid precursor protein family members in the adult cortex  

PubMed Central

Background The ?-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and the related ?-amyloid precursor-like proteins (APLPs) undergo complex proteolytic processing giving rise to several fragments. Whereas it is well established that A? accumulation is a central trigger for Alzheimer's disease, the physiological role of APP family members and their diverse proteolytic products is still largely unknown. The secreted APPs? ectodomain has been shown to be involved in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. The ?-secretase-generated APP intracellular domain (AICD) functions as a transcriptional regulator in heterologous reporter assays although its role for endogenous gene regulation has remained controversial. Results To gain further insight into the molecular changes associated with knockout phenotypes and to elucidate the physiological functions of APP family members including their proposed role as transcriptional regulators, we performed DNA microarray transcriptome profiling of prefrontal cortex of adult wild-type (WT), APP knockout (APP-/-), APLP2 knockout (APLP2-/-) and APPs? knockin mice (APP?/?) expressing solely the secreted APPs? ectodomain. Biological pathways affected by the lack of APP family members included neurogenesis, transcription, and kinase activity. Comparative analysis of transcriptome changes between mutant and wild-type mice, followed by qPCR validation, identified co-regulated gene sets. Interestingly, these included heat shock proteins and plasticity-related genes that were both down-regulated in knockout cortices. In contrast, we failed to detect significant differences in expression of previously proposed AICD target genes including Bace1, Kai1, Gsk3b, p53, Tip60, and Vglut2. Only Egfr was slightly up-regulated in APLP2-/- mice. Comparison of APP-/- and APP?/? with wild-type mice revealed a high proportion of co-regulated genes indicating an important role of the C-terminus for cellular signaling. Finally, comparison of APLP2-/- on different genetic backgrounds revealed that background-related transcriptome changes may dominate over changes due to the knockout of a single gene. Conclusion Shared transcriptome profiles corroborated closely related physiological functions of APP family members in the adult central nervous system. As expression of proposed AICD target genes was not altered in adult cortex, this may indicate that these genes are not affected by lack of APP under resting conditions or only in a small subset of cells. PMID:21435241

2011-01-01

238

'A voyage of grief and beauty': supporting a dying family member with an intellectual disability.  

PubMed

This article reports on a small research project designed to reveal what it is like to support a dying family member with an intellectual disability in a community setting. Five open-ended interviews were conducted with individuals who had experienced this phenomenon. Three thematic elements which lay within the experience of being a family support person were elucidated through hermeneutic phenomenological analysis of interview audio-recordings, verbatim transcripts and field notes. Collectively, these themes (Interlocked Companionship, Search for New Balance and Permeable Interaction) created a metaphorical understanding that participants had navigated a voyage of grief and beauty'. Rhetorical consideration of the research findings generated recommendations for tertiary, palliative care and intellectual disability support services. These are presented along with suggestions for future research. PMID:18959283

Marlow, Susan; Martin, Margi

2008-07-01

239

Six members of the mouse forkhead gene family are developmentally regulated.  

PubMed Central

The 110-aa forkhead domain defines a class of transcription factors that have been shown to be developmentally regulated in Drosophila melanogaster and Xenopus laevis. The forkhead domain is necessary and sufficient for target DNA binding as shown for the rat hepatic nuclear factor 3 (HNF3) gene family. We have cloned six forkhead gene family members from a mouse genomic library in addition to the mouse equivalents of the genes for HNF3 alpha, -beta, and -gamma. The six genes, termed fkh-1 to fkh-6, share a high degree of similarity with the Drosophila forkhead gene, having 57-67% amino acid identity within the forkhead domain. fkh-1 seems to be the mammalian homologue of the Drosophila FD1 gene, as the sequences are 86% identical. fkh-1 to fkh-6 show distinct spatial patterns of expression in adult tissues and are expressed during embryogenesis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7689224

Kaestner, K H; Lee, K H; Schlondorff, J; Hiemisch, H; Monaghan, A P; Schutz, G

1993-01-01

240

Niakha virus: A novel member of the family Rhabdoviridae isolated from phlebotomine sandflies in Senegal  

PubMed Central

Members of the family Rhabdoviridae have been assigned to eight genera but many remain unassigned. Rhabdoviruses have a remarkably diverse host range that includes terrestrial and marine animals, invertebrates and plants. Transmission of some rhabdoviruses often requires an arthropod vector, such as mosquitoes, midges, sandflies, ticks, aphids and leafhoppers, in which they replicate. Herein we characterize Niakha virus (NIAV), a previously uncharacterized rhabdovirus isolated from phebotomine sandflies in Senegal. Analysis of the 11,124 nt genome sequence indicates that it encodes the five common rhabdovirus proteins with alternative ORFs in the M, G and L genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the L protein indicate that NIAV’s closest relative is Oak Vale rhabdovirus, although in this analysis NIAV is still so phylogenetically distinct that it might be classified as distinct from the eight currently recognized Rhabdoviridae genera. This observation highlights the vast, and yet not fully recognized diversity, of this family. PMID:23773405

Vasilakis, Nikos; Widen, Steven; Mayer, Sandra V.; Seymour, Robert; Wood, Thomas G.; Popov, Vsevolov; Guzman, Hilda; da Rosa, Amelia P.A. Travassos; Ghedin, Elodie; Holmes, Edward C.; Walker, Peter J.; Tesh, Robert B.

2013-01-01

241

Differential activity of rice protein disulfide isomerase family members for disulfide bond formation and reduction  

PubMed Central

Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs), a family of thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases that are ubiquitous in all eukaryotes, are the principal catalysts for disulfide bond formation. Here, we investigated three rice (Oryza sativa) PDI family members (PDIL1;1, PDIL1;4, and PDIL2;3) and found that PDIL1;1 exhibited the highest catalytic activity for both disulfide bond formation and disulfide bond reduction. The activity of PDIL1;1-catalyzed disulfide bond reduction, in which two redox-active sites were involved, was enhanced by increasing the glutathione concentration. These results suggest that PDIL1;1 plays primary roles in both disulfide bond formation and disulfide bond reduction, which allow for redox control of protein quality and packaging. PMID:25161881

Onda, Yayoi; Kobori, Yohei

2014-01-01

242

Decision-making factors affecting different family members regarding the placement of relatives in long-term care facilities  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this research was to investigate factors affecting different family members’ decisions regarding the placement of relatives in long-term car (LTC) facilities in Taiwan. The objective was to investigate the correlations between family members’ personal traits, the living conditions of residents in the LTC facilities, and family members’ experiences with LTC facilities. Methods This study selected family members visiting residents in LTC facilities as research subjects and used a structured questionnaire to perform face-to-face interviews. This study used nonlinear canonical correlation analysis (OVERALS) to categorize the decision-making factors affecting family members’ choices of LTC facilities. Results The results showed that when making decisions about the placement of family members, spouses chose facilities according to their own life experiences, children considered medical treatment convenience, grandchildren preferred to collect relevant information on facilities, and other relatives preferred to decide based on introductions from government departments. Conclusions These results help clarify how different family roles affect decision-making processes regarding the choice of LTC facilities. In particular, spouses and female relatives require an interventional service mechanism that provides consultation or referral information. PMID:24438495

2014-01-01

243

Bcl-2 family member Bcl-G is not a proapoptotic protein  

PubMed Central

The three major subgroups of the Bcl-2 family, including the prosurvival Bcl-2-like proteins, the proapoptotic Bcl-2 homology (BH)3-only proteins and Bax/Bak proteins, regulate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In addition, some outliers within the Bcl-2 family do not fit into these subgroups. One of them, Bcl-G, has a BH2 and a BH3 region, and was proposed to trigger apoptosis. To investigate the physiological role of Bcl-G, we have inactivated the gene in the mouse and generated monoclonal antibodies to determine its expression. Although two isoforms of Bcl-G exist in human, only one is found in mice. mBcl-G is expressed in a range of epithelial as well as in dendritic cells. Loss of Bcl-G did not appear to affect any of these cell types. mBcl-G only binds weakly to prosurvival members of the Bcl-2 family, and in a manner that is independent of its BH3 domain. To understand what the physiological role of Bcl-G might be, we searched for Bcl-G-binding partners through immunoprecipitation/mass spectroscopy and yeast-two-hybrid screening. Although we did not uncover any Bcl-2 family member in these screens, we found that Bcl-G interacts specifically with proteins of the transport particle protein complex. We conclude that Bcl-G most probably does not function in the classical stress-induced apoptosis pathway, but rather has a role in protein trafficking inside the cell. PMID:23059823

Giam, M; Okamoto, T; Mintern, J D; Strasser, A; Bouillet, P

2012-01-01

244

[Between the legal system and medical and psychosocial intervention: the reality of family members of individuals with mental illness].  

PubMed

In this article, the author examines the impact of judicial intervention of individuals with mental illness on family members. The author subunits the hypothesis that an offer of more diversified services could reduce legal intervention of these individuals and consequently attenuate the devastating effects on family members. According to the families' equation, the more services will be developed and adapted, the less frequent family will have to call upon the legal system to intervene and fewer individuals with mental illness will find themselves behind bars. PMID:20361107

Fradet, Hélène

2009-01-01

245

Crystal structure of extracellular human BAFF, a TNF family member that stimulates B lymphocytes.  

PubMed

B cell activating factor (BAFF), a ligand belonging to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family, plays a critical role in regulating survival and activation of peripheral B cell populations and has been associated with autoimmune disease. BAFF is known to interact with three receptors, BCMA, TACI and BAFF-R, that have distant similarities with other receptors of the TNF family. We have determined the crystal structure of the TNF-homologous domain of BAFF at 2.8 A resolution. The structure reveals significant differences when compared to other TNF family members, including an unusually long D-E loop that participates in the formation of a deep, concave and negatively charged region in the putative receptor binding site. The BAFF structure was further used to generate a homology model of APRIL, a closely related TNF family ligand that also binds to BCMA and TACI, but not BAFF-R. Analysis of the putative receptor binding sites of BAFF and APRIL suggests that differences in the D-E loop structure and electrostatic surface potentials may be important for determining binding specificities for BCMA, TACI and BAFF-R. PMID:11827482

Karpusas, Michael; Cachero, Teresa G; Qian, Fang; Boriack-Sjodin, Ann; Mullen, Colleen; Strauch, Kathy; Hsu, Yen-Ming; Kalled, Susan L

2002-02-01

246

The Aging-Associated Enzyme CLK-1 is a Member of the Carboxylate-Bridged Diiron Family of Proteins  

E-print Network

The aging-associated enzyme CLK-1 is proposed to be a member of the carboxylate-bridged diiron family of proteins. To evaluate this hypothesis and characterize the protein, we expressed soluble mouse CLK-1 (MCLK1) in ...

Behan, Rachel K.

247

Expression pattern of dd4, a sole member of the d4 family of transcription factors in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vertebrates, three members of the d4 gene family code for proteins, which are believed to function as transcription factors and involved in regulation of various intracellular processes. One member of the family, ubi-d4\\/requiem is ubiquitously expressed gene and two other, neuro-d4 and cer-d4, are expressed predominantly in the neural tissues (Nucleic Acids Res. 20 (1992) 5579; Biochim. Biophys. Acta

Elena Nabirochkina; Olga B. Simonova; Ilja B. Mertsalov; Dina A. Kulikova; Nadezshda G. Ladigina; Leonid I. Korochkin; Vladimir L. Buchman

2002-01-01

248

Murine semaphorin D\\/collapsin is a member of a diverse gene family and creates domains inhibitory for axonal extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the collapsin\\/semaphorin gene family have been proposed to act as growth cone guidance signals in vertebrates and invertebrates. To identify candidate molecules involved in axonal pathfinding during mouse embryogenesis, we isolated cDNAs encoding five new members of the semaphorin family (Sem A-Sem E). The murine semaphorin genes are differentially expressed in mesoderm and neuroectoderm before and during the

Andreas W Püschel; Ralf H Adams; Heinrich Betz

1995-01-01

249

Two members of the Ustilago maydis velvet family influence teliospore development and virulence on maize seedlings.  

PubMed

Members of the fungal-specific velvet protein family regulate sexual and asexual spore production in the Ascomycota. We predicted, therefore, that velvet homologs in the basidiomycetous plant pathogen Ustilago maydis would regulate sexual spore development, which is also associated with plant disease progression in this fungus. To test this hypothesis, we studied the function of three U. maydis velvet genes, umv1, umv2 and umv3. Using a gene replacement strategy, deletion mutants were made in all three genes in compatible haploid strains, and additionally for umv1 and umv2 in the solopathogenic strain, SG200. None of the mutants showed novel morphological phenotypes during yeast-like, in vitro growth. However, the ?umv1 mutants failed to induce galls or teliospores in maize. Chlorazol black E staining of leaves infected with ?umv1 dikaryons revealed that the ?umv1 hyphae did not proliferate normally and were blocked developmentally before teliospore formation. The ?umv2 mutants were able to induce galls and teliospores in maize, but were slow to do so and thus reduced in virulence. The ?umv3 mutants were not affected in teliospore formation or disease progression. Complementation of the ?umv1 and ?umv2 mutations in the SG200 background produced disease indices similar to those of SG200. These results indicate that two U. maydis velvet family members, umv1 and umv2, are important for normal teliospore development and disease progression in maize seedlings. PMID:24064149

Karakkat, Brijesh B; Gold, Scott E; Covert, Sarah F

2013-12-01

250

Correlates of Caregiver Burden among Family Members of Patients with Schizophrenia in Lagos, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Family members of patients with schizophrenia have enormous roles in the care of their patients, which could negatively impact their well being. Development of interventions targeted at alleviating the burden of informal care giving is hinged on the recognition of the factors associated with the various dimensions of burden. This study determined the correlates of caregiver burden among family members of patients with schizophrenia in Lagos, Nigeria. The study instruments included the Zarit burden interview (ZBI) and the positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia (PANSS). Exploratory factor analysis of the ZBI produced a five-factor structure with “financial/physical strain”, “time/dependence strain”, “emotional strain”, “uncertainty”, and “self-criticism” domains. On multiple regression analyses, total PANSS scores, poor social support, and lower educational levels of caregivers were predictive of higher burden scores on the “financial/physical strain”, “time/dependence”, and “emotional strain” domains. Longer duration of illness, shorter patient-caregiver contact time, and being a female caregiver were predictive of higher burden scores on the “uncertainty”, “self-criticism”, and “emotional strain” domains, respectively. There is need for interventions to alleviate the burden on caregivers of patients with schizophrenia in Nigeria. These strategies must include comprehensive social support and improve access to services for patients and their caregivers. PMID:24222848

Adeosun, Increase Ibukun

2013-01-01

251

Functional Relationship between Protein Disulfide Isomerase Family Members during the Oxidative Folding of Human Secretory Proteins  

PubMed Central

To examine the relationship between protein disulfide isomerase family members within the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum, PDI, ERp57, ERp72, and P5 were depleted with high efficiency in human hepatoma cells, either singly or in combination. The impact was assessed on the oxidative folding of several well-characterized secretory proteins. We show that PDI plays a predominant role in oxidative folding because its depletion delayed disulfide formation in all secretory proteins tested. However, the phenotype was surprisingly modest suggesting that other family members are able to compensate for PDI depletion, albeit with reduced efficacy. ERp57 also exhibited broad specificity, overlapping with that of PDI, but with preference for glycosylated substrates. Depletion of both PDI and ERp57 revealed that some substrates require both enzymes for optimal folding and, furthermore, led to generalized protein misfolding, impaired export from the ER, and degradation. In contrast, depletion of ERp72 or P5, either alone or in combination with PDI or ERp57 had minimal impact, revealing a narrow substrate specificity for ERp72 and no detectable role for P5 in oxidative protein folding. PMID:20660153

Rutkevich, Lori A.; Cohen-Doyle, Myrna F.; Brockmeier, Ulf

2010-01-01

252

Piscidin 4, a novel member of the piscidin family of antimicrobial peptides.  

PubMed

Piscidins are linear, amphipathic, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with broad, potent, activity spectrum. Piscidins and other members of the piscidin family appear to comprise the most common group of AMPs in teleost fish. All piscidins and related members of the piscidin family described to date are 18-26 amino acids long.We report here the isolation of a novel 5329.25 Da, 44-residue (FFRHLFRGAKAIFRGARQGXRAHKVVSRYRNRDVPETDNNQEEP) antimicrobial peptide from hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops female x M. saxatilis male).We have named this peptide "piscidin 4" since it has considerable (to >65%) N-terminal sequence homology to piscidins 1-3 and this distinctive, 10 to 11-residue, N-terminus is characteristic of piscidins. The native peptide has a modified amino acid at position 20 that, based upon mass spectrometry data, is probably a hydroxylated tryptophan. Synthetic piscidin 4 (with an unmodified tryptophan at position 20) has similar antibacterial activity to that of the native peptide. Piscidin 4 demonstrates potent, broad-spectrum, antibacterial activity against a number of fish and human pathogens, including multi-drug resistant bacteria. Its potent antimicrobial activity suggests that piscidin 4 plays a significant role in the innate defense system of hybrid striped bass. PMID:19266617

Noga, Edward J; Silphaduang, Uma; Park, Nam Gyu; Seo, Jung Kil; Stephenson, Jeana; Kozlowicz, Shannon

2009-04-01

253

EIN4 and ERS2 are members of the putative ethylene receptor gene family in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed Central

The Arabidopsis ethylene receptor gene ETR1 and two related genes, ERS1 and ETR2, were identified previously. These three genes encode proteins homologous to the two-component regulators that are widely used for environment sensing in bacteria. Mutations in these genes confer ethylene insensitivity to wild-type plants. Here, we identified two Arabidopsis genes, EIN4 and ERS2, by cross-hybridizing them with ETR2. Sequence analysis showed that they are more closely related to ETR2 than they are to ETR1 or ERS1. EIN4 previously was isolated as a dominant ethylene-insensitive mutant. ERS2 also conferred dominant ethylene insensitivity when certain mutations were introduced into it. Double mutant analysis indicated that ERS2, similar to ETR1, ETR2, ERS1, and EIN4, acts upstream of CTR1. Therefore, EIN4 and ERS2, along with ETR1, ETR2, and ERS1, are members of the ethylene receptor-related gene family of Arabidopsis. RNA expression patterns of members of this gene family suggest that they might have distinct as well as redundant functions in ethylene perception. PMID:9707532

Hua, J; Sakai, H; Nourizadeh, S; Chen, Q G; Bleecker, A B; Ecker, J R; Meyerowitz, E M

1998-01-01

254

Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B8 is secreted via non-classical pathway.  

PubMed

Mouse aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B8 (AKR1B8) has the highest similarity to human aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10), a secretory protein through lysosomes-mediated non-classical secretory pathway. To identify whether AKR1B8 is secreted through the same pathway, we carried out this study. Self-developed sandwich ELISA and western blot were used to detect AKR1B8 in cells and culture medium of CT-26 murine colon carcinoma cells. AKR1B8 releases in an independent manner to Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of ER-to-Golgi classical secretion pathway. Several factors, which are involved in the non-classical secretion pathway, such as temperature, ATP and calcium ion, regulated AKR1B8 secretion from mouse colorectal cancer cells CT-26. Lysosomotropic NH4Cl increased AKR1B8 secretion, and AKR1B8 was located in isolated lysosomes. Therefore, AKR1B8 is a new secretory protein through the lysosomes-mediated non-classical pathway. PMID:25120755

Tang, Zhenwang; Xia, Chenglai; Huang, Renbin; Li, Xiaoning; Wang, Wan-Chun; Guo, Wangyuan; Duan, Lili; Luo, Weihao; Cao, Deliang; Luo, Di-Xian

2014-01-01

255

A novel Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor family member promotes neuronal outgrowth and synaptic plasticity in Aplysia.  

PubMed

Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Receptors (FGFRs) regulate essential biological processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, cellular growth and memory-related long-term synaptic plasticity. Whereas canonical FGFRs depend exclusively on extracellular Immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains for ligand binding, other receptor types, including members of the tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (Trk) family, use either Ig-like or Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) motifs, or both. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary events leading to the differential incorporation of LRR domains into Ig-containing tyrosine kinase receptors. Moreover, although FGFRs have been identified in many vertebrate species, few reports describe their existence in invertebrates. Information about the biological relevance of invertebrate FGFRs and evolutionary divergences between them and their vertebrate counterparts is therefore limited. Here, we characterized ApLRRTK, a neuronal cell-surface protein recently identified in Aplysia. We unveiled ApLRRTK as the first member of the FGFRs family deprived of Ig-like domains that instead contains extracellular LRR domains. We describe that ApLRRTK exhibits properties typical of canonical vertebrate FGFRs, including promotion of FGF activity, enhancement of neuritic outgrowth and signaling via MAPK and the transcription factor CREB. ApLRRTK also enhanced the synaptic efficiency of neurons known to mediate in vivo memory-related defensive behaviors. These data reveal a novel molecular regulator of neuronal function in invertebrates, provide the first evolutionary linkage between LRR proteins and FGFRs and unveil an unprecedented mechanism of FGFR gene diversification in primeval central nervous systems. PMID:25059541

Pollak, Daniela D; Minh, Bui Quang; Cicvaric, Ana; Monje, Francisco J

2014-11-01

256

The role of lysyl oxidase family members in the stabilization of abdominal aortic aneurysms.  

PubMed

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States today. We employed a model for AAA development using apolipoprotein E knock out mice fed a high-fat diet and treated with ANG II and ?-aminopropionitrile (?-APN) for 4 wk. ANG II induces hypertension and atherosclerotic disease, whereas ?-APN inhibits the activity of the lysyl oxidase/ lysyl oxidase-like protein (LOX/LOXL) family members. LOX/LOXL family members crosslink collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix and therefore contribute to the integrity and stabilization of a healthy vessel wall. In this model, cotreatment with ANG II and ?-APN caused a 90% AAA incidence and increased atherosclerotic lesion formation from less than 5% to greater than 25% after 4 wk. In more atheroprotected mouse strains (C57BL/6 and BalbC), cotreatment with ANG II and ?-APN caused 50% and 40% AAA incidence, respectively. These data demonstrate the importance of LOX/LOXL to the stability of the vessel wall. Therapeutic strategies to overexpress LOX/LOXL enzymes or to support the crosslinking of soluble matrix proteins in a polymeric scaffold are a promising opportunity to achieve stabilization of AAAs. PMID:22904155

Remus, Ebony Washington; O'Donnell, Robert E; Rafferty, Kathryn; Weiss, Daiana; Joseph, Giji; Csiszar, Katalin; Fong, Sheri F T; Taylor, W Robert

2012-10-15

257

Differential display-mediated rapid identification of different members of a multigene family, HSP16.9 in wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolation of cDNAs encoding individual members of a gene family is essential for assessing their role in a biological phenomenon. However, this process is often laborious and slow due to highly conserved protein-coding region that interferes with the isolation of the individual members. Identification of gene-specific probes from 3' non-coding regions of different members can assist in the fast retrieval

Chandrashekhar P. Joshi; Henry T. Nguyen

1996-01-01

258

Evolutionary, Structural and Functional Interplay of the I?B Family Members  

PubMed Central

A primary level of control for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) is effected through its interactions with the inhibitor protein, inhibitor of kappa B (I?B). Several lines of evidence confirm the existence of multiple forms of I?B that appear to regulate NF-?B by distinct mechanisms. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis to understand the evolutionary history and intrinsic functional diversity of I?B family members. Phylogenetic relationships were constructed to trace the evolution of the I?B family genes. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed 10 I?B subfamily members that clustered into 5 major clades. Since the ankyrin (ANK) domain appears to be more ancient than the Rel homology domain (RHD), our phylogenetic analysis suggests that some undefined ancestral set of ANK repeats acquired an RHD before any duplication and was later duplicated and then diverged into the different I?B subfamilies. Functional analysis identified several functionally divergent sites in the ANK repeat domains (ARDs) and revealed that this region has undergone strong purifying selection, suggesting its functional importance in I?B genes. Structural analysis showed that the major variations in the number of ANK repeats and high conformational changes in the finger loop ARD region contribute to the differing binding partner specificities, thereby leading to distinct I?B functions. In summary, our study has provided useful information about the phylogeny and structural and functional divergence of the I?B family. Additionally, we identified a number of amino acid sites that contribute to the predicted functional divergence of these proteins. PMID:23372681

Gosu, Vijayakumar; Choi, Sangdun

2013-01-01

259

An Evolutionary-Conserved Function of Mammalian Notch Family Members as Cell Adhesion Molecules  

PubMed Central

Notch family members were first identified as cell adhesion molecules by cell aggregation assays in Drosophila studies. However, they are generally recognized as signaling molecules, and it was unclear if their adhesion function was restricted to Drosophila. We previously demonstrated that a mouse Notch ligand, Delta-like 1 (Dll1) functioned as a cell adhesion molecule. We here investigated whether this adhesion function was conserved in the diversified mammalian Notch ligands consisted of two families, Delta-like (Dll1, Dll3 and Dll4) and Jagged (Jag1 and Jag2). The forced expression of mouse Dll1, Dll4, Jag1, and Jag2, but not Dll3, on stromal cells induced the rapid and enhanced adhesion of cultured mast cells (MCs). This was attributed to the binding of Notch1 and Notch2 on MCs to each Notch ligand on the stromal cells themselves, and not the activation of Notch signaling. Notch receptor-ligand binding strongly supported the tethering of MCs to stromal cells, the first step of cell adhesion. However, the Jag2-mediated adhesion of MCs was weaker and unlike other ligands appeared to require additional factor(s) in addition to the receptor-ligand binding. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the function of cell adhesion was conserved in mammalian as well as Drosophila Notch family members. Since Notch receptor-ligand interaction plays important roles in a broad spectrum of biological processes ranging from embryogenesis to disorders, our finding will provide a new perspective on these issues from the aspect of cell adhesion. PMID:25255288

Murata, Akihiko; Yoshino, Miya; Hikosaka, Mari; Okuyama, Kazuki; Zhou, Lan; Sakano, Seiji; Yagita, Hideo; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi

2014-01-01

260

A new subgroup of the IS3 family and properties of its representative member ISPpy1.  

PubMed

Recently, we described a novel insertion element, ISPpy1, isolated from a permafrost strain of Psychrobacter maritimus. In this work, we demonstrated that ISPpy1 is a member of a novel subgroup of the IS3 family of insertion sequences (ISs) that was not identified and characterized previously. IS elements of this subgroup termed the ISPpy1 subgroup are broadly distributed among different taxa of Eubacteria, including Geobacteraceae, Chlorobiaceae, Desulfobacteraceae, Methylobacteriaceae, Nitrosomonadaceae and Cyanobacteria. While displaying characteristic features of the IS3-family elements, ISPpy1 subgroup elements exhibit some unusual features. In particular, most of them have longer terminal repeats with unconventional ends and frameshifting box with an atypical organization, and, unlike many other IS3-family elements, do not exhibit any distinct IS specificity. We studied the transposition and mutagenic properties of a representative member of this subgroup, ISPpy1 and showed that in contrast to the original P. maritimus host, in a heterologous host, Escherichia coli K-12, it is able to translocate with extremely high efficiency into the chromosome, either by itself or as a part of a composite transposon containing two ISPpy1 copies. The majority of transposants carry multiple chromosomal copies (up to 12) of ISPpy1. It was discovered that ISPpy1 is characterized by a marked mutagenic activity in E. coli: its chromosomal insertions generate various types of mutations, including auxotrophic, pleiotropic and rifampicin-resistance mutations. The distribution of IS elements of the novel subgroup among different bacteria, their role in the formation of composite transposons and the horizontal transfer of genes are examined and discussed. PMID:23832000

Petrova, Mayya; Shcherbatova, Natalya; Gorlenko, Zhosephine; Mindlin, Sofia

2013-09-01

261

Cold-Specific Induction of a Dehydrin Gene Family Member in Barley.  

PubMed Central

An interval on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) chromosome 7 accounting for significant quantitative trait locus effects for winter hardiness were detected in a winter (Dicktoo) x spring (Morex) barley population (P.M. Hayes, T. Blake, T.H.H. Chen, S. Tragoonrung, F. Chen, A. Pan, and B. Liu [1993] Genome 36: 66-71). Two members of the barley dehydrin gene family, Dhn1 and Dhn2, were located within the region defining the winter hardiness quantitative trait locus effect (A. Pan, P.M. Hayes, F. Chen, T. Blake, T.H.H. Chen, T.T.S. Wright, I. Karsai, Z. Bedo [1994] Theor Appl Genet 89: 900-910). To investigate the possible role of Dhn1 and Dhn2 in winter hardiness, we examined the expression pattern of six barley dehydrin gene family members in shoot tissue in response to cold temperature. Incubation of 3-week-old barley plants at 2[deg]C resulted in a rapid induction of a single 86-kD polypeptide that was recognized by an antiserum against a peptide conserved in the dehydrin gene family. Northern blot analysis confirmed the induction of an mRNA corresponding to Dhn5. The expression patterns of cold-induced dehydrins in shoot tissue for Dicktoo and Morex were identical under the conditions studied, in spite of the known phenotypic differences in their winter hardiness. These results, together with the allelic structure of selected high- and low-survival lines, suggest that the Dicktoo alleles at the Dhn1 and Dhn2 may not be the primary determinants of winter hardiness in barley. PMID:12228540

Van Zee, K.; Chen, F. Q.; Hayes, P. M.; Close, T. J.; Chen, THH.

1995-01-01

262

Striving to be prepared for the painful: Management strategies following a family member's diagnosis of advanced cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer has consequences not only for the sick person but also for those who have a close relationship with that person. Greater knowledge about how family members manage the situation in the period immediately following the diagnosis means greater opportunity to provide the best possible support for the family. The purpose of this study was to explore management strategies that family members use when the patient is in the early stage of treatment for advanced cancer. Methods Twenty family members of cancer patients were included in the study shortly after the diagnosis. The patients had been diagnosed 8-14 weeks earlier with advanced lung cancer or gastrointestinal cancer. The data were collected in interviews with family members and subjected to qualitative latent content analysis. Through the identification of similarities and dissimilarities in the units of meaning, abstraction into codes and sub-themes became possible. The sub-themes were then brought together in one overarching theme. Results The overall function of management strategies is expressed in the theme Striving to be prepared for the painful. The family members prepare themselves mentally for the anticipated tragedy. Family relationships become increasingly important, and family members want to spend all their time together. They try to banish thoughts of the impending death and want to live as normal a life as possible. It becomes important to family members to live in the present and save their energy for the time when they will need it the most. How participants handle their worries, anxiety and sadness can be categorized into seven sub-themes or management strategies: Making things easier in everyday life, Banishing thoughts about the approaching loss, Living in the present, Adjusting to the sick person's situation, Distracting oneself by being with others, Shielding the family from grief, and Attempting to maintain hope. Conclusions The findings revealed that the family members have their own resources for handling the early stage of the cancer trajectory in an acceptable way. There is a need for longitudinal studies to generate knowledge for designing evidence-based intervention programmes that can prevent future ill-health in these vulnerable family members. PMID:21970836

2011-01-01

263

Retroelements versus APOBEC3 family members: No great escape from the magnificent seven  

PubMed Central

Retroelements comprise a large and successful family of transposable genetic elements that, through intensive infiltration, have shaped the genomes of humans and other mammals over millions of years. In fact, retrotransposons now account for approximately 45% of the human genome. Because of their genomic mobility called retrotransposition, some retroelements can cause genetic diseases; such retrotransposition events occur not only in germ cells but also in somatic cells, posing a threat to genomic stability throughout all cellular populations. In response, mammals have developed intrinsic immunity mechanisms that provide resistance against the deleterious effects of retrotransposition. Among these, seven members of the APOBEC3 (A3) family of cytidine deaminases serve as highly active, intrinsic, antiretroviral host factors. Certain A3 proteins effectively counteract infections of retroviruses such as HIV-1, as well as those of other virus families, while also blocking the transposition of retroelements. Based on their preferential expression in the germ cells, in which retrotransposons may be active, it is likely that A3 proteins were acquired through mammalian evolution primarily to inhibit retrotransposition and thereby maintain genomic stability in these cells. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of the interplay between the retroelements currently active in the human genome and the anti-retroelement A3 proteins. PMID:22912627

Arias, Juan F.; Koyama, Takayoshi; Kinomoto, Masanobu; Tokunaga, Kenzo

2012-01-01

264

Zhihengliuella halotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Micrococcaceae.  

PubMed

The actinobacterial strain YIM 70185(T) was isolated from a saline soil sample collected from Qinghai province, north-west China, and subjected to a taxonomic investigation. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed 93.5-96.4 % similarity to members of related genera in the family Micrococcaceae. In the phylogenetic dendrogram based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain YIM 70185(T) formed a separate clade next to the genera Micrococcus and Citricoccus within the family Micrococcaceae. The peptidoglycan type was A4alpha, l-lys-l-ala-l-Glu. Cell-wall sugars contained glucose and tyvelose. The polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, an unknown phospholipid and an unknown glycolipid. The menaquinones were MK-9, MK-10 and MK-8 (molar ratio 5 : 2 : 1). The major fatty acids were ai-C(15 : 0) and i-C(15 : 0) and the DNA G+C content was 66.5 mol%. These chemotaxonomic profiles supported the assignment of strain YIM 70185(T) to a novel genus within the family Micrococcaceae. The name Zhihengliuella halotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Zhihengliuella halotolerans is YIM 70185(T) (=DSM 17364(T)=KCTC 19085(T)). PMID:17473251

Zhang, Yu-Qin; Schumann, Peter; Yu, Li-Yan; Liu, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Yue-Qin; Xu, Li-Hua; Stackebrandt, Erko; Jiang, Cheng-Lin; Li, Wen-Jun

2007-05-01

265

Complete genome sequence of Cannes 8 virus, a new member of the proposed family "Marseilleviridae".  

PubMed

Marseillevirus is a giant virus that was isolated in 2007 by culturing water collected from a cooling tower in Paris, France, on Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Since then, five other marseilleviruses have been detected in environmental or human samples. The genomes of two of the six marseilleviruses have been described in detail. We describe herein the genome of Cannes 8 virus, a new member of the proposed family "Marseilleviridae." Cannes 8 virus was isolated from water collected from a cooling tower in Cannes in southeastern France. Its genome is a circular double-stranded DNA molecule with 374,041 base pairs, larger than the Marseillevirus and Lausannevirus genomes. This genome harbors 484 open reading frames predicted to encode proteins with sizes ranging from 50 to 1,537 amino acids, among which 380 (79%) and 272 (56%) are bona fide orthologs of Marseillevirus and Lausannevirus proteins, respectively. In addition, 407 and 336 predicted proteins have significant hits against Marseillevirus and Lausannevirus proteins, respectively, and 294 proteins are shared by all three marseilleviruses. The Cannes 8 virus genome has a high level of collinearity (for 96% of orthologs) with the Marseillevirus genome. About two-thirds of the Cannes 8 virus gene repertoire is composed of family ORFans. The description and annotation of the genomes of new marseilleviruses that will undoubtedly be recovered from environmental or clinical samples will be helpful to increase our knowledge of the pan-genome of the family "Marseilleviridae." PMID:23912978

Aherfi, Sarah; Pagnier, Isabelle; Fournous, Ghislain; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard; Colson, Philippe

2013-12-01

266

Impacts of Parasites in Early Life: Contrasting Effects on Juvenile Growth for Different Family Members  

PubMed Central

Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We experimentally treated European Shag (Phalacrocorax aristoteli) nestlings with the broad-spectrum anti-parasite drug ivermectin and compared their growth rates with nestlings from control broods. Average growth rates measured over the period of linear growth (10 days to 30 days of age) and survival did not differ for nestlings from treated and control broods. However, when considering individuals within broods, parasite treatment reversed the patterns of growth for individual family members: last-hatched nestlings grew significantly slower than their siblings in control nests but grew faster in treated nests. This was at the expense of their earlier-hatched brood-mates, who showed an overall growth rate reduction relative to last-hatched nestlings in treated nests. These results highlight the importance of exploring individual variation in the costs of infection and suggest that parasites could be a key factor modulating within-family dynamics, sibling competition and developmental trajectories from an early age. PMID:22384190

Reed, Thomas E.; Daunt, Francis; Kiploks, Adam J.; Burthe, Sarah J.; Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M. V.; Takahashi, Emi A.; Newell, Mark; Wanless, Sarah; Cunningham, Emma J. A.

2012-01-01

267

Gallin; an antimicrobial peptide member of a new avian defensin family, the ovodefensins, has been subject to recent gene duplication  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Egg white must provide nutrients and protection to the developing avian embryo. One way in which this is achieved is an arsenal of antimicrobial proteins and peptides which are essentially extensions of the innate immune system. Gallin is a recently identified member of a family of peptides that are found in egg white. The function of this peptide family

Daoqing Gong; Peter W Wilson; Maureen M Bain; Karina McDade; Jiri Kalina; Virginie Hervé-Grépinet; Yves Nys; Ian C Dunn

2010-01-01

268

All Members of the MHC Multigene Family Respond to Thyroid Hormone in a Highly Tissue-Specific Manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammals different isoforms of myosin heavy chain are encoded by the members of a multigene family. The expression of each gene of this family is regulated in a tissue-and developmental stage-specific manner as well as by hormonal and various pathological stimuli. In this study the molecular basis of isoform switches induced in myosin heavy chain by thyroid hormone was

Seigo Izumo; Bernardo Nadal-Ginard; Vijak Mahdavi

1986-01-01

269

PAP IB, a new member of the Reg gene family: cloning, expression, structural properties, and evolution by gene duplication  

E-print Network

1 PAP IB, a new member of the Reg gene family: cloning, expression, structural properties-type lectin-like domain but possess additional highly conserved amino acids. By studying human databases and FII families, respectively. REG I and PAP IB share 50% sequence identity. After cloning PAP IB

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

270

Phylogenetic Analysis of Members of the Phycodnaviridae Virus Family, Using Amplified Fragments of the Major Capsid Protein Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algal viruses are considered ecologically important by affecting host population dynamics and nutrient flow in aquatic food webs. Members of the family Phycodnaviridae are also interesting due to their extraordinary genome size. Few algal viruses in the Phycodnaviridae family have been sequenced, and those that have been have few genes in common and low gene homology. It has hence been

J. B. Larsen; A. Larsen; G. Bratbak; R.-A. Sandaa

2008-01-01

271

Mammalian GFR -4, a Divergent Member of the GFR Family of Coreceptors for Glial Cell Line-derived Neurotrophic Factor Family  

E-print Network

, differing at their respective COOH termini. GFR -4 mRNA is expressed at low levels in different brain areasMammalian GFR -4, a Divergent Member of the GFR Family of Coreceptors for Glial Cell Line, and enovin/artemin). They bind to a specific membrane-anchored GDNF family receptor as follows: GFR -1

Ibáñez, Carlos

272

Conservation of all three p53 family members and Mdm2 and Mdm4 in the cartilaginous fish.  

PubMed

Analysis of the genome of the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii), a member of the cartilaginous fishes (Class Chondrichthyes), reveals that it encodes all three members of the p53 gene family, p53, p63 and p73, each with clear homology to the equivalent gene in bony vertebrates (Class Osteichthyes). Thus, the gene duplication events that lead to the presence of three family members in the vertebrates dates to before the Silurian era. It also encodes Mdm2 and Mdm4 genes but does not encode the p19(Arf) gene. Detailed comparison of the amino acid sequences of these proteins in the vertebrates reveals that they are evolving at highly distinctive rates, and this variation occurs not only between the three family members but extends to distinct domains in each protein. PMID:22107961

Lane, David P; Madhumalar, Arumugam; Lee, Alison P; Tay, Boon-Hui; Verma, Chandra; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa

2011-12-15

273

Youth's narratives about family members smoking: parenting the parent- it's not fair!  

PubMed Central

Background Successful cancer prevention policies and programming for youth must be based on a solid understanding of youth’s conceptualization of cancer and cancer prevention. Accordingly, a qualitative study examining youth’s perspectives of cancer and its prevention was undertaken. Not surprisingly, smoking (i.e., tobacco cigarette smoking) was one of the dominant lines of discourse in the youth’s narratives. This paper reports findings of how youth conceptualize smoking with attention to their perspectives on parental and family-related smoking issues and experiences. Methods Seventy-five Canadian youth ranging in age from 11–19 years participated in the study. Six of the 75 youth had a history of smoking and 29 had parents with a history of smoking. Youth were involved in traditional ethnographic methods of interviewing and photovoice. Data analysis involved multiple levels of analysis congruent with ethnography. Results Youth’s perspectives of parents and other family members’ cigarette smoking around them was salient as represented by the theme: It’s not fair. Youth struggled to make sense of why parents would smoke around their children and perceived their smoking as an unjust act. The theme was supported by four subthemes: 1) parenting the parent about the dangers of smoking; 2) the good/bad parent; 3) distancing family relationships; and 4) the prisoner. Instead of being talked to about smoking it was more common for youth to share stories of talking to their parents about the dangers of smoking. Parents who did not smoke were seen by youth as the good parent, as opposed to the bad parent who smoked. Smoking was an agent that altered relationships with parents and other family members. Youth who lived in homes where they were exposed to cigarette smoke felt like a trapped prisoner. Conclusions Further research is needed to investigate youth’s perceptions about parental cigarette smoking as well as possible linkages between youth exposed to second hand smoke in their home environment and emotional and lifestyle-related health difficulties. Results emphasize the relational impact of smoking when developing anti-tobacco and cancer prevention campaigns. Recognizing the potential toll that second-hand smoke can have on youth’s emotional well-being, health care professionals are encouraged to give youth positive messages in coping with their parents’ smoking behaviour. PMID:23140551

2012-01-01

274

Sleep problems and psychological distress in family members of patients with hematological malignancies in the Japanese population.  

PubMed

Patients with cancer frequently suffer from insomnia symptoms, and additionally, their family members also often experience these symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of insomnia symptoms in both family members and patients with hematological malignancies. We conducted an observational cross-sectional study using a clinical self-reported questionnaire for sleep conditions, depressive symptoms (two-question method), and worries (five items that originated from the Brief Cancer Worry Inventory). One hundred twelve family members and 153 patients were investigated. A t test and Chi-square test were used to compare the prevalence of insomnia and depressive symptoms between family members and patients. Logistic regression was used to determine whether insomnia symptoms or worries related to patients' disease had an impact on depressive symptoms. The presence of insomnia symptoms in family members (87 %) was significantly higher than that in patients (60 %, p?family members were 55 and 34 %, respectively, and these values were higher than those in patients (43 and 28 %, respectively). Insomnia symptoms and worries about present/prospective disease conditions were significantly associated with depressive mood (insomnia symptoms, odds ratios (OR) 4.3, confidence intervals (CI) 1.2-15.2, p?=?0.025; worries, OR 4.4, CI 1.0-19.3, p?=?0.048). Taken together, our results demonstrated that insomnia symptoms and depressive symptoms are highly prevalent in family members as well as in patients with hematological malignancies. PMID:24947799

Tanimukai, Hitsohi; Hirai, Kei; Adachi, Hiroyoshi; Kishi, Akane

2014-12-01

275

eIF4E: New Family Members, New Binding Partners, New Roles*  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) has long been known as the cap-binding protein that participates in recruitment of mRNA to the ribosome. A number of recent advances have not only increased our understanding of how eIF4E acts in translation but also uncovered non-translational roles. New structures have been determined for eIF4E in complex with various ligands and for other cap-binding proteins. We have also learned that most eukaryotic organisms express multiple eIF4E family members, some involved in general translation but others having specialized functions, including repression of translation. A number of new eIF4E-binding proteins have been reported, some of which tether it to specific mRNAs. PMID:19237539

Rhoads, Robert E.

2009-01-01

276

Disclosure of Children's Positive Serostatus to Family and Nonfamily Members: Informal Caregivers in Togo, West Africa  

PubMed Central

This study examined the structural constraints to disclosure of children's positive serostatus among informal caregivers to family and nonfamily members in Togo. It drew on two data sources, one qualitative and the other quantitative. Qualitative data showed that caregivers cautiously disclosed child's positive serostatus for fear of being stigmatized and discriminated against as well as to protect the children from being stigmatized. Binary regression analyses revealed that different factors influenced reasons for disclosure of a child's serostatus. For instance, while caregivers' serostatus and number of children significantly influenced disclosure for financial support, disclosure of a child's serostatus for spiritual support was strongly affected by education and religion. These results shed light on factors and reasons for disclosure among caregivers. This knowledge is important because different types of programs and advice should be given to caregivers with specific reason(s) for disclosure instead of creating a “one-size-fits all” program for all caregivers. PMID:21776378

Moore, Ami R.; Williamson, David

2011-01-01

277

Emerging Roles for FCRL Family Members in Lymphocyte Biology and Disease  

PubMed Central

Members of the extended Fc receptor-like (FCRL) family in humans and mice are preferentially expressed by B cells and possess tyrosine-based immunoregulatory function. Although the majority of these proteins repress B cell receptor-mediated activation, there is emerging evidence for their bifunctionality and capacity to counter-regulate adaptive and innate signaling pathways. In light of these findings, the recent discovery of ligands for several of these molecules has begun to reveal exciting potential for them in normal lymphocyte biology and is launching a new phase of FCRL investigation. Importantly, these fundamental developments are also setting the stage for defining their altered roles in the pathogenesis of a growing number of immune-mediated diseases. Here we review recent advances in the FCRL field and highlight the significance of these intriguing receptors in normal and perturbed immunobiology. PMID:25116094

Li, F.J.; Won, W.J.; Becker, E.J.; Easlick, J.L.; Tabengwa, E.; Li, R.; Shakhmatov, M.; Burrows, P.D.; Davis, R.S.

2014-01-01

278

S6K2: The Neglected S6 Kinase Family Member  

PubMed Central

S6 kinase 2 (S6K2) is a member of the AGC kinases super-family. Its closest homolog, S6K1, has been extensively studied along the years. However, due to the belief in the community that the high degree of identity between these two isoforms would translate in essentially identical biological functions, S6K2 has been largely neglected. Nevertheless, recent research has clearly highlighted that these two proteins significantly differ in their roles in vitro as well as in vivo. These findings are significant to our understanding of S6 kinase signaling and the development of therapeutic strategies for several diseases including cancer. Here, we will focus on S6K2 and review the protein–protein interactions and specific substrates that determine the selective functions of this kinase. PMID:23898460

Pardo, Olivier E.; Seckl, Michael J.

2013-01-01

279

Drosophila Follistatin Exhibits Unique Structural Modifications and Interacts with Several TGF-Beta Family Members  

PubMed Central

Follistatin (FS) is one of several secreted proteins that modulate the activity of TGF-? family members during development. The structural and functional analysis of Drosophila Follistatin (dFS) reveals important differences between dFS and its vertebrate orthologues: it is larger, more positively charged, and proteolytically processed. dFS primarily inhibits signaling of Drosophila Activin (dACT) but can also inhibit other ligands like Decapentaplegic (DPP). In contrast, the presence of dFS enhances signaling of the Activin-like protein Dawdle (DAW), indicating that dFS exhibits a dual function in facilitating and inhibiting signaling of TGF-? ligands. In addition, FS proteins may also function in facilitating ligand diffusion. We find that mutants of daw are rescued in significant numbers by expression of vertebrate FS proteins. Since two PiggyBac insertions in dfs are not lethal, it appears that the function of dFS is non-essential or functionally redundant. PMID:18077144

Bickel, Daniela; Shah, Ripal; Gesualdi, Scott C.; Haerry, Theodor E.

2008-01-01

280

Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B)  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Impaired trafficking of kAE1 causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). {yields} The interaction between kAE1 and kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is reported. {yields} The co-localization between kAE and KIF3B was detected in human kidney tissues. {yields} A marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane was observed when KIF3B was knockdown. {yields} KFI3B plays an important role in trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of {alpha}-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange and the failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells.

Duangtum, Natapol [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand) [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)] [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)] [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Limjindaporn, Thawornchai, E-mail: limjindaporn@yahoo.com [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)] [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai, E-mail: grpye@mahidol.ac.th [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)] [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Office for Research and Development Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

2011-09-16

281

Different Members of the IL-1 Family Come Out in Different Ways: DAMPs vs. Cytokines?  

PubMed Central

Intercellular communications control fundamental biological processes required for the survival of multicellular organisms. Secretory proteins are among the most important messengers in this network of information. Proteins destined to the extracellular environment contain a signal sequence with the necessary information to target them to the Endoplasmic Reticulum, and are released by a “classical” pathway of secretion. However, in the early 1990s it became evident that non-classical mechanisms must exist for the secretion of some proteins, which in spite of their extracellular localization and function, lack a signal peptide. Indeed, the group of leaderless secretory proteins rapidly grew and is still growing. Many of them are implicated in the regulation of the inflammatory response. Interestingly, most members of the IL-1 family (IL-1F), including the master pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1?, are leaderless proteins and find their way out of the cells in different manners. In this article, we will review current hypotheses on the mechanisms of externalization of IL-1F members and discuss their relevance with respect to the different functions (as cytokines or as DAMPs) played by the different IL-1 proteins. PMID:23745123

Carta, Sonia; Lavieri, Rosa; Rubartelli, Anna

2013-01-01

282

RECQL, a member of the RecQ family of DNA helicases, suppresses chromosomal instability.  

PubMed

The mouse gene Recql is a member of the RecQ subfamily of DEx-H-containing DNA helicases. Five members of this family have been identified in both humans and mice, and mutations in three of these, BLM, WRN, and RECQL4, are associated with human diseases and a cellular phenotype that includes genomic instability. To date, no human disease has been associated with mutations in RECQL and no cellular phenotype has been associated with its deficiency. To gain insight into the physiological function of RECQL, we disrupted Recql in mice. RECQL-deficient mice did not exhibit any apparent phenotypic differences compared to wild-type mice. Cytogenetic analyses of embryonic fibroblasts from the RECQL-deficient mice revealed aneuploidy, spontaneous chromosomal breakage, and frequent translocation events. In addition, the RECQL-deficient cells were hypersensitive to ionizing radiation, exhibited an increased load of DNA damage, and displayed elevated spontaneous sister chromatid exchanges. These results provide evidence that RECQL has a unique cellular role in the DNA repair processes required for genomic integrity. Genetic background, functional redundancy, and perhaps other factors may protect the unstressed mouse from the types of abnormalities that might be expected from the severe chromosomal aberrations detected at the cellular level. PMID:17158923

Sharma, Sudha; Stumpo, Deborah J; Balajee, Adayabalam S; Bock, Cheryl B; Lansdorp, Peter M; Brosh, Robert M; Blackshear, Perry J

2007-03-01

283

A nonpyrrolysine member of the widely distributed trimethylamine methyltransferase family is a glycine betaine methyltransferase.  

PubMed

COG5598 comprises a large number of proteins related to MttB, the trimethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase. MttB has a genetically encoded pyrrolysine residue proposed essential for catalysis. MttB is the only known trimethylamine methyltransferase, yet the great majority of members of COG5598 lack pyrrolysine, leaving the activity of these proteins an open question. Here, we describe the function of one of the nonpyrrolysine members of this large protein family. Three nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs are encoded in Desulfitobacterium hafniense, a Gram-positive strict anaerobe present in both the environment and human intestine. D. hafniense was found capable of growth on glycine betaine with electron acceptors such as nitrate or fumarate, producing dimethylglycine and CO2 as products. Examination of the genome revealed genes for tetrahydrofolate-linked oxidation of a methyl group originating from a methylated corrinoid protein, but no obvious means to carry out corrinoid methylation with glycine betaine. DSY3156, encoding one of the nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs, was up-regulated during growth on glycine betaine. The recombinant DSY3156 protein converts glycine betaine and cob(I)alamin to dimethylglycine and methylcobalamin. To our knowledge, DSY3156 is the first glycine betaine:corrinoid methyltransferase described, and a designation of MtgB is proposed. In addition, DSY3157, an adjacently encoded protein, was shown to be a methylcobalamin:tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase and is designated MtgA. Homologs of MtgB are widely distributed, especially in marine bacterioplankton and nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts. They are also found in multiple members of the human microbiome, and may play a beneficial role in trimethylamine homeostasis, which in recent years has been directly tied to human cardiovascular health. PMID:25313086

Ticak, Tomislav; Kountz, Duncan J; Girosky, Kimberly E; Krzycki, Joseph A; Ferguson, Donald J

2014-10-28

284

Family members' caregiving situations in palliative home care when sitting service is received: The understanding of multiple realities.  

PubMed

Objective: To deepen the understanding of the variation of complexity in family members' caregiving situations, when the private home is the place for care, dying, and sitting service. Methods: Seven relatives to a deceased family member from four different families were interviewed twice. Data were analyzed by direct interpretation and categorical aggregation Results: Various patterns of becoming a caregiver were showed, but family members' willingness to become family caregivers was strongly related to fulfilling the dying persons' wishes to be cared for in their own homes. Important factors for coping with the caregiving situation were their needs of support, the possibility to prepare for death related to a need of communication and planning, the length and predictability of the illness trajectory, and experiences of losses and grief. Sitting service was experienced as supportive for family caregivers when they had possibility to hand over care responsibilities, but as non-supportive when expected help not was received. Significance of the research: Family members' experiences of caregiving and their degree of vulnerability must be different, depending on whether it is a self-selected position or an imposed task. In general, family members in this study were willing to participate in caregiving for end-of life care, but subject to their own conditions. One way to decrease vulnerability is to assess the resources and competence in relation to the responsibility the person is expected to assume. The support and other efforts to help family caregivers must be related to their specific needs and reality, not only to what the care organization can offer as a standard solution. PMID:23782917

Wallerstedt, Birgitta; Andershed, Birgitta; Benzein, Eva

2013-06-20

285

Structure-function Study of PchB, an Isochorismate-Pyruvate Lyase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

E-print Network

mutases and the pericyclic reaction they catalyze in the production of prephenate from chorismate. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa a structural homologue of the Escherichia coli chorismate mutase EcCM has been found in the isochorismate-pyruvate lyase Pch...

Ouellette, Andrew Nicholas

2011-07-31

286

Cloning and characterization of two members of the vertebrate Dlx gene family.  

PubMed Central

A number of vertebrate genes of the Dlx gene family have been cloned in mouse, frog, and zebrafish. These genes contain a homeobox related to that of Distalless, a gene expressed in the developing head and limbs of Drosophila embryos. We cloned and studied the expression of two members of this family, which we named Dlx5 and Dlx6, in human and mouse. The two human genes, DLX5 and DLX6, are closely linked in an inverted convergent configuration in a region of chromosome 7, at 7q22. Similarly, the two human genes DLX1 and DLX2 are closely linked in a convergent configuration at 2q32, near the HOXD (previously HOX4) locus. In situ hybridization experiments in mouse embryos revealed expression of Dlx5 and Dlx6 mRNA in restricted regions of ventral diencephalon and basal telencephalon, with a distribution very similar to that reported for Dlx1 and Dlx2 mRNA. A surprising feature of Dlx5 and Dlx6 is that they are also expressed in all skeletal structures of midgestation embryos after the first cartilage formation. The expression pattern of these genes, together with their chromosome localization, may provide useful cues for the study of congenital disorders in which there is a combination of craniofacial and limb defects. Images PMID:7907794

Simeone, A; Acampora, D; Pannese, M; D'Esposito, M; Stornaiuolo, A; Gulisano, M; Mallamaci, A; Kastury, K; Druck, T; Huebner, K

1994-01-01

287

Crystal Structure of Thermotoga maritima 0065, a Member of the IclR Transcriptional Factor Family*  

PubMed Central

Members of the IclR family of transcription regulators modulate signal-dependent expression of genes involved in carbon metabolism in bacteria and archaea. The Thermotoga maritima TM0065 gene codes for a protein (TM-IclR) that is homologous to the IclR family. We have determined the crystal structure of TM-IclR at 2.2 Å resolution using MAD phasing and synchrotron radiation. The protein is composed of two domains: the N-terminal DNA-binding domain contains the winged helix-turn-helix motif, and the C-terminal presumed regulatory domain is involved in binding signal molecule. In a proposed signal-binding site, a bound Zn2+ ion was found. In the crystal, TM-IclR forms a dimer through interactions between DNA-binding domains. In the dimer, the DNA-binding domains are 2-fold related, but the dimer is asymmetric with respect to the orientation of signal-binding domains. Crystal packing analysis showed that TM-IclR dimers form a tetramer through interactions exclusively by signal-binding domains. A model is proposed for binding of IclR-like factors to DNA, and it suggests that signal-dependent transcription regulation is accomplished by affecting an oligomerization state of IclR and therefore its affinity for DNA target. PMID:11877432

Zhang, Rong-guang; Kim, Youngchang; Skarina, Tatiana; Beasley, Steven; Laskowski, Roman; Arrowsmith, Cheryl; Edwards, Aled; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Savchenko, Alexei

2009-01-01

288

Paying family members to provide home care: an evaluation of one program.  

PubMed

Paying family members for caregiving has received mixed reviews, but most agree that elders tend to prefer community to institutional living. This study describes an evaluation of a program that paid family caregivers to provide home care to elders from the perspective of care receivers (n = 151), caregivers (n = 211), and case managers (n = 71). The care recipients were primarily older, low-income individuals who were assessed to be at medium to high risk with respect to psychosocial functioning. Results indicated that caregiver subsidies were primarily used to pay for basic necessities, but few caregivers would cease caregiving in the absence of subsidies. The vast majority of care receivers and caregivers were very satisfied with case management services, and 42% of the care receivers named their case manager when asked whom they would contact if they had a problem with their caregiver. Case managers stressed the importance of formal care providers making home visits and referrals to other resources in order to lessen isolation and prevent institutionalization. PMID:9257624

Vinton, L; Kim, Y S

1996-01-01

289

Two molluscan BCL-2 family members from Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum: molecular characterization and immune responses.  

PubMed

Apoptosis based immune responses are important component of host defense in mollusks. In this study, we have identified two novel molluscan BCL-2 cDNAs from Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum and named as RpBCL-2A and RpBCL-2B. There were four and three highly conserved BCL-2 homology (BH) regions in RpBCL-2A and RpBCL-2B, respectively suggesting these two genes could be different isoforms of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family. Phylogenetic results revealed that Manila clam BCL-2 genes were clustered closely with invertebrate BCL-2 members. It gives evidence of their common origin and conserved features of invertebrate BCL-2 family. RpBCL-2A and 2B were expressed in tissue-specific manner showing the highest and lowest level of expression in gills and hemocytes, respectively. However there was no clear expression profile difference between two genes. After Vibrio tapetis challenge, transcriptional responses of RpBCL-2A and RpBCL-2B were induced in gills and hemocytes with high variation that could be due to effects of immune reactions of other host defense molecules. PMID:23558058

Lee, Youngdeuk; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Sukkyoung; Menike, Udeni; Oh, Chulhong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Heo, Gang-Joon; Lee, Jehee; De Zoysa, Mahanama

2013-06-01

290

Structure and T-cell inhibition properties of B7 family member, B7-H3  

PubMed Central

Summary T-cell activity is controlled by a combination of antigen-dependent signaling through the T-cell receptor and a set of auxiliary signals delivered through antigen-independent interactions, including the recognition of the B7 family of ligands. B7-H3 is a recently identified B7 family member that is strongly overexpressed in a range of cancers and correlates with poor prognosis. We report the crystal structure of murine B7-H3 at a 3-Å resolution, which provides a model for the organization of the IgV and IgC domains within the ectodomain. We demonstrate that B7-H3 inhibits T-cell proliferation and show that the FG loop of the IgV domain plays a critical role in this function. B7-H3 crystallized as an unusual dimer arising from the exchange of the G strands in the IgV domains of partner molecules. This arrangement, in combination with previous reports, highlights the dynamic nature and plasticity of the immunoglobulin fold. PMID:23583036

Vigdorovich, Vladimir; Ramagopal, Udupi A.; Lazar-Molnar, Eszter; Sylvestre, Eliezer; Lee, Jun Sik; Hofmeyer, Kimberly A.; Zang, Xingxing; Nathenson, Stanley G.; Almo, Steven C.

2013-01-01

291

Phenotypic Variation Among Seven Members of One Family with Deficiency of Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase  

PubMed Central

We describe a family of seven boys affected by Lesch-Nyhan disease with various phenotypes. Further investigations revealed a mutation c.203T>C in the gene encoding HGprt of all members, with substitution of leucine to proline at residue 68 (p.Leu68Pro). Thus patients from this family display a wide variety of symptoms although sharing the same mutation. Mutant HGprt enzyme was prepared by site-directed mutagenesis and the kinetics of the enzyme revealed that the catalytic activity of the mutant was reduced, in association with marked reductions in the affinity towards phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP). Its Km for PRPP was increased 215-fold with hypoxanthine as substrate and 40-fold with guanine as substrate with associated reduced catalytic potential. Molecular modeling confirmed that the most prominent defect was the dramatically reduced affinity towards PRPP. Our studies suggest that the p.Leu68Pro mutation has a strong impact on PRPP binding and on stability of the active conformation. This suggests that factors other than HGprt activity per se may influence the phenotype of Lesch-Nyhan patients. PMID:24075303

Ceballos-Picot, Irene; Auge, Franck; Fu, Rong; Olivier-Bandini, Anne; Cahu, Julie; Chabrol, Brigitte; Aral, Bernard; de Martinville, Berengere; Lecain, Jean-Paul; Jinnah, H. A.

2013-01-01

292

Organic anion transporter (Slc22a) family members as mediators of toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Exposure of the body to toxic organic anions is unavoidable and occurs from both intentional and unintentional sources. Many hormones, neurotransmitters, and waste products of cellular metabolism, or their metabolites, are organic anions. The same is true for a wide variety of medications, herbicides, pesticides, plant and animal toxins, and industrial chemicals and solvents. Rapid and efficient elimination of these substances is often the body's best defense for limiting both systemic exposure and the duration of their pharmacological or toxicological effects. For organic anions, active transepithelial transport across the renal proximal tubule followed by elimination via the urine is a major pathway in this detoxification process. Accordingly, a large number of organic anion transport proteins belonging to several different gene families have been identified and found to be expressed in the proximal nephron. The function of these transporters, in combination with the high volume of renal blood flow, predisposes the kidney to increased toxic susceptibility. Understanding how the kidney mediates the transport of organic anions is integral to achieving desired therapeutic outcomes in response to drug interactions and chemical exposures, to understanding the progression of some disease states, and to predicting the influence of genetic variation upon these processes. This review will focus on the organic anion transporter (OAT) family and discuss the known members, their mechanisms of action, subcellular localization, and current evidence implicating their function as a determinant of the toxicity of certain endogenous and xenobiotic agents.

Sweet, Douglas H. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 280 Calhoun Street (Room QE218), PO Box 250140, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)]. E-mail: sweetd@musc.edu

2005-05-01

293

Audiological Evaluation of Affected Members from a Dutch DFNA8/12 (TECTA) Family  

PubMed Central

In DFNA8/12, an autosomal dominantly inherited type of nonsyndromic hearing impairment, the TECTA gene mutation causes a defect in the structure of the tectorial membrane in the inner ear. Because DFNA8/12 affects the tectorial membrane, patients with DFNA8/12 may show specific audiometric characteristics. In this study, five selected members of a Dutch DFNA8/12 family with a TECTA sensorineural hearing impairment were evaluated with pure-tone audiometry, loudness scaling, speech perception in quiet and noise, difference limen for frequency, acoustic reflexes, otoacoustic emissions, and gap detection. Four out of five subjects showed an elevation of pure-tone thresholds, acoustic reflex thresholds, and loudness discomfort levels. Loudness growth curves are parallel to those found in normal-hearing individuals. Suprathreshold measures such as difference limen for frequency modulated pure tones, gap detection, and particularly speech perception in noise are within the normal range. Distortion otoacoustic emissions are present at the higher stimulus level. These results are similar to those previously obtained from a Dutch DFNA13 family with midfrequency sensorineural hearing impairment. It seems that a defect in the tectorial membrane results primarily in an attenuation of sound, whereas suprathreshold measures, such as otoacoustic emissions and speech perception in noise, are preserved rather well. The main effect of the defects is a shift in the operation point of the outer hair cells with near intact functioning at high levels. As most test results reflect those found in middle-ear conductive loss in both families, the sensorineural hearing impairment may be characterized as a cochlear conductive hearing impairment. PMID:17136632

Plantinga, Rutger F.; Cremers, Cor W.R.J.; Huygen, Patrick L.M.; Kunst, Henricus P.M.

2006-01-01

294

Expectations and needs of persons with family members in an intensive care unit as opposed to a general ward.  

PubMed

The positive effect of family support on the outcome from serious illness that requires intensive care has been recognized by clinicians for decades. We have all seen that family visitation and an intensive care environment more similar to that of a general ward (sunlight, radio, television) can benefit patients with psychosis related to intensive care. The severity of illness of the individual patient exerts a powerful stress on the family unit, but it has been difficult to measure this effect. We used a 40-question family needs survey with a degree of importance scale to compare the intensive care unit (ICU) with the general ward in terms of impact on the family. Five needs were found to discriminate these two environments. The family members of patients in an ICU considered it very important (1) for staff to give directions on what to do at the bedside, (2) to receive more support from their own family unit, (3) to have a place to be alone as a family unit in the hospital, (4) to be informed in advance of any transfer plan, and (5) to have flexibility in the time allowed for visitation. Family members are willing to accept decreased visitation time if the physicians and nurses can equate this decrease with the complexity of care in the ICU. The results of this survey have helped us modify and individualize our approach based on family expectations especially when patients are transferred from the general ward to the ICU or from the ICU to the ward. PMID:8465212

Foss, K R; Tenholder, M F

1993-04-01

295

Co-ordinate regulation of cytokinin gene family members during flag leaf and reproductive development in wheat  

PubMed Central

Background As the global population continues to expand, increasing yield in bread wheat is of critical importance as 20% of the world’s food supply is sourced from this cereal. Several recent studies of the molecular basis of grain yield indicate that the cytokinins are a key factor in determining grain yield. In this study, cytokinin gene family members in bread wheat were isolated from four multigene families which regulate cytokinin synthesis and metabolism, the isopentenyl transferases (IPT), cytokinin oxidases (CKX), zeatin O-glucosyltransferases (ZOG), and ?-glucosidases (GLU). As bread wheat is hexaploid, each gene family is also likely to be represented on the A, B and D genomes. By using a novel strategy of qRT-PCR with locus-specific primers shared among the three homoeologues of each family member, detailed expression profiles are provided of family members of these multigene families expressed during leaf, spike and seed development. Results The expression patterns of individual members of the IPT, CKX, ZOG, and GLU multigene families in wheat are shown to be tissue- and developmentally-specific. For instance, TaIPT2 and TaCKX1 were the most highly expressed family members during early seed development, with relative expression levels of up to 90- and 900-fold higher, respectively, than those in the lowest expressed samples. The expression of two cis-ZOG genes was sharply increased in older leaves, while an extremely high mRNA level of TaGLU1-1 was detected in young leaves. Conclusions Key genes with tissue- and developmentally-specific expression have been identified which would be prime targets for genetic manipulation towards yield improvement in bread wheat breeding programmes, utilising TILLING and MAS strategies. PMID:22672647

2012-01-01

296

The roles of receptor-associated protein (RAP) as a molecular chaperone for members of the LDL receptor family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the LDL receptor family mediate endocytosis and signal transduction of many extracellular ligands which participate in lipoprotein metabolism, protease regulation, embryonic development, and the pathogenesis of disease (e.g., Alzheimer's disease). Structurally, these receptors share common motifs and modules that are highlighted with clusters of cysteine-rich ligand-binding repeats. Perhaps, the most significant feature that is shared by members of

Guojun Bu

2001-01-01

297

ICU Care Associated With Symptoms of Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Family Members of Patients Who Die in the ICU  

PubMed Central

Background: Psychologic symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression are relatively common among family members of patients who die in the ICU. The patient-level risk factors for these family symptoms are not well understood but may help to target future interventions. Methods: We performed a cohort study of family members of patients who died in the ICU or within 30 h of ICU transfer. Outcomes included self-reported symptoms of PTSD and depression. Predictors included patient demographics and elements of palliative care. Results: Two hundred twenty-six patients had chart abstraction and family questionnaire data. Family members of older patients had lower scores for PTSD (P = .026). Family members that were present at the time of death (P = .021) and family members of patients with early family conferences (P = .012) reported higher symptoms of PTSD. When withdrawal of a ventilator was ordered, family members reported lower symptoms of depression (P = .033). There were no other patient characteristics or elements of palliative care associated with family symptoms. Conclusions: Family members of younger patients and those for whom mechanical ventilation is not withdrawn are at increased risk of psychologic symptoms and may represent an important group for intervention. Increased PTSD symptoms among family members present at the time of death may reflect a closer relationship with the patient or more involvement with the patient’s ICU care but also suggests that family should be offered the option of not being present. PMID:20829335

Engelberg, Ruth A.; Gries, Cynthia J.; Nielsen, Elizabeth L.; Zatzick, Douglas; Curtis, J. Randall

2011-01-01

298

Role of ?-Catenin and TCF/LEF Family Members in Transcriptional Activity of HIV in Astrocytes  

PubMed Central

The Wnt/?-catenin pathway is involved in diverse cell functions governing development and disease. ?-Catenin, a central mediator of this pathway, binds to members of the TCF/LEF family of transcription factors to modulate hundreds of genes. Active Wnt/?-catenin/TCF-4 signaling plays a significant role in repression of HIV-1 replication in multiple cell targets, including astrocytes. To determine the mechanism by which active ?-catenin/TCF-4 leads to inhibition of HIV replication, we knocked down ?-catenin or TCF/LEF members in primary astrocytes and astrocytomas transiently transfected with an HIV long terminal repeat (LTR)-luciferase reporter that contained an integrated copy of the HIV LTR-luciferase construct. Knockdown of either ?-catenin or TCF-4 induced LTR activity by 2- to 3-fold under both the episomal and integrated conditions. This knockdown also increased presence of serine 2-phosphorylated RNA polymerase II (Pol II) on the HIV LTR as well as enhanced its processivity. Knockdown of ?-catenin/TCF-4 also impacted tethering of other transcription factors on the HIV promoter. Specifically, knockdown of TCF-4 enhanced binding of C/EBP?, C/EBP?, and NF-?B to the HIV LTR, while ?-catenin knockdown increased binding of C/EBP? and C/EBP? but had no effect on NF-?B. Approximately 150 genes in astrocytes were impacted by ?-catenin knockdown, including genes involved in inflammation/immunity, uptake/transport, vesicular transport/exocytosis, apoptosis/cellular stress, and cytoskeleton/trafficking. These findings indicate that modulation of the ?-catenin/TCF-4 axis impacts the basal level of HIV transcription in astrocytes, which may drive low level/persistent HIV in astrocytes that can contribute to ongoing neuroinflammation, and this axis also has profound effects on astrocyte biology. PMID:22156527

Narasipura, Srinivas D.; Henderson, Lisa J.; Fu, Sidney W.; Chen, Liang; Kashanchi, Fatah

2012-01-01

299

Family members’ experiences of “wait and see” as a communication strategy in end-of-life decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim of this study is to examine family members’ experiences of end-of-life decision-making processes in Norwegian intensive\\u000a care units (ICUs) to ascertain the degree to which they felt included in the decision-making process and whether they received\\u000a necessary information. Were they asked about the patient’s preferences, and how did they view their role as family members\\u000a in the decision-making

Ranveig Lind; Geir F. Lorem; Per Nortvedt; Olav Hevrøy

300

Identification, tissue expression and chromosomal localization of human Obscurin-MLCK, a member of the titin and Dbl families of myosin light chain kinases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the Dbl family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) have important roles in the organization of actin-based cytoskeletal structures of a wide variety of cell types. Through the activation of members of the Rho family of GTP signaling molecules, these exchange factors elicit cytoskeletal alterations that allow cellular remodeling. As important regulators of RhoGTPase activity, members of this

Mark W Russell; Maide O Raeker; Kristin A Korytkowski; Kevin J Sonneman

2002-01-01

301

The Differential Effect of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection on the Stability of BCL2-Family Members Involves Multiple Activities  

PubMed Central

The regulation of mitochondrial permeability, a key event in the initiation of apoptosis is governed by the opposing actions of the pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the BCL2-family of proteins. The BCL2-family can be classified further based on the number of BCL-homology (BH) domains they encode. Pathogen mediated modulation of BCL2-family members play a significant role in their ability to affect the apoptotic pathways in the infected host cell. The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii establishes a profound blockade of apoptosis noted by a requirement for host NF?B activity and correlating with the selective degradation of pro-apoptotic BCL2-family members. In this study, we explore the potential activities associated with the inherent stability of the anti-apoptotic BCL2 as well as the selective degradation of the pro-apoptotic proteins BAX, BAD, and BID. We find that multiple activities govern the relative stability of BCL2-family members suggesting a complex and balanced network of stability-enhancing and–destabilizing activities are perturbed by parasite infection. The data leave open the possibility for both parasite induced host activities as well as the direct consequence of parasite effectors in governing the relative levels of BCL2-proteins in the course of infection. PMID:21716958

Carmen, John Cherrington; Sinai, Anthony Peter

2011-01-01

302

Complete sequence and genetic characterization of Raspberry latent virus, a novel member of the family Reoviridae.  

PubMed

A new virus isolated from red raspberry plants and detected in the main production areas in northern Washington State, USA and British Columbia, Canada was fully sequenced and found to be a novel member of the family Reoviridae. The virus was designated as Raspberry latent virus (RpLV) based on the fact that it is symptomless when present in single infections in several Rubus virus indicators and commercial raspberry cultivars. RpLV genome is 26,128 nucleotides (nt) divided into 10 dsRNA segments. The length of the genomic segments (S) was similar to those of other reoviruses ranging from 3948 nt (S1) to 1141 nt (S10). All of the segments, except S8, have the conserved terminal sequences 5'-AGUU----GAAUAC-3'. A point mutation at each terminus of S8 resulted in the sequences 5'-AGUA----GAUUAC-3'. Inverted repeats adjacent to each conserved terminus as well as stem loops and extended pan handles were identified by analyses of secondary structures of the non-coding sequences. All segments, except S3 and S10, contained a single open reading frame (ORF) on the positive sense RNAs. Two out-of-frame overlapping ORFs were identified in segments S3 (ORF S3a and S3b) and S10 (ORF S10a and S10b). Amino acid (aa) alignments of the putative proteins encoded by the main ORF in each segment revealed a high identity to several proteins encoded by reoviruses from different genera including Oryzavirus, Cypovirus, and Dinovernavirus. Alignments of the polymerase, the most conserved protein among reoviruses, revealed a 36% aa identity between RpLV and Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV), the type member of the genus Oryzavirus, indicating that these two viruses are closely related. Phylogenetic analyses showed that RpLV clusters with members of the genera Oryzavirus, Cypovirus, Dinovernavirus and Fijivirus. These genera belong to the subfamily Spinareovirinae which includes reoviruses with spiked core particles ('turreted' reoviruses). In addition, two nucleotide binding motifs, regarded as 'signature' sequences among turreted reoviruses, were also found in RpLV P8, suggesting that RpLV is a novel dicot-infecting reovirus in the subfamily Spinareovirinae. PMID:21144872

Quito-Avila, Diego F; Jelkmann, Wilhelm; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E; Keller, Karen; Martin, Robert R

2011-02-01

303

BEST1 expression in the retinal pigment epithelium is modulated by OTX family members.  

PubMed

A number of genes preferentially expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are associated with retinal degenerative disease. One of these, BEST1, encodes bestrophin-1, a protein that when mutated causes Best macular dystrophy. As a model for RPE gene regulation, we have been studying the mechanisms that control BEST1 expression, and recently demonstrated that members of the MITF-TFE family modulate BEST1 transcription. The human BEST1 upstream region from -154 to +38 bp is sufficient to direct expression in the RPE, and positive-regulatory elements exist between -154 and -104 bp. Here, we show that the -154 to -104 bp region is necessary for RPE expression in transgenic mice and contains a predicted OTX-binding site (Site 1). Since another non-canonical OTX site (Site 2) is located nearby, we tested the function of these sites using BEST1 promoter/luciferase constructs by in vivo electroporation and found that mutation of both sites reduces promoter activity. Three OTX family proteins - OTX1, OTX2 and CRX - bound to both Sites 1 and 2 in vitro, and all of them increased BEST1 promoter activity. Surprisingly, we found that human and bovine RPE expressed not only OTX2 but also CRX, the CRX genomic region in bovine RPE was hypersensitive to DNase I, consistent with active transcription, and that both OTX2 and CRX bound to the BEST1 proximal promoter in vivo. These results demonstrate for the first time CRX expression in the RPE, and suggest that OTX2 and CRX may act as positive modulators of the BEST1 promoter in the RPE. PMID:18849347

Esumi, Noriko; Kachi, Shu; Hackler, Laszlo; Masuda, Tomohiro; Yang, Zhiyong; Campochiaro, Peter A; Zack, Donald J

2009-01-01

304

Modulation of myosin filament organization by C-protein family members.  

PubMed Central

We have analyzed the interactions between two types of sarcomeric proteins: myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and members of an abundant thick filament-associated protein family (myosin-binding protein; MyBP). Previous work has demonstrated that when MyHC is transiently transfected into mammalian nonmuscle COS cells, the expressed protein forms spindle-shaped structures consisting of bundles of myosin thick filaments. Co-expression of MyHC and MyBP-C or -H modulates the MyHC structures, resulting in dramatically longer cables consisting of myosin and MyBP encircling the nucleus. Immunoelectron microscopy indicates that these cable structures are more uniform in diameter than the spindle structures consisting solely of MyHC, and that the myosin filaments are compacted in the presence of MyBP. Deletion analysis of MyBP-H indicates that cable formation is dependent on the carboxy terminal 24 amino acids. Neither the MyHC spindles nor the MyHC/MyBP cables associate with the endogenous actin cytoskeleton of the COS cell. While there is no apparent co-localization between these structures and the microtubule network, colchicine treatment of the cells promotes the formation of longer assemblages, suggesting that cytoskeletal architecture may physically impede or regulate polymer formation/extension. The data presented here contribute to a greater understanding of the interactions between the MyBP family and MyHC, and provide additional evidence for functional homology between MyBP-C and MyBP-H. Images PMID:8741844

Seiler, S H; Fischman, D A; Leinwand, L A

1996-01-01

305

Upolu virus and Aransas Bay virus, Two Presumptive Bunyaviruses, Are Novel Members of the Family Orthomyxoviridae  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Emerging and zoonotic pathogens pose continuing threats to human health and ongoing challenges to diagnostics. As nucleic acid tests are playing increasingly prominent roles in diagnostics, the genetic characterization of molecularly uncharacterized agents is expected to significantly enhance detection and surveillance capabilities. We report the identification of two previously unrecognized members of the family Orthomyxoviridae, which includes the influenza viruses and the tick-transmitted Thogoto and Dhori viruses. We provide morphological, serologic, and genetic evidence that Upolu virus (UPOV) from Australia and Aransas Bay virus (ABV) from North America, both previously considered potential bunyaviruses based on electron microscopy and physicochemical features, are orthomyxoviruses instead. Their genomes show up to 68% nucleotide sequence identity to Thogoto virus (segment 2; ?74% at the amino acid level) and a more distant relationship to Dhori virus, the two prototype viruses of the recognized species of the genus Thogotovirus. Despite sequence similarity, the coding potentials of UPOV and ABV differed from that of Thogoto virus, instead being like that of Dhori virus. Our findings suggest that the tick-transmitted viruses UPOV and ABV represent geographically distinct viruses in the genus Thogotovirus of the family Orthomyxoviridae that do not fit in the two currently recognized species of this genus. IMPORTANCE Upolu virus (UPOV) and Aransas Bay virus (ABV) are shown to be orthomyxoviruses instead of bunyaviruses, as previously thought. Genetic characterization and adequate classification of agents are paramount in this molecular age to devise appropriate surveillance and diagnostics. Although more closely related to Thogoto virus by sequence, UPOV and ABV differ in their coding potentials by lacking a proposed pathogenicity factor. In this respect, they are similar to Dhori virus, which, despite the lack of a pathogenicity factor, can cause disease. These findings enable further studies into the evolution and pathogenicity of orthomyxoviruses. PMID:24574415

Chowdhary, Rashmi; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Popov, Vsevolod; Street, Craig; Tesh, Robert B.; Lipkin, W. Ian

2014-01-01

306

Predictors of Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress and Depression in Family Members After Patient Death in the ICU  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients’ deaths in the ICU have been associated with a high burden of psychologic symptoms in families. This study identifies characteristics associated with psychologic symptoms in family members. Methods: Families of patients dying in the ICU or within 30 h of ICU discharge in 11 hospitals previously participated in a randomized trial. In the current study, we assessed these families for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression with follow-up surveys. Outcomes included validated measures of PTSD (PTSD Checklist) and depressive (Patient Health Questionnaire) symptoms. Predictors included family member mental-health history, involvement in decision making, and demographics. Results: Surveys were completed by 226 families. Response rate was 46% in the original randomized trial and 82% in this study. Prevalence (95% CI) of PTSD and depressive symptoms were 14.0% (9.7%-19.3%) and 18.4% (13.5%-24.1%), respectively. Family characteristics associated with increased symptoms included: female gender (PTSD, P = .020; depression, P = .005), knowing the patient for a shorter duration (PTSD, P = .003; depression, P = .040), and discordance between family members’ preferences for decision making and their actual decision-making roles (PTSD, P = .005; depression, P = .049). Depressive symptoms were also associated with lower educational level (P = .002). Families with psychologic symptoms were more likely to report that access to a counselor (PTSD, P < .001; depression, P = .003) and information about spiritual services might have been helpful while the patient was in the ICU (PTSD, P = .024; depression, P = .029). Conclusions: Families demonstrated a high prevalence of psychologic symptoms after a death in the ICU. Characteristics associated with symptoms may help target interventions to reduce these symptoms. Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00685893. PMID:19762549

Gries, Cynthia J.; Engelberg, Ruth A.; Kross, Erin K.; Zatzick, Doug; Nielsen, Elizabeth L.; Downey, Lois

2010-01-01

307

Caladenia virus A, an unusual new member of the family Potyviridae from terrestrial orchids in Western Australia.  

PubMed

An isolate of a new virus, Caladenia virus A (CalVA), was identified infecting Australian terrestrial orchids. The complete genome of 9,847 nucleotides encodes 11 gene products typical of most members of the family Potyviridae. Sequence comparisons of the polyprotein revealed that CalVA shared highest sequence identity (37.5-39.6 %) with members of the genus Poacevirus. Although a vector for CalVA was not identified, a mite transmission motif was present in the helper component protease, indicating that, like other poaceviruses, mites may transmit it. CalVA is the only proposed member of the genus Poacevirus not isolated from a poaceous host. PMID:22914963

Wylie, Stephen J; Tan, Aaron J Y; Li, Hua; Dixon, Kingsley W; Jones, Michael G K

2012-12-01

308

Stress processes in caring for an end-of-life family member: Application of a theoretical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Family caregivers play a vital role in maintaining the lives of individuals with advanced illness living in the community. However, the responsibility of caregiving for an end-of-life family member can have profound consequences on the psychological, physical and financial well-being of the caregiver. While the literature has identified caregiver stress or strain as a complex process with multiple contributing

Daryl Bainbridge; Paul Krueger; Lynne Lohfeld; Kevin Brazil

2009-01-01

309

Molecular characterization of hiwi, a human member of the piwi gene family whose overexpression is correlated to seminomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The piwi family genes are highly conserved during evolution and play essential roles in stem cell self-renewal, gametogenesis, and RNA interference in diverse organisms ranging from Drosophila melanogaster and C. elegans to Arabidopsis. Here we report the molecular characterization of hiwi, a human member of the piwi gene family. hiwi maps to the long arm of chromosome 12, band 12q24.33,

Dan Qiao; Anne-Marie Zeeman; Wei Deng; Leendert H J Looijenga; Haifan Lin

2002-01-01

310

A Novel Member of the Netrin Family,  -Netrin, Shares Homology with the   Chain of Laminin: Identification, Expression, and Functional Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The netrins are a family of laminin-related molecules. Here, we characterize a new member of the family, b -netrin. b -Netrin is homologous to the NH 2 terminus of laminin chain short arms; it contains a lami- nin-like domain VI and 3.5 laminin EGF repeats and a netrin C domain. Unlike other netrins, this new netrin is more related to

Manuel Koch; Julie R. Murrell; Dale D. Hunter; Pamela F. Olson; William Jin; Douglas R. Keene; William J. Brunken; Robert E. Burgeson

2000-01-01

311

Information for Helping Military Families Every county has residents who are members of the United States Armed Forces. We are now in a time of  

E-print Network

Information for Helping Military Families Every county has residents who are members of the United in family needs. This information sheet is for you to use when assisting your military clients and their families. Questions to ask: What branch of the Military is the service member in? Do you know the service

312

75 FR 33491 - Absence and Leave; Definitions of Family Member, Immediate Relative, and Related Terms  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...equivalent of a family relationship. * * * * * Parent means-- (1) A biological...equivalent of a family relationship. Parent means-- (1) A biological...equivalent of a family relationship. * * * * * Parent means-- (1) A...

2010-06-14

313

Associations between violent video gaming, empathic concern, and prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends, and family members.  

PubMed

Exposure to media violence, including violent video gaming, can have a cognitive desensitization effect, lowering empathic concern for others in need. Since emerging adulthood offers increased opportunities to volunteer, strengthen relationships, and initiate new relationships, decreases in empathic concern and prosocial behavior may prove inhibitive to optimal development during this time. For these reasons, the current study investigated associations between violent video gaming, empathic responding, and prosocial behavior enacted toward strangers, friends, and family members. Participants consisted of 780 emerging adults (M age = 19.60, SD = 1.86, range = 18–29, 69% female, 69% Caucasian) from four universities in the United States. Results showed small to moderate effects between playing violent video gaming and lowered empathic concern for both males and females. In addition, lowered empathic concern partially mediated the pathways between violent video gaming and prosocial behavior toward all three targets (at the level of a trend for females), but was most strongly associated with lower prosocial behavior toward strangers. Discussion highlights how violent video gaming is associated with lower levels of prosocial behavior through the mechanism of decreased empathic concern, how this association can affect prosocial behavior differently across target, and finally what implications this might have for development during emerging adulthood. PMID:22302216

Fraser, Ashley M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, Larry J; Stockdale, Laura A

2012-05-01

314

New functions of the chloroplast Preprotein and Amino acid Transporter (PRAT) family members in protein import  

PubMed Central

Plant cells contain distinct compartments such as the nucleus, the endomembrane system comprising the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, peroxisomes, vacuoles, as well as mitochondria and chloroplasts. All of these compartments are surrounded by 1 or 2 limiting membranes and need to import proteins from the cytosol. Previous work led to the conclusion that mitochondria and chloroplasts use structurally different protein import machineries in their outer and inner membranes for the uptake of cytosolic precursor proteins. Our most recent data show that there is some unexpected overlap. Three members of the family of preprotein and amino acid transporters, PRAT, were identified in chloroplasts that mediate the uptake of transit sequence-less proteins into the inner plastid envelope membrane. By analogy, mitochondria contain with TIM22 a related PRAT protein that is involved in the import of transit sequence-less proteins into the inner mitochondrial membrane. Both mitochondria and chloroplasts thus make use of similar import mechanisms to deliver some of their proteins to their final place. Because single homologs of HP20- and HP30-like proteins are present in algae such as Chlamydomonas, Ostreococcus, and Volvox, which diverged from land plants approximately 1 billion years ago, it is likely that the discovered PRAT-mediated mechanism of protein translocation evolved concomitantly with the secondary endosymbiotic event that gave rise to green plants. PMID:24476934

Rossig, Claudia; Reinbothe, Christiane; Gray, John; Valdes, Oscar; von Wettstein, Diter; Reinbothe, Steffen

2014-01-01

315

Cohabiting family members share microbiota with one another and with their dogs  

PubMed Central

Human-associated microbial communities vary across individuals: possible contributing factors include (genetic) relatedness, diet, and age. However, our surroundings, including individuals with whom we interact, also likely shape our microbial communities. To quantify this microbial exchange, we surveyed fecal, oral, and skin microbiota from 60 families (spousal units with children, dogs, both, or neither). Household members, particularly couples, shared more of their microbiota than individuals from different households, with stronger effects of co-habitation on skin than oral or fecal microbiota. Dog ownership significantly increased the shared skin microbiota in cohabiting adults, and dog-owning adults shared more ‘skin’ microbiota with their own dogs than with other dogs. Although the degree to which these shared microbes have a true niche on the human body, vs transient detection after direct contact, is unknown, these results suggest that direct and frequent contact with our cohabitants may significantly shape the composition of our microbial communities. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00458.001 PMID:23599893

Song, Se Jin; Lauber, Christian; Costello, Elizabeth K; Lozupone, Catherine A; Humphrey, Gregory; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knights, Dan; Clemente, Jose C; Nakielny, Sara; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Fierer, Noah; Knight, Rob

2013-01-01

316

Rapid detection of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae by a monoclonal antibody.  

PubMed Central

Six monoclonal antibodies directed against enterobacteria were produced and characterized. The specificity of one of these antibodies (CX9/15; immunoglobulin G2a) was studied by indirect immunofluorescence against 259 enterobacterial strains and 125 other gram-negative bacteria. All of the enterobacteria were specifically recognized, the only exception being Erwinia chrysanthemi (one strain tested). Bacteria not belonging to members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were not detected, except for Plesiomonas shigelloides (two strains tested), Aeromonas hydrophila (five strains tested), and Aeromonas sobria (one strain tested). This recognition spectrum strongly suggested that CX9/15 recognized the enterobacterial common antigen. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot (immunoblot) experiments, the six antienterobacteria antibodies presented similar specificities; they all revealed only one band with an apparent molecular weight of about 20,000 from the crude extract of an enterobacterium. The six monoclonal antibodies, and especially CX9/15, can be used to develop new tests for rapid and specific detection of enterobacteria. Images PMID:1622220

Levasseur, S; Husson, M O; Leitz, R; Merlin, F; Laurent, F; Peladan, F; Drocourt, J L; Leclerc, H; Van Hoegaerden, M

1992-01-01

317

A Novel Role of the Mad Family Member Mad3 in Cerebellar Granule Neuron Precursor Proliferation?  

PubMed Central

During development, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) regulates the proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron precursors (GNPs) in part via expression of Nmyc. We present evidence supporting a novel role for the Mad family member Mad3 in the Shh pathway to regulate Nmyc expression and GNP proliferation. Mad3 mRNA is transiently expressed in GNPs during proliferation. Cultured GNPs express Mad3 in response to Shh stimulation in a cyclopamine-dependent manner. Mad3 is necessary for Shh-dependent GNP proliferation as measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and Nmyc expression. Furthermore, Mad3 overexpression, but not that of other Mad proteins, is sufficient to induce GNP proliferation in the absence of Shh. Structure-function analysis revealed that Max dimerization and recruitment of the mSin3 corepressor are required for Mad3-mediated GNP proliferation. Surprisingly, basic-domain-dependent DNA binding of Mad3 is not required, suggesting that Mad3 interacts with other DNA binding proteins to repress transcription. Interestingly, cerebellar tumors and pretumor cells derived from patched heterozygous mice express high levels of Mad3 compared with adjacent normal cerebellar tissue. Our studies support a novel role for Mad3 in cerebellar GNP proliferation and possibly tumorigenesis, and they challenge the current paradigm that Mad3 should antagonize Nmyc by competition for direct DNA binding via Max dimerization. PMID:17893326

Yun, Jun-Soo; Rust, Jennifer M.; Ishimaru, Tatsuto; Diaz, Elva

2007-01-01

318

Development of a Simple and Rapid Fluorogenic Procedure for Identification of Vibrionaceae Family Members  

PubMed Central

We describe a simple colony overlay procedure for peptidases (COPP) for the rapid fluorogenic detection and quantification of Vibrionaceae from seawater, shellfish, sewage, and clinical samples. The assay detects phosphoglucose isomerase with a lysyl aminopeptidase activity that is produced by Vibrionaceae family members. Overnight cultures are overlaid for 10 min with membranes containing a synthetic substrate, and the membranes are examined for fluorescent foci under UV illumination. Fluorescent foci were produced by all the Vibrionaceae tested, including Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., and Plesiomonas spp. Fluorescence was not produced by non-Vibrionaceae pathogens. Vibrio cholerae strains O1, O139, O22, and O155 were strongly positive. Seawater and oysters were assayed, and 87 of 93 (93.5%) of the positive isolates were identified biochemically as Vibrionaceae, principally Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Photobacterium damselae, and Shewanella putrefaciens. None of 50 nonfluorescent isolates were Vibrionaceae. No Vibrionaceae were detected in soil, and only A. hydrophila was detected in sewage. The COPP technique may be particularly valuable in environmental and food-testing laboratories and for monitoring water quality in the aquaculture industry. PMID:16000757

Richards, Gary P.; Watson, Michael A.; Parveen, Salina

2005-01-01

319

Izumo is part of a multiprotein family whose members form large complexes on mammalian sperm  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Izumo, a sperm membrane protein, is essential for gamete fusion in the mouse. It has an Ig (Immunoglobulin) domain and an N-terminal domain for which neither the functions nor homologous sequences are known. In the present work we identified three novel proteins showing an N-terminal domain with significant homology to the N-terminal domain of Izumo. We named this region "Izumo domain", and the novel proteins “Izumo 2”,”Izumo 3” and “Izumo 4”, retaining “Izumo 1” for the first described member of the family. Izumo 1, 2 and 3 are transmembrane proteins expressed specifically in the testis, and Izumo 4 is a soluble protein expressed in the testis and in other tissues. Electrophoresis under mildly denaturing conditions, followed by Western blot analysis, showed that Izumo 1, 3 and 4 formed protein complexes on sperm, Izumo 1 forming several larger complexes and Izumo 3 and 4 forming a single larger complex. Studies using different recombinant Izumo constructs suggested the Izumo domain possesses the ability to form dimers, whereas the transmembrane domain or the cytoplasmic domain or both of Izumo 1 are required for the formation of multimers of higher order. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed the presence of other sperm proteins associated with Izumo-1, suggesting Izumo 1 forms a multi-protein membrane complex. Our results raise the possibility that Izumo 1 might be involved in organizing or stabilizing a multi-protein complex essential for the function of the membrane fusion machinery. PMID:19658160

Ellerman, Diego A; Pei, Jimin; Gupta, Surabhi; Snell, William J; Myles, Diana; Primakoff, Paul

2013-01-01

320

Three Members of the Arabidopsis Glycosyltransferase Family 8 Are Xylan Glucuronosyltransferases1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Xylan is a major component of the plant cell wall and the most abundant noncellulosic component in the secondary cell walls that constitute the largest part of plant biomass. Dicot glucuronoxylan consists of a linear backbone of ?(1,4)-linked xylose residues substituted with ?(1,2)-linked glucuronic acid (GlcA). Although several genes have been implicated in xylan synthesis through mutant analyses, the biochemical mechanisms responsible for synthesizing xylan are largely unknown. Here, we show evidence for biochemical activity of GUX1 (for GlcA substitution of xylan 1), a member of Glycosyltransferase Family 8 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that is responsible for adding the glucuronosyl substitutions onto the xylan backbone. GUX1 has characteristics typical of Golgi-localized glycosyltransferases and a Km for UDP-GlcA of 165 ?m. GUX1 strongly favors xylohexaose as an acceptor over shorter xylooligosaccharides, and with xylohexaose as an acceptor, GlcA is almost exclusively added to the fifth xylose residue from the nonreducing end. We also show that several related proteins, GUX2 to GUX5 and Plant Glycogenin-like Starch Initiation Protein6, are Golgi localized and that only two of these proteins, GUX2 and GUX4, have activity as xylan ?-glucuronosyltransferases. PMID:22706449

Rennie, Emilie A.; Hansen, Sara Fasmer; Baidoo, Edward E.K.; Hadi, Masood Z.; Keasling, Jay D.; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

2012-01-01

321

Impact of conditional deletion of the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BIM in mice  

PubMed Central

The pro-apoptotic BH3-only BCL-2 family member BIM is a critical determinant of hematopoietic cell development and homeostasis. It has been argued that the striking hematopoietic abnormalities of BIM-deficient mice (accumulation of lymphocytes and granulocytes) may be the result of the loss of the protein throughout the whole animal rather than a consequence intrinsic to the loss of BIM in hematopoietic cells. To address this issue and allow the deletion of BIM in specific cell types in future studies, we have developed a mouse strain with a conditional Bim allele as well as a new Cre transgenic strain, Vav-CreER, in which the tamoxifen-inducible CreER recombinase (fusion protein) is predominantly expressed in the hematopoietic system. We show that acute loss of BIM in the adult mouse rapidly results in the hematopoietic phenotypes previously observed in mice lacking BIM in all tissues. This includes changes in thymocyte subpopulations, increased white blood cell counts and resistance of lymphocytes to BIM-dependent apoptotic stimuli, such as cytokine deprivation. We have validated this novel conditional Bim knockout mouse model using established and newly developed CreER strains (Rosa26-CreER and Vav-CreER) and will make these exciting new tools for studies on cell death and cancer available. PMID:25299771

Herold, M J; Stuchbery, R; Mérino, D; Willson, T; Strasser, A; Hildeman, D; Bouillet, P

2014-01-01

322

Differential Expression of Two Novel Members of the Tomato Ethylene-Receptor Family  

PubMed Central

The phytohormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development, and environmental responses. Much of the developmental regulation of ethylene responses in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) occurs at the level of hormone sensitivity. In an effort to understand the regulation of ethylene responses, we isolated and characterized tomato genes with sequence similarity to the Arabidopsis ETR1 (ethylene response 1) ethylene receptor. Previously, we isolated three genes that exhibit high similarity to ETR1 and to each other. Here we report the isolation of two additional genes, LeETR4 and LeETR5, that are only 42% and 40% identical to ETR1, respectively. Although the amino acids known to be involved in ethylene binding are conserved, LeETR5 lacks the histidine within the kinase domain that is predicted to be phosphorylated. This suggests that histidine kinase activity is not necessary for an ethylene response, because mutated forms of both LeETR4 and LeETR5 confer dominant ethylene insensitivity in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression analysis indicates that LeETR4 accounts for most of the putative ethylene-receptor mRNA present in reproductive tissues, but, like LeETR5, it is less abundant in vegetative tissues. Taken together, ethylene perception in tomato is potentially quite complex, with at least five structurally divergent, putative receptor family members exhibiting significant variation in expression levels throughout development. PMID:10318694

Tieman, Denise M.; Klee, Harry J.

1999-01-01

323

Impact of conditional deletion of the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BIM in mice.  

PubMed

The pro-apoptotic BH3-only BCL-2 family member BIM is a critical determinant of hematopoietic cell development and homeostasis. It has been argued that the striking hematopoietic abnormalities of BIM-deficient mice (accumulation of lymphocytes and granulocytes) may be the result of the loss of the protein throughout the whole animal rather than a consequence intrinsic to the loss of BIM in hematopoietic cells. To address this issue and allow the deletion of BIM in specific cell types in future studies, we have developed a mouse strain with a conditional Bim allele as well as a new Cre transgenic strain, Vav-CreER, in which the tamoxifen-inducible CreER recombinase (fusion protein) is predominantly expressed in the hematopoietic system. We show that acute loss of BIM in the adult mouse rapidly results in the hematopoietic phenotypes previously observed in mice lacking BIM in all tissues. This includes changes in thymocyte subpopulations, increased white blood cell counts and resistance of lymphocytes to BIM-dependent apoptotic stimuli, such as cytokine deprivation. We have validated this novel conditional Bim knockout mouse model using established and newly developed CreER strains (Rosa26-CreER and Vav-CreER) and will make these exciting new tools for studies on cell death and cancer available. PMID:25299771

Herold, M J; Stuchbery, R; Mérino, D; Willson, T; Strasser, A; Hildeman, D; Bouillet, P

2014-01-01

324

Drosophila Follistatin exhibits unique structural modifications and interacts with several TGF-beta family members.  

PubMed

Follistatin (FS) is one of several secreted proteins that modulate the activity of TGF-beta family members during development. The structural and functional analysis of Drosophila Follistatin (dFS) reveals important differences between dFS and its vertebrate orthologues: it is larger, more positively charged, and proteolytically processed. dFS primarily inhibits signaling of Drosophila Activin (dACT) but can also inhibit other ligands like Decapentaplegic (DPP). In contrast, the presence of dFS enhances signaling of the Activin-like protein Dawdle (DAW), indicating that dFS exhibits a dual function in promoting and inhibiting signaling of TGF-beta ligands. In addition, FS proteins may also function in facilitating ligand diffusion. We find that mutants of daw are rescued in significant numbers by expression of vertebrate FS proteins. Since two PiggyBac insertions in dfs are not lethal, it appears that the function of dFS is non-essential or functionally redundant. PMID:18077144

Bickel, Daniela; Shah, Ripal; Gesualdi, Scott C; Haerry, Theodor E

2008-01-01

325

Spatial expression of claudin family members in various organs of mice.  

PubMed

Claudins (CLDNs) are tetraspan transmembrane proteins, which are components of tight junctions. The CLDN family is composed of 27 members that are responsible for paracellular transport and certain CLDNs form charge-selective ion channels. CLDNs have two extracellular loops, and the charge of the first extracellular loop determines the ion selectivity of each CLDN. Although the expression and function of each CLDN have been previously investigated, the distribution of CLDNs in various target organs remains to be determined. In the present study, the tissue-specific mRNA distribution of CLDNs (1-5, 7-8, 10a and b, 11-12, 14-17 and 19) in the duodenum, ileum, colon, kidney, liver and lung were defined. Among the tested CLDNs, CLDN1, 2, 12 and 16 were selected for further investiagtion. It was observed that CLDN1, CLDN2 and CLDN12 transcripts and proteins were particularly abundant in the investigated organs. Notably, immune-reactive CLDN16 was detected in a tissue-specific manner and shown in the renal tubules and portal vein. The tested CLDNs were localized to intercellular apical junctions in the epithelium of the intestine, renal tubule and bronchus. Based on this novel information, the presence of several types of CLDNs is of interest as CLDNs may promote or dampen the paracellular diffusion of specific ions. PMID:24626855

Hwang, Inho; Yang, Hyun; Kang, Hong-Seok; Ahn, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Geun-Shik; Hong, Eui-Ju; An, Beum-Soo; Jeung, Eui-Bae

2014-05-01

326

Platelet-derived S100 family member myeloid-related protein-14 regulates thrombosis  

PubMed Central

Expression of the gene encoding the S100 calcium–modulated protein family member MRP-14 (also known as S100A9) is elevated in platelets from patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (MI) compared with those from patients with stable coronary artery disease; however, a causal role for MRP-14 in acute coronary syndromes has not been established. Here, using multiple models of vascular injury, we found that time to arterial thrombotic occlusion was markedly prolonged in Mrp14–/– mice. We observed that MRP-14 and MRP-8/MRP-14 heterodimers (S100A8/A9) are expressed in and secreted by platelets from WT mice and that thrombus formation was reduced in whole blood from Mrp14–/– mice. Infusion of WT platelets, purified MRP-14, or purified MRP-8/MRP-14 heterodimers into Mrp14–/– mice decreased the time to carotid artery occlusion after injury, indicating that platelet-derived MRP-14 directly regulates thrombosis. In contrast, infusion of purified MRP-14 into mice deficient for both MRP-14 and CD36 failed to reduce carotid occlusion times, indicating that CD36 is required for MRP-14–dependent thrombosis. Our data identify a molecular pathway of thrombosis that involves platelet MRP-14 and CD36 and suggest that targeting MRP-14 has potential for treating atherothrombotic disorders, including MI and stroke. PMID:24691441

Wang, Yunmei; Fang, Chao; Gao, Huiyun; Bilodeau, Matthew L.; Zhang, Zijie; Croce, Kevin; Liu, Shijian; Morooka, Toshifumi; Sakuma, Masashi; Nakajima, Kohsuke; Yoneda, Shuichi; Shi, Can; Zidar, David; Andre, Patrick; Stephens, Gillian; Silverstein, Roy L.; Hogg, Nancy; Schmaier, Alvin H.; Simon, Daniel I.

2014-01-01

327

Biochemical analysis of mouse FKBP60, a novel member of the FKPB family.  

PubMed

We have identified mouse and human FKBP60, a new member of the FKBP gene family. FKBP60 shares strongest homology with FKBP65 and SMAP. FKBP60 contains a hydrophobic signal peptide at the N-terminus, 4 peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) domains and an endoplasmic reticulum retention motif (HDEL) at the C-terminus. Immunodetection of HA-tagged FKBP60 in NIH-3T3 cells suggests that FKBP60 is segregated to the endoplasmic reticulum. Northern blot analysis shows that FKBP60 is predominantly expressed in heart, skeletal muscle, lung, liver and kidney. With N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide as a substrate, recombinant GST-FKBP60 is shown to accelerate effectively the isomerization of the peptidyl-prolyl bond. This isomerization activity is inhibited by FK506. mFKBP60 binds Ca2+ in vitro, presumably by its C-terminal EF-hand Ca2+ binding motif, and is phosphorylated in vivo. hFKBP60 has been mapped to 7p12 and/or 7p14 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). PMID:10524204

Shadidy, M; Caubit, X; Olsen, R; Seternes, O M; Moens, U; Krauss, S

1999-09-01

328

The Response of Schools of Social Work to the Return of Uniformed Service Members and Their Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following article is designed to provide an historical overview of the role that the Smith College School for Social Work has played in serving U.S. service members and their families throughout the past 91 years. Particular attention is paid to the building momentum of interest and activity at the School since 2005.

Carolyn Jacobs

2009-01-01

329

Applying the 5-Step Method to Children and Affected Family Members: Opportunities and Challenges within Policy and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main aim of this article is to consider how the 5-Step Method could be developed to meet the needs of affected family members (AFMs) with children under the age of 18. This would be an entirely new development. This article examines opportunities and challenges within practice and policy and makes suggestions on how the Method could be taken…

Harwin, Judith

2010-01-01

330

Genetic testing: do healthcare professionals have a duty to tell a patient's family members that they may be at risk?  

PubMed

The author describes the healthcare professional's dilemma of keeping a patient's genetic information confidential. Provided are case law, commentary and policy developments addressing confidentiality of patient information as weighed against third parties' needs to know genetic information regarding their family members. PMID:10538434

Marta, M R

1999-01-01

331

Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Patients Display Variable Antibody Profiles against the Nine-Member Polymorphic Membrane Protein Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic analysis of the Chlamydiaceae has revealed a multigene family encoding large, putatively auto- transported polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) with nine members in the sexually transmitted pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. While various pathogenesis-related functions are emerging for the Pmps, observed genotypic and phenotypic variation among several chlamydial Pmps in various Chlamydia species has led us to hypothesize that the pmp gene

Chun Tan; Ru-ching Hsia; Huizhong Shou; Catherine L. Haggerty; Roberta B. Ness; Charlotte A. Gaydos; Deborah Dean; Amy M. Scurlock; David P. Wilson; Patrik M. Bavoil

2009-01-01

332

Expression and co-expression of the members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family in invasive breast carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family plays an important role in breast carcinogenesis. Much interest has been focused recently on its members because of their potential role as prognostic indicators in breast cancer and their involvement in cancer therapy. We have evaluated more than 1500 cases of invasive breast carcinoma immunohistochemically using tissue microarray technology to examine the expression

D M Abd El-Rehim; S E Pinder; C E Paish; J A Bell; R S Rampaul; R W Blamey; J F R Robertson; R I Nicholson; I O Ellis

2004-01-01

333

Greetings Titan Parents and Family Members! I would like to welcome you once more to the Titan  

E-print Network

Greetings Titan Parents and Family Members! I would like to welcome you once more to the Titan with helpful information and useful tools, we have developed our first parent newsletter, Titan Parent are Kandy Mink Salas, Dean of Students Welcome New Titan Parents! A Message from our Dean of Students INSIDE

de Lijser, Peter

334

Acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 6 is associated with premature ovarian failure.  

PubMed

To identify genes that are associated with premature ovarian failure, a linkage disequilibrium-based genome-wide association study with dense single nucleotide polymorphisms as genetic markers was performed. The acyl-coenzyme A synthetase long-chain family member 6 (ACSL6) gene on chromosome 5q31 was associated with premature ovarian failure and identified disease-susceptibility haplotypes. PMID:18555221

Kang, HyunJun; Lee, Seung Ku; Kim, Min-Ho; Choi, HyeJeong; Lee, Sook-Hwan; Kwack, KyuBum

2009-04-01

335

25 CFR 26.17 - Can more than one family member be financially assisted at the same time?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

25 ? Indians ? 1 ? 2012-04-01 ? 2011-04-01 ? true ? Can more than one family member be financially assisted at the same time? ? 26.17 ? Section 26.17 ? Indians ? BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ? HUMAN SERVICES ? JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM ? General Applicability ?...

2012-04-01

336

Expression during rat fetal development of GLUT12 - a member of the class III hexose transporter family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose is an essential molecule for most mammalian cells, and is particularly important during fetal development, when cells are rapidly dividing and differentiating. In rats, GLUT1 is present at high levels in most fetal tissues, with levels decreasing after birth. We used immunohistochemistry to localise GLUT12 protein, a recently identified member of the sugar transporter family, and GLUT1 during rat

Maria L. Macheda; Darren J. Kelly; James D. Best; Suzanne Rogers

2002-01-01

337

Expression during rat fetal development of GLUT12 - a member of the class III hexose transporter family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose is an essential molecule for most mammalian cells, and is particularly important during fetal development, when cells are rapidly dividing and differentiating. In rats, GLUT1 is present at high levels in most fetal tissues, with levels decreasing after birth. We used immunohistochemistry to localise GLUT12 protein, a recently identified member of the sugar trans- porter family, and GLUT1 during

Maria L. Macheda; Darren J. Kelly; James D. Best; Suzanne Rogers

2003-01-01

338

Survey Burden for Family Members Surveyed About End-of-Life Care in the Intensive Care Unit  

PubMed Central

Context Family surveys are an important source of information about quality of end-of-life care in the intensive care unit (ICU). The burden associated with completing such surveys is not well studied. Objectives 1) To assess the predictors of burden that families report with completing surveys for patients who died in the ICU; and 2) to examine associations between quality-of-care ratings and survey burden. Methods Data were collected from 14 hospitals as part of a cluster randomized trial to integrate palliative care into the ICU. Survey questions included: demographics, quality of dying, satisfaction with care, and overall level of burden associated with survey completion. Patient characteristics were identified from chart abstraction and death certificates. Multivariable linear regression with robust standard errors was used to examine associations between survey burden, subject characteristics, and family ratings of quality of care. Results Of the families surveyed, 62% rated the survey to be no or low burden. Family members of older patients reported less survey burden (P=0.016) and those who lived with the patient reported higher survey burden (P=0.043). Family members reporting lower ratings of satisfaction with care and quality of dying reported higher survey burden (P<0.001). Conclusion The majority of families reported no to low burden. Family members who live with their loved one are particularly vulnerable to survey burden and those of older patients report less burden. The association between low quality of care ratings and survey burden suggests that the response bias in this type of research is towards overestimating quality of care, PMID:22762964

Kross, Erin K.; Nielsen, Elizabeth L.; Curtis, J. Randall; Engelberg, Ruth A.

2012-01-01

339

Paradoxical Role of an Egr Transcription Factor Family Member, Egr2/Krox20, in Learning and Memory  

PubMed Central

It is well established that Egr1/zif268, a member of the Egr family of transcription factors, is critical for the consolidation of several forms of memories. Recently, the Egr3 family member has also been implicated in learning and memory. Because Egr family members encode closely related zinc-finger transcription factors sharing a highly homologous DNA binding domain that recognises the same DNA sequence, they may have related functions in brain. Another Egr family member expressed in brain, Egr2/Krox20 is known to be crucial for normal hindbrain development and has been implicated in several inherited peripheral neuropathies; however, due to Egr2-null mice perinatal lethality, its potential role in cognitive functions in the adult has not been yet explored. Here, we generated Egr2 conditional mutant mice allowing postnatal, forebrain-specific Cre-mediated Egr2 excision and tested homozygous, heterozygous and control littermates on a battery of behavioural tasks to evaluate motor capacity, exploratory behaviour, emotional reactivity and learning and memory performance in spatial and non-spatial tasks. Egr2-deficient mice had no sign of locomotor, exploratory or anxiety disturbances. Surprisingly, they also had no impairment in spatial learning and memory, taste aversion memory or fear memory using a trace conditioning paradigm. On the contrary, Egr2-deficient mice had improved performance in motor learning on a rotarod, and in object recognition memory. These results clearly do not extend the phenotypic consequences resulting from either Egr1 or Egr3 loss-of-function to Egr2. In contrast, they indicate that Egr family members may have different, and in certain circumstances antagonistic functions in the adult brain. PMID:18958188

Poirier, Roseline; Cheval, Hélène; Mailhes, Caroline; Charnay, Patrick; Davis, Sabrina; Laroche, Serge

2007-01-01

340

Unique translational modification of an invertebrate neuropeptide: a phosphorylated member of the adipokinetic hormone peptide family  

PubMed Central

Separation of an extract of corpora cardiaca from the protea beetle, Trichostetha fascicularis, by single-step RP (reverse-phase)-HPLC and monitoring of tryptophan fluorescence resulted in two distinctive peaks, the material of which mobilized proline and carbohydrates in a bioassay performed using the beetle. Material from one of these peaks was; however, inactive in the classical bioassays of locusts and cockroaches that are used for detecting peptides belonging to the AKH (adipokinetic hormone) family. After enzymatically deblocking the N-terminal pyroglutamic acid (pGlu) residue in the peptide material and sequencing by Edman degradation, a partial sequence was obtained: (pGlu)-Ile-Asn-Met-Thr-Xaa-Gly-Trp. The complete sequence was deduced from ESI-MSn (electrospray ionization multi-stage-MS); position six was identified as a phosphothreonine residue and the C-terminus is amidated. The peptide, code-named Trifa-CC, was chemically synthesized and used in confirmatory experiments to show that the primary structure had been correctly assigned. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a phosphorylated invertebrate neuropeptide. Synthetic Trifa-CC co-elutes with the natural peptide, found in the gland of the protea beetle, after RP-HPLC. Moreover, the natural peptide can be dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase and the product of that reaction has the same retention time as a synthetic nonphosphorylated octapeptide which has the same sequence as Trifa-CC. Finally, synthetic Trifa-CC has hypertrehalosaemic and hyperprolinaemic biological activity in the protea beetle, but even high concentrations of synthetic Trifa-CC are inactive in locusts and cockroaches. Hence, the correct peptide structure has been assigned. Trifa-CC of the protea beetle is an unusual member of the AKH family that is unique in its post-translational modification. Since it increases the concentration of carbohydrates and proline in the haemolymph when injected into the protea beetle, and since these substrates are also used during flight, we hypothesize that Trifa-CC controls the mobilization of these metabolites in the protea beetle. PMID:16271039

2005-01-01

341

NLR family member NLRC5 is a transcriptional regulator of MHC class I genes  

PubMed Central

MHC class I plays a critical role in the immune defense against viruses and tumors by presenting antigens to CD8 T cells. An NLR protein, class II transactivator (CIITA), is a key regulator of MHC class II gene expression that associates and cooperates with transcription factors in the MHC class II promoter. Although CIITA also transactivates MHC class I gene promoters, loss of CIITA in humans and mice results in the severe reduction of only MHC class II expression, suggesting that additional mechanisms regulate the expression of MHC class I. Here, we identify another member of the NLR protein family, NLRC5, as a transcriptional regulator of MHC class I genes. Similar to CIITA, NLRC5 is an IFN-?–inducible nuclear protein, and the expression of NLRC5 resulted in enhanced MHC class I expression in lymphoid as well as epithelial cell lines. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter gene assays, we show that NLRC5 associates with and activates the promoters of MHC class I genes. Furthermore, we show that the IFN-?–induced up-regulation of MHC class I requires NLRC5, because knockdown of NLRC5 specifically impaired the expression of MHC class I. In addition to MHC class I genes, NLRC5 also induced the expression of ?2-microglobulin, transporter associated with antigen processing, and large multifunctional protease, which are essential for MHC class I antigen presentation. Our results suggest that NLRC5 is a transcriptional regulator, orchestrating the concerted expression of critical components in the MHC class I pathway. PMID:20639463

Meissner, Torsten B.; Li, Amy; Biswas, Amlan; Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Liu, Yuen-Joyce; Bayir, Erkan; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; van den Elsen, Peter J.; Kobayashi, Koichi S.

2010-01-01

342

Genetic Structure and Distribution of the Colibactin Genomic Island among Members of the Family Enterobacteriaceae? †  

PubMed Central

A genomic island encoding the biosynthesis and secretion pathway of putative hybrid nonribosomal peptide-polyketide colibactin has been recently described in Escherichia coli. Colibactin acts as a cyclomodulin and blocks the eukaryotic cell cycle. The origin and prevalence of the colibactin island among enterobacteria are unknown. We therefore screened 1,565 isolates of different genera and species related to the Enterobacteriaceae by PCR for the presence of this DNA element. The island was detected not only in E. coli but also in Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Citrobacter koseri isolates. It was highly conserved among these species and was always associated with the yersiniabactin determinant. Structural variations between individual strains were only observed in an intergenic region containing variable numbers of tandem repeats. In E. coli, the colibactin island was usually restricted to isolates of phylogenetic group B2 and inserted at the asnW tRNA locus. Interestingly, in K. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes, C. koseri, and three E. coli strains of phylogenetic group B1, the functional colibactin determinant was associated with a genetic element similar to the integrative and conjugative elements ICEEc1 and ICEKp1 and to several enterobacterial plasmids. Different asn tRNA genes served as chromosomal insertion sites of the ICE-associated colibactin determinant: asnU in the three E. coli strains of ECOR group B1, and different asn tRNA loci in K. pneumoniae. The detection of the colibactin genes associated with an ICE-like element in several enterobacteria provides new insights into the spread of this gene cluster and its putative mode of transfer. Our results shed light on the mechanisms of genetic exchange between members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:19720753

Putze, Johannes; Hennequin, Claire; Nougayrede, Jean-Philippe; Zhang, Wenlan; Homburg, Stefan; Karch, Helge; Bringer, Marie-Agnes; Fayolle, Corinne; Carniel, Elisabeth; Rabsch, Wolfgang; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A.; Oswald, Eric; Forestier, Christiane; Hacker, Jorg; Dobrindt, Ulrich

2009-01-01

343

Spider Glue Proteins Have Distinct Architectures Compared with Traditional Spidroin Family Members*  

PubMed Central

Adhesive spider glues are required to perform a variety of tasks, including web construction, prey capture, and locomotion. To date, little is known regarding the molecular and structural features of spider glue proteins, in particular bioadhesives that interconnect dragline or scaffolding silks during three-dimensional web construction. Here we use biochemical and structural approaches to identify and characterize two aggregate gland specific gene products, AgSF1 and AgSF2, and demonstrate that these proteins co-localize to the connection joints of both webs and wrapping silks spun from the black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus. Protein architectures are markedly divergent between AgSF1 and AgSF2, as well as traditional spider silk fibroin family members, suggesting connection joints consist of a complex proteinaceous network. AgSF2 represents a nonglycosylated 40-kDa protein that has novel internal amino acid block repeats with the consensus sequence NVNVN embedded in a glycine-rich matrix. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of AgSF1 reveals pentameric QPGSG iterations that are similar to conserved modular elements within mammalian elastin, a rubber-like elastomeric protein that interfaces with collagen. Wet-spinning methodology using purified recombinant proteins show AgSF1 has the potential to self-assemble into fibers. X-ray fiber diffraction studies performed on these synthetic fibers reveal the presence of noncrystalline domains that resemble classical rubber networks. Collectively, these data support that the aggregate gland serves to extrude a protein mixture that contains substances that allow for the self-assembly of fiber-like structures that interface with dragline silks to mediate prey capture. PMID:22927444

Vasanthavada, Keshav; Hu, Xiaoyi; Tuton-Blasingame, Tiffany; Hsia, Yang; Sampath, Sujatha; Pacheco, Ryan; Freeark, Jordan; Falick, Arnold M.; Tang, Simon; Fong, Justine; Kohler, Kristin; La Mattina-Hawkins, Coby; Vierra, Craig

2012-01-01

344

Hemoglobin Q-Iran detected in family members from Northern Iran: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hemoglobin Q-Iran (?75Asp?His) is an important member of the hemoglobin Q family, molecularly characterized by the replacement of aspartic acid by histidine. The first report of hemoglobin Q-Iran and the nomenclature of this hemoglobinopathy dates back to 1970. Iran is known as a country with a high prevalence of ?- and ?-thalassemia and different types of hemoglobinopathy. Many of these variants are yet to be identified as the practice of molecular laboratory techniques is limited in this part of the world. Applying such molecular methods, we report the first hemoglobin Q-Iran cases in Northern Iran. Case presentation An unusual band was detected in an isoelectric focusing test and cellulose acetate electrophoresis of a sample from a 22-year-old Iranian man from Mazandaran Province. Capillary zone electrophoresis analysis identified this band as hemoglobin Q. A similar band was also detected in his mother's electrophoresis (38 years, Iranian ethnicity). The cases underwent molecular investigation and the presence of a hemoglobin Q-Iran mutation was confirmed by the amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction method. Direct conventional sequencing revealed a single guanine to cytosine missense mutation (c.226G > C; GAC >CAC) at codon 75 in the ?-globin gene in both cases. Conclusion The wide spectrum and high frequency of nondeletional ?-globin mutations in Mazandaran Province is remarkable and seem to differ considerably from what has been found in Mediterranean populations. This short communication reports the first cases of patients with hemoglobin Q found in that region. PMID:22309992

2012-01-01

345

Role of nutrient-sensing taste 1 receptor (T1R) family members in gastrointestinal chemosensing.  

PubMed

Luminal nutrient sensing by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) expressed on the apical domain of enteroendocrine cells activates intracellular pathways leading to secretion of gut hormones that control vital physiological processes such as digestion, absorption, food intake and glucose homeostasis. The taste 1 receptor (T1R) family of GPCR consists of three members: T1R1; T1R2; T1R3. Expression of T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3 at mRNA and protein levels has been demonstrated in the intestinal tissue of various species. It has been shown that T1R2-T1R3, in association with G-protein gustducin, is expressed in intestinal K and L endocrine cells, where it acts as the intestinal glucose (sweet) sensor. A number of studies have demonstrated that activation of T1R2-T1R3 by natural sugars and artificial sweeteners leads to secretion of glucagon-like peptides 1&2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2) and glucose dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). GLP-1 and GIP enhance insulin secretion; GLP-2 increases intestinal growth and glucose absorption. T1R1-T1R3 combination co-expressed on the apical domain of cholecystokinin (CCK) expressing cells is a luminal sensor for a number of L-amino acids; with amino acid-activation of the receptor eliciting CCK secretion. This article focuses on the role of the gut-expressed T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3 in intestinal sweet and L-amino acid sensing. The impact of exploiting T1R2-T1R3 as a nutritional target for enhancing intestinal glucose absorption and gut structural maturity in young animals is also highlighted. PMID:24382171

Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P; Daly, Kristian; Al-Rammahi, Miran; Moran, Andrew W; Bravo, David

2014-06-01

346

Evolution of the Bovine TLR Gene Family and Member Associations with Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Infection  

PubMed Central

Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) gene family occupy key roles in the mammalian innate immune system by functioning as sentries for the detection of invading pathogens, thereafter provoking host innate immune responses. We utilized a custom next-generation sequencing approach and allele-specific genotyping assays to detect and validate 280 biallelic variants across all 10 bovine TLR genes, including 71 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one putative nonsense SNP. Bayesian haplotype reconstructions and median joining networks revealed haplotype sharing between Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus breeds at every locus, and specialized beef and dairy breeds could not be differentiated despite an average polymorphism density of 1 marker/158 bp. Collectively, 160 tagSNPs and two tag insertion-deletion mutations (indels) were sufficient to predict 100% of the variation at 280 variable sites for both Bos subspecies and their hybrids, whereas 118 tagSNPs and 1 tagIndel predictively captured 100% of the variation at 235 variable sites for B. t. taurus. Polyphen and SIFT analyses of amino acid (AA) replacements encoded by bovine TLR SNPs indicated that up to 32% of the AA substitutions were expected to impact protein function. Classical and newly developed tests of diversity provide strong support for balancing selection operating on TLR3 and TLR8, and purifying selection acting on TLR10. An investigation of the persistence and continuity of linkage disequilibrium (r2?0.50) between adjacent variable sites also supported the presence of selection acting on TLR3 and TLR8. A case-control study employing validated variants from bovine TLR genes recognizing bacterial ligands revealed six SNPs potentially eliciting small effects on susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium spp paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle. The results of this study will broadly impact domestic cattle research by providing the necessary foundation to explore several avenues of bovine translational genomics, and the potential for marker-assisted vaccination. PMID:22164200

Fisher, Colleen A.; Bhattarai, Eric K.; Osterstock, Jason B.; Dowd, Scot E.; Seabury, Paul M.; Vikram, Meenu; Whitlock, Robert H.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Womack, James E.; Seabury, Christopher M.

2011-01-01

347

Evolution of the bovine TLR gene family and member associations with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection.  

PubMed

Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) gene family occupy key roles in the mammalian innate immune system by functioning as sentries for the detection of invading pathogens, thereafter provoking host innate immune responses. We utilized a custom next-generation sequencing approach and allele-specific genotyping assays to detect and validate 280 biallelic variants across all 10 bovine TLR genes, including 71 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one putative nonsense SNP. Bayesian haplotype reconstructions and median joining networks revealed haplotype sharing between Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus breeds at every locus, and specialized beef and dairy breeds could not be differentiated despite an average polymorphism density of 1 marker/158 bp. Collectively, 160 tagSNPs and two tag insertion-deletion mutations (indels) were sufficient to predict 100% of the variation at 280 variable sites for both Bos subspecies and their hybrids, whereas 118 tagSNPs and 1 tagIndel predictively captured 100% of the variation at 235 variable sites for B. t. taurus. Polyphen and SIFT analyses of amino acid (AA) replacements encoded by bovine TLR SNPs indicated that up to 32% of the AA substitutions were expected to impact protein function. Classical and newly developed tests of diversity provide strong support for balancing selection operating on TLR3 and TLR8, and purifying selection acting on TLR10. An investigation of the persistence and continuity of linkage disequilibrium (r2?0.50) between adjacent variable sites also supported the presence of selection acting on TLR3 and TLR8. A case-control study employing validated variants from bovine TLR genes recognizing bacterial ligands revealed six SNPs potentially eliciting small effects on susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium spp paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle. The results of this study will broadly impact domestic cattle research by providing the necessary foundation to explore several avenues of bovine translational genomics, and the potential for marker-assisted vaccination. PMID:22164200

Fisher, Colleen A; Bhattarai, Eric K; Osterstock, Jason B; Dowd, Scot E; Seabury, Paul M; Vikram, Meenu; Whitlock, Robert H; Schukken, Ynte H; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Womack, James E; Seabury, Christopher M

2011-01-01

348

In[IO3](OH)2 - New member of hydrous and anhydrous iodate family with indium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new indium iodate hydrate In[IO3](OH)2 was synthesized by the hydrothermal methods. Single crystal X-ray diffraction revealed centrosymmetric Pnma space group. [IO3]-groups have typical umbrella-like configuration: iodine atom and three oxygens with I-O distances ?1.8 Å. In-octahedra have 4 equatorial OH-groups and 2 apical O-atoms of 2 [IO3]-groups and are connected into the layers via OH-groups. It is found that indium iodate family without any other metals is a regular row of compounds: anhydrous In[IO3]3, one hydrated In[IO3]2(OH)·H2O, new two hydrated In[IO3](OH)2 and “end member” represented by three hydrated hydroxide In(OH)3. Chemical relations are parallel to the structural: In-octahedral framework in In-hydroxide, In-octahedral layer as a fragment of the framework, In-octahedral chain as a fragment of the layer, isolated In-octahedra as a fragment of the chain with no In-octahedral condensation via vertices but only via [IO3]-groups in anhydrous In-iodate. If alkali metals are introduced in anhydrous In-iodates, their influence is different. Large metals as K, Rb, Cs hinder condensation of {In[IO3]6}3- blocks which are isolated in the structures whereas smaller Li, Na metals allows condensation up to bands {In[IO3]4}1-?. Octahedral chains selected in hydrated In-iodates are similar to chains in nonlinear optical compound TiO[IO3]2. The reasons of polarity or non-polarity and possible elements substitutions promising for properties are discussed.

Belokoneva, E. L.; Dimitrova, O. V.; Volkov, A. S.

2014-08-01

349

Microarray identifies ADAM family members as key responders to TGF-?1 in alveolar epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanisms of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) remain elusive. Transforming Growth Factor beta 1(TGF-?1) is a key effector cytokine in the development of lung fibrosis. We used microarray and computational biology strategies to identify genes whose expression is significantly altered in alveolar epithelial cells (A549) in response to TGF-?1, IL-4 and IL-13 and Epstein Barr virus. A549 cells were exposed to 10 ng/ml TGF-?1, IL-4 and IL-13 at serial time points. Total RNA was used for hybridisation to Affymetrix Human Genome U133A microarrays. Each in vitro time-point was studied in duplicate and an average RMA value computed. Expression data for each time point was compared to control and a signal log ratio of 0.6 or greater taken to identify significant differential regulation. Using normalised RMA values and unsupervised Average Linkage Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, a list of 312 extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins or modulators of matrix turnover was curated via Onto-Compare and Gene-Ontology (GO) databases for baited cluster analysis of ECM associated genes. Interrogation of the dataset using ontological classification focused cluster analysis revealed coordinate differential expression of a large cohort of extracellular matrix associated genes. Of this grouping members of the ADAM (A disintegrin and Metalloproteinase domain containing) family of genes were differentially expressed. ADAM gene expression was also identified in EBV infected A549 cells as well as IL-13 and IL-4 stimulated cells. We probed pathologenomic activities (activation and functional activity) of ADAM19 and ADAMTS9 using siRNA and collagen assays. Knockdown of these genes resulted in diminished production of collagen in A549 cells exposed to TGF-?1, suggesting a potential role for these molecules in ECM accumulation in IPF. PMID:16948840

Keating, Dominic T; Sadlier, Denise M; Patricelli, Andrea; Smith, Sinead M; Walls, Dermot; Egan, Jim J; Doran, Peter P

2006-01-01

350

Multiple Heme Oxygenase Family Members Contribute to the Biosynthesis of the Phytochrome Chromophore in Arabidopsis1  

PubMed Central

The oxidative cleavage of heme by heme oxygenases (HOs) to form biliverdin IX? (BV) is the committed step in the biosynthesis of the phytochrome (phy) chromophore and thus essential for proper photomorphogenesis in plants. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains four possible HO genes (HY1, HO2–4). Genetic analysis of the HY1 locus showed previously that it is the major source of BV with hy1 mutant plants displaying long hypocotyls and decreased chlorophyll accumulation consistent with a substantial deficiency in photochemically active phys. More recent analysis of HO2 suggested that it also plays a role in phy assembly and photomorphogenesis but the ho2 mutant phenotype is more subtle than that of hy1 mutants. Here, we define the functions of HO3 and HO4 in Arabidopsis. Like HY1, the HO3 and HO4 proteins have the capacity to synthesize BV from heme. Through a phenotypic analysis of T-DNA insertion mutants affecting HO3 and HO4 in combination with mutants affecting HY1 or HO2, we demonstrate that both of the encoded proteins also have roles in photomorphogenesis, especially in the absence of HY1. Disruption of HO3 and HO4 in the hy1 background further desensitizes seedlings to red and far-red light and accelerates flowering time, with the triple mutant strongly resembling seedlings deficient in the synthesis of multiple phy apoproteins. The hy1/ho3/ho4 mutant can be rescued phenotypically and for the accumulation of holo-phy by feeding seedlings BV. Taken together, we conclude that multiple members of the Arabidopsis HO family are important for synthesizing the bilin chromophore used to assemble photochemically active phys. PMID:16428602

Emborg, Thomas J.; Walker, Joseph M.; Noh, Bosl; Vierstra, Richard D.

2006-01-01

351

Geothermomicrobium terrae gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Thermoactinomycetaceae.  

PubMed

Strains YIM 77562(T) and YIM 77580, two novel Gram-staining-positive, filamentous bacterial isolates, were recovered from the Rehai geothermal field, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. Good growth was observed at 50-55 °C and pH 7.0. Aerial mycelium was absent on all media tested. Substrate mycelium was well-developed, long and moderately flexuous, and formed abundant, single, warty, ornamented endospores. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains indicated that they belong to the family Thermoactinomycetaceae. Similarity levels between the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains and those of type strains of members of the Thermoactinomycetaceae were 88.33-93.24?%; the highest sequence similarity was with Hazenella coriacea DSM 45707(T). In both strains, the predominant menaquinone was MK-7, the diagnostic diamino acid was meso-diaminopimelic acid and the major cellular fatty acids were iso-C14?:?0, iso-C15?:?0 and iso-C16?:?0. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, unidentified polar lipids and unidentified phospholipids. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 77562(T) and YIM 77580 were 45.5 and 44.2 mol%, respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness data suggest that the two isolates represent a single species. Based on phylogenetic analyses and physiological and biochemical characteristics, it is proposed that the two strains represent a single novel species in a new genus, Geothermomicrobium terrae gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Geothermomicrobium terrae is YIM 77562(T) (?=?CCTCC AA 2011022(T)?=?JCM 18057(T)). PMID:24907264

Zhou, En-Min; Yu, Tian-Tian; Liu, Lan; Ming, Hong; Yin, Yi-Rui; Dong, Lei; Tseng, Min; Nie, Guo-Xing; Li, Wen-Jun

2014-09-01

352

Endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI): a new member of the Serpin gene family.  

PubMed Central

A human endothelial cDNA expression library, based on the Escherichia coli plasmid pUC9, was screened with a heterologous antibody raised against purified bovine aortic endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI). A synthetic oligonucleotide, derived from a partial PAI cDNA expression clone, was used to select a full-length PAI cDNA, the size of which coincides with the length of PAI mRNA (approximately 2350 nucleotides) as determined by Northern blot analysis. The authenticity of full-length PAI cDNA is demonstrated by the expression of biologically active PAI both in lysates of transformed E. coli cells and in conditioned media of mouse Ltk- cells, transfected with PAI cDNA inserted into vector pSV2. Analysis of the de novo synthesized anti-plasminogen activator activity, employing reverse fibrin autography, shows that transfected mouse Ltk- cells synthesize a polypeptide with a mol. wt identical to that of the native PAI glycoprotein (Mr 52,000), whereas in E. coli an unglycosylated, active product with a mol. wt of 43,000 is made. The amino acid sequence, derived from the determined nucleotide sequence, shows that pre-PAI consists of 402 amino acids. It is proposed that the mature PAI is preceded by a signal peptide of 23 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence of mature PAI includes three potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites and lacks cysteine residues. The predicted amino acid sequence reveals significant homology with members of the serine protease inhibitor (Serpin) family, e.g. alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and antithrombin III.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:2430793

Pannekoek, H; Veerman, H; Lambers, H; Diergaarde, P; Verweij, C L; van Zonneveld, A J; van Mourik, J A

1986-01-01

353

LRAD3, a Novel LDL Receptor Family Member that Modulates Amyloid Precursor Protein Trafficking  

PubMed Central

We have identified a novel LDL receptor family member, termed LDL receptor class A domain containing 3 (LRAD3), which is expressed in neurons. The LRAD3 gene encodes an approximately 50 kDa type I transmembrane receptor with an ectodomain containing three LDLa repeats, a transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic domain containing a conserved dileucine internalization motif and two polyproline motifs with potential to interact with WW domain containing proteins. Immunohistochemical analysis of mouse brain reveals LRAD3 expression in the cortex and hippocampus. In the mouse hippocampal derived cell line, HT22, LRAD3 partially co-localizes with amyloid precursor protein (APP), and interacts with APP as revealed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. To identify the portion of APP that interacts with LRAD3, we employed solid phase binding assays which demonstrated that LRAD3 failed to bind to a soluble APP fragment (sAPP?) released following ?-secretase cleavage. In contrast, C99, the ?-secretase product that remains cell associated, co-precipitated with LRAD3, confirming that regions within this portion of APP are important for associating with LRAD3. The association of LRAD3 with APP increases the amyloidogenic pathway of APP processing, resulting in a decrease in sAPP? production and increased A? peptide production. Pulse-chase experiments confirm that LRAD3 expression significantly decreases the cellular half-live of mature APP. These results reveal that LRAD3 influences APP processing and raises the possibility that LRAD3 alters APP function in neurons including its downstream signaling. PMID:21795536

Ranganathan, Sripriya; Noyes, Nathaniel C.; Migliorini, Mary; Winkles, Jeffrey A.; Battey, Frances D.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Smith, Elizabeth; Yepes, Manuel; Mikhailenko, Irina; Strickland, Dudley K.

2011-01-01

354

Building on the Hopes and Dreams of Latino Families with Young Children: Findings from Family Member Focus Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past, Latino families were often regarded as being uninvolved in their child's education, particularly within the parent involvement literature. More recently, authors are encouraging educational professionals to look at a family's "funds of knowledge" to encourage their involvement. This expression takes into account the knowledge a…

Gregg, Katy; Rugg, Mary; Stoneman, Zolinda

2012-01-01

355

Use of Augmentative and Assistive Communication Strategies by Family Members in the ICU  

PubMed Central

Background Very little is known about patient-family communication during critical illness and mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit (ICU), including the use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) tools and strategies during patient-family communication. Objectives The study objectives were to identify (1) which AAC tools families use with nonspeaking ICU patients and how they are used, and (2) what families and nurses say about patient-family communication with nonspeaking patients in the ICU. Methods A qualitative secondary analysis was conducted of existing data from a clinical trial testing interventions to improve nurse-patient communication in the ICU. Narrative study data (field notes, intervention logs, nurse interviews) from 127 critically ill adults were reviewed for evidence of family involvement with AAC tools. Qualitative content analysis was applied for thematic description of family and nurse accounts of patient-family communication. Results Family involvement with AAC tools was evident in 44% (n= 41/93) of the patients completing the parent study protocol. Spouses/significant others communicated with patients most often. Writing was the most frequently used tool. Main themes describing patient-family communication included: (1) Families as unprepared and unaware; (2) Family perceptions of communication effectiveness; (3) Nurses deferring to or guiding patient-family communication; (4) Patient communication characteristics; and (5) Family experience and interest with AAC tools. Conclusions Families are typically unprepared for the communication challenges of critical illness, and often “on their own” in confronting them. Assessment by skilled bedside clinicians can reveal patient communication potential and facilitate useful AAC tools and strategies for patients and families. PMID:22381993

Broyles, Lauren M.; Tate, Judith A.; Happ, Mary Beth

2013-01-01

356

Service and Support Needs of Australian Carers Supporting a Family Member with Disability at Home  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: As part of an international, multicentre project, the service and support needs of Australian family carers were investigated. Method: A sample of 1,390, 448 family carers completed a self-report survey, including an adaptation of the Family Needs Survey (FNS) and several open-ended questions. A mixed method design was used, employing…

Burton-Smith, Rosanne; McVilly, Keith R.; Yazbeck, Marie; Parmenter, Trevor R.; Tsutsui, Takako

2009-01-01

357

Low Serum Alpha-1 Antitrypsin (AAT) in Family Members of Individuals with Autism Correlates with PiMZ Genotype  

PubMed Central

Aim Deficiency of Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) can be a genetic condition that increases the risk of developing liver, lung and possibly gastrointestinal disease. Since many autistic children also have gastrointestinal disorders, this study was designed to measure serum concentration of AAT and establish AAT genotypes in autistic children, age and gender matched non-autistic siblings, parents and controls. Subjects and Methods We used an indirect ELISA with monoclonal IgG to AAT to measure AAT serum concentrations in 71 members from 16 families of individuals with autism and 18 controls (no family history of autism). We used a duplex polymerase chain reaction to detect M, S and Z alleles for alpha-1 antitrypsin expression in 52 members of 12 of the above families. Results A significantly high number of autistic family members had lower than normal serum levels of AAT when compared to controls. Autistic children with regressive onset had significantly lower levels of AAT compared to controls, and a significant number of autistic children with low serum AAT also had hyperbilirubinemia, gastrointestinal disease and respiratory problems. We also found that a significantly high number of these individuals had the PiMZ genotype and correspondingly low levels of serum alpha-1 antitrypsin. Discussion Knowing that low levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin may be inherited, and that low levels of AAT may be associated with GI disease in autistic children, genotyping autistic children may help identify individuals susceptible to developing digestive problems. PMID:19652762

Russo, Anthony J.; Neville, Lauren; Wroge, Christine

2009-01-01

358

Novel Interactions of the TRTK12 Peptide with S100 Protein Family Members: Specificity and Thermodynamic Characterization  

PubMed Central

The S100 protein family consists of small, dimeric proteins that exert their biological functions in response to changing calcium concentrations. S100B is the best studied member and has been shown to interact with over 20 binding partners in a calcium-dependent manner. The TRTK12 peptide, derived from the consensus binding sequence for S100B, has previously been found to interact with S100A1 and has been proposed to be a general binding partner of the S100 family. To test this hypothesis and gain a better understanding of the specificity of binding for the S100 proteins sixteen members of the human S100 family were screened against this peptide and its alanine variants. Novel interactions were only found with two family members: S100P and S100A2, indicating that TRTK12 selectively interacts with a small subset of the S100 proteins. Substantial promiscuity was observed in the binding site of S100B to accommodate variations in the peptide sequence, while S100A1, S100A2, and S100P exhibited larger differences in the binding constants for the TRTK12 alanine variants. This suggests that single-point substitutions can be used to selectively modulate the affinity of TRTK12 peptides for individual S100 proteins. This study has important implications for the rational drug design of inhibitors for the S100 proteins, which are involved in a variety of cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23899389

Wafer, Lucas N.; Tzul, Franco O.; Pandharipande, Pranav P.; Makhatadze, George I.

2013-01-01

359

A novel member of the family Hepeviridae from cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beginning in 1988, the Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cell line was used to isolate a novel virus from spawning adult trout in the state of California, USA. Termed the cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) virus (CTV), the small, round virus was not associated with disease, but was subsequently found to be present in an increasing number of trout populations in the western USA, likely by a combination of improved surveillance activities and the shipment of infected eggs to new locations. Here, we report that the full length genome of the 1988 Heenan Lake isolate of CTV consisted of 7269 nucleotides of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA beginning with a 5' untranslated region (UTR), followed by three open reading frames (ORFs), a 3' UTR and ending in a polyA tail. The genome of CTV was similar in size and organization to that of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) with which it shared the highest nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities. Similar to the genomes of human, rodent or avian hepeviruses, ORF 1 encoded a large, non-structural polyprotein that included conserved methyltransferase, protease, helicase and polymerase domains, while ORF 2 encoded the structural capsid protein and ORF 3 the phosphoprotein. Together, our data indicated that CTV was clearly a member of the family Hepeviridae, although the level of amino acid sequence identity with the ORFs of mammalian or avian hepeviruses (13-27%) may be sufficiently low to warrant the creation of a novel genus. We also performed a phylogenetic analysis using a 262. nt region within ORF 1 for 63 isolates of CTV obtained from seven species of trout reared in various geographic locations in the western USA. While the sequences fell into two genetic clades, the overall nucleotide diversity was low (less than 8.4%) and many isolates differed by only 1-2 nucleotides, suggesting an epidemiological link. Finally, we showed that CTV was able to form persistently infected cultures of the CHSE-214 cell line that may have use in research on the biology or treatment of hepevirus infections of humans or other animals.

Batts, William; Yun, Susan; Hedrick, Ronald; Winton, James

2011-01-01

360

Three new members of the serine-aspartate repeat protein multigene family of Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

Three new genes encoding the serine-aspartate (SD) repeat-containing proteins SdrC, SdrD and SdrE were found in Staphylococcus aureus strain Newman. The SD repeats had earlier been found in the S. aureus fibrinogen-binding clumping factors ClfA and ClfB. The clfA and clfB genes encode high-molecular-mass fibrinogen-binding proteins that are anchored to the cell surface of S. aureus. The sdr genes now reported are closely linked and tandemly arrayed. The putative Sdr proteins have both organizational and sequence similarity to ClfA and ClfB. At the N-terminus, putative secretory signal sequences precede approximately 500 residue A regions. The A regions of the Sdr and Clf proteins exhibit only 20-30% residue identity when aligned with any other member of the family. The only conserved sequence is the consensus motif TYTFTDYVD. The Sdr proteins differ from ClfA and ClfB by having two to five additional 110-113 residue repeated sequences (B-motifs) located between region A and the R-region. Each B-motif contains a consensus Ca2+-binding EF-hand loop normally found in eukaryotic proteins. The structural integrity of recombinant SdrD(B1-B5) protein comprising the five B-repeats of SdrD was shown by bisANS fluorescence analysis to be Ca2+-dependent, suggesting that the EF-hands are functional. When Ca2+ was removed the structure collapsed to an unfolded conformation. The original structure was restored by addition of Ca2+. The C-terminal R-domains of the Sdr proteins contain 132-170 SD residues. These are followed by conserved wall-anchoring regions characteristic of many surface proteins of Gram-positive bacteria. The sdr locus was present in all 31 S. aureus strains from human and bovine sources tested by Southern hybridization, although in a few strains it contained two rather than three genes. PMID:9884231

Josefsson, E; McCrea, K W; Ní Eidhin, D; O'Connell, D; Cox, J; Höök, M; Foster, T J

1998-12-01

361

Who knows, who cares? Dementia knowledge among nurses, care workers, and family members of people living with dementia.  

PubMed

The number of people with dementia is increasing rapidly worldwide. Commensurate with population ageing, the use of nursing homes in Australia (known as residential aged care facilities) for individuals with dementia is growing. As a terminal condition, dementia is best managed by instituting a palliative approach to care. A good knowledge of dementia, including its progression and management, among staff and families of people living with dementia is essential for clear decision making and the provision of appropriate care. Yet there is limited information regarding relative levels of dementia knowledge. This paper reports the results of a study that assessed dementia knowledge among these two cohorts using the Dementia Knowledge Assessment Tool; the study surveyed 279 staff members and 164 family members of residents with dementia. Dementia knowledge deficits were evident in both cohorts across a range of areas. It is critical that dementia knowledge deficits are identified and addressed in order to support evidence-based dementia care. PMID:25265739

Robinson, Andrew; Eccleston, Claire; Annear, Michael; Elliott, Kate-Ellen; Andrews, Sharon; Stirling, Christine; Ashby, Michael; Donohue, Catherine; Banks, Susan; Toye, Christine; McInerney, Fran

2014-01-01

362

Fold recognition analysis of glycosyltransferase families: further members of structural superfamilies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycosyltransferases (GTs) are diverse enzymes organized into 65 families. X-ray crystallography and in silico studies have shown many of these to belong to two structural super- families: GT-A and GT-B. Through application of fold recog- nition and iterated sequence searches, we demonstrate that families 60, 62, and 64 may also be grouped into the GT-A fold superfamily. Analysis of conserved

O. L. Franco; Daniel J. Rigden

2003-01-01

363

The ?m Protein, a Member of the X,K-ATPase ?-Subunits Family, Is Located Intracellularly in Pig Skeletal Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequence of the pig cDNA encoding the muscle-specific ?m-protein, a member of the X,K-ATPase ?-subunits family, was determined. Two alternatively spliced transcripts encoding polypeptide chains of 355 and 351 residues were identified. The tissue specificity of expression of ?m and other X,K-ATPase ?-subunit genes was studied by RT-PCR performed on 24 tissues from newborn pigs. The ?m expression was

Nikolay B. Pestov; Tatyana V. Korneenko; Hao Zhao; Gail Adams; Maria B. Kostina; Mikhail I. Shakhparonov; Nikolai N. Modyanov

2001-01-01

364

Expression analysis of Arabidopsis XH/XS-domain proteins indicates overlapping and distinct functions for members of this gene family.  

PubMed

RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is essential for de novo DNA methylation in higher plants, and recent reports established novel elements of this silencing pathway in the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. Involved in de novo DNA methylation 2 (IDN2) and the closely related factor of DNA methylation (FDM) are members of a plant-specific family of dsRNA-binding proteins characterized by conserved XH/XS domains and implicated in the regulation of RdDM at chromatin targets. Genetic analyses have suggested redundant as well as non-overlapping activities for different members of the gene family. However, detailed insights into the function of XH/XS-domain proteins are still elusive. By the generation and analysis of higher-order mutant combinations affected in IDN2 and further members of the gene family, we have provided additional evidence for their redundant activity. Distinct roles for members of the XH/XS-domain gene family were indicated by differences in their expression and subcellular localization. Fluorescent protein-tagged FDM genes were expressed either in nuclei or in the cytoplasm, suggestive of activities of XH/XS-domain proteins in association with chromatin as well as outside the nuclear compartment. In addition, we observed altered location of a functional FDM1-VENUS reporter from the nucleus into the cytoplasm under conditions when availability of further FDM proteins was limited. This is suggestive of a mechanism by which redistribution of XH/XS-domain proteins could compensate for the loss of closely related proteins. PMID:24574485

Butt, Haroon; Graner, Sonja; Luschnig, Christian

2014-03-01

365

A yeast GTPase-activating protein that interacts specifically with a member of the Ypt\\/Rab family  

Microsoft Academic Search

MEMBERS of the Ras superfamily of GTP-binding proteins are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including signal transduction, cytoskeletal organization and protein transport1,2. GTP-binding proteins of the Ypt\\/Rab family direct vesicular protein transport in the secretory and endocytic pathways in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Ypt proteins) and in mammalian systems (Rab proteins)3,4. The cellular activity of monomeric GTP-binding proteins

Molly Strom; Petra Vollmer; Tjie J. Tan; Dieter Gallwitz

1993-01-01

366

ST2, an IL1R family member, attenuates inflammation and lethality after intestinal ischemia and reperfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ischemia reperfusion injury is charac- terized by local and systemic inflammation leading to considerable mortality. Previously, we have re- ported that soluble T1\\/ST2 (sST2), a member of the IL-1 receptor gene family, inhibits LPS-in- duced macrophage proinflammatory cytokine pro- duction. Here, we report the therapeutic effect of sST2-Fc in a murine model of intestinal ischemia reperfusion-induced injury. Administration of sST2-Fc

Caio T. Fagundes; Flavio A. Amaral; Adriano L. S. Souza; Angelica T. Vieira; Damo Xu; Foo Y. Liew; Danielle G. Souza; Mauro M. Teixeira

2007-01-01

367

Members of a unique histidine acid phosphatase family are conserved amongst a group of primitive eukaryotic human pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, we identified and characterized the genes encoding several distinct members of the histidine-acid phosphatase enzyme family from Leishmania donovani, a primitive protozoan pathogen of humans. These included genes encoding the heavily phosphorylated\\/glycosylated, tartrate-sensitive, secretory acid phosphatases (Ld SAcP-1 and Ld SAcP-2) and the unique, tartrate-resistant, externally-oriented, surface membrane-bound acid phosphatase (Ld MAcP) of this parasite. It had been previously

Alison M. Shakarian; Manju B. Joshi; Mat Yamage; Stephanie L. Ellis; Alain Debrabant; Dennis M. Dwyer

2003-01-01

368

RAD50, an SMC family member with multiple roles in DNA break repair: how does ATP affect function?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protein complex including Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1 (MRN) functions in DNA double-strand break repair to recognize and process\\u000a DNA ends as well as signal for cell cycle arrest. Amino acid sequence similarity and overall architecture make Rad50 a member\\u000a of the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein family. Like SMC proteins, Rad50 function depends on ATP binding\\u000a and hydrolysis.

Eri Kinoshita; Eddy van der Linden; Humberto Sanchez; Claire Wyman

2009-01-01

369

A novel frameshift mutation in BLM gene associated with high sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in heterozygous family members.  

PubMed

The Bloom syndrome (BS) is an autosomic recessive disorder comprising a wide range of abnormalities, including stunted growth, immunodeficiency, sun sensitivity and increased frequency of various types of cancer. Bloom syndrome cells display a high level of genetic instability, including a 10-fold increase in the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) level. Bloom syndrome arises through mutations in both alleles of the BLM gene, which was identified as a member of the RecQ helicase family. In this study, we screened a Tunisian family with three BS patients. Cytogenetic analysis showed several chromosomal aberrations, and an approximately 14-fold elevated SCE frequency in BS cells. A significant increase in SCE frequency was observed in some family members but not reaching the BS patients values, leading to suggest that this could be due to the heterozygous profile. Microsatellite genotyping using four fluorescent dye-labeled microsatellite markers revealed evidence of linkage to BLM locus and the healthy members, sharing higher SCE frequency, showed heterozygous haplotypes as expected. Additionally, the direct BLM gene sequencing identified a novel homozygous frameshift mutation c.3617-3619delAA (p.K1207fsX9) in BS patients and a heterozygous BLM mutation in the family members with higher SCE frequency. Our findings suggest that this latter mutation likely leads to a reduced BLM activity explaining the homologous recombination repair defect and, therefore, the increase in SCE. Based on the present data, the screening of this mutation could contribute to the rapid diagnosis of BS. The genetic confirmation of the mutation in BLM gene provides crucial information for genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:25129257

Ben Salah, Ghada; Hadj Salem, Ikhlas; Masmoudi, Abderrahmen; Kallabi, Fakhri; Turki, Hamida; Fakhfakh, Faiza; Ayadi, Hamadi; Kamoun, Hassen

2014-11-01

370

Use of family member-based supervision in the management of patients with hypertension in rural China  

PubMed Central

Medication nonadherence is a major problem in the management of hypertension. The aim of this study was to develop a family member-based supportive therapy for patients with hypertension to provide an affordable way to access essential health services and to ensure adequate control of blood pressure. This study applied a mixed methods approach using qualitative and quantitative study designs in Yangzhong County, a rural area in the People’s Republic of China. Findings from indepth interviews demonstrated that the limited effects of traditional health education, a lack of professional advice regarding antihypertensive treatment, and age were related to a patient’s adherence with regular blood pressure measurement and taking medication. We also performed a quantitative study, selecting two villages in Yangzhong County as study sites. A total of 188 patients with hypertension were invited to participate in a 6-month family member-based intervention trial. The primary outcomes were the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention strategy. Secondary outcomes included medication adherence and changes in blood pressure. More than 75% of patients expressed a wish for external reminders, and 93.5% responded that they would accept the family member-based supervision. The patients preferred their spouse or a child as the supervisor. After the 6-month intervention, the proportion of patients with uncontrolled blood pressure decreased from 87.2% to 45.7%. This pilot study shows that external supervision by family members is acceptable and feasible for patients with hypertension; it also shows favorable effects with regard to improved treatment adherence and blood pressure control. Future randomized controlled trials with modified intervention measures are needed to validate this finding. PMID:25114514

Huang, Susan; Chen, Ye; Zhou, Jing; Wang, Jianming

2014-01-01

371

Identification and characterization of Fep15, a new selenocysteine-containing member of the Sep15 protein family  

PubMed Central

Sec (selenocysteine) is a rare amino acid in proteins. It is co-translationally inserted into proteins at UGA codons with the help of SECIS (Sec insertion sequence) elements. A full set of selenoproteins within a genome, known as the selenoproteome, is highly variable in different organisms. However, most of the known eukaryotic selenoproteins are represented in the mammalian selenoproteome. In addition, many of these selenoproteins have cysteine orthologues. Here, we describe a new selenoprotein, designated Fep15, which is distantly related to members of the 15 kDa selenoprotein (Sep15) family. Fep15 is absent in mammals, can be detected only in fish and is present in these organisms only in the selenoprotein form. In contrast with other members of the Sep15 family, which contain a putative active site composed of Sec and cysteine, Fep15 has only Sec. When transiently expressed in mammalian cells, Fep15 incorporated Sec in an SECIS- and SBP2 (SECIS-binding protein 2)-dependent manner and was targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum by its N-terminal signal peptide. Phylogenetic analyses of Sep15 family members suggest that Fep15 evolved by gene duplication. PMID:16236027

Novoselov, Sergey V.; Hua, Deame; Lobanov, Alexey V.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

2005-01-01

372

Positive selection, molecular recombination structure and phylogenetic reconstruction of members of the family Tombusviridae: Implication in virus taxonomy  

PubMed Central

A detailed study of putative recombination events and their evolution frequency in the whole genome of the currently known members of the family Tombusviridae, comprising 79 accessions retrieved from the international databases, was carried out by using the RECCO and RDP version 3.31? algorithms. The first program allowed the detection of potential recombination sites in seven out of eight virus genera (Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, Carmovirus, Dianthovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and Tombusvirus), the second program provided the same results except for genus Dianthovirus. On the other hand, both methods failed to detect recombination breakpoints in the genome of members of genus Machlomovirus. Furthermore, based on Fisher’s Exact Test of Neutrality, positive selection exerted on protein-coding genes was detected in 17 accession pairs involving 15 different lineages. Except genera Machlomovirus, and Panicovirus along with unclassified Tombusviridae, all the other taxonomical genera and the unassigned Tombusviridae encompassed representatives under positive selection. The evolutionary history of all members of the Tombusviridae family showed that they segregated into eight distinct groups corresponding to the eight genera which constitute this family. The inferred phylogeny reshuffled the classification currently adopted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. A reclassification was proposed. PMID:22215970

Boulila, Moncef

2011-01-01

373

Spouse Support, Career Continuance, and Family Life in the Reserve Components: A Study of Members and Spouses of the Virginia National Guard.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey responses of 2,427 married members of the Virginia Army National Guard and 1,540 members' spouses suggest that spouses are strongly committed to career continuance with the Guard and have greater preference for continuance than do Guard members themselves. Implications for family policies in the military reserves are discussed. (SLD)

Green, Robert G.; Harris, Robert N., Jr.

1992-01-01

374

Autismo: Lo Que Miembros de Familia Necesitan Saber (Autism: What the Family Members Need to Know).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Spanish, the booklet addresses basic information for families with children who have autism. Facts about the syndrome are listed, followed by signs and symptoms, a summary of programmatic requirements, answers to questions frequently asked by families, suggestions to help parents cope, concerns facing adolescents and adults with autism, and…

Bancroft School, Haddonfield, NJ.

375

42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...Needy § 436.120 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically...

2012-10-01

376

42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...Needy § 436.120 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically...

2010-10-01

377

42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...Needy § 436.120 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically...

2011-10-01

378

42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...Needy § 436.120 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically...

2013-10-01

379

Bidirectional Associations between Coparenting Relations and Family Member Anxiety: A Review and Conceptual Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research into anxiety has largely ignored the dynamics of family systems in anxiety development. Coparenting refers to the quality of coordination between individuals responsible for the upbringing of children and links different subsystems within the family, such as the child, the marital relationship, and the parents. This review discusses the…

Majdandzic, Mirjana; de Vente, Wieke; Feinberg, Mark E.; Aktar, Evin; Bogels, Susan M.

2012-01-01

380

Training Community Consultants to Help Family Members Improve Dementia Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We investigated whether community con- sultants could be trained to teach family caregivers a systematic behavioral approach for reducing mood and behavior problems in persons with Alzheimer's disease. Design and Methods: This study consisted of a randomized controlled trial; we randomly assigned 95 family caregivers and care recipients with Alzheimer's disease to STAR-caregivers (STAR-C) or control groups. Masked interviewers

Linda Teri; Susan M. McCurry; Rebecca Logsdon; Laura E. Gibbons

2005-01-01

381

Apollo asteroids (1566) Icarus and 2007 MK6: Icarus family members?  

E-print Network

Although it is more complicated to search for near-Earth object (NEO) families than main belt asteroid (MBA) families, since differential orbital evolution within a NEO family can cause current orbital elements to drastically differ from each other, we have found that Apollo asteroids (1566) Icarus and the newly discovered 2007 MK6 are almost certainly related. Specifically, their orbital evolutions show a similar profile, time shifted by only ~1000 yr, based on our time-lag theory. The dynamical relationship between Icarus and 2007 MK6 along with a possible dust band, the Taurid-Perseid meteor swarm, implies the first detection of an asteroidal NEO family, namely the "Icarus asteroid family".

K. Ohtsuka; H. Arakida; T. Ito; T. Kasuga; J. Watanabe; D. Kinoshita; T. Sekiguchi; D. J. Asher; S. Nakano

2007-08-21

382

Crystal structure of the YDR533c S. cerevisiae protein, a class II member of the Hsp31 family.  

PubMed

The ORF YDR533c from Saccharomyces cerevisiae codes for a 25.5 kDa protein of unknown biochemical function. Transcriptome analysis of yeast has shown that this gene is activated in response to various stress conditions together with proteins belonging to the heat shock family. In order to clarify its biochemical function, we determined the crystal structure of YDR533c to 1.85 A resolution by the single anomalous diffraction method. The protein possesses an alpha/beta hydrolase fold and a putative Cys-His-Glu catalytic triad common to a large enzyme family containing proteases, amidotransferases, lipases, and esterases. The protein has strong structural resemblance with the E. coli Hsp31 protein and the intracellular protease I from Pyrococcus horikoshii, which are considered class I and class III members of the Hsp31 family, respectively. Detailed structural analysis strongly suggests that the YDR533c protein crystal structure is the first one of a class II member of the Hsp31 family. PMID:15130476

Graille, Marc; Quevillon-Cheruel, Sophie; Leulliot, Nicolas; Zhou, Cong-Zhao; Li de la Sierra Gallay, Ines; Jacquamet, Lilian; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Liger, Dominique; Poupon, Anne; Janin, Joel; van Tilbeurgh, Herman

2004-05-01

383

Structural basis for the mechanism and substrate specificity of glycocyamine kinase, a phosphagen kinase family member†‡  

PubMed Central

Glycocyamine kinase (GK), a member of the phosphagen kinase family, catalyzes the Mg2+-dependent reversible phosphoryl group transfer of the N-phosphoryl group of phospho glycocyamine to ADP to yield glycocyamine and ATP. This reaction helps to maintain the energy homeostasis of the cell in some multicelullar organisms that encounter high and variable energy turnover. GK from the marine worm Namalycastis sp. is heterodimeric, with two homologous polypeptide chains, ? and ?, derived from a common pre mRNA by mutually exclusive N-terminal alternative exons. The N-terminal exon of GK? encodes a peptide that is different in sequence and is sixteen amino acids longer than that encoded by the N-terminal exon of GK?. The crystal structures of recombinant GK?? and GK?? from Namalycastis sp. were determined at 2.6 Å and 2.4 Å resolution, respectively. In addition, the structure of the GK?? was determined at 2.3 Å resolution in complex with a transition state analog, Mg2+-ADP-NO3--glycocyamine. Consistent with the sequence homology, the GK subunits adopt the same overall fold as that of other phosphagen kinases of known structure (the homodimeric creatine kinase (CK) and the monomeric arginine kinase (AK)). As with CK, the GK N-termini mediate the dimer interface. In both heterodimeric and homodimeric GK forms, the conformations of the two N-termini are asymmetric and the asymmetry is different than that reported previously for the homodimeric CKs from several organisms. The entire polypeptide chains of GK?? are structurally defined and the longer N-terminus of the ? subunit is anchored at the dimer interface. In GK?? the 24 N-terminal residues of one subunit and 11 N-terminal residues of the second subunit are disordered. This observation is consistent with a proposal that the GK?? amino acids involved in the interface formation were optimized once a heterodimer emerged as the physiological form of the enzyme. As a consequence, the homodimer interface (either solely ? or solely ? chains) has been corrupted. In the unbound state, GK exhibits an open conformation analogous to that observed with ligand-free CK or AK. Upon binding the transition state analog, both subunits of GK undergo the same closure motion that clasps the transition state analog, in contrast to the transition state analog complexes of CK, where the corresponding transition state analog occupies only one subunit, which undergoes domain closure. The active site environments of the GK, CK and AK at the bound states reveal the structural determinants of substrate specificity. Despite the equivalent binding in both active sites of the GK heterodimer, the conformational asymmetry of the N-termini is retained. Thus, the coupling between the structural asymmetry and negative cooperativity previously proposed for CK is not supported in the case of GK. PMID:20121101

Lim, Kap; Pullalarevu, Sadhana; Surabian, Karen Talin; Howard, Andrew; Suzuki, Tomohiko; Moult, John; Herzberg, Osnat

2010-01-01

384

Structural basis for the mechanism and substrate specificity of glycocyamine kinase, a phosphagen kinase family member  

SciTech Connect

Glycocyamine kinase (GK), a member of the phosphagen kinase family, catalyzes the Mg{sup 2+}-dependent reversible phosphoryl group transfer of the N-phosphoryl group of phosphoglycocyamine to ADP to yield glycocyamine and ATP. This reaction helps to maintain the energy homeostasis of the cell in some multicelullar organisms that encounter high and variable energy turnover. GK from the marine worm Namalycastis sp. is heterodimeric, with two homologous polypeptide chains, {alpha} and {beta}, derived from a common pre-mRNA by mutually exclusive N-terminal alternative exons. The N-terminal exon of GK{beta} encodes a peptide that is different in sequence and is 16 amino acids longer than that encoded by the N-terminal exon of GK{alpha}. The crystal structures of recombinant GK{alpha}{beta} and GK{beta}{beta} from Namalycastis sp. were determined at 2.6 and 2.4 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. In addition, the structure of the GK{beta}{beta} was determined at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution in complex with a transition state analogue, Mg{sup 2+}-ADP-NO{sub 3}{sup -}-glycocyamine. Consistent with the sequence homology, the GK subunits adopt the same overall fold as that of other phosphagen kinases of known structure (the homodimeric creatine kinase (CK) and the monomeric arginine kinase (AK)). As with CK, the GK N-termini mediate the dimer interface. In both heterodimeric and homodimeric GK forms, the conformations of the two N-termini are asymmetric, and the asymmetry is different than that reported previously for the homodimeric CKs from several organisms. The entire polypeptide chains of GK{alpha}{beta} are structurally defined, and the longer N-terminus of the {beta} subunit is anchored at the dimer interface. In GK{beta}{beta} the 24 N-terminal residues of one subunit and 11 N-terminal residues of the second subunit are disordered. This observation is consistent with a proposal that the GK{alpha}{beta} amino acids involved in the interface formation were optimized once a heterodimer emerged as the physiological form of the enzyme. As a consequence, the homodimer interface (either solely {alpha} or solely {beta} chains) has been corrupted. In the unbound state, GK exhibits an open conformation analogous to that observed with ligand-free CK or AK. Upon binding the transition state analogue, both subunits of GK undergo the same closure motion that clasps the transition state analogue, in contrast to the transition state analogue complexes of CK, where the corresponding transition state analogue occupies only one subunit, which undergoes domain closure. The active site environments of the GK, CK, and AK at the bound states reveal the structural determinants of substrate specificity. Despite the equivalent binding in both active sites of the GK dimer, the conformational asymmetry of the N-termini is retained. Thus, the coupling between the structural asymmetry and negative cooperativity previously proposed for CK is not supported in the case of GK.

Lim, Kap; Pullalarevu, Sadhana; Surabian, Karen Talin; Howard, Andrew; Suzuki, Tomohiko; Moult, John; Herzberg, Osnat (Kochi); (IIT); (UMBI)

2010-03-12

385

Dermal ultrastructure in low Beighton score members of 17 families with hypermobile-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.  

PubMed

The distinction between the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome hypermobile type (EDSH) and the benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS) is unclear. The aim of the present study was to compare skin ultrastructural abnormalities of EDSH and BJHS among different families. Skin of 23 EDSH, 27 BJHS, and 41 asymptomatic subjects from 17 families was examined using transmission electron microscopy. Similar ultrastructural abnormalities were found irrespective of the Beighton score. Flower-like collagen fibrils represented the key change and elastic fibers were altered as well. Beighton score is a clinical parameter rating joint mobility that appeared unrelated to quantitative and qualitative collagen ultrastructural alterations in the skin. Some EDSH family members fit with BJHS diagnosis. BJHS possibly represents a mild variant of EDSH. PMID:23091361

Hermanns-Lê, Trinh; Reginster, Marie-Annick; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Delvenne, Philippe; Piérard, Gérald E; Manicourt, Daniel

2012-01-01

386

Phylogenetic Analysis of Members of the Phycodnaviridae Virus Family, Using Amplified Fragments of the Major Capsid Protein Gene?  

PubMed Central

Algal viruses are considered ecologically important by affecting host population dynamics and nutrient flow in aquatic food webs. Members of the family Phycodnaviridae are also interesting due to their extraordinary genome size. Few algal viruses in the Phycodnaviridae family have been sequenced, and those that have been have few genes in common and low gene homology. It has hence been difficult to design general PCR primers that allow further studies of their ecology and diversity. In this study, we screened the nine type I core genes of the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses for sequences suitable for designing a general set of primers. Sequence comparison between members of the Phycodnaviridae family, including three partly sequenced viruses infecting the prymnesiophyte Pyramimonas orientalis and the haptophytes Phaeocystis pouchetii and Chrysochromulina ericina (Pyramimonas orientalis virus 01B [PoV-01B], Phaeocystis pouchetii virus 01 [PpV-01], and Chrysochromulina ericina virus 01B [CeV-01B], respectively), revealed eight conserved regions in the major capsid protein (MCP). Two of these regions also showed conservation at the nucleotide level, and this allowed us to design degenerate PCR primers. The primers produced 347- to 518-bp amplicons when applied to lysates from algal viruses kept in culture and from natural viral communities. The aim of this work was to use the MCP as a proxy to infer phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity among members of the Phycodnaviridae family and to determine the occurrence and diversity of this gene in natural viral communities. The results support the current legitimate genera in the Phycodnaviridae based on alga host species. However, while placing the mimivirus in close proximity to the type species, PBCV-1, of Phycodnaviridae along with the three new viruses assigned to the family (PoV-01B, PpV-01, and CeV-01B), the results also indicate that the coccolithoviruses and phaeoviruses are more diverged from this group. Phylogenetic analysis of amplicons from virus assemblages from Norwegian coastal waters as well as from isolated algal viruses revealed a cluster of viruses infecting members of the prymnesiophyte and prasinophyte alga divisions. Other distinct clusters were also identified, containing amplicons from this study as well as sequences retrieved from the Sargasso Sea metagenome. This shows that closely related sequences of this family are present at geographically distant locations within the marine environment. PMID:18359826

Larsen, J. B.; Larsen, A.; Bratbak, G.; Sandaa, R.-A.

2008-01-01

387

42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified...

2011-10-01

388

42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified...

2012-10-01

389

42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified...

2010-10-01

390

29 CFR 825.124 - Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...124 Section 825.124 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE...which would be beneficial to a child, spouse or parent with...

2012-07-01

391

29 CFR 825.124 - Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...124 Section 825.124 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE...which would be beneficial to a child, spouse or parent with...

2013-07-01

392

29 CFR 825.124 - Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...124 Section 825.124 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE...which would be beneficial to a child, spouse or parent with...

2010-07-01

393

29 CFR 825.124 - Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...124 Section 825.124 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE...which would be beneficial to a child, spouse or parent with...

2011-07-01

394

Concordance of Family and Staff Member Reports About End of Life in Assisted Living and Nursing Homes  

PubMed Central

Purpose:?To identify differences in perspectives that may complicate the process of joint decision making at the end of life, this study determined the agreement of family and staff perspectives about end-of-life experiences in nursing homes and residential care/assisted living communities and whether family and staff roles, involvement in care, and interaction are associated with such agreement.?Design and Methods:?This cross-sectional study examined agreement in 336 family–staff pairs of postdeath telephone interviews conducted as part of the Collaborative Studies of Long-Term Care. Eligible deaths occurred in or within 3 days of leaving one of a stratified random sample of 113 long-term care facilities in four states and after the resident had lived in the facility ³15 days of the last month of life. McNemar p values and kappas were determined for each concordance variable, and mixed logistic models were run.?Results:?Chance-adjusted family–staff agreement was poor for expectation of death within weeks (66.9% agreement, ? = .33), course of illness (62.9%, 0.18), symptom burden (59.6%, 0.18), and familiarity with resident’s physician (59.2%, 0.05). Staff were more likely than family to expect death (70.2% vs 51.5%, p < .001) and less likely to report low symptom burden (39.6% vs 46.6%, p = .07). Staff involvement in care related to concordance and perspectives of adult children were more similar to those of staff than were other types of family members.?Implications:?Family and staff perspectives about end-of-life experiences may differ substantially; efforts can be made to improve family–staff communication and interaction for joint decision making. PMID:19549716

Rich, Shayna E.; Williams, Christianna S.; Zimmerman, Sheryl

2010-01-01

395

MOLECULAR AND NEUROIMAGING FINDINGS IN PONTOCEREBELLAR HYPOPLASIA TYPE 2 (PCH2): IS PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS POSSIBLE?  

PubMed Central

The pontocerebellar hypoplasias (PCH) are a group of early-onset, autosomal recessive disorders resulting in abnormal growth and function of the brainstem and cerebellum. PCH type 2 (PCH2) is characterized by respiratory and feeding difficulties at birth, extrapyramidal dyskinesia, severe developmental impairment, progressive microcephaly and frequent death in childhood. Neuropathologic findings include diffuse cerebral gliosis with white matter changes, hypoplastic pons with depletion of neurons in the pontine nuclei, hypoplastic cerebellar hemispheres due to short cerebellar folia with poor branching, segmental loss of dentate, inferior olivary, and ventral pontine nuclei, and near absence of transverse pontine fibers with preservation of long fiber tracts and spinal anterior horn cells. On brain imaging, the cerebellar hemispheres appear very flat, and are more severely involved than the vermis. Most patients with PCH2 have mutations in TSEN54, with occasional mutations found in TSEN34 or TSEN2, genes that encode subunits of tRNA splicing endonuclease. Although this is a congenital disorder of pontocerebellar dysgenesis with fetal onset of neurodegeneration and symptoms at birth, prenatal imaging is unreliable in diagnosing this disorder in utero. We report on IVF dizygous twins with detailed prenatal imaging that failed to reveal any cerebellar abnormalities. Direct sequence analysis of TSEN54 showed homozygosity for c.919G>T, the common founder mutation in most PCH2 patients, and both parents were heterozygous for this mutation. We found no evidence of cerebellar dysgenesis on prenatal ultrasounds, but MRI tractography showed absence of pontine crossing fibers, a unique feature that might be useful for prenatal diagnosis of this condition. PMID:20803644

Graham, John M.; Spencer, Andrew H.; Grinberg, Inessa; Niesen, Charles E.; Platt, Lawrence D.; Maya, Marcel; Namavar, Yasmin; Baas, Frank; Dobyns, William B.

2010-01-01

396

Gene and cluster-specific expression of the Iroquois family members during mouse development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian homologues of the Drosophila Iroquois homeobox gene complex, involved in patterning and regionalization of differentiation, have recently been identified (Mech. Dev., 69 (1997) 169; Dev. Biol., 217 (2000) 266; Dev. Dyn., 218 (2000) 160; Mech. Dev., 91 (2000) 317; Dev. Biol., 224 (2000) 263; Genome Res., 10 (2000) 1453; Mech. Dev., 103 (2001) 193). The six members of the

Arjan C Houweling; Renate Dildrop; Thomas Peters; Julia Mummenhoff; Antoon F. M Moorman; Ulrich Rüther; Vincent M Christoffels

2001-01-01

397

BEST1 expression in the retinal pigment epithelium is modulated by OTX family members  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of genes preferentially expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are associated with reti- nal degenerative disease. One of these, BEST1, encodes bestrophin-1, a protein that when mutated causes Best macular dystrophy. As a model for RPE gene regulation, we have been studying the mechanisms that control BEST1 expression, and recently demonstrated that members of the MITF -T

Noriko Esumi; Shu Kachi; Laszlo Hackler Jr; Tomohiro Masuda; Zhiyong Yang; Peter A. Campochiaro; Donald J. Zack

2009-01-01

398

Differential Recognition of Members of the Carcinoembryonic Antigen Family by Opa Variants of Neisseria gonorrhoeae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opacity (Opa) protein variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is implicated in the pathogenesis of gonorrhea, possibly by mediating adherence and entry of the bacteria into human tissues. One particular Opa protein me- diates adherence to epithelial cells through cell surface proteoglycans. Recently, two other eukaryotic cell recep- tors for Opa proteins have been reported. These receptors are members of a subgroup

MARTINE P. BOS; FRITZ GRUNERT; ROBERT J. BELLAND

1997-01-01

399

Common Occurrence of Monoclonal B-cell Lymphocytosis Among Members of High-Risk CLL Families  

PubMed Central

Summary Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is an asymptomatic haematological condition characterized by low absolute levels of B-cell clones with a surface immunophenotype similar to that of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). In the general population, MBL increases with age with a prevalence of 5–9% in individuals over age 60 years. It has been reported to be higher among first-degree relatives from CLL families. We report results of multi-parameter flow cytometry among 505 first-degree relatives with no personal history of lymphoproliferative disease from 140 families having at least two cases of CLL. Seventeen percent of relatives had MBL. Age was the most important determinant where the probability for developing MBL by age 90 years was 61%. MBL clustered in certain families but clustering was independent of the number of known CLL cases in a family. As is the case with CLL, males had a significantly higher risk for MBL than did females (p=0.04). MBL patients had significantly higher mean absolute lymphocyte counts (2.4 × 109/l) and B-cell counts (0.53 × 109/l) than those with a normal B-cell immunophenotype. Our findings show that MBL occurs at a very high rate in high risk CLL families. Both the age and gender distribution of MBL are parallel to CLL, implying a shared inherited risk. PMID:20738309

Goldin, Lynn R.; Lanasa, Mark C.; Slager, Susan L.; Cerhan, James R.; Vachon, Celine M.; Strom, Sara S.; Camp, Nicola J.; Spector, Logan G.; Leis, Jose F.; Morrison, Vicki A.; Glenn, Martha; Rabe, Kari G.; Achenbach, Sara J.; Algood, Sallie D.; Abbasi, Fatima; Fontaine, Laura; Yau, Michelle; Rassenti, Laura Z.; Kay, Neil E.; Call, Timothy G.; Hanson, Curtis A.; Weinberg, J. Brice; Marti, Gerald E.; Caporaso, Neil E.

2010-01-01

400

Targeting GSK-3 family members in the heart: A very sharp double-edged sword  

PubMed Central

The GSK-3 family of serine/threonine kinases, which is comprised of two isoforms (? and ?), was initially identified as a negative regulator of glycogen synthase, the rate limiting enzyme of glycogen synthesis [1, 2]. In the 30 years since its initial discovery, the family has been reported to regulate a host of additional cellular processes and, consequently, disease states such as bipolar disorders, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinson’s Disease [3, 4]. As a result, there has been intense interest on the part of the pharmaceutical industry in developing small molecule antagonists of GSK-3. Herein, we will review the roles played by GSK-3s in the heart, focusing primarily on recent studies that have employed global and tissue-specific gene deletion. We will highlight roles in various pathologic processes, including pressure overload and ischemic injury, focusing on some striking isoform-specific effects of the family. Due to space limitations and/or the relatively limited data in gene-targeted mice, we will not be addressing the family’s roles in ischemic pre-conditioning or its many interactions with various pro- and anti-apoptotic factors. PMID:21163265

Cheng, Hui; Woodgett, James; Maamari, Mia; Force, Thomas

2010-01-01

401

Isolation and characterization of two members of the siderophore-microcin family, microcins M and H47.  

PubMed

In this paper we provide the first biochemical evidence of the existence of a family of structure-related antimicrobial peptides, the siderophore-microcins, in the Enterobacteriaceae family. We isolated and characterized two novel siderophore-microcins, MccM and MccH47, previously characterized through genetic studies. MccM and MccH47 were expressed from several Escherichia coli strains containing the microcin gene clusters. The spectra of their bactericidal activities were found to be restricted to some species of the Enterobacteriaceae. MccM and MccH47 were unable to inhibit the growth of strains carrying mutations in the fepA, cir, and fiu genes, which showed the requirement of the iron-catecholate receptors for their recognition. The MccM and MccH47 peptide moieties contain 77 and 60 residues, respectively, and are derived from the microcin precursors McmA and MchB, respectively. In addition, both peptides carried a C-terminal posttranslational modification containing a salmochelin-like siderophore moiety also found in MccE492 (X. Thomas et al., J. Biol. Chem., 279:28233-28242, 2004). Interestingly, when MccM was isolated from E. coli Nissle 1917, which lacks the two genes necessary for modification biosynthesis, it was devoid of posttranslational modification. Those two genes could be complemented by their homologues from the MccH47 gene cluster, thereby showing their functional interchangeability between at least two members of the siderophore-microcin family. Finally, from the sequence analysis of the MccE492 gene cluster, we hypothesized the existence of an additional member of the siderophore-microcin family. Therefore, we propose that the siderophore-microcin family contains five representatives. PMID:19884380

Vassiliadis, Gaëlle; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Lombard, Carine; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Peduzzi, Jean

2010-01-01

402

Hepatitis C virus infection in patients and family members attending two primary care clinics in Puebla, Mexico.  

PubMed

Background. Approximately 180 million persons (~2.8%) globally are estimated to be infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV prevalence in Mexico has been estimated to be between 1.2 and 1.4%. The aim of present work was to determine the prevalence of HCV infection in patients and family members attending two primary care clinics in Puebla, Mexico. Material and methods. Patients and their accompanying family members in two clinics were invited to participate in this study between May and September 2010. Results. A total of 10,214 persons were included in the study; 120 (1.17%) persons were anti-HCV reactive. Of the reactive subjects, detection of viral RNA was determined in 114 subjects and 36 were positive (31%). The more frequent risk factors were having a family history of cirrhosis (33.1%) and having a blood transfusion prior to 1995 (29%). After a multiple logistic regression analysis only transfusion prior to 1995 resulted significant to HCV transmission (p = 0.004). The overall detected HCV genotypes were as follows: 1a (29%), 1b (48.5%), 2/2b (12.8%), and 3a (6.5%). Conclusion. The HCV prevalence in this population is in agreement with previous studies in other regions of Mexico. PMID:25332260

López-Colombo, Aurelio; Meléndez-Mena, Daniel; Sedeño-Monge, Virginia; Camacho-Hernández, José R; Vázquez-Cruz, Eduardo; Morales-Hernández, Eduardo R; Sosa-Jurado, Francisca; Márquez-Domínguez, Luis; Santos-López, Gerardo

2014-01-01

403

Molecular Identification and Characterization of Novel Members of the Human Organic Anion Transporter (OATP) Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identified three novel transporters structurally belonging to the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family in humans. Since previously known rat oatp1 to 3 do not necessarily correspond to the human OATPs in terms of either tissue distribution or function, here we designate the newly identified human OATPs as OATP-B, -D and -E, and we rename the previously known human

Ikumi Tamai; Jun-ichi Nezu; Hiroshi Uchino; Yoshimichi Sai; Asuka Oku; Miyuki Shimane; Akira Tsuji

2000-01-01

404

Negotiating Connection to GLBT Experience: Family Members' Experience of Anti-GLBT Movements and Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There have been numerous legislative initiatives to limit gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) people's rights at local, state, and national levels (G. M. Herek, 2006). Although research has focused on how GLBT people are affected by these initiatives, to date no research has explored the impact of this legislation upon the families of…

Arm, Jennifer R.; Horne, Sharon G.; Levitt, Heidi M.

2009-01-01

405

Negotiating Connection to GLBT Experience: Family Members’ Experience of Anti-GLBT Movements and Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been numerous legislative initiatives to limit gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) people’s rights at local, state, and national levels (G. M. Herek, 2006). Although research has focused on how GLBT people are affected by these initiatives, to date no research has explored the impact of this legislation upon the families of origin of GLBT people. This qualitative

Jennifer R. Arm; Sharon G. Horne; Heidi M. Levitt

2009-01-01

406

Crystal Structure of Cytomegalovirus IE1 Protein Reveals Targeting of TRIM Family Member PML via Coiled-Coil Interactions  

PubMed Central

PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are enigmatic structures of the cell nucleus that act as key mediators of intrinsic immunity against viral pathogens. PML itself is a member of the E3-ligase TRIM family of proteins that regulates a variety of innate immune signaling pathways. Consequently, viruses have evolved effector proteins to modify PML-NBs; however, little is known concerning structure-function relationships of viral antagonists. The herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) expresses the abundant immediate-early protein IE1 that colocalizes with PML-NBs and induces their dispersal, which correlates with the antagonization of NB-mediated intrinsic immunity. Here, we delineate the molecular basis for this antagonization by presenting the first crystal structure for the evolutionary conserved primate cytomegalovirus IE1 proteins. We show that IE1 consists of a globular core (IE1CORE) flanked by intrinsically disordered regions. The 2.3 Å crystal structure of IE1CORE displays an all ?-helical, femur-shaped fold, which lacks overall fold similarity with known protein structures, but shares secondary structure features recently observed in the coiled-coil domain of TRIM proteins. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds efficiently to the TRIM family member PML, and is able to induce PML deSUMOylation. Intriguingly, this results in the release of NB-associated proteins into the nucleoplasm, but not of PML itself. Importantly, we show that PML deSUMOylation by IE1CORE is sufficient to antagonize PML-NB-instituted intrinsic immunity. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds via the coiled-coil domain to PML and also interacts with TRIM5? We propose that IE1CORE sequesters PML and possibly other TRIM family members via structural mimicry using an extended binding surface formed by the coiled-coil region. This mode of interaction might render the antagonizing activity less susceptible to mutational escape. PMID:25412268

Sevvana, Madhumati; Otto, Victoria; Schilling, Eva-Maria; Stump, Joachim D.; Müller, Regina; Reuter, Nina; Sticht, Heinrich; Muller, Yves A.; Stamminger, Thomas

2014-01-01

407

Epigenetic deregulation of multiple S100 gene family members by differential hypomethylation and hypermethylation events in medulloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Deregulated expression of genes encoding members of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins has been associated with the malignant progression of multiple tumour types. Using a pharmacological expression reactivation approach, we screened 16 S100 genes for evidence of epigenetic regulation in medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumour of childhood. Four family members (S100A2, S100A4, S100A6 and S100A10) demonstrated evidence of upregulated expression in multiple medulloblastoma cell lines, following treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5?-aza-2?-deoxycytidine. Subsequent analysis revealed methylation of critical CpG sites located within these four genes in an extended cell line panel. Assessment of these genes in the non-neoplastic cerebellum (from which medulloblastomas develop) revealed strong somatic methylation affecting S100A2 and S100A4, whereas S100A6 and S100A10 were unmethylated. Assessed against these normal tissue-specific methylation states, S100A6 and S100A10 demonstrated tumour-specific hypermethylation in medulloblastoma primary tumours (5 out of 40 and 4 out of 35, respectively, both 12%) and cell lines (both 7 out of 9, 78%), which was associated with their transcriptional silencing. Moreover, S100A6 hypermethylation was significantly associated with the aggressive large cell/anaplastic morphophenotype (P=0.026). In contrast, pro-metastatic S100A4 displayed evidence of hypomethylation relative to the normal cerebellum in a significant proportion primary tumours (7 out of 41, 17%) and cell lines (3 out of 9, 33%), which was associated with its elevated expression. In summary, these data characterise complex patterns of somatic methylation affecting S100 genes in the normal cerebellum and demonstrate their disruption causing epigenetic deregulation of multiple S100 family members in medulloblastoma development. Epigenetic events affecting S100 genes have potential clinical utility and merit further investigation as molecular biomarkers for this disease. PMID:17579622

Lindsey, J C; Lusher, M E; Anderton, J A; Gilbertson, R J; Ellison, D W; Clifford, S C

2007-01-01

408

Crystal Structure of Cytomegalovirus IE1 Protein Reveals Targeting of TRIM Family Member PML via Coiled-Coil Interactions.  

PubMed

PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are enigmatic structures of the cell nucleus that act as key mediators of intrinsic immunity against viral pathogens. PML itself is a member of the E3-ligase TRIM family of proteins that regulates a variety of innate immune signaling pathways. Consequently, viruses have evolved effector proteins to modify PML-NBs; however, little is known concerning structure-function relationships of viral antagonists. The herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) expresses the abundant immediate-early protein IE1 that colocalizes with PML-NBs and induces their dispersal, which correlates with the antagonization of NB-mediated intrinsic immunity. Here, we delineate the molecular basis for this antagonization by presenting the first crystal structure for the evolutionary conserved primate cytomegalovirus IE1 proteins. We show that IE1 consists of a globular core (IE1CORE) flanked by intrinsically disordered regions. The 2.3 Å crystal structure of IE1CORE displays an all ?-helical, femur-shaped fold, which lacks overall fold similarity with known protein structures, but shares secondary structure features recently observed in the coiled-coil domain of TRIM proteins. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds efficiently to the TRIM family member PML, and is able to induce PML deSUMOylation. Intriguingly, this results in the release of NB-associated proteins into the nucleoplasm, but not of PML itself. Importantly, we show that PML deSUMOylation by IE1CORE is sufficient to antagonize PML-NB-instituted intrinsic immunity. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds via the coiled-coil domain to PML and also interacts with TRIM5? We propose that IE1CORE sequesters PML and possibly other TRIM family members via structural mimicry using an extended binding surface formed by the coiled-coil region. This mode of interaction might render the antagonizing activity less susceptible to mutational escape. PMID:25412268

Scherer, Myriam; Klingl, Stefan; Sevvana, Madhumati; Otto, Victoria; Schilling, Eva-Maria; Stump, Joachim D; Müller, Regina; Reuter, Nina; Sticht, Heinrich; Muller, Yves A; Stamminger, Thomas

2014-11-01

409

Isolation of a new member of the S100 protein family: amino acid sequence, tissue, and subcellular distribution  

PubMed Central

A low molecular mass protein which we term S100L was isolated from bovine lung. S100L possesses many of the properties of brain S100 such as self association, Ca++-binding (2 sites per subunit) with moderate affinity, and exposure of a hydrophobic site upon Ca++-saturation. Antibodies to brain S100 proteins, however, do not cross react with S100L. Tryptic peptides derived from S100L were sequenced revealing similarity to other members of the S100 family. Oligonucleotide probes based on these sequences were used to screen a cDNA library derived from a bovine kidney cell line (MDBK). A 562-nucleotide cDNA was sequenced and found to contain the complete coding region of S100L. The predicted amino acid sequence displays striking similarity, yet is clearly distinct from other members of the S100 protein family. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised against S100L and used to determine the tissue and subcellular distribution of this molecule. The S100L protein is expressed at high levels in bovine kidney and lung tissue, low levels in brain and intestine, with intermediate levels in muscle. The MDBK cell line was found to contain both S100L and the calpactin light chain, another member of this protein family. S100L was not found associated with a higher molecular mass subunit in MDBK cells while the calpactin light chain was tightly bound to the calpactin heavy chain. Double label immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed the observation that the calpactin light chain and S100L have a different distribution in these cells. PMID:2521861

1989-01-01

410

Comparative phylogenetic analysis of genome-wide Mlo gene family members from Glycine max and Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Powdery mildew locus O (Mlo) gene family is one of the largest seven transmembrane protein-encoding gene families. The Mlo proteins act as negative regulators of powdery mildew resistance and a loss-of-function mutation in Mlo is known to confer broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew. In addition, the Mlo gene family members are known to participate in various developmental and biotic and abiotic stress response-related pathways. Therefore, a genome-wide similarity search using the characterized Mlo protein sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana was carried out to identify putative Mlo genes in soybean (Glycine max) genome. This search identified 39 Mlo domain containing protein-encoding genes that were distributed on 15 of the 20 G. max chromosomes. The putative promoter regions of these Mlo genes contained response elements for different external stimuli, including different hormones and abiotic stresses. Of the 39 GmMlo proteins, 35 were rich (8.7-13.1 %) in leucine, while five were serine-rich (9.2-11.9 %). Furthermore, all the GmMlo members were localized in the plasma membrane. Phylogenetic analysis of the GmMlo and the AtMlo proteins classified them into three main clusters, and the cluster I comprised two sub-clusters. Multiple sequence alignment visualized the location of seven transmembrane domains, and a conserved CaM-binding domain. Some of the GmMlo proteins (GmMlo10, 20, 22, 23, 32, 36, 37) contained less than seven transmembrane domains. The motif analysis yielded 27 motifs; out of these, motif 2, the only motif present in all the GmMlos, was highly conserved and three amino acid residues were essentially invariant. Five of the GmMlo members were much smaller in size; presumably they originated through deletion following a gene duplication event. The presence of a large number of GmMlo members in the G. max genome may be due to its paleopolyploid nature and the large genome size as compared to that of Arabidopsis. The findings of this study may further help in characterization and isolation of individual GmMlo members. PMID:24469270

Deshmukh, Reena; Singh, V K; Singh, B D

2014-06-01

411

New Leptotarsus from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil and Spain: the oldest members of the family Tipulidae (Diptera).  

PubMed

New species of Leptotarsus (Tipulidae s.str.) are described from the Early Cretaceous beds of Brazil (Santana Fm. Aptian/Albian, ca. 112 Mya) and Spain (La Huérguina Fm., Late Barremian, ca. 126 Mya), vis. L. grimaldii sp. nov., L. cretaceus sp. nov., L. martinsnetoi sp. nov., L. buscalioniae sp. nov., L. ibericus sp. nov. and L. contractus sp. nov. Males of three species possess extremely long antennae. The fossils are the oldest representatives of the genus Leptotarsus, and the oldest known members of the family Tipulidae.  PMID:24872305

Ribeiro, Guilherme C; Lukashevich, Elena D

2014-01-01

412

The process of recovery of people with mental illness: The perspectives of patients, family members and care providers: Part 1  

PubMed Central

Background It is a qualitative design study that examines points of divergence and convergence in the perspectives on recovery of 36 participants or 12 triads. Each triad comprising a patient, a family member/friend, a care provider and documents the procedural, analytic of triangulating perspectives as a means of understanding the recovery process which is illustrated by four case studies. Variations are considered as they relate to individual characteristics, type of participant (patient, family, member/friend and care provider), and mental illness. This paper which is part of a larger study and is based on a qualitative research design documents the process of recovery of people with mental illness: Developing a Model of Recovery in Mental Health: A middle range theory. Methods Data were collected in field notes through semi-structured interviews based on three interview guides (one for patients, one for family members/friends, and one for caregivers). Cross analysis and triangulation methods were used to analyse the areas of convergence and divergence on the recovery process of all triads. Results In general, with the 36 participants united in 12 triads, two themes emerge from the cross-analysis process or triangulation of data sources (12 triads analysis in 12 cases studies). Two themes emerge from the analysis process of the content of 36 interviews with participants: (1) Revealing dynamic context, situating patients in their dynamic context; and (2) Relationship issues in a recovery process, furthering our understanding of such issues. We provide four case studies examples (among 12 cases studies) to illustrate the variations in the way recovery is perceived, interpreted and expressed in relation to the different contexts of interaction. Conclusion The perspectives of the three participants (patients, family members/friends and care providers) suggest that recovery depends on constructing meaning around mental illness experiences and that the process is based on each person's dynamic context (e.g., social network, relationship), life experiences and other social determinants (e.g., symptoms, environment). The findings of this study add to existing knowledge about the determinants of the recovery of persons suffering with a mental illness and significant other utilizing public mental health services in Montreal, Canada. PMID:20540771

2010-01-01

413

Early synergistic interactions between amikacin and six beta-lactam antibiotics against multiply resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.  

PubMed Central

An in vitro comparison of the early synergistic interaction between amikacin and each of six beta-lactam antibiotics was made by using time-kill curves against 48 multiply resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Overall, these six combinations demonstrated early synergism (greater than or equal to 2 logs of increased kill after 7 h of incubation) against the 48 strains on 74% (range, 67 to 85%) of occasions; cefotaxime-amikacin and piperacillin-amikacin were the most efficacious combinations. Antagonism was not observed with any of the combinations against any of the 48 Enterobacteriaceae strains tested. PMID:6508266

Glew, R H; Pavuk, R A

1984-01-01

414

The role of TNF-receptor family members and other TRAF-dependent receptors in bone resorption  

PubMed Central

The contribution of osteoclasts to the process of bone loss in inflammatory arthritis has recently been demonstrated. Studies in osteoclast biology have led to the identification of factors responsible for the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts, the most important of which is the receptor activator of NF-?B ligand/osteoclast differentiation factor (RANKL/ODF), a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like protein. The RANKL/ODF receptor, receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK), is a TNF-receptor family member present on both osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclasts. Like other TNF-family receptors and the IL-1 receptor, RANK mediates its signal transduction via TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) proteins, suggesting that the signaling pathways activated by RANK and other inflammatory cytokines involved in osteoclast differentiation and activation are interconnected. PMID:11178122

Gravallese, Ellen M; Galson, Deborah L; Goldring, Steven R; Auron, Philip E

2001-01-01

415

Class III Homeodomain-Leucine Zipper Gene Family Members Have Overlapping, Antagonistic, and Distinct Roles in Arabidopsis DevelopmentW?  

PubMed Central

The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains five class III homeodomain-leucine zipper genes. We have isolated loss-of-function alleles for each family member for use in genetic analysis. This gene family regulates apical embryo patterning, embryonic shoot meristem formation, organ polarity, vascular development, and meristem function. Genetic analyses revealed a complex pattern of overlapping functions, some of which are not readily inferred by phylogenetic relationships or by gene expression patterns. The PHABULOSA and PHAVOLUTA genes perform overlapping functions with REVOLUTA, whereas the PHABULOSA, PHAVOLUTA, and CORONA/ATHB15 genes perform overlapping functions distinct from REVOLUTA. Furthermore, ATHB8 and CORONA encode functions that are both antagonistic to those of REVOLUTA within certain tissues and overlapping with REVOLUTA in other tissues. Differences in expression patterns explain some of these genetic interactions, whereas other interactions are likely attributable to differences in protein function as indicated by cross-complementation studies. PMID:15598805

Prigge, Michael J.; Otsuga, Denichiro; Alonso, Jose M.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Drews, Gary N.; Clark, Steven E.

2005-01-01

416

miR-181 targets multiple Bcl-2 family members and influences apoptosis and mitochondrial function in astrocytes  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria are central to the execution of apoptosis, and the Bcl-2 protein family of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins interacts with mitochondria to regulate apoptosis. Using bioinformatics we predicted that miR-181, a microRNA expressed in brain, could target the 3?UTRs of Bcl-2 family members Bcl-2-L11/Bim, Mcl-1, and Bcl-2. Using the luciferase reporter assay we confirmed these targets. We used mimic and inhibitor to alter miR-181a levels in primary astrocyte cultures and found miR-181a reduction was associated with increased Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 protein levels. Decreased miR-181a levels reduced glucose deprivation induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in astrocytes. PMID:21958558

Ouyang, Yi-Bing; Lu, Yu; Yue, Sibiao; Giffard, Rona G.

2011-01-01

417

ErpC, a member of the complement regulator-acquiring family of surface proteins from Borrelia burgdorferi, possesses an architecture previously unseen in this protein family  

PubMed Central

Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete responsible for Lyme disease, the most commonly occurring vector-borne disease in Europe and North America. The bacterium utilizes a set of proteins, termed complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (CRASPs), to aid evasion of the human complement system by recruiting and presenting complement regulator factor H on its surface in a manner that mimics host cells. Presented here is the atomic resolution structure of a member of this protein family, ErpC. The structure provides new insights into the mechanism of recruitment of factor H and other factor H-related proteins by acting as a molecular mimic of host glycosaminoglycans. It also describes the architecture of other CRASP proteins belonging to the OspE/F-related paralogous protein family and suggests that they have evolved to bind specific complement proteins, aiding survival of the bacterium in different hosts. PMID:23722838

Caesar, Joseph J. E.; Johnson, Steven; Kraiczy, Peter; Lea, Susan M.

2013-01-01

418

Developmentally regulated expression, alternative splicing and distinct sub-groupings in members of the Schistosoma mansoni venom allergen-like (SmVAL) gene family  

E-print Network

- posed functional role of individual SmVAL family mem- bers in host/parasite interactions and parasite-specific activities is discussed. Results cDNA cloning and identification of SmVAL family members To identify S. mansoni SCP/TAPS domain-containing fam... -acid sequences of SmVAL1-28 demon- strates a clear segregation of the family into two distinct groups. Group 1 and group 2 members of the SmVAL super- family are indicated to the right of the MUSCLE-generated alignment. The row labelled 'consensus' represents...