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Sample records for pci express interface

  1. Design on DDR caching control with ping-pong operation for high-speed data acquisition system with PCI Express interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yong; Han, Nan

    2008-10-01

    Data caching is an indispensable part of high-speed data acquisition system, and it makes an important effect on coordinating the speed of data transfer and data processing. In the article, a data caching controller with ping-pong operation is designed after discussion on the features of data transmission with PCI Express interface. The controller's structure and principle is described, as well as the control logic. Additionally, the controller shows the idea of pipeline, where the command sending and data transfer control are separated on controlling the DDR controllers. The result indicates that the design could be widely used in the seamless caching and high-speed data process system. System efficiency will be improved, and the logic design will be simplified.

  2. A flexible compatible PCI interface for nuclear experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Saleh, H.; Engels, R.; Reinartz, R.; Reinhart, P.; Rongen, F.

    1998-06-01

    In this paper a PCI Initiator/Target Interface is introduced, where a single chip design (XILINX XC4010E) is used to implement a PCI Local Bus Interface, revision 2.1, protocol and timing compliance. The flexible design can be easily adapted for specific interface requirements. This interface card was used for some physical applications, reading data from 2-dimensional scintillation detectors, and different types of ADCs. It was tested with data sampling rates of up to 0.7 MS/s. The collected data can be compared with look up table contents controlling acceptance or rejection of data. The I/O space registers are used for control signals, Run, Stop, Read Status, and Write the memory base address in the Target Mode. The Initiator Mode is used to read and write data from and to the memory. The design configuration is loaded into the XILNX chip from an EPROM in a master parallel mode. The EPROM is reloaded by the XILINX chip through the read and write Target commands of the PCI memory space. More than 40% of the chip area is available for the application logic.

  3. 100 Gbps PCI-Express readout for the LHCb upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, P.; Neufeld, N.; Schwemmer, R.; Balbi, G.; Marconi, U.

    2015-04-01

    We present a new data acquisition system under development for the next upgrade of the LHCb experiment at CERN. We focus in particular on the design of a new generation of readout boards, the PCIe40, and on the viability of PCI-Express as an interconnect technology for high speed readout. We show throughput measurements across the PCI-Express bus, on Altera Stratix 5 devices, using a DMA mechanism and different synchronization schemes between the FPGA and the readout unit. Finally we discuss hardware and software design considerations necessary to achieve a data throughput of 100 Gbps in the final readout board.

  4. LabVIEW Interface for PCI-SpaceWire Interface Card

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James; Loya, Frank; Bachmann, Alex

    2005-01-01

    This software provides a LabView interface to the NT drivers for the PCISpaceWire card, which is a peripheral component interface (PCI) bus interface that conforms to the IEEE-1355/ SpaceWire standard. As SpaceWire grows in popularity, the ability to use SpaceWire links within LabVIEW will be important to electronic ground support equipment vendors. In addition, there is a need for a high-level LabVIEW interface to the low-level device- driver software supplied with the card. The LabVIEW virtual instrument (VI) provides graphical interfaces to support all (1) SpaceWire link functions, including message handling and routing; (2) monitoring as a passive tap using specialized hardware; and (3) low-level access to satellite mission-control subsystem functions. The software is supplied in a zip file that contains LabVIEW VI files, which provide various functions of the PCI-SpaceWire card, as well as higher-link-level functions. The VIs are suitably named according to the matching function names in the driver manual. A number of test programs also are provided to exercise various functions.

  5. Time-recovering PCI-AER interface for bio-inspired spiking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz-Vicente, R.; Linares-Barranco, A.; Cascado, D.; Vicente, S.; Jimenez, G.; Civit, A.

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. When building multi-chip muti-layered AER systems it is absolutely necessary to have a computer interface that allows (a) to read AER interchip traffic into the computer and visualize it on screen, and (b) inject a sequence of events at some point of the AER structure. This is necessary for testing and debugging complex AER systems. This paper presents a PCI to AER interface, that dispatches a sequence of events received from the PCI bus with embedded timing information to establish when each event will be delivered. A set of specialized states machines has been introduced to recovery the possible time delays introduced by the asynchronous AER bus. On the input channel, the interface capture events assigning a timestamp and delivers them through the PCI bus to MATLAB applications. It has been implemented in real time hardware using VHDL and it has been tested in a PCI-AER board, developed by authors, that includes a Spartan II 200 FPGA. The demonstration hardware is currently capable to send and receive events at a peak rate of 8,3 Mev/sec, and a typical rate of 1 Mev/sec.

  6. A PCI Express optical link based on low-cost transceivers qualified for radiation hardness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triossi, A.; Barrientos, D.; Bellato, M.; Bortolato, D.; Isocrate, R.; Rampazzo, G.; Ventura, S.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we want to demonstrate that an optical physical medium is compatible with the second generation of PCI Express. The benefit introduced by the optical decoupling of a PCI Express endpoint is twofold: it allows for a geographical detachment of the device and it remains compliant with the usual PCI accesses to the legacy I/O and memory spaces. We propose two boards that can bridge the PCI Express protocol over optical fiber. The first is a simple optical translator while the second is a more robust switch developed for connecting up to four devices to a single host. Such adapters are already working in the control and data acquisition system of a particle detector at CERN and hence they had been qualified for radiation hardness. The positive outcomes of the radiation tests of four types of off-the-shelf transceivers are finally reported.

  7. PCI express bus design of large format array IRFPA high-speed acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zewu; Zheng, Xing; Zeng, Xingxin; Liu, Ziji

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, a novel solution of PCI Express Bus was designed to improve the data transfer rate for large format array infrared imaging acquisition system. In this structure, an embedded PCI Express hard intellectual property (IP) block of Stratix IV GX FPGA was used, and the protocol stack module is totally compliant with PCI Express base specification Gen 2.0 which includes PHY-MAC, Data Link, and transaction layers. In order to communicate with CPU through computer PCIe root port, a pipeline structure was established with two SSRAMs to carry out the function of real-time data process. The DMA mode was adopted for the high-speed data transmission on the PCI Express Bus. Some other control logic parts such as detector drive signal generator - display controller and PCIe configuration module were also designed and introduced in this paper. According to the evaluation, the data transmission speed was up to 5.6Gbps, which means that this system could meet the qualifications of infrared imaging data acquisition. Compared with traditional infrared imaging data acquisition systems, this solution is more integrated and faster, so it is suitable for larger format and higher frame rate of infrared focal plane image acquisition in nowadays and future.

  8. EXPRESS Pallet Payload Interface Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the EXPRESS Pallet Space Station payload interface requirements is shown. The topics include: 1) External Payload Sites; 2) EXPRESS Pallet with Six Payload Envelopes; 3) EXPRESS Pallet in Payload Bay Representative Layout; 4) EXPRESS Pallet Installation SSRMS positions pallet for PAS mating on S3 truss; 5) EXPRESS Pallet Major Components; 6) EXPRESS Pallet Adapter; 7) EXPRESS Pallet Center Location Payload Envelope; 8) Envelope Restriction for EXPRESS Pallet Corner Payload Locations; 9) EXPRESS Pallet-PAS Truss Configuration; and 10) EXPRESS Pallet Payload Services and Specifications.

  9. A high-throughput readout architecture based on PCI-Express Gen3 and DirectGMA technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rota, L.; Vogelgesang, M.; Ardila Perez, L. E.; Caselle, M.; Chilingaryan, S.; Dritschler, T.; Zilio, N.; Kopmann, A.; Balzer, M.; Weber, M.

    2016-02-01

    Modern physics experiments produce multi-GB/s data rates. Fast data links and high performance computing stages are required for continuous data acquisition and processing. Because of their intrinsic parallelism and computational power, GPUs emerged as an ideal solution to process this data in high performance computing applications. In this paper we present a high-throughput platform based on direct FPGA-GPU communication. The architecture consists of a Direct Memory Access (DMA) engine compatible with the Xilinx PCI-Express core, a Linux driver for register access, and high- level software to manage direct memory transfers using AMD's DirectGMA technology. Measurements with a Gen3 x8 link show a throughput of 6.4 GB/s for transfers to GPU memory and 6.6 GB/s to system memory. We also assess the possibility of using the architecture in low latency systems: preliminary measurements show a round-trip latency as low as 1 μs for data transfers to system memory, while the additional latency introduced by OpenCL scheduling is the current limitation for GPU based systems. Our implementation is suitable for real-time DAQ system applications ranging from photon science and medical imaging to High Energy Physics (HEP) systems.

  10. PCI-SS: MISO dynamic nonlinear protein secondary structure prediction

    PubMed Central

    Green, James R; Korenberg, Michael J; Aboul-Magd, Mohammed O

    2009-01-01

    Background Since the function of a protein is largely dictated by its three dimensional configuration, determining a protein's structure is of fundamental importance to biology. Here we report on a novel approach to determining the one dimensional secondary structure of proteins (distinguishing α-helices, β-strands, and non-regular structures) from primary sequence data which makes use of Parallel Cascade Identification (PCI), a powerful technique from the field of nonlinear system identification. Results Using PSI-BLAST divergent evolutionary profiles as input data, dynamic nonlinear systems are built through a black-box approach to model the process of protein folding. Genetic algorithms (GAs) are applied in order to optimize the architectural parameters of the PCI models. The three-state prediction problem is broken down into a combination of three binary sub-problems and protein structure classifiers are built using 2 layers of PCI classifiers. Careful construction of the optimization, training, and test datasets ensures that no homology exists between any training and testing data. A detailed comparison between PCI and 9 contemporary methods is provided over a set of 125 new protein chains guaranteed to be dissimilar to all training data. Unlike other secondary structure prediction methods, here a web service is developed to provide both human- and machine-readable interfaces to PCI-based protein secondary structure prediction. This server, called PCI-SS, is available at . In addition to a dynamic PHP-generated web interface for humans, a Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) interface is added to permit invocation of the PCI-SS service remotely. This machine-readable interface facilitates incorporation of PCI-SS into multi-faceted systems biology analysis pipelines requiring protein secondary structure information, and greatly simplifies high-throughput analyses. XML is used to represent the input protein sequence data and also to encode the resulting

  11. Bioresorbable Stents in PCI.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, Daniel; James, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of percutaneous coronary intervention has been considerable. Coronary stents were introduced to avoid vessel recoil and reduce acute and late vessel complications. Later, drug-eluting stents were developed to decrease the neointimal hyperplasia associated with bare metal stents in order to reduce restenosis. However, very late stent thrombosis remains problematic, and the permanent presence of a metal stent could be associated with local inflammation and impaired vascular physiology. Thus, bioresorbable stents have been developed, to prevent recoil initially when this risk is the highest, with subsequent degradation over time, to avoid long-term complications of the presence of stents in the coronary vasculature. Here, we review the current status of bioresorbable stents in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), with focus on the platforms that have been studied the most: ABSORB, DESolve, and DREAMS. In terms of clinical outcomes, bioresorbable stents have not yet shown superiority compared with current generation drug-eluting stents, but rather a signal of increased stent thrombosis. Further development and longer-term studies are needed before the routine implementation of bioresorbable stents in clinical practice. PMID:27312934

  12. PCI bus bridge for MC680x0-based computer system using PLD technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraszewski, Grzegorz

    2004-07-01

    Peripherial Connect Interface (PCI) is a well established industry standard bus used for connecting CPU to peripherial devices. PCI gives access to many good quality and inexpensive peripherials. There are plenty of PCI host bridge chips for commonly used CPUs like x86 compatible or PowerPC. It is sometimes necessary to interface PCI device with an older or specific computer systems based on other processors, to expand their capabilities. If dedicated bridge chip is not available (or even do not exists) the bus can be interfaced via PLD integrated circuits. The paper describes ad-on PCI bridgeboard for Amiga 4000 computer (based on Motorola MC68060 CPU), designed with Altera MAX7000 PLD chips.

  13. Great Lakes Steel -- PCI facility

    SciTech Connect

    Eichinger, F.T.; Dake, S.H.; Wagner, E.D.; Brown, G.S.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the planning, design, and start-up of the 90 tph PCI facility for National Steel`s Great Lakes Steel Division in River Rouge, MI. This project is owned and operated by Edison Energy Services, and was implemented on a fast-track basis by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Babcock Material Handling, and Babcock and Wilcox. This paper presents important process issues, basic design criteria, an the challenges of engineering and building a state-of-the-art PCI facility in two existing plants. Pulverized coal is prepared at the River Rouge Power Plant of Detroit Edison, is pneumatically conveyed 6,000 feet to a storage silo at Great Lakes Steel, and is injected into three blast furnaces.

  14. Soap operas and social marketing: the PCI strategy.

    PubMed

    Fox, I

    This article presents the impact of soap operas and social marketing efforts, developed by Population Communications International (PCI), on changing the attitude and behavior of individuals toward family planning, health, women empowerment, and pro-social issues. The objective of the program is to motivate individuals and communities to make reproductive health and development choices which will contribute significantly in slowing population growth. In addition, these were designed to complement the efforts of those providing health services in several countries. PCI is responsible in training creative talent, research in determining the issues and arrangements necessary for a program to be aired. After following the methods promoted by the PCI, reports on the Tanzania and Kenya programs further confirm that the mass media education programs for changing behavior are effective. During the two conferences organized by PCI, three American production organizations initiated new storylines based on the issues discussed. Moreover, several countries expressed their desire to develop similar conferences in their countries. To end, PCI is designing additional soaps in other countries; wherein, the problem lies not on contraceptive availability, but on deeply held fears, superstitions, and culture equating having children with man's virility and dominance. PMID:12349572

  15. Future of the PCI Readmission Metric.

    PubMed

    Wasfy, Jason H; Yeh, Robert W

    2016-03-01

    Between 2013 and 2014, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the National Cardiovascular Data Registry publically reported risk-adjusted 30-day readmission rates after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a pilot project. A key strength of this public reporting effort included risk adjustment with clinical rather than administrative data. Furthermore, because readmission after PCI is common, expensive, and preventable, this metric has substantial potential to improve quality and value in American cardiology care. Despite this, concerns about the metric exist. For example, few PCI readmissions are caused by procedural complications, limiting the extent to which improved procedural technique can reduce readmissions. Also, similar to other readmission measures, PCI readmission is associated with socioeconomic status and race. Accordingly, the metric may unfairly penalize hospitals that care for underserved patients. Perhaps in the context of these limitations, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has not yet included PCI readmission among metrics that determine Medicare financial penalties. Nevertheless, provider organizations may still wish to focus on this metric to improve value for cardiology patients. PCI readmission is associated with low-risk chest discomfort and patient anxiety. Therefore, patient education, improved triage mechanisms, and improved care coordination offer opportunities to minimize PCI readmissions. Because PCI readmission is common and costly, reducing PCI readmission offers provider organizations a compelling target to improve the quality of care, and also performance in contracts involve shared financial risk. PMID:26812931

  16. International Planetary Science Interoperability: The Venus Express Interface Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford Bussard, Stephen; Chanover, N.; Huber, L.; Trejo, I.; Hughes, J. S.; Kelly, S.; Guinness, E.; Heather, D.; Salgado, J.; Osuna, P.

    2009-09-01

    NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) and ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA) have successfully demonstrated interoperability between planetary science data archives with the Venus Express (VEX) Interface prototype. Because VEX is an ESA mission, there is no memorandum of understanding to archive the data in the PDS. However, using a common communications protocol and common data standards, VEX mission science data ingested into the PSA can be accessed from a user interface at the Atmospheres Node of the PDS, making the science data accessible globally through two established planetary science data portals. The PSA makes scientific and engineering data from ESA's planetary missions accessible to the worldwide scientific community. The PSA consists of online services incorporating search, preview, download, notification and delivery basket functionality. Mission data included in the archive aside from VEX include data from the Giotto, Mars Express, Smart-1, Huygens, and Rosetta spacecraft and several ground-based cometary observations. All data are compatible to the Planetary Data System data standard. The PDS archives and distributes scientific data from NASA planetary missions, astronomical observations, and laboratory measurements. The PDS is sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Its purpose is to ensure the long-term usability of NASA data and to stimulate advanced research. The architecture of the VEX prototype interface leverages components from both the PSA and PDS information system infrastructures, a user interface developed at the New Mexico State University, and the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP). The VEX Interoperability Project was a key project of the IPDA, whose objective is to ensure world-wide access to planetary data regardless of which agency collects and archives the data. A follow-on IPDA project will adapt the VEX Interoperability protocol for access in JAXA to the Venus Climate

  17. Protein C Inhibitor (PCI) Binds to Phosphatidylserine Exposing Cells with Implications in the Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Cells and Activated Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Daniela; Assinger, Alice; Einfinger, Katrin; Sokolikova, Barbora; Geiger, Margarethe

    2014-01-01

    Protein C Inhibitor (PCI) is a secreted serine protease inhibitor, belonging to the family of serpins. In addition to activated protein C PCI inactivates several other proteases of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems, suggesting a regulatory role in hemostasis. Glycosaminoglycans and certain negatively charged phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, bind to PCI and modulate its activity. Phosphatidylerine (PS) is exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells and known as a phagocytosis marker. We hypothesized that PCI might bind to PS exposed on apoptotic cells and thereby influence their removal by phagocytosis. Using Jurkat T-lymphocytes and U937 myeloid cells, we show here that PCI binds to apoptotic cells to a similar extent at the same sites as Annexin V, but in a different manner as compared to live cells (defined spots on ∼10–30% of cells). PCI dose dependently decreased phagocytosis of apoptotic Jurkat cells by U937 macrophages. Moreover, the phagocytosis of PS exposing, activated platelets by human blood derived monocytes declined in the presence of PCI. In U937 cells the expression of PCI as well as the surface binding of PCI increased with time of phorbol ester treatment/macrophage differentiation. The results of this study suggest a role of PCI not only for the function and/or maturation of macrophages, but also as a negative regulator of apoptotic cell and activated platelets removal. PMID:25000564

  18. Hydraulophones: Acoustic musical instruments and expressive user interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzen, Ryan E.

    Fluid flow creates an expansive range of acoustic possibilities, particularly in the case of water, which has unique turbulence and vortex shedding properties as compared with the air of ordinary wind instruments. Sound from water flow is explained with reference to a new class of musical instruments, hydraulophones, in which oscillation originates directly from matter in its liquid state. Several hydraulophones which were realized in practical form are described. A unique user-interface consisting of a row of water jets is presented, in terms of its expressiveness, tactility, responsiveness to derivatives and integrals of displacement, and in terms of the direct physical interaction between a user and the physical process of sound production. Signal processing algorithms are introduced, which extract further information from turbulent water flow, for industrial applications as well as musical applications.

  19. A low cost PCI-VME controller for control and data acquisition systems on fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, B. B.; Sousa, J.; Varandas, C. A. F.

    1999-01-01

    A universal hardware interface system that allows the transparent use of digital instrumentation of different buses has been developed using the VMEbus as the host platform. In this article a new controller for the VME system, based on a desktop-type PCI Pentium motherboard and a locally developed PCI-VME interconnector is described. This interconnector is composed of two boards, which are connected by an ac-terminated flexible cable and inserted into slots of the PCI motherboard and VME crate. This system decreases the cost of the global system and permits low priced and modular upgradeability. The software drivers have been developed for a UNIX environment using the LINUX-LAB project in a user-friendly approach.

  20. PCI-based WILDFIRE reconfigurable computing engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fross, Bradley K.; Donaldson, Robert L.; Palmer, Douglas J.

    1996-10-01

    WILDFORCE is the first PCI-based custom reconfigurable computer that is based on the Splash 2 technology transferred from the National Security Agency and the Institute for Defense Analyses, Supercomputing Research Center (SRC). The WILDFORCE architecture has many of the features of the WILDFIRE computer, such as field- programmable gate array (FPGA) based processing elements, linear array and crossbar interconnection, and high- performance memory and I/O subsystems. New features introduced in the PCI-based WILDFIRE systems include memory/processor options that can be added to any processing element. These options include static and dynamic memory, digital signal processors (DSPs), FPGAs, and microprocessors. In addition to memory/processor options, many different application specific connectors can be used to extend the I/O capabilities of the system, including systolic I/O, camera input and video display output. This paper also discusses how this new PCI-based reconfigurable computing engine is used for rapid-prototyping, real-time video processing and other DSP applications.

  1. Moessbauer Spectrometer in the PXI/CompactPCI Modular System

    SciTech Connect

    Pechousek, Jiri; Mashlan, Miroslav; Zboril, Radek

    2005-04-26

    Two commercially available modules, a digital oscilloscope (NI 5102) and a function generator (NI 5401) in the PXI (PCI eXtension for Instrumentation) or PCI standard from National Instruments Inc., supported by the driver software, have been used for building a computer-based Moessbauer spectrometer. The RTSI (Real-Time System Integration) bus is used for synchronizing the accumulation of the detector impulses to the Moessbauer spectrum with velocity of the 'source-sample' relative motion. The amplitude selection of the impulses from the detector output is based on the use of the Waveform Peak Detection.vi function. This function is available in the graphical programming environment LabVIEW 7 Express which serves for an implementation of the virtual instrument of the Moessbauer spectrometer. Moessbauer spectra can be accumulated in the constant and variable velocity modes; moreover, there is a possibility to register gamma-ray spectra in the multichannel analyzer mode. Two types of the detectors (a NaI(Tl) and a resonance scintillation detector) have been used with the new Moessbauer spectrometer.

  2. Macrophage mediated PCI enhanced gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, Catherine E.; Zamora, Genesis; Kwon, Young J.; Berg, Kristian; Madsen, Steen J.; Hirschberg, Henry

    2015-03-01

    Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a photodynamic therapy-based approach for improving the delivery of macromolecules and genes into the cell cytosol. Prodrug activating gene therapy (suicide gene therapy) employing the transduction of the E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) gene into tumor cells, is a promising method. Expression of this gene within the target cell produces an enzyme that converts the nontoxic prodrug, 5-FC, to the toxic metabolite, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). 5-FC may be particularly suitable for brain tumors, because it can readily cross the bloodbrain barrier (BBB). In addition the bystander effect, where activated drug is exported from the transfected cancer cells into the tumor microenvironment, plays an important role by inhibiting growth of adjacent tumor cells. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are frequently found in and around glioblastomas. Monocytes or macrophages (Ma) loaded with drugs, nanoparticles or photosensitizers could therefore be used to target tumors by local synthesis of chemo attractive factors. The basic concept is to combine PCI, to enhance the ex vivo transfection of a suicide gene into Ma, employing specially designed core/shell NP as gene carrier.

  3. Complete Versus Lesion-Only Primary PCI

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Gerry P.; Khan, Jamal N.; Greenwood, John P.; Nazir, Sheraz; Dalby, Miles; Curzen, Nick; Hetherington, Simon; Kelly, Damian J.; Blackman, Daniel J.; Ring, Arne; Peebles, Charles; Wong, Joyce; Sasikaran, Thiagarajah; Flather, Marcus; Swanton, Howard; Gershlick, Anthony H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete revascularization may improve outcomes compared with an infarct-related artery (IRA)-only strategy in patients being treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) who have multivessel disease presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, there is concern that non-IRA PCI may cause additional non-IRA myocardial infarction (MI). Objectives This study sought to determine whether in-hospital complete revascularization was associated with increased total infarct size compared with an IRA-only strategy. Methods This multicenter prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint clinical trial evaluated STEMI patients with multivessel disease having PPCI within 12 h of symptom onset. Patients were randomized to either IRA-only PCI or complete in-hospital revascularization. Contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) was performed following PPCI (median day 3) and stress CMR at 9 months. The pre-specified primary endpoint was infarct size on pre-discharge CMR. The study had 80% power to detect a 4% difference in infarct size with 100 patients per group. Results Of the 296 patients in the main trial, 205 participated in the CMR substudy, and 203 patients (98 complete revascularization and 105 IRA-only) completed the pre-discharge CMR. The groups were well-matched. Total infarct size (median, interquartile range) was similar to IRA-only revascularization: 13.5% (6.2% to 21.9%) versus complete revascularization, 12.6% (7.2% to 22.6%) of left ventricular mass, p = 0.57 (95% confidence interval for difference in geometric means 0.82 to 1.41). The complete revascularization group had an increase in non-IRA MI on the pre-discharge CMR (22 of 98 vs. 11 of 105, p = 0.02). There was no difference in total infarct size or ischemic burden between treatment groups at follow-up CMR. Conclusions Multivessel PCI in the setting of STEMI leads to a small increase in CMR-detected non-IRA MI, but

  4. The BioMart interface to the eMouseAtlas gene expression database EMAGE.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Peter; Richardson, Lorna; Venkataraman, Shanmugasundaram; Yang, Yiya; Baldock, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Here, we describe the BioMart interface to the eMouseAtlas gene expression database EMAGE. EMAGE is a spatiotemporal database of in situ gene expression patterns in the developing mouse embryo. BioMart provides a generic web query interface and programmable access using web services. The BioMart interface extends access to EMAGE via a powerful method of structuring complex queries and one with which users may already be familiar with from other BioMart implementations. The interface is structured into several data sets providing the user with comprehensive query access to the EMAGE data. The federated nature of BioMart allows scope for integration and cross querying of EMAGE with other similar BioMarts. PMID:21930504

  5. Expression of PAPPA2 in human fetomaternal interface and involvement in trophoblast invasion and migration.

    PubMed

    Wang, H Y; Zhang, Z; Yu, S

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A 2 (PAPPA2) is a placental-enriched gene that is important for normal human placentation and defects in the gene can cause complications in pregnancy. Yet the exact expression pattern and role of PAPPA2 in the human fetomaternal interface are not clear. In this study, in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were employed to examine the spatial and temporal expression of PAPPA2 in the human fetomaternal interface. IHC results exhibited wide expression of PAPPA2 in the fetomaternal interface, with placental syncytiatrophoblast (STB) and extravillous trophoblast (EVT) showing strong expression and the cytotrophoblast (CTB) showing weak expression of PAPPA2. These results were confirmed by ISH. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot showed the elevation of PAPPA2 in first trimester EVT differentiation and term CTB spontaneous syncytialization. PAPPA2-siRNA transfection significantly depressed the invasion and migration ability of a trophoblast cell line (HTR8/SVneo) in a transwell migration and Matrigel invasion model compared to a negative control siRNA (P < 0.05), also revealing that matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) secretion is downregulated. This was confirmed using a human first trimester placental villi explant culture model. Our results reveal the spatial and temporal expression of PAPPA2 in the human fetomaternal interface and show the positive regulatory role of PAPPA2 in human trophoblast invasion and migration through the secretion of MMP9. PMID:27525857

  6. Emergent primary PCI of anomalous LAD.

    PubMed

    Hershey, Jeffrey; Isada, Loretta; Fenster, Michael S

    2006-05-01

    Approximately 0.3% to 2% of patients may have anomalous origins of the coronary arteries. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery (LCA) or left anterior descending (LAD) artery from the right sinus has been well described. In persons in whom the course involves an interarterial track between the aorta (Ao) and pulmonary artery (PA), an increased incidence of sudden death has been reported, particularly during or shortly after exercise. This has been felt to be due to transient occlusion of the anomalous LAD from increased blood flow through the Ao and PA as the anomalous LAD courses between them, possibly causing myocardial ischemia. In an elective setting, further anatomic delineation with other methodologies such as cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is recommended. In this case report we present an emergent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of an anomalous LAD arising from the right sinus of Valsalva and coursing between the Ao and PA in a nonsurgical candidate. PMID:16670456

  7. RuvBL2 Is Involved in Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor PCI-24781-Induced Cell Death in SK-N-DZ Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Qinglei; Tsai, Sauna; Lu, Yonghai; Wang, Chunmei; Kwan, Yiuwa; Ngai, Saiming

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the second most common solid tumor diagnosed during infancy. The survival rate among children with high-risk neuroblastoma is less than 40%, highlighting the urgent needs for new treatment strategies. PCI-24781 is a novel hydroxamic acid-based histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that has high efficacy and safety for cancer treatment. However, the underlying mechanisms of PCI-24781 are not clearly elucidated in neuroblastoma cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that PCI-24781 treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth at very low doses in neuroblastoma cells SK-N-DZ, not in normal cell line HS-68. However, PCI-24781 caused the accumulation of acetylated histone H3 both in SK-N-DZ and HS-68 cell line. Treatment of SK-N-DZ with PCI-24781 also induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase and activated apoptosis signaling pathways via the up-regulation of DR4, p21, p53 and caspase 3. Further proteomic analysis revealed differential protein expression profiles between non-treated and PCI-24781 treated SK-N-DZ cells. Totally 42 differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS system. Western blotting confirmed the expression level of five candidate proteins including prohibitin, hHR23a, RuvBL2, TRAP1 and PDCD6IP. Selective knockdown of RuvBL2 rescued cells from PCI-24781-induced cell death, implying that RuvBL2 might play an important role in anti-tumor activity of PCI-24781 in SK-N-DZ cells. The present results provide a new insight into the potential mechanism of PCI-24781 in SK-N-DZ cell line. PMID:23977108

  8. A+-Helix of Protein C Inhibitor (PCI) Is a Cell-penetrating Peptide That Mediates Cell Membrane Permeation of PCI*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hanjiang; Wahlmüller, Felix Christof; Sarg, Bettina; Furtmüller, Margareta; Geiger, Margarethe

    2015-01-01

    Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a serpin with broad protease reactivity. It binds glycosaminoglycans and certain phospholipids that can modulate its inhibitory activity. PCI can penetrate through cellular membranes via binding to phosphatidylethanolamine. The exact mechanism of PCI internalization and the intracellular role of the serpin are not well understood. Here we showed that testisin, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored serine protease, cleaved human PCI and mouse PCI (mPCI) at their reactive sites as well as at sites close to their N terminus. This cleavage was observed not only with testisin in solution but also with cell membrane-anchored testisin on U937 cells. The cleavage close to the N terminus released peptides rich in basic amino acids. Synthetic peptides corresponding to the released peptides of human PCI (His1–Arg11) and mPCI (Arg1–Ala18) functioned as cell-penetrating peptides. Because intact mPCI but not testisin-cleaved mPCI was internalized by Jurkat T cells, a truncated mPCI mimicking testisin-cleaved mPCI was created. The truncated mPCI lacking 18 amino acids at the N terminus was not taken up by Jurkat T cells. Therefore our model suggests that testisin or other proteases could regulate the internalization of PCI by removing its N terminus. This may represent one of the mechanisms regulating the intracellular functions of PCI. PMID:25488662

  9. RAD51 potentiates synergistic effects of chemotherapy with PCI-24781 and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum on gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei-Ling; Li, Yu-Huang; Hou, Wei-Jian; Ke, Zun-Fu; Chen, Xin-Lin; Lu, Li-Ya; Cai, Shi-Rong; Song, Wu; Zhang, Chang-Hua; He, Yu-Long

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To explore the efficacy of PCI-24781, a broad-spectrum, hydroxamic acid-derived histone deacetylase inhibitor, in the treatment of gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: With or without treatment of PCI-24781 and/or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (CDDP), GC cell lines were subjected to functional analysis, including cell growth, apoptosis and clonogenic assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays were used to determine the interacting molecules and the activity of the enzyme. An in vivo study was carried out in GC xenograft mice. Cell culture-based assays were represented as mean ± SD. ANOVA tests were used to assess differences across groups. All pairwise comparisons between tumor weights among treatment groups were made using the Tukey-Kramer method for multiple comparison adjustment to control experimental-wise type I error rates. Significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: PCI-24781 significantly reduced the growth of the GC cells, enhanced cell apoptosis and suppressed clonogenicity, and these effects synergized with the effects of CDDP. PCI-24781 modulated the cell cycle and significantly reduced the expression of RAD51, which is related to homologous recombination. Depletion of RAD51 augmented the biological functions of PCI-24781, CDDP and the combination treatment, whereas overexpressing RAD51 had the opposite effects. Increased binding of the transcription suppressor E2F4 on the RAD51 promoter appeared to play a major role in these processes. Furthermore, significant suppression of tumor growth and weight in vivo was obtained following PCI-24781 treatment, which synergized with the anticancer effect of CDDP. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that RAD51 potentiates the synergistic effects of chemotherapy with PCI-24781 and CDDP on GC. PMID:25110436

  10. Acquisition of the syntax–discourse interface: The expression of point of view

    PubMed Central

    Lillo-Martin, Diane; de Quadros, Ronice Müller

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the proposal that the syntax–discourse interface is particularly vulnerable, and therefore components of this interface are acquired later than those of the syntax–semantics interface. The proposal is examined using data from the native language acquisition of markers of point of view in American Sign Language and Brazilian Sign Language, known as constructed action (CA). CA was observed in the spontaneous production of two case studies from as early as 1 year, 7 months of age, with the correct eye-gaze, facial expression, and manner of movement. However, the children sometimes failed to indicate the referent whose point of view was being expressed, and were not skilled at maintaining point of view marking across discourse. The results are interpreted as providing support for the vulnerability of the syntax–discourse interface, and for the interpretation of this vulnerability in connection with children’s relatively poor ability to assume an identical discourse context with their interlocutor. PMID:21528016

  11. Rigorous expressions for the Fresnel equations at interfaces between absorbing media.

    PubMed

    Maezawa, Hideki; Miyauchi, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    When conventional Fresnel theory is applied to absorbing multilayer systems, a slight discrepancy with respect to the principle of conservation of energy arises. Here we solve this long-perceived problem and present rigorous expressions for the Fresnel equations generally applicable to interfaces between isotropic absorbing media. These equations satisfy the conservation law automatically and coincide naturally with the conventional ones in reflection by simple mirrors placed in a vacuum. PMID:19183685

  12. An overview of PCI in the very elderly.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Vimalraj Bogana; Harper, Richard; Meredith, Ian; Malaiapan, Yuvaraj; Psaltis, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease, and in particular ischemic heart disease (IHD), is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the very elderly (> 80 years) worldwide. These patients represent a rapidly growing cohort presenting for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), now constituting more than one in five patients treated with PCI in real-world practice. Furthermore, they often have greater ischemic burden than their younger counterparts, suggesting that they have greater scope of benefit from coronary revascularization therapy. Despite this, the very elderly are frequently under-represented in clinical revascularization trials and historically there has been a degree of physician reluctance in referring them for PCI procedures, with perceptions of disappointing outcomes, low success and high complication rates. Several issues have contributed to this, including the tendency for older patients with IHD to present late, with atypical symptoms or non-diagnostic ECGs, and reservations regarding their procedural risk-to-benefit ratio, due to shorter life expectancy, presence of comorbidities and increased bleeding risk from antiplatelet and anticoagulation medications. However, advances in PCI technology and techniques over the past decade have led to better outcomes and lower risk of complications and the existing body of evidence now indicates that the very elderly actually derive more relative benefit from PCI than younger populations. Importantly, this applies to all PCI settings: elective, urgent and emergency. This review discusses the role of PCI in the very elderly presenting with chronic stable IHD, non ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome, and ST-elevation myocardial infarction. It also addresses the clinical challenges met when considering PCI in this cohort and the ongoing need for research and development to further improve outcomes in these challenging patients. PMID:25870621

  13. Genome expansion and differential expression of amino acid transporters at the aphid/Buchnera symbiotic interface.

    PubMed

    Price, Daniel R G; Duncan, Rebecca P; Shigenobu, Shuji; Wilson, Alex C C

    2011-11-01

    In insects, some of the most ecologically important symbioses are nutritional symbioses that provide hosts with novel traits and thereby facilitate exploitation of otherwise inaccessible niches. One such symbiosis is the ancient obligate intracellular symbiosis of aphids with the γ-proteobacteria, Buchnera aphidicola. Although the nutritional basis of the aphid/Buchnera symbiosis is well understood, the processes and structures that mediate the intimate interactions of symbiotic partners remain uncharacterized. Here, using a de novo approach, we characterize the complement of 40 amino acid polyamine organocation (APC) superfamily member amino acid transporters (AATs) encoded in the genome of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. We find that the A. pisum APC superfamily is characterized by extensive gene duplications such that A. pisum has more APC superfamily transporters than other fully sequenced insects, including a ten paralog aphid-specific expansion of the APC transporter slimfast. Detailed expression analysis of 17 transporters selected on the basis of their phylogenetic relationship to five AATs identified in an earlier bacteriocyte expressed sequence tag study distinguished a subset of eight transporters that have been recruited for amino acid transport in bacteriocyte cells at the symbiotic interface. These eight transporters include transporters that are highly expressed and/or highly enriched in bacteriocytes and intriguingly, the four AATs that show bacteriocyte-enriched expression are all members of gene family expansions, whereas three of the four that are highly expressed but not enriched in bacteriocytes retain one-to-one orthology with transporters in other genomes. Finally, analysis of evolutionary rates within the large A. pisum slimfast expansion demonstrated increased rates of molecular evolution coinciding with two major shifts in expression: 1) a loss of gut expression and possibly a gain of bacteriocyte expression and 2) loss of expression

  14. CompactPCI/Linux Platform in FTU Slow Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannone, F.; Wang, L.; Centioli, C.; Panella, M.; Mazza, G.; Vitale, V.

    2004-12-01

    In large fusion experiments, such as tokamak devices, there is a common trend for slow control systems. Because of complexity of the plants, the so-called `Standard Model' (SM) in slow control has been adopted on several tokamak machines. This model is based on a three-level hierarchical control: 1) High-Level Control (HLC) with a supervisory function; 2) Medium-Level Control (MLC) to interface and concentrate I/O field equipments; 3) Low-Level Control (LLC) with hard real-time I/O function, often managed by PLCs. FTU control system designed with SM concepts has underwent several stages of developments in its fifteen years duration of runs. The latest evolution was inevitable, due to the obsolescence of the MLC CPUs, based on VME-MOTOROLA 68030 with OS9 operating system. A large amount of C code was developed for that platform to route the data flow from LLC, which is constituted by 24 Westinghouse Numalogic PC-700 PLCs with about 8000 field-points, to HLC, based on a commercial Object-Oriented Real-Time database on Alpha/CompaqTru64 platform. Therefore, we have to look for cost-effective solutions and finally a CompactPCI-Intel x86 platform with Linux operating system was chosen. A software porting has been done, taking into account the differences between OS9 and Linux operating system in terms of Inter/Network Processes Communications and I/O multi-ports serial driver. This paper describes the hardware/software architecture of the new MLC system, emphasizing the reliability and the low costs of the open source solutions. Moreover, a huge amount of software packages available in open source environment will assure a less painful maintenance, and will open the way to further improvements of the system itself.

  15. THE BTK INHIBITOR PCI-32765 SYNERGISTICALLY INCREASES PROTEASOME INHIBITOR ACTIVITY IN DLBCL AND MCL CELLS SENSITIVE OR RESISTANT TO BORTEZOMIB

    PubMed Central

    Dasmahapatra, Girija; Patel, Hiral; Dent, Paul; Fisher, Richard I.; Friedberg, Jonathan; Grant, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Summary Interactions between the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor PCI-32765 and the proteasome inhibitor (bortezomib) were examined in diffuse large-B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells, including those highly resistant to bortezomib. Co-administration of PCI-32765/bortezomib synergistically increased mitochondrial injury and apoptosis in germinal centre- or activated B-cell-like-DLBCL cells and in MCL cells. These events were accompanied by marked AKT and nuclear factor (NF)-κB (NFKB1) inactivation, down-regulation of Mcl-1 (MCL1), Bcl-xL (BCL2L1), and XIAP, and enhanced DNA damage (e.g., γH2A.X formation) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Similar interactions were observed in highly bortezomib-resistant DLBCL and MCL cells, and in primary DLBCL cells. In contrast, PCI-32765/bortezomib regimens displayed minimal toxicity toward normal CD34+ bone marrow cells. Transfection of DLBCL cells with a constitutively active AKT construct attenuated AKT inactivation and significantly diminished cell death, whereas expression of an NF-κB “super-repressor” (IκBαser34/36) increased both PCI-32765 and bortezomib lethality. Moreover, cells in which the ER stress response was disabled by a dominant-negative eIF2α construct were resistant to this regimen. Finally, combined exposure to PCI-32765 and bortezomib resulted in more pronounced and sustained reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and ROS scavengers significantly diminished lethality. Given promising early clinical results for PCI-32765 in DLBCL and MCL, a strategy combining BTK/ proteasome inhibitor warrants attention in these malignancies. PMID:23360303

  16. PCI card with DMA capabilities for digital imaging detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanti, Viviana; Marzeddu, Roberto; Randaccio, Paolo

    2006-07-01

    A readout card based on the standard PCI 32-bit/33 MHz bus has been developed for the fast readout of digital systems. The PCI card exploits a PCI bridge chip with Direct Memory Access (DMA) capabilities which permits to obtain a measured throughput up to 90 Mbytes/s. The PCI card has two high-density 80-pin connectors for data I/O; an external system acquisition card can be connected through two flat cables. A powerful programmable logic FPGA provides the management of the I/O lines; by default, 32 input and 32 output single-ended lines (CMOS) plus six LVDS lines are provided, but the FPGA allows several different I/O configurations depending on the specific application requirements. Another programmable device manages the control and status signals of the local bus and the Synchronous Static RAM available for data storage. Due to its main features like the configurable I/O patterns and the high throughput, this PCI card is suitable for applications like the fast readout of imaging acquisition systems.

  17. Usability testing of a respiratory interface using computer screen and facial expressions videos.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana; Pinho, Cátia; Monteiro, Sandra; Marcos, Ana; Marques, Alda

    2013-12-01

    Computer screen videos (CSVs) and users' facial expressions videos (FEVs) are recommended to evaluate systems performance. However, software combining both methods is often non-accessible in clinical research fields. The Observer-XT software is commonly used for clinical research to assess human behaviours. Thus, this study reports on the combination of CSVs and FEVs, to evaluate a graphical user interface (GUI). Eight physiotherapists entered clinical information in the GUI while CSVs and FEVs were collected. The frequency and duration of a list of behaviours found in FEVs were analysed using the Observer-XT-10.5. Simultaneously, the frequency and duration of usability problems of CSVs were manually registered. CSVs and FEVs timelines were also matched to verify combinations. The analysis of FEVs revealed that the category most frequently observed in users behaviour was the eye contact with the screen (ECS, 32±9) whilst verbal communication achieved the highest duration (14.8±6.9min). Regarding the CSVs, 64 problems, related with the interface (73%) and the user (27%), were found. In total, 135 usability problems were identified by combining both methods. The majority were reported through verbal communication (45.8%) and ECS (40.8%). "False alarms" and "misses" did not cause quantifiable reactions and the facial expressions problems were mainly related with the lack of familiarity (55.4%) felt by users when interacting with the interface. These findings encourage the use of Observer-XT-10.5 to conduct small usability sessions, as it identifies emergent groups of problems by combining methods. However, to validate final versions of systems further validation should be conducted using specialized software. PMID:24290937

  18. An optimized ERP brain-computer interface based on facial expression changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jing; Daly, Ian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Interferences from spatially adjacent non-target stimuli are known to evoke event-related potentials (ERPs) during non-target flashes and, therefore, lead to false positives. This phenomenon was commonly seen in visual attention-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) using conspicuous stimuli and is known to adversely affect the performance of BCI systems. Although users try to focus on the target stimulus, they cannot help but be affected by conspicuous changes of the stimuli (such as flashes or presenting images) which were adjacent to the target stimulus. Furthermore, subjects have reported that conspicuous stimuli made them tired and annoyed. In view of this, the aim of this study was to reduce adjacent interference, annoyance and fatigue using a new stimulus presentation pattern based upon facial expression changes. Our goal was not to design a new pattern which could evoke larger ERPs than the face pattern, but to design a new pattern which could reduce adjacent interference, annoyance and fatigue, and evoke ERPs as good as those observed during the face pattern. Approach. Positive facial expressions could be changed to negative facial expressions by minor changes to the original facial image. Although the changes are minor, the contrast is big enough to evoke strong ERPs. In this paper, a facial expression change pattern between positive and negative facial expressions was used to attempt to minimize interference effects. This was compared against two different conditions, a shuffled pattern containing the same shapes and colours as the facial expression change pattern, but without the semantic content associated with a change in expression, and a face versus no face pattern. Comparisons were made in terms of classification accuracy and information transfer rate as well as user supplied subjective measures. Main results. The results showed that interferences from adjacent stimuli, annoyance and the fatigue experienced by the subjects could be

  19. Experimental investigation of mouse kidney aging with SR PCI technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yifeng, P.; Zehua, Z.; Guohao, D.; Tiqiao, X.; Hongjie, X.; Peiping, Z.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Basing on the coherence character of the Synchrotron radiation (SR), the mouse kidney study is performed using the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging (PCI) technology which as one approach of the phase contrasts imaging (PCI). The aim of this paper was to visualize the kidney at different ages and evaluate the latent value of aging mechanism with SR phase contrast imaging technology. Methods. The experiments were performed at the BL13W1 line of the SSRF (the Shanghai synchrotron radiation facility), the samples were soaked in 10% formalin solution, the mouse kidneys at different ages were imaged on the shelf in the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging setup and captured with CCD. The captured images were analyzed and compared. Results. When the distance is 50 cm between the samples and imaging plate, good contrast and high resolution were obtained in the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging (PCI), as such renal capsule revealed well, and the resolution reach to 30 micron; there is significant difference in the shape and vessels structures among the mouse kidneys at different age. Conclusion. The PCI is good for the applying of main light element organization imaging, the difference in shape and vessels structure between the young and old mouse kidney maybe indicated at some extent with the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging technology.

  20. Influence of chlorhexidine on dentin adhesive interface micromorphology and nanoleakage expression of resin cements.

    PubMed

    Stape, Thiago Henrique Scarabello; Menezes, Murilo De Sousa; Barreto, Bruno De Castro Ferreira; Naves, Lucas Zago; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Quagliatto, Paulo Sérgio; Martins, Luís Roberto Marcondes

    2013-08-01

    This study focused on adhesive interface morphologic characterization and nanoleakage expression of resin cements bonded to human dentin pretreated with 1% chlorhexidine (CHX). Thirty-two non-carious human third molars were ground flat to expose superficial dentin. Resin composite blocks were luted to the exposed dentin using one conventional (RelyX ARC) and one self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U100), with/without CHX pretreatment. Four groups (n = 8) were obtained: control groups (ARC and U100); experimental groups (ARC/CHX and U100/CHX) were pretreated with 1% CHX prior to the luting process. After storage in water for 24 h, the bonded teeth were sectioned into 0.9 × 0.9 mm(2) sticks producing a minimum of 12 sticks per tooth. Four sticks from each tooth were prepared for hybrid layer evaluation by scanning electron microscope analysis. The remaining sticks were immersed in silver nitrate for 24 h for either nanoleakage evaluation along the bonded interfaces or after rupture. Nanoleakage samples were carbon coated and examined using backscattered electron mode. Well-established hybrid layers were observed in the groups luted with RelyX ARC. Nanoleakage evaluation revealed increase nanoleakage in groups treated with CHX for both resin cements. Group U100/CHX exhibited the most pronouncing nanoleakage expression along with porous zones adjacent to the CHX pretreated dentin. The results suggest a possible incompatibility between CHX and RelyX U100 that raises the concern that the use of CHX with self-adhesive cements may adversely affect resin-dentin bond. PMID:23737406

  1. PCI-24781 (abexinostat), a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, induces reactive oxygen species-dependent apoptosis and is synergistic with bortezomib in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Sholler, Giselle Saulnier; Currier, Erika A.; Dutta, Akshita; Slavik, Marni A.; Illenye, Sharon A.; Mendonca, Maria Cecilia F.; Dragon, Julie; Roberts, Stephen S.; Bond, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of a broad-spectrum histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, PCI-24781, alone and in combination with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in neuroblastoma cell lines. The combination was shown to induce synergistic cytotoxity involving the formation of reactive oxygen species. The cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP, as determined by western blotting, indicated that cell death was primarily due to apoptosis. Xenograft mouse models indicated increased survival among animals treated with this combination. The Notch signaling pathway and MYCN gene expression were quantified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in cells treated with PCI-24781 and bortezomib, alone and in combination. Notch pathway expression increased in response to an HDAC inhibitor. NFKB1 and MYCN were both significantly down regulated. Our results suggest that PCI-24781 and bortezomib are synergistic in neuroblastoma cell lines and may be a new therapeutic strategy for this disease. PMID:25520806

  2. Expression of chemokine decoy receptors and their ligands at the porcine maternal-fetal interface.

    PubMed

    Wessels, Jocelyn M; Linton, Nicola F; van den Heuvel, Marianne J; Cnossen, Sonya A; Edwards, Andrew K; Croy, Barbara Anne; Tayade, Chandrakant

    2011-02-01

    Successful pregnancy requires coordinated maternal-fetal cross-talk to establish vascular connections that support conceptus growth. In pigs, two waves of spontaneous fetal loss occur and 30-40% of conceptuses are lost before parturition. Previous studies associated these losses with decreased angiogenic and increased inflammatory cytokines. Chemokines, a sub-category of cytokines, and decoy receptors control leukocyte trafficking, angiogenesis and development. The availability of chemokines is regulated by three non-signalling decoy receptors: chemokine decoy receptor (D6), Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) and Chemocentryx decoy receptor (CCX CKR). We hypothesized that the expression of these receptors and their chemokine ligands regulate the porcine pregnancy success or failure. Here, we describe for the first time the transcription and translation of all three decoy receptors and several chemokine ligands in endometrium and trophoblast associated with healthy and arresting conceptuses at gestation day (gd) 20 and gd50. Among decoy receptors, transcripts for DARC were significantly reduced in endometrium, whereas that for CCX CKR were significantly increased in endometrium and trophoblast at gd50 arresting compared with healthy sites. However, western blot analysis revealed no differences in decoy receptor expression between healthy and arresting tissues. Transcripts for decoy receptor ligands CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL11, CCL19, CCL21, CXCL2 and CXCL8 were stable between healthy and arresting littermates. Quantification by SearchLight chemiluminescent protein array confirmed ligand expression at the protein level. These data indicate that decoy receptors and ligands are expressed at the porcine maternal-fetal interface and dysregulation of decoy receptor (DARC and CCX CKR) transcripts occurs at sites of fetal arrest. PMID:20680026

  3. Vocational Education Program/Course Inventory Form PCI. Explanation and Instructional Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Sacramento.

    This manual for teachers, administrators, and counselors both explains the Program/Course Inventory (PCI), a data collection instrument, and provides instructions for completing the PCI form. The first section describes the PCI developed by the Ventura County Superintendent of Schools staff to collect data that define vocational education…

  4. Interference and PCI in argon Auger (e, 2e) spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waterhouse, D. K.; Williams, J. F.

    1997-06-01

    Angle-dependent interference is observed in electron-impact ionization (e, 2e) coincidence experiments on the argon 0953-4075/30/12/013/img1 and 0953-4075/30/12/013/img2 Auger transitions. Recapture of the slow ejected electron from the Auger process leads to interference with the satellite-state ionization processes. The post-collision interaction (PCI) and interference effects are quantified for a large range of excess energies.

  5. Cilostazol and primary-PCI: mirage or good alternative?

    PubMed

    Porto, Italo; D'Amario, Domenico; Crea, Filippo

    2012-07-01

    Oral anti-platelet agents targeting the platelet P2Y12 receptor are an integral component of treating patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. Advancements in the design of stents and catheters are pushing the technique towards treatment of high risk lesions whose failure would expose patients to catastrophic events. Success of these complex procedures largely lays on efficacy of anti-platelet drugs and the limitation of stent restenosis and/or thrombosis. Clopidogrel has been the most commonly used agent in this respect worldwide. However, there are certain shortcomings of clopidogrel, the most important of which is the wide response variability of platelet inhibition. Thus, clinicians are facing challenges in treating patients where high inhibition of platelets is necessary and the response to clopidogrel may be insufficient. In the last few years, cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3 inhibitor, has been tested in the setting of acute coronary syndromes: it exerts not only anti-platelet actions, but also pleiotropic effects, including inhibition on neointimal hyperplasia, therefore preventing both stent restenosis and thrombosis. Therefore, cilostazol may be considered, on top of our current anti-platelet therapy, as a potential candidate to achieve optimal platelet inhibition especially in patients undergoing primary-PCI (p-PCI) or high risk procedures. This review will focus on the pharmacological characteristics of cilostazol and the initial evidences that support the use of this drug in the setting of p-PCI. PMID:22329616

  6. A high-rate PCI-based telemetry processor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turri, R.

    2002-07-01

    The high performances reached by the Satellite on-board telemetry generation and transmission, as consequently, will impose the design of ground facilities with higher processing capabilities at low cost to allow a good diffusion of these ground station. The equipment normally used are based on complex, proprietary bus and computing architectures that prevent the systems from exploiting the continuous and rapid increasing in computing power available on market. The PCI bus systems now allow processing of high-rate data streams in a standard PC-system. At the same time the Windows NT operating system supports multitasking and symmetric multiprocessing, giving the capability to process high data rate signals. In addition, high-speed networking, 64 bit PCI-bus technologies and the increase in processor power and software, allow creating a system based on COTS products (which in future may be easily and inexpensively upgraded). In the frame of EUCLID RTP 9.8 project, a specific work element was dedicated to develop the architecture of a system able to acquire telemetry data of up to 600 Mbps. Laben S.p.A - a Finmeccanica Company -, entrusted of this work, has designed a PCI-based telemetry system making possible the communication between a satellite down-link and a wide area network at the required rate.

  7. Photochemical internalization (PCI) enhanced nonviral transfection of tumor suppressor and pro-drug activating genes; a potential treatment modality for gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Frederick; Zamora, Genesis; Sun, Chung-Ho; Trinidad, Anthony; Berg, Kristian; Madsen, Steen; Kwon, Young Jik; Hirschberg, Henry

    2014-03-01

    The overall objective of the research is to investigate the utility of photochemical internalization for the enhanced nonviral transfection of genes into cells. We have examined, in detail, the evaluation of photochemical internalization (PCI) as a method for the non-viral introduction of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN and the PCI mediated transfection of the cytosine deaminase (CD) pro drug activating gene into glioma cell monolayers and multi-cell tumor spheroids. Expression of the CD gene within the target cell produces an enzyme that converts the nontoxic prodrug, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), to the toxic metabolite, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU).

  8. Mössbauer spectrometer as a virtual instrument in the PXI/Compact PCI modular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechousek, J.; Mashlan, M.

    2005-07-01

    A new programming method has been used for building a computer-based Mössbauer spectrometer. Data acquisition is realized via two commercially available PXI/Compact-PCI modules or PCI devices which are supported by relevant software drivers. Both modules, the digital oscilloscope NI 5102 and the function generator NI 5401 (National Instruments Inc.), can be used in the PXI or PC standard. The synchronization between the velocity signal generation and the impulse detection is controlled by a RTSI (Real-Time System Integration) bus. A virtual Mössbauer spectrometer is implemented by the graphical programming language called LabVIEW 7 Express. The amplitude selection of impulses from the detector output is realized with an assistance of the Waveform Peak Detection.vi function. The sampling rate of the detector output signal and the frequency of the velocity signal determinate the number of registration channels of measured Mössbauer spectrum. The Mössbauer spectra can be accumulated in the constant or variable velocity modes; moreover, there is a possibility to register gamma-ray spectra in the multichannel analyzer mode.

  9. Murine abortion is associated with enhanced hyaluronan expression and abnormal localization at the fetomaternal interface.

    PubMed

    Cordo-Russo, R; Garcia, M G; Barrientos, G; Orsal, A S; Viola, M; Moschansky, P; Ringel, F; Passi, A; Alaniz, L; Hajos, S; Blois, S M

    2009-01-01

    The remodelling of the endometrial architecture is fundamental to create a suitable environment for the establishment of pregnancy. During this process, substantial alterations in the composition of maternal extracellular matrix play an important role by providing a prosperous medium for implantation as well as modulating trophoblast invasion leading to the formation of a functional placental unit. Hyaluronan is a conspicuous component of the extracellular matrix, particularly in remodelling tissues undergoing regeneration and repair. During gestation, changes in HA deposition and distribution indicate that this molecule may participate in preparation of the endometrial stroma for reception and implantation of the embryo. However, little is known about the role of hyaluronan at the fetomaternal interface, specially regarding its influence in pregnancy outcome. In the present study we show increased decidual hyaluronan levels in spontaneous abortion compared with normal pregnancy mice on gestation day 7.5. Both in normal and pathologic pregnancies, high molecular size hyaluronan was found at the fetomaternal unit. However, hyaluronan metabolism (which results from the activity of hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronidases) seems to be altered in spontaneous abortion as shown by a decrease in Hyal-3 expression as well as by differences in hyaluronan molecular size spectrum. This alteration in hyaluronan metabolism in spontaneous abortion could explain its increased concentration observed in decidua and the abnormal distribution of hyaluronan around the embryo implantation crypt. Thus, increased decidual hyaluronan levels resulting from abnormal deposition and turn over may contribute to the pathogenesis of pregnancy failure. PMID:19059644

  10. TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

    2005-04-15

    Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

  11. An analysis of patients receiving emergency CAG without PCI and the value of GRACE score in predicting PCI possibilities in NSTE-ACS patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bo-Da; Zu, Ling-Yun; Mi, Lin; Wang, Gui-Song; Guo, Li-Jun; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background There are patients who underwent emergency coronary angiography (CAG) but did not receive percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of this study was to analyze these reasons. Methods This is a single-center retrospective study. We recruited 201 consecutive patients who received emergency CAG but did not receive PCI. To investigate the value of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score in predicting PCI possibilities in non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) patients, we recruited 80 consecutive patients who presented with NSTE-ACS and received emergency CAG as well as emergency PCI. Results Among the 201 patients who received emergency CAG but did not receive PCI, 26% patients had final diagnosis other than coronary heart disease. In the patients with significant coronary artery stenosis, 23 patients (11.5%) were recommended to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), one patient (0.5%) refused PCI; 13 patients (6.5%) with significant thrombus burden were treated with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist; 74 patients (36.8%) were treated with drug therapy because no severe stenosis (> 70%) was present in the crime vessel. Moreover, 80 of the 201 patients were presented with NSTE-ACS (excluding those patients with final diagnosis other than coronary heart disease, excluding those patients planned for CABG treatment), referred as non PCI NSTE-ACS. When comparing their GRACE scores with 80 consecutive patients presented with NSTE-ACS who received emergency CAG as well as emergency PCI (referred as PCI NSTE-ACS), we found that PCI NSTE-ACS patients had significantly higher GRACE scores compared with non PCI NSTE-ACS patients. We then used Receiver Operator Characteristic Curve (ROC) to test whether the GRACE score is good at evaluating the possibilities of PCI in NSTE-ACS patients. The area under the curve was 0.854 ± 0.030 (P < 0.001), indicating good predictive value. Furthermore, we analyzed results

  12. Genetic mapping of the polycystic kidney gene, pcy, on mouse chromosome 9

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, Shizuko; Ogiso, Noboru; Takahashi, Hisahide

    1995-12-01

    The murine polycystic kidney disease gene, pcy, is an autosomal recessive trait located on chromosome 9. To determine the genetic locus of pcy, 222 intraspecific backcross mice were obtained by mating C57BL/6FG-pcy and Mus molossinus. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 70 of the 222 backcross progeny showed that pcy, dilute coat color (d), and cholecystokinin (Cck) were located in the order d-pcy-Cck from the centromere. Simple sequence repeat length polymorphism analysis of DNA of all 222 backcross mice was carried out using four markers which were located near the central regions of d and Cck. One and eight recombinations were detected between D9Mit24 and pcy and between D9Mit16 and pcy, respectively. However, no recombinant was observed among pcy, D9Mit14, and D9Mit148. These findings strongly suggest that D9Mit14 and D9Mit148 are located near the pcy gene and are good markers for chromosomal walking to this gene. 28 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Light-emitting diode versus laser irradiation phototherapy with lutetium texaphyrin (PCI-0123)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodburn, Kathryn W.; Young, Stuart W.; Qing, Fan; Miles, Dale R.; Thiemann, Patricia A.

    1997-05-01

    Lutetium texaphyrin (PCI-0123) is presently in clinical trials for the treatment of neoplasms. An argon-pumped dye laser has mostly been used to generate light for PCI-0123 photoactivation. However, lasers are expensive and produce a limited area of illumination, so the efficacy of light emitting diodes (LEDs) was investigated. An LED array was developed so that the spectral emission matched the far red absorption spectrum of PCI-0123. A preclinical PDT efficacy study comparing the laser and the LED was undertaken using EMT6-bearing animals. The LED and laser light sources were statistically comparable in eradicating the murine mammary sarcomas using PCI-0123 as the photosensitizer.

  14. Software modules of DAQ PCI board (DeLiDAQ) for positive-sensitive MWPC detectors with delay line readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchanovsky, F. V.; Litvinenko, E. I.; Nikiforov, A. S.; Gebauer, B.; Schulz, Ch.; Wilpert, Th.

    2006-12-01

    The data acquisition system for the position-sensitive delay line detectors on basis of the reprogrammable PCI DAQ board (DeLiDAQ) began to be used for scientific measurements with one- and two-dimensional position-sensitive MWPC detectors on the neutron reactors IBR-2 (JINR, Dubna) and BERII (HMI, Berlin). A stand-alone version of the system with the graphical user interface on the basis of packet ROOT can be used on any PC with the operating system Windows 2000 or Windows XP. Architecture of the created software ensures several ways of interfacing to experiment control systems. In the paper we provide a description of the DeLiDAQ software modules, their features and results of some performance tests.

  15. 47 CFR 61.45 - Adjustments to the PCI for Local Exchange Carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjustments to the PCI for Local Exchange... for Local Exchange Carriers. (a) Price cap local exchange carriers shall file adjustments to the PCI... reflect the effect of mid-year exogenous cost changes. (b)(1)(i) Adjustments to price cap local...

  16. 47 CFR 61.45 - Adjustments to the PCI for Local Exchange Carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjustments to the PCI for Local Exchange... for Local Exchange Carriers. (a) Price cap local exchange carriers shall file adjustments to the PCI... reflect the effect of mid-year exogenous cost changes. (b)(1)(i) Adjustments to price cap local...

  17. 47 CFR 61.45 - Adjustments to the PCI for Local Exchange Carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjustments to the PCI for Local Exchange... for Local Exchange Carriers. (a) Price cap local exchange carriers shall file adjustments to the PCI... reflect the effect of mid-year exogenous cost changes. (b)(1)(i) Adjustments to price cap local...

  18. 47 CFR 61.45 - Adjustments to the PCI for Local Exchange Carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjustments to the PCI for Local Exchange... for Local Exchange Carriers. (a) Price cap local exchange carriers shall file adjustments to the PCI... reflect the effect of mid-year exogenous cost changes. (b)(1)(i) Adjustments to price cap local...

  19. Type VII Collagen Expression in the Human Vitreoretinal Interface, Corpora Amylacea and Inner Retinal Layers

    PubMed Central

    Wullink, Bart; Pas, Hendri H.; Van der Worp, Roelofje J.; Kuijer, Roel; Los, Leonoor I.

    2015-01-01

    Type VII collagen, as a major component of anchoring fibrils found at basement membrane zones, is crucial in anchoring epithelial tissue layers to their underlying stroma. Recently, type VII collagen was discovered in the inner human retina by means of immunohistochemistry, while proteomic investigations demonstrated type VII collagen at the vitreoretinal interface of chicken. Because of its potential anchoring function at the vitreoretinal interface, we further assessed the presence of type VII collagen at this site. We evaluated the vitreoretinal interface of human donor eyes by means of immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy, and Western blotting. Firstly, type VII collagen was detected alongside vitreous fibers6 at the vitreoretinal interface. Because of its known anchoring function, it is likely that type VII collagen is involved in vitreoretinal attachment. Secondly, type VII collagen was found within cytoplasmic vesicles of inner retinal cells. These cells resided most frequently in the ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer. Thirdly, type VII collagen was found in astrocytic cytoplasmic inclusions, known as corpora amylacea. The intraretinal presence of type VII collagen was confirmed by Western blotting of homogenized retinal preparations. These data add to the understanding of vitreoretinal attachment, which is important for a better comprehension of common vitreoretinal attachment pathologies. PMID:26709927

  20. A distant trophoblast-specific enhancer controls HLA-G expression at the maternal-fetal interface.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Leonardo M R; Meissner, Torsten B; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S; Mallard, William; O'Donnell, Charles W; Tilburgs, Tamara; Gomes, Hannah A B; Camahort, Raymond; Sherwood, Richard I; Gifford, David K; Rinn, John L; Cowan, Chad A; Strominger, Jack L

    2016-05-10

    HLA-G, a nonclassical HLA molecule uniquely expressed in the placenta, is a central component of fetus-induced immune tolerance during pregnancy. The tissue-specific expression of HLA-G, however, remains poorly understood. Here, systematic interrogation of the HLA-G locus using massively parallel reporter assay (MPRA) uncovered a previously unidentified cis-regulatory element 12 kb upstream of HLA-G with enhancer activity, Enhancer L Strikingly, clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated deletion of this enhancer resulted in ablation of HLA-G expression in JEG3 cells and in primary human trophoblasts isolated from placenta. RNA-seq analysis demonstrated that Enhancer L specifically controls HLA-G expression. Moreover, DNase-seq and chromatin conformation capture (3C) defined Enhancer L as a cell type-specific enhancer that loops into the HLA-G promoter. Interestingly, MPRA-based saturation mutagenesis of Enhancer L identified motifs for transcription factors of the CEBP and GATA families essential for placentation. These factors associate with Enhancer L and regulate HLA-G expression. Our findings identify long-range chromatin looping mediated by core trophoblast transcription factors as the mechanism controlling tissue-specific HLA-G expression at the maternal-fetal interface. More broadly, these results establish the combination of MPRA and CRISPR/Cas9 deletion as a powerful strategy to investigate human immune gene regulation. PMID:27078102

  1. Potential of Pseudomonas putida PCI2 for the Protection of Tomato Plants Against Fungal Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Nicolás; Masciarelli, Oscar; Fischer, Sonia; Luna, Virginia; Rovera, Marisa

    2016-09-01

    Tomato is one of the most economically attractive vegetable crops due to its high yields. Diseases cause significant losses in tomato production worldwide. We carried out Polymerase Chain Reaction studies to detect the presence of genes encoding antifungal compounds in the DNA of Pseudomonas putida strain PCI2. We also used liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry to detect and quantify the production of compounds that increase the resistance of plants to diseases from culture supernatants of PCI2. In addition, we investigated the presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase in PCI2. Finally, PCI2 was used for inoculation of tomato seeds to study its potential biocontrol activity against Fusarium oxysporum MR193. The obtained results showed that no fragments for the encoding genes of hydrogen cyanide, pyoluteorin, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyrrolnitrin, or phenazine-1-carboxylic acid were amplified from the DNA of PCI2. On the other hand, PCI2 produced salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in Luria-Bertani medium and grew in a culture medium containing ACC as the sole nitrogen source. We observed a reduction in disease incidence from 53.33 % in the pathogen control to 30 % in tomato plants pre-inoculated with PCI2 as well as increases in shoot and root dry weights in inoculated plants, as compared to the pathogenicity control. This study suggests that inoculation of tomato seeds with P. putida PCI2 increases the resistance of plants to root rot caused by F. oxysporum and that PCI2 produces compounds that may be involved at different levels in increasing such resistance. Thus, PCI2 could represent a non-contaminating management strategy potentially applicable in vegetable crops such as tomato. PMID:27246499

  2. Comparative Effectiveness of PCI Education's "PCI Reading Program": Phase 2--A Report of a Comparison Group Study in Brevard Public Schools and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Empirical Education Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    PCI Education sought scientifically based evidence on the comparative effectiveness of the "PCI Reading Program" through a five-year longitudinal study. Phase 1 of the study consisted of a randomized control trial studying the efficacy of the "PCI Reading Program-Level One" that was conducted in the 2007-2008 in Miami-Dade County Public Schools…

  3. Higher plasma level of STIM1, OPG are correlated with stent restenosis after PCI

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haibin; Jiang, Zhian; Liu, Xiangdong; Yang, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Object: Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) is one of the most effective treatments for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), but the high rate of In Stent Restenosis (ISR) has plagued clinicians after PCI. We aim to investigate the correlation of plasma Stromal Interaction Molecular 1 (STIM1) and Osteoprotegerin (OPG) level with stent restenosis after PCI. Methods: A total of 100 consecutive patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) received PCI procedure were recruited. Coronary angiography was performed 8 months after their PCI. Then patients were divided into 2 groups: observation group was composed by patients who existing postoperative stenosis after intervention; Control group was composed by patients with no postoperative stenosis. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG in all patients were tested before and after intervention. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analysis the correlation between STIM, OPG level and postoperative stenosis. Results: 35 cases were divided into observation group and other 65 were divided into control group. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG have no statistical difference before their PCI procedure, but we observed higher level of High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) existed in observation group. We observed higher level of plasma STIM, OPG in observation group when compared with control group after PCI procedure (P < 0.05). Regression analysis demonstrated that Hs-CRP, STIM1, OPG are independent risk factors for ISR. Conclusion: Elevated levels of plasma STIM1, OPG are independent risk factors for ISR in patients received PCI, which could provide useful information for the restenosis control after PCI. PMID:26885040

  4. Thermochemical evaluation of PCI failures in LWR fuel pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götzmann, Odo

    1982-06-01

    In searching for the reasons behind the PCI failures of LWR fuel pins two questions have obviously remained unanswered: (a) what is the iodine potential necessary to cause SCC of zircaloy, and (b) is this iodine potential available in a fuel pin. To answer these two questions, a consistent set of thermochemical data for the Zr-I system was created, the results of laboratory tests of iodine-induced SCC of zircaloy were evaluated, and, finally, equilibrium calculations for the fuel-fission-product system were performed to determine the temperature and oxygen potential required to produce an iodine potential high enough to cause SCC of zircaloy. The conclusion of this study is that SCC of zircaloy can be caused by an iodine potential equal to or greater than that needed to form ZrI with metallic zirconium. This iodine potential is available in an LWR fuel pin at oxygen potentials corresponding to stoichiometric fuel. The carrier of the potential, i.e. The attacking species, is CsI.

  5. Integrative transcriptome meta-analysis reveals widespread sex-biased gene expression at the human fetal–maternal interface

    PubMed Central

    Buckberry, Sam; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Bent, Stephen J.; Dekker, Gustaaf A.; Roberts, Claire T.

    2014-01-01

    As males and females share highly similar genomes, the regulation of many sexually dimorphic traits is constrained to occur through sex-biased gene regulation. There is strong evidence that human males and females differ in terms of growth and development in utero and that these divergent growth strategies appear to place males at increased risk when in sub-optimal conditions. Since the placenta is the interface of maternal–fetal exchange throughout pregnancy, these developmental differences are most likely orchestrated by differential placental function. To date, progress in this field has been hampered by a lack of genome-wide information on sex differences in placental gene expression. Therefore, our motivation in this study was to characterize sex-biased gene expression in the human placenta. We obtained gene expression data for >300 non-pathological placenta samples from 11 microarray datasets and applied mapping-based array probe re-annotation and inverse-variance meta-analysis methods which showed that >140 genes (false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05) are differentially expressed between male and female placentae. A majority of these genes (>60%) are autosomal, many of which are involved in high-level regulatory processes such as gene transcription, cell growth and proliferation and hormonal function. Of particular interest, we detected higher female expression from all seven genes in the LHB-CGB cluster, which includes genes involved in placental development, the maintenance of pregnancy and maternal immune tolerance of the conceptus. These results demonstrate that sex-biased gene expression in the normal human placenta occurs across the genome and includes genes that are central to growth, development and the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:24867328

  6. Balloon-Assisted Tracking: A Solution to Severe Subclavian Tortuosity Encountered During Transradial Primary PCI.

    PubMed

    Dharma, Surya; Gilchrist, Ian C; Patel, Tejas

    2016-06-01

    Radial artery access is preferred over femoral access for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction because of the reduction in access site complications and mortality associated with the radial artery access. Successful transradial primary PCI requires knowledge of techniques to handle unexpected severe subclavian artery tortuosity. Balloon-assisted tracking (BAT) is one technique developed to negotiate the tortuosity and loops in the upper extremity. However, the use of BAT in dealing with a severe subclavian loop during a transradial primary PCI procedure has never been reported. We described a case of transradial primary PCI with severe subclavian artery loop that was negotiated successfully by the BAT technique. PMID:27231432

  7. Bivalirudin in Patients Undergoing PCI: State of Art and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Galasso, G; Mirra, M; De Luca, G; Piscione, F

    2016-05-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) represents the most common cause of death worldwide. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the management of choice in patients with ACS and occurrence of intra-procedural thrombotic complications are an independent predictor of mortality and other major adverse cardiovascular events in patients undergoing PCI. According to current guideline, anticoagulation therapy is indicated during PCI in order to reduce the risk of thrombotic complications such as stent thrombosis. Among currently available anticoagulant drugs, bivalirudin demonstrates a lower incidence of bleeding risk, despite it is associated with an increased risk of stent thrombosis. The aim of this paper is to discuss the pharmacology of bivalirudin and the clinical evidences of its use in patients undergoing PCI for ACS. PMID:27326396

  8. Pellet-clad interaction (PCI) failures of zirconium alloy fuel cladding — A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, B.

    1990-08-01

    This review summarizes the history of the appearance and cure of pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) failures during the operation of Zircaloy clad UO 2 fuel in a number of reactors. The work carried out to permit unrestricted operation of reactors without causing PCI failures has led to the universal adoption of the CANLUB-graphite coated cladding in CANDU reactors, and to the wide adoption of Zr-liner cladding in BWRs. There has only been a low incidence of PCI failures in PWR cladding, and the problem has not loomed large enough to require the adoption of either of the above protective methods in these reactors, although experimental liner cladding has been tested. The extensive work on the mechanism of PCI failures (leading to the conclusion that an SCC process induced by fission product iodine is the most probable cause) is summarised.

  9. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2008-10-15

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

  10. Bivalirudin in Patients Undergoing PCI: State of Art and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Galasso, G; Mirra, M; De Luca, G; Piscione, F

    2016-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) represents the most common cause of death worldwide. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the management of choice in patients with ACS and occurrence of intra-procedural thrombotic complications are an independent predictor of mortality and other major adverse cardiovascular events in patients undergoing PCI. According to current guideline, anticoagulation therapy is indicated during PCI in order to reduce the risk of thrombotic complications such as stent thrombosis. Among currently available anticoagulant drugs, bivalirudin demonstrates a lower incidence of bleeding risk, despite it is associated with an increased risk of stent thrombosis. The aim of this paper is to discuss the pharmacology of bivalirudin and the clinical evidences of its use in patients undergoing PCI for ACS. PMID:27326396

  11. LIF upregulates poFUT1 expression and promotes trophoblast cell migration and invasion at the fetal–maternal interface

    PubMed Central

    Liu, S; Wang, J; Qin, H-M; Yan, X-M; Yang, X-S; Liu, C; Yan, Q

    2014-01-01

    Trophoblast cell migration and invasion are crucial for the establishment of a successful pregnancy. Protein O-fucosyltransferases, such as poFUT1 and poFUT2, catalyze the O-fucosylation of proteins and have important roles in embryonic development. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a critical cytokine in the regulation of embryonic development and implantation. However, the exact roles of poFUTs in embryo migration and invasion and the effects of LIF on the expression of poFUTs have not been studied in detail. In the current study, we showed that poFUT1 and LIF were highly expressed in human trophoblast cells and in the serum of women during the first trimester of a normal pregnancy. However, in patients with threatened abortion, poFUT1 and LIF levels were found to be reduced. There were no significant differences in the expression levels of poFUT2 between the two groups. The migration and invasion potential of trophoblasts in an explant culture and in an in vitro implantation model was decreased or increased upon altering poFUT1 expression levels by siRNA or cDNA transfection. Our results also revealed that LIF upregulated the expression of poFUT1. The upregulation of poFUT1 by LIF promoted trophoblast cell migration and invasion at the fetal–maternal interface by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Taken together, these study findings suggest that poFUT1 may be used as a marker of embryo implantation. PMID:25165882

  12. MAGIC database and interfaces: an integrated package for gene discovery and expression.

    PubMed

    Cordonnier-Pratt, Marie-Michèle; Liang, Chun; Wang, Haiming; Kolychev, Dmitri S; Sun, Feng; Freeman, Robert; Sullivan, Robert; Pratt, Lee H

    2004-01-01

    The rapidly increasing rate at which biological data is being produced requires a corresponding growth in relational databases and associated tools that can help laboratories contend with that data. With this need in mind, we describe here a Modular Approach to a Genomic, Integrated and Comprehensive (MAGIC) Database. This Oracle 9i database derives from an initial focus in our laboratory on gene discovery via production and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), and subsequently on gene expression as assessed by both EST clustering and microarrays. The MAGIC Gene Discovery portion of the database focuses on information derived from DNA sequences and on its biological relevance. In addition to MAGIC SEQ-LIMS, which is designed to support activities in the laboratory, it contains several additional subschemas. The latter include MAGIC Admin for database administration, MAGIC Sequence for sequence processing as well as sequence and clone attributes, MAGIC Cluster for the results of EST clustering, MAGIC Polymorphism in support of microsatellite and single-nucleotide-polymorphism discovery, and MAGIC Annotation for electronic annotation by BLAST and BLAT. The MAGIC Microarray portion is a MIAME-compliant database with two components at present. These are MAGIC Array-LIMS, which makes possible remote entry of all information into the database, and MAGIC Array Analysis, which provides data mining and visualization. Because all aspects of interaction with the MAGIC Database are via a web browser, it is ideally suited not only for individual research laboratories but also for core facilities that serve clients at any distance. PMID:18629159

  13. Depression and Anxiety after Acute Myocardial Infarction Treated by Primary PCI

    PubMed Central

    Kala, Petr; Hudakova, Nela; Jurajda, Michal; Kasparek, Tomas; Ustohal, Libor; Parenica, Jiri; Sebo, Marek; Holicka, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Aims The main objective of the study was to find out prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms in the population of patients with AMI with ST-segment elevation (STEMI), treated with primary PCI (pPCI). Secondary target indicators included the incidence of sleep disorders and loss of interest in sex. Methods and results The project enrolled 79 consecutive patients with the first AMI, aged <80 years (median 61 years, 21.5% of women) with a follow-up period of 12 months. Symptoms of depression or anxiety were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory II tests (BDI-II, cut-off value ≥14) and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS, cut-off ≥ 45) within 24 hours of pPCI, before the discharge, and in 3, 6 and 12 months). Results with the value p<0.05 were considered as statistically significant. The BDI-II positivity was highest within 24 hours after pPCI (21.5%) with a significant decline prior to the discharge (9.2%), but with a gradual increase in 3, 6 and 12 months (10.4%; 15.4%; 13.8% respectively). The incidence of anxiety showed a relatively similar trend: 8.9% after pPCI, and 4.5%, 10.8% and 6.2% in further follow-up. Conclusions Patients with STEMI treated by primary PCI have relatively low overall prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety. A significant decrease in mental stress was observed before discharge from the hospital, but in a period of one year after pPCI, prevalence of both symptoms was gradually increasing, which should be given medical attention. PMID:27074002

  14. Expression of Cell Competition Markers at the Interface between p53 Signature and Normal Epithelium in the Human Fallopian Tube

    PubMed Central

    Kito, Masahiko; Maeda, Daichi; Kudo-Asabe, Yukitsugu; Sato, Naoki; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Tian-Li; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Terada, Yukihiro; Goto, Akiteru

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence regarding cell competition between normal and mutant mammalian cells, which suggest that it may play a defensive role in the early phase of carcinogenesis. In vitro study in the past has shown that overexpression of vimentin in normal epithelial cells at the contact surface with transformed cells is essential for the cell competition involved in epithelial defense against cancer. In this study, we attempted to examine cell competition in human tissue in vivo by investigating surgically resected human fallopian tubes that contain p53 signatures and serous tubal intraepithelial lesions (STILs), a linear expansion of p53-immunopositive/TP53 mutant tubal epithelial cells that are considered as precursors of pelvic high grade serous carcinoma. Immunofluorescence double staining for p53 and the cell competition marker vimentin was performed in 21 sections of human fallopian tube tissue containing 17 p53 signatures and 4 STILs. The intensities of vimentin expression at the interface between p53-positive cells at the end of the p53 signature/STIL and adjacent p53-negative normal tubal epithelial cells were compared with the background tubal epithelium. As a result, the average vimentin intensity at the interfaces relative to the background intensity was 1.076 (95% CI, 0.9412 – 1.211 for p53 signature and 0.9790 (95% CI, 0.7206 – 1.237) for STIL. Thus, it can be concluded that overexpression of the cell competition marker vimentin are not observed in human tissue with TP53 alterations. PMID:27258067

  15. PCI measurements of Turbulence and Transport in Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennever, P.; Porkolab, M.; Dorris, J.; Tsujii, N.; Davis, E.; Alcator C-Mod Team

    2011-10-01

    Measurements of turbulent density fluctuations on C-Mod using Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) are reported. PCI is an interferometric technique that measures line-integrated density fluctuations at frequencies up to 2 MHz in the wave number range 0.5-30 cm-1. The PCI system on C-Mod consists of a beam that passes vertically through the plasma core and images onto a 1-D array of 32 HgCdTe detectors. Owing to lack of localization along the beam path, the signal includes contributions from the plasma edge as well as the core. To distinguish edge turbulence from that emanating from the core, we compare the spectrum to other edge localized turbulence measurements (ie, GPI, reflectometry). The core turbulence spectrum is modeled by a synthetic PCI diagnostic and nonlinear global GYRO analysis. Fluctuation spectra predicted by GYRO will be compared with those measured with PCI in different modes of plasma operation. Supported by US DoE awards DE-FG02-94-ER54235 and DE-FC02-99-ER54512.

  16. Controversies in the treatment of patients with STEMI and multivessel disease: is it time for PCI of all lesions?

    PubMed

    Ong, Peter; Sechtem, Udo

    2016-06-01

    Several randomized trials have suggested a benefit for multivessel PCI in patients with STEMI and multivessel disease. However, none of the studies compared multivessel PCI with a staged PCI-approach which is the current guideline recommended approach. The results of the trials may overestimate the beneficial effect of the multivessel PCI approach because the control group did not receive any ischaemia testing for evaluation of the significance of remaining lesions. Thus, unfavourable aspects of the multivessel PCI approach such as overestimation of non-culprit lesions at the time of acute coronary angiography, complications associated with PCI of the non-culprit lesion (i.e. dissection, no-reflow, acute stent thrombosis) or increased risk for contrast induced nephropathy may have gone unnoticed as the comparative management pathway was unusual and likely inferior to the guideline recommended approach. We believe that culprit lesion only PCI and staged evaluation of remaining areas of myocardial ischaemia with subsequent PCI is still preferable in patients with STEMI and multivessel disease but a randomized study comparing this approach with multivessel PCI is needed. PMID:26850062

  17. Risk prediction models for major adverse cardiac event (MACE) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI): A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manan, Norhafizah A.; Abidin, Basir

    2015-02-01

    Five percent of patients who went through Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) experienced Major Adverse Cardiac Events (MACE) after PCI procedure. Risk prediction of MACE following a PCI procedure therefore is helpful. This work describes a review of such prediction models currently in use. Literature search was done on PubMed and SCOPUS database. Thirty literatures were found but only 4 studies were chosen based on the data used, design, and outcome of the study. Particular emphasis was given and commented on the study design, population, sample size, modeling method, predictors, outcomes, discrimination and calibration of the model. All the models had acceptable discrimination ability (C-statistics >0.7) and good calibration (Hosmer-Lameshow P-value >0.05). Most common model used was multivariate logistic regression and most popular predictor was age.

  18. The feasibility of using Patients Concerns Inventory (PCI) in managing Malaysian oral cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hatta, J M M; Doss, J G; Rogers, S N

    2014-02-01

    The feasibility of using the Patients Concerns Inventory (PCI) to identify oral cancer patient concerns during consultation in oral and maxillofacial specialist clinics in Malaysia was assessed. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a consecutive clinical sampling technique of all new and follow-up oral cancer patients. Surgeons and counter staff were also recruited. Two-thirds of patients were elderly, 63.9% female, 55.6% Indian, 63.9% of lower-level education, and half had the lowest level household income. Patient status was mostly post-treatment (87.5%) and most were at cancer stage III/IV (63.9%); 59.7% had surgery. Patients took an average 5.9 min (95% CI 5.1-6.7 min) to complete the PCI. Physical domain appeared highest (94.4%); social/family relationship issues (4.2%) were lowest. Significant associations included patient age-personal function (P=0.02); patient education level-emotional status (P=0.05) and social/family relationship issues (P=0.04), and patient TNM staging-personal function (P=0.03). The patients' mean feasibility score for the PCI was 5.3 (95% CI 5.1-5.5) out of 6. Patients (93.1%) and surgeons (90%) found the PCI to be feasible. Only 57.1% of counter staff agreed on the use of the PCI during patient registration. Overall, the PCI was considered feasible, thus favouring its future use in routine oral cancer patient management. PMID:24074487

  19. Randomized Trial of Primary PCI with or without Routine Manual Thrombectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Sanjit S.; Cairns, John A.; Yusuf, Salim; Meeks, Brandi; Pogue, Janice; Rokoss, Michael J.; Kedev, Sasko; Thabane, Lehana; Stankovic, Goran; Moreno, Raul; Gershlick, Anthony; Chowdhary, Saqib; Lavi, Shahar; Niemelä, Kari; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Bernat, Ivo; Xu, Yawei; Cantor, Warren J.; Overgaard, Christopher B.; Naber, Christoph K.; Cheema, Asim N.; Welsh, Robert C.; Bertrand, Olivier F.; Avezum, Alvaro; Bhindi, Ravinay; Pancholy, Samir; Rao, Sunil V.; Natarajan, Madhu K.; ten Berg, Jurriën M.; Shestakovska, Olga; Gao, Peggy; Widimsky, Petr; Džavík, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND During primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), manual thrombectomy may reduce distal embolization and thus improve microvascular perfusion. Small trials have suggested that thrombectomy improves surrogate and clinical outcomes, but a larger trial has reported conflicting results. METHODS We randomly assigned 10,732 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary PCI to a strategy of routine upfront manual thrombectomy versus PCI alone. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, recurrent myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, or New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV heart failure within 180 days. The key safety outcome was stroke within 30 days. RESULTS The primary outcome occurred in 347 of 5033 patients (6.9%) in the thrombectomy group versus 351 of 5030 patients (7.0%) in the PCI-alone group (hazard ratio in the thrombectomy group, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.15; P = 0.86). The rates of cardiovascular death (3.1% with thrombectomy vs. 3.5% with PCI alone; hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.12; P = 0.34) and the primary outcome plus stent thrombosis or target-vessel revascularization (9.9% vs. 9.8%; hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.14; P = 0.95) were also similar. Stroke within 30 days occurred in 33 patients (0.7%) in the thrombectomy group versus 16 patients (0.3%) in the PCI-alone group (hazard ratio, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.13 to 3.75; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS In patients with STEMI who were undergoing primary PCI, routine manual thrombectomy, as compared with PCI alone, did not reduce the risk of cardiovascular death, recurrent myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, or NYHA class IV heart failure within 180 days but was associated with an increased rate of stroke within 30 days. (Funded by Medtronic and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; TOTAL ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01149044.) PMID:25853743

  20. Condition Assessment of PCI Bridge Girder a Result of The Reduction Prestressing Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suangga, Made; Hidayat, Irpan; Lutter, Bobby

    2014-03-01

    PCI bridge girders is known and widely used for many construction e.g.: bridge, wharf, flyover, and other application. PC Bridge girders have two types: Pre - tensioned girders and post - tensioned girders. In pre tensioned girders, prestressing in carried out first then after that the fresh concrete poured. The prestressing process in only carried off after the concrete has sufficient strength. In this study, analysis was conducted for PCI bridge girder with span is 40 meters. Based on the data geometry bridge dimension girder, material girder, and material strands cable, it will be analyzed to calculate the natural frequencies and moment capacity using finite element program (Midas/Civil program). So it can be estimated how much the percentage reduction prestress force on the bridge until PCI bridge structure collapses. From the calculation, it found that the pattern comparison between reduction prestressing force and natural frequency are linear. These results are also similar for natural frequency versus moment capacity.PCI bridge will collapse when the reduction prestreesing force of 45 % to 50 % from the total loss of prestressing.

  1. "PCI Reading Program": The Final Report of a Three Year Experimental Study in Brevard Public Schools and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toby, Megan; Jaciw, Andrew; Ma, Boya; Lipton, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    PCI Education conducted a three-year longitudinal study to determine the comparative effectiveness of the "PCI Reading Program" ("PCI") for students with severe disabilities as implemented in Florida's Brevard Public Schools and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. The primary question addressed by the study is whether students whose teachers have…

  2. Single-chip correlator implementation for PCI-bus personal computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Callaghan, Michael J.; Perlmutter, Stephen H.; Wolt, Barry

    2000-03-01

    We have previously reported on the design and operation of a novel single-chip optical correlator prototype. Two ferroelectric liquid crystal SLMs and a high-speed APS camera were built into a single CMOS integrated circuit. Diffractive Fourier transform lenses were fabricated onto the surface of a window which was mounted on top of the chip. We are now working towards implementing the correlator as a business card-sized module mounted on a PCI card which can be plugged into the motherboard of industry standard PCs. We are also upgrading the SLMs to have analog optical modulation capability. The PCI card contains input and output image buffers, plus high-speed circuitry which digitizes the four analog output channels of the correlator's camera. This paper describes the system we are developing, some of the electronic and optical engineering issues involved, and the present status of our work.

  3. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Line sharpening by PCI in the Auger decay spectrum of CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundin, S.; Ausmees, A.; Sorensen, S. L.; Björneholm, O.; Hjelte, I.; Svensson, S.

    1997-12-01

    The Auger decay from the C 0953-4075/30/23/004/img9 core-ionized state of CO has been studied with photon energies close to and far above threshold. Close to the threshold post-collision interaction (PCI) redistributes intensity from the low kinetic energy side to the high kinetic energy side of the Auger lines. Taking advantage of this a previously unresolved vibrational level of the B final state has now been observed and we have extracted a vibrational splitting of 0.27(3) eV. This shows how the PCI effect not only broadens the Auger line, but that the associated asymmetric line sharpening can be used to reveal the finer details of the Auger spectrum.

  4. Antiplatelet Therapy During PCI for Patients with Stable Angina and Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Amjid; Rodriguez, Fatima; Schirmer, Henrik

    2015-08-01

    The pharmacological treatment options for anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation (Afib) have increased with the introduction of novel oral anticoagulants, compared with earlier times, when vitamin K antagonist was the drug of choice. As they age, many Afib patients require percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), necessitating antiplatelet medication in addition to anticoagulation therapy. Choosing the appropriate combination and duration of anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapies may be challenging in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and even more complicated during and after coronary intervention with the introduction of additional antithrombotic drugs. In this article, we review the scientific basis for the recent guidelines for anticoagulation and antithrombotic therapy in patients with Afib and stable CAD before, during, and after elective PCI. PMID:26104508

  5. Validity of a PCI Bleeding Risk Score in patient subsets stratified for body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Dobies, David R; Barber, Kimberly R; Cohoon, Amanda L

    2015-01-01

    Objective An accurate tool with good discriminative for bleeding would be useful to clinicians for improved management of all their patients. Bleeding risk models have been published but not externally validated in independent clinical data set. We chose the National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) score to validate within a large, multisite community data set. The aim of the study was validation of this Bleeding Risk Score (BRS) tool among a subgroup of patients based on body mass index. Methods This is a large-scale retrospective analysis of a current registry utilising data from a 37-hospital health system. The central repository of patients with coronary heart disease undergoing PCI between 1 June 2009 and 30 June 2012 was utilised to validate the NCDR PCI BRS among 4693 patients. The primary end point was major bleeding. Validation analysis calculating the receiver operating characteristic curve was performed. Results There were 143 (3%) major bleeds. Mean BRS was 14.7 (range 3–42). Incidence of bleeding by risk category: low (0.5%), intermediate (1.7%) and high risk (7.6%). Tool accuracy was poor to fair (area-under-the curve (AUC) 0.78 heparin, 0.65 bivalirudin). Overall accuracy was 0.71 (CI 0.66 to 0.76). Accuracy did not improve when confined to just the intermediate risk group (AUC 0.58; CI 0.55 to 0.67). Tool accuracy was the lowest among the low BMI group (AUC 0.62) though they are at increased risk of bleeding following PCI. Conclusions Bleeding risk tools have low predictive value even among subgroups of patients at higher risk. Adjustment for anticoagulation use resulted in poor discrimination because bivalirudin differentially biases outcomes toward no bleeding. The current state of bleeding risk tools provide little support for diagnostic utility in regards to major bleeding and therefore have limited clinical applicability. PMID:25745565

  6. Secondary prevention after PCI: the cost-effectiveness of statin therapy in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, S.; Scuffham, P.A.; Alon, M.; van den Boom, G.

    2004-01-01

    Background Little is known about the cost-effectiveness of secondary prevention after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of statin therapy. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using data from the Lescol Intervention Prevention Study (LIPS). In the LIPS trial, patients with normal-to-moderate hypercholesterolaemia who had undergone a first PCI were randomised to receive either fluvastatin 40 mg twice-daily plus dietary counselling or dietary counselling alone. A Markov model was used to estimate the incremental costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) and life year gained (LYG). Costs were based on prices and reimbursed charges, utility data were drawn from literature. Monte Carlo simulations and multivariate analysis were used to assess uncertainty. Results Routine statin treatment costs an additional €734 (SD €686) per patient over ten years compared with controls. It resulted in an additional 0.078 (0.047) QALYs or 0.082 (0.041) LYG. The incremental costs per QALY and LYG were €9312 (€14,648) and €8954 (€16,617) respectively. Anticipating a willingness to pay of €20,000 per QALY, there is a 75.1% chance that fluvastatin treatment is cost-effective. Conclusion Statin therapy with fluvastatin is economically efficient with regard to reducing heart disease in the Netherlands when given routinely to all patients following PCI. PMID:25696357

  7. Mechanistic Considerations Used in the Development of the PROFIT PCI Failure Model

    SciTech Connect

    Pankaskie, P. J.

    1980-05-01

    A fuel Pellet-Zircaloy Cladding (thermo-mechanical-chemical) Interactions (PC!) failure model for estimating the probability of failure in !ransient increases in power (PROFIT) was developed. PROFIT is based on 1) standard statistical methods applied to available PC! fuel failure data and 2) a mechanistic analysis of the environmental and strain-rate-dependent stress versus strain characteristics of Zircaloy cladding. The statistical analysis of fuel failures attributable to PCI suggested that parameters in addition to power, transient increase in power, and burnup are needed to define PCI fuel failures in terms of probability estimates with known confidence limits. The PROFIT model, therefore, introduces an environmental and strain-rate dependent strain energy absorption to failure (SEAF) concept to account for the stress versus strain anomalies attributable to interstitial-disloction interaction effects in the Zircaloy cladding. Assuming that the power ramping rate is the operating corollary of strain-rate in the Zircaloy cladding, then the variables of first order importance in the PCI fuel failure phenomenon are postulated to be: 1. pre-transient fuel rod power, P{sub I}, 2. transient increase in fuel rod power, {Delta}P, 3. fuel burnup, Bu, and 4. the constitutive material property of the Zircaloy cladding, SEAF.

  8. CXCL12 controls over-invasion of trophoblasts via upregulating CD82 expression in DSCs at maternal-fetal interface of human early pregnancy in a paracrine manner.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Qing; Tang, Chuan-Lin; Du, Mei-Rong; Fan, Deng-Xuan; Zhao, Hong-Bo; Xu, Bing; Li, Da-Jin

    2011-03-01

    Tetraspanin CD82 has been identified as a potential contributor to controlling trophoblast invasiveness in human first-trimester pregnancy. However, it is unclear how the regulation of CD82 expression at maternal-fetal interface. The present study is to investigate the effect of the trophoblast-derived CXCL12 on CD82 expression in decidual stromal cells (DSCs) that in turn controls trophoblast cell invasiveness. In-cell Western was used to evaluate the expression of CD82 in DSCs. A co-culture model was established to investigate the reciprocal interaction between trophoblasts and DSCs via CXCL12/CXCR4 and CD82 expression. We found that both anti-CXCL12 and anti-CXCR4 neutralizing antibody can eliminate increase of CD82 expression in DSCs induced by the trophoblasts supernatant. Moreover, the invasiveness of trophoblasts pre-treated with anti-CXCR4 neutralizing antibody was significantly decreased. Interestingly, when DSCs were pre-treated with anti-CXCR4 neutralizing antibody, the trophoblasts invasiveness in the co-culture was enhanced, and thus anti-CXCR4 neutralizing antibody can reverse the decrease of trophoblasts invasiveness induced by CD82. The trophoblast cell-derived CXCL12 does not only increase the invasiveness in an autocrine manner, but also control the over-invasion of trophoblasts through promoting CD82 expression in DSCs in a paracrine manner, which maintains a physiological balance of human trophoblasts invasiveness via the cross-talk between trophoblasts and DSCs. PMID:21487523

  9. Does reducing ischemia time justify to catheterize firstly the culprit artery in every primary PCI?

    PubMed

    Jurado-Román, Alfonso; García-Tejada, Julio; Hernández-Hernández, Felipe; Granda-Nistal, Carolina; Rubio-Alonso, Belén; Agudo-Quílez, Pilar; Velázquez-Martín, Maite; Albarrán-González-Trevilla, Agustín; Tascón-Pérez, Juan

    2016-07-01

    No consensus exists about which coronary artery should be firstly catheterized in primary PCIs. Initial catheterization of the "culprit artery" could reduce reperfusion time. However, complete knowledge of coronary anatomy could modify revascularization strategy. The objective of the study was to analyze this issue in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary PCI. PCIs were performed in 384 consecutive patients. Choice of ipsilateral approach (IA): starting with a guiding catheter for the angiography and PCI of the "culprit artery", or contralateral approach (CA): starting with a diagnostic catheter for the "non-culprit artery" and completing the angiography and PCI of the culprit with a guiding catheter was left to the operator. Differences between two approaches regarding reperfusion time, acute events or revascularization strategies were analyzed. There were no differences between two approaches regarding reperfusion time or clinical events. When the left coronary artery was responsible, IA was more frequent (76.4 vs 22.6 %), but when it was the right coronary artery, CA was preferred (20 vs 80 %); p < 0.0001. With CA, bare metal stents (BMS) were more used than drug eluting (DES) (60.8 vs 39.2 %) inversely than with IA (BMS 41.3 vs DES 59.7 %; p < 0.0001). With CA there were more patients with left main or multivessel disease in which revascularization was completed with non-urgent surgery (4.13 vs 2.4 %, p < 0.0001). Initial CA does not involve higher reperfusion time. Furthermore, overall knowledge of coronary anatomy offers more options in revascularization strategy and may imply a change in management. Despite the need to individualize each case, contralateral approach may be the first option with the exception of unstable patients. PMID:26113458

  10. A validation study of the Brazilian version of the pornography consumption inventory (PCI) in a sample of female university students.

    PubMed

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; Luísa de Souza Gatti, Ana; Henrique de Oliveira, Vitor; Junqueira Aguiar, Ana Saito; Almeida de Souza Aranha e Silva, Renata

    2016-02-01

    Although men constitute the widest consumer group of pornography, the Internet has facilitated both the production of and access to pornographic material by women as well. However, few measures are available to examine pornography-use constructs, which can compromise the reliability of statements regarding the harmful use of pornography. Our study aimed to confirm the factorial validity and internal consistency of the Pornography Consumption Inventory (PCI) in a sample of female university students in Brazil. The PCI is a four-factor, 15-item, five-point Likert-type scale. After translation and back-translation of the PCI, it was administered to 105 female medical students. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the construct validity. The results supported the four-factor model of the PCI. The model showed adequate internal reliability and good fit indices (comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.95, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.94, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.07 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.04-0.09), and standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.08). Overall, the findings from this study support the use of the PCI in Portuguese-speaking women. PMID:26724562

  11. Three-dimensional virtual surgery models for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) optimization strategies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hujun; Liu, Jinghua; Zheng, Xu; Rong, Xiaohui; Zheng, Xuwei; Peng, Hongyu; Silber-Li, Zhanghua; Li, Mujun; Liu, Liyu

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially coronary stent implantation, has been shown to be an effective treatment for coronary artery disease. However, in-stent restenosis is one of the longstanding unsolvable problems following PCI. Although stents implanted inside narrowed vessels recover normal flux of blood flows, they instantaneously change the wall shear stress (WSS) distribution on the vessel surface. Improper stent implantation positions bring high possibilities of restenosis as it enlarges the low WSS regions and subsequently stimulates more epithelial cell outgrowth on vessel walls. To optimize the stent position for lowering the risk of restenosis, we successfully established a digital three-dimensional (3-D) model based on a real clinical coronary artery and analysed the optimal stenting strategies by computational simulation. Via microfabrication and 3-D printing technology, the digital model was also converted into in vitro microfluidic models with 3-D micro channels. Simultaneously, physicians placed real stents inside them; i.e., they performed "virtual surgeries". The hydrodynamic experimental results showed that the microfluidic models highly inosculated the simulations. Therefore, our study not only demonstrated that the half-cross stenting strategy could maximally reduce restenosis risks but also indicated that 3-D printing combined with clinical image reconstruction is a promising method for future angiocardiopathy research. PMID:26042609

  12. PCI- X, a parametrized correlation method containing a single adjustable parameter X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegbahn, Per E. M.; Blomberg, Margareta R. A.; Svensson, Mats

    1994-06-01

    A new method intended for the calculation of bond strengths is suggested and tested on a large variety of systems. The method is based on the simple fact that in a balanced treatment about the same percentage X of the correlation effects is obtained for every system. The total energy is then obtained by a simple extrapolation to 100 percent. Using a double zeta plus polarization basis set in a coupled cluster type calculation it is found that the percentage X is about 80. Small changes of the basis sets or methods do not change this percentage significantly. Since the method is parametrized and the underlying method is some type of configuration interaction the method is termed PCI- X. For a selection of 13 representative simple first-row molecules the present version of the PCI-80 method gives an average absolute deviation from experiment of 1.8 kcal/mol compared to 10.3 kcal/mol for the unparametrized calculations. For some of these bond strengths a Hartree-Fock limit correction is required. For transition metal complexes, for which the method is primarily aimed, the improvement can be quite dramatic compared to a normal standard treatment. The method is tested on essentially all small second-row transition metal systems studied experimentally, for 38 systems, and the average absolute deviation from these sometimes rather uncertain experiments is 5.1 kcal/mol (0.22 eV).

  13. Predictors of Knowledge of Coronary Intervention in a Group of PCI Patients

    PubMed Central

    Haseeb, Abdul; Bilal, Muhammad; Dar, Mudassir Iqbal; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham; Amir, Raamish Bin; Hussain, Sahibzada Muhammad Hamid; Mian, Sharmeen Kamran; Javed, Maheen; Sultan, Ayesha; Arfeen, Arham Amir

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to assess the knowledge of CAD risk factors and post management of coronary intervention among sample of population who were hospitalized for PCI. Methodology: A cross-sectional, descriptive survey was conducted in Cardiology ward of a tertiary care hospital from July 2013 to May 2015 on 600 patients. A structured questionnaire was used to interview the patients. In univariate analysis, t-tests were employed to assess association of knowledge of CAD risk factors with gender, education level and monthly household income. Results: The mean score of participants with no education was 4.42 and patients with education of bachelors or higher was 8.59 (p-value: 0.01). Similarly, the mean score for participants with monthly household income less than 5000 was 3.32 and participants with income higher than 50,000 had a score of 8.31 (p-value: 0.01). Furthermore, only 28% (N=168) claimed aerobic exercise as a key part of angioplasty recovery. Conclusions: Our results indicate the lack of good level of knowledge of risk factors for CAD and post management of coronary intervention among PCI patients of Pakistan. There is urgent need for targeted educational programs on national basis to reduce mortality associated with CAD in Pakistani population. PMID:26755481

  14. Three-dimensional virtual surgery models for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) optimization strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hujun; Liu, Jinghua; Zheng, Xu; Rong, Xiaohui; Zheng, Xuwei; Peng, Hongyu; Silber-Li, Zhanghua; Li, Mujun; Liu, Liyu

    2015-06-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), especially coronary stent implantation, has been shown to be an effective treatment for coronary artery disease. However, in-stent restenosis is one of the longstanding unsolvable problems following PCI. Although stents implanted inside narrowed vessels recover normal flux of blood flows, they instantaneously change the wall shear stress (WSS) distribution on the vessel surface. Improper stent implantation positions bring high possibilities of restenosis as it enlarges the low WSS regions and subsequently stimulates more epithelial cell outgrowth on vessel walls. To optimize the stent position for lowering the risk of restenosis, we successfully established a digital three-dimensional (3-D) model based on a real clinical coronary artery and analysed the optimal stenting strategies by computational simulation. Via microfabrication and 3-D printing technology, the digital model was also converted into in vitro microfluidic models with 3-D micro channels. Simultaneously, physicians placed real stents inside them; i.e., they performed “virtual surgeries”. The hydrodynamic experimental results showed that the microfluidic models highly inosculated the simulations. Therefore, our study not only demonstrated that the half-cross stenting strategy could maximally reduce restenosis risks but also indicated that 3-D printing combined with clinical image reconstruction is a promising method for future angiocardiopathy research.

  15. An efficient rhythmic component expression and weighting synthesis strategy for classifying motor imagery EEG in a brain computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; He, Bin

    2004-03-01

    The recognition of mental states during motor imagery tasks is crucial for EEG-based brain computer interface research. We have developed a new algorithm by means of frequency decomposition and weighting synthesis strategy for recognizing imagined right- and left-hand movements. A frequency range from 5 to 25 Hz was divided into 20 band bins for each trial, and the corresponding envelopes of filtered EEG signals for each trial were extracted as a measure of instantaneous power at each frequency band. The dimensionality of the feature space was reduced from 200 (corresponding to 2 s) to 3 by down-sampling of envelopes of the feature signals, and subsequently applying principal component analysis. The linear discriminate analysis algorithm was then used to classify the features, due to its generalization capability. Each frequency band bin was weighted by a function determined according to the classification accuracy during the training process. The present classification algorithm was applied to a dataset of nine human subjects, and achieved a success rate of classification of 90% in training and 77% in testing. The present promising results suggest that the present classification algorithm can be used in initiating a general-purpose mental state recognition based on motor imagery tasks.

  16. New Interface for Accessing Archived European Space Agency Planetary Science Data, Such as the New Venus Express Atmospheric Drag Experiment Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotheer, E.; Barbarisi, I.; Rios, C.; Macfarlane, A. J.; Docasal, R.; Arviset, C.; Besse, S.; Heather, D.; Gonzalez, J.; De Marchi, G.; Martinez, S.; Lim, T.; Fraga, D.

    2015-12-01

    All Venus Express (VEX) instruments delivered their data products according to the Planetary Data System version 3 (PDS3) standard, and the atmospheric drag experiment (ADE) data was no exception. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Planetary Science Archive (PSA), which can be accessed at www.rssd.esa.int/PSA, is being upgraded to make PDS4 data available from newer missions such as ExoMars and BepiColombo. Thus, the PSA development team has been working to ensure that the legacy PDS3 data will be accessible via the new interface as well. We will preview some of the new methods of accessing legacy VEX data via the new interface, with a focus being placed on the ADE data set. We will show how the ADE data can be accessed using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and our plans for making this and other data sets compatible with the Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access (VESPA) project for creating a virtual observatory. From February 2010 through March 2014, ESA's Venus Express mission conducted 11 ADE campaigns. During these observation campaigns, VEX's pericenter was in the range of 165 to 190 km, while the spacecraft was near Venus' North pole, and the entire spacecraft was used to make in situ measurements of the atmospheric density. This was done by rotating the solar panels in a manner that somewhat resembles a windmill. Also, VEX 's attitude and orbit control system was tasked with maintaining the spacecraft in a 3-axis stabilized mode during these pericenter passes. The torques that the reaction wheels had to exert to maintain this attitude were then analyzed to yield density readings.

  17. Gradient Theory simulations of pure fluid interfaces using a generalized expression for influence parameters and a Helmholtz energy equation of state for fundamentally consistent two-phase calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Dahms, Rainer N.

    2014-12-31

    The fidelity of Gradient Theory simulations depends on the accuracy of saturation properties and influence parameters, and require equations of state (EoS) which exhibit a fundamentally consistent behavior in the two-phase regime. Widely applied multi-parameter EoS, however, are generally invalid inside this region. Hence, they may not be fully suitable for application in concert with Gradient Theory despite their ability to accurately predict saturation properties. The commonly assumed temperature-dependence of pure component influence parameters usually restricts their validity to subcritical temperature regimes. This may distort predictions for general multi-component interfaces where temperatures often exceed the critical temperature of vapor phase components. Then, the calculation of influence parameters is not well defined. In this paper, one of the first studies is presented in which Gradient Theory is combined with a next-generation Helmholtz energy EoS which facilitates fundamentally consistent calculations over the entire two-phase regime. Illustrated on pentafluoroethane as an example, reference simulations using this method are performed. They demonstrate the significance of such high-accuracy and fundamentally consistent calculations for the computation of interfacial properties. These reference simulations are compared to corresponding results from cubic PR EoS, widely-applied in combination with Gradient Theory, and mBWR EoS. The analysis reveals that neither of those two methods succeeds to consistently capture the qualitative distribution of obtained key thermodynamic properties in Gradient Theory. Furthermore, a generalized expression of the pure component influence parameter is presented. This development is informed by its fundamental definition based on the direct correlation function of the homogeneous fluid and by presented high-fidelity simulations of interfacial density profiles. As a result, the new model preserves the accuracy of previous

  18. Gradient Theory simulations of pure fluid interfaces using a generalized expression for influence parameters and a Helmholtz energy equation of state for fundamentally consistent two-phase calculations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dahms, Rainer N.

    2014-12-31

    The fidelity of Gradient Theory simulations depends on the accuracy of saturation properties and influence parameters, and require equations of state (EoS) which exhibit a fundamentally consistent behavior in the two-phase regime. Widely applied multi-parameter EoS, however, are generally invalid inside this region. Hence, they may not be fully suitable for application in concert with Gradient Theory despite their ability to accurately predict saturation properties. The commonly assumed temperature-dependence of pure component influence parameters usually restricts their validity to subcritical temperature regimes. This may distort predictions for general multi-component interfaces where temperatures often exceed the critical temperature of vapor phasemore » components. Then, the calculation of influence parameters is not well defined. In this paper, one of the first studies is presented in which Gradient Theory is combined with a next-generation Helmholtz energy EoS which facilitates fundamentally consistent calculations over the entire two-phase regime. Illustrated on pentafluoroethane as an example, reference simulations using this method are performed. They demonstrate the significance of such high-accuracy and fundamentally consistent calculations for the computation of interfacial properties. These reference simulations are compared to corresponding results from cubic PR EoS, widely-applied in combination with Gradient Theory, and mBWR EoS. The analysis reveals that neither of those two methods succeeds to consistently capture the qualitative distribution of obtained key thermodynamic properties in Gradient Theory. Furthermore, a generalized expression of the pure component influence parameter is presented. This development is informed by its fundamental definition based on the direct correlation function of the homogeneous fluid and by presented high-fidelity simulations of interfacial density profiles. As a result, the new model preserves the accuracy of

  19. Platelet-rich plasma increases transforming growth factor-beta1 expression at graft-host interface following autologous osteochondral transplantation in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Boakye, Lorraine A; Ross, Keir A; Pinski, John M; Smyth, Niall A; Haleem, Amgad M; Hannon, Charles P; Fortier, Lisa A; Kennedy, John G

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effect of platelet-rich plasma on protein expression patterns of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) in cartilage following autologous osteochondral transplantation (AOT) in a rabbit knee cartilage defect model. METHODS: Twelve New Zealand white rabbits received bilateral AOT. In each rabbit, one knee was randomized to receive an autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) injection and the contralateral knee received saline injection. Rabbits were euthanized at 3, 6 and 12 wk post-operatively. Articular cartilage sections were stained with TGF-β1 antibody. Histological regions of interest (ROI) (left, right and center of the autologous grafts interfaces) were evaluated using MetaMorph. Percentage of chondrocytes positive for TGF-β1 was then assessed. RESULTS: Percentage of chondrocytes positive for TGF-β1 was higher in PRP treated knees for selected ROIs (left; P = 0.03, center; P = 0.05) compared to control and was also higher in the PRP group at each post-operative time point (P = 6.6 × 10-4, 3.1 × 10-4 and 7.3 × 10-3 for 3, 6 and 12 wk, respectively). TGF-β1 expression was higher in chondrocytes of PRP-treated knees (36% ± 29% vs 15% ± 18%) (P = 1.8 × 10-6) overall for each post-operative time point and ROI. CONCLUSION: Articular cartilage of rabbits treated with AOT and PRP exhibit increased TGF-β1 expression compared to those treated with AOT and saline. Our findings suggest that adjunctive PRP may increase TGF-β1 expression, which may play a role in the chondrogenic effect of PRP in vivo. PMID:26716092

  20. PCI Strategies in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Bates, Eric R; Tamis-Holland, Jacqueline E; Bittl, John A; O'Gara, Patrick T; Levine, Glenn N

    2016-09-01

    Recent randomized controlled trials have suggested that patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and multivessel coronary artery disease may benefit more from multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared with culprit vessel-only primary PCI. The American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, and Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions recently published an updated recommendation on this topic. The purpose of this State-of-the-Art Review is to accurately document existing published reports, describe their limitations, and establish a base for future studies. PMID:27585512

  1. Gender Related Survival Differences in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Treated with Primary PCI

    PubMed Central

    Kanic, Vojko; Vollrath, Maja; Naji, Franjo Husam; Sinkovic, Andreja

    2016-01-01

    Background: Data about gender as an independent risk factor for death in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients is still contrasting. Aim was to assess how gender influences in-hospital and long-term all-cause mortality in STEMI patients with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in our region. Methods: We analysed data from 2069 STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI in our institution from January 2009-December 2014, of whom 28.9% were women. In-hospital and long-term mortality were observed in women and men. The effect of gender on in-hospital mortality was assessed by binary logistic regression modelling and by Cox regression analysis for long-term mortality. Results: Women were older (68.3±61.8 vs 61.8±12.0 years; p<0.0001), with a higher prevalence of diabetes (13.7% vs 9.9%; p=0.013) and tend to be more frequently admitted in cardiogenic shock (8.4% vs 6.3%; p =0.085). They were less frequently treated with bivalirudin (15.9% vs 20.3%; p=0.022). In-hospital mortality was higher among women (14.2% vs 7.8%; p<0.0001). After adjustment, age (adjusted OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.08; p < 0.001) and cardiogenic shock at admission (adjusted OR: 24.56; 95% CI: 11.98 to 50.35; p < 0.001), but not sex (adjusted OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 0.80 to 2.71) were identified as prognostic factors of in-hospital mortality. During the median follow-up of 27 months (25th, 75th percentile: 9, 48) the mortality rate (23.6% vs 15.1%; p<0.0001) was significantly higher in women. The multivariate adjusted Cox regression model identified age (HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.04-1.07; p<0.0001), cardiogenic shock at admission (HR 6.09; 95% CI 3.78-9.81; p<0.0001), hypertension (HR 1.49; 95% CI 1.02-2.18; p<0.046), but not sex (HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.74-1.47) as independent prognostic factors of follow-up mortality. Conclusion: Older age and worse clinical presentation rather than gender may explain the higher mortality rate in women with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. PMID:27279793

  2. Individualising dual antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention: the IDEAL-PCI registry

    PubMed Central

    Christ, Günter; Siller-Matula, Jolanta M; Francesconi, Marcel; Dechant, Cornelia; Grohs, Katharina; Podczeck-Schweighofer, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical utility of individualising dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in an all-comers population, including ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Setting Tertiary care single centre registry. Participants 1008 consecutive PCI patients with stent implantation, without exclusion criteria. Intervention Peri-interventional individualisation of DAPT, guided by multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA), to overcome high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) to ADP-induced (≥50 U) and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation (>35 U). Outcome measures The primary efficacy end point was definite stent thrombosis (ST) at 30 days. The primary safety end point was thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) major and minor bleeding. Secondary end points were probable ST, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death and the combined end point: major cardiac adverse event (MACE). Results 53% of patients presented with acute coronary syndrome (9% STEMI, 44% non-ST-elevation). HPR to ADP after 600 mg clopidogrel loading occurred in 30% of patients (73±19 U vs 28±11 U; p<0.001) and was treated by prasugrel or ticagrelor (73%), or clopidogrel (27%) reloading (22±12 U; p<0.001). HPR to ADP after prasugrel loading occurred in 2% of patients (82±26 U vs 19±10 U; p<0.001) and was treated with ticagrelor (34±15 U; p=0.02). HPR to AA occurred in 9% of patients with a significant higher proportion in patients with HPR to ADP (22% vs 4%, p<0.001) and was treated with aspirin reloading. Definite ST occurred in 0.09% of patients (n=1); probable ST, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death and MACE occurred in 0.19% (n=2), 0.09% (n=1) and 1.8% (n=18) of patients. TIMI major and minor bleeding did not differ between patients without HPR and individualised patients (2.6% for both). Conclusions Individualisation of DAPT with MEA minimises early thrombotic events in an all

  3. A New Method for Monitoring Branch Pipes of PCI into BF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yutao; Lu, Zengxi; Yang, Gang; Wang, Shi; Ge, Xueping

    2007-06-01

    On leaving the pulversing mill of blast furnace, the solid-air mixture is split into several different pipes each feeding an individual blast tuyere. Based on detected concentration with ECT and velocity of pulverized coal with correlation method, a new method of monitoring the states of the branch pipes of PCI into BF is introduced here. All the abnormal transporting states of coal powder, such as clogging, stopping and unimpeded transporting can be deduced and alarmed on line. The flowrate distributed to each branch pipe from general pipe, which is given as an extern signal, can be computed continuously to watch on the uniformity of pulverized coal. The method was run for test on a blast furnace of baosteel in December, 2000, and run in August 2000. Now it has been used on three of four blast furnaces in baosteel.

  4. Universal LabVIEW-powered Mössbauer spectrometer based on USB, PCI or PXI devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechousek, J.; Prochazka, R.; Jancik, D.; Frydrych, J.; Mashlan, M.

    2010-03-01

    A new design of the universal Mössbauer spectrometer is presented. Hardware solution is based on commercial-available data acquisition devices working on the USB, PCI or PXI platform controlled by the main application running on the personal computer. Final application allows, in addition to Mössbauer spectra accumulation, the detailed analysis of the acquired detector signal in energy and time domains, and also to tune the velocity driving system separately. The experimental results show a high flexibility in various detectors and velocity transducers usage. It is easy to change the way of operation according to the different experimental requirements. This concept can be used with all common spectrometric benches with different velocity transducers, radioactive sources and gamma-ray detectors. This is a new approach in the Mössbauer spectrometer construction.

  5. Macrophages at the fetal-maternal interface express markers of alternative activation and are induced by M-CSF and IL-10.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Judit; Jenmalm, Maria C; Matussek, Andreas; Geffers, Robert; Berg, Göran; Ernerudh, Jan

    2011-10-01

    During pregnancy, the maternal immune system is challenged by the presence of the fetus, which must be tolerated despite being semiallogeneic. Uterine mucosal (or decidual) macrophages (M), one of the major leukocyte populations at the fetal-maternal interface, have been implicated in fetal tolerance, but information regarding their regulation is scarce. In this study, we investigated the role of several factors potentially involved in the differentiation and polarization of decidual M with an in vitro M differentiation model. By using flow cytometry, we showed that M-CSF and IL-10 were potent inducers of M2 (immunoregulatory) M markers expressed on human decidual M (CD14, CD163, CD206, CD209). In contrast, proinflammatory stimuli, and unexpectedly also the Th2-associated IL-4 and IL-13, induced different patterns of expression, indicating that a Th2-dominated environment is not required for decidual M polarization. M-CSF/IL-10-stimulated and decidual M also showed similar cytokine secretion patterns, with production of IL-10 as well as IL-6, TNF, and CCL4. Conversely, the proinflammatory, LPS/IFN-γ-stimulated M produced significantly higher levels of TNF and no IL-10. We also used a gene array with 420 M-related genes, of which 100 were previously reported to be regulated in a global gene expression profiling of decidual M, confirming that M-CSF/IL-10-induced M are closely related to decidual M. Taken together, our results consistently point to a central role for M-CSF and in particular IL-10 in the shaping of decidual M with regulatory properties. These cytokines may therefore play an important role in supporting the homeostatic and tolerant immune milieu required for a successful pregnancy. PMID:21890660

  6. Improving the Process of Informed Consent for PCI: Patient Outcomes from the ePRISM Study

    PubMed Central

    Spertus, John A.; Bach, Richard; Bethea, Charles; Chhatriwalla, Adnan; Curtis, Jeptha P.; Gialde, Elizabeth; Guerrero, Mayra; Gosch, Kensey; Jones, Philip; Kugelmass, Aaron; Leonard, Bradley M.; McNulty, Edward J.; Shelton, Marc; Ting, Henry H.; Decker, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Background While the process of informed consent is designed to transfer knowledge of the risks and benefits of treatment and to engage patients in shared medical decision-making, this is poorly done in routine clinical care. We assessed the impact of a novel informed consent form for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) that is more simply written, includes images of the procedure and embeds individualized estimates of outcomes on multiple domains of successful informed consent and shared decision-making. Methods We interviewed 590 PCI patients receiving traditional consent documents and 527 patients receiving novel ePRISM consents at 9 US centers and compared patients' perceptions, knowledge transfer and engagement in medical decision-making. Heterogeneity across sites was assessed and adjusted for using hierarchical models. Results Site-adjusted analyses revealed more frequent review (72% for ePRISM vs. 45% for original consents) and better understanding of the ePRISM consents (odds ratios (ORs)=1.8–3.0, depending upon the outcome) with marked heterogeneity across sites (median relative difference (MRD) in the ORs of ePRISM's effect = 2–3.2). Patients receiving ePRISM consents better understood the purposes and risks of the procedure (ORs=1.9–3.9, MRDs=1.1–6.2), engaged more in shared decision-making (proportional OR=2.1 [95%CI=1.02–4.4], MRD=2.2) and discussed stent options with their physicians (58% vs. 31%; site-adjusted odds ratio=2.7 [95% CI=1.2, 6.3], MRD=2.6) more often. Conclusions A personalized consent document improved the process of informed consent and shared decision-making. Marked heterogeneity across hospitals highlights that consent documents are but one aspect of engaging patients in understanding and participating in treatment. PMID:25641532

  7. The Efficacy of PCI's Reading Program--Level One: A Report of a Randomized Experiment in Brevard Public Schools and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Empirical Education Inc., 2008

    2008-01-01

    PCI Education sought scientifically based evidence on the effectiveness of the "PCI Reading Program--Level One" for students with severe disabilities. During the 2007-2008 academic year. Empirical Education conducted a randomized control trial (RCT) in two Florida districts, Brevard and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. For this experimental…

  8. The Efficacy of PCI's "Reading Program--Level One": A Report of a Randomized Experiment in Brevard Public Schools and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toby, Megan; Ma, Boya; Jaciw, Andrew; Cabalo, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    PCI Education sought scientifically based evidence on the effectiveness of the "PCI Reading Program--Level One" for students with severe disabilities. During the 2007-2008 academic year. Empirical Education conducted a randomized control trial (RCT) in two Florida districts, Brevard and Miami-Dade County Public Schools. For this experimental…

  9. Point of care platelet activity measurement in primary PCI [PINPOINT-PPCI]: a protocol paper

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Optimal treatment of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) involves rapid diagnosis, and transfer to a cardiac centre capable of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for immediate mechanical revascularisation. Successful treatment requires rapid return of perfusion to the myocardium achieved by thromboaspiration, passivation of the culprit lesion with stent scaffolding and systemic inhibition of thrombosis and platelet activation. A delicate balance exists between thrombosis and bleeding and consequently anti-thrombotic and antiplatelet treatment regimens continue to evolve. The desire to achieve reperfusion as soon as possible, in the setting of high platelet reactivity, requires potent and fast-acting anti-thrombotic/anti-platelet therapies. The associated bleeding risk may be minimised by use of short-acting anti-thrombotic intravenous agents. However, effective oral platelet inhibition is required to prevent recurrent thrombosis. The interaction between baseline platelet reactivity, timing of revascularisation and effective inhibition of thrombosis is yet to be formally investigated. Methods/Design We present a protocol for a prospective observational study in patients presenting with acute STEMI treated with primary PCI (PPCI) and receiving bolus/infusion bivalirudin and prasugrel therapy. The objective of this study is to describe variation in platelet reactivity, as measured by the multiplate platelet function analyser, at presentation, the end of the PPCI procedure and 1, 2, & 24 hours post-procedure. We intend to assess the prevalence of high residual platelet reactivity within 24 hours of PPCI in acute STEMI patients receiving prasugrel and bivalirudin. Additionally, we will investigate the association between high platelet reactivity before and after PPCI and the door-to-procedure completion time. This is a single centre study with a target sample size of 108 participants. Discussion The baseline platelet reactivity on

  10. 6.5 Years of Slow Slip Events in Cascadia: A Catalogue of SSE Surface Expressions, Interface Slip Distributions, Event Magnitudes and Relationship to Tremor.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, L. L.; Wallace, L. M.; Haines, A. J.; Bartlow, N. M.

    2015-12-01

    Slow slip events (SSEs) in Cascadia occur at ~30-50 km depth, every 10-19 months, and typically involve slip of a few cm, producing surface displacements on the order of a few mm up to ~1cm. Are there smaller SSE signals that are currently not recognized geodetically? What is the spatial, temporal and size distribution of SSEs, and how are SSE related to tremor? We address these questions with a catalogue of all detectable SSEs spanning the last 6.5 years using a new methodology based on Vertical Derivatives of Horizontal Stress (VDoHS) rates obtained from cGPS times series. VDoHS rates, calculated by solving the force balance equations at the Earth's surface, represent the most inclusive and spatially compact surface expressions of subsurface deformation sources: VDoHS rate vectors are tightly localized above the sources and point in the direction of push or pull. We compare our results with those from the Network Inversion Filter (NIF) for selected events. We identify and characterize a spectrum of SSEs, including events with moment release at least two orders of magnitudes smaller than has been previously identified with GPS data. We catalogue events timing, interface slip distribution and moment release, and compare our results with existing tremor catalogues. VDoHS rates also reveal the boundaries between the locked and unlocked portions of the megathrust, and we can track how this varies throughout the SSE cycle. Above the locked interface, the pull of the subducted plate generates shear tractions in the overlying plate in the direction of subduction, while above the creeping section shear tractions are in the opposite direction, which is reflected in the VDoHS rates. We show that sections of the Cascadia megathrust unlock prior to some SSEs and lock thereafter, with the locked zone propagating downdip and eastward after the SSEs over weeks to months. The catalogue and movies of events will be available at http://www.ig.utexas.edu/people/staff/lada/SSEs.

  11. Feasibility of repeated sequential treatments of RIF-1 tumors with photodynamic therapy (PDT) using lutetium texaphyrin (PCI-0123)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Dale R.; Parker, Lynn M.; Thiemann, Patricia A.; Woodburn, Kathryn W.; Young, Stuart W.

    1997-05-01

    Lutetium texaphyrin (PCI-0123) is currently in clinical trials as a PDT agent for the treatment of cancer patients. The drug is cleared rapidly from the plasma, and photoirradiation can be performed shortly after drug administration.T He photosensitizer as yet does not appear to elicit any significant skin photosensitivity. These characteristics favor frequent multiple PDT treatments with PCI-0123. In order to support repeated PDT treatments in the clinic, the safety of multiple drug dosing was studied in rats and mice. In rats, each group received 5 consecutive daily intravenous administrations of 5, 15, 30, or 60 mg/kg/day of PCI-0123. There were no deaths in any of the groups, and no drug-related effects were detected in the 5 mg/kg/day group. In mice, there were no observable signs of toxicity after consecutive daily administration of 10 micrometers ol/kg/day of PCI-0123 for 13 days. The feasibility and efficacy of repeated PDT treatments were assessed in C3H mice bearing RIF-1 tumors. Repeated PDT proved to be superior to a single PDT treatment. Repeated PDT treatments were well tolerated. Seven PDT treatments were administered over a nine day period without significant toxicity while achieving good therapeutic responses. All six groups receiving repeated PDT treatments showed an improved response compared to groups receiving a single PDT cycle, and the improvement was statistically significant for five of these groups. Sixty-two percent of mice receiving four sequential daily treatments were cured, and daily treatments were superior to regimens with longer intervals between PDT cycles.

  12. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention network in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Where are we now and how to improve PCI network.

    PubMed

    Dilić, M; Terzić, I; Kulić, M

    2016-08-01

    Reperfusion is the most effective therapy for patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Time from symptom onset to reperfusion is the most important factor influencing short and long-term mortality. There are several modes of reperfusion therapy. Fibrinolysis (either in pre-hospital or in-hospital setting), and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (p-PCI) or a combination of both are the most relevant treatment options. Primary p-PCI is the preferred option in centers with experienced teams and a high volume of reperfusion procedures. Cardiovascular mortality rate in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) is among the highest in Europe, 545/100,000, and the rate of acute myocardial infarction is approximately 7000 per year. Despite recent improvement in reperfusion therapy in the last 5years, mortality of STEMI still patients remains high. The goal of this perspective article is to describe the current situation of p-PCI network in B&H. Establishing networks of reperfusion at regional and national level, implies a broad spectrum and close collaboration between all the actors involved in reperfusion therapy, namely hospitals, cardiology units emergency medical services, and primary care physicians. PMID:27381862

  13. Express

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Express ; CASRN 101200 - 48 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  14. Structural and Computational Studies of Cp(CO)2(PCy3)MoFBF3, a Complex with a Bound BF4- Ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Tan-Yun; Szalda, David J.; Franz, James A.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2010-02-15

    Hydride transfer from Cp(CO)2(PCy3)MoH to Ph3C+BF4 gives Cp(CO)2(PCy3)MoFBF3, and the crystal structure of this complex was determined. In the weakly bound FBF3 ligand, the B-F(bridging) bond length is 1.475(8) Å, which is 0.15 Å longer than the average length of the three B-F(terminal) bonds. The PCy3 and FBF3 ligands are cis to each other in the four-legged piano stool structure. Electronic structure (DFT) calculations predict the trans isomer of Cp(CO)2(PCy3)MoFBF3 to be 9.5 kcal/mol (in ΔGog,298)) less stable than the cis isomer that was crystallographically characterized. Hydride transfer from Cp(CO)2(PCy3)MoH to Ph3C+BAr'4 [Ar' = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl] in CH2Cl2 solvent produces [Cp(CO)2(PCy3)Mo(ClCH2Cl)]+[BAr'4] , in which CH2Cl2 is coordinated to the metal. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  15. Analysis of performance improvements for host and GPU interface of the APENet+ 3D Torus network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola A, R.; Biagioni, A.; Frezza, O.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Paolucci, P. S.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Tosoratto, L.; Vicini, P.

    2014-06-01

    APEnet+ is an INFN (Italian Institute for Nuclear Physics) project aiming to develop a custom 3-Dimensional torus interconnect network optimized for hybrid clusters CPU-GPU dedicated to High Performance scientific Computing. The APEnet+ interconnect fabric is built on a FPGA-based PCI-express board with 6 bi-directional off-board links showing 34 Gbps of raw bandwidth per direction, and leverages upon peer-to-peer capabilities of Fermi and Kepler-class NVIDIA GPUs to obtain real zero-copy, GPU-to-GPU low latency transfers. The minimization of APEnet+ transfer latency is achieved through the adoption of RDMA protocol implemented in FPGA with specialized hardware blocks tightly coupled with embedded microprocessor. This architecture provides a high performance low latency offload engine for both trasmit and receive side of data transactions: preliminary results are encouraging, showing 50% of bandwidth increase for large packet size transfers. In this paper we describe the APEnet+ architecture, detailing the hardware implementation and discuss the impact of such RDMA specialized hardware on host interface latency and bandwidth.

  16. Hyperbolic interfaces.

    PubMed

    Giomi, Luca

    2012-09-28

    Fluid interfaces, such as soap films, liquid droplets, or lipid membranes, are known to give rise to several special geometries, whose complexity and beauty continue to fascinate us, as observers of the natural world, and challenge us as scientists. Here I show that a special class of surfaces of constant negative Gaussian curvature can be obtained in fluid interfaces equipped with an orientational ordered phase. These arise in various soft and biological materials, such as nematic liquid crystals, cytoskeletal assemblies, or hexatic colloidal suspensions. The purely hyperbolic morphology originates from the competition between surface tension, that reduces the area of the interface at the expense of increasing its Gaussian curvature, and the orientational elasticity of the ordered phase, that in turn suffers for the distortion induced by the underlying curvature. PMID:23030106

  17. Hyperbolic Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giomi, Luca

    2012-09-01

    Fluid interfaces, such as soap films, liquid droplets, or lipid membranes, are known to give rise to several special geometries, whose complexity and beauty continue to fascinate us, as observers of the natural world, and challenge us as scientists. Here I show that a special class of surfaces of constant negative Gaussian curvature can be obtained in fluid interfaces equipped with an orientational ordered phase. These arise in various soft and biological materials, such as nematic liquid crystals, cytoskeletal assemblies, or hexatic colloidal suspensions. The purely hyperbolic morphology originates from the competition between surface tension, that reduces the area of the interface at the expense of increasing its Gaussian curvature, and the orientational elasticity of the ordered phase, that in turn suffers for the distortion induced by the underlying curvature.

  18. Acrylate metathesis via the second-generation Grubbs catalyst: unexpected pathways enabled by a PCy3-generated enolate.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Gwendolyn A; Fogg, Deryn E

    2015-06-17

    The diverse applications of acrylate metathesis range from synthesis of high-value α,β-unsaturated esters to depolymerization of unsaturated polymers. Examined here are unexpected side reactions promoted by the important Grubbs catalyst GII. Evidence is presented for attack of PCy3 on the acrylate olefin to generate a reactive carbanion, which participates in multiple pathways, including further Michael addition, proton abstraction, and catalyst deactivation. Related chemistry may be anticipated whenever labile metal-phosphine complexes are used to catalyze reactions of substrates bearing an electron-deficient olefin. PMID:26030596

  19. Inducible expression of a fusion gene encoding two proteinase inhibitors leads to insect and pathogen resistance in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Quilis, Jordi; López-García, Belén; Meynard, Donaldo; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; San Segundo, Blanca

    2014-04-01

    Plant proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are considered as candidates for increased insect resistance in transgenic plants. Insect adaptation to PI ingestion might, however, compromise the benefits received by transgenic expression of PIs. In this study, the maize proteinase inhibitor (MPI), an inhibitor of insect serine proteinases, and the potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (PCI) were fused into a single open reading frame and introduced into rice plants. The two PIs were linked using either the processing site of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1B precursor protein or the 2A sequence from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Expression of each fusion gene was driven by the wound- and pathogen-inducible mpi promoter. The mpi-pci fusion gene was stably inherited for at least three generations with no penalty on plant phenotype. An important reduction in larval weight of Chilo suppressalis fed on mpi-pci rice, compared with larvae fed on wild-type plants, was observed. Expression of the mpi-pci fusion gene confers resistance to C. suppressalis (striped stem borer), one of the most important insect pest of rice. The mpi-pci expression systems described may represent a suitable strategy for insect pest control, better than strategies based on the use of single PI genes, by preventing insect adaptive responses. The rice plants expressing the mpi-pci fusion gene also showed enhanced resistance to infection by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of the rice blast disease. Our results illustrate the usefulness of the inducible expression of the mpi-pci fusion gene for dual resistance against insects and pathogens in rice plants. PMID:24237606

  20. Analog and digital interface solutions for the common large-area display set (CLADS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, David J.; Gorenflo, Ronald L.

    1997-07-01

    Battelle is under contract with Warner Robins Air Logistics Center to design a common large area display set (CLADS) for use in multiple airborne command, control, communications, computers and intelligence applications that currently use unique 19 inch cathode ray tubes (CRTs). The CLADS is a modular design, with common modules used wherever possible. Each CLADS includes an application-specific integration kit, which incorporates all of the unique interface components. Since there is no existing digital video interface standard for high resolution workstations, a standard interface was developed for CLADS and documented as an interface specification.One of the application-specific modules, the application video interface module (AVIM), readily incorporates most of the required application electrical interfaces for a given system into a single module. The analog AVIM, however, poses unique design problems when folding multiple application interface requirements into a single common AVIM for the most prevalent workstation display interface: analog RGB video. Future workstation display interfaces will incorporate fully digital video between the graphics hardware and the digital display device. A digital AVIM is described which utilizes a fiber channel interface to deliver high speed 1280 by 1024, 24- bit, 60 Hz digital video from a PCI graphics card to the CLADS. A video recording and playback device is described, as well as other common CLADS modules, including the display controller and power supply. This paper will discuss both the analog and digital AVIM interfaces, application BIT and power interfaces, as well as CLADS internal interfaces.

  1. Change in Coronary Blood Flow After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Relation to Baseline Lesion Physiology Results of the JUSTIFY-PCI Study

    PubMed Central

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder S.; Petraco, Ricardo; van de Hoef, Tim P.; Sen, Sayan; van Lavieren, Martijn A.; Foale, Rodney A.; Meuwissen, Martijn; Broyd, Christopher; Echavarria-Pinto, Mauro; Al-Lamee, Rasha; Foin, Nicolas; Sethi, Amarjit; Malik, Iqbal S.; Mikhail, Ghada W.; Hughes, Alun D.; Mayet, Jamil; Francis, Darrel P.; Di Mario, Carlo; Escaned, Javier; Piek, Jan J.; Davies, Justin E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) aims to increase coronary blood flow by relieving epicardial obstruction. However, no study has objectively confirmed this and assessed changes in flow over different phases of the cardiac cycle. We quantified the change in resting and hyperemic flow velocity after PCI in stenoses defined physiologically by fractional flow reserve and other parameters. Methods and Results Seventy-five stenoses (67 patients) underwent paired flow velocity assessment before and after PCI. Flow velocity was measured over the whole cardiac cycle and the wave-free period. Mean fractional flow reserve was 0.68±0.02. Pre-PCI, hyperemic flow velocity is diminished in stenoses classed as physiologically significant compared with those classed nonsignificant (P<0.001). In significant stenoses, flow velocity over the resting wave-free period and hyperemic flow velocity did not differ statistically. After PCI, resting flow velocity over the wave-free period increased little (5.6±1.6 cm/s) and significantly less than hyperemic flow velocity (21.2±3 cm/s; P<0.01). The greatest increase in hyperemic flow velocity was observed when treating stenoses below physiological cut points; treating stenoses with fractional flow reserve ≤0.80 gained Δ28.5±3.8 cm/s, whereas those fractional flow reserve >0.80 had a significantly smaller gain (Δ4.6±2.3 cm/s; P<0.001). The change in pressure-only physiological indices demonstrated a curvilinear relationship to the change in hyperemic flow velocity but was flat for resting flow velocity. Conclusions Pre-PCI physiology is strongly associated with post-PCI increase in hyperemic coronary flow velocity. Hyperemic flow velocity increases 6-fold more when stenoses classed as physiologically significant undergo PCI than when nonsignificant stenoses are treated. Resting flow velocity measured over the wave-free period changes at least 4-fold less than hyperemic flow velocity after PCI. PMID:26025217

  2. [Procedural aspects in primary PCI: arterial access, stent selection, thrombectomy and treatment of non-culprit lesions].

    PubMed

    Boeder, N F; Hamm, C W; Nef, H M

    2014-09-01

    Acute myocardial infarction was one of the most common causes of death in Germany in 2011. According to the guidelines of the European Society for Cardiology, systemic fibrinolysis and primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are the methods of choice for acute treatment. Primary PCI should be given priority due to its superiority. The transradial access should be preferred due to the lower bleeding complication rate. In the selection of stents the new generation of drug-eluting stents (DES) are superior to the first generation of bare metal stents (BMS). It has now been demonstrated that the incident rates of DES (e.g. mortality, target vessel revascularization, early and late stent thrombosis and myocardial infarction) are significantly lower. For bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) long-term results for the use in treatment of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are not yet available but initial results are very promising. However, the selection of a stent needs to be done on an individual basis in order to do justice to all aspects. Data with respect to thrombectomy in acute treatment are heterogeneous. Currently, a thorough consideration of all aspects is necessary because thrombus aspiration can also be associated with an increased rate of incidents. In a state of hemodynamic stability only so-called culprit lesions should currently be treated with a stent. Elective interventions on further stenoses should be carried out after consideration of individual factors and if necessary evaluation of the hemodynamic relevance. PMID:25070211

  3. Study of the Poloidal Variation of Edge Plasma Turbulence in QH-mode with PCI on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rost, J. C.; Porkolab, M.; Dorris, J. R.; Marinoni, A.; Burrell, K. H.

    2011-10-01

    The Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) diagnostic has been used on DIII-D to measure plasma turbulence from 2 to 30 cm-1 using three roughly vertical beam paths. Work here focuses on measurements of QH mode plasmas, with stationary plasma parameters and an outer gap scan that allowed the PCI to sample a range in poloidal angle and kr /kθ . The results show the largest edge turbulence has kθρi > 0 . 4 and f > 200 kHz, consistent with the plasma velocity at the bottom of the Er well, and a radial coherence length much less than 1 cm. A sharp decrease in turbulence amplitude is seen between the midplane and | θ | = 20 deg away from the X-point with no similar drop between the midplane and | θ | = 20 deg toward the X-point. Another component to the turbulence is seen at roughly similar wavenumbers and f < 100 kHz, consistent with the plasma velocity further inside the LCFS. Work supported by US DOE under DE-FG02-94ER54235 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  4. Dual Antiplatelet Therapy in Patients with Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency undergoing PCI with Drug-Eluting Stents.

    PubMed

    Biscaglia, Simone; Ferri, Alessandra; Pavasini, Rita; Campo, Gianluca; Ferrari, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect, affecting more than 400 million people worldwide. In patients with G6PD deficiency, the use of aspirin is controversial, since past studies have reported a potential risk of haemolysis related to its administration, even at low doses. More recent publications have shown that low-dose aspirin administration is safe in these patients. At the same time, no authors have previously reported more than single cases regarding low-dose aspirin treatment in patients with G6PD deficiency undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and most physicians are still sceptical about aspirin administration in these patients. In this paper, we report a case series of five patients with G6PD deficiency receiving PCI with drug-eluting stents (DES) and treatment with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) containing low-dose aspirin, without clinical complications. Moreover, we discuss our internal protocol for managing these patients and provide an overview of the available data. PMID:25843116

  5. Emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for the care of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

    PubMed

    Morrison, D A; Berman, M; El-Amin, O; McLaughlin, R T; Bates, E R

    2007-10-01

    There is general consensus that emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the preferred treatment for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), so long as it can be delivered in a timely fashion, by an experienced' operator and cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) team. STEMI is both a functional and structural issue. Although it has been recognized since the work of pioneering cardiologists and surgeons in Spokane, Washington, that approximately 88% of patients presenting within 6 hours of onset of STEMI have an occluded coronary artery, it is the pathophysiology of myocardial necrosis, and the varied consequences of necrosis that characterize STEMI. Accordingly, experience' of both primary operator and cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) crew, in performing an emergency PCI for STEMI, are as much a function of experience with the treatment of complex MI patients, as experience with coronary intervention. Rapidly achieving normal coronary artery flow, at both the macro and micro vascular levels, is the recognized key to aborting the otherwise progressive wavefront' of myocardial necrosis. The time urgency of decisions (Time is muscle') make emergency PCI for patients with on-going necrosis, more like emergency room (ER) care, than like most in-hospital or outpatient care. In general, most patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are currently thought to have plaque rupture and/or erosion with subsequent thrombosis and embolization. Consequences of thrombo-embolism, such as slow flow' or no-reflow' are in addition to, the structural (anatomic) considerations of PCI in stable patients (such as ostial location; bifurcation involvement; heavy calcification; tortuosity of lesion or access to it; length of disease; caliber of infarct-artery; etc.). Good quality studies have provided strong support for the specific added value of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (especially abciximab), dual antiplatelet therapy (the addition of

  6. Measurements of Mode Converted Ion Cyclotron Wave with Phase Contrast Imaging in Alcator C-Mod and Comparisons with Synthetic PCI Simulations in TORIC

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujii, N.; Porkolab, M.; Edlund, E. M.; Lin, L.; Lin, Y.; Wright, J. C.; Wukitch, S. J.

    2009-11-26

    Mode converted ion cyclotron wave (ICW) has been observed with phase contrast imaging (PCI) in D-{sup 3}He plasmas in Alcator C-Mod. The measurements were carried out with the optical heterodyne technique using acousto-optic modulators which modulate the CO2 laser beam intensity near the ion cyclotron frequency. With recently improved calibration of the PCI system using a calibrated sound wave source, the measurements have been compared with the full-wave code TORIC, as interpreted by a synthetic diagnostic. Because of the line-integrated nature of the PCI signal, the predictions are sensitive to the exact wave field pattern. The simulations are found to be in qualitative agreement with the measurements.

  7. Soft Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles de Gennes, Pierre; Edwards, Introduction By Sam

    1997-04-01

    Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, one of the greatest physicists of the twentieth century, died in 1984. Dirac's college, St. John's of Cambridge, generously endowed annual lectures to be held at Cambridge University in his memory. This volume contains a much expanded version of the 1994 Dirac Lecture by Nobel Laureate Pierre Gilles de Gennes. The book presents an impressionistic tour of the physics of soft interfaces. Full of insight and interesting asides, it not only provides an accessible introduction to this topic, but also lays down many markers and signposts that will be of interest to researchers in physics or chemistry. Features discussions of wetting and dewetting, the dynamics of different types of interface and adhesion and polymer/polymer welding.

  8. Efficacy and safety of different doses of tirofiban combined with ticagrelor on diabetic patients with AMI receiving in emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Hengliang; Hao, Zhenxuan; Geng, Guoying; Chen, Qi; Han, Wenjie; Jia, Kailong; Zhou, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of dual antiplatelet drugs combined with different doses of tirofiban on diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) receiving emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: 158 diabetic patients with AMI undergone emergency PCI were randomly divided into three groups: Group A (53 cases) as the control group-dual anti-platelet agents (aspirin + ticagrelor); Group B (52 cases)-dual anti-platelet agents + conventional dose of tirofiban [10 μg/kg by PCI and 0.15 μg/(kg·min) by continue venous pump for 24 h]; Group C (53 cases)-dual antiplatelet agents + half-dose tirofiban [10 μg/kg by PCI and 0.075 μg/(kg·min) by continue venous pump for 24 h]. Results: Compared with group A, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 3 (TIMI3) blood flow and TIMI myocardial perfusion grade 3 (TMPG3) myocardial perfusion of patients in group B and group C after PCI was significantly higher (P < 0.05), the average day of hospitalization was significantly shorter (P < 0.05), reinfarction during hospitalization, post-infarction angina, severe arrhythmia, the incidence of cardiac function above KillipIII level was significantly lower (P < 0.05). And the differences between group B and C was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Severe bleeding and moderate incidence of bleeding in group B was significantly higher than that in group A and group C (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Based on combination of dual the anti-platelet agents and ticagrelor for diabetic patients with AMI receiving PCI, the combination of half-dose tirofiban can effectively improve TIMI flow and TMPG myocardial tissue perfusion, and reduce the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and severe bleeding. PMID:26379951

  9. Predicting emergency coronary artery bypass graft following PCI: application of a computational model to refer patients to hospitals with and without onsite surgical backup

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Zeeshan; Moscucci, Mauro; Share, David; Gurm, Hitinder S

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical tools to stratify patients for emergency coronary artery bypass graft (ECABG) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) create the opportunity to selectively assign patients undergoing procedures to hospitals with and without onsite surgical facilities for dealing with potential complications while balancing load across providers. The goal of our study was to investigate the feasibility of a computational model directly optimised for cohort-level performance to predict ECABG in PCI patients for this application. Methods Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium registry data with 69 pre-procedural and angiographic risk variables from 68 022 PCI procedures in 2004–2007 were used to develop a support vector machine (SVM) model for ECABG. The SVM model was optimised for the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) at the level of the training cohort and validated on 42 310 PCI procedures performed in 2008–2009. Results There were 87 cases of ECABG (0.21%) in the validation cohort. The SVM model achieved an AUROC of 0.81 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.86). Patients in the predicted top decile were at a significantly increased risk relative to the remaining patients (OR 9.74, 95% CI 6.39 to 14.85, p<0.001) for ECABG. The SVM model optimised for the AUROC on the training cohort significantly improved discrimination, net reclassification and calibration over logistic regression and traditional SVM classification optimised for univariate performance. Conclusions Computational risk stratification directly optimising cohort-level performance holds the potential of high levels of discrimination for ECABG following PCI. This approach has value in selectively referring PCI patients to hospitals with and without onsite surgery. PMID:26688738

  10. Hydride, gold(i) and related derivatives of the unsaturated ditungsten anion [W2Cp2(μ-PCy2)(μ-CO)2](-).

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M Angeles; García, M Esther; García-Vivó, Daniel; Ruiz, Miguel A; Vega, M Fernanda

    2014-11-14

    Protonation of the title anion with [NH4]PF6 gave [W2Cp2(H)(μ-PCy2)(CO)2] (), which in solution exists as an equilibrium mixture of two isomers having either bridging (major) or terminal (minor) hydrides. Both molecules retain short intermetallic distances (ca. 2.54 Å), with the H-bridged isomer being almost 15 kJ mol(-1) more stable than the terminal one, according to density functional theory calculations. Further protonation with acids having weakly coordinating anions (BF4(-) or BAr'4(-); Ar' = 3,5-C6H3(CF3)2) yielded isomeric cations also displaying bridging and terminal hydride ligands ([W2Cp2(μ-H)(H)(μ-PCy2)(CO)2](+) and [W2Cp2(H)2(μ-PCy2)(CO)2](+)), with the latter being only slightly more energetic (by ca. 4 kJ mol(-1)). In contrast, protonation of with carboxylic acids yielded carboxylate-bridged derivatives [W2Cp2(μ-PCy2)(μ-O:O'-O2CR)(CO)2] [R = Ph, CF3] following from dihydrogen elimination. The title anion also reacted readily with metal-based electrophiles such as ClSnPh3 and [AuCl(PR3)] (R = (i)Pr, p-tol) to give the corresponding heterometallic clusters [W2Cp2(μ-PCy2)(μ-SnPh3)(CO)2] and [AuW2Cp2(μ-PCy2)(CO)2(PR3)], these having the added electrophile placed at the bridging position and formally retaining triple W-W bonds. The gold complexes, however, were rather unstable species decomposing spontaneously to give the tetranuclear clusters [Au2W2Cp2(μ-PCy2)(CO)2(PR3)2]X (W-W = 2.5803(6) Å and Au-Au = 2.8050(6) Å when R = (i)Pr and X = PF6), which could be prepared more conveniently by adding two equivalents of [AuCl(PR3)] to the anion, as expected. In contrast, reaction of the title anion with ClPbPh3 led to the formation of the phenyl-bridged complex [W2Cp2(μ-PCy2)(μ-Ph)(CO)2], following from the formal loss of PbPh2. PMID:25238551

  11. Insertion and C-C coupling processes in reactions of the unsaturated hydride [W2Cp2(H)(μ-PCy2)(CO)2] with alkynes.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M Angeles; García, M Esther; García-Vivó, Daniel; Ruiz, Miguel A; Vega, M Fernanda

    2016-03-28

    The title compound reacted with p-tolylacetylene at room temperature to give the 32-electron σ:π-bound alkenyl complexes trans-[W2Cp2{μ-κ:η(2)-C(p-tol)CH2}(μ-PCy2)(CO)2] and trans-[W2Cp2{μ-κ:η(2)-CHCH(p-tol)}(μ-PCy2)(CO)2], with the former complex fully rearranging into the latter one after 1 h at 363 K. Both compounds exist in solution as an isomeric equilibrium mixture (rapid on the NMR timescale) involving the alternate π-coordination of the alkenyl ligand to each of the tungsten atoms. In the presence of CO or certain solvents (THF or CH2Cl2) the α-substituted alkenyl complex was transformed instead into the cis-dicarbonyl isomer cis-[W2Cp2{μ-κ:η(2)-C(p-tol)CH2}(μ-PCy2)(CO)2] (W-W = 2.7273(8) Å). In contrast, the β-substituted alkenyl complex reacted with CO to give the saturated tricarbonyl [W2Cp2{μ-κ:η(2)-CHCH(p-tol)}(μ-PCy2)(CO)3], and with excess alkyne (under moderate heating) to yield the alkyne/alkenyl complex [W2Cp2{μ-κ:η(2)-CHCH(p-tol)}(μ-PCy2){η(2)-CHC(p-tol)}(CO)], with both products also displaying a cisoid disposition of the Cp ligands. In contrast, reactions of the title hydride with tert-butylacetylene were significantly slower and led to very air-sensitive compounds, the only isolable product from these reactions being the oxo alkenyl complex trans-[W2Cp2{μ-κ:η(2)-CHCH((t)Bu)}(O)(μ-PCy2)(CO)]. The title hydride reacted with methyl propiolate at room temperature to give selectively the α-substituted alkenyl complex cis-[W2Cp2{μ-κ:η(2)-C(CO2Me)CH2}(μ-PCy2)(CO)2], but yielded instead the dienyl complex [W2Cp2{μ-κ(2):η(3)-CH(CO2Me)CHC(CO2Me)CH}(μ-PCy2)(CO)2] (W-W = 2.944(1) Å) when the reaction was carried out at high temperature (393 K), with the latter generated from an alkenyl/alkyne C-C coupling process. The title hydride also reacted with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate, to give three products mainly depending on the reaction temperature; at moderate temperature (343 K) this reaction led exclusively to

  12. Percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) successfully applied in one patient in same sitting.

    PubMed

    Sial, Jawaid Akbar; Farman, Muhammad Tariq; Saghir, Tahir; Zaman, Khan Shah

    2011-01-01

    Sixty years old male with severe rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS), presented with dyspnoea New York Heart Association (NHYA) class III to IV. Coronary angiogram revealed severe occlusive coronary artery disease in left anterior coronary artery (LAD). Percutaneous Transvenous Mitral Commissurotomy (PTMC) and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) of Left Anterior Descurery (LAD) were done in same sitting. Both procedures were successful and ended without complication. After, half an hour while shifting to coronary care unit (CCU) patient developed cardiac tamponade, which was managed successfully. Patient was followed up for three month, he is doing well and recent echocardiogram showed mild mitral stenosis with normal left ventricular function. This case demonstrates the feasibility of the combined appliance on interventional techniques in selected patients as an alternative to cardiac surgery. PMID:22368914

  13. Design and development of a position-sensitive γ-camera for SPECT imaging based on PCI electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanoudaki, V.; Giokaris, N. D.; Karabarbounis, A.; Loudos, G. K.; Maintas, D.; Papanicolas, C. N.; Paschalis, P.; Stiliaris, E.

    2004-07-01

    A position-sensitive γ-camera is being currently designed at IASA. This camera will be used experimentally (development mode) in order to obtain an integrated knowledge of its function and perhaps to improve its performance in parallel with an existing one, which has shown a very good performance in phantom, small animal, SPECT technique and is currently being tested for clinical applications. The new system is a combination of a PSPMT (Hamamatsu, R2486-05) and a PMT for simultaneous or independent acquisition of energy and position information, respectively. The resistive chain technique resulting in two signals at each ( X, Y) direction will perform the readout of the PSPMT's anode signals; the system is based on PCI electronics. Status of the system's development and the ongoing progress is presented.

  14. Effect of rosuvastatin dose-loading on serum sLox-1, hs-CRP, and postoperative prognosis in diabetic patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing selected percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yungen; Hu, Feng; Zhang, Zhengang; Gong, Kaizheng; Sun, Xiaoning; Li, Aihua; Liu, Naifeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of rosuvastatin dose-loading on serum levels of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (Lox-1) and high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and postoperative prognosis in patients with diabetes and non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTEACS) undergoing selected percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: A total of 72 patients with diabetes and NSTEACS were randomized to either the group treated with 20 mg rosuvastatin 12 hours prior to PCI with a second dose administered just before PCI (n = 33), or a control group treated with standard method according guideline (n = 39). Serum levels of sLox-1, hs-CRP, CK-MB, and cTnI were measured prior to PCI, and at 24 hours and 30 days after PCI. The 30-day incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) was recorded in both groups. Results: Compared to pre-PCI, serum levels of sLox-1 and hs-CRP of the two groups were increased at 24 hours after PCI (P < 0.05); the levels of CK-MB and cTnI were also improved (P < 0.01); however, the ascended values of sLox-1, hs-CRP, CK-MB, and cTnI were significantly lower in the loading-dose rosuvastatin-treated group than in the control-treated group. Serum levels of sLox-1 and hs-CRP were higher in the loading-dose rosuvastatin-treated group than in the control-treated group at 30 days after PCI (P < 0.05); compared to pre-PCI, the levels of TC and LDL-C were not changed at 24 hours after PCI (P > 0.05) until 30 days after PCI (P < 0.05), but there were no difference between the two groups. The levels of ALT and Scr had no significant difference between the two groups before and after PCI; the 30-day incidence of MACE occurred in 6.06% of patients in the loading-dose rosuvastatin-treated group and in 23.08% of patients in the control-treated group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The therapy of dose-loading rosuvastatin for patients with diabetes and non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes undergoing

  15. Newly developed photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) simulation for non-invasive and continuous diagnosis of blood during extracorporeal circulation support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Takatani, Setsuo

    2011-07-01

    We have sought for non-invasive diagnosis of blood during the extracorporeal circulation support. To achieve the goal, we have newly developed a photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) model for optical propagation through blood. The pciMC actually describes the interaction of photons with 3-dimentional biconcave RBCs. The scattering is described by micro-scopical RBC boundary condition based on geometric optics. By using pciMC, we modeled the RBCs inside the extracorporeal circuit will be oriented by the blood flow. The RBCs' orientation was defined as their long axis being directed to the center of the circulation tube. Simultaneously the RBCs were allowed to randomly rotate about the long axis direction. As a result, as flow rate increased, the orientation rate increased and converged to approximately 22% at 0.5 L/min flow rate and above. And finally, by using this model, the pciMC non-invasively and absolutely predicted Hct and hemoglobin with the accuracies of 0.84+/-0.82 [HCT%] and 0.42+/-0.28 [g/dL] respectively against measurements by a blood gas analyzer.

  16. Heterometallic derivatives of [Fe2Cp2(μ-PCy)(μ-CO)(CO)2]: rational synthesis of polynuclear complexes from neutral precursors having pyramidal-phosphinidene bridges.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M Angeles; García, M Esther; González, Rocío; Ramos, Alberto; Ruiz, Miguel A

    2011-08-15

    The title complex (Cp = η(5)-C(5)H(5)) reacted with the labile carbonyl complexes [M(CO)(5)(THF)] (M = Cr, Mo, W) and [MnCp'(CO)(2)(THF)] (Cp' = η(5)-C(5)H(4)Me) to give phosphinidene-bridged trimetallic compounds of formula [Fe(2)MCp(2)(μ(3)-PCy)(μ-CO)(CO)(7)] (Cr-P = 2.479(1) Å) and [Fe(2)MnCp(2)Cp'(μ(3)-PCy)(μ-CO)(CO)(4)], respectively, after formation of a new M-P bond in each case, and related heterometallic complexes [Fe(2)MClCp(2)(μ(3)-PCy)(μ-CO)(CO)(2)] (M = Cu, Au; Au-P = 2.262(1) Å) were cleanly formed upon reaction with CuCl or the labile tetrahydrothiophene (THT) complex [AuCl(THT)]. The reaction with [Fe(2)(CO)(9)] proceeded analogously to give the triiron derivative [Fe(3)Cp(2)(μ(3)-PCy)(μ-CO)(CO)(6)] in high yield (new Fe-P bond =2.318(1) Å), along with a small amount of the pentanuclear compound [{Fe(CO)(3)}{(μ(3)-PCy)Fe(2)Cp(2)(μ-CO)(CO)(2)}(2)], the latter displaying a central Fe(CO)(3)P(2) core with a distorted bipyramidal geometry (P-Fe-P = 164.2(1)°). In contrast, the reaction with [Co(2)(CO)(8)] resulted in a full disproportionation process to give the salt [{Co(CO)(3)}{(μ(3)-PCy)Fe(2)Cp(2)(μ-CO)(CO)(2)}(2)][Co(CO)(4)], having a pentanuclear Fe(4)Co cation comparable to the above Fe(5) complex (P-Co-P = 165.3(2)°). The attempted photochemical decarbonylation of the above trinuclear complexes gave results strongly dependent on the added metal fragment. Thus, the irradiation with visible or visible-UV light of the new Fe(3) and Fe(2)Cr species caused no decarbonylation but a tautomerization of the metal framework to give the corresponding isomers [Fe(2)MCp(2)(μ(3)-PCy)(μ-CO)(CO)(n)] now exhibiting a dangling FeCp(CO)(2) moiety (M = Cr, n = 7, Cr-Fe = 2.7370(3) Å; M = Fe, n = 6, new Fe-Fe bond = 2.6092(9) Å) as a result of the cleavage of the Fe-Fe bond in the precursor and subsequent formation of a new M-Fe bond. These processes are reversible, since the new isomers gave back the starting complexes under low (Cr) or

  17. ST-elevation myocardial infarction with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction: Insights into persisting left ventricular dysfunction. A pPCI-registry analysis.

    PubMed

    Stolfo, Davide; Cinquetti, Martino; Merlo, Marco; Santangelo, Sara; Barbati, Giulia; Alonge, Marco; Vitrella, Giancarlo; Rakar, Serena; Salvi, Alessandro; Perkan, Andrea; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2016-07-15

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) largely reduced the rate of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). Though LV recovery begins early following revascularization, the optimal timing for re-assessment of LV function is still unclear. We sought to assess the proportion and timing of LV recovery in STEMI patients presenting with LV dysfunction treated by pPCI and to identify possible early predictors of adverse LV remodeling. STEMI patients with LV ejection fraction (LVEF ≤40%) at presentation treated by pPCI from 2007 to 2013 were included whether they had an available 3-step LVEF assessment (<24h post-pPCI, discharge and follow-up). Primary endpoint was LVEF ≤35% at follow-up. At a median time of 3months, 43 out of 154 patients (28%) had LVEF ≤35%. In patients with persistent LV dysfunction, LVEF was lower at admission and increased less during hospitalization (from 31±6 to 35±4% Vs 35±5 to 43±8% for patients with 3-months LVEF >35%, p<0.001). Independent predictors of 3-months LVEF ≤35% were creatinine at admission, peak troponin I and LVEF. Of note, LVEF re-assessment at discharge (median time 6days, IQR 4-9) showed an increased accuracy to predict 3-months LV dysfunction compared to LVEF at admission (AUC 0.80, 95% CI 0.72-0.88 vs AUC 0.69, 95% CI 0.58-0.79 respectively, p=0.03). In most of patients presenting with STEMI and LV dysfunction, a significant LV recovery can be observed early following pPCI. LVEF measurement at discharge indeed emerged as the best indicator of late persistence of severe LV dysfunction. PMID:27128558

  18. Mechanical Stretching of Mouse Calvarial Osteoblasts In Vitro Models Changes in MMP-2 and MMP-9 Expression at the Bone-Implant Interface.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Richard A; Niagro, Frank D; Borke, James L; Cuenin, Michael F

    2016-04-01

    Bone to mechanical loading elicits a biological response that has clinical significance for several areas in dental medicine, including orthodontic tooth movement, tempromandibular joint disease, and endosseous dental implant osseointegration. Human orthopedic studies of failed hip implant sites have identified increased mRNA expression of several collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), while in vitro experiments have shown increases in MMP secretion after exposure to inflammatory mediators. This investigation evaluates the effects of mechanical deformation on in vitro osteoblasts by assessing changes in MMP gene expression and enzyme activity. We seeded mouse neonatal calvarial osteoblasts onto flexible 6-well plates and subjected to continuous cyclic mechanical stretching. The expression and activity of mRNA for several MMPs (2, 3, 9, and 10) was assessed. When subjected to mechanical stress in culture, only mRNA specific for MMP-9 was significantly increased compared to nonstretched controls (P < .005). Measurement of MMP activity by gelatin zymography demonstrated that none of the MMPs showed increased activity with stretching; however, MMP-2 activity decreased. Our results suggest that in response to stretch, MMP-2 responds rapidly by inhibiting conversion of a MMP-2 to the active form, while a slower up-regulation of MMP-9 may play a role in the long-term remodeling of extracellular matrix in response to continuous mechanical loading. This study suggests that the regulation of metalloproteinases at both the mRNA and protein level are important in the response of bone to mechanical stress. PMID:25961753

  19. Cytokine gene expression at the materno-foetal interface after experimental Neospora caninum infection of heifers at 110 days of gestation.

    PubMed

    Almería, S; Araujo, R N; Darwich, L; Dubey, J P; Gasbarre, L C

    2011-09-01

    Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle, but the reasons why only some animals abort remain unclear. The immunological control of the parasite in the placenta or by the foetus could be the key to determining the mechanism of abortion and/or transplacental transmission to the foetus. In this study, cytokine gene expression, analysed by real-time RT-PCR, at the maternal (caruncle) and foetal placenta (cotyledon) of heifers infected at 110 days of gestation by intravenous inoculation of N. caninum tachyzoites was compared with the responses in uninfected heifers. Animals were euthanized 3 weeks after infection. Upregulated Th1, Th2 and T-regulatory (Treg) cytokine gene expression was observed in both the maternal and the foetal placenta in the infected group. In the caruncle of infected animals, the main changes included upregulation of IFN-γ, IL-12p40, IL-6 and IL-10. In the cotyledon, the main changes included upregulation of IFN-γ and downregulation of TGF-β, being the later the only cytokine downregulated in the infected group. The observed cytokine expression pattern was associated with alive but transplacentally infected foetuses, suggesting that such cytokine pattern is beneficial to foetal survival, but could have a role in the transplacental transmission of the parasite. PMID:21711362

  20. The importance of expressing antimicrobial agents on water basis in growth/no growth interface models: a case study for Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Dang, T D T; Vermeulen, A; Mertens, L; Geeraerd, A H; Van Impe, J F; Devlieghere, F

    2011-01-31

    In a previous study on Zygosaccharomyces bailii, three growth/no growth models have been developed, predicting growth probability of the yeast at different conditions typical for acidified foods (Dang, T.D.T., Mertens, L., Vermeulen, A., Geeraerd, A.H., Van Impe, J.F., Debevere, J., Devlieghere, F., 2010. Modeling the growth/no growth boundary of Z. bailii in acidic conditions: A contribution to the alternative method to preserve foods without using chemical preservatives. International Journal of Food Microbiology 137, 1-12). In these broth-based models, the variables were pH, water activity and acetic acid, with acetic acid concentration expressed in volume % on the total culture medium (i.e., broth). To continue the previous study, validation experiments were performed for 15 selected combinations of intrinsic factors to assess the performance of the model at 22°C (60days) in a real food product (ketchup). Although the majority of experimental results were consistent, some remarkable deviations between prediction and validation were observed, e.g., Z. bailii growth occurred in conditions where almost no growth had been predicted. A thorough investigation revealed that the difference between two ways of expressing acetic acid concentration (i.e., on broth basis and on water basis) is rather significant, particularly for media containing high amounts of dry matter. Consequently, the use of broth-based concentrations in the models was not appropriate. Three models with acetic acid concentration expressed on water basis were established and it was observed that predictions by these models well matched the validation results; therefore a "systematic error" in broth-based models was recognized. In practice, quantities of antimicrobial agents are often calculated based on the water content of food products. Hence, to assure reliable predictions and facilitate the application of models (developed from lab media with high dry matter contents), it is important to express

  1. Software interface for high-speed readout of particle detectors based on the CoaXPress communication standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejtmánek, M.; Neue, G.; Voleš, P.

    2015-06-01

    This article is devoted to the software design and development of a high-speed readout application used for interfacing particle detectors via the CoaXPress communication standard. The CoaXPress provides an asymmetric high-speed serial connection over a single coaxial cable. It uses a widely available 75 Ω BNC standard and can operate in various modes with a data throughput ranging from 1.25 Gbps up to 25 Gbps. Moreover, it supports a low speed uplink with a fixed bit rate of 20.833 Mbps, which can be used to control and upload configuration data to the particle detector. The CoaXPress interface is an upcoming standard in medical imaging, therefore its usage promises long-term compatibility and versatility. This work presents an example of how to develop DAQ system for a pixel detector. For this purpose, a flexible DAQ card was developed using the XILINX Spartan 6 FPGA. The DAQ card is connected to the framegrabber FireBird CXP6 Quad, which is plugged in the PCI Express bus of the standard PC. The data transmission was performed between the FPGA and framegrabber card via the standard coaxial cable in communication mode with a bit rate of 3.125 Gbps. Using the Medipix2 Quad pixel detector, the framerate of 100 fps was achieved. The front-end application makes use of the FireBird framegrabber software development kit and is suitable for data acquisition as well as control of the detector through the registers implemented in the FPGA.

  2. Properties of interfaces and transport across them.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, H

    2000-01-01

    Much of the biological activity in cell cytoplasm occurs in compartments some of which may be formed, as suggested in this book, by phase separation, and many of the functions of such compartments depend on the transport or exchange of molecules across interfaces. Thus a fundamentally based discussion of the properties of phases, interfaces, and diffusive transport across interfaces has been given to further elucidate these phenomena. An operational criterion for the width of interfaces is given in terms of molecular and physical arguments, and the properties of molecules inside phases and interfaces are discussed in terms of molecular arguments. In general, the properties of the interface become important when the molecules diffusing across are smaller than the width of the interface. Equilibrium partitioning, Donnan phenomena, and electrochemical potentials at interfaces are also discussed in detail. The mathematical expressions for modeling transport across interfaces are discussed in detail. These describe a practical and detailed model for transport across interfaces. For molecules smaller than the width of the interface, this includes a detailed model for diffusion inside the interface. Last, the question of the time scale for phase formation and equilibration in biological systems is discussed. PMID:10610364

  3. Comparison of Short- and Medium-Term Clinical Outcomes between Transradial Approach and Transfemoral Approach in a High-Volume PCI Heart Center in China

    PubMed Central

    He, Peiyuan; Yang, Yuejin; Qiao, Shubin; Xu, Bo; Yao, Min; Wu, Yongjian; Yuan, Jinqing; Chen, Jue; Liu, Haibo; Dai, Jun; Yang, Xiao; Tang, Xinran; Wang, Yang; Li, Wei; Gao, Runlin

    2015-01-01

    Background Transradial approach (TRA) outweighed transfemoral approach (TFA) in acute coronary syndrome patients because the former has better short-term outcomes in high-volume percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) centers. Our study was one of the limited studies specifically in comparing the short- and medium-term effects of TRA and those of TFA in patients undergoing elective PCIs. Methods A total of 21,242 patients who underwent elective PCI with stent implantation were included. Using propensity score methodology, 1,634 patient pairs were matched. Major clinical outcomes and PCI-related complications between TRA and TFA were compared. Results In the propensity score-matched patients, the rates of in-hospital net adverse clinical events, which included death, myocardial infarction (MI), target vessel revascularization (TVR), stroke, and major bleeding, were much lower with TRA than with TFA (1.8% vs. 3.9%, P < 0.001). This difference was mainly due to the lower rate of major bleeding (0.6% vs. 1.8%, P < 0.001) and the decreased rate of MI (1.1% vs. 1.9%, P = 0.060). PCI-related dissection and thrombosis were similar between the TRA and TFA groups (both P > 0.05). Meanwhile, one-year incidence rates of major adverse cardiovascular events, which included death, MI, and TVR, were also similar (4.1% vs. 4.9%, P = 0.272) in TRA and TFA. Multivariable regression analyses showed that TRA was an independent predictor of the low rate of in-hospital net adverse clinical events (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.71), but not of major adverse cardiovascular events at one-year follow-up (hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.96 to 1.06). Conclusions In patients undergoing elective PCI, TRA patients had lower rates of in-hospital net adverse clinical outcomes compared with TFA patients. TRA might be recommended as a routine approach in high-volume PCI hospitals for elective PCIs. PMID:25826213

  4. Influence of carbon structure and mineral association of coals on their combustion characteristics for pulverized coal injection (PCI) application

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Al-Omari, Y.; Sahajwalla, V.; French, D.

    2006-06-15

    The influence of carbon structure and mineral matter of three pulverized coals on their char characteristics including reactivity was studied under a range of combustion conditions in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric (TGA) furnace for PCI application. Physical and chemical properties of coals and their combustion derivatives were characterized by automated reflectogram. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and BET N{sub 2} adsorption. The QEMSCAN{asterisk} technique was used to characterize the heterogeneous nature of minerals of discrete coal particles. The TGA char reactivity was related to the proportion of coal particles displaying strong association of calcium/sulfur phases with carbon matrix to highlight the catalytic influence of minerals on char reactivity at low temperatures. The study suggested that during DTF combustion tests at 1200{sup o}C, char reaction rates might have been catalyzed by coal minerals, particularly due to illite and its association with carbon. Under the same combustion conditions, most of the coal minerals did not transform significantly to slag phases. Coal burnout was found to improve significantly in a combustion temperature range of 1200 to 1500{sup o}C. The improvement of coal burnout with temperature appeared to be influenced by coal properties, particularly as a function of the chemical nature of minerals, as well as the degree of associations with other minerals. The study implies that coals with similar mineral compositions might not necessarily reflect similar combustion behavior due to the differences in their associations with other phases.

  5. The potential role of homocysteine in percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI): review of current evidence and plausibility of action.

    PubMed

    Stanger, O

    2004-12-01

    Several millions of patients with coronary heart disease worldwide are treated by means ofpercutaneous interventions each year. Above all conventional balloon dilation and implantation of uncoated stents are, however, only of limited success as reflected by 6-month restenosis rates of 50% (balloon dilation) and 25-35% (bare-metal stent). It is therefore of utmost importance to identify high-risk groups and explore further secondary-prophylactic measures for the prevention of restenosis. A large body of evidence suggests that elevated homocysteine and/or folate and B-vitamin deficiencies are relevant risk factors for restenoses due to their proatherothrombotic potential. Hyperhomocysteinemia is an ideal target as this parameter can be lowered easily, safely and at a low cost by means of folate and B-vitamin supplementation. The results of published studies exploring a potential correlation between homocysteine levels and the risk of restenosis and those of interventional studies for the reduction of the risk of restenosis have not yet lead to consistent conclusions. However, a critical assessment can by no means exclude the plausibility of postinterventional lowering of homocysteine levels. This review aims at providing insight into the current evidence and biological plausibility of homocysteine-lowering therapy in regard to PCI-related vascular damage. Currently available clinical observational and interventional studies are reviewed in detail. PMID:15704259

  6. PCI and interference effects in the energy and angular correlation between the photoelectron and the Auger electron for equal electron energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheinerman, S. A.; Schmidt, V.

    1997-04-01

    Photoionization in the inner shell of an atom followed by Auger decay is considered for the case of equal energies of the emitted electrons. Due to the indistinguishability of both electrons it is imperative to describe this process as resonance embedded in the double ionization continuum, i.e. within the one-step formulation. As a consequence, two amplitudes appear where either one of the two electrons with momenta 0953-4075/30/7/008/img1 and 0953-4075/30/7/008/img2 is connected to the photoprocess, and correspondingly the other to the Auger decay. We have accounted for the modification of these amplitudes by post-collision interaction (PCI). To elucidate our theoretical treatment we have selected a simple example and demonstrate how both exchange and PCI strongly modify by interference the energy- and angle-dependent correlation patterns of coincident two-electron emission.

  7. PCI effects and the gradual formation of Rydberg series due to photoelectron recapture, in the Auger satellite lines upon Xe 4d-15/2 photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosugi, Satoshi; Iizawa, Masatomi; Kawarai, Yu; Kuriyama, Yosuke; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Koike, Fumihiro; Kuze, Nobuhiko; Slaughter, Daniel S.; Azuma, Yoshiro

    2015-06-01

    The Xe (N5O2,3O2,3) Auger electron spectra originating from 4d-15/2 inner-shell photoionization were measured, with photon energy tuned close to the ionization threshold. As the photon energy approaches the threshold from above the 4d-15/2 photoionization threshold, Rydberg series structures are formed within the Auger electron peak by the recapture of the photoelectron into high-lying ion orbitals. They emerge in the tail on the higher energy side of the post-collision interaction (PCI) profile of the Auger electron. Discrete Rydberg peaks replace the continuous PCI tail and gradually form a series with intensity distribution emulating the intensity profile of the continuous tail. Structures due to the Xe+5p4(1S0, 1D2, 3P2,1,0) ml series were observed and assigned.

  8. The Tradeoff between Travel Time from Home to Hospital and Door to Balloon Time in Determining Mortality among STEMI Patients Undergoing PCI

    PubMed Central

    Cappai, Giovanna; Sciattella, Paolo; Belleudi, Valeria; Di Martino, Mirko; Agabiti, Nera; Mataloni, Francesca; Ricci, Roberto; Perucci, Carlo Alberto; Davoli, Marina; Fusco, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Background In ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), even in presence of short door to balloon time (DTBT), timely reperfusion with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is hampered by pre-hospital delays. Travel time (TT) constitutes a relevant part of these delays and may contribute to worse outcomes. Objective To evaluate the relationship between TT from home to hospital and DTBT on 30-day mortality after PCI among patients with STEMI. Methods We enrolled a cohort of 3,608 STEMI patients with a DTBT within 120 minutes who underwent PCI between years 2009 and 2013 in Lazio Region (Italy). We calculated the minimum travel time from residential address to emergency department where the first medical contact occurred. We defined system delay as the sum of travel time and DTBT time. Logistic regression models, including clinical and demographic characteristics were used to estimate the effect of TT and DTBT on mortality. Results Among patients with 0–90 minutes of system delay, TT above the median value is positively associated with mortality (OR = 2.46; P = 0.009). Survival benefit associated with DTBT below the median results only among patients with TT below the median (OR for DTBT below the median = 0.39; P = 0.013), (OR for interaction between TT and DTBT = 2.36; p = 0.076). Conclusion TT affects survival after PCI for STEMI, even in the presence of health care systems compliant with current guidelines. Results emphasize the importance of health system initiatives to reduce pre-hospital delay. Utilization of TT can contribute to a better estimate of patient mortality risk in the evaluation of quality of care. PMID:27336859

  9. P2Y12 receptor inhibition and effect of morphine in patients undergoing primary PCI for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The PRIVATE-ATLANTIC study.

    PubMed

    Silvain, Johanne; Storey, Robert F; Cayla, Guillaume; Esteve, Jean-Baptiste; Dillinger, Jean-Guillaume; Rousseau, Hélène; Tsatsaris, Anne; Baradat, Caroline; Salhi, Néjoua; Hamm, Christian W; Lapostolle, Frédéric; Lassen, Jens Flensted; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Ten Berg, Jurriën M; Van't Hof, Arnoud W; Montalescot, Gilles

    2016-08-01

    PRIVATE-ATLANTIC (P2Y12 Receptor Inhibition with VASP Testing using Elisa kit during the ATLANTIC study) is a pre-specified substudy of the randomised, double-blind ATLANTIC trial in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, designed to help interpret the main trial results. The primary objective of ATLANTIC was to assess coronary reperfusion prior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with pre- vs in-hospital ticagrelor 180 mg loading dose (LD). PRIVATE-ATLANTIC assessed platelet inhibition in 37 patients by measurement of vasodilator-associated stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) platelet reactivity index (PRI) and VerifyNow platelet reactivity units (PRU) before angiogram (T1), immediately after PCI (T2), 1 (T3), and 6 (T4) hours (h) after PCI, and before next study drug administration (T5). The median time difference between the two ticagrelor LD was 41 minutes. Platelet reactivity was unaffected at T1 when measured by VASP-PRI (89.8 vs 93.9 % for pre- and in-hospital ticagrelor, respectively; p = 0.18) or PRU (239 vs 241; p = 0.82). Numerical differences were apparent at T2 and maximal at T3. Morphine administration significantly delayed onset of platelet inhibition at T3 (VASP-PRI 78.2 vs 23.4 % without morphine; p = 0.0116) and T4 (33.1 vs 11.0 %; p = 0.0057). In conclusion, platelet inhibition in ATLANTIC was unaffected by pre-hospital ticagrelor administration at the time of initial angiogram due to the short transfer delay. The maximum difference in platelet inhibition was detected 1 h after PCI (T3). Morphine administration was associated with delayed onset of action of ticagrelor and appeared more important than timing of ticagrelor administration. PMID:27196998

  10. Does Serum Bilirubin level on admission predict TIMI flow grade and in-hospital MACE in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.

    PubMed

    Celik, Turgay; Kaya, Mehmet G; Akpek, Mahmut; Yarlioglues, Mikail; Sarli, Bahadir; Topsakal, Ramazan; Gibson, Charles Michael

    2014-03-01

    We evaluated the association of total bilirubin with post-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) coronary blood flow and in-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary PCI. A total of 536 consecutive patients with STEMI (male 79%, mean age = 59.9 ± 12.6 years) admitted within 6 hours from symptom onset were enrolled. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (MI) flow grade. In-stent thrombosis, nonfatal MI, and in-hospital mortality were significantly higher in no-reflow group (P = .007, P = .002, and P < .001, respectively). On multivariate regression, the total bilirubin levels remained independent predictors of no-reflow (odds ratio [OR] 1.586, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.47; P = .042) and in-hospital MACE (OR 1.399, 95% CI 1.053-1.857; P = .020). Serum bilirubin levels were independently associated with no-reflow and in-hospital MACE in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. PMID:23378197

  11. Influence of recoil-implanted and thermally released iodine on I-SCC of Zircaloy-4 in PCI-conditions: chemical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fregonese, M.; Lefebvre, F.; Lemaignan, C.; Magnin, T.

    The pellet cladding interaction (PCI) phenomenon can lead to cladding failure by iodine induced stress corrosion cracking (I-SCC) during power transients. In these situations, the aggressive species is present as both, recoil implanted iodine in the cladding, and gaseous iodine thermally released in the gap. The aim of this work is to determine the respective roles of implanted and gaseous iodine in the SCC phenomenon. Two types of SCC tests have thus been performed. In the first one, zirconium and iodine recoil implanted tensile test specimens were used, with implantation profiles typical of those existing in a cladding under PCI conditions either on the dose or on the induced damage standpoint. These tests have shown that recoil implanted iodine has no chemical effect on the development of the SCC cracks. The second type of tests was performed on reference tensile test specimens at 350°C with iodine released either, in oxygen containing atmospheres or, at increasing temperatures. The iodine efficiency for cracks initiation was found to be stronger when no oxygen is available for repassivation and when iodine is released at higher temperature. These two conditions being fulfilled during PCI loading, since no gaseous oxygen is available in the fuel-to-clad gap, and since iodine is released through the pellet radical cracks at high temperature, thermally released iodine can be considered as the chemical active species responsible for SCC.

  12. Primary PCI for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in a patient treated with subcutaneous enoxaparin utilizing point-of-care Enox test.

    PubMed

    Veerappan, Balaji; Latif, Faisal; Patibandla, Sushmitha; Hennebry, Thomas; Ghani, Mohammed; Saucedo, Jorge; Schechter, Eliot; Sadanandan, Saihari

    2003-05-01

    The superiority of enoxaparin compared with unfractionated heparin in the medical management of patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) has been demonstrated in clinical trials. Further, enoxaparin has been shown to be safe and effective during PCI, including in combination with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. Whether enoxaparin is superior to unfractionated heparin in patients with NSTE ACS under-going early invasive strategy is currently being tested in a large clinical trial. Data on the use of enoxaparin in patients undergoing primary angioplasty for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction are limited. Unlike patients who present to the catheterization laboratory after several doses of enoxaparin where in a steady state anticoagulation might have been achieved, patients who present early after administration of a single dose of subcutaneous enoxaparin may not have an adequate level of anticoagulation for PCI. The ability to monitor activity of enoxaparin in such patients using a point-of-care test might be useful. This report describes a patient with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who presented for primary angioplasty 75 minutes after administration of subcutaneous enoxaparin. The Rapidpoint Enox test measured 135 seconds and the patient's corresponding serum anti-Xa level was 0.12 IU/mL indicating a suboptimal level of anticoagulation for PCI. Procedural success was attained using additional 0.3-mg/kg intravenous enoxaparin. PMID:12784820

  13. Holographic interface-particle potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasaki, Koichi; Tanida, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    We consider two mathcal{N} = {4} supersymmetric gauge theories connected by an interface and the gravity dual of this system. This interface is expressed by a fuzzy funnel solution of Nahm's equation in the gauge theory side. The gravity dual is a probe D5-brane in AdS5 × S 5. The potential energy between this interface and a test particle is calculated in both the gauge theory side and the gravity side by the expectation value of a Wilson loop. In the gauge theory it is evaluated by just substituting the classical solution to the Wilson loop. On the other hand it is done by the on-shell action of the fundamental string stretched between the AdS boundary and the D5-brane in the gravity. We show the gauge theory result and the gravity one agree with each other.

  14. Mechanisms for the reactions of group 10 transition metal complexes with metal-group 14 element bonds, Bbt(Br)E═M(PCy3)2 (E = C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; M = Pd and Pt).

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei-Hung; Ho, Pei-Yun; Su, Ming-Der

    2013-02-01

    The electronic structures of the Bbt(Br)E═M(PCy(3))(2) (E = C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb and M = Pt, Pd) complexes and their potential energy surfaces for the formation and water addition reactions were studied using density functional theory (B3LYP/LANL2DZ). The theoretical evidence suggests that the bonding character of the E═M double bond between the six valence-electron Bbt(Br)E: species and the 14 valence-electron (PCy(3))(2)M complexes has a predominantly high s-character. That is, on the basis of the NBO, this theoretical study indicates that the σ-donation from the E element to the M atom prevails. Also, theoretical computations suggest that the relative reactivity decreases in the order: Bbt(Br)C═M(PCy(3))(2) > Bbt(Br)Si═M(PCy(3))(2) > Bbt(Br)Ge═M(PCy(3))(2) > Bbt(Br)Sn═M(PCy(3))(2) > Bbt(Br)Pb═M(PCy(3))(2), irrespective of whether M = Pt or M = Pd is chosen. Namely, the greater the atomic weight of the group 14 atom (E), the larger is the atomic radius of E and the more stable is its Bbt(Br)E═M(PCy(3))(2) doubly bonded species toward chemical reactions. The computational results show good agreement with the available experimental observations. The theoretical results obtained in this work allow a number of predictions to be made. PMID:23339483

  15. Mortality pattern and cause of death in a long-term follow-up of patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI

    PubMed Central

    Moloi, Soniah; Chandrasekhar, Jaya; Farshid, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the pattern of mortality and cause of death in a cohort of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods Consecutive patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI during 2006–2013 were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 3.5 years (1–8.4 years). We used hospital and general practice records and mortality data from The Australian National Death Index. Results Among 1313 patients (22.5% female) with mean age of 62.3±13.1 years, 181 patients (13.7%) died during long-term follow-up. In the first 7 days, 45 patients (3.4%) died, 76% of these due to cardiogenic shock. Between 7 days and 1 year, another 50 patients died (3.9%), 58% from cardiovascular causes and 22% from cancer. Beyond 1 year, there were 86 deaths with an estimated mean mortality rate of 2.05% per year, 36% of deaths were cardiovascular and 52% non-cardiovascular, including 29% cancer-related deaths. On multivariate analysis, age ≥75 years, history of diabetes, prior PCI, cardiogenic shock, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 and symptom-to-balloon time >360 min were independent predictors of long-term mortality. In 16 patients who died of sudden cardiac death postdischarge, only 4 (25%) had ejection fraction ≤35% and would have been eligible for an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Conclusions In the era of routine primary PCI, we found a mortality rate of 7.3% at 1 year, and 2.05% per year thereafter. Cause of death was predominantly cardiovascular in the first year and mainly non-cardiovascular after 1 year. Age, diabetes, prior PCI, cardiogenic shock, eGFR <60 and delayed treatment were independent predictors of mortality. PMID:27099764

  16. A study on the impact of CYP2C19 genotype and platelet reactivity assay on patients undergoing PCI

    PubMed Central

    Rath, P.C.; Chidambaram, Sundar; Rath, Pallavi; Dikshit, Byomakesh; Naik, Sudhir; Sahoo, Prashant K.; Das, Brajraj; Mahalingam, Mohanshankar; Khandrika, Lakshmipathi; Jain, Jugnu

    2015-01-01

    Background A thorough understanding of the patient's genotype and their functional response to a medication is necessary for improving event free survival. Several outcome studies support this view particularly if the patient is to be started on clopidogrel due to the prevalence of clopidogrel resistance. Such guided therapy has reduced the incidence of Major Adverse Cardiac Events (MACE) after stent implantation. Methods Between August 2013 and August 2014, 200 patients with coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were prescribed any one of the anti-platelet medications such as clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor and offered testing to detect CYP2C19 gene mutations along with a platelet reactivity assay (PRA). Intended outcome was modification of anti-platelet therapy defined as either dose escalation of clopidogrel or replacement of clopidogrel with prasugrel or ticagrelor for the patients in clopidogrel arm, and replacement of ticagrelor or prasugrel with clopidogrel if those patients were non-carrier of mutant genes and also if they demonstrated bleeding tendencies in the ticagrelor and prasugrel arms. Conclusion Clopidogrel resistance was observed to be 16.5% in our study population. PRA was useful in monitoring the efficacy of thienopyridines. By having this test, one can be safely maintained on clopidogrel in non-carriers, or with increased dose of clopidogrel in intermediate metabolizers or with newer drugs such as ticagrelor or prasugrel in poor metabolizers. Patients on ticagrelor and prasugrel identified as non-carriers of gene mutations for clopidogrel metabolism could be offered clopidogrel resulting in economic benefits to the patients. Patients at high risk of bleeding were also identified by the PRA. PMID:26071289

  17. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection and Hemodynamic Instability: Can Emergent PCI Be Life Saving? Report of Two Cases and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Al Emam, Abdel Rahman A.; Almomani, Ahmed; Gilani, Syed A.

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome. It occurs predominantly among younger females and typically in the absence of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. It is associated with peripartum period, connective tissue disorders, vasculitides, and extreme exertion. Presentations vary greatly, and this condition can be fatal. Given its rarity, there are no guidelines for management of SCAD. We present the cases of two female patients, with no coronary artery disease risk factors or recent pregnancy, who were presented with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), respectively, secondary to SCAD. Both had excellent outcome after emergent percutaneous intervention. Our first patient was presented with NSTEMI with ongoing chest pain and dynamic electrocardiogram (ECG). Emergent left heart catheterization was significant for first obtuse marginal (OM1) dissection, confirmed by optical coherence tomography. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with two bare metal stents was performed with resolution of symptoms and ECG changes. The second patient is known to have syndrome, presented with STEMI and emergent coronary angiography showed left anterior descending dissection with intramural hematoma confirmed by intravascular ultrasound and treated with a drug-eluting stent with resolution of symptoms and ST changes. Her hospital course was complicated by post–myocardial infarction pericarditis that was improved with colchicine. Both the patients were observed in the coronary care unit for 24 hours. Both remained asymptomatic at 6-month follow-up. SCAD is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome. In patients with early presentation, limited disease, and ongoing symptoms, emergent cardiac catheterization with percutaneous intervention has excellent outcome. More studies are needed to establish evidence-based management guidelines. PMID:25484560

  18. Hydrocortisone Reduces Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression on Peripheral CD14+ Monocytes in Patients Undergoing Percutanoues Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Bahador; Sohrabi, Bahram; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbar; Mashayekhi, Simin; Garjani, Afagh; Shokri, Mehriar; Pezeshkian, Masoud; Garjani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Bacground: Evidence from several lines of investigations suggests that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in atherosclerosis as a bridge between innate and acquired immunity. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) can trigger inflammation through activation of human TLR4 (hTLR4) on monocytes. Hydrocortisone as an anti-inflammatory and immuno-suppressant agent has multiple mechanisms of action. In this study, we aimed at assessing the effects of hydrocortisone on monocyte expression and activity of hTLR4 in patients underwent PCI. Methods: Blood samples were taken from a total of 71 patients with chronic stable angina who were scheduled for a PCI, before the intervention. Thirty patients received 100 mg hydrocortisone prior to the procedure. Control group was composed of 41 patients underwent PCI without receiving hydrocortisone. Blood collection was repeated 2 and 4 h after PCI. The expression of hTLR4 on the surface of CD14+ monocytes and the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were measured using flowcytometry and Sandwich ELISA. Results: Compared with controls, hydrocortisone significantly reduced monocyte expression of hTLR4 in test group (P<0.01). In addition, it had a significant effect on reduction of serum concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β in test group in a time-dependent manner (P<0.01). Conclusion: In this study, hydrocortisone was able to reduce the hTLR4/CD14 positive monocytes and its related pro-inflammatory cytokines, thus it can decrease inflammatory responses following PCI. PMID:24518547

  19. Media independent interface. Interface control document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A Media Independent Interface (MII) is specified, using current standards in the industry. The MII is described in hierarchical fashion. At the base are IEEE/International Standards Organization (ISO) documents (standards) which describe the functionality of the software modules or layers and their interconnection. These documents describe primitives which are to transcent the MII. The intent of the MII is to provide a universal interface to one or more Media Access Contols (MACs) for the Logical Link Controller and Station Manager. This interface includes both a standardized electrical and mechanical interface and a standardized functional specification which defines the services expected from the MAC.

  20. Prognostic significance of Ki-67 antigen and p53 protein expression in pancreatic duct carcinoma: a study of the monoclonal antibodies MIB-1 and DO-7 in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour material.

    PubMed Central

    Linder, S.; Parrado, C.; Falkmer, U. G.; Blåsjö, M.; Sundelin, P.; von Rosen, A.

    1997-01-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material from 57 patients in whom curative resection of pancreatic carcinoma had been attempted was analysed by an immunohistochemical procedure to estimate proliferation and p53 protein expression. Using the monoclonal antibody (MAb) MIB-1, which recognizes a Ki-67 epitope, the proliferating cell index (PCI, percentage of immunoreactive tumour nuclei) and proliferating cell area (PCA, percentage of immunoreactive tumour nuclear area) were calculated using an interactive image analysis system and were compared with semiquantitative scoring of stainability. MAb DO-7, which recognizes both wild- and mutant-type p53 protein, was used to assess p53 expression in the same material. MIB-1 stainings were of high quality in 53 tumours. The median PCI was 29.7% (range 0.5-82.1%) and the median PCA was 10.6% (range 0.0-36.5%). There was a close correlation between PCI and PCA (P < 0.0001). PCI and PCA values were in conformity with the semiquantitative scoring (P < 0.0001). The p53 immunohistochemical stainings were successful in 48 tumours and the protein was expressed in 22 (46%). High PCI values (> 45%, n = 14) correlated with shorter survival time (P < 0.01). PCA (P < 0.05) and the expression of p53 protein (P < 0.001) were independent prognostic variables. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9218733

  1. The Value of Pre- and Post-Stenting Fractional Flow Reserve for Predicting Mid-Term Stent Restenosis Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI)

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Alireza; Bahremand, Mostafa; Saidi, Mohammad Reza; Jalili, Zahra; Salehi, Nahid; Assareh, Marzieeh; Abarghoei, Gholamreza Amini; Kazerani, Hashem

    2016-01-01

    Measuring fractional flow reserve (FFR) in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has predictive value for PCI outcome. We decided to examine the utility of pre- and post-stenting FFR as a predictor of 6-month stent restenosis as well as MACE (major adverse cardiac events). Pre- and post-stenting FFR values were measured for 60 PCI patients. Within 6 months after stenting, all patients were followed for assessment of cardiac MACE including myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or positive exercise test. Stent restenosis was also assessed. Cut-off values for pre- and post-stenting FFR measurements were considered respectively as 0.65 and 0.92. Stent restenosis was detected in 4 patients (6.6%). All 4 patients (100%) with restenosis had pre-stenting FFR of < 0.65, while only 26 of 56 patients without restenosis (46.4%) had pre-stenting FFR value of < 0.65 (P = 0.039). Mean pre-stenting FFR in patients with restenosis was significantly lower than in those without restenosis (0.25 ± 0.01 vs. 0.53 ± 0.03, P = 0.022). Although stent restenosis was higher in patients with post-stenting FFR of < 0.92 (2 cases, 9.5%) than in those with FFR value of ≥ 0.92 (2 cases, 5.1%), the difference was not statistically (P = 0.510). Pre-stenting FFR, the use of longer stents, and history of diabetes mellitus can predict stent restenosis, but the value of post-stenting FFR for predicting restenosis was not explicit.

  2. Media independent interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The work done on the Media Independent Interface (MII) Interface Control Document (ICD) program is described and recommendations based on it were made. Explanations and rationale for the content of the ICD itself are presented.

  3. Water at Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Björneholm, Olle; Hansen, Martin H; Hodgson, Andrew; Liu, Li-Min; Limmer, David T; Michaelides, Angelos; Pedevilla, Philipp; Rossmeisl, Jan; Shen, Huaze; Tocci, Gabriele; Tyrode, Eric; Walz, Marie-Madeleine; Werner, Josephina; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2016-07-13

    The interfaces of neat water and aqueous solutions play a prominent role in many technological processes and in the environment. Examples of aqueous interfaces are ultrathin water films that cover most hydrophilic surfaces under ambient relative humidities, the liquid/solid interface which drives many electrochemical reactions, and the liquid/vapor interface, which governs the uptake and release of trace gases by the oceans and cloud droplets. In this article we review some of the recent experimental and theoretical advances in our knowledge of the properties of aqueous interfaces and discuss open questions and gaps in our understanding. PMID:27232062

  4. Study of Poloidal Variation and Radial Wavenumber of Edge Turbulence in L- and H-mode with PCI on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rost, J. C.; Porkolab, M.; Dorris, J. R.; Burrell, K. H.

    2010-11-01

    The Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) diagnostic has been used on DIII-D to measure plasma turbulence from 2 to 30 cm-1 using three roughly vertical beam paths: tangent at r/a=1; r/a = 0.75 (Phase I); and now r/a = 0.4 (Phase II). An optical filter provides localization. Comparison of measurements made in different beam paths shows poloidal variation and spectral structure that one measurement location does not provide. The observed group velocity of the turbulence spectrum decreases away from the midplane at high input power, but is constant at low input power, with no up-down asymmetry in vg in either case. Measurements in L-mode are consistent with edge turbulence having a finite kθ and a range in kr centered at kr=0. Measurements in H-mode are strongly asymmetric in wavenumber as observed by the PCI, indicating that edge turbulence is large at two radii with different flow velocities, one with a strong positive kr and one a strong negative kr.

  5. Microconical interface fitting and interface grasping tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L. (Inventor); Wightman, William D. (Inventor); Johnston, Alistair P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A small and light weight microconical interface fitting may be attached to the surface of a space vehicle or equipment to provide an attachment device for an astronaut or robot to capture the space vehicle or equipment. The microconical interface fitting of the present invention has an axisymmetrical conical body having a base portion with a torque reaction surface for preventing rotation of the interface grasping tool; a cavitated, sunken or hollowed out intermediate locking portion which has a cavity shaped for receiving the latches of the grasping tool and an upper guiding portion for guiding the grasping tool into axial alignment with the microconical interface fitting. The capture is accomplished with an interface grasping tool. The grasping tool comprises an outer sleeve with a handle attached, an inner sleeve which may be raised and lowered within the outer sleeve with a plurality of latches supported at the lower end and a cam to raise and lower the inner sleeve. When the inner sleeve is at its lowest position, the latches form the largest diameter opening for surrounding the microconical fitting and the latches form the smallest diameter or a locking, grasping position when raised to the highest position within the outer sleeve. The inner sleeve may be at an intermediate, capture position which permits the latches to be biased outwardly when contacting the microconical fitting under very low forces to grasp the fitting and permits capture (soft docking) without exact alignment of the fitting and the tool.

  6. Turbomachine Interface Sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Chupp, Raymond E.; Lattime, Scott B.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    Sealing interfaces and coatings, like lubricants, are sacrificial, giving up their integrity for the benefit of the component. Clearance control is a major issue in power systems turbomachine design and operational life. Sealing becomes the most cost-effective way to enhance system performance. Coatings, films, and combined use of both metals and ceramics play a major role in maintaining interface clearances in turbomachine sealing and component life. This paper focuses on conventional and innovative materials and design practices for sealing interfaces.

  7. Persistent interface fluid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Richard S; Fine, I Howard; Packer, Mark

    2008-08-01

    We present an unusual case of persistent interface fluid that would not resolve despite normal intraocular pressure and corneal endothelial replacement with Descemet-stripping endothelial keratoplasty. Dissection, elevation, and repositioning of the laser in situ keratomileusis flap were required to resolve the interface fluid. Circumferential corneal graft-host margin scar formation acting as a mechanical strut may have been the cause of the intractable interface fluid. PMID:18655997

  8. Popeye Project: ROV interface

    SciTech Connect

    Scates, C.R.; Hernandez, D.A.; Hickok, D.D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV) interface with the Popeye Project Subsea System. It describes the ROV-related plans, design philosophies, intervention tasks, tooling/equipment requirements, testing activities, and offshore installation experiences. Early identification and continuous consideration of the ROV interfaces significantly improved the overall efficiency of equipment designs and offshore operations. The Popeye Project helped advance the technology and standardization of ROV interfaces for deep water subsea production systems.

  9. The kinked interface crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitzer, Joerg

    1992-05-01

    Two methods for the numerical solution of the integral equation describing the kinked interface crack, one proposed by Erdogan et al. (1973) and the other by Theokaris and Iokimidis (1979), are examined. The method of Erdogan et al. is then used to solve the equation in order to determine the kinking angle of the interface crack. Results are presented for two material combinations, aluminum/epoxy and glass/ceramic, under uniaxial tension in the direction normal to the interface.

  10. Multimodal neuroelectric interface development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Jorgensen, Charles C.; Rosipal, Roman; Clanton, Sam T.; Matthews, Bryan; Hibbs, Andrew D.; Matthews, Robert; Krupka, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We are developing electromyographic and electroencephalographic methods, which draw control signals for human-computer interfaces from the human nervous system. We have made progress in four areas: 1) real-time pattern recognition algorithms for decoding sequences of forearm muscle activity associated with control gestures; 2) signal-processing strategies for computer interfaces using electroencephalogram (EEG) signals; 3) a flexible computation framework for neuroelectric interface research; and d) noncontact sensors, which measure electromyogram or EEG signals without resistive contact to the body.

  11. TSF Interface Package

    SciTech Connect

    2004-03-01

    A collection of packages of classes for interfacing to sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs, and to linear operators. TSF (via TSFCore, TSFCoreUtils and TSFExtended) provides the application programmer interface to any number of solvers, linear algebra libraries and preconditioner packages, providing also a sophisticated technique for combining multiple packages to solve a single problem. TSF provides a collection of abstract base classes that define the interfaces to abstract vector, matrix and linear soerator objects. By using abstract interfaces, users of TSF are not limiting themselves to any one concrete library and can in fact easily combine multiple libraries to solve a single problem.

  12. Clinical characteristics associated with high on-treatment platelet reactivity of patients undergoing PCI after a 300 mg loading dose of clopidogrel, measured by thrombelastography

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xu-Min; Han, Wen-Zheng; Qiu, Xing-Biao; Fang, Wei-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Background Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin is the standard of care for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Objective To determine the clinical characteristics associated with high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) of patients undergoing PCI after a 300 mg loading dose of clopidogrel, measured by thrombelastography (TEG). Methods and results 394 consecutive patients were enrolled in this prospective observational study. All had been receiving aspirin 100 mg/day for more than 7 days, but were clopidogrel naïve. A 300 mg loading dose of clopidogrel was given more than 12 h before the procedure. The cut-off point for HPR was defined as ≥70% adenosine-5-diphosphate-induced aggregation. The prevalence of HPR was 21% as measured by TEG. More women than men (41.7% vs 27.1%, p=0.01) were found in the HPR group. Raised glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was more prevalent in the HPR group than in the group with normal on-treatment platelet reactivity (NPR) (45.2% vs 30.0%, p=0.009). Patients with HPR had a higher level of total plasma cholesterol (4.8±1.5 mmol/l vs 4.3±1.1 mmol/l, p=0.002) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (2.8±1.1 mmol/l vs 2.5±0.9 mmol/l, p=0.022) than those with NPR. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that female gender (OR=3.175, 95% CI 1.428 to 7.059, p=0.005) and raised HbA1c (OR=1.911, 95% CI 1.066 to 3.428, p=0.03) independently predicted the occurrence of HPR. Conclusions Despite pretreatment with aspirin and a 300 mg loading dose of clopidogrel, 21% patients undergoing PCI exhibited HPR measured by TEG. A raised level of HbA1c and female gender independently predicted the findings. PMID:27326080

  13. Capillary migration of microdisks on curved interfaces.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lu; Sharifi-Mood, Nima; Liu, Iris B; Stebe, Kathleen J

    2015-07-01

    The capillary energy landscape for particles on curved fluid interfaces is strongly influenced by the particle wetting conditions. Contact line pinning has now been widely reported for colloidal particles, but its implications in capillary interactions have not been addressed. Here, we present experiment and analysis for disks with pinned contact lines on curved fluid interfaces. In experiment, we study microdisk migration on a host interface with zero mean curvature; the microdisks have contact lines pinned at their sharp edges and are sufficiently small that gravitational effects are negligible. The disks migrate away from planar regions toward regions of steep curvature with capillary energies inferred from the dissipation along particle trajectories which are linear in the deviatoric curvature. We derive the curvature capillary energy for an interface with arbitrary curvature, and discuss each contribution to the expression. By adsorbing to a curved interface, a particle eliminates a patch of fluid interface and perturbs the surrounding interface shape. Analysis predicts that perfectly smooth, circular disks do not migrate, and that nanometric deviations from a planar circular, contact line, like those around a weakly roughened planar disk, will drive migration with linear dependence on deviatoric curvature, in agreement with experiment. PMID:25618486

  14. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    PubMed

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer. PMID:26100908

  15. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam–Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer. PMID:26100908

  16. Thread Pool Interface (TPI)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2008-04-01

    Thread Pool Interface (TpI) provides a simple interface for running functions written in C or C++ in a thread-parallel mode. Application or library codes may need to perform operations thread-parallel on machines with multicore processors. the TPI library provides a simple mechanism for managing thread activation, deactivation, and thread-parallel execution of application-provided subprograms.

  17. Designing the Instructional Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, L. L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing the instructional interface is a challenging endeavor requiring knowledge and skills in instructional and visual design, psychology, human-factors, ergonomic research, computer science, and editorial design. This paper describes the instructional interface, the challenges of its development, and an instructional systems approach to its…

  18. Interface Conductance Modal Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordiz, Kiarash; Henry, Asegun

    2015-03-01

    Reliably and quantitatively calculating the conductance of phonons across an interface between two materials has been one of the major unresolved questions in thermal transport physics for the last century. Theories have been presented in this regard, but their predictive power is limited. A new formalism to extract the modal contributions to thermal interface conductance with full inclusion of temperature dependent anharmonicity and all of the atom level topography is presented. The results indicate that when two materials are joined a new set of vibrational modes are required to correctly describe the transport across the interface. The new set of vibrational modes is inconsistent with the physical picture described by phonon gas model (PGM), because some of the most important modes are localized and non-propagating and therefore do not have a well-defined velocity nor do they impinge on the interface. Among these new modes, certain classifications emerge, as most modes extend at least partially into the other material. Localized interfacial modes are also present and exhibit a high conductance contribution on a per mode basis by strongly coupling to other types of vibrational modes. We apply our formalism to different interfaces and present thermal interface conductance accumulation functions, two-dimensional cross-correlation matrices, and a quantitative determination of the contributions arising from inelastic effects. The provided new perspective on interface thermal transport can open new gates towards deeper understanding of phonon-phonon and electron-phonon interactions around interfaces.

  19. Interface colloidal robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Aronson, Igor; Snezhko, Oleksiy

    2015-08-04

    A magnetic colloidal system confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters. The colloidal system exhibits locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, structures can capture, transport, and position target particles.

  20. Interfaces in Perovskite Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Hans M; Kim, Dae Ho; Rouleau, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in film synthesis have made it possible to investigate the properties of well-controlled interfaces in perovskite metal-oxides. A review of published experimental data and computational results indicate that so far most interfaces that have been analyzed in ferroelectric materials - while necessary to impose large lattice strain on the polar material - contribute little to the ferroelectricity and may instead be detrimental to the desired properties. In contrast, a very different situation arises at interfaces that show changes in the electronic configuration as a consequence of a compositional discontinuity. Data is shown for LaMnO3/SrTiO 3 superlattices as an example of electronic effects that produce enhanced properties, further illustrating the richness of interfacial properties that can be obtained at interfaces (as shown in numerous published results for different but related interfaces).

  1. Heart Failure in post MI patients with persistent IRA occlusion: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and the Long-term Effect of PCI in the Occluded Artery Trial (OAT)

    PubMed Central

    Jhaveri, Rahul R.; Reynolds, Harmony R.; Katz, Stuart D.; Jeger, Raban; Zinka, Elzbieta; Forman, Sandra A.; Lamas, Gervasio A.; Hochman, Judith S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence and predictors of heart failure (HF) post myocardial infarction (MI) with modern post-MI treatment have not been well characterized. Methods and Results 2201 stable patients with persistent infarct related artery occlusion > 24 hours after MI with left ventricular ejection fraction <50% and/or proximal coronary artery occlusion were randomized to percutaneous intervention plus optimal medical therapy (PCI) or optimal medical therapy (MED) alone. Centrally adjudicated HF hospitalizations for NYHA III/IV HF and mortality were determined in patients with and without baseline HF, defined as a history of HF, Killip Class > I at index MI, rales, S3 gallop, NYHA II at randomization, or NYHA > I prior to index MI. Long-term follow-up data were used to determine 7-year life-table estimated event rates and hazard ratios. There were 150 adjudicated HF hospitalizations during a mean follow-up of 6 years with no difference between the randomized groups (7.4% PCI vs. 7.5% MED, p=0.97). Adjudicated HF hospitalization was associated with subsequent death (44.0% vs. 13.1%, HR 3.31, 99% CI 2.21–4.92, p<0.001). Baseline HF (present in 32% of patients) increased the risk of adjudicated HF hospitalization (13.6% vs. 4.7%, HR 3.43, 99% CI 2.23–5.26, p<0.001) and death (24.7% vs. 10.8%, HR 2.31, 99% CI 1.71–3.10, p<0.001). Conclusions In the overall OAT population, adjudicated HF hospitalizations occurred in 7.5% of subjects and were associated with increased risk of subsequent death. Baseline or prior HF was common in the OAT population and was associated with increased risk of hospitalization and death. PMID:23141853

  2. Does really previous stenting affect graft patency following CABG? A 5-year follow-up: The effect of PCI on graft survival.

    PubMed

    Songur, Murat Çetin; Özyalçin, Sertan; Özen, Anıl; Şimşek, Erdal; Kervan, Ümit; Taşoğlu, İrfan; Kaplan, Sadi; Köse, Kenan; Ulus, Ahmet Tulga

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the graft patency rates among patients who had a previous history of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) followed by coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) with the patients who had experienced CABG surgery alone. The 69 patients who were included in the study had a history of bare metal stent implantation prior to CABG (group 1). The coronary angiography results were compared with 69 patients who had a previous history of CABG (group 2). Graft patency rates of the left anterior descending artery and circumflex anastomoses are statistically significant for both groups, whereas the right coronary artery anastomoses are not statistically significant (p = 0.008; 0.009; 0.2). Graft patency rate of LIMA-LAD anastomoses was 43.9 ± 10.8 % in group 1 and 86.2 ± 6 % in group 2 for means of 60 months (p = 0.0001) and circumflex coronary artery anastomosis is 28.9 ± 0.9 % in group 1, 65.7 ± 10.8 % in group 2 (p = 0.0001) and the right coronary artery anastomosis is 37.2 ± 13.6 % in group 1, 56.4 ± 8.9 % in group 2 (p = 0.0001). The graft patency rates of coronary arteries without previous stent implantation were higher than the patients with previous stent implantation and experienced CABG. The results suggest that prior PCI may induce atherosclerotic events in the vessel that can adversely affect graft patency after surgery. PMID:25637043

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - REMOVAL OF PRECURSORS TO DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER, PCI MEMBRANE SYSTEMS FYNE PROCESS MODEL ROP 1434 WITH AFC-30 NANOFILTRATON AT BARROW, AK - NSF 00/19/EPADW395

    EPA Science Inventory

    Equipment testing and verification of PCI Membrane Systems Inc. Fyne Process nanofiltraton systems Model ROP 1434 equipped with a C10 module containing AFC-30 tubular membranes was conducted from 3/16-5/11/2000 in Barrow, AS. The source water was a moderate alkalinity, moderately...

  4. Operator interface for vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Bissontz, Jay E

    2015-03-10

    A control interface for drivetrain braking provided by a regenerative brake and a non-regenerative brake is implemented using a combination of switches and graphic interface elements. The control interface comprises a control system for allocating drivetrain braking effort between the regenerative brake and the non-regenerative brake, a first operator actuated control for enabling operation of the drivetrain braking, and a second operator actuated control for selecting a target braking effort for drivetrain braking. A graphic display displays to an operator the selected target braking effort and can be used to further display actual braking effort achieved by drivetrain braking.

  5. Scalable coherent interface

    SciTech Connect

    Alnaes, K.; Kristiansen, E.H. ); Gustavson, D.B. ); James, D.V. )

    1990-01-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface (IEEE P1596) is establishing an interface standard for very high performance multiprocessors, supporting a cache-coherent-memory model scalable to systems with up to 64K nodes. This Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) will supply a peak bandwidth per node of 1 GigaByte/second. The SCI standard should facilitate assembly of processor, memory, I/O and bus bridge cards from multiple vendors into massively parallel systems with throughput far above what is possible today. The SCI standard encompasses two levels of interface, a physical level and a logical level. The physical level specifies electrical, mechanical and thermal characteristics of connectors and cards that meet the standard. The logical level describes the address space, data transfer protocols, cache coherence mechanisms, synchronization primitives and error recovery. In this paper we address logical level issues such as packet formats, packet transmission, transaction handshake, flow control, and cache coherence. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  6. TSF Interface Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-03-01

    A collection of packages of classes for interfacing to sparse and dense matrices, vectors and graphs, and to linear operators. TSF (via TSFCore, TSFCoreUtils and TSFExtended) provides the application programmer interface to any number of solvers, linear algebra libraries and preconditioner packages, providing also a sophisticated technique for combining multiple packages to solve a single problem. TSF provides a collection of abstract base classes that define the interfaces to abstract vector, matrix and linear soeratormore » objects. By using abstract interfaces, users of TSF are not limiting themselves to any one concrete library and can in fact easily combine multiple libraries to solve a single problem.« less

  7. Implantable microscale neural interfaces.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Karen C

    2007-12-01

    Implantable neural microsystems provide an interface to the nervous system, giving cellular resolution to physiological processes unattainable today with non-invasive methods. Such implantable microelectrode arrays are being developed to simultaneously sample signals at many points in the tissue, providing insight into processes such as movement control, memory formation, and perception. These electrode arrays have been microfabricated on a variety of substrates, including silicon, using both surface and bulk micromachining techniques, and more recently, polymers. Current approaches to achieving a stable long-term tissue interface focus on engineering the surface properties of the implant, including coatings that discourage protein adsorption or release bioactive molecules. The implementation of a wireless interface requires consideration of the necessary data flow, amplification, signal processing, and packaging. In future, the realization of a fully implantable neural microsystem will contribute to both diagnostic and therapeutic applications, such as a neuroprosthetic interface to restore motor functions in paralyzed patients. PMID:17252207

  8. Polarizable Ions at Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Yan

    2009-04-01

    A nonperturbative theory is presented which allows us to calculate the solvation free energy of polarizable ions near water-vapor and water-oil interfaces. The theory predicts that larger halogen anions are adsorbed at the interface, while the alkali metal cations are repelled from it. The density profiles calculated theoretically are similar to those obtained using molecular dynamics simulations with polarizable force fields.

  9. Performance Application Programming Interface

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-10-31

    PAPI is a programming interface designed to provide the tool designer and application engineer with a consistent interface and methodology for use of the performance counter hardware found in most major microprocessors. PAPI enables software engineers to see, in near real time, the relation between software performance and processor events. This release covers the hardware dependent implementation of PAPI version 3 for the IBM BlueGene/L (BG/L) system.

  10. Serial interface controller

    SciTech Connect

    Kandasamy, A.

    1995-04-14

    The idea of building a Serial Interface Controller (SIC) proposed by Paul O`Connor, Instrumentation Division, BNL is to determine the feasibility of incorporating a Serial Interface Controlled CMOS IC`s for charge amplification, shaping, analog storage and multiplexing used in particle detectors for high energy physics experiments. The serial data pumped into the CMOS ICs will be used to control many circuit parameters like digitally controlled gain, shaping time, precision preamplifier calibration circuits and many other parameters like timing discriminators mode of operation. The SIC board built will be tested on a Serial Interface Controlled Digital - to - Analog Convertor, which follows either Motorola`s SPI/QSPI or National Semiconductors Microwire interface technique. The DAC chosen for this was MAXIM`s MAX537, a Quad, 12-bit DAC. The function of this controller can be achieved by using some on-shelf micro-controllers like the Motorola`s MC68HC11, which offers dedicated SPI ports. The drawback encountered in using this controller is the overhead involved in putting together an user interface where the user can dynamically change its settings and load the SIC device. This is very critical in testing fewer number of CMOS IC`s having SIC. The SIC board described here takes care of this dynamic user interface issue.

  11. VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

  12. Interfaces: nanometric dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, T. J.

    2005-01-01

    The incorporation of nanometric size particles in a matrix to form dielectric composites shows promise of materials (nanodielectrics) with new and improved properties. It is argued that the properties of the interfaces between the particles and the matrix, which will themselves be of nanometric dimensions, will have an increasingly dominant role in determining dielectric performance as the particle size decreases. The forces that determine the electrical and dielectric properties of interfaces are considered, with emphasis on the way in which they might influence composite behaviour. A number of examples are given in which interfaces at the nanometric level exercise both passive and active control over dielectric, optical and conductive properties. Electromechanical properties are also considered, and it is shown that interfaces have important electrostrictive and piezoelectric characteristics. It is demonstrated that the process of poling, namely subjecting macroscopic composite materials to electrical stress and raised temperatures to create piezoelectric materials, can be explained in terms of optimizing the collective response of the nanometric interfaces involved. If the electrical and electromechanical features are coupled to the long-established electrochemical properties, interfaces represent highly versatile active elements with considerable potential in nanotechnology.

  13. MER SPICE Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayfi, Elias

    2004-01-01

    MER SPICE Interface is a software module for use in conjunction with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission and the SPICE software system of the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. (SPICE is used to acquire, record, and disseminate engineering, navigational, and other ancillary data describing circumstances under which data were acquired by spaceborne scientific instruments.) Given a Spacecraft Clock value, MER SPICE Interface extracts MER-specific data from SPICE kernels (essentially, raw data files) and calculates values for Planet Day Number, Local Solar Longitude, Local Solar Elevation, Local Solar Azimuth, and Local Solar Time (UTC). MER SPICE Interface was adapted from a subroutine, denoted m98SpiceIF written by Payam Zamani, that was intended to calculate SPICE values for the Mars Polar Lander. The main difference between MER SPICE Interface and m98SpiceIf is that MER SPICE Interface does not explicitly call CHRONOS, a time-conversion program that is part of a library of utility subprograms within SPICE. Instead, MER SPICE Interface mimics some portions of the CHRONOS code, the advantage being that it executes much faster and can efficiently be called from a pipeline of events in a parallel processing environment.

  14. Surface tension and long range corrections of cylindrical interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bourasseau, E.; Ghoufi, A.

    2015-12-21

    The calculation of the surface tension of curved interfaces has been deeply investigated from molecular simulation during this last past decade. Recently, the thermodynamic Test-Area (TA) approach has been extended to the calculation of surface tension of curved interfaces. In the case of the cylindrical vapour-liquid interfaces of water and Lennard-Jones fluids, it was shown that the surface tension was independent of the curvature of the interface. In addition, the surface tension of the cylindrical interface is higher than that of the planar interface. Molecular simulations of cylindrical interfaces have been so far performed (i) by using a shifted potential, (ii) by means of large cutoff without periodic boundary conditions, or (iii) by ignoring the long range corrections to the surface tension due to the difficulty to estimate them. Indeed, unlike the planar interfaces there are no available operational expressions to consider the tail corrections to the surface tension of cylindrical interfaces. We propose here to develop the long range corrections of the surface tension for cylindrical interfaces by using the non-exponential TA (TA2) method. We also extend the formulation of the Mecke-Winkelmann corrections initially developed for planar surfaces to cylindrical interfaces. We complete this study by the calculation of the surface tension of cylindrical surfaces of liquid tin and copper using the embedded atom model potentials.

  15. The BTK Inhibitor Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) Blocks Hairy Cell Leukaemia Survival, Proliferation and BCR Signalling: A New Therapeutic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sivina, Mariela; Kreitman, Robert J.; Arons, Evgeny; Ravandi, Farhad; Burger, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    B cell receptor (BCR) signalling plays a critical role in the progression of several B-cell malignancies, but its role in hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) is ambiguous. Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), a key player in BCR signalling, migration and adhesion, can be targeted with ibrutinib, a selective, irreversible BTK inhibitor. We analysed BTK expression and function in HCL and analysed the effects of ibrutinib on HCL cells. We demonstrated uniform BTK protein expression in HCL cells. Ibrutinib significantly inhibited HCL proliferation and cell cycle progression. Accordingly, ibrutinib also reduced HCL cell survival after BCR triggering with anti-immunoglobulins (A, G, and M) and abrogated the activation of kinases downstream of the BCR (PI3K and MAPK). Ibrutinib also inhibited BCR-dependent secretion of the chemokines CCL3 and CCL4 by HCL cells. Interestingly, ibrutinib inhibited CXCL12-induced signalling, a key pathway for bone marrow homing. Collectively, our data support the clinical development of ibrutinib in patients with HCL. PMID:24697238

  16. Approach and landing test network interface processor interface control document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design requirements are established for all external or interproject interfaces to the Network Interface Processor located in Building 30 at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas. In addition to external interfaces, software/hardware and special interfaces are also described.

  17. Reduced-Function CYP2C19 Genotype and Risk of Adverse Clinical Outcomes Among Patients Treated With Clopidogrel Predominantly for PCI: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mega, Jessica L.; Simon, Tabassome; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Antman, Elliott M.; Bliden, Kevin; Cannon, Christopher P.; Danchin, Nicolas; Giusti, Betti; Gurbel, Paul; Horne, Benjamin D.; Hulot, Jean-Sebastian; Kastrati, Adnan; Montalescot, Gilles; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Shen, Lei; Sibbing, Dirk; Steg, P. Gabriel; Trenk, Dietmar; Wiviott, Stephen D.; Sabatine, Marc S.

    2011-01-01

    Content Clopidogrel, one of the most commonly prescribed medications, is a pro-drug requiring CYP450 biotransformation. Data suggest its pharmacologic effect varies based on CYP2C19 genotype, but there is uncertainty regarding the clinical risk imparted by specific genotypes. Objective In patients treated with clopidogrel, to define the risk of major adverse cardiovascular outcomes among carriers of one (∼26% prevalence in whites) and carriers of two (∼2% prevalence in whites) reduced-function CYP2C19 variants. Data Sources and Study Selection A literature search was conducted (January 2000-August 2010) of the MEDLINE, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases. Genetic studies were included where clopidogrel was initiated in predominantly invasively managed patients in a manner consistent with the current guideline recommendations and where clinical outcomes were ascertained. Data Extraction Investigators from nine studies evaluating CYP2C19 genotype and clinical outcomes in patients treated with clopidogrel contributed the relevant hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for specific cardiovascular outcomes by genotype. Results Among 9685 patients [91.3% of whom underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and 54.5% of whom had an acute coronary syndrome (ACS)], 863 experienced the composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke; 84 patients had stent thrombosis among the 5894 evaluated for such. Overall, 71.5% were non-carriers, 26.3% had one, and 2.2% had two CYP2C19 reduced-function alleles. A significantly increased risk of the composite endpoint was evident in both carriers of one (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.11-2.27, P=0.01) and two (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.24-2.50, P=0.002) CYP2C19 reduced-function alleles. Similarly, there was a significantly increased risk of stent thrombosis in both carriers of one (HR 2.67, 95% CI 1.69-4.22, P<0.0001) and two (HR 3.97, 95% CI 1.75-9.02, P=0.001) CYP2C19 reduced-function alleles

  18. Environmental materials and interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    A workshop that explored materials and interfaces research needs relevant to national environmental concerns was conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The purposes of the workshop were to refine the scientific research directions being planned for the Materials and Interface Program in the Molecular Science Research Center (MSRC) and further define the research and user equipment to the included as part of the proposed Environmental and Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL). Three plenary information sessions served to outline the background, objectives, and status of the MSRC and EMSL initiatives; selected specific areas with environmentally related materials; and the status of capabilities and facilities planned for the EMSL. Attention was directed to four areas where materials and interface science can have a significant impact on prevention and remediation of environmental problems: in situ detection and characterization of hazardous wastes (sensors), minimization of hazardous waste (separation membranes, ion exchange materials, catalysts), waste containment (encapsulation and barrier materials), and fundamental understanding of contaminant transport mechanisms. During all other sessions, the participants were divided into three working groups for detailed discussion and the preparation of a written report. The working groups focused on the areas of interface structure and chemistry, materials and interface stability, and materials synthesis. These recommendations and suggestions for needed research will be useful for other researchers in proposing projects and for suggesting collaborative work with MSRC researchers. 1 fig.

  19. A binary spelling interface with random errors.

    PubMed

    Perelmouter, J; Birbaumer, N

    2000-06-01

    An algorithm for design of a spelling interface based on a modified Huffman's algorithm is presented. This algorithm builds a full binary tree that allows to maximize an average probability to reach a leaf where a required character is located when a choice at each node is made with possible errors. A means to correct errors (a delete-function) and an optimization method to build this delete-function into the binary tree are also discussed. Such a spelling interface could be successfully applied to any menu-orientated alternative communication system when a user (typically, a patient with devastating neuromuscular handicap) is not able to express an intended single binary response, either through motor responses or by using of brain-computer interfaces, with an absolute reliability. PMID:10896195

  20. Actuator-valve interface optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Burchett, O.L.; Jones, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    A computer code, Actuator Valve Response (AVR), has been developed to optimize the explosive actuator-valve interface parameters so that the valve plunger velocity is at a maximum when the plunger reaches the valve tubes. The code considers three forces to act on the valve plunger before the plunger reaches the valve tubes. These are the pressure force produced by the actuator, the shear force necessary to shear the seal disks on the actuator and the valve plunger, and the friction force caused by friction between the plunger and the plunger bore. The three forces are modeled by expressions that are explicitly functions of the plunger displacement. A particular actuator-valve combination was analyzed with the computer code AVR with four different combinations of valve plunger seal disk shear strength and initial friction force. (LEW)

  1. Shock wave refraction enhancing conditions on an extended interface

    SciTech Connect

    Markhotok, A.; Popovic, S.

    2013-04-15

    We determined the law of shock wave refraction for a class of extended interfaces with continuously variable gradients. When the interface is extended or when the gas parameters vary fast enough, the interface cannot be considered as sharp or smooth and the existing calculation methods cannot be applied. The expressions we derived are general enough to cover all three types of the interface and are valid for any law of continuously varying parameters. We apply the equations to the case of exponentially increasing temperature on the boundary and compare the results for all three types of interfaces. We have demonstrated that the type of interface can increase or inhibit the shock wave refraction. Our findings can be helpful in understanding the results obtained in energy deposition experiments as well as for controlling the shock-plasma interaction in other settings.

  2. [Emergency Department Interfaces].

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Emergency Departments ED may be an exceptionally good example of an interface within a hospital. EDs have no patients of their own but pass them over to other institutions, either to specialist departments within the hospital or to primary care providers. Moreover, many doctors, nurses, attendants and institutions take part in the care of emergency department patients, and thus the number of its interfaces is very high. The characteristics of working in an ED, for example shortage of time, high work load, taking care of several patients at the same time and frequently crowding, may compromise the transfer of information via interfaces, sometimes including even vital data. The best way to secure handoff of information may be the formalization and standardization of this process, assuring patient safety and quality of care. Further study is required. PMID:26710198

  3. High temperature interface superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-02-01

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both 'passive' hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  4. High temperature interface superconductivity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-01-20

    High-Tc superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-Tc Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. Here, wemore » conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.« less

  5. Magnetic multilayer interface anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Pechan, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Ni/Mo and Ni/V multilayer magnetic anisotropy has been investigated as a function of Ni layer thickness, frequency and temperature. Variable frequency ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements show, for the first time, significant frequency dependence associated with the multilayer magnetic anisotropy. The thickness dependence allows one to extract the interface contribution from the total anisotropy. Temperature dependent FMR (9 GHz) and room temperature magnetization indicate that strain between Ni and the non-magnetic layers is contributing significantly to the source of the interface anisotropy and the state of the interfacial magnetization. In order to examine the interface properties of other transition metal multilayer systems, investigations on Fe/Cu are underway and CoCr/Ag is being proposed. ESR measurements have been reported on Gd substituted YBaCuO superconductors and a novel quasi-equilibrium method has been developed to determine quickly and precisely the ransition temperature.

  6. Urban water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner, M. O.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nützmann, G.; Jekel, M.; Singer, G.; Lewandowski, J.; Nehls, T.; Barjenbruch, M.

    2014-06-01

    Urban water systems consist of large-scale technical systems and both natural and man-made water bodies. The technical systems are essential components of urban infrastructure for water collection, treatment, storage and distribution, as well as for wastewater and runoff collection and subsequent treatment. Urban aquatic ecosystems are typically subject to strong human influences, which impair the quality of surface and ground waters, often with far-reaching impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems and water users. The various surface and subsurface water bodies in urban environments can be viewed as interconnected compartments that are also extensively intertwined with a range of technical compartments of the urban water system. As a result, urban water systems are characterized by fluxes of water, solutes, gases and energy between contrasting compartments of a technical, natural or hybrid nature. Referred to as urban water interfaces, boundaries between and within these compartments are often specific to urban water systems. Urban water interfaces are generally characterized by steep physical and biogeochemical gradients, which promote high reaction rates. We hypothesize that they act as key sites of processes and fluxes with notable effects on overall system behaviour. By their very nature, urban water interfaces are heterogeneous and dynamic. Therefore, they increase spatial heterogeneity in urban areas and are also expected to contribute notably to the temporal dynamics of urban water systems, which often involve non-linear interactions and feedback mechanisms. Processes at and fluxes across urban water interfaces are complex and less well understood than within well-defined, homogeneous compartments, requiring both empirical investigations and new modelling approaches at both the process and system level. We advocate an integrative conceptual framework of the urban water system that considers interfaces as a key component to improve our fundamental

  7. Unstable nonlocal interface dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nicoli, Matteo; Cuerno, Rodolfo; Castro, Mario

    2009-06-26

    Nonlocal effects occur in many nonequilibrium interfaces, due to diverse physical mechanisms like diffusive, ballistic, or anomalous transport, with examples from flame fronts to thin films. While dimensional analysis describes stable nonlocal interfaces, we show the morphologically unstable condition to be nontrivial. This is the case for a family of stochastic equations of experimental relevance, paradigmatically including the Michelson-Sivashinsky system. For a whole parameter range, the asymptotic dynamics is scale invariant with dimension-independent exponents reflecting a hidden Galilean symmetry. The usual Kardar-Parisi-Zhang nonlinearity, albeit irrelevant in that parameter range, plays a key role in this behavior. PMID:19659099

  8. Optical encryption interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Deborah J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An analog optical encryption system based on phase scrambling of two-dimensional optical images and holographic transformation for achieving large encryption keys and high encryption speed. An enciphering interface uses a spatial light modulator for converting a digital data stream into a two dimensional optical image. The optical image is further transformed into a hologram with a random phase distribution. The hologram is converted into digital form for transmission over a shared information channel. A respective deciphering interface at a receiver reverses the encrypting process by using a phase conjugate reconstruction of the phase scrambled hologram.

  9. Nonlinear optics at interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.K.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of surface nonlinear optics are explored in this thesis. The first part is a theoretical and experimental study of nonlinear intraction of surface plasmons and bulk photons at metal-dielectric interfaces. The second part is a demonstration and study of surface enhanced second harmonic generation at rough metal surfaces. A general formulation for nonlinear interaction of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interfaces is presented and applied to both second and third order nonlinear processes. Experimental results for coherent second and third harmonic generation by surface plasmons and surface coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) are shown to be in good agreement with the theory.

  10. Modal Interfaces in Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. Alvey

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii, an archipelago where transportation distances are short but the interfaces are many, seeks elimination of modal changes by totally-submerged hydrofoil craft operating at the water surface directly between tourist resort destinations, by dual mode rapid transit vehicles operating directly between the deplaning bridges at Honolulu International Airport and hotel porte-cochere at Waikiki, by demand responsive vehicles for collection and distribution operating on fixed guideways for line haul, and by roll-on/roll-off inter-island ferries for all models of manually operated ground vehicles. The paper also describes facilitation of unavoidable interfaces by innovative sub-systems.

  11. Interfacing to accelerator instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    As the sensory system for an accelerator, the beam instrumentation provides a tremendous amount of diagnostic information. Access to this information can vary from periodic spot checks by operators to high bandwidth data acquisition during studies. In this paper, example applications will illustrate the requirements on interfaces between the control system and the instrumentation hardware. A survey of the major accelerator facilities will identify the most popular interface standards. The impact of developments such as isochronous protocols and embedded digital signal processing will also be discussed.

  12. Profile Interface Generator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-11-09

    The Profile Interface Generator (PIG) is a tool for loosely coupling applications and performance tools. It enables applications to write code that looks like standard C and Fortran functions calls, without requiring that applications link to specific implementations of those function calls. Performance tools can register with PIG in order to listen to only the calls that give information they care about. This interface reduces the build and configuration burden on application developers and allowsmore » semantic instrumentation to live in production codes without interfering with production runs.« less

  13. Profile Interface Generator

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-09

    The Profile Interface Generator (PIG) is a tool for loosely coupling applications and performance tools. It enables applications to write code that looks like standard C and Fortran functions calls, without requiring that applications link to specific implementations of those function calls. Performance tools can register with PIG in order to listen to only the calls that give information they care about. This interface reduces the build and configuration burden on application developers and allows semantic instrumentation to live in production codes without interfering with production runs.

  14. Constitutive modulation of Raf-1 protein kinase is associated with differential gene expression of several known and unknown genes.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, S.; Wang, F. H.; Whiteside, T. L.; Kasid, U.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Raf-1, a cytoplasmic serine/threonine protein kinase, plays an important role in mitogen- and damage-responsive cellular signal transduction pathways. Consistent with this notion is the fact that constitutive modulation of expression and/or activity of Raf-1 protein kinase modifies cell growth, proliferation, and cell survival. Although these effects are controlled at least in part by transcriptional mechanisms, the role of Raf-1 in the regulation of specific gene expression is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Differential display of mRNA was used to identify the genes differentially expressed in human head and neck squamous carcinoma cells (PCI-06A) transfected with either the antisense c-raf-1 cDNA (PCI-06A-Raf(AS)), or a portion of cDNA coding for the kinase domain of Raf-1 (PCI-06A-Raf(K)). The differentially expressed fragments were cloned and sequenced, and they were used as probes to compare the expression patterns in parent transfectants by Northern blot analysis. In addition, expression patterns of the novel genes were examined in normal tissues and cancer cell lines. RESULTS: Six differentially expressed cDNA fragments were identified and sequenced. Northern blot analysis revealed that four of these fragments representing human alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (alpha 1-ACT), mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COX-II), and two as-yet unidentified cDNAs (KAS-110 and KAS-111) were relatively overexpressed in PCI-06A-Raf(AS) transfectants compared with PCI-06A-Raf(K) transfectants. The other two cDNA fragments representing human elongation factor-1 alpha (HEF-1 alpha) and ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (OAz) were overexpressed in PCI-06A-Raf(K) transfectants compared with PCI-06A-Raf(AS) transfectants. The KAS-110 (114 bp) and KAS-111 (202 bp) cDNAs did not show significant matches with sequences in the GenEMBL, TIGR, and HGS DNA databases, and these may represent novel genes. The KAS-110 and KAS-111 transcripts, approximately 0.9 kb and

  15. The role of the second coordination sphere of [Ni(PCy2NBz2)2](BF4)2 in reversible carbon monoxide binding

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Aaron; Fraze, Kendra; Twamley, Brendan; Miller, Susie M.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Rakowski DuBois, Mary

    2008-01-23

    This paper reports our investigations on the reactivity of a series of [Ni(diphosphine)2]2+ derivatives, including [Ni(PCy2NBz2)2](BF4)2, 1, with an atmosphere of carbon monoxide at room temperature. Complex 1 showed a unique ability to form a CO adduct under these conditions, and further characterization of this product has been carried out. A systematic study of the factors that favor formation of the CO adduct suggest that two bases in the second coordination sphere interact with the coordinated CO ligand to provide a stabilizing influence, and the generality of such an effect in this system is discussed. The effect of carbon monoxide on the catalytic activity of 1 for hydrogen oxidation has also been studied. D. L. D. acknowledges the support of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy, by the Chemical Sciences program. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  16. Language workbench user interfaces for data analysis.

    PubMed

    Benson, Victoria M; Campagne, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Biological data analysis is frequently performed with command line software. While this practice provides considerable flexibility for computationally savy individuals, such as investigators trained in bioinformatics, this also creates a barrier to the widespread use of data analysis software by investigators trained as biologists and/or clinicians. Workflow systems such as Galaxy and Taverna have been developed to try and provide generic user interfaces that can wrap command line analysis software. These solutions are useful for problems that can be solved with workflows, and that do not require specialized user interfaces. However, some types of analyses can benefit from custom user interfaces. For instance, developing biomarker models from high-throughput data is a type of analysis that can be expressed more succinctly with specialized user interfaces. Here, we show how Language Workbench (LW) technology can be used to model the biomarker development and validation process. We developed a language that models the concepts of Dataset, Endpoint, Feature Selection Method and Classifier. These high-level language concepts map directly to abstractions that analysts who develop biomarker models are familiar with. We found that user interfaces developed in the Meta-Programming System (MPS) LW provide convenient means to configure a biomarker development project, to train models and view the validation statistics. We discuss several advantages of developing user interfaces for data analysis with a LW, including increased interface consistency, portability and extension by language composition. The language developed during this experiment is distributed as an MPS plugin (available at http://campagnelab.org/software/bdval-for-mps/). PMID:25755929

  17. Language workbench user interfaces for data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Victoria M.

    2015-01-01

    Biological data analysis is frequently performed with command line software. While this practice provides considerable flexibility for computationally savy individuals, such as investigators trained in bioinformatics, this also creates a barrier to the widespread use of data analysis software by investigators trained as biologists and/or clinicians. Workflow systems such as Galaxy and Taverna have been developed to try and provide generic user interfaces that can wrap command line analysis software. These solutions are useful for problems that can be solved with workflows, and that do not require specialized user interfaces. However, some types of analyses can benefit from custom user interfaces. For instance, developing biomarker models from high-throughput data is a type of analysis that can be expressed more succinctly with specialized user interfaces. Here, we show how Language Workbench (LW) technology can be used to model the biomarker development and validation process. We developed a language that models the concepts of Dataset, Endpoint, Feature Selection Method and Classifier. These high-level language concepts map directly to abstractions that analysts who develop biomarker models are familiar with. We found that user interfaces developed in the Meta-Programming System (MPS) LW provide convenient means to configure a biomarker development project, to train models and view the validation statistics. We discuss several advantages of developing user interfaces for data analysis with a LW, including increased interface consistency, portability and extension by language composition. The language developed during this experiment is distributed as an MPS plugin (available at http://campagnelab.org/software/bdval-for-mps/). PMID:25755929

  18. Virtual interface environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1988-01-01

    A head-mounted, wide-angle, stereoscopic display system controlled by operator position, voice and gesture is under development for use as a multipurpose interface environment. Initial applications of the system are in telerobotics, data-management and human factors research. System configuration and research directions are described.

  19. A Thermistor Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Gary D.; Dowden, Edward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the use of a precalibrated stainless steel thermistor, interfaced with an Apple computer, in chemistry experiments. Discusses the advantages of "instant" temperature readings in experiments requiring that readings be taken at certain intervals. Outlines such an experiment which investigates freezing point depressions. (TW)

  20. Photochemistry at Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B

    2015-02-24

    We have advanced our capabilities to investigate ultrafast excited state dynamics at a liquid interface using a pump to excite molecules to higher electronic states and then probe the subsequent time evolution of the interfacial molecules with femtosecond time delayed vibrational SFG.

  1. Direct Manipulation Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Edwin L.; And Others

    This paper presents a cognitive account of both the advantages and disadvantages of direct manipulation interfaces, i.e., the use of icons to manipulate and interact directly with data rather than writing programs or calling on a set of statistical subroutines. Two underlying phenomena that give rise to the sensation of directness are identified.…

  2. Interfacing with a DMM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Jim

    1985-01-01

    Suggests purchasing a digital multimer (DMM) with an IEEE-488 option to interface an instrument to a microcomputer, indicating that a DMM is well protected from overloads and is easy to connect. An example of its use in an experiment involving hydrolysis of tertiary butyl alcohol (with program listing) is given. (JN)

  3. the EXFOR interface

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-03-10

    The x4i package is an interface to the EXFOR nuclear data library. It simplifies retrieval of EXFOR entries and can automatically parse them, allowing one to extract cross-section (and other) data in a simple, plot-able format. x4i also understands and can parse the entire reaction string, allowing one to build a strategy for processing the data

  4. Videodisc-Computer Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zollman, Dean

    1984-01-01

    Lists microcomputer-videodisc interfaces currently available from 26 sources, including home use systems connected through remote control jack and industrial/educational systems utilizing computer ports and new laser reflective and stylus technology. Information provided includes computer and videodisc type, language, authoring system, educational…

  5. Preparation and characterization of ruthenium(II) monophosphaferrocene complexes. Reactivity, dynamic solution behavior, and X-ray structure of [RuH(2)(eta(2)-H(2))(PCy(3))2(2-phenyl-3,4-dimethylphosphaferrocene)].

    PubMed

    Toner, A J; Donnadieu, B; Sabo-Etienne, S; Chaudret, B; Sava, X; Mathey, F; Le Floch, P

    2001-06-18

    The bis(dihydrogen) complex RuH(2)(H(2))(2)(PCy(3))(2) (1) reacts with 2-phenyl-3,4-dimethylphosphaferrocene (L(1)) to give RuH(2)(H(2))(PCy(3))(2)(L(1)) (2). This dihydride-dihydrogen complex has been characterized by X-ray crystallography and variable-temperature (1)H and (31)P NMR spectroscopy. The exchange between the dihydrogen ligand and the two hydrides is characterized by a DeltaG() of 46.2 kJ/mol at 263 K. H/D exchange is readily observed when heating a C(7)D(8) solution of 2 (J(H-D) = 30 Hz). The H(2) ligand in 2 can be displaced by ethylene or carbon monoxide leading to the corresponding ethylene or carbonyl complexes. The reaction of 1 with 2 equiv of 3,4-dimethylphosphaferrocene (L(2)) yields the dihydride complex RuH(2)(PCy(3))(2)(L(2))(2) (5). PMID:11399170

  6. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

    2010-07-01

    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in

  7. Interface Configuration Experiment: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.; Weislogel, M.

    1993-09-01

    The Interface Configuration Experiment (ICE) was carried out on USML-1 to investigate liquid-gas interfaces in certain rotationally-symmetric containers having prescribed, mathematically derived shapes. These containers have the property that they admit an entire continuum of distinct equilibrium rotationally-symmetric interfaces for a given liquid volume and contact angle. Furthermore, it can be shown that none of these interfaces can be stable. It was found, after the containers were filled in orbit, that an initial equilibrium interface from the symmetric continuum reoriented, when perturbed, to a stable interface that was not rotationally symmetric, in accordance with the mathematical theory.

  8. Interface Configuration Experiment: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert; Weislogel, Mark

    1994-01-01

    The Interface Configuration Experiment (ICE) was carried out on USML-1 to investigate liquid-gas interfaces in certain rotationally-symmetric containers having prescribed, mathematically derived shapes. These containers have the property that they admit an entire continuum of distinct equilibrium rotationally-symmetric interfaces for a given liquid volume and contact angle. Furthermore, it can be shown that none of these interfaces can be stable. It was found, after the containers were filled in orbit, that an initial equilibrium interface from the symmetric continuum re-oriented, when perturbed, to a stable interface that was not rotationally symmetric, in accordance with the mathematical theory.

  9. Easy-to-use interface

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, M M; Blattner, D O; Tong, Y

    1999-04-01

    Easy-to-use interfaces are a class of interfaces that fall between public access interfaces and graphical user interfaces in usability and cognitive difficulty. We describe characteristics of easy-to-use interfaces by the properties of four dimensions: selection, navigation, direct manipulation, and contextual metaphors. Another constraint we introduced was to include as little text as possible, and what text we have will be in at least four languages. Formative evaluations were conducted to identify and isolate these characteristics. Our application is a visual interface for a home automation system intended for a diverse set of users. The design will be expanded to accommodate the visually disabled in the near future.

  10. Thyra Abstract Interface Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-09-01

    Thrya primarily defines a set of abstract C++ class interfaces needed for the development of abstract numerical atgorithms (ANAs) such as iterative linear solvers, transient solvers all the way up to optimization. At the foundation of these interfaces are abstract C++ classes for vectors, vector spaces, linear operators and multi-vectors. Also included in the Thyra package is C++ code for creating concrete vector, vector space, linear operator, and multi-vector subclasses as well as other utilitiesmore » to aid in the development of ANAs. Currently, very general and efficient concrete subclass implementations exist for serial and SPMD in-core vectors and multi-vectors. Code also currently exists for testing objects and providing composite objects such as product vectors.« less

  11. Popeye Project: ROV interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Scates, C.R.; Hickok, D.D.; Hernandez, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    The Popeye Project in the Gulf of Mexico helped advance the technology and standardization of ROV interfaces for deepwater subsea production systems. Some of the many successful ROV operations during installation and completion were {open_quotes}first-of-it`s-kind{close_quotes} activities-enabled by many technical advances. The use and reliance upon ROV systems for support of deepwater drilling and installation operations significantly increased in the past 10 years. Shell Offshore Inc.`s (SOI) confidence in this increased capability was an important factor in many of the design decisions which characterized the innovative system. Technology advancements, which depended on effective ROV intervention, were implemented with no significant difficulties. These advancements, in particular the flying leads and seabed position methods, are available to the industry for other deepwater subsea systems. In addition, several Popeye ROV interfaces have helped advance the subsea standardization initiative; e.g., hot stabs, torque-tool end effectors, and paint color.

  12. Standard interface file handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C. )

    1992-10-01

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided.

  13. SNE Industrial Fieldbus Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucena, Angel; Raines, Matthew; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Mata, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) have very limited diagnostic and no prognostic capabilities, while current smart sensor designs do not have the capability to communicate over Fieldbus networks. The aim is to interface smart sensors with PLCs so that health and status information, such as failure mode identification and measurement tolerance, can be communicated via an industrial Fieldbus such as ControlNet. The SNE Industrial Fieldbus Interface (SIFI) is an embedded device that acts as a communication module in a networked smart sensor. The purpose is to enable a smart sensor to communicate health and status information to other devices, such as PLCs, via an industrial Fieldbus networking protocol. The SNE (Smart Network Element) is attached to a commercial off-the-shelf Any bus-S interface module through the SIFI. Numerous Anybus-S modules are available, each one designed to interface with a specific Fieldbus. Development of the SIFI focused on communications using the ControlNet protocol, but any of the Anybus-S modules can be used. The SIFI communicates with the Any-bus module via a data buffer and mailbox system on the Anybus module, and supplies power to the module. The Anybus module transmits and receives data on the Fieldbus using the proper protocol. The SIFI is intended to be connected to other existing SNE modules in order to monitor the health and status of a transducer. The SIFI can also monitor aspects of its own health using an onboard watchdog timer and voltage monitors. The SIFI also has the hardware to drive a touchscreen LCD (liquid crystal display) unit for manual configuration and status monitoring.

  14. Virtual button interface

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jake S.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch.

  15. Optical Neural Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Warden, Melissa R.; Cardin, Jessica A.; Deisseroth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Genetically encoded optical actuators and indicators have changed the landscape of neuroscience, enabling targetable control and readout of specific components of intact neural circuits in behaving animals. Here, we review the development of optical neural interfaces, focusing on hardware designed for optical control of neural activity, integrated optical control and electrical readout, and optical readout of population and single-cell neural activity in freely moving mammals. PMID:25014785

  16. Virtual button interface

    DOEpatents

    Jones, J.S.

    1999-01-12

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment are disclosed. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch. 4 figs.

  17. The THOSE remote interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klawon, Kevin; Gold, Josh; Bachman, Kristen

    2013-05-01

    The DIA, in conjunction with the Army Research Lab (ARL), wants to create an Unmanned Ground Sensor (UGS) controller that is (a) interoperable across all controller platforms, (b) capable of easily adding new sensors, radios, and processes and (c) backward compatible with existing UGS systems. To achieve this, a Terra Harvest controller was created that used Java JRE 1.6 and an Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi) platform, named Terra Harvest Open Software Environment (THOSE). OSGi is an extensible framework that provides a modularized environment for deploying functionality in "bundles". These bundles can publish, discover, and share services available from other external bundles or bundles provided by the controller core. With the addition of a web GUI used for interacting with THOSE, a natural step was then to create a common remote interface that allows 3rd party real-time interaction with the controller. This paper provides an overview of the THOSE system and its components as well as a description of the architectural structure of the remote interface, highlighting the interactions occurring between the controller and the remote interface and its role in providing a positive user experience for managing UGSS functions.

  18. Eye-voice-controlled interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, Floyd A., III; Iavecchia, Helene P.; Ross, Lorna V.; Stokes, James M.; Weiland, William J.

    1986-01-01

    The Ocular Attention-Sensing Interface System (OASIS) is an innovative human-computer interface which utilizes eye movement and voice commands to communicate messages between the operator and the system. This report initially describes some technical issues relevant to the development of such an interface. The results of preliminary experiments which evaluate alternative eye processing algorithms and feedback techniques are presented. Candidate interface applications are also discussed.

  19. Why Mineral Interfaces Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putnis, Andrew; Putnis, Christine V.

    2015-04-01

    While it is obvious that reactions between a mineral and an aqueous solution take place at the mineral-fluid interface it is only relatively recently that high spatial resolution studies have demonstrated how the local structure of the mineral surface and the chemical composition of the fluid at the interface control both the short-range and the long-range consequences of mineral-fluid interaction. Long-range consequences of fluid-mineral interaction control element cycles in the earth, the formation of ore-deposits, the chemical composition of the oceans through weathering of rocks and hence climate changes. Although weathering is clearly related to mineral dissolution, to what extent do experimentally measured dissolution rates of minerals help to understand weathering, especially weathering mechanisms? This question is related to the short-range, local reactions that take place when a mineral, that is not stable in the fluid, begins to dissolve. In this case the fluid composition at the interface will become supersaturated with respect to a different phase or phases. This may be a different composition of the same mineral e.g. a Ca-rich feldspar dissolving in a Na-rich solution results in a fluid at the interface which may be supersaturated with respect to an Na-rich feldspar. Alternatively, the interfacial fluid could be supersaturated with respect to a different mineral e.g. an Na-rich zeolite, depending on the temperature. Numerous experiments have shown that the precipitation of a more stable phase at the mineral-fluid interface results in a coupling between the dissolution and the precipitation, and the replacement of one mineral by another. This process separates the short-range mechanisms which depend only on the composition of the interfacial solution, and the long-range consequences that depend on the composition of the residual fluid released from the reacting parent mineral. Typically such residual fluids may carry metal ions tens to hundreds of

  20. Clinical neurological outcome and quality of life among patients with limited small-cell cancer treated with two different doses of prophylactic cranial irradiation in the intergroup phase III trial (PCI99-01, EORTC 22003-08004, RTOG 0212 and IFCT 99-01)

    PubMed Central

    Le Péchoux, C.; Laplanche, A.; Faivre-Finn, C.; Ciuleanu, T.; Wanders, R.; Lerouge, D.; Keus, R.; Hatton, M.; Videtic, G.M.; Senan, S.; Wolfson, A.; Jones, R.; Arriagada, R.; Quoix, E.; Dunant, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: We recently published the results of the PCI99 randomised trial comparing the effect of a prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) at 25 or 36 Gy on the incidence of brain metastases (BM) in 720 patients with limited small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). As concerns about neurotoxicity were a major issue surrounding PCI, we report here midterm and long-term repeated evaluation of neurocognitive functions and quality of life (QoL). Patients and methods: At predetermined intervals, the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and brain module were used for self-reported patient data, whereas the EORTC–Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Late Effects Normal Tissue–Subjective, Objective, Management, Analytic scale was used for clinicians’ assessment. For each scale, the unfavourable status was analysed with a logistic model including age, grade at baseline, time and PCI dose. Results: Over the 3 years studied, there was no significant difference between the two groups in any of the 17 selected items assessing QoL and neurological and cognitive functions. We observed in both groups a mild deterioration across time of communication deficit, weakness of legs, intellectual deficit and memory (all P < 0.005). Conclusion: Patients should be informed of these potential adverse effects, as well as the benefit of PCI on survival and BM. PCI with a total dose of 25 Gy remains the standard of care in limited-stage SCLC. PMID:21139020

  1. Graphic Interfaces and Online Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percival, J. Mark

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the growing importance of the use of Graphic User Interfaces (GUIs) with microcomputers and online services. Highlights include the development of graphics interfacing with microcomputers; CD-ROM databases; an evaluation of HyperCard as a potential interface to electronic mail and online commercial databases; and future possibilities.…

  2. POLYMERIC INTERFACES FOR STACK MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has been performed on the use of polymeric interfaces for in situ continuous stack monitoring of gaseous pollutants. Permeabilities of candidate interface materials to SO2 were measured at temperatures from ambient to 200C, and the results were used to design interfaces ...

  3. Productivity issues at organizational interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The need for close interdependence between large numbers of diverse and specialized work groups makes the Space Program extremely vulnerable to loss of productivity at organizational interfaces. Trends within the program also suggest that the number and diversity of interfaces will grow in the near term. Continued maintenance of R&D excellence will require that interface performance issues be included in any future productivity improvement effort. The types and characteristics of organizational interfaces are briefly presented, followed by a review of factors which impact their productivity. Approaches to assessing and improving interface effectiveness are also discussed.

  4. Fracture behavior across interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, E. S.; Evans, J. P.; Jeppson, T. N.

    2011-12-01

    Faults and fracture networks at depth are important fluid pathways, especially in fine-grained, low permeability seal lithologies. Discontinues in sealing lithologies can create seal bypass systems, leading to the failure of CO2 geosequestration sites or hydrocarbon traps. We characterize the occurrence of and changes in discontinuity patterns and the associated changes in elastic moduli across sedimentologic interfaces to document the importance of these discontinuities for fluid management in the subsurface and potential for re-activation in high-pressure injection scenarios. We evaluate well-exposed, fine-grained, low-permeability Mesozoic and Paleozoic units that are seals of potential CO2 repositories on the Colorado Plateau and show evidence for open fractures and fluid flow in the subsurface. Field observations document changes in fracture distributions across lithologic boundaries allowing us to identify mechano-stratigraphic units and focus on the effect of lithologic interfaces on fracture distribution. An interface marks the boundary between facies in a seal and in this study the fractures are shown to deflect or arrest at the interface. In outcrop fracture intensity varies in from 1 to 18 fractures per meter and fracture apertures range from mm to cm. The mineralized fractures often have associated alteration halos along their boundaries; their general orientation follows that of discontinuities within the underlying reservoir facies or adjacent faults. The recognition of these changes in fracture distribution is important for forward modeling of fluid flow and risk management. Studying the occurrence of and changes in fracture patterns from outcrops and scaling it up for use in modeling at a field scale is difficult due to the lack of direct correlation between outcrop observations and subsurface data. Due to the size and amount of data needed to model fluid flow at the field scale the meso-scale (cm to m) variability of rock properties is often

  5. NESSUS/NASTRAN Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millwater, Harry; Riha, David

    1996-01-01

    The NESSUS probabilistic analysis computer program has been developed with a built-in finite element analysis program NESSUS/FEM. However, the NESSUS/FEM program is specialized for engine structures and may not contain sufficient features for other applications. In addition, users often become well acquainted with a particular finite element code and want to use that code for probabilistic structural analysis. For these reasons, this work was undertaken to develop an interface between NESSUS and NASTRAN such that NASTRAN can be used for the finite element analysis and NESSUS can be used for the probabilistic analysis. In addition, NESSUS was restructured such that other finite element codes could be more easily coupled with NESSUS. NESSUS has been enhanced such that NESSUS will modify the NASTRAN input deck for a given set of random variables, run NASTRAN and read the NASTRAN result. The coordination between the two codes is handled automatically. The work described here was implemented within NESSUS 6.2 which was delivered to NASA in September 1995. The code runs on Unix machines: Cray, HP, Sun, SGI and IBM. The new capabilities have been implemented such that a user familiar with NESSUS using NESSUS/FEM and NASTRAN can immediately use NESSUS with NASTRAN. In other words, the interface with NASTRAN has been implemented in an analogous manner to the interface with NESSUS/FEM. Only finite element specific input has been changed. This manual is written as an addendum to the existing NESSUS 6.2 manuals. We assume users have access to NESSUS manuals and are familiar with the operation of NESSUS including probabilistic finite element analysis. Update pages to the NESSUS PFEM manual are contained in Appendix E. The finite element features of the code and the probalistic analysis capabilities are summarized.

  6. User interface concerns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redhed, D. D.

    1978-01-01

    Three possible goals for the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF) are: (1) a computational fluid dynamics (as opposed to aerodynamics) algorithm development tool; (2) a specialized research laboratory facility for nearly intractable aerodynamics problems that industry encounters; and (3) a facility for industry to use in its normal aerodynamics design work that requires high computing rates. The central system issue for industry use of such a computer is the quality of the user interface as implemented in some kind of a front end to the vector processor.

  7. Access Interface Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Fager, Susan; Beukelman, David R.; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Jakobs, Tom; Baker, John

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices to support their communication often have physical movement challenges that require alternative methods of access. Technology that supports access, particularly for those with the most severe movement deficits, have expanded substantially over the years. The purposes of this article are to review the state of the science of access technologies that interface with augmentative and alternative communication devices and to propose a future research and development agenda that will enhance access options for people with limited movement capability due to developmental and acquired conditions. PMID:22590797

  8. Adhesion at metal interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjea, Amitava; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A basic adhesion process is defined, the theory of the properties influencing metallic adhesion is outlined, and theoretical approaches to the interface problem are presented, with emphasis on first-principle calculations as well as jellium-model calculations. The computation of the energies of adhesion as a function of the interfacial separation is performed; fully three-dimensional calculations are presented, and universality in the shapes of the binding energy curves is considered. An embedded-atom method and equivalent-crystal theory are covered in the framework of issues involved in practical adhesion.

  9. NESSUS/NASTRAN Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millwater, Harry; Riha, David

    1996-01-01

    The NESSUS and NASTRAN computer codes were successfully integrated. The enhanced NESSUS code will use NASTRAN for the structural Analysis and NESSUS for the probabilistic analysis. Any quantities in the NASTRAN bulk data input can be random variables. Any NASTRAN result that is written to the output2 file can be returned to NESSUS as the finite element result. The interfacing between NESSUS and NASTRAN is handled automatically by NESSUS. NESSUS and NASTRAN can be run on different machines using the remote host option.

  10. Ab initio diffuse-interface model for lithiated electrode interface evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stournara, Maria E.; Kumar, Ravi; Qi, Yue; Sheldon, Brian W.

    2016-07-01

    The study of chemical segregation at interfaces, and in particular the ability to predict the thickness of segregated layers via analytical expressions or computational modeling, is a fundamentally challenging topic in the design of novel heterostructured materials. This issue is particularly relevant for the phase-field (PF) methodology, which has become a prominent tool for describing phase transitions. These models rely on phenomenological parameters that pertain to the interfacial energy and thickness, quantities that cannot be experimentally measured. Instead of back-calculating these parameters from experimental data, here we combine a set of analytical expressions based on the Cahn-Hilliard approach with ab initio calculations to compute the gradient energy parameter κ and the thickness λ of the segregated Li layer at the LixSi-Cu interface. With this bottom-up approach we calculate the thickness λ of the Li diffuse interface to be on the order of a few nm, in agreement with prior experimental secondary ion mass spectrometry observations. Our analysis indicates that Li segregation is primarily driven by solution thermodynamics, while the strain contribution in this system is relatively small. This combined scheme provides an essential first step in the systematic evaluation of the thermodynamic parameters of the PF methodology, and we believe that it can serve as a framework for the development of quantitative interface models in the field of Li-ion batteries.