Science.gov

Sample records for pch family members

  1. Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the urine. PCH has been linked to secondary syphilis, tertiary syphilis, and other viral or bacterial infections. Sometimes the ... help. For example, if PCH is caused by syphilis, symptoms may get better when the syphilis is ...

  2. Principal Components of Heritability From Neurocognitive Domains Differ Between Families With Schizophrenia and Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Howard; Klei, Lambertus; Calkins, Monica; Wood, Joel; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Gur, Ruben; Bradford, L. DiAnne; Richard, Jan; Edwards, Neil; Savage, Robert; Kwentus, Joseph; Allen, Trina; McEvoy, Joseph; Santos, Alberto; Gur, Raquel; Devlin, Bernie; Go, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Various measures of neurocognitive function show mean differences among individuals with schizophrenia (SZ), their relatives, and population controls. We use eigenvector transformations that maximize heritability of multiple neurocognitive measures, namely principal components of heritability (PCH), and evaluate how they distribute in SZ families and controls. Methods: African-Americans with SZ or schizoaffective disorder (SZA) (n = 514), their relatives (n = 1092), and adult controls (n = 300) completed diagnostic interviews and computerized neurocognitive tests. PCH were estimated from 9 neurocognitive domains. Three PCH, PCH1–PCH3, were modeled to determine if status (SZ, relative, and control), other psychiatric covariates, and education were significant predictors of mean values. A small-scale linkage analysis was also conducted in a subset of the sample. Results: PCH1, PCH2, and PCH3 account for 72% of the genetic variance. PCH1 represents 8 of 9 neurocognitive domains, is most highly correlated with spatial processing and emotion recognition, and has unadjusted heritability of 68%. The means for PCH1 differ significantly among SZ, their relatives, and controls. PCH2, orthogonal to PCH1, is most closely correlated with working memory and has an unadjusted heritability of 45%. Mean PCH2 is different only between SZ families and controls. PCH3 apparently represents a heritable component of neurocognition similar across the 3 diagnostic groups. No significant linkage evidence to PCH1–PCH3 or individual neurocognitive measures was discovered. Conclusions: PCH1 is highly heritable and genetically correlated with SZ. It should prove useful in future genetic analyses. Mean PCH2 differentiates SZ families and controls but not SZ and unaffected family members. PMID:22234486

  3. Possible new members of Datura asteroid family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosaev, A.; Plavalova, E.

    2015-10-01

    The problem of origin and age of asteroid families is studied very intensively. The youngest families are the most interesting due to the possibility to reconstruct their collisional history. Here we report about three possible new members of Datura family.

  4. Family Member Involvement in Hastened Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starks, Helene; Back, Anthony L.; Pearlman, Robert A.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Hsu, Clarissa; Gordon, Judith R.; Bharucha, Ashok J.

    2007-01-01

    When patients pursue a hastened death, how is the labor of family caregiving affected? The authors examined this question in a qualitative study of 35 families. Four cases reveal the main themes: "taking care" included mutual protection between patients and family members; "midwifing the death" without professional support left families unprepared…

  5. Conducting a multi family member interview study.

    PubMed

    Reczek, Corinne

    2014-06-01

    Family researchers have long recognized the utility of incorporating interview data from multiple family members. Yet, relatively few contemporary scholars utilize such an approach due to methodological underdevelopment. This article contributes to family scholarship by providing a roadmap for developing and executing in-depth interview studies that include more than one family member. Specifically, it outlines the epistemological frames that most commonly underlie this approach, illustrates thematic research questions that it best addresses, and critically reviews the best methodological practices of conducting research with this approach. The three most common approaches are addressed in depth: separate interviews with each family member, dyadic or group interviews with multiple family members, and a combined approach that uses separate and dyadic or group interviews. This article speaks to family scholars who are at the beginning stages of their research project but are unsure of the best qualitative approach to answer a given research question. PMID:24410452

  6. Methods of Assessment for Affected Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Velleman, Richard; Copello, Alex

    2010-01-01

    The article begins by making the point that a good assessment of the needs and circumstances of family members is important if previous neglect of affected family members is to be reversed. The methods we have used in research studies are then described. They include a lengthy semi-structured interview covering seven topic areas and standard…

  7. Pch2(TRIP13): controlling cell division through regulation of HORMA domains.

    PubMed

    Vader, Gerben

    2015-09-01

    During meiotic and mitotic cell divisions, numerous chromosomal processes are essential for the faithful transmission of the genetic material. Pch2(TRIP13), a generally conserved member of the AAA(+) ATPase (AAA(+)--ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) family of ATPases, is rapidly emerging as a key regulator of specific chromosomal events. During the meiotic program, it is involved in controlling G2/prophase processes such as DNA break formation and recombination, checkpoint signaling, and chromosome synapsis. Excitingly, recent work has also implicated a role for Pch2(TRIP13) in wiring of the checkpoint that guards the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. For several of these functions, the Hop1, Rev7, and Mad2 (HORMA) domain-containing proteins Hop1(HORMAD), Mad2, and p31(COMET) are important downstream clients or cofactors of Pch2(TRIP13). Here, I will discuss our current understanding of the function of Pch2(TRIP13) during meiotic and mitotic cell divisions, with a focus on its enzymatic role towards HORMA domain-containing clients. PMID:25895724

  8. 42 CFR 435.119 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified family members. 435.119 Section 435.119 ...Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Qualified Family Members § 435.119 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A...

  9. 42 CFR 435.119 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified family members. 435.119 Section 435.119 ...Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Qualified Family Members § 435.119 Qualified family members. (a) Definition. A...

  10. Managed Lane Choices by Carpools Comprised of Family Members Compared to Non-family Members 

    E-print Network

    Pannu, Mandeep S.

    2011-02-22

    Carpools can be comprised of family members (fampools), non-family members (non-fampools) or a combination of both. Overall, carpool mode share has decreased during the 1980's and 1990's, even as the policies were in place to encourage carpooling...

  11. Family Guide Dear Family Member of a Future Merrillite,

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    1 Merrill College Family Guide #12;2 Dear Family Member of a Future Merrillite, Welcome to Merrill and nationalities. Merrill's central values are to stimulate respect for all world cultures, in general of students have made their mark in every area including history, art, psychology, politics, Latin American

  12. Lysine221 is the general base residue of the isochorismate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PchA) in a reaction that is diffusion limited

    PubMed Central

    Meneely, Kathleen M.; Luo, Qianyi; Dhar, Prajnaparamita; Lamb, Audrey L.

    2013-01-01

    The isochorismate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PchA) catalyzes the conversion of chorismate to isochorismate, which is subsequently converted by a second enzyme (PchB) to salicylate for incorporation into the salicylate-capped siderophore pyochelin. PchA is a member of the MST family of enzymes, which includes the structurally homologous isochorismate synthases from E. coli (EntC and MenF) and salicylate synthases from Yersinia enterocolitica (Irp9) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MbtI). The latter enzymes generate isochorismate as an intermediate before generating salicylate and pyruvate. General acid – general base catalysis has been proposed for isochorismate synthesis in all five enzymes, but the residues required for the isomerization are a matter of debate, with both lysine221 and glutamate313 proposed as the general base (PchA numbering). This work includes a classical characterization of PchA with steady state kinetic analysis, solvent kinetic isotope effect analysis and by measuring the effect of viscosogens on catalysis. The results suggest that isochorismate production from chorismate by the MST enzymes is the result of general acid – general base catalysis with a lysine as the base and a glutamic acid as the acid, in reverse protonation states. Chemistry is determined to not be rate limiting, favoring the hypothesis of a conformational or binding step as the slow step. PMID:23942051

  13. The dying child and surviving family members.

    PubMed

    Shrier, D K

    1980-12-01

    This overview of death and dying focuses on the dying child and surviving family members. Children's concepts of death at different developmental stages are reviewed. These range from an inability to distinguish death from other forms of separation prior to age 3, through partial concepts of death until, by age 10 to 15 years, children are able to conceptualize death as universal, inevitable and final. The importance of adults assisting in the child's growing comprehension of death is stressed. The stages of grief and mourning, as outlined by Kubler-Ross, are reviewed from the perspective of the child and family: denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. Recognition is given to the variations in coping styles among different family members. The special circumstances related to the death of an infant and the impact of the death of a child on the surviving siblings are discussed. Specific helpful interventions to assist families in coping with mourning are described. The death of a child remains one of the most painful and difficult events for a family and its physician to accept. PMID:7251875

  14. Ten Warning Signs Your Older Family Member May Need Help

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Warning Signs Your Older Family Member May Need Help Changes in physical and cognitive abilities that may ... and their family members, friends, and caregivers. To help in determining when an older adult may need ...

  15. Family Members' Reports of the Technology Use of Family Members with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, S. B.; Wehmeyer, M. L.; Davies, D. K.; Stock, S. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A nationwide survey of family members of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities ranging in age from birth through adulthood was conducted to replicate a similar effort by Wehmeyer and update the knowledge base concerning technology use by people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Method: Survey responses…

  16. Perceived Family Resources Based on Number of Members with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Melinda; Mulsow, Miriam; Feng, Du

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the number of family members with ADHD affects other family members' perceived resources. Method: A total of 40 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and their mothers, fathers, and adolescent siblings living in the household participated. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze family-level data from a total…

  17. Reflectance Spectra of Members of Very Young Asteroid Families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.; Enke, B.; Merline, W. J.; Nesvorný, D.; Tamblyn, P.; Young, E. F.

    2009-03-01

    We present SpeX infrared spectra for members of the dynamically young Datura, Iannini, Karin, and Veritas asteroid families (plus Koronis and Themis family controls). S-types are space-weathered on timescales of a few million years.

  18. Coping Strategies of Family Members of Hospitalized Psychiatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Phyllis M.; Davis, Bertha L.; Hammond, Pamela V.; Condon, Esther H.; McGee, Zina T.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory research paper investigated the coping strategies of families of hospitalized psychiatric patients and identified their positive and negative coping strategies. In this paper, the coping strategies of 45 family members were examined using a descriptive, correlational, mixed method research approach. Guided by the Neuman Systems Model and using the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales and semistructured interviews, this paper found that these family members used more emotion-focused coping strategies than problem-focused coping strategies. The common coping strategies used by family members were communicating with immediate family, acceptance of their situation, passive appraisal, avoidance, and spirituality. The family members also utilized resources and support systems, such as their immediate families, mental health care professionals, and their churches. PMID:21994826

  19. The After-Death Call to Family Members: Academic Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoboPrabhu, Sheila; Molinari, Victor; Pate, Jennifer; Lomax, James

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss clinical and teaching aspects of a telephone call by the treating clinician to family members after a patient dies. Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted for references to an after-death call made by the treating clinician to family members. A review of this literature is summarized. Results: A clinical application…

  20. Interventions for Family Members of Adolescents with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Draucker, Claire; Alkhattab, Halima; Knopf, Amy; Mazurcyk, Jill

    2014-01-01

    PROBLEM The family members of adolescents diagnosed with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) experience profound stress and burden. Despite the need for empirically supported interventions that address the challenges faced by these family members, few such interventions are available. METHODS In this qualitative descriptive study, we conducted in-depth interviews with 15 families of adolescents diagnosed with DBD. We asked the family members to identify what types of mental health services they needed and to describe the ‘ideal” program that would best address their concerns. FINDINGS Family members identified several intervention modalities that would fit their needs including multi-family groups, family therapy, individual therapy, and community-based hotlines. They indicated that programs should address the following topics: family communication, conflict resolution, education about DBD, and strategies to improve interactions with child service agencies. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians should recognize that all family members may need support to manage the stressors associated with caring for or living with adolescents with DBD. When working with families, clinicians should provide information about the etiology and management of DBD, help navigate interactions with child service agencies, and employ strategies to improve family communication and functioning. PMID:24934181

  1. Distribution of Candida albicans genotypes among family members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Stevens, D. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Feroze, F.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Thirty-three families (71 subjects) were screened for the presence of Candida albicans in mouthwash or stool specimens; 12 families (28 subjects) were culture-positive for this yeast. An enrichment procedure provided a twofold increase in the recovery of C. albicans from mouthwash specimens. Nine of the twelve culture-positive families had two positive members each, two families had three positive members each, and one family had four positive members. Genetic profiles were obtained by three methods: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; restriction endonuclease analysis, and random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis. DNA fingerprinting of C. albicans isolated from one body site three consecutive times revealed that each of the 12 families carried a distinct genotype. No two families shared the same strain, and two or more members of a family commonly shared the same strain. Intrafamily genotypic identity (i.e., each member within the family harbored the same strain) was demonstrated in six families. Genotypes of isolates from husband and wife differed from one another in five families. All three methods were satisfactory in determining genotypes; however, we concluded that restriction endonuclease analysis provided adequate resolving power.

  2. Death at the Worksite: Helping Grieving Family Members

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Grief at Work Working Through Grief About Us Death at the Worksite: Helping Grieving Family Members By ... fatal heart attacks occur in the workplace. Other deaths — from accidents, for example — can also happen during ...

  3. 42 CFR 435.119 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... member of a family, including pregnant women and children eligible for Medicaid under § 435.116 of this... Medicaid to individuals who: (1) Are age 19 or older and under age 65; (2) Are not pregnant; (3) Are...

  4. Family Members' Influence on Family Meal Vegetable Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenrich, Tionni R.; Brown, J. Lynne; Miller-Day, Michelle; Kelley, Kevin J.; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Characterize the process of family vegetable selection (especially cruciferous, deep orange, and dark green leafy vegetables); demonstrate the usefulness of Exchange Theory (how family norms and experiences interact with rewards and costs) for interpreting the data. Design: Eight focus groups, 2 with each segment (men/women vegetable…

  5. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... from overseas. 884.10 Section 884.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects persons overseas wanted by Federal or state authorities to make themselves available to those authorities...

  6. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from overseas. 884.10 Section 884.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects persons overseas wanted by Federal or state authorities to make themselves available to those authorities...

  7. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... from overseas. 884.10 Section 884.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects persons overseas wanted by Federal or state authorities to make themselves available to those authorities...

  8. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... from overseas. 884.10 Section 884.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects persons overseas wanted by Federal or state authorities to make themselves available to those authorities...

  9. 32 CFR 884.10 - Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... from overseas. 884.10 Section 884.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... § 884.10 Returning members, employees, and family members from overseas. The Air Force expects persons overseas wanted by Federal or state authorities to make themselves available to those authorities...

  10. 75 FR 5870 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for the HCTC Medicare Family Member Registration Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ...family member. This form allows family member to begin the HCTC registration process by verifying the family member's eligibility. Current Actions...collection. Affected Public: Business and for-profit. Estimated...

  11. 75 FR 5873 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for the HCTC Family Member Eligibility Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ...family member. This form allows family member to begin the HCTC registration process by verifying the family member's eligibility. Current Actions...collection. Affected Public: Business and for-profit. Estimated...

  12. Myocardin Family Members Drive Formation of Caveolae

    PubMed Central

    Krawczyk, Katarzyna K.; Yao Mattisson, Ingrid; Ekman, Mari; Oskolkov, Nikolay; Grantinge, Rebecka; Kotowska, Dorota; Olde, Björn; Hansson, Ola; Albinsson, Sebastian; Miano, Joseph M.; Rippe, Catarina; Swärd, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Caveolae are membrane organelles that play roles in glucose and lipid metabolism and in vascular function. Formation of caveolae requires caveolins and cavins. The make-up of caveolae and their density is considered to reflect cell-specific transcriptional control mechanisms for caveolins and cavins, but knowledge regarding regulation of caveolae genes is incomplete. Myocardin (MYOCD) and its relative MRTF-A (MKL1) are transcriptional coactivators that control genes which promote smooth muscle differentiation. MRTF-A communicates changes in actin polymerization to nuclear gene transcription. Here we tested if myocardin family proteins control biogenesis of caveolae via activation of caveolin and cavin transcription. Using human coronary artery smooth muscle cells we found that jasplakinolide and latrunculin B (LatB), substances that promote and inhibit actin polymerization, increased and decreased protein levels of caveolins and cavins, respectively. The effect of LatB was associated with reduced mRNA levels for these genes and this was replicated by the MRTF inhibitor CCG-1423 which was non-additive with LatB. Overexpression of myocardin and MRTF-A caused 5-10-fold induction of caveolins whereas cavin-1 and cavin-2 were induced 2-3-fold. PACSIN2 also increased, establishing positive regulation of caveolae genes from three families. Full regulation of CAV1 was retained in its proximal promoter. Knock down of the serum response factor (SRF), which mediates many of the effects of myocardin, decreased cavin-1 but increased caveolin-1 and -2 mRNAs. Viral transduction of myocardin increased the density of caveolae 5-fold in vitro. A decrease of CAV1 was observed concomitant with a decrease of the smooth muscle marker calponin in aortic aneurysms from mice (C57Bl/6) infused with angiotensin II. Human expression data disclosed correlations of MYOCD with CAV1 in a majority of human tissues and in the heart, correlation with MKL2 (MRTF-B) was observed. The myocardin family of transcriptional coactivators therefore drives formation of caveolae and this effect is largely independent of SRF. PMID:26244347

  13. Organ donation experiences of family members.

    PubMed

    Manuel, April; Solberg, Shirley; MacDonald, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative research study was to describe and interpret what life is like for individuals who have consented to donate the organs of a deceased relative for transplantation. This study captures the meaning of this phenomenon in a way to help nurses develop new insights into the lives of these individuals, enable them to implement strategies to better assist and support the family, and perhaps decrease barriers to organ donation. Thematic analysis of the participants' narrative descriptions identified five essential themes: the struggle to acknowledge the death, the need for a positive outcome of the death, creating a living memory, buying time, and the significance of support networks in the organ donation decision. The integration of these themes revealed the essence of the experience as creating of a sense of peace. These five themes and the essence of the experience are discussed in relation to the literature, followed by recommendations for future nursing practice, education, and research. PMID:20629462

  14. Spectra of small Koronis family members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Rivkin, A.; Trilling, D.; Moskovitz, N.

    2014-07-01

    The space-weathering process and its implications for the relationships between S- and Q-type asteroids and ordinary chondrite meteorites are long-standing problems in asteroid science. Although the visible and near-infrared spectra of S- and Q-type objects qualitatively show the same absorption features and quantitatively show evidence of the same minerals, the S types display increased spectral slopes and muted absorption features compared to the Q types. This spectral mismatch is consistent with the effects of the space weathering process. Binzel et al. provided the missing link between Q- and S-type bodies in near-Earth space by showing a reddening of spectral slope in objects from 0.1 to 5 km that corresponded to the transition from Q- to S-type spectra. This result implied that size, and therefore age, is related to the relationship between Q- and S-type. The existence of Q-type objects in the main belt was not confirmed until Mothe-Diniz and Nesvorny (2008) found them in young S-type clusters. To investigate the trend from Q to S in the main belt, we examined space weathering within the old main-belt Koronis family using a spectrophotometric survey (Rivkin et al. 2011, Thomas et al. 2011). Rivkin et al. (2011) identified several potential Q-type objects within the Koronis family. Our Q-type candidates were identified using broad-band spectrophotometry and could not be taxonomically classified on that basis alone. We obtained follow-up visible and near-infrared spectral observations of our potential Q-type objects, (26970) Elias, (45610) 2000 DJ_{48}, and (37411) 2001 XF_{152}, using Gemini and Magellan. We will present the results of these spectral follow-up observations. Observations of (26970) Elias demonstrate that the object is more consistent with the average Q-type spectrum than the average S-type spectrum.

  15. 77 FR 18143 - Members of a Family for Purpose of Filing a CBP Family Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ...relationships between members of the public...together as a family. DATES...during regular business days between...the Small Business Regulatory...small business, small organizations...individuals and families, and these...1651-0009 by members of the...

  16. Characterisation of candidate members of (136108) Haumea's family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snodgrass, C.; Carry, B.; Dumas, C.; Hainaut, O.

    2010-02-01

    Context. Ragozzine & Brown presented a list of candidate members of the first collisional family to be found among the trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), the one associated with (136108) Haumea (2003 EL61). Aims: We aim to identify which of the candidate members of the Haumea collisional family are true members, by searching for water ice on their surfaces. We also attempt to test the theory that the family members are made of almost pure water ice by using optical light-curves to constrain their densities. Methods: We use optical and near-infrared photometry to identify water ice, in particular using the (J - H_S) colour as a sensitive measure of the absorption feature at 1.6~? m. We use the CH_4 filter of the new Hawk-I instrument at the VLT as a short H-band (HS) for this as it is more sensitive to the water ice feature than the usual H filter. Results: We report colours for 22 candidate family members, including NIR colours for 15. We confirm that 2003 SQ317 and 2005 CB79 are family members, bringing the total number of confirmed family members to 10. We reject 8 candidates as having no water ice absorption based on our Hawk-I measurements, and 5 more based on their optical colours. The combination of the large proportion of rejected candidates and time lost to weather prevent us from putting strong constraints on the density of the family members based on the light-curves obtained so far; we can still say that none of the family members (except Haumea) require a large density to explain their light-curve. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla & Paranal, Chile - http://archive.eso.org/wdb/wdb/eso/sched_rep_arc/query?progid=81.C-0544>81.C-0544 & http://archive.eso.org/wdb/wdb/eso/sched_rep_arc/query?progid=82.C-0306">82.C-0306.

  17. The PCH family protein, Cdc15p, recruits two F-actin nucleation pathways to coordinate cytokinetic actin ring formation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Carnahan, Robert H; Gould, Kathleen L

    2003-09-01

    Cytokinetic actin ring (CAR) formation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe requires two independent actin nucleation pathways, one dependent on the Arp2/3 complex and another involving the formin Cdc12p. Here we investigate the role of the S. pombe Cdc15 homology family protein, Cdc15p, in CAR assembly and find that it interacts with proteins from both of these nucleation pathways. Cdc15p binds directly to the Arp2/3 complex activator Myo1p, which likely explains why actin patches and the Arp2/3 complex fail to be medially recruited during mitosis in cdc15 mutants. Cdc15p also binds directly to Cdc12p. Cdc15p and Cdc12p not only display mutual dependence for CAR localization, but also exist together in a ring-nucleating structure before CAR formation. The disruption of these interactions in cdc15 null cells is likely to be the reason for their complete lack of CARs. We propose a model in which Cdc15p plays a critical role in recruiting and coordinating the pathways essential for the assembly of medially located F-actin filaments and construction of the CAR. PMID:12939254

  18. Service Members' Experiences in Staying Connected With Family While Deployed.

    PubMed

    Durham, Susan W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the communication issues experienced by service members staying connected with families while deployed. Qualitative design guided data collection using interviews with 20 key informants who had been deployed in Iraq or Afghanistan. Inductive content analysis and NVivo software enabled data analysis. From the data, 5 main themes emerged: Creating Normalcy Through Connecting With Others; Understanding the Spoken and Unspoken; Connecting and Disconnecting; Changing Sense of Self; and Sustaining a Common Bond. A collective understanding of common communication challenges emerged that had an impact on service member/family relationships, mission focus, and safety. PMID:26517340

  19. [Psychoeducation of patients and their family members during episode psychosis].

    PubMed

    Hodé, Y

    2013-09-01

    The concept of psychoeducation is close to the concept of therapeutic education and refers to a kind of education intervention targeting people with a mental health condition. In the framework of psychosis, psychoeducation can be offered to patients, family members or both. The efficacy of patient psychoeducation on treatment adherence or social functioning is well-established but only if the family benefits of a joint psychoeducational intervention. Family psychoeducation, even without patient psychoeducation has proven efficacy in reducing relapse rate. This reduction is of the same order of magnitude as that obtained with an antipsychotic medication. PMID:24084420

  20. 5 CFR 890.302 - Coverage of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... no person receives benefits under more than one enrollment, each enrollee must tell the insurance... tell the insurance carrier which family members are covered under his or her enrollment. These... benefits under only one enrollment. Each enrollee must notify his or her insurance carrier of the...

  1. 5 CFR 890.302 - Coverage of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... no person receives benefits under more than one enrollment, each enrollee must tell the insurance... tell the insurance carrier which family members are covered under his or her enrollment. These... benefits under only one enrollment. Each enrollee must notify his or her insurance carrier of the...

  2. 5 CFR 890.302 - Coverage of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... no person receives benefits under more than one enrollment, each enrollee must tell the insurance... tell the insurance carrier which family members are covered under his or her enrollment. These... benefits under only one enrollment. Each enrollee must notify his or her insurance carrier of the...

  3. 5 CFR 890.302 - Coverage of family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... no person receives benefits under more than one enrollment, each enrollee must tell the insurance... tell the insurance carrier which family members are covered under his or her enrollment. These... benefits under only one enrollment. Each enrollee must notify his or her insurance carrier of the...

  4. 42 CFR 436.121 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Qualified family members. 436.121 Section 436.121 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN GUAM, PUERTO RICO, AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy §...

  5. Family Members' Perceptions of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Device Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Rita L.; Parette, Howard P., Jr.; Stoner, Julia B.; Angell, Maureen E.; Carroll, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Although advancements in technology have expanded the use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices for children with disabilities, the use of AAC devices in school and home settings is often inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to examine family members' perceptions regarding the use of AAC devices. Factors that…

  6. 42 CFR 436.121 - Qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified family members. 436.121 Section 436.121 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN GUAM, PUERTO RICO, AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS...

  7. BEING SUPPORTIVE AS A FAMILY MEMBER OR FRIEND

    E-print Network

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    . Encourage your loved one to maintain their routine After a crisis, emotions can run high. It's easy to rush us on Facebook! Facebook.com/UCCFSU A family member or other loved one has been through a difficult the same story, but talking can be a crucial part of your loved one's recovery. Be supportive

  8. 76 FR 71259 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ...1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded...individuals who work for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of...follows: Sec. 301.7701-2T Business entities; definitions...

  9. 76 FR 76037 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ...1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded...individuals who work for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of...follows: Sec. 301.7701-2T Business entities; definitions...

  10. 76 FR 67363 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ...exceptions for family members and religious...provided, a business entity that has...would not be a member of a qualifying...exceptions for family employees and members of religious...impact on small businesses....

  11. Acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Family Members in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Yvonne; Montoya, Jose G.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated 32 families of persons with acute toxoplasmosis in which >1 other family member was tested for Toxoplasma gondii infection; 18 (56%) families had >1 additional family member with acute infection. Family members of persons with acute toxoplasmosis should be screened for infection, especially pregnant women and immunocompromised persons. PMID:24274896

  12. Identification of members of the P-glycoprotein multigene family.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, W F; Sarangi, F; Zastawny, R L; Veinot-Drebot, L; Ling, V

    1989-01-01

    Overproduction of P-glycoprotein is intimately associated with multidrug resistance. This protein appears to be encoded by a multigene family. Thus, differential expression of different members of this family may contribute to the complexity of the multidrug resistance phenotype. Three lambda genomic clones isolated from a hamster genomic library represent different members of the hamster P-glycoprotein gene family. Using a highly conserved exon probe, we found that the hamster P-glycoprotein gene family consists of three genes. We also found that the P-glycoprotein gene family consists of three genes in mice but has only two genes in humans and rhesus monkeys. The hamster P-glycoprotein genes have similar exon-intron organizations within the 3' region encoding the cytoplasmic domains. We propose that the hamster P-glycoprotein gene family arose from gene duplication. The hamster pgp1 and pgp2 genes appear to be more closely related to each other than either gene is to the pgp3 gene. We speculate that the hamster pgp1 and pgp2 genes arose from a recent gene duplication event and that primates did not undergo this duplication and therefore contain only two P-glycoprotein genes. Images PMID:2566908

  13. Identification of members of the P-glycoprotein multigene family

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, W.F.; Sarangi, F.; Zastawny, R.L.; Veinot-Drebot, L.; Ling, V. )

    1989-03-01

    Overproduction of P-glycoprotein is intimately associated with multidrug resistance. This protein appears to be encoded by a multigene family. Thus, differential expression of different members of this family may contribute to the complexity of the multidrug resistance phenotype. Three lambda genomic clones isolated from a hamster genomic library represent different members of the hamster P-glycoprotein gene family. Using a highly conserved exon probe, the authors found that the hamster P-glycoprotein gene family consists of three genes. They also found that the P-glycoprotein gene family consists of three genes in mice but has only two genes in humans and rhesus monkeys. The hamster P-glycoprotein genes have similar exon-intron organizations within the 3' region encoding the cytoplasmic domains. The propose that the hamster P-glycoprotein gene family arose from gene duplication. The hamster pgpl and pgp2 genes appear to be more closely related to each other than either gene is to the pgp3 gene. They speculate that the hamster pgpl and pgp2 genes arose from a recent gene duplication event and that primates did not undergo this duplication and therefore contain only two P-glycoprotein genes.

  14. The serendipitous origin of chordate secretin peptide family members

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The secretin family is a pleotropic group of brain-gut peptides with affinity for class 2 G-protein coupled receptors (secretin family GPCRs) proposed to have emerged early in the metazoan radiation via gene or genome duplications. In human, 10 members exist and sequence and functional homologues and ligand-receptor pairs have been characterised in representatives of most vertebrate classes. Secretin-like family GPCR homologues have also been isolated in non-vertebrate genomes however their corresponding ligands have not been convincingly identified and their evolution remains enigmatic. Results In silico sequence comparisons failed to retrieve a non-vertebrate (porifera, cnidaria, protostome and early deuterostome) secretin family homologue. In contrast, secretin family members were identified in lamprey, several teleosts and tetrapods and comparative studies revealed that sequence and structure is in general maintained. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis revealed that PACAP, VIP and GCG are the most highly conserved members and two major peptide subfamilies exist; i) PACAP-like which includes PACAP, PRP, VIP, PH, GHRH, SCT and ii) GCG-like which includes GCG, GLP1, GLP2 and GIP. Conserved regions flanking secretin family members were established by comparative analysis of the Takifugu, Xenopus, chicken and human genomes and gene homologues were identified in nematode, Drosophila and Ciona genomes but no gene linkage occurred. However, in Drosophila and nematode genes which flank vertebrate secretin family members were identified in the same chromosome. Conclusions Receptors of the secretin-like family GPCRs are present in protostomes but no sequence homologues of the vertebrate cognate ligands have been identified. It has not been possible to determine when the ligands evolved but it seems likely that it was after the protostome-deuterostome divergence from an exon that was part of an existing gene or gene fragment by rounds of gene/genome duplication. The duplicate exon under different evolutionary pressures originated the chordate PACAP-like and GCG-like subfamily groups. This event occurred after the emergence of the metazoan secretin GPCRs and led to the establishment of novel peptide-receptor interactions that contributed to the generation of novel physiological functions in the chordate lineage. PMID:20459630

  15. Roles of Nebulin Family Members in the Heart.

    PubMed

    Bang, Marie-Louise; Chen, Ju

    2015-09-25

    The members of the nebulin protein family, including nebulin, nebulette, LASP-1, LASP-2, and N-RAP, contain various numbers of nebulin repeats and bind to actin, but are otherwise heterogeneous with regard to size, expression pattern, and function. This review focuses on the roles of nebulin family members in the heart. Nebulin is the largest member predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle, where it stretches along the thin filament. In heart, nebulin is detectable only at low levels and its absence has no apparent effects. Nebulette is similar in structure to the nebulin C-terminal Z-line region and specifically expressed in heart. Nebulette gene mutations have been identified in dilated cardiomyopathy patients and transgenic mice overexpressing nebulette mutants partially recapitulate the human pathology. In contrast, nebulette knockout mice show no functional phenotype, but exhibit Z-line widening. LASP-2 is an isoform of nebulette expressed in multiple tissues, including the heart. It is present in the Z-line and intercalated disc and able to bind and cross-link filamentous actin. LASP-1 is similar in structure to LASP-2, but expressed only in non-muscle tissue. N-RAP is present in myofibril precursors during myofibrillogenesis and thought to be involved in myofibril assembly, while it is localized at the intercalated disc in adult heart. Additional in vivo models are required to provide further insights into the functions of nebulin family members in the heart. (Circ J 2015; 79: 2081-2087). PMID:26321576

  16. 77 FR 18143 - Members of a Family for Purpose of Filing a CBP Family Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ...U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is proposing to revise its regulations regarding U.S. returning residents who are eligible to file a single customs declaration for members of a family traveling together upon arrival in the United States. Specifically, CBP is proposing to expand the definition of the term ``members of a family residing in one household'' to allow more U.S. returning......

  17. The Lost Boys of Sudan: Ambiguous Loss, Search for Family, and Reestablishing Relationships with Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Qin, Desiree B.; Bates, Laura; Johnson, Deborah J.; Rana, Meenal

    2008-01-01

    The "Lost Boys of Sudan" were separated from their families by civil war and subsequently lived in 3 other countries--Ethiopia, Kenya, and the United States. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 refugees who located surviving family members in Sudan after an average separation of 13.7 years. The interviews probed their experiences of…

  18. Distribution of transglutaminase family members in mouse whole body sections.

    PubMed

    Tatsukawa, Hideki; Abe, Natsumi; Ohashi, Shintaro; Hitomi, Kiyotaka

    2015-11-27

    Transglutaminases (TGs) comprise a protein family in which the members catalyze the formation of isopeptide bonds between glutamine and lysine residues in various proteins. Eight enzymes have been identified and designated as factor XIII (FXIII) and TG1-7. Expression studies of four major members, i.e., FXIII, TG1, TG2, and TG3, have been performed in a relatively large number of mammalian tissues in comparison with those on the other isozymes. The structural and biochemical characteristics of these individual isozymes and expression analyses of TG family in some tissue extracts have been reported, but there have been no simultaneous comparative analyses of both their mRNA and protein expression patterns in tissues distributions. Thus, we developed novel experimental systems for in situ hybridization using cryofilm attached to whole body sections of neonatal mice, thereby obtaining data regarding the tissue distributions of the major TG isozymes. In this study, we performed the first detailed comparative analysis of the mRNA and protein distribution studies of TG family members in a wide range of mouse tissues. These data will be helpful for elucidating the unknown physiological and pathological functions of TGs. PMID:26456644

  19. Organ Donation Campaigns: Perspective of Dialysis Patient's Family Members

    PubMed Central

    TUMIN, Makmor; RAJA ARIFFIN, Raja Noriza; MOHD SATAR, NurulHuda; NG, Kok-Peng; LIM, Soo-Kun; CHONG, Chin-Sieng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Solving the dilemma of the organ shortage in Malaysia requires educating Malaysians about organ donation and transplantation. This paper aims at exploring the average Malaysian households ’ preferred channels of campaigns and the preferred campaigners in a family setting, targeting at the dialysis family members. Methods We analyzed the responses of 350 respondents regarding organ donation campaigns. The respondents are 2 family members of 175 dialysis patients from 3 different institutions. The information on respondents’ willingness to donate and preferred method and channel of organ donation campaign were collected through questionnaire. Results Malaysian families have a good tendency to welcome campaigns in both the public and private (their homes) spheres. We also found that campaigns facilitated by the electronic media (Television and Radio) and executed by experienced doctors are expected to optimize the outcomes of organ donation, in general. Chi-square tests show that there are no significant differences in welcoming campaigns among ethnics. However, ethnics preferences over the campaign methods and campaigners are significantly different (P <0.05). Conclusion Ethnic differences imply that necessary modifications on the campaign channels and campaigners should also be taken under consideration. By identifying the preferred channel and campaigners, this study hopes to shed some light on the ways to overcome the problem of organ shortage in Malaysia. PMID:25909060

  20. Stromal-dependent tumor promotion by MIF family members

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Robert A.; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha

    2014-01-01

    Solid tumors are composed of a heterogeneous population of cells that interact with each other and with soluble and insoluble factors that, when combined, strongly influence the relative proliferation, differentiation, motility, matrix remodeling, metabolism and microvessel density of malignant lesions. One family of soluble factors that is becoming increasingly associated with pro-tumoral phenotypes within tumor microenvironments is that of the migration inhibitory factor family which includes its namesake, MIF, and its only known family member, D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT). This review seeks to highlight our current understanding of the relative contributions of a variety of immune and non-immune tumor stromal cell populations and, within those contexts, will summarize the literature associated with MIF and/or D-DT. PMID:25277536

  1. Family health information sharing among older adults: reaching more family members.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Sato; Schafer, Ellen J

    2015-01-01

    Although family health history (FHH) information has tremendous potential in the prevention of common complex diseases such as heart disease and cancer, lack of knowledge about one's own FHH among the public hinders its utility. Older individuals often desire to contribute to the well-being of younger generations and also play critical roles in disseminating this information. This study evaluated psychosocial factors associated with the extent of FHH communication within families. Older adults (N?=?110) were interviewed at three senior centers in an urban community. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis showed that respondents who received FHH from a parent reported 41 % more family members with whom they shared FHH (b?=?0.34, p?family network size. Furthermore, one unit increase in the number of family members with whom respondents exchange reciprocal emotional support (b?=?0.04, p?family members with whom respondents shared FHH, respectively. Future efforts may inform older adults about their important role in modeling FHH communication behavior to encourage information sharing in future generations while providing information about how to collect and disseminate FHH to increase their familiarity and ability to share FHH within the family. PMID:25074679

  2. 49 CFR 805.735-8 - Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises. 805.735-8 Section 805.735-8 Transportation...Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises. (a) No individual will be employed or...

  3. 5 CFR 3201.106 - Employment of family members outside the Corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Employment of family members outside the Corporation. 3201... § 3201.106 Employment of family members outside the Corporation. ...its affiliate; (2) A firm or business with which, to the...

  4. Asteroid (90) Antiope: Another icy member of the Themis family?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, Kelsey D.; Emery, Joshua P.; Campins, Humberto; Kelley, Michael S. P.

    2015-07-01

    Many members of the Themis family show evidence of hydration in the form of oxidized iron in phyllosilicates (Florczak, M. et al. [1999]. Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 134, 463-471), and OH-bearing minerals (Takir, D., Emery, J.P. [2012]. Icarus 219, 641-654). The largest member, (24) Themis, has H2O ice covering its surface (Campins, H. et al. [2010]. Nature 464, 1320-1321; Rivkin, A.S., Emery, J.P. [2010]. Nature 464, 1322-1323). We have investigated the second largest Themis-family asteroid, (90) Antiope, which Castillo-Rogez and Schmidt (Castillo-Rogez, J.C., Schmidt, B.E. [2010]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L10202) predict to have a composition that includes water ice and organics. We obtained 2-4-?m spectroscopy of (90) Antiope in 2006 and 2008, and we find an absorption in the 3-?m region clearly present in our 2008 spectrum and likely in our 2006 spectrum. Both spectra have rounded, bowl-shaped absorptions consistent with those ascribed to water ice as in the spectrum of Asteroid (24) Themis. We also present and compare Spitzer 8-12-?m mid-infrared spectra of (24) Themis and (90) Antiope. We find that (90) Antiope is lacking a "fairy castle" dusty surface, which is in contrast to (24) Themis, other Themis family members (Licandro, J. et al. [2012]. Astron. Astrophys. 537, A73), and Jupiter Trojans (e.g. Emery, J.P., Cruikshank, D.P., Van Cleve, J. [2006]. Icarus 182, 496-512). We conclude that the surface structure of (90) Antiope is most similar to Cybele Asteroid (121) Hermione (Hargrove, K.D. et al. [2012]. Icarus 221, 453-455).

  5. Genochondromatosis type I: A clinicoradiological study of four family members.

    PubMed

    Sareen, Atul; D'souza, Maria M; Reddy, Kanakeya Bachha; Kanojia, Rajesh Kumar; Kumar, Ajay

    2015-11-01

    Genochondromatosis is an extremely rare autosomal dominant disorder, which manifests during childhood and tends to regress in adult life. The bony lesions are symmetrically distributed with characteristic localization at the metaphysis of proximal humerus and distal femur. Two types have been described based on the involvement of clavicle. Usually asymptomatic, sometimes patients may present with pathological fractures. In this communication, we describe four members of a family with Genochondromatosis type I, with some additional clinical and radiological findings not reported previously. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26174433

  6. Certification of Health Care Provider for Family Member's Serious Health Condition

    E-print Network

    of Health Care Provider for Family Member's Serious Health Condition Carnegie Mellon University HR for FMLA leave to care for a covered family member with a serious health condition. If requested by your: __________________________________________________________________________________ First Middle Last Name of family member for whom you will provide care

  7. 77 FR 27542 - Agency Information Collection Activities (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities (Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey) Under OMB Review... INFORMATION: Title: Bereaved Family Member Satisfaction Survey, VA Form 10- 21081(NR). OMB Control Number... VA Form 10-21081(NR) will be use to survey family members of deceased veterans on their...

  8. 41 CFR 302-3.203 - If I am transferring in the interest of the Government and my employed immediate family member(s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...the Government and my employed immediate family member(s) transfer is not in the interest...Relocation of Two Or More Employed Immediate Family Members § 302-3.203 If I am transferring...the Government and my employed immediate family member(s) transfer is not in the...

  9. 41 CFR 302-3.203 - If I am transferring in the interest of the Government and my employed immediate family member(s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...the Government and my employed immediate family member(s) transfer is not in the interest...Relocation of Two Or More Employed Immediate Family Members § 302-3.203 If I am transferring...the Government and my employed immediate family member(s) transfer is not in the...

  10. Characterization of Lamprey IL-17 Family Members and Their Receptors.

    PubMed

    Han, Qifeng; Das, Sabyasachi; Hirano, Masayuki; Holland, Stephen J; McCurley, Nathanael; Guo, Peng; Rosenberg, Charles S; Boehm, Thomas; Cooper, Max D

    2015-12-01

    IL-17 is an ancient cytokine implicated in a variety of immune defense reactions. We identified five members of the sea lamprey IL-17 family (IL-17D.1, IL-17D.2, IL-17E, IL-17B, and IL-17C) and six IL-17R genes (IL-17RA.1, IL-17RA.2, IL-17RA.3, IL-17RF, IL-17RE/RC, and IL-17RD), determined their relationship with mammalian orthologs, and examined their expression patterns and potential interactions to explore their roles in innate and adaptive immunity. The most highly expressed IL-17 family member is IL-17D.1 (mammalian IL-17D like), which was found to be preferentially expressed by epithelial cells of skin, intestine, and gills and by the two types of lamprey T-like cells. IL-17D.1 binding to rIL-17RA.1 and to the surface of IL-17RA.1-expressing B-like cells and monocytes of lamprey larvae was demonstrated, and treatment of lamprey blood cells with rIL-17D.1 protein enhanced transcription of genes expressed by the B-like cells. These findings suggest a potential role for IL-17 in coordinating the interactions between T-like cells and other cells of the adaptive and innate immune systems in jawless vertebrates. PMID:26491201

  11. 78 FR 76529 - Members of a Family for Purpose of Filing CBP Family Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ...owned and operated business not dominant in its...qualifies as a small business under the Small Business Act); a small not-for-profit...regulates individuals and families, and these are not...number 1651-0009 by members of the public...

  12. 29 CFR 825.124 - Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember. 825...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.124...

  13. 29 CFR 825.124 - Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Needed to care for a family member or covered servicemember. 825...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.124...

  14. 29 CFR 779.234 - Establishments whose only regular employees are the owner or members of his immediate family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...are the owner or members of his immediate family. 779.234...Franchise and Other Business Arrangements...are the owner or members of his immediate family. Section 3...child, or other member of the immediate family of such...

  15. VISA LETTERS for family members to attend graduation For non-EEA family members of graduands requiring a visa support letter for travel to the

    E-print Network

    Wallace, Mark

    family member(s) Please note that names must match exactly the names as they appear in the passport. Name(s) Relationship to you Date and Place of Birth Passport No Passport Issue Date Passport Expiry Date Home Address member's passport, to include the photo page and personal details page with the passport cover(s). Please

  16. Muscarinic Toxicity Among Family Members After Consumption of Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    George, Peter; Hegde, Narasimha

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are commercially cultivated over the world and safe for human consumption, except in those with known allergies. Among the thousands of mushroom species identified, few are considered to be edible. Mushroom hunting has emerged as an adventure and recreational activity in recent decades. Wild forms of mushrooms are often poisonous and visually mimic the edible ones, thus leading to mistaken harvesting, consumption, and toxicities. In literature, various systemic toxic syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning have been described. We report four members of a family with muscarinic manifestations after accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. The Clitocybe species of mushrooms they consumed resulted in their muscarinic toxicity. Patients with muscarinic mushroom toxicity have early onset of symptoms and they respond well to atropine and symptomatic supportive care. PMID:23833447

  17. Identification of a novel member in the family Albulidae (bonefishes).

    PubMed

    Wallace, E M; Tringali, M D

    2010-05-01

    A novel Caribbean species Albula sp. cf. vulpes in the family Albulidae (bonefishes) was diagnosed through genetic and morphometric study. Phylogenies derived from 16S rRNA sequences revealed deeply separated lineages among Caribbean bonefishes. Mitochondrial DNA sequence divergences indicated a separation between 3.0 and 5.2 million years before present (b.p.). Cytochrome b phylogenies further supported the classification of A. sp. cf. vulpes as a novel albulid. Morphological variability revealed several differences between A. sp. cf. vulpes and other Caribbean species. A microsatellite library was developed to discern hybridization rates among the species. Microsatellite analyses revealed low levels of hybridization between some members in the complex. One instance of backcrossing was found between A. vulpesxA. sp. B and a pure A. sp. B, indicating that hybrids may have reduced fitness or may be reproductively isolated due to temporal-spatial spawning habitat differences. PMID:20557650

  18. 38 CFR 71.50 - Provision of certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...family counseling, training, and mental health services to a family...

  19. Relations between the Family Members According to Kvebaek Family Sculpture Technique: Comparative Study in Families in Control Group and with Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veisson, Marika

    This report discusses the findings from an Estonian study that used the Kvebaek Family Sculpture Technique to compare family relationships in families of 47 children (ages 7-10) with siblings with mental retardation to family relationships in families of 43 typical children. The family size ranged from four to five members, so there were two to…

  20. Comparison of Families with and without a Suicide Prevention Plan Following a Suicidal Attempt by a Family Member

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Heung-Don; Kim, Nam-Young; Gil, Hyo-wook; Jeong, Du-shin

    2015-01-01

    The frequency and extent of the existence of a familial suicide prevention plan may differ across cultures. The aim of this work was, therefore, to determine how common it was for families to develop a suicide prevention plan and to compare the main measures used by families with and without such a plan, after an attempt to commit suicide was made by a member of a family living in a rural area of Korea. On the basis of the presence or absence of a familial suicide prevention plan, we compared 50 recruited families that were divided into 2 groups, with Group A (31 families) employing a familial suicide prevention plan after a suicide attempt by a family member, and Group B (19 families) not doing so. The strategy that was employed most frequently to prevent a reoccurrence among both populations was promoting communication among family members, followed by seeking psychological counseling and/or psychiatric treatment. Contrary to our expectation, the economic burden from medical treatment after a suicide attempt did not influence the establishment of a familial suicide prevention plan. It is a pressing social issue that 38% (19 of 50) of families in this study did not employ a familial suicide prevention plan, even after a family member had attempted suicide. Regional suicide prevention centers and/or health authorities should pay particular attention to these patients and their families. PMID:26130963

  1. How Can I Tell You? Secrecy and Disclosure with Children When a Family Member Has AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasker, Mary

    This book addresses issues of secrecy and disclosure when a child or other family member has AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), and offers examples of how some families have resolved these issues. After an introduction which notes the involvement of many families with an AIDS-infected member, the first chapter addresses the common first…

  2. Racial disparity in capital punishment and its impact on family members of capital defendants.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A review of the literature was conducted to explore the continuing racial disparity in capital punishment and its effects on family members of African American capital defendants. Statistical studies conducted on both the state and national level conclude that racial bias influences all stages of the death penalty process, with race of the victim being one of the most significant factors. This racial bias places an added burden on family members of African American capital defendants. While research has explored the impact of capital punishment on family members of capital defendants, the unique experiences of family members of African American defendants has not been addressed in the research literature. PMID:23581803

  3. How are health care chaplains helpful to bereaved family members? Telephone survey results.

    PubMed

    Broccolo, Gerard T; VandeCreek, Larry

    2004-01-01

    After conducting telephone interviews with 130 next-of-kin whose loved one died, the authors report whether and how chaplains were helpful to these family members. Analysis of their responses indicated that chaplains were helpful in five ways. They provided comfort and support; they helped family members with details before, during, and after death; they acted as surrogate family members until other loved ones arrived; their availability provided a safety net even if contact was limited; and they functioned as a spiritual figure who provided the transition of the patient from earth to heaven. Family members rated the helpfulness of chaplains as midway between very good and excellent. PMID:15162655

  4. STS-106 crew gathers to greet family members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    While meeting with family on the day before launch, the STS-106 crew poses for a photo. Waving, left to right, are Mission Specialist Richard A. Mastracchio, Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Edward T. Lu, Yuri I. Malenchenko, Boris V. Morukov and Daniel C. Burbank. Malenchenko and Morukov are with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency. In the background (left) is Launch Pad 39B and Space Shuttle Atlantis, with the Rotating Service Structure still in place. STS-106 is scheduled to launch Sept. 8, 2000, at 8:45 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. On the 11-day mission, the seven-member crew will perform support tasks on orbit, transfer supplies and prepare the living quarters in the newly arrived Zvezda Service Module. The first long-duration crew, dubbed '''Expedition One,''' is due to arrive at the Station in late fall. Landing is targeted for Sept. 19 at 4:59 a.m. EDT at the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility.

  5. A new family member for gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, N M; Sower, S A

    1985-06-01

    The two living representatives of the most ancient vertebrates, Agnathans, are lamprey and hagfish. Using immunological methods, we identified gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-like molecules in the lamprey brain, but not hagfish. The lamprey GnRH was detected poorly by antisera directed at the C-terminus, suggesting that a C-terminal amino acid substitution may have occurred in the lamprey molecule compared with mammalian GnRH. In spite of this, lamprey and mammalian GnRH-like molecules have the same retention time on an isocratic HPLC system and parallel inhibition of mammalian 125I-GnRH in a radioimmunoassay. The lamprey GnRH-like molecule has a distinct HPLC elution pattern compared with dogfish shark, salmon, trout and probably birds. Thus lamprey GnRH represents another member of the growing family of GnRH molecules. Additionally, lamprey GnRH may be a stem molecule in the vertebrate evolution of GnRH. PMID:3895023

  6. 76 FR 67384 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions To Disregard Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ...of the Small Business Administration...impact on small business. Comments and...b)(3)-1 Family Employment...where both are members of religious...c)(5)-1 Family Employment...301.7701-2 Business entities;...

  7. 41 CFR 302-3.225 - If my immediate family member(s) return to the U.S. before me, will I be reimbursed for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false If my immediate family member(s) return to the U.S. before...transporting part of my household goods with my family and the rest of my household goods when...Transfers Prior Return of Immediate Family Members § 302-3.225 If my...

  8. 41 CFR 302-3.225 - If my immediate family member(s) return to the U.S. before me, will I be reimbursed for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false If my immediate family member(s) return to the U.S. before...transporting part of my household goods with my family and the rest of my household goods when...Transfers Prior Return of Immediate Family Members § 302-3.225 If my...

  9. Catapulting Shifts in Images, Understandings, and Actions for Family Members through Research-Based Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Sherry L.; Gillies, Jennifer; Mitchell, Gail J.; Jonas-Simpson, Christine; Whyte, Colleen; Carson, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This article examined how images, understandings, and actions change for family members of persons with dementia after the introduction of a research-based drama called I'm Still Here. Guided by interpretivist phenomenology, a set of seven pre- and post-performance focus groups were conducted with family members (n = 48) in four cities. Findings…

  10. Yale Law School 2014-2015 Family Member Enrollment Verification Form

    E-print Network

    Lee, Daeyeol

    Yale Law School 2014-2015 Family Member Enrollment Verification Form INSTRUCTIONS: It is the policy of the Yale Law School Financial Aid Office to verify the status of any family member initially reported financial aid may be adjusted/reduced. I. To be completed by Yale Law School student: YLS Student Name

  11. Characterization of Sugar Binding by the Mannose Receptor Family Member, Endo180*

    E-print Network

    Characterization of Sugar Binding by the Mannose Receptor Family Member, Endo180* Received, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QU, United Kingdom Members of the mannose receptor family, the man- nose, have been investigated. Endo180 is shown to bind in a Ca2 -dependent manner to mannose, fucose, and N

  12. 5 CFR 734.307 - Campaigning for a spouse or family member.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...307 Campaigning for a spouse or family member. An employee covered under this subpart who is the spouse or family member of either a candidate for partisan...the paid or unpaid services of a business or corporation, or sell or...

  13. 49 CFR 805.735-8 - Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises. 805.735-8 Section 805.735-8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises. (a) No individual will be employed...

  14. 49 CFR 805.735-8 - Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises. 805.735-8 Section 805.735-8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Employment of family members in transportation and related enterprises. (a) No individual will be employed...

  15. The Effect of Home Caregiving Program for Family Members Providing Care for Chronically Ill Relative Client

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Hussein Jassim; Kamel, Andaleeb Abu

    2015-01-01

    Health care systems in many countries are moving towards outpatient care in which family members are central in providing care for patients with life-threatening illness. Family members and friends haven't knowledge and skills to become caregivers as many studies found that, the need to involve in such program to enhance their ability to be…

  16. Certification of Health Care Provider for U.S. Department of Labor Family Member's Serious Health Condition

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Venkat

    of Health Care Provider for U.S. Department of Labor Family Member's Serious Health Condition (Family family member with a serious health condition to submit a medical certification issued by the health care for FMLA leave to care for a covered family member with a serious health condition. If requested by your

  17. Pets: Your Plan Should Include All Family Members

    MedlinePLUS

    ... We Are Mission, Vision, and Fundamental Principles Our History Governance Publications Career Opportunities Media Resources What We Do Disaster Relief Supporting America's Military Families Health and Safety Training & ...

  18. Redefinition of Family Style in Response to the Reality of a Handicapped Member.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shellhase, Leslie J.; Shellhase, Fern K.

    This paper utilizes coordinated practice and research observations of the personal and familial accommodations made to disability of an adult member. No assets accrue from disability; a family has only those potentials it had earlier which may be abandoned or poorly used by a family in its coping endeavors, or utilized fully in making needed…

  19. Family Members Affected by a Close Relative's Addiction: The Stress-Strain-Coping-Support Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Templeton, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines the stress-strain-coping-support (SSCS) model which underpins the whole programme of work described in this supplement. The need for such a model is explained: previous models of substance misuse and the family have attributed dysfunction or deficiency to families or family members. In contrast, the SSCS model assumes that…

  20. Candidate Members and Age Estimate of the Family of Kuiper Belt Object 2003 EL61

    E-print Network

    D. Ragozzine; M. E. Brown

    2007-09-04

    The collisional family of Kuiper belt object (KBO) 2003 EL61 opens the possibility for many interesting new studies of processes important in the formation and evolution of the outer solar system. As the first family in the Kuiper belt, it can be studied using techniques developed for studying asteroid families, although some modifications are necessary. Applying these modified techniques allows for a dynamical study of the 2003 EL61 family. The velocity required to change orbits is used to quantitatively identify objects near the collision. A method for identifying family members that have potentially diffused in resonances (like 2003 EL61) is also developed. Known family members are among the very closest KBOs to the collision and two new likely family members are identified: 2003 UZ117 and 1999 OY3. We also give tables of candidate family members which require future observations to confirm membership. We estimate that a minimum of ~1 GYr is needed for resonance diffusion to produce the current position of 2003 EL61, implying that the family is likely primordial. Future refinement of the age estimate is possible once (many) more resonant objects are identified. The ancient nature of the collision contrasts with the seemingly fresh surfaces of known family members, suggesting that our understanding of outer solar system surfaces is incomplete.

  1. Accommodating family life: mentoring future female faculty members.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Harvey F

    2015-03-01

    The demands of family life are crucial factors in successfully retaining women in science. Retention efforts should focus on creating a family-friendly environment within the laboratory and the institute. Based on my own experiences, I suggest ways to attract top young scientists and support their development into leading researchers. PMID:25601644

  2. Television in Indian Adolescents' Lives: A Member of the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verma, Suman; Larson, Reed W.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the context in which eighth graders in India watch television through an experience sampling study of 100 urban middle-class Indian families. As a whole, findings indicate that the television viewing of middle-class Indian youth is typically a relaxed antidote to the stresses of the day that they share with their families. (SLD)

  3. Perceived Intrafamilial Connectedness and Autonomy in Families with and without an Anxious Family Member: A Multiple Informant Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Albuquerque, Jiske E. G.; Schneider, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Perceived intrafamilial "emotional connectedness" and "autonomy" were investigated within families with and without an anxious family member using a multiple informant approach. The sample consisted of 32 mothers with a current anxiety disorder and 56 controls, their partners, and their anxious and nonanxious teenage children. No differences were…

  4. Associative stigma in family members of psychotic patients in Flanders: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Catthoor, Kirsten; Schrijvers, Didier; Hutsebaut, Joost; Feenstra, Dineke; Persoons, Philippe; De Hert, Marc; Peuskens, Jozef; Sabbe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess presence and severity of associative stigma in family members of psychotic patients and factors for higher associative stigma. METHODS: Standardized semi-structured interview of 150 family members of psychotic patients receiving full time treatment. This study on associative stigma in family members of psychotic patients was part of a larger research program on the burden of the family, using “Interview for the Burden of the Family” and the chapters stigma, treatment and attribution from the “Family interview Schedule”. The respondents were relatives, one per patient, either partner or parent. The patients had been diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder. All contacts with patients and relatives were in Dutch. Relatives were deemed suitable to participate in this research if they saw the patient at least once a week. Recruitment took place in a standardized way: after obtaining the patient’s consent, the relatives were approached to participate. The results were analyzed using SPSS Version 18.0. RESULTS: The prevalence of associative stigma in this sample is 86%. Feelings of depression in the majority of family members are prominent. Twenty-one point three percent experienced guilt more or less frequent, while shame was less pronounced. Also, 18.6% of all respondents indicated that they tried to hide the illness of their family member for others regularly or more. Three six point seven percent really kept secret about it in certain circumstances and 29.3% made efforts to explain what the situation or psychiatric condition of their family member really is like. Factors with marked significance towards higher associative stigma are a worsened relationship between the patient and the family member, conduct problems to family members, the patients’ residence in a residential care setting, and hereditary attributional factors like genetic hereditability and character. The level of associative stigma has significantly been predicted by the burden of aggressive disruptions to family housemates of the psychotic patient. CONCLUSION: Family members of psychotic patients in Flanders experience higher associative stigma compared to previous international research. Disruptive behavior by the patient towards in-housing family members is the most accurate predictor of higher associative stigma. PMID:25815261

  5. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.307 Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? A...

  6. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.307 Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? A...

  7. 5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.306 Are foster children eligible as family members? Yes, foster children...

  8. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.307 Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? A...

  9. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.307 Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? A...

  10. 5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.306 Are foster children eligible as family members? Yes, foster children...

  11. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.307 Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? A...

  12. 5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.306 Are foster children eligible as family members? Yes, foster children...

  13. 5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.306 Are foster children eligible as family members? Yes, foster children...

  14. 5 CFR 894.306 - Are foster children eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Eligibility § 894.306 Are foster children eligible as family members? Yes, foster children...

  15. Mexican American Fathers' Occupational Conditions: Links to Family Members' Psychological Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Crouter, Ann C; Davis, Kelly D; Updegraff, Kimberly; Delgado, Melissa; Fortner, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    To examine the implications of fathers' occupational conditions (i.e., income, work hours, shift work, pressure, workplace racism, and underemployment) for family members' psychological adjustment, home interviews were conducted with fathers, mothers, and two adolescent offspring in each of 218 Mexican American families. Results underscored the importance of acculturation as a moderator. Fathers' income was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in highly acculturated families but not in less acculturated families. In contrast, fathers' reports of workplace racism were positively associated with depressive symptoms in less acculturated families but not in more acculturated family contexts. These findings were consistent across all 4 family members, suggesting that the "long arm" of the jobs held by Mexican American fathers extends to mothers and adolescent offspring. PMID:18414596

  16. Experiences of family members of patients with colostomies and expectations about professional intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira-Umpiérrez, Augusto; Fort-Fort, Zoraida

    2014-01-01

    Objective the objective was to understand the experience of a group of family members of patients with colostomies, revealing their expectations regarding the intervention of health professionals. Method qualitative research, with the social phenomenological approach of Alfred Schütz, conducted in Montevideo in 2012; twelve family members of patients with colostomies participated, from an ostomy service of a health institution. Results the following categories were identified: family ties, trust in the health care team, the nurse as the articulator of the process, the desire to humanize care, and adaptation to new family life. Conclusions knowing the experience and expectations of the families of colostomy patients was achieved, emphasizing the previous family relationships to build upon them, and the trust in the health team, emphasizing the nurse as articulator of the process. Expectations focused on the desire for humanized care, enhancing adaptation of the nuclear family to the new way of life, restoring and enhancing its strengths, and collaborating in overcoming its weaknesses. PMID:26107831

  17. Half of the family members of critically ill patients experience excessive daytime sleepiness

    PubMed Central

    Verceles, Avelino C.; Corwin, Douglas S.; Afshar, Majid; Friedman, Eliot B.; McCurdy, Michael T.; Shanholtz, Carl; Oakjones, Karen; Zubrow, Marc T.; Titus, Jennifer; Netzer, Giora

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleepiness and fatigue are commonly reported by family members of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Sleep deprivation may result in cognitive deficits. Sleep deprivation and cognitive blunting have not been quantitatively assessed in this population. We sought to determine the proportion of family members of ICU patients that experience excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep-associated functional impairment, and cognitive blunting. Methods Multicenter, cross-sectional survey of family members of patients admitted to ICUs at the University of Maryland Medical Center, Johns Hopkins University Hospital, and Christiana Hospital. Family members of ICU patients were evaluated using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, a validated survey assessing sleepiness in everyday situations (normal, less than 10); the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire-10 (FOSQ-10), a questionnaire quantifying the impact of sleepiness on daily activities (normal, at least 17.9); and psychomotor vigilance testing, a test of cognitive function, in relation to sleep deprivation (normal mean reaction time less than 500 ms). Results A total of 225 family members were assessed. Of these, 50.2 % (113/225) had Epworth scores consistent with excessive daytime sleepiness. Those with sleepiness experienced greater impairment in performing daily activities by FOSQ-10 (15.6 ± 3.0 vs 17.4 ± 2.2, p < 0.001). Cognitive blunting was found in 13.3 % (30/225) of family members and 15.1 % (14/93) of surrogate decision-makers. Similar rates of cognitive blunting as reported by mean reaction time of at least 500 ms were found among family members whether or not they reported sleepiness (15.0 % (17/113) vs. 11.6 % (13/112), p = 0.45). Conclusions Half of the family members of ICU patients suffer from excessive daytime sleepiness. This sleepiness is associated with functional impairment, but not cognitive blunting. PMID:24898893

  18. 38 CFR 71.50 - Provision of certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members of veterans. 71.50 Section 71.50..., training, and mental health services to certain family members of veterans. (a) Benefits provided under..., training, and mental health services to a family member when necessary in connection with the treatment...

  19. Certification of Health Care Provider for U.S. Department of Labor Family Member's Serious Health Condition Employment Standards Administration

    E-print Network

    Boynton, Walter R.

    of Health Care Provider for U.S. Department of Labor Family Member's Serious Health Condition Employment because of a need for leave to care for a covered family member with a serious health condition to submit a medical certification issued by the health care provider of the covered family member. Please complete

  20. The Relationship Between the Perceived Risk of Harm by a Family Member with Mental Illness and the Family Experience.

    PubMed

    Katz, Judith; Medoff, Deborah; Fang, Li Juan; Dixon, Lisa B

    2015-10-01

    Family members of people with serious mental illness (SMI) at times report that they act to stop their ill relative from self harm or harming others. This study examines the relationship between the perception of risk of harm and family distress, burden, empowerment, coping, physical and mental health, appraisal of the caregiving experience, family communication, and family functioning. The study is a secondary analysis of baseline data collected for a randomized study of the family-to-family peer driven education program (FTF). Four hundred thirty-four enrolled individuals who were seeking to participate in FTF completed survey items that asked if they had tried to stop or prevent their ill family member from harming themselves or others in the last 30 days. Participants who perceived a recent risk of harm by their ill relative reported more negative appraisals of caregiving, greater psychological distress, poorer mental health and greater objective burden compared with those who did not perceive a recent risk of harm. The results suggest that families of persons with SMI should be asked about perceived risk of harm to self and others, and the presence of perceived risk of harm should serve as a red flag indicating the need for further evaluation of the family experience and additional support for the family. PMID:25535047

  1. Migrant and minority family members in the intensive care unit. A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Quindemil, KettyElena; Anderson, Kathryn Hoehn; Mayer, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Statistics show that people with migrant and minority background as patients are significant in numbers in the intensive care unit. This also puts family members in the perspective of nursing because family members are an inherent part of the intensive care unit. Family-centered care is perhaps most applicable to vulnerable populations like migrant family in the intensive care unit to meet family member’s needs. But very little is known about the situation of migrant and minority family members in the intensive care unit. The aim of the study was to explore the state of the science regarding family-centered care in the intensive care unit of patients with migration background in general and with a possible focus on major migrant populations in Austria—Former Yugoslavian und Turkish origin. A literature review investigated research articles that contained information on migrant and minority family members in the intensive care unit. Key points in the relevant articles were identified and categorized into themes with an explanation of findings at the end. Seventeen articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. No article was found regarding groups of major migrant population groups in Austria. The included articles uncovered five predominant themes: importance of cultural norms, communication, family dynamics, universal caring, and nursing/provider deficit in culturally competent care. In order to provide adequate nursing care a more cohesive body of information on more specific geographic and cultural populations is recommended. Because of the complete lack of research regarding migrant families of Former Yugoslavian and Turkish origin into Austria, an exploration of this population is recommended. PMID:24860716

  2. Using Picture Books to Help Children Cope with a Family Member's Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Marna

    2005-01-01

    A diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the resulting behavioral changes in a loved one can cause intense emotional reactions from all family members, including children. Sharing and discussing relevant picture books can be an effective strategy to help the children in such families understand and deal with their emotions. Picture books can…

  3. Mexican American Fathers' Occupational Conditions: Links to Family Members' Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouter, Ann C.; Davis, Kelly D.; Updegraff, Kimberly; Delgado, Melissa; Fortner, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    To examine the implications of fathers' occupational conditions (i.e., income, work hours, shift work, pressure, workplace racism, and underemployment) for family members' psychological adjustment, home interviews were conducted with fathers, mothers, and two adolescent offspring in each of 218 Mexican American families. Results underscored the…

  4. Continual Counseling Intervention: Lifetime Support for the Family with a Handicapped Member.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werth, Louise H.; Oseroff, Andrew B.

    1987-01-01

    Contends strategic and sustained counseling relationships provide information, support, and stability to families with a handicapped member since few parents know instinctively how to compensate for the disabled link in the family system. Claims counseling support services may be one means to the necessary restructuring process through difficult…

  5. Family Members Providing Home-Based Palliative Care to Older Adults: The Enactment of Multiple Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemmer, Sarah J.; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Forbes, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    Canadians are experiencing increased life expectancy and chronic illness requiring end-of-life care. There is limited research on the multiple roles for family members providing home-based palliative care. Based on a larger ethnographic study of client-family-provider relationships in home-based palliative care, this qualitative secondary analysis…

  6. TRPV3: time to decipher a poorly understood family member!

    PubMed Central

    Nilius, Bernd; Bíró, Tamás; Owsianik, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The vanilloid transient receptor potential channel TRPV3 differs in several aspects from other members of the TRPV subfamily. This Ca2+-, ATP- and calmodulin-regulated channel constitutes a target for many natural compounds and has a unique expression pattern as the most prominent and important TRP channel in keratinocytes of the skin. Although TRPV3 is considered as a thermosensitive channel, its function as a thermosensor in the skin is challenged. Nevertheless, it plays important roles in other skin functions such as cutaneous sensations, hair development and barrier function. More recently, mutations in TRPV3 were linked with a rare genodermatosis known as the Olmsted syndrome. This review gives an overview on properties of TRPV3 and its functions in the skin and skin diseases. PMID:23836684

  7. Holding blame at bay? ‘Gene talk' in family members' accounts of schizophrenia aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Callard, Felicity; Rose, Diana; Hanif, Emma-Louise; Quigley, Jody; Greenwood, Kathryn; Wykes, Til

    2012-01-01

    We provide the first detailed analysis of how, for what purposes and with what consequences people related to someone with a diagnosis of schizophrenia use ‘gene talk'. The article analyses findings from a qualitative interview study conducted in London and involving 19 participants (mostly women). We transcribed the interviews verbatim and analysed them using grounded theory methods. We analyse how and for what purposes participants mobilized ‘gene talk' in their affectively freighted encounter with an unknown interviewer. Gene talk served to (re)position blame and guilt, and was simultaneously used imaginatively to forge family history narratives. Family members used ‘gene talk' to recruit forebears with no psychiatric diagnosis into a family history of mental illness, and presented the origins of the diagnosed family member's schizophrenia as lying temporally before, and hence beyond the agency of the immediate family. Gene talk was also used in attempts to dislodge the distressing figure of the schizophrenia-inducing mother. ‘Gene talk', however, ultimately displaced, rather than resolved, the (self-)blame of many family members, particularly mothers. Our article challenges the commonly expressed view that genetic accounts will absolve family members' sense of (self-)blame in relation to their relative's/relatives' diagnosis. PMID:23227107

  8. Perceptions of barriers in managing diabetes: perspectives of Hispanic immigrant patients and family members

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jie; Amirehsani, Karen; Wallace, Debra; Letvak, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Hispanics show poorer self-management of type 2 diabetes than non-Hispanic Whites. Although previous studies have reported socioeconomic and cultural barriers to diabetes self-management by Hispanics, little is known about perceived barriers to diabetes self-management from the perspectives of both Hispanics and their family members. Purpose The purpose of the study was to explore perceived barriers among Hispanic immigrants with diabetes and their family members. Methods A qualitative study using five focus groups was conducted. A total of 73 Hispanic immigrants with type 2 diabetes (n=36) and family members (n=37) were recruited in the southeastern United States for a family-based intervention study of diabetes-self management. Participants were asked to describe their perceptions of barriers to self-management. The five sessions were audiotaped and transcribed, translated from Spanish into English, and analyzed using standard content analysis. Demographics, hemoglobin A1C levels, blood pressure and BMI were obtained both for participants with diabetes and for their family members. Results Barriers to diabetes self-management themes identified by participants with diabetes were in three major themes categorize: suffering from diabetes, difficulties in managing the disease, and lack of resources/support. Two key themes emerged pertaining to family members: we can provide support and we lack knowledge. Conclusions Perceived barriers to diabetes self-management described by Hispanic immigrants with diabetes and family members indicate a lack of intervention strategies to meet their needs. Interventions should include culturally relevant resources, family support, and diabetes self-management skills education. PMID:23640301

  9. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A light-hearted moment during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. From left, Commander James D. Halsell Jr., Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber and Pilot Scott J. Horowitz. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  10. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-101 Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber and her husband Jerome Elkind during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  11. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-101 Mission Specialist Yuri Vladimirovich Usachev, a Russian cosmonaut, and his wife Vera Sergeevna Usacheva during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  12. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The STS-101 crew gather during a meeting with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. From left, Mission Specialist Susan J. Helms, Commander James D. Halsell Jr., Mission Specialist Mary Ellen Weber, Pilot Scott J. Horowitz and Mission Specialists Yuri Vladimirovich Usachev, Jeffery N. Williams and James S. Voss. In the background is the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the pad. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  13. STS-101 crew members meet family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-101 Commander James D. Halsell Jr. waves as he stands with his wife Kathy during a meeting of the STS-101 crew with family and friends at Launch Pad 39A. Mission STS-101 will take the crew to the International Space Station to deliver logistics and supplies, plus prepare the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. The crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station as well. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. Launch is targeted for April 24 at about 4:15 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  14. Carbon Dots: The Newest Member of the Carbon Nanomaterials Family.

    PubMed

    Himaja, A L; Karthik, P S; Singh, Surya Prakash

    2015-06-01

    Carbon nanomaterials have been extensively researched in the past few years owing to their interesting properties. The massive research efforts resulted in the emergence of carbon dots, which belong to the carbon nanomaterials family. Carbon dots (C-dots) have garnered the attention of researchers mainly due to their convenient availability from organic as well as inorganic materials and also due to the novel properties they exhibit. C-Dots have been said to overcome the era of quantum dots, referring to their levels of toxicity and biocompatibility. In this review, we focus on the discovery of C-dots, their structure and composition, surface passivation to enhance their optical properties, the various synthetic methods used, their applications in different areas, and future perspectives. Emphasis has been given to greener approaches for the synthesis of C-dots in order to make them cost effective as well as to improve their biocompatibility. PMID:25755070

  15. Rotational properties of the Haumea family members and candidates: Short-term variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirouin, Audrey; Sheppard, Scott S.; Noll, Keith S.; Moskovitz, Nicholas A.; Doressoundiram, Alain

    2015-11-01

    Haumea is one of the largest known Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) with several anomalous characteristics. It is a fast rotator with a double-peak period of 3.92 h. Its spectrum is dominated by water ice features and the high albedo suggests nearly pure water ice on the surface. It has two known satellites and a family of at least ten TNOs with very similar proper orbital parameters and spectral properties. The formation of this peculiar family (Haumea, its two moons and, dynamically related bodies) is not well understood despite various models that have been proposed during the past few years.In order to improve our understanding of the formation of this family, we have examined the rotational properties of the family members and candidates (i.e. objects with similar proper orbital elements to the family members but without water ice on their surface or without observations to detect surface water). We report new short-term variability for 5 family members and 7 candidates from data collected over the past five years using multiple ground-based facilities. Thanks to our study, all the Haumea family members have a short-term variability study.From rotational data, assuming fluid-like rubble-pile structure, we constrain ellipsoidal axis ratios for individual objects and set a lower limit to densities. We also compared lightcurve amplitude and rotational frequency distributions for the family members, candidates, and unrelated TNOs to search for additional clues to the progenitor and the formation of this family.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary origins of DNA polymerase X-family members

    PubMed Central

    Bienstock, Rachelle J.; Beard, William A.; Wilson, Samuel H.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian DNA polymerase (pol) ? is the founding member of a large group of DNA polymerases now termed the X-family. DNA polymerase ? has been kinetically, structurally, and biologically well characterized and can serve as a phylogenetic reference. Accordingly, we have performed a phylogenetic analysis to understand the relationship between pol ? and other members of the X-family of DNA polymerases. The bacterial X-family DNA polymerases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae pol IV, and four mammalian X-family polymerases appear to be directly related. These enzymes originated from an ancient common ancestor characterized in two Bacillus species. Understanding distinct functions for each of the X-family polymerases, evolving from a common bacterial ancestor is of significant interest in light of the specialized roles of these enzymes in DNA metabolism. PMID:25112931

  17. STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Commander Kevin Kregel enjoys a reunion with his wife, Jeanne, near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

  18. STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Pilot Dominic Gorie enjoys a reunion with his wife, Wendy, near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

  19. STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Mission Specialist Janet Lynn Kavandi poses for photographers near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

  20. STS-99 crew members meet with family and friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The day before the expected launch of STS-99, Mission Specialist Gerhard Thiele enjoys a reunion with his wife near Launch Pad 39A where family and friends have gathered to greet the crew. STS-99, known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), is scheduled to lift off 12:47 p.m. EST from Launch Pad 39A. The SRTM will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface, using two antennae and a 200-foot-long section of space station-derived mast protruding from the payload bay. The result of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. Besides contributing to the production of better maps, these measurements could lead to improved water drainage modeling, more realistic flight simulators, better locations for cell phone towers, and enhanced navigation safety. The mission is expected to last about 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Friday, Feb. 11, at 4:55 p.m.

  1. Leiomodins: larger members of the tropomodulin (Tmod) gene family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, C. A.; Fritz-Six, K. L.; Almenar-Queralt, A.; Fowler, V. M.

    2001-01-01

    The 64-kDa autoantigen D1 or 1D, first identified as a potential autoantigen in Graves' disease, is similar to the tropomodulin (Tmod) family of actin filament pointed end-capping proteins. A novel gene with significant similarity to the 64-kDa human autoantigen D1 has been cloned from both humans and mice, and the genomic sequences of both genes have been identified. These genes form a subfamily closely related to the Tmods and are here named the Leiomodins (Lmods). Both Lmod genes display a conserved intron-exon structure, as do three Tmod genes, but the intron-exon structure of the Lmods and the Tmods is divergent. mRNA expression analysis indicates that the gene formerly known as the 64-kDa autoantigen D1 is most highly expressed in a variety of human tissues that contain smooth muscle, earning it the name smooth muscle Leiomodin (SM-Lmod; HGMW-approved symbol LMOD1). Transcripts encoding the novel Lmod gene are present exclusively in fetal and adult heart and adult skeletal muscle, and it is here named cardiac Leiomodin (C-Lmod; HGMW-approved symbol LMOD2). Human C-Lmod is located near the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy locus CMH6 on human chromosome 7q3, potentially implicating it in this disease. Our data demonstrate that the Lmods are evolutionarily related and display tissue-specific patterns of expression distinct from, but overlapping with, the expression of Tmod isoforms. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  2. Coping with work-family conflict: A leader-member exchange perspective.

    PubMed

    Major, Debra A; Morganson, Valerie J

    2011-01-01

    Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory is applied as a framework for understanding coping with work-family conflict. The effectiveness of four work-family coping strategies (i.e., preventive and episodic forms of both problem-focused and emotion-focused coping) is considered with emphasis on how the LMX relationship contributes to each form of coping with work interference with family. The LMX-based model of work-family coping accounts for the development of family-friendly work roles, use of organizational family-friendly policies, and the negotiation of flextime and flexplace accommodations. Constraints on the relationship between LMX and work-family coping associated with supervisor authority and resources and aspects of the organizational context are also discussed. Research and applied implications of the model are offered. PMID:21280949

  3. Children exposed to the arrest of a family member: Associations with mental health

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Frank J.; Kaufman, Joy S.; Finley, Meghan K.; Griffin, Amy; Anderson, Janet; Marshall, Tim; Radway, Susan; Stack, Virginia; Crusto, Cindy A.

    2013-01-01

    The arrest of a parent or other family member can be detrimental to children’s health. To study the impact of exposure to the arrest of a family member on children’s mental health and how said association may change across developmental periods, we examined baseline data for children (birth through 11 years) entering family-based systems of care (SOC). Children exposed to the arrest of a family member had experienced significantly more 5.38 (SD = 2.59) different types of potentially traumatic events (PTE) than children not exposed to arrest 2.84 (SD = 2.56). Multiple regression model results showed that arrest exposure was significantly associated with greater behavioral and emotional challenges after controlling for children’s age, gender, race/ethnicity, household income, caregiver’s education, parenting factors, and other PTE exposure. Further analyses revealed differences in internalizing and externalizing behaviors associated with arrest exposure across developmental levels. This study highlights some of the mental health challenges for children exposed to the arrest of a family member, while adding to our knowledge of how such an event affects children across different developmental periods. More trauma-informed, developmentally appropriate systems need to be in place at all levels to assist children and families experiencing arrest. PMID:24829537

  4. Information Caregivers Can Use on: Speaking with a Friend or Family Member's Doctor During an Office Visit

    MedlinePLUS

    Speaking with a Friend or Family Member’s Doctor During an Office Visit Revised November 2015 If you’re a caregiver, you may need to talk to a ... and speak on behalf of your friend or family member . If you need help completing the form ...

  5. Observation of real-time interactions of Bcl-2 family members during apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Brian; Frohlich, Victoria; Qiu, Ming; Takahashi, Akiyuki

    2001-04-01

    Apoptosis is a physiological process of cell death resulting from an intricate cascade of sequential protein-protein interactions. Using donor and acceptor mutant GFP fusion constructs, we have monitored the interaction between specific pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family with each other as well as proteins located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, as current hypotheses regarding apoptosis suggest that interaction of Bcl-2 family members with each other, or with other mitochondrial membrane proteins, regulates apoptosis. Our data indicate that specific interactions between pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members do occur in situ in the mitochondrial membrane, are altered during apoptosis and regulate cellular sensitivity to apoptosis. These findings are the first to demonstrate real time protein-protein interactions in situ at the level of individual mitochondria.

  6. Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Post-ICU Family Members: Review and Methodological Challenges.

    PubMed

    Petrinec, Amy B; Daly, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    Family members of intensive care unit (ICU) patients are at risk for symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following ICU discharge. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the current literature regarding post-ICU family PTSD symptoms with an emphasis on methodological issues in conducting research on this challenging phenomenon. An extensive review of the literature was performed confining the search to English language studies reporting PTSD symptoms in adult family members of adult ICU patients. Ten studies were identified for review published from 2004 to 2012. Findings demonstrate a significant prevalence of family PTSD symptoms in the months following ICU hospitalization. However, there are several methodological challenges to the interpretation of existing studies and to the conduct of future research including differences in sampling, identification of risk factors and covariates of PTSD, and lack of consensus regarding the most appropriate PTSD symptom measurement tools and timing. PMID:25061017

  7. A muslim family with several members with celiac disease and other autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Treister-Goltzman, Yulia; Peleg, Roni

    2015-04-01

    The Bedouin community of Israel is a traditional Muslim society. It is characterized by one of the highest rates of population growth in the world. The custom of intermarriage, especially among cousins or within the extended family, is very common because of the community's tribal structure. The rate of genetic disease in this population is high. We present a Bedouin family in which the father suffers from celiac disease and Hashimoto's disease, his daughter has celiac and Crohn's disease, three other children have IgA deficiency, and a half uncle has Crohn's disease. In describing this family we present the familial nature of these diseases, the age at diagnosis, the marital relationships of the family members and co-morbid diseases and medical conditions. Family doctors can develop and use genograms that can facilitate their understanding of the situation and enable them to develop plans for health promotion and disease prevention counseling in the community. PMID:24242154

  8. Pharmacological manipulation of Bcl-2 family members to control cell death

    PubMed Central

    Letai, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    The commitment to programmed cell death involves complex interactions among pro- and antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins. The physiological result of a decision by these proteins to undergo cell death is permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Pharmacologic manipulation of proteins in this family appears both feasible and efficacious, whether the goal is decreased cell death, as in ischemia of the myocardium or brain, or increased cell death, as in cancer. PMID:16200198

  9. Genetic aspects of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in a family with multiple affected members: a research article

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The etiology of idiopathic scoliosis remains unknown and different factors have been suggested as causal. Hereditary factors can also determine the etiology of the disease; however, the pattern of inheritance remains unknown. Autosomal dominant, X-linked and multifactorial patterns of inheritances have been reported. Other studies have suggested possible chromosome regions related to the etiology of idiopathic scoliosis. We report the genetic aspects of and investigate chromosome regions for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in a Brazilian family. Methods Evaluation of 57 family members, distributed over 4 generations of a Brazilian family, with 9 carriers of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The proband presented a scoliotic curve of 75 degrees, as determined by the Cobb method. Genomic DNA from family members was genotyped. Results Locating a chromosome region linked to adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was not possible in the family studied. Conclusion While it was not possible to determine a chromosome region responsible for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis by investigation of genetic linkage using microsatellites markers during analysis of four generations of a Brazilian family with multiple affected members, analysis including other types of genomic variations, like single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could contribute to the continuity of this study. PMID:20374654

  10. An Uncharacterized Member of the Ribokinase Family in Thermococcus kodakarensis Exhibits myo-Inositol Kinase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takaaki; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Yukika; Kuwata, Keiko; Kusaka, Eriko; Fujita, Haruo; Miki, Kunio; Atomi, Haruyuki

    2013-01-01

    Here we performed structural and biochemical analyses on the TK2285 gene product, an uncharacterized protein annotated as a member of the ribokinase family, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. The three-dimensional structure of the TK2285 protein resembled those of previously characterized members of the ribokinase family including ribokinase, adenosine kinase, and phosphofructokinase. Conserved residues characteristic of this protein family were located in a cleft of the TK2285 protein as in other members whose structures have been determined. We thus examined the kinase activity of the TK2285 protein toward various sugars recognized by well characterized ribokinase family members. Although activity with sugar phosphates and nucleosides was not detected, kinase activity was observed toward d-allose, d-lyxose, d-tagatose, d-talose, d-xylose, and d-xylulose. Kinetic analyses with the six sugar substrates revealed high Km values, suggesting that they were not the true physiological substrates. By examining activity toward amino sugars, sugar alcohols, and disaccharides, we found that the TK2285 protein exhibited prominent kinase activity toward myo-inositol. Kinetic analyses with myo-inositol revealed a greater kcat and much lower Km value than those obtained with the monosaccharides, resulting in over a 2,000-fold increase in kcat/Km values. TK2285 homologs are distributed among members of Thermococcales, and in most species, the gene is positioned close to a myo-inositol monophosphate synthase gene. Our results suggest the presence of a novel subfamily of the ribokinase family whose members are present in Archaea and recognize myo-inositol as a substrate. PMID:23737529

  11. How Social Security Can Help You When a Family Member Dies

    MedlinePLUS

    How Social Security Can Help You When a Family Member Dies Y ou should let Social Security know when a person dies as soon as ... director will report the person’s death to Social Security. You’ll need to give the deceased’s Social ...

  12. Triticum Mosaic Virus: A Distinct Member of the Family Potyviridae with an Unusually Long Leader Sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome sequence of Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), a member in the family Potyviridae, has been determined to be 10,266 nucleotides (nt) excluding the polyadenylated tail at the 3’ end. The genome encodes a large polyprotein of 3,112 amino acids with the ‘hall-mark proteins’ of potyvirus...

  13. Posttraumatic Symptoms in Japanese Bereaved Family Members with Special Regard to Suicide and Homicide Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogata, Kohske; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Nishi, Yuko; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Japanese bereaved family members using a questionnaire. Participants were bereaved as a result of suicide and homicide (n = 51 and 49, respectively), with natural death (n = 56) as a control; and their relationships to the deceased were parent-child (n = 79), conjugal (n =…

  14. Self-Concept and Depression among Children Who Experienced the Death of a Family Member

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Hong T.; Scott, Amy N.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the moderating effects of physical and academic self-concept on depression among children who experienced the death of a family member. Data from Phase III of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care was used in the present study. Having a higher physical self-concept…

  15. Complete sequence and genetic characterization of Raspberry latent virus, a novel member of the family Reoviridae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new virus isolated from red raspberry plants and detected in the main production areas in northern Washington State, the United States and British Columbia, Canada was fully sequenced and found to be a novel member of the family Reoviridae. The virus was designated as Raspberry latent virus (RpLV)...

  16. PRMT7 Is a Member of the Protein Arginine Methyltransferase Family with a Distinct Substrate Specificity*

    E-print Network

    Clarke, Steven

    PRMT7 Is a Member of the Protein Arginine Methyltransferase Family with a Distinct Substrate arginine N-methyl- transferase, PRMT7, that can catalyze the formation of -NG -monomethylarginine. This specificity distinguishes PRMT7 from all of the other known arginine methyltransferases. An addi- tional

  17. PRMT3 Is a Distinct Member of the Protein Arginine N-Methyltransferase Family

    E-print Network

    Clarke, Steven

    PRMT3 Is a Distinct Member of the Protein Arginine N-Methyltransferase Family CONFERRAL, University of California at Los Angeles, California 90095 S-Adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent protein arginine N-methyltransferases (PRMTs) catalyze the methylation of arginine residues within a variety

  18. Identification and characterization of thrombospondin-4, a new member of the thrombospondin gene family

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    A new member of the thrombospondin gene family, designated thrombospondin-4, has been identified in the Xenopus laevis genome. The predicted amino acid sequence indicates that the protein is similar to the other members of this gene family in the structure of the type 3 repeats and the COOH-terminal domain. Thrombospondin-4 contains four type 2 repeats and lacks the type 1 repeats that are found in thrombospondin-1 and 2. The amino-terminal domain of thrombospondin-4 has no significant homology with the other members of the thrombospondin gene family or with other proteins in the database. RNAse protection analysis establishes that the initial expression of Xenopus thrombospondin-4 is observed during neurulation. Levels of mRNA expression increase twofold during tailbud stages but decrease by the feeding tadpole stage. The size of the thrombospondin-4 message is 3.3 Kb and 3.4 Kb in the frog and human, respectively. Northern blot analysis of human tissues reveals high levels of thrombospondin-4 expression in heart and skeletal muscle, low levels in brain, lung and pancreas and undetectable levels in the placenta, liver and kidney. These data establish the existence of a new member of the thrombospondin gene family that may participate in the genesis and function of cardiac and skeletal muscle. PMID:8432726

  19. American shad (Alosa sapidissima), the largest member of the family Clu-

    E-print Network

    440 American shad (Alosa sapidissima), the largest member of the family Clu- peidae to the Bay of Fundy. American shad undertake extensive ocean migrations along the east coast of North America, 1979). Little is known about the ocean life of American shad (hereafter referred to as "shad") along

  20. Family Members as Partners in an After-School and Summer Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayroe, Teresa B.; Brenner, Devon

    2005-01-01

    If educators expect more children to be successful in literacy experiences at school, then they must strive to form lasting partnerships with parents (Fried, 2001). The educators working with the after-school and summer literacy program actively sought to form partnerships with family members at a small rural elementary school in a southern state.…

  1. Characterization of poplar ZIP family members ZIP1 and ZNT1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A plant must regulate heavy metals to maintain adequate resources for plant processes while protecting against excess metal damage. Regulation of heavy metals such as zinc (Zn) has been attributed to the Zn transporter ZNT1 gene and other members of its larger ZIP transporter family. However, these ...

  2. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The agency must...

  3. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. 436.120 Section 436.120 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS ELIGIBILITY IN GUAM, PUERTO RICO, AND THE VIRGIN...

  4. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  5. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The agency must...

  6. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  7. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  8. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  9. Working with Teams and Organizations to Help Them Involve Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orford, Jim; Templeton, Lorna; Copello, Alex; Velleman, Richard; Ibanga, Akanidomo

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe our work in trying to influence whole service teams to move their practice towards greater involvement of affected family members. Work with five teams is described. The process varied but in all cases it included recruitment of the team, training, continued support and evaluation of results. Use of a standard…

  10. College Adjustment and Subjective Well-Being when Coping with a Family Member's Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Christa K.; Welsh, Anne C.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals coping with the chronic or terminal illness of a family member are presented with a unique challenge that may influence their adjustment and overall well-being. This study investigated variables that relate to college adjustment and subjective well-being, including attachment, social support, coping, and illness-related constructs, in…

  11. Differential expression of sirtuin family members in the developing, adult, and aged rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Sidorova-Darmos, Elena; Wither, Robert G.; Shulyakova, Natalya; Fisher, Carl; Ratnam, Melanie; Aarts, Michelle; Lilge, Lothar; Monnier, Philippe P.; Eubanks, James H.

    2014-01-01

    The sirtuins are NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases and/or ADP-ribosyltransferases that play roles in metabolic homeostasis, stress response and potentially aging. This enzyme family resides in different subcellular compartments, and acts on a number of different targets in the nucleus, cytoplasm and in the mitochondria. Despite their recognized ability to regulate metabolic processes, the roles played by specific sirtuins in the brain—the most energy demanding tissue in the body—remains less well investigated and understood. In the present study, we examined the regional mRNA and protein expression patterns of individual sirtuin family members in the developing, adult, and aged rat brain. Our results show that while each sirtuin is expressed in the brain at each of these different stages, they display unique spatial and temporal expression patterns within the brain. Further, for specific members of the family, the protein expression profile did not coincide with their respective mRNA expression profile. Moreover, using primary cultures enriched for neurons and astrocytes respectively, we found that specific sirtuin members display preferential neural lineage expression. Collectively, these results provide the first composite illustration that sirtuin family members display differential expression patterns in the brain, and provide evidence that specific sirtuins could potentially be targeted to achieve cell-type selective effects within the brain. PMID:25566066

  12. The GH3 Acyl Adenylase Family Member PBS3 Regulates Salicylic Acid-Dependent Defense

    E-print Network

    The GH3 Acyl Adenylase Family Member PBS3 Regulates Salicylic Acid-Dependent Defense Responses, suggesting it may impact basal disease resistance. Because induced salicylic acid (SA) is a critical mediator pro- duction of PR proteins and amplifying the oxidative burst is salicylic acid (SA; Ryals et al

  13. Signaling by epithelial members of the CEACAM family - mucosal docking sites for pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tchoupa, Arnaud Kengmo; Schuhmacher, Tamara; Hauck, Christof R

    2014-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) comprise a group of immunoglobulin-related vertebrate glycoproteins. Several family members, including CEACAM1, CEA, and CEACAM6, are found on epithelial tissues throughout the human body. As they modulate diverse cellular functions, their signaling capacity is in the focus of current research. In this review we will summarize the knowledge about common signaling processes initiated by epithelial CEACAMs and suggest a model of signal transduction by CEACAM family members lacking significant cytoplasmic domains. As pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria exploit these receptors during mucosal colonization, we try to highlight the connection between CEACAMs, microbes, and cellular responses. Special emphasis in this context is placed on the functional interplay between CEACAMs and integrins that influences matrix adhesion of epithelial cells. The cooperation between these two receptor families provides an intriguing example of the fine tuning of cellular responses and their manipulation by specialized microorganisms. PMID:24735478

  14. Signaling by epithelial members of the CEACAM family – mucosal docking sites for pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) comprise a group of immunoglobulin-related vertebrate glycoproteins. Several family members, including CEACAM1, CEA, and CEACAM6, are found on epithelial tissues throughout the human body. As they modulate diverse cellular functions, their signaling capacity is in the focus of current research. In this review we will summarize the knowledge about common signaling processes initiated by epithelial CEACAMs and suggest a model of signal transduction by CEACAM family members lacking significant cytoplasmic domains. As pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria exploit these receptors during mucosal colonization, we try to highlight the connection between CEACAMs, microbes, and cellular responses. Special emphasis in this context is placed on the functional interplay between CEACAMs and integrins that influences matrix adhesion of epithelial cells. The cooperation between these two receptor families provides an intriguing example of the fine tuning of cellular responses and their manipulation by specialized microorganisms. PMID:24735478

  15. Cancer in the Family: Review of the Psychosocial Perspectives of Patients and Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitschke, Diane B.

    2008-01-01

    As advances in cancer care have led to more treatment options and longer survival for cancer patients, a focus on quality of life for patients and their families has gained importance. This review provides a discussion of stress and coping theory, documents the relevance of this topic area for social work practice, and illuminates the results of a…

  16. Family members’ perceptions of end-of-life care across diverse locations of care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The goal of the study was to assess perceived level of satisfaction with end-of-life care, focusing on the last 48 hours of life. Methods A previously validated instrument was used in a telephone survey with bereaved family members (n=90) of patients who died within an organization in British Columbia. Results Bereaved family members had many unmet needs for information about the patient’s changing condition, the process of dying, how symptoms would be managed and what to do at the time of death. In addition, many bereaved relatives felt that the patient or resident had an unmet need for emotional support and that their own emotional needs were not addressed adequately. The last place of care had the most significant effect on all of these variables, with acute care and residential care having the most unmet needs. Hospice had the fewest unmet needs, followed by the palliative and the intensive care units. Conclusions We discuss these findings in relation to overall satisfaction with care, focus on individual, ethno-cultural and diversity issues, information and decision-making, symptom management and attending to the family. We conclude by offering possible practices address the end-of-life needs of patients and family members. PMID:23870101

  17. A Quick Test on Rotation Period Clustering for the Small Members of the Koronis Family

    E-print Network

    Chang, Chan-Kao; Ip, Wing-Huen

    2015-01-01

    Rotation period clustering in prograde/retrograde rotators might indicate the preliminary indication of the Slivan state in the Koronis family as a result of the YORP effect. We follow the general scenario of dispersion in semimajor axis of the asteroid family members to separate prograde and retrograde rotators in the Koronis family. From the available rotation periods obtained from PTF/iPTF, we can not found the rotation period clustering of objects with H grater than 12 mag in the Koronis family. This could be the result of the intermittent collisional process of small asteroids (D less than ~20 km) which leads to astray Yarkovsky drifting. Measurement of the pole orientations of our sample will verify our preliminary result and validate our method.

  18. Those Who Are Left behind: An Estimate of the Number of Family Members of Suicide Victims in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Joe; Choi, Yun Jeong; Mori, Kohta; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Sugano, Saki

    2009-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature of suicide studies by presenting procedures and its estimates of the number of family members who lose their loved ones to suicide. Using Japanese aggregate level data, three main findings emerge: first, there are approximately five bereaved family members per suicide; second, in 2006, there were about…

  19. GASA4, One of the 14-Member Arabidopsis GASA Family of Small Polypeptides, Regulates Flowering and Seed Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the plant-specific gibberellic acid-stimulated Arabidopsis (GASA) gene family play roles in hormone response, defense and development. We have identified six new Arabidopsis GASA genes, bringing the total number of family members to 14. Here we show that these genes all encode small polyp...

  20. 4H Family Dog Score Sheet This class is designed for 4H members enrolled in the Family Dog Project. While in the ring the dog will

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Dog Score Sheet This class is designed for 4H members enrolled in the Family Dog Project. While in the ring the dog will be on display and the member will demonstrate that the dog can sit, stay, come and walk calmly on a leash. The member should be able to discuss the dog's home care including feeding

  1. Family Quality of Life from the Perspectives of Individual Family Members: A Korean-American Family and Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Joo Young; Turnbull, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in the mid-to-late 1980s, the focus on individual quality of life expanded to family quality of life (FQOL) in the field of intellectual disabilities. However, few studies examined FQOL for families who have children with hearing loss. Furthermore, most studies focused on mothers' perceptions of FQOL. The purpose of this study is to…

  2. Giving information to family members of patients in the intensive care unit: Iranian nurses’ ethical approaches

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Mansoureh A; Gaeeni, Mina; Mohammadi, Nooreddin; Seyedfatemi, Naima

    2014-01-01

    Receiving information related to patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit is among the most important needs of the family members of such patients. When health care professionals should decide whether to be honest or to give hope, giving information becomes an ethical challenge We conducted a research to study the ethical approaches of Iranian nurses to giving information to the family members of patients in the intensive care units. This research was conducted in the intensive care units of three teaching hospitals in Iran. It employed a qualitative approach involving semi-structured and in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 12 nurses to identify the ethical approaches to giving information to family members of the intensive care unit patients. A conventional content analysis of the data produced two categories and five subcategories. The two categories were as follows: a) informational support, and b) emotional support. Informational support had 2 subcategories consisting of being honest in giving information, and providing complete and understandable information. Emotional support in giving information had 3 sub-categories consisting of gradual revelation, empathy and assurance. Findings of the study indicated that ethical approaches to giving information can be in the form of either informational support or emotional support, based on patients’ conditions and prognoses, their families’ emotional state, the necessity of providing a calm atmosphere in the ICU and the hospital, and other patients and their families’ peace. Findings of the present study can be used as a basis for further studies and for offering ethical guidelines in giving information to the families of patients hospitalized in the ICU. PMID:25512830

  3. A review of issues and concerns of family members of adult burn survivors.

    PubMed

    Sundara, Diana C

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize what is known about the issues and concerns of families of adult burn survivors from research and clinical articles written between 1973 and 2009. Electronic database searching, ancestry searching, and electronic hand searching were performed to identify relevant articles. Seventeen research studies and 14 clinical articles were identified. Families are often in crisis immediately after the injury. This crisis involves strong emotions, some of which may persist over time. Throughout the course of hospitalization, family issues include worries about their loved one's physical appearance, logistical concerns, and the transition to home. For partners, role changes and sexual concerns may be of particular importance. Extended family, friends, the burn team, and other families affected by a burn injury are important sources of support for family members. Few studies have been conducted beyond the time of hospitalization. Clinical articles have identified issues not present in the research literature. Further research is needed that focuses more closely on families and their experiences both in and out of the hospital. Implications for burn care providers based on the findings of this review are discussed. PMID:21422946

  4. Lentivirus-Mediated knockdown of tectonic family member 1 inhibits medulloblastoma cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Junjie; Wang, Chengfeng; Liang, Qinchuan; Zhao, Yang; Zhao, Qingshuang; Wang, Shousen; Ma, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Tectonic family member 1 (TCTN1) encodes a member of the tectonic family which are evolutionarily conserved secreted and transmembrane proteins, involving in a diverse variety of developmental processes. It has been demonstrated that tectonics expressed in regions that participate in Hedgehog (Hh) signaling during mouse embryonic development and was imperative for Hh-mediated patterning of the ventral neural tube. However, the expression and regulation of tectonics in human tumor is still not clear. In this study, shRNA-expressing lentivirus was constructed to knockdown TCTN1 in medulloblastoma cell line Daoy. The results showed that knockdown of TCTN1 inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in Daoy cell line, also caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M boundary. Taken all together, our data suggest that TCTN1 might play an important role in the progression of medulloblastoma. PMID:26550235

  5. Reconstructing meaning through occupation after the death of a family member: accommodation, assimilation, and continuing bonds.

    PubMed

    Hoppes, Steve; Segal, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Reactions to death have been studied extensively from psychological, behavioral, and physiological perspectives. Occupational adaptation to loss has received scant attention. Qualitative research was undertaken to identify and describe occupational responses in bereavement. The constant comparative approach was used to analyze and interpret the occupational responses. Adaptive strategies of occupational accommodation and assimilation were used after the death of a family member. Desire to sustain bonds with the deceased motivated specific occupational engagements. These occupational responses served to reconstruct meaning after the death of a family member. These findings contribute to understanding adaptation after death by adding an occupational perspective to previous theories. Occupational therapists' abilities to support clients after loss can be enhanced through appreciation of occupational accommodation and assimilation and the role of continuing occupational bonds after the death of a loved one. PMID:20131573

  6. Morphological manifestations of the Dandy-Walker syndrom in female members of a family.

    PubMed

    Titli?, Marina; Alfirevi?, Stanko; Koli?, Krešimir; Soldo, Anamarija; Tripalol, Ana Batoš

    2015-03-01

    The Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a hereditary disorder, appearing somewhat more frequently in women. The most important characteristics of the DWS are the lack of the cerebellar vermis, varying from a partial lack to a complete agenesis, and enlargement of the cerebrospinal spaces, especially in the fourth ventricle. The above mentioned morphological changes clinically manifest in ataxia, increased intracranial pressure and hydrocephalus. Here is presented a family with DWS, where the disease is contracted only by female members, in two generations, whereas no signs of DWS have been noticed in male family members. DWS is clinically manifested from early childhood to middle age, with the morphological changes varying from hypoplastic cerebellar vermis to widening of the brain ventricles and hydrocephalus and arachnoid cyst in the occipital part. PMID:26040095

  7. Suppression of interferon ? gene transcription by inhibitors of bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family members

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Nazma; Vollmer, Stefan; Nanda, Sambit Kumar; Lopez-Pelaez, Marta; Prescott, Alan; Gray, Nathanael; Cohen, Philip

    2015-01-01

    PLK (Polo-like kinase) inhibitors, such as BI-2536, have been reported to suppress IFNB (encoding IFN?, interferon ?) gene transcription induced by ligands that activate TLR3 (Toll-like receptor 3) and TLR4. In the present study, we found that BI-2536 is likely to exert this effect by preventing the interaction of the transcription factors IRF3 (interferon-regulatory factor 3) and c-Jun with the IFNB promoter, but without affecting the TBK1 {TANK [TRAF (tumour-necrosis-factor-receptor-associated factor)-associated nuclear factor ?B activator]-binding kinase 1}-catalysed phosphorylation of IRF3 at Ser396, the dimerization and nuclear translocation of IRF3 or the phosphorylation of c-Jun and ATF2 (activating transcription factor 2). Although BI-2536 inhibits few other kinases tested, it interacts with BET (bromodomain and extra-terminal) family members and displaces them from acetylated lysine residues on histones. We found that BET inhibitors that do not inhibit PLKs phenocopied the effect of BI-2536 on IFNB gene transcription. Similarly, BET inhibitors blocked the interaction of IRF5 with the IFNB promoter and the secretion of IFN? induced by TLR7 or TLR9 ligands in the human plasmacytoid dendritic cell line GEN2.2, but without affecting the nuclear translocation of IRF5. We found that the BET family member BRD4 (bromodomain-containing protein 4) was associated with the IFNB promoter and that this interaction was enhanced by TLR3- or TLR4-ligation and prevented by BI-2536 and other BET inhibitors. Our results establish that BET family members are essential for TLR-stimulated IFNB gene transcription by permitting transcription factors to interact with the IFNB promoter. They also show that the interaction of the IFNB promoter with BRD4 is regulated by TLR ligation and that BI-2536 is likely to suppress IFNB gene transcription by targeting BET family members. PMID:25891802

  8. Sources of hope: Perception of Iranian family members of patients in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Gaeeni, Mina; Farahani, Mansoureh A; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Seyedfatemi, Naima

    2014-01-01

    Background: Admission to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is recognized as a situation with emotional strain, uncertainty, and fear of losing the patient. In such stressful situations, it is hope that can promote psychological stability in the patient's family members. Related literature revealed that sources of hope in this situation have still not been discussed well in studies. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the sources of hope from the perspective of families of ICU patients in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study that was carried out adopting the conventional qualitative content analysis approach, 19 family members of 13 patients hospitalized in the ICU from three teaching hospitals were selected, through purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using conventional content analysis, through the process of data reduction and condensation, coding, and also generating categories and subcategories. Results: Analysis of the data revealed sources of hope in families of ICU patients. These sources appeared as two main categories- internal sources and external sources. The internal sources had two subcategories consisting of ’religious-spirituality beliefs’ and ’positive attitude’. The external sources had four subcategories consisting of healthcare professionals’ interactions, empathy of families and friends, patient's condition, and participation in care. Conclusions: The results of this study showed the sources of hope in the families of the patients in the ICU. These sources, as moderating factors, could reduce physical and psychological damages caused to the families. In the present study, the categorizations of the participants’ in-depth experience could develop a new horizon for healthcare professionals, especially nurses, on the sources of hope, based on culture. PMID:25558262

  9. The Importance of Older Family Members in Providing Social Resources and Promoting Cancer Screening in Families with a Hereditary Cancer Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashida, Sato; Hadley, Donald W.; Goergen, Andrea F.; Skapinsky, Kaley F.; Devlin, Hillary C.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates the role of older family members as providers of social resources within familial network systems affected by an inherited cancer susceptibility syndrome. Design and Methods: Respondents who previously participated in a study that involved genetic counseling and testing for Lynch syndrome and their family network…

  10. The Influence of Family Therapy on Flexibility and Cohesion among Family Members Seeking Male Residential Treatment for Adolescent and Young Adult Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Stephanie L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated within a substance abuse treatment center the influence of family therapy on flexibility and cohesion among family members. Past studies have suggested adolescents who abuse substances exist in families who have a lack of balance of flexibility and cohesion. Unfortunately, few studies have examined the influence of…

  11. Evolutionary Pattern and Regulation Analysis to Support Why Diversity Functions Existed within PPAR Gene Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiping; Wang, Guosong; Liu, Hehe; Gan, Xiang; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Jiwen; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) gene family members exhibit distinct patterns of distribution in tissues and differ in functions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the evolutionary impacts on diversity functions of PPAR members and the regulatory differences on gene expression patterns. 63 homology sequences of PPAR genes from 31 species were collected and analyzed. The results showed that three isolated types of PPAR gene family may emerge from twice times of gene duplication events. The conserved domains of HOLI (ligand binding domain of hormone receptors) domain and ZnF_C4 (C4 zinc finger in nuclear in hormone receptors) are essential for keeping basic roles of PPAR gene family, and the variant domains of LCRs may be responsible for their divergence in functions. The positive selection sites in HOLI domain are benefit for PPARs to evolve towards diversity functions. The evolutionary variants in the promoter regions and 3? UTR regions of PPARs result into differential transcription factors and miRNAs involved in regulating PPAR members, which may eventually affect their expressions and tissues distributions. These results indicate that gene duplication event, selection pressure on HOLI domain, and the variants on promoter and 3? UTR are essential for PPARs evolution and diversity functions acquired. PMID:25961030

  12. Demographic and clinical characteristics associated with treatment status in family members with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Bernadette; Samuels, Jack F; Pinto, Anthony; Fyer, Abby J; McCracken, James T; Rauch, Scott L; Murphy, Dennis L; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Knowles, James A; Piacentini, John; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Grados, Marco A; Riddle, Mark A; Rasmussen, Steven A; Pauls, David L; Willour, Virginia L; Shugart, Yin Y; Liang, Kung-Yee; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf; Nestadt, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the demographic and clinical factors that influence treatment status in family members with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Six hundred and two subjects from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) to diagnose Axis I disorders, and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) for assessment of OCD symptoms. The demographic and clinical data were compared between subjects who had received treatment and those who had not. A precipitous onset of symptoms, severe illness, multiple obsessions and compulsions, and co-morbid affective disorders were all positively associated with receiving treatment. Older age and the presence of obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) or OCPD traits were negatively associated with treatment. Gender and age at onset of symptoms did not predict treatment history. The mean duration from onset of symptoms to receiving treatment was 13.8+/-SD 11.9 years, but there was a direct relationship between current age and time to treatment, with younger subjects receiving treatment sooner. Clinical factors are predominant in predicting treatment status in family members with OCD. Although the mean duration from onset of symptoms to treatment was long, younger family members appear to receive treatment sooner. PMID:17345603

  13. Protecting the health of employees caring for family members with special health care needs.

    PubMed

    Earle, Alison; Heymann, Jody

    2011-07-01

    Over half of American workers are holding a paid job while also providing unpaid assistance and support to a family member. Research shows that family members who provide care to children or adults with special health care needs are themselves at risk of physical and mental health problems. Yet, little research has explored how the work environment mediates the effects of caregiving on caregivers' mental and physical health. With a sample of 2455 currently employed U.S. adults from the Work, Family, Community Nexus (WFCN) survey, a random-digit dial, nationally representative survey of Americans aged 18-69, we examine whether paid leave and flexibility policies mediate the relationship between caregiving and health. In Ordinary Least Squares regression models, we find that paid leave to address family members' health was associated with better mental health status as measured by the 5-item Mental Health Inventory and paid sick leave with better physical health status as measured by self-rated overall health status. A supportive supervisor was also associated with improvements in mental and physical health. For both men and women, paid leave and a supervisor's support offset some or all of the negative effects of caregiving, but for women, the buffering effects of working conditions are slightly larger. Enhancing the unpaid leave guaranteed in the U.S. Family and Medical Leave Act so that it is paid and passing national paid sick days legislation will help ensure that employed caregivers can retain their jobs, receive needed income, and meet their own mental and physical health needs. PMID:21669484

  14. The Effect of Family Member Migration on Education and Work among Nonmigrant Youth in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Halpern-Manners, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    While academic and policy circles have given much attention to the assimilatory experiences of Mexican immigrants in the United States, less is known about those who stay behind—an especially unfortunate oversight given the increasing number of Mexican youth with migrant family members. Of the studies that do exist, most have sought to identify the effect migration has on youths’ migratory and educational aspirations, often using qualitative methods in single sending communities. The present article supplements this research in two ways: (1) in addition to assessing educational outcomes, the scope of the analysis is expanded to include nonmigrants’ interaction with another homeland institution of upward mobility—the labor market; and (2) using a large demographic data set, statistical techniques are employed to adjust for unobserved selectivity into the migrant family-member population, thus accounting for a potentially serious source of bias. The results suggest that youth in migrant-sending families are less likely to complete the educational transitions leading up to post-secondary school, and have a lower probability of participating in the local economy. The results also indicate that unobserved factors play a “nonignorable” role in sorting youth into migrant and nonmigrant families. PMID:21347807

  15. Multiple recombination events maintain sequence identity among members of the nitrogenase multigene family in Rhizobium etli.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, C; Romero, D

    1998-06-01

    A distinctive characteristic of the Rhizobium genome is the frequent finding of reiterated sequences, which often constitute multigene families. Interestingly, these families usually maintain a high degree of nucleotide sequence identity. It is commonly assumed that apparent gene conversion between reiterated elements might lead to concerted variation among members of a multigene family. However, the operation of this mechanism has not yet been demonstrated in the Rhizobiaceae. In this work, we employed different genetic constructions to address the role of apparent gene conversion as a homogenizing mechanism between members of the plasmid-located nitrogenase multigene family in Rhizobium etli. Our results show that a 28-bp insertion into one of the nitrogenase reiterations can be corrected by multiple recombination events, including apparent gene conversion. The correction process was dependent on the presence of both a wild-type recA gene and wild-type copies of the nitrogenase reiterations. Frequencies of apparent gene conversion to the wild-type nitrogenase reiterations were the same when the insertion to be corrected was located either in cis or in trans, indicating that this event frequently occurs through intermolecular interactions. Interestingly, a high frequency of multiple crossovers was observed, suggesting that these large plasmid molecules are engaging repeatedly in recombination events, in a situation akin to phage recombination or recombination among small, high-copy number plasmids. PMID:9611191

  16. Multiple recombination events maintain sequence identity among members of the nitrogenase multigene family in Rhizobium etli.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, C; Romero, D

    1998-01-01

    A distinctive characteristic of the Rhizobium genome is the frequent finding of reiterated sequences, which often constitute multigene families. Interestingly, these families usually maintain a high degree of nucleotide sequence identity. It is commonly assumed that apparent gene conversion between reiterated elements might lead to concerted variation among members of a multigene family. However, the operation of this mechanism has not yet been demonstrated in the Rhizobiaceae. In this work, we employed different genetic constructions to address the role of apparent gene conversion as a homogenizing mechanism between members of the plasmid-located nitrogenase multigene family in Rhizobium etli. Our results show that a 28-bp insertion into one of the nitrogenase reiterations can be corrected by multiple recombination events, including apparent gene conversion. The correction process was dependent on the presence of both a wild-type recA gene and wild-type copies of the nitrogenase reiterations. Frequencies of apparent gene conversion to the wild-type nitrogenase reiterations were the same when the insertion to be corrected was located either in cis or in trans, indicating that this event frequently occurs through intermolecular interactions. Interestingly, a high frequency of multiple crossovers was observed, suggesting that these large plasmid molecules are engaging repeatedly in recombination events, in a situation akin to phage recombination or recombination among small, high-copy number plasmids. PMID:9611191

  17. Teleocortin: A Novel Member of the CRH Family in Teleost Fish.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Kohei; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Miyanishi, Hiroshi; Hiraki-Kajiyama, Towako; Takeuchi, Akio; Nakasone, Kiyoshi; Maehiro, Sayaka; Okubo, Kataaki

    2015-08-01

    The CRH family of neuropeptides, including CRH and urocortins, plays pivotal roles in the regulation of physiological and behavioral stress responses in vertebrates. In this study, we identified a previously undescribed member of the CRH family of peptides in a teleost fish species (medaka; Oryzias latipes) and named this peptide teleocortin (Tcn). Medaka Tcn is a 41-amino acid polypeptide derived from the C terminus of a larger precursor protein that is encoded by a 2-exon gene, thus sharing common structural features with known CRH family peptides. tcn was found exclusively in teleost fish. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that tcn probably has an ancient origin but was lost from the tetrapod lineage shortly after the divergence of the teleost and tetrapod lineages. In the medaka brain, tcn was expressed in nuclei of the telencephalon, preoptic area, hypothalamus, tegmentum, and isthmic region. Because none of these nuclei have been implicated in the control of ACTH secretion from the pituitary, Tcn may exert its effects centrally in the brain rather than via stimulation of the pituitary-adrenal/interrenal axis. Most, if not all, tcn-expressing neurons also expressed crh, suggesting that Tcn and Crh share common physiological functions. Moreover, Tcn activated Crh receptors 1 and 2 with equivalent or slightly higher potency than Crh, further suggesting that these peptides share common functions. Taken together, these data identified Tcn as a novel, teleost-specific member of the CRH family of peptides that may act centrally with Crh to regulate physiological and behavioral stress responses. PMID:26030477

  18. MUTYH the base excision repair gene family member associated with colorectal cancer polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Kashfi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein; Golmohammadi, Mina; Behboudi, Faeghe; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is classified in to three forms: sporadic (70–75%), familial (20–25%) and hereditary (5–10%). hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes classified into two different subtypes: polyposis and non polyposis. Familial Adenomatous polyposis (FAP; OMIM #175100) is the most common polyposis syndrome, account for <1% of colorectal cancer incidence and characterized by germline mutations in the Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC, 5q21- q22; OMIM #175100). FAP is a dominant cancer predisposing syndrome which 20–25% cases are de novo. There is also another polyposis syndrome; MUTYH associated polyposis (MAP, OMIM 608456) which it is caused by mutation in human Mut Y homologue MUTYH (MUTYH; OMIM 604933) and it is associated with multiple (15–100) colonic adenomas. In this paper we discuss MUTYH mechanism as an important member of Base Excision Repair (BER) family and its important role in polyposis condition. PMID:24834277

  19. Informing family members of individuals with Lynch syndrome: a guideline for clinical geneticists.

    PubMed

    Menko, Fred H; Aalfs, Cora M; Henneman, Lidewij; Stol, Yrrah; Wijdenes, Miranda; Otten, Ellen; Ploegmakers, Marleen M J; Legemaate, Johan; Smets, Ellen M A; de Wert, Guido M W R; Tibben, Aad

    2013-06-01

    The diagnosis of Lynch syndrome can lead to the prevention of colorectal cancer through periodic colonoscopies and removal of premalignant lesions in susceptible individuals. Therefore, predisposed individuals identified by mutation analysis are advised to inform their at-risk relatives about the options of predictive DNA testing and preventive measures. However, it has now been established that more than half of these relatives do not receive the necessary information. Barriers in conveying information include family communication problems and variable attitudes and practice among clinical geneticists. In this complex field, both medical, psychological, ethical and juridical aspects deserve consideration. Here we summarize the development of a revised guideline for clinical geneticists that allows a more active role of the geneticist, aimed at improving procedures to inform family members in Lynch syndrome and other hereditary and familial cancer syndromes. PMID:23535968

  20. PE-1, a novel ETS oncogene family member, localizes to chromosome 1q21-q23.

    PubMed

    Klemsz, M; Hromas, R; Raskind, W; Bruno, E; Hoffman, R

    1994-03-15

    The v-ets oncogene family shares a conserved peptide motif called the ETS domain that mediates sequence-specific DNA binding. This motif is unique among transcription factor families. Using partially degenerate oligonucleotides from conserved regions of the ETS domain and the polymerase chain reaction, we isolated a new member of the v-ets family designated PE-1 from HL60 cells. PE-1 was expressed as an approximately 7.5-kb transcript in most cell lines tested. In the hairy cell leukemia line Eskol, there was an additional 1.8-kb transcript observed. PE-1 was the most common ETS domain gene found in CD34+HLA-DR- hematopoietic progenitors. PE-1 was localized to human chromosome 1q21-q23 using both in situ chromosomal hybridization and human-hamster hybrids. PMID:8020980

  1. Developmental and functional studies of the SLC12 gene family members from Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qifei; Tian, E; Turner, R James; Ten Hagen, Kelly G

    2010-01-01

    The electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporter gene family, SLC12, contains nine members in vertebrates. These include seven sodium and/or potassium-coupled chloride transporters and two membrane proteins of unknown function. Although SLC12 family members have been identified in a number of lower species, the functional properties of these proteins are unknown. There are five SLC12 homologues in Drosophila melanogaster, including at least one member on each of the four main branches of the vertebrate phylogenetic tree. We have employed in situ hybridization to study the expression patterns of the Drosophila SLC12 proteins during embryonic development. Our studies indicate that all five members of this family are expressed during early embryogenesis (stages 1-6), but that spatial and temporal expression patterns become more refined as development proceeds. Expression during late embryogenesis was seen predominantly in the ventral nerve cord, salivary gland, gut, and anal pad. In parallel studies, we have carried out transport assays on each of the five Drosophila homologues, expressed as recombinant proteins in the cultured insect cell line High Five. Under our experimental conditions, we found that only one of these proteins, CG4357, transported the potassium congener (86)Rb. Additional experiments established that rubidium transport via CG4357 was saturable (K(m) = 0.29 +/- 0.05 mM), sodium-dependent (half-saturation constant = 53 +/- 11 mM), chloride-dependent (half-saturation constant = 48 +/- 5 mM), and potently inhibited by bumetanide (inhibitor constant = 1.17 +/- 0.08 muM), a specific inhibitor of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters. Taken together, our results provide strong evidence that CG4357 is an insect ortholog of the vertebrate Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporters. PMID:19828839

  2. Race-related differences in the experiences of family members of persons with mental illness participating in the NAMI Family to Family Education Program.

    PubMed

    Smith, Melissa Edmondson; Lindsey, Michael A; Williams, Crystal D; Medoff, Deborah R; Lucksted, Alicia; Fang, Li Juan; Schiffman, Jason; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Dixon, Lisa B

    2014-12-01

    Families play an important role in the lives of individuals with mental illness. Coping with the strain of shifting roles and multiple challenges of caregiving can have a huge impact. Limited information exists regarding race-related differences in families' caregiving experiences, their abilities to cope with the mental illness of a loved one, or their interactions with mental health service systems. This study examined race-related differences in the experiences of adults seeking to participate in the National Alliance on Mental Illness Family-to-Family Education Program due to mental illness of a loved one. Participants were 293 White and 107 African American family members who completed measures of problem- and emotion-focused coping, knowledge about mental illness, subjective illness burden, psychological distress, and family functioning. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine race-related differences. African American caregivers reported higher levels of negative caregiving experiences, less knowledge of mental illness, and higher levels of both problem-solving coping and emotion-focused coping, than White caregivers. Mental health programs serving African American families should consider targeting specific strategies to address caregiving challenges, support their use of existing coping mechanisms and support networks, and increase their knowledge of mental illness. PMID:25213395

  3. Preoxiredoxin family members (Prx3 and Prx4) and pregnancy disorder (recurrent pregnancy loss).

    PubMed

    Gharesi-Fard, Behrouz

    2015-01-01

    Placenta is a pregnancy unique tissue, and proper formation of placenta is a key phenomenal step for success of a pregnancy. Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a family of antioxidant proteins. This family is composed of six members, among which Peroxiredoxin 3 (Prx3) and Peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4) are expressed by cytotrophoblast cells and play an important role in the implantation and a normal placentation through their antioxidant activities. Although the presence of autoantibody against several peroxiredoxin family members was reported before, there was no report regarding the presence of antibodies against Prx3 or Prx4 in human pregnancy miscarriage. So for the first time we hypothesize and indicate that uncontrolled oxidative stress, due to anti-peroxiredoxins antibodies, may affect the proper formation of the placenta and lead to placentation-related pregnancy disorders such as miscarriage. Our results indicate that two placental proteins, Prx3 and Prx4, may act as new placental immune targets. Considering the role of antioxidant defense in the protection of placenta from oxidative stress, production of antibodies against peroxiredoxins 3 and 4 may introduce a new autoimmune hypothesis for miscarriages, which is needed to be tested in the future works. PMID:25323516

  4. A functionally distinct member of the DP family of E2F subunits.

    PubMed

    Milton, A; Luoto, K; Ingram, L; Munro, S; Logan, N; Graham, A L; Brummelkamp, T R; Hijmans, E M; Bernards, R; La Thangue, N B

    2006-05-25

    E2F transcription factors regulate genes involved in cell-cycle progression. In mammalian cells, physiological E2F exists as an E2F/DP heterodimer. Currently, eight E2F and two DP subunits have been characterized. We report here the characterization of a new member of the DP family, DP-4. While DP-4 exhibits certain similarities with members of the DP family, it also possesses a number of significant differences. Thus, DP-4 forms a heterodimer with E2F subunits, binds to the E2F site and associates with pocket proteins including pRb. In contrast to DP-1, however, DP-4/E2F-1 complexes exhibit reduced DNA binding activity. Furthermore, DP-4 interferes with E2F-1-dependent transcription and delays cell-cycle progression. These results highlight an emerging complexity in the DP family of E2F subunits, and suggest that DP-4 may endow E2F heterodimers with distinct transcription properties. PMID:16418725

  5. Structural organization, mapping, characterization and evolutionary relationships of CDKN2 gene family members in Xiphophorus fishes.

    PubMed

    Kazianis, Steven; Khanolkar, Vandeeta A; Nairn, Rodney S; Rains, J Douglas; Trono, David; Garcia, Rachel; Williams, Earlanda L; Walter, Ronald B

    2004-07-01

    Xiphophorus fishes and their hybrids are used as models for the study of melanoma and other diseases. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor gene family in humans is comprised of four members, including CDKN2A (P16), and dysregulation of this gene is implicated in numerous neoplasms including melanomas. We have investigated the status of the gene family in the southern platyfish X. maculatus. Xiphophorus harbors at least two such loci, which we now term CDKN2A/B and CDKN2D. Both loci map to Xiphophorus linkage group 5, a genomic area that has long been known to harbor the DIFF tumor suppressor locus. Within this report, we report on the complete cloning, genomic exon/intron boundary delineation, linkage mapping and expressional characteristics of Xiphophorus CDKN2D. We also compare and contrast this expression to that of the previously isolated CDKN2AB locus in normal and neoplastic tissues derived from non-hybrid and hybrid fishes. The hypothetical evolutionary relationships of gene family members and their involvement in melanoma is evaluated. In comparison to CDKN2A/B, the RNA expression of Xiphophorus CDKN2D differs in normal tissues and is not associated with melanotic/pathologic tissues, confirming functional divergence between obvious homologues. PMID:15533787

  6. Expression and localization of human multidrug resistance protein (ABCC) family members in pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    König, Jörg; Hartel, Mark; Nies, Anne T; Martignoni, Marc E; Guo, Junchao; Büchler, Markus W; Friess, Helmut; Keppler, Dietrich

    2005-06-20

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is among the top 10 causes of death from cancer in industrialized countries. In comparison with other gastrointestinal malignancies, pancreatic cancer is one of the tumors most resistant to chemotherapy. An important mechanism of tumor multidrug resistance is increased drug efflux mediated by several transporters of the ABC superfamily. Especially BCRP (ABCG2), MDR1 P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and members of the MRP (ABCC) family are important in mediating drug resistance. The MRP family consists of 9 members (MRP1-MRP9) with MRP1-MRP6 being best characterized with respect to protein localization and substrate selectivity. Here, we quantified the mRNA expression of BCRP and of all MRP family members in normal human pancreas and pancreatic carcinoma and analyzed the mRNA level of the transporters most abundantly expressed in pancreatic tissue, BCRP, MRP1, MRP3, MRP4 and MRP5, in 37 tissue samples. In addition, we determined the localization of the 4 MRP proteins in normal human pancreas and in pancreatic carcinoma. The expression of BCRP, MRP1 and MRP4 mRNA did not correlate with tumor stage or grading. On the other hand, the expression of MRP3 mRNA was upregulated in pancreatic carcinoma samples and was correlated with tumor grading. The MRP5 mRNA level was significantly higher in pancreatic carcinoma tissue compared to normal pancreatic tissue. These data suggest that MRP3 and MRP5 are involved in drug resistance of pancreatic tumors and that quantitative analysis of their expression may contribute to predict the benefit of chemotherapy in patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:15688370

  7. 38 CFR 71.50 - Provision of certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01...health services to certain family members of veterans. 71.50 Section 71.50 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS...

  8. 38 CFR 71.50 - Provision of certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01...health services to certain family members of veterans. 71.50 Section 71.50 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS...

  9. 38 CFR 71.50 - Provision of certain counseling, training, and mental health services to certain family members...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...health services to certain family members of veterans. 71.50 Section 71.50 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS...

  10. The Aging-Associated Enzyme CLK-1 is a Member of the Carboxylate-Bridged Diiron Family of Proteins

    E-print Network

    Behan, Rachel K.

    The aging-associated enzyme CLK-1 is proposed to be a member of the carboxylate-bridged diiron family of proteins. To evaluate this hypothesis and characterize the protein, we expressed soluble mouse CLK-1 (MCLK1) in ...

  11. Screening of a healthy newborn identifies three adult family members with symptomatic glutaric aciduria type I

    PubMed Central

    MCH, Janssen; LAJ, Kluijtmans; S.B., Wortmann

    2014-01-01

    We report three adult sibs (one female, two males) with symptomatic glutaric acidura type I, who were diagnosed after a low carnitine level was found by newborn screening in a healthy newborn of the women. All three adults had low plasma carnitine, elevated glutaric acid levels and pronounced 3-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. The diagnosis was confirmed by undetectable glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity in lymphocytes and two pathogenic heterozygous mutations in the GCDH gene (c.1060A > G, c.1154C > T). These results reinforce the notion that abnormal metabolite levels in newborns may lead to the diagnosis of adult metabolic disease in the mother and potentially other family members.

  12. Genomic sequence and organization of two members of a human lectin gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Gitt, M.A.; Barondes, S.H. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors have isolated and sequenced the genomic DNA encoding a human dimeric soluble lactose-binding lectin. The gene has four exons, and its upstream region contains sequences that suggest control by glucocorticoids, heat (environmental) shock, metals, and other factors. They have also isolated and sequenced three exons of the gene encoding another human putative lectin, the existence of which was first indicated by isolation of its cDNA. Comparisons suggest a general pattern of genomic organization of members of this lectin gene family.

  13. NEDD4: The founding member of a family of ubiquitin-protein ligases.

    PubMed

    Boase, Natasha Anne; Kumar, Sharad

    2015-02-25

    Ubiquitination plays a crucial role in regulating proteins post-translationally. The focus of this review is on NEDD4, the founding member of the NEDD4 family of ubiquitin ligases that is evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes. Many potential substrates of NEDD4 have been identified and NEDD4 has been shown to play a critical role in the regulation of a number of membrane receptors, endocytic machinery components and the tumour suppressor PTEN. In this review we will discuss the diverse pathways in which NEDD4 is involved, and the patho-physiological significance of this important ubiquitin ligase. PMID:25527121

  14. Suicide in a mental health setting: caring for staff, clients, and family members.

    PubMed

    Soukoreff, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    This is a reflection article presenting insights gained by a spiritual and religious caregiver through her experience of supporting and comforting individuals as they struggled with the societal, emotional, and spiritual issues resulting from a death by suicide, through her education in crisis management, and through her review of the relevant literature. The article outlines the needs of psychiatric patients, hospital staff, and family members when a suicide has occurred. The author's point of view is that open non-judgmental dialogue is essential for healing the intense grief often associated with suicide. PMID:19227039

  15. Low Members of the Intergrowth Tungsten Bronze Family by Partial Substitution of Molybdenum for Tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihlborg, Lars; Blomqvist, Helen; Sundberg, Margareta

    2001-12-01

    Potassium and cesium intergrowth tungsten bronzes AxMoyW1-yO3 with x?0.25 and y?0.65 have been prepared. By substitution of molybdenum for tungsten the synthesis temperature can be decreased to 600°C and new phases of the structure family prepared. The ITB members designated (1, 3) and (1, 1, 3) have been prepared in relatively phase-pure form, while individual crystals of (1, 2) and (1, 1, 2) have been identified by electron microscopy. These four phases have not been found previously in the ITB bronze systems.

  16. The impact of childhood experiences and family members outside the household on residential environment choices.

    PubMed

    Blaauboer, Marjolein

    2011-01-01

    Choices of urban, suburban or rural residential environments have often been studied from a life-course perspective. In this paper, an examination is made of the influence of childhood experiences and of residential environment choices of family members outside the household. It is argued that socialisation, location-specific capital and the wish to maintain close family ties may result in living in a similar residential environment later in life and in similar environments to siblings and parents. Results of multinomial logistic regression analyses of data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study show that the residential environment during childhood is indeed strongly associated with the current residential environment. Moreover, individuals show a strong similarity to their parents and siblings in their residential environment, even after accounting for residential inertia and return migration. PMID:21954484

  17. 'A voyage of grief and beauty': supporting a dying family member with an intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Susan; Martin, Margi

    2008-07-01

    This article reports on a small research project designed to reveal what it is like to support a dying family member with an intellectual disability in a community setting. Five open-ended interviews were conducted with individuals who had experienced this phenomenon. Three thematic elements which lay within the experience of being a family support person were elucidated through hermeneutic phenomenological analysis of interview audio-recordings, verbatim transcripts and field notes. Collectively, these themes (Interlocked Companionship, Search for New Balance and Permeable Interaction) created a metaphorical understanding that participants had navigated a voyage of grief and beauty'. Rhetorical consideration of the research findings generated recommendations for tertiary, palliative care and intellectual disability support services. These are presented along with suggestions for future research. PMID:18959283

  18. 41 CFR 302-3.200 - When a member of my immediate family who is also an employee and I are transferring to the same...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false When a member of my immediate family who is also an employee and I are transferring...Relocation of Two Or More Employed Immediate Family Members § 302-3.200 When a member of my immediate family who is also an employee and I are...

  19. 41 CFR 302-3.200 - When a member of my immediate family who is also an employee and I are transferring to the same...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false When a member of my immediate family who is also an employee and I are transferring...Relocation of Two Or More Employed Immediate Family Members § 302-3.200 When a member of my immediate family who is also an employee and I are...

  20. 41 CFR 302-3.202 - If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same official station, may we both claim...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same...allowances for the same non-employee family member? 302-3.202 Section 302-3...Relocation of Two Or More Employed Immediate Family Members § 302-3.202 If my...

  1. 41 CFR 302-3.202 - If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same official station, may we both claim...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false If my immediate family member and I both transfer to the same...allowances for the same non-employee family member? 302-3.202 Section 302-3...Relocation of Two Or More Employed Immediate Family Members § 302-3.202 If my...

  2. PRMT8, a New Membrane-bound Tissue-specific Member of the Protein Arginine Methyltransferase Family*

    E-print Network

    Clarke, Steven

    PRMT8, a New Membrane-bound Tissue-specific Member of the Protein Arginine Methyltransferase Family and Biochemistry, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095-1569 Protein arginine methylation is a common post, and DNA repair. A search of the human genome for additional members of the protein arginine N

  3. Correlates of Caregiver Burden among Family Members of Patients with Schizophrenia in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeosun, Increase Ibukun

    2013-01-01

    Family members of patients with schizophrenia have enormous roles in the care of their patients, which could negatively impact their well being. Development of interventions targeted at alleviating the burden of informal care giving is hinged on the recognition of the factors associated with the various dimensions of burden. This study determined the correlates of caregiver burden among family members of patients with schizophrenia in Lagos, Nigeria. The study instruments included the Zarit burden interview (ZBI) and the positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia (PANSS). Exploratory factor analysis of the ZBI produced a five-factor structure with “financial/physical strain”, “time/dependence strain”, “emotional strain”, “uncertainty”, and “self-criticism” domains. On multiple regression analyses, total PANSS scores, poor social support, and lower educational levels of caregivers were predictive of higher burden scores on the “financial/physical strain”, “time/dependence”, and “emotional strain” domains. Longer duration of illness, shorter patient-caregiver contact time, and being a female caregiver were predictive of higher burden scores on the “uncertainty”, “self-criticism”, and “emotional strain” domains, respectively. There is need for interventions to alleviate the burden on caregivers of patients with schizophrenia in Nigeria. These strategies must include comprehensive social support and improve access to services for patients and their caregivers. PMID:24222848

  4. Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B8 is secreted via non-classical pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhenwang; Xia, Chenglai; Huang, Renbin; Li, Xiaoning; Wang, Wan-Chun; Guo, Wangyuan; Duan, Lili; Luo, Weihao; Cao, Deliang; Luo, Di-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Mouse aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B8 (AKR1B8) has the highest similarity to human aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10), a secretory protein through lysosomes-mediated non-classical secretory pathway. To identify whether AKR1B8 is secreted through the same pathway, we carried out this study. Self-developed sandwich ELISA and western blot were used to detect AKR1B8 in cells and culture medium of CT-26 murine colon carcinoma cells. AKR1B8 releases in an independent manner to Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of ER-to-Golgi classical secretion pathway. Several factors, which are involved in the non-classical secretion pathway, such as temperature, ATP and calcium ion, regulated AKR1B8 secretion from mouse colorectal cancer cells CT-26. Lysosomotropic NH4Cl increased AKR1B8 secretion, and AKR1B8 was located in isolated lysosomes. Therefore, AKR1B8 is a new secretory protein through the lysosomes-mediated non-classical pathway. PMID:25120755

  5. Prosurvival Bcl-2 family members reveal a distinct apoptotic identity between conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Carrington, Emma M; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Sutherland, Robyn M; Vikstrom, Ingela B; Brady, Jamie L; Soo, Priscilla; Vremec, David; Allison, Cody; Lee, Erinna F; Fairlie, W Douglas; Bouillet, Philippe; Grabow, Stephanie; Ottina, Eleonora; Herold, Marco J; Pellegrini, Marc; Huang, David C S; Tarlinton, David M; Strasser, Andreas; Lew, Andrew M; Zhan, Yifan

    2015-03-31

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are heterogeneous, comprising subsets with functional specializations that play distinct roles in immunity as well as immunopathology. We investigated the molecular control of cell survival of two main DC subsets: plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and conventional DCs (cDCs) and their dependence on individual antiapoptotic BCL-2 family members. Compared with cDCs, pDCs had higher expression of BCL-2, lower A1, and similar levels of MCL-1 and BCL-XL. Transgenic overexpression of BCL-2 increased the pDC pool size in vivo with only minor impact on cDCs. With a view to immune intervention, we tested BCL-2 inhibitors and found that ABT-199 (the BCL-2 specific inhibitor) selectively killed pDCs but not cDCs. Conversely, genetic knockdown of A1 profoundly reduced the proportion of cDCs but not pDCs. We also found that conditional ablation of MCL-1 significantly reduced the size of both DC populations in mice and impeded DC-mediated immune responses. Thus, we revealed that the two DC types have different cell survival requirements. The molecular basis of survival of different DC subsets thus advocates the antagonism of selective BCL-2 family members for treating diseases pertaining to distinct DC subsets. PMID:25775525

  6. Entamoeba histolytica phagocytosis of human erythrocytes involves PATMK, a member of the transmembrane kinase family.

    PubMed

    Boettner, Douglas R; Huston, Christopher D; Linford, Alicia S; Buss, Sarah N; Houpt, Eric; Sherman, Nicholas E; Petri, William A

    2008-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the cause of amebic colitis and liver abscess. This parasite induces apoptosis in host cells and utilizes exposed ligands such as phosphatidylserine to ingest the apoptotic corpses and invade deeper into host tissue. The purpose of this work was to identify amebic proteins involved in the recognition and ingestion of dead cells. A member of the transmembrane kinase family, phagosome-associated TMK96 (PATMK), was identified in a proteomic screen for early phagosomal proteins. Anti-peptide affinity-purified antibody produced against PATMK demonstrated that it was a type I integral membrane protein that was expressed on the trophozoite surface, and that co-localized with human erythrocytes at the site of contact. The role of PATMK in erythrophagocytosis in vitro was demonstrated by: (i) incubation of ameba with anti-PATMK antibodies; (ii) PATMK mRNA knock-down using a novel shRNA expression system; and (iii) expression of a carboxy-truncation of PATMK (PATMK(delta932)). Expression of the carboxy-truncation of PATMK(delta932) also caused a specific reduction in the ability of E. histolytica to establish infection in the intestinal model of amebiasis, however these amebae retained the ability to cause hepatic abscesses when directly injected in the liver. In conclusion, PATMK was identified as a member of the TMK family that participates in erythrophagocytosis and is uniquely required for intestinal infection. PMID:18208324

  7. Identification and characterization of interactions between abscisic acid and human heat shock protein 70 family members.

    PubMed

    Kharenko, Olesya A; Polichuk, Devin; Nelson, Ken M; Abrams, Suzanne R; Loewen, Michele C

    2013-10-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a stress-inducible plant hormone comprising an inevitable component of the human diet. Recently, stress-induced accumulation of autocrine ABA was shown in humans, as well as ABA-mediated modulation of a number of disease-associated systems. Now, the application of a chemical proteomics approach to gain further insight into ABA mechanisms of action in mammalian cells is reported. An ABA mimetic photoaffinity probe was applied to intact mammalian insulinoma and embryonic cells, leading to the identification of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family members, (including GRP78 and HSP70-2) as putative human ABA-binding proteins. In vitro characterization of the ABA-HSP70 interactions yielded K(d)s in the 20-60 µM range, which decreased several fold in the presence of co-chaperone. However, ABA was found to have only variable- and co-chaperone-independent effects on the ATPase activity of these proteins. The potential implications of these ABA-HSP70 interactions are discussed with respect to the intracellular protein folding and extracellular receptor-like activities of these stress-inducible proteins. While mechanistic and functional relevance remain enigmatic, we conclude that ABA can bind to human HSP70 family members with physiologically relevant affinities and in a co-chaperone-dependent manner. PMID:23975754

  8. Characterization of myelin ligand complexes with neuronal Nogo-66 receptor family members.

    PubMed

    Laurén, Juha; Hu, Fenghua; Chin, Joanna; Liao, Ji; Airaksinen, Matti S; Strittmatter, Stephen M

    2007-02-23

    Nogo, MAG, and OMgp are myelin-associated proteins that bind to a neuronal Nogo-66 receptor (NgR/NgR1) to limit axonal regeneration after central nervous system injury. Within Nogo-A, two separate domains are known interact with NgR1. NgR1 is the founding member of the three-member NgR family, whereas Nogo-A (RTN4A) belongs to a four-member reticulon family. Here, we systematically mapped the interactions between these superfamilies, demonstrating novel nanomolar interactions of RTN2 and RTN3 with NgR1. Because RTN3 is expressed in spinal cord white matter, it may have a role in myelin inhibition of axonal growth. Further analysis of the Nogo-A and NgR1 interactions revealed a novel third interaction site between the proteins, suggesting a trivalent Nogo-A interaction with NgR1. We also confirmed here that MAG binds to NgR2, but not to NgR3. Unexpectedly, we found that OMgp interacts with MAG with a higher affinity compared with NgR1. To better define how these multiple structurally distinct ligands bind to NgR1, we examined a series of Ala-substituted NgR1 mutants for ligand binding activity. We found that the core of the binding domain is centered in the middle of the concave surface of the NgR1 leucine-rich repeat domain and surrounded by differentially utilized residues. This detailed knowledge of the molecular interactions between NgR1 and its ligands is imperative when assessing options for development of NgR1-based therapeutics for central nervous system injuries. PMID:17189258

  9. "Negotiating fairness": a study on how lesbian family members evaluate, construct, and maintain "fairness" with the division of household labor.

    PubMed

    Esmail, Ashraf

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I examine how dual-earner lesbian families construct and evaluate an equal division of household labor through their perceptions of "fairness." Through 22 interviews of dual-earner lesbian families (a total of 44 subjects), I identify that lesbian partners use social comparisons with heterosexual families with whom they have contact, as well as their former heterosexual and homosexual families as an important link to justify what they believe to be a fair division of household labor. Childhood socialization and parental models, however, were not shown to adequately explain how members of a lesbian family construct a perception of equality concerning household division of labor. PMID:20455132

  10. Molecular cloning, expression, and initial characterization of members of the CYP3A family in horses.

    PubMed

    Knych, Heather K DiMaio; McKemie, Daniel S; Stanley, Scott D

    2010-10-01

    The use of performance-enhancing drugs in the horse racing industry combined with the need for more rational approaches in the use of therapeutic agents in equids necessitates additional studies on the spectrum, content, and catalytic activities of hepatic cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in this species. In this study, three cytochrome P450 (P450) monooxygenases in the 3A family were cloned from, sequenced, and expressed in a baculovirus expression system. The proteins were designated CYP3A89, CYP3A96, and CYP3A97. Expression studies produced various results among the three proteins. CYP3A89 appears to undergo post-translational modification, producing a truncated protein, and although metabolically active, CYP3A97 did not have a detectable P450 spectrum. Expression of CYP3A96 produced a full-length, catalytically active protein. CYP3A96 catalyzed testosterone, and nifedipine metabolism was 20- and 10-fold slower, respectively, compared with the human counterpart, CYP3A4. Relative hepatic expression levels of each member of the CYP3A family, determined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, varied more than 1000-fold in individual horses. The results demonstrate substantial interspecies variability in metabolism of substrates by members of the CYP3A family in the horse and human and support the need to fully characterize 450-mediated metabolism in equids. These studies provide a framework for screening therapeutically useful drugs and provide a method for determination of metabolites of illegal performance-enhancing drugs without the time and expense of either in vivo studies or obtaining liver samples for in vitro analysis. PMID:20587621

  11. The association of spiritual care providers’ activities with family members’ satisfaction with care after a death in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Engelberg, Ruth A.; Nielsen, Elizabeth L.; Kross, Erin K.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Hanada, Julie C.; O’Mahoney, Sean K Doll; Curtis, J. Randall

    2014-01-01

    Objective Spiritual distress is common in the ICU, and spiritual care providers are often called upon to provide care for patients and their families. Our goal was to evaluate the activities spiritual care providers’ conduct to support patients and families, and whether those activities are associated with family satisfaction with ICU care. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 350-bed, 65-ICU bed tertiary care teaching hospital. Subjects Spiritual care providers and family members of patients who died in the ICU or within 30 hours of transfer from the ICU. Measurements Spiritual care providers completed surveys reporting their activities. Family members completed validated measures of satisfaction with care and satisfaction with spiritual care. Clustered regression was used to assess the association between activities completed by spiritual care providers and family ratings of care. Results Of 494 eligible patients, 275 family members completed surveys (response rate, 56%). Fifty-seven spiritual care providers received surveys relating to 268 patients, completing 285 surveys for 244 patients (response rate, 91%). Spiritual care providers commonly reported activities related to supporting religious and spiritual needs (>=90%) and providing support for family feelings (90%). Discussions about the patient’s wishes for end-of-life care and a greater number of spiritual care activities performed were both associated with increased overall family satisfaction with ICU care (p<0.05). Discussions about a patient’s end-of-life wishes, preparation for a family conference, and total number of activities performed were associated with improved family satisfaction with decision-making in the ICU (p<0.05). Conclusions Spiritual care providers engage in a variety of activities with families of ICU patients; several are associated with increased family satisfaction with ICU care in general and decision-making in the ICU specifically. These findings provide insight into spiritual care provider activities and provide guidance for interventions to improve spiritual care delivered to families of critically ill patients. PMID:24797373

  12. Consumption and Sources of Dietary Salt in Family Members in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fang; Zhang, Puhong; Zhang, Lu; Niu, Wenyi; Gao, Jianmei; Lu, Lixin; liu, Caixia; Gao, Xian

    2015-01-01

    In China, few people are aware of the amount and source of their salt intake. We conducted a survey to investigate the consumption and sources of dietary salt using the “one-week salt estimation method” by weighing cooking salt and major salt-containing food, and estimating salt intake during dining out based on established evidence. Nine hundred and three families (1981 adults and 971 children) with students in eight primary or junior high schools in urban and suburban Beijing were recruited. On average, the daily dietary salt intake of family members in Beijing was 11.0 (standard deviation: 6.2) g for children and adolescents (under 18 years old), 15.2 (9.1) g for adults (18 to 59 years old), and 10.2 (4.8) g for senior citizens (60 years old and over), respectively. Overall, 60.5% of dietary salt was consumed at home, and 39.5% consumed outside the home. Approximately 90% of the salt intake came from cooking (household cooking and cafeteria or restaurant cooking), while less than 10% came from processed food. In conclusion, the dietary salt intake in Beijing families far surpassed the recommended amounts by World Health Organization, with both household cooking and dining-out as main sources of salt consumption. More targeted interventions, especially education about major sources of salt and corresponding methods for salt reduction should be taken to reduce the risks associated with a high salt diet. PMID:25867952

  13. STS-95 crew members greet families at Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 crew members greet their families from Launch Pad 39B. From left, they are Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., and Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, with the European Space Agency (ESA). The crew were making final preparations for launch, targeted for liftoff at 2 p.m. on Oct. 29. The mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, returning to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  14. Multiple roles of TNF super family members in corpus luteum function

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Kiyoshi; Sakumoto, Ryosuke

    2003-01-01

    The main function of the corpus luteum (CL) is the production of progesterone. Adequate luteal progesterone is crucial for determining the physiological duration of the estrous cycle and for achieving a successful pregnancy. The CL is regulated not only by hypophyseal gonadotropin, but also by a number of cytokines that are locally produced. Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) and its specific receptors (TNFR) are present in the CL of many species. TNF plays multiple and likely important roles in CL function throughout the estrous cycle. TNF appears to have luteotropic and luteolytic roles in the CLs. In contrast, Fas ligand (Fas L), another member of TNF super family (TNF-SF), is primarily recognized for its apoptotic actions. Presumably, Fas L binds its cognate receptor (Fas) to induce structural luteolysis. This review is designed to focus on recent studies documenting the expression of TNF and Fas L, their receptors, and intracellular signaling mechanisms in the CL. PMID:14613529

  15. Diagnostic value of interactions between members of the family Neisseriaceae and lectins.

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, R J; Nedjat-Haiem, F; Keller, K F; Frasch, C E

    1984-01-01

    The lectin slide agglutination test for Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been modified and improved. Results show that wheat germ agglutinin and soybean lectin agglutinate 100% (193 of 193 tested) of clinical isolates of N. gonorrhoeae. Lectin-reactive meningococci can be readily identified by the hydrolysis of gamma-glutamyl-beta-naphthylamide. Branhamella catarrhalis, Neisseria lactamica, Neisseria sicca, Neisseria subflava, Neisseria perflava, and meningococcal serogroups A, B, C, X, Y, and Z do not interfere with the positive identification of N. gonorrhoeae. The frequently encountered problem of autoagglutination of members of the family Neisseriaceae may be circumvented by a short treatment of cellular suspensions with DNase. Based on agglutination assays, the enzyme treatment did not result in a loss of wheat germ agglutinin receptors from the bacteria. The lectin agglutination test, coupled with the gamma-glutamyl aminopeptidase assay, is proposed as a rapid and accurate means of identifying clinical isolates of gonococci. PMID:6546936

  16. Crying in solitude or with someone for support and consolation--experiences from family members in palliative home care.

    PubMed

    Rydé, Kerstin; Strang, Peter; Friedrichsen, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Crying has not been studied from the perspective of family members of patients in palliative care. The aim of this study was to explore the significance of family members crying in a palliative care context with special reference to factors that influence crying. Interviews were carried out with 14 family members of patients admitted to palliative care. A hermeneutic approach according to Gadamer was used. Three main categories emerged. (1) Before the start of crying, some prerequisites for crying had to be fulfilled, such as an allowing attitude and courage, time, feeling secure, honesty, and trusting relationships. These prerequisites did not cause crying themselves; rather crying emerged when triggering factors occurred. (2) Triggers for crying were circumstances that created uncertainty and turbulence (bad news), exhaustion due to lack of own time, and sympathy from others. (3) Family members tried to do the best possible by adopting or hiding their crying, to ease the patient's burden and to create a positive counterbalance to suffering and grief. As an interpretation of the whole, crying could be expressed as being shared with someone for support and consolation or escape to solitude for integrity and respite. As a conclusion, crying may be an efficient strategy for family members in palliative care to express their suffering and to gain new energy to continue. PMID:18772658

  17. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B)

    SciTech Connect

    Duangtum, Natapol; Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 ; Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} Impaired trafficking of kAE1 causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). {yields} The interaction between kAE1 and kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is reported. {yields} The co-localization between kAE and KIF3B was detected in human kidney tissues. {yields} A marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane was observed when KIF3B was knockdown. {yields} KFI3B plays an important role in trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of {alpha}-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange and the failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells.

  18. Basis for the Essentiality of H-NS Family Members in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Castang, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Members of the histone-like nucleoid-structuring (H-NS) family of proteins have been shown to play important roles in silencing gene expression and in nucleoid compaction. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the two H-NS family members MvaT and MvaU are thought to bind the same AT-rich regions of the chromosome and function coordinately to control a common set of genes. Here we present evidence that the loss of both MvaT and MvaU cannot be tolerated because it results in the production of Pf4 phage that superinfect and kill cells or inhibit their growth. Using a ClpXP-based protein depletion system in combination with transposon mutagenesis, we identify mutants of P. aeruginosa that can tolerate the depletion of MvaT in an ?mvaU mutant background. Many of these mutants contain insertions in genes encoding components, assembly factors, or regulators of type IV pili or contain insertions in genes of the prophage Pf4. We demonstrate that cells that no longer produce type IV pili or that no longer produce the replicative form of the Pf4 genome can tolerate the loss of both MvaT and MvaU. Furthermore, we show that the loss of both MvaT and MvaU results in an increase in expression of Pf4 genes and that cells that cannot produce type IV pili are resistant to infection by Pf4 phage. Our findings suggest that type IV pili are the receptors for Pf4 phage and that the essential activities of MvaT and MvaU are to repress the expression of Pf4 genes. PMID:22821971

  19. The selective BH4-domain biology of Bcl-2-family members: IP3Rs and beyond.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Giovanni; Vervliet, Tim; Akl, Haidar; Bultynck, Geert

    2013-04-01

    Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2-family members not only neutralize pro-apoptotic proteins but also directly regulate intracellular Ca(2+) signaling from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), critically controlling cellular health, survival, and death initiation. Furthermore, distinct Bcl-2-family members may selectively regulate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R): Bcl-2 likely acts as an endogenous inhibitor of the IP3R, preventing pro-apoptotic Ca(2+) transients, while Bcl-XL likely acts as an endogenous IP3R-sensitizing protein promoting pro-survival Ca(2+) oscillations. Furthermore, distinct functional domains in Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL may underlie the divergence in IP3R regulation. The Bcl-2 homology (BH) 4 domain, which targets the central modulatory domain of the IP3R, is likely to be Bcl-2's determining factor. In contrast, the hydrophobic cleft targets the C-terminal Ca(2+)-channel tail and might be more crucial for Bcl-XL's function. Furthermore, one amino acid critically different in the sequence of Bcl-2's and Bcl-XL's BH4 domains underpins their selective effect on Ca(2+) signaling and distinct biological properties of Bcl-2 versus Bcl-XL. This difference is evolutionary conserved across five classes of vertebrates and may represent a fundamental divergence in their biological function. Moreover, these insights open novel avenues to selectively suppress malignant Bcl-2 function in cancer cells by targeting its BH4 domain, while maintaining essential Bcl-XL functions in normal cells. Thus, IP3R-derived molecules that mimic the BH4 domain's binding site on the IP3R may function synergistically with BH3-mimetic molecules selectivity suppressing Bcl-2's proto-oncogenic activity. Finally, a more general role for the BH4 domain on IP3Rs, rather than solely anti-apoptotic, may not be excluded as part of a complex network of molecular interactions. PMID:22955373

  20. BCL2DB: database of BCL-2 family members and BH3-only proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rech de Laval, Valentine; Deléage, Gilbert; Aouacheria, Abdel; Combet, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    BCL2DB (http://bcl2db.ibcp.fr) is a database designed to integrate data on BCL-2 family members and BH3-only proteins. These proteins control the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and probably many other cellular processes as well. This large protein group is formed by a family of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic homologs that have phylogenetic relationships with BCL-2, and by a collection of evolutionarily and structurally unrelated proteins characterized by the presence of a region of local sequence similarity with BCL-2, termed the BH3 motif. BCL2DB is monthly built, thanks to an automated procedure relying on a set of homemade profile HMMs computed from seed reference sequences representative of the various BCL-2 homologs and BH3-only proteins. The BCL2DB entries integrate data from the Ensembl, Ensembl Genomes, European Nucleotide Archive and Protein Data Bank databases and are enriched with specific information like protein classification into orthology groups and distribution of BH motifs along the sequences. The Web interface allows for easy browsing of the site and fast access to data, as well as sequence analysis with generic and specific tools. BCL2DB provides a helpful and powerful tool to both ‘BCL-2-ologists’ and researchers working in the various fields of physiopathology. Database URL: http://bcl2db.ibcp.fr PMID:24608034

  1. Cloning and characterization of SOX5, a new member of the human SOX gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Wunderle, V.M.; Critcher, R.; Goodfellow, P.N.; Ashworth, A.

    1996-09-01

    The mammalian Y-linked testis determining gene, SRY, encodes a protein with a DNA binding motif known as the HMG box. A large family of genes sharing a high similarity with the SRY HMG box and named Sox (Sry-related HMG box) in mouse and SOX in human has been identified from various organisms. We have cloned SOX5, a new member of the human SOX gene family. SOX5 cDNAs isolated from a human adult testis cDNA library show a high similarity with the mouse Sox5 transcript over a large region identical in all the human cDNAs. However, comparison of the 5{prime} unique sequences of the cDNAs suggests that the SOX5 gene is subject to alternative splicing. Genomic analysis identified a SOX5 pseudogene located on 8q21.1, whereas the SOX5 gene itself, which contains a minimum of five introns, maps to 12p12.1. In contrast to the mouse gene, the human SOX5 gene is expressed in a variety of human tissues, and different size transcripts are observed in adult testis and fetal brain. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Organic anion transporter (Slc22a) family members as mediators of toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, Douglas H. . E-mail: sweetd@musc.edu

    2005-05-01

    Exposure of the body to toxic organic anions is unavoidable and occurs from both intentional and unintentional sources. Many hormones, neurotransmitters, and waste products of cellular metabolism, or their metabolites, are organic anions. The same is true for a wide variety of medications, herbicides, pesticides, plant and animal toxins, and industrial chemicals and solvents. Rapid and efficient elimination of these substances is often the body's best defense for limiting both systemic exposure and the duration of their pharmacological or toxicological effects. For organic anions, active transepithelial transport across the renal proximal tubule followed by elimination via the urine is a major pathway in this detoxification process. Accordingly, a large number of organic anion transport proteins belonging to several different gene families have been identified and found to be expressed in the proximal nephron. The function of these transporters, in combination with the high volume of renal blood flow, predisposes the kidney to increased toxic susceptibility. Understanding how the kidney mediates the transport of organic anions is integral to achieving desired therapeutic outcomes in response to drug interactions and chemical exposures, to understanding the progression of some disease states, and to predicting the influence of genetic variation upon these processes. This review will focus on the organic anion transporter (OAT) family and discuss the known members, their mechanisms of action, subcellular localization, and current evidence implicating their function as a determinant of the toxicity of certain endogenous and xenobiotic agents.

  3. A Grounded Theory of Students' Long-Distance Coping With a Family Member's Cancer.

    PubMed

    Basinger, Erin D; Wehrman, Erin C; Delaney, Amy L; McAninch, Kelly G

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we explore how family members cope with one source of stress-cancer diagnosis and treatment. We suggest that coping away from one's family is characterized by constraints that are not common to proximal coping. We conducted six focus groups with college students (N = 21) at a university in the United States to investigate their long-distance coping experiences and used grounded theory methods to develop a model of college students' long-distance coping. Negotiating the tension between being here (at school) and being there (at home) was central to their experiences. Participants described four manifestations of their negotiation between here and there (i.e., expressing/hiding emotion, longing to care for the patient there/avoiding responsibility here, feeling shock at degeneration there/escaping degeneration by being here, and lacking information from there) and three strategies they used to cope (i.e., being here and withdrawing, being here and doing school, and seeking/not seeking support). PMID:25794524

  4. Cloning and analysis of DnaJ family members in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinü; Bu, Cuiyu; Li, Tiantian; Wang, Shibao; Jiang, Feng; Yi, Yongzhu; Yang, Huipeng; Zhang, Zhifang

    2016-01-15

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are involved in a variety of critical biological functions, including protein folding, degradation, and translocation and macromolecule assembly, act as molecular chaperones during periods of stress by binding to other proteins. Using expressed sequence tag (EST) and silkworm (Bombyx mori) transcriptome databases, we identified 27 cDNA sequences encoding the conserved J domain, which is found in DnaJ-type Hsps. Of the 27 J domain-containing sequences, 25 were complete cDNA sequences. We divided them into three types according to the number and presence of conserved domains. By analyzing the gene structures, intron numbers, and conserved domains and constructing a phylogenetic tree, we found that the DnaJ family had undergone convergent evolution, obtaining new domains to expand the diversity of its family members. The acquisition of the new DnaJ domains most likely occurred prior to the evolutionary divergence of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The expression of DnaJ genes in the silkworm was generally higher in the fat body. The tissue distribution of DnaJ1 proteins was detected by western blotting, demonstrating that in the fifth-instar larvae, the DnaJ1 proteins were expressed at their highest levels in hemocytes, followed by the fat body and head. We also found that the DnaJ1 transcripts were likely differentially translated in different tissues. Using immunofluorescence cytochemistry, we revealed that in the blood cells, DnaJ1 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. PMID:26434795

  5. Members of the Hyposoter didymator Ichnovirus repeat element gene family are differentially expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda

    PubMed Central

    Galibert, L; Devauchelle, G; Cousserans, F; Rocher, J; Cérutti, P; Barat-Houari, M; Fournier, P; Volkoff, AN

    2006-01-01

    Background The abundance and the conservation of the repeated element (rep) genes in Ichnoviruses genomes suggest that this gene family plays an important role in viral cycles. In the Ichnovirus associated with the wasp Hyposoter didymator, named HdIV, 10 rep genes were identified to date. In this work, we report a relative quantitative transcription study of these HdIV rep genes in several tissues of the lepidopteran host Spodoptera frugiperda as well as in the H. didymator wasps. Results The data obtained in this work indicate that, in the early phases of infection (24 hours), HdIV rep genes each display different levels of transcripts in parasitized 2nd instar or HdIV-injected last instar S. frugiperda larvae. Only one, rep1, is significantly transcribed in female wasps. Transcript levels of the HdIV rep genes were found as not correlated to their copy number in HdIV genome. Our results also show that HdIV rep genes display different tissue specificity, and that they are primarily transcribed in S. frugiperda fat body and cuticular epithelium. Conclusion This work is the first quantitative analysis of transcription of the ichnovirus rep gene family, and the first investigation on a correlation between transcript levels and gene copy numbers in Ichnoviruses. Our data indicate that, despite similar gene copy numbers, not all the members of this gene family are significantly transcribed 24 hours after infection in lepidopteran larvae. Additionally, our data show that, as opposed to other described HdIV genes, rep genes are little transcribed in hemocytes, thus suggesting that they are not directly associated with the disruption of the immune response but rather involved in other physiological alterations of the infected lepidopteran larva. PMID:16784535

  6. Plant, Animal, and Fungal Micronutrient Queuosine Is Salvaged by Members of the DUF2419 Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Queuosine (Q) is a modification found at the wobble position of tRNAs with GUN anticodons. Although Q is present in most eukaryotes and bacteria, only bacteria can synthesize Q de novo. Eukaryotes acquire queuine (q), the free base of Q, from diet and/or microflora, making q an important but under-recognized micronutrient for plants, animals, and fungi. Eukaryotic type tRNA-guanine transglycosylases (eTGTs) are composed of a catalytic subunit (QTRT1) and a homologous accessory subunit (QTRTD1) forming a complex that catalyzes q insertion into target tRNAs. Phylogenetic analysis of eTGT subunits revealed a patchy distribution pattern in which gene losses occurred independently in different clades. Searches for genes co-distributing with eTGT family members identified DUF2419 as a potential Q salvage protein family. This prediction was experimentally validated in Schizosaccharomyces pombe by confirming that Q was present by analyzing tRNAAsp with anticodon GUC purified from wild-type cells and by showing that Q was absent from strains carrying deletions in the QTRT1 or DUF2419 encoding genes. DUF2419 proteins occur in most Eukarya with a few possible cases of horizontal gene transfer to bacteria. The universality of the DUF2419 function was confirmed by complementing the S. pombe mutant with the Zea mays (maize), human, and Sphaerobacter thermophilus homologues. The enzymatic function of this family is yet to be determined, but structural similarity with DNA glycosidases suggests a ribonucleoside hydrolase activity. PMID:24911101

  7. 41 CFR 303-70.403 - When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's duty station outside CONUS... Members § 303-70.403 When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or...

  8. 41 CFR 303-70.403 - When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's duty station outside CONUS... Members § 303-70.403 When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or...

  9. 41 CFR 303-70.403 - When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's duty station outside CONUS... Members § 303-70.403 When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or...

  10. 41 CFR 303-70.403 - When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or from the employee's duty station outside CONUS... Members § 303-70.403 When a family member, residing with the employee, dies while in transit to or...

  11. USACE Deployment Handbook for USACE Personnel and Family Members, December 2009, Version IX Send comments to: amira.s.fahmy@usace.army.mil

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    comments to: amira.s.fahmy@usace.army.mil January 2010 #12;2 USACE Deployment Handbook for USACE Personnel and Family Members, January 2010, Version IX Send comments to: FamilyReadiness@usace.army.mil Summary of changes USACE Deployment Handbook for USACE Personnel and Family Members U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

  12. Trichophyton tonsurans tinea capitis and tinea corporis: treatment and follow-up of four affected family members.

    PubMed

    Ravenscroft, J; Goodfield, M J; Evans, E G

    2000-01-01

    We report a Caucasian family of two veterinary practitioners and their two children, ages 2 years and 6 months, simultaneously infected with the dermatophyte Trichophyton tonsurans, causing tinea capitis and tinea corporis in the children and tinea corporis in the parents. The parents and older child were successfully treated with oral terbinafine. The infant clinically responded to treatment with topical terbinafine and ketoconazole shampoo but presented with recurrent tinea capitis 12 months later, from which T. tonsurans was cultured. At this time, scalpbrush samples from the other family members failed to culture any fungi, and neither were fungi isolated from the family hairbrushes. The infant then received oral terbinafine, resulting in clinical and mycologic cure. After a further 12 months follow-up, there has been no mycologic evidence of recurrence in any family member. PMID:11085674

  13. Role of ?-Catenin and TCF/LEF Family Members in Transcriptional Activity of HIV in Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Narasipura, Srinivas D.; Henderson, Lisa J.; Fu, Sidney W.; Chen, Liang; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2012-01-01

    The Wnt/?-catenin pathway is involved in diverse cell functions governing development and disease. ?-Catenin, a central mediator of this pathway, binds to members of the TCF/LEF family of transcription factors to modulate hundreds of genes. Active Wnt/?-catenin/TCF-4 signaling plays a significant role in repression of HIV-1 replication in multiple cell targets, including astrocytes. To determine the mechanism by which active ?-catenin/TCF-4 leads to inhibition of HIV replication, we knocked down ?-catenin or TCF/LEF members in primary astrocytes and astrocytomas transiently transfected with an HIV long terminal repeat (LTR)-luciferase reporter that contained an integrated copy of the HIV LTR-luciferase construct. Knockdown of either ?-catenin or TCF-4 induced LTR activity by 2- to 3-fold under both the episomal and integrated conditions. This knockdown also increased presence of serine 2-phosphorylated RNA polymerase II (Pol II) on the HIV LTR as well as enhanced its processivity. Knockdown of ?-catenin/TCF-4 also impacted tethering of other transcription factors on the HIV promoter. Specifically, knockdown of TCF-4 enhanced binding of C/EBP?, C/EBP?, and NF-?B to the HIV LTR, while ?-catenin knockdown increased binding of C/EBP? and C/EBP? but had no effect on NF-?B. Approximately 150 genes in astrocytes were impacted by ?-catenin knockdown, including genes involved in inflammation/immunity, uptake/transport, vesicular transport/exocytosis, apoptosis/cellular stress, and cytoskeleton/trafficking. These findings indicate that modulation of the ?-catenin/TCF-4 axis impacts the basal level of HIV transcription in astrocytes, which may drive low level/persistent HIV in astrocytes that can contribute to ongoing neuroinflammation, and this axis also has profound effects on astrocyte biology. PMID:22156527

  14. Entamoeba histolytica: a unicellular organism containing two active genes encoding for members of the TBP family.

    PubMed

    Castañon-Sanchez, Carlos Alberto; Luna-Arias, Juan Pedro; de Dios-Bravo, Ma Guadalupe; Herrera-Aguirre, Maria Esther; Olivares-Trejo, Jose J; Orozco, Esther; Hernandez, Jose Manuel

    2010-03-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite which causes human amoebiasis. In this parasite, few encoding genes for transcription factors have been cloned and characterized. The E. histolytica TATA-box binding protein (EhTBP) is the first basal transcription factor that has been studied. To continue with the identification of other members of the basal transcription machinery, we performed an in silico analysis of the E. histolytica genome and found three loci encoding for polypeptides with similarity to EhTBP. One locus has a 100% identity to the previously Ehtbp gene reported by our group. The second locus encodes for a 212 aa polypeptide that is 100% identical to residues 23-234 from EhTBP. The third one encodes for a 216 aa polypeptide of 24kDa that showed 42.6% identity and 73.7% similarity to EhTBP. This protein was named E. histolytica TBP-related factor 1 (EhTRF1). Ehtrf1 gene was expressed in bacteria and the purified 28kDa recombinant polypeptide showed the capacity to bind to TATTTAAA-box by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. K(D) values for rEhTBP and rEhTRF1 were (1.71+/-2.90)x10(-12)M and (1.12+/-0.160)x10(-11)M, respectively. Homology modeling of EhTRF1 and EhTBP revealed that, although they were very similar, they showed some differences on their surfaces. Thus, E. histolytica is a unicellular organism having two members of the TBP family. PMID:20026212

  15. Mammalian GFR -4, a Divergent Member of the GFR Family of Coreceptors for Glial Cell Line-derived Neurotrophic Factor Family

    E-print Network

    Ibáñez, Carlos

    , the coreceptor for persephin, was previ- ously identified in chicken only. We describe the cloning potential therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases. The ligands of the glial cell line- derived. A fourth family member, GFR -4, was cloned from chicken cDNA (19). According to one signaling model (9

  16. Embryonal Fyn-associated substrate (EFS) and CASS4: The lesser-known CAS protein family members.

    PubMed

    Deneka, Alexander; Korobeynikov, Vladislav; Golemis, Erica A

    2015-10-01

    The CAS (Crk-associated substrate) adaptor protein family consists of four members: CASS1/BCAR1/p130Cas, CASS2/NEDD9/HEF1/Cas-L, CASS3/EFS/Sin and CASS4/HEPL. While CAS proteins lack enzymatic activity, they contain specific recognition and binding sites for assembly of larger signaling complexes that are essential for cell proliferation, survival, migration, and other processes. All family members are intermediates in integrin-dependent signaling pathways mediated at focal adhesions, and associate with FAK and SRC family kinases to activate downstream effectors regulating the actin cytoskeleton. Most studies of CAS proteins to date have been focused on the first two members, BCAR1 and NEDD9, with altered expression of these proteins now appreciated as influencing disease development and prognosis for cancer and other serious pathological conditions. For these family members, additional mechanisms of action have been defined in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, estrogen receptor signaling or cell cycle progression, involving discrete partner proteins such as SHC, NSP proteins, or AURKA. By contrast, EFS and CASS4 have been less studied, although structure-function analyses indicate they conserve many elements with the better-known family members. Intriguingly, a number of recent studies have implicated these proteins in immune system function, and the pathogenesis of developmental disorders, autoimmune disorders including Crohn's disease, Alzheimer's disease, cancer and other diseases. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of EFS and CASS4 protein function in the context of the larger CAS family group. PMID:26119091

  17. Mapping of tyrosine kinase gene family members in a Xiphophorus melanoma model.

    PubMed

    Morizot, D C; McEntire, B B; Della Coletta, L; Kazianis, S; Schartl, M; Nairn, R S

    1998-07-01

    Xiphophorus fish have been the subject of intensive genetic research for more than 60 yr, primarily because of the availability of a number of interspecific hybrids that are malignant melanoma models with apparently simple oncogene and tumor suppressor gene determinants. The gene map of Xiphophorus is one of the most extensive among nonhuman vertebrates, with about 100 genes assigned to at least 20 independently assorting linkage groups (LGs), as well as more than 250 anonymous DNA sequence markers, providing coverage for most of the genome for genetic mapping studies. This characteristic has resulted in the mapping of a tumor suppressor locus, DIFF, which is one of two genetic determinants of melanoma formation in the best-studied hybrid melanoma, the Gordon-Kosswig melanoma model. The other gene responsible for melanoma formation in this model is a sex-linked tyrosine kinase gene related to EGFR and called Xiphophorus melanoma receptor kinase (Xmrk). The cellular oncogene homologues of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase family orthologous toyes and fyn have also been found to be overexpressed in malignant melanomas of Xiphophorus and may be involved in tumor progression. We report here the map location of a Xiphophorus yes gene, YES1, in LG VI, closest to the EGFR gene and the assignment of a fyn gene homologue to newly designated LG XV, linked to the gene for cytosolic alpha-galactosidase. We also confirmed that an EGFR-related sequence (EGFRL1) that we previously assigned to Xiphophorus LG VI by cross-hybridization to a viral erbB probe was the EGFR orthologue. Our results suggest that the presence of expressed duplicates of members of the tyrosine kinase gene family in teleost fishes may increase the potential number of targets in oncogenic cascades in fish tumor models. PMID:9688140

  18. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL WHITEFLY-TRANSMITTED MEMBER OF THE FAMILY POTYVIRIDAE ISOLATED FROM CUCURBITS IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel whitefly-transmitted member of the family Potyviridae was isolated from a squash plant (Cucurbita pepo) with vein yellowing symptoms in Florida. The virus, for which the name Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is proposed, has flexuous rod-shaped particles of ~840 nm in length. Koch’s pos...

  19. 5 CFR 894.202 - If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false If I enroll for self plus one, may I decide which family member to cover? 894.202 Section 894.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION...

  20. Long-Term Outcomes of War-Related Death of Family Members in Kosovar Civilian War Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Reschke, Konrad; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to war-related experiences can comprise a broad variety of experiences and the very nature of certain war-related events has generally been neglected. To examine the long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members, the authors investigated the prevalence rates of major depressive episode (MDE), anxiety disorders, and quality of…

  1. Fathers' Forgiveness as a Moderator between Perceived Unfair Treatment by a Family of Origin Member and Anger with Own Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yu-Rim; Enright, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how forgiveness mediates and moderates between fathers' perceived unfair treatment (PUT) from a family of origin member and anger with the child (AWC). Eighty married fathers who have at least one child between the ages of 2 and 7 years individually completed the Opening Questionnaire, the Enright Forgiveness Inventory, the…

  2. METH-1, a Human Ortholog of ADAMTS-1, and METH-2 Are Members of a New Family of Proteins with

    E-print Network

    Lane, Timothy F.

    METH-1, a Human Ortholog of ADAMTS-1, and METH-2 Are Members of a New Family of Proteins with Angio in the NH2 termini. We named these proteins METH-1 and METH-2 due to the novel combination of metallo- protease and thrombospondin domains. Overall amino acid sequence identity between METH-1 and METH-2 is 51

  3. Isolation and Sequence of a Novel Human Chondrocyte Protein Related to Mammalian Members of the Chitinase Protein Family*

    E-print Network

    Price, Paul A.

    Isolation and Sequence of a Novel Human Chondrocyte Protein Related to Mammalian Members of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 We describe the isolation of a novel protein from of the Chitinase Protein Family* (Received for publication, April 3, 1996, and in revised form, May 20, 1996) Bo Hu

  4. Differential expression of three members of the multidomain adhesion CCp family in babesia bigemina, babesia bovis and theileria equi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the CCp protein family have been previously described to be expressed on gametocytes of apicomplexan Plasmodium parasites. Knocking out Plasmodium CCp genes blocks the development of the parasite in the mosquito vector, making the CCp proteins potential targets for the development of a tr...

  5. Associations between violent video gaming, empathic concern, and prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends, and family members.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Ashley M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, Larry J; Stockdale, Laura A

    2012-05-01

    Exposure to media violence, including violent video gaming, can have a cognitive desensitization effect, lowering empathic concern for others in need. Since emerging adulthood offers increased opportunities to volunteer, strengthen relationships, and initiate new relationships, decreases in empathic concern and prosocial behavior may prove inhibitive to optimal development during this time. For these reasons, the current study investigated associations between violent video gaming, empathic responding, and prosocial behavior enacted toward strangers, friends, and family members. Participants consisted of 780 emerging adults (M age = 19.60, SD = 1.86, range = 18–29, 69% female, 69% Caucasian) from four universities in the United States. Results showed small to moderate effects between playing violent video gaming and lowered empathic concern for both males and females. In addition, lowered empathic concern partially mediated the pathways between violent video gaming and prosocial behavior toward all three targets (at the level of a trend for females), but was most strongly associated with lower prosocial behavior toward strangers. Discussion highlights how violent video gaming is associated with lower levels of prosocial behavior through the mechanism of decreased empathic concern, how this association can affect prosocial behavior differently across target, and finally what implications this might have for development during emerging adulthood. PMID:22302216

  6. Cohabiting family members share microbiota with one another and with their dogs

    PubMed Central

    Song, Se Jin; Lauber, Christian; Costello, Elizabeth K; Lozupone, Catherine A; Humphrey, Gregory; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knights, Dan; Clemente, Jose C; Nakielny, Sara; Gordon, Jeffrey I; Fierer, Noah; Knight, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Human-associated microbial communities vary across individuals: possible contributing factors include (genetic) relatedness, diet, and age. However, our surroundings, including individuals with whom we interact, also likely shape our microbial communities. To quantify this microbial exchange, we surveyed fecal, oral, and skin microbiota from 60 families (spousal units with children, dogs, both, or neither). Household members, particularly couples, shared more of their microbiota than individuals from different households, with stronger effects of co-habitation on skin than oral or fecal microbiota. Dog ownership significantly increased the shared skin microbiota in cohabiting adults, and dog-owning adults shared more ‘skin’ microbiota with their own dogs than with other dogs. Although the degree to which these shared microbes have a true niche on the human body, vs transient detection after direct contact, is unknown, these results suggest that direct and frequent contact with our cohabitants may significantly shape the composition of our microbial communities. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00458.001 PMID:23599893

  7. Mice Lacking the SLAM Family Member CD84 Display Unaltered Platelet Function in Hemostasis and Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Sebastian; Braun, Attila; Pozgaj, Rastislav; Morowski, Martina; Vögtle, Timo; Nieswandt, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Background Platelets are anuclear cell fragments derived from bone marrow megakaryocytes that safeguard vascular integrity by forming thrombi at sites of vascular injury. Although the early events of thrombus formation—platelet adhesion and aggregation—have been intensively studied, less is known about the mechanisms and receptors that stabilize platelet-platelet interactions once a thrombus has formed. One receptor that has been implicated in this process is the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family member CD84, which can undergo homophilic interactions and becomes phosphorylated upon platelet aggregation. Objective The role of CD84 in platelet physiology and thrombus formation was investigated in CD84-deficient mice. Methods and Results We generated CD84-deficient mice and analyzed their platelets in vitro and in vivo. Cd84?/? platelets exhibited normal activation and aggregation responses to classical platelet agonists. Furthermore, CD84 deficiency did not affect integrin-mediated clot retraction and spreading of activated platelets on fibrinogen. Notably, also the formation of stable three-dimensional thrombi on collagen-coated surfaces under flow ex vivo was unaltered in the blood of Cd84?/? mice. In vivo, Cd84?/? mice exhibited unaltered hemostatic function and arterial thrombus formation. Conclusion These results show that CD84 is dispensable for thrombus formation and stabilization, indicating that its deficiency may be functionally compensated by other receptors or that it may be important for platelet functions different from platelet-platelet interactions. PMID:25551754

  8. STS-103 crew members and their families pose for a portrait before DEPARTing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-103 crew pose for a group portrait with their families and loved ones on the runway at Patrick Air Force Base in Cocoa Beach, Fla. They are preparing to board an airplane that will return them to their home base at the Johnson Space Center in Houston following the successful completion of their mission. From left to right, the crew members are Mission Specialists John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, and Steven L. Smith; Pilot Scott J. Kelly; and Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. Discovery landed in darkness the previous evening, Dec. 27, on runway 33 at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 7:00:47 p.m. EST. This was the first time that a Shuttle crew spent the Christmas holiday in space. The STS-103 mission accomplished outfitting the Hubble Space Telescope with six new gyroscopes, six new voltage/temperature improvement kits, a new onboard computer, a new solid state recorder and new data transmitter, a new fine guidance sensor along with new insulation on parts of the orbiting telescope. This was the 96th flight in the Space Shuttle program and the 27th for the orbiter Discovery.

  9. Evaluation of Modified R-B System for Identification of Members of the Family Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    McIlroy, Gary T.; Yu, Pauline K. W.; Martin, William J.; Washington, John A.

    1972-01-01

    In a paired, double-blind study, the modified (“Beckford tube”) R-B system was compared with conventional bacteriological procedures for the identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae from clinical isolates and stock cultures. The tests in the R-B system yielding positive reactions comparable to those predicted by Ewing's taxonomic classification of Enterobacteriaceae were production of hydrogen sulfide and presence of lysine and ornithine decarboxylasè activities. The test reactions in the R-B system found to be comparable to those in the conventional method were fermentation of glucose, hydrogen sulfide production, and lysine and ornithine decarboxylase activities. The production of gas from glucose was positive in the R-B system more often than in the conventional method; however, the motility test and the production of indole were positive less often in the R-B system. Adequate preliminary identification of the Enterobacteriaceae with the R-B system is enhanced if Simmons' citrate and Christensen's urea tests are used concomitantly. These findings emphasize the manufacturer's instructions that, in interpretation of results, colonial morphology and biochemical reactions must be used concurrently to make an accurate identification. PMID:4562474

  10. A Novel Member of GH16 Family Derived from Sugarcane Soil Metagenome.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Thabata Maria; Liberato, Marcelo Vizoná; Cairo, João Paulo L Franco; Paixão, Douglas A A; Campos, Bruna M; Ferreira, Marcel R; Almeida, Rodrigo F; Pereira, Isabela O; Bernardes, Amanda; Ematsu, Gabriela C G; Chinaglia, Mariana; Polikarpov, Igor; de Oliveira Neto, Mario; Squina, Fabio Marcio

    2015-09-01

    Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are enzymes found in all living kingdoms that are involved in multiple physiological functions. Due to their multiple enzymatic activities, GHs are broadly applied in bioethanol, food, and paper industry. In order to increase the productivity of these industrial processes, a constant search for novel and efficient enzymes has been proved to be necessary. In this context, metagenomics is a powerful approach to achieve this demand. In the current study, we describe the discovery and characterization of a novel member of GH16 family derived from the sugarcane soil metagenome. The enzyme, named SCLam, has 286 amino acid residues and displays sequence homology and activity properties that resemble known laminarases. SCLam is active against barley beta-glucan, laminarin, and lichenan (72, 33, and 10 U mg(-1), respectively). The optimal reaction conditions were identified as 40 °C and pH 6.5. The low-resolution structure was determined using the small-angle X-ray scattering technique, revealing that SCLam is a monomer in solution with a radius of gyration equal to 19.6 Å. To the best of our knowledge, SCLam is the first nonspecific (1,3/1,3:1,4)-?-D-glucan endohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.6) recovered by metagenomic approach to be characterized. PMID:26242386

  11. Xhe2 is a member of the astacin family of metalloproteases that promotes Xenopus hatching.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang-Soo; Saint-Jeannet, Jean-Pierre

    2014-12-01

    Transcription factors Pax3 and Zic1 are among the earliest genes activated at the neural plate border. In Xenopus, they are necessary and sufficient to promote the formation of multiple neural plate border cell types, including the neural crest, cranial placodes, and hatching gland. Pax3 is especially critical for the formation of the hatching gland, a group of cells that produce proteolytic enzymes essential to digest the egg vitelline envelope and jelly coat in order to release the tadpole into the environment. In a screen designed to identify downstream targets of Pax3, we isolated a member of the astacin family of metalloproteases, related to Xenopus hatching enzyme (Xhe), that we named Xhe2. Xhe2 is exclusively expressed in hatching gland cells as they first emerge at the lateral edge of the anterior neural plate, and persists in this tissue up to the tadpole stage. Knockdown experiments show that Xhe2 expression depends entirely on Pax3 function. Gain-of-function studies demonstrate that Pax3 can induce premature hatching through the upregulation of several proteolytic enzymes including Xhe2. Interestingly, Xhe2 overexpression is sufficient to induce early hatching, indicating that Xhe2 is one of the key components of the degradation mechanism responsible for breaking down the vitelline membrane. PMID:25399671

  12. Concern about family members' drinking and cultural consistency: A Multi-Country GENACIS Study

    PubMed Central

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildigunnur; Raitasalo, Kirsimarja; Greenfield, Tom K.; Allamani, Allaman

    2009-01-01

    The data analysed come from the GENACIS project (Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study) and involve population surveys for 18 countries (total N = 34,916) from five WHO Regions: African (Nigeria and Uganda); Americas (Argentina, Costa Rica, Uruguay and United States); European (Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Spain, Sweden, and UK); South-East Asian (India, Sri Lanka); and Western Pacific (Japan). The paper studies gender and country differences in the relationship between social pressure to drink less experienced by individuals, considering seeking help for alcohol problems, and alcohol consumption and problem levels (AUDIT). In most countries for both men and women, informal control was applied most often by the spouse or partner, while reporting such controls from any source seemed more common in low- and middle-income countries. In all countries studied, men reported substantially more social control efforts than women. The hypothesis was not maintained that drinking control and help seeking was more common for heavier drinkers and those with more drinking-related harms. However, there appeared to be a relationship between a country's aggregate level of drinking and the extent to which social control efforts were reported. Higher correlations between drinking and problem levels on the one hand, and spouses' and other family members' concerns on the other, may be suggestive of a cultural consistency in societal responses to drinking and alcohol-related problems. PMID:20072722

  13. Evolutionary study of vertebrate and invertebrate members of the dystrophin and utrophin gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.G.; Nicholson, L.; Bobrow, M.

    1994-09-01

    Vertebrates express two members of the dystrophin gene family. The prototype, dystrophin, is expressed in muscle and neural tissue, and is defective in the human disorders Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD, BMD). The dystrophin homologue utrophin is more generally expressed but has not yet been associated with a genetic disorder. The function of neither protein is clear. A comparison of human utrophin with the known dystrophins (human, mouse, chicken, Torpedo) suggests that dystrophin and utrophin diverged before the vertebrate radiation. We have used reverse-transcript PCR (RT-PCR) directed by degenerate primers to characterize dystrophin and utrophin transcripts from a range of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Our results suggest that the duplication leading to distinct dystrophin and utrophin genes occurred close to the point of divergence of urochordates from the cephalochordate-vertebrate lineage. This divergence may have occurred to fulfill a novel role which arose at this point, or may reflect a need for separate regulation of the neuromuscular and other functions of the ancient dystrophin. Our data include sequences of the first non-human utrophins to be characterized, and show these to be substantially more divergent than their cognate dystrophins. In addition, our results provide a large body of information regarding the tolerance of amino acid positions in the cysteine-rich and C-terminal domains to substitution. This will aid the interpretations of DMD and BMD missense mutations in these regions.

  14. Do Family Members of Dialysis Patients Have a Positive Attitude Toward Organ Donation?

    PubMed

    Tumin, Makmor; Tafran, Khaled; Zakaria, Roza Hazli; Mohd Satar, NurulHuda; Ng, Kok Peng; Lim, Soo Kun

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Malaysia, which currently uses the informed consent system (ICS), is suffering from a severe shortage of organs for transplantation. Family members of dialysis patients (FMDPs) are expected to have a positive attitude toward deceased organ donation (DOD) because they have a close relative in need of a kidney donation. This study explores FMDPs' attitude toward DOD under the ICS and the presumed consent system (PCS). MATERIAL AND METHODS The attitude of 350 FMDPs toward DOD under the ICS and PCS were sought between June and October 2013 in 3 dialysis institutions in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. RESULTS Under the ICS, 6.6% of respondents were registered donors, 6.6% were ready to register at the time of the survey, 38.6% were willing to donate but not ready to register at the time of the survey, and 48.2% were unwilling to donate organs upon death. If the PCS were implemented, 57.7% of respondents (28.7% of the willing donors and 88.7% of the unwilling respondents) stated that they would officially object to organ donation. CONCLUSIONS FMDPs' attitude toward DOD is not more positive or significantly better than that of the general public (based on earlier studies). The PCS may increase the number of donors, but it may also worsen the attitude of FMDPs toward DOD. Strategies aiming to promote DOD in Malaysia should be revised, and should perhaps be focused on enhancing trust of the medical system. PMID:26690676

  15. Differential Expression of Two Novel Members of the Tomato Ethylene-Receptor Family

    PubMed Central

    Tieman, Denise M.; Klee, Harry J.

    1999-01-01

    The phytohormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development, and environmental responses. Much of the developmental regulation of ethylene responses in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) occurs at the level of hormone sensitivity. In an effort to understand the regulation of ethylene responses, we isolated and characterized tomato genes with sequence similarity to the Arabidopsis ETR1 (ethylene response 1) ethylene receptor. Previously, we isolated three genes that exhibit high similarity to ETR1 and to each other. Here we report the isolation of two additional genes, LeETR4 and LeETR5, that are only 42% and 40% identical to ETR1, respectively. Although the amino acids known to be involved in ethylene binding are conserved, LeETR5 lacks the histidine within the kinase domain that is predicted to be phosphorylated. This suggests that histidine kinase activity is not necessary for an ethylene response, because mutated forms of both LeETR4 and LeETR5 confer dominant ethylene insensitivity in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression analysis indicates that LeETR4 accounts for most of the putative ethylene-receptor mRNA present in reproductive tissues, but, like LeETR5, it is less abundant in vegetative tissues. Taken together, ethylene perception in tomato is potentially quite complex, with at least five structurally divergent, putative receptor family members exhibiting significant variation in expression levels throughout development. PMID:10318694

  16. Decreased Cognitive Function in Extended Family Members from the Single Late-Onset-Alzheimer’s-Disease Pedigree

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yan; Chang, Wei; Shu, Chang; Ma, Lina; Huang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ruoshi; Zhang, Junpeng; Zhu, Changcai; McClintock, Shawn M.

    2013-01-01

    A family history of dementia is associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD) late in life (LOAD). This study marked the first attempt to assess the familial contribution to differences in cognitive performance in a large family-based group in the Chinese community. We enrolled 168 participants without dementia from a single pedigree with 9 probable AD patients diagnosed after age 65. These participants were evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, the Chinese version of the Mini Mental State Examination, and the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale–Cognitive Subscale. Analyses found that extended family members of the LOAD pedigree showed similar performance on measures of global cognitive function and semantic memory compared to controls, but lower scores on episodic memory, attention, and executive function measures. These results indicate that the genetic influences on certain sub-cognitive domains are more detectable despite normal global cognitive function, and that family members with the LOAD pedigree are at risk for developing LOAD by virtue of their family history with an additive risk due to increased age. The findings in this study support the importance of documenting if there is a positive family history of AD in clinical evaluations. PMID:23742872

  17. Religious care required for Japanese terminally ill patients with cancer from the perspective of bereaved family members.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Takuya; Ando, Michiyo; Morita, Tatsuya; Hirai, Kei; Kawamura, Ryo; Mitsunori, Miyashita; Sato, Kazuki; Shima, Yasuo

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the most suitable religious care for Japanese terminally ill patients with cancer based on the opinions of bereaved family members. A multicenter questionnaire survey on palliative care service was sent to 592 bereaved family members of patients with cancer who were admitted to palliative care units in Japan, and 430 responded by mail. In the section of the questionnaire about religious care, 382 responses were used for quantitative analysis, and 71 responses about religious care for qualitative analysis. In the current study, the 71 responses were grouped into families with and without a religion and were analyzed qualitatively. Families with a religion (N = 28) chose answers such as ''Instrumental care'' such as music or a religious event, ''Freedom of choice of kinds for religious care,'' ''Staff involvement of religious care,'' ''Meeting with a pastoral care workers,'' and ''Burden of offering a different kind of personal religion.'' In contrast, families without a religion (N = 44) chose answers such as ''Instrumental care,'' ''Freedom of choice whether patients receive religious care or not,'' ''Spiritual care,'' ''Not being able to accept religious care,'' and ''Burden of thinking about a religion and nuisance.'' These findings suggest that Japanese bereaved families with a religion generally regard religious care positively and prefer care through their own religion, whereas some families without a religion require religious care but some do not prefer it. PMID:19755629

  18. Shame and guilt/self-blame as predictors of expressed emotion in family members of patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Stephanie; Weisman de Mamani, Amy; Suro, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Expressed emotion (EE) is a measure of the family environment reflecting the amount of criticism and emotional over-involvement expressed by a key relative towards a family member with a disorder or impairment. Patients from high EE homes have a poorer illness prognosis than do patients from low EE homes. Despite EE's well-established predictive validity, questions remain regarding why some family members express high levels of EE attitudes while others do not. Based on indirect evidence from previous research, the current study tested whether shame and guilt/self-blame about having a relative with schizophrenia serve as predictors of EE. A sample of 72 family members of patients with schizophrenia completed the Five Minute Speech Sample to measure EE, along with questionnaires assessing self-directed emotions. In line with the hypotheses, higher levels of both shame and guilt/self-blame about having a relative with schizophrenia predicted high EE. Results of the current study elucidate the EE construct and have implications for working with families of patients with schizophrenia. PMID:22357355

  19. The transcriptional co-activator TAZ interacts differentially with transcriptional enhancer factor-1 (TEF-1) family members

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, William M.; Hong, Jeong-Ho; Yaffe, Michael B.; Farrance, Iain K. G.

    2005-01-01

    Members of the highly related TEF-1 (transcriptional enhancer factor-1) family (also known as TEAD, for TEF-1, TEC1, ABAA domain) bind to MCAT (muscle C, A and T sites) and A/T-rich sites in promoters active in cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscle, placenta, and neural crest. TEF-1 activity is regulated by interactions with transcriptional co-factors [p160, TONDU (Vgl-1, Vestigial-like protein-1), Vgl-2 and YAP65 (Yes-associated protein 65 kDa)]. The strong transcriptional co-activator YAP65 interacts with all TEF-1 family members, and, since YAP65 is related to TAZ (transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif), we wanted to determine if TAZ also interacts with members of the TEF-1 family. In the present study, we show by GST (glutathione S-transferase) pull-down assays, by co-immunoprecipitation and by modified mammalian two-hybrid assays that TEF-1 interacts with TAZ in vitro and in vivo. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays with purified TEF-1 and GST–TAZ fusion protein showed that TAZ interacts with TEF-1 bound to MCAT DNA. TAZ can interact with endogenous TEF-1 proteins, since exogenous TAZ activated MCAT-dependent reporter promoters. Like YAP65, TAZ interacted with all four TEF-1 family members. GST pull-down assays with increasing amounts of [35S]TEF-1 and [35S]RTEF-1 (related TEF-1) showed that TAZ interacts more efficiently with TEF-1 than with RTEF-1. This differential interaction also extended to the interaction of TEF-1 and RTEF-1 with TAZ in vivo, as assayed by a modified mammalian two-hybrid experiment. These data show that differential association of TEF-1 proteins with transcriptional co-activators may regulate the activity of TEF-1 family members. PMID:15628970

  20. Consequences of Family Member Incarceration: Impacts on Civic Participation and Perceptions of the Legitimacy and Fairness of Government

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hedwig; Porter, Lauren C.; Comfort, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Political participation and citizens' perceptions of the legitimacy and fairness of government are central components of democracy. In this article, we examine one possible threat to these markers of a just political system: family member incarceration. We offer a unique glimpse into the broader social consequences of punishment that are brought on by a partner's or parent's incarceration. We argue that the criminal justice system serves as an important institution for political socialization for the families of those imprisoned, affecting their attitudes and orientations toward the government and their will and capacity to become involved in political life. We draw from ethnographic data collected by one of the authors, quantitative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and interviews with recently released male prisoners and their female partners. Our findings suggest that experiences of a family member's incarceration complicate perceptions of government legitimacy and fairness and serve as a barrier to civic participation. PMID:26185334

  1. Building on the Hopes and Dreams of Latino Families with Young Children: Findings from Family Member Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Katy; Rugg, Mary; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2012-01-01

    In the past, Latino families were often regarded as being uninvolved in their child's education, particularly within the parent involvement literature. More recently, authors are encouraging educational professionals to look at a family's "funds of knowledge" to encourage their involvement. This expression takes into account the knowledge a…

  2. Interferon-delta: the first member of a novel type I interferon family.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, F; Guillomot, M; D'Andréa, S; Battegay, S; La Bonnardière, C

    1998-01-01

    We have recently described a novel type I interferon (IFN) co-expressed with IFN-gamma by the trophectoderm of the pig conceptus between day 12 and day 18 of gestation, a development stage that corresponds to implantation in the uterus. This IFN, now officially named IFN-delta, is recognized as the first member of a novel type I IFN family. This paper reviews the main published data on IFN-delta, together with some new data, showing that IFN-delta, while being a true type I IFN, has some very specific structural and biological properties. Sequences related to IFN-delta coding sequence were found in the genome of man and other ungulates but the only other potentially functional gene was found, so far, in the horse. The pig IFN-delta mature protein, with 149 amino acids, is the smallest of all known type I IFNs. It is unusually rich in cysteines (seven residues), and has a very basic isoelectric point. Recombinant IFN-delta expressed in insect cells is glycosylated and has a high antiviral activity on porcine cells, but not on human cells. It has high antiproliferative activity, which is significantly enhanced in the presence of IFN-gamma. This new IFN was shown to bind on pig cells to the same type I receptor as IFN-alpha. IFN-delta and IFN-gamma genes are co-regulated in the pig trophectoderm, whose cells on day 14-16 of development simultaneously secrete both IFN proteins. The biological role of porcine IFN-delta in early pregnancy has been found unrelated to the known antiluteolytic effect of trophoblastic IFN-tau in ruminants. PMID:9865499

  3. Trichinella spiralis: genome database searches for the presence and immunolocalization of protein disulphide isomerase family members.

    PubMed

    Freitas, C P; Clemente, I; Mendes, T; Novo, C

    2016-01-01

    The formation of nurse cells in host muscle cells during Trichinella spiralis infection is a key step in the infective mechanism. Collagen trimerization is set up via disulphide bond formation, catalysed by protein disulphide isomerase (PDI). In T. spiralis, some PDI family members have been identified but no localization is described and no antibodies specific for T. spiralis PDIs are available. In this work, computational approaches were used to search for non-described PDIs in the T. spiralis genome database and to check the cross-reactivity of commercial anti-human antibodies with T. spiralis orthologues. In addition to a previously described PDI (PDIA2), endoplasmic reticulum protein (ERp57/PDIA3), ERp72/PDIA4, and the molecular chaperones calreticulin (CRT), calnexin (CNX) and immunoglobulin-binding protein/glucose-regulated protein (BIP/GRP78), we identified orthologues of the human thioredoxin-related-transmembrane proteins (TMX1, TMX2 and TMX3) in the genome protein database, as well as ERp44 (PDIA10) and endoplasmic reticulum disulphide reductase (ERdj5/PDIA19). Immunocytochemical staining of paraffin sections of muscle infected by T. spiralis enabled us to localize some orthologues of the human PDIs (PDIA3 and TMX1) and the chaperone GRP78. A theoretical three-dimensional model for T. spiralis PDIA3 was constructed. The localization and characteristics of the predicted linear B-cell epitopes and amino acid sequence of the immunogens used for commercial production of anti-human PDIA3 antibodies validated the use of these antibodies for the immunolocalization of T. spiralis PDIA3 orthologues. These results suggest that further study of the role of the PDIs and chaperones during nurse cell formation is desirable. PMID:25475092

  4. LRAD3, a Novel LDL Receptor Family Member that Modulates Amyloid Precursor Protein Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Sripriya; Noyes, Nathaniel C.; Migliorini, Mary; Winkles, Jeffrey A.; Battey, Frances D.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Smith, Elizabeth; Yepes, Manuel; Mikhailenko, Irina; Strickland, Dudley K.

    2011-01-01

    We have identified a novel LDL receptor family member, termed LDL receptor class A domain containing 3 (LRAD3), which is expressed in neurons. The LRAD3 gene encodes an approximately 50 kDa type I transmembrane receptor with an ectodomain containing three LDLa repeats, a transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic domain containing a conserved dileucine internalization motif and two polyproline motifs with potential to interact with WW domain containing proteins. Immunohistochemical analysis of mouse brain reveals LRAD3 expression in the cortex and hippocampus. In the mouse hippocampal derived cell line, HT22, LRAD3 partially co-localizes with amyloid precursor protein (APP), and interacts with APP as revealed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. To identify the portion of APP that interacts with LRAD3, we employed solid phase binding assays which demonstrated that LRAD3 failed to bind to a soluble APP fragment (sAPP?) released following ?-secretase cleavage. In contrast, C99, the ?-secretase product that remains cell associated, co-precipitated with LRAD3, confirming that regions within this portion of APP are important for associating with LRAD3. The association of LRAD3 with APP increases the amyloidogenic pathway of APP processing, resulting in a decrease in sAPP? production and increased A? peptide production. Pulse-chase experiments confirm that LRAD3 expression significantly decreases the cellular half-live of mature APP. These results reveal that LRAD3 influences APP processing and raises the possibility that LRAD3 alters APP function in neurons including its downstream signaling. PMID:21795536

  5. Role of nutrient-sensing taste 1 receptor (T1R) family members in gastrointestinal chemosensing.

    PubMed

    Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P; Daly, Kristian; Al-Rammahi, Miran; Moran, Andrew W; Bravo, David

    2014-06-01

    Luminal nutrient sensing by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) expressed on the apical domain of enteroendocrine cells activates intracellular pathways leading to secretion of gut hormones that control vital physiological processes such as digestion, absorption, food intake and glucose homeostasis. The taste 1 receptor (T1R) family of GPCR consists of three members: T1R1; T1R2; T1R3. Expression of T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3 at mRNA and protein levels has been demonstrated in the intestinal tissue of various species. It has been shown that T1R2-T1R3, in association with G-protein gustducin, is expressed in intestinal K and L endocrine cells, where it acts as the intestinal glucose (sweet) sensor. A number of studies have demonstrated that activation of T1R2-T1R3 by natural sugars and artificial sweeteners leads to secretion of glucagon-like peptides 1&2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2) and glucose dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). GLP-1 and GIP enhance insulin secretion; GLP-2 increases intestinal growth and glucose absorption. T1R1-T1R3 combination co-expressed on the apical domain of cholecystokinin (CCK) expressing cells is a luminal sensor for a number of L-amino acids; with amino acid-activation of the receptor eliciting CCK secretion. This article focuses on the role of the gut-expressed T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3 in intestinal sweet and L-amino acid sensing. The impact of exploiting T1R2-T1R3 as a nutritional target for enhancing intestinal glucose absorption and gut structural maturity in young animals is also highlighted. PMID:24382171

  6. Prolonged Blockade of VEGF Family Members Does Not Cause Identifiable Damage to Retinal Neurons or Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Shinji; Pease, Mary Ellen; Bonnet Wersinger, Delphine M.; Masuda, Tomohiro; Vinores, Stanley A.; Licht, Tamar; Zack, Donald J.; Quigley, Harry; Keshet, Eli; Campochiaro, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Several ocular diseases complicated by neovascularization are being treated by repeated intraocular injections of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antagonists. While substantial benefits have been documented, there is concern that unrecognized damage may be occurring, because blockade of VEGF may damage the fenestrated vessels of the choroicapillaris and deprive retinal neurons of input from a survival factor. One report has suggested that even temporary blockade of all isoforms of VEGF-A results in significant loss of retinal ganglion cells. In this study, we utilized double transgenic mice with doxycycline-inducible expression of soluble VEGF receptor 1 coupled to an Fc fragment (sVEGFR1Fc), a potent antagonist of several VEGF family members, including VEGF-A, to test the effects of VEGF blockade in the retina. Expression of sVEGFR1Fc completely blocked VEGF-induced retinal vascular permeability and significantly suppressed the development of choroidal neovascularizaton at rupture sites in Bruch’s membrane, but did not cause regression of established choroidal neovascularization. Mice with constant expression of sVEGF1Fc in the retina for 7 months had normal electroretinograms and normal retinal and choroidal ultrastructure including normal fenestrations in the choroicapillaris. They also showed no significant difference from control mice in the number of ganglion cell axons in optic nerve cross sections and the retinal level of mRNA for 3 ganglion cell-specific genes. These data indicate that constant blockade of VEGF for up to 7 months has no identifiable deleterious effects on the retina or choroid and support the use of VEGF antagonists in the treatment of retinal diseases. PMID:18543272

  7. Endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI): a new member of the Serpin gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Pannekoek, H; Veerman, H; Lambers, H; Diergaarde, P; Verweij, C L; van Zonneveld, A J; van Mourik, J A

    1986-01-01

    A human endothelial cDNA expression library, based on the Escherichia coli plasmid pUC9, was screened with a heterologous antibody raised against purified bovine aortic endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI). A synthetic oligonucleotide, derived from a partial PAI cDNA expression clone, was used to select a full-length PAI cDNA, the size of which coincides with the length of PAI mRNA (approximately 2350 nucleotides) as determined by Northern blot analysis. The authenticity of full-length PAI cDNA is demonstrated by the expression of biologically active PAI both in lysates of transformed E. coli cells and in conditioned media of mouse Ltk- cells, transfected with PAI cDNA inserted into vector pSV2. Analysis of the de novo synthesized anti-plasminogen activator activity, employing reverse fibrin autography, shows that transfected mouse Ltk- cells synthesize a polypeptide with a mol. wt identical to that of the native PAI glycoprotein (Mr 52,000), whereas in E. coli an unglycosylated, active product with a mol. wt of 43,000 is made. The amino acid sequence, derived from the determined nucleotide sequence, shows that pre-PAI consists of 402 amino acids. It is proposed that the mature PAI is preceded by a signal peptide of 23 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence of mature PAI includes three potential asparagine-linked glycosylation sites and lacks cysteine residues. The predicted amino acid sequence reveals significant homology with members of the serine protease inhibitor (Serpin) family, e.g. alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and antithrombin III.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:2430793

  8. Evolution of the Bovine TLR Gene Family and Member Associations with Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Colleen A.; Bhattarai, Eric K.; Osterstock, Jason B.; Dowd, Scot E.; Seabury, Paul M.; Vikram, Meenu; Whitlock, Robert H.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Womack, James E.; Seabury, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) gene family occupy key roles in the mammalian innate immune system by functioning as sentries for the detection of invading pathogens, thereafter provoking host innate immune responses. We utilized a custom next-generation sequencing approach and allele-specific genotyping assays to detect and validate 280 biallelic variants across all 10 bovine TLR genes, including 71 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one putative nonsense SNP. Bayesian haplotype reconstructions and median joining networks revealed haplotype sharing between Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus breeds at every locus, and specialized beef and dairy breeds could not be differentiated despite an average polymorphism density of 1 marker/158 bp. Collectively, 160 tagSNPs and two tag insertion-deletion mutations (indels) were sufficient to predict 100% of the variation at 280 variable sites for both Bos subspecies and their hybrids, whereas 118 tagSNPs and 1 tagIndel predictively captured 100% of the variation at 235 variable sites for B. t. taurus. Polyphen and SIFT analyses of amino acid (AA) replacements encoded by bovine TLR SNPs indicated that up to 32% of the AA substitutions were expected to impact protein function. Classical and newly developed tests of diversity provide strong support for balancing selection operating on TLR3 and TLR8, and purifying selection acting on TLR10. An investigation of the persistence and continuity of linkage disequilibrium (r2?0.50) between adjacent variable sites also supported the presence of selection acting on TLR3 and TLR8. A case-control study employing validated variants from bovine TLR genes recognizing bacterial ligands revealed six SNPs potentially eliciting small effects on susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium spp paratuberculosis infection in dairy cattle. The results of this study will broadly impact domestic cattle research by providing the necessary foundation to explore several avenues of bovine translational genomics, and the potential for marker-assisted vaccination. PMID:22164200

  9. TRIP13PCH-2 promotes Mad2 localization to unattached kinetochores in the spindle checkpoint response.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christian R; Hwang, Tom; Chen, Pin-Hsi; Bhalla, Needhi

    2015-11-01

    The spindle checkpoint acts during cell division to prevent aneuploidy, a hallmark of cancer. During checkpoint activation, Mad1 recruits Mad2 to kinetochores to generate a signal that delays anaphase onset. Yet, whether additional factors contribute to Mad2's kinetochore localization remains unclear. Here, we report that the conserved AAA+ ATPase TRIP13(PCH-2) localizes to unattached kinetochores and is required for spindle checkpoint activation in Caenorhabditis elegans. pch-2 mutants effectively localized Mad1 to unattached kinetochores, but Mad2 recruitment was significantly reduced. Furthermore, we show that the C. elegans orthologue of the Mad2 inhibitor p31(comet)(CMT-1) interacts with TRIP13(PCH-2) and is required for its localization to unattached kinetochores. These factors also genetically interact, as loss of p31(comet)(CMT-1) partially suppressed the requirement for TRIP13(PCH-2) in Mad2 localization and spindle checkpoint signaling. These data support a model in which the ability of TRIP13(PCH-2) to disassemble a p31(comet)/Mad2 complex, which has been well characterized in the context of checkpoint silencing, is also critical for spindle checkpoint activation. PMID:26527744

  10. The relationship between religion, illness and death in life histories of family members of children with life-threatening diseases.

    PubMed

    Bousso, Regina Szylit; Serafim, Taís de Souza; Misko, Maira Deguer

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to get to know the relationship between the experiences of families of children with a life-threatening disease and their religion, illness and life histories. The methodological framework was based on Oral History. The data were collected through interviews and the participants were nine families from six different religions who had lived the experience of having a child with a life-threatening disease. The interviews, held with one or two family members, were transcribed, textualized and, through their analysis, the Vital Tone was elaborated, representing the moral synthesis of each narrative. Three dimensions of spirituality were related to illness and death in their life histories: a Higher Being with a healing power; Development and Maintenance of a Connection with God and Faith Encouraging Optimism. The narratives demonstrated the family's search to attribute meanings to their experiences, based on their religious beliefs. PMID:20549112

  11. The maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) genome encodes 33 members of the purple acid phosphatase family

    PubMed Central

    González-Muñoz, Eliécer; Avendaño-Vázquez, Aida-Odette; Montes, Ricardo A. Chávez; de Folter, Stefan; Andrés-Hernández, Liliana; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Sawers, Ruairidh J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) play an important role in plant phosphorus nutrition, both by liberating phosphorus from organic sources in the soil and by modulating distribution within the plant throughout growth and development. Furthermore, members of the PAP protein family have been implicated in a broader role in plant mineral homeostasis, stress responses and development. We have identified 33 candidate PAP encoding gene models in the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays var. B73) reference genome. The maize Pap family includes a clear single-copy ortholog of the Arabidopsis gene AtPAP26, shown previously to encode both major intracellular and secreted acid phosphatase activities. Certain groups of PAPs present in Arabidopsis, however, are absent in maize, while the maize family contains a number of expansions, including a distinct radiation not present in Arabidopsis. Analysis of RNA-sequencing based transcriptome data revealed accumulation of maize Pap transcripts in multiple plant tissues at multiple stages of development, and increased accumulation of specific transcripts under low phosphorus availability. These data suggest the maize PAP family as a whole to have broad significance throughout the plant life cycle, while highlighting potential functional specialization of individual family members. PMID:26042133

  12. Evolutionary Origin of the Scombridae (Tunas and Mackerels): Members of a Paleogene Adaptive Radiation with 14 Other Pelagic Fish Families

    PubMed Central

    Miya, Masaki; Friedman, Matt; Satoh, Takashi P.; Takeshima, Hirohiko; Sado, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Wataru; Yamanoue, Yusuke; Nakatani, Masanori; Mabuchi, Kohji; Inoue, Jun G.; Poulsen, Jan Yde; Fukunaga, Tsukasa; Sato, Yukuto; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainties surrounding the evolutionary origin of the epipelagic fish family Scombridae (tunas and mackerels) are symptomatic of the difficulties in resolving suprafamilial relationships within Percomorpha, a hyperdiverse teleost radiation that contains approximately 17,000 species placed in 13 ill-defined orders and 269 families. Here we find that scombrids share a common ancestry with 14 families based on (i) bioinformatic analyses using partial mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences from all percomorphs deposited in GenBank (10,733 sequences) and (ii) subsequent mitogenomic analysis based on 57 species from those targeted 15 families and 67 outgroup taxa. Morphological heterogeneity among these 15 families is so extraordinary that they have been placed in six different perciform suborders. However, members of the 15 families are either coastal or oceanic pelagic in their ecology with diverse modes of life, suggesting that they represent a previously undetected adaptive radiation in the pelagic realm. Time-calibrated phylogenies imply that scombrids originated from a deep-ocean ancestor and began to radiate after the end-Cretaceous when large predatory epipelagic fishes were selective victims of the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. We name this clade of open-ocean fishes containing Scombridae “Pelagia” in reference to the common habitat preference that links the 15 families. PMID:24023883

  13. In vivo allergenic activities of eleven purified members of a major allergen family from wheat and barley flour.

    PubMed

    Armentia, A; Sanchez-Monge, R; Gomez, L; Barber, D; Salcedo, G

    1993-05-01

    Eleven purified members of the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family from wheat and barley that showed very different IgE-binding capacities when previously assayed in vitro, were used in double blind in vivo diagnostic tests to further evaluate their allergenic activity. These tests were carried out in 31 patients who showed allergic sensitization to wheat flour as verified by skin test, RAST and challenge test. The three members of the protein family with highest IgE binding in vitro (the glycosylated subunits of tetrameric alpha-amylase inhibitors CM16* from wheat and CMb* from barley, and the barley monomeric inhibitor BMAI-1) were found to be the strongest allergens as indicated by skin sensitivity in prick tests. PMID:8334538

  14. Communes and changing family norms: marriage and life-style choice among former members of communal groups.

    PubMed

    Aidala, A A

    1989-09-01

    This article examines attitudes and behaviors regarding marriage, parenting, and lifestyle among former members of communal groups. A follow-up sample of 635 individuals who lived in a variety of communes in the early 1970s was restudied using personal interviews and self-administered questionnaires. Excommune members are less likely to have married than others in their age group. Sizable proportions currently live in multi-adult households. The vast majority of respondents holds open the possibility of collective living some time in the future. Attitudes show continunity of ideological criticisms of traditional life styles and a commitment to emotional openness and negotiated role relations within the family. Findings support a cohort-historical explanation of the commune movement. Communal experimentation was both a manifestation of and a contributor to the larger process of family change. PMID:12282331

  15. Cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase gene is a member of the glucose-regulated protein gene family in adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Plee-Gautier, E; Grimal, H; Aggerbeck, M; Barouki, R; Forest, C

    1998-01-01

    Stress controls the expression of a cohort of genes. Among these, the glucose-regulated protein (GRP) genes are specifically activated by glucose deprivation, reducing agents, glycosylation block, intracellular calcium or ex vivo incubations of tissues or cells. We demonstrate that these stimuli induce the expression of the cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase gene in adipocytes by a process involving the region of the promoter between -2405 and -26 bp. Therefore this transaminase is a new member of the GRP family. PMID:9405272

  16. Expression analysis of Arabidopsis XH/XS-domain proteins indicates overlapping and distinct functions for members of this gene family.

    PubMed

    Butt, Haroon; Graner, Sonja; Luschnig, Christian

    2014-03-01

    RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is essential for de novo DNA methylation in higher plants, and recent reports established novel elements of this silencing pathway in the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. Involved in de novo DNA methylation 2 (IDN2) and the closely related factor of DNA methylation (FDM) are members of a plant-specific family of dsRNA-binding proteins characterized by conserved XH/XS domains and implicated in the regulation of RdDM at chromatin targets. Genetic analyses have suggested redundant as well as non-overlapping activities for different members of the gene family. However, detailed insights into the function of XH/XS-domain proteins are still elusive. By the generation and analysis of higher-order mutant combinations affected in IDN2 and further members of the gene family, we have provided additional evidence for their redundant activity. Distinct roles for members of the XH/XS-domain gene family were indicated by differences in their expression and subcellular localization. Fluorescent protein-tagged FDM genes were expressed either in nuclei or in the cytoplasm, suggestive of activities of XH/XS-domain proteins in association with chromatin as well as outside the nuclear compartment. In addition, we observed altered location of a functional FDM1-VENUS reporter from the nucleus into the cytoplasm under conditions when availability of further FDM proteins was limited. This is suggestive of a mechanism by which redistribution of XH/XS-domain proteins could compensate for the loss of closely related proteins. PMID:24574485

  17. A Radiation Badge Survey for Family Members Living With Patients Treated With a {sup 103}Pd Permanent Breast Seed Implant

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Brian M. Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Rakovitch, Eileen; Sankreacha, Raxa; O'Brien, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Sixty-seven patients with early-stage breast cancer were treated in a Phase I/II clinical trial using a {sup 103}Pd permanent breast seed implant as adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery. We report the dose received by family members living with these patients and compare measured doses with theoretical worst-case scenario estimates. Methods and Materials: Exposure-rate measurements were taken at 1 m from the patient by using a calibrated low-energy survey meter. Landauer (Landauer Inc., Glenwood, IL) Luxel badges, with sensitivity of 0.01 mSv, were given to family members to wear after the implantation. Badge readings for 33 spouses and 28 other family members were used to estimate effective doses, and these were compared with theory. Results: Average preimplantation planning target volume from computed tomography was 50.3 ml (range, 18.0-96.7 ml), and average preimplantation distance between the skin and the most anterior planning target volume margin was 0.57 cm. The average maximum exposure rate was measured to be 2.4 {+-} 1.1 mR/h, and average measured dose to a spouse was 0.99 {+-} 1.0 mSv. The calculated exposure rates and spousal doses using preimplantation computed tomography scan data overestimated those measured. Average measured family member dose (excluding spouses) was 0.20 {+-} 0.58 mSv. Conclusions: Based on measured and calculated spousal doses, a permanent breast seed implant using {sup 103}Pd is safe for the public. However, it is recommended that extra precautions in the way of a breast patch be used when patients with an implant will be in the vicinity of toddlers or pregnant women.

  18. A novel member of the family Hepeviridae from cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batts, William; Yun, Susan; Hedrick, Ronald; Winton, James

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in 1988, the Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cell line was used to isolate a novel virus from spawning adult trout in the state of California, USA. Termed the cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) virus (CTV), the small, round virus was not associated with disease, but was subsequently found to be present in an increasing number of trout populations in the western USA, likely by a combination of improved surveillance activities and the shipment of infected eggs to new locations. Here, we report that the full length genome of the 1988 Heenan Lake isolate of CTV consisted of 7269 nucleotides of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA beginning with a 5' untranslated region (UTR), followed by three open reading frames (ORFs), a 3' UTR and ending in a polyA tail. The genome of CTV was similar in size and organization to that of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) with which it shared the highest nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities. Similar to the genomes of human, rodent or avian hepeviruses, ORF 1 encoded a large, non-structural polyprotein that included conserved methyltransferase, protease, helicase and polymerase domains, while ORF 2 encoded the structural capsid protein and ORF 3 the phosphoprotein. Together, our data indicated that CTV was clearly a member of the family Hepeviridae, although the level of amino acid sequence identity with the ORFs of mammalian or avian hepeviruses (13-27%) may be sufficiently low to warrant the creation of a novel genus. We also performed a phylogenetic analysis using a 262. nt region within ORF 1 for 63 isolates of CTV obtained from seven species of trout reared in various geographic locations in the western USA. While the sequences fell into two genetic clades, the overall nucleotide diversity was low (less than 8.4%) and many isolates differed by only 1-2 nucleotides, suggesting an epidemiological link. Finally, we showed that CTV was able to form persistently infected cultures of the CHSE-214 cell line that may have use in research on the biology or treatment of hepevirus infections of humans or other animals.

  19. Kinesin Family member 4A: A Potential Predictor for Progression of Human Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Koike, Hirofumi; Higo, Morihiro; Nakashima, Dai; Kouzu, Yukinao; Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Background Kinesin family member 4A (KIF4A), a microtubule-based motor protein, was implicated in regulation of chromosomal structure and kinetochore microtubule dynamics. Considering the functions of KIF4A, we assumed that KIF4A is involved in progression of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) via activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). However, little is known about the relevance of KIF4A in the behavior of OSCC. We investigated the KIF4A expression status and its functional mechanisms in OSCC. Methods The KIF4A expression levels in seven OSCC-derived cells were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses. Using a KIF4A knockdown model, we assessed the expression of (SAC)-related molecules (BUB1, MAD2, CDC20, and cyclin B1), cell-cycle, and cellular proliferation. In addition to in vitro data, the clinical correlation between the KIF4A expression levels in primary OSCCs (n = 106 patients) and the clinicopathologic status by immunohistochemistry (IHC) also were evaluated. Results KIF4A mRNA and protein were up-regulated significantly (P < 0.05) in seven OSCC-derived cells compared with human normal oral keratinocytes. In the KIF4A knockdown cells, SAC activation was observed via increased BUB1 expression on the kinetochores, appropriate kinetochore localization of MAD2, down-regulation of CDC20, up-regulation of cyclin B1, and cell-cycle arrested at G2/M phase. The results showed that cellular proliferation of KIF4A knockdown cells decreased significantly (P < 0.05) compared with control cells. IHC showed that KIF4A expression in primary OSCCs was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than in the normal oral counterparts and that KIF4A-positive OSCCs were correlated closely (P < 0.05) with tumoral size. Conclusions Our results proposed for the first time that KIF4A controls cellular proliferation via SAC activation. Therefore, KIF4A might be a key regulator for tumoral progression in OSCCs. PMID:24386490

  20. A novel member of the family Hepeviridae from cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii).

    PubMed

    Batts, William; Yun, Susan; Hedrick, Ronald; Winton, James

    2011-06-01

    Beginning in 1988, the Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cell line was used to isolate a novel virus from spawning adult trout in the state of California, USA. Termed the cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) virus (CTV), the small, round virus was not associated with disease, but was subsequently found to be present in an increasing number of trout populations in the western USA, likely by a combination of improved surveillance activities and the shipment of infected eggs to new locations. Here, we report that the full length genome of the 1988 Heenan Lake isolate of CTV consisted of 7269 nucleotides of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA beginning with a 5' untranslated region (UTR), followed by three open reading frames (ORFs), a 3' UTR and ending in a polyA tail. The genome of CTV was similar in size and organization to that of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) with which it shared the highest nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities. Similar to the genomes of human, rodent or avian hepeviruses, ORF 1 encoded a large, non-structural polyprotein that included conserved methyltransferase, protease, helicase and polymerase domains, while ORF 2 encoded the structural capsid protein and ORF 3 the phosphoprotein. Together, our data indicated that CTV was clearly a member of the family Hepeviridae, although the level of amino acid sequence identity with the ORFs of mammalian or avian hepeviruses (13-27%) may be sufficiently low to warrant the creation of a novel genus. We also performed a phylogenetic analysis using a 262nt region within ORF 1 for 63 isolates of CTV obtained from seven species of trout reared in various geographic locations in the western USA. While the sequences fell into two genetic clades, the overall nucleotide diversity was low (less than 8.4%) and many isolates differed by only 1-2 nucleotides, suggesting an epidemiological link. Finally, we showed that CTV was able to form persistently infected cultures of the CHSE-214 cell line that may have use in research on the biology or treatment of hepevirus infections of humans or other animals. PMID:21458509

  1. The Structure of the Cytomegalovirus-Encoded m04 Glycoprotein, a Prototypical Member of the m02 Family of Immunoevasins*

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Richard; Vivian, Julian P.; Deuss, Felix A.; Balaji, Gautham R.; Saunders, Philippa M.; Lin, Jie; Littler, Dene R.; Brooks, Andrew G.; Rossjohn, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    The ability of CMVs to evade the immune system of the host is dependent on the expression of a wide array of glycoproteins, many of which interfere with natural killer cell function. In murine CMV, two large protein families mediate this immune-evasive function. Although it is established that the m145 family members mimic the structure of MHC-I molecules, the structure of the m02 family remains unknown. The most extensively studied m02 family member is m04, a glycoprotein that escorts newly assembled MHC-I molecules to the cell surface, presumably to avoid “missing self” recognition. Here we report the crystal structure of the m04 ectodomain, thereby providing insight into this large immunoevasin family. m04 adopted a ?-sandwich immunoglobulin variable (Ig-V)-like fold, despite sharing very little sequence identity with the Ig-V superfamily. In addition to the Ig-V core, m04 possesses several unique structural features that included an unusual ?-strand topology, a number of extended loops and a prominent ?-helix. The m04 interior was packed by a myriad of hydrophobic residues that form distinct clusters around two conserved tryptophan residues. This hydrophobic core was well conserved throughout the m02 family, thereby indicating that murine CMV encodes a number of Ig-V-like molecules. We show that m04 binds a range of MHC-I molecules with low affinity in a peptide-independent manner. Accordingly, the structure of m04, which represents the first example of an murine CMV encoded Ig-V fold, provides a basis for understanding the structure and function of this enigmatic and large family of immunoevasins. PMID:24982419

  2. Positive selection, molecular recombination structure and phylogenetic reconstruction of members of the family Tombusviridae: Implication in virus taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Boulila, Moncef

    2011-01-01

    A detailed study of putative recombination events and their evolution frequency in the whole genome of the currently known members of the family Tombusviridae, comprising 79 accessions retrieved from the international databases, was carried out by using the RECCO and RDP version 3.31? algorithms. The first program allowed the detection of potential recombination sites in seven out of eight virus genera (Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, Carmovirus, Dianthovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and Tombusvirus), the second program provided the same results except for genus Dianthovirus. On the other hand, both methods failed to detect recombination breakpoints in the genome of members of genus Machlomovirus. Furthermore, based on Fisher’s Exact Test of Neutrality, positive selection exerted on protein-coding genes was detected in 17 accession pairs involving 15 different lineages. Except genera Machlomovirus, and Panicovirus along with unclassified Tombusviridae, all the other taxonomical genera and the unassigned Tombusviridae encompassed representatives under positive selection. The evolutionary history of all members of the Tombusviridae family showed that they segregated into eight distinct groups corresponding to the eight genera which constitute this family. The inferred phylogeny reshuffled the classification currently adopted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. A reclassification was proposed. PMID:22215970

  3. Arabidopsis thaliana BTB/ POZ-MATH proteins interact with members of the ERF/AP2 transcription factor family.

    PubMed

    Weber, Henriette; Hellmann, Hanjo

    2009-11-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the BTB/POZ-MATH (BPM) proteins comprise a small family of six members. They have been described previously to use their broad complex, tram track, bric-a-brac/POX virus and zinc finger (BTB/POZ) domain to assemble with CUL3a and CUL3b and potentially to serve as substrate adaptors to cullin-based E3-ligases in plants. In this article, we show that BPMs can also assemble with members of the ethylene response factor/Apetala2 transcription factor family, and that this is mediated by their meprin and TRAF (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor) homology (MATH) domain. In addition, we provide a detailed description of BPM gene expression patterns in different tissues and on abiotic stress treatments, as well as their subcellular localization. This work connects, for the first time, BPM proteins with ethylene response factor/Apetala2 family members, which is likely to represent a novel regulatory mechanism of transcriptional control. PMID:19843165

  4. What’s at Stake? Genetic Information from the Perspective of People with Epilepsy and their Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Shostak, Sara; Zarhin, Dana; Ottman, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in identifying genes that raise risk for epilepsy, and genetic testing for some of these genes is increasingly being used in clinical practice. However, almost no empirical data are available from the perspective of people with epilepsy and their family members about the impact of genetic information and potential benefits and harms of genetic testing. To address this gap we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 40 individuals (22 with epilepsy, 18 unaffected) in the USA from families containing multiple affected individuals who had participated in epilepsy genetics research. The interviews were coded and analyzed using the principles of grounded theory. Several major themes emerged from these interviews. Participants expressed “personal theories of inheritance” that emphasized commonalities among relatives and the idea that disease risk is most shared by family members who share physical or personality traits. Most participants said they would have genetic testing if it were offered. They cited many potential benefits, including learning what caused epilepsy in their family, being better able to care and advocate for children at risk, reducing guilt and blame, providing an increased sense of control, and relieving anxiety in unaffected individuals who test negative. The influence of genetic information on reproduction was a particularly salient theme. Although respondents believed genetic testing would be useful for informing their reproductive choices, they also expressed fear that it could lead to external pressures to modify these choices. Other concerns about the potential negative impact of genetic information included increased blame and guilt, increased stigma and discrimination in employment and insurance, self-imposed limitations on life goals, and alterations in fundamental conceptions of “what epilepsy is.” Consideration of the perspectives of people with epilepsy and their family members is critical to understanding the implications of contemporary epilepsy genetic research and testing. PMID:21831495

  5. CANDIDATE MEMBERS AND AGE ESTIMATE OF THE FAMILY OF KUIPER BELT OBJECT 2003 EL61 D. Ragozzine and M. E. Brown

    E-print Network

    Brown, Michael E.

    CANDIDATE MEMBERS AND AGE ESTIMATE OF THE FAMILY OF KUIPER BELT OBJECT 2003 EL61 D. Ragozzine and M The collisional family of Kuiper Belt object (KBO) 2003EL61 opens the possibility for manyinteresting new studies in the Kuiper Belt, it can be studied using techniques developed for studying asteroid families, although some

  6. Oxidation of Monolignols by Members of the Berberine Bridge Enzyme Family Suggests a Role in Plant Cell Wall Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Bastian; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Steiner, Barbara; Dordic, Andela; Gutmann, Alexander; Nidetzky, Bernd; Sensen, Christoph W; van der Graaff, Eric; Wallner, Silvia; Gruber, Karl; Macheroux, Peter

    2015-07-24

    Plant genomes contain a large number of genes encoding for berberine bridge enzyme (BBE)-like enzymes. Despite the widespread occurrence and abundance of this protein family in the plant kingdom, the biochemical function remains largely unexplored. In this study, we have expressed two members of the BBE-like enzyme family from Arabidopsis thaliana in the host organism Komagataella pastoris. The two proteins, termed AtBBE-like 13 and AtBBE-like 15, were purified, and their catalytic properties were determined. In addition, AtBBE-like 15 was crystallized and structurally characterized by x-ray crystallography. Here, we show that the enzymes catalyze the oxidation of aromatic allylic alcohols, such as coumaryl, sinapyl, and coniferyl alcohol, to the corresponding aldehydes and that AtBBE-like 15 adopts the same fold as vanillyl alcohol oxidase as reported previously for berberine bridge enzyme and other FAD-dependent oxidoreductases. Further analysis of the substrate range identified coniferin, the glycosylated storage form of coniferyl alcohol, as a substrate of the enzymes, whereas other glycosylated monolignols were rather poor substrates. A detailed analysis of the motifs present in the active sites of the BBE-like enzymes in A. thaliana suggested that 14 out of 28 members of the family might catalyze similar reactions. Based on these findings, we propose a novel role of BBE-like enzymes in monolignol metabolism that was previously not recognized for this enzyme family. PMID:26037923

  7. Oxidation of Monolignols by Members of the Berberine Bridge Enzyme Family Suggests a Role in Plant Cell Wall Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Bastian; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Steiner, Barbara; Dordic, Andela; Gutmann, Alexander; Nidetzky, Bernd; Sensen, Christoph W.; van der Graaff, Eric; Wallner, Silvia; Gruber, Karl; Macheroux, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Plant genomes contain a large number of genes encoding for berberine bridge enzyme (BBE)-like enzymes. Despite the widespread occurrence and abundance of this protein family in the plant kingdom, the biochemical function remains largely unexplored. In this study, we have expressed two members of the BBE-like enzyme family from Arabidopsis thaliana in the host organism Komagataella pastoris. The two proteins, termed AtBBE-like 13 and AtBBE-like 15, were purified, and their catalytic properties were determined. In addition, AtBBE-like 15 was crystallized and structurally characterized by x-ray crystallography. Here, we show that the enzymes catalyze the oxidation of aromatic allylic alcohols, such as coumaryl, sinapyl, and coniferyl alcohol, to the corresponding aldehydes and that AtBBE-like 15 adopts the same fold as vanillyl alcohol oxidase as reported previously for berberine bridge enzyme and other FAD-dependent oxidoreductases. Further analysis of the substrate range identified coniferin, the glycosylated storage form of coniferyl alcohol, as a substrate of the enzymes, whereas other glycosylated monolignols were rather poor substrates. A detailed analysis of the motifs present in the active sites of the BBE-like enzymes in A. thaliana suggested that 14 out of 28 members of the family might catalyze similar reactions. Based on these findings, we propose a novel role of BBE-like enzymes in monolignol metabolism that was previously not recognized for this enzyme family. PMID:26037923

  8. Genetic Information-Seeking Behaviors and Knowledge among Family Members and Patients with Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jada G; Hutson, Sadie P; Frohnmayer, Amy E; Han, Paul K J; Peters, June A; Carr, Ann G; Alter, Blanche P

    2015-10-01

    Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS) including Fanconi anemia, dyskeratosis congenita, Diamond-Blackfan anemia, and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome are rare genetic disorders characterized by hematologic complications and increased risk of cancer. Patients and their families likely experience obstacles in obtaining sufficient health information given their disorders' rarity. To investigate this possibility, we examined information-seeking behaviors and levels of general and disorder-specific genetic knowledge among 315 members of 174 families with an IBMFS, and how information-seeking behaviors and socio-demographic factors may be associated with their genetic knowledge. Cross-sectional survey data indicated that participants were most likely to have ever used the Internet or healthcare providers for genetic information. On average, participants correctly answered 57 % of items assessing general genetic knowledge and 49-59 % of disorder-specific knowledge items. Greater knowledge was associated with greater education and ever experiencing genetic counseling, attending a scientific meeting, and seeking information from the Internet and scientific literature. Among families with Fanconi anemia (whose family support organization has the longest history of providing information), greater disorder-specific genetic knowledge was also associated with seeking information from support groups and other affected families. Results suggest that families with IBMFS have uncertainty regarding genetic aspects of their disorder, and highlight potential channels for delivering educational resources. PMID:25540896

  9. Structure of a Complex between Nedd8 and the Ulp/Senp Protease Family Member Den1

    SciTech Connect

    Reverter, David; Wu, Kenneth; Erdene, Tudeviin Gan; Pan, Zhen-Qiang; Wilkinson, Keith D.; Lima, Christopher D.

    2010-07-20

    The Nedd8 conjugation pathway is conserved from yeast to humans and is essential in many organisms. Nedd8 is conjugated to cullin proteins in a process that alters SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, and it is presumed that Nedd8 deconjugation would reverse these effects. We now report the X-ray structures of the human Nedd8-specific protease, Den1, in a complex with the inhibitor Nedd8 aldehyde, thus revealing a model for the tetrahedral transition state intermediate generated during proteolysis. Although Den1 is closely related to the SUMO-specific protease family (Ulp/Senp family), structural analysis of the interface suggests determinants involved in Nedd8 selectivity by Den1 over other ubiquitin-like family members and suggests how the Ulp/Senp architecture has been modified to interact with different ubiquitin-like modifiers.

  10. Returning from the War Zone: A Guide for Families of Military Members

    MedlinePLUS

    ... witnessed the death or injury of friends, other military personnel, civilians, or enemy combatants. Your loved one may ... Returning from the War Zone: A Guide for Military Personnel ( PDF) ”. It contains useful resources for service members ...

  11. Autismo: Lo Que Miembros de Familia Necesitan Saber (Autism: What the Family Members Need to Know).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft School, Haddonfield, NJ.

    In Spanish, the booklet addresses basic information for families with children who have autism. Facts about the syndrome are listed, followed by signs and symptoms, a summary of programmatic requirements, answers to questions frequently asked by families, suggestions to help parents cope, concerns facing adolescents and adults with autism, and…

  12. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...Needy § 436.120 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically...

  13. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...Needy § 436.120 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically...

  14. 75 FR 33491 - Absence and Leave; Definitions of Family Member, Immediate Relative, and Related Terms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... FR 7739, 3 CFR, 1974 Comp., p. 163; subpart G also issued under 5 U.S.C. 6305; subpart H also issued... support to help them balance their work, personal, and family obligations. DATES: Effective Date: These... with the broadest support possible to help them balance their work, personal, and family...

  15. Tip Sheet for SEAs: Engaging Parents and Family Members in Postschool Outcome Stakeholder Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Post-School Outcomes Center, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Involving parents and other family representatives in the Indicator B-14 Post-School Outcomes (PSO) Survey activities can help State Education Agencies (SEAs) develop strategies to increase annual response rates, communicate results to stakeholders, and build support for program improvement and systems change. Perspectives expressed by families of…

  16. Bidirectional Associations between Coparenting Relations and Family Member Anxiety: A Review and Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majdandzic, Mirjana; de Vente, Wieke; Feinberg, Mark E.; Aktar, Evin; Bogels, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Research into anxiety has largely ignored the dynamics of family systems in anxiety development. Coparenting refers to the quality of coordination between individuals responsible for the upbringing of children and links different subsystems within the family, such as the child, the marital relationship, and the parents. This review discusses the…

  17. Stepparents and the Law: Knowledge for Counselors, Guidelines for Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Joshua M.

    2009-01-01

    This literature-based article will acquaint family counselors with the relevant family law statutes to better guide their counseling with stepfamilies and to help stepparents better understand the current laws regarding their status. The article will specifically address stepparent status, postdivorce custody, visitation, financial support plus…

  18. Apollo asteroids (1566) Icarus and 2007 MK6: Icarus family members?

    E-print Network

    K. Ohtsuka; H. Arakida; T. Ito; T. Kasuga; J. Watanabe; D. Kinoshita; T. Sekiguchi; D. J. Asher; S. Nakano

    2007-08-22

    Although it is more complicated to search for near-Earth object (NEO) families than main belt asteroid (MBA) families, since differential orbital evolution within a NEO family can cause current orbital elements to drastically differ from each other, we have found that Apollo asteroids (1566) Icarus and the newly discovered 2007 MK6 are almost certainly related. Specifically, their orbital evolutions show a similar profile, time shifted by only ~1000 yr, based on our time-lag theory. The dynamical relationship between Icarus and 2007 MK6 along with a possible dust band, the Taurid-Perseid meteor swarm, implies the first detection of an asteroidal NEO family, namely the "Icarus asteroid family".

  19. Structural basis for the mechanism and substrate specificity of glycocyamine kinase, a phosphagen kinase family member

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Kap; Pullalarevu, Sadhana; Surabian, Karen Talin; Howard, Andrew; Suzuki, Tomohiko; Moult, John; Herzberg, Osnat

    2010-03-12

    Glycocyamine kinase (GK), a member of the phosphagen kinase family, catalyzes the Mg{sup 2+}-dependent reversible phosphoryl group transfer of the N-phosphoryl group of phosphoglycocyamine to ADP to yield glycocyamine and ATP. This reaction helps to maintain the energy homeostasis of the cell in some multicelullar organisms that encounter high and variable energy turnover. GK from the marine worm Namalycastis sp. is heterodimeric, with two homologous polypeptide chains, {alpha} and {beta}, derived from a common pre-mRNA by mutually exclusive N-terminal alternative exons. The N-terminal exon of GK{beta} encodes a peptide that is different in sequence and is 16 amino acids longer than that encoded by the N-terminal exon of GK{alpha}. The crystal structures of recombinant GK{alpha}{beta} and GK{beta}{beta} from Namalycastis sp. were determined at 2.6 and 2.4 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. In addition, the structure of the GK{beta}{beta} was determined at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution in complex with a transition state analogue, Mg{sup 2+}-ADP-NO{sub 3}{sup -}-glycocyamine. Consistent with the sequence homology, the GK subunits adopt the same overall fold as that of other phosphagen kinases of known structure (the homodimeric creatine kinase (CK) and the monomeric arginine kinase (AK)). As with CK, the GK N-termini mediate the dimer interface. In both heterodimeric and homodimeric GK forms, the conformations of the two N-termini are asymmetric, and the asymmetry is different than that reported previously for the homodimeric CKs from several organisms. The entire polypeptide chains of GK{alpha}{beta} are structurally defined, and the longer N-terminus of the {beta} subunit is anchored at the dimer interface. In GK{beta}{beta} the 24 N-terminal residues of one subunit and 11 N-terminal residues of the second subunit are disordered. This observation is consistent with a proposal that the GK{alpha}{beta} amino acids involved in the interface formation were optimized once a heterodimer emerged as the physiological form of the enzyme. As a consequence, the homodimer interface (either solely {alpha} or solely {beta} chains) has been corrupted. In the unbound state, GK exhibits an open conformation analogous to that observed with ligand-free CK or AK. Upon binding the transition state analogue, both subunits of GK undergo the same closure motion that clasps the transition state analogue, in contrast to the transition state analogue complexes of CK, where the corresponding transition state analogue occupies only one subunit, which undergoes domain closure. The active site environments of the GK, CK, and AK at the bound states reveal the structural determinants of substrate specificity. Despite the equivalent binding in both active sites of the GK dimer, the conformational asymmetry of the N-termini is retained. Thus, the coupling between the structural asymmetry and negative cooperativity previously proposed for CK is not supported in the case of GK.

  20. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified...

  1. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family...Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified...

  2. Resistance to Oculimacula yallundae and Oculimacula acuformis is conferred by Pch2 in wheat

    E-print Network

    Pappu, Hanu R.

    Resistance to Oculimacula yallundae and Oculimacula acuformis is conferred by Pch2 in wheat K. L University, Pullman, WA 99164-6430, USA The recent report of a differential response of wheat lines of resistance against both O. yallundae and O. acu- formis under these conditions. Keywords: eyespot of wheat

  3. ACAM, a novel member of the neural IgCAM family, mediates anterior neural tube closure in a primitive chordate.

    PubMed

    Morales Diaz, Heidi; Mejares, Emil; Newman-Smith, Erin; Smith, William C

    2016-01-01

    The neural IgCAM family of cell adhesion molecules, which includes NCAM and related molecules, has evolved via gene duplication and alternative splicing to allow for a wide range of isoforms with distinct functions and homophilic binding properties. A search for neural IgCAMs in ascidians (Ciona intestinalis, Ciona savignyi, and Phallusia mammillata) has identified a novel set of truncated family members that, unlike the known members, lack fibronectin III domains and consist of only repeated Ig domains. Within the tunicates this form appears to be unique to the ascidians, and it was designated ACAM, for Ascidian Cell Adhesion Molecule. In C. intestinalis ACAM is expressed in the developing neural plate and neural tube, with strongest expression in the anterior sensory vesicle precursor. Unlike the two other conventional neural IgCAMs in C. intestinalis, which are expressed maternally and throughout the morula and blastula stages, ACAM expression initiates at the gastrula stage. Moreover, C. intestinalis ACAM is a target of the homeodomain transcription factor OTX, which plays an essential role in the development of the anterior central nervous system. Morpholino (MO) knockdown shows that ACAM is required for neural tube closure. In MO-injected embryos neural tube closure was normal caudally, but the anterior neuropore remained open. A similar phenotype was seen with overexpression of a secreted version of ACAM. The presence of ACAM in ascidians highlights the diversity of this gene family in morphogenesis and neurodevelopment. PMID:26542009

  4. Perspectives of family members participating in cultural assessment of psychiatric disorders: findings from the DSM-5 International Field Trial.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Ladson; Aggarwal, Neil; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Weiss, Mitchell; Paralikar, Vasudeo; Deshpande, Smita; Jadhav, Sushrut; Ndetei, David; Nicasio, Andel; Boiler, Marit; Lam, Peter; Avelar, Yesi; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    Despite the important roles families play in the lives of many individuals with mental illness across cultures, there is a dearth of data worldwide on how family members perceive the process of cultural assessment as well as to how to best include them. This study addresses this gap in our knowledge through analysis of data collected across six countries as part of a DSM-5 Field Trial of the Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI). At clinician discretion, individuals who accompanied patients to the clinic visit (i.e. patient companions) at the time the CFI was conducted were invited to participate in the cultural assessment and answer questions about their experience. The specific aims of this paper are (1) to describe patterns of participation of patient companions in the CFI across the six countries, and (2) to examine the comparative feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility of the CFI from companion perspectives through analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data. Among the 321 patient interviews, only 86 (at four of 12 sites) included companions, all of whom were family members or other relatives. The utility, feasibility and acceptability of the CFI were rated favourably by relatives, supported by qualitative analyses of debriefing interviews. Cross-site differences in frequency of accompaniment merit further study. PMID:25738941

  5. Perspectives of family members participating in cultural assessment of psychiatric disorders: Findings from the DSM-5 International Field Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Ladson; Aggarwal, Neil; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Weiss, Mitchell; Paralikar, Vasudeo; Deshpande, Smita; Jadhav, Sushrut; Ndetei, David; Nicasio, Andel; Boiler, Marit; Lam, Peter; Avelar, Yesi; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Despite the important roles families play in the lives of many persons with mental illness across cultures, there is a dearth of data worldwide on how family members perceive the process of cultural assessment as well as to how to best include them. This study addresses this gap in our knowledge through analysis of data collected across six countries as part of a DSM-5 Field Trial of the Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI). At clinician discretion, individuals who accompanied patients to the clinic visit (i.e. patient companions) at the time the CFI was conducted were invited to participate in the cultural assessment and answer questions about their experience. The specific aims of this paper are (1) to describe patterns of participation of patient companions in the CFI across the six countries, and (2) to examine the comparative feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility of the CFI from companion perspectives through analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data. Among the 321 patient interviews, only 86 (at 4 of 12 sites) included companions, all of whom were family members or other relatives. The utility, feasibility and acceptability of the CFI were rated favorably by relatives, supported by qualitative analyses of debriefing interviews. Cross-site differences in frequency of accompaniment merit further study. PMID:25738941

  6. ErpC, a member of the complement regulator-acquiring family of surface proteins from Borrelia burgdorferi, possesses an architecture previously unseen in this protein family

    PubMed Central

    Caesar, Joseph J. E.; Johnson, Steven; Kraiczy, Peter; Lea, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete responsible for Lyme disease, the most commonly occurring vector-borne disease in Europe and North America. The bacterium utilizes a set of proteins, termed complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (CRASPs), to aid evasion of the human complement system by recruiting and presenting complement regulator factor H on its surface in a manner that mimics host cells. Presented here is the atomic resolution structure of a member of this protein family, ErpC. The structure provides new insights into the mechanism of recruitment of factor H and other factor H-related proteins by acting as a molecular mimic of host glycosaminoglycans. It also describes the architecture of other CRASP proteins belonging to the OspE/F-related paralogous protein family and suggests that they have evolved to bind specific complement proteins, aiding survival of the bacterium in different hosts. PMID:23722838

  7. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AFDC plan included an AFDC-unemployed parents program) if her child had been born and was living with... income and resource requirements, the unborn child or children are considered members of the household... subchapter and all services which it has opted to cover under § 440.225 and § 440.250(p) of this...

  8. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...resource requirements, the unborn child or children are considered members of the household...The agency must provide Medicaid to children who meet all of the following criteria...under § 440.225 and § 440.250(p) of this subchapter. (3)...

  9. Differential expression of three members of the multidomain adhesion CCp family in Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Theileria equi.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Reginaldo G; Suarez, Carlos E; Laughery, Jacob M; Johnson, Wendell C; Ueti, Massaro W; Knowles, Donald P

    2013-01-01

    Members of the CCp protein family have been previously described to be expressed on gametocytes of apicomplexan Plasmodium parasites. Knocking out Plasmodium CCp genes blocks the development of the parasite in the mosquito vector, making the CCp proteins potential targets for the development of a transmission-blocking vaccine. Apicomplexans Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina are the causative agents of bovine babesiosis, and apicomplexan Theileria equi causes equine piroplasmosis. Bovine babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis are the most economically important parasite diseases that affect worldwide cattle and equine industries, respectively. The recent sequencing of the B. bovis and T. equi genomes has provided the opportunity to identify novel genes involved in parasite biology. Here we characterize three members of the CCp family, named CCp1, CCp2 and CCp3, in B. bigemina, B. bovis and T. equi. Using B. bigemina as an in vitro model, expression of all three CCp genes and proteins was demonstrated in temperature-induced sexual stages. Transcripts for all three CCp genes were found in vivo in blood stages of T. equi, and transcripts for CCp3 were detected in vivo in blood stages of B. bovis. However, no protein expression was detected in T. equi blood stages or B. bovis blood stages or B. bovis tick stages. Collectively, the data demonstrated a differential pattern of expression of three orthologous genes of the multidomain adhesion CCp family by B. bigemina, B. bovis and T. equi. The novel CCp members represent potential targets for innovative approaches to control bovine babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis. PMID:23844089

  10. Crystal structure of murine coronavirus receptor sCEACAM1a[1,4],a member of the carcinoembtyonic antigen family

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, K.; Zelus, B. D.; Meijers, R.; Liu, J.-H.; Bergelson, J. M.; Zhang, R.; Duke, N.; Joachimiak, A.; Holmes, K. V.; Wang, J.-H.; Biosciences Division; Dana-Farber Cancer Inst.; Harvard Medical School; Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center; Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

    2002-05-01

    CEACAM1 is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family. Isoforms of murine CEACAM1 serve as receptors for mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a murine coronavirus. Here we report the crystal structure of soluble murine sCEACAM1a[1,4], which is composed of two Ig-like domains and has MHV neutralizing activity. Its N-terminal domain has a uniquely folded CC' loop that encompasses key virus-binding residues. This is the first atomic structure of any member of the CEA family, and provides a prototypic architecture for functional exploration of CEA family members. We discuss the structural basis of virus receptor activities of murine CEACAM1 proteins, binding of Neisseria to human CEACAM1, and other homophilic and heterophilic interactions of CEA family members.

  11. The process of recovery of people with mental illness: The perspectives of patients, family members and care providers: Part 1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is a qualitative design study that examines points of divergence and convergence in the perspectives on recovery of 36 participants or 12 triads. Each triad comprising a patient, a family member/friend, a care provider and documents the procedural, analytic of triangulating perspectives as a means of understanding the recovery process which is illustrated by four case studies. Variations are considered as they relate to individual characteristics, type of participant (patient, family, member/friend and care provider), and mental illness. This paper which is part of a larger study and is based on a qualitative research design documents the process of recovery of people with mental illness: Developing a Model of Recovery in Mental Health: A middle range theory. Methods Data were collected in field notes through semi-structured interviews based on three interview guides (one for patients, one for family members/friends, and one for caregivers). Cross analysis and triangulation methods were used to analyse the areas of convergence and divergence on the recovery process of all triads. Results In general, with the 36 participants united in 12 triads, two themes emerge from the cross-analysis process or triangulation of data sources (12 triads analysis in 12 cases studies). Two themes emerge from the analysis process of the content of 36 interviews with participants: (1) Revealing dynamic context, situating patients in their dynamic context; and (2) Relationship issues in a recovery process, furthering our understanding of such issues. We provide four case studies examples (among 12 cases studies) to illustrate the variations in the way recovery is perceived, interpreted and expressed in relation to the different contexts of interaction. Conclusion The perspectives of the three participants (patients, family members/friends and care providers) suggest that recovery depends on constructing meaning around mental illness experiences and that the process is based on each person's dynamic context (e.g., social network, relationship), life experiences and other social determinants (e.g., symptoms, environment). The findings of this study add to existing knowledge about the determinants of the recovery of persons suffering with a mental illness and significant other utilizing public mental health services in Montreal, Canada. PMID:20540771

  12. Alternative Treatments For Melanoma: Targeting BCL-2 Family Members to De-Bulk and Kill Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Nabanita; Schwan, Josianna V; Fujita, Mayumi; Norris, David A; Shellman, Yiqun G

    2015-09-01

    For the first time new treatments in melanoma have produced significant responses in advanced diseases, but 30-90% of melanoma patients do not respond or eventually relapse after the initial response to the current treatments. The resistance of these melanomas is likely due to tumor heterogeneity, which may be explained by models such as the stochastic, hierarchical, and phenotype-switching models. This review will discuss the recent advancements in targeting BCL-2 family members for cancer treatments, and how this approach can be applied as an alternative option to combat melanoma, and overcome melanoma relapse or resistance in current treatment regimens. PMID:25947358

  13. The complete genome sequences of two isolates of cnidium vein yellowing virus, a tentative new member of the family Secoviridae.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ran Hee; Zhao, Fumei; Lim, Seungmo; Igori, Davaajargal; Kim, Sang-Mok; An, Tae-Jin; Lee, Su-Heon; Moon, Jae Sun

    2015-11-01

    We determined the complete genome sequences of two isolates of cnidium vein yellowing virus (CnVYV-1 and -2) that co-infected all field samples collected from Cnidium officinale in Korea. Unlike CnVYV-2, however, CnVYV-1 was sap-transmissible to Nicotiana benthamiana. CnVYV-1 and -2 have bipartite genomes of 7,263 and 3,110 nucleotides and 7,278 and 3,112 nucleotides, respectively, excluding the poly(A) tails. Phylogenetic analysis of the CnVYV-1 and -2 sequences indicated close relationships to strawberry latent ringspot virus, an unassigned member of the family Secoviridae. CnVYV-1 and CnVYV-2 are closely related viruses that may represent a tentative new species of the family Secoviridae. PMID:26282235

  14. Hospital Experiences of Older People with Intellectual Disability: Responses of Group Home Staff and Family Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Ruth; Bowers, Barbara; Bigby, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study reports on the hospitalisation experiences of older adults with intellectual disability living in group homes. Methods: Grounded dimensional analysis was used to guide data collection and analysis. Group home residents were tracked prospectively over a 3-year period. Interviews were conducted with family, group home, and…

  15. Negotiating Connection to GLBT Experience: Family Members' Experience of Anti-GLBT Movements and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arm, Jennifer R.; Horne, Sharon G.; Levitt, Heidi M.

    2009-01-01

    There have been numerous legislative initiatives to limit gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) people's rights at local, state, and national levels (G. M. Herek, 2006). Although research has focused on how GLBT people are affected by these initiatives, to date no research has explored the impact of this legislation upon the families of…

  16. Wage-Earner or Family Member? FCS Students Learn How to Achieve a Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNabb, Tamra

    2004-01-01

    Successful business people in all walks of life recognize that achieving a balance between their work lives and their families is critical to their personal happiness. Although the subject is mentioned in textbooks and seminars, very little, if any, time is spent discussing how the young career person will achieve this goal. Fortunately, potential…

  17. The Contribution of Family Members to First-Generation College Student Success: A Narrative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziemniak, Anne Elisabeth Lamkin

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that first-generation college students are educationally disadvantaged in a number of ways. While a variety of interventions have been recommended to increase the success of this population of students in higher education, little attention has been placed on the role that families can play in supporting these students,…

  18. 270 VOLUME 46 | NUMBER 3 | MARCH 2014 Nature GeNetics Hot pepper is a member of the Solanaceae family. It is a diploid,

    E-print Network

    Kaski, Samuel

    270 VOLUME 46 | NUMBER 3 | MARCH 2014 Nature GeNetics OPEN Hot pepper is a member of the Solanaceae, eggplant, tobacco and petunia. Solanaceae plants belong to the asterid clade of eudicots, which includes more than 3,000 diverse species worldwide. Many members of the Solanacea family have the same number

  19. Identification of a novel family of human endogenous retroviruses and characterization of one family member, HERV-K(C4), located in the complement C4 gene cluster.

    PubMed Central

    Tassabehji, M; Strachan, T; Anderson, M; Campbell, R D; Collier, S; Lako, M

    1994-01-01

    We have identified a novel family of about 10-50 human endogenous retrovirus elements (HERVs) and have characterized one family member (HERV-KC4). This retrovirus element is integrated within intron 9 of and complement C4A genes and also in some C4B genes, and is a principal contribution to interlocus and interallelic length heterogeneity of C4 genes. The HERV-K(C4) sequence has a typical retrovirus structure with elements of gag, pol and env domains, flanked by two long terminal repeats (LTRs) and is similar to type A, B and D retroviruses. Multiple termination codons preclude the existence of long open reading frames, suggesting that the HERV-K(C4) sequence is no longer functional. Zoo blot hybridization reveals that New World monkeys appear to lack sequences similar to HERV-K(C4), suggesting that integration has occurred after the divergence of Old and New World monkeys. Retrotransposition of prototype viruses is presumed to have led to the amplification and integration of the members of the family in different loci, which in humans, appear to be dispersed over several chromosomes. The absence of the HERV-K(C4) element in some C4B genes in both humans and orangutangs indicate that the retrovirus inserted into the C4A gene after the duplication of the cluster. Subsequent spread of the HERV-K(C4) sequence to C4B genes presumably occurred by interlocus sequence exchange mechanisms, such as unequal crossover and gene conversion-like mechanisms. Images PMID:7816608

  20. Cloning, characterization and phylogenetic analyses of members of three major venom families from a single specimen of Walterinnesia aegyptia.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsin-Yu; Wang, Ying Ming; Tsai, Inn-Ho

    2008-06-01

    Walterinnesia aegyptia is a monotypic elapid snake inhabiting in Africa and Mideast. Although its envenoming is known to cause rapid deaths and paralysis, structural data of its venom proteins are rather limited. Using gel filtration and reverse-phase HPLC, phospholipases A(2) (PLAs), three-fingered toxins (3FTxs), and Kunitz-type protease inhibitors (KIns) were purified from the venom of a single specimen of this species caught in northern Egypt. In addition, specific primers were designed and PCR was carried out to amplify the cDNAs encoding members of the three venom families, respectively, using total cDNA prepared from its venom glands. Complete amino acid sequences of two acidic PLAs, three short chain 3FTxs, and four KIns of this venom species were thus deduced after their cDNAs were cloned and sequenced. They are all novel sequences and match the mass data of purified proteins. For members of each toxin family, protein sequences were aligned and subjected to molecular phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the PLAs and a Kunitz inhibitor of W. aegyptia are most similar to those of king cobra venom, and its 3FTxs belongs to either Type I alpha-neurotoxins or weak toxins of orphan-II subtype. It is remarkable that both king cobra and W. aegyptia cause rapid deaths of the victims, and a close evolutionary relationship between them is speculated. PMID:18405934

  1. Elevated expression and potential roles of human Sp5, a member of Sp transcription factor family, in human cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yongxin; Guo Yingqiu; Ge Xijin; Itoh, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Akira; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Aburatani, Hiroyuki . E-mail: haburata-tky@umin.ac.jp

    2006-02-17

    In this report, we describe the expression and function of human Sp5, a member of the Sp family of zinc finger transcription factors. Like other family members, the Sp5 protein contains a Cys2His2 zinc finger DNA binding domain at the C-terminus. Our experiments employing Gal4-Sp5 fusion proteins reveal multiple transcriptional domains, including a N-terminal activity domain, an intrinsic repressive element, and a C-terminal synergistic domain. Elevated expression of Sp5 was noted in several human tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer, and colon cancer. To study the effects of the Sp5 protein on growth properties of human cancer cells and facilitate the identification of its downstream genes, we combined an inducible gene expression system with microarray analysis to screen for its transcriptional targets. Transfer of Sp5 into MCF-7 cells that expressed no detectable endogenous Sp5 protein elicited significant growth promotion activity. Several of the constitutively deregulated genes have been associated with tumorigenesis (CDC25C, CEACAM6, TMPRSS2, XBP1, MYBL1, ABHD2, and CXCL12) and Wnt/{beta}-Catenin signaling pathways (BAMBI, SIX1, IGFBP5, AES, and p21{sup WAF1}). This information could be utilized for further mechanistic research and for devising optimized therapeutic strategies against human cancers.

  2. Identification of GATA-4 as a novel transcriptional regulatory component of regenerating islet-derived family members.

    PubMed

    Lepage, David; Bruneau, Joannie; Brouillard, Geneviève; Jones, Christine; Lussier, Carine R; Rémillard, Anthony; Lemieux, Étienne; Asselin, Claude; Boudreau, François

    2015-12-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells are exposed to luminal bacterial threat and require adequate defense mechanisms to ensure host protection and epithelium regeneration against possible deleterious damage. Differentiated intestinal epithelial cells produce antimicrobial and regenerative components that protect against such challenges. Few intestinal specific transcription factors have been identified to control the switching from repression to activation of this class of gene. Herein, we show that gene transcription of some regenerating islet-derived (REG) family members is dependent on the transcription factor GATA-4. Silencing of GATA-4 expression in cultured intestinal epithelial cells identified Reg3? as a target gene using an unbiased approach of gene expression profiling. Co-transfection and RNA interference assays identified complex GATA-4-interactive transcriptional components required for the activation or repression of Reg3? gene activity. Conditional deletion of Gata4 in the mouse intestinal epithelium supported its regulatory role for Reg1, Reg3?, Reg3? and Reg3? genes. Reg1 dramatic down-modulation of expression in Gata4 conditional null mice was associated with a significant decrease in intestinal epithelial cell migration. Altogether, these results identify a novel and complex role for GATA-4 in the regulation of REG family members gene expression. PMID:26477491

  3. Molecular characterization and mapping of murine genes encoding three members of the stefin family of cysteine proteinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, F.W.L.; Hingwo Tsui; Mok, S. Toronto Hospital, Ontario ); Mlinaric, I.; Siminovitch, K.A. Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario ); Copeland, N.G.; Gilbert, D.J.; Jenkins, N.A. )

    1993-03-01

    Stefins or Type 1 cystatins belong to a large, evolutionarily conserved protein superfamily, the members of which inhibit the papain-like cysteine proteinases. The authors report here on the molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of three newly identified members of the murine stefin gene family. These genes, designated herein as mouse stefins 1, 2, and 3, were isolated on the basis of their relatively increased expression in moth-eaten viable compared to normal congenic mouse bone marrow cells. The open reading frames of the stefin cDNAs encode proteins of approximately 11.5 kDa that show between 50 and 92% identity to sequences of stefins isolated from various other species. Data from Southern analysis suggest that the murine stefin gene family encompasses at least 6 and possible 10-20 membranes, all of which appear to be clustered in the genome. Analysis of interspecific backcross mice indicates that the genes encoding the three mouse stefins all map to mouse chromosome 16, a localization that is consistent with the recent assignment of the human stefin A gene to a region of conserved homology between human chromosome 3q and the proximal region of mouse chromosome 16. 51 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Evolution of hematopoiesis: Three members of the PU.1 transcription factor family in a cartilaginous fish, Raja eglanteria

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Michele K.; Sun, Xiao; Miracle, Ann L.; Litman, Gary W.; Rothenberg, Ellen V.

    2001-01-01

    T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes are present in jawed vertebrates, including cartilaginous fishes, but not in jawless vertebrates or invertebrates. The origins of these lineages may be understood in terms of evolutionary changes in the structure and regulation of transcription factors that control lymphocyte development, such as PU.1. The identification and characterization of three members of the PU.1 family of transcription factors in a cartilaginous fish, Raja eglanteria, are described here. Two of these genes are orthologs of mammalian PU.1 and Spi-C, respectively, whereas the third gene, Spi-D, is a different family member. In addition, a PU.1-like gene has been identified in a jawless vertebrate, Petromyzon marinus (sea lamprey). Both DNA-binding and transactivation domains are highly conserved between mammalian and skate PU.1, in marked contrast to lamprey Spi, in which similarity is evident only in the DNA-binding domain. Phylogenetic analysis of sequence data suggests that the appearance of Spi-C may predate the divergence of the jawed and jawless vertebrates and that Spi-D arose before the divergence of the cartilaginous fish from the lineage leading to the mammals. The tissue-specific expression patterns of skate PU.1 and Spi-C suggest that these genes share regulatory as well as structural properties with their mammalian orthologs. PMID:11149949

  5. Evolution of hematopoiesis: Three members of the PU.1 transcription factor family in a cartilaginous fish, Raja eglanteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, M. K.; Sun, X.; Miracle, A. L.; Litman, G. W.; Rothenberg, E. V.

    2001-01-01

    T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes are present in jawed vertebrates, including cartilaginous fishes, but not in jawless vertebrates or invertebrates. The origins of these lineages may be understood in terms of evolutionary changes in the structure and regulation of transcription factors that control lymphocyte development, such as PU.1. The identification and characterization of three members of the PU.1 family of transcription factors in a cartilaginous fish, Raja eglanteria, are described here. Two of these genes are orthologs of mammalian PU.1 and Spi-C, respectively, whereas the third gene, Spi-D, is a different family member. In addition, a PU.1-like gene has been identified in a jawless vertebrate, Petromyzon marinus (sea lamprey). Both DNA-binding and transactivation domains are highly conserved between mammalian and skate PU.1, in marked contrast to lamprey Spi, in which similarity is evident only in the DNA-binding domain. Phylogenetic analysis of sequence data suggests that the appearance of Spi-C may predate the divergence of the jawed and jawless vertebrates and that Spi-D arose before the divergence of the cartilaginous fish from the lineage leading to the mammals. The tissue-specific expression patterns of skate PU.1 and Spi-C suggest that these genes share regulatory as well as structural properties with their mammalian orthologs.

  6. Meanings and purposes of caring for a family member: an autoethnography.

    PubMed

    Hoppes, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Engagement in two interlinked areas of occupation, familial social participation and caring for my father at the end of his life, led to a journey of self-discovery. A qualitative research methodology, autoethnography, is used to develop a narrative that examines engagement in these two occupations before, during, and after my father's illness and death. I discuss meanings and purposes of familial social participation and caregiving, suggesting that transforming fear of death to awareness of death is a central purpose of caregiving. Implications for therapists and caregivers include considerations about the value of occupation, discussion of a continuum of caregiving, examination of boundaries when caring for a parent, thoughts about the roles of altruism, love, anger, and "bad faith" in caregiving, and analysis of sons as caregivers for fathers. Further research on meanings and purposes of caregiving is proposed. PMID:15969274

  7. Otariodibacter oris gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Pasteurellaceae isolated from the oral cavity of pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mie Johanne; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Christensen, Henrik; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Bisgaard, Magne

    2012-11-01

    A total of 27 bacterial isolates from California sea lions and a walrus tentatively classified within the family Pasteurellaceae was further characterized by genotypic and phenotypic tests. Phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequences showed that the isolates investigated formed a monophyletic group, tentatively designated Bisgaard taxon 57. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, the most closely related species with a validly published name was Bisgaardia hudsonensis and the most closely related species based on rpoB sequence comparison was Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida; highest similarities between the isolates and the type strains of B. hudsonensis and P. multocida subsp. multocida were 95.0 and 88.2%. respectively. All isolates of Bisgaard taxon 57 exhibit the phenotypic characters of the family Pasteurellaceae. Members of Bisgaard taxon 57 can be separated from existing genera of the Pasteurellaceae by the following tests: positive reactions for catalase, oxidase, Voges-Proskauer and indole; no X- or V-factor dependency; and acid production from L-arabinose (slow), L-fucose, maltose and trehalose, but not from dulcitol, D-mannitol, D-mannose or sucrose. The main fatty acids of Bisgaard taxon 57 (CCUG 59994(T)) are C(14:0), C(16:0), C(16:1)?7c and the summed feature C(14:0) 3-OH/iso-C(16:1) I. This fatty acid profile is characteristic of members of the Pasteurellaceae. The quinone profile of Bisgaard taxon 57 (DSM 23800(T)) was similar to that of other genera in the Pasteurellaceae. The DNA G+C content of strain Baika1(T) is 36.2 mol%, which is at the lower end of the range for members of the family Pasteurellaceae. On the basis of both phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed that members of Bisgaard taxon 57 should be classified as representatives of a novel species in a new genus, Otariodibacter oris gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Otariodibacter oris is Baika1(T) (=CCUG 59994(T)=DSM 23800(T)), which was isolated from the oral cavity of a healthy California sea lion in Copenhagen Zoo, Denmark, in 2007. PMID:22199211

  8. [Genetic etiology of esophageal cancer. V. Fragile sites on chromosome of cultured lymphocytes from members of high risk cancer families in Linxian County].

    PubMed

    Wu, Y Q

    1990-05-01

    The chromosome fragile sites of cultured peripheral lymphocytes from 40 members of 4 high risk cancer families and 10 members of 4 low risk cancer families in Linxian County were analysed. The results showed that 46 fragile sites in 7045 lymphocytes expression at 502 times (7.13%) were found in high risk cancer families and 8 fragile sites in 1053 lymphocytes expression at 26 times (2.47%) were found in low risk cancer families. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P less than 0.01). In 46 fragile sites carried by 40 members of high risk cancer families, 27 were common, 5 rare, 12 provisional and 2 new fragile sites. Among them, the fragile sites at 1p22-p36 and 4q21-q31 were detected in members of high risk cancer families and in patients with esophageal cancer, meanwhile, uniform breakpoint in chromosome deletion and rearrangement was also found in 4 esophageal cancer cell lines. Therefore, the author conjectures that these fragile sites at 1p13-p36 and 4q21-q31 may be fragile site-specific for high risk cancer families and patients with esophageal cancer, and they may be breakpoint-specific for esophageal cancer cells. These fragile sites may play an important role in esophageal carcinogenesis in high risk cancer families. PMID:2249587

  9. Comparative genomics of CytR, an unusual member of the LacI family of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Sernova, Natalia V; Gelfand, Mikhail S

    2012-01-01

    CytR is a transcription regulator from the LacI family, present in some gamma-proteobacteria including Escherichia coli and known not only for its cellular role, control of transport and utilization of nucleosides, but for a number of unusual structural properties. The present study addressed three related problems: structure of CytR-binding sites and motifs, their evolutionary conservation, and identification of new members of the CytR regulon. While the majority of CytR-binding sites are imperfect inverted repeats situated between binding sites for another transcription factor, CRP, other architectures were observed, in particular, direct repeats. While the similarity between sites for different genes in one genome is rather low, and hence the consensus motif is weak, there is high conservation of orthologous sites in different genomes (mainly in the Enterobacteriales) arguing for the presence of specific CytR-DNA contacts. On larger evolutionary distances candidate CytR sites may migrate but the approximate distance between flanking CRP sites tends to be conserved, which demonstrates that the overall structure of the CRP-CytR-DNA complex is gene-specific. The analysis yielded candidate CytR-binding sites for orthologs of known regulon members in less studied genomes of the Enterobacteriales and Vibrionales and identified a new candidate member of the CytR regulon, encoding a transporter named NupT (YcdZ). PMID:23028500

  10. Vaccinia Virus Protein A49 Is an Unexpected Member of the B-cell Lymphoma (Bcl)-2 Protein Family*

    PubMed Central

    Neidel, Sarah; Maluquer de Motes, Carlos; Mansur, Daniel S.; Strnadova, Pavla; Smith, Geoffrey L.; Graham, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes several proteins that inhibit activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B). VACV protein A49 prevents translocation of NF-?B to the nucleus by sequestering cellular ?-TrCP, a protein required for the degradation of the inhibitor of ?B. A49 does not share overall sequence similarity with any protein of known structure or function. We solved the crystal structure of A49 from VACV Western Reserve to 1.8 ? resolution and showed, surprisingly, that A49 has the same three-dimensional fold as Bcl-2 family proteins despite lacking identifiable sequence similarity. Whereas Bcl-2 family members characteristically modulate cellular apoptosis, A49 lacks a surface groove suitable for binding BH3 peptides and does not bind proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax or Bak. The N-terminal 17 residues of A49 do not adopt a single well ordered conformation, consistent with their proposed role in binding ?-TrCP. Whereas pairs of A49 molecules interact symmetrically via a large hydrophobic surface in crystallo, A49 does not dimerize in solution or in cells, and we propose that this hydrophobic interaction surface may mediate binding to a yet undefined cellular partner. A49 represents the eleventh VACV Bcl-2 family protein and, despite these proteins sharing very low sequence identity, structure-based phylogenetic analysis shows that all poxvirus Bcl-2 proteins are structurally more similar to each other than they are to any cellular or herpesvirus Bcl-2 proteins. This is consistent with duplication and diversification of a single BCL2 family gene acquired by an ancestral poxvirus. PMID:25605733

  11. N. meningitidis 1681 is a member of the FinO family of RNA chaperones.

    SciTech Connect

    Chaulk, S.; Lu, J.; Tan, K.; Arthur, D.; Edwards, R.; Frost, L.; Joachimiak, A.; Glover, J.

    2010-11-01

    The conjugative transfer of F-like plasmids between bacteria is regulated by the plasmid-encoded RNA chaperone, FinO, which facilitates sense - antisense RNA interactions to regulate plasmid gene expression. FinO was thought to adopt a unique structure, however many putative homologs have been identified in microbial genomes and are considered members of the FinO-conjugation-repressor superfamily. We were interested in determining whether other members were also able to bind RNA and promote duplex formation, suggesting that this motif does indeed identify a putative RNA chaperone. We determined the crystal structure of the N. meningitidis MC58 protein NMB1681. It revealed striking similarity to FinO, with a conserved fold and a large, positively charged surface that could function in RNA interactions. Using assays developed to study FinO-FinP sRNA interactions, NMB1681, like FinO, bound tightly to FinP RNA stem-loops with short 5-foot and 3-foot single-stranded tails but not to ssRNA. It also was able to catalyze strand exchange between an RNA duplex and a complementary single-strand, and facilitated duplexing between complementary RNA hairpins. Finally, NMB1681 was able to rescue a finO deficiency and repress F plasmid conjugation. This study strongly suggests that NMB1681 is a FinO-like RNA chaperone that likely regulates gene expression through RNA-based mechanisms in N. meningitidis.

  12. Homophilic Adhesion Mechanism of Neurofascin, a Member of the L1 Family of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Heli; Focia, Pamela J.; He, Xiaolin

    2012-02-13

    The L1 family neural cell adhesion molecules play key roles in specifying the formation and remodeling of the neural network, but their homophilic interaction that mediates adhesion is not well understood. We report two crystal structures of a dimeric form of the headpiece of neurofascin, an L1 family member. The four N-terminal Ig-like domains of neurofascin form a horseshoe shape, akin to several other immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecules such as hemolin, axonin, and Dscam. The neurofascin dimer, captured in two crystal forms with independent packing patterns, reveals a pair of horseshoes in trans-synaptic adhesion mode. The adhesion interaction is mediated mostly by the second Ig-like domain, which features an intermolecular {beta}-sheet formed by the joining of two individual GFC {beta}-sheets and a large but loosely packed hydrophobic cluster. Mutagenesis combined with gel filtration assays suggested that the side chain hydrogen bonds at the intermolecular {beta}-sheet are essential for the homophilic interaction and that the residues at the hydrophobic cluster play supplementary roles. Our structures reveal a conserved homophilic adhesion mode for the L1 family and also shed light on how the pathological mutations of L1 affect its structure and function.

  13. Rad: A member of the Ras family overexpressed in muscle of type II diabetic humans

    SciTech Connect

    Reynet, C.; Kahn, C.R. )

    1993-11-26

    To identify the gene or genes associated with insulin resistance in Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, subtraction libraries were prepared from skeletal muscle of normal and diabetic humans and screened with subtracted probes. Only one clone out of 4000 was selectively overexpressed in Type II diabetic muscle as compared to muscle of non-diabetic or Type I diabetic individuals. This clone encoded a new 290 kilodalton member of the Ras-guanosine triphosphatase superfamily and was termed Rad (Ras associated with diabetes). Messenger ribonucleic acid of Rad was expressed primarily in skeletal and cardiac muscle and was increased an average of 8.6-fold in the muscle of Type II diabetics as compared to normal individuals.

  14. Members of a large retroposon family are determinants of post-transcriptional gene expression in Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Bringaud, Frédéric; Müller, Michaela; Cerqueira, Gustavo Coutinho; Smith, Martin; Rochette, Annie; El-Sayed, Najib M A; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Ghedin, Elodie

    2007-09-01

    Trypanosomatids are unicellular protists that include the human pathogens Leishmania spp. (leishmaniasis), Trypanosoma brucei (sleeping sickness), and Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease). Analysis of their recently completed genomes confirmed the presence of non-long-terminal repeat retrotransposons, also called retroposons. Using the 79-bp signature sequence common to all trypanosomatid retroposons as bait, we identified in the Leishmania major genome two new large families of small elements--LmSIDER1 (785 copies) and LmSIDER2 (1,073 copies)--that fulfill all the characteristics of extinct trypanosomatid retroposons. LmSIDERs are approximately 70 times more abundant in L. major compared to T. brucei and are found almost exclusively within the 3'-untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of L. major mRNAs. We provide experimental evidence that LmSIDER2 act as mRNA instability elements and that LmSIDER2-containing mRNAs are generally expressed at lower levels compared to the non-LmSIDER2 mRNAs. The considerable expansion of LmSIDERs within 3'UTRs in an organism lacking transcriptional control and their role in regulating mRNA stability indicate that Leishmania have probably recycled these short retroposons to globally modulate the expression of a number of genes. To our knowledge, this is the first example in eukaryotes of the domestication and expansion of a family of mobile elements that have evolved to fulfill a critical cellular function. PMID:17907803

  15. Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii infection in three family members with kerion and tinea corporis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Ran, Yuping; Liu, Yongfang; Zhang, Ruifeng; Lin, Xinyu; Yan, Wei; Dai, Yaling

    2009-01-01

    We present a familial infection caused by Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii. The proband is a 4-year-old boy, who had played with rabbits at his rabbit-farm neighbor. He complained of pruritus and pain in his scalp, which displayed redness, alopecia and painful cysts and eventually discharged pus and scabbed. Several erythema on his face and abdomen were also presented. He was diagnosed as having impetigo but antibacterial agents were not effective and his clinical condition did not improve. Several days later, his parents also developed facial erythema and scaling. The development of a kerion in the boy and tinea corporis in his parents were diagnosed based on the positive KOH examination. Morphologic and biochemical characteristics confirmed that their infections were caused by the zoophilic Trichophyton mentagrophytes, while sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1/4 polymerase chain reaction products, amplified from primary culture isolates, established its Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii lineage. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis indicated these isolates might be the same strain and that infection cruciata occurred in this family. Semi-quantitative analysis of these strains indicated multiple and main enzymatic activities of alkaline phosphatase, beta-glucosaccharase. The boy was cured through treatment with itraconazole 100 mg/day orally in combination with topical washes with 2% ketoconazole shampoo, and his parents were successfully treated by topical application of terbinafine cream. PMID:19115135

  16. Strongly bonded family members in common marmosets show synchronized fluctuations in oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Finkenwirth, Christa; van Schaik, Carel; Ziegler, Toni E; Burkart, Judith M

    2015-11-01

    Oxytocin is a key regulator of social bonding and is positively linked to affiliation and prosocial behavior in several mammal species. In chimpanzees, this link is dyad-specific as affiliative interactions only elicit high oxytocin release if they involve strongly bonded individuals. These studies involved isolated dyads and sampling events. Little is known about the role of oxytocin in affiliation and social bonding, and about potential long-term patterns of bonding-related and dyad-specific oxytocin effects within highly affiliative and cooperative social groups. Our aim was to investigate whether bonding-related oxytocin signatures linked to dyadic affiliation are present in family groups of cooperatively breeding marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) that show high levels of cohesion and cooperation. In 30 dyads from four family groups and one pair, we measured urinary baseline oxytocin over six weeks and analyzed the link to bond strength (mean dyadic affiliation). Strongly bonded dyads showed synchronized longitudinal fluctuations of oxytocin, indicating that dyad-specific oxytocin effects can also be traced in the group context and in an interdependent species. We discuss these results in light of the potential function of differentiated relationships between marmoset dyads other than the breeding pair, and the role of oxytocin as a mediator for social bonding. PMID:26232089

  17. Structural Characterization of Inhibitors with Selectivity against Members of a Homologous Enzyme Family

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovsky, Alexander G.; Liu, Xuying; Faehnle, Christopher R.; Potente, Nina; Viola, Ronald E.

    2013-01-31

    The aspartate biosynthetic pathway provides essential metabolites for many important biological functions, including the production of four essential amino acids. As this critical pathway is only present in plants and microbes, any disruptions will be fatal to these organisms. An early pathway enzyme, L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, produces a key intermediate at the first branch point of this pathway. Developing potent and selective inhibitors against several orthologs in the L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase family can serve as lead compounds for antibiotic development. Kinetic studies of two small molecule fragment libraries have identified inhibitors that show good selectivity against L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenases from two different bacterial species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Vibrio cholerae, despite the presence of an identical constellation of active site amino acids in this homologous enzyme family. Structural characterization of enzyme-inhibitor complexes have elucidated different modes of binding between these structurally related enzymes. This information provides the basis for a structure-guided approach to the development of more potent and more selective inhibitors.

  18. Analysis of Stable Low-Molecular-Weight RNA Profiles of Members of the Family Rhizobiaceae

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez, Encarna; Cruz-Sánchez, José María; Mateos, Pedro F.; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio

    1998-01-01

    Staircase electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels was used to analyze the stable low-molecular-weight (LMW) RNA profiles of 24 type strains belonging to the family Rhizobiaceae. This new electrophoretic technique results in good separation of the molecules forming the LMW RNA profiles. Differences in the number and distribution of the RNA bands in these profiles allowed us to identify differences among the 24 strains assayed. Species assignments based on LMW RNAs proved to be consistent with the established taxonomic classification. Analysis of the data obtained and the corresponding dendrograms revealed relationships between genera and species; these relationships were essentially the same as those obtained with other techniques, such as DNA hybridization and 16S rRNA sequencing. Use of the technique described here, with which it is possible to analyze a large number of strains in a short time, permits rapid identification of species belonging to the family Rhizobiaceae and should in the future facilitate biodiversity studies and detection of new species. PMID:9575134

  19. Members of a unique histidine acid phosphatase family are conserved amongst a group of primitive eukaryotic human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Shakarian, Alison M; Joshi, Manju B; Yamage, Mat; Ellis, Stephanie L; Debrabant, Alain; Dwyer, Dennis M

    2003-03-01

    Recently, we identified and characterized the genes encoding several distinct members of the histidine-acid phosphatase enzyme family from Leishmania donovani, a primitive protozoan pathogen of humans. These included genes encoding the heavily phosphorylated/glycosylated, tartrate-sensitive, secretory acid phosphatases (Ld SAcP-1 and Ld SAcP-2) and the unique, tartrate-resistant, externally-oriented, surface membrane-bound acid phosphatase (Ld MAcP) of this parasite. It had been previously suggested that these enzymes may play essential roles in the growth, development and survival of this organism. In this report, to further examine this hypothesis, we assessed whether members of the L. donovani histidine-acid phosphatase enzyme family were conserved amongst other pathogenic Leishmania and related trypanosomatid parasites. Such phylogenetic conservation would clearly indicate an evolutionary selection for this family of enzymes and strongly suggest and support an important functional role for acid phosphatases to the survival of these parasites. Results of pulsed field gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting showed that homologs of both the Ld SAcPs and Ld MAcP were present in each of the visceral and cutaneous Leishmania species examined (i.e. isolates of L. donovani, L. infantum, L. tropica, L. major and L. mexicana, respectively). Further, results of enzyme assays showed that all of these organisms expressed both tartrate-sensitive and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activities. In addition, homologs of both the Ld SAcPs and Ld MAcP genes and their corresponding enzyme activities were also identified in two Crithidia species (C. fasciculata and C. luciliae) and in Leptomonas seymouri. In contrast, Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Phytomonas serpens had only very-low levels of such enzyme activities. Cumulatively, results of this study showed that homologs of the Ld SAcPs and Ld MAcP are conserved amongst all pathogenic Leishmania sps. suggesting that they may play significant functional roles in the growth, development and survival of all members of this important group of human pathogens. PMID:12708742

  20. Kinetic and Structural Characterization of DmpI from Helicobacter pylori and Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Two 4-Oxalocrotonate Tautomerase Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Almrud, Jeffrey J.; Dasgupta, Rakhi; Czerwinski, Robert M.; Kern, Andrew D.; Hackert, Marvin L.; Whitman, Christian P.

    2010-01-01

    The tautomerase superfamily consists of structurally homologous proteins that are characterized by a ?–?–? fold and a catalytic amino-terminal proline. 4-Oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) family members have been identified and categorized into five subfamilies on the basis of multiple sequence alignments and the conservation of key catalytic and structural residues. Representative members from two subfamilies have been cloned, expressed, purified, and subjected to kinetic and structural characterization. The crystal structure of DmpI from Helicobacter pylori (HpDmpI), a 4-OT homologue in subfamily 3, has been determined to high resolution (1.8 Å and 2.1 Å) in two different space groups. HpDmpI is a homohexamer with an active site cavity that includes Pro-1, but lacks the equivalent of Arg-11 and Arg-39 found in 4-OT. Instead, the side chain of Lys-36 replaces that of Arg-11 in a manner similar to that observed in the trimeric macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which is the title protein of another family in the superfamily. The electrostatic surface of the active site is also quite different and suggests that HpDmpI might prefer small, monoacid substrates. A kinetic analysis of the enzyme is consistent with the structural analysis, but a biological role for the enzyme remains elusive. The crystal structure of DmpI from Archaeoglobus fulgidus (AfDmpI), a 4-OT homologue in subfamily-4, has been determined to 2.4 Å resolution. AfDmpI is also a homohexamer, with a proposed active site cavity that includes Pro-1, but lacks any other residues that are readily identified as catalytic ones related to 4-OT activity. Indeed, the electrostatic potential of the active site differs significantly in that it is mostly neutral, in contrast to the usual electropositive features found in other 4-OT family members, suggesting that AfDmpI might accommodate hydrophobic substrates. A kinetic analysis has been carried out, but does not provide any clues about the type of reaction the enzyme might catalyze. PMID:20709352

  1. Mycetoma caused by a new red grain mycetoma agent in two members of a family.

    PubMed

    Maiti, P K; Bandyopadhyay, D; Dey, J B; Majumdar, M

    2003-01-01

    An 18-year-old woman from rural West Bengal was affected with mycetoma involving her neck, back, and chest. After an interval of eight years, her younger brother developed mycetoma on his left arm. No history of trauma or immune deficiency was present in either case. By microscopic examination of sinus-discharged materials from both the cases, identical rusty red, hard grains were demonstrated. Soluble red pigment-producing colonies grew in Sabouraud dextrose-agar medium. Isolates were positive for casein hydrolysis and negative for hydrolysis test of xanthine, hypoxanthine, tyrosine, and nitrate reduction. Thus it differed from the only known red grain mycetoma agent, Actinomadura pelletieri and was provisionally identified as Actinomadura vinacea. Familial affection in mycetoma, that too caused by a new agent, is reported here for its uniqueness. PMID:14699230

  2. Deubiquitinating activity of Sdu1, a putative member of the PPPDE peptidase family, in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yunsik; Jo, Hannah; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2013-12-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe sdu? gene encoding a putative member of the PPPDE (Permuted Papain fold Peptidases of DsRNA viruses and Eukaryotes) superfamily was cloned into an Escherichia coli - yeast shuttle vector pRS316, resulting in the recombinant plasmid pYSTP. The determined nucleotide sequence carries 1207 bp, which would encode a protein of 201 amino acid residues. The S. pombe cells harboring pYSTP contained higher sdu1? mRNA and deubiquitinating activity levels than the vector control cells, indicating that the sdu1? gene is functioning. They exhibited a better growth in normal rich medium than the vector control cells. When shifted into the fresh medium containing hydrogen peroxide, menadione, or sodium nitroprusside, the S. pombe cells harboring pYSTP were able to grow reasonably well, while the growth of the vector control cells was arrested. The reactive oxygen species and total glutathione levels of the S. pombe cells harboring pYSTP were lower and higher than those of the vector control cells under the same stressful conditions, respectively. They exhibited a lower nitric oxide level than the vector control cells when subjected to sodium nitroprusside. Taken together, the sdu1? gene encodes an actual protein having deubiquitinating activity and is involved in the response against oxidative and nitrosative stresses in S. pombe. PMID:24313451

  3. A novel EID family member, EID-3, inhibits differentiation and forms a homodimer or heterodimer with EID-2

    SciTech Connect

    Sasajima, Yuka; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Miyake, Satoshi; Yuasa, Yasuhito . E-mail: yuasa.monc@tmd.ac.jp

    2005-08-05

    The EID family members, i.e., E1A-like inhibitor of differentiation-1 (EID-1) and EID-1-like inhibitor of differentiation-2 (EID-2), were identified as negative regulators of cellular differentiation. EID-1 seems to inhibit differentiation by blocking histone acetyltransferase activity and EID-2 possibly inhibits differentiation through binding to class I histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here, we report a novel inhibitor of differentiation exhibiting homology with EID-2 termed EID-3 (EID-2-like inhibitor of differentiation-3). Like EID-2, EID-3 inhibited MyoD- and GR{alpha}-dependent transcription and blocked muscle differentiation in cultured cells by binding to class I HDACs. Unlike that of EID-2, the C-terminus, but not the N-terminus, of EID-3 was required for nuclear localization. EID-3 formed a homodimer or heterodimer with EID-2. These results suggest that EID-3 inhibits differentiation by blocking transcription as a complex in cells.

  4. [Identification of a novel human MAST4 gene, a new member of the microtubule associated serine-threonine kinase family].

    PubMed

    Sun, L; Gu, S; Li, X; Sun, Y; Zheng, D; Yu, K; Ji, C; Tang, R; Xie, Y; Mao, Y

    2006-01-01

    Human protein kinases make up a large superfamily of homologous proteins, which are related by virtue of their kinase domains (also known as catalytic domains). Here we report the cloning and characterization of a novel human MAST4 (microtubule associated serine/threonine kinase family member 4) gene, which locates on human chromosome 5q13. The MAST4 cDNA is 7587 base pairs in length and encodes a putative protein of 2435 amino acids which contains a serine/threonine kinase domain and a PDZ domain. MAST4 protein has 64%, 63%, 59% and 39% identical aminoacid residues with MAST1, MAST2, MAST3 and MASTL respectively. RT-PCR analysis revealed relatively high expression level of MAST4 in most normal human tissues, with an exception of in testis, small intestine, colon and peripheral blood leukocyte. PMID:17086981

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the fumarylacetoacetase family member TTHA0809 from Thermus thermophilus HB8

    SciTech Connect

    Mizutani, Hisashi; Kunishima, Naoki

    2007-09-01

    The putative fumarylacetoacetase TTHA0809 from T. thermophilus HB8 has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.2 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. Fumarylacetoacetase catalyzes the final step of tyrosine and phenylalanine catabolism. A recombinant form of the fumarylacetoacetase family member TTHA0809 from Thermus thermophilus HB8 has been crystallized by the oil-microbatch method using sodium chloride as a precipitating agent. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 93.3, b = 73.4, c = 122.6 Å, ? = 111.8°. The crystals are most likely to contain two dimers in the asymmetric unit, with a V{sub M} value of 3.32 Å{sup 3} Da{sup ?1}. Diffraction data were collected at 2.2 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at beamline BL26B1 of SPring-8, Japan.

  6. mda-7/IL-24: A Unique Member of the IL-10 Gene Family Promoting Cancer-Targeted Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Rupesh; Bhutia, Sujit K.; Azab, Belal; Su, Zhao-zhong; Quinn, Bridget A.; Kegelmen, Timothy P.; Das, Swadesh K.; Kim, Keetae; Lee, Seok-Geun; Park, Margaret A.; Yacoub, Adly; Rahmani, Mohammed; Emdad, Luni; Dmitriev, Igor P.; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Sarkar, Devanand; Grant, Steven; Dent, Paul; Curiel, David T.; Fisher, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24) is a unique member of the IL-10 gene family that displays nearly ubiquitous cancer-specific toxicity, with no harmful effects toward normal cells or tissues. mda-7/IL-24 was cloned from human melanoma cells by differentiation induction subtraction hybridization (DISH) and promotes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress culminating in apoptosis or toxic autophagy in a broad-spectrum of human cancers, when assayed in cell culture, in vivo in human tumor xenograft mouse models and in a Phase I clinical trial in patients with advanced cancers. This therapeutically active cytokine also induces indirect anti-tumor activity through inhibition of angiogenesis, stimulation of an anti-tumor immune response, and sensitization of cancer cells to radiation-, chemotherapy- and antibody-induced killing. PMID:20926331

  7. Involvement of RD20, a member of caleosin family, in ABA-mediated regulation of germination in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Cheval, Cécilia; Ranty, Benoit; Vavasseur, Alain; Aldon, Didier

    2011-01-01

    The RD20 gene encodes a member of the caleosin family, which is primarily known to function in the mobilization of seed storage lipids during germination. In contrast to other caleosins, RD20 expression is early-induced by water deficit conditions and we recently provided genetic evidence for its positive role in drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. RD20 is also responsive to pathogen infection and is constitutively expressed in diverse tissues and organs during development suggesting additional roles for this caleosin. This addendum describes further exploration of phenotypic alterations in T-DNA insertional rd20 mutant and knock-out complemented transgenic plants in the context of early development and susceptibility to a phytopathogenic bacteria. We show that the RD20 gene is involved in ABA-mediated inhibition of germination and does not play a significant role in plant defense against Pseudomonas syringae. PMID:21673513

  8. Novel anti-thrombotic agent for modulation of protein disulfide isomerase family member ERp57 for prophylactic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Guozhen; Shan, Luchen; Guo, Lin; Chu, Ivan Keung; Li, Guohui; Quan, Quan; Zhao, Yun; Chong, Cheong Meng; Zhang, Zaijun; Yu, Pei; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man; Sun, Yewei; Wang, Yuqiang; Lee, Simon MingYuen

    2015-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family members including PDI and ERp57 emerge as novel targets for anti-thrombotic treatments, but chemical agents with selectivity remain to be explored. We previously reported a novel derivative of danshensu (DSS), known as ADTM, displayed strong cardioprotective effects against oxidative stress-induced cellular injury in vitro and acute myocardial infarct in vivo. Herein, using chemical proteomics approach, we identified ERp57 as a major target of ADTM. ADTM displayed potent inhibitory effects on the redox activity of ERp57, inhibited the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced expressions of P-selectin and ?IIb?3 integrin, and disrupted the interaction between ERp57 and ?IIb?3. In addition, ADTM inhibited both arachidonic acid (AA)-induced and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Furthermore, ADTM significantly inhibited rat platelet aggregation and thrombus formation in vivo. Taken together, ADTM represents a promising candidate for anti-thrombotic therapy targeting ERp57. PMID:26037049

  9. Actions of Rho family small G proteins and p21-activated protein kinases on mitogen-activated protein kinase family members.

    PubMed Central

    Frost, J A; Xu, S; Hutchison, M R; Marcus, S; Cobb, M H

    1996-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are a family of serine/threonine kinases that are regulated by distinct extracellular stimuli. The currently known members include extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 (ERK1), ERK2, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinases (JNK/SAPKs), and p38 MAP kinases. We find that overexpression of the Ste20-related enzymes p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and PAK2 in 293 cells is sufficient to activate JNK/SAPK and to a lesser extent p38 MAP kinase but not ERK2. Rat MAP/ERK kinase kinase 1 can stimulate the activity of each of these MAP kinases. Although neither activated Rac nor the PAKs stimulate ERK2 activity, overexpression of either dominant negative Rac2 or the N-terminal regulatory domain of PAK1 inhibits Ras-mediated activation of ERK2, suggesting a permissive role for Rac in the control of the ERK pathway. Furthermore, constitutively active Rac2, Cdc42hs, and RhoA synergize with an activated form of Raf to increase ERK2 activity. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized connection between Rho family small G proteins and the ERK pathway. PMID:8668187

  10. A new case of familial lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency--paradoxical findings regarding LCAT mass and activity in 23 members of a family.

    PubMed

    Takata, K; Kajiyama, G; Horiuchi, I; Watanabe, T; Tokumo, H; Hirata, Y

    1989-01-01

    LCAT activity and mass were assayed simultaneously in 23 members of a new family case, revealing two homozygotes with a markedly low HDL--cholesterol level and ester cholesterol ratio. The LCAT mass in these patients was only 0.8 and 0.9 micrograms/ml, respectively (normal range 4.4-8.1) and their LCAT activity was 4 and 6 nM/ml/h 37 degrees C (normal range 60-120). Apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I and II levels were significantly low; however, apolipoprotein E tended to be high. In two-dimensional electrophoresis, apo A-I isoform visualized the increase of immature apo A-I; that is, A-I2. One subject showed the clinical characteristics of classic LCAT deficiency; however, the other, who was a vegetarian, showed corneal opacities and red cell deformity, but not proteinuria. This suggests that a low fat diet which decreases the level of atherogenic large LDL, may lead to a more favourable prognosis with a reduced risk for renal insufficiency. There were two different types of LCAT abnormality in this family series. Among the 10 examined paternal kindred of the proband who was one of two homozygotes, seven had a low LCAT mass but normal LCAT activity with the exception of one kindred who had a low mass and low activity. In contrast, among his seven maternal kindred examined, two had a low LCAT activity but normal mass. PMID:2634146

  11. Family members of older persons with multi-morbidity and their experiences of case managers in Sweden: an interpretive phenomenological approach

    PubMed Central

    Hjelm, Markus; Holmgren, Ann-Charlotte; Willman, Ania; Bohman, Doris; Holst, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Background Family members of older persons (75+) with multi-morbidity are likely to benefit from utilising case management services performed by case managers. However, research has not yet explored their experiences of case managers. Objectives The aim of the study was to deepen the understanding of the importance of case managers to family members of older persons (75+) with multi-morbidity. Design The study design was based on an interpretive phenomenological approach. Method Data were collected through individual interviews with 16 family members in Sweden. The interviews were analysed by means of an interpretive phenomenological approach. Results The findings revealed one overarching theme: “Helps to fulfil my unmet needs”, based on three sub-themes: (1) “Helps me feel secure – Experiencing a trusting relationship”, (2) “Confirms and strengthens me – Challenging my sense of being alone” and (3) “Being my personal guide – Increasing my competence”. Conclusion and discussion The findings indicate that case managers were able to fulfil unmet needs of family members. The latter recognised the importance of case managers providing them with professional services tailored to their individual needs. The findings can contribute to the improvement of case management models not only for older persons but also for their family members. PMID:25918497

  12. Two insulin-like peptide family members from the mosquito Aedes aegypti exhibit differential biological and receptor binding activities

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Zhimou; Gulia, Monika; Clark, Kevin D.; Dhara, Animesh; Crim, Joe W.; Strand, Michael R.; Brown, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Insects encode multiple ILPs but only one homolog of the vertebrate IR that activates the insulin signaling pathway. However, it remains unclear whether all insect ILPs are high affinity ligands for the IR or have similar biological functions. The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, encodes eight ILPs with prior studies strongly implicating ILPs from the brain in regulating metabolism and the maturation of eggs following blood feeding. Here we addressed whether two ILP family members expressed in the brain, ILP4 and ILP3, have overlapping functional and receptor binding activities. Our results indicated that ILP3 exhibits strong insulin-like activity by elevating carbohydrate and lipid storage in sugar-fed adult females, whereas ILP4 does not. In contrast, both ILPs exhibited dose-dependent gonadotropic activity in blood-fed females as measured by the stimulation of ovaries to produce ecdysteroids and the uptake of yolk by primary oocytes. Binding studies using ovary membranes indicated that ILP4 and ILP3 do not cross compete; a finding further corroborated by cross-linking and immunoblotting experiments showing that ILP3 binds the MIR while ILP4 binds an unknown 55 kDa membrane protein. In contrast, each ILP activated the insulin signaling pathway in ovaries as measured by enhanced phosphorylation of Akt. RNAi and inhibitor studies further indicated that the gonadotropic activity of ILP4 and ILP3 requires the MIR and a functional insulin signaling pathway. Taken together, our results indicate that two members of the Ae. aegypti ILP family exhibit partially overlapping biological activity and different binding interactions with the MIR. PMID:20643184

  13. A novel member of glycoside hydrolase family 30 subfamily 8 with altered substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    St John, Franz J; Dietrich, Diane; Crooks, Casey; Pozharski, Edwin; González, Javier M; Bales, Elizabeth; Smith, Kennon; Hurlbert, Jason C

    2014-11-01

    Endoxylanases classified into glycoside hydrolase family 30 subfamily 8 (GH30-8) are known to hydrolyze the hemicellulosic polysaccharide glucuronoxylan (GX) but not arabinoxylan or neutral xylooligosaccharides. This is owing to the specificity of these enzymes for the ?-1,2-linked glucuronate (GA) appendage of GX. Limit hydrolysis of this substrate produces a series of aldouronates each containing a single GA substituted on the xylose penultimate to the reducing terminus. In this work, the structural and biochemical characterization of xylanase 30A from Clostridium papyrosolvens (CpXyn30A) is presented. This xylanase possesses a high degree of amino-acid identity to the canonical GH30-8 enzymes, but lacks the hallmark ?8-?8 loop region which in part defines the function of this GH30 subfamily and its role in GA recognition. CpXyn30A is shown to have a similarly low activity on all xylan substrates, while hydrolysis of xylohexaose revealed a competing transglycosylation reaction. These findings are directly compared with the model GH30-8 enzyme from Bacillus subtilis, XynC. Despite its high sequence identity to the GH30-8 enzymes, CpXyn30A does not have any apparent specificity for the GA appendage. These findings confirm that the typically conserved ?8-?8 loop region of these enzymes influences xylan substrate specificity but not necessarily ?-1,4-xylanase function. PMID:25372685

  14. MURC/Cavin-4 and cavin family members form tissue-specific caveolar complexes

    PubMed Central

    Bastiani, Michele; Liu, Libin; Hill, Michelle M.; Jedrychowski, Mark P.; Nixon, Susan J.; Lo, Harriet P.; Abankwa, Daniel; Luetterforst, Robert; Fernandez-Rojo, Manuel; Breen, Michael R.; Gygi, Steven P.; Vinten, Jorgen; Walser, Piers J.; North, Kathryn N.; Hancock, John F.; Pilch, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF)/Cavin is a cytoplasmic protein whose expression is obligatory for caveola formation. Using biochemistry and fluorescence resonance energy transfer–based approaches, we now show that a family of related proteins, PTRF/Cavin-1, serum deprivation response (SDR)/Cavin-2, SDR-related gene product that binds to C kinase (SRBC)/Cavin-3, and muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein (MURC)/Cavin-4, forms a multiprotein complex that associates with caveolae. This complex can constitutively assemble in the cytosol and associate with caveolin at plasma membrane caveolae. Cavin-1, but not other cavins, can induce caveola formation in a heterologous system and is required for the recruitment of the cavin complex to caveolae. The tissue-restricted expression of cavins suggests that caveolae may perform tissue-specific functions regulated by the composition of the cavin complex. Cavin-4 is expressed predominantly in muscle, and its distribution is perturbed in human muscle disease associated with Caveolin-3 dysfunction, identifying Cavin-4 as a novel muscle disease candidate caveolar protein. PMID:19546242

  15. X-ray structure of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase family member Homo sapiens FLJ36880.

    PubMed

    Manjasetty, Babu A; Niesen, Frank H; Delbrück, Heinrich; Götz, Frank; Sievert, Volker; Büssow, Konrad; Behlke, Joachim; Heinemann, Udo

    2004-10-01

    The human protein FLJ36880 belongs to the fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase family. The X-ray structure of FLJ36880 has been determined to 2.2 A resolution employing the semi-automated high-throughput structural genomics approach of the Protein Structure Factory. FLJ36880 adopts a mixed beta-sandwich roll fold and forms homodimers in crystals as well as in solution. One Mg2+ ion is bound to each subunit of the dimeric protein by coordination to three carboxylate oxygens and three water molecules. These metal binding sites are accessible from the same surface of the dimer, partly due to the disorder of the undecapeptide stretch D29 to L39. The overall structure and metal binding site of FLJ36880 bear clear similarities to the C-terminal domain of the bifunctional enzyme HpcE from Escherichia coli C, fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase from Mus musculus and to YcgM (Apc5008) from E. coli 1262. These similarities provide a framework for suggesting biochemical functions and evolutionary relationships of FLJ36880. It appears highly probable that the metal binding sites are involved in an enzymatic activity related to the catabolism of aromatic amino acids. Two point mutations in the active-site of FAH, responsible for the metabolic disease hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HTI) in humans, affect residues that are structurally conserved in FLJ36880 and located in the putative catalytic site. PMID:15551868

  16. Determination of the hydroxycinnamate profile of 12 members of the Asteraceae family.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Rakesh; Kiprotich, Joseph; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2011-06-01

    The hydroxycinnamates of the leaves of 12 plants of the Astreraceae family, Achillea millefolium, Arnica montana, Artemesia dracunculus, Cichorium intybus, Cnicus benedictus, Cynara scolymus, Echinops humilis, Inula helenium, Lactuca sativa, Petasites hybridus, Solidago virgaurea, and Tanacetum parthenium were investigated qualitatively by LC-MS(n). Thirty-nine chlorogenic acids were detected and all characterized to regioisomeric level on the basis of their fragmentation pattern in the tandem MS spectra, most of them for the first time from these sources with two of them previously not reported in nature. Both chlorogenic acids based on trans and cis-cinnamic acid substituents were identified. Assignment to the level of individual regioisomers was possible for seven caffeoylquinic acids (1-7), 11 dicaffeoylquinic acids (17-27), six feruloylquinic acids (9-14), two p-coumaroylquinic acids (15-16), two caffeoyl-feruloylquinic acids (28 and 29), four caffeoyl-p-coumaroylquinic acids (30-33), three dicaffeoyl-succinoylquinic acids (34-36), two dicaffeoyl-methoxyoxaloylquinic acids (37 and 38), and one tricaffeoylquinic acid (39). Furthermore, one caffeoylshikimic acid (40), one caffeoyltartaric acid (41), three dicaffeoyltartaric acids (42-44), and three caffeoyl-feruloyltartaric acids (45-47) were detected and shown to possess characteristic tandem MS spectra and were tentatively assigned on the basis of their retention time and previously developed hierarchical keys. PMID:21453943

  17. Cloning, purification and crystallization of a Walker-type Pyrococcus abyssi ATPase family member

    SciTech Connect

    Uhring, Muriel; Bey, Gilbert; Lecompte, Odile; Cavarelli, Jean; Moras, Dino; Poch, Olivier

    2005-10-01

    The Walker-type ATPase PABY2304 of P. abyssi has been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data from selenomethionine-derivative crystals have been collected to 2.6 Å. The structure has been solved by MAD techniques. Several ATPase proteins play essential roles in the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in archaea. Walker-type ATPases are defined by their conserved Walker A and B motifs, which are associated with nucleotide binding and ATP hydrolysis. A family of 28 ATPase proteins with non-canonical Walker A sequences has been identified by a bioinformatics study of comparative genomics in Pyrococcus genomes. A high-throughput structural study on P. abyssi has been started in order to establish the structure of these proteins. 16 genes have been cloned and characterized. Six out of the seven soluble constructs were purified in Escherichia coli and one of them, PABY2304, has been crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected from selenomethionine-derivative crystals using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 79.41, b = 48.63, c = 108.77 Å, and diffract to beyond 2.6 Å resolution.

  18. Knockdown of the Antiapoptotic Bcl-2 Family Member A1/Bfl-1 Protects Mice from Anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Ottina, Eleonora; Lyberg, Katarina; Sochalska, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Many forms of hypersensitivity reactions and allergic responses depend on deregulated mast cell activity. Several reports suggested that the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bcl2a1/Bfl-1/A1 plays a critical role in mast cell survival upon activation. However, its in vivo relevance is poorly understood because of quadruplication of the Bcl2a1 gene locus in mice, hindering conventional knockout studies. In this study, we used a mouse model allowing traceable constitutive knockdown of all A1 isoforms expressed in the hematopoietic system by RNA interference. Knockdown of A1 reduced mast cell numbers in the skin and impaired connective tissue–like mast cell survival upon Fc?RI-mediated activation in vitro. In contrast, A1 was dispensable for mucosa-like mast cell differentiation and survival. Moreover, knockdown of A1 prevented IgE-mediated passive systemic and cutaneous anaphylaxis in vivo. Our findings demonstrate that A1 is essential for the homeostasis of connective tissue mast cells, identifying A1 as a possible therapeutic target for therapy of certain types of mast cell–driven allergy symptoms. PMID:25548219

  19. Human EML4, a novel member of the EMAP family, is essential for microtubule formation

    SciTech Connect

    Pollmann, Marc; Parwaresch, Reza; Adam-Klages, Sabine; Kruse, Marie-Luise; Buck, Friedrich; Heidebrecht, Hans-Juergen . E-mail: hheidebrecht@path.uni-kiel.de

    2006-10-15

    Human EML4 (EMAP-like protein 4) is a novel microtubule-associated WD-repeat protein of 120 kDa molecular weight, which is classified as belonging to the conserved family of EMAP-like proteins. Cosedimentation assays demonstrated that EML4 associates with in vitro polymerized microtubules. Correspondingly, immunofluorescence stainings and transient expression of EGFP-labeled EML4 revealed a complete colocalization of EML4 with the interphase microtubule array of HeLa cells. We present evidence that the amino-terminal portion of EML4 (amino acids 1-249) is essential for the association with microtubules. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that EML4 is hyperphosphorylated on serine/threonine residues during mitosis. In addition, immunofluorescence stainings demonstrated that hyperphosphorylated EML4 is associated with the mitotic spindle, suggesting that the function of EML4 is regulated by phosphorylation. siRNA-mediated knockdown of EML4 in HeLa cells led to a significant decrease in the number of cells. In no case mitotic figures could be observed in EML4 negative HeLa cells. Additionally, we observed a significant reduction of the proliferation rate and the uptake of radioactive [{sup 3}H]-thymidine as a result of EML4 silencing. Most importantly, EML4 negative cells showed a completely modified microtubule network, indicating that EML4 is necessary for correct microtubule formation.

  20. HDAC Family Members Intertwined in the Regulation of Autophagy: A Druggable Vulnerability in Aggressive Tumor Entities

    PubMed Central

    Koeneke, Emily; Witt, Olaf; Oehme, Ina

    2015-01-01

    The exploitation of autophagy by some cancer entities to support survival and dodge death has been well-described. Though its role as a constitutive process is important in normal, healthy cells, in the milieu of malignantly transformed and highly proliferative cells, autophagy is critical for escaping metabolic and genetic stressors. In recent years, the importance of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in cancer biology has been heavily investigated, and the enzyme family has been shown to play a role in autophagy, too. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) are being integrated into cancer therapy and clinical trials are ongoing. The effect of HDACi on autophagy and, conversely, the effect of autophagy on HDACi efficacy are currently under investigation. With the development of HDACi that are able to selectively target individual HDAC isozymes, there is great potential for specific therapy that has more well-defined effects on cancer biology and also minimizes toxicity. Here, the role of autophagy in the context of cancer and the interplay of this process with HDACs will be summarized. Identification of key HDAC isozymes involved in autophagy and the ability to target specific isozymes yields the potential to cripple and ultimately eliminate malignant cells depending on autophagy as a survival mechanism. PMID:25915736

  1. Isolation of apoptosis-inducing stilbenoids from four members of the Orchidaceae family.

    PubMed

    Williams, Russell B; Martin, Steven M; Hu, Jin-Feng; Garo, Eliane; Rice, Stephanie M; Norman, Vanessa L; Lawrence, Julie A; Hough, Grayson W; Goering, Matt G; O'Neil-Johnson, Mark; Eldridge, Gary R; Starks, Courtney M

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput natural product research produced a suite of anticancer hits among several species of the Orchidaceae family (Oncidium microchilum, O. isthmi, and Myrmecophila humboldtii). A commercial Oncidium sp. was also examined as a convenient source of additional material. Isolation and structure elucidation led to the identification of fifteen stilbenoids including a new phenanthraquinone and two new dihydrostilbenes. NMR data for structure elucidation and dereplication were acquired utilizing a Bruker BioSpin TCI 1.7-mm MicroCryoProbe or a 5-?L CapNMR capillary microcoil. Several compounds inhibited proliferation of NCI-H460 and M14 cancer cell lines. All compounds were also examined for their ability to induce apoptosis. Apoptosis induction was determined by measuring caspase 3/7 activation and LDH release in a NCI-H460 cell line. Based on these results, a portion of the extract from a commercially available Oncidium sp. was chemically modified in an attempt to obtain additional phenanthraquinones. PMID:22002852

  2. RUNX family members are covalently modified and regulated by PIAS1-mediated sumoylation.

    PubMed

    Kim, J-H; Jang, J-W; Lee, Y-S; Lee, J-W; Chi, X-Z; Li, Y-H; Kim, M-K; Kim, D-M; Choi, B-S; Kim, J; Kim, H-M; van Wijnen, A; Park, Ily; Bae, S-C

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors of the RUNX family (RUNXs), which play pivotal roles in normal development and neoplasia, are regulated by various post-translational modifications. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of RUNXs, we performed a large-scale functional genetic screen of a fly mutant library. The screen identified dPias (the fly ortholog of mammalian PIASs), an E3 ligase for the SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) modification, as a novel genetic modifier of lz (the fly ortholog of mammalian RUNX3). Molecular biological analysis revealed that lz/RUNXs are sumoylated by dPias/PIAS1 at an evolutionarily conserved lysine residue (K372 of lz, K144 of RUNX1, K181 of RUNX2 and K148 of RUNX3). PIAS1-mediated sumoylation inhibited RUNX3 transactivation activity, and this modification was promoted by the AKT1 kinase. Importantly, PIAS1 failed to sumoylate some RUNX1 mutants associated with breast cancer. In nude mice, tumorigenicity was promoted by RUNX3 bearing a mutation in the sumoylation site, but suppressed by wild-type RUNX3. Our results suggest that RUNXs are sumoylated by PIAS1, and that this modification could play a critical role in the regulation of the tumor-suppressive activity of these proteins. PMID:24777122

  3. Protecting Newborns by Immunizing Family Members in a Hospital-Based Vaccine Clinic: A Successful Tdap Cocooning Program During the 2010 California Pertussis Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    McBane, Sarah; Wang, Wendy; Sawyer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective Infants are at greatest risk for mortality from pertussis infection. Since 2005, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended a cocooning strategy of vaccinating all close contacts of infants with tetanus, diptheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine to reduce the risk of transmitting pertussis. Difficulties in establishing a complete cocoon have been reported in the literature. We determined whether families of newborns could be fully immunized against pertussis, thereby providing a complete cocoon of protection. Methods Tdap vaccine was offered during visiting hours to contacts aged 7 years and older and to postpartum patients who had not received Tdap vaccine during pregnancy. We then conducted retrospective phone interviews with randomly selected mothers (or other family members) to assess vaccination rates. We compared household vaccination rates during intervention and control periods and the demographic factors associated with Tdap vaccination of all members within the households. Results During the intervention period, 243 postpartum patients and 1,287 other family members of newborns were immunized, with 84.8% of all family members receiving Tdap vaccination. Seventy-six percent of households reported a complete cocoon. In the control group, 52.2% of all family members received Tdap vaccination, and 29.3% of households had a complete cocoon. In the control group, fewer family members completed Tdap vaccination in the larger households than in the smaller households (p=0.008). Conclusion A cocooning strategy can be successfully implemented, such that the majority of newborns leave the hospital with their families fully immunized against pertussis. PMID:24791022

  4. Calidifontibacter indicus gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Dermacoccaceae isolated from a hot spring, and emended description of the family Dermacoccaceae.

    PubMed

    Ruckmani, Arunachalam; Kaur, Ishwinder; Schumann, Peter; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Mayilraj, Shanmugam

    2011-10-01

    During the course of a study on the bacterial diversity in Western Ghats, India, an actinobacterial strain, designated PC IW02(T), was isolated and characterized by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Strain PC IW02(T) was a non-motile, Gram-positive, short rod that formed creamish white to yellow coloured colonies. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the novel strain showed highest sequence similarity with type strains of members of the genus Dermacoccus: Dermacoccus barathri (96.6?%), Dermacoccus profundi (96.5?%), Dermacoccus abyssi (96.4?%) and Dermacoccus nishinomiyaensis (95.9?%). The phylogenetic tree suggested that strain PC IW02(T) could represent a member of a new genus of the family Dermacoccaceae with the genus Demetria as closest clade. Pairwise sequence alignment with Demetria terragena HKI 0089(T) and Kytococcus sedentarius DSM 20547(T) showed similarities of 94.2 and 93.7?%, respectively. Strain PC IW02(T) had MK-8(H(4)) as the major menaquinone. The major fatty acids were iso-C(16?:?0) (43.4?%), iso-C(16?:?1) H (17.2?%) and anteiso-C(17?:?0) (9.9?%). The diagnostic cell-wall amino acid at position 3 of the peptide subunit was lysine; the interpeptide bridge consisted of Gly-Ser-Asp. The polar lipids present were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and phosphatidylserine, along with two unknown phospholipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of the isolate was 77 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, including chemotaxonomic data, and 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain PC IW02(T) represents a novel species in a new genus of the family Dermacoccaceae for which the name Calidifontibacter indicus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Calidifontibacter indicus is PC IW02(T) (?=?MTCC 8338(T)?=?DSM 22967(T)?=?JCM 16038(T)). An emended description of the family Dermacoccaceae is provided. PMID:21075908

  5. The diversity and expansion of the trans-sialidase gene family is a common feature in Trypanosoma cruzi clade members.

    PubMed

    Chiurillo, Miguel Angel; Cortez, Danielle R; Lima, Fábio M; Cortez, Caroline; Ramírez, José Luis; Martins, Andre G; Serrano, Myrna G; Teixeira, Marta M G; da Silveira, José Franco

    2016-01-01

    Trans-sialidase (TS) is a polymorphic protein superfamily described in members of the protozoan genus Trypanosoma. Of the eight TS groups recently described, TS group I proteins (some of which have catalytic activity) are present in the distantly related Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi phylogenetic clades, whereas other TS groups have only been described in some species belonging to the T. cruzi clade. In the present study we analyzed the repertoire, distribution and phylogenetic relationships of TS genes among species of the T. cruzi clade based on sequence similarity, multiple sequence alignment and tree-reconstruction approaches using TS sequences obtained with the aid of PCR-based strategies or retrieved from genome databases. We included the following representative isolates of the T. cruzi clade from South America: T. cruzi, T. cruzi Tcbat, Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma rangeli and Trypanosoma conorhini. The cloned sequences encoded conserved TS protein motifs Asp-box and VTVxNVxLYNR but lacked the FRIP motif (conserved in TS group I). The T. conorhini sequences were the most divergent. The hybridization patterns of TS probes with chromosomal bands confirmed the abundance of these sequences in species in the T. cruzi clade. Divergence and relationship analysis placed most of the TS sequences in the groups defined in T. cruzi. Further examination of members of TS group II, which includes T. cruzi surface glycoproteins implicated in host cell attachment and invasion, showed that sequences of T. cruzi Tcbat grouped with those of T. cruzi genotype TcI. Our analysis indicates that different members of the T. cruzi clade, with different vertebrate hosts, vectors and pathogenicity, share the extensive expansion and sequence diversification of the TS gene family. Altogether, our results are congruent with the evolutionary history of the T. cruzi clade and represent a contribution to the understanding of the molecular evolution and role of TS proteins in trypanosomes. PMID:26640033

  6. The crystal structure of Escherichia coli TdcF, a member of the highly conserved YjgF/YER057c/UK114 family

    PubMed Central

    Burman, Julia D; Stevenson, Clare EM; Sawers, R Gary; Lawson, David M

    2007-01-01

    Background The YjgF/YER057c/UK114 family of proteins is widespread in nature, but has as yet no clearly defined biological role. Members of the family exist as homotrimers and are characterised by intersubunit clefts that are delineated by well-conserved residues; these sites are likely to be of functional significance, yet catalytic activity has never been detected for any member of this family. The gene encoding the TdcF protein of E. coli, a YjgF/YER057c/UK114 family member, resides in an operon that strongly suggests a role in the metabolism of 2-ketobutyrate for this protein. Results We have determined the crystal structure of E. coli TdcF by molecular replacement to a maximum resolution of 1.6 Å. Structures are also presented of TdcF complexed with a variety of ligands. Conclusion The TdcF structure closely resembles those of all YjgF/YER057c/UK114 family members determined thus far. It has the trimeric quaternary structure and intersubunit cavities characteristic of this family of proteins. We show that TdcF is capable of binding several low molecular weight metabolites bearing a carboxylate group, although the interaction with 2-ketobutyrate appears to be the most well defined. These observations may be indicative of a role for TdcF in sensing this potentially toxic metabolite. PMID:17506874

  7. Pathogenicity of members of the vibrionaceae family to cultured juvenile sablefish.

    PubMed

    Arkoosh, Mary R; Dietrich, Joseph P

    2015-06-01

    Sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria are a prized seafood species due to their high oil content and white flaky flesh. Raising these species in culture can help to provide an important source of protein for humans and relief to declining wild fish populations. Understanding the environmental factors that influence the production of Sablefish is important for successful culturing. The significance of host-pathogen interactions in Sablefish culture and the resulting environmental implications are unknown. Pathogens could potentially cause losses of cultured Sablefish stocks due to disease, while Sablefish cultured in net pens may also serve as reservoirs for pathogens and potentially transmit disease to wild fish species. In this initial study, the susceptibility of juvenile Sablefish to three bacterial pathogens from the family Vibrionaceae was examined. Listonella anguillarum, Vibrio ordalii, and V. splendidus can pose serious economic threats to cultured fish and shellfish. Groups of juvenile Sablefish were exposed to five concentrations of each of the pathogens. Sablefish were susceptible to L. anguillarum, but were resistant to V. ordalii and V. splendidus at exposure concentrations of ? 1.32 × 10? CFU/mL and ? 3.57 × 10? CFU/mL, respectively. The greatest L. anguillarum concentration examined (8.7 × 10? CFU/mL) resulted in 24% mortality in juvenile Sablefish. A 24% loss of Sablefish stock could significantly influence an aquaculture program. As determined by multiple logistic regression, the survival of Sablefish to L. anguillarum exposure was significantly affected by their body mass, and larger fish had a greater probability of survival. Aquaculture operations could employ various strategies to minimize the loss of juvenile Sablefish by accounting for their size and known susceptibilities to pathogens. PMID:25970236

  8. MicroRNA-30 family members regulate calcium/calcineurin signaling in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junnan; Zheng, Chunxia; Wang, Xiao; Yun, Shifeng; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Lin; Lu, Yuqiu; Ye, Yuting; Zhu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Changming; Shi, Shaolin; Liu, Zhihong

    2015-11-01

    Calcium/calcineurin signaling is critical for normal cellular physiology. Abnormalities in this pathway cause many diseases, including podocytopathy; therefore, understanding the mechanisms that underlie the regulation of calcium/calcineurin signaling is essential. Here, we showed that critical components of calcium/calcineurin signaling, including TRPC6, PPP3CA, PPP3CB, PPP3R1, and NFATC3, are the targets of the microRNA-30 family (miR-30s). We found that these 5 genes are highly expressed as mRNA, but the level of the proteins is low in normal podocytes. Conversely, protein levels were markedly elevated in podocytes from rats treated with puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) and from patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In both FSGS patients and PAN-treated rats, miR-30s were downregulated in podocytes. In cultured podocytes, PAN or a miR-30 sponge increased TRPC6, PPP3CA, PPP3CB, PPP3R1, and NFATC3 expression; calcium influx; intracellular Ca2+ concentration; and calcineurin activity. Moreover, NFATC3 nuclear translocation, synaptopodin degradation, integrin ?3 (ITGB3) activation, and actin fiber loss, which are downstream of calcium/calcineurin signaling, were induced by miR-30 reduction but blocked by the calcineurin inhibitor FK506. Podocyte-specific expression of the miR-30 sponge in mice increased calcium/calcineurin pathway component protein expression and calcineurin activity. The mice developed podocyte foot process effacement and proteinuria, which were prevented by FK506. miR-30s also regulated calcium/calcineurin signaling in cardiomyocytes. Together, our results identify miR-30s as essential regulators of calcium/calcineurin signaling. PMID:26436650

  9. A nodule-specific dicarboxylate transporter from alder is a member of the peptide transporter family.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jeeyon; Suh, SuJeong; Guan, Changhui; Tsay, Yi-Fang; Moran, Nava; Oh, Chang Jae; An, Chung Sun; Demchenko, Kirill N; Pawlowski, Katharina; Lee, Youngsook

    2004-03-01

    Alder (Alnus glutinosa) and more than 200 angiosperms that encompass 24 genera are collectively called actinorhizal plants. These plants form a symbiotic relationship with the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia strain HFPArI3. The plants provide the bacteria with carbon sources in exchange for fixed nitrogen, but this metabolite exchange in actinorhizal nodules has not been well defined. We isolated an alder cDNA from a nodule cDNA library by differential screening with nodule versus root cDNA and found that it encoded a transporter of the PTR (peptide transporter) family, AgDCAT1. AgDCAT1 mRNA was detected only in the nodules and not in other plant organs. Immunolocalization analysis showed that AgDCAT1 protein is localized at the symbiotic interface. The AgDCAT1 substrate was determined by its heterologous expression in two systems. Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with AgDCAT1 cRNA showed an outward current when perfused with malate or succinate, and AgDCAT1 was able to complement a dicarboxylate uptake-deficient Escherichia coli mutant. Using the E. coli system, AgDCAT1 was shown to be a dicarboxylate transporter with a K(m) of 70 microm for malate. It also transported succinate, fumarate, and oxaloacetate. To our knowledge, AgDCAT1 is the first dicarboxylate transporter to be isolated from the nodules of symbiotic plants, and we suggest that it may supply the intracellular bacteria with dicarboxylates as carbon sources. PMID:15001700

  10. BCL-2 family member BOK promotes apoptosis in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Carpio, Marcos A; Michaud, Michael; Zhou, Wenping; Fisher, Jill K; Walensky, Loren D; Katz, Samuel G

    2015-06-01

    B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) ovarian killer (BOK) is a BCL-2 family protein with high homology to the multidomain proapoptotic proteins BAX and BAK, yet Bok(-/-) and even Bax(-/-)Bok(-/-) and Bak(-/-)Bok(-/-) mice were reported to have no overt phenotype or apoptotic defects in response to a host of classical stress stimuli. These surprising findings were interpreted to reflect functional compensation among the BAX, BAK, and BOK proteins. However, BOK cannot compensate for the severe apoptotic defects of Bax(-/-)Bak(-/-) mice despite its widespread expression. Here, we independently developed Bok(-/-) mice and found that Bok(-/-) cells are selectively defective in their response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress stimuli, consistent with the predominant subcellular localization of BOK at the ER. Whereas Bok(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts exposed to thapsigargin, A23187, brefeldin A, DTT, geldanamycin, or bortezomib manifested reduced activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, the death response to other stimuli such as etoposide, staurosporine, or UV remained fully intact. Multiple organs in Bok(-/-) mice exhibited resistance to thapsigargin-induced apoptosis in vivo. Although the ER stress agents activated the unfolded protein response, both ATF4 and CHOP activation were diminished in Bok(-/-) cells and mice. Importantly, BAX and BAK were unable to compensate for the defective apoptotic response to ER stress observed in SV40-transformed and primary Bok(-/-) cells, and in vivo. These findings support a selective and distinguishing role for BOK in regulating the apoptotic response to ER stress, revealing--to our knowledge--the first bona fide apoptotic defect linked to Bok deletion. PMID:26015568

  11. Quaranfil, Johnston Atoll, and Lake Chad viruses are novel members of the family Orthomyxoviridae.

    PubMed

    Presti, Rachel M; Zhao, Guoyan; Beatty, Wandy L; Mihindukulasuriya, Kathie A; da Rosa, Amelia P A Travassos; Popov, Vsevolod L; Tesh, Robert B; Virgin, Herbert W; Wang, David

    2009-11-01

    Arboviral infections are an important cause of emerging infections due to the movements of humans, animals, and hematophagous arthropods. Quaranfil virus (QRFV) is an unclassified arbovirus originally isolated from children with mild febrile illness in Quaranfil, Egypt, in 1953. It has subsequently been isolated in multiple geographic areas from ticks and birds. We used high-throughput sequencing to classify QRFV as a novel orthomyxovirus. The genome of this virus is comprised of multiple RNA segments; five were completely sequenced. Proteins with limited amino acid similarity to conserved domains in polymerase (PA, PB1, and PB2) and hemagglutinin (HA) genes from known orthomyxoviruses were predicted to be present in four of the segments. The fifth sequenced segment shared no detectable similarity to any protein and is of uncertain function. The end-terminal sequences of QRFV are conserved between segments and are different from those of the known orthomyxovirus genera. QRFV is known to cross-react serologically with two other unclassified viruses, Johnston Atoll virus (JAV) and Lake Chad virus (LKCV). The complete open reading frames of PB1 and HA were sequenced for JAV, while a fragment of PB1 of LKCV was identified by mass sequencing. QRFV and JAV PB1 and HA shared 80% and 70% amino acid identity to each other, respectively; the LKCV PB1 fragment shared 83% amino acid identity with the corresponding region of QRFV PB1. Based on phylogenetic analyses, virion ultrastructural features, and the unique end-terminal sequences identified, we propose that QRFV, JAV, and LKCV comprise a novel genus of the family Orthomyxoviridae. PMID:19726499

  12. Differential expression of members of the annexin multigene family in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, G. B.; Sessions, A.; Eastburn, D. J.; Roux, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    Although in most plant species no more than two annexin genes have been reported to date, seven annexin homologs have been identified in Arabidopsis, Annexin Arabidopsis 1-7 (AnnAt1--AnnAt7). This establishes that annexins can be a diverse, multigene protein family in a single plant species. Here we compare and analyze these seven annexin gene sequences and present the in situ RNA localization patterns of two of these genes, AnnAt1 and AnnAt2, during different stages of Arabidopsis development. Sequence analysis of AnnAt1--AnnAt7 reveals that they contain the characteristic four structural repeats including the more highly conserved 17-amino acid endonexin fold region found in vertebrate annexins. Alignment comparisons show that there are differences within the repeat regions that may have functional importance. To assess the relative level of expression in various tissues, reverse transcription-PCR was carried out using gene-specific primers for each of the Arabidopsis annexin genes. In addition, northern blot analysis using gene-specific probes indicates differences in AnnAt1 and AnnAt2 expression levels in different tissues. AnnAt1 is expressed in all tissues examined and is most abundant in stems, whereas AnnAt2 is expressed mainly in root tissue and to a lesser extent in stems and flowers. In situ RNA localization demonstrates that these two annexin genes display developmentally regulated tissue-specific and cell-specific expression patterns. These patterns are both distinct and overlapping. The developmental expression patterns for both annexins provide further support for the hypothesis that annexins are involved in the Golgi-mediated secretion of polysaccharides.

  13. Differential regulation of four members of the ACC synthase gene family in plum

    PubMed Central

    El-Sharkawy, I.; Kim, W. S.; Jayasankar, S.; Svircev, A. M.; Brown, D. C. W.

    2008-01-01

    The regulation of ACC synthase (ACS) genes was studied in early (‘Early Golden’) and late (‘Shiro’) Japanese plum cultivars (Prunus salicina L.) in order to determine the role of this gene family in fruit ripening. Of the four Ps-ACS cDNAs isolated, two (Ps-ACS1 and -3) showed differential expression between the two cultivars. Ps-ACS1 accumulated during fruit ripening of ‘Early Golden’ (‘EG’) and ‘Shiro’ (‘SH’) in ethylene-dependent and -independent manners, respectively. Ps-ACS3a transcripts accumulated throughout fruit development and during ‘EG’ fruit ripening. Ps-ACS3b was detected only during ripening of ‘SH’ fruit. Furthermore, Ps-ACS3a transcript accumulation was negatively regulated by ethylene, whereas Ps-ACS3b was positively induced by the hormone. In both cultivars, the expression of Ps-ACS4 and -5 is under positive and negative feedback control by ethylene, respectively. Genetic analyses of ‘EG’ and ‘SH’ cultivars demonstrated that ‘EG’ is homozygous for Ps-ACS3a whereas ‘SH’ is heterozygous for Ps-ACS3 (a/b). The role of ethylene-overproducer 1-like in delaying fruit ripening by interacting with Ps-ACS proteins was also studied. The effect of the plant hormones, auxin, gibberellin, and cytokinin, in regulating ethylene production by promoting the induction of the different Ps-ACS mRNAs in plum was investigated. A model is presented in which differences in Ps-ACS alleles and gene expression between early and late plums are critical in determining the ripening behaviour of the cultivars. PMID:18535295

  14. Evaluation of Quality, Content, and Use of the Web Site Prepared for Family Members Giving Care to Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Demir, Yasemin; Gozum, Sebahat

    2015-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the quality, content, usability, and efficacy of a Web site prepared for the purpose of improving the caregiving capability of family members who provide care for stroke survivors at home. The DISCERN score for the Web site was found to be 4.35 over 5. The first section that assesses reliability of the Web site was 4.38 over 5; mean score of the second section that measures the quality of the provided information on treatment/care options was 4.30, and mean score of the third section that gives a general evaluation of the material was 4.1. The Web site content achieved an average score of 3.47 over 4 after evaluation by experts. The Web site system usability score was found to be 79.4 over 100. The Web site was utilized mostly for exercises in bed (76.3%; n = 29), use of medications, and patient safety (68.4%; n = 26). It was determined that those who were younger and employed and had no previous experience of nursing any patient utilized relatively more from the section of patient nutrition and oral care and married family caregivers from the body hygiene section. The Web site quality and content were judged to be good and reliable to use. The Web site was efficiently used by caregivers. PMID:26125455

  15. Suicide of a close family member through the eyes of a child: A narrative case study report.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Debra; Peters, Kath; Murphy, Gillian

    2015-12-01

    A narrative case study approach was used to collect a storied account from Joseph about his recollections and experience of the completed suicide of a family member with whom he lived with at 13 years of age. Data are presented longitudinally to capture Joseph's perceptions and recollections of events leading up to, surrounding and following the suicide. Findings reveal that, as a child Joseph felt strong responsibility to keep his uncle safe and maintain his uncle's life; and perceived a lack of support for himself and his family throughout the events. Today as a young man, Joseph remains profoundly affected by this suicide and the events surrounding it, and experiences flashbacks and intrusive thoughts, though his distress remains largely invisible to others. It is important that the acute and longer term needs of children affected by suicidality and suicide are recognised. We argue that increased awareness on the part of health professionals about the ongoing grief and distress surrounding suicide survivorship can create opportunities for opportunistic assessment and review of child survivor welfare. PMID:24486819

  16. A member of the Tlr family is involved in dsRNA innate immune response in Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Russo, Roberta; Chiaramonte, Marco; Matranga, Valeria; Arizza, Vincenzo

    2015-08-01

    The innate immune response involves proteins such as the membrane receptors of the Toll-like family (TLRs), which trigger different intracellular signalling pathways that are dependent on specific stimulating molecules. In sea urchins, TLR proteins are encoded by members of a large multigenic family composed of 60-250 genes in different species. Here, we report a newly identified mRNA sequence encoding a TLR protein (referred to as Pl-Tlr) isolated from Paracentrotus lividus immune cells. The partial protein sequence contained the conserved Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain, the transmembrane domain and part of the leucine repeats. Phylogenetic analysis of the Pl-Tlr protein was accomplished by comparing its sequence with those of TLRs from different classes of vertebrates and invertebrates. This analysis was suggestive of an evolutionary path that most likely represented the course of millions of years, starting from simple organisms and extending to humans. Challenge of the sea urchin immune system with poly-I:C, a chemical compound that mimics dsRNA, caused time-dependent Pl-Tlr mRNA up-regulation that was detected by QPCR. In contrast, bacterial LPS injury did not affect Pl-Tlr transcription. The study of the Tlr genes in the sea urchin model system may provide new perspectives on the role of Tlrs in the invertebrate immune response and clues concerning their evolution in a changing world. PMID:25907136

  17. A new Italian family with severe prekallikrein deficiency. Desmopressin-induced fibrinolysis and coagulation changes in homozygous and heterozygous members.

    PubMed

    Castaman, G; Ruggeri, M; Rodeghiero, F

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we report the case of a new Italian family with severe cross-reacting material prekallikrein deficiency (CRM-). The proposita is a 22-year-old woman referred for evaluating an extremely prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) detected during a routine screening. No clearcut bleeding history was reported. Prekallikrein antigen and activity were not measurable. The other contact-phase factors were within the normal range. Using an electromechanical coagulometer, six different commercial reagents yielded a markedly prolonged APTT (ratio greater than 2). By prolonging the incubation time up to 10 min, APTT was normalized only with reagents employing ellagic acid as activator. On the contrary, APTT remained markedly prolonged using particulate activators (i.e. micronized silica and celite). No differences were observed using either rabbit or bovine brain cephalin. APTT was also performed on a laser automated ACL instrument; in this case reagents using ellagic acid yielded only moderately prolonged APTT values (ratio 1.3 vs 1.4). The intrinsic fibrinolytic activity, as assessed by blood activator inventory test, was found to be moderately reduced (about 50% of normal) in the proposita, whereas normal values were measured in the heterozygous relatives. After infusion of 0.3 micrograms/kg 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP), kallikrein levels did not change in the proposita and her heterozygous relatives. A normal release of tissue-plasminogen activator, as assessed by fibrin-plate assay, was observed in all family members including the proposita. PMID:2127471

  18. Involvement of cyclic-nucleotide response element-binding family members in the radiation response of Ramos B lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Di Nisio, Chiara; Sancilio, Silvia; Di Giacomo, Viviana; Rapino, Monica; Sancillo, Laura; Genovesi, Domenico; Di Siena, Alessandro; Rana, Rosa Alba; Cataldi, Amelia; Di Pietro, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Cyclic-nucleotide Response Element-Binding (CREB) family members and related nuclear transcription factors in the radiation response of human B lymphoma cell lines (Daudi and Ramos). Unlike the more radiosensitive Daudi cells, Ramos cells demonstrated only a moderate increase in early apoptosis after 3-5 Gy irradiation doses, which was detected with Annexin V/PI staining. Moreover, a significant and dose-dependent G2/M phase accumulation was observed in the same cell line at 24 h after both ionizing radiation (IR) doses. Western blot analysis showed an early increase in CREB protein expression that was still present at 3 h and more evident after 3 Gy IR in Ramos cells, along with the dose-dependent upregulation of p53 and NF-?B. These findings were consistent with real-time RT-PCR analysis that showed an early- and dose-dependent upregulation of NFKB1, IKBKB and XIAP gene expression. Unexpectedly, pre-treatment with SN50 did not increase cell death, but cell viability. Taken together, these findings let us hypothesise that the early induction and activation of NF-?B1 in Ramos cells could mediate necrotic cell death and be linked to other molecules belonging to CREB family and involved in the cell cycle regulation. PMID:26573110

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of Seneca Valley Virus-001, a new member of the Picornaviridae family

    SciTech Connect

    Venkataraman, Sangita; Reddy, Seshidhar P.; Loo, Jackie; Idamakanti, Neeraja; Hallenbeck, Paul L.; Reddy, Vijay S.

    2008-04-01

    Seneca Valley Virus-001 (SVV-001) is a newly found species in the Picornaviridae family. SVV-001 is the first naturally occurring nonpathogenic picornavirus observed to mediate selective cytotoxicity towards tumor cells with neuroendocrine cancer features. The nonsegmented (+)ssRNA genome of SVV-001 shares closest sequence similarity to the genomes of the members of the Cardiovirus genus. However, based on the distinct characteristics of the genome organization and other biochemical properties, it has been suggested that SVV-001 represents a new genus, namely 'Senecavirus', in the Picornaviridae family. In order to understand the oncolytic properties of SVV-001, the native virus was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group R3, with unit-cell parameters (in the hexagonal setting) a = b = 311.5, c = 1526.4 {angstrom}. Although the SVV crystals diffracted to better than 2.3 {angstrom} resolution, the data quality is acceptable [I/{sigma}(I) > 2.0] to 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. The unit-cell volume and the locked rotation-function analysis suggest that six particles could be accommodated in the unit cell, with two distinct sets of one third of a particle, each containing 20 protomers, occupying the crystallographic asymmetric unit.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of Seneca Valley virus-001, a new member of the Picornaviridae family.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Sangita; Reddy, Seshidhar P; Loo, Jackie; Idamakanti, Neeraja; Hallenbeck, Paul L; Reddy, Vijay S

    2008-04-01

    Seneca Valley Virus-001 (SVV-001) is a newly found species in the Picornaviridae family. SVV-001 is the first naturally occurring nonpathogenic picornavirus observed to mediate selective cytotoxicity towards tumor cells with neuroendocrine cancer features. The nonsegmented (+)ssRNA genome of SVV-001 shares closest sequence similarity to the genomes of the members of the Cardiovirus genus. However, based on the distinct characteristics of the genome organization and other biochemical properties, it has been suggested that SVV-001 represents a new genus, namely 'Senecavirus', in the Picornaviridae family. In order to understand the oncolytic properties of SVV-001, the native virus was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group R3, with unit-cell parameters (in the hexagonal setting) a = b = 311.5, c = 1526.4 A. Although the SVV crystals diffracted to better than 2.3 A resolution, the data quality is acceptable [I/sigma(I) > 2.0] to 2.6 A resolution. The unit-cell volume and the locked rotation-function analysis suggest that six particles could be accommodated in the unit cell, with two distinct sets of one third of a particle, each containing 20 protomers, occupying the crystallographic asymmetric unit. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00314925) PMID:18391430

  1. Mei-1, a Gene Required for Meiotic Spindle Formation in Caenorhabditis Elegans, Is a Member of a Family of ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Clark-Maguire, S.; Mains, P. E.

    1994-01-01

    Meiotic spindle formation in the female germline of Caenorhabditis elegans requires expression of the gene mei-1. We have cloned mei-1 by transformation rescue and found that it resides near a hot spot for recombination, in an area of high gene density. The highest levels of mei-1 mRNA accumulate in the female germline of adult hermaphrodites as well as in fertilized embryos. The message persists for several hours after the protein functions in embryos, implying the need for post-transcriptional regulation. Two alternatively spliced messages are made that would result in proteins that differ internally by three amino acids; the larger of the two mRNAs is preferentially enriched in the female germline. The sequence of mei-1 shows that it is a member of a newly described family of ATPases that share a highly conserved nucleotide-binding site; four dominant-negative mutations of mei-1 are found at or near this region. Divergent roles ascribed to this family include membrane function, proteolysis, transcription and cell cycle regulation. PMID:8150281

  2. Rouxiella chamberiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae isolated from parenteral nutrition bags.

    PubMed

    Le Flèche-Matéos, Anne; Levast, Marion; Lomprez, Fabienne; Arnoux, Yolande; Andonian, Clément; Perraud, Michel; Vincent, Véronique; Ar Gouilh, Meriadeg; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Vandenbogaert, Mathias; Diancourt, Laure; Caro, Valérie; Burguière, Ana Maria; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude

    2015-06-01

    Parenteral nutrition bags for newborns were found contaminated by a previously undescribed member of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The six isolates studied by rrs gene (encoding 16S rRNA) sequence analysis and multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) formed a discrete branch close to the genera Ewingella, Rahnella, Yersinia,Hafnia and Serratia. Phenotypically, the new taxon was distinct from these five genera. The new taxon gave positive results in Voges-Proskauer, Simmons citrate and o-nitrophenyl-?-galactoside hydrolysis tests; fermented d-glucose, d-mannitol, l-rhamnose, melibiose, l-arabinose and d-xylose; hydrolysed aesculin; and did not ferment maltose, trehalose, raffinose, d-sorbitol, sucrose or cellobiose. Tests for motility, gas production, urease, gelatinase and nitrate reduction were also negative. All isolates failed to grow at 37 °C. The DNA G+C content of strain 130333T was 53 mol%. On the basis of data obtained in this study, the six isolates represent a novel species of a new genus in the family Enterobacteriaceae, named Rouxiella chamberiensis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of the type species is 130333T (?= CIP 110714T = DSM 28324T). PMID:25747423

  3. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the family members of women with polycystic ovary syndrome from North India

    PubMed Central

    Shabir, Iram; Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Zargar, Mohd Afzal; Bhat, Dilafroz; Mir, Mohd Muzzafar; Jan, Aleem; Shah, Zaffar Amin; Jan, Vicar; Rasool, Riyaz; Naqati, Andleeb

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most complex and common endocrine disorder of women in reproductive years. In addition to irregular menstrual cycles, chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism, it has many metabolic manifestations such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, dysglycemia, increased risk of cardiovascular disease or possibly endometrial cancer. Familial clustering of PCOS in consistence with the genetic susceptibility has been described. Materials and Methods: The present study assessed the clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters including prevalence of metabolic syndrome by two different criteria in the first- degree relatives of patients with PCOS. Results: The average age of 37 index patients was 23 ± 3.6 years, with the mean age of menarche as 13.3 ± 1.2 years. The mean age and age of menarche in mothers (n = 22) was 48.8 ± 5.1 and 13 ± 1.3 years, respectively, whereas as it was 23.5 ± 4.7 and 13.3 ± 1.2 years in sisters (n = 22), respectively. Metabolic syndrome (MS) defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria was present in 10 index patients, 1 brother, 4 sisters, 17 mothers and 15 fathers while as by Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) it was in 8 index patients, 5 sisters, 16 mothers and 11 fathers. Conclusion: The presence of MS or related metabolic derangements is high in the family members of women with PCOS. PMID:24944933

  4. Psychological response of family members of patients hospitalised for influenza A/H1N1 in Oaxaca, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The A/H1N1 pandemic originated in Mexico in April 2009, amid high uncertainty, social and economic disruption, and media reports of panic. The aim of this research project was to evaluate the psychological response of family primary caregivers of patients hospitalised in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with suspected influenza A/H1N1 to establish whether there was empirical evidence of high adverse psychological response, and to identify risk factors for such a response. If such evidence was found, a secondary aim was to develop a specific early intervention of psychological support for these individuals, to reduce distress and possibly lessen the likelihood of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the longer term. Methods Psychological assessment questionnaires were administered to the family primary caregivers of patients hospitalised in the ICU in the General Hospital of Zone 1 of the Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS), Oaxaca, Mexico with suspected influenza A/H1N1, during the month of November 2009. The main outcome measures were ratings of reported perceived stress (PSS-10), depression (CES-D), and death anxiety (DAQ). Data were subjected to simple and multiple linear regression analysis to identify risk factors for adverse psychological response. Results Elevated levels of perceived stress and depression, compared to population normative data, and moderate levels of death anxiety were noted. Levels of depression were similar to those found in comparable studies of family members of ICU patients admitted for other conditions. Multiple regression analysis indicated that increasing age and non-spousal family relationship were significantly associated with depression and perceived stress. Female gender, increasing age, and higher levels of education were significantly associated with high death anxiety. Comparisons with data collected in previous studies in the same hospital ICU with groups affected by a range of other medical conditions indicated that the psychological response reported in this study was generally lower. Conclusions Data indicated that, contrary to widely publicised reports of 'panic' surrounding A/H1N1, that some of those most directly affected did not report excessive psychological responses; however, we concluded that there was sufficient evidence to support provision of limited psychological support to family caregivers. PMID:21129214

  5. Comparative biochemical analysis of three members of the Schistosoma mansoni TAL family: Differences in ion and drug binding properties

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Charlotte M.; Fitzsimmons, Colin M.; Dunne, David W.; Timson, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The tegumental allergen-like (TAL) proteins from Schistosoma mansoni are part of a family of calcium binding proteins found only in parasitic flatworms. These proteins have attracted interest as potential drug or vaccine targets, yet comparatively little is known about their biochemistry. Here, we compared the biochemical properties of three members of this family: SmTAL1 (Sm22.6), SmTAL2 (Sm21.7) and SmTAL3 (Sm20.8). Molecular modelling suggested that, despite similarities in domain organisation, there are differences in the three proteins’ structures. SmTAL1 was predicted to have two functional calcium binding sites and SmTAL2 was predicted to have one. Despite the presence of two EF-hand-like structures in SmTAL3, neither was predicted to be functional. These predictions were confirmed by native gel electrophoresis, intrinsic fluorescence and differential scanning fluorimetry: both SmTAL1 and SmTAL2 are able to bind calcium ions reversibly, but SmTAL3 is not. SmTAL1 is also able to interact with manganese, strontium, iron(II) and nickel ions. SmTAL2 has a different ion binding profile interacting with cadmium, manganese, magnesium, strontium and barium ions in addition to calcium. All three proteins form dimers and, in contrast to some Fasciola hepatica proteins from the same family; dimerization is not affected by calcium ions. SmTAL1 interacts with the anti-schistosomal drug praziquantel and the calmodulin antagonists trifluoperazine, chlorpromazine and W7. SmTAL2 interacts only with W7. SmTAL3 interacts with the aforementioned calmodulin antagonists and thiamylal, but not praziquantel. Overall, these data suggest that the proteins have different biochemical properties and thus, most likely, different in vivo functions. PMID:25447146

  6. Two novel human members of an emerging mammalian gene family related to mono-ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Koch-Nolte, F.; Haag, F.; Braren, R.

    1997-02-01

    Mono-ADP-ribosylation is one of the posttranslational protein modifications regulating cellular metabolism, e.g., nitrogen fixation, in prokaryotes. Several bacterial toxins mono-ADP-ribosylate and inactivate specific proteins in their animal hosts. Recently, two mammalian GPI-anchored cell surface enzymes with similar activities were cloned (designated ART1 and ART2). We have now identified six related expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the public database and cloned the two novel human genes from which these are derived (designated ART3 and ART4). The deduced amino acid sequences of the predicted gene products show 28% sequence identity to one another and 32-41% identity vs the muscle and T cell enzymes. They contain signal peptide sequences characteristic of GPI anchorage. Southern Zoo blot analyses suggest the presence of related genes in other mammalian species. By PCR screening of somatic cell hybrids and by in situ hybridization, we have mapped the two genes to human chromosomes 4p14-p15.l and 12q13.2- q13.3. Northern blot analyses show that these genes are specifically expressed in testis and spleen, respectively. Comparison of genomic and cDNA sequences reveals a conserved exon/intron structure, with an unusually large exon encoding the predicted mature membrane proteins. Secondary structure prediction analyses indicate conserved motifs and amino acid residues consistent with a common ancestry of this emerging mammalian enzyme family and bacterial mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferases. It is possible that the four human gene family members identified so far represent the {open_quotes}tip of an iceberg,{close_quote} i.e., a larger family of enzymes that influences the function of target proteins via mono-ADP-ribosylation. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of Seneca Valley Virus-001, a new member of the Picornaviridae family

    SciTech Connect

    Venkataraman, Sangita; Reddy, Seshidhar P.; Loo, Jackie; Idamakanti, Neeraja; Hallenbeck, Paul L.; Reddy, Vijay S.

    2008-04-01

    Seneca Valley Virus-001 of the Picornavirdae family was crystallized in the space group R3 and X-ray diffraction data was collected to a resolution of 2.3 Å. Rotation-function studies suggested the presence of two distict sets of 20 protomers that belong to two different virus particles in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Seneca Valley Virus-001 (SVV-001) is a newly found species in the Picornaviridae family. SVV-001 is the first naturally occurring nonpathogenic picorna@@virus observed to mediate selective cytotoxicity towards tumor cells with neuroendocrine cancer features. The nonsegmented (+)ssRNA genome of SVV-001 shares closest sequence similarity to the genomes of the members of the Cardiovirus genus. However, based on the distinct characteristics of the genome organization and other biochemical properties, it has been suggested that SVV-001 represents a new genus, namely ‘Senecavirus’, in the Picornaviridae family. In order to understand the oncolytic properties of SVV-001, the native virus was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group R3, with unit-cell parameters (in the hexagonal setting) a = b = 311.5, c = 1526.4 Å. Although the SVV crystals diffracted to better than 2.3 Å resolution, the data quality is acceptable [I/?(I) > 2.0] to 2.6 Å resolution. The unit-cell volume and the locked rotation-function analysis suggest that six particles could be accommodated in the unit cell, with two distinct sets of one third of a particle, each containing 20 protomers, occupying the crystallographic asymmetric unit.

  8. Analysis of promoter activity of members of the PECTATE LYASE-LIKE (PLL) gene family in cell separation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pectate lyases depolymerize pectins by catalyzing the eliminative cleavage of ?-1,4-linked galacturonic acid. Pectate lyase-like (PLL) genes make up among the largest and most complex families in plants, but their cellular and organismal roles have not been well characterized, and the activity of these genes has been assessed only at the level of entire organs or plant parts, potentially obscuring important sub-organ or cell-type-specific activities. As a first step to understand the potential functional diversity of PLL genes in plants and specificity of individual genes, we utilized a reporter gene approach to document the spatial and temporal promoter activity for 23 of the 26 members of the Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) PLL gene family throughout development, focusing on processes involving cell separation. Results Numerous PLL promoters directed activity in localized domains programmed for cell separation, such as the abscission zones of the sepal, petal, stamen, and seed, as well as the fruit dehiscence zone. Several drove activity in cell types expected to facilitate separation, including the style and root endodermal and cortical layers during lateral root emergence. However, PLL promoters were active in domains not obviously programmed for separation, including the stipule, hydathode and root axis. Nearly all PLL promoters showed extensive overlap of activity in most of the regions analyzed. Conclusions Our results document potential for involvement of PLL genes in numerous aspects of growth and development both dependent and independent of cell separation. Although the complexity of the PLL gene family allows for enormous potential for gene specialization through spatial or temporal regulation, the high degree of overlap of activity among the PLL promoters suggests extensive redundancy. Alternatively, functional specialization might be determined at the post-transcriptional or protein level. PMID:20649977

  9. Two member of the S-lac lectin gene family, LGALS1 and LGALS2, reside in close proximity on human chromosome 22q12-q13

    SciTech Connect

    Mehrabian, M.; Sparkes, R.S.; Lusis, A.J. ); Gitt, M.A.; Leffler, H.; Barondes, S.H. )

    1993-02-01

    S-lac lectins are a family of soluble lactose-binding proteins thought to function in the control of cell growth. We now report the chromosomal mapping of two members of the family, termed L-14-I and L-14-II, to the q12-q13 region of human chromosome 22, suggesting the possibility of a cluster of genes for lactose-binding proteins. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels of workers in a transformer recycling company, their family members, and employees of surrounding companies.

    PubMed

    Schettgen, Thomas; Gube, Monika; Esser, Andre; Alt, Anne; Kraus, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In spring 2010, high internal exposures (up to 236 ?g/L plasma) for the sum of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were discovered in workers in a transformer recycling company in Germany, where PCB-contaminated material was not handled according to proper occupational hygiene. The release of PCB from this company raised growing concerns regarding possible adverse human health effects correlated with this exposure. This provided a basis for a large biological monitoring study in order to examine the internal exposure to PCB in individuals working in that recycling company, their family members, and relatives, as well as subjects working or living in the surroundings of this company. Blood samples from 116 individuals (formerly) employed in the transformer recycling company and 45 direct relatives of these persons were obtained. Further, blood samples of 190 subjects working in close vicinity of the recycling plant, 277 persons working in the larger area, and 41 residents of the area were investigated. Plasma samples were analyzed for the 6 indicator PCB (PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180) and 12 dioxin-like PCB using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS; limit of detection [LOD] at 0.01 ?g/L). Median concentrations (maximum) for the sum of the 6 indicator PCB in blood of the employees, their relatives, individuals working in close vicinity, persons working in the larger area, and the residents were 3.68 (236.3), 1.86 (22.8), 1.34 (22.9), 1.19 (6.42), and 0.85 (7.22) ?g/L plasma, respectively. The (former) employees of the transformer recycling plant partly showed the highest plasma PCB levels determined thus far in Germany. Even family members displayed highly elevated levels of PCB in blood due to contaminations of their homes by laundering of contaminated clothes. Vicinity to the recycling plant including reported contact with possibly contaminated scrap was the main contributor to the PCB levels of the workers of the surrounding companies. Residents of the area did not show significantly elevated blood PCB levels compared to the general population. Our biomonitoring results served as a basis for individual risk communication and successful risk management. PMID:22686300

  11. miR-135 family members mediate podocyte injury through the activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xianggui; Wang, Xiaoyan; Nie, Fang; Liu, Tianming; Yu, Xuejing; Wang, Honglian; Li, Qianyin; Peng, Rui; Mao, Zhaomin; Zhou, Qin; Li, Ge

    2015-09-01

    The upregulation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling occurs in virtually all types of kidney disease and is associated with podocyte injury. However, the precise mechanisms involved in the development of kidney disease remain to be elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are a class of short non-coding RNAs and they have been shown to be regulators of gene expression, mainly by binding to the untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of the 2 members of the miR-135 family (miR?135a and miR?135b) in podocyte injury and to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the damage to podocytes. The results revealed that miR-135a and miR-135b were upregulated in models of podocyte injury and in glomeruli isolated from patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The ectopic expression of miR-135a and miR?135b led to severe podocyte injury and the disorder of the podocyte cytoskeleton. Our findings demonstrated that miR-135a and miR?135b activated Wnt/??catenin signaling and induced the nuclear translocation of ?-catenin. Using luciferase reporter assays, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis, glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) was identified as a target gene of miR-135a and miR?135b. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that members of the miR-135 family (specifically miR-135a and miR?135b) regulate the expression of GSK3?, thus playing a role in the development of podocyte injury and the disorder of the podocyte cytoskeleton. This is an important finding as it may contribute to the development of novel therapeutics for podocyte injury-associated glomerulopathies. PMID:26134897

  12. miR-135 family members mediate podocyte injury through the activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    YANG, XIANGGUI; WANG, XIAOYAN; NIE, FANG; LIU, TIANMING; YU, XUEJING; WANG, HONGLIAN; LI, QIANYIN; PENG, RUI; MAO, ZHAOMIN; ZHOU, QIN; LI, GE

    2015-01-01

    The upregulation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling occurs in virtually all types of kidney disease and is associated with podocyte injury. However, the precise mechanisms involved in the development of kidney disease remain to be elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are a class of short non-coding RNAs and they have been shown to be regulators of gene expression, mainly by binding to the untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of the 2 members of the miR-135 family (miR-135a and miR-135b) in podocyte injury and to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the damage to podocytes. The results revealed that miR-135a and miR-135b were upregulated in models of podocyte injury and in glomeruli isolated from patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The ectopic expression of miR-135a and miR-135b led to severe podocyte injury and the disorder of the podocyte cytoskeleton. Our findings demonstrated that miR-135a and miR-135b activated Wnt/?-catenin signaling and induced the nuclear translocation of ?-catenin. Using luciferase reporter assays, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis, glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) was identified as a target gene of miR-135a and miR-135b. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that members of the miR-135 family (specifically miR-135a and miR-135b) regulate the expression of GSK3?, thus playing a role in the development of podocyte injury and the disorder of the podocyte cytoskeleton. This is an important finding as it may contribute to the development of novel therapeutics for podocyte injury-associated glomerulopathies. PMID:26134897

  13. P53 Family Members Modulate the Expression of PRODH, but Not PRODH2, via Intronic p53 Response Elements

    PubMed Central

    Raimondi, Ivan; Ciribilli, Yari; Monti, Paola; Bisio, Alessandra; Pollegioni, Loredano; Fronza, Gilberto; Inga, Alberto; Campomenosi, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 was previously shown to markedly up-regulate the expression of the PRODH gene, encoding the proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) enzyme, which catalyzes the first step in proline degradation. Also PRODH2, which degrades 4-hydroxy-L-proline, a product of protein (e.g. collagen) catabolism, was recently described as a p53 target. Here, we confirmed p53-dependent induction of endogenous PRODH in response to genotoxic damage in cell lines of different histological origin. We established that over-expression of TAp73? or TAp63? is sufficient to induce PRODH expression in p53-null cells and that PRODH expression parallels the modulation of endogenous p73 by genotoxic drugs in several cell lines. The p53, p63, and p73-dependent transcriptional activation was linked to specific intronic response elements (REs), among those predicted by bioinformatics tools and experimentally validated by a yeast-based transactivation assay. p53 occupancy measurements were validated in HCT116 and MCF7 human cell lines. Conversely, PRODH2 was not responsive to p63 nor p73 and, at best, could be considered a weak p53 target. In fact, minimal levels of PRODH2 transcript induction by genotoxic stress was observed exclusively in one of four p53 wild-type cell lines tested. Consistently, all predicted p53 REs in PRODH2 were poor matches to the p53 RE consensus and showed very weak responsiveness, only to p53, in the functional assay. Taken together, our results highlight that PRODH, but not PRODH2, expression is under the control of p53 family members, specifically p53 and p73. This supports a deeper link between proteins of the p53-family and metabolic pathways, as PRODH modulates the balance of proline and glutamate levels and those of their derivative alpha-keto-glutarate (?-KG) under normal and pathological (tumor) conditions. PMID:23861960

  14. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)9A1 in Heliothis virescens: the first member of a new CYP family.

    PubMed

    Rose, R L; Goh, D; Thompson, D M; Verma, K D; Heckel, D G; Gahan, L J; Roe, R M; Hodgson, E

    1997-06-01

    A novel cytochrome P450 cDNA with its complete coding sequence and part or all of the 3' (77 nucleotides) and 5' (87 nucleotides) non-coding sequence was isolated from the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F). The 1763 nucleotide sequence encodes a protein of 532 amino acids which includes a hydrophobic N-terminal region and the highly conserved heme binding regions typical of P450s. Low sequence similarity to other P450 sequences and the presence of a thromboxane synthase-like insertion upstream from the I helix resulted in its assignment as the first member of family 9, i.e. CYP9A1. CYP9A1 is most similar to CYP3A1 from the rat (34.7% identity), but is also similar to the insect P450s from family 6, including CYP6B1v1 from Papilio polyxenes (33.3%), CYP6A2A from Drosophila melanogaster (32.4%), CYP6A3 from Musca domestica (31.7%) and CYP6B2 from Helicoverpa armigera (30.1%). Comparative Western and Northern blot studies indicate that expression of CYP9A1 in thiodicarb selected populations of tobacco budworm is associated with insecticide resistance. The pattern of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RELP) variation in offspring of single-pair matings demonstrated autosomal inheritance of CYP9A1 and enabled its assignment to linkage group 7. The coding region of CYP9A1 occupies no more than 10 kb in the tobacco budworm genome. PMID:9304798

  15. Interactions with WNK (With No Lysine) Family Members Regulate Oxidative Stress Response 1 and Ion Co-transporter Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Samarpita; Tu, Szu-Wei; Wedin, Kyle; Earnest, Svetlana; Stippec, Steve; Luby-Phelps, Katherine; Cobb, Melanie H.

    2012-01-01

    Two of the four WNK (with no lysine (K)) protein kinases are associated with a heritable form of ion imbalance culminating in hypertension. WNK1 affects ion transport in part through activation of the closely related Ste20 family protein kinases oxidative stress-responsive 1 (OSR1) and STE20/SPS1-related proline-, alanine-rich kinase (SPAK). Once activated by WNK1, OSR1 and SPAK phosphorylate and stimulate the sodium, potassium, two chloride co-transporters, NKCC1 and NKCC2, and also affect other related ion co-transporters. We find that WNK1 and OSR1 co-localize on cytoplasmic puncta in HeLa and other cell types. We show that the C-terminal region of WNK1 including a coiled coil is sufficient to localize the fragment in a manner similar to the full-length protein, but some other fragments lacking this region are mislocalized. Photobleaching experiments indicate that both hypertonic and hypotonic conditions reduce the mobility of GFP-WNK1 in cells. The four WNK family members can phosphorylate the activation loop of OSR1 to increase its activity with similar kinetic constants. C-terminal fragments of WNK1 that contain three RFXV interaction motifs can bind OSR1, block activation of OSR1 by sorbitol, and prevent the OSR1-induced enhancement of ion co-transporter activity in cells, further supporting the conclusion that association with WNK1 is required for OSR1 activation and function at least in some contexts. C-terminal WNK1 fragments can be phosphorylated by OSR1, suggesting that OSR1 catalyzes feedback phosphorylation of WNK1. PMID:22989884

  16. A common variant in combination with a nonsense mutation in a member of the thioredoxin family causes primary ciliary dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Duriez, Bénédicte; Duquesnoy, Philippe; Escudier, Estelle; Bridoux, Anne-Marie; Escalier, Denise; Rayet, Isabelle; Marcos, Elisabeth; Vojtek, Anne-Marie; Bercher, Jean-François; Amselem, Serge

    2007-01-01

    Thioredoxins belong to a large family of enzymatic proteins that function as general protein disulfide reductases, therefore participating in several cellular processes via redox-mediated reactions. So far, none of the 18 members of this family has been involved in human pathology. Here we identified TXNDC3, which encodes a thioredoxin–nucleoside diphosphate kinase, as a gene implicated in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a genetic condition characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, left–right asymmetry randomization, and male infertility. We show that the disease, which segregates as a recessive trait, results from the unusual combination of the following two transallelic defects: a nonsense mutation and a common intronic variant found in 1% of control chromosomes. This variant affects the ratio of two physiological TXNDC3 transcripts: the full-length isoform and a novel isoform, TXNDC3d7, carrying an in-frame deletion of exon 7. In vivo and in vitro expression data unveiled the physiological importance of TXNDC3d7 (whose expression was reduced in the patient) and the corresponding protein that was shown to bind microtubules. PCD is known to result from defects of the axoneme, an organelle common to respiratory cilia, embryonic nodal cilia, and sperm flagella, containing dynein arms, with, to date, the implication of genes encoding dynein proteins. Our findings, which identify a another class of molecules involved in PCD, disclose the key role of TXNDC3 in ciliary function; they also point to an unusual mechanism underlying a Mendelian disorder, which is an SNP-induced modification of the ratio of two physiological isoforms generated by alternative splicing. PMID:17360648

  17. An Enzymatically Active ?-1,3-Glucanase from Ash Pollen with Allergenic Properties: A Particular Member in the Oleaceae Family

    PubMed Central

    Torres, María; Palomares, Oscar; Quiralte, Joaquín; Pauli, Gabrielle; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte

    2015-01-01

    Endo-?-1,3-glucanases are widespread enzymes with glycosyl hydrolitic activity involved in carbohydrate remodelling during the germination and pollen tube growth. Although members of this protein family with allergenic activity have been reported, their effective contribution to allergy is little known. In this work, we identified Fra e 9 as a novel allergenic ?-1,3-glucanase from ash pollen. We produced the catalytic and carbohydrate-binding domains as two independent recombinant proteins and characterized them from structural, biochemical and immunological point of view in comparison to their counterparts from olive pollen. We showed that despite having significant differences in biochemical activity Fra e 9 and Ole e 9 display similar IgE-binding capacity, suggesting that ?-1,3-glucanases represent an heterogeneous family that could display intrinsic allergenic capacity. Specific cDNA encoding Fra e 9 was cloned and sequenced. The full-length cDNA encoded a polypeptide chain of 461 amino acids containing a signal peptide of 29 residues, leading to a mature protein of 47760.2 Da and a pI of 8.66. An N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal carbohydrate-binding module are the components of this enzyme. Despite the phylogenetic proximity to the olive pollen ?-1,3-glucanase, Ole e 9, there is only a 39% identity between both sequences. The N- and C-terminal domains have been produced as independent recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris, respectively. Although a low or null enzymatic activity has been associated to long ?-1,3-glucanases, the recombinant N-terminal domain has 200-fold higher hydrolytic activity on laminarin than reported for Ole e 9. The C-terminal domain of Fra e 9, a cysteine-rich compact structure, is able to bind laminarin. Both molecules retain comparable IgE-binding capacity when assayed with allergic sera. In summary, the structural and functional comparison between these two closely phylogenetic related enzymes provides novel insights into the complexity of ?-1,3-glucanases, representing a heterogeneous protein family with intrinsic allergenic capacity. PMID:26177095

  18. "Grandma, You Should Do It-It's Cool" Older Adults and the Role of Family Members in Their Acceptance of Technology.

    PubMed

    Luijkx, Katrien; Peek, Sebastiaan; Wouters, Eveline

    2015-01-01

    Despite its potential, the acceptance of technology to support the ability to live independently in one's own home, also called aging in place, is not optimal. Family members may play a key role in technology acceptance by older adults; however, it is not well understood why and how they exert influence. Based on open interviews with 53 community-dwelling older adults, this paper describes the influence of family members, including spouses, on the use of various types of consumer electronics by older adults as was reported by themselves. Such a broad focus enables understanding the use of technology as was reported by older adults, instead of its intended use. Our study reveals that the influence of each family member has its own characteristics. The influence of technology acceptance is a natural and coincidental part of the interaction with spouses and grandchildren in which entertainment and pleasure are prominent. This is also partly true for the influence of children, but their influence also is intentional and driven by concerns. Our study indicates the importance of including all family members when implementing technology in the lives of older adults. Besides information for children about the use(fullness) of devices, it is worthwhile to give grandchildren an important role, because older adults easily adopt their enthusiasm and it might eventually lighten the burden on children. PMID:26690188

  19. Small inhibitor of Bcl-2, HA14-1, selectively enhanced the apoptotic effect of cisplatin by modulating Bcl-2 family members

    E-print Network

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    by modulating Bcl-2 family members in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells Elif Damla Arisan Æ Ozgur Kutuk Æ Tugsan-dependent manner in MCF-7 (drug-sensitive) and MDA-MB-231 (drug-insensitive) cells. Furthermore, when we of paclitaxel was much less potent only in MDA-MB-231 cells. To further understand the distinct role of drugs

  20. “Grandma, You Should Do It—It’s Cool” Older Adults and the Role of Family Members in Their Acceptance of Technology

    PubMed Central

    Luijkx, Katrien; Peek, Sebastiaan; Wouters, Eveline

    2015-01-01

    Despite its potential, the acceptance of technology to support the ability to live independently in one’s own home, also called aging in place, is not optimal. Family members may play a key role in technology acceptance by older adults; however, it is not well understood why and how they exert influence. Based on open interviews with 53 community-dwelling older adults, this paper describes the influence of family members, including spouses, on the use of various types of consumer electronics by older adults as was reported by themselves. Such a broad focus enables understanding the use of technology as was reported by older adults, instead of its intended use. Our study reveals that the influence of each family member has its own characteristics. The influence of technology acceptance is a natural and coincidental part of the interaction with spouses and grandchildren in which entertainment and pleasure are prominent. This is also partly true for the influence of children, but their influence also is intentional and driven by concerns. Our study indicates the importance of including all family members when implementing technology in the lives of older adults. Besides information for children about the use(fullness) of devices, it is worthwhile to give grandchildren an important role, because older adults easily adopt their enthusiasm and it might eventually lighten the burden on children. PMID:26690188

  1. What Do Family Members Notice Following an Intervention to Improve Mobility and Incontinence Care for Nursing Home Residents? An Analysis of Open-Ended Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy-Storms, Lene; Schnelle, John F.; Simmons, Sandra F.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of family members' responses to open-ended interview questions about an intervention to improve incontinence and mobility care for their relative in a nursing home. Design and Methods: The study was a randomized, controlled intervention trial with incontinent nursing home residents…

  2. We're hiring. Become a member of our team. The Alberta Centre for Child, Family and Community Research (The Centre) is recruiting a Data

    E-print Network

    de Leon, Alex R.

    childhood, mental health, educational performance, youth transitions and resilience. Duties: Work xcui@research4children.com by August 18, 2014. #12;We're hiring. Become a member of our team. The Alberta Centre for Child, Family and Community

  3. Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…

  4. 20 CFR 410.230 - Written statement filed by or for a miner on behalf of a member of his family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969... filed by or for a miner on behalf of a member of his family until such miner's death. At such time, the... filed on the day of the miner's death. However, for purposes of paying benefits to an otherwise...

  5. 20 CFR 410.230 - Written statement filed by or for a miner on behalf of a member of his family.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969... filed by or for a miner on behalf of a member of his family until such miner's death. At such time, the... filed on the day of the miner's death. However, for purposes of paying benefits to an otherwise...

  6. How the Trivialization of the Demands of High-Tech Care in the Home is Turning Family Members Into Para-Medical Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guberman, Nancy; Gagnon, Eric; Cote, Denyse; Gilbert, Claude; Thivierge, Nicole; Tremblay, Marielle

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes the transfer of specialized professional activities from health care workers to patients and their family members in the context of the shift to ambulatory care for acute and chronic illnesses requiring hospitalization. Based on 119 semidirective interviews with patients released from hospital after early discharge and/or with…

  7. 41 CFR 303-70.402 - When an immediate family member, residing with the employee, dies while the employee is stationed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When an immediate family member, residing with the employee, dies while the employee is stationed outside CONUS, may we pay burial... the employee, dies while the employee is stationed outside CONUS, may we pay burial expenses? No....

  8. 41 CFR 303-70.400 - When an immediate family member, residing with the employee, dies while the employee is stationed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When an immediate family member, residing with the employee, dies while the employee is stationed outside CONUS, must we furnish... with the employee, dies while the employee is stationed outside CONUS, must we furnish...

  9. 41 CFR 303-70.401 - When an immediate family member, residing with the employee, dies while the employee is stationed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When an immediate family member, residing with the employee, dies while the employee is stationed outside CONUS, must we pay..., residing with the employee, dies while the employee is stationed outside CONUS, must we pay expenses...

  10. Estrogen Regulation of Anti-Apoptotic Bcl-2 Family Member Mcl-1 Expression in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schacter, Jennifer L.; Henson, Elizabeth S.; Gibson, Spencer B.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen is implicated as an important factor in stimulating breast cancer cell proliferation, and presence of estrogen receptor (ER) is an indication of a good prognosis in breast cancer patients. Mcl-1 is an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member that is often over expressed in breast tumors, correlating with poor survival. In breast cancer, it was been previously shown that epidermal growth factor receptors up-regulate Mcl-1 but the role of estrogen in increasing Mcl-1 expression was unknown. In ER? positive cell lines MCF-7 and ZR-75, estrogen treatment increased Mcl-1 expression at both the protein and mRNA level. In two ER? negative cell lines, SK-BR-3 and MDA-MB-231, estrogen failed to increase in Mcl-1 protein expression. We found that ER? antagonists decreased estrogen mediated Mcl-1 expression at both the protein and mRNA level. Upon knockdown of ER?, Mcl-1 mRNA expression after estrogen treatment was also decreased. We also found that ER? binds to the Mcl-1 promoter at a region upstream of the translation start site containing a half ERE site. Streptavidin-pull down assay showed that both ER? and transcription factor Sp1 bind to this region. These results suggest that estrogen is involved in regulating Mcl-1 expression specifically through a mechanism involving ER?. PMID:24971890

  11. Sphingomonas paucimobilis beta-glucosidase Bgl1: a member of a new bacterial subfamily in glycoside hydrolase family 1.

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Ana Rita; Coutinho, Pedro M; Videira, Paula; Fialho, Arsénio M; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2003-01-01

    The Sphingomonas paucimobilis beta-glucosidase Bgl1 is encoded by the bgl1 gene, associated with an 1308 bp open reading frame. The deduced protein has a potential signal peptide of 24 amino acids in the N-terminal region, and experimental evidence is consistent with the processing and export of the Bgl1 protein through the inner membrane to the periplasmic space. A His(6)-tagged 44.3 kDa protein was over-produced in the cytosol of Escherichia coli from a recombinant plasmid, which contained the S. paucimobilis bgl1 gene lacking the region encoding the putative signal peptide. Mature beta-glucosidase Bgl1 is specific for aryl-beta-glucosides and has no apparent activity with oligosaccharides derived from cellulose hydrolysis and other saccharides. A structure-based alignment established structural relations between S. paucimobilis Bgl1 and other members of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 1 enzymes. At subsite -1, the conserved residues required for catalysis by GH1 enzymes are present in Bgl1 with only minor differences. Major differences are found at subsite +1, the aglycone binding site. This alignment seeded a sequence-based phylogenetic analysis of GH1 enzymes, revealing an absence of horizontal transfer between phyla. Bootstrap analysis supported the definition of subfamilies and revealed that Bgl1, the first characterized beta-glucosidase from the genus Sphingomonas, represents a very divergent bacterial subfamily, closer to archaeal subfamilies than to others of bacterial origin. PMID:12444924

  12. The protein tyrosine phosphatases PTPRZ and PTPRG bind to distinct members of the contactin family of neural recognition molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Bouyain, Samuel; Watkins, Dara J.

    2010-04-05

    The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases gamma (PTPRG) and zeta (PTPRZ) are expressed primarily in the nervous system and mediate cell adhesion and signaling events during development. We report here the crystal structures of the carbonic anhydrase-like domains of PTPRZ and PTPRG and show that these domains interact directly with the second and third immunoglobulin repeats of the members of the contactin (CNTN) family of neural recognition molecules. Interestingly, these receptors exhibit distinct specificities: PTPRZ binds only to CNTN1, whereas PTPRG interacts with CNTN3, 4, 5, and 6. Furthermore, we present crystal structures of the four N-terminal immunoglobulin repeats of mouse CNTN4 both alone and in complex with the carbonic anhydrase-like domain of mouse PTPRG. In these structures, the N-terminal region of CNTN4 adopts a horseshoe-like conformation found also in CNTN2 and most likely in all CNTNs. This restrained conformation of the second and third immunoglobulin domains creates a binding site that is conserved among CNTN3, 4, 5, and 6. This site contacts a discrete region of PTPRG composed primarily of an extended {beta}-hairpin loop found in both PTPRG and PTPRZ. Overall, these findings implicate PTPRG, PTPRZ and CNTNs as a group of receptors and ligands involved in the manifold recognition events that underlie the construction of neural networks.

  13. A Member of the Arabidopsis Mitochondrial Transcription Termination Factor Family Is Required for Maturation of Chloroplast Transfer RNAIle(GAU).

    PubMed

    Romani, Isidora; Manavski, Nikolay; Morosetti, Arianna; Tadini, Luca; Maier, Swetlana; Kühn, Kristina; Ruwe, Hannes; Schmitz-Linneweber, Christian; Wanner, Gerhard; Leister, Dario; Kleine, Tatjana

    2015-09-01

    Plastid gene expression is crucial for organelle function, but the factors that control it are still largely unclear. Members of the so-called mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) family are found in metazoans and plants and regulate organellar gene expression at different levels. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mTERF6 is localized in chloroplasts and mitochondria, and its knockout perturbs plastid development and results in seedling lethality. In the leaky mterf6-1 mutant, a defect in photosynthesis is associated with reduced levels of photosystem subunits, although corresponding messenger RNA levels are unaffected, whereas translational capacity and maturation of chloroplast ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) are perturbed in mterf6-1 mutants. Bacterial one-hybrid screening, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments reveal a specific interaction between mTERF6 and an RNA sequence in the chloroplast isoleucine transfer RNA gene (trnI.2) located in the rRNA operon. In vitro, recombinant mTERF6 bound to its plastid DNA target site can terminate transcription. At present, it is unclear whether disturbed rRNA maturation is a primary or secondary defect. However, it is clear that mTERF6 is required for the maturation of trnI.2. This points to an additional function of mTERFs. PMID:26152711

  14. Promyelocytic leukemia protein induces arsenic trioxide resistance through regulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family member A1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Yang, Xin-Rong; Sun, Chao; Hu, Bo; Sun, Yun-Fan; Huang, Xiao-Wu; Wang, Zheng; He, Yi-Feng; Zeng, Hai-Ying; Qiu, Shuang-Jian; Cao, Ya; Fan, Jia; Zhou, Jian

    2015-09-28

    Clinical response of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been poor. Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) is central to ATO treatment efficacy of acute promyelocytic leukemia. We examine impacts of PML expression on the effectiveness of ATO treatment in HCC. We show that increased PML expression predicts longer survival and lower cancer recurrence rates after HCC resection. However, high PML expression dampens the anti-tumor effects of ATO in HCC cells. Gene microarray analysis shows that reduced PML expression significantly down-regulates expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family member A1 (ALDH3A1). ALDH3A1 depression facilitates accumulation of ATO-induced reactive oxygen species. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis and promoter activity assays confirm that PML regulates ALDH3A1 expression through binding to the promoter region of ALDH3A1. Clinically, ATO treatment decreases the disease progression rate in advanced HCC patients with negative PML expression. In conclusion, PML confers a favorable prognosis in HCC patients, but it induces ATO resistance through ALDH3A1 up-regulation in HCC cells. ATO is effective for HCC patients with negative PML expression. Combined with an ALDH3A1 inhibitor, ATO may be efficacious in patients with positive PML expression. PMID:26118777

  15. A Member of the Sugar Transporter Family, Stl1p Is the Glycerol/H+ Symporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Célia; van Voorst, Frank; Martins, António; Neves, Luisa; Oliveira, Rui; Kielland-Brandt, Morten C.; Lucas, Cândida; Brandt, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Glycerol and other polyols are used as osmoprotectants by many organisms. Several yeasts and other fungi can take up glycerol by proton symport. To identify genes involved in active glycerol uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae we screened a deletion mutant collection comprising 321 genes encoding proteins with 6 or more predicted transmembrane domains for impaired growth on glycerol medium. Deletion of STL1, which encodes a member of the sugar transporter family, eliminates active glycerol transport. Stl1p is present in the plasma membrane in S. cerevisiae during conditions where glycerol symport is functional. Both the Stl1 protein and the active glycerol transport are subject to glucose-induced inactivation, following identical patterns. Furthermore, the Stl1 protein and the glycerol symporter activity are strongly but transiently induced when cells are subjected to osmotic shock. STL1 was heterologously expressed in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a yeast that does not contain its own active glycerol transport system. In S. pombe, STL1 conferred the ability to take up glycerol against a concentration gradient in a proton motive force-dependent manner. We conclude that the glycerol proton symporter in S. cerevisiae is encoded by STL1. PMID:15703210

  16. Regenerating gene family member 4 promotes growth and migration of gastric cancer through protein kinase B pathway

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiamiao; Yang, Ya; Yang, Jian; Li, Xian

    2014-01-01

    Regenerating gene family member 4 (REG4), a secreted protein, is overexpressed in several cancers, including gastric cancer. The present study was undertaken to determine the roles of REG4 in the growth of gastric cancer in the nude mice and in the proliferation and migration in human gastric cancer cell line and its downstream signaling pathway. Gastric cancer models were elicited by intraperitoneally injecting MKN45 human gastric cancer cells and the tumor size was measured every other day. The expressions of REG4 mRNA and protein were increased in the gastric cancer tissues from gastric cancer patients. REG4 increased the gastric tumor weight and size in the nude mice, and promoted the proliferation and migration of gastric cancer cells MKN45. Adeno-associated viral (AAV)-mediated knockdown of REG4 decreased the gastric tumor weight and size in the nude mice, and suppressed the proliferation and migration of MKN45 cells. REG4 increased the expression of phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt). Triciribine hydrate (TCN), the inhibitor of Akt, decreased the gastric tumor weight and size in the nude mice and abolished REG4-induced weight and size increase of the tumor. TCN also inhibited proliferation and migration and abolished REG4-induced proliferation and migration increase of human gastric cell line MKN45. These results indicate that REG4 promotes the growth, proliferation and migration of gastric cancer through Akt pathway. PMID:25356179

  17. Los1p, involved in yeast pre-tRNA splicing, positively regulates members of the SOL gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, W.C.; Stanford, D.R.; Hopper, A.K.

    1996-06-01

    To understand the role of Los1p in pre-tRNA splicing, we sought los1 multicopy suppressors. We found SOL1 that suppresses both point and null LOS1 mutations. Since, when fused to the Gal4p DNA-binding domain, Los1p activates transcription, we tested whether Los1p regulates SOL1. We found that los1 mutants have depleted levels of SOL1 mRNA and Sol1p. Thus, LOS1 appears to positively regulate SOL1. SOL1 belongs to a multigene family with at least two additional members, SOL2 and SOL3. Sol proteins have extensive similarity to an unusual group of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases (G6PDs). As the similarities are restricted to areas separate from the catalytic domain, these G6PDs may have more than one function. The SOL gene disruptions negatively affect tRNA-mediated nonsense suppression and the severity increases with the number of mutant SOL genes. However, tRNA levels do not vary with either multicopy SOL genes or with SOL disruptions. Therefore, the Sol proteins affect tRNA expression/function at steps other than transcription or splicing. We propose that LOS1 regulates gene products involved in tRNA expression/function as well as pre-tRNA splicing. 64 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Isolation and characterization of a novel epithelium-specific transcription factor, ESE-1, a member of the ets family.

    PubMed Central

    Oettgen, P; Alani, R M; Barcinski, M A; Brown, L; Akbarali, Y; Boltax, J; Kunsch, C; Munger, K; Libermann, T A

    1997-01-01

    We report here the isolation of a novel, highly tissue-restricted member of the ets transcription factor/oncogene family, ESE-1 (for epithelium-specific Ets), which has features distinct from those of any other ets-related factor. ESE-1 contains two putative DNA binding domains: an ETS domain, which is unique in that the 5' half shows relatively weak homology to known ets factors, and an A/T hook domain, found in HMG proteins and various other nuclear factors. In contrast to any known ets factors, ESE-1 is expressed exclusively in epithelial cells. ESE-1 expression is induced during terminal differentiation of the epidermis and in a primary human keratinocyte differentiation system. The keratinocyte terminal differentiation marker gene, SPRR2A, is a putative target for ESE-1, since SPRR2A expression during keratinocyte differentiation correlates with induction of ESE-1 expression, and ESE-1 binds with high affinity to and transactivates the ets binding site in the SPRR2A promoter. ESE-1 also binds to and transactivates the enhancer of the Endo A gene, a potential target for ESE-1 in simple epithelia. Due to the important role that other ets factors play in cellular differentiation, ESE-1 is expected to be a critical regulator of epithelial cell differentiation. PMID:9234700

  19. The complexities of recruiting bereaved family members into a research study in the critical care environment: a discussion paper.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Victoria; Havyatt, Jennifer; Buckley, Thomas; Bartrop, Roger; McKinley, Sharon; Roche, Diane; Spinaze, Monica; Bramwell, Margaret; Tofler, Geoffrey

    2015-05-01

    Research on the effects of stressful events on human health and wellbeing has progressed in recent years. One such stress, bereavement, is considered one of life's greatest stresses, requiring significant readjustment. The Cardiovascular Risk in Bereavement study (CARBER) investigated in detail cardiovascular risk factors during the first weeks following the death of a partner or adult child in the critical care environment. The purpose of this paper is to explore the once held perception that the bereaved population should not be involved in research, using an actual illustrative project. The paper specifically focuses on the challenges regarding acceptability and feasibility of recruitment of recently bereaved individuals from the critical care environment. The question of whether bereaved individuals have capacity to consent to involvement in research immediately after loss is considered. The appropriateness of asking newly bereaved individuals to participate in research immediately after the death of their relative is also discussed. The work of the research team demonstrates that early recruitment of bereaved family members into a research project is feasible and acceptable to participants, especially when a multidisciplinary collaborative approach is employed and a personal mode of recruitment used. PMID:25554542

  20. Human IgG1 Responses to Surface Localised Schistosoma mansoni Ly6 Family Members Drop following Praziquantel Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Iain W.; Fitzsimmons, Colin M.; Brown, Martha; Pierrot, Christine; Jones, Frances M.; Wawrzyniak, Jakub M.; Fernandez-Fuentes, Narcis; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.; Khalife, Jamal; Hoffmann, Karl F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The heptalaminate-covered, syncytial tegument is an important anatomical adaptation that enables schistosome parasites to maintain long-term, intravascular residence in definitive hosts. Investigation of the proteins present in this surface layer and the immune responses elicited by them during infection is crucial to our understanding of host/parasite interactions. Recent studies have revealed a number of novel tegumental surface proteins including three (SmCD59a, SmCD59b and Sm29) containing uPAR/Ly6 domains (renamed SmLy6A SmLy6B and SmLy6D in this study). While vaccination with SmLy6A (SmCD59a) and SmLy6D (Sm29) induces protective immunity in experimental models, human immunoglobulin responses to representative SmLy6 family members have yet to be thoroughly explored. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a PSI-BLAST-based search, we present a comprehensive reanalysis of the Schistosoma mansoni Ly6 family (SmLy6A-K). Our examination extends the number of members to eleven (including three novel proteins) and provides strong evidence that the previously identified vaccine candidate Sm29 (renamed SmLy6D) is a unique double uPAR/Ly6 domain-containing representative. Presence of canonical cysteine residues, signal peptides and GPI-anchor sites strongly suggest that all SmLy6 proteins are cell surface-bound. To provide evidence that SmLy6 members are immunogenic in human populations, we report IgG1 (as well as IgG4 and IgE) responses against two surface-bound representatives (SmLy6A and SmLy6B) within a cohort of S. mansoni-infected Ugandan males before and after praziquantel treatment. While pre-treatment IgG1 prevalence for SmLy6A and SmLy6B differs amongst the studied population (7.4% and 25.3% of the cohort, respectively), these values are both higher than IgG1 prevalence (2.7%) for a sub-surface tegumental antigen, SmTAL1. Further, post-treatment IgG1 levels against surface-associated SmLy6A and SmLy6B significantly drop (p = 0.020 and p < 0.001, respectively) when compared to rising IgG1 levels against sub-surface SmTAL1. Conclusions/Significance Collectively, these results expand the number of SmLy6 proteins found within S. mansoni and specifically demonstrate that surface-associated SmLy6A and SmLy6B elicit immunological responses during infection in endemic communities. PMID:26147973

  1. Babesia bovis expresses Bbo-6cys-E, a member of a novel gene family that is homologous to the 6-cys family of Plasmodium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel Babesia bovis gene family encoding proteins with similarities to the Plasmodium 6cys protein family was identified by TBLASTN searches of the Babesia bovis genome using the sequence of the P. falciparum PFS230 protein as query, and was termed Bbo-6cys gene family. The Bbo-cys6 gene family co...

  2. Identification of a candidate gene for the wheat endopeptidase Ep-D1 locus and two other STS markers linked to the eyespot resistance gene Pch1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is prone to strawbreaker foot rot (eye- spot), a fungal disease caused by Oculimacula yallundae and O. acuformis. The most effective source of genetic resistance is Pch1, a gene derived from Aegilops ventri- cosa. The endopeptidase isozyme marker allele Ep-D1b, linked to Pch1, has been shown t...

  3. Adaptive expansion of the maize maternally expressed gene (Meg) family involves changes in expression patterns and protein secondary structures of its members

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Maternally expressed gene (Meg) family is a locally-duplicated gene family of maize which encodes cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs). The founding member of the family, Meg1, is required for normal development of the basal endosperm transfer cell layer (BETL) and is involved in the allocation of maternal nutrients to growing seeds. Despite the important roles of Meg1 in maize seed development, the evolutionary history of the Meg cluster and the activities of the duplicate genes are not understood. Results In maize, the Meg gene cluster resides in a 2.3 Mb-long genomic region that exhibits many features of non-centromeric heterochromatin. Using phylogenetic reconstruction and syntenic alignments, we identified the pedigree of the Meg family, in which 11 of its 13 members arose in maize after allotetraploidization ~4.8 mya. Phylogenetic and population-genetic analyses identified possible signatures suggesting recent positive selection in Meg homologs. Structural analyses of the Meg proteins indicated potentially adaptive changes in secondary structure from ?-helix to ?-strand during the expansion. Transcriptomic analysis of the maize endosperm indicated that 6 Meg genes are selectively activated in the BETL, and younger Meg genes are more active than older ones. In endosperms from B73 by Mo17 reciprocal crosses, most Meg genes did not display parent-specific expression patterns. Conclusions Recently-duplicated Meg genes have different protein secondary structures, and their expressions in the BETL dominate over those of older members. Together with the signs of positive selections in the young Meg genes, these results suggest that the expansion of the Meg family involves potentially adaptive transitions in which new members with novel functions prevailed over older members. PMID:25084677

  4. The roles of interferon-inducible p200 family members IFI16 and p204 in innate immune responses, cell differentiation and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Gonzalezgugel, Elena; Cheng, Lei; Richbourgh, Brendon; Nie, Lin; Liu, Chuanju

    2014-01-01

    p204 is a member of the interferon-inducible p200 family proteins in mice. The p200 family has been reported to be multifunctional regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and senescence. Interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) is regarded as the human ortholog of p204 in several studies. This is possibly due to the similarity of their structures. However the consistency of their functions is still elusive. Currently, an emerging focus has been placed upon the role of the p200 proteins as sensors for microbial DNA in innate immune responses and provides new insights into infections as well as autoimmune diseases. This review specially focuses on IFI16 and p204, the member of p200 family in human and murine respectively, and their pathophysiological roles in innate immune responses, cell differentiation and proliferation. PMID:25815367

  5. Nine members of a family of nine-membered cyclic coordination clusters; Fe6Ln3 wheels (Ln = Gd to Lu and Y).

    PubMed

    Kühne, Irina A; Mereacre, Valeriu; Anson, Christopher E; Powell, Annie K

    2016-01-01

    We report a family of isostructural nonanuclear Fe(III)-Ln(III) cyclic coordination clusters [FeLn(?-OMe)9(vanox)6(benz)6]. (Ln = Tb (), Dy (), Ho (), Er (), Tm (), Yb (), Lu (), Y () and Gd ()), containing an odd number of metal ions. The planar cyclic coordination cluster cores are built up from three [Fe2Ln] subunits. PMID:26592179

  6. Family Issues

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Living with Autism > Family Issues Family Issues A child’s autism diagnosis affects every member of the family in ... can help their family by informing their other children about autism and the complications it introduces, understanding the challenges ...

  7. Mechanisms of Inhibition and Potentiation of ?4?2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by Members of the Ly6 Protein Family.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meilin; Puddifoot, Clare A; Taylor, Palmer; Joiner, William J

    2015-10-01

    ?4?2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are abundantly expressed throughout the central nervous system and are thought to be the primary target of nicotine, the main addictive substance in cigarette smoking. Understanding the mechanisms by which these receptors are regulated may assist in developing compounds to selectively interfere with nicotine addiction. Here we report previously unrecognized modulatory properties of members of the Ly6 protein family on ?4?2 nAChRs. Using a FRET-based Ca(2+) flux assay, we found that the maximum response of ?4?2 receptors to agonist was strongly inhibited by Ly6h and Lynx2 but potentiated by Ly6g6e. The mechanisms underlying these opposing effects appear to be fundamentally distinct. Receptor inhibition by Lynx2 was accompanied by suppression of ?4?2 expression at the cell surface, even when assays were preceded by chronic exposure of cells to an established chaperone, nicotine. Receptor inhibition by Lynx2 also was resistant to pretreatment with extracellular phospholipase C, which cleaves lipid moieties like those that attach Ly6 proteins to the plasma membrane. In contrast, potentiation of ?4?2 activity by Ly6g6e was readily reversible by pretreatment with phospholipase C. Potentiation was also accompanied by slowing of receptor desensitization and an increase in peak currents. Collectively our data support roles for Lynx2 and Ly6g6e in intracellular trafficking and allosteric potentiation of ?4?2 nAChRs, respectively. PMID:26276394

  8. C-type lectin domain family 12, member A: A common denominator in Behçet's syndrome and acute gouty arthritis.

    PubMed

    O?uz, Ali Kemal; Y?lmaz, Seda; Akar, Nejat; Özda?, Hilal; Gürler, Aysel; Ate?, A?k?n; Oygür, Ça?da? ?ahap; K?l?ço?lu, Sibel Serin; Demirta?, Selda

    2015-08-01

    C-type lectin domain family 12, member A (CLEC12A) is a C-type lectin-like pattern recognition receptor capable of recognizing monosodium urate crystals. Monosodium urate crystals, the causative agents of gout are also among the danger-associated molecular patterns reflecting cellular injury/cell death. In response to monosodium urate crystals, CLEC12A effectively inhibits granulocyte and monocyte/macrophage functions and hence acts as a negative regulator of inflammation. Behçet's syndrome and gout are autoinflammatory disorders sharing certain pathological (neutrophilic inflammation), clinical (exaggerated response to monosodium urate crystals) and therapeutic (colchicine) features. We propose the hypothesis that decreased expression of CLEC12A is a common denominator in the hyperinflammatory responses observed in Behçet's syndrome and gout. Major lines of evidence supporting this hypothesis are: (1) Downregulation/deficiency of CLEC12A is associated with hyperinflammatory responses. (2) CLEC12A polymorphisms with functional and clinical implications have been documented in other inflammatory diseases. (3) Colchicine, a fundamental therapeutic agent used both in Behçet's syndrome and gout is shown to oppose the downregulation of CLEC12A. (4) Behçet's syndrome and gout are characterized by a hyperinflammatory response to monosodium urate crystals and other than gout, Behçet's syndrome is the only inflammatory condition exhibiting this exaggerated response. (5) Genomewide linkage and association studies of Behçet's syndrome collectively point to 12p12-13, the chromosomal region harboring CLEC12A. (6) Patients with severe forms of Behçet's syndrome underexpress CLEC12A with respect to patients with mild forms of the disease. If supported by well-designed, rigorous experiments, the forementioned hypothesis pertinent to CLEC12A will carry important implications for therapy, designing experimental models, and uncovering immunopathogenic mechanisms in Behçet's syndrome and gout. PMID:25957656

  9. Legionella dumoffii DjlA, a Member of the DnaJ Family, Is Required for Intracellular Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Hiroko; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu; Takade, Akemi; Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Harada, Mine; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2004-01-01

    Legionella dumoffii is one of the common causes of Legionnaires' disease and is capable of replicating in macrophages. To understand the mechanism of survival within macrophages, transposon mutagenesis was employed to isolate the genes necessary for intracellular growth. We identified four defective mutants after screening 790 transposon insertion mutants. Two transposon insertions were in genes homologous to icmB or dotC, within dot/icm loci, required for intracellular multiplication of L. pneumophila. The third was in a gene whose product is homologous to the 17-kDa antigen forming part of the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system of Bartonella henselae. The fourth was in the djlA (for “dnaj-like A”) gene. DjlA is a member of the DnaJ/Hsp40 family. Transcomplementation of the djlA mutant restored the parental phenotype in J774 macrophages, A549 human alveolar epithelial cells, and the amoeba Acanthamoeba culbertsoni. Using confocal laser-scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, we revealed that in contrast to the wild-type strain, L. dumoffii djlA mutant-containing phagosomes were unable to inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion. Transmission electron microscopy also showed that in contrast to the virulent parental strain, the djlA mutant was not able to recruit host cell rough endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, the stationary-phase L. dumoffii djlA mutants were more susceptible to H2O2, high osmolarity, high temperature, and low pH than was their parental strain. These results indicate that DjlA is required for intracellular growth and organelle trafficking, as well as bacterial resistance to environmental stress. This is the first report demonstrating that a single DjlA-deficient mutant exhibits a distinct phenotype. PMID:15155669

  10. The second member of transient receptor potential-melastatin channel family protects hearts from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Miller, Barbara A; Wang, JuFang; Hirschler-Laszkiewicz, Iwona; Gao, Erhe; Song, Jianliang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Koch, Walter J; Madesh, Muniswamy; Mallilankaraman, Karthik; Gu, Tongda; Chen, Shu-jen; Keefer, Kerry; Conrad, Kathleen; Feldman, Arthur M; Cheung, Joseph Y

    2013-04-01

    The second member of the transient receptor potential-melastatin channel family (TRPM2) is expressed in the heart and vasculature. TRPM2 channels were expressed in the sarcolemma and transverse tubules of adult left ventricular (LV) myocytes. Cardiac TRPM2 channels were functional since activation with H2O2 resulted in Ca(2+) influx that was dependent on extracellular Ca(2+), was significantly higher in wild-type (WT) myocytes compared with TRPM2 knockout (KO) myocytes, and inhibited by clotrimazole in WT myocytes. At rest, there were no differences in LV mass, heart rate, fractional shortening, and +dP/dt between WT and KO hearts. At 2-3 days after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), despite similar areas at risk and infarct sizes, KO hearts had lower fractional shortening and +dP/dt compared with WT hearts. Compared with WT I/R myocytes, expression of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1) and NCX1 current were increased, expression of the ?1-subunit of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Na(+) pump current were decreased, and action potential duration was prolonged in KO I/R myocytes. Post-I/R, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration transients and contraction amplitudes were equally depressed in WT and KO myocytes. After 2 h of hypoxia followed by 30 min of reoxygenation, levels of ROS were significantly higher in KO compared with WT LV myocytes. Compared with WT I/R hearts, oxygen radical scavenging enzymes (SODs) and their upstream regulators (forkhead box transcription factors and hypoxia-inducible factor) were lower, whereas NADPH oxidase was higher, in KO I/R hearts. We conclude that TRPM2 channels protected hearts from I/R injury by decreasing generation and enhancing scavenging of ROS, thereby reducing I/R-induced oxidative stress. PMID:23376831

  11. The second member of transient receptor potential-melastatin channel family protects hearts from ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Barbara A.; Wang, JuFang; Hirschler-Laszkiewicz, Iwona; Gao, Erhe; Song, Jianliang; Zhang, Xue-Qian; Koch, Walter J.; Madesh, Muniswamy; Mallilankaraman, Karthik; Gu, Tongda; Chen, Shu-jen; Keefer, Kerry; Conrad, Kathleen; Feldman, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    The second member of the transient receptor potential-melastatin channel family (TRPM2) is expressed in the heart and vasculature. TRPM2 channels were expressed in the sarcolemma and transverse tubules of adult left ventricular (LV) myocytes. Cardiac TRPM2 channels were functional since activation with H2O2 resulted in Ca2+ influx that was dependent on extracellular Ca2+, was significantly higher in wild-type (WT) myocytes compared with TRPM2 knockout (KO) myocytes, and inhibited by clotrimazole in WT myocytes. At rest, there were no differences in LV mass, heart rate, fractional shortening, and +dP/dt between WT and KO hearts. At 2–3 days after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), despite similar areas at risk and infarct sizes, KO hearts had lower fractional shortening and +dP/dt compared with WT hearts. Compared with WT I/R myocytes, expression of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) and NCX1 current were increased, expression of the ?1-subunit of Na+-K+-ATPase and Na+ pump current were decreased, and action potential duration was prolonged in KO I/R myocytes. Post-I/R, intracellular Ca2+ concentration transients and contraction amplitudes were equally depressed in WT and KO myocytes. After 2 h of hypoxia followed by 30 min of reoxygenation, levels of ROS were significantly higher in KO compared with WT LV myocytes. Compared with WT I/R hearts, oxygen radical scavenging enzymes (SODs) and their upstream regulators (forkhead box transcription factors and hypoxia-inducible factor) were lower, whereas NADPH oxidase was higher, in KO I/R hearts. We conclude that TRPM2 channels protected hearts from I/R injury by decreasing generation and enhancing scavenging of ROS, thereby reducing I/R-induced oxidative stress. PMID:23376831

  12. A new member of the psToc159 family contributes to distinct protein targeting pathways in pea chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Chang, WaiLing; Soll, Jürgen; Bölter, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Protein import into chloroplasts relies on specific targeting of preproteins from the cytosol to the organelles and coordinated translocation processes across the double envelope membrane. Here, two complex machineries constitute the so called general import pathway, which consists of the TOC and TIC complexes (translocon at the outer envelope of chloroplasts and translocon at the inner envelope of chloroplasts, respectively). The majority of canonical preproteins feature an N-terminal cleavable transit peptide, which is necessary for targeting and recognition at the chloroplast surface by receptors of TOC, where Toc159 acts as the primary contact site. We identified a non-canonical preprotein without the classical transit peptide, the superoxide dismutase (FSD1), which was then used in chemical crosslinking approaches to find new interaction partners at the outer envelope from pea chloroplasts. In this way we could link FSD1 to members of the Toc159 family in pea, namely psToc132 and psToc120. Using deletion mutants as well as a peptide scanning approach we defined regions of the preprotein, which are involved in receptor binding. These are distributed across the entire sequence; however the extreme N-terminus as well as a C-proximal domain turned out to be essential for targeting and import. En route into the plastid FSD1 engages components of the general import pathway, implying that in spite of the non-canonical targeting information and recognition by a specific receptor this preprotein follows a similar way across the envelope as the majority of plastid preproteins. PMID:24904628

  13. The Repeat-In-Toxin Family Member TosA Mediates Adherence of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Survival during Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Vigil, Patrick D.; Wiles, Travis J.; Engstrom, Michael D.; Prasov, Lev; Mulvey, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is responsible for the majority of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) and represents the most common bacterial infection in adults. UPEC utilizes a wide range of virulence factors to colonize the host, including the novel repeat-in-toxin (RTX) protein TosA, which is specifically expressed in the host urinary tract and contributes significantly to the virulence and survival of UPEC. tosA, found in strains within the B2 phylogenetic subgroup of E. coli, serves as a marker for strains that also contain a large number of well-characterized UPEC virulence factors. The presence of tosA in an E. coli isolate predicts successful colonization of the murine model of ascending UTI, regardless of the source of the isolate. Here, a detailed analysis of the function of tosA revealed that this gene is transcriptionally linked to genes encoding a conserved type 1 secretion system similar to other RTX family members. TosA localized to the cell surface and was found to mediate (i) adherence to host cells derived from the upper urinary tract and (ii) survival in disseminated infections and (iii) to enhance lethality during sepsis (as assessed in two different animal models of infection). An experimental vaccine, using purified TosA, protected vaccinated animals against urosepsis. From this work, it was concluded that TosA belongs to a novel group of RTX proteins that mediate adherence and host damage during UTI and urosepsis and could be a novel target for the development of therapeutics to treat ascending UTIs. PMID:22083710

  14. Crystallographic Structure of the Nuclease Domain of 3?hExo, a DEDDh Family Member, Bound to rAMP

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuan; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2015-01-01

    A human 3?-5?-exoribonuclease (3?hExo) has recently been identified and shown to be responsible for histone mRNA degradation. Functionally, 3?hExo and a stem–loop binding protein (SLBP) target opposite faces of a unique highly conserved stem–loop RNA scaffold towards the 3? end of histone mRNA, which is composed of a 6 bp stem and a 4 nt loop, followed by an ACCCA sequence. Its Caenorhabditis elegans homologue, ERI-1, has been shown to degrade small interfering RNA in vitro and to function as a negative regulator of RNA interference in neuronal cells. We have determined the structure of the nuclease domain (Nuc) of 3?hExo complexed with rAMP in the presence of Mg2+ at 1.6 Å resolution. The Nuc domain adopts an ?/? globular fold, with four acidic residues coordinating a binuclear metal cluster within the active site, whose topology is related to DEDDh exonuclease family members, despite a very low level of primary sequence identity. The two magnesium cations in the Nuc active site are coordinated to D134, E136, D234 and D298, and together with H293, which can potentially act as a general base, provide a platform for hydrolytic cleavage of bound RNA in the 3??5? direction. The bound rAMP is positioned within a deep active-site pocket, with its purine ring close-packed with the hydrophobic F185 and L189 side-chains and its sugar 2?-OH and 3?-OH groups hydrogen bonded to backbone atoms of Nuc. There are striking similarities between the active sites of Nuc and ?186, an Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III proofreading domain, providing a common hydrolytic cleavage mechanism for RNA degradation and DNA editing, respectively. PMID:15451662

  15. Expression of Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1 Member B10 in the Early Stages of Human Hepatocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tsuzura, Hironori; Genda, Takuya; Sato, Shunsuke; Murata, Ayato; Kanemitsu, Yoshio; Narita, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Sachiko; Kikuchi, Tetsu; Mori, Masashi; Hirano, Katsuharu; Iijima, Katsuyori; Wada, Ryo; Ichida, Takafumi

    2014-01-01

    Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B10 (AKR1B10), a cancer-related oxidoreductase, is expressed in well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). However, AKR1B10 levels are minimal in normal liver tissues (NLs), similar to the 70-kilodalton heat shock protein (HSP70) and glypican-3. Moreover, the role of AKR1B10 in chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis, which are considered preneoplastic conditions for HCC, has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of AKR1B10, HSP70, and glypican-3 in 61 HCC tissue samples compared to corresponding non-tumorous liver tissues (NTs), comprising 42 chronic hepatitis and 19 cirrhosis cases to clarify the significance of molecular changes at the preneoplastic stages of HCC. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the median expression levels of AKR1B10 were higher in HCCs than in NTs (p < 0.001) and higher in NTs than NLs (p < 0.001) with 54.8%, 2.1%, and 0.3% expression in HCCs, NTs, and NLs, respectively. HSP70 and glypican-3 were expressed in HCCs, but minimally in NTs and NLs with no significant difference between expression in NTs and NLs. Furthermore, a multivariate analysis identified an association between hepatic steatosis and AKR1B10 expression in NTs (p = 0.020). Of the three protein expressed in well-differentiated HCCs, only AKR1B10 was upregulated in preneoplastic conditions, and a steatosis-related factor might influence its expression. PMID:24747592

  16. Expression and regulation of Schlafen (SLFN) family members in primary human monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells and T cells

    PubMed Central

    Puck, Alexander; Aigner, Regina; Modak, Madhura; Cejka, Petra; Blaas, Dieter; Stöckl, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Schlafen (SLFN/Slfn) family members have been investigated for their involvement in fundamental cellular processes including growth regulation, differentiation and control of viral replication. However, most research has been focused on the characterization of Slfns within the murine system or in human cell lines. Since little is known about SLFNs in primary human immune cells, we set out to analyze the expression and regulation of the six human SLFN genes in monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) and T cells. Comparison of SLFN gene expression across these three cell types showed high mRNA expression of SLFN11 in monocytes and moDCs and high SLFN5 expression in T cells, indicating functional importance within these cell types. Differentiation of monocytes to moDCs leads to the gradual upregulation of SLFN12L and SLFN13 while SLFN12 levels were decreased by differentiation stimuli. Stimulation of moDCs via human rhinovirus, lipopolysaccharide, or IFN-? lead to strong upregulation of SLFN gene expression, while peptidoglycan poorly stimulated regulation of both SLFNs and the classical interferon-stimulated gene MxA. T cell activation was found to downregulate the expression of SLFN5, SLFN12 and SLFN12L, which was reversible upon addition of exogenous IFN-?. In conclusion, we demonstrate, that SLFN gene upregulation is mainly dependent on autocrine type I interferon signaling in primary human immune cells. Rapid decrease of SLFN expression levels following T cell receptor stimulation indicates a role of SLFNs in the regulation of human T cell quiescence. PMID:26623250

  17. Sfr13, a member of a large family of asymmetrically localized Sfi1-repeat proteins, is important for basal body separation and stability in Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Stemm-Wolf, Alexander J.; Meehl, Janet B.; Winey, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Summary Directed fluid flow, which is achieved by the coordinated beating of motile cilia, is required for processes as diverse as cellular swimming, developmental patterning and mucus clearance. Cilia are nucleated, anchored and aligned at the plasma membrane by basal bodies, which are cylindrical microtubule-based structures with ninefold radial symmetry. In the unicellular ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, two centrin family members associated with the basal body are important for both basal body organization and stabilization. We have identified a family of 13 proteins in Tetrahymena that contain centrin-binding repeats related to those identified in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sfi1 protein. We have named these proteins Sfr1–Sfr13 (for Sfi1-repeat). Nine of the Sfr proteins localize in unique polarized patterns surrounding the basal body, suggesting non-identical roles in basal body organization and association with basal body accessory structures. Furthermore, the Sfr proteins are found in distinct basal body populations in Tetrahymena cells, indicating that they are responsive to particular developmental programs. A complete genetic deletion of one of the family members, Sfr13, causes unstable basal bodies and defects in daughter basal body separation from the mother, phenotypes also observed with centrin disruption. It is likely that the other Sfr family members are involved in distinct centrin functions, providing specificity to the tasks that centrins perform at basal bodies. PMID:23426847

  18. Solution structure of Arabidopsis thaliana protein At5g39720.1, a member of the AIG2-like protein family

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, Betsy L.; Peterson, Francis C.; Tyler, Ejan M.; Newman, Carrie L.; Vinarov, Dmitriy A.; Markley, John L.; Volkman, Brian F.

    2006-06-01

    The solution structure of A. thaliana protein At5g39720.1 reported here is the first for a member of the AIG2-like family (PF06094). The three-dimensional structure shows similarity to those determined for members of the uncharacterized Pfam family UPF0131. The three-dimensional structure of Arabidopsis thaliana protein At5g39720.1 was determined by NMR spectroscopy. It is the first representative structure of Pfam family PF06094, which contains protein sequences similar to that of AIG2, an A. thaliana protein of unknown function induced upon infection by the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. The At5g39720.1 structure consists of a five-stranded ?-barrel surrounded by two ?-helices and a small ?-sheet. A long flexible ?-helix protrudes from the structure at the C-terminal end. A structural homology search revealed similarity to three members of Pfam family UPF0131. Conservation of residues in a hydrophilic cavity able to bind small ligands in UPF0131 proteins suggests that this may also serve as an active site in AIG2-like proteins.

  19. Expression patterns of Brassica napus genes implicate IPT, CKX, sucrose transporter, cell wall invertase, and amino acid permease gene family members in leaf, flower, silique, and seed development

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiancheng; Jiang, Lijun; Jameson, Paula Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Forage brassica (Brassica napus cv. Greenland) is bred for vegetative growth and biomass production, while its seed yield remains to be improved for seed producers without affecting forage yield and quality. Cytokinins affect seed yield by influencing flower, silique and seed number, and seed size. To identify specific cytokinin gene family members as targets for breeding, as well as genes associated with yield and/or quality, a B. napus transcriptome was obtained from a mixed sample including leaves, flower buds and siliques of various stages. Gene families for cytokinin biosynthesis (BnIPT1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9), cytokinin degradation (BnCKX1 to BnCKX7), cell wall invertase (BnCWINV1 to BnCWINV6), sugar transporter (BnSUT1 to BnSUT6) and amino acid permease (BnAAP1 to BnAAP8) were identified. As B. napus is tetraploid, homoeologues of each gene family member were sought. Using multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis, the parental genomes of the two B. napus homoeologues could be differentiated. RT-qPCR was then used to determine the expression of gene family members and their homoeologues in leaves, flowers, siliques and seeds of different developmental stages. The expression analysis showed both temporal and organ-specific expression profiles among members of these multi-gene families. Several pairs of homoeologues showed differential expression, both in terms of level of expression and differences in temporal or organ-specificity. BnCKX2 and 4 were identified as targets for TILLING, EcoTILLING and MAS. PMID:25873685

  20. Expression patterns of Brassica napus genes implicate IPT, CKX, sucrose transporter, cell wall invertase, and amino acid permease gene family members in leaf, flower, silique, and seed development.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiancheng; Jiang, Lijun; Jameson, Paula Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Forage brassica (Brassica napus cv. Greenland) is bred for vegetative growth and biomass production, while its seed yield remains to be improved for seed producers without affecting forage yield and quality. Cytokinins affect seed yield by influencing flower, silique and seed number, and seed size. To identify specific cytokinin gene family members as targets for breeding, as well as genes associated with yield and/or quality, a B. napus transcriptome was obtained from a mixed sample including leaves, flower buds and siliques of various stages. Gene families for cytokinin biosynthesis (BnIPT1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9), cytokinin degradation (BnCKX1 to BnCKX7), cell wall invertase (BnCWINV1 to BnCWINV6), sugar transporter (BnSUT1 to BnSUT6) and amino acid permease (BnAAP1 to BnAAP8) were identified. As B. napus is tetraploid, homoeologues of each gene family member were sought. Using multiple alignments and phylogenetic analysis, the parental genomes of the two B. napus homoeologues could be differentiated. RT-qPCR was then used to determine the expression of gene family members and their homoeologues in leaves, flowers, siliques and seeds of different developmental stages. The expression analysis showed both temporal and organ-specific expression profiles among members of these multi-gene families. Several pairs of homoeologues showed differential expression, both in terms of level of expression and differences in temporal or organ-specificity. BnCKX2 and 4 were identified as targets for TILLING, EcoTILLING and MAS. PMID:25873685

  1. Divergent perceptions in health-related quality of life between family members and patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Remus, Cesar; Castillo-Ortiz, José Dionisio; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos; Paez-Agraz, Francisco; Sanchez-Ortiz, Adriana; Aceves-Avila, Francisco Javier

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether family members perceive health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of family members with rheumatic illnesses differently from the perceptions of these patients themselves. Cross-sectional study of consecutive patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) attending two outpatient rheumatic clinics. HRQoL was assessed using the Spanish version of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS-II) questionnaire; the "proxy" version is available for relatives. All patients and one proxy per patient separately answered the questionnaire at the clinic. Differences were determined by coefficients of determination (r (2)), Z scores, and meaningful differences of 30 %. Two hundred and ninety-one patients (111 SLE, 100 RA, and 80 AS) and their respective proxies were included. The mean age was 35 ± 13 years in SLE, 49.5 ± 14 years in RA, and 40 ± 14 years in AS patients. Divergent perceptions between patients and their proxies were found in 57 % of the SLE group, in 69 % of the RA group, and in 47 % of the AS group as per WHODAS-II global score. Stronger disagreement occurred for all the three groups in domains representing cognition and interaction with other people: around 60 % in the SLE group, 80 % in the RA group, and 40 % in the AS group. A substantial proportion of family members perceived the HRQoL of rheumatic family members differently from the perception of the patients themselves, most of the time biased toward underestimation, suggesting problems in the dynamics of efficient communication and social support. PMID:24859395

  2. Effects of Ras homolog gene family, member C gene silencing combined with rapamycin on hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shu-Li; Zhu, Ming-Guang; Chen, Guo-Fu; Wang, Guang-Yi; Lv, Guo-Yue

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the combined effects of inhibiting the Ras homolog gene family, member C (RhoC)/Rho kinase and phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways on hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth. The RhoC gene was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi) and mTOR was inhibited by rapamycin (RAPA). Subsequently, an MTT assay for cell growth detection, western blot analysis for gene expression analysis, silver nitrate staining for cell proliferation, Wright's staining for analysis of the apoptotic rate analysis, soft agar clonogenic assay for the determination of cell growth characteristics and a Transwell assay for cell migration were performed. RhoC expression in hepatoma cell lines was lower than that in the HL7702 normal human liver cell line. The level of cell proliferation in the RNAi + RAPA group was lower than that in the RNAi, RAPA and Scramble groups. The levels of cyclin?dependent kinase 2 in the RNAi + RAPA group were lower than those in the other groups, while the levels of P16 in the RNAi + RAPA group were higher than those in the other experimental groups. No significant difference was found between the RNAi + RAPA and the normal HL7702 group. The number of silver nitrate?stained particles was reduced in the RNAi + RAPA group compared with that in the other groups. No significant difference was found between the RNAi + RAPA and HL7702 groups. Wright's staining for apoptosis demonstrated that apoptosis in the Scramble group was rare, while the RAPA and RNAi groups contained a large number of apoptotic cells, which displayed nuclear condensation, fragmentation, deepened staining, as well as a wrinkled membrane. B?cell lymphoma?2 (Bcl?2) expression in the RNAi + RAPA group was lower than that in the other groups, while the gene expression of Bcl?2?associated X protein in the RNAi + RAPA group was increased compared with that in the other groups. No cell colony formation was observed in the soft agar cloning experiment in the RNAi + RAPA and HL7702 group, while in the other groups, visible cell clones appeared. In the Transwell assay the number of migrated cells in the RNAi + RAPA group was lower than that in the other groups. The gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2, MMP?9 and vascular endothelial growth factor in the RNAi + RAPA group was lower than that in the other experimental groups. In conclusion, RhoC gene silencing combined with RAPA was able to significantly inhibit the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. PMID:26165487

  3. Cisplatin resistance by induction of aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C2 in human bladder cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    SHIRATO, AKITOMI; KIKUGAWA, TADAHIKO; MIURA, NORIYOSHI; TANJI, NOZOMU; TAKEMORI, NOBUAKI; HIGASHIYAMA, SHIGEKI; YOKOYAMA, MASAYOSHI

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is currently the most effective anti-tumor agent available against bladder cancer. To clarify the mechanism underlying cisplatin resistance in bladder cancer, the present study examined the role of the aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C2 (AKR1C2) protein on chemoresistance using a human bladder cancer cell line. The function of AKR1C2 in chemoresistance was studied using the human HT1376 bladder cancer cell line and the cisplatin-resistant HT1376-CisR subline. AKR1C2 was expressed in HT1376-CisR cells, but not in the parental cells. The effect of small interfering (si) RNAs and an inhibitor targeting AKR1C2 was examined to determine whether cisplatin sensitivity can be rescued by blocking AKR1C2 expression or function. Silencing of AKR1C2 mRNA or inhibition of AKR1C2 by 5?-cholanic acid resulted in a decrease in the survival of cells following cisplatin exposure. Intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined using a 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) fluorescent probe. Cisplatin exposure increased the level of intracellular ROS in HT1376 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The ROS levels in HT1376-CisR cells were significantly lower than those in HT1376 cells and knockdown of AKR1C2 mRNA significantly restored ROS levels. Cisplatin exposure did not increase intracellular ROS in HT1376-CisR cells, although the level of intracellular ROS increased in HT1376 cells following cisplatin exposure. Silencing of AKR1C2 mRNA restored the ROS increase response to cisplatin and menadione as an oxidative stressor in HT1376-CisR cells. Menadione has the function of an oxidative stressor. The silencing of AKR1C2 mRNA restored the increased ROS response to cisplatin and menadione in HT1376-CisR cells. These results indicate that induction of AKR1C2 in human bladder cancer cells aids in the development of cisplatin resistance through antioxidative effects. The results of this study indicate that AKR1C2 may be an effective molecular target for restoring cisplatin resistance. PMID:24527071

  4. Effects of Ras homolog gene family, member C gene silencing combined with rapamycin on hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth

    PubMed Central

    XIE, SHU-LI; ZHU, MING-GUANG; CHEN, GUO-FU; WANG, GUANG-YI; LV, GUO-YUE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the combined effects of inhibiting the Ras homolog gene family, member C (RhoC)/Rho kinase and phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways on hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth. The RhoC gene was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi) and mTOR was inhibited by rapamycin (RAPA). Subsequently, an MTT assay for cell growth detection, western blot analysis for gene expression analysis, silver nitrate staining for cell proliferation, Wright's staining for analysis of the apoptotic rate analysis, soft agar clonogenic assay for the determination of cell growth characteristics and a Transwell assay for cell migration were performed. RhoC expression in hepatoma cell lines was lower than that in the HL7702 normal human liver cell line. The level of cell proliferation in the RNAi + RAPA group was lower than that in the RNAi, RAPA and Scramble groups. The levels of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 in the RNAi + RAPA group were lower than those in the other groups, while the levels of P16 in the RNAi + RAPA group were higher than those in the other experimental groups. No significant difference was found between the RNAi + RAPA and the normal HL7702 group. The number of silver nitrate-stained particles was reduced in the RNAi + RAPA group compared with that in the other groups. No significant difference was found between the RNAi + RAPA and HL7702 groups. Wright's staining for apoptosis demonstrated that apoptosis in the Scramble group was rare, while the RAPA and RNAi groups contained a large number of apoptotic cells, which displayed nuclear condensation, fragmentation, deepened staining, as well as a wrinkled membrane. B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression in the RNAi + RAPA group was lower than that in the other groups, while the gene expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein in the RNAi + RAPA group was increased compared with that in the other groups. No cell colony formation was observed in the soft agar cloning experiment in the RNAi + RAPA and HL7702 group, while in the other groups, visible cell clones appeared. In the Transwell assay the number of migrated cells in the RNAi + RAPA group was lower than that in the other groups. The gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2, MMP-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor in the RNAi + RAPA group was lower than that in the other experimental groups. In conclusion, RhoC gene silencing combined with RAPA was able to significantly inhibit the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. PMID:26165487

  5. Bfk: a novel weakly proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family with a BH3 and a BH2 region.

    PubMed

    Coultas, L; Pellegrini, M; Visvader, J E; Lindeman, G J; Chen, L; Adams, J M; Huang, D C S; Strasser, A

    2003-02-01

    Proteins of the Bcl-2 family are critical regulators of apoptosis. Proapoptotic members, like Bax, contain three of the four Bcl-2 homology regions (BH1-3), while BH3-only proteins, like Bim, possess only the short BH3 motif. Database searches revealed Bfk, an unusual novel member of the Bcl-2 family that contains a BH2 and BH3 region but not BH1 or BH4. Bfk is thus most closely related to Bcl-G(L). It lacks a C-terminal membrane anchor and is cytosolic. Enforced expression of Bfk weakly promoted apoptosis and antagonized Bcl-2's prosurvival function. Like Bcl-G(L), Bfk did not bind to any Bcl-2 family members, even though its BH3 motif can mediate association with prosurvival proteins. Low amounts of Bfk were found in stomach, ovary, bone marrow and spleen, but its level in the mammary gland rose markedly during pregnancy, suggesting that Bfk may play a role in mammary development. PMID:12700646

  6. IL-Y, a synthetic member of the IL-12 cytokine family, suppresses the development of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Flores, Rafael R; Kim, Eun; Zhou, Liqiao; Yang, Chenjie; Zhao, Jing; Gambotto, Andrea; Robbins, Paul D

    2015-11-01

    The IL-12 family of heterodimeric cytokines, consisting of IL-12, IL-23, IL-27, and IL-35, has important roles in regulating the immune response. IL-12 family members are comprised of a heterodimer consisting of ? and ? chains: IL-12 (p40 and p35), IL-23 (p40 and p19), IL-27 (Ebi3 and p28), and IL-35 (Ebi3 and p35). Given the combinatorial nature of the IL-12 family, we generated adenoviral vectors expressing two putative IL-12 family members not yet found naturally, termed IL-X (Ebi3 and p19) and IL-Y (p40 and p28), as single-chain molecules. Single chain IL-Y (scIL-Y), but not scIL-X, was able to stimulate significantly a unique cytokine/chemokine expression profile as well as activate STAT3 in mice, in part, through a pathway involving IL-27R? in splenocytes. Adenoviral-mediated, intratumoral delivery of scIL-Y increased tumor growth in contrast to the anti-tumor effects of scIL-12 and scIL-23. Similarly, treatment of prediabetic NOD mice by intravenous injection of Ad.scIL-Y prevented the onset of hyperglycemia. Analysis of cells from Ad.scIL-Y-treated NOD mice demonstrated that scIL-Y reduced expression of inflammatory mediators such as IFN-?. Our data demonstrate that a novel, synthetic member of the IL-12 family, termed IL-Y, confers unique immunosuppressive effects in two different disease models and thus could have therapeutic applications. PMID:26260044

  7. Multi-Family Psychoeducational Support Group Therapy for Families with a Member Afflicted with Irreversible Brain Syndrome (Alzheimer's Disease): Report of a Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paley, Evelyn S.; And Others

    Alzheimers Disease (AD), an incurable disability which afflicts older adults, can have devastating emotional consequences for the victim and the family. In an attempt to determine the effectiveness of multifamily psychoeducational support, group therapy (MFPSGT), 22 persons (13 families) from the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders…

  8. Biochemical and Structural Insights into RNA Binding by Ssh10b, a Member of the Highly Conserved Sac10b Protein Family in Archaea*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Li; Ding, Jingjin; Guo, Rong; Hou, Yanjie; Wang, Da-Cheng; Huang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Proteins of the Sac10b family are highly conserved in Archaea. Ssh10b, a member of the Sac10b family from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus shibatae, binds to RNA in vivo. Here we show that binding by Ssh10b destabilizes RNA secondary structure. Structural analysis of Ssh10b in complex with a 25-bp RNA duplex containing local distortions reveals that Ssh10b binds the two RNA strands symmetrically as a tetramer with each dimer bound asymmetrically to a single RNA strand. Amino acid residues involved in double-stranded RNA binding are similar, but non-identical, to those in dsDNA binding. The dimer-dimer interaction mediated by the intermolecular ?-sheet appears to facilitate the destabilization of base pairing in the secondary structure of RNA. Our results suggest that proteins of the Sac10b family may play important roles in RNA transactions requiring destabilization of RNA secondary structure in Sulfolobus. PMID:24307170

  9. Immunoregulatory functions and expression patterns of PE/PPE family members: Roles in pathogenicity and impact on anti-tuberculosis vaccine and drug design.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Asma; Das, Arghya; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2015-06-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome was sequenced more than 15 years ago. It revealed a lot of interesting information, one of which was that 10% of the total coding capacity of the M. tuberculosis genome is dedicated to the PE/PPE family. There is a gradual expansion of these proteins from nonpathogenic to pathogenic mycobacteria, and there is increasing evidence that PE/PPE proteins play important roles in mycobacterial pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss PE/PPE proteins, their close functional association with the ESX clusters, their immunomodulatory functions, and their important roles in mycobacterial virulence. In addition, we have attempted to review and compile information available in the literature detailing the expression patterns of PE/PPE family members in different mycobacterial species and also during infection. Our attempt has been to provide a succinct overview of this interesting family. PMID:26104967

  10. Concordance of Family and Staff Member Reports about End of Life in Assisted Living and Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Shayna E.; Williams, Christianna S.; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To identify differences in perspectives that may complicate the process of joint decision making at the end of life, this study determined the agreement of family and staff perspectives about end-of-life experiences in nursing homes and residential care/assisted living communities and whether family and staff roles, involvement in care,…

  11. Interplay between TAp73 Protein and Selected Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) Family Members Promotes AP-1 Target Gene Activation and Cellular Growth*

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Deepa; Bunjobpol, Wilawan; Sabapathy, Kanaga

    2015-01-01

    Unlike p53, which is mutated at a high rate in human cancers, its homologue p73 is not mutated but is often overexpressed, suggesting a possible context-dependent role in growth promotion. Previously, we have shown that co-expression of TAp73 with the proto-oncogene c-Jun can augment cellular growth and potentiate transactivation of activator protein (AP)-1 target genes such as cyclin D1. Here, we provide further mechanistic insights into the cooperative activity between these two transcription factors. Our data show that TAp73-mediated AP-1 target gene transactivation relies on c-Jun dimerization and requires the canonical AP-1 sites on target gene promoters. Interestingly, only selected members of the Fos family of proteins such as c-Fos and Fra1 were found to cooperate with TAp73 in a c-Jun-dependent manner to transactivate AP-1 target promoters. Inducible expression of TAp73 led to the recruitment of these Fos family members to the AP-1 target promoters on which TAp73 was found to be bound near the AP-1 site. Consistent with the binding of TAp73 and AP-1 members on the target promoters in a c-Jun-dependent manner, TAp73 was observed to physically interact with c-Jun specifically at the chromatin via its carboxyl-terminal region. Furthermore, co-expression of c-Fos or Fra1 was able to cooperate with TAp73 in potentiating cellular growth, similarly to c-Jun. These data together suggest that TAp73 plays a vital role in activation of AP-1 target genes via direct binding to c-Jun at the target promoters, leading to enhanced loading of other AP-1 family members, thereby leading to cellular growth. PMID:26018080

  12. Organ S values and effective doses for family members exposed to adult patients following I-131 treatment: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Eun Young; Lee, Choonsik; Mcguire, Lynn; Brown, Tracy L. Y.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To calculate organ S values (mGy/Bq-s) and effective doses per time-integrated activity (mSv/Bq-s) for pediatric and adult family members exposed to an adult male or female patient treated with I-131 using a series of hybrid computational phantoms coupled with a Monte Carlo radiation transport technique.Methods: A series of pediatric and adult hybrid computational phantoms were employed in the study. Three different exposure scenarios were considered: (1) standing face-to-face exposures between an adult patient and pediatric or adult family phantoms at five different separation distances; (2) an adult female patient holding her newborn child, and (3) a 1-yr-old child standing on the lap of an adult female patient. For the adult patient model, two different thyroid-related diseases were considered: hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with corresponding internal distributions of {sup 131}I. A general purpose Monte Carlo code, MCNPX v2.7, was used to perform the Monte Carlo radiation transport.Results: The S values show a strong dependency on age and organ location within the family phantoms at short distances. The S values and effective dose per time-integrated activity from the adult female patient phantom are relatively high at shorter distances and to younger family phantoms. At a distance of 1 m, effective doses per time-integrated activity are lower than those values based on the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) by a factor of 2 for both adult male and female patient phantoms. The S values to target organs from the hyperthyroid-patient source distribution strongly depend on the height of the exposed family phantom, so that their values rapidly decrease with decreasing height of the family phantom. Active marrow of the 10-yr-old phantom shows the highest S values among family phantoms for the DTC-patient source distribution. In the exposure scenario of mother and baby, S values and effective doses per time-integrated activity to the newborn and 1-yr-old phantoms for a hyperthyroid-patient source are higher than values for a DTC-patient source.Conclusions: The authors performed realistic assessments of {sup 131}I organ S values and effective dose per time-integrated activity from adult patients treated for hyperthyroidism and DTC to family members. In addition, the authors’ studies consider Monte Carlo simulated “mother and baby/child” exposure scenarios for the first time. Based on these results, the authors reconfirm the strong conservatism underlying the point source method recommended by the US NRC. The authors recommend that various factors such as the type of the patient's disease, the age of family members, and the distance/posture between the patient and family members must be carefully considered to provide realistic dose estimates for patient-to-family exposures.

  13. The unique mode of action of a divergent member of the ABA-receptor protein family in ABA and stress signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Chan, Zhulong; Xing, Lu; Liu, Xiaodong; Hou, Yueh-Ju; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Wang, Pengcheng; Duan, Chengguo; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2013-12-01

    Proteins in the PYR/PYL/RCAR family (PYLs) are known as receptors for the phytohormone ABA. Upon ABA binding, PYL adopts a conformation that allows it to interact with and inhibit clade A protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs), which are known as the co-receptors for ABA. Inhibition of the PP2Cs then leads to the activation of the SnRK2 family protein kinases that phosphorylate and activate downstream effectors in ABA response pathways. The PYL family has 14 members in Arabidopsis, 13 of which have been demonstrated to function as ABA receptors. The function of PYL13, a divergent member of the family, has been enigmatic. We report here that PYL13 differs from the other PYLs in three key residues that affect ABA perception, and mutations in these three residues can convert PYL13 into a partially functional ABA receptor. Transgenic plants overexpressing PYL13 show increased ABA sensitivity in seed germination and postgermination seedling establishment as well as decreased stomatal conductance, increased water-use efficiency, accelerated stress-responsive gene expression, and enhanced drought resistance. pyl13 mutant plants are less sensitive to ABA inhibition of postgermination seedling establishment. PYL13 interacts with and inhibits some members of clade A PP2Cs (PP2CA in particular) in an ABA-independent manner. PYL13 also interacts with the other PYLs and antagonizes their function as ABA receptors. Our results show that PYL13 is not an ABA receptor but can modulate the ABA pathway by interacting with and inhibiting both the PYL receptors and the PP2C co-receptors. PMID:24189045

  14. An exploration of lifestyle beliefs and lifestyle behaviour following stroke: findings from a focus group study of patients and family members

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Stroke is a major cause of disability and family disruption and carries a high risk of recurrence. Lifestyle factors that increase the risk of recurrence include smoking, unhealthy diet, excessive alcohol consumption and physical inactivity. Guidelines recommend that secondary prevention interventions, which include the active provision of lifestyle information, should be initiated in hospital, and continued by community-based healthcare professionals (HCPs) following discharge. However, stroke patients report receiving little/no lifestyle information. There is a limited evidence-base to guide the development and delivery of effective secondary prevention lifestyle interventions in the stroke field. This study, which was underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, sought to explore the beliefs and perceptions of patients and family members regarding the provision of lifestyle information following stroke. We also explored the influence of beliefs and attitudes on behaviour. We believe that an understanding of these issues is required to inform the content and delivery of effective secondary prevention lifestyle interventions. Methods We used purposive sampling to recruit participants through voluntary sector organizations (29 patients, including 7 with aphasia; 20 family members). Using focus group methods, data were collected in four regions of Scotland (8 group discussions) and were analysed thematically. Results Although many participants initially reported receiving no lifestyle information, further exploration revealed that most had received written information. However, it was often provided when people were not receptive, there was no verbal reinforcement, and family members were rarely involved, even when the patient had aphasia. Participants believed that information and advice regarding healthy lifestyle behaviour was often confusing and contradictory and that this influenced their behavioural intentions. Family members and peers exerted both positive and negative influences on behavioural patterns. The influence of HCPs was rarely mentioned. Participants' sense of control over lifestyle issues was influenced by the effects of stroke (e.g. depression, reduced mobility) and access to appropriate resources. Conclusions For secondary prevention interventions to be effective, HCPs must understand psychological processes and influences, and use appropriate behaviour change theories to inform their content and delivery. Primary care professionals have a key role to play in the delivery of lifestyle interventions. PMID:21143874

  15. A new member of the I kappaB protein family, I kappaB epsilon, inhibits RelA (p65)-mediated NF-kappaB transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Z; Nabel, G J

    1997-01-01

    A novel member of the I kappaB family has been identified as a protein that associated with the p50 subunit of NF-kappaB in a yeast two-hybrid screen. Similar to previously known I kappaB proteins, this member, I kappaB epsilon, has six consecutive ankyrin repeats. I kappaB epsilon mRNA is widely expressed in different human tissues, with highest levels in spleen, testis, and lung. I kappaB epsilon interacts with different NF-kappaB proteins, including p65 (RelA), c-Rel, p50, and p52, in vitro and in vivo and inhibits the DNA-binding activity of both p50-p65 and p50-c-Rel complexes effectively. Endogenous and transfected NF-kappaB (RelA-dependent) transcriptional activation is inhibited by I kappaB epsilon. I kappaB epsilon mRNA is expressed at different levels in specific cell types and is synthesized constitutively in transformed B-cell lines. It also displays differential induction in response to tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1, or phorbol ester stimulation compared to I kappaB alpha in non-B-cell lines. Therefore, I kappaB epsilon represents a novel I kappaB family member which provides an alternative mechanism for regulation of NF-kappaB-dependent transcription. PMID:9315679

  16. Family History

    MedlinePLUS

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  17. [Binge drinking among 12-year-old adolescent schoolchildren and its association with sex, socioeconomic factors and alcohol consumption by best friends and family members].

    PubMed

    Paiva, Paula Cristina Pelli; Paiva, Haroldo Neves de; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; César, Carlos Augusto Santos; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria

    2015-11-01

    This is a cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 101 twelve-year-old adolescents enrolled in public and private schools in the city of Diamantina in the State of Minas Gerais. The scope was to evaluate the prevalence of binge drinking among 12-year-old schoolchildren and its association with gender, socioeconomic status and alcohol consumption by family members and best friends. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire entitled the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) and the consumption of alcoholic beverages by friends and family. Parents/guardians answered the form on sociodemographic questions. Descriptive analyses and association tests were performed (p < 0.05). The prevalence of binge drinking was 24.8%. Alcoholic beverage consumption began at the age of 10 (16.8%), though sex was not associated with binge drinking by adolescents. However, attending a public school (0.005) and alcohol consumption by best friends (p < 000.1) were associated with binge drinking by adolescents in the bivariate analysis. The prevalence of binge drinking was high and was associated with low socioeconomic status and alcohol consumption by the best friend. No association between sex and alcohol consumption by the family members of adolescents was detected. PMID:26602720

  18. Trypanosoma cruzi TcSRPK, the first protozoan member of the SRPK family, is biochemically and functionally conserved with metazoan SR protein-specific kinases.

    PubMed

    Portal, Daniel; Lobo, Guillermo S; Kadener, Sebastián; Prasad, Jayendra; Espinosa, Joaquín M; Pereira, Claudio A; Tang, Zhaohua; Lin, Ren-Jang; Manley, James L; Kornblihtt, Alberto R; Flawiá, Mirtha M; Torres, Héctor N

    2003-03-01

    A novel SR protein-specific kinase (SRPK) from the SRPK family was identified for the first time in a protozoan organism. The primary structure of the protein, named TcSRPK, presents a significant degree of identity with other metazoan members of the family. In vitro phosphorylation experiments showed that TcSRPK has the same substrate specificity relative to other SRPKs. TcSRPK was able to generate a mAb104-recognized phosphoepitope, a SRPK landmark. Expression of TcSRPK in different Schizosaccharomyces pombe strains lead to conserved phenotypes, indicating that TcSRPK is a functional homologue of metazoan SRPKs. In functional alternative splicing assays in vivo in HeLa cells, TcSRPK enhanced SR protein-dependent inclusion of the EDI exon of the fibronectin minigene. When tested in vitro, it inhibited splicing either on nuclear extracts or on splicing-deficient S100 extracts complemented with ASF/SF2. This inhibition was similar to that observed with human SRPK1. This work constitutes the first report of a member of this family of proteins and the existence of an SR-network in a protozoan organism. The implications in the origins and control of splicing are discussed. PMID:12615332

  19. UPF201 Archaeal Specific Family Members Reveals Structural Similarity to RNA-Binding Proteins but Low Likelihood for RNA-Binding Function

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K.N.; Swaminathan, S.; Burley, S. K.

    2008-12-11

    We have determined X-ray crystal structures of four members of an archaeal specific family of proteins of unknown function (UPF0201; Pfam classification: DUF54) to advance our understanding of the genetic repertoire of archaea. Despite low pairwise amino acid sequence identities (10-40%) and the absence of conserved sequence motifs, the three-dimensional structures of these proteins are remarkably similar to one another. Their common polypeptide chain fold, encompassing a five-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet and five {alpha}-helices, proved to be quite unexpectedly similar to that of the RRM-type RNA-binding domain of the ribosomal L5 protein, which is responsible for binding the 5S- rRNA. Structure-based sequence alignments enabled construction of a phylogenetic tree relating UPF0201 family members to L5 ribosomal proteins and other structurally similar RNA binding proteins, thereby expanding our understanding of the evolutionary purview of the RRM superfamily. Analyses of the surfaces of these newly determined UPF0201 structures suggest that they probably do not function as RNA binding proteins, and that this domain specific family of proteins has acquired a novel function in archaebacteria, which awaits experimental elucidation.

  20. A New Member of the TBC1D15 Family from Chiloscyllium plagiosum: Rab GTPase-Activating Protein Based on Rab7 as a Substrate.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Weidong; Cheng, Dandan; Wang, Tao; Lu, Conger; Chen, Jian; Nie, Zuoming; Zhang, Wenping; Lv, Zhengbing; Wu, Wutong; Shu, Jianhong

    2015-05-01

    APSL (active peptide from shark liver) is a hepatic stimulator cytokine from the liver of Chiloscyllium. It can effectively protect islet cells and improve complications in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. Here, we demonstrate that the APSL sequence is present in the N-terminus of novel TBC (Tre-2, Bub2 and Cdc16) domain family, member 15 (TBC1D15) from Chiloscyllium plagiosum. This shark TBC1D15 gene, which contains an ORF of 2088 bp, was identified from a cDNA library of regenerating shark liver. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the gene is highly homologous to TBC1D15 genes from other species. Moreover, the N-terminus of shark TBC1D15 contains a motif of unknown function (DUF3548), which encompasses the APSL fragment. Rab-GAP activity analysis showed that shark TBC1D15 is a new member of the TBC1D15 family. These results demonstrated that shark TBC1D15 possesses Rab-GAP activity using Rab7 as a substrate, which is a common property of the TBC1D15 family. The involvement of APSL at the N-terminus of TBC1D15 also demonstrates that this protein might be involved in insulin signaling and may be associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The current findings pave the way for further functional and clinical studies of these proteins from marine sources. PMID:25984991

  1. RIP4 (DIK/PKK), a novel member of the RIP kinase family, activates NF-kappa B and is processed during apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Meylan, Etienne; Martinon, Fabio; Thome, Margot; Gschwendt, Michael; Tschopp, Jürg

    2002-12-01

    RIP1 and its homologs, RIP2 and RIP3, form part of a family of Ser/Thr kinases that regulate signal transduction processes leading to NF-kappa B activation. Here, we identify RIP4 (DIK/PKK) as a novel member of the RIP kinase family. RIP4 contains an N-terminal RIP-like kinase domain and a C-terminal region characterized by the presence of 11 ankyrin repeats. Overexpression of RIP4 leads to activation of NF-kappa B and JNK. Kinase inactive RIP4 or a truncated version containing the ankyrin repeats have a dominant negative (DN) effect on NF-kappa B induction by multiple stimuli. RIP4 binds to several members of the TRAF protein family, and DN versions of TRAF1, TRAF3 and TRAF6 inhibit RIP4-induced NF-kappa B activation. Moreover, RIP4 is cleaved after Asp340 and Asp378 during Fas-induced apoptosis. These data suggest that RIP4 is involved in NF-kappa B and JNK signaling and that caspase-dependent processing of RIP4 may negatively regulate NF-kappa B-dependent pro-survival or pro-inflammatory signals. PMID:12446564

  2. Measurement of Donath-Landsteiner antibody-producing cells in idiopathic nonsyphilitic paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) in children.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Y; Yamada, S; Komiyama, A; Akabane, T

    1978-07-01

    A 2-yr-old girl with a nonsyphilitic type of paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) is reported. We applied the plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay to the measurement of Donath-Landsteiner (DL) antibody-producing cells in the patient. Some of the circulating B lymphocytes formed plaques in our assay system. Initially the number of PFC was 1442 +/- 225/10(6) lymphocytes and DL titer was 1:16. Thereafter the PFC decreased in number as the DL titer decreased. Eight weeks later circulating PFC were not found but the DL titer was still 1:1 positive. The PFC assay appears to be useful as a new method for obtaining rapid imformation as to the disease status of PCH. PMID:350317

  3. Impact of economic labour migration: a qualitative exploration of left-behind family member perspectives in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Wickramage, Kolitha; Jayaweera, Kaushalya; Adikari, Anushka; Weerawarna, Sulochana; Van Bortel, Tine; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula

    2015-06-01

    Sri Lanka is a major labour sending country in Asia, with a high proportion of female labour migrants employed as domestic housemaids in the Middle East with increasing remittances. Despite such financial gains for families and national economy, health and social effects on the left-behind families have had limited exploration. This qualitative study was carried out across five districts with high labour migration rates in Sri Lanka. Twenty in-depth interviews were conducted with participants recruited through purposive sampling. Data was analysed using content and thematic analysis and emerging themes were mapped. Pre-migration socio-economic situation, economic difficulties and higher earning possibilities abroad were considered to be the major push and pull factors for labour migration. Post-migration periods were shown to be of mixed benefit to left-behind families and children suffer the negative effects of parental absence. The absence of support mechanisms for dealing with adverse events such as serious injury, death, abuse or imprisonment were cited as major concerns. Post-migration periods affect the health, well-being and family structures of left-behind families. Promoting economic prosperity while ensuring health and social protection is a formidable policy challenge for 'labour sending' countries such as Sri Lanka. PMID:24242226

  4. Isolation of a gene (DLG3) encoding a second member of the discs-large family on chromosome 17q12-q21

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.A.; Holik, P.; Stevens, J.

    1996-01-15

    The discs-large family is a collection of proteins that have a common structural organization and are thought to be involved in signal transduction and mediating protein-protein interactions at the cytoplasmic surface of the cell membrane. The defining member of this group of proteins is the gene product of the Drosophila lethal (1) discs large (dlg) 1 locus, which was originally identified by the analysis of recessive lethal mutants. Germline mutations in dlg result in loss of apical-basolateral polarity, disruption of normal cell-cell adhesion, and neoplastic overgrowth of the imaginal disc epithelium. We have isolated and characterized a novel human gene, DLG3, that encodes a new member of the discs-large family of proteins. The putative DLG3 gene product has a molecular weight of 66 kDa and contains a discs-large homologous region, an src oncogene homology motif 3, and a domain with homology to guanylate kinase. The DLG3 gene is located on chromosome 17, in the same segment, 17q12-q21, as the related gene, DLG2. The products of the DLG2 and DLG3 genes show 36% identity and 58% similarity to each other, and both show nearly 60% sequence similarity to p55, an erythroid phosphoprotein that is a component of the red cell membrane. We suggest that p55, DLG2, and DLG3 are closely related members of a gene family, whose protein products have a common structural organization and probably a similar function. 25 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Molecular cloning of a novel cytokine cDNA encoding the ninth member of the fibroblast growth factor family, which has a unique secretion property.

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, M; Naruo, K; Seko, C; Matsumoto, S; Kondo, T; Kurokawa, T

    1993-01-01

    Glia-activating factor (GAF) is a novel heparin-binding growth factor purified from the culture supernatant of a human glioma cell line. It shows a spectrum of activity slightly different from those of other known growth factors. We have isolated the cDNA which encodes human GAF. A homology search revealed that GAF would be the ninth member of the FGF family, and we therefore call it FGF-9. The human FGF-9 cDNA cloned by using oligonucleotide probes encoded a polypeptide consisting of 208 amino acids. Sequence similarity to other members of the FGF family was estimated to be around 30%. Two cysteine residues and other consensus sequences in family members were also well conserved in the FGF-9 sequence. FGF-9 was found to have no typical signal sequence in its N terminus like those in acidic FGF and basic FGF. Acidic FGF and basic FGF are known not to be secreted from cells in a conventional manner. However, FGF-9 was found to be secreted from cells after synthesis despite its lack of a typical signal sequence. It could be detected exclusively in the culture medium of cDNA-transfected COS cells. The amino acid sequence of proteins purified from culture supernatant of the CHO cell line, which was cDNA transfected and selected as a high producer of FGF-9, showed that no peptides were cleaved from the N terminus except the initiation methionine. The rat FGF-9 cDNA was also cloned, and the structural analysis indicated that the PGF-9 gene is highly conserved. Expression of the FGF-9 gene could be detected in the brain and kidney of the adult rat. Restricted gene expression in organs and the unique secretion nature of the protein suggest that FGF-9 plays a physiological role which differs from those of well-characterized acidic FGF and basic FGF. Images PMID:8321227

  6. Effect of family members’ voice on level of consciousness of comatose patients admitted to the intensive care unit: A single-blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tavangar, Hossein; Shahriary-Kalantary, Manijeh; Salimi, Tahereh; Jarahzadeh, Mohammadhossein; Sarebanhassanabadi, Mohammadtaghi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coma is one of the most important complications of brain injury. Comatose patients in the intensive care units are exposed to sensory deprivation. This study aims to survey the effect of family members’ voice on level of consciousness of comatose patients hospitalized in the intensive care units. Materials and Methods: In this single-blind randomized controlled trial, 40 comatose patients with brain injury with acute subdural hematoma in intensive care units were randomly assigned into two groups. The intervention group was stimulated twice a day each time 5-15 min with a recorded MP3 from family members’ voice for 10 days. The patients’ level of consciousness was measured with Glasgow Coma Scale before and after auditory stimulations. In the control group, GCS was measured without auditory stimulation with the same time duration like intervention group. Data analysis in software SPSS version 15 and using Chi-square test, independent t-test, paired t- test and analysis of variance with repeated measures was done. Results: On the first day before the intervention, there was no a statistically significant difference between the mean of GCS in both groups (P = 0.89), but on the tenth day after the intervention, there was a significant difference (P = 0.0001) between the mean GCS in both control and intervention groups. Also, there was a significant difference between the mean daily GCS scores in two groups (P = 0.003). The findings during ten days showed the changes in the level of consciousness in the intervention group from the 4rd day of the study were more in the mean daily GCS scores than control group. Conclusion: This study indicated that family members’ voice can increase level of consciousness of comatose patients with acute subdural hematoma. PMID:26261808

  7. “Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo - Office of Cancer Survivorship

    Cancer.gov

    “Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo page

  8. Rhodococcus sp. Strain CR-53 LipR, the First Member of a New Bacterial Lipase Family (Family X) Displaying an Unusual Y-Type Oxyanion Hole, Similar to the Candida antarctica Lipase Clan

    PubMed Central

    Bassegoda, Arnau; Pastor, F. I. Javier

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial lipases constitute the most important group of biocatalysts for synthetic organic chemistry. Accordingly, there is substantial interest in developing new valuable lipases. Considering the lack of information concerning the lipases of the genus Rhodococcus and taking into account the interest raised by the enzymes produced by actinomycetes, a search for putative lipase-encoding genes from Rhodococcus sp. strain CR-53 was performed. We isolated, cloned, purified, and characterized LipR, the first lipase described from the genus Rhodococcus. LipR is a mesophilic enzyme showing preference for medium-chain-length acyl groups without showing interfacial activation. It displays good long-term stability and high tolerance for the presence of ions and chemical agents in the reaction mixture. Amino acid sequence analysis of LipR revealed that it displays four unique amino acid sequence motifs that clearly separate it from any other previously described family of bacterial lipases. Using bioinformatics tools, LipR could be related only to several uncharacterized putative lipases from different bacterial origins, all of which display the four blocks of consensus amino acid sequence motifs that contribute to define a new family of bacterial lipases, namely, family X. Therefore, LipR is the first characterized member of the new bacterial lipase family X. Further confirmation of this new family of lipases was performed after cloning Burkholderia cenocepacia putative lipase, bearing the same conserved motifs and clustering in family X. Interestingly, all lipases grouping in the new bacterial lipase family X display a Y-type oxyanion hole, a motif conserved in the Candida antarctica lipase clan but never found among bacterial lipases. This observation contributes to confirm that LipR and its homologs belong to a new family of bacterial lipases. PMID:22226953

  9. A New Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells (TREM) Family Member, TLT-6, is Involved in Activation and Proliferation of Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Won, Kyung-Jong; Park, Sung-Won; Lee, Seunghoon; Kong, Il-Keun; Chae, Jung-Il; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Eun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) family, which is abundantly expressed in myeloid lineage cells, plays a pivotal role in innate and adaptive immune response. In this study, we aimed to identify a novel receptor expressed on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) by using in silico bioinformatics and to characterize the identified receptor. We thus found the TREM-like transcript (TLT)-6, a new member of TREM family. TLT-6 has a single immunoglobulin domain in the extracellular region and a long cytoplasmic region containing 2 immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif-like domains. TLT-6 transcript was expressed in HSCs, monocytes and macrophages. TLT-6 protein was up-regulated on the surface of bone marrow-derived and peritoneal macrophages by lipopolysaccharide stimulation. TLT-6 exerted anti-proliferative effects in macrophages. Our results demonstrate that TLT-6 may regulate the activation and proliferation of macrophages. PMID:26557807

  10. 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments for Escherichia coli ytfP, a member of the broadly conserved UPF0131 protein domain family

    SciTech Connect

    Aramini, James M.; Swapna, G.V.T.; Huang, Yuanpeng; Rajan, Paranji K.; Xiao, Rong; Shastry, Ritu; Acton, Thomas; Cort, John R.; Kennedy, Michael A.; Montelione, Gaetano

    2005-11-01

    Protein ytfP from Escherichia coli (Swiss-Prot ID: YTFP-ECOLI; NESG target ID: ER111; Wunderlich et al., 2004) is a 113-residue member of the UPF0131 protein family (Pfam ID: PF03674) of unknown function. This domain family is found in organisms from all three kingdoms, archaea, eubacteria and eukaryotes. Using triple resonance NMR techniques, we have determined 97% of backbone and 91% of side chain 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments. The chemical shift and 3J(HN?Ha) scalar coupling data reveal a mixed a/b topology,????????. BMRB deposit with Accession No. 6448. Reference: Wunderlich et al. (2004) Proteins, 56, 181?187.

  11. Abnormal pattern of post-gamma-ray DNA replication in radioresistant fibroblast strains from affected members of a cancer-prone family with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Mirzayans, R.; Aubin, R. A.; Bosnich, W.; Blattner, W. A.; Paterson, M. C.

    1995-01-01

    Non-malignant dermal fibroblast strains, cultured from affected members of a Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) family with diverse neoplasms associated with radiation exposure, display a unique increased resistance to the lethal effects of gamma-radiation. In the studies reported here, this radioresistance (RR) trait has been found to correlate strongly with an abnormal pattern of post-gamma-ray DNA replicative synthesis, as monitored by radiolabelled thymidine incorporation and S-phase cell autoradiography. In particular, the time interval between the gamma-ray-induced shutdown of DNA synthesis and its subsequent recovery was greater in all four RR strains examined and the post-recovery replication rate was much higher and was maintained longer than in normal and spousal controls. Alkaline sucrose sedimentation profiles of pulse-labelled cellular DNA indicated that the unusual pattern of DNA replication in irradiated RR strains may be ascribed to anomalies in both replicon initiation and DNA chain elongation processes. Moreover, the RR strain which had previously displayed the highest post-gamma-ray clonogenic survival was found to harbour a somatic (codon 234) mutation (presumably acquired during culture in vitro) in the same conserved region of the p53 tumour-suppressor gene as the germline (codon 245) mutation in the remaining three RR strains from other family members, thus coupling the RR phenotype and abnormal post-gamma-ray DNA synthesis pattern with faulty p53 expression. Significantly, these two aberrant radioresponse end points, along with documented anomalies in c-myc and c-raf-1 proto-oncogenes, are unprecedented among other LFS families carrying p53 germline mutations. We thus speculate that this peculiar cancer-prone family may possess in its germ line a second, as yet unidentified, genetic defect in addition to the p53 mutation. Images Figure 8 PMID:7779715

  12. Water scorpions (Heteroptera, Nepidae) and giant water bugs (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae): sources of new members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family.

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd; Simek, Petr; Marco, Heather G

    2007-07-01

    Two novel octapeptide members of the AKH/RPCH family have been identified from the corpora cardiaca (CC) of two species of water bugs. The giant water bug Lethocerus indicus (family: Belostomatidae) contains a peptide code-named Letin-AKH with the sequence pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Tyr-Trp amide, and the water scorpion Nepa cinerea (family: Nepidae) has the peptide code-named Nepci-AKH with the sequence pGlu-Leu/Ile-Asn-Phe-Ser-Ser-Gly-Trp amide. The sequences were deduced from the multiple MS(N) electrospray mass data from crude CC extracts. Synthetic peptides were made and co-elution on reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with the natural peptide from crude gland extract confirmed the accuracy of the deduced sequence for Letin-AKH and demonstrated that Nepci-AKH contains a Leu residue at position 2 and not an Ile residue. A previously characterized member of the AKH/RPCH family was identified in the stick water scorpion Ranatra linearis by mass spectrometry: Grybi-AKH (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Thr-Gly-Trp amide) has the same mass (919 Da) as Nepci-AKH and differs in two positions from Nepci-AKH (residues 2 and 6). The apparent function of the peptides is to achieve lipid mobilization in the species under investigation; indications for this came from conspecific bioassays using the appropriate synthetic peptides for injecting into the insects. This function is very likely linked to dispersal flight metabolism of water bugs. Swimming activity in N. cinerea also results in an increase in lipid concentration in the hemolymph. PMID:17604877

  13. Structural, Biochemical, and Phylogenetic Analyses Suggest That Indole-3-Acetic Acid Methyltransferase Is an Evolutionarily Ancient Member of the SABATH Family

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao,N.; Ferrer, J.; Ross, J.; Guan, J.; Yang, Y.; Pichersky, E.; Noel, J.; Chen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The plant SABATH protein family encompasses a group of related small-molecule methyltransferases (MTs) that catalyze the S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methylation of natural chemicals encompassing widely divergent structures. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) methyltransferase (IAMT) is a member of the SABATH family that modulates IAA homeostasis in plant tissues through methylation of IAA's free carboxyl group. The crystal structure of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) IAMT (AtIAMT1) was determined and refined to 2.75 Angstroms resolution. The overall tertiary and quaternary structures closely resemble the two-domain bilobed monomer and the dimeric arrangement, respectively, previously observed for the related salicylic acid carboxyl methyltransferase from Clarkia breweri (CbSAMT). To further our understanding of the biological function and evolution of SABATHs, especially of IAMT, we analyzed the SABATH gene family in the rice (Oryza sativa) genome. Forty-one OsSABATH genes were identified. Expression analysis showed that more than one-half of the OsSABATH genes were transcribed in one or multiple organs. The OsSABATH gene most similar to AtIAMT1 is OsSABATH4. Escherichia coli-expressed OsSABATH4 protein displayed the highest level of catalytic activity toward IAA and was therefore named OsIAMT1. OsIAMT1 exhibited kinetic properties similar to AtIAMT1 and poplar IAMT (PtIAMT1). Structural modeling of OsIAMT1 and PtIAMT1 using the experimentally determined structure of AtIAMT1 reported here as a template revealed conserved structural features of IAMTs within the active-site cavity that are divergent from functionally distinct members of the SABATH family, such as CbSAMT. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that IAMTs from Arabidopsis, rice, and poplar (Populus spp.) form a monophyletic group. Thus, structural, biochemical, and phylogenetic evidence supports the hypothesis that IAMT is an evolutionarily ancient member of the SABATH family likely to play a critical role in IAA homeostasis across a wide range of plants.

  14. cIRF-3, a new member of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family that is rapidly and transiently induced by dsRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, C E; Vasa, M Z; Deeley, R G

    1995-01-01

    In mammals, some of the effects of interferon (IFN) on gene transcription are known to be mediated by a family of IFN-inducible DNA-binding proteins, the IFN regulatory factor (IRF) family, which includes both activators and repressors of transcription. Although IFN activities have been described in many vertebrates, little is known about regulation of IFN- or IFN-stimulated genes in species other than human and mouse. Here, we report the cloning of a chicken cDNA, cIRF-3, encoding a protein with a DNA-binding domain similar to that found in the mammalian IRF family of proteins. Similarity between cIRF-3 and the mammalian IRFs is comparable with that between known members of the family. It is most similar to the IRF proteins ICSBP and ISGF3 gamma but is equally divergent from both. Gel mobility shift assays indicate that cIRF-3 is capable of binding a known IFN-stimulated response element that is conserved between the mammalian and chicken Mx genes. Expression of the cIRF-3 gene can be induced to high levels by poly(I).poly(C). Induction is rapid and transient with no requirement for protein synthesis. Co-treatment of cells with cycloheximide results in superinduction of cIRF-3 mRNA. The structural and regulatory characteristics of cIRF-3 indicate that it is the first example of a non-mammalian IRF protein. Images PMID:7541908

  15. Trisomy X in a female member of a family with X linked severe combined immunodeficiency: implications for carrier diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lester, T; de Alwis, M; Clark, P A; Jones, A M; Katz, F; Levinsky, R J; Kinnon, C

    1994-01-01

    We describe a family affected by X linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCIDX1) in which genetic prediction of carrier status was made using X chromosome inactivation studies together with limited genetic linkage analysis. Linkage studies in this family showed a confusing pattern of inheritance for the X chromosome. A female with a random pattern of X chromosome inactivation in her T cells appeared to have inherited an X chromosome with four recombinations within 10 cM. The odds of this happening in a single meiotic event make this an unlikely explanation. Data obtained from studying the X chromosomes of her two unaffected sons showed that this could be explained simply on the basis of her having inherited three alleles each of the relevant polymorphic DNA loci. We used fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) to confirm that this person had inherited three complete X chromosomes. Thus, although the results from X chromosome inactivation analysis indicated that this subject was not a carrier of the affected chromosome, FISH and genetic linkage analysis showed clearly that the affected chromosome had been inherited. The implications of this finding for diagnosis of carrier status in this family and for other families with X linked inherited immunodeficiencies is discussed. Images PMID:7815443

  16. family causes primary ciliary dyskinesia A common variant in combination with a nonsense mutation in a member of the thioredoxin

    E-print Network

    Bercher, Jean-François

    -Bice^tre 94275, France; **Service de Re´animation Pe´diatrique, Ho^ pital Nord, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire) Thioredoxins belong to a large family of enzymatic proteins that function as general protein disulfide importance of TXNDC3d7 (whose expression was reduced in the patient) and the corresponding protein

  17. How to Help Your Family Member or Friend Be an Alcohol-Free Mother-to-Be

    MedlinePLUS

    ... wants to have healthy families. * National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (2000),FAS Fact Sheet; Sampson, P.D.,Streissguth, ... W.,& Graham, J.M. Jr. (1997).Incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome and prevalence of alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders. Teratology, ...

  18. Gastrointestinal permeability (GIPerm) is increased in family members of children with functional abdominal pain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased GIPerm has been described in children with FAP/IBS and adults with IBS. We sought to determine if baseline GIPerm is increased and if ibuprofen induces a greater increase in GIPerm in parents and siblings of children with FAP/IBS vs. control families without children with FAP/IBS. Site spe...

  19. Engineering GFP-Family Member Protiens to Achieve Novel Functions: A Class of Proteins Limited Only by the Imagination

    E-print Network

    Egan, Chet

    2015-05-31

    family proteins have been adapted to be everything from reporters of gene expression to labels for entire organelles or even entire tissues. GFP can be used to visualize protein binding and transient protein-protein interactions. GFP can also have its...

  20. Cultural differences in family, marital, and gender-role values among immigrants and majority members in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Arends-Tóth, Judit; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the size of differences in self-reported family, marital, and gender-role values in five cultural groups in the Netherlands (6338 Dutch mainstreamers and 422 Turkish, 369 Moroccan, 429 Surinamese, and 394 Antillean first- and second-generation immigrants). It was found that the three value scales were neither completely independent, nor could they be merged into a single value scale. The factor structures of all scales were identical for the five cultural groups, implying that the concepts can be compared. Age, sex, and notably education accounted for a substantial part of the cultural differences in all values. Cultural differences were larger for marital and family values than for gender-role values. Family and marital values yielded the same rank order of mean scores in the five cultural groups: Turks and Moroccans scored the lowest (having the most traditional values), followed by Surinamers, Antilleans, and Dutch mainstreamers. This rank order corresponds with the ethnic hierarchy of cultural groups that is based on the evaluation of ethnic groups by mainstreamers according to their liking of and likeness to ethnic groups. Generational differences were not found for family and gender-role values but first-generation immigrants in all groups had more traditional marital values than had second-generation immigrants. It was concluded that the theoretical framework based on a combination of three Hofstede dimensions (individualism-collectivism, power-distance, and femininity-masculinity), a model of the hierarchy of the ethnic groups in the Dutch society, and acculturation theory provided an adequate way to address family, marital, and gender-role value differences in the five cultural groups. PMID:22029491