Science.gov

Sample records for pcp based simulacao

  1. PCP

    MedlinePlus

    ... swallowed. In some cases, PCP users snort the drug or mix it with a liquid and inject it with a syringe. Short-Term Effects PCP acts on the neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate in the brain. It affects the user's memory, ability to process ...

  2. Modularly designed transition metal PNP and PCP pincer complexes based on aminophosphines: synthesis and catalytic applications.

    PubMed

    Benito-Garagorri, David; Kirchner, Karl

    2008-02-01

    well as the first heptacoordinated molybdenum pincer complexes and several pentacoordinated nickel complexes by using a controlled ligand decomposition pathway. In addition, we have investigated the use of some of the complexes as catalysts in different C-C coupling reactions: for example, the palladium PNP and PCP pincer complexes can be employed as catalysts in the well known Suzuki-Miyaura coupling, while the iron PNP complexes catalyze the coupling of aromatic aldehydes with ethyl diazoacetate under very mild reaction conditions to give selectively 3-hydroxyacrylates, which are otherwise difficult to prepare. While this Account presents an overview of current research on the chemistry of P-N bond containing pincer ligands and complexes, we believe that further investigations will give deeper insights into the reactivity and applicability of aminophosphine-based pincer complexes. PMID:18211031

  3. Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PCP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a drug that is usually inhaled in an aerosol form to prevent PCP. Pentamidine is also used ... between $120 and $250 per month. Patients using aerosol pentamidine get PCP more often than people taking ...

  4. PCP (phencyclidine): an update.

    PubMed

    Garey, R E

    1979-01-01

    The steady rise in the promiscuous use of phencyclidine (PCP) as a "recreational" drug has recently gained nationwide attention because of the numerous violent and/or bizarre incidents caused by the use of this drug. Because the media often exaggerate reports of bizarre and violent behavior to make a "good" story, the potential PCP user may be tempted to ignore the media warnings. In the case of PCP, however exaggerated the story, a real danger does exist. So, despite numerous newspaper, radio and television warnings about the possible consequences of PCP use and abuse, the incidence of toxic reactions continues to climb. In many cases PCP is sold as other drugs, particularly THC, and in various colored capsules, tablets, liquids and crystals which may explain the increased usage despite the numerous warnings against its use. The advances in laboratory techniques and chemical processess have enabled the clandestine chemist to prepare relatively pure PCP and thus eliminate many of the toxic side effects due to impurities in the drug. In addition, 30 or more psychoactive PCP analogues have been developed and are starting to make an appearance on the street. PCP is perhaps the most potent psychotomimetic compound known at the present time and is capable of inducing a psychosis which is clinically indistinguishable from schizophrenia. The psychosis-producing effects of PCP are the most common toxic effects seen in hospital emergency rooms; but as the amount of PCP taken and/or the simultaneous involvement of other drugs, particularly barbiturates, occurs, severe medical problems (e.g., coma, seizures, respiratory arrest) begin to appear. Death from high doses of PCP or PCP plus other drugs does occur, but the principal cause of death from PCP abuse is due to trauma, homicide or suicide (usually of the bizarre or violent form). Young adult males, persons predisposed to mental illness and naive drug users appear to be the most susceptible to the adverse effects of PCP

  5. Substance use - phencyclidine (PCP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate, and body temperature. At high doses, PCP can have an opposite ... include muscle breakdown or twitching, weight loss, increased body temperature, or seizures.

  6. PCP-induced alterations in cerebral glucose utilization in rat brain: blockade by metaphit, a PCP-receptor-acylating agent

    SciTech Connect

    Tamminga, C.A.; Tanimoto, K.; Kuo, S.; Chase, T.N.; Contreras, P.C.; Rice, K.C.; Jackson, A.E.; O'Donohue, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of phencyclidine (PCP) on regional cerebral glucose utilization was determined by using quantitative autoradiography with (/sup 14/C)-2-deoxyglucose. PCP increased brain metabolism in selected areas of cortex, particularly limbic, and in the basal ganglia and thalamus, whereas the drug decreased metabolism in areas related to audition. These results are consistent with the known physiology of central PCP neurons and may help to suggest brain areas involved in PCP-mediated actions. Moreover, based on the behavioral similarities between PCP psychosis and an acute schizophrenic episode, these data may be relevant to the understanding of schizophrenia. The PCP-receptor-acylating agent, metaphit, blocked most of these PCP actions. In addition, metaphit by itself was found to diminish glucose utilization rather uniformly throughout brain. These results indicate an antagonist effect of metaphit on the PCP system and suggest a widespread action of metaphit, putatively at a PCP-related site, possibly in connection with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor.

  7. Treatment of PCP addiction and PCP addiction-related behavior

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to phencyclidine (PCP). The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of PCP.

  8. PCP IMMUMOASSAY TECHNOLOGIES - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technologies for pentachlorophenol (PCP) testing in soil and water were evaluated. Penta RISc Test Systems (formerly ENSYS, Inc.), EnviroGard™ PCP Immunoassay Test Kit (Millipore Corp.), and Pentachlorophenol RaPID Assay (formerly Ohmicron ...

  9. Pathway Controlled Penetration (PcP)

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban; Zubelewicz, Aleksander

    2012-08-29

    The technical approach employs advanced computational simulation tools to demonstrate how current assets can destroy RWK-RFI-12-0001's HDBT, a tunnel complex with two portals built into the base of a granite mountain. The granite over layer is assumed to be 60 meters thick over both portals and 80 meters over the facility's mission space. Key S&T is the completed development of a highly innovative viscoplastic fracture material model, 3D parallel gas-fracture capabilities into FDEM, and a stochastic handling of the material properties. Phase I - Develop and validate code simulation tools: (1) develop, incorporate and validate AZ-Frac material model for granite; and (2) Develop and incorporate gas-driven-fracture modeling into LANL's FDEM MUNROU code; (3) Develop and incorporate stochastic features into FDEM modeling. Phase II - Conduct PcP analysis on above HDBT: (1) Acquire HDBT design data, develop simulation model; and (2) Evaluate and select most promising defeat alternative. Phase III - Deliver code, train Service target analysts, and conduct simulations against real world HDBTs. PcP uses advanced computer simulations to enhance HDBT functional defeat efforts. Newly developed material models that account for fractural energy coupled with the finite discrete element methodology (FDEM) will provide targeting packages that will create penetration avenues for current or future lethality options. This novel computational approach requires full 3D geologic and structure characterization as well as significant high performance computing capabilities. The goal is to distinctively alter the targeting paradigm by leveraging critical DoD assets along with insitu geologic strata. In other words, assets will utilize underground rock structure to their benefit by creating rubbilization zones that will allow pathway controlled penetration.

  10. The convulsant and anticonvulsant effects of phencyclidine (PCP) and PCP analogues in the rat.

    PubMed

    Leccese, A P; Marquis, K L; Mattia, A; Moreton, J E

    1986-02-01

    The pro- and anticonvulsant effects of phencyclidine (1-[1-phenylcyclohexyl]piperidine HCl, PCP), a number of its analogues, and SKF 10047 were investigated in rats. The PCP analogues were compounds produced by substitutions for the phenyl and piperidine rings of PCP and were selected to elucidate the structure-activity relationships existing between PCP and its pro- and/or anticonvulsant effects. All of the compounds, except ketamine, induced convulsions at high (12.8-25.6 mg/kg, i.v.), yet almost always sublethal doses. Ketamine failed to induce convulsions, even at lethal doses (51.2 mg/kg, i.v.). The acute pro- or anticonvulsant actions of PCP were then investigated. Rats were subjected to transorbital electroconvulsive shock subsequent to i.p. injections of saline or 0.625, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 or 20.0 mg/kg PCP. It was found that PCP induced an acute, dose-dependent anticonvulsant effect. The acute pro- and/or anticonvulsant actions of the remaining compounds were then investigated by administration of electroconvulsive shock subsequent to i.p. injections of saline or one of two doses of each compound. The low and high doses of each compound were selected to be behaviorally equivalent to 2.5 and 10.0 mg/kg PCP i.p., respectively. With one exception, each dose of each drug induced an acute anticonvulsant action, with no difference in efficacy between the compounds tested. However, PCA (produced by substitution of an amine for the piperidine ring of PCP) induced a statistically greater anticonvulsant action at the higher, compared to the lower, dose. In addition, PCA was the only compound to eliminate all motor signs of the electrically induced seizure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3964407

  11. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCP METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) pentachlorophenol (PCP) method uses a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a megabore capillary column and flame ionization detector (FID) and electron capture detector (ECD) to identify and quantify PCP. The FASP PCP method is design...

  12. The pentachlorophenol-dehalogenating Desulfitobacterium hafniense strain PCP-1

    PubMed Central

    Villemur, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this report, a complete description of Desulfitobacterium hafniense strain PCP-1 is presented. The D. hafniense strain PCP-1 was isolated from a methanogenic consortium for its capacity to dehalogenate pentachlorophenol (PCP) into 3-chlorophenol. This strain is also capable of dehalogenating several other chloroaromatic compounds and tetrachloroethene into trichloroethene. Four gene loci encoding putative chlorophenol-reductive dehalogenases (CprA2 to CprA5) were detected, and the products of two of these loci have been demonstrated to dechlorinate different chlorinated phenols. Strain PCP-1 was used in laboratory-scale bioprocesses to degrade PCP present in contaminated environments. Desulfitobacterium hafniense PCP-1 is an excellent candidate for the development of efficient bioprocesses to degrade organohalide compounds. PMID:23479749

  13. [The host community of a child with food allergies: the personalized care project (PCP)].

    PubMed

    Rancé, F

    2010-12-01

    The personalized care project (PCP) can manage allergic emergencies that may occur during school hours. Other objectives are to facilitate academic achievement, social and professional integration of children and adolescents with chronic illness such as food allergy, by promoting education through certain changes. The PCP is derived from official files including Circular N(o) 2003-135 of September 8 and the inter-ministerial circular of 25 June 2001. The family must request a protocol with the host school principal or school head. Then, the doctor of Education organizes the drafting of the document based on information provided by the physician (or allergist). PMID:21074388

  14. Electrochemical mineralization of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by Ti/SnO2-Sb electrodes.

    PubMed

    Niu, Junfeng; Bao, Yueping; Li, Yang; Chai, Zhen

    2013-09-01

    Electrochemical degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in aqueous solution was investigated over Ti/SnO2-Sb electrodes prepared by sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical measurements were used to characterize the physicochemical properties of the electrodes. The electrochemical degradation of PCP followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The main influencing factors, including the types of supporting electrolyte (i.e., NaClO4, Na2SO4, Na2SO3, NaNO3, and NaNO2), initial concentrations of PCP (5-1000mgL(-1)), pH values (3.0-11.0), and current densities (5-40mAcm(-2)) were evaluated. The degradation and mineralization ratios of 100mgL(-1) of PCP achieved >99.8% and 83.0% after 30min electrolysis with a 10mmolL(-1) Na2SO4 at a current density of 10mAcm(-2), respectively. The corresponding half-life time (t1/2) was 3.94min. The degradation pathways that were involved in dechlorination, protons generation, and mineralization processes were proposed based on the determination of total organic carbon, chloride, and intermediate products (i.e., low chlorinated phenol and some organic acids). The toxicity of PCP and its intermediates could be reduced effectively by electrolysis. These results showed that electrochemical technique could achieve a significant mineralization rate in a short time (<30min), which provided an efficient way for PCP elimination from wastewater. PMID:23689100

  15. The immunotoxic effects of dual exposure to PCP and TCDD.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Min; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Rong-Jane; Chiu, Hui-Wen; Wang, Bour-Jr; Wang, Ying-Jan

    2013-11-25

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was a commonly used fungicide, herbicide, insecticide, and bactericide in industrial, agricultural, and domestic settings; however, it was also contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). It has been reported that technical grade PCP had immunosuppressive effects and that the immune system was the major target of PCDD/PCDFs toxicity. Although the immune response after exposure to PCP or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been studied, the toxic effects of exposure to both PCP and TCDD have not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on immune cells from mice intraperitoneally immunized with OVA and subsequently treated with PCP or TCDD alone or in combination by gavage. The animals were terminated on day 7 and 14, and the spleen and plasma samples were collected for immunotoxicity evaluation. The numbers and populations of splenocytes, T cell-derived cytokines produced by splenocytes, splenocyte-generated cytotoxicity and OVA-specific antibodies in plasma were investigated. Our results indicate that the spleen/body weight ratio and splenocyte number was reduced by TCDD alone; in addition, this reduction was enhanced when TCDD was combined with PCP. Exposure to TCDD alone or in conjunction with PCP suppressed many ovalbumin (OVA)-stimulated cytokines, including IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10. Furthermore, the immunoglobulins IgG and IgM were suppressed in mice administered by PCP alone, but the suppressive effects were greater in mice treated with TCDD alone or in combination with PCP. Co-exposure to PCP and TCDD resulted in an antagonistic effect on TCDD-induced suppression of IFN-γ and IL-10. Our results demonstrate that PCP alone is immunotoxic, regardless of the presence of TCDD. PCP led to mild changes in cytokine secretion, and it compromised splenocyte-generated cytotoxicity and IgM and IgG antibody production on day 7. The finding

  16. A guide to the management of urologic dilemmas for the primary care physician (PCP).

    PubMed

    Barkin, Jack; Rosenberg, Matt T; Miner, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Patients with urologic conditions may present to a primary care physician (PCP) in the emergency department or in the PCP's office. Some conditions are true emergencies that require immediate surgical intervention. Others may require medical treatment or possibly simply reassuring the patient that there is no serious medical problem. Sometimes the diagnosis can be easily made, whereas other times the PCP needs to be able to rule out serious causes for a presenting problem and execute a guideline-recommended patient work up, to make a final diagnosis. Sometimes recommended diagnostic tests may not be readily available. When a PCP believes that a patient may have a serious urologic condition and is unsure of the appropriate patient management strategy, then he or she must quickly refer the patient to a urologist. This article describes common urology-related issues-hematuria, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test interpretation, phimosis and paraphimosis, acute scrotal pain and masses in the child and adult, urinary tract infection, renal colic, and castration-treatment-induced bone loss. It provides insights into decision-making processes for patient management of some urologic conditions, and information about managing sequelae and side effects of long term treatment. It includes practical diagnostic suggestions and patient management strategies based on the authors' years of urologic clinical practice experience. PMID:24978632

  17. WGEF activates Rho in the Wnt–PCP pathway and controls convergent extension in Xenopus gastrulation

    PubMed Central

    Tanegashima, Kosuke; Zhao, Hui; Dawid, Igor B

    2008-01-01

    The Wnt–PCP (planar cell polarity, PCP) pathway regulates cell polarity and convergent extension movements during axis formation in vertebrates by activation of Rho and Rac, leading to the re-organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Rho and Rac activation require guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs), but the identity of the GEF involved in Wnt–PCP-mediated convergent extension is unknown. Here we report the identification of the weak-similarity GEF (WGEF) gene by a microarray-based screen for notochord enriched genes, and show that WGEF is involved in Wnt-regulated convergent extension. Overexpression of WGEF activated RhoA and rescued the suppression of convergent extension by dominant-negative Wnt-11, whereas depletion of WGEF led to suppression of convergent extension that could be rescued by RhoA or Rho-associated kinase activation. WGEF protein preferentially localized at the plasma membrane, and Frizzled-7 induced colocalization of Dishevelled and WGEF. WGEF protein can bind to Dishevelled and Daam-1, and deletion of the Dishevelled-binding domain generates a hyperactive from of WGEF. These results indicate that WGEF is a component of the Wnt–PCP pathway that connects Dishevelled to Rho activation. PMID:18256687

  18. WGEF activates Rho in the Wnt-PCP pathway and controls convergent extension in Xenopus gastrulation.

    PubMed

    Tanegashima, Kosuke; Zhao, Hui; Dawid, Igor B

    2008-02-20

    The Wnt-PCP (planar cell polarity, PCP) pathway regulates cell polarity and convergent extension movements during axis formation in vertebrates by activation of Rho and Rac, leading to the re-organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Rho and Rac activation require guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs), but the identity of the GEF involved in Wnt-PCP-mediated convergent extension is unknown. Here we report the identification of the weak-similarity GEF (WGEF) gene by a microarray-based screen for notochord enriched genes, and show that WGEF is involved in Wnt-regulated convergent extension. Overexpression of WGEF activated RhoA and rescued the suppression of convergent extension by dominant-negative Wnt-11, whereas depletion of WGEF led to suppression of convergent extension that could be rescued by RhoA or Rho-associated kinase activation. WGEF protein preferentially localized at the plasma membrane, and Frizzled-7 induced colocalization of Dishevelled and WGEF. WGEF protein can bind to Dishevelled and Daam-1, and deletion of the Dishevelled-binding domain generates a hyperactive from of WGEF. These results indicate that WGEF is a component of the Wnt-PCP pathway that connects Dishevelled to Rho activation. PMID:18256687

  19. WNT/PCP signaling pathway and human cancer (review).

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masaru

    2005-12-01

    WNT/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway controls tissue polarity and cell movement through the activation of RHOA, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and nemo-like kinase (NLK) signaling cascades. PCP is induced in Drosophila by the asymmetrical localization of Frizzled-Dishevelled-Diego-Starry night (Flamingo) complex and Van Gogh (Strabismus)-Prickle complex. Here, WNT/PCP signaling pathway implicated in human carcinogenesis is reviewed. Human WNT5A, WNT5B, and WNT11 are representative non-canonical WNTs transducing PCP signals through FZD3 or FZD6 receptors, and ROR1, ROR2 or PTK7 co-receptors. Human VANGL1, VANGL2 (Van Gogh homologs), CELSR1, CELSR2, CELSR3 (Starry night homologs), DVL1, DVL2, DVL3 (Dishevelled homologs), PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2 (Prickle homologs), and ANKRD6 (Diego homolog) are core PCP signaling molecules. MAGI3 assembles FZD, VANGL, PTEN, and adhesion molecules. Dishevelled-dependent WNT/PCP signals are transduced to the RHOA signaling cascade through Formin homology proteins DAAM1 and DAAM2, and to the JNK signaling cascade through MAPKKKs and MAPKK4/7. Dishevelled-independent WNT/ PCP signals are transduced to the NLK signaling cascade through MAP3K7 (TAK1). ANKRD6, NKD1 and NKD2 induce class switch from the WNT/GSK3beta signaling pathway to the WNT/PCP signaling pathway. WNT5A is up-regulated in various types of human cancer, such as gastric cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma. FZD3/FZD6 receptor and ROR2 co-receptor transduce WNT5A signal in gastric cancer. Aberrant activation of WNT/PCP signaling pathway in human cancer leads to more malignant phenotypes, such as abnormal tissue polarity, invasion, and metastasis. cDNA-PCR, microarray or ELISA reflecting aberrant activation of WNT/PCP signaling pathway could be developed as novel cancer prognostics. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number polymorphism (CNP) of WNT/PCP signaling molecules mentioned above are suitable for use in screening of cancer predisposition, especially

  20. Predictors of PCP, OH-PCBs, PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in a general female Norwegian population.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Charlotta; Lund, Eiliv; Frøyland, Livar; Sandanger, Torkjel M

    2012-08-01

    The aims of the current study were to assess plasma concentrations and predictors of halogenated phenolic compounds (HPCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides in a representative group of postmenopausal Norwegian women (n=311, mean age: 56 years). In addition to delivering a blood sample, the participants had also filled out a detailed questionnaire regarding their current health status, use of medication and dietary habits, etc. The association between a large number of dietary variables, lifestyle factors and plasma concentration of organic pollutants were investigated using multivariate statistics. Within the current study group, p,p'-DDE (median: 903 ng/L w.w.) and pentachlorophenol (PCP, median: 711 ng/L w.w.) were the dominating compounds on a wet weight basis and were present in considerable higher concentrations than the PCBs, the hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) and the remaining chlorinated pesticides. Of the PCBs, PCB 153 was detected in highest concentrations, whereas 4-OH-PCB187 was present in highest concentration of the selected OH-PCBs. The ratio of ΣOH-PCB to ΣPCB varied between 0.06 and 0.77 ng/L and were significantly lower in individuals with higher ΣPCB concentration. PCP did not co-vary with the other contaminants, indicating a different route of exposure. No clear food cluster was positively associated with PCP exposure; however intake of marine food was negatively linked to PCP concentration and age and being a non-smoker were positive predictors of PCP. The other investigated contaminants co-varied and were positively associated with age, plasma concentrations of marine derived omega-3 fatty acids and a traditional Norwegian fish and bread based diet. The difference in contaminant concentration between high, medium and low consumers of total marine food were however marginal for the dominating PCBs and chlorinated pesticides. The current results indicate however that marine food in itself could be a source of some of

  1. Celsr1-3 cadherins in PCP and brain development.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Camille; Goffinet, André M; Tissir, Fadel

    2012-01-01

    Cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptors 1, 2, and 3 (Celsr1-3) form a family of three atypical cadherins with multiple functions in epithelia and in the nervous system. During the past decade, evidence has accumulated for important and distinct roles of Celsr1-3 in planar cell polarity (PCP) and brain development and maintenance. Although the role of Celsr in PCP is conserved from flies to mammals, other functions may be more distantly related, with Celsr working only with one or a subset of the classical PCP partners. Here, we review the literature on Celsr in PCP and neural development, point to several remaining questions, and consider future challenges and possible research trends. PMID:23140629

  2. FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCP METHOD - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This innovative technology evaluation report (ITER) presents information on the demonstration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 7 Superfund Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) method for determining pentachlorophenol (PCP) contamination in soil and wa...

  3. HNU-HANBY PCP IMMUNOASSAY TEST KIT - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HNU-Hanby pentachlorophenol (PCP) test kit rapidly analyzes for PCP in soil samples. The test kit can only detect those PCP carriers that contain aromatic compounds. The test kit estimates PCP concentrations in soil samples indirectly by measuring petroleum hydrocarbon carrie...

  4. Direct synthesis of dicarbonyl PCP-iron hydride complexes and catalytic dehydrogenative borylation of styrene.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shi; Quintero-Duque, Samuel; Roisnel, Thierry; Dorcet, Vincent; Grellier, Mary; Sabo-Etienne, Sylviane; Darcel, Christophe; Sortais, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-07-01

    A new and efficient method based on the simple metalating reagent Fe(CO)5 has been developed for the straightforward synthesis of well defined cyclometalled PCP iron carbonyl pincer complexes. The reaction proceeds cleanly under mild conditions at 30 °C and UV irradiation. Four hydride pincer complexes are synthesized and fully characterized as well as an intermediate dinuclear species. The new iron complexes are active and selective catalytic precursors for the dehydrogenative borylation of styrene with HBpin. PMID:27327604

  5. Developing a qPCR method to quantify AhR-PCP-DNA complex for detection of environmental trace-level PCP.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Pang, Xiaoqian; Chaisuwan, Nuanapa

    2011-07-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP), a widely-used aseptic or biocide, is known as an environmental toxicant involved in endocrine disruption even at a trace level. In order to reliably and efficiently quantify environmental trace-quantity PCP, this study developed a novel PCP detection method using the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR). DNA probe with AhR binding sites was synthesized by PCR before added into AhR-PCP complex. After AhR-PCP-DNA complex was digested with exonuclease, copy number of DNA probe was determined using fluorescence qPCR. To calculate PCP concentration in samples, a standard curve (PCP concentration versus Ct value) was constructed and the detection range was 10(-13) to 10(-9) M. PCP detection limit was 0.0089 ppt for the AhR-PCP-DNA complex assay and 8.8780 ppm for high performance liquid chromatography, demonstrating that the method developed in this study is more sensitive. These results suggest that AhR-PCP-DNA complex method may be successfully applicable in detection and quantification of environmental trace-level PCP. PMID:21503612

  6. Central phencyclidine (PCP) receptor binding is glutamate dependent: evidence for a PCP/excitatory amino acid receptor (EAAR) complex

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, P.; Braunwalder, A.; Lehmann, J.; Williams, M.

    1986-03-01

    PCP and other dissociative anesthetica block the increase in neuronal firing rate evoked by the EAAR agonist, N-methyl-Daspartate. NMDA and other EAAs such as glutamate (glu) have not been previously shown to affect PCP ligand binding. In the present study, using once washed rat forebrain membranes, 10 ..mu..M-glu was found to increase the binding of (/sup 3/H)TCP, a PCP analog, to defined PCP recognition sites by 20%. Removal of glu and aspartate (asp) by extensive washing decreased TCP binding by 75-90%. In these membranes, 10 ..mu..M L-glu increased TCP binding 3-fold. This effect was stereospecific and evoked by other EAAs with the order of activity, L-glu > D-asp > L- asp > NMDA > D-glu > quisqualate. Kainate, GABA, NE, DA, 5-HT, 2-chloroadenosine, oxotremorine and histamine had no effect on TCP binding at concentrations up to 100 ..mu..M. The effects of L-glu were attenuated by the NMDA-type receptor antagonist, 2-amino-7--phosphonoheptanoate (AP7; 10 ..mu..M-1 mM). These findings indicate that EAAS facilitate TCP binding, possibly through NMDA-type receptors. The observed interaction between the PCP receptor and EAARs may reflect the existence of a macromolecular receptor complex similar to that demonstrated for the benzodiazepines and GABA.

  7. WASHING STUDIES FOR PCP AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a series of bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to evaluate the feasibility of washing pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote from the soil at an abandoned wood-treatment Superfund site in Pensacola, FL. The high sand content and lo...

  8. Project W-320, WRSS PCP: Procedure implementation verification

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides verification that the methodology for the safe retrieval of high-heat waste from Tank 241-C-106 as specified in the WRSS Process Control Plan HNF-SD-PCP-013, Revision 1, has been adequately implemented into the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) operational procedures. Tank 241-C-106 is listed on the High Heat Load Watch List.

  9. Adaptive response of trivial activated sludge towards toxic effect of oNP, PCP and combination oNP/PCP

    SciTech Connect

    Topalova, Y.; Dimkov, R. . Faculty of Biology); Kozuharov, D. )

    1999-01-01

    The reaction of the real aerobic activated sludge taken from the Sofia Waste Water Treatment Plant (SWWTP) and treated with the xenobiotics pentachlorphenol (PCP) (0.16 mMol), ortho-nitrophenol (oNP) (0.58 mMol) and with a combination of PCP (0.08 mMol), oNP (0.29 mMol) has been investigated in a model detoxification process. The adaptive changes are studied in the microbial structure level and at the level of changes in the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the macro-organisms in the activated sludge (consuments of 1 and 2 level). The presence of several different taxonomic groups has been shown by other researchers to be essential in the detoxification process. The quantitative changes in these taxonomic and physiological groups of micro-organisms are studied. The number of micro-organisms from Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and the bacteria from the xenobiotic-catabolizing complex considerably increased with the individual and the combined effect of the xenobiotics oNP, PCP and oNP PCP. At the same time the toxic shock leads to a remarkable reduction of NH[sub 3] releasing, nitrifying bacteria and those from family Enterobacteriaceae. It is ascertained that the number of Ciliata, Flagellata apochromata, Oligochaeta and Rotatoria is strongly decreased in the series of samples treated with xenobiotics. The leading role of micro-organisms in the real detoxification of hazardous pollutants was experimentally confirmed by research.

  10. The novel neurotensin analog NT69L blocks phencyclidine (PCP)-induced increases in locomotor activity and PCP-induced increases in monoamine and amino acids levels in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhimin; Boules, Mona; Williams, Katrina; Peris, Joanna; Richelson, Elliott

    2010-01-22

    Schizophrenia is a life-long, severe, and disabling brain disorder that requires chronic pharmacotherapy. Because current antipsychotic drugs do not provide optimal therapy, we have been developing novel treatments that focus on receptors for the neuropeptide neurotensin (NT). NT69L, an analog of neurotensin(8-13), acts like an atypical antipsychotic drug in several dopamine-based animal models used to study schizophrenia. Another current animal model utilizes non-competitive antagonists of the NMDA/glutamate receptor, such as the psychotomimetic phencyclidine (PCP). In the present study, we investigated the effects of NT69L on PCP-induced behavioral and biochemical changes in the rat. The top of an activity chamber was modified to allow us to perform microdialysis in rat brain, while simultaneously recording the locomotor activity of a rat. PCP injection significantly increased activity as well as the extracellular concentration of norepinephrine (NE), 5-HT, dopamine (DA), and glutamate in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Pretreating with NT69L blocked the PCP-induced hyperactivity as well as the increase of DA, 5-HT, NE, and glutamate in mPFC. Interestingly and unexpectedly, NT69L markedly increased glycine levels, while PCP was without effect on glycine levels. Thus, NT69L showed antipsychotic-like effects in this glutamate-based animal model for studying schizophrenia. Previous work from our group suggests that NT69L also has antipsychotic-like effects in dopaminergic and serotonergic rodent models. Taken together, these data suggest that NT69L in particular and NT receptor agonists in general, will be useful as broad-spectrum antipsychotic drugs. PMID:19948149

  11. Biosorption and biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fen-Xia; Li, Ying

    2007-10-01

    In order to understand the fate of PCP in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) more completely, the sorption and biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by anaerobic sludge granules were investigated. The anaerobic granular sludge degrading PCP was formed in UASB reactor, which was seeded with anaerobic sludge acclimated by chlorophenols. At the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20-22 h, and PCP loading rate of 200-220 mg l(-1) d(-1), UASB reactor exhibited good performance in treating wastewater which containing 170-180 mg l(-1) PCP and the PCP removal rate of 99.5% was achieved. Sequential appearance of tetra-, tri-, di-, and mono-chlorophenol was observed in the reactor effluent after 20 mg l(-1) PCP introduction. Sorption and desorption of PCP on the anaerobic sludge granules were all fitted to the Freundlich isotherm equation. Sorption of PCP was partly irreversible. The Freundlich equation could describe the behavior of PCP amount sorbed by granular sludge in anaerobic reactor reasonably well. The results demonstrated that the main mechanism leading to removal of PCP on anaerobic granular sludge was biodegradation, not sorption or volatization. PMID:17146612

  12. Constraining PCP Violating Varying Alpha Theory through Laboratory Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Maity, Debaprasad; Chen, Pisin; /NCTS, Taipei /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2012-06-06

    In this report we have studied the implication of a parity and charge-parity (PCP) violating interaction in varying alpha theory. Due to this interaction, the state of photon polarization can change when it passes through a strong background magnetic field. We have calculated the optical rotation and ellipticity of the plane of polarization of an electromagnetic wave and tested our results against different laboratory experiments. Our model contains a PCP violating parameter {beta} and a scale of alpha variation {omega}. By analyzing the laboratory experimental data, we found the most stringent constraints on our model parameters to be 1 {le} {omega} {le} 10{sup 13} GeV{sup 2} and -0.5 {le} {beta} {le} 0.5. We also found that with the existing experimental input parameters it is very difficult to detect the ellipticity in the near future.

  13. NAAG peptidase inhibition reduces locomotor activity and some stereotypes in the PCP model of schizophrenia via group II mGluR.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Rafal T; Bukhari, Noreen; Zhou, Jia; Kozikowski, Alan P; Wroblewski, Jarda T; Shamimi-Noori, Susan; Wroblewska, Barbara; Bzdega, Tomasz; Vicini, Stefano; Barton, Franca B; Neale, Joseph H

    2004-05-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) administration elicits positive and negative symptoms that resemble those of schizophrenia and is widely accepted as a model for the study of this human disorder. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonists have been reported to reduce the behavioral and neurochemical effects of PCP. The peptide neurotransmitter, N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), is a selective group II agonist. We synthesized and characterized a urea-based NAAG analogue, ZJ43. This novel compound is a potent inhibitor of enzymes, glutamate carboxypeptidase II (K(i) = 0.8 nM) and III (K(i) = 23 nM) that deactivate NAAG following synaptic release. ZJ43 (100 microM) does not directly interact with NMDA receptors or metabotropic glutamate receptors. Administration of ZJ43 significantly reduced PCP-induced motor activation, falling while walking, stereotypic circling behavior, and head movements. To test the hypothesis that this effect of ZJ43 was mediated by increasing the activation of mGluR3 via increased levels of extracellular NAAG, the group II mGluR selective antagonist LY341495 was co-administered with ZJ43 prior to PCP treatment. This antagonist completely reversed the effects of ZJ43. Additionally, LY341495 alone increased PCP-induced motor activity and head movements suggesting that normal levels of NAAG act to moderate the effect of PCP on motor activation via a group II mGluR. These data support the view that NAAG peptidase inhibitors may represent a new therapeutic approach to some of the components of schizophrenia that are modeled by PCP. PMID:15140187

  14. Analysis of PCP Defects in Mammalian Eye Lens

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Yuki; McAvoy, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Multicellular tissues and organs often show planar cell polarity (PCP) where the constituent cells align along an axis to form coordinated patterns. Mammalian eye lenses are mainly comprised of epithelial-derived fiber cells which exhibit highly ordered alignment that is regulated by PCP signaling. Each fiber cell has an apically situated primary cilium and in most cases this is polarized towards the lens anterior pole. Here we describe how to visualize the global cellular alignment of lens fiber cells by examining the suture pattern that is formed by the tips of fibers meeting at the anterior pole. We also describe a method for whole mount preparation which allows observation of the polarized distribution of primary cilia at the apical surface of lens fibers. Given its relative simplicity, at least in cellular terms, and its requirement for a high degree of precision in cellular alignment and orientation, we predict that the lens will be an excellent model system to help elucidate the role of cilia and PCP components in development of three-dimensional organization in tissues and organs. PMID:22218899

  15. Pharmacological specificity of some psychotomimetic and antipsychotic agents for the sigma and PCP binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Itzhak, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The pharmacological specificity of representative psychotomimetic agents such a phencyclidine (PCP) analogs, opiate benzomorphans and several antipsychotic agents was assessed for the sigma and PCP binding sites. In a series of binding experiments, in rat brain membranes, sigma and PCP binding sites were labeled with (/sup 3/H)-1-(1-(3-hydroxyphenyl) cyclohexyl) piperidine ((/sup 3/H)PCP-3-OH), (+)(/sup 3/H)-N-allylnormetazocine ((+)(/sup 3/H)SKF 10047) and (+) (/sup 3/H)-3-(3-hydroxy-phenyl)-N-(1-propyl) piperidine and ((+)(/sup 3/H)-3-PPP). PCP analogs inhibit potently high affinity (/sup 3/H)PCP-3-OH binding and (+)(/sup 3/H)SKF 10047 binding, moderately the low affinity binding component of (/sup 3/H)PCP-3-OH and very weakly (+) (/sup 3/H)-3-PPP binding. (+)SKF 10047 and cyclazocine are potent to moderate inhibitors of (+)(/sup 3/H)SKF 10047, high affinity (/sup 3/H)PCP-3-OH and (+)(/sup 3/H)-3-PCP-3-OH binding. The antipsychotic agents display high affinity for (+)(/sup 3/H)-3-PPP binding sites, moderate affinity for (+)(/sup 3/H)SKF 10047 sites and have no effect on either the high or low affinity (/sup 3/H)PCP-3-OH binding. 20 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Fatal Intoxication Involving 3-MeO-PCP: A Case Report and Validated Method.

    PubMed

    Bakota, Erica; Arndt, Crystal; Romoser, Amelia A; Wilson, Stephen K

    2016-09-01

    We present in this case report a validated method for accurate quantitative analysis of 3-methoxy phencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP) to determine postmortem blood concentrations of this PCP analog. A 29-year-old male with a history of illicit drug use was found unresponsive in his bed with a bag of white powder next to him. Resuscitation efforts were unsuccessful and the individual was pronounced dead 9 minutes after arrival to the hospital. Initial ELISA screening suggested the presence of PCP in the decedent's blood. However, confirmatory testing revealed no detectable PCP. Instead, a large peak corresponding to a m/z 274.218 species with retention time similar to PCP was present on a LC-TOF-MS drug screen, suggesting a possible PCP analog. This mass corresponds specifically to a methoxy-PCP analog, several of which are available for purchase online. Standards for 3-MeO-PCP and 4-MeO-PCP were obtained and injected on the same instrument. Although the 3- and 4-MeO-PCP analogs have identical masses and retention times, they are still distinguishable through their mass spectra. The peak from the decedent's sample matched both the mass spectrum and the retention time of 3-MeO-PCP. A quantitative LC-MS-MS method was subsequently developed and validated for casework. Analysis using this method revealed a concentration of 139 ± 41 µg/L 3-MeO-PCP in the decedent's blood. Diphenhydramine (4.1 ± 0.7 mg/L), marijuana metabolite (presumptive positive, confirmation not performed) and a small amount of amphetamine (<0.10 mg/L) were also found in the decedent's blood. The cause of death was determined to be combined 3-MeO-PCP, diphenhydramine and amphetamine toxicity. The manner of death was certified as an accident. PMID:27339479

  17. Appetite for danger - genetic potential for PCP degradation at historically polluted groundwater sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkonen, Anu; Yläranta, Kati; Tiirola, Marja; Romantschuk, Martin; Sinkkonen, Aki

    2016-04-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a priority pollutant of exclusively anthropogenic origin. Formerly used commonly in timber preservatives, PCP has persisted at polluted groundwater sites decades after its use was banned, typically as the last detectable contaminant component. Notorious for its toxicity and poor biodegradability, little is known about the genetic potential and pathways for PCP degradation in the environment. The only fully characterized mineralization pathway is initiated by the enzyme coded by chromosomal pcpB gene, previously detected in PCP degrading Sphingomonadaceae bacteria isolated at two continents. However, there is no information about the abundance or diversity of any PCP degradation related gene at contaminated sites in situ. Our aim was to assess whether pcpB and/or sphingomonads seem to play a role in in situ degradation of PCP, by studying whether pcpB i) is detectable at chlorophenol-polluted groundwater sediments, ii) responds to PCP concentration changes, and iii) shows correlation with the abundance of sphingomonads or a specific sphingomonad genus. Novel protocols for quantification and profiling of pcpB, with primers covering full known diversity, were developed and tested at two sites in Finland with well-documented long-term chlorophenol contamination history: Kärkölä and Pursiala. High throughput sequencing complemented characterization of the total bacterial community and pcpB gene pool. The relative abundance of pcpB in bacterial community was associated with spatial variability in groundwater PCP concentration in Pursiala, and with temporal differences in groundwater PCP concentration in Kärkölä. T-RFLP fingerprinting results indicated and Ion Torrent PGM and Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of a single phylotype of pcpB at both geographically distant, historically contaminated sites, matching the one detected previously in Canadian bioreactor clones and Kärkölä bioreactor isolates. Sphingomonad abundance

  18. Phencyclidine (PCP) reduces the intensity of caffeine-induced convulsions in rats.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, S M; Leccese, A P

    1989-01-01

    The effects of phencyclidine (PCP) on the threshold and intensity of caffeine-induced convulsions in rats were examined. There was a dose-dependent effect of PCP on convulsion intensity with significant reduction in intensity at 4.0 and 8.0 mg/kg PCP. At 16.0 mg/kg PCP, convulsant intensity was reduced in 50% of subjects but potentiated to the point of death in the remaining 50%. PCP had no significant effect on threshold for caffeine-induced convulsions. These results suggest that PCP antagonizes caffeine-induced convulsions and further suggests that the mechanisms involved in onset of caffeine-induced convulsions and the decrease of convulsion intensity are pharmacologically dissociable. PMID:2733542

  19. Controlling a toxic shock of pentachlorophenol (PCP) to anaerobic digestion using activated carbon addition.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yeyuan; De Araujo, Cecilia; Sze, Chun Chau; Stuckey, David C

    2015-04-01

    Several powdered and granular activated carbons (PACs and GACs) were tested for adsorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in bench-scale anaerobic digestion reactors to control the toxicity of PCP to acetoclastic methanogenesis. Results showed that the adsorption capacities of PAC were reduced by 21-54%, depending on the PAC addition time, in the presence of the methanogenic sludge compared to the controls without sludge. As a preventive measure, PAC at a low dose of 20% (mass ratio to the VSS) added 24 h prior to, or simultaneously with, the addition of PCP could completely eliminate the toxic effects of PCP. At the same dose, PAC also enabled methanogenesis to recover immediately after the sludge had been exposed to PCP for 24h. GAC was not effective in enabling the recovery of methanogenesis due to its slow adsorption kinetics; however, at a dose of 80% it could partially ameliorate the toxic shock of PCP. PMID:25665874

  20. Adsorption of PolyCarboxylate Poly(ethylene glycol) (PCP) esters on Montmorillonite (Mmt): effect of exchangeable cations (Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+) and PCP molecular structure.

    PubMed

    Ait-Akbour, Rachid; Boustingorry, Pascal; Leroux, Fabrice; Leising, Frédéric; Taviot-Guého, Christine

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with the adsorption of PolyCarboxylate Poly(ethylene glycol) esters (PCP) superplasticizers on Na-, Mg- and Ca-saturated Montmorillonite (Mmt) clays. The interactions have been examined through different experimental methods: adsorption isotherms, zeta potential measurements and sedimentation experiments. It was found that PCP adsorption depends both on the architecture of PCP molecules and the nature of cation located on the interlayer exchange sites of the Montmorillonite. Whatever the PCP, a larger amount was adsorbed on Na-Mont than on Mg-Mont or Ca-Mont. This indicates the occurrence of two adsorption mechanisms: (i) a superficial adsorption via electrostatic interactions between the carboxylate groups of PCP and positively charged sites on clay surfaces, (ii) intercalation of ether units of the PCP grafts in the interlayer space by displacement of water molecules coordinated to the exchangeable cations. Furthermore, despite the weak negative values of the zeta potential, the addition of PCP promotes the stability of the suspensions which is attributed to steric repulsion acting between particles. PMID:25313488

  1. Sensorimotor enhancement in mouse mutants lacking the Purkinje cell-specific Gi/o modulator, Pcp2(L7)

    PubMed Central

    Iscru, Emilia; Serinagaoglu, Yelda; Schilling, Karl; Tian, Jinbin; Bowers-Kidder, Stephanie L.; Zhang, Rui; Morgan, James I.; DeVries, A. Courtney; Nelson, Randy J.; Zhu, Michael X.; Oberdick, John

    2009-01-01

    Pcp2(L7) is a GoLoco domain protein specifically and abundantly expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells. It has been hypothesized to “tune” Gi/o-coupled receptor modulation of physiological effectors, including the P-type Ca2+ channel. We have analyzed a mouse mutant in which the Pcp2(L7) gene was inactivated and find significant anatomical, behavioral and electrophysiological changes. Anatomically, we observed mild cerebellar hypoplasia. Behaviorally, the mutants were altered in modalities atypical for a traditional cerebellar mutant, and oddly, all of these changes could be considered functional enhancements. This includes increased asymptotic performance in gross motor learning, increased rate of acquisition in tone-conditioned fear, and enhanced pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response. Electrophysiological analysis of Purkinje cells in the mutants reveals depression of the complex spike waveform that may underlie the behavioral changes. Based on these observations we suggest that the Pcp2(L7) protein acts as a sensorimotor damper that modulates time- and sense-dependent changes in motor responses. PMID:18930827

  2. Selective reduction of a Pd pincer PCP complex to well-defined Pd(0) species.

    PubMed

    Melero, Cristóbal; Martínez-Prieto, Luis M; Palma, Pilar; del Rio, Diego; Alvarez, Eleuterio; Cámpora, Juan

    2010-12-14

    Well-defined dimeric or polymeric Pd(0) complexes [Pd(μ-(iPr)PCHP)](n) (n = 2 or ∞) containing the bridging ligand α,α'-bis(diisopropylphosphino)-m-xylene ((iPr)PCHP) are produced under mild conditions when the cyclometallated PCP pincer complex ((iPr)PCP)Pd-OH reacts with methanol or isopropanol. PMID:20967320

  3. Sphingobium Chlorophenolicum Dichlorohydroquinone Dioxygenase (PcpA) Is Alkaline Resistant and Thermally Stable

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wanpeng; Sammynaiken, Ramaswami; Chen, Lifeng; Maley, Jason; Schatte, Gabriele; Zhou, Yijiang; Yang, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Dichlorohydroquinone dioxygenase (PcpA) is the ring-cleavage enzyme in the PCP biodegradation pathway in Sphingobium chlorophenolicum strain ATCC 39723. PcpA dehalogenates and oxidizes 2,6-dichlorohydroquinone to form 2-chloromaleylacetate, which is subsequently converted to succinyl coenzyme A and acetyl coenzyme A via 3-oxoadipate. Previous studies have shown that PcpA is highly substrate-specific and only uses 2,6-dichlorohydroquinone as its substrate. In the current study, we overexpressed and purified recombinant PcpA and showed that PcpA was highly alkaline resistant and thermally stable. PcpA exhibited two activity peaks at pH 7.0 and 10.0, respectively. The apparent kcat and Km were measured as 0.19 ± 0.01 s-1 and 0.24 ± 0.08 mM, respectively at pH 7.0, and 0.17 ± 0.01 s-1 and 0.77 ± 0.29 mM, respectively at pH 10.0. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies showed rapid oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) in PcpA and the formation of a stable radical intermediate during the enzyme catalysis. The stable radical was predicted to be an epoxide type dichloro radical with the unpaired electron density localized on C3. PMID:22043174

  4. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: HNU-HANBY PCP IMMUNOASSAY TEST KIT - HNU - SYSTEMS, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HNU-Hanby test kit rapidly analyzes for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and water samples. The test kit can be used to estimate pentachlorophenol (PCP) concentrations in samples when the carrier solvent is a petroleum hydrocarbon. The test kit estimates PCP concentrations in ...

  5. Effect of chronic nicotine pre-treatment on phencyclidine (PCP) disposition in the rat.

    PubMed

    Vadlamani, N L; Pontani, R B; Misra, A L

    1983-09-01

    Disposition of [3H] phencyclidine (5 mg kg-1 i.p.) in brain, liver and plasma of rats treated chronically with 0.9% saline or nicotine (1 mg kg-1 s.c. twice a day for 11 days) was studied using a method possessing high sensitivity and specificity for PCP. No significant differences were observed in the values of PCP in plasma and tissues and in brain or liver to plasma PCP concentration ratios in the 2 groups 0.5, 1, 2 hr after [3H] PCP injection. With the exception of the value of PCP metabolites in plasma at 0.5 hr, the PCP metabolites concentrations were also not significantly different in the 2 groups. Data suggested that chronic nicotine pretreatment of rats did not affect the disposition of PCP and the potentiation of PCP-induced locomotor stimulant effects by nicotine possibly involves the additive pharmacodynamic interaction of 2 compounds at the level of the central nervous system. PMID:6651404

  6. Increased impulsive choice for saccharin during PCP withdrawal in female monkeys: influence of menstrual cycle phase

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Marilyn E.; Kohl, Emily A.; Johnson, Krista M.; LaNasa, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    Background In previous studies with male and female rhesus monkeys withdrawal of access to oral phencyclidine (PCP) self administration reduced responding for food under a high fixed-ratio (FR) schedule more in males than females and with a delay discounting (DD) task with saccharin (SACC) as the reinforcer. Impulsive choice for SACC increased during PCP withdrawal more than females. Objectives The goal of the present study was to examine the effect of PCP (0.25 or 0.5 mg/ml) withdrawal on impulsive choice for SACC in females during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Materials and methods In Component 1 PCP and water were available from 2 drinking spouts for 1.5 h sessions under concurrent FR 16 schedules. In Component 2 a SACC solution was available for 45 min under a DD schedule. Monkeys had a choice of one immediate SACC delivery (0.6 ml) or 6 delayed SACC deliveries, and the delay was increased by 1 sec after a response on the delayed lever and decreased by 1 sec after a response on the immediate lever. There was then a 10-day water substitution phase, or PCP-withdrawal, that occurred during the mid-folllicular phase (Days 7–11) or the late-luteal (Days 24–28) phase of the menstrual cycle. Access to PCP and concurrent water was then restored, and the PCP withdrawal procedure was repeated over several follicular and luteal menstrual phases. Results PCP deliveries were higher during the luteal vs the follicular phase. Impulsive choice was greater during the luteal (vs follicular) phase during withdrawal of the higher PCP concentration. Conclusions PCP withdrawal was associated with elevated impulsive choice for SACC, especially in the luteal (vs follicular) phase of the menstrual cycle in female monkeys. PMID:23344553

  7. Reduced birthweight and length in the offspring of females exposed to PCDFs, PCP, and lindane.

    PubMed Central

    Karmaus, W; Wolf, N

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a broad range of adverse health outcomes and their potential association to wood preservative used in daycare centers. This article focuses on reproductive effects. A sample of 221 exposed teachers was provided by the employer's liability insurers. A comparison group (n = 189) insured by the same two organizations was recruited from nonexposed daycare centers. In a face-to-face interview, job history and reproductive history of 398 female teachers were ascertained. Data on exposure were provided, including measurements on concentration of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and lindane in wood panels, and of PCP, lindane, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in indoor air. An exposure matrix based on individual job history, independent exposure information from each center, and reproductive history was set up with regard to the vulnerable time windows for each pregnancy. Using this approach, 49 exposed and 507 nonexposed pregnancies were identified, including 32 exposed and 386 nonexposed live births. For subgroup analyses the observations were restricted to independent pregnancies, excluding multiple and consecutive births. The data were analyzed with linear regression techniques, taking confounders into account. The crude median difference between exposed and nonexposed was 175 g in birthweight and 2 cm in length. Controlling for confounders, the results show a significantly reduced but weight (p = 0.04) and length (p = 0.02) in exposed pregnancies, even after restricting the data to independent pregnancies and pregnancies for which data could be validated from the mother's health cards. These differences were not explained by differences in gestational age indicating that a toxic effect, which could cause small-for date newborns, might have affected the fetus. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8747018

  8. Co(II) PCP Pincer Complexes as Catalysts for the Alkylation of Aromatic Amines with Primary Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Mastalir, Matthias; Tomsu, Gerald; Pittenauer, Ernst; Allmaier, Günter; Kirchner, Karl

    2016-07-15

    Efficient alkylations of amines by alcohols catalyzed by well-defined Co(II) complexes are described that are stabilized by a PCP ligand (N,N'-bis(diisopropylphosphino)-N,N'-dimethyl-1,3-diaminobenzene) based on the 1,3-diaminobenzene scaffold. This reaction is an environmentally benign process implementing inexpensive, earth-abundant nonprecious metal catalysts and is based on the acceptorless alcohol dehydrogenation concept. A range of primary alcohols and aromatic amines were efficiently converted into mono-N-alkylated amines in good to excellent isolated yields. PMID:27356282

  9. The PCP pathway regulates Baz planar distribution in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Aigouy, Benoit; Le Bivic, André

    2016-01-01

    The localisation of apico-basal polarity proteins along the Z-axis of epithelial cells is well understood while their distribution in the plane of the epithelium is poorly characterised. Here we provide a systematic description of the planar localisation of apico-basal polarity proteins in the Drosophila ommatidial epithelium. We show that the adherens junction proteins Shotgun and Armadillo, as well as the baso-lateral complexes, are bilateral, i.e. present on both sides of cell interfaces. In contrast, we report that other key adherens junction proteins, Bazooka and the myosin regulatory light chain (Spaghetti squash) are unilateral, i.e. present on one side of cell interfaces. Furthermore, we demonstrate that planar cell polarity (PCP) and not the apical determinants Crumbs and Par-6 control Bazooka unilaterality in cone cells. Altogether, our work unravels an unexpected organisation and combination of apico-basal, cytoskeletal and planar polarity proteins that is different on either side of cell-cell interfaces and unique for the different contacts of the same cell. PMID:27624969

  10. Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): A Guide for Young Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): General Information Posted under Health Guides . ... needs. How do I find the names of health care providers? You should first make a list of ...

  11. Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): A Guide for Young Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Choosing a Primary Health Care Provider (PCP): General Information Posted under Health Guides . ... needs. How do I find the names of health care providers? Here are some ways to find a ...

  12. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FIELD ANALYTICAL SCREENING PROGRAM: PCP METHOD - U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program evaluates new technologies to assess their effectiveness. This bulletin summarizes results from the 1993 SITE demonstration of the Field Analytical Screening Program (FASP) Pentachlorophenol (PCP) Method to determine P...

  13. Neonatal PCP Is More Potent than Ketamine at Modifying Preweaning Behaviors of Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Boctor, Sherin Y.; Wang, Cheng; Ferguson, Sherry A.

    2008-01-01

    Treatment with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, such as ketamine (KET) or phencyclidine (PCP), can trigger apoptotic neurodegeneration in neonatal rodents; however, little is known about the behavioral alterations resulting from such treatment. Here, rats were sc treated with saline; 10 mg/kg PCP on postnatal days (PNDs) 7, 9, and 11; 20 mg/kg KET (six injections every 2 h on PND 7); or a regimen of ketamine and 250 mg/kg L-carnitine (KLC) both administered on PND 7 with additional 250 mg/kg doses of L-carnitine given on PNDs 8–11. Postinjection, the home cage behavior of each pup was categorized on PNDs 7–11. Slant board and forelimb hang behaviors were examined on PNDs 8–11 and 12–16, respectively. The initial KET or KLC injections on PND 7 elevated abnormal home cage activity (i.e., paresis and paddling); however, KLC pup behavior returned to normal by the fourth injection, indicating the protective effects of L-carnitine against NMDA antagonist toxicity. PCP treatment caused substantial abnormal home cage activity on each injection day (PNDs 7, 9, and 11). Latencies to turn on the slant board were significantly longer on PND 8 for KET- and PCP-treated pups and PND 10 for PCP-treated pups. On PND 12, the forelimb hang time of PCP-treated pups was significantly shorter. Body weight was decreased on PNDs 8–18 in PCP-treated pups and PNDs 8–10 in KET-treated pups. These data indicate that developmental NMDA antagonist treatment causes short-term behavioral alterations which appear related to motor coordination and may be cerebellar in nature. Furthermore, single PCP injections appear more potent at altering behavior than multiple injections of KET. PMID:18667523

  14. Expression of a novel splicing variant of Pcp2 in closely related laboratory rodents.

    PubMed

    Przybyła, M A; Nowacka-Chmielewska, M M; Barski, J J

    2016-01-01

    Purkinje cell protein-2 (PCP2), also known as L7, is a member of the GoLoco protein family with highly cell-specific expression, being restricted to cerebellar Purkinje cells and retinal bipolar neurons in various species. However, its function in these tissues is unknown. Previous studies have suggested that PCP2 is a guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor, or a guanine nucleotide exchange factor. The Pcp2 gene is known to have many splice variants in both cerebellar Purkinje cells and retinal bipolar neurons. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a novel Pcp2 splice variant is conserved in closely related laboratory rodents (mice, rats, and hamsters). After analyzing alternative splicing of this gene in the Purkinje cells and retinas of these rodent species, we confirmed the presence of the novel longer transcript in mice. However, assessment of Pcp2 transcripts using polymerase chain reaction amplification of complementary DNA revealed this long splice variant containing the additional exon 3B to be absent from rats and hamsters. Thus, the novel Pcp2 transcript is particular to mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells and retinal bipolar neurons. It is likely to have arisen in this species, as a result of spontaneous mutation or de novo rearrangements. This gene presumably serves a very specific and, as yet, unknown function in the eyes and/or Purkinje cells of mice. PMID:27525924

  15. Combover/CG10732, a Novel PCP Effector for Drosophila Wing Hair Formation

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Jeremy K.; Dollar, Gretchen; Lu, Qiuheng; Barnett, Austen; Pechuan Jorge, Joaquin; Schlosser, Andreas; Pfleger, Cathie; Adler, Paul; Jenny, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The polarization of cells is essential for the proper functioning of most organs. Planar Cell Polarity (PCP), the polarization within the plane of an epithelium, is perpendicular to apical-basal polarity and established by the non-canonical Wnt/Fz-PCP signaling pathway. Within each tissue, downstream PCP effectors link the signal to tissue specific readouts such as stereocilia orientation in the inner ear and hair follicle orientation in vertebrates or the polarization of ommatidia and wing hairs in Drosophila melanogaster. Specific PCP effectors in the wing such as Multiple wing hairs (Mwh) and Rho Kinase (Rok) are required to position the hair at the correct position and to prevent ectopic actin hairs. In a genome-wide screen in vitro, we identified Combover (Cmb)/CG10732 as a novel Rho kinase substrate. Overexpression of Cmb causes the formation of a multiple hair cell phenotype (MHC), similar to loss of rok and mwh. This MHC phenotype is dominantly enhanced by removal of rok or of other members of the PCP effector gene family. Furthermore, we show that Cmb physically interacts with Mwh, and cmb null mutants suppress the MHC phenotype of mwh alleles. Our data indicate that Cmb is a novel PCP effector that promotes to wing hair formation, a function that is antagonized by Mwh. PMID:25207969

  16. Postnatal Phencyclidine (PCP) as a Neurodevelopmental Animal Model of Schizophrenia Pathophysiology and Symptomatology: A Review.

    PubMed

    Grayson, B; Barnes, S A; Markou, A; Piercy, C; Podda, G; Neill, J C

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms of schizophrenia remain an unmet clinical need. Therefore, it is essential that new treatments and approaches are developed to recover the cognitive and social impairments that are seen in patients with schizophrenia. These may only be discovered through the use of carefully validated, aetiologically relevant and translational animal models. With recent renewed interest in the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia, postnatal administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists such as phencyclidine (PCP) has been proposed as a model that can mimic aspects of schizophrenia pathophysiology. The purpose of the current review is to examine the validity of this model and compare it with the adult subchronic PCP model. We review the ability of postnatal PCP administration to produce behaviours (specifically cognitive deficits) and neuropathology of relevance to schizophrenia and their subsequent reversal by pharmacological treatments. We review studies investigating effects of postnatal PCP on cognitive domains in schizophrenia in rats. Morris water maze and delayed spontaneous alternation tasks have been used for working memory, attentional set-shifting for executive function, social novelty discrimination for selective attention and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle for sensorimotor gating. In addition, we review studies on locomotor activity and neuropathology. We also include two studies using dual hit models incorporating postnatal PCP and two studies on social behaviour deficits following postnatal PCP. Overall, the evidence we provide supports the use of postnatal PCP to model cognitive and neuropathological disturbances of relevance to schizophrenia. To date, there is a lack of evidence to support a significant advantage of postnatal PCP over the adult subchronic PCP model and full advantage has not been taken of its neurodevelopmental component. When thoroughly characterised, it is likely

  17. Phytoremediation and long-term site management of soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Mills, Tessa; Arnold, Barbara; Sivakumaran, Siva; Northcott, Grant; Vogeler, Iris; Robinson, Brett; Norling, Cara; Leonil, Doris

    2006-05-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) previously used as a timber treatment chemical to prevent sap stain and wood rot. Commonly used in wood treatment industries for the last 50 years, there are now many sites worldwide that are contaminated with PCP. Although persistent, PCP is a mobile contaminant and therefore has a propensity to leach and contaminate surrounding environments. Both willow (Salix sp., 'Tangoio') and poplar (Populus sp. 'Kawa') growing in an open-ended plastic greenhouse were found to tolerate soil PCP concentrations of 250 mg kg(-1) or less and both species stimulated a significant increase in soil microbial activity when compared to unplanted controls. Both poplar and willow could not survive PCP concentrations above 250 mg kg(-1) in soil. Pentachlorophenol degradation occurred in both planted and unplanted pots, but a higher rate of degradation was observed in the planted pots. Soil contaminated by wood-treatment activities often contains co-contaminants such as B, Cr, Cu and As, that are also used as timber preservatives. An additional column leaching experiment, done along side the potted trial, found that PCP, B, Cr, Cu and As were all present in the column leachate. This indicates that although Cu, Cr and As are generally considered immobile in the soil, they were mobilised under our column conditions. If a contaminated site were to be hydraulically 'sealed' using plants, a reticulation irrigation system should be installed to capture any contaminant leachate resulting from heavy rains. This captured leachate can either be independently treated, or reapplied to the site. Our data demonstrate a reduction in soil hydraulic conductivity with repeated application of leachate containing PCP and metal compounds but the soil did not become anaerobic. This would need to be considered in site remediation design. PMID:16202508

  18. Structures of the Inducer-Binding Domain of Pentachlorophenol-Degrading Gene Regulator PcpR from Sphingobium chlorophenolicum

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Robert P.; Moural, Timothy W.; Lewis, Kevin M.; Onofrei, David; Xun, Luying; Kang, ChulHee

    2014-01-01

    PcpR is a LysR-type transcription factor from Sphingobium chlorophenolicum L-1 that is responsible for the activation of several genes involved in polychlorophenol degradation. PcpR responds to several polychlorophenols in vivo. Here, we report the crystal structures of the inducer-binding domain of PcpR in the apo-form and binary complexes with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). Both X-ray crystal structures and isothermal titration calorimetry data indicated the association of two PCP molecules per PcpR, but only one 2,4,6-TCP molecule. The hydrophobic nature and hydrogen bonds of one binding cavity allowed the tight association of both PCP (Kd = 110 nM) and 2,4,6-TCP (Kd = 22.8 nM). However, the other cavity was unique to PCP with much weaker affinity (Kd = 70 μM) and thus its significance was not clear. Neither phenol nor benzoic acid displayed any significant affinity to PcpR, indicating a role of chlorine substitution in ligand specificity. When PcpR is compared with TcpR, a LysR-type regulator controlling the expression of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol degradation in Cupriavidus necator JMP134, most of the residues constituting the two inducer-binding cavities of PcpR are different, except for their general hydrophobic nature. The finding concurs that PcpR uses various polychlorophenols as long as it includes 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, as inducers; whereas TcpR is only responsive to 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. PMID:25397598

  19. Structures of the inducer-binding domain of pentachlorophenol-degrading gene regulator PcpR from Sphingobium chlorophenolicum.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Robert P; Moural, Timothy W; Lewis, Kevin M; Onofrei, David; Xun, Luying; Kang, ChulHee

    2014-01-01

    PcpR is a LysR-type transcription factor from Sphingobium chlorophenolicum L-1 that is responsible for the activation of several genes involved in polychlorophenol degradation. PcpR responds to several polychlorophenols in vivo. Here, we report the crystal structures of the inducer-binding domain of PcpR in the apo-form and binary complexes with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). Both X-ray crystal structures and isothermal titration calorimetry data indicated the association of two PCP molecules per PcpR, but only one 2,4,6-TCP molecule. The hydrophobic nature and hydrogen bonds of one binding cavity allowed the tight association of both PCP (Kd = 110 nM) and 2,4,6-TCP (Kd = 22.8 nM). However, the other cavity was unique to PCP with much weaker affinity (Kd = 70 μM) and thus its significance was not clear. Neither phenol nor benzoic acid displayed any significant affinity to PcpR, indicating a role of chlorine substitution in ligand specificity. When PcpR is compared with TcpR, a LysR-type regulator controlling the expression of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol degradation in Cupriavidus necator JMP134, most of the residues constituting the two inducer-binding cavities of PcpR are different, except for their general hydrophobic nature. The finding concurs that PcpR uses various polychlorophenols as long as it includes 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, as inducers; whereas TcpR is only responsive to 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. PMID:25397598

  20. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) bioaccumulation and effect on heat production on salmon eggs at different stages of development.

    PubMed

    Mäenpää, Kimmo A; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka; Kukkonen, Jussi V K

    2004-05-28

    In this study, pentachlorophenol (PCP) bioaccumulation and its effect on heat dissipation was studied in eggs of the lake salmon (Salmo salar m. sebago). In bioaccumulation studies, the eggs were exposed to low concentrations (0.051-0.056 micromol/l, 13.583-14.915) of waterborne [14C]-labeled PCP at two developmental stages: (1) 3 weeks after fertilization, and (2) just before hatching. The effect of PCP on egg heat dissipation was measured by a microcalorimeter after exposing the eggs to gradual concentrations (0-0.992 micromol/l) of PCP for 48 h. After both the bioaccumulation and heat dissipation experiments, the eggs were dissected and the concentrations of PCP in tissue were determined separately for eggshell, yolk and embryo. The bioaccumulation studies showed that PCP accumulates more in the eggs at the late developmental stage. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) for different tissues were 3-42 times higher for the eggs at the late developmental stage compared with the eggs that were incubated only for 3 weeks. In early developmental stage, the eggshell adsorbs a large portion of the chemical. In late developmental stage, the actual embryo accumulated both proportionately and totally more than other dissected tissues in the beginning of the exposure, but eventually the yolk accumulated highest total amount of the chemical. A probable reason for the higher PCP body burden in the late developmental stage is that the respiration rate and metabolic activity of the embryo increases as it grows. The salmon eggs responded to an exposure to PCP with an elevated rate of heat dissipation. The threshold concentration above which the embryo heat dissipation was amplified was 29.64 micromol/kg embryo wet weight (ww) or 0.28 micromol/l. The highest embryo heat production was measured at the exposure concentration of 0.992 micromol/l. At higher exposure concentrations the heat dissipation decreased. The basic findings of the study are that PCP accumulates in growing embryonic

  1. Phytoremediation efficiency of a pcp-contaminated soil using four plant species as mono- and mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Hechmi, Nejla; Aissa, Nadhira Ben; Abdenaceur, Hassen; Jedidi, Naceur

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation of soil polluted by pentachlorophenol (PCP) is of great importance due to the persistence and carcinogenic properties of PCP. Phytoremediation has long been recognized as a promising approach for removal of PCP from soil. The present study was conducted to investigate the capability of four plant species; white clover, ryegrass, alfalfa, and rapeseed grown alone and in combination to remediate pentachlorophenol contaminated soil. After 60 days cultivation, white clover, raygrass, alfalfa, and rapeseed all significantly enhanced the degradation of PCP in soils. Alfalfa showed highest efficiency for the removal of PCP in single cropping flowed by rapeseed and ryegrass. Mixed cropping significantly enhanced the remediation efficiencies as compared to single cropping; about 89.84% of PCP was removed by mixed cropping of rapeseed and alfalfa, and 72.01% of PCP by mixed cropping of rape and white clover. Mixed cropping of rapeseed with alfalfa was however far better for the remediation of soil PCP than single cropping. An evaluation of soil biological activities as a monitoring mechanism for the bioremediation process of a PCP-contaminated soil was made using measurements of microbial counts and dehydrogenase activity. PMID:24933915

  2. Use of EAF dust as heterogeneous catalyst in Fenton oxidation of PCP contaminated wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Mecozzi, R; Di Palma, L; Pilone, D; Cerboni, L

    2006-09-21

    In this study, chemical oxidation tests using H2O2 were performed on a solution contaminated with 100 mg l(-1) of pentachlorophenol (PCP). The effectiveness of electric arc furnace dust and hematite as heterogeneous catalysts was evaluated. Reactions were conducted at pH 2 for 24 h. Either H2O2 stabilized with KH2PO4 or un-stabilized H2O2 was used. Total organic carbon (T.O.C.) removal and chloride release from PCP molecule were monitored. Results showed that the maximum removal yields for electric arc furnace (EAF) dust (49.2% T.O.C., 56.7% Cl) were achieved when H2O2:PCP ratio was 10:1 and Fe:H2O2 = 1:5 for unstabilized H2O2 and when H2O2:PCP = 10:1 and Fe:H2O2 = 1:1 for stabilized H2O2 (48% T.O.C., 60.6% Cl). The maximum yield using hematite (45.2% T.O.C., 55.2% Cl) was obtained when H2O2:PCP ratio was 10:1 and Fe:H2O2 was 1:2. When EAF dust was used and Fe:H2O2 > 1:5, Cl release was higher than the one expected from T.O.C. removal. PMID:16621261

  3. PCDD/PCDF behavior in low-temperature pyrolysis of PCP-contaminated sandy soil.

    PubMed

    Thuan, Ngo Thi; Dien, Nguyen Thanh; Chang, Moo Been

    2013-01-15

    This study investigates the behavior of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) formation, dechlorination and destruction in PCP-contaminated sandy soil by low-temperature thermal treatment. Experimental tests were carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere in the temperature range of 200-400 °C with a treatment time of 30 min. 70% of PCP removal from the soil was achieved, resulting in 1436±230 ng/kg, the highest PCDD/F formation at 250 °C; however, the highest toxic concentration was measured around 4.20±0.62 ng TEQ/kg at 300 °C with 80% PCP removal from the soil. Further analysis has revealed that OCDD is the most dominant congener that is supposed to be formed from the pyrolysis of PCP, while OCDF is the second prevailing congener, possibly due to pyrolysis of 2,3,4,5-TeCP being a main byproduct of PCP pyrolysis. Detection of less chlorinated dioxins and furans over 300 °C indicates the dechlorination of highly chlorinated dioxins and furans, especially octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) at 350 °C and 400 °C. Desorption from soil was supposed as a main mechanism for the distribution of PCDD/Fs in the gaseous phase, and not much difference in dioxins and furan levels was observed at 350 °C and 400 °C in the gaseous phase. Therefore, 350 °C is the most appropriate temperature to remove most PCP and PCDD/Fs from soil, as well as to meet PCDD/F emission standards (0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3)). PMID:23220751

  4. Preparation and analytical characterization of 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine (PCP) and 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)pyrrolidine (PCPy) analogues.

    PubMed

    Wallach, Jason; De Paoli, Giorgia; Adejare, Adeboye; Brandt, Simon D

    2014-01-01

    Classic examples of psychoactive arylcycloalkylamines include ketamine and 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine (PCP) and many others serve as important structural templates for neuropharmacological research. The recent emergence of PCP analogues that can be obtained from internet retailers requires the implementation of appropriate monitoring strategies for harm reduction purposes. Access to analytical data plays a key part when encountering these substances, especially if reference material is not available. The present study describes the synthesis of three substituted 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidines, (3-MeO-, 4-MeO- and 3-Me-PCP) and three substituted 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)pyrrolidine analogues (3-MeO-, 4-MeO- and 3-Me-PCPy). Analytical characterizations of all six arylcyclohexylamines and their primary 1-phenylcyclohexanamine intermediates included gas chromatography ion trap electron- and chemical ionization and high resolution mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography electrospray hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry, infrared, diode array detection and (1) H and (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Solvent (CDCl3 vs. d6 -DMSO) and protonation effects (free bases vs hydrochloride salts) were studied in order to investigate the impact on shifts and splitting patterns, for example, when attempting to assign separate axial and equatorial proton chemical shifts of NMR spectra. Differentiation between the isomeric 3-MeO-/4-MeO-PCP and PCPy analogues was feasible under mass spectral conditions. Gas chromatography analysis appeared to induce notable degradation of the 4-MeO-substituted analytes, especially when dealing with the HCl salts which led to the detection of the substituted 1-phenylcyclohex-1-ene nucleus. This phenomenon was observed to be less pronounced with the 3-MeO isomers, possibly due to the resonance properties of the para-methoxy group followed by more facile elimination of the amine. PMID:23554350

  5. Numerical simulation of a steam-injection pilot study for a PCP-contaminated aquifer.

    PubMed

    Tse, Ken K C; Liou, Tai-Sheng; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2006-07-01

    The following study was focused on the simulation of a steam-injection field pilottest conducted in our past research. The scope of research contained two main subjects: heat transfer and contaminant transport when steam was injected into a pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated aquifer. Numerical simulation of the heat transfer during the field test showed that vertical permeability is more influential to the distribution of water temperature than the horizontal permeability. If the vertical permeability is relatively high, the steam in the aquifer has a higher tendency to migrate upward and cause the aquifer temperature to rise faster. The simulation results also showed that heat convection is very sensitive to the soil permeability. Therefore, high permeability media makes the effect of heat convection more important on applying the steam-injection method. Heat conduction dominates the heat transfer within the hot aqueous zone. However, the hot aqueous zone is relatively smaller than the steam zone when steam is injected into the aquifer. Therefore, heat conduction is not as important as heat convection within the steam zone, which is the same result observed in the field test. Specific heat of soil media is also a sensitive factor. A numerical simulator, T2VOC, was utilized to simulate the PCP transport in the aquifer when steam was injected into the aquifer. The results showed that the shape of PCP distribution was identical to that of steam. It illustrated thatthe steam carried PCP upward and laterally. The high vertical soil permeability causes the steam to migrate upward with PCP easily. A low partitioning coefficient allows PCP to be desorbed easier, also an important factor. A majority of the PCP in the soil was transferred to the aqueous phase as the water temperature increased, showing similar results to those observed in the field test. According to the sensitivity analysis, PCP transport is more sensitive to the vertical permeability than the

  6. PcpA Promotes Higher Levels of Infection and Modulates Recruitment of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells during Pneumococcal Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Walker, Melissa M; Novak, Lea; Widener, Rebecca; Grubbs, James Aaron; King, Janice; Hale, Joanetha Y; Ochs, Martina M; Myers, Lisa E; Briles, David E; Deshane, Jessy

    2016-03-01

    We used two different infection models to investigate the kinetics of the PcpA-dependent pneumococcal disease in mice. In a bacteremic pneumonia model, we observed a PcpA-dependent increase in bacterial burden in the lungs, blood, liver, bronchoalveolar lavage, and spleens of mice at 24 h postinfection. This PcpA-dependent effect on bacterial burden appeared earlier (within 12 h) in the focal pneumonia model, which lacks bacteremia or sepsis. Histological changes show that the ability of pneumococci to make PcpA was associated with unresolved inflammation in both models of infection. Using our bacteremic pneumonia model we further investigated the effects of PcpA on recruitment of innate immune regulatory cells. The presence of PcpA was associated with increased IL-6 levels, suppressed production of TRAIL, and reduced infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells. The ability of pneumococci to make PcpA negatively modulated both the infiltration and apoptosis of macrophages and the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor-like cells. The latter have been shown to facilitate the clearance and control of bacterial pneumonia. Taken together, the ability to make PcpA was strongly associated with increased bacterial burden, inflammation, and negative regulation of innate immune cell recruitment to the lung tissue during bacteremic pneumonia. PMID:26829988

  7. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... has a legitimate medical use. Use of a drug of abuse (e.g., heroin, PCP, marijuana) or any other... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.137 On what basis does the MRO verify...

  8. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... has a legitimate medical use. Use of a drug of abuse (e.g., heroin, PCP, marijuana) or any other... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.137 On what basis does the MRO verify...

  9. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... has a legitimate medical use. Use of a drug of abuse (e.g., heroin, PCP, marijuana) or any other... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.137 On what basis does the MRO verify...

  10. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... has a legitimate medical use. Use of a drug of abuse (e.g., heroin, PCP, marijuana) or any other... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.137 On what basis does the MRO verify...

  11. 49 CFR 40.137 - On what basis does the MRO verify test results involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... has a legitimate medical use. Use of a drug of abuse (e.g., heroin, PCP, marijuana) or any other... involving marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, or PCP? 40.137 Section 40.137 Transportation Office of the... Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.137 On what basis does the MRO verify...

  12. Anti-apoptotic Effects of PCP4/PEP19 in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines: A Novel Oncotarget

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Taiji; Souda, Masakazu; Yoshimura, Takuya; Sasaguri, Shoko; Hatanaka, Kazuhito; Tasaki, Takashi; Yoshioka, Takako; Ohi, Yasuyo; Yamada, Sohsuke; Tsutsui, Masato; Umekita, Yoshihisa; Tanimoto, Akihide

    2014-01-01

    The PCP4/PEP19 is a calmodulin-binding anti-apoptotic peptide in neural cells but its potential role in human cancer has largely been unknown. We investigated the expression of PCP4/PEP19 in human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, SK-BR-3, and MDA-MB-231 cells, and found that estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 and ER-negative SK-BR-3 cells expressed PCP4/PEP19. In the MCF-7 cells, cell proliferation was estrogen-dependent, and PCP4/PEP19 expression was induced by estrogen. In both cell lines, PCP4/PEP19 knockdown induced apoptosis and slightly decreased Akt phosphorylation. Knockdown of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1 (CaMKK1), resulting in decreased phospho-AktThr308, enhanced apoptosis in SK-BR-3 but not in MCF-7 cells. CaMKK2 knockdown moderately decreased phospho-AktThr308 and increased apoptosis in MCF-7 cells but not in SK-BR-3 cells. These data indicated that PCP4/PEP19 regulates apoptosis but exact mechanism is still unknown. PCP4/PEP19 can therefore potentially serve as independent oncotarget for therapy of PCP4/PEP19-positive breast cancers irrespective of ER expression. PMID:25153723

  13. TREATMENT OF PCP CONTAINING WASTEWATER USING ANAEROBIC FLUIDIZED BED GAC BIOREACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluates the use of two anaerobic fluidized-bed granular activated carbon (GAC) bioreactors for treating pentachlorophenol (PCP), one of the major toxic compounds found in wastewaters stemming primarily from wood preserving industries. he reactors are fed synthetic so...

  14. TREATMENT AND PCP CONTAINING WASTEWATER USING ANAEROBIC FLUIDIZED-BED GAC BIOREACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluates the use of two anaerobic fluidized-bed granular activated carbon (GAC) bioreactors for treating pentachlorophenol (PCP), one of the major toxic compounds found in wastewaters stemming primarily from wood preserving industries. he reactors are fed synthetic so...

  15. SOLVENT WASHING OF PCP CONTAMINATED SOILS WITH ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF WASH FLUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A solvent washing procedure for the removal of pentachlorophenol (PCP) from contaminated soils is presented. his procedure can be used in both in-situ and above ground soil washing applications. he in-situ solvent washing (flushing) of soil was simulated by continuously flushing ...

  16. Determination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in waste wood--method comparison by a collaborative trial.

    PubMed

    Becker, Roland; Buge, Hans-Gerhard; Win, Tin

    2002-06-01

    Two independently developed and validated procedures for the determination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in waste wood were compared by means of a collaborative trial. Both methods foresee quantification of PCP by gas chromatography (GC-ECD) after acetylation and differ with regard to the use of methanol or toluene/sulphuric acid, respectively, as solvent in the sonication extraction step. Test samples with established analyte homogeneity were prepared from a ground "real life" starting material. A total of 23 participating laboratories with experience in wood preservative analysis were instructed to apply both methods to three levels of content in the range of 0.5-20 mg PCP/kg. In case of the toluene/sulphuric acid extraction, lower recoveries and higher interlaboratory dispersion of results at the higher PCP contents were observed. Seen against the background of the Horwitz equation a reproducibility standard deviation of approximately 19% for the methanol extraction at the 4.5 mg/kg level meets the requirement for a sound analytical method. Thus, the sonication extraction procedure with methanol has been annexed as a reference method to the German waste wood regulation. PMID:12108691

  17. Regulation of convergence and extension movements during vertebrate gastrulation by the Wnt/PCP pathway

    PubMed Central

    Roszko, Isabelle; Sawada, Atsushi; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna

    2009-01-01

    Vertebrate gastrulation entails massive cell movements that establish and shape the germ layers. During gastrulation, the individual cell behaviors are strictly coordinated in time and space by various signaling pathways. These pathways instruct the cells about proliferation, shape, fate and migration into proper location. Convergence and extension (C&E) movements during vertebrate gastrulation play a major role in the shaping of the embryonic body. In vertebrates, the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (Wnt/PCP) pathway is a key regulator of C&E movements, essential for several polarized cell behaviors, including directed cell migration, and mediolateral and radial cell intercalation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the acquisition of planar cell polarity by highly dynamic mesenchymal cells engaged in C&E is still not well understood. Each cell in the embryo needs spatial and temporal information, which are required for its appropriate behavior, and the Wnt/PCP pathway provides this information by a yet unclear mechanism. Here we review new evidence implicating the Wnt/PCP pathway in specific cell behaviors required for C&E during zebrafish gastrulation, in comparison to other vertebrates. We also discuss findings on the molecular regulation and the interaction of the Wnt/PCP pathway with other signaling pathways during gastrulation movements. PMID:19761865

  18. REMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH WOOD-TREATMENT CHEMICALS (PCP AND CREOSOTE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    PCP and creosote PAHs are found in most of the contaminated soils at wood-treatment sites. The treatment methods currently being used for such soils include soil washing, incineration, and biotreatment. Soil washing involves removal of the hazardous chemicals from soils ...

  19. INVESTIGATION OF THE POTENTIAL RELEASE OF POLYCHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS FROM PCP-TREATED UTILITY POLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimated that the use of technical grade pentachlorophenol (PCP) between 1970 and 1995 to treat wood was approximately 400,000 metric tons in the US, and that between 4,800 and 36,000 grams of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodiben...

  20. RESULTS OF A METHOD VERIFICATION STUDY FOR ANALYSES OF PCP IN SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a prelude to a field demonstration of the fungal treatment technology by the SITE Program, a field treatability study was performed to select optimal fungal species and loading rates.using the site-specific soil matrix contaminated with Wood preserving wastes: PCP and PAHS. ur...

  1. EXTRACTION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL (PCP) FROM SOILS USING ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN ACID SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of organic contaminants like PCP in soil is a major environmental concern. Various remediation methods have been used of which soil washing is a common procedure. Many different solvents like surfactants, ionic liquids and cyclodextrins have been studied. the pres...

  2. Secreted frizzled-related protein disrupts PCP in eye lens fiber cells that have polarised primary cilia.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Yuki; Stump, Richard J W; Nguyen, Anke; Wen, Li; Chen, Yongjuan; Wang, Yanshu; Murdoch, Jennifer N; Lovicu, Frank J; McAvoy, John W

    2010-02-15

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling polarises cells along tissue axes. Although pathways involved are becoming better understood, outstanding issues include; (i) existence/identity of cues that orchestrate global polarisation in tissues, and (ii) the generality of the link between polarisation of primary cilia and asymmetric localisation of PCP proteins. Mammalian lenses are mainly comprised of epithelial-derived fiber cells. Concentrically arranged fibers are precisely aligned as they elongate along the anterior-posterior axis and orientate towards lens poles where they meet fibers from other segments to form characteristic sutures. We show that lens exhibits PCP, with each fiber cell having an apically situated cilium and in most cases this is polarised towards the anterior pole. Frizzled and other PCP proteins are also asymmetrically localised along the equatorial-anterior axis. Mutations in core PCP genes Van Gogh-like 2 and Celsr1 perturb oriented fiber alignment and suture formation. Suppression of the PCP pathway by overexpressing Sfrp2 shows that whilst local groups of fibers are often similarly oriented, they lack global orientation; consequently when local groups of fibers with different orientations meet they form multiple, small, ectopic suture-like configurations. This indicates that this extracellular inhibitor disrupts a global polarising signal that utilises a PCP-mediated mechanism to coordinate the global alignment and orientation of fibers to lens poles. PMID:19968984

  3. Analysis of a Population-Based Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia Index as an Outcome Measure of Access and Quality of Care for the Treatment of HIV Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arno, Peter S.; Gourevitch, Marc N.; Drucker, Ernest; Fang, Jing; Goldberg, Clara; Memmott, Margaret; Bonuck, Karen; Deb, Nandini; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. A population-based Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) Index was developed in New York City to identify geographic areas and subpopulations at increased risk for PCP. Methods. A zip code–level PCP Index was created from AIDS surveillance and hospital discharge records and defined as (number of PCP-related hospitalizations)/(number of persons living with AIDS). Results. In 1997, there were 2262 hospitalizations for PCP among 39 740 persons living with AIDS in New York City (PCP Index = .05691). PCP Index values varied widely across neighborhoods with high AIDS prevalence (West Village = .02532 vs Central Harlem = .08696). Some neighborhoods with moderate AIDS prevalence had strikingly high rates (Staten Island = .14035; northern Manhattan = .08756). Conclusions. The PCP Index highlights communities in particular need of public health interventions to improve HIV-related service delivery. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:395–398) PMID:11867318

  4. PCP Signaling between Migrating Neurons and their Planar-Polarized Neuroepithelial Environment Controls Filopodial Dynamics and Directional Migration

    PubMed Central

    Moens, Cecilia B.

    2016-01-01

    The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is a cell-contact mediated mechanism for transmitting polarity information between neighboring cells. PCP “core components” (Vangl, Fz, Pk, Dsh, and Celsr) are essential for a number of cell migratory events including the posterior migration of facial branchiomotor neurons (FBMNs) in the plane of the hindbrain neuroepithelium in zebrafish and mice. While the mechanism by which PCP signaling polarizes static epithelial cells is well understood, how PCP signaling controls highly dynamic processes like neuronal migration remains an important outstanding question given that PCP components have been implicated in a range of directed cell movements, particularly during vertebrate development. Here, by systematically disrupting PCP signaling in a rhombomere-restricted manner we show that PCP signaling is required both within FBMNs and the hindbrain rhombomere 4 environment at the time when they initiate their migration. Correspondingly, we demonstrate planar polarized localization of PCP core components Vangl2 and Fzd3a in the hindbrain neuroepithelium, and transient localization of Vangl2 at the tips of retracting FBMN filopodia. Using high-resolution timelapse imaging of FBMNs in genetic chimeras we uncover opposing cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous functions for Fzd3a and Vangl2 in regulating FBMN protrusive activity. Within FBMNs, Fzd3a is required to stabilize filopodia while Vangl2 has an antagonistic, destabilizing role. However, in the migratory environment Fzd3a acts to destabilize FBMN filopodia while Vangl2 has a stabilizing role. Together, our findings suggest a model in which PCP signaling between the planar polarized neuroepithelial environment and FBMNs directs migration by the selective stabilization of FBMN filopodia. PMID:26990447

  5. The planar cell polarity (PCP) protein Diversin translocates to the nucleus to interact with the transcription factor AF9

    SciTech Connect

    Haribaskar, Ramachandran; Puetz, Michael; Schupp, Birte; Skouloudaki, Kassiani; Bietenbeck, Andreas; Walz, Gerd; Schaefer, Tobias

    2009-09-11

    The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, a {beta}-catenin-independent branch of the Wnt signaling pathway, orients cells and their appendages with respect to the body axes. Diversin, the mammalian homolog of the Drosophila PCP protein Diego, acts as a molecular switch that blocks {beta}-catenin-dependent and promotes {beta}-catenin-independent Wnt signaling. We report now that Diversin, containing several nuclear localization signals, translocates to the nucleus, where it interacts with the transcription factor AF9. Both Diversin and AF9 block canonical Wnt signaling; however, this occurs independently of each other, and does not require nuclear Diversin. In contrast, AF9 strongly augments the Diversin-driven activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent gene expression in the nucleus, and this augmentation largely depends on the presence of nuclear Diversin. Thus, our findings reveal that components of the PCP cascade translocate to the nucleus to participate in transcriptional regulation and PCP signaling.

  6. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: PCP IMMUNOASSAY TECHNOLOGIES - PENTA RISC BY ENSYS INC., PENTA RAPID BY OHMICRON CORP., ENVIROGARD BY MILLIPORE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this demonstration were to test these field screening technologies for accuracy and precision in detecting Pentachlorophenol (PCP) levels in soil and water by comparing their results with those of a confirmatory laboratory. The three immunoassay technologies ...

  7. A multiplexed nucleic acid microsystem for point-of-care detection of HIV co-infection with MTB and PCP.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingjia; Kong, Jilie

    2013-12-15

    Many individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), especially children in African countries, die of co-infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) (coinfection rate: 50%) or Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) (coinfection rate: 81%). The present proposal describes a rapid, portable, low-cost, multiplexed point-of-care diagnostic technique for simultaneously detecting HIV, MTB, and PCP. This technique incorporates a creative micro-device (hardware) and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification strategy (software). PMID:24209377

  8. Dechlorination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in aqueous solution on novel Pd-loaded electrode modified with PPy-SDBS composite film.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhirong; Wei, Xuefeng; Zhang, Huan; Hu, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a persistent pollutant and a suspected human carcinogen. It can be found in the air, water, and soil and enters the environment through evaporation from treated wood surfaces, industrial spills, and disposal at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. Ecotoxicity of PCP necessitates the development of rapid and reliable remediation techniques. Electrocatalytic hydrogenolysis (ECH) has been proven as a promising method for detoxification of halogenated wastes, due to its rapid reaction rate, low apparatus cost, mild reaction conditions, and absence of secondary contaminants. Challenge for the application of ECH is to prepare a Pd-coated cathode with high stability, high catalytic activity, and low Pd loading level. In this work, Pd/polypyrrole-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate/meshed Ti (Pd/PPy-SDBS/Ti) electrode was prepared and was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Electrochemically reductive dechlorination of PCP on the Pd/PPy-SDBS/Ti electrode in aqueous solution was investigated. Pd microparticles were uniformly dispersed on PPy-SDBS film which was previously electrodeposited on the meshed Ti supporting electrode. The loading of Pd on the electrode was 0.72 mg cm(-2). Electrocatalytic dechlorination of PCP was performed in a two-compartment cell separated by cation-exchange membrane. The PCP removal on the Pd/PPy-SDBS/Ti electrode could reach 100 % within 70 min with dechlorination current 3 mA when PCP initial concentration was 10 mg L(-1) and initial pH was 2.4. Conversion of PCP on the Pd/PPy-SDBS/Ti electrode followed pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the apparent activation energy was 13.0 kJ mol(-1). The removal of PCP still kept 100 % after 70 min dechlorination when the Pd/PPy-SDBS/Ti cathode was reused ten times. The electrode exhibited promising dechlorination potential with high electrocatalytic activity, good stability

  9. Comparative effects of phencyclidine (PCP) and. delta. /sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on glucose oxidation in the rat testis

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, S.; Bauer, V.

    1986-03-05

    Glucose and fructose are important fuels of cellular energetics in organs like testis and brain. The previous in-vitro studies indicated that THC may disrupt many gonadal functions by inhibiting energy metabolism in the testis. PCP is sold on the street as any one of a variety of psychoactive drugs. Most commonly it is misrepresented as THC. Therefore, to compare the effects of PCP and THC on glucose utilization, in-vitro radiorespirometric experiments were conducted in rat testicular tissues. The /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from 5.5 mM radiolabelled glucose was followed in the presence and absence of 0.2, 0.1, 0.05, 0.01, 0.005, 0.0025 mM PCP. PCP produced a dose-dependent biphasic effect, stimulating /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production by 6.2, 17 and 5.8% and then inhibiting it by 13.2, 15.4 and 8.9% with respective concentrations of PCP. This is in contrast to THC which produced a dose-related inhibition of 15.2, 18.1, 20.1 and 25.3% in /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mM THC. These observations are significant due to the possible abuse of PCP together with THC either deliberately or by misrepresentation.

  10. Bioremediation of a Chilean Andisol contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) by solid substrate cultures of white-rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Rubilar, O; Tortella, G; Cea, M; Acevedo, F; Bustamante, M; Gianfreda, L; Diez, M C

    2011-02-01

    This study provides a first attempt investigation of a serie of studies on the ability of Anthracophyllum discolor, a recently isolated white-rot fungus from forest of southern Chile, for the treatment of soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) to future research on potential applications in bioremediation process. Bioremediation of soil contaminated with PCP (250 and 350 mg kg⁻¹ soil) was investigated with A. discolor and compared with the reference strain Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Both strains were incorporated as free and immobilized in wheat grains, a lignocellulosic material previously selected among wheat straw, wheat grains and wood chips through the growth and colonization of A. discolor. Wheat grains showed a higher growth and colonization of A. discolor, increasing the production of manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity. Moreover, the application of white-rot fungi immobilized in wheat grains to the contaminated soil favored the fungus spread. In turn, with both fungal strains and at the two PCP concentrations a high PCP removal (70-85%) occurred as respect to that measured with the fungus as free mycelium (30-45%). Additionally, the use of wheat grains in soil allowed the proliferation of microorganisms PCP decomposers, showing a synergistic effect with A. discolor and P. chrysosporium and increasing the PCP removal in the soil. PMID:20512655

  11. Olanzapine Prevents the PCP-induced Reduction in the Neurite Outgrowth of Prefrontal Cortical Neurons via NRG1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingsheng; Yu, Yinghua; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that reducing neurite outgrowth and synaptic plasticity plays a critical role in the pathology of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) can induce symptoms of schizophrenia as well as reduce dendritic spine density and neurite growth. The antipsychotic drug olanzapine may improve these deficits. This study aimed to investigate: (1) if olanzapine prevents PCP-induced suppression of neurite outgrowth and synaptic protein expression; (2) if olanzapine affects the Akt-GSK3 signaling pathway; and (3) the role of neuregulin 1 (NRG1) in this process. Immunofluorescence revealed that PCP treatment for 24 hours reduces both neurite length (28.5%) and the number of neurite branches (35.6%) in primary prefrontal cortical neuron cultures. PCP reduced protein and mRNA expressions of synaptophysin (24.9% and 23.2%, respectively) and PSD95 (31.5% and 21.4%, respectively), and the protein expression of p-Akt (26.7%) and p-GSK3β (35.2%). Olanzapine co-treatment prevented these PCP-induced effects in normal neurons but not in neurons from NRG1-knockout mice. These results indicate that NRG1 mediates the preventive effects of olanzapine on the PCP-induced impairment of neurite outgrowth and synaptic protein expression. This study provides potential targets for interventions on improving the efficacy of olanzapine on preventing cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:26781398

  12. A one-dimensional model of PCP signaling: polarized cell behavior in the notochord of the ascidian Ciona

    PubMed Central

    Kourakis, Matthew J.; Reeves, Wendy; Newman-Smith, Erin; Maury, Benoit; Abdul-Wajid, Sarah; Smith, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its importance in development and physiology the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway remains one of the most enigmatic signaling mechanisms. The notochord of the ascidian Ciona provides a unique model for investigating the PCP pathway. Interestingly, the notochord appears to be the only embryonic structure in Ciona activating the PCP pathway. Moreover, the Ciona notochord as a single-file array of forty polarized cells is a uniquely tractable system for the study of polarization dynamics and the transmission of the PCP pathway. Here, we test models for propagation of a polarizing signal, interrogating temporal, spatial and signaling requirements. A simple cell-cell relay cascading through the entire length of the notochord is not supported; instead a more complex mechanism is revealed, with interactions influencing polarity between neighboring cells, but not distant ones. Mechanisms coordinating notochord-wide polarity remain elusive, but appear to entrain general (i.e., global) polarity even while local interactions remain important. However, this global polarizer does not appear to act as a localized, spatially-restricted determinant. Coordination of polarity along the long axis of the notochord requires the PCP pathway, a role we demonstrate is temporally distinct from this pathway’s earlier role in convergent extension and intercalation. We also reveal polarity in the notochord to be dynamic: a cell’s polarity state can be changed and then restored, underscoring the Ciona notochord’s amenability for in vivo studies of PCP. PMID:25173874

  13. Evidence for Natural Horizontal Transfer of the pcpB Gene in the Evolution of Polychlorophenol-Degrading Sphingomonads

    PubMed Central

    Tiirola, Marja A.; Wang, Hong; Paulin, Lars; Kulomaa, Markku S.

    2002-01-01

    The chlorophenol degradation pathway in Sphingobium chlorophenolicum is initiated by the pcpB gene product, pentachlorophenol-4-monooxygenase. The distribution of the gene was studied in a phylogenetically diverse group of polychlorophenol-degrading bacteria isolated from contaminated groundwater in Kärkölä, Finland. All the sphingomonads isolated were shown to share pcpB gene homologs with 98.9 to 100% sequence identity. The gene product was expressed when the strains were induced by 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol. A comparative analysis of the 16S rDNA and pcpB gene trees suggested that a recent horizontal transfer of the pcpB gene was involved in the evolution of the catabolic pathway in the Kärkölä sphingomonads. The full-length Kärkölä pcpB gene allele had approximately 70% identity with the three pcpB genes previously sequenced from sphingomonads. It was very closely related to the environmental clones obtained from chlorophenol-enriched soil samples (M. Beaulieu, V. Becaert, L. Deschenes, and R. Villemur, Microbiol. Ecol. 40:345-355, 2000). The gene was not present in polychlorophenol-degrading nonsphingomonads isolated from the Kärkölä source. PMID:12200305

  14. Effect of acute and chronic ethanol pre-treatment on the disposition of phencyclidine (PCP) in the rat.

    PubMed

    Vadlamani, N L; Pontani, R B; Misra, A L

    1982-05-01

    Disposition of [H] Phencyclidine in brain, plasma and adipose tissue of rats acutely and chronically-treated with ethanol was studied using a method possessing high sensitivity and specificity for PCP. In rats acutely-treated with ethanol (5 g/kg PO dose) and PCP (10 mg/kg IP dose), dispositional factors did not play a role in the intensifies pharmacological and behavioral effects of PCP. However in rats chronically-treated with 2.5 g/kg PO dose of ethanol twice a day for 19 days, the disposition of PCP (5 mg/kg IP dose) was significantly altered and the values of PCP in brain, plasma and adipose tissue were significantly higher than those in the control group. Although inhibition of PCP metabolism and a comparatively slower rate of its elimination appear to account for the potentiation of drug effects in animals chronically-treated with ethanol, interaction of drugs at the level of the central nervous system cannot be ruled out. PMID:7089042

  15. Olanzapine Prevents the PCP-induced Reduction in the Neurite Outgrowth of Prefrontal Cortical Neurons via NRG1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingsheng; Yu, Yinghua; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that reducing neurite outgrowth and synaptic plasticity plays a critical role in the pathology of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) can induce symptoms of schizophrenia as well as reduce dendritic spine density and neurite growth. The antipsychotic drug olanzapine may improve these deficits. This study aimed to investigate: (1) if olanzapine prevents PCP-induced suppression of neurite outgrowth and synaptic protein expression; (2) if olanzapine affects the Akt-GSK3 signaling pathway; and (3) the role of neuregulin 1 (NRG1) in this process. Immunofluorescence revealed that PCP treatment for 24 hours reduces both neurite length (28.5%) and the number of neurite branches (35.6%) in primary prefrontal cortical neuron cultures. PCP reduced protein and mRNA expressions of synaptophysin (24.9% and 23.2%, respectively) and PSD95 (31.5% and 21.4%, respectively), and the protein expression of p-Akt (26.7%) and p-GSK3β (35.2%). Olanzapine co-treatment prevented these PCP-induced effects in normal neurons but not in neurons from NRG1-knockout mice. These results indicate that NRG1 mediates the preventive effects of olanzapine on the PCP-induced impairment of neurite outgrowth and synaptic protein expression. This study provides potential targets for interventions on improving the efficacy of olanzapine on preventing cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:26781398

  16. Probing the core-mantle boundary beneath Europe and Western Eurasia: A detailed study using PcP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassner, Alexandra; Thomas, Christine; Krüger, Frank; Weber, Michael

    2015-09-01

    We use PcP (the core reflected P phase) recordings of deep earthquakes and nuclear explosions from the Gräfenberg (Germany) and NORSAR (Norway) arrays to investigate the core-mantle boundary region beneath Europe and western Eurasia. We find evidence for a previously unknown ultra-low velocity zone 600 km south-east of Moscow, located at the edge of a middle-size low shear- velocity region imaged in seismic tomography that is located beneath the Volga river region. The observed amplitude variations of PcP can be modelled by velocity reductions of P and S-waves of -5% and -15%, respectively, with a density increase of +15%. Travel time delays of pre-and postcursors are indicating a thickness of about 13 km for this ultra-low velocity region (ULVZ). However, our modelling also reveals highly ambiguous amplitude variations of PcP and a reflection off the top of the anomaly for various ULVZs and topography models. Accordingly, large velocity contrasts of up to -10% in VP and -20% in VS cannot be excluded. In general, the whole Volga river region shows a complex pattern of PcP amplitudes caused most likely by CMB undulations. Further PcP probes beneath Paris, Kiev and northern Italy indicate likely normal CMB conditions, whereas the samples below Finland and the Hungary-Slovakia border yield strongly amplified PcP signals suggesting strong CMB topography effects. We evaluate the amplitude behaviour of PcP as a function of distance and several ULVZ models using the 1D reflectivity and the 2D Gauss beam method. The influence of the velocity and density perturbations is analysed as well as the anomaly thickness, the dominant period of the source wavelet and interface topographies. Strong variation of the PcP amplitude are obtained as a function of distance and of the impedance contrast. We also consider two types of topographies: undulations atop the CMB in the presence of flat ULVZs and vice versa. Where a broad range of CMB topography dimensions lead to large PcP

  17. The PCP genes Celsr1 and Vangl2 are required for normal lung branching morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yates, Laura L; Schnatwinkel, Carsten; Murdoch, Jennifer N; Bogani, Debora; Formstone, Caroline J; Townsend, Stuart; Greenfield, Andy; Niswander, Lee A; Dean, Charlotte H

    2010-06-01

    The lungs are generated by branching morphogenesis as a result of reciprocal signalling interactions between the epithelium and mesenchyme during development. Mutations that disrupt formation of either the correct number or shape of epithelial branches affect lung function. This, in turn, can lead to congenital abnormalities such as cystadenomatoid malformations, pulmonary hypertension or lung hypoplasia. Defects in lung architecture are also associated with adult lung disease, particularly in cases of idiopathic lung fibrosis. Identifying the signalling pathways which drive epithelial tube formation will likely shed light on both congenital and adult lung disease. Here we show that mutations in the planar cell polarity (PCP) genes Celsr1 and Vangl2 lead to disrupted lung development and defects in lung architecture. Lungs from Celsr1(Crsh) and Vangl2(Lp) mouse mutants are small and misshapen with fewer branches, and by late gestation exhibit thickened interstitial mesenchyme and defective saccular formation. We observe a recapitulation of these branching defects following inhibition of Rho kinase, an important downstream effector of the PCP signalling pathway. Moreover, epithelial integrity is disrupted, cytoskeletal remodelling perturbed and mutant endoderm does not branch normally in response to the chemoattractant FGF10. We further show that Celsr1 and Vangl2 proteins are present in restricted spatial domains within lung epithelium. Our data show that the PCP genes Celsr1 and Vangl2 are required for foetal lung development thereby revealing a novel signalling pathway critical for this process that will enhance our understanding of congenital and adult lung diseases and may in future lead to novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:20223754

  18. Catalytic dehydrogenation of cycloalkanes to arenes by a dihydrido iridium P-C-P pincer complex

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, M.; Hagen, C.; Cramer, R.E.; Jensen, C.M.; Kaska, W.C.

    1997-01-29

    We recently found that the iridium P-C-P pincer complex IrH{sub 2}[C{sub 6}H{sub 3}-2,6-(CH{sub 2}-PBu{sup T}{sub 2}){sub 2}] (1) is a highly active, homogeneous catalyst for the transfer dehydrogenation of cyclooctane with unusual long-term stability at temperatures as high as 200 {degree}C. This reactivity has now been extended to the catalytic transfer dehydrogenation of cycloalkanes to arenes. We report this novel catalytic activity as well as the results of an X-ray structure determination of 1. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Core mantle boundary topography from short period PcP, PKP, and PKKP data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sze, Edmond K. M.; van der Hilst, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    We use a total of 839,369 PcP, PKPab, PKPbc, PKPdf, PKKPab, and PKKPbc residual travel times from [Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 88 (1998) 722] grouped in 29,837 summary rays to constrain lateral variation in the depth to the core-mantle boundary (CMB). We assumed a homogeneous outer core, and the data were corrected for mantle structure and inner-core anisotropy. Inversions of separate data sets yield amplitude variations of up to 5 km for PcP, PKPab, PKPbc, and PKKP and 13 km for PKPdf. This is larger than the CMB undulations inferred in geodetic studies and, moreover, the PcP results are not readily consistent with the inferences from PKP and PKKP. Although the source-receiver ambiguity for the core-refracted phases can explain some of it, this discrepancy suggest that the travel-time residuals cannot be explained by topography alone. The wavespeed perturbations in the tomographic model used for the mantle corrections might be too small to fully account for the trade off between volumetric heterogeneity and CMB topography. In a second experiment we therefore re-applied corrections for mantle structure outside a basal 290 km-thick layer and inverted all data jointly for both CMB topography and volumetric heterogeneity within this layer. The resultant CMB model can explain PcP, PKP, and PKKP residuals and has approximately 0.2 km excess core ellipticity, which is in good agreement with inferences from free core nutation observations. Joint inversion yields a peak-to-peak amplitude of CMB topography of about 3 km, and the inversion yields velocity variations of ±5% in the basal layer. The latter suggests a strong trade-off between topography and volumetric heterogeneity, but uncertainty analyses suggest that the variation in core radius can be resolved. The spherical averages of all inverted topographic models suggest that the data are best fit if the actual CMB radius is 1.5 km less than in the Earth reference model used (i.e. the average outer core radius would be 3478

  20. Frizzled-Induced Van Gogh Phosphorylation by CK1ε Promotes Asymmetric Localization of Core PCP Factors in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Lindsay K; Wu, Jun; Yanfeng, Wang A; Mlodzik, Marek

    2016-07-12

    Epithelial tissues are polarized along two axes. In addition to apical-basal polarity, they are often polarized within the plane of the epithelium, so-called Planar Cell Polarity (PCP). PCP depends upon Wnt/Frizzled (Fz) signaling factors, including Fz itself and Van Gogh (Vang/Vangl). We sought to understand how Vang interaction with other core PCP factors affects Vang function. We find that Fz induces Vang phosphorylation in a cell-autonomous manner. Vang phosphorylation occurs on conserved N-terminal serine/threonine residues, is mediated by CK1ε/Dco, and is critical for polarized membrane localization of Vang and other PCP proteins. This regulatory mechanism does not require Fz signaling through Dishevelled and thus represents a cell-autonomous upstream interaction between Fz and Vang. Furthermore, this signaling event appears to be related to Wnt5a-mediated Vangl2 phosphorylation during mouse limb patterning and may thus be a general mechanism underlying Wnt-regulated PCP establishment. PMID:27346358

  1. Removal of PCP-Na from aqueous systems using monodispersed pompon-like magnetic nanoparticles as adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Yu, Hongbing; Zhan, Sihui; Li, Shengjun; Yang, Hui; Liu, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Novel monodispersed pompon-like magnetite/chitosan (Fe3O4/CS) composite nanoparticles were synthesized by a solvothermal method and used as adsorbents for the removal of toxic sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP-Na) from aqueous media. The adsorption behavior of PCP-Na on Fe3O4/CS obeyed the Langmuir isotherm and fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Moreover, the adsorption was strongly pH-dependent. The results of XPS, thermodynamics, pH-dependent and desorption studies suggested that electrostatic attraction, hydrogen bonding and π-π interactions were all believed to play a role in PCP-Na adsorption on Fe3O4/CS. Having a saturation magnetization of 22.2 emu · g(-1), the Fe3O4/CS can be easily separated from water with magnets within 2 min. The adsorption equilibrium was achieved quite rapidly (within 30 min) and the maximum removal of PCP-Na (91.5%) was obtained at 25 °C and pH 6.5. The Fe3O4/CS investigated can be used to remove PCP-Na and other contaminants from wastewater. PMID:24355861

  2. CAFET Algorithm Reveals Wnt/PCP Signature in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yue; Galkin, Anna V.; Wu, Chunlei; Reddy, Venkateshwar; Su, Andrew I.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the gene expression patterns of 138 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) samples and developed a new algorithm called Coverage Analysis with Fisher’s Exact Test (CAFET) to identify molecular pathways that are differentially activated in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) subtypes. Analysis of the lung cancer samples demonstrated hierarchical clustering according to the histological subtype and revealed a strong enrichment for the Wnt signaling pathway components in the cluster consisting predominantly of SCC samples. The specific gene expression pattern observed correlated with enhanced activation of the Wnt Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway and inhibition of the canonical Wnt signaling branch. Further real time RT-PCR follow-up with additional primary tumor samples and lung cancer cell lines confirmed enrichment of Wnt/PCP pathway associated genes in the SCC subtype. Dysregulation of the canonical Wnt pathway, characterized by increased levels of β-catenin and epigenetic silencing of negative regulators, has been reported in adenocarcinoma of the lung. Our results suggest that SCC and AC utilize different branches of the Wnt pathway during oncogenesis. PMID:22016777

  3. PCP METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING DOSE RATES FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITIES IN SHIPPING PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan, S.

    2011-08-23

    The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that small amounts of hazardous materials, in this case radioactive materials, are significantly less hazardous than large amounts of the same materials. This study describes a methodology designed to estimate an SGQ for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a package compliant with 10 CFR Part 71 external radiation level limits regulations. These regulations require packaging for the shipment of radioactive materials perform, under both normal and accident conditions, the essential functions of material containment, subcriticality, and maintain external radiation levels within regulatory limits. 10 CFR 71.33(b)(1)(2)&(3) state radioactive and fissile materials must be identified and their maximum quantity, chemical and physical forms be included in an application. Furthermore, the U.S. Federal Regulations require application contain an evaluation demonstrating the package (i.e., the packaging and its contents) satisfies the external radiation standards for all packages (10 CFR 71.31(2), 71.35(a), & 71.47). By placing the contents in a He leak-tight containment vessel, and limiting the mass to ensure subcriticality, the first two essential functions are readily met. Some isotopes emit sufficiently strong photon radiation that small amounts of material can yield a large external dose rate. Quantifying of the dose rate for a proposed content is a challenging issue for the SGQ approach. It is essential to quantify external radiation levels from several common gamma and neutron sources that can be safely placed in a specific packaging, to ensure compliance with federal regulations. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) Methodology for Determining Dose Rate for Small Gram Quantities in Shipping Packagings described in this report provides bounding mass limits for a set of proposed SGQ isotopes. Methodology calculations were performed to estimate external radiation levels

  4. Wdpcp, a PCP Protein Required for Ciliogenesis, Regulates Directional Cell Migration and Cell Polarity by Direct Modulation of the Actin Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Cheng; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; Lozito, Thomas P.; Zhang, Zhen; Francis, Richard J.; Yagi, Hisato; Swanhart, Lisa M.; Sanker, Subramaniam; Francis, Deanne; Yu, Qing; San Agustin, Jovenal T.; Puligilla, Chandrakala; Chatterjee, Tania; Tansey, Terry; Liu, Xiaoqin; Kelley, Matthew W.; Spiliotis, Elias T.; Kwiatkowski, Adam V.; Tuan, Rocky; Pazour, Gregory J.; Hukriede, Neil A.; Lo, Cecilia W.

    2013-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) regulates cell alignment required for collective cell movement during embryonic development. This requires PCP/PCP effector proteins, some of which also play essential roles in ciliogenesis, highlighting the long-standing question of the role of the cilium in PCP. Wdpcp, a PCP effector, was recently shown to regulate both ciliogenesis and collective cell movement, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we show Wdpcp can regulate PCP by direct modulation of the actin cytoskeleton. These studies were made possible by recovery of a Wdpcp mutant mouse model. Wdpcp-deficient mice exhibit phenotypes reminiscent of Bardet–Biedl/Meckel–Gruber ciliopathy syndromes, including cardiac outflow tract and cochlea defects associated with PCP perturbation. We observed Wdpcp is localized to the transition zone, and in Wdpcp-deficient cells, Sept2, Nphp1, and Mks1 were lost from the transition zone, indicating Wdpcp is required for recruitment of proteins essential for ciliogenesis. Wdpcp is also found in the cytoplasm, where it is localized in the actin cytoskeleton and in focal adhesions. Wdpcp interacts with Sept2 and is colocalized with Sept2 in actin filaments, but in Wdpcp-deficient cells, Sept2 was lost from the actin cytoskeleton, suggesting Wdpcp is required for Sept2 recruitment to actin filaments. Significantly, organization of the actin filaments and focal contacts were markedly changed in Wdpcp-deficient cells. This was associated with decreased membrane ruffling, failure to establish cell polarity, and loss of directional cell migration. These results suggest the PCP defects in Wdpcp mutants are not caused by loss of cilia, but by direct disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. Consistent with this, Wdpcp mutant cochlea has normal kinocilia and yet exhibits PCP defects. Together, these findings provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that a PCP component required for ciliogenesis can directly modulate the actin cytoskeleton to

  5. The Use of Fry (Embalming Fluid and PCP-Laced Cigarettes or Marijuana Sticks) among Crack Cocaine Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Ronald J.; Williams, Mark; Ross, Michael W.; Atkinson, John; McCurdy, Sherly A.

    2009-01-01

    Statistics show that the prevalence of crack cocaine use and embalming fluid and phencyclidine (PCP)-laced cigarettes or marijuana sticks, commonly referred to on the street as "fry" or "wet" is a problem; however, the relationship between these substances of abuse and concurrent polydrug use is unknown. In the present study, a cross-sectional…

  6. Enhanced withdrawal from chickens of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) by colestipol, mineral oil, and/or restricted feeding

    SciTech Connect

    Polin, D.; Olson, B.; Bursian, S.; Lehning, E.

    1986-01-01

    Young chickens fed hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or pentachlorophenol (PCP) for 14 d at 10 ppm in the diet contained body burdens of 573 or 362 micrograms, respectively. These diets were withdrawn (d 0) and replaced for 21 d with diets containing 5% mineral oil (MO), or 5% colestipol (CO), a bile-acid-binding resin, or the chickens were restricted in feed intake to 50% of controls (50-RF), fed MO plus 50-RF, or CO plus 50-RF. Without any treatment during withdrawal, body burdens were reduced to 63% and 70% of the d 0 values for HCB and PCP, respectively. MO, CO, or 50-RF reduced body burdens of HCB to 37% of d 0 burdens, but the combination treatments with 50-RF reduced body burdens to 19% of d 0 values. PCP was at 35% of the d 0 burdens from 50-RF, while all other treatments had reduced body burdens to nondetectable amounts of less than 0.7 micrograms/bird by d 21 of withdrawal. Body fat was not reduced by mineral oil, but was reduced to some extent by CO, and was markedly reduced by 50-RF. 50-RF always reduced body burdens of PCP or HCB alone or in combination with MO or CO. These data are discussed in relationship to the nonbiliary excretion of xenobiotics.

  7. The effect of maternal diabetes on the Wnt-PCP pathway during embryogenesis as reflected in the developing mouse eye

    PubMed Central

    López-Escobar, Beatriz; Cano, David A.; Rojas, Anabel; de Felipe, Beatriz; Palma, Francisco; Sánchez-Alcázar, José A.; Henderson, Deborah; Ybot-González, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Embryopathies that develop as a consequence of maternal diabetes have been studied intensely in both experimental and clinical scenarios. Accordingly, hyperglycaemia has been shown to downregulate the expression of elements in the non-canonical Wnt-PCP pathway, such as the Dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (Daam1) and Vangl2. Daam1 is a formin that is essential for actin polymerization and for cytoskeletal reorganization, and it is expressed strongly in certain organs during mouse development, including the eye, neural tube and heart. Daam1gt/gt and Daam1gt/+ embryos develop ocular defects (anophthalmia or microphthalmia) that are similar to those detected as a result of hyperglycaemia. Indeed, studying the effects of maternal diabetes on the Wnt-PCP pathway demonstrated that there was strong association with the Daam1 genotype, whereby the embryopathy observed in Daam1gt/+ mutant embryos of diabetic dams was more severe. There was evidence that embryonic exposure to glucose in vitro diminishes the expression of genes in the Wnt-PCP pathway, leading to altered cytoskeletal organization, cell shape and cell polarity in the optic vesicle. Hence, the Wnt-PCP pathway appears to influence cell morphology and cell polarity, events that drive the cellular movements required for optic vesicle formation and that, in turn, are required to maintain the fate determination. Here, we demonstrate that the Wnt-PCP pathway is involved in the early stages of mouse eye development and that it is altered by diabetes, provoking the ocular phenotype observed in the affected embryos. PMID:25540130

  8. Disruption of social cognition in the sub-chronic PCP rat model of schizophrenia: Possible involvement of the endocannabinoid system.

    PubMed

    Seillier, Alexandre; Giuffrida, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that social withdrawal in the phencyclidine (PCP) rat model of schizophrenia results from deficient endocannabinoid-induced activation of CB1 receptors. To understand the underlying cognitive mechanisms of the social deficit in PCP-treated rats, we examined the impact of pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid system on sociability (i.e. social approach) and social novelty preference (which relies on social recognition). Control rats showed a clear preference for a "social" cage (i.e. unfamiliar stimulus rat placed under a wire mesh cage) versus an "empty" cage, and spent more time exploring a "novel" cage (i.e. new stimulus rat) versus a "familiar" cage. In contrast, rats receiving PCP (5 mg/kg, b.i.d. for 7 days, followed by a 7 day-washout period) showed intact sociability, but lacked social novelty preference. This PCP-induced deficit was due to increased activity at CB1 receptors as it was reversed by systemic administration of the CB1 antagonist AM251 (1 mg/kg). In agreement with this hypothesis, the cannabinoid agonist CP55,940 (0.003-0.03 mg/kg) dose-dependently suppressed social novelty preference in control animals without affecting sociability. Taken together, these data suggest that PCP-treated rats have a deficit in social cognition, possibly induced by increased stimulation of CB1 receptors. This deficit, however, is distinct from the social withdrawal previously observed in these animals, as the latter is due to deficient, rather than increased, CB1 stimulation. PMID:26706691

  9. Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity of Co(II) and Ni(II) PCP Pincer Borohydride Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The 15e square-planar complexes [Co(PCPMe-iPr)Cl] (2a) and [Co(PCP-tBu)Cl] (2b), respectively, react readily with NaBH4 to afford complexes [Co(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (4a) and [Co(PCP-tBu)(η2-BH4)] (4b) in high yields, as confirmed by IR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and elemental analysis. The borohydride ligand is symmetrically bound to the cobalt center in η2-fashion. These compounds are paramagnetic with effective magnetic moments of 2.0(1) and 2.1(1) μB consistent with a d7 low-spin system corresponding to one unpaired electron. None of these complexes reacted with CO2 to give formate complexes. For structural and reactivity comparisons, we prepared the analogous Ni(II) borohydride complex [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (5) via two different synthetic routes. One utilizes [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)Cl] (3) and NaBH4, the second one makes use of the hydride complex [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)H] (6) and BH3·THF. In both cases, 5 is obtained in high yields. In contrast to 4a and 4b, the borohydride ligand is asymmetrically bound to the nickel center but still in an η2-mode. [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (5) loses readily BH3 at elevated temperatures in the presence of NEt3 to form 6. Complexes 5 and 6 are both diamagnetic and were characterized by a combination of 1H, 13C{1H}, and 31P{1H} NMR, IR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Additionally, the structure of these compounds was established by X-ray crystallography. Complexes 5 and 6 react with CO2 to give the formate complex [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)(OC(C=O)H] (7). The extrusion of BH3 from [Co(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (4a) and [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)(η2-BH4)] (5) with the aid of NH3 to yield the respective hydride complexes [Co(PCPMe-iPr)H] and [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)H] (6) and BH3NH3 was investigated by DFT calculations showing that formation of the Ni hydride is thermodynamically favorable, whereas the formation of the Co(II) hydride, in agreement with the experiment, is unfavorable. The electronic structures and the bonding of the borohydride ligand in [Co

  10. Hydrothermal alteration of CM carbonaceous chondrites: Implications of the identification of tochilinite as one type of meteoritic PCP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Poorly characterized phases (PCP's) constitute up to 30 volume percent of some CM carbonaceous chondrites, and are therefore an important key to an understanding of the physico-chemical conditions attending matrix evolution. An iron rich form of the terrestrial phase tochilinite was recently identified as a common type of PCP. Tochilinite has the general formula 6Fe(0.9)S.5(Mg,Fe)(OH)2 and consists of alternating machinawite (FeS) and brucite ((Mg,Fe)(OH)2) sheets, with iron vacancies in the sulfide sheets. In iron rich tochilinite, ferrous hydroxide, called amakinite, replaces brucite. If CM carbonaceous kchondrites have underdone hydrothermal alteration, iron rich tochilinite, at least, probably grew from aqueous solutions characterized by low FO2, high FS2, pH 10 to 12, and at a temperature at or below 170 C.

  11. Acute toxicity of chromate, DDT, PCP, TPBS, and zinc to Daphnia magna cultured in hard and soft water

    SciTech Connect

    Berglind, R.; Dave, G.

    1984-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity of five chemicals to water fleas (Daphnia magna) cultured in either hard to soft water. The toxicity tests were made in reconstituted waters and the five chemicals to be tested were, p,p'-DDT, pentachlorophenol (PCP), tetrapropylenbenzyl sulfonate (TPBS), potassium bichromate (K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/) and zincsulfate (ZnSO/sub 4/ x 7H/sub 2/O).

  12. The change of organic matter in sewage sludge composting and its influence on the adsorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP).

    PubMed

    Liping, Lou; Defu, Liu; Huanyu, Chen; Fang, Chen; Yunfeng, He; Guangming, Tian

    2015-04-01

    Due to the abundance of organic matter in compost, the addition of compost to soil can promote the adsorption of pesticides. However, few studies have examined the influence of the composting duration on the organic matter (OM) transformation and adsorption capacity of the compost. In this study, a mixture of sewage sludge and straw was composted, and then the physicochemical properties of various OM were studied. Additionally, the sorption capacities of humic acid (HA), humin (HM), humic acid + humin, and fulvic acid (FA) + humic acid + humin extracted from composts of different stages toward pentachlorophenol (PCP) were compared. The sorption data can be well-described by the Freundlich model, and the sorption capacity of PCP on HM is the strongest of all organic components. After 120 days of composting, the sorption abilities of HA and HM increased by 54.76 and 36.73%, respectively, which corresponds with increases in the aromatization degree, BET specific area, and pore volume and with a decrease in acid functional groups. The sorption ability of HA and HM increased by 54.76 and 36.73% due to the increase of the aromatization degree. However, the sorption capacity of the compost decreased by 51.2%, which resulted from a decrease in total organic matter content and from the interaction between organic components in composts. This could be verified by the sequence of the sorption capacity: HM > HM + HA > HM + HA + FA > HA. The contribution of humus to the sorption of PCP onto compost is approximately 41 to 55%, and it increases with composting time. Therefore, it is possible that other components are present that affect the adsorption of PCP on composts. PMID:25391228

  13. THC and endocannabinoids differentially regulate neuronal activity in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the subchronic PCP model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, David D; Giuffrida, Andrea; Lodge, Daniel J

    2016-02-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with an increased risk to develop schizophrenia as well as symptom exacerbation in patients. In contrast, clinical studies have revealed an inverse relationship between the cerebrospinal fluid levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide and symptom severity, suggesting a therapeutic potential for endocannabinoid-enhancing drugs. Indeed, preclinical studies have shown that these drugs can reverse distinct behavioral deficits in a rodent model of schizophrenia. The mechanisms underlying the differences between exogenous and endogenous cannabinoid administration are currently unknown. Using the phencyclidine (PCP) rat model of schizophrenia, we compared the effects on neuronal activity of systematic administration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597. Specifically, we found that the inhibitory response in the prefrontal cortex to THC administration was absent in PCP-treated rats. In contrast, an augmented response to endocannabinoid upregulation was observed in the prefrontal cortex of PCP-treated rats. Interestingly, differential effects were also observed at the neuronal population level, as endocannabinoid upregulation induced opposite effects on coordinated activity when compared with THC. Such information is important for understanding why marijuana and synthetic cannabinoid use may be contraindicated in schizophrenia patients while endocannabinoid enhancement may provide a novel therapeutic approach. PMID:26510449

  14. Alternative biological-treatment processes for remediation of creosote- and PCP-contaminated materials: Bench-scale treatability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.G.; Lantz, S.E.; Blattman, B.O.; Middaugh, D.P.; Chapman, P.J.

    1991-03-01

    Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to determine the most effective of two bioremediation application strategies to ameliorate creosote- and pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated soils present at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida: solid-phase bioremediation or slurry-phase bioremediation. When indigenous microorganisms were employed as biocatalysts, solid-phase bioremediation was slow and ineffective (8-12 weeks required to biodegrade >50% of resident organics). Biodegradation was limited to lower-molecular-weight constituents rather than the more hazardous, higher-molecular-weight (HMW) compounds; PCP and HMW polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing 4 or more fused rings resisted biological attach. Moreover, supplementation with aqueous solution of inorganic nutrients had little effect on the overall effectiveness of the treatment strategy. Alternatively, slurry-phase bioremediation was much more effective: >50% of targeted organics were biodegraded in 14 days. Again, however, more persistent contaminants, such as PCP and HMW PAHs, were not extensively degraded when subjected to the action of indigenous microorganisms.

  15. PLD1 regulates Xenopus convergent extension movements by mediating Frizzled7 endocytosis for Wnt/PCP signal activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoon; Lee, Seung Joon; Kim, Gun-Hwa; Yeo, Inchul; Han, Jin-Kwan

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in the regulation of receptor-associated signaling, cell movement, cell adhesion and endocytosis. However, its physiological role in vertebrate development remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that PLD1 is required for the convergent extension (CE) movements during Xenopus gastrulation by activating Wnt/PCP signaling. Xenopus PLD1 protein is specifically enriched in the dorsal region of Xenopus gastrula embryo and loss or gain-of-function of PLD1 induce defects in gastrulation and CE movements. These defective phenotypes are due to impaired regulation of Wnt/PCP signaling pathway. Biochemical and imaging analysis using Xenopus tissues reveal that PLD1 is required for Fz7 receptor endocytosis upon Wnt11 stimulation. Moreover, we show that Fz7 endocytosis depends on dynamin and regulation of GAP activity of dynamin by PLD1 via its PX domain is crucial for this process. Taken together, our results suggest that PLD1 acts as a new positive mediator of Wnt/PCP signaling by promoting Wnt11-induced Fz7 endocytosis for precise regulation of Xenopus CE movements. PMID:26806705

  16. The PTK7 and ROR2 Protein Receptors Interact in the Vertebrate WNT/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Sébastien; Scerbo, Pierluigi; Giordano, Marilyn; Daulat, Avais M.; Lhoumeau, Anne-Catherine; Thomé, Virginie; Kodjabachian, Laurent; Borg, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    The non-canonical WNT/planar cell polarity (WNT/PCP) pathway plays important roles in morphogenetic processes in vertebrates. Among WNT/PCP components, protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7) is a tyrosine kinase receptor with poorly defined functions lacking catalytic activity. Here we show that PTK7 associates with receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (ROR2) to form a heterodimeric complex in mammalian cells. We demonstrate that PTK7 and ROR2 physically and functionally interact with the non-canonical WNT5A ligand, leading to JNK activation and cell movements. In the Xenopus embryo, Ptk7 functionally interacts with Ror2 to regulate protocadherin papc expression and morphogenesis. Furthermore, we show that Ptk7 is required for papc activation induced by Wnt5a. Interestingly, we find that Wnt5a stimulates the release of the tagged Ptk7 intracellular domain, which can translocate into the nucleus and activate papc expression. This study reveals novel molecular mechanisms of action of PTK7 in non-canonical WNT/PCP signaling that may promote cell and tissue movements. PMID:26499793

  17. FZD7 drives in vitro aggressiveness in Stem-A subtype of ovarian cancer via regulation of non-canonical Wnt/PCP pathway

    PubMed Central

    Asad, M; Wong, M K; Tan, T Z; Choolani, M; Low, J; Mori, S; Virshup, D; Thiery, J P; Huang, R Y-J

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) can be classified into five biologically distinct molecular subgroups: epithelial-A (Epi-A), Epi-B, mesenchymal (Mes), Stem-A and Stem-B. Among them, Stem-A expresses genes relating to stemness and is correlated with poor clinical prognosis. In this study, we show that frizzled family receptor 7 (FZD7), a receptor for Wnt signalling, is overexpressed in the Stem-A subgroup. To elucidate the functional roles of FZD7, we used an RNA interference gene knockdown approach in three Stem-A cell lines: CH1, PA1 and OV-17R. Si-FZD7 OC cells showed reduced cell proliferation with an increase in the G0/G1 sub-population, with no effect on apoptosis. The cells also displayed a distinctive morphologic change by colony compaction to become more epithelial-like and polarised with smaller internuclear distances and increased z-axis height. Immunofluorescence (IF) staining patterns of pan-cadherin and β-catenin suggested an increase in cadherin-based cell–cell adhesion in si-FZD7 cells. We also observed a significant rearrangement in the actin cytoskeleton and an increase in tensile contractility in si-FZD7 OC cells, as evident by the loss of stress fibres and the redistribution of phospho-myosin light chain (pMLC) from the sites of cell–cell contacts to the periphery of cell colonies. Furthermore, there was reciprocal regulation of RhoA (Ras homolog family member A) and Rac1 (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rho family, small GTP-binding protein Rac1)) activities upon FZD7 knockdown, with a significant reduction in RhoA activity and a concomitant upregulation in Rac1 activity. These changes in pMLC and RhoA, as well as the increased TopFlash reporter activities in si-FZD7 cells, suggested involvement of the non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Selected PCP pathway genes (cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 3 (CELSR3), prickle homolog 4 (Drosophila) (PRICKLE4), dishevelled-associated activator of morphogenesis 1 (DAAM1

  18. In vivo labeling of phencyclidine (PCP) receptors with sup 3 H-TCP in the mouse brain

    SciTech Connect

    Maurice, T.; Vignon, J. )

    1990-07-01

    The phencyclidine (PCP) derivative N-(1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl)-piperidine (3H-TCP) was used to label in vivo the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-associated ionic channel in the mouse brain. After the injection of a tracer dose of 3H-TCP, a spread labeling throughout the brain was observed, but was the highest in the cerebellum. Preadministration of unlabeled TCP (30 mg/kg) resulted in a 90% reduction of 3H-TCP binding. PCP, TCP, MK-801, dexoxadrol, ketamine, and SKF 10,047 isomers dose-dependently prevented the in vivo 3H-TCP binding. ID50 determined in the cerebrum and the cerebellum were respectively correlated with K0.5 for 3H TCP high (rat cortex) and low affinity (rat cerebellum) sites in vitro. The pharmacological specificity of the 3H-TCP binding site in the cerebellum was significantly different from that in the cerebrum. ID50 values were generally higher than in the cerebrum and, particularly, MK-801, the most potent drug in the cerebrum, was without significant effect in the cerebellum, at any time and at doses as high as 30 mg/kg. N-(1-(2-benzo(b) thiophenyl)cyclohexyl)piperidine (BTCP), desipramine, and atropine showed a more efficient prevention of 3H-TCP binding in the cerebellum than in the cerebrum. The prevention of the binding by TCP or PCP, at doses close to their ID50 values, was rapid and then decreased slowly. The effect of MK-801 was long-lasting. This study confirm previous in vitro studies: 3H-TCP is an efficient tool for the labeling of the NMDA receptor-associated ionic channel.

  19. Differential Responses to Wnt and PCP Disruption Predict Expression and Developmental Function of Conserved and Novel Genes in a Cnidarian

    PubMed Central

    Lapébie, Pascal; Ruggiero, Antonella; Barreau, Carine; Chevalier, Sandra; Chang, Patrick; Dru, Philippe; Houliston, Evelyn; Momose, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We have used Digital Gene Expression analysis to identify, without bilaterian bias, regulators of cnidarian embryonic patterning. Transcriptome comparison between un-manipulated Clytia early gastrula embryos and ones in which the key polarity regulator Wnt3 was inhibited using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (Wnt3-MO) identified a set of significantly over and under-expressed transcripts. These code for candidate Wnt signaling modulators, orthologs of other transcription factors, secreted and transmembrane proteins known as developmental regulators in bilaterian models or previously uncharacterized, and also many cnidarian-restricted proteins. Comparisons between embryos injected with morpholinos targeting Wnt3 and its receptor Fz1 defined four transcript classes showing remarkable correlation with spatiotemporal expression profiles. Class 1 and 3 transcripts tended to show sustained expression at “oral” and “aboral” poles respectively of the developing planula larva, class 2 transcripts in cells ingressing into the endodermal region during gastrulation, while class 4 gene expression was repressed at the early gastrula stage. The preferential effect of Fz1-MO on expression of class 2 and 4 transcripts can be attributed to Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) disruption, since it was closely matched by morpholino knockdown of the specific PCP protein Strabismus. We conclude that endoderm and post gastrula-specific gene expression is particularly sensitive to PCP disruption while Wnt-/β-catenin signaling dominates gene regulation along the oral-aboral axis. Phenotype analysis using morpholinos targeting a subset of transcripts indicated developmental roles consistent with expression profiles for both conserved and cnidarian-restricted genes. Overall our unbiased screen allowed systematic identification of regionally expressed genes and provided functional support for a shared eumetazoan developmental regulatory gene set with both predicted and previously

  20. In-situ generated H₂O₂ induced efficient visible light photo-electrochemical catalytic oxidation of PCP-Na with TiO₂.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Huichao; Ai, Zhihui

    2015-05-15

    In this study, we developed a novel photo-electrochemical catalytic oxidation wastewater treatment system by interacting the cathodic in-situ generated H₂O₂ with TiO₂ suspension to form interfacial ≡ Ti(IV)OOH species, which endowed the PEC system with superior efficiency for degrading sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP-Na) under visible light irradiation at neutral pH. The apparent PCP-Na degradation rate constant of the PEC system was more than 10 times that of the electrochemical oxidation counterpart. In the PEC system, the interfacial ≡ Ti(IV)OOH species injected electrons to the conduction band of TiO₂ to initiate the activation of O₂ and the in-situ generated H₂O₂ adsorbed on the surface of TiO₂, lead to producing reactive oxygen species of superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, which were responsible for the dechlorination and mineralization of PCP-Na during the PEC process, respectively. The dosage of TiO₂ catalyst and the current intensity applied on PCP-Na degradation were optimized. This study develops a high efficient PEC oxidation system for wastewater treatment and provides new insight into the role of cathodic in-situ generated H₂O₂ on PEC oxidation of PCP-Na with TiO₂ under visible light irradiation. PMID:25698570

  1. Correlation between imaging features of Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonitis (PCP), CD4+ T lymphocyte count, and plasma HIV viral load: A study in 50 consecutive AIDS patients

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ying-Ying; Liu, Shui-Teng; Liu, Yan; Liu, Ying-Xia; Wang, Yi-Xiang J; Zhu, Wen-Ke; Le, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Wei-Ye; Zhou, Bo-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the imaging manifestations of Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonitis (PCP) in AIDS patients, and the correlation between imaging features, CD4+ lymphocyte count, and plasma HIV viral load. Materials and methods A total of consecutive 50 AIDS patients with PCP were reviewed retrospectively. Chest CT manifestations, CD4+ lymphocyte count, and plasma HIV viral load were analyzed to investigate their correlation. Results PCP chest CT manifestations included ground-glass opacities dominated in 28 cases (28/50, 56%), lung cysts dominated in 10 cases (10/50, 20%), consolidation dominated in 6 cases (6/50, 12%), interstitial lesion dominated in 3 cases (3/50, 6%), and mixed lesions in 3 cases (3/50, 6%). In these 50 patients, CD4+ lymphocyte count ranged from 2 to 373 cells/µL. Plasma HIV viral load ranged from 500 to 5.28×107 copies/mL. CD4+ lymphocyte count in ground-glass opacities dominated patients was higher than that of lung cyst dominated patients (P<0.05). Plasma virus load of lung cysts dominated PCP patients was higher than that of consolidation dominated patients (P<0.05). Conclusions The typical chest imaging features of PCP in AIDS patients included lung ground-glass opacities and lung cysts. The chest imaging features were correlated with CD4+ T lymphocyte count and plasma HIV viral load. PMID:23256070

  2. Jarid2 Coordinates Nanog Expression and PCP/Wnt Signaling Required for Efficient ESC Differentiation and Early Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Landeira, David; Bagci, Hakan; Malinowski, Andrzej R.; Brown, Karen E.; Soza-Ried, Jorge; Feytout, Amelie; Webster, Zoe; Ndjetehe, Elodie; Cantone, Irene; Asenjo, Helena G.; Brockdorff, Neil; Carroll, Thomas; Merkenschlager, Matthias; Fisher, Amanda G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Jarid2 is part of the Polycomb Repressor complex 2 (PRC2) responsible for genome-wide H3K27me3 deposition. Unlike other PRC2-deficient embryonic stem cells (ESCs), however, Jarid2-deficient ESCs show a severe differentiation block, altered colony morphology, and distinctive patterns of deregulated gene expression. Here, we show that Jarid2−/− ESCs express constitutively high levels of Nanog but reduced PCP signaling components Wnt9a, Prickle1, and Fzd2 and lowered β-catenin activity. Depletion of Wnt9a/Prickle1/Fzd2 from wild-type ESCs or overexpression of Nanog largely phenocopies these cellular defects. Co-culture of Jarid2−/− with wild-type ESCs restores variable Nanog expression and β-catenin activity and can partially rescue the differentiation block of mutant cells. In addition, we show that ESCs lacking Jarid2 or Wnt9a/Prickle1/Fzd2 or overexpressing Nanog induce multiple ICM formation when injected into normal E3.5 blastocysts. These data describe a previously unrecognized role for Jarid2 in regulating a core pluripotency and Wnt/PCP signaling circuit that is important for ESC differentiation and for pre-implantation development. PMID:26190104

  3. Jarid2 Coordinates Nanog Expression and PCP/Wnt Signaling Required for Efficient ESC Differentiation and Early Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Landeira, David; Bagci, Hakan; Malinowski, Andrzej R; Brown, Karen E; Soza-Ried, Jorge; Feytout, Amelie; Webster, Zoe; Ndjetehe, Elodie; Cantone, Irene; Asenjo, Helena G; Brockdorff, Neil; Carroll, Thomas; Merkenschlager, Matthias; Fisher, Amanda G

    2015-07-28

    Jarid2 is part of the Polycomb Repressor complex 2 (PRC2) responsible for genome-wide H3K27me3 deposition. Unlike other PRC2-deficient embryonic stem cells (ESCs), however, Jarid2-deficient ESCs show a severe differentiation block, altered colony morphology, and distinctive patterns of deregulated gene expression. Here, we show that Jarid2(-/-) ESCs express constitutively high levels of Nanog but reduced PCP signaling components Wnt9a, Prickle1, and Fzd2 and lowered β-catenin activity. Depletion of Wnt9a/Prickle1/Fzd2 from wild-type ESCs or overexpression of Nanog largely phenocopies these cellular defects. Co-culture of Jarid2(-/-) with wild-type ESCs restores variable Nanog expression and β-catenin activity and can partially rescue the differentiation block of mutant cells. In addition, we show that ESCs lacking Jarid2 or Wnt9a/Prickle1/Fzd2 or overexpressing Nanog induce multiple ICM formation when injected into normal E3.5 blastocysts. These data describe a previously unrecognized role for Jarid2 in regulating a core pluripotency and Wnt/PCP signaling circuit that is important for ESC differentiation and for pre-implantation development. PMID:26190104

  4. Increasing Endocannabinoid Levels in the Ventral Pallidum Restore Aberrant Dopamine Neuron Activity in the Subchronic PCP Rodent Model of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Lodge, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder that affects 1% of the US population. While the exogenous administration of cannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol is reported to exacerbate psychosis in schizophrenia patients, augmenting the levels of endogenous cannabinoids has gained attention as a possible alternative therapy to schizophrenia due to clinical and preclinical observations. Thus, patients with schizophrenia demonstrate an inverse relationship between psychotic symptoms and levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide. In addition, increasing endocannabinoid levels (by blockade of enzymatic degradation) has been reported to attenuate social withdrawal in a preclinical model of schizophrenia. Here we examine the effects of increasing endogenous cannabinoids on dopamine neuron activity in the sub-chronic phencyclidine (PCP) model. Aberrant dopamine system function is thought to underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Methods: Using in vivo extracellular recordings in chloral hydrate–anesthetized rats, we now demonstrate an increase in dopamine neuron population activity in PCP-treated rats. Results: Interestingly, endocannabinoid upregulation, induced by URB-597, was able to normalize this aberrant dopamine neuron activity. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the ventral pallidum is the site where URB-597 acts to restore ventral tegmental area activity. Conclusions: Taken together, we provide preclinical evidence that augmenting endogenous cannabinoids may be an effective therapy for schizophrenia, acting in part to restore ventral pallidal activity. PMID:25539511

  5. Low-temperature spectroscopic properties of the peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein (PCP) complex from the coral symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium.

    PubMed

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Jiang, Jing; Lo, Cynthia S; Blankenship, Robert E

    2013-09-26

    The spectroscopic properties of the peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein (PCP) from the coral symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium have been characterized by application of various ultrafast optical spectroscopies including femto- and nanosecond time-resolved absorption and picosecond time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) at 77 K. Excited state properties of peridinin and Chl a and their intramolecular interaction characteristics have been obtained from global fitting analysis and directed kinetic modeling of the data sets and compared to their counterparts known for the PCP from Amphidinium carterae. The lifetimes of the excited state of peridinin show close agreement with those known for the counterpart PCP, demonstrating that molecular interactions have the same characteristics in both complexes. More variances have been recorded for the excited state properties of Chl a including elongation of both the intramolecular energy transfer time between Chl's within the pair in the protein monomer and the excited state lifetime of the long wavelength form of Chl a (terminal acceptor). Kinetic modeling of formation of the peridinin triplet state has shown that the PCP is protected from potential photodamage due to an extremely fast peridinin triplet state formation of kTT = (14.4 ± 2.3) × 10(9) s(-1) ((70 ± 12)(-1) (ps)(-1)) that guarantees instantaneous depletion of Chl a triplets and prevents formation of harmful singlet oxygen ((1)ΔgO2). PMID:23557243

  6. A phenotypic screen in zebrafish identifies a novel small-molecule inducer of ectopic tail formation suggestive of alterations in non-canonical Wnt/PCP signaling.

    PubMed

    Gebruers, Evelien; Cordero-Maldonado, María Lorena; Gray, Alexander I; Clements, Carol; Harvey, Alan L; Edrada-Ebel, Ruangelie; de Witte, Peter A M; Crawford, Alexander D; Esguerra, Camila V

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish have recently emerged as an attractive model for the in vivo bioassay-guided isolation and characterization of pharmacologically active small molecules of natural origin. We carried out a zebrafish-based phenotypic screen of over 3000 plant-derived secondary metabolite extracts with the goal of identifying novel small-molecule modulators of the BMP and Wnt signaling pathways. One of the bioactive plant extracts identified in this screen - Jasminum gilgianum, an Oleaceae species native to Papua New Guinea - induced ectopic tails during zebrafish embryonic development. As ectopic tail formation occurs when BMP or non-canonical Wnt signaling is inhibited during the tail protrusion process, we suspected a constituent of this extract to act as a modulator of these pathways. A bioassay-guided isolation was carried out on the basis of this zebrafish phenotype, identifying para-coumaric acid methyl ester (pCAME) as the active compound. We then performed an in-depth phenotypic analysis of pCAME-treated zebrafish embryos, including a tissue-specific marker analysis of the secondary tails. We found pCAME to synergize with the BMP-inhibitors dorsomorphin and LDN-193189 in inducing ectopic tails, and causing convergence-extension defects in compound-treated embryos. These results indicate that pCAME may interfere with non-canonical Wnt signaling. Inhibition of Jnk, a downstream target of Wnt/PCP signaling (via morpholino antisense knockdown and pharmacological inhibition with the kinase inhibitor SP600125) phenocopied pCAME-treated embryos. However, immunoblotting experiments revealed pCAME to not directly inhibit Jnk-mediated phosphorylation of c-Jun, suggesting additional targets of SP600125, and/or other pathways, as possibly being involved in the ectopic tail formation activity of pCAME. Further investigation of pCAME's mechanism of action will help determine this compound's pharmacological utility. PMID:24349481

  7. Effects of risperidone, clozapine and the 5-HT6 antagonist GSK-742457 on PCP-induced deficits in reversal learning in the two-lever operant task in male Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, N M W J; van Drimmelen, M; Kops, M; van Elk, J; Wetering, M Middelveld-van de; Schwienbacher, I

    2013-05-01

    Reasoning and problem solving deficits have been reported in schizophrenic patients. In the present study, we have tested rats in a two-lever reversal learning task in a Skinner box to model these deficits. In other studies using the Skinner box, atypical antipsychotics fully reversed phencyclidine (PCP)-induced impairments in reversal learning which is in contrast to clinical observations where antipsychotics lack the ability to fully reverse cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Therefore, it can be argued that the outcome of these tests may lack predictive value. In the present study, after training on a spatial discrimination between two levers, rats were exposed to a reversal of the previously learned stimulus-response contingency during 5 days. We first investigated the effects of sub-chronic treatment with the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists dizocilpine (MK-801) and PCP on reversal learning and extinction in male Sprague Dawley rats. Subsequently, we studied the effects of different PCP treatment regimes. Then, we investigated whether the atypical antipsychotics risperidone and clozapine and the 5-hydroxytryptamine6 (5-HT6) antagonist GSK-742457 could reverse the PCP-induced deficits. All drugs were administered subcutaneously (s.c.). MK-801 did not impair reversal learning, while PCP (1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg) induced a clear deficit in reversal learning. Both compounds, however, disrupted extinction at all tested doses. Risperidone and clozapine were both ineffective in significantly ameliorating the PCP-induced deficit in reversal learning which fits well with the clinical observations. The lowest dose of clozapine (1.25 mg/kg) had an intermediate effect in ameliorating the deficit in reversal learning induced by PCP (not different from control or PCP-treated rats). The lowest dose of GSK-742457 (0.63 mg/kg) fully reversed the PCP-induced deficits while the higher dose (5.0 mg/kg) had an intermediate effect. PMID:23384714

  8. Using seismic array-processing to enhance observations of PcP waves to constrain lowermost mantle structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventosa, S.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    The topography of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and the structure and composition of the D" region are essential to understand the interaction between the earth's mantle and core. A variety of seismic data-processing techniques have been used to detect and measure travel-times and amplitudes of weak short-period teleseismic body-waves phases that interact with CMB and D", which is crucial to constrain properties of the lowermost mantle at short wavelengths. Major challenges in enhancing these observations are: (1) increasing signal-to-noise ratio of target phases and (2) isolating them from unwanted neighboring phases. Seismic array-processing can address these problems by combining signals from groups of seismometers and exploiting information that allows to separate the coherent signals from the noise. Here, we focus on the study of the Pacific large-low shear-velocity province (LLSVP) and surrounding areas using differential travel-times and amplitude ratios of the P and PcP phases, and their depth phases. We particularly design scale-dependent slowness filters that do not compromise time-space resolution. This is a local delay-and-sum (i.e. slant-stack) approach implemented in the time-scale domain using the wavelet transform to enhance time-space resolution (i.e. reduce array aperture). We group stations from USArray and other nearby networks, and from Hi-Net and F-net in Japan, to define many overlapping local arrays. The aperture of each array varies mainly according (1) to the space resolution target and (2) to the slowness resolution required to isolate the target phases at each period. Once the target phases are well separated, we measure their differential travel-times and amplitude ratios, and we project these to the CMB. In this process, we carefully analyze and, when possible and significant, correct for the main sources of bias, i.e., mantle heterogeneities, earthquake mislocation and intrinsic attenuation. We illustrate our approach in a series of

  9. Brainstem Respiratory Oscillators Develop Independently of Neuronal Migration Defects in the Wnt/PCP Mouse Mutant looptail

    PubMed Central

    Thoby-Brisson, Muriel; Bouvier, Julien; Glasco, Derrick M.; Stewart, Michelle E.; Dean, Charlotte; Murdoch, Jennifer N.; Champagnat, Jean; Fortin, Gilles; Chandrasekhar, Anand

    2012-01-01

    The proper development and maturation of neuronal circuits require precise migration of component neurons from their birthplace (germinal zone) to their final positions. Little is known about the effects of aberrant neuronal position on the functioning of organized neuronal groups, especially in mammals. Here, we investigated the formation and properties of brainstem respiratory neurons in looptail (Lp) mutant mice in which facial motor neurons closely apposed to some respiratory neurons fail to migrate due to loss of function of the Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) protein Vangl2. Using calcium imaging and immunostaining on embryonic hindbrain preparations, we found that respiratory neurons constituting the embryonic parafacial oscillator (e-pF) settled at the ventral surface of the medulla in Vangl2Lp/+ and Vangl2Lp/Lp embryos despite the failure of tangential migration of its normally adjacent facial motor nucleus. Anatomically, the e-pF neurons were displaced medially in Lp/+ embryos and rostro-medially Lp/Lp embryos. Pharmacological treatments showed that the e-pF oscillator exhibited characteristic network properties in both Lp/+ and Lp/Lp embryos. Furthermore, using hindbrain slices, we found that the other respiratory oscillator, the preBötzinger complex, was also anatomically and functionally established in Lp mutants. Importantly, the displaced e-pF oscillator established functional connections with the preBötC oscillator in Lp/+ mutants. Our data highlight the robustness of the developmental processes that assemble the neuronal networks mediating an essential physiological function. PMID:22363567

  10. THE USE OF FRY (EMBALMING FLUID AND PCP-LACED CIGARETTES OR MARIJUANA STICKS) AMONG CRACK COCAINE SMOKERS

    PubMed Central

    PETERS, RONALD J.; WILLIAMS, MARK; ROSS, MICHAEL W.; ATKINSON, JOHN; McCURDY, SHERLY A.

    2010-01-01

    Statistics show that the prevalence of crack cocaine use and embalming fluid and phencyclidine (PCP)-laced cigarettes or marijuana sticks, commonly referred to on the street as “fry” or “wet” is a problem; however, the relationship between these substances of abuse and concurrent polydrug use is unknown. In the present study, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 426 African-American crack users in Houston, Texas, to investigate the difference between those who concurrently reported lifetime (defined as at least one usage of fry in life) fry use and those who stated they never used fry. The data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Fry users were significantly more likely than non-users to not have a casual sex partner (92% users vs. 84% non-users, p ≤ 0.05) and were more likely to have been diagnosed with gonorrhea in the past 12 months (9% users vs. 2% non-users, p ≤ 0.05). In addition fry users had significantly higher odds of currently trading sex for drugs (OR = 2.30, p ≤ 0.05), marijuana use (OR = 12.11, p ≤ 0.05), and codeine (syrup) use (OR = 8.10, p ≤ 0.05). These findings are important in determining the “cultural novelties” relative to crack and fry use among younger African Americans. PMID:19157045

  11. Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) Protein Vangl2 Regulates Ectoplasmic Specialization Dynamics via Its Effects on Actin Microfilaments in the Testes of Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiqi; Mruk, Dolores D; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

    2016-05-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins confer polarization of a field of cells (eg, elongating/elongated spermatids) within the plane of an epithelium such as the seminiferous epithelium of the tubule during spermatogenesis. In adult rat testes, Sertoli and germ cells were found to express PCP core proteins (eg, Van Gogh-like 2 [Vangl2]), effectors, ligands, and signaling proteins. Vangl2 expressed predominantly by Sertoli cells was localized at the testis-specific, actin-rich ectoplasmic specialization (ES) at the Sertoli-spermatid interface in the adluminal compartment and also Sertoli-Sertoli interface at the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and structurally interacted with actin, N-cadherin, and another PCP/polarity protein Scribble. Vangl2 knockdown (KD) by RNA interference in Sertoli cells cultured in vitro with an established tight junction-permeability barrier led to BTB tightening, whereas its overexpression using a full-length cDNA construct perturbed the barrier function. These changes were mediated through an alteration on the organization actin microfilaments at the ES in Sertoli cells, involving actin-regulatory proteins, epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8, actin-related protein 3, and Scribble, which in turn affected the function of adhesion protein complexes at the ES during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. Using Polyplus in vivo-jetPEI reagent as a transfection medium to silence Vangl2 in the testis in vivo by RNA interference with high efficacy, Vangl2 KD led to changes in F-actin organization at the ES in the epithelium, impeding spermatid and phagosome transport and spermatid polarity, meiosis, and BTB dynamics. For instance, step 19 spermatids remained embedded in the epithelium alongside with step 9 and 10 spermatids in stages IX-X tubules. In summary, the PCP protein Vangl2 is an ES regulator through its effects on actin microfilaments in the testis. PMID:26990065

  12. Dopamine D1 receptor activation improves PCP-induced performance disruption in the 5C-CPT by reducing inappropriate responding.

    PubMed

    Barnes, S A; Young, J W; Bate, S T; Neill, J C

    2016-03-01

    Attentional deficits contribute significantly to the functional disability of schizophrenia patients. The 5-choice continuous performance test (5C-CPT) measures attention in mice, rats, and humans, requiring the discrimination of trial types that either require a response or the inhibition of a response. The 5C-CPT, one version of human continuous performance tests (CPT), enables attentional testing in rodents in a manner consistent with humans. Augmenting the prefrontal cortical dopaminergic system has been proposed as a therapeutic target to attenuate the cognitive disturbances associated with schizophrenia. Using translational behavioural tasks in conjunction with inducing conditions relevant to schizophrenia pathophysiology enable the assessment of pro-attentive properties of compounds that augment dopaminergic activity. Here, using a repeated phencyclidine (PCP) treatment regimen and the 5C-CPT paradigm, we assess the pro-attentive properties of SKF 38393, a dopamine D1 receptor agonist, in rats. We show that repeated PCP treatment induces robust deficits in 5C-CPT performance indicative of impaired attention. Pre-treatment with SKF 38393 partially attenuates the PCP-induced deficits in 5C-CPT performance by reducing false alarm responding and increasing response accuracy. Impaired target detection was still evident in SKF 38393-treated rats however. Thus, augmentation of the dopamine D1 system improves PCP-induces deficits in 5C-CPT performance by selectively reducing aspects of inappropriate responding. These findings provide evidence to support the hypothesis that novel therapies targeting the dopamine D1 receptor system could improve aspects of attentional deficits in schizophrenia patients. PMID:26658514

  13. CTHRC1 Acts as a Prognostic Factor and Promotes Invasiveness of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors by Activating Wnt/PCP-Rho Signaling1

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ming-Ze; Zhuang, Chun; Yang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Zi-Zhen; Ma, Hong; Zhang, Wen-Ming; You, Haiyan; Qin, Wenxin; Gu, Jianren; Yang, Shengli; Cao, Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the major gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors with a variable malignancy ranging from a curable disorder to highly malignant sarcomas. Metastasis and recurrence are the main causes of death in GIST patients. To further explore the mechanism of metastasis and to more accurately estimate the recurrence risk of GISTs after surgery, the clinical significance and functional role of collagen triple helix repeat containing-1 (CTHRC1) in GIST were investigated. We found that CTHRC1 expression was gradually elevated as the risk grade of NIH classification increased, and was closely correlated with disease-free survival and overall survival in 412 GIST patients. In vitro experiments showed that recombinant CTHRC1 protein promoted the migration and invasion capacities of primary GIST cells. A luciferase reporter assay and pull down assay demonstrated that recombinant CTHRC1 protein activated noncanonical Wnt/PCP-Rho signaling but inhibited canonical Wnt signaling. The pro-motility effect of CTHRC1 on GIST cells was reversed by using a Wnt5a neutralizing antibody and inhibitors of Rac1 or ROCK. Taken together, these data indicate that CTHRC1 may serve as a new predictor of recurrence risk and prognosis in post-operative GIST patients and may play an important role in facilitating GIST progression. Furthermore, CTHRC1 promotes GIST cell migration and invasion by activating Wnt/PCP-Rho signaling, suggesting that the CTHRC1-Wnt/PCP-Rho axis may be a new therapeutic target for interventions against GIST invasion and metastasis. PMID:24726140

  14. Effectiveness of an anaerobic granular activated carbon fluidized-bed bioreactor to treat soil wash fluids: a proposed strategy for remediating PCP/PAH contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Koran, K M; Suidan, M T; Khodadoust, A P; Sorial, G A; Brenner, R C

    2001-07-01

    An integrated system has been developed to remediate soils contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This system involves the coupling of two treatment technologies, soil-solvent washing and anaerobic biotreatment of the extract. Specifically, this study evaluated the effectiveness of a granular activated carbon (GAC) fluidized-bed reactor to treat a synthetic-waste stream of PCP and four PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthene, pyrene, and benzo(b)fluoranthene) under anaerobic conditions. This waste stream was intended to simulate the wash fluids from a soil washing process treating soils from a wood-preserving site. The reactor achieved a removal efficiency of greater than 99.8% for PCP with conversion to its dechlorination intermediates averaging 46.5%. Effluent, carbon extraction, and isotherm data also indicate that naphthalene and acenaphthene were removed from the liquid phase with efficiencies of 86 and 93%, respectively. Effluent levels of pyrene and benzo(b)fluoranthene were extremely low due to the high-adsorptive capacity of GAC for these compounds. Experimental evidence does not suggest that the latter two compounds were biochemically transformed within the reactor. PMID:11394769

  15. High-resolution mapping of D16led-1, Gart, Gas-4, Cbr, Pcp-4, and Erg on distal mouse chromosome 16.

    PubMed

    Mjaatvedt, A E; Citron, M P; Reeves, R H

    1993-08-01

    More than 500 backcross progeny from four intersubspecific backcrosses were typed for six markers on distal mouse chromosome 16. Five of these represented genes that mapped within the Sod-1 to Ets-2 interval, which was shown previously to contain the weaver (wv) gene. The map order, including previously mapped reference markers, is (cen)-D16H21S16-D16Led-1-App-Sod-1-Gart-Gas-4-Cbr++ +-wv-Pcp-4-Erg-Ets-2. This gene order recapitulates the order of the genes on human chromosome 21 where known. Two of these markers further define the region containing the weaver gene to a 3.9-cM segment between Cbr and Pcp-4. In addition, Pcp-4 was localized to human chromosome 21 by the presence of a human-specific restriction fragment in WAV-17, a mouse-human somatic cell hybrid with human chromosome 21 as the only human contribution. PMID:8406490

  16. Substance use - phencyclidine (PCP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs called hallucinogens. These are substances that cause hallucinations . These are things that you see, hear, or ... up, excited, tense, confused, or irritable ( agitation ), having hallucinations Physical reactions may include muscle breakdown or twitching, ...

  17. Dickkopf-1 regulates gastrulation movements by coordinated modulation of Wnt/βcatenin and Wnt/PCP activities, through interaction with the Dally-like homolog Knypek

    PubMed Central

    Caneparo, Luca; Huang, Ya-Lin; Staudt, Nicole; Tada, Masasumi; Ahrendt, Reiner; Kazanskaya, Olga; Niehrs, Christof; Houart, Corinne

    2007-01-01

    Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) is a secreted protein that negatively modulates the Wnt/βcatenin pathway. Lack of Dkk1 function affects head formation in frog and mice, supporting the idea that Dkk1 acts as a “head inducer” during gastrulation. We show here that lack of Dkk1 function accelerates internalization and rostral progression of the mesendoderm and that gain of function slows down both internalization and convergence extension, indicating a novel role for Dkk1 in modulating these movements. The motility phenotype found in the morphants is not observed in embryos in which the Wnt/βcatenin pathway is overactivated, and that dominant-negative Wnt proteins are not able to rescue the gastrulation movement defect induced by absence of Dkk1. These data strongly suggest that Dkk1 is acting in a βcatenin independent fashion when modulating gastrulation movements. We demonstrate that the glypican 4/6 homolog Knypek (Kny) binds to Dkk1 and that they are able to functionally interact in vivo. Moreover, Dkk1 regulation of gastrulation movements is kny dependent. Kny is a component of the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. We found that indeed Dkk1 is able to activate this pathway in both Xenopus and zebrafish. Furthermore, concomitant alteration of the βcatenin and PCP activities is able to mimic the morphant accelerated cell motility phenotype. Our data therefore indicate that Dkk1 regulates gastrulation movement through interaction with LRP5/6 and Kny and coordinated modulations of Wnt/βcatenin and Wnt/PCP pathways. PMID:17322405

  18. Synthesis and Reactivity of Four- and Five-Coordinate Low-Spin Cobalt(II) PCP Pincer Complexes and Some Nickel(II) Analogues

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Anhydrous CoCl2 or [NiCl2(DME)] reacts with the ligand PCPMe-iPr (1) in the presence of nBuLi to afford the 15e and 16e square planar complexes [Co(PCPMe-iPr)Cl] (2) and [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)Cl] (3), respectively. Complex 2 is a paramagnetic d7 low-spin complex, which is a useful precursor for a series of Co(I), Co(II), and Co(III) PCP complexes. Complex 2 reacts readily with CO and pyridine to afford the five-coordinate square-pyramidal 17e complexes [Co(PCPMe-iPr)(CO)Cl] (4) and [Co(PCPMe-iPr)(py)Cl] (5), respectively, while in the presence of Ag+ and CO the cationic complex [Co(PCPMe-iPr)(CO)2]+ (6) is afforded. The effective magnetic moments μeff of all Co(II) complexes were derived from the temperature dependence of the inverse molar magnetic susceptibility by SQUID measurements and are in the range 1.9 to 2.4 μB. This is consistent with a d7 low-spin configuration with some degree of spin–orbit coupling. Oxidation of 2 with CuCl2 affords the paramagnetic Co(III) PCP complex [Co(PCPMe-iPr)Cl2] (7), while the synthesis of the diamagnetic Co(I) complex [Co(PCPMe-iPr)(CO)2] (8) was achieved by stirring 2 in toluene with KC8 in the presence of CO. Finally, the cationic 16e Ni(II) PCP complex [Ni(PCPMe-iPr)(CO)]+ (10) was obtained by reacting complex 3 with 1 equiv of AgSbF6 in the presence of CO. The reactivity of CO addition to Co(I), Co(II), and Ni(II) PCP square planar complexes of the type [M(PCPMe-iPr)(CO)]n (n = +1, 0) was investigated by DFT calculations, showing that formation of the Co species, 6 and 8, is thermodynamically favorable, while Ni(II) maintains the 16e configuration since CO addition is unfavorable in this case. X-ray structures of most complexes are provided and discussed. A structural feature of interest is that the apical CO ligand in 4 deviates significantly from linearity, with a Co–C–O angle of 170.0(1)°. The DFT-calculated value is 172°, clearly showing that this is not a packing but an electronic effect.

  19. Attenuation of short-period P, PcP, ScP, and pP waves in the earth's mantle

    SciTech Connect

    Bock, G.; Clements, J.R.

    1982-05-10

    The parameter t* (ratio of body wave travel time to the average quality factor Q) was estimated under various assumptions of the nature of the earthquake sources for short-period P, PcP, and ScP phases originating from earthquakes in the Fiji-Tonga region and recorded at the Warramunga Seismic Array at Tennant Creek (Northern Territory, Australia). Spectral ratios were calculated for the amplitudes of PcP to P and of pP to P. The data reveal a laterally varying Q structure in the Fiji-Tonga region. The high-Q lithosphere descending beneath the Tonga Island arc is overlain above 350 km depth by a wedgelike zone of high attenuation with an average Q/sub ..cap alpha../ between 120 and 200 at short periods. The upper mantle farther to the west of the Tonga island arc is less attenuating, with Q/sub ..cap alpha../, between 370 and 560. Q/sub ..cap alpha../ is about 500 in the upper mantle on the oceanic side of the subduction zone. The t* estimates of this study are much smaller than estimates from the free oscillation model SL8. This can be partly explained by regional variations of Q in the upper mantle. If no lateral Q variations occur in the lower mantle, a frequency-dependent Q can make the PcP and ScP observations consistent with model SL8. Adopting the absorption band model to describe the frequency dependence of Q, the parameter tau/sub 2/, the cut-off period of the high-frequency end of the absorption band, was determined. For different source models with finite corner frequencies, the average tau/sub 2/ for the mantle is between 0.01 and 0.10 s (corresponding to frequencies between 16 and 1.6 Hz) as derived from the PcP data, and between 0.06 and 0.12 s (2.7 and 1.3 Hz), as derived from the ScP data.

  20. Xenopus Pkdcc1 and Pkdcc2 Are Two New Tyrosine Kinases Involved in the Regulation of JNK Dependent Wnt/PCP Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Vitorino, Marta; Silva, Ana Cristina; Inácio, José Manuel; Ramalho, José Silva; Gur, Michal; Fainsod, Abraham; Steinbeisser, Herbert; Belo, José António

    2015-01-01

    Protein Kinase Domain Containing, Cytoplasmic (PKDCC) is a protein kinase which has been implicated in longitudinal bone growth through regulation of chondrocytes formation. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which this occurs remains unknown. Here, we identified two new members of the PKDCC family, Pkdcc1 and Pkdcc2 from Xenopus laevis. Interestingly, our knockdown experiments revealed that these two proteins are both involved on blastopore and neural tube closure during gastrula and neurula stages, respectively. In vertebrates, tissue polarity and cell movement observed during gastrulation and neural tube closure are controlled by Wnt/Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) molecular pathway. Our results showed that Pkdcc1 and Pkdcc2 promote the recruitment of Dvl to the plasma membrane. But surprisingly, they revealed different roles in the induction of a luciferase reporter under the control of Atf2 promoter. While Pkdcc1 induces Atf2 expression, Pkdcc2 does not, and furthermore inhibits its normal induction by Wnt11 and Wnt5a. Altogether our data show, for the first time, that members of the PKDCC family are involved in the regulation of JNK dependent Wnt/PCP signaling pathway. PMID:26270962

  1. The Comparative Photodegradation Activities of Pentachlorophenol (PCP) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Using UV Alone and TiO2-Derived Photocatalysts in Methanol Soil Washing Solution

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zeyu; Zhang, Yaxin; Wang, Hongtao; Chen, Tan; Lu, Wenjing

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical treatment is increasingly being applied to remedy environmental problems. TiO2-derived catalysts are efficiently and widely used in photodegradation applications. The efficiency of various photochemical treatments, namely, the use of UV irradiation without catalyst or with TiO2/graphene-TiO2 photodegradation methods was determined by comparing the photodegadation of two main types of hydrophobic chlorinated aromatic pollutants, namely, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Results show that photodegradation in methanol solution under pure UV irradiation was more efficient than that with either one of the catalysts tested, contrary to previous results in which photodegradation rates were enhanced using TiO2-derived catalysts. The effects of various factors, such as UV light illumination, addition of methanol to the solution, catalyst dosage, and the pH of the reaction mixture, were examined. The degradation pathway was deduced. The photochemical treatment in methanol soil washing solution did not benefit from the use of the catalysts tested. Pure UV irradiation was sufficient for the dechlorination and degradation of the PCP and PCBs. PMID:25254664

  2. Localized double-array stacking analysis of PcP: D″ and ULVZ structure beneath the Cocos plate, Mexico, central Pacific, and north Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutko, Alexander R.; Lay, Thorne; Revenaugh, Justin

    2009-01-01

    A large, high quality P-wave data set comprising short-period and broadband signals sampling four separate regions in the lowermost mantle beneath the Cocos plate, Mexico, the central Pacific, and the north Pacific is analyzed using regional one-dimensional double-array stacking and modelling with reflectivity synthetics. A data-screening criterion retains only events with stable PcP energy in the final data stacks used for modelling and interpretation. This significantly improves the signal stacks relative to including unscreened observations, allows confident alignment on the PcP arrival and allows tight bounds to be placed on P-wave velocity structure above the core–mantle boundary (CMB). The PcP reflections under the Cocos plate are well modelled without any ultra-low velocity zone from 5 to 20°N. At latitudes from 15 to 20°N, we find evidence for two P-wave velocity discontinuities in the D″ region. The first is ∼182 km above the CMB with a δln Vp of +1.5%, near the same depth as a weaker discontinuity (<+0.5%) observed from 5 to 15°N in prior work. The other reflector is ∼454 km above the CMB, with a δln Vp of +0.4%; this appears to be a shallower continuation of the joint P- and S-wave discontinuity previously detected south of 15° N, which is presumed to be the perovskite to post-perovskite phase transition. The data stacks for paths bottoming below Mexico have PcP images that are well matched with the simple IASP91 structure, contradicting previous inferences of ULVZ presence in this region. These particular data are not very sensitive to any D″ discontinuities, and simply bound them to be <∼2%, if present. Data sampling the lowermost mantle beneath the central Pacific confirm the presence of a ∼15-km thick ultra-low velocity zone (ULVZ) just above the CMB, with δln Vp and δln Vs of around −3 to −4% and −4 to −8%, respectively. The ULVZ models predict previous S-wave data stacks well. The data for this region

  3. Formation of a "Pre-mouth Array" from the Extreme Anterior Domain Is Directed by Neural Crest and Wnt/PCP Signaling.

    PubMed

    Jacox, Laura; Chen, Justin; Rothman, Alyssa; Lathrop-Marshall, Hillary; Sive, Hazel

    2016-08-01

    The mouth arises from the extreme anterior domain (EAD), a region where the ectoderm and endoderm are directly juxtaposed. Here, we identify a "pre-mouth array" in Xenopus that forms soon after the cranial neural crest has migrated to lie on either side of the EAD. Initially, EAD ectoderm comprises a wide and short epithelial mass that becomes narrow and tall with cells and nuclei changing shape, a characteristic of convergent extension. The resulting two rows of cells-the pre-mouth array-later split down the midline to surround the mouth opening. Neural crest is essential for convergent extension and likely signals to the EAD through the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. Fzl7 receptor is locally required in EAD ectoderm, while Wnt11 ligand is required more globally. Indeed, heterologous cells expressing Wnt11 can elicit EAD convergent extension. The study reveals a precise cellular mechanism that positions and contributes to the future mouth. PMID:27425611

  4. Comparison of ( sup 3 H)Phencyclidine (( sup 3 H)PCP) and ( sup 3 H) N-(1-(2-thienyl) cyclohexyl)piperidine (( sup 3 H)TCP) binding properties to rat and human brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Vignon, J.; Chaudieu, I.; Allaoua, H.; Journod, L.; Javoy-Agid, F.; Agid, Y.; Chicheportiche, R.

    1989-01-01

    The investigation of ({sup 3}H)PCP and ({sup 3}H)TCP binding properties to rat cerebrum and cerebellum resulted in the demonstration of multiple binding sites for the two drugs. In the two tissue preparations PCP had a lower affinity than TCP. In membranes from the cerebrum an equal number of high affinity binding sites were present for ({sup 3}H)PCP and ({sup 3}H)TCP. However, low affinity binding sites were two times more numerous for ({sup 3}H)PCP than for ({sup 3}H)TCP. In the cerebellum, the number of high and low affinity sites labeled by the two radioligands was identical, but the number of high affinity sites was about 7 fold lower than in cerebrum. In human cerebral cortex samples ({sup 3}H)TCP also bound to two different sites. The number of high and low affinity sites were 12 and 3 times, respectively, less abundant than in the rat cerebrum. Low affinity sites were of higher affinity than corresponding sites in the rat brain. In the human cerebellum ({sup 3}H)TCP binding parameters were identical to those measured in the same region in the rat.

  5. Analysis of potential molecular catalysts for the hydroamination of ethylene with ammonia: a DFT study with [Ir(PCP)] and [Ir(PSiP)] complexes.

    PubMed

    Uhe, Andreas; Hölscher, Markus; Leitner, Walter

    2013-01-14

    Very few cases of oxidative addition of NH(3) to transition-metal complexes forming terminal amide hydrides have been experimentally observed. Here, two examples with the iridium pincer complexes [Ir(PCP)(NH(3))] A1 with PCP = [κ(3)-(tBu(2)P-C(2)H(4))(2)CH](-) and [Ir(PSiP)(NH(3))] B1 with PSiP = [κ(3)-(2-Cy(2)P-C(6)H(4))(2)SiMe](-) were investigated by DFT calculations applying the M06L density functional to successfully reproduce the trend of the experimentally observed thermochemical stabilities. According to the calculations, the corresponding hydrido-amido complexes A2 and B2 are more stable than the corresponding ammine complexes by ΔG = -2.8 and -2.6 kcal  mol(-1), respectively. Complexes such as A2 and B2 are ideally suited entry points to catalytic cycles for the hydroamination of ethylene with ammonia. Therefore, the relevant stationary points of the potentially available cycles were studied computationally to verify if these complexes can catalyze the hydroamination. As a result, complex A2 will clearly not catalyze the hydroamination as all energy spans calculated range close to 40 kcal  mol(-1) or higher. The energy spans obtained with B2 are significantly lower in some cases and range around 35 kcal  mol(-1), further indicating that no turnover can be expected. By systematically varying the structure of B2, the energy span could be reduced to 28.8 kcal  mol(-1) corresponding to a TOF of 17 h(-1) at a reaction temperature of 140 °C. A reoptimization of relevant structures under the inclusion of cyclohexane as a typical solvent reduces the calculated TOF to 6.0 h(-1). PMID:23297088

  6. Genomic Insights into a New Citrobacter koseri Strain Revealed Gene Exchanges with the Virulence-Associated Yersinia pestis pPCP1 Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Armougom, Fabrice; Bitam, Idir; Croce, Olivier; Merhej, Vicky; Barassi, Lina; Nguyen, Ti-Thien; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The history of infectious diseases raised the plague as one of the most devastating for human beings. Far too often considered an ancient disease, the frequent resurgence of the plague has led to consider it as a reemerging disease in Madagascar, Algeria, Libya, and Congo. The genetic factors associated with the pathogenicity of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of the plague, involve the acquisition of the pPCP1 plasmid that promotes host invasion through the expression of the virulence factor Pla. The surveillance of plague foci after the 2003 outbreak in Algeria resulted in a positive detection of the specific pla gene of Y. pestis in rodents. However, the phenotypic characterization of the isolate identified a Citrobacter koseri. The comparative genomics of our sequenced C. koseri URMITE genome revealed a mosaic gene structure resulting from the lifestyle of our isolate and provided evidence for gene exchanges with different enteric bacteria. The most striking was the acquisition of a continuous 2 kb genomic fragment containing the virulence factor Pla of the Y. pestis pPCP1 plasmid; however, the subcutaneous injection of the CKU strain in mice did not produce any pathogenic effect. Our findings demonstrate that fast molecular detection of plague using solely the pla gene is unsuitable and should rather require Y. pestis gene marker combinations. We also suggest that the evolutionary force that might govern the expression of pathogenicity can occur through the acquisition of virulence genes but could also require the loss or the inactivation of resident genes such as antivirulence genes. PMID:27014253

  7. Genomic Insights into a New Citrobacter koseri Strain Revealed Gene Exchanges with the Virulence-Associated Yersinia pestis pPCP1 Plasmid.

    PubMed

    Armougom, Fabrice; Bitam, Idir; Croce, Olivier; Merhej, Vicky; Barassi, Lina; Nguyen, Ti-Thien; La Scola, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The history of infectious diseases raised the plague as one of the most devastating for human beings. Far too often considered an ancient disease, the frequent resurgence of the plague has led to consider it as a reemerging disease in Madagascar, Algeria, Libya, and Congo. The genetic factors associated with the pathogenicity of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of the plague, involve the acquisition of the pPCP1 plasmid that promotes host invasion through the expression of the virulence factor Pla. The surveillance of plague foci after the 2003 outbreak in Algeria resulted in a positive detection of the specific pla gene of Y. pestis in rodents. However, the phenotypic characterization of the isolate identified a Citrobacter koseri. The comparative genomics of our sequenced C. koseri URMITE genome revealed a mosaic gene structure resulting from the lifestyle of our isolate and provided evidence for gene exchanges with different enteric bacteria. The most striking was the acquisition of a continuous 2 kb genomic fragment containing the virulence factor Pla of the Y. pestis pPCP1 plasmid; however, the subcutaneous injection of the CKU strain in mice did not produce any pathogenic effect. Our findings demonstrate that fast molecular detection of plague using solely the pla gene is unsuitable and should rather require Y. pestis gene marker combinations. We also suggest that the evolutionary force that might govern the expression of pathogenicity can occur through the acquisition of virulence genes but could also require the loss or the inactivation of resident genes such as antivirulence genes. PMID:27014253

  8. Whole Earth tomography from delay times of P, PcP, and PKP phases: Lateral heterogeneities in the outer core or radial anisotropy in the mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschi, Lapo; Dziewonski, Adam M.

    2000-06-01

    We perform tomographic inversions of compressional wave travel time measurements, in order to image the laterally varying radial anisotropy of P wave velocity in the entire mantle. In order to achieve an adequate sensitivity to both horizontal and vertical P velocity throughout the mantle, we include in our data set travel time measurements corresponding to ray paths of very different geometries. Specifically, we use data associated with the phases P, PcP (core-reflected) and PKPbc, PKP df (core-refracted), all extracted from the bulletins of the International Seismological Centre, 1964-1993. PcP, PKPbc, and PKPdf data are also sensitive to the topography of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and (PKP only) to the velocity structure of the Earth's core. These circumstances require that we also allow for CMB topographic anomalies as free parameters in our inversions and investigate the possibility of the existence of lateral heterogeneities in the outer core [e.g., Ritzwoller et al, 1986; Stevenson, 1987; Wahr and de Vries, 1989; Vasco and Johnson, 1998]. The solution models that we propose include alternatively a laterally heterogeneous outer core, a radially anisotropic mantle, or both, so that trade-offs between those features can also be evaluated. We conclude that only minor, and very localized, radially anisotropic anomalies are present in the middle and lower mantle, the most prominent being located in the deepest 400 km, under the western Pacific. We find a discrepancy, particularly evident by a comparison between different models of the CMB topography, between the travel time measurements that are sensitive to the Earth's core and those that are not; we show that it is not possible to explain this discrepancy only in terms of radial anisotropy of the mantle and/or lateral heterogeneity of the outer core.

  9. Extraction of weak PcP phases using the slant-stacklet transform - II: constraints on lateral variations of structure near the core-mantle boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventosa, Sergi; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Resolving the topography of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and the structure and composition of the D″ region is key to improving our understanding of the interaction between the Earth's mantle and core. Observations of traveltimes and amplitudes of short-period teleseismic body waves sensitive to lowermost mantle provide essential constraints on the properties of this region. Major challenges are low signal-to-noise ratio of the target phases and interference with other mantle phases. In a previous paper (Part I), we introduced the slant-stacklet transform to enhance the signal of the core-reflected (PcP) phase and to isolate it from stronger signals in the coda of the P wave. Then we minimized a linear misfit between P and PcP waveforms to improve the quality of PcP-P traveltime difference measurements as compared to standard cross-correlation methods. This method significantly increases the quantity and the quality of PcP-P traveltime observations available for the modelling of structure near the CMB. Here we illustrate our approach in a series of regional studies of the CMB and D″ using PcP-P observations with unprecedented resolution from high-quality dense arrays located in North America and Japan for events with magnitude Mw>5.4 and distances up to 80°. In this process, we carefully analyse various sources of errors and show that mantle heterogeneity is the most significant. We find and correct bias due to mantle heterogeneities that is as large as 1 s in traveltime, comparable to the largest lateral PcP-P traveltime variations observed. We illustrate the importance of accurate mantle corrections and the need for higher resolution mantle models for future studies. After optimal mantle corrections, the main signal left is relatively long wavelength in the regions sampled, except at the border of the Pacific large-low shear velocity province (LLSVP). We detect the northwest border of the Pacific LLSVP in the western Pacific from array observations in

  10. Ni2+-Dependent and PsaR-Mediated Regulation of the Virulence Genes pcpA, psaBCA, and prtA in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Manzoor, Irfan; Shafeeq, Sulman; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the transcriptional regulator PsaR regulates the expression of the PsaR regulon consisting of genes encoding choline binding protein (PcpA), the extracellular serine protease (PrtA), and the Mn2+-uptake system (PsaBCA), in the presence of manganese (Mn2+), zinc (Zn2+), and cobalt (Co2+). In this study, we explore the Ni2+-dependent regulation of the PsaR regulon. We have demonstrated by qRT-PCR analysis, metal accumulation assays, β-galactosidase assays, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays that an elevated concentration of Ni2+ leads to strong induction of the PsaR regulon. Our ICP-MS data show that the Ni2+-dependent expression of the PsaR regulon is directly linked to high, cell-associated, concentration of Ni2+, which reduces the cell-associated concentration of Mn2+. In vitro studies with the purified PsaR protein showed that Ni2+ diminishes the Mn2+-dependent interaction of PsaR to the promoter regions of its target genes, confirming an opposite effect of Mn2+ and Ni2+ in the regulation of the PsaR regulon. Additionally, the Ni2+-dependent role of PsaR in the regulation of the PsaR regulon was studied by transcriptome analysis. PMID:26562538

  11. High average daily intake of PCDD/Fs and serum levels in residents living near a deserted factory producing pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Taiwan: influence of contaminated fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, C C; Lin, W T; Liao, P C; Su, H J; Chen, H L

    2006-05-01

    An abandoned pentachlorophenol plant and nearby area in southern Taiwan was heavily contaminated by dioxins, impurities formed in the PCP production process. The investigation showed that the average serum PCDD/Fs of residents living nearby area (62.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) was higher than those living in the non-polluted area (22.5 and 18.2 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) (P<0.05). In biota samples, average PCDD/F of milkfish in sea reservoir (28.3 pg WHO-TEQ/g) was higher than those in the nearby fish farm (0.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g), and Tilapia and shrimp showed the similar trend. The average daily PCDD/Fs intake of 38% participants was higher than 4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day suggested by the world health organization. Serum PCDD/F was positively associated with average daily intake (ADI) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and smoking status. In addition, a prospective cohort study is suggested to determine the long-term health effects on the people living near factory. PMID:16213641

  12. Extracellular matrix protein ITGBL1 promotes ovarian cancer cell migration and adhesion through Wnt/PCP signaling and FAK/SRC pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Wang, Defeng; Li, Xiaotian; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Yingjie

    2016-07-01

    Despite the advances in cancer treatment and the progresses in tumor biological, ovarian cancer remains a bad situation. In current study, we found a novel extracellular matrix protein, ITGBL1, which is highly expressed in ovarian cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry examination. The expression pattern of ITGBL1 in malignant tissues inspired us to investigate its role in ovarian cancer progression. Both loss- and gain-function assays revealed that ITGBL1 could promote ovarian cancer cell migration and adhesion. As it's a secreted protein, we further used recombinant ITGBL1 protein treated cancer cells and found that ITGBL1 promotes cell migration and adhesion in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that ITGBL1 not only influences the activity of Wnt/PCP signaling but also affects FAK/src pathway in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest that highly expressed ITGBL1 could promotes cancer cell migration and adhesion in ovarian cancer and as a secreted protein, ITGBL1 might be a novel biomarker for ovarian cancer diagnosis. PMID:27261588

  13. Current internal exposure to pesticides in children and adolescents in Germany: blood plasma levels of pentachlorophenol (PCP), lindane (gamma-HCH), and dichloro(diphenyl)ethylene (DDE), a biostable metabolite of dichloro(diphenyl)trichloroethane (DDT).

    PubMed

    Heudorf, U; Angerer, J; Drexler, H

    2003-10-01

    Pesticides are widely used throughout the world in agriculture to protect crops, and in public health to control diseases transmitted by animal vectors or intermediate hosts. After the prohibition of organochlorines such as DDT internal exposure of the general population to the organochlorines has been reduced markedly. Herein, current internal exposure of children and adolescents in an urban area in Germany to PCP, lindane, and DDT/E is reported. One hundred and thirty children and adolescents took part in this voluntary investigation. All of them stated they had never used pesticides in their homes or for medical reasons. Blood plasma was analysed for pentachlorophenol (PCP), lindane (gamma-HCH), and dichloro(diphenyl)ethylene (DDE), a biostable metabolite of dichloro(diphenyl)trichloroethane (DDT), using gas chromatography/electron capture detection according to well established methods approved by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Median (and 95th percentiles) in the age groups < 6, 6- < 12, and 12- < 18 years of age were (microgram/l): DDE: 0.75 (4.45), 0.95 (5.04), 0.89 (8.77); DDT: < 0.1 (0.22), < 0.1 (0.25), < 0.1 (0.30); PCP: 2.48 (17.32), 2.69 (5.85), 2.08 (8.04); lindane: < 0.1 (0.12, < 0.1 (0.08), < 0.1 (0.09). High levels of internal exposure to DDT in two girls were probably obtained during a holiday stay in India; high PCP-levels in two other girls were caused by a leather jacket impregnated with PCP, and a holiday abroad, respectively. Current background levels of internal exposure to organochlorine insecticides in children and adolescents in Germany are quantified. Exposure to these substances in the general population is thought to occur mainly via residues in food, which are low in general, today. In special cases, however, individual exposures may be dominated by other sources, i.e. impregnated leather clothes. PMID:14626896

  14. Pneumocystis carinii (jirovecii) pneumonia (PCP): the most common opportunistic infection observed in HIV/AIDS cases at the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jamaiah, I; Rohela, M; Tok, E L; Tan, C L; Tan, W H; Teo, W S; Leow, H F

    2012-07-01

    This retrospective study was conducted among 59 HIV/AIDS patients with opportunistic infections admitted to the University Malaya Medical Centre between 2000 and 2009. Fifty-five point nine percent of cases were Chinese, 25.4% were Malays, 11.9% were Indians and 6.8% were of unknown ethnic origin. The male:female ratio was 2.9:1 (44 males and 15 females). The highest prevalence (38.9%) occurred in the 30-39 year old age group. Men comprised 47.7% and women 53.3%; the majority of both were married. The majority of cases were Malaysians (89.8%) and the rest (10.2%) were immigrants. Most of the patients (18.6%) were non-laborers, followed by laborers (11.9%), the unemployed (5.1%) and housewives (3.4%). The most common risk factor was unprotected sexual activity (20.3%). The two most common HIV/AIDS related opportunistic infections were Pneumocystis carinii (jirovecii) pneumonia (PCP) (62.7%) and toxoplasmosis (28.8%). Seventy-two point nine percent of patients had a CD4 count <200 cells/microl and 5.1% had a CD4 count >500 cells/microl. Eleven point nine percent of cases died during study period. A low CD4 count had a greater association with opportunistic infections. Most of the patients presented with fever (44.1%), cough (42.4%) and shortness of breath (28.8%). Detection of the etiologic pathogens aids clinicians in choosing appropriate management strategies. PMID:23077803

  15. A Population-based Study of Age Inequalities in Access to Palliative Care Among Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Burge, Frederick I.; Lawson, Beverley J.; Johnston, Grace M.; Grunfeld, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background Inequalities in access to palliative care programs (PCP) by age have been shown to exist in Canada and elsewhere. Few studies have been able to provide greater insight by simultaneously adjusting for multiple demographic, health service, and socio-cultural indicators. Objective To re-examine the relationship between age and registration to specialized community-based PCP programs among cancer patients and identify the multiple indicators contributing to these inequalities. Methods This retrospective, population-based study was a secondary data analysis of linked individual level information extracted from 6 administrative health databases and contextual (neighborhood level) data from provincial and census information. Subjects included all adults who died due to cancer between 1998 and 2003 living within 2 District Health Authorities in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The relationship between registration in a PCP and age was examined using hierarchical nonlinear regression modeling techniques. Identification of potential patient and ecologic contributing indicators was guided by Andersen’s conceptual model of health service utilization. Results Overall, 66% of 7511 subjects were registered with a PCP. Older subjects were significantly less likely than those <65 years of age to be registered with a PCP, in particular those aged 85 years and older (adjusted odds ratio: 0.4; 95% confidence interval: 0.3–0.5). Distance to the closest cancer center had a major impact on registration. Conclusions Age continues to be a significant predictor of PCP registration in Nova Scotia even after controlling for the confounding effects of many new demographic, health service, and ecologic indicators. PMID:19300309

  16. MiR-154-5p regulates osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells under tensile stress through the Wnt/PCP pathway by targeting Wnt11.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianwei; Hu, Chen; Han, Lu; Liu, Lei; Jing, Wei; Tang, Wei; Tian, Weidong; Long, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Mechanical stress is a well-acknowledged positive regulatory factor for osteogenic differentiation of adipose- derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs). However, the molecular mechanisms associated with micro-RNAs (miRNAs) whereby ADSCs respond to mechanical stimuli remain elusive. We investigated the mechanism of mechanotransduction from the miRNA perspective in the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs under tensile stress. Microarray analysis showed that miR-154-5p was remarkably downregulated when ADSCs were subjected to mechanical tension. Bioinformatics analysis with luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that Wnt11 3'UTR was a new direct target of miR-154-5p. Under tensile stress, lentivirus-mediated gain- or loss-of-function studies revealed that forced expression of miR-154-5p inhibited osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs, whereas inhibition of endogenous miR-154-5p with its antisense oligonucleotide (ASO-154-5p) obviously promoted osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, miR-154-5p overexpression decreased activity of the non-canonical Wnt/PCP (RhoA-ROCK) pathway, as indicated by lower expression of Wnt11, active RhoA and ROCKII in miR-154-5p-treated ADSCs. By contrast, miR-154-5p inhibition activated the Wnt/PCP signals. Taken together, these results demonstrate that, under tensile stress, miR-154-5p negatively regulates ADSCs osteogenic differentiation through the Wnt/PCP pathway by directly targeting Wnt11. This novel regulatory pathway provides new insights into the molecular mechanism of mechanotransduction in osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. PMID:25959411

  17. Development and evaluation of buccoadhesive tablet for selegiline hydrochloride based on thiolated polycarbophil.

    PubMed

    Wasnik, Mangesh N; Godse, Rutika D; Nair, Hema A

    2014-05-01

    Selegiline hydrochloride (SHCl), a monoamine oxidase B inhibitor, is used as an adjunct in the therapy of Parkinson's disease. This study is concerned with the preparation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal tablet for controlled systemic delivery of SHCl. Buccal absorption of selegiline can bypass its first-pass metabolism and improve bioavailability accompanied by greatly reduced metabolite formation, which is potentially of enhanced therapeutic value in patients with Parkinson's disease. Polycarbophil-cysteine (PCP-cys) conjugate, which is a thiolated derivative of the mucoadhesive polymer polycarbophil, was synthesized by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride-mediated amide bond coupling. Tablets of SHCl based on native and thiolated polycarbophil were prepared. The prepared tablets were evaluated for drug content, swelling behavior, mucoadhesive strength, in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation and in vitro cytotoxicity. PCP-cys tablets showed enhanced mucoadhesion and retarded drug release compared to polycarbophil tablets. Permeation data of SHCl from matrices prepared using the PCP-cys polymer revealed a significantly higher value of apparent permeability in comparison to polycarbophil, which supported the information in literature that thiolation imparts permeation enhancing properties to mucoadhesive polymers. In vitro cytotoxicity studies on PCP-cys using L-929 mouse fibroblast cell line indicated that conjugation with cysteine does not impart any apparent toxicity to polycarbophil. The results from the study indicate that the buccal delivery of SHCl using thiolated polycarbophil tablet could provide a way for improved therapy of Parkinson's disease. PMID:24517570

  18. Co2+-dependent gene expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae: opposite effect of Mn2+ and Co2+ on the expression of the virulence genes psaBCA, pcpA, and prtA

    PubMed Central

    Manzoor, Irfan; Shafeeq, Sulman; Kloosterman, Tomas G.; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn2+)-, zinc (Zn2+)- and copper (Cu2+) play significant roles in transcriptional gene regulation, physiology, and virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. So far, the effect of the important transition metal ion cobalt (Co2+) on gene expression of S. pneumoniae has not yet been explored. Here, we study the impact of Co2+ stress on the transcriptome of S. pneumoniae strain D39. BLAST searches revealed that the genome of S. pneumoniae encodes a putative Co2+-transport operon (cbi operon), the expression of which we show here to be induced by a high Co2+ concentration. Furthermore, we found that Co2+, as has been shown previously for Zn2+, can cause derepression of the genes of the PsaR virulence regulon, encoding the Mn2+-uptake system PsaBCA, the choline binding protein PcpA and the cell-wall associated serine protease PrtA. Interestingly, although Mn2+ represses expression of the PsaR regulon and Co2+ leads to derepression, both metal ions stimulate interaction of PsaR with its target promoters. These data will be discussed in the light of previous studies on similar metal-responsive transcriptional regulators. PMID:26257722

  19. A context for the 1930's Dust Bowl Drought in the Northern Great Plains, U.S. based on a rainfall reconstruction using H-isotopes of terrestrial leaf waxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toney, J. L.; Fritz, S. C.; Grimm, E. C.; Baker, P. A.; Nyren, P. E.; Huang, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Existing records of drought from Northern Great Plains (NGP) are based on pollen or on lake-water ion concentration (salinity) reconstructions from fossil assemblages (diatom-inferred salinity) and trace-elements (ostracode Mg/Ca) that reflect lake response to hydrological variability (precipitation (PCP) minus evaporation). In this study, we show that H-isotopes of terrestrial leaf waxes (n-acids) are a proxy for growing season PCP in the region. With this proxy we reconstruct growing season PCP at Lake George, ND at 35-yr resolution over the past 9.4 ka, at 8-yr resolution over the past 1.8 ka, and at nearly annual resolution for the past 150 years. Our PCP proxy is calibrated against the instrumental record for the past 100-yrs and validated at three regional lakes sites. We show low PCP during the early Holocene beginning at 9.1 ka, with peak drought at 8.4 ka, The H-isotopes (dD) suggest that PCP was highly variable from 8.2 ka to 3.5 ka, with alternating wet-dry periods. This variability is not evident in prior lake studies, which had lower temporal resolution in the mid-Holocene. The dD also indicates generally low rainfall but high-amplitude variation from 6.0 to 3.5 ka and low and less variable rainfall from 2.3 to 0.3 ka. The dD suggest that the 1930’s Dust Bowl Drought is one of only seven drought events throughout the past 9.4 ka to reach that severity, and only three events were more severe (8.1, 2.4, and 0.6 ka). Within the past 1.8 ka, the low rainfall events generally coincide with phases inferred to be dry in regional lakes by in-lake proxies (Rice Lake, ND, Coldwater Lake, ND, Moon Lake, ND, and Elk Lake, MN), although the decreased PCP events are abrupt and less prolonged than the inferred lake response to P-E. Spectral analysis of the H-isotope rainfall proxy does not support the 400-yr spacing of dry lake phases in the region observed in some paleosalinity records, which suggests that this spacing may be strongly affected by temperature

  20. What's a Primary Care Physician (PCP)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... with your schedule. Ask for recommendations from friends, neighbors, relatives, and doctors or nurses you already know ... see if he or she seems like a good fit for your child. And remember, although it's ...

  1. Radioimmunoassy for phencyclidine (PCP) in serum. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, S.M.; Woodworth, J.; Mayersohn, M.

    1982-07-01

    This accurate, sensitive radioimmunoassay for determining phencyclidine concentrations in serum specimens involves the use of anti-phencyclidine sera, 0.1 mL of serum specimen, an iodinated tracer, and a solid-phase separation. Phencyclidine metabolities do not show significant cross reactivity, but several phencyclidine analogs do cross react. Within-run coefficients of variation for human and dog serum ranged from 2.5 to 13% for concentrations from 2.0 to 500 ..mu..g/L. Day-to-day coefficients of variation for human and dog serum ranged from 4.3 to 16.7% for concentrations ranging from 2.0 to 09.0 ..mu..g/L. The sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay is <0.5 ..mu..g/L. Thirty serum specimens from two dogs given 1 mg of phencyclidine per kilogram body weight were analyzed by radioimmunoassay and a gas-chromatographic method. Nonparametris statistical comparison and linear regression showed that results from the two procedures correlate well (r/sup 2/ = 0.952). Concentration-time data from the two dogs are presented to illustrate the utility of the radioimmunoassay for examining phencyclidine disposition.

  2. Inner-ear sound pressures near the base of the cochlea in chinchilla: Further investigation

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The middle-ear pressure gain GMEP, the ratio of sound pressure in the cochlear vestibule PV to sound pressure at the tympanic membrane PTM, is a descriptor of middle-ear sound transfer and the cochlear input for a given stimulus in the ear canal. GMEP and the cochlear partition differential pressure near the cochlear base ΔPCP, which determines the stimulus for cochlear partition motion and has been linked to hearing ability, were computed from simultaneous measurements of PV, PTM, and the sound pressure in scala tympani near the round window PST in chinchilla. GMEP magnitude was approximately 30 dB between 0.1 and 10 kHz and decreased sharply above 20 kHz, which is not consistent with an ideal transformer or a lossless transmission line. The GMEP phase was consistent with a roughly 50-μs delay between PV and PTM. GMEP was little affected by the inner-ear modifications necessary to measure PST. GMEP is a good predictor of ΔPCP at low and moderate frequencies where PV ⪢ PST but overestimates ΔPCP above a few kilohertz where PV ≈ PST. The ratio of PST to PV provides insight into the distribution of sound pressure within the cochlear scalae. PMID:23556590

  3. A residue-based toxicokinetic model for pulse-exposure toxicity in aquatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hickie, B.E.; McCarty, L.S.; Dixon, D.G.

    1995-12-01

    This pulse-exposure model (PULSETOX) is based on the simple one-compartment first-order kinetics (1CFOK) equation. It tracks the accumulation of waterborne organic chemicals by fish and predicts acute toxicity by means of previously established relationships between whole-body residues and lethality. The predictive capabilities of the model were tested with a data set of 27 acute pulse-exposure lethality tests with larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to pentachlorophenol (PCP). Tests included eight single exposures (2 to 96 h) and 19 multiple exposures, which varied in the number (2 to 15) and duration (2 to 24 h) of pulses, and time interval between pulses (6 to 24 h). Experimental work included determination of 1CFOK kinetics parameters from [{sup 14}C]PCP uptake and clearance, and from time-toxicity curves. Lethality was expected in any exposure regime where the fish reaches or exceeds the critical body residue (CBR) of 0.30 mmol PCP/kg fish (SD, {+-} 0.02; n = 11). Using the CBR endpoint, the model accounted for between 90 and 93% of variability in the observed lethality data, depending on the toxicokinetic parameters employed. Predictive power of the model was optimized by using kinetics parameters derived from the toxicity curve for pulse-toxicity tests as shown by the regression: predicted LC50 = 1.04 {center_dot} (observed LC50) + 0.01 (p < 0.001, r{sup 2} = 0.94, n = 27).

  4. Examination of an amphibian-based assay using the larvae of Xenopus laevis and Ambystoma mexicanum.

    PubMed

    Saka, Masahiro

    2003-05-01

    Semistatic acute toxicity tests of amphibian larvae (Xenopus laevis and Ambystoma mexicanum) were conducted at different developmental stages and by different methods to establish a simple amphibian-based assay. Test substance was pentachlorophenol sodium salt (PCP-Na). The endpoint was mortality and the 24-, 48-, 72-, and 96-h LC50 values were calculated by probit analysis. Interspecific differences in larval responses were not clear. Larval sensitivity tended to increase with larval age. Newly hatched larvae were most resistant to PCP-Na. During the tests of well-developed larvae, concentrations of dissolved oxygen and PCP-Na in the test solutions greatly dropped owing to uptake by the larvae. Therefore, middle-developed (2-week-old) larvae were most suitable for the test. Toxicity tests for volatile substances would be also possible using 2-week-old larvae in closed vessels. Test individuals should be kept individually to avoid the effects of poisonous skin secretions released from dead larvae. PMID:12706392

  5. A sensitive electrochemical chlorophenols sensor based on nanocomposite of ZnSe quantum dots and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianjun; Li, Xiao; Yang, Ran; Qu, Lingbo; Harrington, Peter de B

    2013-12-01

    In this work, a very sensitive and simple electrochemical sensor for chlorophenols (CPs) based on a nanocomposite of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and ZnSe quantum dots (ZnSe-CTAB) through electrostatic self-assembly technology was built for the first time. The composite of ZnSe-CTAB introduced a favorable access for the electron transfer and gave superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of CPs than ZnSe QDs and CTAB alone. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used for the quantitative determination of the CPs including 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Under the optimum conditions, the peak currents of the CPs were proportional to their concentrations in the range from 0.02 to 10.0 μM for 2-CP, 0.006 to 9.0 μM for 2,4-DCP, and 0.06 to 8.0 for PCP. The detection limits were 0.008 μM for 2-CP, 0.002 μM for 2,4-DCP, and 0.01 μM for PCP, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the determination of CPs in waste water with satisfactory recoveries. This ZnSe-CTAB electrode system provides operational access to design environment-friendly CPs sensors. PMID:24267066

  6. Kernel-based variance component estimation and whole-genome prediction of pre-corrected phenotypes and progeny tests for dairy cow health traits

    PubMed Central

    Morota, Gota; Boddhireddy, Prashanth; Vukasinovic, Natascha; Gianola, Daniel; DeNise, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of complex trait phenotypes in the presence of unknown gene action is an ongoing challenge in animals, plants, and humans. Development of flexible predictive models that perform well irrespective of genetic and environmental architectures is desirable. Methods that can address non-additive variation in a non-explicit manner are gaining attention for this purpose and, in particular, semi-parametric kernel-based methods have been applied to diverse datasets, mostly providing encouraging results. On the other hand, the gains obtained from these methods have been smaller when smoothed values such as estimated breeding value (EBV) have been used as response variables. However, less emphasis has been placed on the choice of phenotypes to be used in kernel-based whole-genome prediction. This study aimed to evaluate differences between semi-parametric and parametric approaches using two types of response variables and molecular markers as inputs. Pre-corrected phenotypes (PCP) and EBV obtained for dairy cow health traits were used for this comparison. We observed that non-additive genetic variances were major contributors to total genetic variances in PCP, whereas additivity was the largest contributor to variability of EBV, as expected. Within the kernels evaluated, non-parametric methods yielded slightly better predictive performance across traits relative to their additive counterparts regardless of the type of response variable used. This reinforces the view that non-parametric kernels aiming to capture non-linear relationships between a panel of SNPs and phenotypes are appealing for complex trait prediction. However, like past studies, the gain in predictive correlation was not large for either PCP or EBV. We conclude that capturing non-additive genetic variation, especially epistatic variation, in a cross-validation framework remains a significant challenge even when it is important, as seems to be the case for health traits in dairy cows. PMID:24715901

  7. Automated Communication Tools and Computer-Based Medication Reconciliation to Decrease Hospital Discharge Medication Errors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kenneth J; Handler, Steven M; Kapoor, Wishwa N; Martich, G Daniel; Reddy, Vivek K; Clark, Sunday

    2016-07-01

    This study sought to determine the effects of automated primary care physician (PCP) communication and patient safety tools, including computerized discharge medication reconciliation, on discharge medication errors and posthospitalization patient outcomes, using a pre-post quasi-experimental study design, in hospitalized medical patients with ≥2 comorbidities and ≥5 chronic medications, at a single center. The primary outcome was discharge medication errors, compared before and after rollout of these tools. Secondary outcomes were 30-day rehospitalization, emergency department visit, and PCP follow-up visit rates. This study found that discharge medication errors were lower post intervention (odds ratio = 0.57; 95% confidence interval = 0.44-0.74; P < .001). Clinically important errors, with the potential for serious or life-threatening harm, and 30-day patient outcomes were not significantly different between study periods. Thus, automated health system-based communication and patient safety tools, including computerized discharge medication reconciliation, decreased hospital discharge medication errors in medically complex patients. PMID:25753453

  8. Classification epitopes in groups based on their protein family

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The humoral immune system response is based on the interaction between antibodies and antigens for the clearance of pathogens and foreign molecules. The interaction between these proteins occurs at specific positions known as antigenic determinants or B-cell epitopes. The experimental identification of epitopes is costly and time consuming. Therefore the use of in silico methods, to help discover new epitopes, is an appealing alternative due the importance of biomedical applications such as vaccine design, disease diagnostic, anti-venoms and immune-therapeutics. However, the performance of predictions is not optimal been around 70% of accuracy. Further research could increase our understanding of the biochemical and structural properties that characterize a B-cell epitope. Results We investigated the possibility of linear epitopes from the same protein family to share common properties. This hypothesis led us to analyze physico-chemical (PCP) and predicted secondary structure (PSS) features of a curated dataset of epitope sequences available in the literature belonging to two different groups of antigens (metalloproteinases and neurotoxins). We discovered statistically significant parameters with data mining techniques which allow us to distinguish neurotoxin from metalloproteinase and these two from random sequences. After a five cross fold validation we found that PCP based models obtained area under the curve values (AUC) and accuracy above 0.9 for regression, decision tree and support vector machine. Conclusions We demonstrated that antigen's family can be inferred from properties within a single group of linear epitopes (metalloproteinases or neurotoxins). Also we discovered the characteristics that represent these two epitope groups including their similarities and differences with random peptides and their respective amino acid sequence. These findings open new perspectives to improve epitope prediction by considering the specific antigen

  9. How University Students View Online Study: A PCP Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wei

    2004-01-01

    With the ever-increasing impact of information technology (IT) on society, universities are pushed to deliver the courses through the Internet by the format of Web course or online study. There are relatively few studies of how students construe this new mode of delivery and study. This study aimed to better understanding of how students construe…

  10. Tissue polarity: PCP inheritance ensured by selective mitotic endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Founounou, Nabila; Le Borgne, Roland

    2011-09-27

    Recent findings report the selective internalization of core planar cell polarity components during mitosis followed by cell-non-autonomous polarized recycling. This novel mechanistic model explains how tissue polarity is inherited in daughter cells of proliferative tissue. PMID:21959155

  11. Randomized controlled trial of primary care physician motivational interviewing versus brief advice to engage adolescents with an Internet-based depression prevention intervention: 6-month outcomes and predictors of improvement.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Willemijn; Marko, Monika; Fogel, Joshua; Schuurmans, Josien; Gladstone, Tracy; Bradford, Nathan; Domanico, Rocco; Fagan, Blake; Bell, Carl; Reinecke, Mark A; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W

    2011-12-01

    We believe that primary care physicians could play a key role in engaging youth with a depression prevention intervention. We developed CATCH-IT (Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral and Interpersonal Training), which is an adolescent Internet-based behavior change model. We conducted a randomized comparison of two approaches in engaging adolescents with the Internet intervention: primary care physician (PCP) motivational interview + CATCH-IT Internet program (MI) vs PCP brief advice + CATCH-IT Internet program (BA). The participants (N = 84) were recruited by screening for risk of depression in 13 primary care practices. We compared depressive disorder outcomes between groups and within groups over 6 months and examined the potential predictors and moderators of outcomes across both study arms. Depressive symptom scores declined from baseline to 6 weeks with these statistically significant reductions sustained at the 6 months follow-up in both groups. No significant interactions with treatment condition were found. However, by 6 months, the MI group demonstrated significantly fewer depressive episodes and reported less hopelessness as compared with the BA group. Hierarchical linear modeling regressions showed higher ratings of ease of use of the Internet program predicting lower depressive symptom levels over 6 months. In conclusion, a primary care/Internet-based intervention model among adolescents demonstrated reductions in depressed mood over 6 months and may result in fewer depressive episodes. PMID:22061038

  12. Plant uptake of pentachlorophenol from sludge-amended soils

    SciTech Connect

    Bellin, C.A.; O'Connor, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the effects of sludge on plant uptake of {sup 14}C-pentachlorophenol (PCP). Plants included tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.), and chile pepper (Capsicum annum L.). Minimal intact PCP was detected in the fescue and lettuce by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. No intact PCP was detected in the carrot tissue extracts. Chile pepper was not analyzed for intact PCP because methylene chloride extracts contained minimal {sup 14}C. The GC/MS analysis of soil extracts at harvest suggests a half-life of PCP of about 10 d independent of sludge rate or PCP loading rate. Rapid degradation of PCP in the soil apparently limited PCP availability to the plant. Bioconcentration factors (dry plant wt./initial soil PCP concentration) based on intact PCP were <0.01 for all crops, suggesting little PCP uptake. Thus, food-chain crop PCP uptake in these alkaline soils should not limit land application of sludge.

  13. Modeling and Application of a Rapid Fluorescence-Based Assay for Biotoxicity in Anaerobic Digestion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian Lin; Steele, Terry W J; Stuckey, David C

    2015-11-17

    The sensitivity of anaerobic digestion metabolism to a wide range of solutes makes it important to be able to monitor toxicants in the feed to anaerobic digesters to optimize their operation. In this study, a rapid fluorescence measurement technique based on resazurin reduction using a microplate reader was developed and applied for the detection of toxicants and/or inhibitors to digesters. A kinetic model was developed to describe the process of resazurin reduced to resorufin, and eventually to dihydroresorufin under anaerobic conditions. By modeling the assay results of resazurin (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mM) reduction by a pure facultative anaerobic strain, Enterococcus faecalis, and fresh mixed anaerobic sludge, with or without 10 mg L(-1) spiked pentachlorophenol (PCP), we found it was clear that the pseudo-first-order rate constant for the reduction of resazurin to resorufin, k1, was a good measure of "toxicity". With lower biomass density and the optimal resazurin addition (0.1 mM), the toxicity of 10 mg L(-1) PCP for E. faecalis and fresh anaerobic sludge was detected in 10 min. By using this model, the toxicity differences among seven chlorophenols to E. faecalis and fresh mixed anaerobic sludge were elucidated within 30 min. The toxicity differences determined by this assay were comparable to toxicity sequences of various chlorophenols reported in the literature. These results suggest that the assay developed in this study not only can quickly detect toxicants for anaerobic digestion but also can efficiently detect the toxicity differences among a variety of similar toxicants. PMID:26457928

  14. The Harvard Automated Phone Task: new performance-based activities of daily living tests for early Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Gad A.; Dekhtyar, Maria; Bruno, Jonathan M.; Jethwani, Kamal; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Impairment in activities of daily living is a major burden for Alzheimer’s disease dementia patients and caregivers. Multiple subjective scales and a few performance-based instruments have been validated and proven to be reliable in measuring instrumental activities of daily living in Alzheimer’s disease dementia but less so in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. Objective To validate the Harvard Automated Phone Task, a new performance-based activities of daily living test for early Alzheimer’s disease, which assesses high level tasks that challenge seniors in daily life. Design In a cross-sectional study, the Harvard Automated Phone Task was associated with demographics and cognitive measures through univariate and multivariate analyses; ability to discriminate across diagnostic groups was assessed; test-retest reliability with the same and alternate versions was assessed in a subset of participants; and the relationship with regional cortical thickness was assessed in a subset of participants. Setting Academic clinical research center. Participants One hundred and eighty two participants were recruited from the community (127 clinically normal elderly and 45 young normal participants) and memory disorders clinics at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital (10 participants with mild cognitive impairment). Measurements As part of the Harvard Automated Phone Task, participants navigated an interactive voice response system to refill a prescription (APT-Script), select a new primary care physician (APT-PCP), and make a bank account transfer and payment (APT-Bank). The 3 tasks were scored based on time, errors, and repetitions from which composite z-scores were derived, as well as a separate report of correct completion of the task. Results We found that the Harvard Automated Phone Task discriminated well between diagnostic groups (APT-Script: p=0.002; APT-PCP: p<0.001; APT-Bank: p=0

  15. A survey of benthic sediment contaminants in reaches of the Columbia River Estuary based on channel sedimentation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Counihan, Timothy D; Waite, Ian R; Nilsen, Elena B; Hardiman, Jill M; Elias, Edwin; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Zaugg, Steven D

    2014-06-15

    While previous studies have documented contaminants in fish, sediments, water, and wildlife, few specifics are known about the spatial distribution of contaminants in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). Our study goal was to characterize sediment contaminant detections and concentrations in reaches of the CRE that were concurrently being sampled to assess contaminants in water, invertebrates, fish, and osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs. Our objectives were to develop a survey design based on sedimentation characteristics and then assess whether sediment grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), and contaminant concentrations and detections varied between areas with different sedimentation characteristics. We used a sediment transport model to predict sedimentation characteristics of three 16km river reaches in the CRE. We then compartmentalized the modeled change in bed mass after a two week simulation to define sampling strata with depositional, stable, or erosional conditions. We collected and analyzed bottom sediments to assess whether substrate composition, organic matter composition, and contaminant concentrations and detections varied among strata within and between the reaches. We observed differences in grain size fractions between strata within and between reaches. We found that the fine sediment fraction was positively correlated with TOC. Contaminant concentrations were statistically different between depositional vs. erosional strata for the industrial compounds, personal care products and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons class (Indus-PCP-PAH). We also observed significant differences between strata in the number of detections of Indus-PCP-PAH (depositional vs. erosional; stable vs. erosional) and for the flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides class (depositional vs. erosional, depositional vs. stable). When we estimated mean contaminant concentrations by reach, we observed higher contaminant concentrations in the furthest downstream

  16. BASE CATALYZED DECHLORINATION OF POLYCHLOROBIPHENYLS - NEW HYDROGEN DONORS, TRANSFER AGENTS/CATALYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical treatment technologies that are safe, complete and cost-effective are being sought for the destruction of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, pentachlorophenol (PCP), organophosphorus pesticides, nitrated aromatic and otherenergetic materials (that exist ...

  17. A touch-screen based paired-associates learning (PAL) task for the rat may provide a translatable pharmacological model of human cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Talpos, John C; Aerts, Nancy; Fellini, Laetitia; Steckler, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The use of touch-screen equipped operant boxes is an increasingly popular approach for modeling human cognition in the rodent. However little data is currently available describing the effects of pharmacological manipulations on touch-screen based tasks. Owing to the relationship between performance on visual-spatial paired associates learning (PAL) with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease one task of specific interest is the touch-screen PAL task developed for rodents (J. Talpos et al., 2009). The goal of this study was to profile a range of the commonly used pharmacological models of schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to investigate the sensitivity of PAL to these models of disease. Male Lister hooded rats were trained on PAL until stable performance was obtained. The effects of PCP, ketamine, amphetamine, LSD, scopolamine, and biperiden (recently proposed as an alternative to scopolamine) were then tested on animals performing the PAL task. While all compounds influenced responding during PAL, only PCP and amphetamine impaired performance with minimal changes in secondary measures (response latencies, trials completed). Surprisingly ketamine did not cause a change in percent correct despite being an NMDA antagonist, indicating that not all NMDA antagonists are equal in the touch-screen platform. This finding is in agreement with existing literature showing differential effects of NMDA antagonists on a wide variety of behavioral assays include tasks of attention, memory, and cognitive flexibility (Gilmour et al., 2009; Dix et al., 2010; Smith et al., 2011). Moreover biperiden showed no benefit when compared to scopolamine, highlighting the current lack of an effective pharmacological model of cholinergic dysfunction in the touch-screen platform. These data demonstrate that performance on PAL can be disrupted by common pharmacological disease models, suggesting that PAL may have the sensitivity to serve as a translational test for the study of cognition in

  18. Pentachlorophenol exposure causes Warburg-like effects in zebrafish embryos at gastrulation stage

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Jing; Hu, Ping; Dong, Zhangji; Li, Jingyun; Zhang, Hongchang; Yin, Daqiang; Zhao, Qingshun

    2014-06-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a prevalent pollutant in the environment and has been demonstrated to be a serious toxicant to humans and animals. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanism underlying its toxic effects on vertebrate early development. To explore the impacts and underlying mechanisms of PCP on early development, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to PCP at concentrations of 0, 20 and 50 μg/L, and microscopic observation and cDNA microarray analysis were subsequently conducted at gastrulation stage. The morphological observations revealed that PCP caused a developmental delay of zebrafish embryos in a concentration-dependent manner. Transcriptomic data showed that 50 μg/L PCP treatment resulted in significant changes in gene expression level, and the genes involved in energy metabolism and cell behavior were identified based on gene functional enrichment analysis. The energy production of embryos was influenced by PCP via the activation of glycolysis along with the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). The results suggested that PCP acts as an inhibitor of OXPHOS at 8 hpf (hours postfertilization). Consistent with the activated glycolysis, the cell cycle activity of PCP-treated embryos was higher than the controls. These characteristics are similar to the Warburg effect, which occurs in human tumors. The microinjection of exogenous ATP confirmed that an additional energy supply could rescue PCP-treated embryos from the developmental delay due to the energy deficit. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PCP causes a Warburg-like effect on zebrafish embryos during gastrulation, and the affected embryos had the phenotype of developmental delay. - Highlights: • We treat zebrafish embryos with PCP at gastrula stage. • PCP acts as an oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor, not an uncoupler, in gastrulation. • Exogenous ATP injection will rescue the development of effected embryos. • The transcriptome of PCP

  19. Disposition of pentachlorophenol in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri ): Effect of inhibition of metabolism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stehly, G.R.; Hayton, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    The accumulation kinetics of pentachlorophenol (PCP) were investigated in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri ) in the absence and presence of 25 mg/l salicylamide, an inhibitor of PCP metabolism. After exposure to 5 mu g/l PCP over 1-96 h, the amount of PCP in the whole fish, its concentration in water and the total amount of metabolites (water, whole fish and bile) were measured. Equations for these variables, based on a two compartment pharmacokinetic model, were fitted simultaneously to the data using the computer program NONLIN, which uses an iterative nonlinear least squares technique. Salicylamide decreased the metabolic clearance of PCP, which resulted in an increase in the bioconcentration factor (BCF); this increase was partially offset by a salicylamide-induced decrease in the apparent volume of distribution of PCP. A clearance-volume compartment model permitted partitioning of the BCF in terms of the underlying physiologic and biochemical processes (uptake clearance, metabolic clearance and apparent volume of distribution).

  20. The Urinary Bladder Transcriptome and Proteome Defined by Transcriptomics and Antibody-Based Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Habuka, Masato; Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M.; Pontén, Fredrik; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Uhlen, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    To understand functions and diseases of urinary bladder, it is important to define its molecular constituents and their roles in urinary bladder biology. Here, we performed genome-wide deep RNA sequencing analysis of human urinary bladder samples and identified genes up-regulated in the urinary bladder by comparing the transcriptome data to those of all other major human tissue types. 90 protein-coding genes were elevated in the urinary bladder, either with enhanced expression uniquely in the urinary bladder or elevated expression together with at least one other tissue (group enriched). We further examined the localization of these proteins by immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays and 20 of these 90 proteins were localized to the whole urothelium with a majority not yet described in the context of the urinary bladder. Four additional proteins were found specifically in the umbrella cells (Uroplakin 1a, 2, 3a, and 3b), and three in the intermediate/basal cells (KRT17, PCP4L1 and ATP1A4). 61 of the 90 elevated genes have not been previously described in the context of urinary bladder and the corresponding proteins are interesting targets for more in-depth studies. In summary, an integrated omics approach using transcriptomics and antibody-based profiling has been used to define a comprehensive list of proteins elevated in the urinary bladder. PMID:26694548

  1. Possible Legal Barriers for PCP Access to Mental Health Treatment Records.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Leslie S; Ganz, David A; Wenger, Neil S

    2016-04-01

    Provider and payer groups have endorsed the goal of improving the integration of primary care and behavioral health across a variety of programs and settings. There is an interest in sharing patients' medical information, a goal that is permissible within HIPAA, but there are concerns about more restrictive state medical privacy laws. This article assesses whether a substantial number of state medical privacy laws are, or could be interpreted to be, more restrictive than HIPAA. Preliminary investigation found that in almost one third of the states (including large-population states such as Florida, Georgia, Massachusetts, New York, and Texas), primary care physicians (PCPs) may have difficulty accessing mental health treatment records without the patient's (or his/her guardian/conservator's) written consent. If a comprehensive legal analysis supports this conclusion, then those advocating integration of behavioral and primary care may need to consider seeking appropriate state legislative solutions. PMID:25870028

  2. SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION FOR REMEDIATON OF WOOD PRESERVING SITES: TREATMENT FOR DIOXINS, PCP, CREOSOTE, AND METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article discusses the use of solidification/stabilization (S/S) to treat soils contaminated with organic and inorganic chemicals at wood preserving sites. Solidification is defined for this article as making a material into a free standing solid. Stabilization is defined as ...

  3. SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) REPORT FOR THE WESTINGHOUSE BIOANALYTICAL SYSTEMS PENTACHLOROPHENOL (PCP) IMMUNOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of the demonstration of two Westinghouse Bio-Analytic Systems (WBAS) immunoassay technologies are described in this report. The immunoassays measure parts per billion concentrations of pentachlorophenol in environmental water samples. The study was conducted under the...

  4. REMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH WOOD PRESERVING WASTES: CROSSCURRENT AND COUNTERCURRENT SOLVENT WASHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    solvent washing was evaluated as a method to remove pentachlorophenol (PCP) from aged field soils contaminated with wood treating wastes. Several soil:solvent contact ratios were considered. Solvent washing processes were evaluated based on the removal of PCP from the soil throug...

  5. Optimization of cerebellar purkinje neuron cultures and development of a plasmid-based method for purkinje neuron-specific, miRNA-mediated protein knockdown.

    PubMed

    Alexander, C J; Hammer, J A

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple and efficient method to knock down proteins specifically in Purkinje neurons (PN) present in mixed mouse primary cerebellar cultures. This method utilizes the introduction via nucleofection of a plasmid encoding a specific miRNA downstream of the L7/Pcp2 promoter, which drives PN-specific expression. As proof-of-principle, we used this plasmid to knock down the motor protein myosin Va, which is required for the targeting of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) into PN spines. Consistent with effective knockdown, transfected PNs robustly phenocopied PNs from dilute-lethal (myosin Va-null) mice with regard to the ER targeting defect. Importantly, our plasmid-based approach is less challenging technically and more specific to PNs than several alternative methods (e.g., biolistic- and lentiviral-based introduction of siRNAs). We also present a number of improvements for generating mixed cerebellar cultures that shorten the procedure and improve the total yield of PNs, and of transfected PNs, considerably. Finally, we present a method to rescue cerebellar cultures that develop large cell aggregates, a common problem that otherwise precludes the further use of the culture. PMID:26794514

  6. Isolation and characterization of a chalcone isomerase gene promoter from potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Chen, M; Zhu, W J; You, X; Liu, Y D; Kaleri, G M; Yang, Q

    2015-01-01

    Chalcone isomerase (CHI) is a key enzyme involved in anthocyanin metabolism. Previous research on CHI has mainly focused on cDNA cloning and gene expression. In the current study, the 1425-bp potato CHI promoter (PCP) was isolated from four potato cultivars (Heijingang, Zhongshu 7, Désirée, and Favorita) using PCR and DNA sequencing. The PCP contained many cis-regulatory elements (CREs) related to anthocyanin metabolism, tissue specificity, light response, stress, and hormone induction. Of the PCP CREs identified, 19 were common to those found in the higher plants examined, based on plant CRE databases. Multiple sequence alignment showed six single nucleotide variation sites in PCP among the potato cultivars examined, resulting in changes in the number of CREs connected with tissue specificity, anthocyanin metabolism, and light response. The 665-bp PCP fragments from Favorita and 1425-bp PCP fragments from Heijingang were used to construct plant expression vectors, which may be a useful tool for biological engineering. A transient expression assay demonstrated that the two PCP fragments from Heijingang could direct the expression of a green fluorescent protein gene in onion epidermis and a β-glucuronidase gene in all potato tuber tissues with different colors, suggesting that the single nucleotide variation in the PCP did not affect its activity, and that silencing of the CHI gene in Favorita may be attributed to other regulatory factors. PMID:26782538

  7. Pentachlorophenol Degradation by Janibacter sp., a New Actinobacterium Isolated from Saline Sediment of Arid Land

    PubMed Central

    Khessairi, Amel; Jaouani, Atef; Turki, Yousra; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Hassen, Abdennaceur; Ouzari, Hadda

    2014-01-01

    Many pentachlorophenol- (PCP-) contaminated environments are characterized by low or elevated temperatures, acidic or alkaline pH, and high salt concentrations. PCP-degrading microorganisms, adapted to grow and prosper in these environments, play an important role in the biological treatment of polluted extreme habitats. A PCP-degrading bacterium was isolated and characterized from arid and saline soil in southern Tunisia and was enriched in mineral salts medium supplemented with PCP as source of carbon and energy. Based on 16S rRNA coding gene sequence analysis, the strain FAS23 was identified as Janibacter sp. As revealed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, FAS23 strain was found to be efficient for PCP removal in the presence of 1% of glucose. The conditions of growth and PCP removal by FAS23 strain were found to be optimal in neutral pH and at a temperature of 30°C. Moreover, this strain was found to be halotolerant at a range of 1–10% of NaCl and able to degrade PCP at a concentration up to 300 mg/L, while the addition of nonionic surfactant (Tween 80) enhanced the PCP removal capacity. PMID:25313357

  8. The key microorganisms for anaerobic degradation of pentachlorophenol in paddy soil as revealed by stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Tong, Hui; Liu, Chengshuai; Li, Fangbai; Luo, Chunling; Chen, Manjia; Hu, Min

    2015-11-15

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a common residual persistent pesticide in paddy soil and has resulted in harmful effect on soil ecosystem. The anaerobic microbial transformation of PCP, therefore, has been received much attentions, especially the functional microbial communities for the reductive transformation. However, the key functional microorganisms for PCP mineralization in the paddy soil still remain unknown. In this work, DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) was applied to explore the key microorganisms responsible for PCP mineralization in paddy soil. The SIP results indicated that the dominant bacteria responsible for PCP biodegradation belonged to the genus Dechloromonas of the class β-Proteobacteria. In addition, the increased production of (13)CH4 and (13)CO2 indicated that the addition of lactate enhanced the rate of biodegradation and mineralization of PCP. Two archaea classified as the genera of Methanosaeta and Methanocella of class Methanobacteria were enriched in the heavy fraction when with lactate, whereas no archaea was detected in the absence of lactate. These findings provide direct evidence for the species of bacteria and archaea responsible for anaerobic PCP or its breakdown products mineralization and reveal a new insight into the microorganisms linked with PCP degradation in paddy soil. PMID:26073380

  9. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for determination of phencyclidine in human serum and its application to human drug abuse cases

    PubMed Central

    Chimalakonda, Krishna C.; Hailey, Chris; Black, Ryan; Beekman, Allison; Carlisle, Rebecca; Lowman-Smith, Elizabeth; Singletary, Heathe; Owens, S. Michael; Hendrickson, Howard

    2010-01-01

    A new analytical method was developed and validated for the rapid determination of phencyclidine (PCP) in human blood and serum. Rapid chromatographic separation decreased the analysis time relative to standard gas chromatography (GC)-based methodologies. The method involved the use of solid-phase extraction for sample preparation and cleanup followed by liquid chromatography tandem spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis and an electrospray-ionization (ESI) interface. PCP was quantified using multiple-reaction-monitoring with deuterium labeled PCP (PCP-d5) as an internal standard. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, and recovery. The method was accurate with error <14% and precision with coefficient of variation (CV) <5.0%. The assay was linear over the entire range of calibration standards (r2 > 0.997). The recovery of PCP after solid-phase extraction was greater than 90% with the lower limit of detection (LLOD) for PCP in 500 µl of human serum after solid-phase extraction at 0.06 ng ml−1. This method was used to determine the levels of PCP in postmortem human blood samples. The LLOD in blood was 1 ng ml−1. Blood PCP concentrations were also determined separately using GC and flame ionization detection (FID). Blood calibration standards and serum calibration standards yielded similar concentrations when used to quantitate authentic human blood samples that tested positive for PCP under the GC-FID method. Extraction of PCP from serum required fewer steps and therefore could be used as a calibration matrix in place of blood. The LC-MS/MS methodology shown here was higher throughput compared with GC-based methods because of very short chromatographic run times. This was accomplished without sacrificing analytical sensitivity. PMID:20959870

  10. Time point-based integrative analyses of deep-transcriptome identify four signal pathways in blastemal regeneration of zebrafish lower jaw.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xuelong; Lyu, Kailun; Gao, Siqi; Wang, Guan; Fan, Chunxin; Zhang, Xin A; Yan, Jizhou

    2015-03-01

    There has been growing interest in applying tissue engineering to stem cell-based regeneration therapies. We have previously reported that zebrafish can faithfully regenerate complicated tissue structures through blastemal cell type conversions and tissue reorganization. To unveil the regenerative factors and engineering arts of blastemal regeneration, we conducted transcriptomal analyses at four time points corresponding to preamputation, re-epitheliation, blastemal formation, and respecification. By combining the hierarchical gene ontology term network, the DAVID annotation system, and Euclidean distance clustering, we identified four signaling pathways: foxi1-foxo1b-pou3f1, pax3a-mant3a-col11/col2, pou5f1-cdx4-kdrl, and isl1-wnt11 PCP-sox9a. Results from immunohistochemical staining and promoter-driven transgenic fish suggest that these pathways, respectively, define wound epidermis reconstitution, cell type conversions, blastemal angiogenesis/vasculogenesis, and cartilage matrix-orientation. Foxi1 morpholino-knockdown caused expansions of Foxo1b- and Pax3a-expression in the basal layer-blastemal junction region. Moreover, foxi1 morphants displayed increased sox9a and hoxa2b transcripts in the embryonic pharyngeal arches. Thus, a Foxi1 signal switch is required to establish correct tissue patterns, including re-epitheliation and blastema formation. This study provides novel insight into a blastema regeneration strategy devised by epithelial cell transdifferentiation, blood vessel engineering, and cartilage matrix deposition. PMID:25420467

  11. Methods for studying planar cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Jessica; Axelrod, Jeffrey D

    2014-06-15

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is the polarity of epithelial cells in the plane orthogonal to the apical-basal axis, and is controlled by a partially defined signaling system. PCP related signaling also plays roles in cell migration, tissue re-organization and stem cell differentiation during embryonic development, and later, in regeneration and repair. Aberrant signaling has been linked to a broad range of pathophysiologies including cancer, developmental defects, and neurological disorders. The deepest mechanistic insights have come from studies of PCP in Drosophila. In this chapter we review tools and methods to study PCP signaling in Drosophila epithelia, where it was found to involve asymmetric protein localization that is coordinated between adjacent cells. Such signaling has been most extensively studied in wing, eye, and abdomen, but also in other tissues such as leg and notum. In the adult fly, PCP is manifested in the coordinated direction of hairs and bristles, as well as the organization of ommatidia in the eye. The polarity of these structures is preceded by asymmetric localization of PCP signaling proteins at the apical junctions of epithelial cells. Based on genetic and molecular criteria, the proteins that govern PCP can be divided into distinct modules, including the core module, the Fat/Dachsous/Four-jointed (Fat/Ds/Fj) module (often referred to as the 'global' module) as well as tissue specific effector modules. Different tissues and tissue regions differ in their sensitivity to disturbances in the various modules of the PCP signaling system, leading to controversies about the interactions among the modules, and emphasizing the value of studying PCP in multiple contexts. Here, we review methods including those generally applicable, as well as some that are selectively useful for analyses of PCP in eye (including eye discs), wing (including wing discs), pupal and adult abdomen, and the cuticle of larvae and embryos. PMID:24680701

  12. Tinking Glutamatergically: Changing Concepts of Schizophrenia Based Upon Changing Neurochemical Models

    PubMed Central

    Kantrowitz, Joshua T.; Javitt, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical concepts of mental illness have always been modulated by underlying theoretical considerations. For the past fifty years, schizophrenia has been considered primarily a disease of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Although this conceptualization has helped greatly in explaining the clinical effects of psychostimulants and guiding the clinical use of both typical and atypical antipsychotics, it has nevertheless shaded how we look at the disorder from both a pathophysiological and therapeutic perspective. For example, most explanatory research in schizophrenia has focused on dopamine-rich regions of the brain, with little investigation of regions of the brain that are relatively dopamine poor. Starting approximately twenty years ago, an alternative formulation of schizophrenia was proposed based upon actions of the “dissociative anesthetic” class of psychotomimetic agents, including phencyclidine (PCP), ketamine and various designer drugs. These compounds induce psychosis by blocking neurotransmission at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors, suggesting an alternative model for pathogenesis in schizophrenia. As opposed to dopamine, the glutamatergic system is widely distributed throughout the brain and plays a prominent role in sensory processing as well as in subsequent stages of cortical analysis. Glutamatergic theories of schizophrenia, thus, predict that cortical dysfunction will be regionally diffuse but process specific. In addition, NMDA receptors incorporate binding sites for specific endogenous brain compounds, including the amino acids glycine and D-serine and the redox modulator glutathione, and interact closely with dopaminergic, cholinergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic systems. Glutamatergic theories, thus, open new potential approaches for treatment of schizophrenia, most of which are only now entering clinical evaluation. PMID:20880830

  13. The effect of a resident-led quality improvement project on improving communication between hospital-based and outpatient physicians.

    PubMed

    Kalanithi, Lucy; Coffey, Charles E; Mourad, Michelle; Vidyarthi, Arpana R; Hollander, Harry; Ranji, Sumant R

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a resident-led quality improvement program to improve communication between inpatient internal medicine residents and their patients' primary care physicians (PCPs). The program included education on care transitions, standardization of documentation, audit and feedback of documented PCP communication rates with public reporting of performance, rapid-cycle data analysis and improvement projects, and a financial incentive. At baseline, PCP communication was documented in 55% of patients; after implementation of the intervention, communication was documented in 89.3% (2477 of 2772) of discharges during the program period. The program was associated with a significant increase in referring PCP satisfaction with communication at hospital admission (baseline, 27.7% "satisfied" or "very satisfied"; postintervention, 58.2%; P < .01) but not at discharge (baseline, 14.9%; postintervention, 21.8%; P = .41). Residents cited the importance of PCP communication for patient care and audit and feedback of their performance as the principal drivers of their engagement in the project. PMID:23526358

  14. Impaired Limbic Cortico-Striatal Structure and Sustained Visual Attention in a Rodent Model of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Samuel A.; Sawiak, Stephen J.; Caprioli, Daniele; Jupp, Bianca; Buonincontri, Guido; Mar, Adam C.; Harte, Michael K.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Neill, Jo C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Accordingly, NMDAR antagonists such as phencyclidine (PCP) are used widely in experimental animals to model cognitive impairment associated with this disorder. However, it is unclear whether PCP disrupts the structural integrity of brain areas relevant to the profile of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Methods: Here we used high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry to investigate structural alterations associated with sub-chronic PCP treatment in rats. Results: Sub-chronic exposure of rats to PCP (5mg/kg twice daily for 7 days) impaired sustained visual attention on a 5-choice serial reaction time task, notably when the attentional load was increased. In contrast, sub-chronic PCP had no significant effect on the attentional filtering of a pre-pulse auditory stimulus in an acoustic startle paradigm. Voxel-based morphometry revealed significantly reduced grey matter density bilaterally in the hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex, ventral striatum, and amygdala. PCP-treated rats also exhibited reduced cortical thickness in the insular cortex. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that sub-chronic NMDA receptor antagonism is sufficient to produce highly-localized morphological abnormalities in brain areas implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Furthermore, PCP exposure resulted in dissociable impairments in attentional function. PMID:25552430

  15. Typing of Pneumocystis jirovecii by multilocus sequencing: evidence of outbreak?

    PubMed

    Depypere, M; Saegeman, V; Lagrou, K

    2016-06-01

    Different reports of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP) outbreaks on oncology and transplant units suggest the possibility of a person-to-person transmission. Based on these reports, we searched retrospectively for possible PcP clusters in UZ Leuven in 2013. A movement and transmission map was established for all patients (n = 21) with a positive PcP PCR on BAL fluid. BAL fluid samples from all patients with a positive PCR on the mitochondrial large subunit mRNA of P. jirovecii and possible cross exposure were typed with multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Five patients with a positive PcP PCR could have contact with another PcP patient. Another five patients with a weak positive PcP PCR on BAL fluid during the same period were also included. Based on the MLST typing of the BAL samples of these ten patients, there was no evidence of a PcP outbreak in UZ Leuven in 2013. MLST has proven to be a useful tool in genotyping and outbreak detection. From this case series, it could be concluded that current infection control precautions for P. jirovecii are appropriate in UZ Leuven. However, there is need for an international Pneumocystis database and more clarity in the geographic distribution of different P. jirovecii genotypes. PMID:27038443

  16. A Contiguous 3-Mb Sequence-Ready Map in the S3–MX Region on 21q22.2 Based on High- Throughput Nonisotopic Library Screenings

    PubMed Central

    Hildmann, Thomas; Kong, Xianging; O’Brien, John; Riesselman, Lisa; Christensen, Hoang-My; Dagand, Emilie; Lehrach, Hans; Yaspo, Marie-Laure

    1999-01-01

    Progress in complete genomic sequencing of human chromosome 21 relies on the construction of high-quality bacterial clone maps spanning large chromosomal regions. To achieve this goal, we have applied a strategy based on nonradioactive hybridizations to contig building. A contiguous sequence-ready map was constructed in the Down syndrome congenital heart disease (DS-CHD) region in 21q22.2, as a framework for large-scale genomic sequencing and positional candidate gene approach. Contig assembly was performed essentially by high throughput nonisotopic screenings of genomic libraries, prior to clone validation by (1) restriction digest fingerprinting, (2) STS analysis, (3) Southern hybridizations, and (4) FISH analysis. The contig contains a total of 50 STSs, of which 13 were newly isolated. A minimum tiling path (MTP) was subsequently defined that consists of 20 PACs, 2 BACs, and 5 cosmids covering 3 Mb between D21S3 and MX1. Gene distribution in the region includes 9 known genes (c21–LRP, WRB, SH3BGR, HMG14, PCP4, DSCAM, MX2, MX1, and TMPRSS2) and 14 new additional gene signatures consisting of cDNA selection products and ESTs. Forthcoming genomic sequence information will unravel the structural organization of potential candidate genes involved in specific features of Down syndrome pathogenesis. PMID:10207158

  17. PTK7 regulates myosin II activity to orient planar polarity in the mammalian auditory epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jianyi; Andreeva, Anna; Sipe, Conor W.; Liu, Lixia; Cheng, Amy; Lu, Xiaowei

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) signaling is a key regulator of epithelial morphogenesis, including neural tube closure and the orientation of inner ear sensory hair cells, and is mediated by a conserved noncanonical Wnt pathway. Ptk7 is a novel vertebrate-specific regulator of PCP, yet the mechanisms by which Ptk7 regulates mammalian epithelial PCP remain poorly understood. Results Here we show that, in the mammalian auditory epithelium, Ptk7 is not required for membrane recruitment of Dishevelled 2; Ptk7 and Frizzled3/Frizzled6 receptors act in parallel and have opposing effects on hair cell PCP. Mosaic analysis identified a requirement of Ptk7 in neighboring supporting cells for hair cell PCP. Ptk7 and the noncanonical Wnt pathway differentially regulate a contractile myosin II network near the apical surface of supporting cells. We provide evidence that this apical myosin II network exerts polarized contractile tension on hair cells to align their PCP, as revealed by asymmetric junctional recruitment of vinculin, a tension-sensitive actin binding protein. In Ptk7 mutants, compromised myosin II activity resulted in loss of planar asymmetry and reduced junctional localization of vinculin. By contrast, vinculin planar asymmetry and stereociliary bundle orientation were restored in Fz3−/−; Ptk7−/− double mutants. Conclusions These findings suggest that PTK7 acts in conjunction with the noncanonical Wnt pathway to orient epithelial PCP through modulation of myosin-II based contractile tension between supporting cells and hair cells. PMID:22560610

  18. Do inhaled corticosteroids increase the risk of Pneumocystis pneumonia in people with lung cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Msaad, Sameh; Yangui, Ilhem; Bahloul, Najla; Abid, Narjes; Koubaa, Makram; Hentati, Yosr; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Kammoun, Samy

    2015-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients. It is relatively uncommon in patients with lung cancer. We report a case of PCP in a 59-year-old man with a past medical history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with formoterol and a moderate daily dose of inhaled budesonide. He had also advanced stage non-small lung cancer treated with concurrent chemo-radiation with a cisplatin-etoposide containing regimen. The diagnosis of PCP was suspected based on the context of rapidly increasing dyspnea, lymphopenia and the imaging findings. Polymerase chain reaction testing on an induced sputum specimen was positive for Pneumocystis jirovecii. The patient was treated with oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and systemic corticotherapy and had showed clinical and radiological improvement. Six months after the PCP diagnosis, he developed a malignant pleural effusion and expired on hospice care. Through this case, we remind the importance of screening for PCP in lung cancer patients under chemotherapeutic regimens and with increasing dyspnea. In addition, we alert to the fact that long-term inhaled corticosteroids may be a risk factor for PCP in patients with lung cancer. Despite intensive treatment, the mortality of PCP remains high, hence the importance of chemoprophylaxis should be considered. PMID:26380833

  19. Coupling between Pentachlorophenol Dechlorination and Soil Redox As Revealed by Stable Carbon Isotope, Microbial Community Structure, and Biogeochemical Data.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; He, Yan; Zhang, Qian; Xu, Jianming; Crowley, David

    2015-05-01

    Carbon isotopic analysis and molecular-based methods were used in conjunction with geochemical data sets to assess the dechlorination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) when coupled to biogeochemical processes in a mangrove soil having no prior history of anthropogenic contamination. The PCP underwent 96% dechlorination in soil amended with acetate, compared to 21% dehalogenation in control soil. Carbon isotope analysis of residual PCP demonstrated an obvious enrichment of 13C (εC, -3.01±0.1%). Molecular and statistical analyses demonstrated that PCP dechlorination and Fe(III) reduction were synergistically combined electron-accepting processes. Microbial community analysis further suggested that enhanced dechlorination of PCP during Fe(III) reduction was mediated by members of the multifunctional family of Geobacteraceae. In contrast, PCP significantly suppressed the growth of SO4(2-) reducers, which, in turn, facilitated the production of CH4 by diversion of electrons from SO4(2-) reduction to methanogenesis. The integrated data regarding stoichiometric alterations in this study gives direct evidence showing PCP, Fe(III), and SO4(2-) reduction, and CH4 production are coupled microbial processes during changes in soil redox. PMID:25853431

  20. Enrichment, isolation and characterization of pentachlorophenol degrading bacterium Acinetobacter sp. ISTPCP-3 from effluent discharge site.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashwani; Thakur, Indu Shekhar; Dureja, Prem

    2009-09-01

    Three pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading bacterial strains were isolated from sediment core of pulp and paper mill effluent discharge site. The strains were continuously enriched in mineral salts medium supplemented with PCP as sole source of carbon and energy. One of the acclimated strains with relatively high PCP degradation capability was selected and characterized in this study. Based on morphology, biochemical tests, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phylogenetic characteristics, the strains showed greatest similarity with Acinetobacter spp. The strain was identified as Acinetobacter sp. ISTPCP-3. The physiological characteristics and optimum growth conditions of the bacterial strain were investigated. The results of optimum growth temperature revealed that it was a mesophile. The optimum growth temperature for the strain was 30 degrees C. The preferential initial pH for the strain was ranging at 6.5-7.5, the optimum pH was 7. The bacterium was able to tolerate and degrade PCP up to a concentration of 200 mg/l. Increase in PCP concentration had a negative effect on biodegradation rate and PCP concentration above 250 mg/l was inhibitory to its growth. Acinetobacter sp. ISTPCP-3 was able to utilize PCP through an oxidative route with ortho ring-cleavage with the formation of 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorohydroquinone and 2-chloro-1,4-benzenediol, identified using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. The degradation pathway followed by isolated bacterium is different from previously characterized pathway. PMID:19214760

  1. Effects of pentachlorophenol on survival of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) and phagocytosis by their immunoactive coelomocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Giggleman, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Goven, A.J.; Venables, B.J.

    1998-12-01

    Earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, exposed for 96 h to filter paper saturated with five nominal concentrations of pentachlorophenol, exhibited a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of 25.0 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} and corresponding whole worm body burden-based 50% lethal dose (LD50) of 877.7 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass. Linear regression modeling showed that worms increased body concentrations (BC = {micro}g PCP/g dry tissue mass) with increasing exposure concentrations (EC) according to BC = 113.5 + 29.5EC. Phagocytosis of yeast cells by immunoactive coelomocytes was suppressed only at body concentrations (863.3 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass) that approximated the calculated LD50 and overlapped those demonstrating lethality, indicating a sharp transition between sublethal and lethal toxicity. An exposure concentration of 15 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} produced significant suppression of phagocytosis of yeast cells by immunoactive coelomocytes. However, the average measured body burden from this group approximated the estimated LD50, indicating a sharp toxic response slope. Exposure to 10 {micro}g PCP/cm{sup 2} with a corresponding body concentration of 501.3 {micro}g PCP/g dry mass did not affect phagocytosis. The importance of body burden data is emphasized.

  2. A concept of volume rendering guided search process to analyze medical data set.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianlong; Xiao, Chun; Wang, Zhiyan; Takatsuka, Masahiro

    2008-03-01

    This paper firstly presents an approach of parallel coordinates based parameter control panel (PCP). The PCP is used to control parameters of focal region-based volume rendering (FRVR) during data analysis. It uses a parallel coordinates style interface. Different rendering parameters represented with nodes on each axis, and renditions based on related parameters are connected using polylines to show dependencies between renditions and parameters. Based on the PCP, a concept of volume rendering guided search process is proposed. The search pipeline is divided into four phases. Different parameters of FRVR are recorded and modulated in the PCP during search phases. The concept shows that volume visualization could play the role of guiding a search process in the rendition space to help users to efficiently find local structures of interest. The usability of the proposed approach is evaluated to show its effectiveness. PMID:18082371

  3. Visits to primary care physicians among persons who inject drugs at high risk of hepatitis C virus infection: room for improvement.

    PubMed

    Artenie, A A; Jutras-Aswad, D; Roy, É; Zang, G; Bamvita, J-M; Lévesque, A; Bruneau, J

    2015-10-01

    The role of primary care physicians (PCP) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevention is increasingly emphasized. Yet, little is known about the patterns of contacts with PCP among persons who inject drugs (PWID). We sought to assess the 6-month prevalence of PCP visiting among PWID at risk of HCV infection and to explore the associated factors. Baseline data were collected from HCV-seronegative PWID recruited in HEPCO, an observational Hepatitis Cohort study (2004-2011) in Montreal, Canada. An interviewer-administered questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographic factors, drug use patterns and healthcare services utilization. Blood samples were tested for HCV antibodies. Using the Gelberg-Andersen Behavioral Model, hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predisposing, need and enabling factors associated with PCP visiting. Of the 349 participants (mean age = 34; 80.8% male), 32.1% reported visiting a PCP. In the multivariate model, among predisposing factors, male gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.45 (0.25-0.83)], chronic homelessness [AOR = 0.08 (0.01-0.67)], cocaine injection [AOR = 0.46 (0.28-0.76)] and reporting greater illegal or semi-legal income [AOR = 0.48 (0.27-0.85)] were negatively associated with PCP visits. Markers of need were not associated with the outcome. Among enabling factors, contact with street nurses [AOR = 3.86 (1.49-9.90)] and food banks [AOR = 2.01 (1.20-3.37)] was positively associated with PCP visiting. Only one third of participating PWID reported a recent visit to a PCP. While a host of predisposing factors seems to hamper timely contacts with PCP among high-risk PWID, community-based support services may play an important role in initiating dialogue with primary healthcare services in this population. PMID:25586516

  4. Interactions between Fat and Dachsous and the regulation of planar cell polarity in the Drosophila wing.

    PubMed

    Matakatsu, Hitoshi; Blair, Seth S

    2004-08-01

    It was recently suggested that a proximal to distal gradient of the protocadherin Dachsous (Ds) acts as a cue for planar cell polarity (PCP) in the Drosophila wing, orienting cell-cell interactions by inhibiting the activity of the protocadherin Fat (Ft). This Ft-Ds signaling model is based on mutant loss-of-function phenotypes, leaving open the question of whether Ds is instructive or permissive for PCP. We developed tools for misexpressing ds and ft in vitro and in vivo, and have used these to test aspects of the model. First, this model predicts that Ds and Ft can bind. We show that Ft and Ds mediate preferentially heterophilic cell adhesion in vitro, and that each stabilizes the other on the cell surface. Second, the model predicts that artificial gradients of Ds are sufficient to reorient PCP in the wing; our data confirms this prediction. Finally, loss-of-function phenotypes suggest that the gradient of ds expression is necessary for correct PCP throughout the wing. Surprisingly, this is not the case. Uniform levels of ds drive normally oriented PCP and, in all but the most proximal regions of the wing, uniform ds rescues the ds mutant PCP phenotype. Nor are distal PCP defects increased by the loss of spatial information from the distally expressed four-jointed (fj) gene, which encodes putative modulator of Ft-Ds signaling. Thus, while our results support the existence of Ft-Ds binding and show that it is sufficient to alter PCP, ds expression is permissive or redundant with other PCP cues in much of the wing. PMID:15240556

  5. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: SILICATE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION - SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION OF PCP AND INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SOILS - SELMA, CA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Technolgy Evaluation Report evaluates the solidification/stabilization process of Silicate Technology Corporation (STC) for the on-site treatment of contaminated soil The STC immobilization technology uses a proprietary product (FMS Silicate) to chemically stabilize and ...

  6. The Drosophila neurogenin Tap functionally interacts with the Wnt-PCP pathway to regulate neuronal extension and guidance

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Liqun; Hu, Shu; Okray, Zeynep; Ren, Xi; De Geest, Natalie; Claeys, Annelies; Yan, Jiekun; Bellefroid, Eric; Quan, Xiao-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The neurogenin (Ngn) transcription factors control early neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth in mammalian cortex. In contrast to their proneural activity, their function in neurite growth is poorly understood. Drosophila has a single predicted Ngn homolog, Tap, of unknown function. Here we show that Tap is not a proneural protein in Drosophila but is required for proper axonal growth and guidance of neurons of the mushroom body, a neuropile required for associative learning and memory. Genetic and expression analyses suggest that Tap inhibits excessive axonal growth by fine regulation of the levels of the Wnt signaling adaptor protein Dishevelled. PMID:27385016

  7. The Drosophila neurogenin Tap functionally interacts with the Wnt-PCP pathway to regulate neuronal extension and guidance.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liqun; Hu, Shu; Okray, Zeynep; Ren, Xi; De Geest, Natalie; Claeys, Annelies; Yan, Jiekun; Bellefroid, Eric; Hassan, Bassem A; Quan, Xiao-Jiang

    2016-08-01

    The neurogenin (Ngn) transcription factors control early neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth in mammalian cortex. In contrast to their proneural activity, their function in neurite growth is poorly understood. Drosophila has a single predicted Ngn homolog, Tap, of unknown function. Here we show that Tap is not a proneural protein in Drosophila but is required for proper axonal growth and guidance of neurons of the mushroom body, a neuropile required for associative learning and memory. Genetic and expression analyses suggest that Tap inhibits excessive axonal growth by fine regulation of the levels of the Wnt signaling adaptor protein Dishevelled. PMID:27385016

  8. Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs, Including LSD, PCP, Ketamine, Dextromethorphan. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Research is developing a clearer picture of the dangers of mind-altering drugs. The goal of this report is to present the latest information to providers to help them strengthen their prevention and treatment efforts. A description is presented of dissociative drugs, and consideration is given as to why people take hallucinogens. The physical…

  9. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: SILICATE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION, SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION OF PCP AND INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SOILS SELMA, CA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation demonstration was conducted to evaluate the ability of the solidification/ stabilization treatment process developed by Silicate Technology Corporation (STC) to reduce the mobility and leaching potential of organic and inorganic contam...

  10. Enhanced phosphorescence emission by incorporating aromatic halides into an entangled coordination framework based on naphthalenediimide.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Virginia; Sola Llano, Rebeca; Furukawa, Shuhei; Takashima, Yohei; López Arbeloa, Iñigo; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2014-08-25

    Phosphorescence emission at room temperature is turned on in an entangled porous coordination polymer (PCP) with naphthalenediimide (NDI) as chromophore, by incorporating halogenated guests into the pores. The phosphorescent efficiency is drastically increased by the incorporation of aromatic halide guests in comparison with the incorporation of nonaromatic derivatives. Aromatic halide guests trigger a structural transformation, which allows a strong interaction with the NDI ligand in the framework through charge-transfer complexation, and provides an extra population process of the triplet state. The long-lived photoinduced triplet states, with an emission wavelength in the red region of the visible spectrum, demonstrated by this PCP, may open the door for potential uses, for example, as singlet-oxygen generators or for bio-imaging applications. PMID:24953198

  11. Planar graphene oxide-based magnetic ionic liquid nanomaterial for extraction of chlorophenols from environmental water samples coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cai, Mei-Qiang; Su, Jie; Hu, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Qian; Dong, Chun-Ying; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2016-08-12

    A planar graphene oxide-based magnetic ionic liquid nanomaterial (PGO-MILN) was synthesized. The prepared PGO-MILN was characterized by transmission electronmicroscopy (TEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The results of adsorption experiments showed that the PGO-MILN had great adsorption capacity for 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Based on the adsorption experimental data, a sensitive magnetic method for determination of the five CPs in environmental water samples was developed by an effective magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) procedure coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The effects of main MSPE parameters including the solution pH, extraction time, desorption time, and volume of desorption solution on the extraction efficiencies had been investigated in detail. The recoveries ranged from 85.3 to 99.3% with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.9994 and the linear ranges were between 10 and 500ngL(-1). The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of the five CPs ranged from 0.2 to 2.6ngL(-1) and 0.6 to 8.7ngL(-1), respectively. The intra- and inter- day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range from 0.6% to 7.4% and from 0.7% to 8.4%, respectively. It was confirmed that the PGO-MILN was a kind of highly effective MSPE materials used for enrichment of trace CPs in the environmental water. PMID:27425762

  12. A Comparative Study of Enzymatically and Photochemically Polymerized Artificial Lignin Supramolecular Structures Using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Micic; Jeremic; Radotic; Leblanc

    2000-11-01

    Environmental scanning electron microscopy images of the self-assembled structures of enzymatically (DHP) and photochemically polymerized (PCP) artificial lignin are herein presented. Differences in the structural organization between DHP and PCP polymer at the supramolecular level were reported. Based on topological information, we proposed a hypothesis about possible new physiological roles of lignin in live plant cells and the ecological significance of possible in-vivo photochemical lignin polymerization. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:11082264

  13. Simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol based on poly(Rhodamine B)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite film modified electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Kexin; Lu, Nan; Yuan, Xing

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a poly(Rhodamine B)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite modified glass carbon electrode (PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). The PRhB/GO/MWCNTs film was extensively characterized by emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behaviors of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Due to the synergistic effect, the PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE significantly facilitated the simultaneous electro-oxidation of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP with peak potential difference of 160 mV and enhanced oxidation currents. Under optimum conditions, the oxidation current of 2,4,6-TCP was linear to its concentration in the ranges of 4.0 × 10-9 to 1.0 × 10-7 M and 1.0 × 10-7 to 1.0 × 10-4 M with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 8.0 × 10-10 M. And the linear concentration ranges for PCP were 2.0 × 10-9 to 1.0 × 10-7 M and 1.0 × 10-7 to 9.0 × 10-5 M with the detection limit of 5.0 × 10-10 M. Moreover, the proposed PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP in practical water samples.

  14. Bioconcentration of 5,5',6-trichlorobiphenyl and pentachlorophenol in the midge, Chironomus riparius, as measured by a pharmacokinetic model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lydy, M.J.; Hayton, W.L.; Staubus, A.E.; Fisher, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    A two compartment pharmacokinetic model was developed which describes the uptake and elimination of 5,5',6-trichlorobiphenyl (TCB) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in the midge, Chironomus riparius. C. riparius were exposed to nominal TCB (2 ??g L-1) and PCP (9 ??g L-1) concentrations during a 16 h static uptake phase. Depuration was determined over approximately 45 h using a flowthrough system without feeding. The uptake clearance (P) was 330 ?? 61 ml g-1 midge h-1 for TCB and 55 ?? 4 ml g-1 midge h-1 for PCP, while measured bioconcentration factors (BCF) were 35,900 and 458 for TCB and PCP, respectively. Overall, the clearance-volume- based pharmacokinetic model predicted BCF values that were consistent with published values as well as with BCF values obtained from the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)).

  15. Effects of a Web-Based Patient Activation Intervention to Overcome Clinical Inertia on Blood Pressure Control: Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Thiboutot, Jeffrey; Falkner, Bonita; Kephart, Donna K; Stuckey, Heather L; Adelman, Alan M; Curry, William J; Lehman, Erik B

    2013-01-01

    Background Only approximately half of patients with hypertension have their blood pressure controlled, due in large part to the tendency of primary care providers (PCPs) not to intensify treatment when blood pressure values are elevated. Objective This study tested the effect of an intervention designed to help patients ask questions at the point of care to encourage PCPs to appropriately intensify blood pressure treatment. Methods PCPs and their patients with hypertension (N=500) were recruited by letter and randomized into 2 study groups: (1) intervention condition in which patients used a fully automated website each month to receive tailored messages suggesting questions to ask their PCP to improve blood pressure control, and (2) control condition in which a similar tool suggested questions to ask about preventive services (eg, cancer screening). The Web-based tool was designed to be used during each of the 12 study months and before scheduled visits with PCPs. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients in both conditions with controlled blood pressure. Results Of 500 enrolled patients (intervention condition: n=282; control condition: n=218), 418 (83.6%) completed the 12-month follow-up visit. At baseline, 289 (61.5%) of participants had controlled blood pressure. Most (411/500, 82.2%) participants used the intervention during at least 6 of 12 months and 222 (62.5%) reported asking questions directly from the Web-based tool. There were no group differences in asking about medication intensification and there were no differences in blood pressure control after 12 months between the intervention condition (201/282, 71.3%) and control condition (143/218, 65.6%; P=.27) groups. More intervention condition participants discussed having a creatinine test (92, 52.6% vs 49, 35.5%; P=.02) and urine protein test (81, 44.8% vs 21, 14.6%; P<.001), but no group differences were observed in the rate of testing. The control condition participants reported more

  16. Photochemical Reduction of Low Concentrations of CO2 in a Porous Coordination Polymer with a Ruthenium(II)-CO Complex.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Takashi; Fujii, Machiko; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Katsuaki; Higuchi, Masakazu; Tanaka, Koji; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2016-02-18

    Direct use of low pressures of CO2 as a C1 source without concentration from gas mixtures is of great interest from an energy-saving viewpoint. Porous heterogeneous catalysts containing both adsorption and catalytically active sites are promising candidates for such applications. Here, we report a porous coordination polymer (PCP)-based catalyst, PCP-Ru(II) composite, bearing a Ru(II) -CO complex active for CO2 reduction. The PCP-Ru(II) composite showed improved CO2 adsorption behavior at ambient temperature. In the photochemical reduction of CO2 the PCP-Ru(II) composite produced CO, HCOOH, and H2 . Catalytic activity was comparable with the corresponding homogeneous Ru(II) catalyst and ranks among the highest of known PCP-based catalysts. Furthermore, catalytic activity was maintained even under a 5 % CO2 /Ar gas mixture, revealing a synergistic effect between the adsorption and catalytically active sites within the PCP-Ru(II) composite. PMID:26800222

  17. Long-term storage and impedance-based water toxicity testing capabilities of fluidic biochips seeded with RTgill-W1 cells.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Linda M; Widder, Mark W; Lee, Lucy E J; van der Schalie, William H

    2012-08-01

    Rainbow trout gill epithelial cells (RTgill-W1) are used in a cell-based biosensor that can respond within one hour to toxic chemicals that have the potential to contaminate drinking water supplies. RTgill-W1 cells seeded on enclosed fluidic biochips and monitored using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) technology responded to 18 out of the 18 toxic chemicals tested within one hour of exposure. Nine of these chemical responses were within established concentration ranges specified by the U.S. Army for comparison of toxicity sensors for field application. The RTgill-W1 cells remain viable on the biochips at ambient carbon dioxide levels at 6°C for 78weeks without media changes. RTgill-W1 biochips stored in this manner were challenged with 9.4μM sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP), a benchmark toxicant, and impedance responses were significant (p<0.001) for all storage times tested. This poikilothermic cell line has toxicant sensitivity comparable to a mammalian cell line (bovine lung microvessel endothelial cells (BLMVECs)) that was tested on fluidic biochips with the same chemicals. In order to remain viable, the BLMVEC biochips required media replenishments 3 times per week while being maintained at 37°C. The ability of RTgill-W1 biochips to maintain monolayer integrity without media replenishments for 78weeks, combined with their chemical sensitivity and rapid response time, make them excellent candidates for use in low cost, maintenance-free field-portable biosensors. PMID:22469871

  18. Blood (1→3)-β-D-Glucan as a Diagnostic Test for HIV-Related Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Komarow, Lauren; Finkelman, Malcolm A.; Grant, Philip M.; Andersen, Janet; Scully, Eileen; Powderly, William G.; Zolopa, Andrew R.

    2011-01-01

    (See the editorial commentary by Morris and Masur, on pages 203–204.) Background. Improved noninvasive diagnostic tests for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) are needed. We evaluated the test characteristics of plasma (1→3)-β-D-glucan (β-glucan) for HIV-related PCP among a large group of patients presenting with diverse opportunistic infections (OIs). Methods. The study population included all 282 participants in AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5164, a study of early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy in conjunction with initial therapy of acute OIs. Baseline plasma samples were assayed for β-glucan, with standard assay reference values defining ≥80 pg/mL as positive. Before this analysis, diagnosis of PCP was independently adjudicated by 2 study investigators after reviewing reports from study sites. Results. A total of 252 persons had a β-glucan result that could be analyzed, 173 (69%) of whom had received a diagnosis of PCP. Median β-glucan with PCP was 408 pg/mL (interquartile range [IQR], 209–500 pg/mL), compared with 37 pg/mL (IQR, 31–235 pg/mL) without PCP (P < .001). The sensitivity of β-glucan dichotomized at 80 pg/mL for the diagnosis of PCP was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87%–96%), and the specificity was 65% (95% CI, 53%–75%); positive and negative predictive values were 85% (95% CI, 79%–90%) and 80% (95% CI, 68%–89%) respectively, based on the study prevalence of 69% of patients with PCP. Rates of abnormal lactate dehyrogenase levels did not differ significantly between those with and without PCP. Conclusions. Blood (1→3)-β-D-glucan is strongly correlated with HIV-related PCP. In some clinical centers, this may be a more sensitive test than the induced sputum examination and could reduce the need for both bronchoscopy and empirical therapy of PCP. PMID:21690628

  19. Performances of Four Real-Time PCR Assays for Diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Sasso, Milène; Chastang-Dumas, Elsa; Bastide, Sophie; Alonso, Sandrine; Lechiche, Catherine; Bourgeois, Nathalie; Lachaud, Laurence

    2016-03-01

    Pneumonia due to Pneumocystis jirovecii (PCP) is a frequent infection among HIV-positive or other immunocompromised patients. In the past several years, PCR on pulmonary samples has become an essential element for the laboratory diagnosis of PCP. Nevertheless, very few comparative studies of available PCR assays have been published. In this work, we evaluated the concordance between four real-time PCR assays, including three commercial kits, AmpliSens, MycAssay, and Bio-Evolution PCR, and an in-house PCR (J. Fillaux et al. 2008, J Microbiol Methods 75:258-261, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2008.06.009), on 148 pulmonary samples. The results showed concordance rates ranging from 81.6% to 96.6% (kappa, 0.64 to 0.93). Concordance was excellent between three assays: the in-house assay, AmpliSens, and the MycAssay PCR (kappa, >0.8). The performances of these PCR assays were also evaluated according to the classification of the probability of PCP (proven, probable, possible, or no final diagnosis of PCP) based on clinical and radiological signs as well as on the direct examination of bronchoalveolar lavage samples. In the proven PCP category, Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA was detected with all four assays. In the probable PCP category, the in-house PCR, AmpliSens, and the MycAssay PCR were positive for all samples, while the Bio-Evolution PCR failed to detect Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA in two samples. In the possible PCP category, the percentage of positive samples according to PCR varied from 54.5% to 86.4%. Detection of colonized patients is discussed. Finally, among the four evaluated PCR assays, one was not suitable for colonization detection but showed good performance in the proven and probable PCP groups. For the three other assays, performances were excellent and allowed detection of a very low fungal burden. PMID:26719435

  20. Combined Quantification of Pulmonary Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA and Serum (1→3)-β-d-Glucan for Differential Diagnosis of Pneumocystis Pneumonia and Pneumocystis Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Le Gal, Solène; Da Costa, Cécilia; Virmaux, Michèle; Nevez, Gilles; Totet, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for Pneumocystis jirovecii quantification in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples combined with serum (1→3)-β-d-glucan (BG) level detection to distinguish Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) from pulmonary colonization with P. jirovecii. Forty-six patients for whom P. jirovecii was initially detected in BAL fluid samples were retrospectively enrolled. Based on clinical data and results of P. jirovecii detection, 17 and 29 patients were diagnosed with PCP and colonization, respectively. BAL fluid samples were reassayed using a qPCR assay targeting the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene. qPCR results and serum BG levels (from a Fungitell kit) were analyzed conjointly. P. jirovecii DNA copy numbers were significantly higher in the PCP group than in the colonization group (1.3 × 107 versus 3.4 × 103 copies/μl, P < 0.05). A lower cutoff value (1.6 × 103 copies/μl) achieving 100% sensitivity for PCP diagnosis and an upper cutoff value (2 × 104 copies/μl) achieving 100% specificity were determined. Applying these two values, 13/17 PCP patients and 19/29 colonized patients were correctly assigned to their patient groups. For the remaining 14 patients with P. jirovecii DNA copy numbers between the cutoff values, PCP and colonization could not be distinguished on the basis of qPCR results. Four of these patients who were initially assigned to the PCP group presented BG levels of ≥100 pg/ml. The other 10 patients, who were initially assigned to the colonization group, presented BG levels of <100 pg/ml. These results suggest that the combination of the qPCR assay, applying cutoff values of 1.6 × 103 and 2 × 104 copies/μl, and serum BG detection, applying a 100 pg/ml threshold, can differentiate PCP and colonization diagnoses. PMID:23903553

  1. Degradation of pentachlorophenol by hydroxyl radicals and sulfate radicals using electrochemical activation of peroxomonosulfate, peroxodisulfate and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Kadarkarai; Raja, Mohan; Noel, Michael; James, E J

    2014-05-15

    The present study is to investigate the reactivity of free radicals (SO4(-) and HO) generated from common oxidants (peroxomonosulfate (PMS), peroxodisulfate (PDS) and hydrogen peroxide (HP)) activated by electrochemically generated Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) ions which furthermore are evaluated to destroy pentachlorophenol (PCP) in aqueous solution. The effect of solution pH and amount of oxidants (PMS, PDS and HP) in electrocoagulation (EC) on PCP degradation is analyzed in detail. The experimental results reveal that, optimum initial solution pH is 4.5 and PMS is more efficient oxidant addition in EC. 75% PCP degradation is achieved at 60min electrolysis time from PMS assisted EC. According to the first order rate constant, faster PCP degradation rate is obtained by PMS assisted EC. The PCP degradation rate by oxidant assisted EC is observed in the following order: EC/PMS>EC/PDS>EC/HP>EC. Further to identify the influences of experimental factors involved in PCP degradation by oxidant assisted EC, an experimental design based on an orthogonal array (OA) L9 (3(3)) is proposed using Taguchi method. The factors that most significantly affect the process robustness are identified as A (oxidant) and B (pH) which together account for nearly 86% of the variance. PMID:24675613

  2. The anticonvulsant and behavioral effects of phencyclidine and ketamine following chronic treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Leccese, A P; Marquis, K L; Mattia, A; Moreton, J E

    1986-12-01

    The effects of chronic phencyclidine (PCP) or ketamine (KET) on their respective acute behavioral and anticonvulsant actions were investigated. Female rats were treated for 15 days with twice daily i.p. injections of saline, 20 mg/kg PCP or 40 mg/kg KET. Subjects treated chronically with PCP were challenged with either 10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg i.p. PCP, while subjects treated chronically with KET were challenged with 40 mg/kg i.p. KET only. Neither chronic drug treatment induced tolerance to the acute anticonvulsant effect, nor to hyperlocomotion and stereotypy as measured by automated activity monitors. However, evidence of tolerance to the stereotypy induced by acute KET was obtained when an observer-based rating scale was employed. In addition, tolerance occurred to the ataxia induced by KET and the 10 mg/kg, but not 20 mg/kg, dose of PCP. Thus, tolerance occurs to some of the acute behavioral effects of PCP and KET while the anticonvulsant action of these compounds remains unaffected. PMID:3790247

  3. Using web technology and Java mobile software agents to manage outside referrals.

    PubMed

    Murphy, S N; Ng, T; Sittig, D F; Barnett, G O

    1998-01-01

    A prototype, web-based referral application was created with the objective of providing outside primary care providers (PCP's) the means to refer patients to the Massachusetts General Hospital and the Brigham and Women's Hospital. The application was designed to achieve the two primary objectives of providing the consultant with enough data to make decisions even at the initial visit, and providing the PCP with a prompt response from the consultant. The system uses a web browser/server to initiate the referral and Java mobile software agents to support the workflow of the referral. This combination provides a light client implementation that can run on a wide variety of hardware and software platforms found in the office of the PCP. The implementation can guarantee a high degree of security for the computer of the PCP. Agents can be adapted to support the wide variety of data types that may be used in referral transactions, including reports with complex presentation needs and scanned (faxed) images Agents can be delivered to the PCP as running applications that can perform ongoing queries and alerts at the office of the PCP. Finally, the agent architecture is designed to scale in a natural and seamless manner for unforeseen future needs. PMID:9929190

  4. ECIL guidelines for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with haematological malignancies and stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Alanio, Alexandre; Hauser, Philippe M; Lagrou, Katrien; Melchers, Willem J G; Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Matos, Olga; Cesaro, Simone; Maschmeyer, Georg; Einsele, Hermann; Donnelly, J Peter; Cordonnier, Catherine; Maertens, Johan; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2016-09-01

    The Fifth European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL-5) convened a meeting to establish evidence-based recommendations for using tests to diagnose Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in adult patients with haematological malignancies. Immunofluorescence assays are recommended as the most sensitive microscopic method (recommendation A-II: ). Real-time PCR is recommended for the routine diagnosis of PCP ( A-II: ). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is recommended as the best specimen as it yields good negative predictive value ( A-II: ). Non-invasive specimens can be suitable alternatives ( B-II: ), acknowledging that PCP cannot be ruled out in case of a negative PCR result ( A-II: ). Detecting β-d-glucan in serum can contribute to the diagnosis but not the follow-up of PCP ( A-II: ). A negative serum β-d-glucan result can exclude PCP in a patient at risk ( A-II: ), whereas a positive test result may indicate other fungal infections. Genotyping using multilocus sequence markers can be used to investigate suspected outbreaks ( A-II: ). The routine detection of dihydropteroate synthase mutations in cases of treatment failure is not recommended ( B-II: ) since these mutations do not affect response to high-dose co-trimoxazole. The clinical utility of these diagnostic tests for the early management of PCP should be further assessed in prospective, randomized interventional studies. PMID:27550991

  5. Fault detection with principal component pursuit method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yijun; Yang, Chunjie; Sun, Youxian; An, Ruqiao; Wang, Lin

    2015-11-01

    Data-driven approaches are widely applied for fault detection in industrial process. Recently, a new method for fault detection called principal component pursuit(PCP) is introduced. PCP is not only robust to outliers, but also can accomplish the objectives of model building, fault detection, fault isolation and process reconstruction simultaneously. PCP divides the data matrix into two parts: a fault-free low rank matrix and a sparse matrix with sensor noise and process fault. The statistics presented in this paper fully utilize the information in data matrix. Since the low rank matrix in PCP is similar to principal components matrix in PCA, a T2 statistic is proposed for fault detection in low rank matrix. And this statistic can illustrate that PCP is more sensitive to small variations in variables than PCA. In addition, in sparse matrix, a new monitored statistic performing the online fault detection with PCP-based method is introduced. This statistic uses the mean and the correlation coefficient of variables. Monte Carlo simulation and Tennessee Eastman (TE) benchmark process are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of monitored statistics.

  6. Solution phase and membrane immobilized iron-based free radical reactions: Fundamentals and applications for water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Scott Romak

    Membrane-based separation processes have been used extensively for drinking water purification, wastewater treatment, and numerous other applications. Reactive membranes synthesized through functionalization of the membrane pores offer enhanced reactivity due to increased surface area at the polymer-solution interface and low diffusion limitations. Oxidative techniques utilizing free radicals have proven effective for both the destruction of toxic organics and non-environmental applications. Most previous work focuses on reactions in the homogeneous phase; however, the immobilization of reactants in membrane pores offers several advantages. The use of polyanions immobilized in a membrane or chelates in solution prevents ferric hydroxide precipitation at near-neutral pH, a common limitation of iron(Fe(II/III))-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (H 2O2) decomposition. The objectives of this research are to develop a membrane-based platform for the generation of free radicals, degrade toxic organic compounds using this and similar solution-based reactions, degrade toxic organic compounds in droplet form, quantify hydroxyl radical production in these reactions, and develop kinetic models for both processes. In this study, a functionalized membrane containing poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) was used to immobilize iron ions and conduct free radical reactions by permeating H2O2 through the membrane. The membrane's responsive behavior to pH and divalent cations was investigated and modeled. The conversion of Fe(II) to Fe(III) in the membrane and its effect on the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide were monitored and used to develop kinetic models for predicting H2O2 decomposition in these systems. The rate of hydroxyl radical production, and hence contaminant degradation can be varied by changing the residence time, H2O2 concentration, and/or iron loading. Using these membrane-immobilized systems, successful removal of toxic organic compounds, such as pentachlorophenol (PCP), from water

  7. Molecular epidemiologic analysis of a Pneumocystis pneumonia outbreak among renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Urabe, N; Ishii, Y; Hyodo, Y; Aoki, K; Yoshizawa, S; Saga, T; Murayama, S Y; Sakai, K; Homma, S; Tateda, K

    2016-04-01

    Between 18 November and 3 December 2011, five renal transplant patients at the Department of Nephrology, Toho University Omori Medical Centre, Tokyo, were diagnosed with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). We used molecular epidemiologic methods to determine whether the patients were infected with the same strain of Pneumocystis jirovecii. DNA extracted from the residual bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the five outbreak cases and from another 20 cases of PCP between 2007 and 2014 were used for multilocus sequence typing to compare the genetic similarity of the P. jirovecii. DNA base sequencing by the Sanger method showed some regions where two bases overlapped and could not be defined. A next-generation sequencer was used to analyse the types and ratios of these overlapping bases. DNA base sequences of P. jirovecii in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from four of the five PCP patients in the 2011 outbreak and from another two renal transplant patients who developed PCP in 2013 were highly homologous. The Sanger method revealed 14 genomic regions where two differing DNA bases overlapped and could not be identified. Analyses of the overlapping bases by a next-generation sequencer revealed that the differing types of base were present in almost identical ratios. There is a strong possibility that the PCP outbreak at the Toho University Omori Medical Centre was caused by the same strain of P. jirovecii. Two different types of base present in some regions may be due to P. jirovecii's being a diploid species. PMID:26724988

  8. Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-positive patients in Spain: epidemiology and environmental risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro-Meca, Alejandro; Palomares-Sancho, Ines; Diaz, Asuncion; Resino, Rosa; De Miguel, Angel Gil; Resino, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Specific environmental factors may play a role in the development of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in HIV-positive patients. The aim of this study was to estimate the PCP incidence and mortality in hospitalized HIV-positive patients in Spain during the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era (1997 to 2011), as well as to analyze the climatological factors and air pollution levels in relation to hospital admissions and deaths. Methods We carried out a retrospective study. Data were collected from the National Hospital Discharge Database and the State Meteorological Agency of Spain. A case-crossover analysis was applied to identify environmental risk factors related to hospitalizations and deaths. For each patient, climatic factors and pollution levels were assigned based on readings from the nearest meteorological station to his or her postal code. Results There were 13,139 new PCP diagnoses and 1754 deaths in hospitalized HIV-positive patients from 1997 to 2011. The PCP incidence (events per 1000 person-years) dropped from 11.6 in 1997 to 2000, to 5.4 in 2004 to 2011 (p<0.001). The mortality (events per 10,000 person-years) also decreased from 14.3 in 1997 to 2000, to 7.5 in 2004 to 2011 (p<0.001). Most hospital admissions and deaths occurred in the winter season and the fewest occurred in the summer, overlapping respectively with the lowest and highest temperatures of the year in Spain. Moreover, lower temperatures prior to PCP admission, as well as higher concentrations of NO2 and particulate matter up to 10 m in size (PM10) at the time of admission were associated with higher likelihoods of hospital admission due to PCP when two weeks, one month, 1.5 months or two months were used as controls (p<0.01). Furthermore, higher concentrations of ozone at one month (p=0.007), 1.5 months (p<0.001) and two months (p=0.006) prior to admission were associated with higher likelihoods of hospital admission with PCP. For PCP-related deaths, lower

  9. The spatio-temporal domains of Frizzled6 action in planar polarity control of hair follicle orientation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hao; Smallwood, Philip M; Williams, John; Nathans, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, hair follicles cover most of the body surface and exhibit precise and stereotyped orientations relative to the body axes. Follicle orientation is controlled by the planar cell polarity (PCP; or, more generally, tissue polarity) system, as determined by the follicle mis-orientation phenotypes observed in mice with PCP gene mutations. The present study uses conditional knockout alleles of the PCP genes Frizzled6 (Fz6), Vangl1, and Vangl2, together with a series of Cre drivers to interrogate the spatio-temporal domains of PCP gene action in the developing mouse epidermis required for follicle orientation. Fz6 is required starting between embryonic day (E)11.5 and E12.5. Eliminating Fz6 in either the anterior or the posterior halves of the embryo or in either the feet or the torso leads to follicle mis-orientation phenotypes that are limited to the territories associated with Fz6 loss, implying either that PCP signaling is required for communicating polarity information on a local but not a global scale, or that there are multiple independent sources of global polarity information. Eliminating Fz6 in most hair follicle cells or in the inter-follicular epidermis at E15.5 suggests that PCP signaling in developing follicles is not required to maintain their orientation. The asymmetric arrangement of Merkel cells around the base of each guard hair follicle dependents on Fz6 expression in the epidermis but not in differentiating Merkel cells. These experiments constrain current models of PCP signaling and the flow of polarity information in mammalian skin. PMID:26517967

  10. A consideration of the evidence that genetic defects in planar cell polarity contribute to the etiology of human neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Juriloff, Diana M; Harris, Muriel J

    2012-10-01

    A variety of human birth defects originate in failure of closure of the embryonic neural tube. The genetic cause of the most common nonsyndromic defects, spina bifida (SB) or anencephaly, is considered to be combinations of variants at multiple genes. The genes contributing to the etiology of neural tube closure defects (NTDs) are unknown. Mutations in planar cell polarity (PCP) genes in mice cause a variety of defects including the NTD, craniorachischisis, and sometimes SB or exencephaly (EX); they also demonstrate the role of digenic combinations of PCP mutants in NTDs. Recent studies have sought rare predicted-to-be-deleterious alterations (putative mutations) in coding sequence of PCP genes in human cases with various anomalies of the neural tube. This review summarizes the cumulative results of these studies according to a framework based on the embryopathogenesis of NTDs, and considers some of the insights from the approaches used and the limitations. Rare putative mutations in the PCP genes VANGL2, SCRIB, DACT1, and CELSR1 cumulatively contributed to over 20% of cases with craniorachischisis, a rare defect; no contributing variants were found for PRICKLE1 or PTK7. PCP rare putative mutations had a weaker role in myelomeningocele (SB), being found in approximately 6% of cases and cumulated across CELSR1, FUZ, FZD6, PRICKLE1, VANGL1, and VANGL2. These results demonstrate that PCP gene alterations contribute to the etiology of human NTDs. We recommend that future research should explore other types of PCP gene variant such as regulatory mutations and low frequency (1 to 5%) deleterious polymorphisms. PMID:23024041

  11. Diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia: evaluation of four serologic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Esteves, F; Calé, S S; Badura, R; de Boer, M G; Maltez, F; Calderón, E J; van der Reijden, T J; Márquez-Martín, E; Antunes, F; Matos, O

    2015-04-01

    The diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) relies on microscopic visualization of Pneumocystis jirovecii organisms or DNA detection in pulmonary specimens. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of (1-3)-β-d-glucan (BG), Krebs von den Lungen-6 antigen (KL-6), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) as serologic biomarkers in the diagnosis of PCP. Serum levels of BG, KL-6, LDH and SAM were investigated in 145 Portuguese patients, 50 patients from the Netherlands, 25 Spanish patients and 40 Portuguese blood donors. Data on clinical presentation, chest imaging and gasometry tests were available. PCP cases were confirmed by microscopy and PCR techniques. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed. BG was found to be the most reliable serologic biomarker for PCP diagnosis, followed by KL-6, LDH and SAM. The BG/KL-6 combination test was the most accurate serologic approach for PCP diagnosis, with 94.3% sensitivity and 89.6% specificity. Although less sensitive/specific than the reference standard classic methods based on bronchoalveolar lavage followed by microscopic or molecular detection of P. jirovecii organisms, the BG/KL-6 test may provide a less onerous procedure for PCP diagnosis, as it uses a minimally invasive and inexpensive specimen (blood), which may be also a major benefit for the patient's care. The BG/KL-6 combination test should be interpreted within the clinical context, and it may be used as a preliminary screening test in patients with primary suspicion of PCP, or as an alternative diagnostic procedure in patients with respiratory failure or in children, avoiding the associated risk of complications by the use of bronchoscopy. PMID:25630458

  12. Is provider type associated with cancer screening and prevention: advanced practice registered nurses, physician assistants, and physicians

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physician recommendations for cancer screening and prevention are associated with patient compliance. However, time constraints may limit physicians’ ability to provide all recommended preventive services, especially with increasing demand from the Affordable Care Act in the United States. Team-based practice that includes advanced practice registered nurses and physician assistants (APRN/PA) may help meet this demand. This study investigates the relationship between an APRN/PA visit and receipt of guideline-consistent cancer screening and prevention recommendations. Methods Data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression to assess provider type seen and receipt of guideline-consistent cancer screening and prevention recommendations (n = 26,716). Results In adjusted analyses, women who saw a primary care physician (PCP) and an APRN/PA or a PCP without an APRN/PA in the past 12 months were more likely to be compliant with cervical and breast cancer screening guidelines than women who did not see a PCP or APRN/PA (all p < 0.0001 for provider type). Women and men who saw a PCP and an APRN/PA or a PCP without an APRN/PA were also more likely to receive guideline consistent colorectal cancer screening and advice to quit smoking and participate in physical activity than women and men who did not see a PCP or APRN/PA (all p < 0.01 for provider type). Conclusions Seeing a PCP alone, or in conjunction with an APRN/PA is associated with patient receipt of guideline-consistent cancer prevention and screening recommendations. Integrating APRN/PA into primary care may assist with the delivery of cancer prevention and screening services. More intervention research efforts are needed to explore how APRN/PA will be best able to increase cancer screening, HPV vaccination, and receipt of behavioral counseling, especially during this era of healthcare reform. PMID:24685149

  13. Test Performance of Blood Beta-Glucan for Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia in Patients with AIDS and Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Brian R.; Komarow, Lauren; Zolopa, Andrew R.; Finkelman, Malcolm A.; Powderly, William G.; Sax, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To define the test characteristics of plasma beta-glucan for diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in AIDS patients with respiratory symptoms. Design Analysis of baseline blood samples in a randomized strategy study of patients with acute opportunistic infections, limited to participants with respiratory symptoms. Methods Participants in the 282-person ACTG A5164 trial had baseline plasma samples assayed for beta-glucan testing. As part of A5164, two study investigators independently adjudicated the diagnosis of PCP. Respiratory symptoms were identified by investigators from a list of all signs and symptoms with an onset or resolution in the 21 days prior to or 14 days following study entry. Beta-glucan was defined as positive if ≥80 pg/mL and negative if <80 pg/mL. Results Of 252 study participants with a beta-glucan result, 159 had at least one respiratory symptom, 139 of whom had a diagnosis of PCP. The sensitivity of beta-glucan for PCP in participants with respiratory symptoms was 92.8% (95% CI: 87.2%–96.5%), and specificity 75.0% (50.9%–91.3%). Among 134 individuals with positive beta-glucan and respiratory symptoms, 129 had PCP, for a positive predictive value of 96.3% (91.5%–98.8%). Fifteen of 25 patients with a normal beta-glucan did not have PCP, for a negative predictive value of 60% (38.7%–78.9%). Conclusion Elevated plasma beta-glucan has a high predictive value for diagnosis of PCP in AIDS patients with respiratory symptoms. We propose an algorithm for the use of beta-glucan as a diagnostic tool based on the pretest probability of PCP in such patients. PMID:23698062

  14. Unraveling the Sex Chromosome Heteromorphism of the Paradoxical Frog Pseudis tocantins.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Kaleb Pretto; Busin, Carmen Silvia; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2016-01-01

    The paradoxical frog Pseudis tocantins is the only species in the Hylidae family with known heteromorphic Z and W sex chromosomes. The Z chromosome is metacentric and presents an interstitial nucleolar organizer region (NOR) on the long arm that is adjacent to a pericentromeric heterochromatic band. In contrast, the submetacentric W chromosome carries a pericentromeric NOR on the long arm, which is adjacent to a clearly evident heterochromatic band that is larger than the band found on the Z chromosome and justify the size difference observed between these chromosomes. Here, we provide evidence that the non-centromeric heterochromatic bands in Zq and Wq differ not only in size and location but also in composition, based on comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and an analysis of the anuran PcP190 satellite DNA. The finding of PcP190 sequences in P. tocantins extends the presence of this satellite DNA, which was previously detected among Leptodactylidae and Hylodidae, suggesting that this family of repetitive DNA is even older than it was formerly considered. Seven groups of PcP190 sequences were recognized in the genome of P. tocantins. PcP190 probes mapped to the heterochromatic band in Wq, and a Southern blot analysis indicated the accumulation of PcP190 in the female genome of P. tocantins, which suggests the involvement of this satellite DNA in the evolution of the sex chromosomes of this species. PMID:27214234

  15. Enantiomeric and diastereomeric dioxadrols: behavioral, biochemical and chemical determination of the configuration necessary for phencyclidine-like properties.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, A E; Harrison, E A; Mattson, M V; Rafferty, M F; Rice, K C; Woods, J H; Winger, G; Solomon, R E; Lessor, R A; Silverton, J V

    1987-10-01

    Dioxadrol exists in four isomeric forms. alpha-(+)-Dioxadrol (dexoxadrol) showed phencyclidine (PCP)-like activity in rhesus monkeys trained to discriminate s.c. administration of ketamine, but neither alpha-(-)-dioxadrol (levoxadrol) nor beta-(+/-)-dioxadrol showed such activity. In addition, response-contingent i.v. dexoxadrol maintained higher rates of responding than either levoxadrol or beta-dioxadrol in monkeys experienced with ketamine self-administration. The order of potency in displacing bound 1-[1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine from binding sites in rat brain homogenates was dexoxadrol much greater than levoxadrol = beta-(+/-)-dioxadrol. Viewed in the context of previous studies with stereochemical probes of the PCP receptor, these results extend and confirm the supposition that dexoxadrol and levoxadrol are the stereochemical probes of choice in the study of effects mediated through PCP receptors. The absolute configuration of dexoxadrol was determined to be 4S, 6S by X-ray crystallography, thus defining the optimum chirality necessary for receptor binding and PCP-like activity in the dioxadrol series. Based on these and other considerations, receptor-active conformations of dexoxadrol and PCP are proposed. PMID:2822892

  16. Use of a {sup 15}N isotope dilution method to assess contaminant effects on soil nitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Nason, G.E.; Dinwoodie, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    Ecologically relevant bioassays are needed to assess effects of contaminants on soil processes such as decomposition and nutrient cycling. This study was conducted to assess the potential of a soil-based nitrification bioassay. Soil samples adjusted to 0.03 MPa moisture content were amended with 0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 mg kg{sup {minus}1} PCP or PCB, and 0.05, 0.5, 5 and 50 mg kg{sup {minus}1} Hg and preincubated for 7 days. A 2-d incubation was then started by addition of 10 mg kg{sup {minus}1} {sup 15}NO{sub 3}-N. Diethyl ether used as a carrier for PCP addition had little effect on inorganic nitrogen concentrations during the incubation. Net nitrogen mineralization and nitrification were unaffected by PCB. Higher amendment levels of both PCP and Hg resulted in increases in ammonium concentrations and decreases in net nitrification. {sup 15}N-nitrate pool dilution was sensitive to contamination and showed some gross nitrification was occurring even when net nitrification had ceased. Recoveries of Hg and PCB at the end of the study were greater than 90%. Recovery of PCP was 5%. Incubations carried out under sterile and non-sterile conditions indicated that both sorption and biological degradation were factors in the low PCP recovery.

  17. Electroencephalographic, behavioral and receptor binding correlates of phencyclinoids in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mattia, A; Marquis, K L; Leccese, A P; el-Fakahany, E E; Moreton, J E

    1988-08-01

    The pharmacology and structure-activity relationship of phencyclidine (PCP)-like drugs (phencyclinoids) were studied using electroencephalographic (EEG), behavioral and receptor binding techniques. The effects of PCP, 1-phenylcyclohexylamine HCl, N-methyl-1-phenycyclohexylamine HCl, N-ethyl-1-phenylcyclohexylamine HCl, N-(s-butyl)-1-phenylcyclohexylamine HCL, 1-(1-phenylcyclo-hexyl)-pyrrolidine HCl, 1-[1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl] piperidine HCl, 1-[1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl]-pyrrolidine HCl, ketamine and (+/-)-SKF 10047 were evaluated on the direct EEG and EEG spectra after acute i.v. injections (0.1-17.8 mg/kg). Similarities and differences were noted in the EEG dose-response curves. At lower doses of PCP and its analogs, low-amplitude theta waves predominated; however, at higher doses, high-amplitude, lower-frequency waves predominated. Qualitatively, the N-piperidine derivatives were similar to PCP and differed primarily in potency. The benzomorphan (+/-)-SKF 10047 produced only theta activity at doses up to 12.8 mg/kg. These EEG effects occurred in conjunction with overt behaviors including locomotion, stereotypy and ataxia, concurrently assessed via observer-based rating scales. A strong correlation (r = 0.98) was obtained between the EEG and behavioral effects and the IC50 values from [3H]PCP displacement experiments using crude rat brain homogenates. PMID:2841454

  18. Unraveling the Sex Chromosome Heteromorphism of the Paradoxical Frog Pseudis tocantins

    PubMed Central

    Gatto, Kaleb Pretto; Busin, Carmen Silvia; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni

    2016-01-01

    The paradoxical frog Pseudis tocantins is the only species in the Hylidae family with known heteromorphic Z and W sex chromosomes. The Z chromosome is metacentric and presents an interstitial nucleolar organizer region (NOR) on the long arm that is adjacent to a pericentromeric heterochromatic band. In contrast, the submetacentric W chromosome carries a pericentromeric NOR on the long arm, which is adjacent to a clearly evident heterochromatic band that is larger than the band found on the Z chromosome and justify the size difference observed between these chromosomes. Here, we provide evidence that the non-centromeric heterochromatic bands in Zq and Wq differ not only in size and location but also in composition, based on comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and an analysis of the anuran PcP190 satellite DNA. The finding of PcP190 sequences in P. tocantins extends the presence of this satellite DNA, which was previously detected among Leptodactylidae and Hylodidae, suggesting that this family of repetitive DNA is even older than it was formerly considered. Seven groups of PcP190 sequences were recognized in the genome of P. tocantins. PcP190 probes mapped to the heterochromatic band in Wq, and a Southern blot analysis indicated the accumulation of PcP190 in the female genome of P. tocantins, which suggests the involvement of this satellite DNA in the evolution of the sex chromosomes of this species. PMID:27214234

  19. Electroencephalographic, behavioral and receptor binding correlates of phencyclinoids in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Mattia, A.; Marquis, K.L.; Leccese, A.P.; el-Fakahany, E.E.; Moreton, J.E.

    1988-08-01

    The pharmacology and structure-activity relationship of phencyclidine (PCP)-like drugs (phencyclinoids) were studied using electroencephalographic (EEG), behavioral and receptor binding techniques. The effects of PCP, 1-phenylcyclohexylamine HCl, N-methyl-1-phenycyclohexylamine HCl, N-ethyl-1-phenylcyclohexylamine HCl, N-(s-butyl)-1-phenylcyclohexylamine HCL, 1-(1-phenylcyclo-hexyl)-pyrrolidine HCl, 1-(1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl) piperidine HCl, 1-(1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl)-pyrrolidine HCl, ketamine and (+/-)-SKF 10047 were evaluated on the direct EEG and EEG spectra after acute i.v. injections (0.1-17.8 mg/kg). Similarities and differences were noted in the EEG dose-response curves. At lower doses of PCP and its analogs, low-amplitude theta waves predominated; however, at higher doses, high-amplitude, lower-frequency waves predominated. Qualitatively, the N-piperidine derivatives were similar to PCP and differed primarily in potency. The benzomorphan (+/-)-SKF 10047 produced only theta activity at doses up to 12.8 mg/kg. These EEG effects occurred in conjunction with overt behaviors including locomotion, stereotypy and ataxia, concurrently assessed via observer-based rating scales. A strong correlation (r = 0.98) was obtained between the EEG and behavioral effects and the IC50 values from (/sup 3/H)PCP displacement experiments using crude rat brain homogenates.

  20. The developmental effects of pentachlorophenol on zebrafish embryos during segmentation: A systematic view

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Jing; Xu, Zhifa; Pan, Ruijie; Yin, Daqiang

    2016-01-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a typical toxicant and prevailing pollutant whose toxicity has been broadly investigated. However, previous studies did not specifically investigate the underlying mechanisms of its developmental toxicity. Here, we chose zebrafish embryos as the model, exposed them to 2 different concentrations of PCP, and sequenced their entire transcriptomes at 10 and 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf). The sequencing analysis revealed that high concentrations of PCP elicited systematic responses at both time points. By combining the enrichment terms with single genes, the results were further analyzed using three categories: metabolism, transporters, and organogenesis. Hyperactive glycolysis was the most outstanding feature of the transcriptome at 10 hpf. The entire system seemed to be hypoxic, although hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α) may have been suppressed by the upregulation of prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHDs). At 24 hpf, PCP primarily affected somitogenesis and lens formation probably resulting from the disruption of embryonic body plan at earlier stages. The proposed underlying toxicological mechanism of PCP was based on the crosstalk between each clue. Our study attempted to describe the developmental toxicity of environmental pollutants from a systematic view. Meanwhile, some features of gene expression profiling could serve as markers of human health or ecological risk. PMID:27181905

  1. The developmental effects of pentachlorophenol on zebrafish embryos during segmentation: A systematic view.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Jing; Xu, Zhifa; Pan, Ruijie; Yin, Daqiang

    2016-01-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a typical toxicant and prevailing pollutant whose toxicity has been broadly investigated. However, previous studies did not specifically investigate the underlying mechanisms of its developmental toxicity. Here, we chose zebrafish embryos as the model, exposed them to 2 different concentrations of PCP, and sequenced their entire transcriptomes at 10 and 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf). The sequencing analysis revealed that high concentrations of PCP elicited systematic responses at both time points. By combining the enrichment terms with single genes, the results were further analyzed using three categories: metabolism, transporters, and organogenesis. Hyperactive glycolysis was the most outstanding feature of the transcriptome at 10 hpf. The entire system seemed to be hypoxic, although hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α) may have been suppressed by the upregulation of prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHDs). At 24 hpf, PCP primarily affected somitogenesis and lens formation probably resulting from the disruption of embryonic body plan at earlier stages. The proposed underlying toxicological mechanism of PCP was based on the crosstalk between each clue. Our study attempted to describe the developmental toxicity of environmental pollutants from a systematic view. Meanwhile, some features of gene expression profiling could serve as markers of human health or ecological risk. PMID:27181905

  2. Burkholderiales participating in pentachlorophenol biodegradation in iron-reducing paddy soil as identified by stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Tong, Hui; Hu, Min; Li, Fangbai; Chen, Manjia; Lv, Yahui

    2015-07-01

    As the most prevalent preservative worldwide for many years, pentachlorophenol (PCP) has attracted much interest in the study of biodegradation in soil and aquatic ecosystems. However, the key microorganisms involved in anaerobic degradation are less well understood. Hence, we used DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) to identify the PCP-degrading microorganisms in iron-rich paddy soil under anaerobic conditions. (12)C- and (13)C-labeled PCP were almost completely degraded in 30 days under iron-reducing conditions. The results of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of 16S rRNA genes showed that 197 and 217 bp (HaeIII digests) restriction fragments (T-RFs) were enriched in heavy DNA fractions of (13)C-labeled samples, and the information from 16S rRNA gene clone libraries suggested that the microorganisms corresponding to these T-RF fragments, which increased in relative abundance during incubation, belonged to the order of Burkholderiales, in which 197 and 217 bp were classified as unclassified Burkholderiales and the genus Achromobacter, respectively. The results of the present study indicated that Burkholderiales-affiliated microorganisms were responsible for PCP degradation in anaerobic paddy soil and shed new light on in situ bioremediation in anaerobic PCP contaminated soil. PMID:26051859

  3. The developmental effects of pentachlorophenol on zebrafish embryos during segmentation: A systematic view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Jing; Xu, Zhifa; Pan, Ruijie; Yin, Daqiang

    2016-05-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a typical toxicant and prevailing pollutant whose toxicity has been broadly investigated. However, previous studies did not specifically investigate the underlying mechanisms of its developmental toxicity. Here, we chose zebrafish embryos as the model, exposed them to 2 different concentrations of PCP, and sequenced their entire transcriptomes at 10 and 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf). The sequencing analysis revealed that high concentrations of PCP elicited systematic responses at both time points. By combining the enrichment terms with single genes, the results were further analyzed using three categories: metabolism, transporters, and organogenesis. Hyperactive glycolysis was the most outstanding feature of the transcriptome at 10 hpf. The entire system seemed to be hypoxic, although hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α) may have been suppressed by the upregulation of prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHDs). At 24 hpf, PCP primarily affected somitogenesis and lens formation probably resulting from the disruption of embryonic body plan at earlier stages. The proposed underlying toxicological mechanism of PCP was based on the crosstalk between each clue. Our study attempted to describe the developmental toxicity of environmental pollutants from a systematic view. Meanwhile, some features of gene expression profiling could serve as markers of human health or ecological risk.

  4. Specific disulfide cross-linking to constrict the mobile carrier domain of nonribosomal peptide synthetases

    PubMed Central

    Tarry, Michael J.; Schmeing, T. Martin

    2015-01-01

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases are large, multi-domain enzymes that produce peptide molecules with important biological activity such as antibiotic, antiviral, anti-tumor, siderophore and immunosuppressant action. The adenylation (A) domain catalyzes two reactions in the biosynthetic pathway. In the first reaction, it activates the substrate amino acid by adenylation and in the second reaction it transfers the amino acid onto the phosphopantetheine arm of the adjacent peptide carrier protein (PCP) domain. The conformation of the A domain differs significantly depending on which of these two reactions it is catalyzing. Recently, several structures of A–PCP di-domains have been solved using mechanism-based inhibitors to trap the PCP domain in the A domain active site. Here, we present an alternative strategy to stall the A–PCP di-domain, by engineering a disulfide bond between the native amino acid substrate and the A domain. Size exclusion studies showed a significant shift in apparent size when the mutant A–PCP was provided with cross-linking reagents, and this shift was reversible in the presence of high concentrations of reducing agent. The cross-linked protein crystallized readily in several of the conditions screened and the best crystals diffracted to ≈8 Å. PMID:25713404

  5. c21orf59/kurly Controls Both Cilia Motility and Polarization.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Kimberly M; Grimes, Daniel T; Schottenfeld-Roames, Jodi; Werner, Michael E; Ku, Tse-Shuen J; Kim, Sun K; Pelliccia, Jose L; Morante, Nicholas F C; Mitchell, Brian J; Burdine, Rebecca D

    2016-03-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based projections that function in the movement of extracellular fluid. This requires cilia to be: (1) motile and driven by dynein complexes and (2) correctly polarized on the surface of cells, which requires planar cell polarity (PCP). Few factors that regulate both processes have been discovered. We reveal that C21orf59/Kurly (Kur), a cytoplasmic protein with some enrichment at the base of cilia, is needed for motility; zebrafish mutants exhibit characteristic developmental abnormalities and dynein arm defects. kur was also required for proper cilia polarization in the zebrafish kidney and the larval skin of Xenopus laevis. CRISPR/Cas9 coupled with homologous recombination to disrupt the endogenous kur locus in Xenopus resulted in the asymmetric localization of the PCP protein Prickle2 being lost in mutant multiciliated cells. Kur also makes interactions with other PCP components, including Disheveled. This supports a model wherein Kur plays a dual role in cilia motility and polarization. PMID:26904945

  6. Rational diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (RADIA PE) in symptomatic outpatients with suspected PE: an improved strategy to exclude or diagnose venous thromboembolism by the sequential use of a clinical model, rapid ELISA D-dimer test, perfusion lung scan, ultrasonography, spiral CT, and pulmonary angiography.

    PubMed

    Michiels, J J

    1998-01-01

    A prospective management decision analysis for the exclusion and diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) based on pre-test clinical probability (PCP) estimation for PE, a rapid ELISA D-dimer test, perfusion lungscan (P-scan), CUS, spiral CT, and pulmonary angiography is proposed. The modified PCP model for PE of Wells et al. allows reasonably accurate classification of patients with no, low, moderate, and high probability for PE. The combined rational use of the evidence-based noninvasive imaging techniques P-scan, CUS, and spiral CT with the rapid ELISA D-dimer test and PCP will reduce the need for invasive pulmonary angiography to perhaps 10 to 15% of patients, who initially presented with suspected PE. A Rational Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism (RADIA PE) model is proposed for testing in a large multicenter study of patients with suspected PE. PMID:9763360

  7. Methodological approaches to population based research of screening procedures in the presence of selection bias and exposure measurement error: colonoscopy and colorectal cancer outcomes in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The study describes the methodological challenges encountered in an observational study estimating the effectiveness of colonoscopy in reducing colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality. Methods Using Ontario provincial administrative data, we conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study to assess CRC incidence and mortality in a group of average-risk subjects aged 50–74 years who underwent colonoscopy between 1996–2000. We created two study cohorts; unselected and restricted. The unselected cohort consists of subjects aged 50–74 years who were eligible for CRC screening and who had the same primary care physician (PCP) during the period 1996–2000 with at least two years of follow-up. PCPs are general practioners/family physicians who are the main source of health care for Ontarians. The restricted cohort was a nested sample of unselected cohort who were alive and free of CRC as on January 1, 2001 and whose PCPs had at least 10 screen-eligible patients with a colonoscopy referral rate of more than 3%. We compared the outcomes in the two study cohorts; unselected vs. restricted. We then estimated the absolute risk reduction associated with colonoscopy in preventing CRC incidence and mortality in the restricted cohort, using traditional regression analysis, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis. Results The unselected cohort (N = 1,341,612) showed that colonoscopy was associated with an increase in CRC incidence (1.61% vs. 4.61%) and mortality (0.36% vs. 1.16%), whereas the restricted cohort (N = 1,089,998) showed that colonoscopy was associated with a reduction in CRC incidence (1.36% vs. 0.84%) and mortality (0.23% vs. 0.15%). For CRC incidence, the absolute risk reduction (ARR) associated with colonoscopy use was 0.52% in an unadjusted model, 0.53% in a multivariate logistic regression model, 0.54% in a propensity score-weighted outcome model, 0.56% in propensity score-matched model, and 0

  8. Foundation: Transforming data bases into knowledge bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, R. B.; Carnes, James R.; Cutts, Dannie E.

    1987-01-01

    One approach to transforming information stored in relational data bases into knowledge based representations and back again is described. This system, called Foundation, allows knowledge bases to take advantage of vast amounts of pre-existing data. A benefit of this approach is inspection, and even population, of data bases through an intelligent knowledge-based front-end.

  9. Evaluation of a polyclonal antiserum to pentachlorothiophenol-acetic acid-KLH immunogen: binding properties and use with heterologous PCP derivatives in ELISA for pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Abuknesha, Ramadan A; Griffith, Hannah M T

    2004-06-01

    A polyclonal antiserum to pentachlorothiophenol-acetic acid-KLH was generated in sheep and assessed by solid phase ELISA. The assessment procedure included use of double checkerboard analysis in the absence and in the presence of analyte loads, estimation of cross reactivities of chlorophenol pesticides, assessment of the effect of pH, Tween 20, and Thames water matrix. The antiserum was highly specific for pentachlorophenol and enabled minimum detection limits of less than 0.2 ng mL(-1) in river water matrix. Particularly important was the significant improvement of assay performance in the absence of Tween 20 and at pH 4 and the very low cross reactivity (less than 0.01%) for other commonly used chlorophenols-2,4,5-trichlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid. The study re-affirms the importance of the judicious choice of hapten derivatives in the synthesis of immunogens and assay reagents for pentachlorophenol analysis by competitive immunoassays. PMID:15103442

  10. Rapid pentachlorophenol evaluation in solid matrixes by second derivative UV spectroscopy for application to wood and leather samples

    SciTech Connect

    Secchieri, M.; Benassi, C.A.; Pastore, S.; Semenzato, A.; Bettero, A.; Levorato, M.; Guerrato, A. )

    1991-07-01

    A method for the quail-quantitative evaluation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in solid matrixes has been developed. The procedure is based on solid-liquid extraction of solid samples (leather or wood), followed by purification on a cyanopropyl column and determination of the preservative by second derivative UV spectroscopy considering the PCP A peak-through value (304-297 nm). The method allows rapid PCP determination in the concentration range 1-40 micrograms/mL; any matrix interference is avoided by the purification step and recoveries of the preservative were 99.12% (RSD% 0.13) for the leather matrix and 98.03 (RSD% 0.17) for the wood matrix.

  11. Strain Typing Methods and Molecular Epidemiology of Pneumocystis Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Patricia; Nevez, Gilles; Hauser, Philippe M.; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Lundgren, Bettina

    2004-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) caused by the opportunistic fungal agent Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly P. carinii) continues to cause illness and death in HIV-infected patients. In the absence of a culture system to isolate and maintain live organisms, efforts to type and characterize the organism have relied on polymerase chain reaction–based approaches. Studies using these methods have improved understanding of PCP epidemiology, shedding light on sources of infection, transmission patterns, and potential emergence of antimicrobial resistance. One concern, however, is the lack of guidance regarding the appropriateness of different methods and standardization of these methods, which would facilitate comparing results reported by different laboratories. PMID:15504257

  12. Succinyl hydroxamates as potent and selective non-peptidic inhibitors of procollagen C-proteinase: design, synthesis, and evaluation as topically applied, dermal anti-scarring agents.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Simon; Fish, Paul V; Billotte, Stephane; Bordner, Jon; Greiling, Doris; James, Kim; McElroy, Andrew; Mills, James E; Reed, Charlotte; Webster, Robert

    2008-12-15

    Succinyl hydroxamates 1 and 2 are disclosed as novel series of potent and selective inhibitors of procollagen C-proteinase (PCP) which may have potential as anti-fibrotic agents. Carboxamide 7 demonstrated good PCP inhibition and had excellent selectivity over MMPs involved in wound healing. In addition, 7 was effective in a cell-based model of collagen deposition (fibroplasia model) and was very effective at penetrating human skin in vitro. Compound 7 (UK-383,367) was selected as a candidate for evaluation in clinical studies as a topically applied, dermal anti-scarring agent. PMID:18945617

  13. Combined serotonin (5-HT)1A agonism, 5-HT(2A) and dopamine D₂ receptor antagonism reproduces atypical antipsychotic drug effects on phencyclidine-impaired novel object recognition in rats.

    PubMed

    Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Horiguchi, Masakuni; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Miyauchi, Masanori; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2015-05-15

    Subchronic administration of an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, e.g. phencyclidine (PCP), produces prolonged impairment of novel object recognition (NOR), suggesting they constitute a hypoglutamate-based model of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia (CIS). Acute administration of atypical, e.g. lurasidone, but not typical antipsychotic drugs (APDs), e.g. haloperidol, are able to restore NOR following PCP (acute reversal model). Furthermore, atypical APDs, when co-administered with PCP, have been shown to prevent development of NOR deficits (prevention model). Most atypical, but not typical APDs, are more potent 5-HT(2A) receptor inverse agonists than dopamine (DA) D2 antagonists, and have been shown to enhance cortical and hippocampal efflux and to be direct or indirect 5-HT(1A) agonists in vivo. To further clarify the importance of these actions to the restoration of NOR by atypical APDs, sub-effective or non-effective doses of combinations of the 5-HT(1A) partial agonist (tandospirone), the 5-HT(2A) inverse agonist (pimavanserin), or the D2 antagonist (haloperidol), as well as the combination of all three agents, were studied in the acute reversal and prevention PCP models of CIS. Only the combination of all three agents restored NOR and prevented the development of PCP-induced deficit. Thus, this triple combination of 5-HT(1A) agonism, 5-HT(2A) antagonism/inverse agonism, and D2 antagonism is able to mimic the ability of atypical APDs to prevent or ameliorate the PCP-induced NOR deficit, possibly by stimulating signaling cascades from D1 and 5-HT(1A) receptor stimulation, modulated by D2 and 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonism. PMID:25448429

  14. The Partnership for Cancer Prevention: Addressing Access to Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas in South Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Parra-Medina, Deborah; Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K.; Fore, Elizabeth; Mayo, Rachel; Petry, Denyse; Das, Irene Prabhu

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and morality among Hispanics, the fastest growing population group in South Carolina (SC). The Partnership for Cancer Prevention (PCP) was established to build partnerships and community capacity to address cervical cancer early detection and control among the growing Latina population in SC. In this paper we report on the initial PCP community-based participatory research (CBPR) project. Methods PCP members engaged in a multi-method, participatory research project to assess cervical cancer related resources and needs among Latinas and healthcare providers. To explore attitudes and behaviors related to women's health in general and more specifically, female cancer, PCP members conducted 8 focus group sessions with 38 Spanish-speaking women. To assess the availability and perceived importance of culturally and linguistically appropriate services, PCP members conducted a survey of providers (n=46) and support personnel (n=30) at 14 clinical sites that provide cancer screening services. Results Health care access issues were Latinas' main concerns. For information and assistance in accessing and navigating the health care system, they relied on informal social networks and community outreach workers. Latina participants voiced misunderstandings about cancer risk and most appeared to lack a prevention orientation. Practitioners’ concerns included the assessment and documentation of patients' language preference and ability, provision of language assistance for limited-English-proficient (LEP) patients, and bilingual staff. Conclusions Building on the findings of this participatory research initiative, PCP members identified the following action strategies to promote cervical cancer screening among Latinas in SC: culturally appropriate cervical cancer awareness messages and outreach strategies geared towards increasing participation in cervical cancer screening and follow-up; maintenance of active community

  15. Steady-state oxidation model by horseradish peroxidase for the estimation of the non-inactivation zone in the enzymatic removal of pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y J; Chae, H J; Kim, E Y

    1999-01-01

    A theoretical model for the rate of oxidation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP), was investigated to account for the influence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration on the catalytic activity. To evaluate the maximum allowable H2O2 concentration, a relatively simple steady-state model was developed based on the Ping-Pong Bi-Bi mechanism considering the effect of excess H2O2. Several sets of experimental data obtained from batch reactions using an equimolar concentration of H2O2 and PCP were used to estimate the kinetic parameters by a nonlinear regression method. The model profiles acquired using the estimated parameters were in good agreement with experimental data at different initial enzyme and substrate concentrations. The best-fitted parameters were used to predict the initial rate of the enzyme reaction. The model prediction was coincident with the experimental results of other studies, indicating that the proposed model could be used for the optimization of reaction conditions. The maximum allowable H2O2 concentration to prevent H2O2 inhibition was calculated from the proposed model equation: [H2O2](0,max) = (square root)KmH2O2Ki[PCP]0/KmPCP+[PCP]0. Using this equation, a curve depicting the non-inactivation zone for the two substrates (hydrogen peroxide and PCP) was plotted and it could be used for experimental design and optimal process operation. To minimize enzyme inactivation by H2O2, it was determined that the concentration of H2O2 should be lower than 2.78 mM, regardless of the stoichiometric ratio. PMID:16232630

  16. Source identification of PCDD/Fs in agricultural soils near to a Chinese MSWI plant through isomer-specific data analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng-Xia; Yan, Jian-Hua; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Li, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Tong; Ni, Ming-Jiang; Dai, Hui-Fen; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2008-04-01

    Isomer-specific data were investigated in order to identify the sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in agricultural soils, including Fluvo-aquic and paddy soils, in the vicinity of a Chinese municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant. Homologue and isomer profiles of PCDD/Fs in soils were compared with those of potential sources, including combustion sources, i.e., MSWI flue gas and fly ash; and the impurities in agrochemicals, such as the pentachlorophenol (PCP), sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP-Na) and 1,3,5-trichloro-2-(4-nitrophenoxy) benzene (CNP). The results showed that the PCDD/F isomer profiles of combustion sources and agricultural soils were very similar, especially for PCDFs, although their homologue profiles varied, indicating that all the isomers within each homologue behave identically in the air and soil. Moreover, factor analysis of the isomer compositions among 33 soil samples revealed that the contamination of PCDD/Fs in agricultural soils near the MSWI plant were primarily influenced by the combustion sources, followed by the PCP/PCP-Na and CNP sources. This implication is consistent with our previous findings based on chemometric analysis of homologue profiles of soil and flue gas samples, and identifies PCP/PCP-Na as an additional important source of PCDD/Fs in the local area. This makes the similarities and differences of isomer profiles between Fluvo-aquic and paddy soils more explainable. It is, therefore, advisable to use isomer-specific data for PCDD/F source identifications where possible. PMID:18279911

  17. [Studies on the molluscicidal and cercariacidal effects of various pesticides in liver fluke

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Man

    1965-12-01

    Clonorchiasis for which no specific therapy is available has been recognized as one of the serious public health problems in terms of waste of human productivity in Korea today and an urgent consideration must be given to its prevention and control. For past several years, the author has been finding that the infection rate of liver fluke in fish from the Kum-Ho river which has long been recognized as the world's notorious prevalent area of the disease, has been decreasing gradually. Here the author formulated the hypothesis that the decreasing of infection rate might be influenced by the common use of pesticide in plants along the river. Basing this hypothesis, the effective use of pesticide may contribute to the control of the disease by cutting the life cycle of liver fluke. To test above hypothesis, molluscicidal effect on Parafossarulus manchouricus and cercariacidal effect of various pesticides in liver fluke have been determined and the following results were obtained. 1. In molluscicidal effect, the most potent agent in low concentration was Bayer 73 which is 3 to 70 times stronger than other pesticides. When compared with NaPCP which has been widely used for the eradication of Onchomelania, Bayer 73 shows 5 to 10 times stronger effect. The order of pesticide in molluscicidal effect was: Bayer 73, Nicotin, NaPCP, Sevin, Parathion, Copper sulfate and Lindane. 2. In cercariacidal effect, the most potent agent was Parathion which had 2 to 5 times stronger effect than Bayer 73 or NaPCP. The order of pesticide in the cercariacidal effect was: Parathion, Bayer73, NaPCP, Lindane, Nicotin,Sevin, and Copper sulfate. 3. By applying the common used concentration of pesticides considering the toxicity to plants, Bayer 73 is most potent in molluscicidal effect and then Nicotin, NaPCP, Copper sulfate, Sevin, Parathion and Lindane in order. In cercariacidal effect, Parathion is the most potent and NaPCP, Bayer 73, Lindane, and Copper sulfate are followed. 4. Considering

  18. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of pentachlorophenol in rats.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, R S; Maronpot, R M; Bucher, J R; Haseman, J K; Toft, J D; Hejtmancik, M R

    1999-03-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been used as an herbicide, algaecide, defoliant, wood preservative, germicide, fungicide, and molluscicide. A 28-day toxicity study of PCP in F344/N rats of both sexes was conducted to select dose levels for a carcinogenicity study. Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were given 0, 200, 400, 800, 1600, or 3200 ppm PCP in feed for 28 days. The incidences of minimal to mild hepatocyte degeneration in males and females exposed to 400 ppm or greater and the incidences of centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy in the 3200-ppm groups were increased. For carcinogenicity studies, groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats were fed diets containing 200, 400, or 600 PCP for 2 years. A stop-exposure group of 60 male and 60 female rats received 1000 ppm of PCP in feed for 52 weeks and control feed thereafter for the remainder of the 2-year studies; 10 male and 10 female rats were evaluated at 7 months. Survival of 600-ppm males was significantly greater than that of the controls; survival of all other exposed groups was similar to that of the control groups. Mean body weights of the 400- and 600-ppm groups were generally less than those of the controls throughout the studies. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of PCP in male or female rats fed diets containing 200, 400, or 600 ppm for 2 years. Stop-exposure study males and females regained a transitory body weight reduction by the end of the 2 year study, and males had better survival than the controls. At a 7-month interim evaluation, the incidences of centrilobular hypertrophy in stop-exposure males and females exceeded those in the controls. At 2 years, malignant mesothelioma originating from the tunica vaginalis was present in 9 1000-ppm males and 1 control male (p = 0.014). Nasal squamous cell carcinomas were present in five 1000-ppm males and 1 control male. This incidence was not significantly increased but exceeded the historical control range (0-4%). Based on the increased

  19. Combined quantification of pulmonary Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA and serum (1->3)-β-D-glucan for differential diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia and Pneumocystis colonization.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Céline; Le Gal, Solène; Da Costa, Cécilia; Virmaux, Michèle; Nevez, Gilles; Totet, Anne

    2013-10-01

    This study assessed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for Pneumocystis jirovecii quantification in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples combined with serum (1→3)-β-d-glucan (BG) level detection to distinguish Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) from pulmonary colonization with P. jirovecii. Forty-six patients for whom P. jirovecii was initially detected in BAL fluid samples were retrospectively enrolled. Based on clinical data and results of P. jirovecii detection, 17 and 29 patients were diagnosed with PCP and colonization, respectively. BAL fluid samples were reassayed using a qPCR assay targeting the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene. qPCR results and serum BG levels (from a Fungitell kit) were analyzed conjointly. P. jirovecii DNA copy numbers were significantly higher in the PCP group than in the colonization group (1.3 × 10(7) versus 3.4 × 10(3) copies/μl, P < 0.05). A lower cutoff value (1.6 × 10(3) copies/μl) achieving 100% sensitivity for PCP diagnosis and an upper cutoff value (2 × 10(4) copies/μl) achieving 100% specificity were determined. Applying these two values, 13/17 PCP patients and 19/29 colonized patients were correctly assigned to their patient groups. For the remaining 14 patients with P. jirovecii DNA copy numbers between the cutoff values, PCP and colonization could not be distinguished on the basis of qPCR results. Four of these patients who were initially assigned to the PCP group presented BG levels of ≥100 pg/ml. The other 10 patients, who were initially assigned to the colonization group, presented BG levels of <100 pg/ml. These results suggest that the combination of the qPCR assay, applying cutoff values of 1.6 × 10(3) and 2 × 10(4) copies/μl, and serum BG detection, applying a 100 pg/ml threshold, can differentiate PCP and colonization diagnoses. PMID:23903553

  20. p-Chlorophenol adsorption on activated carbons with basic surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenc-Grabowska, Ewa; Gryglewicz, Grażyna; Machnikowski, Jacek

    2010-05-01

    The adsorption of p-chlorophenol (PCP) from aqueous solution on activated carbons (ACs) with basic surface properties has been studied. The ACs were prepared by two methods. The first method was based on the modification of a commercial CWZ AC by high temperature treatment in an atmosphere of ammonia, nitrogen and hydrogen. The second approach comprised the carbonization followed by activation of N-enriched polymers and coal tar pitch using CO 2 and steam as activation agent. The resultant ACs were characterized in terms of porous structure, elemental composition and surface chemistry (pH PZC, acid/base titration, XPS). The adsorption of PCP was carried out from an aqueous solution in static conditions. Equilibrium adsorption isotherm was of L2 type for polymer-based ACs, whereas L3-type isotherm was observed for CWZ ACs series. The Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity was related to the porous structure and the amount of basic sites. A good correlation was found between the adsorption capacity and the volume of micropores with a width < 1.4 nm for polymer-based ACs. Higher nitrogen content, including that in basic form, did not correspond to the enhanced adsorption of PCP from aqueous solution. The competitive effect of water molecule adsorption on the PCP uptake is discussed.

  1. Water-based Screenprinting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreneck, Lynwood

    1989-01-01

    Outlines the techniques for silkscreening using water-based inks, concentrating on the qualities of water-based printing that differ from oil-based printing. Includes a step-by-step description of the process illustrated with photographs. (LS)

  2. Base catalyzed decomposition of toxic and hazardous chemicals. [Final report, September 4, 1990--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.J.; Kornel, A.; Sparks, H.L.

    1991-12-31

    There are vast amounts of toxic and hazardous chemicals, which have pervaded our environment during the past fifty years, leaving us with serious, crucial problems of remediation and disposal. The accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), ``dioxins`` and pesticides in soil sediments and living systems is a serious problem that is receiving considerable attention concerning the cancer-causing nature of these synthetic compounds.US EPA scientists developed in 1989 and 1990 two novel chemical Processes to effect the dehalogenation of chlorinated solvents, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, PCP and other pollutants in soil, sludge, sediment and liquids. This improved technology employs hydrogen as a nucleophile to replace halogens on halogenated compounds. Hydrogen as nucleophile is not influenced by steric hinderance as with other nucleophile where complete dehalogenation of organohalogens can be achieved. This report discusses catalyzed decomposition of toxic and hazardous chemicals.

  3. Team-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelsen, Larry K.; Sweet, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL), when properly implemented, includes many, if not all, of the common elements of evidence-based best practices. To explain this, a brief overview of TBL is presented. The authors examine the relationship between the best practices of evidence-based teaching and the principles that constitute team-based learning. (Contains…

  4. Porous Coordination Polymer Based on Bipyridinium Carboxylate Linkers with High and Reversible Ammonia Uptake.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Maxime; Mercier, Nicolas; Allain, Magali; Dul, Marie-Claire; Dittmer, Jens; Kassiba, Abdel Hadi; Bellat, Jean-Pierre; Weber, Guy; Bezverkhyy, Igor

    2016-09-01

    The zwitterionic bipyridinium carboxylate ligand 1,1'-bis(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium (pc1) in the presence of cadmium chloride affords novel porous coordination polymers (PCPs): [Cd4(pc1)3Cl6]·CdCl4·guest (1) crystallizing in the P3̅1c space group. In the structure, [Cd4Cl6(CO2)6] building units are linked together by six pc1 ligands, leading to a 3D high-symmetrical network exhibiting hexagonal channels along the c axis. The walls of this PCP consist of cationic electron-acceptor bipyridinium units. The PCP 1 reversibly adsorbs H2O and CH3OH up to about 0.1 g/g at saturation showing the adsorption isotherms characteristic of a moderately hydrophilic sorbent. Adsorption of ammonia (NH3) follows a different pattern, reaching an exceptional uptake of 0.39 g/g (22.3 mmol/g) after the first adsorption cycle. Although the crystalline structure of 1 collapses after the first adsorption, the solid can be regenerated and maintains the capacity of 0.29 g/g (17 mmol/g) in the following cycles. We found that the high NH3 uptake is due to a combination of pore filling taking place below 150 h·Pa and chemisorption occurring at higher pressures. The latter process was shown to involve two phenomena: (i) coordination of NH3 molecules to Cd(2+) cations as follows from (113)Cd NMR and (ii) strong donor-acceptor interactions between NH3 molecules and pc1 ligands. PMID:27500980

  5. Spherical tokamaks with plasma centre-post

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Celso

    2013-10-01

    The metal centre-post (MCP) in tokamaks is a structure which carries the total toroidal field current and also houses the Ohmic heating solenoid in conventional or low aspect ratio (Spherical)(ST) tokamaks. The MCP and solenoid are critical components for producing the toroidal field and for the limited Ohmic flux in STs. Constraints for a ST reactor related to these limitations lead to a minimum plasma aspect ratio of 1.4 which reduces the benefit of operation at higher betas in a more compact ST reactor. Replacing the MCP is of great interest for reactor-based ST studies since the device is simplified, compactness increased, and maintenance reduced. An experiment to show the feasibility of using a plasma centre-post (PCP) is being currently under construction and involves a high level of complexity. A preliminary study of a very simple PCP, which is ECR(Electron Cyclotron Resonance)-assisted and which includes an innovative fuelling system based on pellet injection, has recently been reported. This is highly suitable for an ultra-low aspect ratio tokamak (ULART) device. Advances on this PCP ECR-assisted concept within a ULART and the associated fuelling system are presented here, and will include the field topology for the PCP ECR-assisted scheme, pellet ablation modeling, and a possible global equilibrium simulation. VIE-ITCR, IAEA-CRP contr.17592, National Instruments-Costa Rica.

  6. Environmental toxicity testing of contaminated soil based on microcalorimetry.

    PubMed

    Gruiz, K; Feigl, V; Hajdu, Cs; Tolner, M

    2010-10-01

    Contaminated site assessment and monitoring requires efficient risk-management tools including innovative environmental toxicity tests. The first application of microcalorimetry for toxicity testing draw the attention to a possible new tool to increase sensitivity, to eliminate matrix effect and to study effect-mechanism. A Thermal Activity Monitor (TAM) microcalorimeter was used for measuring the heat production of various test organisms when getting in contact with sterile toxic soils. Well known bacterial (Azomonas agilis), animal (Folsomia candida) and plant test organisms (Sinapis alba) were tested for heat production. The heat response of selected testorganisms was measured in case of metal (Cu and Zn) and organic pollutant (Diesel oil, DBNPA and PCP) contaminated soils. In addition to the quantitative determination of the heat production, the mechanism of the toxic effect can be characterized from the shape of the power-time curve (slope of the curve, height and time of the maximum). In certain concentration ranges the higher the pollutant concentration of the soil the lower the maximum of the time-heat curve. At low pollutant concentrations an increased heat production was measured in case of A. agile and 20 and 200 mg Zn kg(-1) soil. The microcalorimetric testing was more sensitive in all cases than the traditional test methods. Our results showed that the microcalorimetric test method offers a new and sensitive option in environmental toxicology, both for research and routine testing. PMID:20549622

  7. Community-Based Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Community-Based Care Basic Facts & Information A variety of ... Adult Day Care Adult day care is a community-based option that has become more common. It ...

  8. Carbon Based Nanotechnology: Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews publicly available information related to carbon based nanotechnology. Topics covered include nanomechanics, carbon based electronics, nanodevice/materials applications, nanotube motors, nano-lithography and H2O storage in nanotubes.

  9. Beyond Zero Based Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Daniel M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that the most practical budgeting system for most managers is a formalized combination of incremental and zero-based analysis because little can be learned about most programs from an annual zero-based budget. (Author/IRT)

  10. Stolen Base Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, David

    2013-05-01

    Few plays in baseball are as consistently close and exciting as the stolen base. While there are several studies of sprinting,2-4 the art of base stealing is much more nuanced. This article describes the motion of the base-stealing runner using a very basic kinematic model. The model will be compared to some data from a Major League game. The predictions of the model show consistency with the skills needed for effective base stealing.

  11. Stolen Base Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, David

    2013-01-01

    Few plays in baseball are as consistently close and exciting as the stolen base. While there are several studies of sprinting, the art of base stealing is much more nuanced. This article describes the motion of the base-stealing runner using a very basic kinematic model. The model will be compared to some data from a Major League game. The…

  12. EPA site demonstration of the Biotrol Soil Washing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, M.K.; Skovronek, H.S.; Ellis, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    A pilot-scale soil washing process, patented by BioTrol, was demonstrated on soil that was contaminated by wood treating waste. The BioTrol Soil Washing was demonstrated in a treatment train sequence with two other pilot-scale units of BioTrol technologies for treatment of waste streams from the soil washer. The three technologies of the treatment train were: The BioTrol Soil Washer (BSW), the BioTrol Aqueous Treatment System (BATS), and the Slurry Bioreactor (SBR). The BioTrol processes were evaluated on pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which were the primary soil contaminants at the site. The sandy site soil, consisting of less than 10% of fines, was well suited for treatment by soil washing. The BSW successfully separated the feed soil (100% by weight) into 83% of washed soil, 10% of woody residues, and 7% of fines. The soil washer achieved up to 89% removal of PCP and PAHs, based on the difference between their levels in the feed soil and in the washed soil. The BATS degraded up to 94% of PCP in the process water from soil washing. The SBR achieved over 90% removals of PCP and 70-90% removals of PAHs, respectively from the soil washing. Cost of a commercial-scale soil washing, assuming use of all three technologies, was estimated to be $168 per ton of treated soil.

  13. Leveling the playing field: the personal coach program as an innovative approach to assess and address the supportive care needs of underserved cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hohenadel, Joanne; Kaegi, Elizabeth; Laidlaw, Jack; Kovacik, Galina; Cortinois, Andrea; Kang, Rita; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2007-04-01

    Supportive care addresses informational, social, emotional, spiritual, physical, and practical needs that impact the lives of patients and their families. Accessing supportive care services is particularly challenging for patients facing significant financial and social barriers. This report discusses the Personal Coach Program (PCP), which provides specially trained coach navigators of supportive care for cancer patients, with special focus on those facing the above-mentioned barriers. The PCP was piloted with 63 patients treated at the Princess Margaret Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Patients faced barriers of language, poverty, culture, social isolation, and literacy. Triangulation was used to compare and contrast multiple sources of quantitative and qualitative evaluation data. Identifying appropriate patients for referral to the PCP was a major challenge. Six categories of unmet needs were identified: practical factors related to daily living, cancer information, emotional support, interaction with the healthcare team, problems with physical health,and factors related to family and friends. Many significant barriers to supportive care and unmet needs are not identified by time-pressured clinical staff in cancer clinics. The PCP helped to identify needs and to improve ability to access services. Participants were highly satisfied with the program and believed it had positive implications for both physical and emotional health. Based on these results, a demonstration model for a supportive-care program is proposed as an integral component of care for all cancer patients, including those at risk for underservice. PMID:17500506

  14. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: still a concern in patients with haematological malignancies and stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Cordonnier, Catherine; Cesaro, Simone; Maschmeyer, Georg; Einsele, Hermann; Donnelly, J Peter; Alanio, Alexandre; Hauser, Philippe M; Lagrou, Katrien; Melchers, Willem J G; Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Matos, Olga; Bretagne, Stéphane; Maertens, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii can cause life-threatening pneumonia following treatment for haematological malignancies or after HSCT. The mortality rate of P. jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in these patients is 30%-60%, especially after HSCT. The clinical presentation of PCP in haematology differs from that associated with HIV infection, with the disease being acute and more often severe, having a lower fungal burden and being more frequently linked to treatment with corticosteroids. Most cases occur in patients not receiving adequate prophylaxis. The development of new therapies, including targeted treatments and monoclonal antibodies in various haematological diseases, justifies constant vigilance in order to identify new at-risk populations and give prophylaxis accordingly. The fifth and sixth European Conferences on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL-5 and ECIL-6) aimed to review risk factors for PCP in haematology patients and to establish evidence-based recommendations for PCP diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment. This article focuses on the magnitude of the problem, the main differences in clinical presentation between haematology patients and other immunocompromised populations, especially HIV-infected patients, and the main risk factors. PMID:27550990

  15. Environmental application of millimetre-scale sponge iron (s-Fe(0)) particles (III): The effect of surface silver.

    PubMed

    Ju, Yongming; Yu, Yunjiang; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Sukun; Liu, Runlong; Fu, Jianping; Han, Jinglei; Fang, Jiande; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2015-12-15

    To enhance the dechlorination reactivity of millimetric sponge iron (s-Fe(0)), a facile one-pot method was used to decorate s-Fe(0) with Ag(+) ions under ambient conditions. The results recorded by X-ray diffraction patterns, X-ray photoelectron spectra and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the growth of Ag(0) was dominated primarily by (111) plane with a mean length of ∼20 nm. The roles of Ag(0) loading, catalyst dosage, particle size, initial pH and contaminant concentration were assessed during the removal of pentachlorophenol (PCP). Catalyst recyclability was also studied. The results revealed that 3-5mm s-Fe(0) particles with 5 wt% Ag(0) loading exhibited the best performance with a dose of 3.0 g per 60 mL PCP solution. In addition, the dechlorination of PCP followed two-step, pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics, and Ag(0)-s-Fe(0) was advantageous compared with bimetals of nanoscale zero-valent iron, iron power and iron flakes. The dechlorination mechanism of PCP over Ag(0)-s-Fe(0) was attributed to the surface Ag(0) decoration, which catalyzed the formation of reactive hydrogen atoms for indirect reaction, and the direct electron transfer via Fe-Ag(0) galvanic cells for direct reaction. This suggests that Ag-based bimetals of s-Fe(0) have great potential in the pretreatment of organic halogen compounds in aqueous solution. PMID:26276702

  16. Prickle1 stunts limb growth through alteration of cell polarity and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tian; Bassuk, Alexander G.; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Background Wnt/PCP signaling plays a critical role in multiple developmental processes, including limb development. Wnt5a, a ligand of the PCP pathway, signals through the Ror2/Vangl2 or the Vangl2/Ryk complex to regulate limb development along the proximal-distal axis in mice. Based on the interaction between Van Gogh and Prickle in Drosophila, we hypothesized the vertebrate Prickle1 have similar function as Vangl2 in limb development. Results We show Prickle1 is expressed in the skeletal condensates that will differentiate into chondrocytes and later form bones. Disrupted Prickle1 function in Prickle1C251X/C251X mouse mutants alters expression of genes such as Bmp4, Fgf8, Vangl2 and Wnt5a. These expression changes correlate with shorter and wider bones in the limbs and loss of one phalangeal segment in digits 2-5 of Prickle1C251X mutants. These growth defects along the proximal-distal axis are also associated with increased cell death in the growing digit tip, reduced cell death in the interdigital membrane and disrupted chondrocyte polarity. Conclusions We suggest Prickle1 is part of the Wnt5a/PCP signaling, regulating cell polarity and affecting expression of multiple factors to stunt limb growth through altered patterns of gene expression, including the PCP genes Wnt5a and Vangl2. PMID:23913870

  17. Aqueous complexation of cadmium, lead, and copper by 2,4,6-trichlorophenolate and pentachlorophenolate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daughney, Christopher J.; Fein, Jeremy B.

    1997-02-01

    The subsurface mobility of metals and polychlorinated phenols occurring together in contaminated groundwaters may be significantly affected by the extent of aqueous complexation between them. However, no previous experimental studies have examined these interactions. In light of this, the aqueous complexation of Cd, Pb, and Cu by both 2,4,6-trichlorophenolate (TCP -) and pentachlorophenolate (PCP -) has been studied at 25°C. Experimental data gathered by ion selective electrode potentiometry and ultraviolet spectrophotometry indicate that metal-chlorophenol complexation occurs, and we interpret the experimental data in terms of a single 1:1 complex in each system. The log stability constants for the complexes, with 2σ errors, are calculated to be: Cd(TCP) +, 2.5 ± 0.3; Pb(TCP) +, 3.0 ± 0.5; Cu(TCP) +, 4.9 ± 0.4; Cd(PCP) +, 2.9 ± 0.3; Pb(PCP) +, 2.8 ± 0.5; and Cu(PCP) +; 4.2 ± 0.4. Based on these values, a simple correlation technique has been applied to estimate stability constants involving other metals and chlorophenols. Calculations using these stability constants suggest that metal-chlorophenolate complexation can drastically alter metal and/or chlorophenol mobilities in contaminated groundwaters.

  18. Potent and selective nonpeptidic inhibitors of procollagen C-proteinase.

    PubMed

    Fish, Paul V; Allan, Gillian A; Bailey, Simon; Blagg, Julian; Butt, Richard; Collis, Michael G; Greiling, Doris; James, Kim; Kendall, Jackie; McElroy, Andrew; McCleverty, Dawn; Reed, Charlotte; Webster, Robert; Whitlock, Gavin A

    2007-07-26

    6-Cyclohexyl-N-hydroxy-3-(1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)hexanamides were previously disclosed as inhibitors of procollagen C-proteinase (PCP) culminating in the identification of amide 1. Our objective was to discover a second inhibitor that would have improved affinity for PCP and to optimize properties for transepidermal delivery (TED) to intact skin. Further investigation of this template identified a number of potent PCP inhibitors (IC50 values of 2-6 nM) with improved TED flux. Sulfonamide 56 had excellent PCP enzyme activity when measured with a peptide substrate (Ki 8.7 nM) or with the endogenous substrate procollagen (IC50 3.4 nM) and demonstrates excellent selectivity over MMPs involved in wound healing (>10 000-fold). In the fibroplasia model, 56 inhibited deposition of insoluble collagen by 76 +/- 2% at 10 microM and was very effective at penetrating human skin in vitro with a TED flux of 1.5 microg/cm2/h, which compares favorably with values for agents that are known to penetrate skin well in vivo. Based on this profile, 56 (UK-421,045) was selected as a candidate for further preclinical evaluation as a topically applied, dermal anti-scarring agent. PMID:17591762

  19. [Mindfulness-based psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Bohus, M

    2012-11-01

    Mindfulness-based psychotherapy is rooted in the Far East meditation culture. In the context of psychotherapy mindfulness-based treatment programs mostly include mindfulness as modular components aiming at acceptance of aversive circumstances or emotions and on improvement of metacognitive awareness. Currently there are five mindfulness-based concepts with different proof of effectiveness: mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) can be classified as effective in reducing the risk of relapse in patients with recurrent depression, whereas the popular mindfulness-based stress reduction program (MBSR) reveals only small effect sizes. In summary, mindfulness used as one component in modular conceptualized treatment programs seems to be both acceptable and effective. PMID:23069894

  20. Emergence and Dynamics of Polar Order in Developing Epithelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadifar, Reza

    2011-03-01

    Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) is a conserved process in many vertebrate and invertebrate tissues, and is fundamental for the coordination of cell behavior and patterning. A well-studied example is the orientational pattern of hairs in the wing of the adult fruit fly Drosophila, which is an important model organism in biology. The Drosophila wing is an epithelium, i.e., a two-dimensional sheet of cells, which grows from a few cells to thousands of cells during the course of development. In the wing epithelium, planar polarity is established by an anisotropic distribution of PCP proteins within cells. The distribution of these proteins in a given cell affects the polarity of neighboring cells, such that at the end of wing development a large-scale PCP orientational order emerges. Here we present a theoretical study of planar polarity in developing epithelia based on a vertex model, which takes into account cell mechanics, cell adhesion, and cell division, combined with experimental results obtained from time-lapse imaging of the wing development. We show that in experiment, polarity order does not develop de novo at the end of wing development, but rather cells are initially polarized at an angle with respect to their final polarity axis. During wing development, the polarity axes of cells reorient towards their final direction. We identify a basic mechanism to generate such a large-scale initial polarization, based on the growth of a small number of cells with an initially random PCP distribution. Finally, we study the effect of shear and oriented cell division on dynamics of PCP order, showing that these two processes can robustly reorient the polarity axes of cells.

  1. Saturn base heating handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, C. R.; Bender, R. L.; Bevill, R. L.; Reardon, J.; Hartley, L.

    1972-01-01

    A handbook containing a summary of model and flight test base heating data from the S-1, S-1B, S-4, S-1C, and S-2 stages is presented. A review of the available prediction methods is included. Experimental data are provided to make the handbook a single source of Saturn base heating data which can be used for preliminary base heating design predictions of launch vehicles.

  2. Alterations of p75 neurotrophin receptor and Myelin transcription factor 1 in the hippocampus of perinatal phencyclidine treated rats.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jessica L; Newell, Kelly A; Matosin, Natalie; Huang, Xu-Feng; Fernandez-Enright, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Postnatal administration of phencyclidine (PCP) in rodents causes major disturbances to neurological processes resulting in severe modifications to normal behavioral traits into adulthood. It is routinely used to model psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, producing many of the dysfunctional processes in the brain that are present in this devastating disorder, including elevated levels of apoptosis during neurodevelopment and disruptions to myelin and plasticity processes. Lingo-1 (or Leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin domain-containing protein) is responsible for negatively regulating neurite outgrowth and the myelination of axons. Recent findings using a postmortem human brain cohort showed that Lingo-1 signaling partners in the Nogo receptor (NgR)/p75/TNF receptor orphan Y (TROY) signaling complex, and downstream signaling partners With No Lysine (K) (WNK1) and Myelin transcription factor 1 (Myt1), play a significant part in schizophrenia pathophysiology. Here we have examined the implication of Lingo-1 and its signaling partners in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia using PCP to determine if these pathways are altered in the hippocampus throughout different stages of neurodevelopment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously with PCP (10mg/kg) or saline solution on postnatal days (PN) 7, 9, and 11. Rats (n=6/group) were sacrificed at PN12, 5weeks, or 14weeks. Relative expression levels of Lingo-1 signaling proteins were examined in the hippocampus of the treated rats. p75 and Myt1 were decreased (0.001≤p≤0.011) in the PCP treated rats at PN12. There were no significant changes in any of the tested proteins at 5weeks (p>0.05). At 14weeks, p75, TROY, and Myt1 were increased in the PCP treated rats (0.014≤p≤0.022). This is the first report of an alteration in Lingo-1 signaling proteins in the rat hippocampus, both directly after PCP treatment in early development and in adulthood. Based on our results, we propose that

  3. Relationship between Radiological Stages and Prognoses of Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Non-AIDS Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Xiang-Dong; Jia, Peng; Gao, Li; Su, Li; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Ren-Gui; Wang, Guang-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although radiological features of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in non-Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) immunocompromised patients have been reported by other authors, there were no studies on the radiological stages of PCP previously. This study aimed to elucidate the radiological stages and prognoses of PCP in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients. Methods: Retrospective analysis of radiological manifestations and prognoses of 105 non-AIDS PCP immunocompromised patients from August 2009 to April 2016 was conducted. Chest radiograph was divided into three stages: early stage (normal or nearly normal chest radiograph), mid stage (bilateral pulmonary infiltrates), and late stage (bilateral pulmonary consolidations); chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was also divided into three stages: early stage (bilateral diffuse ground-glass opacity [GGO]), mid stage (bilateral diffuse GGO and patchy consolidations), and late stage (bilateral diffuse consolidations). Results: The case fatality rate (CFR) of all patients was 34.3% (36/105), all of them took routine chest X-ray (CXR), and 84 underwent chest CT examinations. According to the CXR most near the beginning of anti-PCP therapy, 18 cases were at early stage and CFR was 0 (0/18, P < 0.01), 50 cases were at mid stage and CFR was 28.0% (14/50, P > 0.05), and 37 cases were at late stage and CFR was 59.5% (22/37, P < 0.01). According to the chest HRCT most near the beginning of anti-PCP therapy, 40 cases were at early stage and CFR was 20.0% (8/40, P > 0.05), 34 cases were at mid stage and CFR was 47.1% (16/34, P > 0.05), and 10 cases were at late stage and CFR was 80.0% (8/10, P < 0.05); barotrauma, including pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and pneumohypoderma, was found in 18 cases and the CFR was 77.8% (14/18, P < 0.01). Conclusions: Based on the radiological manifestations, the course of PCP in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients can be divided into three stages: early stage, mid stage

  4. Soy-based polyols

    DOEpatents

    Suppes, Galen; Lozada, Zueica; Lubguban, Arnold

    2013-06-25

    The invention provides processes for preparing soy-based oligomeric polyols or substituted oligomeric polyols, as well as urethane bioelasteromers comprising the oligomeric polyols or substituted oligomeric polyols.

  5. Base Oils from Petroleum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, R. J.

    The source, composition and suitability of crude oils for base oil production are reviewed. The physical and chemical properties of alkanes, naphthenes and aromatics and their characteristics for lubricant applications are examined. Properties and applications of various base oils are defined and specified. Production of conventional mineral oils is described, including the various processes to remove wax and other deleterious substances, followed by increasingly severe hydrogenation to produce base oils of increased quality and performance. The API categorization of mineral base oils, either direct from the refinery or after hydrotreatment of increasing severity, is described, together with sub-categories.

  6. XML-BASED REPRESENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. KELSEY

    2001-02-01

    For focused applications with limited user and use application communities, XML can be the right choice for representation. It is easy to use, maintain, and extend and enjoys wide support in commercial and research sectors. When the knowledge and information to be represented is object-based and use of that knowledge and information is a high priority, then XML-based representation should be considered. This paper discusses some of the issues involved in using XML-based representation and presents an example application that successfully uses an XML-based representation.

  7. Synthetic Base Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M.; Fotheringham, J. D.; Hoyes, T. J.; Mortier, R. M.; Orszulik, S. T.; Randles, S. J.; Stroud, P. M.

    The chemical nature and technology of the main synthetic lubricant base fluids is described, covering polyalphaolefins, alkylated aromatics, gas-to-liquid (GTL) base fluids, polybutenes, aliphatic diesters, polyolesters, polyalkylene glycols or PAGs and phosphate esters.Other synthetic lubricant base oils such as the silicones, borate esters, perfluoroethers and polyphenylene ethers are considered to have restricted applications due to either high cost or performance limitations and are not considered here.Each of the main synthetic base fluids is described for their chemical and physical properties, manufacture and production, their chemistry, key properties, applications and their implications when used in the environment.

  8. Gasification-based biomass

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The gasification-based biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  9. Performance Based Counselor Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernknopf, Stan; Ware, William B.

    For the past four years the Georgia Department of Education has been involved in a statewide effort to establish standards and procedures for certification of educational personnel based on competency demonstration. As part of this effort, a project was commissioned to develop a performance-based system for the certification of school counselors.…

  10. Zero-Based Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichowski, Chester

    1979-01-01

    The zero-based budgeting approach is designed to achieve the greatest benefit with the fewest undesirable consequences. Seven basic steps make up the zero-based decision-making process: (1) identifying program goals, (2) classifying goals, (3) identifying resources, (4) reviewing consequences, (5) developing decision packages, (6) implementing a…

  11. Arkansas' Disappearing Tax Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoppmeyer, Martin; Venters, Tommy

    State legislation that has contributed to the reduction of Arkansas' tax base is described in this paper. Amendment 59, adopted in 1980, has reduced the state tax base by millions of dollars. At the end of 1992, the majority of school districts have equalized their real, personal, and carrier and utility property. Act 34, the current foundation…

  12. Medical Knowledge Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Randolph A.; Giuse, Nunzia B.

    1991-01-01

    Few commonly available, successful computer-based tools exist in medical informatics. Faculty expertise can be included in computer-based medical information systems. Computers allow dynamic recombination of knowledge to answer questions unanswerable with print textbooks. Such systems can also create stronger ties between academic and clinical…

  13. Content-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CATESOL Journal, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) journal periodical devotes entire issues to specific issues. The theme of this issue is "Content-Base Instruction." Articles include: "Syllabus Design in Content-Based Instruction" (David E. Eskey); "How Relevant Is Relevance?: An Examination of Student Needs, Interests, and Motivation in the Content-Based…

  14. Cast aluminum denture base.

    PubMed

    Barco, M T; Dembert, M L

    1987-08-01

    The laboratory procedures for a cast aluminum base denture have been presented. If an induction casting machine is not available, the "two-oven technique" works well, provided the casting arm is kept spinning manually for 4 minutes after casting. If laboratory procedures are executed precisely and with care, the aluminum base denture can be cast with good results. PMID:3305884

  15. Content-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelliCarpini, M.; Alonso, O.

    2013-01-01

    DelliCarpini and Alonso's book "Content-Based Instruction" explores different approaches to teaching content-based instruction (CBI) in the English language classroom. They provide a comprehensive overview of how to teach CBI in an easy-to-follow guide that language teachers will find very practical for their own contexts. Topics…

  16. Bright-field cell image segmentation by principal component pursuit with an Ncut penalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuehuan; Wan, Justin W. L.

    2015-03-01

    Segmentation of cells in time-lapse bright-field microscopic images is crucial in understanding cell behaviours for oncological research. However, the complex nature of the cells makes it difficult to segment cells accurately. Furthermore, poor contrast, broken cell boundaries and the halo artifact pose additional challenges to this problem. Standard segmentation techniques such as edged-based methods, watershed, or active contours result in poor segmentation. Other existing methods for bright-field images cannot provide good results without localized segmentation steps. In this paper, we present two robust mathematical models to segment bright-field cells automatically for the entire image. These models treat cell image segmentation as a background subtraction problem, which can be formulated as a Principal Component Pursuit (PCP) problem. Our first segmentation model is formulated as a PCP with nonnegative constraints. We exploit the sparse component of the PCP solution for identifying the cell pixels. However, there is no control on the quality of the sparse component and the nonzero entries can scatter all over the image, resulting in a noisy segmentation. The second model is an improvement of the first model by combining PCP with spectral clustering. Seemingly unrelated approaches, we combine the two techniques by incorporating normalized-cut in the PCP as a measure for the quality of the segmentation. These two models have been applied to a set of C2C12 cells obtained from bright-field microscopy. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed models are effective in segmenting cells from bright-field images.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: Risk Stratification of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) by the Primary Care Physician Using the NAFLD Fibrosis Score

    PubMed Central

    Tapper, Elliot B.; Hunink, M. G. Myriam; Afdhal, Nezam H.; Lai, Michelle; Sengupta, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Background The complications of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) are dependent on the presence of advanced fibrosis. Given the high prevalence of NAFLD in the US, the optimal evaluation of NAFLD likely involves triage by a primary care physician (PCP) with advanced disease managed by gastroenterologists. Methods We compared the cost-effectiveness of fibrosis risk-assessment strategies in a cohort of 10,000 simulated American patients with NAFLD performed in either PCP or referral clinics using a decision analytical microsimulation state-transition model. The strategies included use of vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE), the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), combination testing with NFS and VCTE, and liver biopsy (usual care by a specialist only). NFS and VCTE performance was obtained from a prospective cohort of 164 patients with NAFLD. Outcomes included cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) and correct classification of fibrosis. Results Risk-stratification by the PCP using the NFS alone costs $5,985 per QALY while usual care costs $7,229/QALY. In the microsimulation, at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000, the NFS alone in PCP clinic was the most cost-effective strategy in 94.2% of samples, followed by combination NFS/VCTE in the PCP clinic (5.6%) and usual care in 0.2%. The NFS based strategies yield the best biopsy-correct classification ratios (3.5) while the NFS/VCTE and usual care strategies yield more correct-classifications of advanced fibrosis at the cost of 3 and 37 additional biopsies per classification. Conclusion Risk-stratification of patients with NAFLD primary care clinic is a cost-effective strategy that should be formally explored in clinical practice. PMID:26905872

  18. The cell adhesion molecules Echinoid and Friend of Echinoid coordinate cell adhesion and cell signaling to regulate the fidelity of ommatidial rotation in the Drosophila eye.

    PubMed

    Fetting, Jennifer L; Spencer, Susan A; Wolff, Tanya

    2009-10-01

    Directed cellular movements are a universal feature of morphogenesis in multicellular organisms. Differential adhesion between the stationary and motile cells promotes these cellular movements to effect spatial patterning of cells. A prominent feature of Drosophila eye development is the 90 degrees rotational movement of the multicellular ommatidial precursors within a matrix of stationary cells. We demonstrate that the cell adhesion molecules Echinoid (Ed) and Friend of Echinoid (Fred) act throughout ommatidial rotation to modulate the degree of ommatidial precursor movement. We propose that differential levels of Ed and Fred between stationary and rotating cells at the initiation of rotation create a permissive environment for cell movement, and that uniform levels in these two populations later contribute to stopping the movement. Based on genetic data, we propose that ed and fred impart a second, independent, ;brake-like' contribution to this process via Egfr signaling. Ed and Fred are localized in largely distinct and dynamic patterns throughout rotation. However, ed and fred are required in only a subset of cells - photoreceptors R1, R7 and R6 - for normal rotation, cells that have only recently been linked to a role in planar cell polarity (PCP). This work also provides the first demonstration of a requirement for cone cells in the ommatidial rotation aspect of PCP. ed and fred also genetically interact with the PCP genes, but affect only the degree-of-rotation aspect of the PCP phenotype. Significantly, we demonstrate that at least one PCP protein, Stbm, is required in R7 to control the degree of ommatidial rotation. PMID:19736327

  19. Red-based cumulus.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    2015-02-01

    Observations and model simulations of cumulus clouds whose bases are tinted red when the Sun is well above the horizon are presented. Conditions for seeing red bases include (1) a red underlying surface (which may consist of dust clouds, as from haboobs) with high albedo, (2) small fractional cloud cover when the Sun is far enough below the zenith for direct sunlight to illuminate much of the surface directly below and around cloud base, (3) optically thick clouds so that the bases are dark, and (4) clouds with bases that are near enough to the observer to appear high in the sky so that the admixture of scattered light from the intervening atmosphere is minimized. PMID:25967822

  20. Base Flow Model Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Neeraj; Brinckman, Kevin; Jansen, Bernard; Seiner, John

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed of obtaining propulsive base flow data in both hot and cold jet environments, at Mach numbers and altitude of relevance to NASA launcher designs. The base flow data was used to perform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulence model assessments of base flow predictive capabilities in order to provide increased confidence in base thermal and pressure load predictions obtained from computational modeling efforts. Predictive CFD analyses were used in the design of the experiments, available propulsive models were used to reduce program costs and increase success, and a wind tunnel facility was used. The data obtained allowed assessment of CFD/turbulence models in a complex flow environment, working within a building-block procedure to validation, where cold, non-reacting test data was first used for validation, followed by more complex reacting base flow validation.

  1. Mobile Lunar Base Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Marc M.

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes three innovative concepts for a mobile lunar base. These concept combine design research for habitat architecture, mobility systems, habitability, radiation protection, human factors, and living and working environments on the lunar surface. The mobile lunar base presents several key advantages over conventional static base notions. These advantages concern landing zone safety, the requirement to move modules over the lunar surface, and the ability to stage mobile reconnaissance with effective systemic redundancy. All of these concerns lead to the consideration of a mobile walking habitat module and base design. The key issues involve landing zone safety, the ability to transport habitat modules across the surface, and providing reliability and redundancy to exploration traverses in pressurized vehicles. With self-ambulating lunar base modules, it will be feasible to have each module separate itself from its retro-rocket thruster unit, and walk five to ten km away from the LZ to a pre-selected site. These mobile modules can operate in an autonomous or teleoperated mode to navigate the lunar surface. At the site of the base, the mobile modules can combine together; make pressure port connections among themselves, to create a multi-module pressurized lunar base.

  2. Moon base/Mars base transportation depot

    SciTech Connect

    Keaton, P.W.

    1985-09-01

    Placement of the next space outpost, after the low-earth-orbit space station, will strongly affect the evolution of future space programs. The outpost will store rocket fuel and offer a haven to space workers, as well as provide a transportation depot for long missions. Ideally, it must be loosely bound to the earth, easy to approach and leave, and available for launch at any time. One Lagrange equilibrium point, L/sub 1/(SE), between the sun and the earth and another, L/sub 2/(EM), in the earth-moon system have excellent physical characteristics for an outpost; L/sub 1/(SE), for example, requires less than 2% additional rocket propellant for docking there on the way to Moon bases or Mars bases. We apply the rocket problem, the two-body problem, and the three-body problem in discussing alternative locations for space depots. We conclude that Lagrange point halo orbits are the standard by which other concepts for transportation depots must be gauged. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Skull Base Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag R; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Wang, Wei-Hsin; Wang, Eric W

    2016-02-01

    The anatomy of the skull base is complex with multiple neurovascular structures in a small space. Understanding all of the intricate relationships begins with understanding the anatomy of the sphenoid bone. The cavernous sinus contains the carotid artery and some of its branches; cranial nerves III, IV, VI, and V1; and transmits venous blood from multiple sources. The anterior skull base extends to the frontal sinus and is important to understand for sinus surgery and sinonasal malignancies. The clivus protects the brainstem and posterior cranial fossa. A thorough appreciation of the anatomy of these various areas allows for endoscopic endonasal approaches to the skull base. PMID:26614826

  4. Data base management study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Data base management techniques and applicable equipment are described. Recommendations which will assist potential NASA data users in selecting and using appropriate data base management tools and techniques are presented. Classes of currently available data processing equipment ranging from basic terminals to large minicomputer systems were surveyed as they apply to the needs of potential SEASAT data users. Cost and capabilities projections for this equipment through 1985 were presented. A test of a typical data base management system was described, as well as the results of this test and recommendations to assist potential users in determining when such a system is appropriate for their needs. The representative system tested was UNIVAC's DMS 1100.

  5. Event-Based Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Russell G.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that an event-based science curriculum can provide the framework for deciding what to retain in an overloaded science curriculum. Provides examples of current events and the science concepts explored related to the event. (MDH)

  6. Clinically based implant selection.

    PubMed

    Fugazzotto, P A

    1999-01-01

    A hierarchy of implant selection is presented, based on overcoming specific clinical challenges in a variety of situations, including maximization of the esthetic, comfort, and functional potentials of therapy. PMID:10709488

  7. COMMUNITY BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Community Based Environmental Protection intends to make environmental protection spring from the needs and values of the community of interest. Real community involvement in protecting the environment requires a process in which the environmental needs of communities and ecosyst...

  8. Mutually unbiased bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, S.

    2002-08-01

    After a brief review of the notion of a full set of mutually unbiased bases in an N-dimensional Hilbert space, we summarize the work of Wootters and Fields (W K Wootters and B C Fields, Ann. Phys. 191, 363 (1989)) which gives an explicit construction for such bases for the case N=pr, where p is a prime. Further, we show how, by exploiting certain freedom in the Wootters-Fields construction, the task of explicitly writing down such bases can be simplified for the case when p is an odd prime. In particular, we express the results entirely in terms of the character vectors of the cyclic group G of order p. We also analyse the connection between mutually unbiased bases and the representations of G.

  9. Navigating Value Based Care.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-12-01

    TMA is collaborating with TMF Health Quality Institute to connect Texas physicians to free TMF resources that will better position doctors for the rapid transition to value-based payment. PMID:26630238

  10. Transformation based endorsement systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudkamp, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Evidential reasoning techniques classically represent support for a hypothesis by a numeric value or an evidential interval. The combination of support is performed by an arithmetic rule which often requires restrictions to be placed on the set of possibilities. These assumptions usually require the hypotheses to be exhausitive and mutually exclusive. Endorsement based classification systems represent support for the alternatives symbolically rather than numerically. A framework for constructing endorsement systems is presented in which transformations are defined to generate and update the knowledge base. The interaction of the knowledge base and transformations produces a non-monotonic reasoning system. Two endorsement based reasoning systems are presented to demonstrate the flexibility of the transformational approach for reasoning with ambiguous and inconsistent information.

  11. REST based mobile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambow, Mark; Preuss, Thomas; Berdux, Jörg; Conrad, Marc

    2008-02-01

    Simplicity is the major advantage of REST based webservices. Whereas SOAP is widespread in complex, security sensitive business-to-business aplications, REST is widely used for mashups and end-user centric applicatons. In that context we give an overview of REST and compare it to SOAP. Furthermore we apply the GeoDrawing application as an example for REST based mobile applications and emphasize on pros and cons for the use of REST in mobile application scenarios.

  12. New formaldehyde base disinfectants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, R.; Lindell, K. F.

    1973-01-01

    Preparations of formaldehyde in various organic liquids - ethylene glycol, glycerol, and propylene glycol - serve as effective disinfectants towards microbial vegetative cells and spores. This disinfection is a temperature-dependent process and is manifest when these formaldehyde base disinfectants are dissolved in water. The irritating vapors associated with formaldehyde disinfection are not present in either of these new formaldehyde base disinfectants or in aqueous solutions of them.

  13. Acid-base chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, C.W.; Blewit, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    The book is not a research compendium and there are no references to the literature. It is a teaching text covering the entire range of undergraduate subject matter dealing with acid-base chemistry (some of it remotely) as taught in inorganic, analytical, and organic chemistry courses. The excellent chapters VII through IX deal in detail with the quantitative aspects of aqueous acid-base equilibria (salt hydrolysis and buffer, titrations, polyprotic and amphoteric substances).

  14. LDEF materials data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Joan G.; Strickland, John W.; Davis, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and the accompanying experiments were composed of and contained a wide variety of materials representing the largest collection of materials flown in low Earth orbit (LEO) and retrieved for ground based analysis to date. The results and implications of the mechanical, thermal, optical, and electrical data from these materials are the foundation on which future LEO space missions will be built. The LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG) has been charged with establishing and developing data bases to document these materials and their performance to assure not only that the data are archived for future generations but also that the data are available to the spacecraft user community in an easily accessed, user-friendly form. This paper discusses the format and content of the three data bases developed or being developed to accomplish this task. The hardware and software requirements for each of these three data bases are discussed along with current availability of the data bases. This paper also serves as a user's guide to the MAPTIS LDEF Materials Data Base.

  15. Pneumocystis Pneumonia (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Pneumocystis Pneumonia KidsHealth > For Parents > Pneumocystis Pneumonia Print A A A Text Size What's in ... article? About PCP Diagnosing PCP Treating PCP Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an infection caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci , ...

  16. Noncommutative Involutive Bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alun Evans, Gareth

    2006-02-01

    The theory of Groebner Bases originated in the work of Buchberger and is now considered to be one of the most important and useful areas of symbolic computation. A great deal of effort has been put into improving Buchberger's algorithm for computing a Groebner Basis, and indeed in finding alternative methods of computing Groebner Bases. Two of these methods include the Groebner Walk method and the computation of Involutive Bases. By the mid 1980's, Buchberger's work had been generalised for noncommutative polynomial rings by Bergman and Mora. This thesis provides the corresponding generalisation for Involutive Bases and (to a lesser extent) the Groebner Walk, with the main results being as follows. (1) Algorithms for several new noncommutative involutive divisions are given, including strong; weak; global and local divisions. (2) An algorithm for computing a noncommutative Involutive Basis is given. When used with one of the aforementioned involutive divisions, it is shown that this algorithm returns a noncommutative Groebner Basis on termination. (3) An algorithm for a noncommutative Groebner Walk is given, in the case of conversion between two harmonious monomial orderings. It is shown that this algorithm generalises to give an algorithm for performing a noncommutative Involutive Walk, again in the case of conversion between two harmonious monomial orderings. (4) Two new properties of commutative involutive divisions are introduced (stability and extendibility), respectively ensuring the termination of the Involutive Basis algorithm and the applicability (under certain conditions) of homogeneous methods of computing Involutive Bases.

  17. Plant based butters.

    PubMed

    Gorrepati, Kalyani; Balasubramanian, S; Chandra, Pitam

    2015-07-01

    During the last few years the popularity for the plant based butters (nut and seed butters) has increased considerably. Earlier peanut butter was the only alternative to the dairy butter, but over the years development in the technologies and also the consumer awareness about the plant based butters, has led the development of myriad varieties of butters with different nuts and seeds, which are very good source of protein, fiber, essential fatty acids and other nutrients. These days' different varieties of plant based butters are available in the market viz., peanut butter, soy butter, almond butter, pistachio butter, cashew butter and sesame butter etc. The form of butter is one of the healthy way of integrating nuts and seeds in to our regular diet. Nut and seed butters are generally prepared by roasting, grinding and refrigerated to consume it when it is still fresh. During this process it is imperative to retain the nutritional properties of these nuts and seeds in order to reap the benefits of the fresh nuts and seeds in the form of butter as well. Proper care is needed to minimize the conversion of healthful components in to unhealthy components during processing and further storage. Roasting temperature, temperatures during grinding and storage are the vital factors to be considered in order to have healthy and nutritious plant based butters. In this article, different plant based butters and their processing methods have been described. PMID:26139864

  18. SAR based adaptive GMTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Duc; Guo, Bin; Xu, Luzhou; Li, Jian

    2010-04-01

    We consider ground moving target indication (GMTI) and target velocity estimation based on multi-channel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Via forming velocity versus cross-range images, we show that small moving targets can be detected even in the presence of strong stationary ground clutter. Moreover, the velocities of the moving targets can be estimated, and the misplaced moving targets can be placed back to their original locations based on the estimated velocities. Adaptive beamforming techniques, including Capon and generalizedlikelihood ratio test (GLRT), are used to form velocity versus cross-range images for each range bin of interest. The velocity estimation ambiguities caused by the multi-channel array geometry are analyzed. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of our approaches using the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) publicly-released Gotcha SAR based GMTI data set.

  19. Lidar base specification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heidemann, Hans Karl.

    2012-01-01

    Lidar is a fast evolving technology, and much has changed in the industry since the final draft of the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” was written. Lidar data have improved in accuracy and spatial resolution, geospatial accuracy standards have been revised by the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), industry standard file formats have been expanded, additional applications for lidar have become accepted, and the need for interoperable data across collections has been realized. This revision to the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” publication addresses those changes and provides continued guidance towards a nationally consistent lidar dataset.

  20. Model based manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosky, Lyman J.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of using model based control (MBC) for robotic manipulators was investigated. A double inverted pendulum system was constructed as the experimental system for a general study of dynamically stable manipulation. The original interest in dynamically stable systems was driven by the objective of high vertical reach (balancing), and the planning of inertially favorable trajectories for force and payload demands. The model-based control approach is described and the results of experimental tests are summarized. Results directly demonstrate that MBC can provide stable control at all speeds of operation and support operations requiring dynamic stability such as balancing. The application of MBC to systems with flexible links is also discussed.

  1. Protein based Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers. PMID:21235251

  2. Evidence based vaccinology.

    PubMed

    Nalin, David R

    2002-02-22

    Evidence based vaccinology (EBV) is the identification and use of the best evidence in making and implementing decisions during all of the stages of the life of a vaccine, including pre-licensure vaccine development and post-licensure manufacture and research, and utilization of the vaccine for disease control. Vaccines, unlike most pharmaceuticals, are in a continuous process of development both before and after licensure. Changes in biologics manufacturing technology and changes that vaccines induce in population and disease biology lead to periodic review of regimens (and sometimes dosage) based on changing immunologic data or public perceptions relevant to vaccine safety and effectiveness. EBV includes the use of evidence based medicine (EBM) both in clinical trials and in national disease containment programs. The rationale for EBV is that the highest evidentiary standards are required to maintain a rigorous scientific basis of vaccine quality control in manufacture and to ensure valid determination of vaccine efficacy, field effectiveness and safety profiles (including post-licensure safety monitoring), cost-benefit analyses, and risk:benefit ratios. EBV is increasingly based on statistically validated, clearly defined laboratory, manufacturing, clinical and epidemiological research methods and procedures, codified as good laboratory practices (GLP), good manufacturing practices (GMP), good clinical research practices (GCRP) and in clinical and public health practice (good vaccination practices, GVP). Implementation demands many data-driven decisions made by a spectrum of specialists pre- and post-licensure, and is essential to maintaining public confidence in vaccines. PMID:11858871

  3. SUPERCONDUCTING VANADIUM BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, H.J.

    1958-10-21

    A new vanadium-base alloy which possesses remarkable superconducting properties is presented. The alloy consists of approximately one atomic percent of palladium, the balance being vanadium. The alloy is stated to be useful in a cryotron in digital computer circuits.

  4. Acid-Base Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3− and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3− is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys. PMID:26597304

  5. Developing Mobile Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Florence; Pastore, Raymond; Snider, Jean

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an instructional design class's experience developing instruction for the mobile web. The class was taught at a southeastern university in the United States in a master's level computer based instruction course. Two example projects are showcased and student reflections on design issues are highlighted. Additionally,…

  6. Landscape-based Indicators

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is based on data and experience gained through the GLNPO-funded Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Consortium (GLCWC) and the EPA-STAR funded Great Lakes Ecological Indicators Project (GLEI). EPA-MED author Trebitz and other MED personnel were collaborators on the GLEI proje...

  7. Wrought cobalt- base superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klarstrom, D. L.

    1993-08-01

    Wrought cobalt-base superalloys are used extensively in gas turbine engines because of their excellent high-temperature creep and fatigue strengths and resistance to hot corrosion attack. In addition, the unique character of the oxide scales that form on some of the alloys provides outstanding resistance to high-temperature sliding wear. This article provides a review of the evolutionary development of wrought cobalt-base alloys in terms of alloy design and physical metallurgy. The topics include solid-so-lution strengthening, carbide precipitation characteristics, and attempts to introduce age hardening. The use of PHACOMP to enhance thermal stability characteristics and the incorporation of rare-earth ele-ments to improve oxidation resistance is also reviewed and discussed. The further development of cobalt-base superalloys has been severely hampered by past political events, which have accentuated the strategic vulnerability of cobalt as a base or as an alloying element. Consequently, alternative alloys have been developed that use little or no cobalt. One such alternative, Haynes® 230TMalloy, is discussed briefly.

  8. Resource-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sally, Ed.; Smith, Brenda, Ed.

    The selections in this book encompass a broad spectrum of resource-based learning experiences, and are intended to help teachers and administrators gain a better understanding of the concepts and devise effective and efficient ways to use these materials. Titles include: "Introducing Resources for Learning" (Sally Brown and Brenda Smith);…

  9. Project-Based Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajcik, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Project-based science is an exciting way to teach science that aligns with the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS"). By focusing on core ideas along with practices and crosscutting concepts, classrooms become learning environments where teachers and students engage in science by designing and carrying out…

  10. Cotton-based nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article is an abbreviated description of a new cotton-based nonwovens research program at the Southern Regional Research Center, which is one of the four regional research centers of the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Since cotton is a significant cash crop inte...

  11. Design-Based Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortus, David; Reddy, Srikaran; Dershimer, Ralph Charles

    2003-01-01

    Describes design-based science, which aims to develop useful skills for a wide range of actual problem-solving situations involving science. Discusses units of design activities concerning the voltage and lifetime of batteries and the potential in science education. (KHR)

  12. Nanocarbon-based photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Marco; Lohrman, Jessica; Kumar, Priyank V; Kirkeminde, Alec; Ferralis, Nicola; Grossman, Jeffrey C; Ren, Shenqiang

    2012-10-23

    Carbon materials are excellent candidates for photovoltaic solar cells: they are Earth-abundant, possess high optical absorption, and maintain superior thermal and photostability. Here we report on solar cells with active layers made solely of carbon nanomaterials that present the same advantages of conjugated polymer-based solar cells, namely, solution processable, potentially flexible, and chemically tunable, but with increased photostability and the possibility to revert photodegradation. The device active layer composition is optimized using ab initio density functional theory calculations to predict type-II band alignment and Schottky barrier formation. The best device fabricated is composed of PC(70)BM fullerene, semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes, and reduced graphene oxide. This active-layer composition achieves a power conversion efficiency of 1.3%-a record for solar cells based on carbon as the active material-and we calculate efficiency limits of up to 13% for the devices fabricated in this work, comparable to those predicted for polymer solar cells employing PCBM as the acceptor. There is great promise for improving carbon-based solar cells considering the novelty of this type of device, the high photostability, and the availability of a large number of carbon materials with yet untapped potential for photovoltaics. Our results indicate a new strategy for efficient carbon-based, solution-processable, thin film, photostable solar cells. PMID:22953746

  13. Skull Base Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    In skull base tumors associated with a low radiosensitivity for conventional radiotherapy (RT), irradiation with proton or carbon ion beams facilitates a safe and accurate application of high tumor doses due to the favorable beam localization properties of these particle beams. Cranial nerves, the brain stem and normal brain tissue can at the same time be optimally spared.

  14. Lunar Base Sitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staehle, Robert L.; Burke, James D.; Snyder, Gerald C.; Dowling, Richard; Spudis, Paul D.

    1993-12-01

    Speculation with regard to a permanent lunar base has been with us since Robert Goddard was working on the first liquid-fueled rockets in the 1920's. With the infusion of data from the Apollo Moon flights, a once speculative area of space exploration has become an exciting possibility. A Moon base is not only a very real possibility, but is probably a critical element in the continuation of our piloted space program. This article, originally drafted by World Space Foundation volunteers in conjuction with various academic and research groups, examines some of the strategies involved in selecting an appropriate site for such a lunar base. Site selection involves a number of complex variables, including raw materials for possible rocket propellant generation, hot an cold cycles, view of the sky (for astronomical considerations, among others), geological makeup of the region, and more. This article summarizes the key base siting considerations and suggests some alternatives. Availability of specific resources, including energy and certain minerals, is critical to success.

  15. Cotton-based nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article is an abbreviated description of a new cotton-based nonwovens research program at the Southern Regional Research Center, which is one of the four regional research centers of the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Since cotton is a significant cash crop inter...

  16. Character-Based Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jasper

    1996-01-01

    In the ethical arena, our society offers the choice of an ethics of emotion versus an ethics of rules, inadequate choices when compared to ethics based in strong moral character. Moral education and character development are basic elements of adventure and experiential education, and practitioners achieve excellence in practice only when they…

  17. Mojave Base Station Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koscielski, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    A 12.2 meter diameter X-Y mount antenna was reconditioned for use by the crustal dynamic project as a fixed base station. System capabilities and characteristics and key performance parameters for subsystems are presented. The implementation is completed.

  18. Protein Crystal Based Nanomaterials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jeffrey A.; VanRoey, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report on a NASA Grant. It concerns a description of work done, which includes: (1) Protein crystals cross-linked to form fibers; (2) Engineering of protein to favor crystallization; (3) Better knowledge-based potentials for protein-protein contacts; (4) Simulation of protein crystallization.

  19. Contextually Based Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blocher, J. Michael; Armfield, Shadow W.; Sujo-Montes, Laura; Tucker, Gary; Willis, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors detail a study of a three-year professional development project designed to increase in-service teachers' classroom technology integration. Participants engaged in learning activities that modeled technology integration from a contextually based perspective that included technology, and pedagogical and content…

  20. Aptamer-based nanobiosensors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Seok; Raston, Nurul Hanun Ahmad; Gu, Man Bock

    2016-02-15

    It has been more than two decades since aptamer and the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) method were discovered by Larry Gold and Andrew Ellington in 1990, respectively. Based on the various advantages of aptamers, they have become a potent rival of antibodies in therapeutics and bio-analysis. Especially, the recent advances in aptamer biosensor application are remarkable due to its intrinsic properties of aptamers as nucleic acids and target induced conformational changes, in addition to the introduction of graphene oxide-based easy and simple immobilization-free screening method even for dual aptamers. In addition, the incorporation of various nanomaterials such as metallic nanoparticles, carbon materials, and functional nanospheres in aptasensors has facilitated the improvement of analytical performance and commercial application of aptasensors. In this review, recent prominent reports on aptasensors utilizing nanomaterials were introduced to understand the principle of aptamer-based biosensors and provide an insight for new strategies of aptasensors and the application of various nanomaterials. The perspective on aptamer-based biosensors and diagnostics was also discussed in view of technology and market. PMID:26139320

  1. Resource-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Margie Klink

    1999-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of publications related to resource-based learning, which is defined as a student-centered learning environment grounded in learning theory in which the teacher and the library-media specialist collaborate to help students with information needs, information retrieval, analyzing and synthesizing the information,…

  2. Lunar Base Sitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staehle, Robert L.; Burke, James D.; Snyder, Gerald C.; Dowling, Richard; Spudis, Paul D.

    1993-01-01

    Speculation with regard to a permanent lunar base has been with us since Robert Goddard was working on the first liquid-fueled rockets in the 1920's. With the infusion of data from the Apollo Moon flights, a once speculative area of space exploration has become an exciting possibility. A Moon base is not only a very real possibility, but is probably a critical element in the continuation of our piloted space program. This article, originally drafted by World Space Foundation volunteers in conjuction with various academic and research groups, examines some of the strategies involved in selecting an appropriate site for such a lunar base. Site selection involves a number of complex variables, including raw materials for possible rocket propellant generation, hot an cold cycles, view of the sky (for astronomical considerations, among others), geological makeup of the region, and more. This article summarizes the key base siting considerations and suggests some alternatives. Availability of specific resources, including energy and certain minerals, is critical to success.

  3. Group-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garth, Russell Y.

    1999-01-01

    An author of the 14th issue of this journal, which was devoted to group-based pedagogical approaches to college instruction, traces the continuing development of collaborative or cooperative learning. Notes influence of the original volume on guidelines of the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education and the Collaboration in…

  4. Zero Base Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarndal, Anne G.

    1979-01-01

    Traditional budgeting starts with the previous year's budget, but zero base budgeting demands that each activity be justified from "scratch," and establishes a number of increments for each unit, in order of priority. Given the set of increments and the money available, management can determine what activities to finance. (Author)

  5. School Based Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Aid Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    School Based Health Centers (SBHC) are considered by experts as one of the most effective and efficient ways to provide preventive health care to children. Few programs are as successful in delivering health care to children at no cost to the patient, and where they are: in school. For many underserved children, The Children's Aid Society's…

  6. Fundamental research data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A fundamental research data base containing ground truth, image, and Badhwar profile feature data for 17 North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota agricultural sites is described. Image data was provided for a minimum of four acquisition dates for each site and all four images were registered to one another.

  7. Drafting. Competency Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everly, Al; And Others

    This competency based drafting curriculum is presented in seven specialization sections with units in each section containing a competency statement, performance objective, learning activities, evaluation, and quiz or problem sheets. Some units also contain answer sheets and/or handout sheets. Sections and number of units presented are (1) basic…

  8. Knowledge-Based Abstracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of automatic abstracting of technical papers focuses on a knowledge-based method that uses two sets of rules. Topics discussed include anaphora; text structure and discourse; abstracting techniques, including the keyword method and the indicator phrase method; and tools for text skimming. (27 references) (LRW)

  9. A Mars base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soule, Veronique

    1989-01-01

    This study was initiated to provide an approach to the development of a permanently manned Mars base. The objectives for a permanently manned Mars base are numerous. Primarily, human presence on Mars will allow utilization of new resources for the improvement of the quality of life on Earth, allowing for new discoveries in technologies, the solar system, and human physiology. Such a mission would also encourage interaction between different countries, increasing international cooperation and leading to a stronger unification of mankind. Surface studies of Mars, scientific experiments in the multiple fields, the research for new minerals, and natural resource production are more immediate goals of the Mars mission. Finally, in the future, colonization of Mars will ensure man's perpetual presence in the universe. Specific objectives of this study were: (1) to design a Mars habitat that minimizes the mass delivered to the Mars surface, provides long-stay capability for the base crew, and accommodates future expansion and modification; (2) to develop a scenario of the construction of a permanently manned Mars base; and (3) to incorporate new and envisioned technologies.

  10. Risk Assessment: Evidence Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2007-01-01

    Human systems PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment: a) Provides quantitative measures of probability, consequence, and uncertainty; and b) Communicates risk and informs decision-making. Human health risks rated highest in ISS PRA are based on 1997 assessment of clinical events in analog operational settings. Much work remains to analyze remaining human health risks identified in Bioastronautics Roadmap.

  11. Outcomes-Based Outrage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zlatos, Bill

    1993-01-01

    If outcomes-based education is the darling of education reformers, it is the devil to conservative parents, taxpayer groups, and legislators who oppose it. Despite some initial successes in several states, critics charge that the states pushing OBE have no evidence that it works. Costs are another factor. So far, the ultraconservatives are…

  12. Performance-based ratemaking

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, P.S.

    1995-07-15

    Performance-based ratemaking (PBR) departs from the cost-of-service standard in setting just and reasonable utility rates, but that departure isn`t as easy as it looks. Up until now, cost-of-service ratemaking has provided relatively stable rates, while enabling utilities to attract enormous amounts of capital. Of late, however, regulators appear to be heeding the argument that changing markets warrant a second look. Throughout the country and across the utility industry, some regulators appear willing to abandon cost of service as a proxy for competition, instead favoring performance-based methods that would rely on competitive forces. These performance-based schemes vary in their details but generally afford utilities the opportunity to increase profits by exceeding targets for efficiency and cost savings. Moreover, these plans purport to streamline the regulatory process. Annual, accounting-type reviews replace rate hearings. Cost-of-service studies might not be required at all once initial rates are fixed. Nevertheless, these PBR plans rely on cost-based rates as a starting point and still contain safeguards to protect ratepayers. PBR falls short of true deregulation. As the Massachusetts Department of Public Utilities noted recently in an order approving a PBR variant known as price-cap regulation for New England Telephone and Telegraph Co., `price-cap regulation is not deregulation; it is merely another way for regulators to control the rates charged by a firm.`

  13. Service-based Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Lynda; Winston, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Solutions model used at Shelley High School in Idaho which gives students the opportunity to gain practical experience while tackling community problems. This approach is built on the three fundamentals of an integrated curriculum, a problem-solving focus, and service-based learning. Sample problems include increasing certain trout…

  14. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  15. WATERSHED BASED SURVEY DESIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of watershed-based design and assessment tools will help to serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional condition to meet Section 305(b), identification of impaired water bodies or wate...

  16. Computer Based Library Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machalow, Robert

    This document presents computer-based lessons used to teach basic library skills to college students at York College of the City University of New York. The information for library orientation has been entered on a disk which must be used in conjunction with a word processing program, the Applewriter IIe, and an Apple IIe microcomputer. The…

  17. Team Based Work. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on team-based work in human resource development (HRD). "Toward Transformational Learning in Organizations: Effects of Model-II Governing Variables on Perceived Learning in Teams" (Blair K. Carruth) summarizes a study that indicated that, regardless of which Model-II variable (valid information,…

  18. Polymer based tunneling sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cui, Tianhong (Inventor); Wang, Jing (Inventor); Zhao, Yongjun (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A process for fabricating a polymer based circuit by the following steps. A mold of a design is formed through a lithography process. The design is transferred to a polymer substrate through a hot embossing process. A metal layer is then deposited over at least part of said design and at least one electrical lead is connected to said metal layer.

  19. Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Deborah E.; Donham, Richard S.; Bernhardt, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    In problem-based learning (PBL), students working in collaborative groups learn by resolving complex, realistic problems under the guidance of faculty. There is some evidence of PBL effectiveness in medical school settings where it began, and there are numerous accounts of PBL implementation in various undergraduate contexts, replete with…

  20. Concept-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schill, Bethany; Howell, Linda

    2011-01-01

    A major part of developing concept-based instruction is the use of an overarching idea to provide a conceptual lens through which students view the content of a particular subject. By using a conceptual lens to focus learning, students think at a much deeper level about the content and its facts (Erickson 2007). Therefore, the authors collaborated…

  1. Pentachlorophenol toxicity. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning toxicological studies of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and its effects on humans, aquatic and laboratory animals, and livestock. Topics include PCP determination and analysis methods, PCP accumulation in animals, assessment and control of PCP contamination in waters and soils, health risk assessment of pesticides and insecticides, and PCP degradation and decomposition techniques. Biochemical studies of occupational exposure and clinical reports are included. (Contains a minimum of 241 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Pediatric cardiothoracic program in Malaysia: a study based on the outcome of the program.

    PubMed

    Piros Kulandasamy Pillai, Cornelius; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Justin Lawrence, Patrick; Yamamoto, Eiko; Reyer, Joshua A; Hamajima1, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    Vulnerable communities in Malaysia have been facing issues of accessibility and availability for pediatric cardiac services for years due to long waiting times, high costs and a lack of pediatric cardiothoracic surgeons. To ease this situation, the government has allocated a certain amount of funds, introduced through the Pediatric Cardiothoracic Program (PCP), in which the patients are transported to the Narayana Health Institute of Cardiac Science (NH) in India to receive a heart operation following an eligibility check at MediAssist4U Sdn Bhd in Selangor, Malaysia, a facility appointed by the NH. This study aimed to determine the demographic incidence of congenital heart diseases of patients in this program and to evaluate the outcome of the program in association with post-operative mortality rate and the beneficial factors of the program. In this study, 241 patients who participated in this program from August 2008 to September 2012 were reviewed. Fisher's exact tests were applied to calculate p-values of categorical data. Out of 241, 11 patients were rejected because of their poor health condition for flight transportation to India, leaving 230 patients for analysis. The majority of patients were 1 to 4 years of age (57.8%), Malays (61.7%), from families of monthly household income less than RM 1,500 (86.5%) and with primary school-educated parents (86.5%). Patients could apply from any government hospital in Malaysia, but 34.8% of the patients were from the state of Johor. The region (Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia) of patients seeking pediatric cardiac services was significantly associated with race (p<0.001), low household income (p<0.001) and low education background of parents (p=0.004). The associations between the age group and diagnosis group (p=0.010) and between duration of hospitalization and outcome of medical management (p=0.013) were significant. Post-operative mortality rate was 1.7% (95% confidence interval, 0.5-4.4). In conclusion, the

  3. Pediatric cardiothoracic program in Malaysia: a study based on the outcome of the program

    PubMed Central

    Piros Kulandasamy Pillai, Cornelius; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Justin Lawrence, Patrick; Yamamoto, Eiko; Reyer, Joshua A.; Hamajima1, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vulnerable communities in Malaysia have been facing issues of accessibility and availability for pediatric cardiac services for years due to long waiting times, high costs and a lack of pediatric cardiothoracic surgeons. To ease this situation, the government has allocated a certain amount of funds, introduced through the Pediatric Cardiothoracic Program (PCP), in which the patients are transported to the Narayana Health Institute of Cardiac Science (NH) in India to receive a heart operation following an eligibility check at MediAssist4U Sdn Bhd in Selangor, Malaysia, a facility appointed by the NH. This study aimed to determine the demographic incidence of congenital heart diseases of patients in this program and to evaluate the outcome of the program in association with post-operative mortality rate and the beneficial factors of the program. In this study, 241 patients who participated in this program from August 2008 to September 2012 were reviewed. Fisher’s exact tests were applied to calculate p-values of categorical data. Out of 241, 11 patients were rejected because of their poor health condition for flight transportation to India, leaving 230 patients for analysis. The majority of patients were 1 to 4 years of age (57.8%), Malays (61.7%), from families of monthly household income less than RM 1,500 (86.5%) and with primary school-educated parents (86.5%). Patients could apply from any government hospital in Malaysia, but 34.8% of the patients were from the state of Johor. The region (Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia) of patients seeking pediatric cardiac services was significantly associated with race (p<0.001), low household income (p<0.001) and low education background of parents (p=0.004). The associations between the age group and diagnosis group (p=0.010) and between duration of hospitalization and outcome of medical management (p=0.013) were significant. Post-operative mortality rate was 1.7% (95% confidence interval, 0.5–4.4). In

  4. Process Control Logic Modification to Mitigate Transient Following Tripping of a Primary Circulating Pump for a 540 MWe PHWR Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Contractor, Ankur D; Gaikwad, Avinash J.; Kumar, Rajesh; Chakraborty, G.; Vhora, S.F.

    2006-07-01

    The 540 MWe Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) incorporates many new features as compared to the earlier 220 MWe PHWRs. To evaluate the new design features like Primary Heat Transport (PHT) system configuration with two loops, four Primary Circulating Pumps (PCPs) and four passes through core, addition of a Pressurizer (surge Tank) in the PHT system along with Feed/Bleed system and their safety related implications, simulation model have been developed. A reactor step-back is proposed following one PCP trip. The corresponding PCP in the healthy loop is tripped to avoid asymmetrical flow and pressure distribution in the two identical loops. In spite of such elaborate provisions, the margins from high/low PHT pressure are small following tripping of one PCP. Mathematical models for all the major components and sub-systems of the proposed 540 MWe PHWR were developed based on the conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy and equation of state. All the associated control systems are also modeled. The PHT system includes the reactor core with nuclear fuel, PCP, PHT system pressure controller with feed/bleed system and Pressurizer (Surge Tank). The secondary system includes mainly the Steam Generators (SGs), the SG level and pressure controllers, apart from the various steam cycle components. All these models are integrated together to form the Plant Transient Analysis Computer Code Dyna540. The scenario following one PCP trips leads to different states (high/low pressure in Reactor Outlet Header (ROH)) depending upon the banks in which the PCP trips. The pressurizer is connected to two ROHs on one side of the reactor. The system pressure is controlled based on average of four ROHs pressure. In the case of asymmetrical pump operation, this logic leads to a situation where individual ROH pressure goes very near the low/high PHT system pressure trip set point, even though the controlled average pressure is very close to the set pressure. The PHT high

  5. Partially unbiased entangled bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalev, A.; Khanna, F. C.; Revzen, M.

    2009-08-01

    In this contribution we group the operator basis for d2 -dimensional Hilbert space in a way that enables us to relate bases of entangled states with single-particle mutually unbiased state bases (MUB), each in dimensionality d . We utilize these sets of operators to show that an arbitrary density matrix for this d2 -dimensional Hilbert-space system is analyzed via d2+d+1 measurements, d2-d of which involve those entangled states that we associate with MUB of the d -dimensional single-particle constituents. The number d2+d+1 lies in the middle of the number of measurements needed for bipartite state reconstruction with two-particle MUB (d2+1) and those needed by single-particle MUB [(d2+1)2] .

  6. Cosinor-based rhythmometry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A brief overview is provided of cosinor-based techniques for the analysis of time series in chronobiology. Conceived as a regression problem, the method is applicable to non-equidistant data, a major advantage. Another dividend is the feasibility of deriving confidence intervals for parameters of rhythmic components of known periods, readily drawn from the least squares procedure, stressing the importance of prior (external) information. Originally developed for the analysis of short and sparse data series, the extended cosinor has been further developed for the analysis of long time series, focusing both on rhythm detection and parameter estimation. Attention is given to the assumptions underlying the use of the cosinor and ways to determine whether they are satisfied. In particular, ways of dealing with non-stationary data are presented. Examples illustrate the use of the different cosinor-based methods, extending their application from the study of circadian rhythms to the mapping of broad time structures (chronomes). PMID:24725531

  7. Graphene-based electrodes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Fan, Zhanxi; Liu, Juqing; Zhang, Hua

    2012-11-27

    Graphene, the thinnest two dimensional carbon material, has become the subject of intensive investigation in various research fields because of its remarkable electronic, mechanical, optical and thermal properties. Graphene-based electrodes, fabricated from mechanically cleaved graphene, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene, or massively produced graphene derivatives from bulk graphite, have been applied in a broad range of applications, such as in light emitting diodes, touch screens, field-effect transistors, solar cells, supercapacitors, batteries, and sensors. In this Review, after a short introduction to the properties and synthetic methods of graphene and its derivatives, we will discuss the importance of graphene-based electrodes, their fabrication techniques, and application areas. PMID:22927209

  8. Concrete lunar base investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.; Senseney, Jonathan A.; Arp, Larry Dean; Lindbergh, Charles

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents results of structural analyses and a preliminary design of a precast, prestressed concrete lunar based subjected to one atmosphere internal pressure. The proposed infrastructure measures 120 ft in diameter and 72 ft in height, providing 33,000 sq ft of work area for scientific and industrial operations. Three loading conditions were considered in the design: (1) during construction; (2) under pressurization; and (3) during an air-leak scenario. A floating foundation, capable of rigid body rotation and translation as the lunar soil beneath it yields, was developed to support the infrastructure and to ensure the air-tightness of the system. Results reveal that it is feasible to use precast, prestressed concrete for construction of large lunar bases on the moon.

  9. Concrete lunar base investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.; Senseny, Jonathan A.; Arp, Larry D.; Lindbergh, Charles

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents results of structural analyses and a preliminary design of a precast, prestressed concrete lunar base subjected to 1-atm internal pressure. The proposed infrastructure measures 120 ft in diameter and 72 ft in height, providing 33,000 sq ft of work area for scientific and industrial operations. Three loading conditions were considered in the design (1) during construction, (2) under pressurization, and (3) during an air-leak scenario. A floating foundation, capable of rigid body rotation and translation as the lunar soil beneath it yields, was developed to support the infrastructure and to ensure the airtightness of the system. Results reveal that it is feasible to use precast, prestressed concrete for construction of large lunar bases on the Moon.

  10. Refrigerator Based on Chemisorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1987-01-01

    Reversible chemical reaction generates pressurized oxygen for cooling. Concept for cryogenic refrigerator based on chemical absorption of oxygen by praseodymium/cerium oxide (PCO) compound. Refrigerator produces cryogenic liquid for cooling infrared sensors. Also used for liquefying air and separating oxygen from nitrogen in air. In chemisorption refrigerator, PCO alternately absorbs and desorbs oxygen depending on whether cooled or heated. One pair of compressors accepts oxygen while others releases it. Compressed oxygen liquefied when precooked and expanded.

  11. Space Based Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James; Denson, Erik; Valencia, Lisa; Birr, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Current space lift launches on the Eastern and Western Range require extensive ground-based real-time tracking, communications and command/control systems. These are expensive to maintain and operate and cover only limited geographical areas. Future spaceports will require new technologies to provide greater launch and landing opportunities, support simultaneous missions, and offer enhanced decision support models and simulation capabilities. These ranges must also have lower costs and reduced complexity while continuing to provide unsurpassed safety to the public, flight crew, personnel, vehicles and facilities. Commercial and government space-based assets for tracking and communications offer many attractive possibilities to help achieve these goals. This paper describes two NASA proof-of-concept projects that seek-to exploit the advantages of a space-based range: Iridium Flight Modem and Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS). Iridium Flight Modem uses the commercial satellite system Iridium for extremely low cost, low rate two-way communications and has been successfully tested on four aircraft flights. A sister project at Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) using the Globalstar system has been tested on one rocket. The basic Iridium Flight Modem system consists of a L1 carrier Coarse/Acquisition (C/A)-Code Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, an on-board computer, and a standard commercial satellite modem and antennas. STARS uses the much higher data rate NASA owned Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), a C/A-Code GPS receiver, an experimental low-power transceiver, custom built command and data handler processor, and digitized flight termination system (FTS) commands. STARS is scheduled to fly on an F-15 at Dryden Flight Research Center in the spring of 2003, with follow-on tests over the next several years.

  12. Space construction data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Construction of large systems in space is a technology requiring the development of construction methods to deploy, assemble, and fabricate the elements comprising such systems. A construction method is comprised of all essential functions and operations and related support equipment necessary to accomplish a specific construction task in a particular way. The data base objective is to provide to the designers of large space systems a compendium of the various space construction methods which could have application to their projects.

  13. Nanovehicles based Bioassay Labels

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong; Lin, Ying-Ying; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-04-01

    In this article, we review recent advances of our group in nanoparticle labels based bioassay. Apoferritin and silica nanoparticles have been used as nanovehicles to load large amount of markers for highly sensitive bioassay. Markers loaded apoferritin, apoferritin-templated metallic phosphate nanoparticles, and poly [guanine] coated silica nanoparticles have been prepared, characterized and used as labels for highly sensitive bioassay of protein and DNA. Dissociation and reconstitution characteristics at different pH as well as the special cavity structure of apoferritin nanovehicle provides a simple and convenient route to prepare versatile nanoparticle labels and avoid the complicated and tedious synthesis process of conventional nanoparticle labels. The optical and electrochemical characteristics of the prepared nanoparticle labels are easily controlled by loading different optical or electrochemical markers. Additionally, the use of apoferritin nanovehicle as template for synthesis of metallic phosphate nanoparticle labels offers fast route to prepare uniform-size metallic nanoparticle labels for electrochemical bioassay and avoids the traditional harsh dissolution conditions to dissolve metallic nanoparticle tags (that is, the strong-acid dissolution of quantum dots and gold nanoparticles) during the stripping analysis step. Silica nanoparticle has also been used as nanovehicle to carry thousands of poly [guanine] tracers, which was used to enhance the oxidation current of Ru(bpy)32+, resulting in enhanced sensitivity of electrochemical immunoassay. The new nanovehicle-based labels have been used for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of DNA and protein biomarkers, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a). The high sensitivity and selectivity make these labels a useful addition to the armory of nanoparticle-based bioassay. The new nanovehicles based labels hold great promise for multiplex protein and DNA detection and for enhancing the sensitivity

  14. Ganglioneuroblastoma of Skull Base

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Balakrishnan; Menon, Shalini S.; Agarwal, Ashish Chandra; Nair, Suraj S.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastic tumours are common in childhood and adrenal glands are the most common site. Head and neck ganglioneuroblastomas are extremely rare and nose is a very uncommon site for a ganglioneuroblastoma. The management of this primitive sympathogonic tumour may vary depending on the age of the patient and stage of the tumour. We present a middle-aged man with a ganglioneuroblastoma of skull base, management of this tumour and a review of literature. PMID:26435974

  15. Granular loess classification based

    SciTech Connect

    Browzin, B.S.

    1985-05-01

    This paper discusses how loess might be identified by two index properties: the granulometric composition and the dry unit weight. These two indices are necessary but not always sufficient for identification of loess. On the basis of analyses of samples from three continents, it was concluded that the 0.01-0.5-mm fraction deserves the name loessial fraction. Based on the loessial fraction concept, a granulometric classification of loess is proposed. A triangular chart is used to classify loess.

  16. Example based lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Reich, Daniel S.; Prince, Jerry; Pham, Dzung

    2014-03-01

    Automatic and accurate detection of white matter lesions is a significant step toward understanding the progression of many diseases, like Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis. Multi-modal MR images are often used to segment T2 white matter lesions that can represent regions of demyelination or ischemia. Some automated lesion segmentation methods describe the lesion intensities using generative models, and then classify the lesions with some combination of heuristics and cost minimization. In contrast, we propose a patch-based method, in which lesions are found using examples from an atlas containing multi-modal MR images and corresponding manual delineations of lesions. Patches from subject MR images are matched to patches from the atlas and lesion memberships are found based on patch similarity weights. We experiment on 43 subjects with MS, whose scans show various levels of lesion-load. We demonstrate significant improvement in Dice coefficient and total lesion volume compared to a state of the art model-based lesion segmentation method, indicating more accurate delineation of lesions.

  17. Incretin-based therapies.

    PubMed

    Neumiller, Joshua J

    2015-01-01

    Incretin-based therapies are steadily gaining clinical popularity, with many more products in the developmental pipeline. Current treatment recommendations incorporate GLP-1 RAs and DPP-4 inhibitors as important agents for consideration in the treatment of T2DM owing to their low hypoglycemia risk, ability to address postprandial hyperglycemia (DPP-4 inhibitors and short-acting GLP-1 RAs), and potential for weight reduction (GLP-1 RAs). These properties may likewise prove advantageous in older adults in whom hypoglycemia is particularly undesirable, although older adults may be more prone to the nausea and vomiting associated with GLP-1 RA therapy. Other safety issues for incretin-based therapies, such as pancreatitis, C-cell hyperplasia, and renal failure, should be considered when choosing an appropriate patient to receive such therapies. Ongoing CV outcome studies will further inform the health care community regarding the CV safety of incretin-based therapies. The availability of both short-acting and long-acting GLP-1 RAs currently allows practitioners to consider individualized blood glucose trends and therapeutic needs when choosing an optimal agent. PMID:25456646

  18. Sulfonated Polyamide Based IPMCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Il-Seok; Bae, Chulsung; Jo, Tae Soo; Truong, Justina; Kim, Sang-Mun; Kim, Kwang J.; Yim, Woosoon; Lee, Joon-Soo

    2009-03-01

    In this study, we introduce a newly developed Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC) family that is manufactured using a novel ionic exchange membrane-a randomly sulfonated fluoropoly(ether amide) (TFIPA-90)-as the base material. The thermal behavior and mechanical properties of the ionic polymer were probed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Electrochemical properties and the actuation performance of the TFIPA-90 based IPMCs were also investigated in this study. The stiffness of the TFIPA polymer was significantly higher than that of Nafion® and much noted at high temperatures (>100 oC). The thermal behavior of the TFIPA polymer also showed better stability than Nafion(R) at high temperatures due to the more rigid chemical structure of the ionomer. As an actuator, a new IPMC prepared from TFIPA-90 showed improved performance with rapid response time to the electric field and a large bending displacement. The TFIPA-based IPMC may be useful for microwave-driven robotic applications.

  19. RNA based evolutionary optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Peter

    1993-12-01

    The notion of an RNA world has been introduced for a prebiotic scenario that is dominated by RNA molecules and their properties, in particular their capabilities to act as templates for reproduction and as catalysts for several cleavage and ligation reactions of polynucleotides and polypeptides. This notion is used here also for simple experimental assays which are well suited to study evolution in the test tube. In molecular evolution experiments fitness is determined in essence by the molecular structures of RNA molecules. Evidence is presented for adaptation to environment in cell-free media. RNA based molecular evolution experiments have led to interesting spin-offs in biotechnology, commonly called ‘applied molecular evolution’, which make use of Darwinian trial-and-error strategies in order to synthesize new pharmacological compounds and other advanced materials on a biological basis. Error-propagation in RNA replication leads to formation of mutant spectra called ‘quasispecies’. An increase in the error rate broadens the mutant spectrum. There exists a sharply defined threshold beyond which heredity breaks down and evolutionary adaptation becomes impossible. Almost all RNA viruses studied so far operate at conditions close to this error threshold. Quasispecies and error thresholds are important for an understanding of RNA virus evolution, and they may help to develop novel antiviral strategies. Evolution of RNA molecules can be studied and interpreted by considering secondary structures. The notion of sequence space introduces a distance between pairs of RNA sequences which is tantamount to counting the minimal number of point mutations required to convert the sequences into each other. The mean sensitivity of RNA secondary structures to mutation depends strongly on the base pairing alphabet: structures from sequences which contain only one base pair (GC or AU are much less stable against mutation than those derived from the natural (AUGC) sequences

  20. Route based forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuurendonk, I. W.; Wokke, M. J. J.

    2009-09-01

    Road surface temperatures can differ several degrees on a very short distance due to local effects. In order to get more insight in the local temperature differences and to develop safer gritting routes, Meteogroup has developed a system for route based temperature forecasting. The standard version of the road model is addressed to forecast road surface temperature and condition for a specific location. This model consists of two parts. First a physical part, based on the energy balance equations. The second part of the model performs a statistical correction on the calculated physical road surface temperature. The road model is able to create a forecast for one specific location. From infrared measurements, we know that large local differences in road surface temperature exist on a route. Differences can be up to 5 degrees Celsius over a distance of several hundreds of meters. Based on those measurements, the idea came up to develop a system that forecasts road surface temperature and condition for an entire route: route based forecasting. The route is split up in sections with equal properties. For each section a temperature and condition will be calculated. The main factors that influence the road surface temperature are modelled in this forecasting system: •The local weather conditions: temperature, dew point temperature, wind, precipitation, weather type, cloudiness. •The sky view: A very sheltered place will receive less radiation during daytime and emit less radiation during nighttime. For a very open spot, the effects are reversed. •The solar view: A road section with trees on the southern side, will receive less solar radiation during daytime than a section with tress on the southern side. The route based forecast shows by means of a clear Google Maps presentation which sections will be slippery at what time of the coming night. The final goal of this type of forecast, is to make dynamical gritting possible: a variable salt amount and a different

  1. Lunar base initiative 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, H. H.

    The return to the Moon is no longer a question of yes or no, but a question of when and how. The first landing of a human being on the lunar surface in 1969 was a purely national effort of the U.S.A. Building a lunar base and operating it in the next century is rather a task for all nations of this planet, even if one nation could do it alone. However, there are several alternatives to carry out such a program and these will and should be debated during the next years on an urgent basis. To do this, one has to take into account not only the historical accomplishments and the present trends of cooperation in space programs, but also recent geopolitical developments as well as the frame of reference established by international law. The case for an International Lunar Base (ILB) has been presented to the International Academy of Astronautics on 11 October 1987 by the IAA Ad Hoc Committee "Return-to-the-Moon". This draft of a position paper was subsequently published in Acta Astronautica Vol. 17, No. 5, (pp. 463-489) with the request of public debate particularly by the members of the Academy. Some 80 Academicians responded to this invitation by the President of the Academy and voiced their opinions on the questions and issues raised by this draft of a position paper. This led to a refinement of the arguments and assumptions made and it is now possible to prepare an improved position paper proposing concrete steps which may lead to an ILB. An issue of this proportion must start with a discussion of goals and objectives to be arranged in some kind of a ranked order. It also has to take note of the limitations existing at any time by the availability of suitable space transportation systems. These will determine the acquisition date and rate of growth of a lunar base. The logistics system will also greatly influence the base characteristics and layout. The availability of heavy lift launch vehicles would simplify the task and allow to concentrate the construction

  2. Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients

    SciTech Connect

    Nohynek, Gerhard J.; Antignac, Eric; Re, Thomas; Toutain, Herve

    2010-03-01

    . However, current evidence suggests that these particles are non-toxic, do not penetrate into or through normal or compromised human skin and, therefore, pose no risk to human health. The increasing use of natural plant ingredients in personal care products raised new safety issues that require novel approaches to their safety evaluation similar to those of plant-derived food ingredients. For example, the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) is a promising tool to assess the safety of substances present at trace levels as well as minor ingredients of plant-derived substances. The potential human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients is increasingly estimated on the basis of in vitro skin penetration data. However, new evidence suggests that the in vitro test may overestimate human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients due to the absence of metabolism in cadaver skin or misclassification of skin residues that, in vivo, remain in the stratum corneum or hair follicle openings, i.e. outside the living skin. Overall, today's safety assessment of PCP and their ingredients is not only based on science, but also on their respective regulatory status as well as other issues, such as the ethics of animal testing. Nevertheless, the record shows that today's PCP are safe and offer multiple benefits to quality of life and health of the consumer. In the interest of all stakeholders, consumers, regulatory bodies and producers, there is an urgent need for an international harmonization on the status and safety requirements of these products and their ingredients.

  3. Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients.

    PubMed

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Antignac, Eric; Re, Thomas; Toutain, Herve

    2010-03-01

    , current evidence suggests that these particles are non-toxic, do not penetrate into or through normal or compromised human skin and, therefore, pose no risk to human health. The increasing use of natural plant ingredients in personal care products raised new safety issues that require novel approaches to their safety evaluation similar to those of plant-derived food ingredients. For example, the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) is a promising tool to assess the safety of substances present at trace levels as well as minor ingredients of plant-derived substances. The potential human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients is increasingly estimated on the basis of in vitro skin penetration data. However, new evidence suggests that the in vitro test may overestimate human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients due to the absence of metabolism in cadaver skin or misclassification of skin residues that, in vivo, remain in the stratum corneum or hair follicle openings, i.e. outside the living skin. Overall, today's safety assessment of PCP and their ingredients is not only based on science, but also on their respective regulatory status as well as other issues, such as the ethics of animal testing. Nevertheless, the record shows that today's PCP are safe and offer multiple benefits to quality of life and health of the consumer. In the interest of all stakeholders, consumers, regulatory bodies and producers, there is an urgent need for an international harmonization on the status and safety requirements of these products and their ingredients. PMID:20005888

  4. DOM Based XSS Detecting Method Based on Phantomjs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ri-Zhan; Ling, Jie; Liu, Yi

    Because malicious code does not appear in html source code, DOM based XSS cannot be detected by traditional methods. By analyzing the causes of DOM based XSS, this paper proposes a detection method of DOM based XSS based on phantomjs. This paper uses function hijacking to detect dangerous operation and achieves a prototype system. Comparing with existing tools shows that the system improves the detection rate and the method is effective to detect DOM based XSS.

  5. Polyolefin-Based Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Je Kyun; Gould, George

    2012-01-01

    An organic polybutadiene (PB) rubberbased aerogel insulation material was developed that will provide superior thermal insulation and inherent radiation protection, exhibiting the flexibility, resiliency, toughness, and durability typical of the parent polymer, yet with the low density and superior insulation properties associated with the aerogels. The rubbery behaviors of the PB rubber-based aerogels are able to overcome the weak and brittle nature of conventional inorganic and organic aerogel insulation materials. Additionally, with higher content of hydrogen in their structure, the PB rubber aerogels will also provide inherently better radiation protection than those of inorganic and carbon aerogels. Since PB rubber aerogels also exhibit good hydrophobicity due to their hydrocarbon molecular structure, they will provide better performance reliability and durability as well as simpler, more economic, and environmentally friendly production over the conventional silica or other inorganic-based aerogels, which require chemical treatment to make them hydrophobic. Inorganic aerogels such as silica aerogels demonstrate many unusual and useful properties. There are several strategies to overcoming the drawbacks associated with the weakness and brittleness of silica aerogels. Development of the flexible fiber-reinforced silica aerogel composite blanket has proven one promising approach, providing a conveniently fielded form factor that is relatively robust toward handling in industrial environments compared to silica aerogel monoliths. However, the flexible silica aerogel composites still have a brittle, dusty character that may be undesirable, or even intolerable, in certain applications. Although the cross-linked organic aerogels such as resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), polyisocyanurate, and cellulose aerogels show very high impact strength, they are also very brittle with little elongation (i.e., less rubbery). Also, silica and carbon aerogels are less efficient

  6. Characteristics Data Base

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, E.D.; Moore, R.S. )

    1990-08-01

    The LWR Serial Numbers Database System (SNDB) contains detailed data about individual, historically discharged LWR spent fuel assemblies. This data includes the reactor where used, the year the assemblies were discharged, the pool where they are currently stored, assembly type, burnup, weight, enrichment, and an estimate of their radiological properties. This information is distributed on floppy disks to users in the nuclear industry to assist in planning for the permanent nuclear waste repository. This document describes the design and development of the SNDB. It provides a complete description of the file structures and an outline of the major code modules. It serves as a reference for a programmer maintaining the system, or for others interested in the technical detail of this database. This is the initial version of the SNDB. It contains historical data through December 31, 1987, obtained from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). EIA obtains the data from the utility companies via the RW-859 Survey Form. It evaluates and standardizes the data and distributes the resulting batch level database as a large file on magnetic tape. The Characteristics Data Base obtains this database for use in the LWR Quantities Data Base. Additionally, the CDB obtains the individual assembly level detail from EIA for use in the SNDB. While the Quantities Data Base retains only the level of detail necessary for its reporting, the SNDB does retain and use the batch level data to assist in the identification of a particular assembly serial number. We expect to update the SNDB on an annual basis, as new historical data becomes available.

  7. Internet Based Remote Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, James

    1999-01-01

    This is the Final Report for the Internet Based Remote Operations Contract, has performed payload operations research support tasks March 1999 through September 1999. These tasks support the GSD goal of developing a secure, inexpensive data, voice, and video mission communications capability between remote payload investigators and the NASA payload operations team in the International Space Station (ISS) era. AZTek has provided feedback from the NASA payload community by utilizing its extensive payload development and operations experience to test and evaluate remote payload operations systems. AZTek has focused on use of the "public Internet" and inexpensive, Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) Internet-based tools that would most benefit "small" (e.g., $2 Million or less) payloads and small developers without permanent remote operations facilities. Such projects have limited budgets to support installation and development of high-speed dedicated communications links and high-end, custom ground support equipment and software. The primary conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) The trend of using Internet technology for "live" collaborative applications such as telescience will continue. The GSD-developed data and voice capabilities continued to work well over the "public" Internet during this period. 2. Transmitting multiple voice streams from a voice-conferencing server to a client PC to be mixed and played on the PC is feasible. 3. There are two classes of voice vendors in the market: - Large traditional phone equipment vendors pursuing integration of PSTN with Internet, and Small Internet startups.The key to selecting a vendor will be to find a company sufficiently large and established to provide a base voice-conferencing software product line for the next several years.

  8. Lunar base siting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staehle, Robert L.; Dowling, Richard

    1991-01-01

    As with any planetary body, the lunar surface is quite heterogeneous. There are widely dispersed sites of particular interest for known and potential resource availability, selenology, and lunar observatories. Discriminating characteristics include solar illumination, view of earth, local topography, engineering properties of the regolith and certain geological features, and local mineralogy and petrology. Space vehicle arrival and departure trajectories constitute a minor consideration. Over time, a variety of base sites will be developed serving different purposes. Resource-driven sites may see the fastest growth during the first decades of lunar development, but selection of the most favorable sites is likely to be driven by suitability for a combination of activities. As on earth, later development may be driven by geographical advantages of surface transportation routes. With the availability of near-constant sunlight for power generation, as well as permanently shadowed areas at cryogenic temperatures, polar sites are attractive because they require substantially less earth-launched mass and lower equipment complexity for an initial permanent base. Discovery of accessible volatiles reservoirs, either in the form of polar permafrost or gas reservoirs at other locations, would dramatically increase the attractiveness of any site from a logistical support and selenological point of view. Amid such speculation, no reliable evidence of such volatiles exist. More reliable evidence exists for areas of certain mineral concentrations, such as ilmenite, which could form a feedstock for some proposed resource extraction schemes. While tentative selections of advantageous base sites are made, new data from lunar polar orbiters and the Galileo polar flybys would be very helpful.

  9. Mars base buildup scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blacic, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    Two Mars surface based build-up scenarios are presented in order to help visualize the mission and to serve as a basis for trade studies. In the first scenario, direct manned landings on the Martian surface occur early in the missions and scientific investigation is the main driver and rationale. In the second senario, Earth development of an infrastructure to exploit the volatile resources of the Martian moons for economic purposes is emphasized. Scientific exploration of the surface is delayed at first in this scenario relative to the first, but once begun develops rapidly, aided by the presence of a permanently manned orbital station.

  10. Teradata data base computer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    To meet the growing demand for information management of large databases, Teradata Corporation has introduced the DBC/1012 data base computer, an IBM plug-compatible system that can handle data volumes up to a trillion bytes. Teradata estimates the DBC/1012 to be one-third the cost of an all-software relational system on a general purpose mainframe. Cost effectiveness, as well as fault tolerance, is achieved by a parallel architecture which processes data asynchronously using multiple independent microprocessors. Another cost saving results from the resources on the host mainframe that become available once the mainframe is relieved of the burden of maintaining the database.

  11. Base drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lange, A.C.

    1995-04-04

    An improved base drive circuit having a level shifter for providing bistable input signals to a pair of non-linear delays. The non-linear delays provide gate control to a corresponding pair of field effect transistors through a corresponding pair of buffer components. The non-linear delays provide delayed turn-on for each of the field effect transistors while an associated pair of transistors shunt the non-linear delays during turn-off of the associated field effect transistor. 2 figures.

  12. Sustainability Base Construction Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewhinney, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Construction of the new Sustainability Base Collaborative support facility, expected to become the highest performing building in the federal government continues at NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, Calif. The new building is designed to achieve a platinum rating under the leadership in Energy and Environment Design (LEED) new construction standards for environmentally sustainable construction developed by the U. S. Green Building Council, Washington, D. C. When completed by the end of 2011, the $20.6 million building will feature near zero net energy consumption, use 90 percent less potable water than conventionally build buildings of equivalent size, and will result in reduced building maintenance costs.

  13. Mars base buildup scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Blacic, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Two surface base build-up scenarios are presented in order to help visualize the mission and to serve as a basis for trade studies. In the first scenario, direct manned landings on the Martian surface occur early in the missions and scientific investigation is the main driver and rationale. In the second scenario, early development of an infrastructure to exploite the volatile resources of the Martian moons for economic purposes is emphasized. Scientific exploration of the surface is delayed at first, but once begun develops rapidly aided by the presence of a permanently manned orbital station.

  14. Synchrotron based proton drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou

    2002-09-19

    Proton drivers are the proton sources that produce intense short proton bunches. They have a wide range of applications. This paper discusses the proton drivers based on high-intensity proton synchrotrons. It gives a review of the high-intensity proton sources over the world and a brief report on recent developments in this field in the U.S. high-energy physics (HEP) community. The Fermilab Proton Driver is used as a case study for a number of challenging technical design issues.

  15. TUNGSTEN BASE ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schell, D.H.; Sheinberg, H.

    1959-12-15

    A high-density quaternary tungsten-base alloy having high mechanical strength and good machinability composed of about 2 wt.% Ni, 3 wt.% Cu, 5 wt.% Pb, and 90wt.% W is described. This alloy can be formed by the powder metallurgy technique of hot pressing in a graphite die without causing a reaction between charge and the die and without formation of a carbide case on the final compact, thereby enabling re-use of the graphite die. The alloy is formable at hot- pressing temperatures of from about 1200 to about 1350 deg C. In addition, there is little component shrinkage, thereby eliminating the necessity of subsequent extensive surface machining.

  16. Covering all the bases

    SciTech Connect

    Reimers, R.F.; Gross, M.P.

    1996-04-01

    The use of silent discharge plasma technology (SDPT) to treat volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at McClellan Air Force Base during a two-month test is described. SDPT was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and licensed to High Mesa Technologies. SDPT was used at McClellan to treat off-gases from air strippers, vapor-extraction systems, and incinerators at flow rates up to 10.4 scfm; destruction and removal efficiencies up to 99.4% were achieved. SDPT can also treat organic liquids by adding a packaged-bed reactor to the first stage system.

  17. Internet-Based Communication

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2015-01-01

    Google the question, “How is the Internet changing the way we communicate?,” and you will find no shortage of opinions, or fears, about the Internet altering the way we communicate. Although the Internet is not necessarily making communication briefer (neither is the Internet making communication less formal), the Internet is manifesting our preference for writing over speaking. I propose that our preference for communicating through Internet-based text derives from a fundamental feature of writing: In contrast to speech, which is most often synchronous, text is most often asynchronous. PMID:26330702

  18. Space Base One

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snead, James M.

    Space Base One (SB1) is a 'good enough' (rather than 'best') performance engineering-oriented, permanently manned space station design employing Space Shuttle External Tank manufacturing capabilities, Space Shuttle-derived launch systems such as the Shuttle-C, and subsystem technologies under development for Space Station Freedom. The structure of SB1 is geometrically simple in arrangement, consisting of paired spokes radiating from a central hub. Attention is given to the assembly sequence for an initial operational capability phase of SB1 development.

  19. Fundamental research data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A fundamental research data base was created on a single 9-track 1600 BPI tape containing ground truth, image, and Badhwar profile feature data for 17 North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota agricultural sites. Each site is 5x6 nm in area. Image data has been provided for a minimum of four acquisition dates for each site. All four images have been registered to one another. A list of the order of the files on tape and the dates of acquisition is provided.

  20. NICKEL-BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Inouye, H.; Manly, W.D.; Roche, T.K.

    1960-01-19

    A nickel-base alloy was developed which is particularly useful for the containment of molten fluoride salts in reactors. The alloy is resistant to both salt corrosion and oxidation and may be used at temperatures as high as 1800 deg F. Basically, the alloy consists of 15 to 22 wt.% molybdenum, a small amount of carbon, and 6 to 8 wt.% chromium, the balance being nickel. Up to 4 wt.% of tungsten, tantalum, vanadium, or niobium may be added to strengthen the alloy.

  1. Accelerator-based BNCT.

    PubMed

    Kreiner, A J; Baldo, M; Bergueiro, J R; Cartelli, D; Castell, W; Thatar Vento, V; Gomez Asoia, J; Mercuri, D; Padulo, J; Suarez Sandin, J C; Erhardt, J; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Igarzabal, M; Minsky, D M; Herrera, M S; Capoulat, M E; Gonzalez, S J; del Grosso, M F; Gagetti, L; Suarez Anzorena, M; Gun, M; Carranza, O

    2014-06-01

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the (9)Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases. PMID:24365468

  2. Base drive circuit

    DOEpatents

    Lange, Arnold C.

    1995-01-01

    An improved base drive circuit (10) having a level shifter (24) for providing bistable input signals to a pair of non-linear delays (30, 32). The non-linear delays (30, 32) provide gate control to a corresponding pair of field effect transistors (100, 106) through a corresponding pair of buffer components (88, 94). The non-linear delays (30, 32) provide delayed turn-on for each of the field effect transistors (100, 106) while an associated pair of transistors (72, 80) shunt the non-linear delays (30, 32) during turn-off of the associated field effect transistor (100, 106).

  3. Potential-Based Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-based achievement goals use one's own intrapersonal trajectory as a standard of evaluation, and this intrapersonal trajectory may be grounded in one's past (past-based goals) or one's future potential (potential-based goals). Potential-based goals have been overlooked in the literature to date. Aims: The primary aim of the present…

  4. Knowledge based programming at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tulley, J. H., Jr.; Delaune, C. I.

    1986-01-01

    Various KSC knowledge-based systems projects are discussed. The objectives of the knowledge-based automatic test equipment and Shuttle connector analysis network projects are described. It is observed that knowledge-based programs must handle factual and expert knowledge; the characteristics of these two types of knowledge are examined. Applications for the knowledge-based programming technique are considered.

  5. Model-Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, Harold P.

    2007-01-01

    Engineers, who design systems using text specification documents, focus their work upon the completed system to meet Performance, time and budget goals. Consistency and integrity is difficult to maintain within text documents for a single complex system and more difficult to maintain as several systems are combined into higher-level systems, are maintained over decades, and evolve technically and in performance through updates. This system design approach frequently results in major changes during the system integration and test phase, and in time and budget overruns. Engineers who build system specification documents within a model-based systems environment go a step further and aggregate all of the data. They interrelate all of the data to insure consistency and integrity. After the model is constructed, the various system specification documents are prepared, all from the same database. The consistency and integrity of the model is assured, therefore the consistency and integrity of the various specification documents is insured. This article attempts to define model-based systems relative to such an environment. The intent is to expose the complexity of the enabling problem by outlining what is needed, why it is needed and how needs are being addressed by international standards writing teams.

  6. SPACE BASED INTERCEPTOR SCALING

    SciTech Connect

    G. CANAVAN

    2001-02-01

    Space Based Interceptor (SBI) have ranges that are adequate to address rogue ICBMs. They are not overly sensitive to 30-60 s delay times. Current technologies would support boost phase intercept with about 150 interceptors. Higher acceleration and velocity could reduce than number by about a factor of 3 at the cost of heavier and more expensive Kinetic Kill Vehicles (KKVs). 6g SBI would reduce optimal constellation costs by about 35%; 8g SBI would reduce them another 20%. Interceptor ranges fall rapidly with theater missile range. Constellations increase significantly for ranges under 3,000 km, even with advanced interceptor technology. For distributed launches, these estimates recover earlier strategic scalings, which demonstrate the improved absentee ratio for larger or multiple launch areas. Constellations increase with the number of missiles and the number of interceptors launched at each. The economic estimates above suggest that two SBI per missile with a modest midcourse underlay is appropriate. The SBI KKV technology would appear to be common for space- and surface-based boost phase systems, and could have synergisms with improved midcourse intercept and discrimination systems. While advanced technology could be helpful in reducing costs, particularly for short range theater missiles, current technology appears adequate for pressing rogue ICBM, accidental, and unauthorized launches.

  7. DVD Based Electronic Pulser

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Scott J.; Pratt, Rick M.; Hughes, Michael A.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Pitts, W. K.; Robinson, Eric E.

    2005-10-01

    This paper describes the design, construction, and testing of a DVD based electronic pulser system (DVDEPS). Such a device is used to generate pulse streams for simulation of both gamma and neutron detector systems. The DVDEPS reproduces a random pulse stream of a full HPGe spectrum as well as a digital pulse stream representing the output of a neutron multiplicity detector. The exchangeable DVD media contains over an hour of data for both detector systems and can contain an arbitrary gamma spectrum and neutron pulse stream. The data is written to the DVD using a desktop computer program from either actual or simulated spectra. The targeted use of the DVDEPS is authentication or validation of monitoring equipment for non-proliferation purposes, but it is also of general use whenever a complex data stream is required. The DVD based pulser combines the storage capacity and simplicity of DVD technology with commonly available electronic components to build a relatively inexpensive yet highly capable testing instrument.

  8. DVD Based Electronic Pulser

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Scott J.; Pratt, Rick M.; Hughes, Michael A.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Pitts, W. K.; Robinson, Eric

    2006-08-01

    This article describes the design, construction, and testing of a digital versatile disc (DVD) based electronic pulser system (DVDEPS). Such a device is used to generate pulse streams for simulation of both gamma and neutron detector systems. The DVDEPS reproduces a random pulse stream of a full high purity germanium (HPGe) spectrum as well as a digital pulse stream representing the output of a neutron multiplicity detector. The exchangeable DVD media contains over an hour of data for both detector systems and can contain an arbitrary gamma spectrum and neutron pulse stream. The data is written to the DVD using a desktop computer program from either real or simulated spectra. The targeted use of the DVDEPS is authentication or validation of monitoring equipment for non-proliferation purposes, but it is also of general use in a variety of sitiuations. The DVD based pulser combines the storage capacity and simplicity of DVD technology with commonly available electronic components to build a relatively inexpensive yet highly capable testing instrument.

  9. Moon base reactor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  10. Skyline based terrain matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Lance A.

    1990-01-01

    Skyline-based terrain matching, a new method for locating the vantage point of stereo camera or laser range-finding measurements on a global map previously prepared by satellite or aerial mapping is described. The orientation of the vantage is assumed known, but its translational parameters are determined by the algorithm. Skylines, or occluding contours, can be extracted from the sensory measurements taken by an autonomous vehicle. They can also be modeled from the global map, given a vantage estimate from which to start. The two sets of skylines, represented in cylindrical coordinates about either the true or the estimated vantage, are employed as 'features' or reference objects common to both sources of information. The terrain matching problem is formulated in terms of finding a translation between the respective representations of the skylines, by approximating the two sets of skylines as identical features (curves) on the actual terrain. The search for this translation is based on selecting the longest of the minimum-distance vectors between corresponding curves from the two sets of skylines. In successive iterations of the algorithm, the approximation that the two sets of curves are identical becomes more accurate, and the vantage estimate continues to improve. The algorithm was implemented and evaluated on a simulated terrain. Illustrations and examples are included.

  11. Microlaser-based displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergstedt, Robert; Fink, Charles G.; Flint, Graham W.; Hargis, David E.; Peppler, Philipp W.

    1997-07-01

    Laser Power Corporation has developed a new type of projection display, based upon microlaser technology and a novel scan architecture, which provides the foundation for bright, extremely high resolution images. A review of projection technologies is presented along with the limitations of each and the difficulties they experience in trying to generate high resolution imagery. The design of the microlaser based projector is discussed along with the advantage of this technology. High power red, green, and blue microlasers have been designed and developed specifically for use in projection displays. These sources, in combination with high resolution, high contrast modulator, produce a 24 bit color gamut, capable of supporting the full range of real world colors. The new scan architecture, which reduces the modulation rate and scan speeds required, is described. This scan architecture, along with the inherent brightness of the laser provides the fundamentals necessary to produce a 5120 by 4096 resolution display. The brightness and color uniformity of the display is excellent, allowing for tiling of the displays with far fewer artifacts than those in a traditionally tiled display. Applications for the display include simulators, command and control centers, and electronic cinema.

  12. Nanotechnology-Based Cosmeceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Lohani, Alka; Verma, Anurag; Joshi, Himanshi; Yadav, Niti; Karki, Neha

    2014-01-01

    Cosmeceuticals are the fastest growing segment of the personal care industry, and a number of topical cosmeceutical treatments for conditions such as photoaging, hyperpigmentation, wrinkles, and hair damage have come into widespread use. In the cosmeceutical arena nanotechnology has played an important role. Using new techniques to manipulate matter at an atomic or molecular level, they have been at the root of numerous innovations, opening up new perspectives for the future of cosmeceutical industry. Nanotechnology-based cosmeceuticals offer the advantage of diversity in products, and increased bioavailability of active ingredients and increase the aesthetic appeal of cosmeceutical products with prolonged effects. However increased use of nanotechnology in cosmeceuticals has raised concern about the possible penetration of nanoparticles through the skin and potential hazards to the human health. This review outlines the different nanoparticles used in various classes of cosmeceuticals, nanotechnology-based cosmeceutical products present in the market, and the potential risk caused by nanoparticles on exposure and recent regulatory steps taken to overcome them. PMID:24963412

  13. Ground based infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic instrumentation has been developed for ground-based measurements of astrophysical objects in the intermediate infrared. A conventional Michelson interferometer is limited for astronomical applications in the intermediate infrared by quantum noise fluctuations in the radiation form the source and/or background incident on the detector, and the multiplex advantage is no longer available. One feasible approach to recovering the multiplex advantage is post-dispersion. The infrared signal after passing through telescope and interferometer, is dispersed by a low resolution grating spectrometer onto an array of detectors. The feasibility of the post-dispersion system has been demonstrated with observations of astrophysical objects in the 5 and 10 micrometer atmospheric windows from ground-based telescopes. During FY87/88 the post-disperser was used at the Kitt Peak 4-meter telescope and McMath telescope with facility Fourier transform spectrometers. Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, and Venus were observed. On Jupiter, the resolution at 12 micrometer was 0.01/cm, considerably higher than had been acheived previously. The spectrum contains Jovian ethane and acetylene emission. Construction was begun on the large cryogenic grating spectrometer.

  14. Model Based Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, Sidney E.

    2010-01-01

    In September 2007, the Engineering Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) created the Design System Focus Team (DSFT). MSFC was responsible for the in-house design and development of the Ares 1 Upper Stage and the Engineering Directorate was preparing to deploy a new electronic Configuration Management and Data Management System with the Design Data Management System (DDMS) based upon a Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Product Data Management (PDM) System. The DSFT was to establish standardized CAD practices and a new data life cycle for design data. Of special interest here, the design teams were to implement Model Based Definition (MBD) in support of the Upper Stage manufacturing contract. It is noted that this MBD does use partially dimensioned drawings for auxiliary information to the model. The design data lifecycle implemented several new release states to be used prior to formal release that allowed the models to move through a flow of progressive maturity. The DSFT identified some 17 Lessons Learned as outcomes of the standards development, pathfinder deployments and initial application to the Upper Stage design completion. Some of the high value examples are reviewed.

  15. The effect of Li doping on the nonlinear optical properties of [2.2]paracyclophane.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gang; Duan, Xi-Xin; Liu, Chun-Guang

    2016-01-01

    The similar molecules [2.2]paracyclophane (22PCP) and 1,1,2,2,9,9,10,10-octafluoro[2.2]paracyclophane (8F22PCP) have both generated considerable synthetic interest since they were first prepared. In this work, the nonlinear optical properties of 22PCP, 8F22PCP, and the related Li-doped systems 22PCP-Li and 8F22PCP-Li (which have a Li atom above 22PCP and 8F22PCP, respectively) were investigated. An analysis of natural bond orbital charges showed that there is greater charge transfer from the Li atom to the benzene rings in 8F22PCP-Li than in 22PCP-Li. The variation in the calculated nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS) value as a function of the distance from the lower benzene ring towards the upper benzene ring was found to be W-shaped for both 22PCP and 22PCP-Li. Moreover, whereas all of the NICS values of 22PCP and 22PCP-Li were markedly negative, all of the NICS values of 8F22PCP and 8F22PCP-Li were either positive or only moderately negative. Calculations of the electro-optical properties of these systems showed that the first hyperpolarizability of 22PCP-Li was noticeably larger than that of 8F22PCP-Li. According to the two-level model, the larger first hyperpolarizability of 22PCP-Li is due to its smaller transition energy. PMID:26733484

  16. Seasonal dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca variations driven by cave ventilation: Implications for and modeling of speleothem paleoclimate records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Corinne I.; Banner, Jay L.; Musgrove, MaryLynn

    2011-06-01

    A 4-year study in a central Texas cave quantifies multiple mechanisms that control dripwater composition and how these mechanisms vary at different drip sites. We monitored cave-air compositions, in situ calcite growth, dripwater composition and drip rate every 4-6 weeks. Three groups of drip sites are delineated (Groups 1-3) based on geochemical variations in dripwater composition. Quantitative modeling of mineral-solution reactions within the host carbonate rock and cave environments is used to identify mechanisms that can account for variations in dripwater compositions. The covariation of Mg/Ca (and Sr/Ca) and Sr isotopes is key in delineating whether Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca variations are dictated by water-rock interaction (i.e., calcite or dolomite recrystallization) or prior calcite precipitation (PCP). Group 1 dripwater compositions reflects a narrow range of the extent of water-rock interaction followed by varying amounts of prior calcite precipitation (PCP). Group 2 dripwater compositions are controlled by varying amounts of water-rock interaction with little to no PCP influence. Group 3 dripwater compositions are dictated by variable extents of both water-rock interaction and PCP. Group 1 drip sites show seasonal variations in dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca, whereas the other drip sites do not. In contrast to the findings of most previous dripwater Mg/Ca-Sr/Ca studies, these seasonal variations (at Group 1 drip sites) are independent of changes in water flux (i.e., rainfall and/or drip rate), and instead significantly correlate with changes in cave-air CO 2 concentrations. These results are consistent with lower cave-air CO 2, related to cool season ventilation of the cave atmosphere, enhancing calcite precipitation and leading to dripwater geochemical evolution via PCP. Group 1 dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca seasonality and evidence for PCP as a mechanism that can account for that seasonality, have two implications for many other regions where seasonal ventilation of

  17. International data base.

    PubMed

    Quick, S

    1984-12-01

    The concept of the International Data Base (IDB) grew from recognition of the need for timely, high quality information on the demographic, social and economic characteristics of foreign countries. During the past 2 decades, the Bureau of the Census, US Department of Commerce, has been compiling, analyzing and evaluating international demographic data and, to a lesser extent, socioeconomic data with particular emphasis on developing countries. In 1979, at the request of the Office of Women in Development at the Agency for International Development, a computerized data base of demographic and socioeconomic statistics that could be used to assess the status of women in developing countries was established. The major categories of data now being included in IDB are as follows: population by age and sex; vital rates, infant mortality and life tables; health and nutrition; fertility and child survivorship; migration; provinces and cities; family planning; ethnic, religious and language groups; literacy and education; labor force, employment, income and gross national product; and household size and housing indicators. The Bureau, through its Center for International Reserch (CIR), developed a computerized central depository of demographic, social and economic data for all countries of the world to serve the needs of the public and private sectors. The initial emphasis was on demographic and social data, since these subject areas are those for which a vast amount of data has already been compiled, analyzed and evaluated by CIR staff. However, meetings are being planned with users to determine the additional types of data that are desired, particularly in the economic and health-related areas. IDB includes data for all countries of the world, by urban and rural residence. The time coverage is from 1950 to the present. Data sources include: population and industrial censuses and surveys, administrative records, population registers, statistical publications, research

  18. Space-Based Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Space-Based Range (SBR), previously known as Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS), is a multicenter NASA proof-of-concept project to determine if space-based communications using NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) can support the Range Safety functions of acquiring tracking data and generating flight termination signals, while also providing broadband Range User data such as voice, video, and vehicle/payload data. There was a successful test of the Range Safety system at Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on December 20, 2005, on a two-stage Terrier-Orion spin-stabilized sounding rocket. SBR transmitted GPS tracking data and maintained links with two TDRSS satellites simultaneously during the 10-min flight. The payload section deployed a parachute, landed in the Atlantic Ocean about 90 miles downrange from the launch site, and was successfully recovered. During the Terrier-Orion tests flights, more than 99 percent of all forward commands and more than 95 percent of all return frames were successfully received and processed. The time latency necessary for a command to travel from WFF over landlines to White Sands Complex and then to the vehicle via TDRSS, be processed onboard, and then be sent back to WFF was between 1.0 s and 1.1 s. The forward-link margins for TDRS-10 (TDRS East [TDE]) were 11 dB to 12 dB plus or minus 2 dB, and for TDRS-4 (TDRS Spare [TDS]) were 9 dB to 10 dB plus or minus 1.5 dB. The return-link margins for both TDE and TDS were 6 dB to 8 dB plus or minus 3 dB. There were 11 flights on an F-15B at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) between November 2006 and February 2007. The Range User system tested a 184-element TDRSS Ku-band (15 GHz) phased-array antenna with data rates of 5 Mbps and 10 Mbps. This data was a combination of black-and-white cockpit video, Range Safety tracking and transceiver data, and aircraft and antenna controller data streams. IP data formatting was used.

  19. Evidence-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Sackett, D L

    1997-02-01

    Evidence-based medicine, whose philosophical origins extend back to mid-19th century Paris and earlier, is the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. The practice of evidence-based medicine means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence from systematic research. By individual clinical expertise we mean the proficiency and judgment that we individual clinicians acquire through clinical experience and clinical practice. Increased expertise is reflected in many ways, but especially in more effective and efficient diagnosis and in the more thoughtful identification and compassionate use of individual patients' predicaments, rights, and preferences in making clinical decisions about their care. By best available external clinical evidence we mean clinically relevant research, often from the basic sciences of medicine, but especially from patient centered clinical research into the accuracy and precision of diagnostic tests (including the clinical examination), the power of prognostic markers, and the efficacy and safety of therapeutic, rehabilitative, and preventive regimens. External clinical evidence both invalidates previously accepted diagnostic tests and treatment and replaces them with new ones that are more powerful, more accurate, more efficacious, and safer. Good doctors use both individual clinical expertise and the best available external evidence, and neither alone is enough. Without clinical expertise, practice risks becoming tyrannized by external evidence, for even excellent external evidence may be inapplicable to or inappropriate for an individual patient. Without current best external evidence, practice risks becoming rapidly out of date, to the detriment of patients. The practice of evidence-based medicine is a process of life-long, self-directed learning in which caring for our own patients creates the need for

  20. MS Based Metabonomics

    SciTech Connect

    Want, Elizabeth J.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2010-03-01

    Metabonomics is the latest and least mature of the systems biology triad, which also includes genomics and proteomics, and has its origins in the early orthomolecular medicine work pioneered by Linus Pauling and Arthur Robinson. It was defined by Nicholson and colleagues in 1999 as the quantitative measurement of perturbations in the metabolite complement of an integrated biological system in response to internal or external stimuli, and is often used today to describe many non-global types of metabolite analyses. Applications of metabonomics are extensive and include toxicology, nutrition, pharmaceutical research and development, physiological monitoring and disease diagnosis. For example, blood samples from millions of neonates are tested routinely by mass spectrometry (MS) as a diagnostic tool for inborn errors of metabolism. The metabonome encompasses a wide range of structurally diverse metabolites; therefore, no single analytical platform will be sufficient. Specialized sample preparation and detection techniques are required, and advances in NMR and MS technologies have led to enhanced metabonome coverage, which in turn demands improved data analysis approaches. The role of MS in metabonomics is still evolving as instrumentation and software becomes more sophisticated and as researchers realize the strengths and limitations of current technology. MS offers a wide dynamic range, high sensitivity, and reproducible, quantitative analysis. These attributes are essential for addressing the challenges of metabonomics, as the range of metabolite concentrations easily exceeds nine orders of magnitude in biofluids, and the diversity of molecular species ranges from simple amino and organic acids to lipids and complex carbohydrates. Additional challenges arise in generating a comprehensive metabolite profile, downstream data processing and analysis, and structural characterization of important metabolites. A typical workflow of MS-based metabonomics is shown in Figure

  1. Thermoset-Based Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhembe, Pele

    2002-03-01

    The field of polymer-Clay nanocomposites has attracted considerable attention as a method of enhancing polymer properties and extending their utility, by using molecular or nanoscale reinforcements rather than conventional particulate field microcomposites. Layered silicates dispersed as a reinforcing phase in a polymer matrix are one of the most important forms of such inorganic-organic nanocomposites, making them the subject of intense research. While a significant amount of work has been published on thermoplastic based nanocomposites, however, comparatively few studies of thermoset-based systems have been published. Thus, our research is centered on elucidating the structure-property relationships of thermoset-based nanocomposites. We have developed a series of layered silicate/thermoset nanocomposites using several thermoset polymers (epoxies(di and tetrafunctional), cyanate esters and PMR-15 polyimide). Wide angle X-ray diffraction suggests that intercalated morphologies were obtained for the cases studied. The glass transition temperature has been found to vary as the organic modifier and its amount is varied. For difunctional epoxy samples dispersed with Cloisite 30B, a commercially available nanoclay, the Tg increased by twenty degrees upon addition of as little as 2viscoelastic behavior of these materials has also been investigated using dynamic mechanical analysis. A modest increase in the glassy storage modulus was obtained as the amount of nanoclay increased, with a significant increase in the plateau modulus. Additionally, master curves have been generated using time-temperature superposition, allowing further analysis of the effect of the nanoclay on the relaxation behavior. Activation energies calculated from Arrhenius plots increase as the clay contents increase. These effects will be discussed in the presentation. The fracture toughness increased upon addition of nanoclays while the CTE decreased. Interestingly, the onset of decomposition

  2. Orbiter based construction equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    Many orbiter based activities need equipment to hold a payload steady while it is being worked on. This work may be construction, updating, repair, services, check out, or refueling operations in preparation for return to Earth. The Handling and Positioning Aid (HPA) is intended for use as general purpose equipment. The HPA provides a wide choice of work station positions, both immediately above the orbiter cargo bay and beyond. It can act in a primary docking role and, if required, can assist actively in the berthing process. From an analysis of ten reference missions, it was determined that two types of HPA mobility are needed; a tilt table, which simply swings out of the cargo bay, pivoting about an athwartships y axis, and an articulated arm. Illustration of the aid are provided.

  3. Integrated data base program

    SciTech Connect

    Notz, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    The IDB Program provides direct support to the DOE Nuclear Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Programs and their lead sites and support contractors by providing and maintaining a current, integrated data base of spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories and projections. All major waste types (HLW, TRU, and LLW) and sources (government, commerical fuel cycle, and I/I) are included. A major data compilation was issued in September, 1981: Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste Inventories and Projections as of December 31, 1980, DOE/NE-0017. This report includes chapters on Spent Fuel, HLW, TRU Waste, LLW, Remedial Action Waste, Active Uranium Mill Tailings, and Airborne Waste, plus Appendices with more detailed data in selected areas such as isotopics, radioactivity, thermal power, projections, and land usage. The LLW sections include volumes, radioactivity, thermal power, current inventories, projected inventories and characteristics, source terms, land requirements, and a breakdown in terms of government/commercial and defense/fuel cycle/I and I.

  4. Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Brent A

    2008-01-01

    Endoscopic skull base surgery has undergone rapid advancement in the past decade moving from pituitary surgery to suprasellar lesions and now to a myriad of lesions extending from the cribriform plate to C2 and laterally out to the infratemporal fossa and petrous apex. Evolution of several technological advances as well as advances in understanding of endoscopic anatomy and the development of surgical techniques both in resection and reconstruction have fostered this capability. Management of benign disease via endoscopic methods is largely accepted now but more data is needed before the controversy on the role of endoscopic management of malignant disease is decided. Continued advances in surgical technique, navigation systems, endoscopic imaging technology, and robotics assure continued brisk evolution in this expanding field. PMID:19434274

  5. Quantile-based classifiers

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, C.; Viroli, C.

    2016-01-01

    Classification with small samples of high-dimensional data is important in many application areas. Quantile classifiers are distance-based classifiers that require a single parameter, regardless of the dimension, and classify observations according to a sum of weighted componentwise distances of the components of an observation to the within-class quantiles. An optimal percentage for the quantiles can be chosen by minimizing the misclassification error in the training sample. It is shown that this choice is consistent for the classification rule with the asymptotically optimal quantile and that under some assumptions, as the number of variables goes to infinity, the probability of correct classification converges to unity. The effect of skewness of the distributions of the predictor variables is discussed. The optimal quantile classifier gives low misclassification rates in a comprehensive simulation study and in a real-data application. PMID:27279668

  6. Watershed based intelligent scissors.

    PubMed

    Wieclawek, W; Pietka, E

    2015-07-01

    Watershed based modification of intelligent scissors has been developed. This approach requires a preprocessing phase with anisotropic diffusion to reduce subtle edges. Then, the watershed transform enhances the corridors. Finally, a roaming procedure, developed in this study, delineates the edge selected by a user. Due to a very restrictive set of pixels, subjected to the analysis, this approach significantly reduces the computational complexity. Moreover, the accuracy of the algorithm performance makes often one click point to be sufficient for one edge delineation. The method has been evaluated on structures as different in shape and appearance as the retina layers in OCT exams, chest and abdomen in CT and knee in MR studies. The accuracy is comparable with the traditional Life-Wire approach, whereas the analysis time decreases due to the reduction of the user interaction and number of pixels processed by the method. PMID:25698546

  7. Covariant mutually unbiased bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Claudio; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    The connection between maximal sets of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) in a prime-power dimensional Hilbert space and finite phase-space geometries is well known. In this article, we classify MUBs according to their degree of covariance with respect to the natural symmetries of a finite phase-space, which are the group of its affine symplectic transformations. We prove that there exist maximal sets of MUBs that are covariant with respect to the full group only in odd prime-power dimensional spaces, and in this case, their equivalence class is actually unique. Despite this limitation, we show that in dimension 2r covariance can still be achieved by restricting to proper subgroups of the symplectic group, that constitute the finite analogues of the oscillator group. For these subgroups, we explicitly construct the unitary operators yielding the covariance.

  8. ODP based UPT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berre, A. J.; Handegard, T.; Loevnes, K.; Skjellaug, B.; Aagedal, J. O.

    1994-01-01

    The report documents the experiments with object oriented modelling of Universal Personal Telecommunication (UPT) in a telecommunication environment based on the basic principles of open distributed processing (ODP). Through the object-oriented analysis and design technique Object Modelling Technique (OMT) the service is modelled as a collection of software objects distributed across multiple network nodes. A software platform provides the mechanisms for application objects to interact. The platform builds on the basic facilities in the native computing and communication environments, but hides the heterogeneity of these environments and provides distribution transparency at the application programmer's interface. The report closes with some thoughts about applying the paradigm of ODP to intelligent networks (IN), and the experience with OMT as a modelling technique for real time distributed applications.

  9. Strengths-based nursing.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Laurie N

    2014-08-01

    Strengths-based nursing (SBN) is an approach to care in which eight core values guide nursing action, thereby promoting empowerment, self-efficacy, and hope. In caring for patients and families, the nurse focuses on their inner and outer strengths-that is, on what patients and families do that best helps them deal with problems and minimize deficits. Across all levels of care, from the primary care of healthy patients to the critical care of patients who are unconscious, SBN reaffirms nursing's goals of promoting health, facilitating healing, and alleviating suffering by creating environments that work with and bolster patients' capacities for health and innate mechanisms of healing. In doing so, SBN complements medical care, provides a language that communicates nursing's contribution to patient and family health and healing, and empowers the patient and family to gain greater control over their health and healing. PMID:25036663

  10. Mucin-Based Vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Jonathan P.; MacMillan, Derek

    Mucins are heavily O-glycosylated cell surface and secreted glycoproteins . In addition to orchestrating cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interactions in healthy organisms mucins are also the major carriers of altered glycosylation in carcinomas. Tumor-associated antigens displayed by cancer cells comprise oligosaccharide and glycopeptide motifs not encountered in the same locale or at the same frequency in healthy cells, and potentially confer a selective advantage to the tumor. Frequently tumor-associated antigens are under-glycosylated and prematurely sialylated, and it is these relatively simple saccharide and glycopeptide structures that have been targeted to serve as drug candidates in most cases. A major goal is to assemble glycopeptide vaccine candidates based on partial mucin sequences and displaying tumor-associated antigens that can mount a potent immunological tumor-specific response when, in reality, the tumor has already coerced the immune system into a state of co-existence.

  11. Institutionally based videoconferencing.

    PubMed

    Caudill, Robert Lee; Sager, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care via video-teleconferencing (VTC) technology is thought to have reached a tipping point. As a medical speciality with relatively few material or technical requirements for service delivery, psychiatry has been one of the earliest to embrace the possibility of providing evaluations and treatment at a distance. Such technical infrastructure as is necessary can often be found in the institutions already in existence. It was natural therefore that institutionally based telepsychiatry would lay the foundation for the development of the field. In this article we review the history and development of institutional VTC in a wide variety of clinically supervised settings such as hospitals, outpatient clinics, and forensic settings. We cite evidence supporting institutionally sponsored use and expand on key takeaways for the development and expansion of videoconferencing in these settings. We also speculate on the future direction and development of psychiatric care provided by these arrangements. PMID:26507786

  12. Sensory bases of navigation.

    PubMed

    Gould, J L

    1998-10-01

    Navigating animals need to know both the bearing of their goal (the 'map' step), and how to determine that direction (the 'compass' step). Compasses are typically arranged in hierarchies, with magnetic backup as a last resort when celestial information is unavailable. Magnetic information is often essential to calibrating celestial cues, though, and repeated recalibration between celestial and magnetic compasses is important in many species. Most magnetic compasses are based on magnetite crystals, but others make use of induction or paramagnetic interactions between short-wavelength light and visual pigments. Though odors may be used in some cases, most if not all long-range maps probably depend on magnetite. Magnetitebased map senses are used to measure only latitude in some species, but provide the distance and direction of the goal in others. PMID:9778524

  13. Liaison based assembly design

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, A.; Kholwadwala, D.; Wilson, R.H.

    1996-12-01

    Liaison Based Assembly Design extends the current information infrastructure to support design in terms of kinematic relationships between parts, or liaisons. These liaisons capture information regarding contact, degrees-of-freedom constraints and containment relationships between parts in an assembly. The project involved defining a useful collection of liaison representations, investigating their properties, and providing for maximum use of the data in downstream applications. We tested our ideas by implementing a prototype system involving extensions to Pro/Engineer and the Archimedes assembly planner. With an expanded product model, the design system is more able to capture design intent. When a product update is attempted, increased knowledge availability improves our ability to understand the effect of design changes. Manufacturing and analysis disciplines benefit from having liaison information available, so less time is wasted arguing over incomplete design specifications and our enterprise can be more completely integrated.

  14. Information-based clustering

    PubMed Central

    Slonim, Noam; Atwal, Gurinder Singh; Tkačik, Gašper; Bialek, William

    2005-01-01

    In an age of increasingly large data sets, investigators in many different disciplines have turned to clustering as a tool for data analysis and exploration. Existing clustering methods, however, typically depend on several nontrivial assumptions about the structure of data. Here, we reformulate the clustering problem from an information theoretic perspective that avoids many of these assumptions. In particular, our formulation obviates the need for defining a cluster “prototype,” does not require an a priori similarity metric, is invariant to changes in the representation of the data, and naturally captures nonlinear relations. We apply this approach to different domains and find that it consistently produces clusters that are more coherent than those extracted by existing algorithms. Finally, our approach provides a way of clustering based on collective notions of similarity rather than the traditional pairwise measures. PMID:16352721

  15. Base isolation: Fresh insight

    SciTech Connect

    Shustov, V.

    1993-07-15

    The objective of the research is a further development of the engineering concept of seismic isolation. Neglecting the transient stage of seismic loading results in a widespread misjudgement: The force of resistance associated with velocity is mostly conceived as a source of damping vibrations, though it is an active force at the same time, during an earthquake type excitation. For very pliant systems such as base isolated structures with relatively low bearing stiffness and with artificially added heavy damping mechanism, the so called `damping`` force may occur even the main pushing force at an earthquake. Thus, one of the two basic pillars of the common seismic isolation philosophy, namely, the doctrine of usefulness and necessity of a strong damping mechanism, is turning out to be a self-deception, sometimes even jeopardizing the safety of structures and discrediting the very idea of seismic isolation. There is a way out: breaking with damping dependancy.

  16. Evidence-based management.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Frank

    2012-01-01

    It's OK to be lucky when you're lucky, but it's not OK when the issues are critical. Too often, we manage by anecdote, which is OK when you can afford to be wrong, but when finances are tight, or the market is overregulated, or a lot is at stake, making mistakes is not an option. Evidence-based management depends on attention to three components: analytics, decision making, and problem solving. These are skills that should be required of everyone who assumes a management position, no matter how high or low one is on the totem pole. Understanding basic analytical techniques, knowing how to apply these techniques to making good decisions, and learning how to become a skilled problem solver ensure that, when we manage our businesses, we minimize the risk of mistakes and maximize the potential for positive outcomes. PMID:22594062

  17. Surface Plasmon Based Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wig, Andrew; Passian, Ali; Boudreaux, Philip; Ferrell, Tom

    2008-03-01

    A spectrometer that uses surface plasmon excitation in thin metal films to separate light into its component wavelengths is described. The use of surface plasmons as a dispersive medium sets this spectrometer apart from prism, grating, and interference based variants and allows for the miniaturization of this device. Theoretical and experimental results are presented for two different operation models. In the first case surface plasmon tunneling in the near field is used to provide transmission spectra of different broad band-pass, glass filters across the visible wavelength range with high stray-light rejection at low resolution as well as absorption spectra of chlorophyll extracted from a spinach leaf. The second model looks at the far field components of surface plasmon scattering.

  18. Knowledge based question answering

    SciTech Connect

    Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

    1983-01-01

    The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

  19. Graphene based biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürel, Hikmet Hakan; Salmankurt, Bahadır

    2016-03-01

    Nanometer-sized graphene as a 2D material has unique chemical and electronic properties. Because of its unique physical, chemical, and electronic properties, its interesting shape and size make it a promising nanomaterial in many biological applications. It is expected that biomaterials incorporating graphene will be developed for the graphene-based drug delivery systems and biomedical devices. The interactions of biomolecules and graphene are long-ranged and very weak. Development of new techniques is very desirable for design of bioelectronics sensors and devices. In this work, we present first-principles calculations within density functional theory to calculate effects of charging on nucleobases on graphene. It is shown that how modify structural and electronic properties of nucleobases on graphene by applied charging.

  20. Base Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Everett Sondreal; John Hendrikson

    2009-03-31

    In June 2009, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed 11 years of research under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Base Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40320 funded through the Office of Fossil Energy (OFE) and administered at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). A wide range of diverse research activities were performed under annual program plans approved by NETL in seven major task areas: (1) resource characterization and waste management, (2) air quality assessment and control, (3) advanced power systems, (4) advanced fuel forms, (5) value-added coproducts, (6) advanced materials, and (7) strategic studies. This report summarizes results of the 67 research subtasks and an additional 50 strategic studies. Selected highlights in the executive summary illustrate the contribution of the research to the energy industry in areas not adequately addressed by the private sector alone. During the period of performance of the agreement, concerns have mounted over the impact of carbon emissions on climate change, and new programs have been initiated by DOE to ensure that fossil fuel resources along with renewable resources can continue to supply the nation's transportation fuel and electric power. The agreement has addressed DOE goals for reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions through efficiency, capture, and sequestration while expanding the supply and use of domestic energy resources for energy security. It has further contributed to goals for near-zero emissions from highly efficient coal-fired power plants; environmental control capabilities for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, fine respirable particulate (PM{sub 2.5}), and mercury; alternative transportation fuels including liquid synfuels and hydrogen; and synergistic integration of fossil and renewable resources (e.g., wind-, biomass-, and coal-based electrical generation).

  1. Loyalty-based management.

    PubMed

    Reichheld, F F

    1993-01-01

    Despite a flurry of activities aimed at serving customers better, few companies have systematically revamped their operations with customer loyalty in mind. Instead, most have adopted improvement programs ad hoc, and paybacks haven't materialized. Building a highly loyal customer base must be integral to a company's basic business strategy. Loyalty leaders like MBNA credit cards are successful because they have designed their entire business systems around customer loyalty--a self-reinforcing system in which the company delivers superior value consistently and reinvents cash flows to find and keep high-quality customers and employees. The economic benefits of high customer loyalty are measurable. When a company consistently delivers superior value and wins customer loyalty, market share and revenues go up, and the cost of acquiring new customers goes down. The better economics mean the company can pay workers better, which sets off a whole chain of events. Increased pay boosts employee moral and commitment; as employees stay longer, their productivity goes up and training costs fall; employees' overall job satisfaction, combined with their experience, helps them serve customers better; and customers are then more inclined to stay loyal to the company. Finally, as the best customers and employees become part of the loyalty-based system, competitors are left to survive with less desirable customers and less talented employees. To compete on loyalty, a company must understand the relationships between customer retention and the other parts of the business--and be able to quantify the linkages between loyalty and profits. It involves rethinking and aligning four important aspects of the business: customers, product/service offering, employees, and measurement systems. PMID:10124634

  2. PROcess Based Diagnostics PROBE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, T.; Schmidt, G.; Kuo, K.; Bauer, M.; Oloso, H.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the aspects of the climate system that are of the greatest interest (e.g., the sensitivity of the system to external forcings) are emergent properties that arise via the complex interplay between disparate processes. This is also true for climate models most diagnostics are not a function of an isolated portion of source code, but rather are affected by multiple components and procedures. Thus any model-observation mismatch is hard to attribute to any specific piece of code or imperfection in a specific model assumption. An alternative approach is to identify diagnostics that are more closely tied to specific processes -- implying that if a mismatch is found, it should be much easier to identify and address specific algorithmic choices that will improve the simulation. However, this approach requires looking at model output and observational data in a more sophisticated way than the more traditional production of monthly or annual mean quantities. The data must instead be filtered in time and space for examples of the specific process being targeted.We are developing a data analysis environment called PROcess-Based Explorer (PROBE) that seeks to enable efficient and systematic computation of process-based diagnostics on very large sets of data. In this environment, investigators can define arbitrarily complex filters and then seamlessly perform computations in parallel on the filtered output from their model. The same analysis can be performed on additional related data sets (e.g., reanalyses) thereby enabling routine comparisons between model and observational data. PROBE also incorporates workflow technology to automatically update computed diagnostics for subsequent executions of a model. In this presentation, we will discuss the design and current status of PROBE as well as share results from some preliminary use cases.

  3. Electrical Percolation Based Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Hugh Alan; Yang, Minghui; Kostov, Yordan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    A new approach to label free biosensing has been developed based on the principle of “electrical percolation”. In electrical percolation, long-range electrical connectivity is formed in randomly oriented and distributed systems of discrete elements. By applying this principle to biological interactions, it is possible to measure biological components both directly and electronically. The main element for electrical percolation biosensor is the biological semiconductor (BSC) which is a multi-layer 3-D carbon nanotube-antibody network. In the BSC, molecular interactions, such as binding of antigens to the antibodies, disrupt the network continuity causing increased resistance of the network. BSCs can be fabricated by immobilizing conducting elements, such as pre-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)-antibody complex, directly onto a substrate, such as a Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surface (also known as plexi-glass or Acrylic). BSCs have been demonstrated for direct (label-free) electronic measurements of antibody-antigen binding using SWNTs. If the concentration of the SWNT network is slightly above the electrical percolation threshold, then binding of a specific antigen to the pre-functionalized SWNT dramatically increases the electrical resistance due to changes in the tunneling between the SWNTs. Using anti-Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) IgG as a “gate” and SEB as an “actuator”, it was demonstrated that the BSC was able to detect SEB at concentrations of 1 ng/ml. Based on this concept, an automated configuration for BSCs is described here that enables real time continuous detection. The new BSC configuration may permit assembly of multiple sensors on the same chip to create “Biological Central Processing Units (CPUs)” with multiple biological elements, capable of processing and sorting out information on multiple analytes simultaneously. PMID:24041756

  4. DNA-based machines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications. PMID:24647836

  5. Problem-based Learning in a Competency-based World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtel, Gregory A.; Davidhizar, Ruth; Bradshaw, Martha J.

    1999-01-01

    Problem-based learning emphasizes critical thinking and clinical judgment. Competency-based education focuses on clinical competence. A merger of the two in nursing education could generate higher levels of inquiry and more expert clinicians. (SK)

  6. 3. SOUTH SIDE. Edwards Air Force Base, South Base ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH SIDE. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Diffusion in a short base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Ole

    1994-09-01

    Based on the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation for a homogeneous base transistor [A.A. Grinberg and S. Luryi, Solid-St. Electron, 35, 1299 (1992)] a very instructive model of carrier transport in a short base transistor is developed. Essential to the above is a replacement of the Schottky boundary conditions. Using modified boundary conditions to the diffusion equation, the transport current density in a homogeneous base is predicted, to an accuracy within ±3%, regardless of the base width, covering the whole range from the diffusion controlled regime to the thermionic regime. Based on the modified boundary conditions a corrected Moll-Ross-Kroemer relation valid for a very short non-homogeneous base is derived. Correspondingly, an expression for the base transit time is derived.

  8. Vegetable oil based grease formulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental concerns have brought forward vegetable oils as alternatives to more expensive synthetic lubricant base oils and less environmental friendly petroleum base stocks, in moderate operating conditions. Vegetable oils are becoming an obvious choice for potential replacement of petroleum ba...

  9. Lunar base heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Tetreault, R.; Fischbach, D.; Walker, D.

    1994-01-01

    A heat pump is a device which elevates the temperature of a heat flow by a means of an energy input. By doing this, the heat pump can cause heat to transfer faster from a warm region to a cool region, or it can cause heat to flow from a cool region to a warmer region. The second case is the one which finds vast commercial applications such as air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration. Aerospace applications of heat pumps include both cases. The NASA Johnson Space Center is currently developing a Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF, previously SIRF) to provide system-level integration, operational test experience, and performance data that will enable NASA to develop flight-certified hardware for future planetary missions. A high lift heat pump is a significant part of the TCS hardware development associated with the LSSIF. The high lift heat pump program discussed here is being performed in three phases. In Phase 1, the objective is to develop heat pump concepts for a lunar base, a lunar lander, and for a ground development unit for the SIRF. In Phase 2, the design of the SIRF ground test unit is being performed, including identification and evaluation of safety and reliability issues. In Phase 3, the SIRF unit will be manufactured, tested, and delivered to the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  10. Lunar base heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Tetreault, R.; Fischbach, D.; Walker, D.

    1994-10-01

    A heat pump is a device which elevates the temperature of a heat flow by a means of an energy input. By doing this, the heat pump can cause heat to transfer faster from a warm region to a cool region, or it can cause heat to flow from a cool region to a warmer region. The second case is the one which finds vast commercial applications such as air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration. Aerospace applications of heat pumps include both cases. The NASA Johnson Space Center is currently developing a Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF, previously SIRF) to provide system-level integration, operational test experience, and performance data that will enable NASA to develop flight-certified hardware for future planetary missions. A high lift heat pump is a significant part of the TCS hardware development associated with the LSSIF. The high lift heat pump program discussed here is being performed in three phases. In Phase 1, the objective is to develop heat pump concepts for a lunar base, a lunar lander, and for a ground development unit for the SIRF. In Phase 2, the design of the SIRF ground test unit is being performed, including identification and evaluation of safety and reliability issues. In Phase 3, the SIRF unit will be manufactured, tested, and delivered to the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  11. Lunar base construction requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Steve; Helleckson, Brent

    1990-01-01

    The following viewgraph presentation is a review of the Lunar Base Constructibility Study carried out in the spring and summer of 1990. The objective of the study was to develop a method for evaluating the constructibility of Phase A proposals to build facilities on orbit or on extraterrestrial surfaces. Space construction was broadly defined as all forms of assembly, disassembly, connection, disconnection, deployment, stowage, excavation, emplacement, activation, test, transportation, etc., required to create facilities in orbit and on the surfaces of other celestial bodies. It was discovered that decisions made in the face of stated and unstated assumptions early in the design process (commonly called Phase A) can lock in non-optimal construction methods. Often, in order to construct the design, alterations must be made to the design during much later phases of the project. Such 'fixes' can be very difficult, expensive, or perhaps impossible. Assessing constructibility should thus be a part of the iterative design process, starting with the Phase A studies and continuing through production. This study assumes that there exists a minimum set of key construction requirements (i.e., questions whose answers form the set of discriminators) that must be implied or specified in order to assess the constructibility of the design. This set of construction requirements constitutes a 'constructibility filter' which then becomes part of the iterative design process. Five inherently different, dichotomous design reference missions were used in the extraction of these requirements to assure the depth and breath of the list.

  12. Nanowire-based detector

    DOEpatents

    Berggren, Karl K; Hu, Xiaolong; Masciarelli, Daniele

    2014-06-24

    Systems, articles, and methods are provided related to nanowire-based detectors, which can be used for light detection in, for example, single-photon detectors. In one aspect, a variety of detectors are provided, for example one including an electrically superconductive nanowire or nanowires constructed and arranged to interact with photons to produce a detectable signal. In another aspect, fabrication methods are provided, including techniques to precisely reproduce patterns in subsequently formed layers of material using a relatively small number of fabrication steps. By precisely reproducing patterns in multiple material layers, one can form electrically insulating materials and electrically conductive materials in shapes such that incoming photons are redirected toward a nearby electrically superconductive materials (e.g., electrically superconductive nanowire(s)). For example, one or more resonance structures (e.g., comprising an electrically insulating material), which can trap electromagnetic radiation within its boundaries, can be positioned proximate the nanowire(s). The resonance structure can include, at its boundaries, electrically conductive material positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire such that light that would otherwise be transmitted through the sensor is redirected toward the nanowire(s) and detected. In addition, electrically conductive material can be positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire (e.g. at the aperture of the resonant structure), such that light is directed by scattering from this structure into the nanowire.

  13. Carbon nanotube based photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudanski, Ludovic; Minoux, Eric; Gangloff, Laurent; Teo, Kenneth B. K.; Schnell, Jean-Philippe; Xavier, Stephane; Robertson, John; Milne, William I.; Pribat, Didier; Legagneux, Pierre

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes a novel photocathode which is an array of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), each MWCNT being associated with one p-i-n photodiode. Unlike conventional photocathodes, the functions of photon-electron conversion and subsequent electron emission are physically separated. Photon-electron conversion is achieved with p-i-n photodiodes and the electron emission occurs from the MWCNTs. The current modulation is highly efficient as it uses an optically controlled reconfiguration of the electric field at the MWCNT locations. Such devices are compatible with high frequency and very large bandwidth operation and could lead to their application in compact, light and efficient microwave amplifiers for satellite telecommunication. To demonstrate this new photocathode concept, we have fabricated the first carbon nanotube based photocathode using silicon p-i-n photodiodes and MWCNT bunches. Using a green laser, this photocathode delivers 0.5 mA with an internal quantum efficiency of 10% and an ION/IOFF ratio of 30.

  14. Alphavirus-Based Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lundstrom, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Alphavirus vectors have demonstrated high levels of transient heterologous gene expression both in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, possess attractive features for vaccine development. The most commonly used delivery vectors are based on three single-stranded encapsulated alphaviruses, namely Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Alphavirus vectors have been applied as replication-deficient recombinant viral particles and, more recently, as replication-proficient particles. Moreover, in vitro transcribed RNA, as well as layered DNA vectors have been applied for immunization. A large number of highly immunogenic viral structural proteins expressed from alphavirus vectors have elicited strong neutralizing antibody responses in multispecies animal models. Furthermore, immunization studies have demonstrated robust protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus in rodents and primates. Similarly, vaccination with alphavirus vectors expressing tumor antigens resulted in prophylactic protection against challenges with tumor-inducing cancerous cells. As certain alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus, have been associated with epidemics in animals and humans, attention has also been paid to the development of vaccines against alphaviruses themselves. Recent progress in alphavirus vector development and vaccine technology has allowed conducting clinical trials in humans. PMID:24937089

  15. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  16. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1993-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  17. Microsphere based saliva diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissin, David M.; DiCesare, Christopher; Hayman, Ryan B.; Blicharz, Timothy M.; Walt, David R.

    2005-11-01

    Saliva presents a minimally invasive alternative medium to blood for performing diagnostics1. Microsphere sensors for ions, small organic molecules, and proteins are currently being developed and optical microarrays containing thousands of these sensors will be used for simultaneous multi-analyte analysis. The fiber bundle platform in use is 1mm in diameter and contains approximately 50,000 individually addressable 3.1μm fibers, each with an etched well capable of housing a single 3.1μm microsphere sensor. Micron-sized bead-based chemistries are produced in house, followed by deposition onto a fiber-optic bundle platform, allowing for multiplexed analysis. The ultimate goal is to develop a universal diagnostic system using saliva as the diagnostic medium. This platform will permit multiplexed analysis of a sample by integrating microfluidics with the optical arrays loaded with sensors capable of detecting relevant biomarkers associated with a wide range of disease states. Disease states that are currently under investigation include end stage renal disease (ESRD) and Sjoegrens Syndrome (SS).

  18. Nanomembrane-based plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakšić, Zoran; Vuković, Slobodan M.; Buha, Jelena; Matovic, Jovan

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the main properties and applications of nanomembrane-based plasmonic structures, including some results presented here for the first time. Artificial nanomembranes are a novel building block in micro- and nanosystems technologies. They represent quasi-two-dimensional (2D) freestanding structures thinner than 100 nm and with giant aspect ratios that often exceed 1,000,000. They may be fabricated as various quasi-2D metal-dielectric nanocomposites with tailorable properties; they are fully symmetric in an electromagnetic sense and support long-range surface plasmon polaritons. This makes nanomembranes a convenient platform for different plasmonic structures such as subwavelength plasmonic crystals and metamaterials and applications such as plasmon waveguides and ultrasensitive bio/chemical sensors. Among other advantages of nanomembrane plasmonics is the feasibility to fabricate flexible, transferable plasmonic guides applicable to different substrates and dynamically tunable through stretching. There are various approaches to multifunctionalization of nanomembranes for plasmonics, including the use of transparent conductive oxide nanoparticles, but also the incorporation of switchable ion channels. Since the natural counterpart of the artificial nanomembranes are cell membranes, the multifunctionalization of synthetic nanomembranes ensures the introduction of bionic principles into plasmonics, at the same time extending the toolbox of the available nanostructures, materials and functions.

  19. Randomized parcellation based inference.

    PubMed

    Da Mota, Benoit; Fritsch, Virgile; Varoquaux, Gaël; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Conrod, Patricia; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Frouin, Vincent; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Thirion, Bertrand

    2014-04-01

    Neuroimaging group analyses are used to relate inter-subject signal differences observed in brain imaging with behavioral or genetic variables and to assess risks factors of brain diseases. The lack of stability and of sensitivity of current voxel-based analysis schemes may however lead to non-reproducible results. We introduce a new approach to overcome the limitations of standard methods, in which active voxels are detected according to a consensus on several random parcellations of the brain images, while a permutation test controls the false positive risk. Both on synthetic and real data, this approach shows higher sensitivity, better accuracy and higher reproducibility than state-of-the-art methods. In a neuroimaging-genetic application, we find that it succeeds in detecting a significant association between a genetic variant next to the COMT gene and the BOLD signal in the left thalamus for a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging contrast associated with incorrect responses of the subjects from a Stop Signal Task protocol. PMID:24262376

  20. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocations for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its applications to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  1. Graphene based GHz detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Anthony K.; El Fatimy, Abdel; Barbara, Paola; Nath, Anindya; Campbell, Paul M.; Myers-Ward, Rachael; Daniels, Kevin; Gaskill, D. Kurt

    Graphene demonstrates great promise as a detector over a wide spectral range especially in the GHz range. This is because absorption is enhanced due to the Drude contribution. In the GHz range there are viable detection mechanisms for graphene devices. With this in mind, two types of GHz detectors are fabricated on epitaxial graphene using a lift off resist-based clean lithography process to produce low contact resistance. Both device types use asymmetry for detection, consistent with recent thoughts of the photothermoelectric effect (PTE) mechanism. The first is an antenna coupled device. It utilizes two dissimilar contact metals and the work function difference produces the asymmetry. The other device is a field effect transistor constructed with an asymmetric top gate that creates a PN junction and facilitates tuning the photovoltaic response. The response of both device types, tested from 100GHz to 170GHz, are reported. This work was sponsored by the U.S. Office of Naval Research (Award Number N000141310865).

  2. ASCOT data base management system

    SciTech Connect

    Barbieri, J.; Nyholm, R.; Castro, C.; Hill, K.

    1980-07-01

    The ASCOT data base management system is designed to handle the data produced by both the experimental and theoretical efforts of the DOE Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) project. The data base envisioned is hierarchically structured, sparse, and compact. Information concerning any given data file is stored in a directory file. The data base management system uses a relational data management approach. Presently three management schema are being developed for use with the data base. 5 figures.

  3. Biochemical Characterization of the Tetrachlorobenzoquinone Reductase Involved in the Biodegradation of Pentachlorophenol

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lifeng; Yang, Jian

    2008-01-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP), a xenobiocide used to preserve lumbers, is a major environmental pollutant in North America. In spite of an expected high resistance to biodegradation, a number of aquatic and soil bacteria can degrade PCP. In this study, we cloned, expressed and purified tetrachlorobenzoquinone reductase (PcpD), the second enzyme in the PCP biodegradation pathway in Sphingobium chlorophenolicum. PcpD, present mainly as a homo-trimer, exhibited low but statistically significant activity in the reduction of tetrachlorobenzoquinone to tetrachlorohydroquinone. The optimal pH for PcpD activity was 7.0. PcpD was stimulated by tetrachlorohydroquinone at low concentrations but inhibited at high concentrations. Because of the constitutive expression and relatively high catalytic efficiency of downstream enzyme tetrachlorohydroquinone reductive dehalogenase, tetrachlorohydroquinone was unlikely to accumulate in high concentrations, suggesting that PcpD would only be stimulated by tetrachlorohydroquinone under in vivo conditions. It was also shown that PcpD was inhibited by PCP in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, PcpD was regulated by tetrachlorohydroquinone and PCP using a possible “Yin-Yang” mechanism, which maintained tetrachlorobeanzoquinone at a level that would neither significantly decrease the biodegradation of PCP nor cause cytotoxicity in S. chlorophenolicum cells. Structural model of PcpD showed that the putative tetrachlorobenzoquinone binding site, adjacent to the cofactor flavin mononucleotide and the 2Fe2S cluster, was situated in a deep pit on the surface and slightly positively charged. PMID:19325743

  4. The role of G protein-coupled receptors in cochlear planar cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jinpeng; Zhang, Daolai; Wang, Yanfei; Lin, Hal; Yu, Xiao; Xu, Zhigang

    2016-08-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) is defined as the coordinated alignment of cell polarity across the tissue plane, which is important for the integration of cells into tissues. One of the best examples of PCP is in the cochlear epithelium. Several core PCP proteins have been identified to play important roles in PCP regulation, in which these proteins form complexes and associate with the cell membrane asymmetrically, mediating intercellular PCP signal transduction. Among the core PCP proteins are two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), Celsr and Frizzled, both of which have been shown to play important roles in cochlear PCP regulation. Celsr and Frizzled genes are expressed in the cochlear sensory epithelium, and Frizzled1, 2, 3 and 6 show asymmetric localizations on the cell membrane of hair cells or supporting cells. In the animal model, Celsr1, Frizzled2 and Frizzled3/6 mutant or knockout mice have profound cochlear PCP deficits. Downstream of GPCR signaling, Gαi was shown to asymmetrically localize on the apical surface of hair cells, together with LGN and mInsc, Gαi controls cochlear PCP in a cell-autonomous way. Inactivity of Gαi, LGN or mInsc results in PCP deficits in the mouse cochlea. We hypothesize that GPCR-Gαi coupling plays a pivotal role in cochlear PCP regulation via connecting the intercellular PCP signals with cell-autonomous PCP machinery. Further investigations are needed to fully understand the mechanism of cochlear PCP regulation. PMID:26921719

  5. Verification of knowledge bases based on containment checking

    SciTech Connect

    Levy. A.Y.; Rousset, M.C.

    1996-12-31

    Building complex knowledge based applications requires encoding large amounts of domain knowledge. After acquiring knowledge from domain experts, much of the effort in building a knowledge base goes into verifying that the knowledge is encoded correctly. We consider the problem of verifying hybrid knowledge bases that contain both Horn rules and a terminology in a description logic. Our approach to the verification problem is based on showing a close relationship to the problem of query containment. Our first contribution, based on this relationship, is presenting a thorough analysis of the decidability and complexity of the verification problem, for knowledge bases containing recursive rules and the interpreted predicates =, {le}, < and {ne}. Second, we show that important new classes of constraints on correct inputs and outputs can be expressed in a hybrid setting, in which a description logic class hierarchy is also considered, and we present the first complete algorithm for verifying such hybrid knowledge bases.

  6. Performance-Based Funding Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A number of states have made progress in implementing performance-based funding (PFB) and accountability. This policy brief summarizes main features of performance-based funding systems in three states: Tennessee, Ohio, and Indiana. The brief also identifies key issues that states considering performance-based funding must address, as well as…

  7. Image Data Bases on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Reid; Mathieson, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    A description of how image database technology was used to develop two prototypes for academic and administrative applications at Yale University, one using a video data base integration and the other using document-scanning data base technology, is presented. Technical underpinnings for the creation of data bases are described. (Author/MLW)

  8. PMIS: Data Base Design Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiddleman, Richard; Gorman, Michael M.

    1972-01-01

    PMIS is a computer-based planning and management information system for local school districts. This report centers on the PMIS data bases that contain school system data by reviewing the major phases involved in their creation, explaining the factors that caused the unique orientation of the data bases, reviewing the two tasks that comprise the…

  9. Graphene based gene transfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Liangzhu; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Zhuang

    2011-03-01

    Graphene as a star in materials research has been attracting tremendous attentions in the past few years in various fields including biomedicine. In this work, for the first time we successfully use graphene as a non-toxic nano-vehicle for efficient gene transfection. Graphene oxide (GO) is bound with cationic polymers, polyethyleneimine (PEI) with two different molecular weights at 1.2 kDa and 10 kDa, forming GO-PEI-1.2k and GO-PEG-10k complexes, respectively, both of which are stable in physiological solutions. Cellular toxicity tests reveal that our GO-PEI-10k complex exhibits significantly reduced toxicity to the treated cells compared to the bare PEI-10k polymer. The positively charged GO-PEI complexes are able to further bind with plasmid DNA (pDNA) for intracellular transfection of the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene in HeLa cells. While EGFP transfection with PEI-1.2k appears to be ineffective, high EGFP expression is observed using the corresponding GO-PEI-1.2k as the transfection agent. On the other hand, GO-PEI-10k shows similar EGFP transfection efficiency but lower toxicity compared with PEI-10k. Our results suggest graphene to be a novel gene delivery nano-vector with low cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency, promising for future applications in non-viral based gene therapy.Graphene as a star in materials research has been attracting tremendous attentions in the past few years in various fields including biomedicine. In this work, for the first time we successfully use graphene as a non-toxic nano-vehicle for efficient gene transfection. Graphene oxide (GO) is bound with cationic polymers, polyethyleneimine (PEI) with two different molecular weights at 1.2 kDa and 10 kDa, forming GO-PEI-1.2k and GO-PEG-10k complexes, respectively, both of which are stable in physiological solutions. Cellular toxicity tests reveal that our GO-PEI-10k complex exhibits significantly reduced toxicity to the treated cells compared to the bare PEI

  10. Velocity Based Modulus Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, W. C.

    2007-12-01

    A new set of equations are derived for the modulus of elasticity E and the bulk modulus K which are dependent only upon the seismic wave propagation velocities Vp, Vs and the density ρ. The three elastic moduli, E (Young's modulus), the shear modulus μ (Lamé's second parameter) and the bulk modulus K are found to be simple functions of the density and wave propagation velocities within the material. The shear and elastic moduli are found to equal the density of the material multiplied by the square of their respective wave propagation-velocities. The bulk modulus may be calculated from the elastic modulus using Poisson's ratio. These equations and resultant values are consistent with published literature and values in both magnitude and dimension (N/m2) and are applicable to the solid, liquid and gaseous phases. A 3D modulus of elasticity model for the Parkfield segment of the San Andreas Fault is presented using data from the wavespeed model of Thurber et al. [2006]. A sharp modulus gradient is observed across the fault at seismic depths, confirming that "variation in material properties play a key role in fault segmentation and deformation style" [Eberhart-Phillips et al., 1993] [EPM93]. The three elastic moduli E, μ and K may now be calculated directly from seismic pressure and shear wave propagation velocities. These velocities may be determined using conventional seismic reflection, refraction or transmission data and techniques. These velocities may be used in turn to estimate the density. This allows velocity based modulus calculations to be used as a tool for geophysical analysis, modeling, engineering and prospecting.

  11. Ferrocene-Based Nanoelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence R. Sita

    2006-02-15

    Ferrocene-based molecular components for nanoelectronics offer a number of distinct advantages relative to all carbon frameworks due to metal-centered molecular states that should be closer in energy to the Fermi levels of the metal electrodes in metal / molecule / metal heterojunctions. Given this, the overall goal of the project was to investigate the conduction physics of a variety of proposed ferrocene diode / transistor designs in order to address the fundamental question; can electron transport within nm-length scale structures be modulated in a controlled fashion? During the funded period, substantial progress towards achieving this goal was made by surmounting a number of scientific and technical obstacles. More specifically, a concise and general synthetic route to several mono- and diferrocene dithiols and monothiols was achieved that now allows for the directed and controlled assembly of a variety of metal / molecule /metal test structures for the single molecule conductance measurements and the fabrication of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au(111) that are amenable to quantitative electrochemical characterization of electron-transfer rates. Most importantly, by using an electromigrated test structure, reproducible I/V data for one of the ferrocene dithiol molecules have been collected which exhibit surprisingly high conductance. Exceptional agreement of this result with theory serves to substantiate the original hypothesis that metal-centered states within a molecular bridge can indeed serve to establish higher conductance relative to all-organic molecular bridges. Overall, the successful demonstration of the ability of ferrocene-molecular frameworks to serve as exceptional molecular conductors will play an important role in the continued evolution in design of molecular components for nanoelectronic devices, which in turn, will have a positive impact on the science and potential technologies associated with these systems.

  12. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  13. Soy-based renoprotection

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, Nancy J; Krul, Elaine S; Grunz-Borgmann, Elizabeth; Parrish, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant public health problem as risk factors such as advanced age, obesity, hypertension and diabetes rise in the global population. Currently there are no effective pharmacologic treatments for this disease. The role of diet is important for slowing the progression of CKD and managing symptoms in later stages of renal insufficiency. While low protein diets are generally recommended, maintaining adequate levels of intake is critical for health. There is an increasing appreciation that the source of protein may also be important. Soybean protein has been the most extensively studied plant-based protein in subjects with kidney disease and has demonstrated renal protective properties in a number of clinical studies. Soy protein consumption has been shown to slow the decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate and significantly improve proteinuria in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with nephropathy. Soy’s beneficial effects on renal function may also result from its impact on certain physiological risk factors for CKD such as dyslipidemia, hypertension and hyperglycemia. Soy intake is also associated with improvements in antioxidant status and systemic inflammation in early and late stage CKD patients. Studies conducted in animal models have helped to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms that may play a role in the positive effects of soy protein on renal parameters in polycystic kidney disease, metabolically-induced kidney dysfunction and age-associated progressive nephropathy. Despite the established relationship between soy and renoprotection, further studies are needed for a clear understanding of the role of the cellular and molecular target(s) of soy protein in maintaining renal function. PMID:27152261

  14. Soy-based renoprotection.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Nancy J; Krul, Elaine S; Grunz-Borgmann, Elizabeth; Parrish, Alan R

    2016-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant public health problem as risk factors such as advanced age, obesity, hypertension and diabetes rise in the global population. Currently there are no effective pharmacologic treatments for this disease. The role of diet is important for slowing the progression of CKD and managing symptoms in later stages of renal insufficiency. While low protein diets are generally recommended, maintaining adequate levels of intake is critical for health. There is an increasing appreciation that the source of protein may also be important. Soybean protein has been the most extensively studied plant-based protein in subjects with kidney disease and has demonstrated renal protective properties in a number of clinical studies. Soy protein consumption has been shown to slow the decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate and significantly improve proteinuria in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with nephropathy. Soy's beneficial effects on renal function may also result from its impact on certain physiological risk factors for CKD such as dyslipidemia, hypertension and hyperglycemia. Soy intake is also associated with improvements in antioxidant status and systemic inflammation in early and late stage CKD patients. Studies conducted in animal models have helped to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms that may play a role in the positive effects of soy protein on renal parameters in polycystic kidney disease, metabolically-induced kidney dysfunction and age-associated progressive nephropathy. Despite the established relationship between soy and renoprotection, further studies are needed for a clear understanding of the role of the cellular and molecular target(s) of soy protein in maintaining renal function. PMID:27152261

  15. Space-based detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesana, A.; Weber, W. J.; Killow, C. J.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Robertson, D. I.; Ward, H.; Fitzsimons, E. D.; Bryant, J.; Cruise, A. M.; Dixon, G.; Hoyland, D.; Smith, D.; Bogenstahl, J.; McNamara, P. W.; Gerndt, R.; Flatscher, R.; Hechenblaikner, G.; Hewitson, M.; Gerberding, O.; Barke, S.; Brause, N.; Bykov, I.; Danzmann, K.; Enggaard, A.; Gianolio, A.; Vendt Hansen, T.; Heinzel, G.; Hornstrup, A.; Jennrich, O.; Kullmann, J.; Møller-Pedersen, S.; Rasmussen, T.; Reiche, J.; Sodnik, Z.; Suess, M.; Armano, M.; Sumner, T.; Bender, P. L.; Akutsu, T.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    The parallel session C5 on Space-Based Detectors gave a broad overview over the planned space missions related to gravitational wave detection. Overviews of the revolutionary science to be expected from LISA was given by Alberto Sesana and Sasha Buchman. The launch of LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is planned for 2015. This mission and its payload "LISA Technology Package" will demonstrate key technologies for LISA. In this context, reference masses in free fall for LISA, and gravitational physics in general, was described by William Weber, laser interferometry at the pico-metre level and the optical bench of LPF was presented by Christian Killow and the performance of the LPF optical metrology system by Paul McNamara. While LPF will not yet be sensitive to gravitational waves, it may nevertheless be used to explore fundamental physics questions, which was discussed by Michele Armano. Some parts of the LISA technology that are not going to be demonstrated by LPF, but under intensive development at the moment, were presented by Oliver Jennrich and Oliver Gerberding. Looking into the future, Japan is studying the design of a mid-frequency detector called DECIGO, which was discussed by Tomotada Akutsu. Using atom interferometry for gravitational wave detection has also been recently proposed, and it was critically reviewed by Peter Bender. In the nearer future, the launch of GRACE Follow-On (for Earth gravity observation) is scheduled for 2017, and it will include a Laser Ranging Interferometer as technology demonstrator. This will be the first inter-spacecraft laser interferometer and has many aspects in common with the LISA long arm, as discussed by Andrew Sutton.

  16. Telemetry-Based Ranging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon; Vilnrotter, Victor A.; Andrews, Kenneth S.; Shambayati, Shervin

    2011-01-01

    A telemetry-based ranging scheme was developed in which the downlink ranging signal is eliminated, and the range is computed directly from the downlink telemetry signal. This is the first Deep Space Network (DSN) ranging technology that does not require the spacecraft to transmit a separate ranging signal. By contrast, the evolutionary ranging techniques used over the years by NASA missions, including sequential ranging (transmission of a sequence of sinusoids) and PN-ranging (transmission of a pseudo-noise sequence) whether regenerative (spacecraft acquires, then regenerates and retransmits a noise-free ranging signal) or transparent (spacecraft feeds the noisy demodulated uplink ranging signal into the downlink phase modulator) relied on spacecraft power and bandwidth to transmit an explicit ranging signal. The state of the art in ranging is described in an emerging CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) standard, in which a pseudo-noise (PN) sequence is transmitted from the ground to the spacecraft, acquired onboard, and the PN sequence is coherently retransmitted back to the ground, where a delay measurement is made between the uplink and downlink signals. In this work, the telemetry signal is aligned with the uplink PN code epoch. The ground station computes the delay between the uplink signal transmission and the received downlink telemetry. Such a computation is feasible because symbol synchronizability is already an integral part of the telemetry design. Under existing technology, the telemetry signal cannot be used for ranging because its arrival-time information is not coherent with any Earth reference signal. By introducing this coherence, and performing joint telemetry detection and arrival-time estimation on the ground, a high-rate telemetry signal can provide all the precision necessary for spacecraft ranging.

  17. Military Bases and Conservation Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Ankeny

    2007-09-01

    Over time, DoD is likely to be one of the largest buyers and sellers in a water quality trading market. The Department of Defense (DoD) operates military bases that resemble small cities in infrastructure. As units redeploy, bases are likely to find themselves well within their environmental limits at the originating base and potentially bumping against limits such as nitrate and phosphate loading at the destination base. Stricter rules and heavier loadings in growing watersheds also present challenges to local bases and municipalities as regulators clamp down on loadings from existing Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) to meet water quality standards.

  18. Base Excision Repair and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Susan S.; Murphy, Drew L.; Sweasy, Joann B.

    2012-01-01

    Base excision repair is the system used from bacteria to man to remove the tens of thousands of endogenous DNA damages produced daily in each human cell. Base excision repair is required for normal mammalian development and defects have been associated with neurological disorders and cancer. In this paper we provide an overview of short patch base excision repair in humans and summarize current knowledge of defects in base excision repair in mouse models and functional studies on short patch base excision repair germ line polymorphisms and their relationship to cancer. The biallelic germ line mutations that result in MUTYH-associated colon cancer are also discussed. PMID:22252118

  19. ECIL guidelines for preventing Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with haematological malignancies and stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Johan; Cesaro, Simone; Maschmeyer, Georg; Einsele, Hermann; Donnelly, J Peter; Alanio, Alexandre; Hauser, Philippe M; Lagrou, Katrien; Melchers, Willem J G; Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Matos, Olga; Bretagne, Stéphane; Cordonnier, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    The 5th European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL-5) meeting aimed to establish evidence-based recommendations for the prophylaxis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in non-HIV-infected patients with an underlying haematological condition, including allogeneic HSCT recipients. Recommendations were based on the grading system of the IDSA. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole given 2-3 times weekly is the drug of choice for the primary prophylaxis of PCP in adults ( A-II: ) and children ( A-I: ) and should be given during the entire period at risk. Recent data indicate that children may benefit equally from a once-weekly regimen ( B-II: ). All other drugs, including pentamidine, atovaquone and dapsone, are considered second-line alternatives when trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is poorly tolerated or contraindicated. The main indications of PCP prophylaxis are ALL, allogeneic HSCT, treatment with alemtuzumab, fludarabine/cyclophosphamide/rituximab combinations, >4 weeks of treatment with corticosteroids and well-defined primary immune deficiencies in children. Additional indications are proposed depending on the treatment regimen. PMID:27550992

  20. GC/MS analysis of piperidinocyclohexanecarbonitrile (PCC) smoking products

    SciTech Connect

    Lue, L.P.; Scimeca, J.A.; Thomas, B.F.; Martin, B.R.

    1986-03-05

    Piperidinocyclohexanecarbonitrile (PCC), an intermediate in phencyclidine (PCP) synthesis, is a major contaminant of illicit PCP. Due to the frequent abuse of PCP by smoking, this study was conducted to determine the PCC pyrolysis products delivered in smoke. Marihuana placebo cigarettes were impregnated with /sup 3/H-piperidino-/sup 14/C-cyano-PCC (synthesized in the lab and recrystallized twice, m.p. 67/sup 0/C) and burned under conditions which simulated smoking. Mainstream smoke was passed through glass wool filters and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and NaOH traps. Tritium and /sup 14/C were recovered as 83%, and 56%, respectively, of the starting material. Seventy-six percent of the recovered tritium was found in the glass wool trap followed by 13, 7 and 4% in the acid trap, base trap and in the ash/unburned butt, respectively. Seventy-three percent of the recovered /sup 14/C was found in the glass wool filter and 16 and 8% were found in the acid and base traps, respectively. GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of 1-piperidinocyclohexene (30%), PCC (24%), piperidine (7%), and 1-acetyl-piperidine (5%).

  1. Measurement-based quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwerger, M.; Briegel, H. J.; Dür, W.

    2016-03-01

    We review and discuss the potential of using measurement-based elements in quantum communication schemes, where certain tasks are realized with the help of entangled resource states that are processed by measurements. We consider long-range quantum communication based on the transmission of encoded quantum states, where encoding, decoding and syndrome readout are implemented using small-scale resource states. We also discuss entanglement-based schemes and consider measurement-based quantum repeaters. An important element in these schemes is entanglement purification, which can also be implemented in a measurement-based way. We analyze the influence of noise and imperfections in these schemes and show that measurement-based implementation allows for very large error thresholds of the order of 10 % noise per qubit and more. We show how to obtain optimal resource states for different tasks and discuss first experimental realizations of measurement-based quantum error correction using trapped ions and photons.

  2. Carbon Nanotube Based Light Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, russell A. (Inventor); Smits, Jan M. (Inventor); Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Ingram, JoAnne L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A light sensor substrate comprises a base made from a semi-conductive material and topped with a layer of an electrically non-conductive material. A first electrode and a plurality of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based conductors are positioned on the layer of electrically non-conductive material with the CNT-based conductors being distributed in a spaced apart fashion about a periphery of the first electrode. Each CNT-based conductor is coupled on one end thereof to the first electrode and extends away from the first electrode to terminate at a second free end. A second or gate electrode is positioned on the non-conductive material layer and is spaced apart from the second free end of each CNT-based conductor. Coupled to the first and second electrode is a device for detecting electron transfer along the CNT-based conductors resulting from light impinging on the CNT-based conductors.

  3. Feature-Based Registration Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Cristian; Klinder, Tobias; von Berg, Jens

    In contrast to intensity-based image registration, where a similarity measure is typically evaluated at each voxel location, feature-based registration works on a sparse set of image locations. Therefore, it needs an explicit step of interpolation to supply a dense deformation field. In this chapter, the application of feature-based registration to pulmonary image registration as well as hybrid methods, combining feature-based with intensity-based registration, is discussed. In contrast to pure feature based registration methods, hybrid methods are increasingly proposed in the pulmonary context and have the potential to out-perform purely intensity based registration methods. Available approaches will be classified along the categories feature type, correspondence definition, and interpolation type to finally achieve a dense deformation field.

  4. Case-based reasoning: The marriage of knowledge base and data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pulaski, Kirt; Casadaban, Cyprian

    1988-01-01

    The coupling of data and knowledge has a synergistic effect when building an intelligent data base. The goal is to integrate the data and knowledge almost to the point of indistinguishability, permitting them to be used interchangeably. Examples given in this paper suggest that Case-Based Reasoning is a more integrated way to link data and knowledge than pure rule-based reasoning.

  5. Evidence-based dentistry.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    Both panegyric and criticism of evidence-based dentistry tend to be clumsy because the concept is poorly defined. This analysis identifies several contributions to the profession that have been made under the EBD banner. Although the concept of clinicians integrating clinical epidemiology, the wisdom of their practices, and patients' values is powerful, its implementation has been distorted by a too heavy emphasis of computerized searches for research findings that meet the standards of academics. Although EBD advocates enjoy sharing anecdotal accounts of mistakes others have made, faulting others is not proof that one's own position is correct. There is no systematic, high-quality evidence that EBD is effective. The metaphor of a three-legged stool (evidence, experience, values, and integration) is used as an organizing principle. "Best evidence" has become a preoccupation among EBD enthusiasts. That overlong but thinly developed leg of the stool is critiqued from the perspectives of the criteria for evidence, the difference between internal and external validity, the relationship between evidence and decision making, the ambiguous meaning of "best," and the role of reasonable doubt. The strongest leg of the stool is clinical experience. Although bias exists in all observations (including searches for evidence), there are simple procedures that can be employed in practice to increase useful and objective evidence there, and there are dangers in delegating policy regarding allowable treatments to external groups. Patient and practitioner values are the shortest leg of the stool. As they are so little recognized, their integration in EBD is problematic and ethical tensions exist where paternalism privileges science over patient's self-determined best interests. Four potential approaches to integration are suggested, recognizing that there is virtually no literature on how the "seat" of the three-legged stool works or should work. It is likely that most dentists

  6. Model-based knowledge-based optical processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casasent, David; Liebowitz, Suzanne A.

    1987-05-01

    An efficient 3-D object-centered knowledge base is described. The ability to on-line generate a 2-D image projection or range image for any object/viewer orientation from this knowledge base is addressed. Applications of this knowledge base in associative processors and symbolic correlators are then discussed. Initial test results are presented for a multiple degree of freedom object recognition problem. These include new techniques to achieve object orientation information and two new associative memory matrix formulations.

  7. Base pairing and base mis-pairing in nucleic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, A. H. J.; Rich, A.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years we have learned that DNA is conformationally active. It can exist in a number of different stable conformations including both right-handed and left-handed forms. Using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis we are able to discover not only additional conformations of the nucleic acids but also different types of hydrogen bonded base-base interactions. Although Watson-Crick base pairings are the predominant type of interaction in double helical DNA, they are not the only types. Recently, we have been able to examine mismatching of guanine-thymine base pairs in left-handed Z-DNA at atomic resolution (1A). A minimum amount of distortion of the sugar phosphate backbone is found in the G x T pairing in which the bases are held together by two hydrogen bonds in the wobble pairing interaction. Because of the high resolution of the analysis we can visualize water molecules which fill in to accommodate the other hydrogen bonding positions in the bases which are not used in the base-base interactions. Studies on other DNA oligomers have revealed that other types of non-Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding interactions can occur. In the structure of a DNA octamer with the sequence d(GCGTACGC) complexed to an antibiotic triostin A, it was found that the two central AT base pairs are held together by Hoogsteen rather than Watson-Crick base pairs. Similarly, the G x C base pairs at the ends are also Hoogsteen rather than Watson-Crick pairing. Hoogsteen base pairs make a modified helix which is distinct from the Watson-Crick double helix.

  8. XML-Based SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark; Mackey, Ryan; Tikidjian, Raffi

    2008-01-01

    The SHINE Knowledge Base Interchange Language software has been designed to more efficiently send new knowledge bases to spacecraft that have been embedded with the Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE) tool. The intention of the behavioral model is to capture most of the information generally associated with a spacecraft functional model, while specifically addressing the needs of execution within SHINE and Livingstone. As such, it has some constructs that are based on one or the other.

  9. Game-based versus traditional case-based learning

    PubMed Central

    Telner, Deanna; Bujas-Bobanovic, Maja; Chan, David; Chester, Bob; Marlow, Bernard; Meuser, James; Rothman, Arthur; Harvey, Bart

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate family physicians’ enjoyment of and knowledge gained from game-based learning, compared with traditional case-based learning, in a continuing medical education (CME) event on stroke prevention and management. DESIGN An equivalence trial to determine if game-based learning was as effective as case-based learning in terms of attained knowledge levels. Game questions and small group cases were developed. Participants were randomized to either a game-based or a case-based group and took part in the event. SETTING Ontario provincial family medicine conference. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-two family physicians and 3 senior family medicine residents attending the conference. INTERVENTION Participation in either a game-based or a case-based CME learning group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Scores on 40-item immediate and 3-month posttests of knowledge and a satisfaction survey. RESULTS Results from knowledge testing immediately after the event and 3 months later showed no significant difference in scoring between groups. Participants in the game-based group reported higher levels of satisfaction with the learning experience. CONCLUSION Games provide a novel way of organizing CME events. They might provide more group interaction and discussion, as well as improve recruitment to CME events. They might also provide a forum for interdisciplinary CME. Using games in future CME events appears to be a promising approach to facilitate participant learning. PMID:20841574

  10. Computer-based and web-based radiation safety training

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, C., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    The traditional approach to delivering radiation safety training has been to provide a stand-up lecture of the topic, with the possible aid of video, and to repeat the same material periodically. New approaches to meeting training requirements are needed to address the advent of flexible work hours and telecommuting, and to better accommodate individuals learning at their own pace. Computer- based and web-based radiation safety training can provide this alternative. Computer-based and web- based training is an interactive form of learning that the student controls, resulting in enhanced and focused learning at a time most often chosen by the student.

  11. Changes in Eating, Physical Activity, and Related Behaviors in a Primary-Care-Based Weight Loss Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Volger, Sheri; Wadden, Thomas A.; Sarwer, David B.; Moore, Reneé H.; Chittams, Jesse; Diewald, Lisa; Panigrahi, Eva; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Schmitz, Kathryn; Vetter, Marion L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine changes in eating behaviors and physical activity, as well as predictors of weight loss success, in obese adults who participated in a 2-year behavioral weight loss intervention conducted in a primary care setting. Design A longitudinal, randomized-controlled, multi-site trial. Subjects 390 obese (body mass index, 30 to 50 kg/m2) adults, ≥21 yr, in the Philadelphia region. Methods Participants were assigned to one of three interventions 1) Usual Care [Quarterly primary care provider (PCP) visits that included education on diet and exercise]; 2) Brief Lifestyle Counseling [quarterly PCP visits plus monthly Lifestyle Counseling (LC) sessions about behavioral weight control]; or 3) Enhanced Brief LC (the previous intervention with a choice of meal replacements or weight loss medication). Results At month 24, participants in both Brief LC and Enhanced Brief LC reported significantly greater improvements in mean (±SE) dietary restraint than those in Usual Care (4.4±0.5, 4.8±0.5, and 2.8±0.5, respectively; both ps≤0.016). The percentage of calories from fat, along with fruit and vegetable consumption, did not differ significantly among the three groups. The Brief LC and Enhanced Brief LC groups both reported significantly greater energy expenditure (kcal/week) at month 24 than Usual Care (+593.4±175.9, +415.4±179.6, and −70.4±185.5, respectively; both ps≤0.037). The strongest predictor of weight loss at month 6 (partial R2=33.4%, p<0.0001) and at month 24 (partial R2=19.3%, p<0.001) was food records completed during the first 6 months. Participants who achieved a 5% weight loss at month 6 had 4.7 times greater odds of maintaining a 5% weight loss at month 24. Conclusions A behavioral weight loss intervention delivered in a primary care setting can result in significant weight loss, with corresponding improvements in eating restraint and energy expenditure. Moreover, completion of food records, along with weight loss at month 6, is a

  12. Oligomerization state and pigment binding strength of the peridinin-Chl a-protein.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Lu, Xun; Lu, Yue; Cuneo, Matthew J; O'Neill, Hugh M; Urban, Volker; Lo, Cynthia S; Blankenship, Robert E

    2015-09-14

    The peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein (PCP) is one of the major light harvesting complexes (LHCs) in photosynthetic dinoflagellates. We analyzed the oligomeric state of PCP isolated from the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium, which has received increasing attention in recent years because of its role in coral bleaching. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis indicated PCP exists as monomers. Native mass spectrometry (native MS) demonstrated two oligomeric states of PCP, with the monomeric PCP being dominant. The trimerization may not be necessary for PCP to function as a light-harvesting complex. PMID:26241331

  13. Lead-based paint assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lorie, C.; Cowdery, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    In 1977, The US consumer product safety commission banned the use of lead-based paint (LBP) in all industries, except the maritime industry which still has certain privileged uses. Unfortunately for property and building owners, the ban did not come soon enough. In response to this heightened awareness, several environmental market sectors addressing the issues have emerged. These include: residential; soil; commercial; water; and structures. The first and most important step in addressing the concerns posed by the existence of lead based contamination is to quantify the amount of lead-based product, to determine the location of the lead based product and the extent, if any, of lead based contamination, and to make recommendations for the remediation or abatement of the lead product and resultant contamination. In narrowing the focus of these issues, this paper discusses lead-based paint assessment; preparing and organizing the assessment, the regulatory considerations, assessment methodology, and presentation of results.

  14. Concurrent array-based queue

    SciTech Connect

    Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2015-01-06

    According to one embodiment, a method for implementing an array-based queue in memory of a memory system that includes a controller includes configuring, in the memory, metadata of the array-based queue. The configuring comprises defining, in metadata, an array start location in the memory for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, an array size for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, a queue top for the array-based queue and defining, in the metadata, a queue bottom for the array-based queue. The method also includes the controller serving a request for an operation on the queue, the request providing the location in the memory of the metadata of the queue.

  15. Principles of models based engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Dolin, R.M.; Hefele, J.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes a Models Based Engineering (MBE) philosophy and implementation strategy that has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Center for Advanced Engineering Technology. A major theme in this discussion is that models based engineering is an information management technology enabling the development of information driven engineering. Unlike other information management technologies, models based engineering encompasses the breadth of engineering information, from design intent through product definition to consumer application.

  16. Filterbank-based fingerprint matching.

    PubMed

    Jain, A K; Prabhakar, S; Hong, L; Pankanti, S

    2000-01-01

    With identity fraud in our society reaching unprecedented proportions and with an increasing emphasis on the emerging automatic personal identification applications, biometrics-based verification, especially fingerprint-based identification, is receiving a lot of attention. There are two major shortcomings of the traditional approaches to fingerprint representation. For a considerable fraction of population, the representations based on explicit detection of complete ridge structures in the fingerprint are difficult to extract automatically. The widely used minutiae-based representation does not utilize a significant component of the rich discriminatory information available in the fingerprints. Local ridge structures cannot be completely characterized by minutiae. Further, minutiae-based matching has difficulty in quickly matching two fingerprint images containing a different number of unregistered minutiae points. The proposed filter-based algorithm uses a bank of Gabor filters to capture both local and global details in a fingerprint as a compact fixed length FingerCode. The fingerprint matching is based on the Euclidean distance between the two corresponding FingerCodes and hence is extremely fast. We are able to achieve a verification accuracy which is only marginally inferior to the best results of minutiae-based algorithms published in the open literature. Our system performs better than a state-of-the-art minutiae-based system when the performance requirement of the application system does not demand a very low false acceptance rate. Finally, we show that the matching performance can be improved by combining the decisions of the matchers based on complementary (minutiae-based and filter-based) fingerprint information. PMID:18255456

  17. Proposed modifications to the RCRA post-closure permit for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This report presents proposed modifications to several conditions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR) (permit number TNHW-088, EPA ID No. TN3 89 009 0001). These permit conditions define the requirements for RCRA post-closure detection groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (CRSDB) and Kerr Hollow Quarry (KHQ), and RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSPs). Modification of these PCP conditions is requested to: (1) clarify the planned integration of RCRA post-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the CRSPs with the monitoring program to be established in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) record of decision (ROD), (2) revise several of the current technical requirements for groundwater monitoring based on implementation of the RCRA monitoring programs during 1996, (3) replace several of the technical procedures included in the PCP with updated versions recently issued by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), and (4) correct inaccurate regulatory citations and references to permit conditions and permit attachments. With these modifications, the Y- 12 Plant will continue to meet the full intent of all regulatory obligations for post-closure care of these facilities. Section 2 provides the technical justification for each proposed permit modification. Section 3.0 contains proposed changes to Section II of the PCP. Modifications to site-specific permit conditions are presented in Section 4.0 (CRSDB), Section 5.0 (CRSPs), and Section 6.0 (KHQ). Sections 7.0 and 8.0 reference updated and revised procedures for groundwater sampling, and monitoring well plugging and abandonment, respectively. Appendix A includes all proposed revisions to the permit attachments.

  18. Critical body residues for pentachlorophenol in the zebra mussel under varying conditions of pH and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.W.; Hwang, H.; Atanasoff, M.; Landrum, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    The toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP), an ionizable phenol, is strongly dependent on environmental pH and temperature. Using the invertebrate species, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), the authors tested whether CBRs could be used to resolve the differences in toxicity under varying conditions. The authors simultaneously measured acute toxicity and tissue concentrations of PCP under 9 different combinations of pH and temperature. CBRs were determined from tissue residues as LD{sub 50}, values and were also calculated from LC{sub 50}s in conjunction with toxicokinetic parameters determined under each set of conditions. The data show that when toxicity is based on aqueous concentrations of PCP needed to cause mortality (LC{sub 50}s), that the resulting LC{sub 50}s varied by a factor of 372 X across the range of conditions tested. However, when LD{sub 50}s were calculated from tissue residues in the mussel, the latter varied only by a factor of 12.7 across the range of conditions examined. When CBRs were determined toxicokinetically, instead of from direct measurement of tissue concentrations, these CBRs were both higher than the measured LD{sub 50}s and more variable. The authors believe this is a result of the animals having a higher filtering rate and a greater tolerance for PCP in the short-term exposures from which the toxicokinetic values were obtained. Their data generally support the utility of CBRs in minimizing variation attributable to environmental variables but also demonstrate that the method of determining a CBR will be critical.

  19. Synergetic inhibition of PCDD/F formation from pentachlorophenol by mixtures of urea and calcium oxide.

    PubMed

    Li, Qianqian; Li, Liewu; Su, Guijin; Huang, Xinchen; Zhao, Yanhui; Li, Binke; Miao, Xue; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-11-01

    Chlorophenols are structurally similar to PCDD/Fs and have been considered as highly potential precursors for PCDD/Fs formation. The suppressing effects of PCDD/F formation from pentachlorophenol (PCP) were investigated on various mass ratios of CaO and urea. The total concentration of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs, mostly dominated by OCDD, was determined to be 48.58-10186ng/mg in inhibitor-reaction systems, being much lower than that in blank reaction system (75654ng/mg). Interestingly, compared with pure CaO and urea reaction system, the concentration and TEQ of formed 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in mixed urea/CaO reaction system were lower, especially with 5-20% urea reaction systems being respectively at decrease by 96.5-99.4% and 99.2-99.7%. The suppression efficiency of TEQ in 5-20% urea reaction systems could be always approximately 100% under 250-350°C. These results suggested that mixed inhibitors, especially 5-20% urea inhibitors, have a synergetic inhibition effect for PCDD/Fs formation from PCP. Mixed inhibitor generated several intermediates, involving CO2, H2O, NH3, Ca(OH)2, CaCO3, HNCO, biuret and ammelide. The complex between PCP and Ca, N-doped species, lower chlorinated phenols and benzenediol, and organic acids were also determined. Synergetic inhibition mechanism may be attributed to accelerated facilitation of acid-base reaction and N doping. The decomposition of PCP itself also contributes to prevent PCDD/Fs formation. PMID:27318736

  20. Product-State Approximations to Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Harrow, Aram W.

    2016-02-01

    We show that for any many-body quantum state there exists an unentangled quantum state such that most of the two-body reduced density matrices are close to those of the original state. This is a statement about the monogamy of entanglement, which cannot be shared without limit in the same way as classical correlation. Our main application is to Hamiltonians that are sums of two-body terms. For such Hamiltonians we show that there exist product states with energy that is close to the ground-state energy whenever the interaction graph of the Hamiltonian has high degree. This proves the validity of mean-field theory and gives an explicitly bounded approximation error. If we allow states that are entangled within small clusters of systems but product across clusters then good approximations exist when the Hamiltonian satisfies one or more of the following properties: (1) high degree, (2) small expansion, or (3) a ground state where the blocks in the partition have sublinear entanglement. Previously this was known only in the case of small expansion or in the regime where the entanglement was close to zero. Our approximations allow an extensive error in energy, which is the scale considered by the quantum PCP (probabilistically checkable proof) and NLTS (no low-energy trivial-state) conjectures. Thus our results put restrictions on the possible Hamiltonians that could be used for a possible proof of the qPCP or NLTS conjectures. By contrast the classical PCP constructions are often based on constraint graphs with high degree. Likewise we show that the parallel repetition that is possible with classical constraint satisfaction problems cannot also be possible for quantum Hamiltonians, unless qPCP is false. The main technical tool behind our results is a collection of new classical and quantum de Finetti theorems which do not make any symmetry assumptions on the underlying states.